WorldWideScience

Sample records for derives pulviniques consequences

  1. Study of conformational and acid-base properties of norbadione A and pulvinic derivatives: Consequences on their complexation properties of alkaline and alkaline earth cations; Etude des proprietes conformationnelles et acido-basiques de la norbadione A et de derives pulviniques: consequences sur leurs proprietes complexantes de cations alcalins et alcalino-terreux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuad, P

    2006-01-15

    This work deals with the study of norbadione A, a pigment extracted from mushrooms and known to complex cesium cations. The study of the acid-base properties of norbadione A has allowed to determine the relative acidity of the seven protonable functions of the molecule and to reveal a reversible isomerization of the double exocyclic bond of the pulvinic moieties. The observed change of configuration is induced by a hydrogen bond of the H-O-H type and by electrostatic interactions. Moreover, the microscopic protonation mechanism of the norbadione A has been analyzed, considering three different study media where the acid-base properties of the norbadione A are compared. In the presence of 0.15 mol.l{sup -1} of NaCl, it has been observed a remarkable cooperativity in the protonation of the enol groups. At last, the use of different analytical methods (NMR, potentiometry and calorimetry) has allowed to study the complexing properties of the norbadione A towards cesium and other alkaline and rare earth cations. (O.M.)

  2. A Generalized Electrowetting Equation: Its Derivation and Consequences

    CERN Document Server

    Bormashenko, Edward

    2015-01-01

    The thermodynamics of electrowetting is treated. A general equation of electrowetting is derived from the first principles. It is demonstrated that the well-known Lippmann Equation describes a particular case of electrowetting when the radial derivative of the capacitance of the double layer is constant. The apparent contact angle of electrowetting depends on the gradient of capacity of a double layer in the vicinity of the triple line. The role of the area adjacent to the triple line in constituting the equilibrium apparent contact angle of electrowetting is emphasized.

  3. NUCLEAR REPROGRAMMING AND ITS EPIGENETIC CONSEQUENCES IN SOMATIC CELL NUCLEAR TRANSFER DERIVED ANIMALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meirelles FV

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT is a powerful tool to understand the mechanisms driving the cellular reprogramming, as well as addressing fundamental questions on developmental biology. Hundreds of animals have already been generated through this technology, however its large-scale use is still hampered by the low efficiency and disrupted phenotypes reported in SCNT derived newborns. Therefore, this review aims to expose some of the consequences often seen in cloned animals, as well as to discuss and propose some possibilities and perspectives to avoid epigenetic failures during reprogramming.

  4. Consequences of brain-derived neurotrophic factor withdrawal in CNS neurons and implications in disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariga, Abigail; Mitre, Mariela; Chao, Moses V

    2017-01-01

    Growth factor withdrawal has been studied across different species and has been shown to have dramatic consequences on cell survival. In the nervous system, withdrawal of nerve growth factor (NGF) from sympathetic and sensory neurons results in substantial neuronal cell death, signifying a requirement for NGF for the survival of neurons in the peripheral nervous system (PNS). In contrast to the PNS, withdrawal of central nervous system (CNS) enriched brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has little effect on cell survival but is indispensible for synaptic plasticity. Given that most early events in neuropsychiatric disorders are marked by a loss of synapses, lack of BDNF may thus be an important part of a cascade of events that leads to neuronal degeneration. Here we review reports on the effects of BDNF withdrawal on CNS neurons and discuss the relevance of the loss in disease.

  5. Epigenetic Regulations of Inflammatory Cyclooxygenase-Derived Prostanoids: Molecular Basis and Pathophysiological Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedi Harizi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential relevance of prostanoid signaling in immunity and immunological disorders, or disease susceptibility and individual variations in drug responses, is an important area for investigation. The deregulation of Cyclooxygenase- (COX- derived prostanoids has been reported in several immunoinflammatory disorders such as asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, cancer, and autoimmune diseases. In addition to the environmental factors and the genetic background to diseases, epigenetic mechanisms involved in the fine regulation of prostanoid biosynthesis and/or receptor signaling appeared to be an additional level of complexity in the understanding of prostanoid biology and crucial in controlling the different components of the COX pathways. Epigenetic alterations targeting inflammatory components of prostanoid biosynthesis and signaling pathways may be important in the process of neoplasia, depending on the tissue microenvironment and target genes. Here, we focused on the epigenetic modifications of inflammatory prostanoids in physiological immune response and immunological disorders. We described how major prostanoids and their receptors can be functionally regulated epigenetically and consequently the impact of these processes in the pathogenesis inflammatory diseases and the development of therapeutic approaches that may have important clinical applications.

  6. Synthesis of derivatives of tetronic acid and pulvinic acid. Total synthesis of norbadione A; Synthese de derives de l'acide tetronique et de l'acide pulvinique. Synthese totale de la norbadione A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallinger, A

    2008-11-15

    When vegetables like mushrooms are contaminated by radioactive caesium 137, this radioactive caesium is associated to norbadione A, a natural pigment present in two mushroom species and which can be used as a caesium decorporation agent or maybe as protection agent against ionizing radiations. Within this perspective, this research report describes the biosynthesis and the structure and properties of the norbadione A and of pulvinic acids (physicochemical properties, anti-oxidizing properties). Then, it presents the various tetronic acids (3-acyl-, 3-alkyl-, 3-alkoxy-, 3-aryl-tetronic acids and non 3-substituted tetronic acids), their synthesis path as they are described in the literature, and presents a new synthesis approach using a tandem reaction (with different esters or hydroxy esters) and the synthesis of tetronic acids. The author also proposes a new synthesis way for methyl pulvinates, and finally reports the work on the development of a total synthesis of the norbadione A.

  7. Impact of the erythropoietin-derived peptide mimetic Epotris on the histopathological consequences of status epilepticus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zellinger, Christina; Seeger, Natalie; Hadamitzky, Martin;

    2011-01-01

    of this peptide to interfere with the histopathological consequences of electrical-induced status epilepticus in rats. The peptide attenuated status epilepticus-associated expansion of the neuronal progenitor cell population in a significant manner. Moreover, Epotris affected the number of persistent basal...

  8. Food-derived opioid peptides inhibit cysteine uptake with redox and epigenetic consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Malav S; Shah, Jayni S; Al-Mughairy, Sara; Hodgson, Nathaniel W; Simms, Benjamin; Trooskens, Geert A; Van Criekinge, Wim; Deth, Richard C

    2014-10-01

    Dietary interventions like gluten-free and casein-free diets have been reported to improve intestinal, autoimmune and neurological symptoms in patients with a variety of conditions; however, the underlying mechanism of benefit for such diets remains unclear. Epigenetic programming, including CpG methylation and histone modifications, occurring during early postnatal development can influence the risk of disease in later life, and such programming may be modulated by nutritional factors such as milk and wheat, especially during the transition from a solely milk-based diet to one that includes other forms of nutrition. The hydrolytic digestion of casein (a major milk protein) and gliadin (a wheat-derived protein) releases peptides with opioid activity, and in the present study, we demonstrate that these food-derived proline-rich opioid peptides modulate cysteine uptake in cultured human neuronal and gastrointestinal (GI) epithelial cells via activation of opioid receptors. Decreases in cysteine uptake were associated with changes in the intracellular antioxidant glutathione and the methyl donor S-adenosylmethionine. Bovine and human casein-derived opioid peptides increased genome-wide DNA methylation in the transcription start site region with a potency order similar to their inhibition of cysteine uptake. Altered expression of genes involved in redox and methylation homeostasis was also observed. These results illustrate the potential of milk- and wheat-derived peptides to exert antioxidant and epigenetic changes that may be particularly important during the postnatal transition from placental to GI nutrition. Differences between peptides derived from human and bovine milk may contribute to developmental differences between breastfed and formula-fed infants. Restricted antioxidant capacity, caused by wheat- and milk-derived opioid peptides, may predispose susceptible individuals to inflammation and systemic oxidation, partly explaining the benefits of gluten-free or

  9. Radiological consequence assessments of degraded core accident scenarios derived from a generic Level 2 PSA of a BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homma, Toshimitsu; Ishikawa, Jun; Tomita, Kenichi; Muramatsu, Ken [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2000-12-01

    The radiological consequence assessments have been made of postulated core damage accidents with source terms derived from a generic Level 2 PSA of a BWR carried out by the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). The source terms used were for the five core damage accident sequences with the drywell and wetwell failure cases, the release control case by venting of the containment and the accident termination case by the containment spray. The radiological consequences have been assessed for individual dose, collective dose, individual risk of early health effects and individual risk of late health effects by a probabilistic accident consequence assessment code, OSCAAR developed in JAERI. Following conclusions were obtained for the assumed source terms. In case of the over pressure failures of the primary containment vessel, the early fatalities can be mitigated through the implementation of early countermeasures, and the late cancer fatalities remains small. For the release control and accident termination cases, the individual and collective doses to the public can be reduced without any countermeasures due to the release reduction of the volatile radionuclides such as iodine and cesium. (author)

  10. Consequences of sludge composition on combustion performance derived from thermogravimetry analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Meiyan; Xiao, Benyi; Wang, Xu; Liu, Junxin, E-mail: jxliu@rcees.ac.cn

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Volatiles, particularly proteins, play a key role in sludge combustion. • Sludge combustion performance varies with different sludge organic concentrations. • Carbohydrates significantly affect the combustion rate in the second stage. • Combustion performance of digested sludge is more negative compared with others. - Abstract: Wastewater treatment plants produce millions of tons of sewage sludge. Sewage sludge is recognized as a promising feedstock for power generation via combustion and can be used for energy crisis adaption. We aimed to investigate the quantitative effects of various sludge characteristics on the overall sludge combustion process performance. Different types of sewage sludge were derived from numerous wastewater treatment plants in Beijing for further thermogravimetric analysis. Thermogravimetric–differential thermogravimetric curves were used to compare the performance of the studied samples. Proximate analytical data, organic compositions, elementary composition, and calorific value of the samples were determined. The relationship between combustion performance and sludge composition was also investigated. Results showed that the performance of sludge combustion was significantly affected by the concentration of protein, which is the main component of volatiles. Carbohydrates and lipids were not correlated with combustion performance, unlike protein. Overall, combustion performance varied with different sludge organic composition. The combustion rate of carbohydrates was higher than those of protein and lipid, and carbohydrate weight loss mainly occurred during the second stage (175–300 °C). Carbohydrates have a substantial effect on the rate of system combustion during the second stage considering the specific combustion feature. Additionally, the combustion performance of digested sewage sludge is more negative than the others.

  11. Phenotypic consequences of a mosaic marker chromosome identified by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) as being derived from chromosome 16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, J.H.; Zhou, X.; Pletcher, B.A. [Cornell Univ. Medical College, Manhasset, NY (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    De novo marker chromosomes are detected in 1 in 2500 amniotic fluid samples and are associated with a 10-15% risk for phenotypic abnormality. FISH can be utilized as a research tool to identify the origins of marker chromosomes. The phenotypic consequences of a marker chromosome derived from the short arm of chromosome 16 are described. A 26-year-old woman underwent amniocentesis at 28 weeks gestation because of a prenatally diagnosed tetralogy of Fallot. Follow-up ultrasounds also showed ventriculomegaly and cleft lip and palate. 32 of 45 cells had the karyotype 47,XY,+mar; the remaining cells were 46,XY. The de novo marker chromosome was C-band positive and non-satellited and failed to stain with distamycin A/DAPI. At birth the ultrasound findings were confirmed and dysmorphic features and cryptorchidism were noted. Although a newborn blood sample contained only normal cells, mosaicism was confirmed in 2 skin biopsies. FISH using whole-chromosome painting and alpha-satellite DNA probes showed that the marker chromosome had originated from chromosome 16. As proximal 16q is distamycin A/DAPI positive, the marker is apparently derived from proximal 16p. At 15 months of age, this child is hypotonic, globally delayed and is gavage-fed. His physical examination is significant for microbrachycephaly, a round face, sparse scalp hair, ocular hypertelorism, exotropia, a flat, wide nasal bridge and tip, mild micrognathia, and tapered fingers with lymphedema of hands and feet. Inguinal hernias have been repaired. His features are consistent with those described for patients trisomic for most or all of the short arm of chromosome 16. Marker chromosomes derived from the short arm of chromosome 16 appear to have phenotypic consequences. As the origin of more marker chromosomes are identified using FISH, their karyotype/phenotype correlations will become more apparent, which will permit more accurate genetic counseling.

  12. Inherently-Forced Tensile Strain in Nanodiamond-Derived Onion-like Carbon: Consequences in Defect-Induced Electrochemical Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Young-Jin; Cho, Jung-Min; Kim, Inho; Jeong, Doo Seok; Lee, Kyeong-Seok; Park, Jong-Keuk; Baik, Young-Joon; Choi, Heon-Jin; Lee, Seung-Cheol; Lee, Wook-Seong

    2016-04-01

    We analyzed the nanodiamond-derived onion-like carbon (OLC) as function of synthesis temperature (1000~1400 °C), by high-resolution electron microscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, visible-Raman spectroscopy, ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy, impedance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry. The temperature dependences of the obtained properties (averaged particle size, tensile strain, defect density, density of states, electron transfer kinetics, and electrochemical oxidation current) unanimously coincided: they initially increased and saturated at 1200 °C. It was attributed to the inherent tensile strains arising from (1) the volume expansion associated with the layer-wise diamond-to-graphite transformation of the core, which caused forced dilation of the outer shells during their thermal synthesis; (2) the extreme curvature of the shells. The former origin was dominant over the latter at the outermost shell, of which the relevant evolution in defect density, DOS and electron transfer kinetics determined the electrochemical performances. In detection of dopamine (DA), uric acid (UA) and ascorbic acid (AA) using the OLC as electrode, their oxidation peak currents were enhanced by factors of 15~60 with annealing temperature. Their limit of detection and the linear range of detection, in the post-treatment-free condition, were as excellent as those of the nano-carbon electrodes post-treated by Pt-decoration, N-doping, plasma, or polymer.

  13. Riluzole enhances expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor with consequent proliferation of granule precursor cells in the rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh-Semba, Ritsuko; Asano, Tomiko; Ueda, Hiroshi; Morishita, Rika; Takeuchi, Ikuo K; Inaguma, Yutaka; Kato, Kanefusa

    2002-08-01

    The dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, generating new cells throughout life, is essential for normal recognition memory performance. Reduction of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in this structure impairs its functions. To elucidate the association between BDNF levels and hippocampal neurogenesis, we first conducted a search for compounds that stimulate endogenous BDNF production in hippocampal granule neurons. Among ion channel modulators tested, riluzole, a neuroprotective agent with anticonvulsant properties that is approved for treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, was highly effective as a single dose by an intraperitoneal injection, causing a rise in BDNF localized in dentate granule neurons, the hilus, and the stratum radiatum of the CA3 region. Repeated, but not single, injections resulted in prolonged elevation of hippocampal BDNF and were associated with increased numbers of newly generated cells in the granule cell layer. This appeared due to promoted proliferation rather than survival of precursor cells, many of which differentiated into neurons. Intraventricular administration of BDNF-specific antibodies blocked such riluzole effects, suggesting that BDNF increase is necessary for the promotion of precursor proliferation. Our results suggest the basis for a new strategy for treatment of memory dysfunction.

  14. Enhanced anatexis as a consequence of mantle-derived magma intrusion in the middle crust: a case study from the Eastern French Massif Central

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couzinié, Simon; Moyen, Jean-François; Villaros, Arnaud; Paquette, Jean-Louis; Scarrow, Jane H.; Marignac, Christian

    2014-05-01

    The post-collisional stage of orogens corresponds to a dramatic change in mountain belts dynamics. During this period, large volumes of granitic melts are generated in the crust thus impacting its rheology and overall behavior. Evolving from compression/transpression to extension/transtension enhances exhumation of high-grade metamorphic rocks and subsequent decompression crustal melting. However, other processes can trigger anatexis such as heat or fluid fluxes from the mantle and the crust. The Early Carboniferous nappe stack of the Eastern French Massif Central (EFMC) underwent two successive low-pressure melting events at the end of its evolution, during the Late Carboniferous. They are particularily evident in the southern edge of the Velay Complex, a 100 km-diameter migmatite-granite dome. The M3 'pre-Velay' event corresponds to water-saturated melting in the amphibolite facies at T source and few granite plutons were associated with this event. Contrarily, the M4 'Velay' anatexis occurred under granulite-facies conditions at 760 bearing migmatites are nebulitic to diatexitic as a consequence of biotite breakdown which led to disruption of the solid framework of melanosomes and enhanced melt extraction. This widespread melting event is synchronous with emplacement of the cordierite-bearing restite-rich S-type Velay granite at ca. 305 Ma. Then, the EFMC records an evolution in melting conditions with a clear heat input at the M3-M4 transition. The EFMC anatectic crust is intruded by widespread, Mg-K-rich biotite-rich diorites locally called 'vaugnerites'. These mantle-derived melts emplaced in a partially molten setting, as evidenced by mingling features between vaugnerites and anatectic melts, as well as the presence of hybrid granitoids including a 'vaugnerite' component. In situ (LA-ICP-MS) U-Pb zircon and monazite dating of vaugnerites or coeval granites in the Southern Velay area yielded ages mostly indistinguishable within analytical uncertainties

  15. Intraphagosomal peroxynitrite as a macrophage-derived cytotoxin against internalized Trypanosoma cruzi: consequences for oxidative killing and role of microbial peroxiredoxins in infectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, María Noel; Peluffo, Gonzalo; Piacenza, Lucía; Radi, Rafael

    2011-02-25

    Macrophage-derived radicals generated by the NADPH oxidase complex and inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS) participate in cytotoxic mechanisms against microorganisms. Nitric oxide ((•)NO) plays a central role in the control of acute infection by Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, and we have proposed that much of its action relies on macrophage-derived peroxynitrite (ONOO(-) + ONOOH) formation, a strong oxidant arising from the reaction of (•)NO with superoxide radical (O(2)(-)). Herein, we have shown that internalization of T. cruzi trypomastigotes by macrophages triggers the assembly of the NADPH oxidase complex to yield O(2)(-) during a 60-90-min period. This does not interfere with IFN-γ-dependent iNOS induction and a sustained (•)NO production (∼24 h). The major mechanism for infection control via reactive species formation occurred when (•)NO and O(2)() were produced simultaneously, generating intraphagosomal peroxynitrite levels compatible with microbial killing. Moreover, biochemical and ultrastructural analysis confirmed cellular oxidative damage and morphological disruption in internalized parasites. Overexpression of cytosolic tryparedoxin peroxidase in T. cruzi neutralized macrophage-derived peroxynitrite-dependent cytotoxicity to parasites and favored the infection in an animal model. Collectively, the data provide, for the first time, direct support for the action of peroxynitrite as an intraphagosomal cytotoxin against pathogens and the premise that microbial peroxiredoxins facilitate infectivity via decomposition of macrophage-derived peroxynitrite.

  16. Choice & Consequence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Azam

    between cause and effect in complex systems complicates decision making. To address this issue, we examine the central role that data-driven decision making could play in critical domains such as sustainability or medical treatment. We developed systems for exploratory data analysis and data visualization...... of data analysis and instructional interface design, to both simulation systems and decision support interfaces. We hope that projects such as these will help people to understand the link between their choices and the consequences of their decisions....

  17. Choice & Consequence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Azam

    between cause and effect in complex systems complicates decision making. To address this issue, we examine the central role that data-driven decision making could play in critical domains such as sustainability or medical treatment. We developed systems for exploratory data analysis and data visualization...... of data analysis and instructional interface design, to both simulation systems and decision support interfaces. We hope that projects such as these will help people to understand the link between their choices and the consequences of their decisions....

  18. The consequences of "Culture's consequences"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Fabienne; Loloma Froholdt, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    , but it may also have unintentional outcomes. It may lead to a deterministic view of other cultures, thereby reinforcing prejudices and underestimating other forms of differences; it risks blinding the participants of the specific context of a given communicative situation. The article opens with a critical...... review of the theory of Geert Hofstede, the most renowned representative of this theoretical approach. The practical consequences of using such a concept of culture is then analysed by means of a critical review of an article applying Hofstede to cross-cultural crews in seafaring. Finally, alternative...... views on culture are presented. The aim of the article is, rather than to promote any specific theory, to reflect about diverse perspectives of cultural sense-making in cross-cultural encounters. Udgivelsesdato: Oktober...

  19. Physical Consequences of Mathematical Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Comay E.

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Physical consequences are derived from the following mathematical structures: the variational principle, Wigner’s classifications of the irreducible representations of the Poincar ́ e group and the duality invariance of the homogeneous Maxwell equations. The analysis is carried out within the validity domain of special relativity. Hierarchical re- lations between physical theories are used. Some new results are pointed out together with their comparison with experimental data. It is also predicted that a genuine Higgs particle will not be detected.

  20. The MSSA consequence tables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacks, I.J.

    1988-01-01

    The Master Safeguards and Security Agreement (MSSA) is the mechanism through which the U.S. Department of Energy is implementing a policy of graded safeguards. Under this concept, the level of protection provided to a target is proportional to the ''cost'' of the loss of the target. Cost is measured by use of the conditional risk equation in which the protection system ineffectiveness is multiplied by the consequence to society of a successful adversary attempt. The consequences which are used in the MSSA process were developed in the summer of the 1986 by a consensus of DOE personnel and contractors. There are separate consequence tables for theft of SNM, radiological sabotage. The consequence values in the tables were deliberately not cross-normalized. The consequence values in each table correspond to a societal or DOE cost, for example, the consequence values for SNM theft compared to a normalized estimate of the expected number of fatalities from a successful use of the stolen material times an estimate of the likelihood of successfully using the material. Consequence values for radiological sabotage correspond very roughly to a similar expected fatality level. Values for industrial sabotage are an estimate of the impact on DOE weapons production or impact on the nuclear weapons stockpile. Problems have arisen in the use of these tables and are discussed in the paper.

  1. Consequences of Accounting Standards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai Mingyue

    2009-01-01

    The first part of this article consists in attempting to highlight the importance of concerning about the economic consequences and introducing the foundation of economic consequence theory, proposing that the accounting standard is not only a kind of technical standard, it also has the economic consequences, so it becomes the object which all quarters special interest group gambles to get latent profit. After general characterization of the economic consequences in the second part, the article gives a description of the influences the change of accounting standards bring to the government, the ordinary investors and creditors, the auditors, and the enterprise, establishing a framework that how those groups react as the economic consequences in the third part. The fourth section compare technical theory and accounting standards theory, links the basic norms of accounting such as conservatism, relevance and reliability to the methods of escaping the harm of economic consequences, then proposes some specific methods in the formuhtion of accounting standard. Finally, the article utilizes the methods to settle the problems appearing in Chinese market.

  2. Reconnecting Actions and Consequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Marianne Graves; Ludvigsen, Martin; Krogh, Peter

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present a brief critique of the current approach to the design of pervasive computing artifacts; claiming that this in itself promotes solutions that prevent end-users from accessing and understanding the consequences of their actions in terms of energy sustainability, specifical...

  3. Acromegaly : irreversible clinical consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassenaar, Monica Johanna Elisabeth

    2010-01-01

    This thesis describes the long-term consequences of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor I excess in patients cured from acromegaly for a mean duration of 17 years. Regarding the considerable prevalence of diverse morbidity in these patients, during the active phase of the disease but even

  4. Acromegaly : irreversible clinical consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassenaar, Monica Johanna Elisabeth

    2010-01-01

    This thesis describes the long-term consequences of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor I excess in patients cured from acromegaly for a mean duration of 17 years. Regarding the considerable prevalence of diverse morbidity in these patients, during the active phase of the disease but even

  5. Hepatic steatosis : metabolic consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, Adriana Maria den

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis we focused on the causes and consequences of hepatic steatosis. Epidemiological studies in humans, as well as experimental studies in animal models, have shown an association between visceral obesity and dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The mechanism

  6. Reconnecting Actions and Consequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ludvigsen, Martin; Krogh, Peter; Petersen, Marianne Graves

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present a brief critique of the current approach to the design of pervasive computing artifacts; claiming that this in itself promotes solutions that prevent end-users from accessing and understanding the consequences of their actions in terms of energy sustainability, specifically...

  7. Hepatic steatosis : metabolic consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, Adriana Maria den

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis we focused on the causes and consequences of hepatic steatosis. Epidemiological studies in humans, as well as experimental studies in animal models, have shown an association between visceral obesity and dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The mechanism unde

  8. Normal modal preferential consequence

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Britz, K

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available of necessitation holds for the corresponding consequence relations, as one would expect it to. We present a representation result for this tightened framework, and investigate appropriate notions of entailment in this context|normal entailment, and a rational...

  9. Phenomenological consequences of supersymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinchliffe, I.; Littenberg, L.

    1982-01-01

    This report deals with the phenomenological consequences of supersymmetric theories, and with the implications of such theories for future high energy machines. It is concerned only with high energy predictions of supersymmetry; low energy consequences (for example in the K/sub o/anti K/sub o/ system) are discussed in the context of future experiments by another group, and will be mentioned briefly only in the context of constraining existing models. However a brief section is included on the implication for proton decay, although detailed experimental questions are not discussed. The report is organized as follows. Section I consists of a brief review of supersymmetry and the salient features of existing supersymmetric models; this section can be ignored by those familiar with such models since it contains nothing new. Section 2 deals with the consequences for nucleon decay of SUSY. The remaining sections then discuss the physics possibilities of various machines; e anti e in Section 3, ep in Section 4, pp (or anti pp) colliders in Section 5 and fixed target hadron machines in Section 6.

  10. An examination of the consequences in high consequence operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spray, S.D.; Cooper, J.A.

    1996-06-01

    Traditional definitions of risk partition concern into the probability of occurrence and the consequence of the event. Most safety analyses focus on probabilistic assessment of an occurrence and the amount of some measurable result of the event, but the real meaning of the ``consequence`` partition is usually afforded less attention. In particular, acceptable social consequence (consequence accepted by the public) frequently differs significantly from the metrics commonly proposed by risk analysts. This paper addresses some of the important system development issues associated with consequences, focusing on ``high consequence operations safety.``

  11. Unintended Consequences of Remittance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adediran Daniel Ikuomola

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Research on migrants’ remittance in Nigeria has largely focused on the contribution to national development and economic well-being of family members. In contrast, this article explores the way in which remittance serves as potential sources of conflict within migrant households. The article investigates intra-household conflicts related to migrant remittances, revealing the contradictory and unintended consequences of remittances destabilizing cordial relationships between migrants and family members. Within the family (mainly extended families, the sharing of remittance is often accompanied with envy, distrust, and accusation of witch hunt. While improper utilization and accountability of remittances strain relationships, migrants are forced to re-strategize on how remittances get to their relatives and sometimes cut off communication and remittances with family members. Based on the qualitative data collected in Benin City (Edo State in Nigeria, the article investigates intra-household conflicts emanating from migrant remittances, from the perspectives of migrants on holidays.

  12. Medical consequences of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Victor J; Kopelman, Peter G

    2004-01-01

    The obese are subject to health problems directly relating to the carriage of excess adipose tissue. These problems range from arthritis, aches and pains, sleep disturbance, dyspnea on mild exertion, and excessive sweating to social stigmatization and discrimination, all of which may contribute to low quality of life and depression (Table 1). The most serious medical consequences of obesity are a result of endocrine and metabolic changes, most notably type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and increased risk of cancer. Not all obesity comorbidities are fully reversed by weight loss. The degree and duration of weight loss required may not be achievable by an individual patient. Furthermore, "weight cycling" may be more detrimental to both physical and mental health than failure to achieve weight loss targets with medical and lifestyle advice.

  13. Seismic Consequence Abstraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Gross

    2004-10-25

    The primary purpose of this model report is to develop abstractions for the response of engineered barrier system (EBS) components to seismic hazards at a geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and to define the methodology for using these abstractions in a seismic scenario class for the Total System Performance Assessment - License Application (TSPA-LA). A secondary purpose of this model report is to provide information for criticality studies related to seismic hazards. The seismic hazards addressed herein are vibratory ground motion, fault displacement, and rockfall due to ground motion. The EBS components are the drip shield, the waste package, and the fuel cladding. The requirements for development of the abstractions and the associated algorithms for the seismic scenario class are defined in ''Technical Work Plan For: Regulatory Integration Modeling of Drift Degradation, Waste Package and Drip Shield Vibratory Motion and Seismic Consequences'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171520]). The development of these abstractions will provide a more complete representation of flow into and transport from the EBS under disruptive events. The results from this development will also address portions of integrated subissue ENG2, Mechanical Disruption of Engineered Barriers, including the acceptance criteria for this subissue defined in Section 2.2.1.3.2.3 of the ''Yucca Mountain Review Plan, Final Report'' (NRC 2003 [DIRS 163274]).

  14. Legal consequences of kleptomania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jon E; Odlaug, Brian L; Davis, Andrew A; Kim, Suck Won

    2009-12-01

    Although studies have examined clinical characteristics of kleptomania, no previous studies have examined the legal consequences of kleptomania. From 2001 to 2007, 101 adult subjects (n = 27 [26.7%] males) with DSM-IV kleptomania were assessed on sociodemographics and clinical characteristics including symptom severity, comorbidity, and legal repercussions. Of 101 subjects with kleptomania, 73.3% were female. Mean age of shoplifting onset was 19.4 +/- 12.0 years, and subjects shoplifted a mean of 8.2 +/- 11.0 years prior to meeting full criteria for kleptomania. Co-occurring depressive, substance use, and impulse control disorders were common. Sixty-nine subjects with kleptomania (68.3%) had been arrested, 36.6% had been arrested but not convicted, 20.8% had been convicted and incarcerated after conviction, while only 10.9% had been convicted and not incarcerated after conviction. Kleptomania is associated with significant legal repercussions. The findings emphasize the need for rigorous treatment approaches to target kleptomania symptoms and prevent re-offending.

  15. Vagueness, truth and permissive consequence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cobreros, P.; Egré, P.; Ripley, D.; van Rooij, R.; Achourioti, D.; Galinon, H.; Martínez Fernández, J.; Fujimoto, K.

    2015-01-01

    We say that a sentence A is a permissive consequence of a set of premises Γ whenever, if all the premises of Γ hold up to some standard, then A holds to some weaker standard. In this paper, we focus on a three-valued version of this notion, which we call strict-to-tolerant consequence, and discuss

  16. Global consequences of unsafe abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Susheela

    2010-11-01

    Unsafe abortion is a significant cause of death and ill health in women in the developing world. A substantial body of research on these consequences exists, although studies are of variable quality. However, unsafe abortion has a number of other significant consequences that are much less widely recognized. These include the economic consequences, the immediate costs of providing medical care for abortion-related complications, the costs of medical care for longer-term health consequences, lost productivity to the country, the impact on families and the community, and the social consequences that affect women and families. This article will review the scientific evidence on the consequences of unsafe abortion, highlight gaps in the evidence base, suggest areas where future research efforts are needed, and speculate on the future situation regarding consequences and evidence over the next 5-10 years. The information provided is useful and timely given the current heightened interest in the issue of unsafe abortion, growing from the recent focus of national and international agencies on reducing maternal mortality by 75% by 2015 (as one of the Millennium Development Goals established in 2000).

  17. Consequence Prioritization Process for Potential High Consequence Events (HCE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, Sarah G. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-10-31

    This document describes the process for Consequence Prioritization, the first phase of the Consequence-Driven Cyber-Informed Engineering (CCE) framework. The primary goal of Consequence Prioritization is to identify potential disruptive events that would significantly inhibit an organization’s ability to provide the critical services and functions deemed fundamental to their business mission. These disruptive events, defined as High Consequence Events (HCE), include both events that have occurred or could be realized through an attack of critical infrastructure owner assets. While other efforts have been initiated to identify and mitigate disruptive events at the national security level, such as Presidential Policy Directive 41 (PPD-41), this process is intended to be used by individual organizations to evaluate events that fall below the threshold for a national security. Described another way, Consequence Prioritization considers threats greater than those addressable by standard cyber-hygiene and includes the consideration of events that go beyond a traditional continuity of operations (COOP) perspective. Finally, Consequence Prioritization is most successful when organizations adopt a multi-disciplinary approach, engaging both cyber security and engineering expertise, as in-depth engineering perspectives are required to recognize and characterize and mitigate HCEs. Figure 1 provides a high-level overview of the prioritization process.

  18. Taxation of Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyppel, Katja Joo

    2013-01-01

    The main objective for this thesis is to analyse and systematise the Danish legislation on taxation of derivatives. According to financial terminology, a derivative is a financial instrument. Its value is derived from changes in the value of one or more underlying assets.The most common derivatives...... in the Danish tax legislation. However, contracts known as forwards (terminskontrakter) and options (aftaler om køberetter og salgsretter) are generally included in the term financials contracts covered by the Danish Act on Taxation of Gains and Losses on Claims and Debt. The main part of the analysis deals...... with the scope of sections 29-33 of the Danish Act on Taxation of Gains and Losses on Claims and Debt and the tax consequences for the covered financial contracts. In the analysis of taxation of derivatives, the fundamental issues of qualification and tax treatment of the instruments are dealt with....

  19. Chernobyl accident and its consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gittus, J.H.; Bonell, P.G.; Hicks, D.

    1987-01-01

    The USSR power reactor programme is first described. The reasons for the accident at the Chernobyl-4 RBMK nuclear reactor on 26 April 1986, the sequence of events that took place, and the immediate and long-term consequences are considered. A description of the RBMK-type reactors is given and the design changes resulting from the experience of the accident are explained. The source terms describing the details of the radioactivity release associated with the accident and the environmental consequences are covered in the last two sections of the report. Throughout the text comments referring to the UK Nuclear Installations Inspectorate Safety assessment principles have been inserted. (U.K.).

  20. Population consequences of reproductive decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C; Reynolds, J D; Sutherland, W J

    2000-07-07

    Behaviour can be a key component of animal population ecology yet the population consequences of behavioural decisions are poorly understood. We conducted a behavioural and demographic study of the bitterling Rhodeus sericeus, a freshwater fish that spawns in live unionid mussels. We used a population model incorporating game theory decisions and measurements of demographic parameters in order to provide predictions of population size among 13 populations of this fish. Our model predicted that the observed behavioural spawning decisions, while maximizing individual fitness, cause a significant 6% reduction in population size compared with randomly distributed spawnings. We discuss our findings in the context of the population consequences of adaptive behaviour.

  1. Uncertainties in offsite consequence analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, M.L.; Harper, F.T.; Lui, C.H.

    1996-03-01

    The development of two new probabilistic accident consequence codes, MACCS and COSYMA, was completed in 1990. These codes estimate the consequences from the accidental releases of radiological material from hypothesized accidents at nuclear installations. In 1991, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the European Commission began co-sponsoring a joint uncertainty analysis of the two codes. The ultimate objective of this joint effort was to systematically develop credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for the respective code input variables using a formal expert judgment elicitation and evaluation process. This paper focuses on the methods used in and results of this on-going joint effort.

  2. Literacy in Somali: Linguistic Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biber, Douglas; Hared, Mohamed

    1991-01-01

    Linguistic consequences of literacy in Somalia are examined in a review of the literature and through a study of five dimensions of variation among Somali registers and the expansion of linguistic variation in Somali resulting from the introduction of written registers. (36 references) (LB)

  3. Hemoglobin derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003371.htm Hemoglobin derivatives To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hemoglobin derivatives are altered forms of hemoglobin . Hemoglobin is ...

  4. Applied Neuroethics: the practical Consequences of Neuropositivism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingo García-Marzá

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to show the practical consequences of the positivist selfcomprehension of applied neuroethics. This ethics deals with the ethical and social impacts that derive from applying neuroscientific findings, especially from neurotechnologies. The intention is to show that in order to perform this task, neuroethics must exceed the dominant neuropositivist paradigm that only leads it to dissolve the moral domain and, in the practical domain, an accomplice-type silence when faced with problems that arise upon applying neurosciences. To this end, we take the following steps: we firstly analyse the basic features of the whole applied ethics and with them, the origin and objectives of applied neuroethics. We will then see how neuroethical research confuses the social domain with the moral domain, and how it thus eliminates access to any ethical perspective. Finally, we will exemplify the practical consequences of this dissolution in public politics by analysing the role that may comply, but does not comply, with applied neuroethics as opposed to the neuropower created by neurotechnologies.

  5. Economic consequences of biological variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otto, Lars

    2005-01-01

    We present an economic decision support model, based on a Bayesian network, for Mycoplasma infection in slaughter swine production. The model describes the various risk factors for Mycoplasma infection and their interactions. This leads to a stochastic determination of the consequences...... of productivity factors, and this again results in stochastic economic consequences when changing the risk factors or engaging in control arrangements. We use the model to calculate how estimated prevalence and level of Mycoplasma changes when we gather evidence from various veterinarian examinations, and we show...... how this influences the distribution of the economic results of a change in strategy to fight Mycoplasma. One result is that the profitability in fighting Mycoplasma alone is questionable, i.e. risky, thus we must consider the loss of all related diseases in a decision context....

  6. Abortion — facts and consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Perinčić, Robert

    1990-01-01

    The author sets forth some of the most recent demographic data, important directions of legal documents as regards abortion, tackling medical and ethical problems of abortion. Some essentials particulars are also given as to the embryonic and foetal development. The whole paper concerns the problems of legal abortion during the first three months of pregnancy. The second part of the paper relates to the consequences of abortion affecting the physical and mental health of a woman as show...

  7. Population consequences of reproductive decisions.

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, C; Reynolds, J.D.; Sutherland, W.J.

    2000-01-01

    Behaviour can be a key component of animal population ecology yet the population consequences of behavioural decisions are poorly understood. We conducted a behavioural and demographic study of the bitterling Rhodeus sericeus, a freshwater fish that spawns in live unionid mussels. We used a population model incorporating game theory decisions and measurements of demographic parameters in order to provide predictions of population size among 13 populations of this fish. Our model predicted tha...

  8. Performance consequences of psychological empowerment

    OpenAIRE

    Tuuli, MM; Rowlinson, S

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between psychological empowerment and job performance, and whether three intermediate performance determinants; motivation, ability, and opportunity to perform hold the key to unlocking the empowerment-performance relationship dilemma are addressed. Using hierarchical linear modeling to analyze responses from 380 project management-level staff, the results show that psychological empowerment not only has direct and positive performance consequences, but also indirect effects,...

  9. Measuring Engagement with the Potential Consequences of Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, N.; Danielson, R. W.; Lombardi, D.

    2015-12-01

    Across three studies, we investigated engagement with the consequences of climate change. We drew from the conceptual change and risk analysis literatures to find the factors that determine how much people will care about future risks. Questions derived from these factors were then asked about many hypothesized consequences of climate change. These consequences were drawn from an Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change special report (IPCC, 2012) and, in the third study, additionally from the IPCC AR5 (IPCC, 2014). The first two studies, using undergraduate students, demonstrated that some consequences were indeed considerably more engaging than others. The third study used a more representative sample of American adults, drawn from Amazon Mechanical Turk and used the Global Warming's Six Americas Screening Tool (Maibach, Leiserowitz, Roser-Renouf, Mertz, & Akerlof, 2011) in a large screening survey to find 20 participants in each of the six audiences defined by this tool. These participants were then asked about the potential consequences of climate change. Results again showed that some consequences are considered more engaging than others, and also showed the ways in which members of these six audiences perceive the consequences of climate change differently.

  10. Financial Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigan, Duncan

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary derivatives mark the development of capital and constitute a novel form of ownership. By reconfiguring the temporal, spatial and legal character of ownership derivatives present a substantive challenge to the tax collecting state. While fiscal systems are nationally bounded and inheren...... and inherently static, capital itself is unprecedentedly mobile, fluid and fungible. As such derivatives raise the specter of ‘financial weapons of mass destruction’....

  11. Chemical consequences of cutaneous photoageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thurstan Sarah A

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Human skin, in common with other organs, ages as a consequence of the passage of time, but in areas exposed to solar ultraviolet radiation, the effects of this intrinsic ageing process are exacerbated. In particular, both the severity and speed of onset of age-related changes, such as wrinkle formation and loss of elasticity, are enhanced in photoaged (also termed extrinsically aged as compared with aged, photoprotected, skin. The anatomy of skin is characterised by two major layers: an outer, avascular, yet highly cellular and dynamic epidermis and an underlying vascularised, comparatively static and cell-poor, dermis. The structural consequences of photoageing are mainly evident in the extracellular matrix-rich but cell-poor dermis where key extracellular matrix proteins are particularly susceptible to photodamage. Most investigations to date have concentrated on the cell as both a target for and mediator of, ultraviolet radiation-induced photoageing. As the main effectors of dermal remodelling produced by cells (extracellular proteases generally have low substrate specificity, we recently suggested that the differential susceptibility of key extracellular matrix proteins to the processes of photoageing may be due to direct, as opposed to cell-mediated, photodamage. In this review, we discuss the experimental evidence for ultraviolet radiation (and related reactive oxygen species-mediated differential degradation of normally long lived dermal proteins including the fibrillar collagens, elastic fibre components, glycoproteins and proteoglycans. Whilst these components exhibit highly diverse primary and hence macro- and supra-molecular structures, we present evidence that amino acid composition alone may be a useful predictor of age-related protein degradation in both photoexposed and, as a consequence of differential oxidation sensitivity, photoprotected, tissues.

  12. Lifecycle Problems in Consequence Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehman William

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE guidance documents require economists and planners to meet a very high standard when evaluating consequences resulting from flood events. The guidance documents require analysts to evaluate how government action changes the consequences over time, in addition to evaluating how government inaction changes consequences over time as well. Corps guidance (Engineering Regulation 1105-2-100, Section 2-3.c.4 and Engineering Regulation 1105-2-100, Section 2-3.b respectively require the evaluation of direct and indirect economic impacts, life risk impacts, and agricultural impacts for both current conditions and future most likely conditions across a range of alternatives. Evaluating the potential for impacts from flooding across time, and how time impacts their existence or vulnerability, is considered a “lifecycle approach”. Little to no guidance is available on the process of calculating this “lifecycle approach” regarding changes in the value and number of assets within the floodplain over time. Performing a lifecycle analysis of a project over durations from 30 to 100 years, depending on the project purpose, requires evaluation of the changes in human behavior caused by changes in the floodplain such as reconstruction of structures, maintenance of structures, construction of new structures, population growth, and what type of structures are being built within the study area. This type of evaluation is not fully supported by most of the software programs utilized for flood risk management in the planning context. This paper is intended to describe pros and cons of economic lifecycle evaluation techniques to address the needs stated by policy, and tools that are being developed to support this analysis.

  13. Chernobyl accident and its consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gittus, J.H.

    1987-06-01

    The paper concerns the Chernobyl reactor accident, with emphasis on the design of the RBMK reactor and nuclear safety. A description is given of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, including details of the RMBK reactor and safety systems. Comments on the design of the RBMK by UK experts prior to the accident are summarized, along with post-accident design changes to improve RBMK safety. Events of the Chernobyl accident are described, as well as design deficiencies highlighted by the accident. Differences between the USSR and UK approaches to nuclear safety are commented on. Finally source terms, release periods and environmental consequences are briefly discussed.

  14. Quantum Consequences of Parameterizing Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanas, M. I.

    2002-12-01

    The marriage between geometrization and quantization is not successful, so far. It is well known that quantization of gravity , using known quantization schemes, is not satisfactory. It may be of interest to look for another approach to this problem. Recently, it is shown that geometries with torsion admit quantum paths. Such geometries should be parameterizied in order to preserve the quantum properties appeared in the paths. The present work explores the consequences of parameterizing such geometry. It is shown that quantum properties, appeared in the path equations, are transferred to other geometric entities.

  15. Early planetary differentiation: Geophysical consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, G.

    1992-01-01

    Differentiation of a planet can have profound consequences for its structure and thermal evolution, including core formation and crystal growth. Recent theories for the origin and evolution of the terrestrial planets and the Moon have all these bodies forming hot and cooling thereafter. Early core formation, and in the cases of Earth and Moon, a deep magma ocean possibly encompassing the entire mantle are characteristic features of these models. Secular cooling of Mars from a hot origin and cooling of Moon from a hot initial state with a deep magma ocean have been criticized on the basis of their tectonic implications. The cases of Mars and the Moon are discussed.

  16. Chernobyl: what sanitary consequences?; Tchernobyl: quelles consequences sanitaires?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aurengo, A. [Assistance Publique, Hopitaux de Parix (AP-HP), 75 - Paris (France)

    2001-11-01

    Because of its public health, ecological and industrial consequences, the Chernobyl accident has become a myth which serves as the focus of many fears, justified or not. no one can question the seriousness of the event, but after fifteen years there is still no agreement about the effect it has had or will have on public health. For example, the total number of deaths attributed to Chernobyl varies from less than a hundred to several millions and congenital malformations from negligible to cataclysmic. Effects on public health may be calculated from data on contamination, from the dose received and from the risk, all three of which are likely to be very roughly known; or they may be evaluated on the spot, either by epidemiological studies or by examining medical registers. This report makes an inventory of the different risks and takes stock on them. (N.C.)

  17. Environmental Degradation: Causes and Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Tyagi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The subject of environmental economics is at the forefront of the green debate: the environment can no longer be viewed as an entity separate from the economy. Environmental degradation is of many types and have many consequences. To address this challenge a number of studies have been conducted in both developing and developed countries applying different methods to capture health benefits from improved environmental quality. Minimizing exposure to environmental risk factors by enhancing air quality and access to improved sources of drinking and bathing water, sanitation and clean energy is found to be associated with significant health benefits and can contribute significantly to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals of environmental sustainability, health and development. In this paper, I describe the national and global causes and consequences of environmental degradation and social injustice. This paper provides a review of the literature on studies associated with reduced environmental risk and in particular focusing on reduced air pollution, enhanced water quality and climate change mitigation.

  18. CONSEQUENCES OF THE DEMOGRAPHIC CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIVIU RADU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Major dysfunctionalities can arise from the demographic decline, both on a social level and from the perspective of the economic-financial evolution of the world’s states. The obvious aging of the industrialized states’ population overlapping the import of cheap workforce in the developing countries can start mutations whose consequences are somewhat predictable but discouraging. An accelerated urbanization of the states is foreseen, as well as the decrease of birthrates, negative external migration, increase of mortality and its stagnation in a larger value than that of the birthrate, and not least the population’s aging will hinder a part of the developing countries to sustain a high rhythm of long-term economical increase. The socialeconomic consequences will be reflected in the labor market, the householders’ amount of income as well as in the education’s level. All of these aspects call for a rethinking of the public politics, especially of the social insurance’s system and of the education, a reorientation of the economy based on the increase of specializing in production and productivity, as well as a financial stability unburdened by the politics’ interference in the business environment.

  19. Determinants and Consequences of Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruby, Adela; Manson, JoAnn E.; Qi, Lu; Malik, Vasanti S.; Rimm, Eric B.; Sun, Qi; Willett, Walter C.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To review the contribution of the Nurses’ Health Studies (NHS and NHS II) in addressing hypotheses regarding risk factors for and consequences of obesity. Methods. Narrative review of the publications of the NHS and NHS II between 1976 and 2016. Results. Long-term NHS research has shown that weight gain and being overweight or obese are important risk factors for type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, certain types of cancers, and premature death. The cohorts have elucidated the role of dietary and lifestyle factors in obesity, especially sugar-sweetened beverages, poor diet quality, physical inactivity, prolonged screen time, short sleep duration or shift work, and built environment characteristics. Genome-wide association and gene–lifestyle interaction studies have shown that genetic factors predispose individuals to obesity but that such susceptibility can be attenuated by healthy lifestyle choices. This research has contributed to evolving clinical and public health guidelines on the importance of limiting weight gain through healthy dietary and lifestyle behaviors. Conclusions. The NHS cohorts have contributed to our understanding of the risk factors for and consequences of obesity and made a lasting impact on clinical and public health guidelines on obesity prevention. PMID:27459460

  20. Individual Consequences of Internal Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naghi Remus Ionut

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Since the emergence of the concept of internal marketing in the literature there have been almost 40 years. This period was marked by a constant increase of the concerns in the internal marketing area, these efforts being evidenced by the publication of a consistent number of articles (conceptual and empirical which analyze this subject. Considering the previous empirical studies, most of them have focused on studying the relationship between internal marketing and employee satisfaction and / or organizational commitment. However, the relationship between internal marketing and its consequences has been less analyzed in the context of emergent economies. In this paper we aimed to analyze the individual consequences of the internal marketing in the Romanian economy context, focusing our attention on three constructs: employee satisfaction, organizational commitment and organizational citizenship behavior. The research was conducted on a sample of 83 medium and large companies in various sectors of the Romanian economy. In order to proceed with the statistical data analyses we followed these steps: verifying the scales reliability, determining factor loadings and research hypotheses testing. Our research results are consistent with results of previous studies showing that the adoption of internal marketing practice has a positive effect on employee satisfaction, organizational commitment and organizational citizenship behavior

  1. Fator de crescimento derivado das plaquetas, retinol e insulina na regulação da maturação nuclear de oócitos bovinos e suas conseqüências no desenvolvimento embrionário Platelet-derived growth factor, retinol and insulin in the regulation of bovine oocyte nuclear maturation and their consequent effect in the embryonic development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.B. Bortolotto

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar as ações do fator de crescimento derivado das plaquetas (PDGF; P, da insulina (I, do retinol (R e de suas associações (PI, PIR, IR e PR na maturação nuclear (MN de oócitos bovinos e suas conseqüências no desenvolvimento embrionário (DE. O meio básico para maturação dos oócitos nos diferentes tratamentos foi o TCM-199 modificado acrescido de PVA (controle. No DE, foram utilizados os grupos R, PIR, IR, um controle negativo (PVA e um controle positivo, contendo soro fetal bovino e gonadotrofinas (SFBHOR. Os fatores P, I, R e suas associações não aceleraram a MN em 7h mas sim após 18h (PThe aim of the present study was to determine the effect of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF; P, insulin (I retinol, (R and their interactions (PI, PIR, IR and PR on oocyte nuclear maturation (NM and, consequent, embryonic development (ED. The basic medium for oocyte maturation in the treatments was the modified TCM-199, supplemented with PVA (control. To study the embryonic development, the oocytes were divided in three treatments, R, PIR e IR, a negative (PVA and a positive control group (containing calf fetal serum and gonadotrophic hormones; FCSHOR. The PDGF, insulin, retinol and their interactions did not change the kinetic of the NM, in seven hours of culture (P=0.4492 but it changed after 18 hours of maturation (P<0.001 except in the treatments R and PR (P<0.001, in which the percentages of metaphase II were, respectively, 4.7% and 8.3%. These results were similar to the control group (0.0%. Considering a significant level of P<0.0001 in comparison to the control group, the higher rates of metaphase II were obtained in the presence of IR (19.0% and PIR (21.3%. The higher rates of MII were observed when the oocytes were matured in the presence of insulin and retinol. In the embryonic development, R (18.3%, PIR (13.9% and IR (10.6% increased the rate of cleavage when compared to PVA group (0.0%; P<0

  2. Financial Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigan, Duncan

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary derivatives mark the development of capital and constitute a novel form of ownership. By reconfiguring the temporal, spatial and legal character of ownership derivatives present a substantive challenge to the tax collecting state. While fiscal systems are nationally bounded...

  3. Emerging Technologies: Biosecurity and Consequence Management Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Dana; Nordmann, Brian

    The natural outbreaks of disease and pandemics are transnational threats that create international challenges when detection and containment are not timely due to scarce human and material resources. Whether the cause of those outbreaks is natural or intentional in origin, the main goal of consequence management operations is to save lives. The consequence management process is a continuum of inter-connected phases such as planning, preparation, response, and recovery. The rapid advances of life sciences and the emergence of dual-use technologies such as synthetic biology and nanotechnology pose additional challenges in terms of planning for the unknown potential threats whether they may be synthetic microorganisms with unpredictable dissemination patterns or nanoscale-manipulated biological agents evading current detection capabilities. The US National Strategy for Countering Biological Threats is emphasizing prevention while continuing to support the national preparedness goals and response/recovery capabilities. The recent policies, guidelines, and recommendations on overhauling the biological risk management in the United States are a proactive stance to a rapidly changing global environment. They include optimization of the current oversight frameworks and active engagement of the industry and academia in order to reduce the risk that individuals with ill intent may exploit the commercial application of nucleic acid synthesis technology to access genetic material derived from or by encoding Biological Select Agents or Toxins. We are also actively seeking to increase our knowledge of health effects of various types of nanomaterials, and how to assess, control, and prevent harmful exposure, taking into consideration the numerous gaps that currently exist with regard to the distinct behavior of nanoparticles compared to the same chemical or material at "macro-scale". Fundamentally, a biological incident, whether it is of natural, accidental, or deliberate origin

  4. Antecedents and Consequences of Envy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Geir; Glasø, Lars; Martinsen, Øyvind

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between individual attributes and envy, and to determine how envy may impact personal response variables in the workplace. To address these issues we apply Vecchio's theory on antecedents and consequences of envy (1995) as a theoretical framework. The present study relied on a cross-sectional measurement design. A total of 135 leaders and 772 followers employed in business organizations participated. SEM analysis shows that span of supervision serves as an important antecedent of envy, where span of supervision is significantly associated to envy via supportive leadership. Furthermore, envy seems to be indirectly and negatively related to self-esteem via distress and directly related to social loafing. The implications of these findings are discussed, and suggestions for future research are outlined.

  5. Studying health consequences of microchimerism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, J.; Campi, Rita; Frydenberg, Morten;

    2003-01-01

    Abstract. A pregnancy requires a reasonably good health and may have positive as well as negative health consequences for the woman. Part of these health effects may depend on the immune response to the exchange of fetal cells (microchimerism). The number of biological fathers to a woman’s children...... may thus have a health effect beyond the parity effect. A possible design for studying this is to compare health effects for women with or without multiple partners but with the same parity. We compared total and cause specific mortality in these two groups in order to estimate their comparability...... one partner had a higher relative mortality rate, which was even higher if she had more than two partners. This finding persisted after excluding unnatural deaths and did not depend on time from exposure. Although some of the findings were adjusted for parity, age and social factors, it is highly...

  6. Hydrological consequences of global warming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Norman L.

    2009-06-01

    The 2007 Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change indicates there is strong evidence that the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide far exceeds the natural range over the last 650,000 years, and this recent warming of the climate system is unequivocal, resulting in more frequent extreme precipitation events, earlier snowmelt runoff, increased winter flood likelihoods, increased and widespread melting of snow and ice, longer and more widespread droughts, and rising sea level. The effects of recent warming has been well documented and climate model projections indicate a range of hydrological impacts with likely to very likely probabilities (67 to 99 percent) of occurring with significant to severe consequences in response to a warmer lower atmosphere with an accelerating hydrologic cycle.

  7. Consequences from use of reminiscence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudex, Claire; Horsted, Charlotte; Jensen, Anders Møller

    2010-01-01

    Background: Reminiscence is the systematic use of memories and recollections to strengthen self-identity and self-worth. The study aim was to investigate the consequences for nursing home residents and staff of integrating reminiscence into daily nursing care. Methods: In this randomised study, ten...... nursing homes were matched into two groups on the basis of location, type and size. In the period August 2006 - August 2007, staff in the Intervention Group were trained and supported in the use of reminiscence, involving individual and group sessions with residents as well as reminiscence boxes, posters...... differences in outcome between the intervention and control groups. Results: Project drop-out rates were 32% for residents and 38% for nursing staff. Most staff in the Intervention Group considered reminiscence a useful tool that improved their communication with residents, and that they would recommend...

  8. Hand eczema - prognosis and consequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, A. H.; Johansen, J D; Hald, M

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hand eczema is recognized as a long-lasting disease with personal and societal repercussions. Long-term studies are required to generate information on factors contributing to a poor outcome. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this 7-year follow-up study were to evaluate the clinical course...... of patients with hand eczema, the occupational consequences and to identify risk factors associated with a poor prognosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In all, 536 patients with hand eczema participated and were examined by a dermatologist. The clinical severity was assessed at baseline and 7 years later using...... a self-administrated photographic guide. Additional information was obtained from a questionnaire. RESULTS: Based on the photographic guide, 73% experienced a clinical improvement. Notably, 20% had moderate to very severe hand eczema at follow-up. Severe hand eczema or frequent eruptions at baseline...

  9. Studying health consequences of microchimerism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, J.; Campi, Rita; Frydenberg, Morten

    2003-01-01

    Abstract. A pregnancy requires a reasonably good health and may have positive as well as negative health consequences for the woman. Part of these health effects may depend on the immune response to the exchange of fetal cells (microchimerism). The number of biological fathers to a woman’s children...... may thus have a health effect beyond the parity effect. A possible design for studying this is to compare health effects for women with or without multiple partners but with the same parity. We compared total and cause specific mortality in these two groups in order to estimate their comparability...... unlikely that these large differences are entirely related to microchimerism. The study shows that caution is needed when studying health effects of procreation with multiple partners....

  10. The immunological consequences of injury.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ni Choileain, N

    2012-02-03

    Immediate and early trauma death rates are determined by "first hits" such as hypoxia, hypotension and organ injury, while late mortality correlates closely with "second hits" such as infection. An imbalance between the early systemic inflammatory response (SIRS), and the later compensatory counter-inflammatory response (CARS), is considered to be responsible for much post-traumatic morbidity and mortality. From a clinical perspective, this remains a significant healthcare problem, which has stimulated decades of experimental and clinical research aimed at understanding the functional effects of injury on the immune system. This review describes the impact of injury on the innate and adaptive immune systems. Though it is worth noting that the features of the immune response to injury overlap in many areas with immune dysregulation in sepsis, we attempt here to elucidate the mechanism by which injury predisposes to infection rather than to describe the alterations in host immunity consequent to established sepsis.

  11. MANGROVE-DERIVED NUTRIENTS AND CORAL REEFS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding the consequences of the declining global cover of mangroves due to anthropogenic disturbance necessitates consideration of how mangrove-derived nutrients contribute to threatened coral reef systems. We sampled potential sources of organic matter and a suite of sessi...

  12. Plant-derived nanostructures: types and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant-derived nanostructures and nanoparticles (NPs) have functional applications in numerous disciplines such as health care, food and feed, cosmetics, biomedical science, energy science, drug-gene delivery, environmental health, and so on. Consequently, it is imperative for res...

  13. Derivative Chameleons

    CERN Document Server

    Noller, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    We consider generalized chameleon models where the conformal coupling between matter and gravitational geometries is not only a function of the chameleon field \\phi, but also of its derivatives via higher order co-ordinate invariants. Specifically we consider the first such non-trivial conformal factor A(\\phi,X), where X is the canonical kinetic term for \\phi. The associated phenomenology is investigated and we show that such theories have a new generic mass-altering mechanism, potentially assisting the generation of a sufficiently large chameleon mass in dense environments. The most general effective potential is derived for such derivative chameleon setups and explicit examples are given. Interestingly this points us to the existence of a purely derivative chameleon protected by a shift symmetry for \\phi. We also discuss potential ghost-like instabilities associated with mass-lifting mechanisms and find another, mass-lowering and instability-free, branch of solutions. This suggests that, barring fine-tuning...

  14. The consequences of Chernobyl accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Chioșilă

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available These days marks 30 years since the Chernobyl nuclear accident, followed by massive radioactive contamination of the environment and human in Belarus, Ukraine and Russia, and resulted in many deaths among people who intervened to decrease the effects of the nuclear disaster. The 26 April 1986 nuclear accident contaminated all European countries, but at a much lower level, without highlighted consequences on human health. In special laboratories, the main radionuclides (I-131, Cs-137, Cs-134 and Sr-90 were also analyzed in Romania from environmental samples, food, even human subjects. These radionuclides caused the population to receive a low dose of about 1 mSv in 1986 that is half of the dose of the natural background radiation (2.4 mSv per year. As in all European countries (excluding Ukraine, Belarus and Russia this dose of about 1 mSv fell rapidly by 1990, reaching levels close to ones before the accident at the nuclear tests.

  15. The consequences of abortion legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braude, M

    1983-01-01

    This article examines the consequences of the 1973 US Supreme Court decision legalizing abortion as well as potential implications of proposed legilation aimed at nullifying this decision. In addition to giving women the right to determine their own reproduction, legal abortion had had beneficial health effects for both mothers and infants. The partial reversal of abortion gains due to restrictions on public funding and limitations on how and where abortions can be performed has produced a slight increase in abortion mortality, but the impact has not been dramatic. Moreover, each year since 1973, women have been obtaining abortions earlier in pregnancy. Abortion may be experienced as a loss by the mother, but there is no evidence of serious psychological sequelae. In contrast, a large body of evidence supports the physical, psychological, and social benefits of legal abortion to women, children, and families. However, proponents of the proposed Human Life Amendment place protection of the rights of the fetus over all other considerations. Their antiabortion actions have challenged the medical tradition of privacy and the confidentiality of the doctor-patient relationship. Most supporters of legal abortion would prefer that there be fewer abortions; such a decrease is more likely as a result of better education and contraceptive methods rather than coercion.

  16. Supraclassical consequence relations: Tolerating rare counterexamples

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Labuschagne, W

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We explore a family of supraclassical consequence relations obtained by varying the criteria according to which counterexamples to classical entailment may be deemed tolerable. This provides a different perspective on the rational consequence...

  17. Derivative chameleons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noller, Johannes

    2012-07-01

    We consider generalized chameleon models where the conformal coupling between matter and gravitational geometries is not only a function of the chameleon field phi, but also of its derivatives via higher order co-ordinate invariants (such as ∂μphi∂μphi,squphi,...). Specifically we consider the first such non-trivial conformal factor A(phi,∂μphi∂μphi). The associated phenomenology is investigated and we show that such theories have a new generic mass-altering mechanism, potentially assisting the generation of a sufficiently large chameleon mass in dense environments. The most general effective potential is derived for such derivative chameleon setups and explicit examples are given. Interestingly this points us to the existence of a purely derivative chameleon protected by a shift symmetry for phi → phi+c. We also discuss potential ghost-like instabilities associated with mass-lifting mechanisms and find another, mass-lowering and instability-free, branch of solutions. This suggests that, barring fine-tuning, stable derivative models are in fact typically anti-chameleons that suppress the field's mass in dense environments. Furthermore we investigate modifications to the thin-shell regime and prove a no-go theorem for chameleon effects in non-conformal geometries of the disformal type.

  18. Mantle Volatiles - Distribution and Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luth, R. W.

    2003-12-01

    Volatiles in the mantle have, for many years, been the subject of intensive study from a number of perspectives. They are of interest because of their potential effects on melting relationships, on transport of major and trace elements, and on the rheological and other physical properties of the mantle. By convention, "volatiles" in this context are constituents that are liquid or gaseous at normal Earth surface conditions. This review will look at the behavior of C-O-H-S-halogen volatiles, beginning with H2O and C-O volatiles.There have been tremendous strides made recently towards understanding how volatiles in general and water in particular is transported and stored in the mantle. This progress is based on research on a number of fronts: studies of mantle-derived samples have provided insight into the nature and occurrence of hydrous phases such as amphibole, mica, and chlorite, and have provided constraints on the capacity of nominally anhydrous minerals (NAMs) such as olivine, pyroxenes, and garnet to contain "water" by a variety of substitution mechanisms. Experimental studies on mantle-derived magmas have provided constraints on volatile contents in their source regions. Other studies have constrained the pressure, temperature, and composition conditions over which hydrous phases are stable in the mantle.Fundamental questions remain about the geochemical cycling of volatiles in the mantle, and between the mantle and the surface. Much attention has focused on the capability of hydrous phases such as amphibole, mica, serpentine, chlorite, and a family of "dense hydrous magnesian silicates" (DHMSs) to act as carriers of water in subducting slabs back into the mantle. It has been clear since the work of Ito et al. (1983) that there is a discrepancy between the amount of volatiles subducted into the mantle and those returned to the surface by arc magmatism. A recent overview of volatile cycling in subduction systems by Bebout (1996) suggests that 5-15% of the H2

  19. Global Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Juul

    ." - Steen Parsholt, Chairman and CEO, Aon Nordic Region. "Andersen has done a wonderful job of developing a comprehensive text that deals with risk management in global markets. I would recommend this book to any student or businessman who has a need to better understand the risks and risk management...... management practice. Of particular note is the global and integrated approach chosen in this book which should be of special interest to aspiring managers active in global and international markets." - Dr Jean-Pierre Zigrand, Lecturer in Finance, London School of Economics, UK. More than 90 per cent...... management situations. Its key features include: derivatives are introduced in a global market perspective; describes major derivative pricing models for practical use, extending these principles to valuation of real options; practical applications of derivative instruments are richly illustrated...

  20. Electricity derivatives

    CERN Document Server

    Aïd, René

    2015-01-01

    Offering a concise but complete survey of the common features of the microstructure of electricity markets, this book describes the state of the art in the different proposed electricity price models for pricing derivatives and in the numerical methods used to price and hedge the most prominent derivatives in electricity markets, namely power plants and swings. The mathematical content of the book has intentionally been made light in order to concentrate on the main subject matter, avoiding fastidious computations. Wherever possible, the models are illustrated by diagrams. The book should allow prospective researchers in the field of electricity derivatives to focus on the actual difficulties associated with the subject. It should also offer a brief but exhaustive overview of the latest techniques used by financial engineers in energy utilities and energy trading desks.

  1. Economic Consequences Of Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szlávik, János; Füle, Miklós

    2009-07-01

    Even though the climate conflict resulting from green houses gases (GHG) emissions was evident by the Nineties and the well-known agreements made, their enforcement is more difficult than that of other environmental agreements. That is because measures to reduce GHG emissions interfere with the heart of the economy and the market: energy (in a broader sense than the energy sector as defined by statistics) and economical growth. Analyzing the environmental policy responses to climate change the conclusion is that GHG emission reduction can only be achieved through intensive environmental policy. While extensive environmental protection complements production horizontally, intensive environmental protection integrates into production and the environment vertically. The latter eliminates the source of the pollution, preventing damage. It utilizes the biochemical processes and self-purification of the natural environment as well as technical development which not only aims to produce state-of-the-art goods, but to make production more environmentally friendly, securing a desired environmental state. While in extensive environmental protection the intervention comes from the outside for creating environmental balance, in intensive environmental protection the system recreates this balance itself. Instead of dealing with the consequences and the polluter pays principle, the emphasis is on prevention. It is important to emphasize that climate strategy decisions have complex effects regarding the aspects of sustainability (economical, social, ecological). Therefore, all decisions are political. At present, and in the near future, market economy decisions have little to do with sustainability values under normal circumstances. Taking social and ecological interests into consideration can only be successful through strategic political aims.

  2. Consequences Validity Evidence: Evaluating the Impact of Educational Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, David A; Lineberry, Matthew

    2016-06-01

    Because tests that do not alter management (i.e., influence decisions and actions) should not be performed, data on the consequences of assessment constitute a critical source of validity evidence. Consequences validity evidence is challenging for many educators to understand, perhaps because it has no counterpart in the older framework of content, criterion, and construct validity. The authors' purpose is to explain consequences validity evidence and propose a framework for organizing its collection and interpretation.Both clinical and educational assessments can be viewed as interventions. The act of administering or taking a test, the interpretation of scores, and the ensuing decisions and actions influence those being assessed (e.g., patients or students) and other people and systems (e.g., physicians, teachers, hospitals, schools). Consequences validity evidence examines such impacts of assessments. Despite its importance, consequences evidence is reported infrequently in health professions education (range 5%-20% of studies in recent systematic reviews) and is typically limited in scope and rigor.Consequences validity evidence can derive from evaluations of the impact on examinees, educators, schools, or the end target of practice (e.g., patients or health care systems); and the downstream impact of classifications (e.g., different score cut points and labels). Impact can result from the uses of scores or from the assessment activity itself, and can be intended or unintended and beneficial or harmful. Both quantitative and qualitative research methods are useful. The type, quantity, and rigor of consequences evidence required will vary depending on the assessment and the claims for its use.

  3. Consequences of Assessment: What is the Evidence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William A. Mehrens

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Attention is here directed toward the prevalence of large scale assessments (focusing primarily on state assessments. I examine the purposes of these assessment programs; enumerate both potential dangers and benefits of such assessments; investigate what the research evidence says about assessment consequences (including a discussion of the quality of the evidence; discuss how to evaluate whether the consequences are good or bad; present some ideas about what variables may influence the probabilities for good or bad consequences; and present some tentative conclusions about the whole issue of the consequences of assessment and the amount of evidence available and needed.

  4. Personality, foraging and fitness consequences in a long lived seabird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha C Patrick

    Full Text Available While personality differences in animals are defined as consistent behavioural variation between individuals, the widely studied field of foraging specialisation in marine vertebrates has rarely been addressed within this framework. However there is much overlap between the two fields, both aiming to measure the causes and consequences of consistent individual behaviour. Here for the first time we use both a classic measure of personality, the response to a novel object, and an estimate of foraging strategy, derived from GPS data, to examine individual personality differences in black browed albatross and their consequences for fitness. First, we examine the repeatability of personality scores and link these to variation in foraging habitat. Bolder individuals forage nearer the colony, in shallower regions, whereas shyer birds travel further from the colony, and fed in deeper oceanic waters. Interestingly, neither personality score predicted a bird's overlap with fisheries. Second, we show that both personality scores are correlated with fitness consequences, dependent on sex and year quality. Our data suggest that shyer males and bolder females have higher fitness, but the strength of this relationship depends on year quality. Females who forage further from the colony have higher breeding success in poor quality years, whereas males foraging close to the colony always have higher fitness. Together these results highlight the potential importance of personality variation in seabirds and that the fitness consequences of boldness and foraging strategy may be highly sex dependent.

  5. Keeping Secrets : Quantity, Quality and Consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frijns, T.

    2005-01-01

    Keeping Secrets deals with the consequences of an elusive yet everyday phenomenon. It addresses both the quantity and quality of secret-keeping. With respect to quantity, it presents research on the intra- and interpersonal consequences of keeping secrets from parents in adolescence. With respect t

  6. Phonological Derivation in Optimality Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Ellison, T M

    1994-01-01

    Optimality Theory is a constraint-based theory of phonology which allows constraints to be violated. Consequently, implementing the theory presents problems for declarative constraint-based processing frameworks. On the basis of two regularity assumptions, that candidate sets are regular and that constraints can be modelled by transducers, this paper presents and proves correct algorithms for computing the action of constraints, and hence deriving surface forms.

  7. Consequences of Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blechner, Michael; Williamson, Ariel A

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) has various negative health and behavioral consequences in the pediatric population. As shown in adults, there are metabolic derangements such as obesity, insulin sensitivity, dyslipidemia, and metabolic syndrome, as well as cardiovascular derangements like hypertension, chronic inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, ventricular size/function abnormalities, and even elevated pulmonary arterial pressures, that can be seen in children with OSAS. The first two sections will discuss the metabolic and cardiovascular consequences on OSAS in children. The last section summarizes selected studies and reviews on the behavioral, neurocognitive and academic consequences of OSAS in children.

  8. Implementing shared decision-making: consider all the consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwyn, Glyn; Frosch, Dominick L; Kobrin, Sarah

    2016-08-08

    challenges. In the long-term, shared decision-making might lead to changes in resource utilization, perhaps to reductions in cost, and to modification of workforce composition. Despite the gradual shift to value-based payment, some organizations, motivated by continued income derived from achieving high volumes of procedures and contacts, will see this as a negative consequence. We suggest that a broader conceptualization and measurement of shared decision-making would provide a more substantive evidence base to guide implementation. We outline a framework which illustrates a hypothesized set of proximal, distal, and distant consequences that might occur if collaboration and deliberation could be achieved routinely, proposing that well-informed preference-based patient decisions might lead to safer, more cost-effective healthcare, which in turn might result in reduced utilization rates and improved health outcomes.

  9. Stochastic Consequence Analysis for Waste Leaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HEY, B.E.

    2000-05-31

    This analysis evaluates the radiological consequences of potential Hanford Tank Farm waste transfer leaks. These include ex-tank leaks into structures, underneath the soil, and exposed to the atmosphere. It also includes potential misroutes, tank overflow

  10. Consequence Reasoning in Multilevel Flow Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xinxin; Lind, Morten; Ravn, Ole

    2013-01-01

    Consequence reasoning is a major element for operation support system to assess the plant situations. The purpose of this paper is to elaborate how Multilevel Flow Models can be used to reason about consequences of disturbances in complex engineering systems. MFM is a modelling methodology...... for representing process knowledge for complex systems. It represents the system by using means-end and part-whole decompositions, and describes not only the purposes and functions of the system but also the causal relations between them. Thus MFM is a tool for causal reasoning. The paper introduces MFM modelling...... syntax and gives detailed reasoning formulas for consequence reasoning. The reasoning formulas offers basis for developing rule-based system to perform consequence reasoning based on MFM, which can be used for alarm design, risk monitoring, and supervision and operation support system design....

  11. Causes and Consequences of Youth Unemployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Wayne

    1978-01-01

    The author discusses the state of unemployment in the 1970s among teenagers, some reasons for its existence, the long-term consequences, and the net impact of the teenage experience on joblessness. (RK)

  12. Avoid the Consequences of High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Avoid the Consequences of High Blood Pressure Infographic Updated:Oct 31,2016 View a downloadable version of this infographic High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP • Know Your ...

  13. The redistributive consequences of monetary policy

    OpenAIRE

    Nakajima, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    Monetary policy is not intended to benefit one segment of the population at the expense of another by redistributing income and wealth. But as Makoto Nakajima explains, it is probably impossible to avoid such redistributive consequences.

  14. Industrial Specialization: Determinants, Processes and Consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, L.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis examines the causes, processes and consequences of industrial specialization. Specifically, three sets of questions are addressed. First, how do trade and financial openness affect industrial specialization across countries? Second, how does trade openness affect industrial composition

  15. Antecedents and Consequences of Affective Commitment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemer, J.M.M.; Odekerken-Schröder, G.J.

    2003-01-01

    The primary objective of this study is to assess the impact of three psychological antecedents (position involvement, volitional choice and informational complexity) on affective commitment in a financial service setting. Furthermore, this study addresses the consequences of affective commitment on

  16. Consequences of use of anabolic androgenic steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casavant, Marcel J; Blake, Kathleen; Griffith, Jill; Yates, Andrew; Copley, LaRae M

    2007-08-01

    Whether providing anticipatory guidance to the young adolescent patient, conducting a preparticipation examination on a young athlete, or treating a sick user of anabolic androgenic steroids (AASs), the primary care physician must be familiar with the adverse consequences of the use of these compounds. This article reviews the endocrine, cardiovascular, neuropsychiatric, musculoskeletal, hematologic, hepatic, and miscellaneous effects of AASs, highlighting effects reported in children and adolescents, and relying on consequences in adults when pediatric data is unavailable.

  17. Consequences of teen-age parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nord, C W; Moore, K A; Morrison, D R; Brown, B; Myers, D E

    1992-09-01

    The changing context of teen-age childbearing and current related controversies are reviewed. Recent research about the consequences of teen-age childbearing for the teen-age mother, the father, and for the children born is examined. The article also summarizes current knowledge about the consequences of teen-age childbearing with regard to the mother's educational attainment, marital experience, subsequent fertility behavior, labor force experience and occupational attainment, and experience with poverty and welfare.

  18. The consequences of Israel's counter terrorism policy

    OpenAIRE

    Jansen, Pia Therese

    2008-01-01

    The main focus of this thesis is to examine Israel's counter terrorism methods and their consequences and to debate the effectiveness of Israel's counter terrorism policy. By stimulating a debate on these issues it is possible to identify a more effective counter terrorism policy. In order to examine Israel's counter terrorism methods, their consequences and effectiveness, it is necessary to first explore the overall concepts of terrorism and counter terrorism. Then, because...

  19. Consequences of Assessment: What is the Evidence?

    OpenAIRE

    William A. Mehrens

    1998-01-01

    Attention is here directed toward the prevalence of large scale assessments (focusing primarily on state assessments). I examine the purposes of these assessment programs; enumerate both potential dangers and benefits of such assessments; investigate what the research evidence says about assessment consequences (including a discussion of the quality of the evidence); discuss how to evaluate whether the consequences are good or bad; present some ideas about what variables may influence the pro...

  20. Drinking Water Consequences Tools. A Literature Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasqualini, Donatella [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-12

    In support of the goals of Department of Homeland Security’s (DHS) National Protection and Programs Directorate and the Federal Emergency Management Agency, the DHS Office of Science and Technology is seeking to develop and/or modify consequence assessment tools to enable drinking water systems owner/operators to estimate the societal and economic consequences of drinking water disruption due to the threats and hazards. This work will expand the breadth of consequence estimation methods and tools using the best-available data describing water distribution infrastructure, owner/assetlevel economic losses, regional-scale economic activity, and health. In addition, this project will deploy the consequence methodology and capability within a Web-based platform. This report is intended to support DHS effort providing a review literature review of existing assessment tools of water and wastewater systems consequences to disruptions. The review includes tools that assess water systems resilience, vulnerability, and risk. This will help to understand gaps and limitations of these tools in order to plan for the development of the next-generation consequences tool for water and waste water systems disruption.

  1. Circumstances and consequences of falls among people with chronic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlene A. Schmid, PhD, OTR

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Falls are common after stroke; however, circumstances and consequences are relatively unknown. Our objectives were to identify the differences between fallers and ??non-fallers among people with chronic stroke, identify the circumstances of fall events, and examine the consequences of the falls. This is a secondary data analysis; all participants included sustained a stroke. Variables included demographics, stroke characteristics, and comorbidities. Falls were collected via self-report, and circumstances and consequences were derived from participant description of the event and categorized as appropriate. Among 160 participants, 53 (33% reported a fall during the 1 yr period. Circumstances of falls were categorized as intrinsic or extrinsic. Location and circumstance of the fall were included: 70% occurred at home and 40% were associated with impaired physical or mental state (e.g., inattention to tying shoes. Additionally, 21% of falls were associated with activities of daily living and mobility and 34% with slips or trips. The majority who fell sustained an injury (72%. Injuries ranged from bruising to fractures, and 55% of those with an injury sought medical care (32% to emergency department. Poststroke falls are associated with an alarming rate of injury and healthcare utilization. Targeting mental and physical states may be key to fall prevention.

  2. On $n$-derivations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Sattari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the notion of $n-$derivation is introduced for all integers $ngeq 2$. Although all derivations are $n-$derivations,  in general these notions are not equivalent. Some properties of ordinary derivations are  investigated for $n-$derivations. Also, we show that under certain mild condition  $n-$derivations are derivations.

  3. Software development methodology for high consequence systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baca, L.S.; Bouchard, J.F.; Collins, E.W.; Eisenhour, M.; Neidigk, D.D.; Shortencarier, M.J.; Trellue, P.A.

    1997-10-01

    This document describes a Software Development Methodology for High Consequence Systems. A High Consequence System is a system whose failure could lead to serious injury, loss of life, destruction of valuable resources, unauthorized use, damaged reputation or loss of credibility or compromise of protected information. This methodology can be scaled for use in projects of any size and complexity and does not prescribe any specific software engineering technology. Tasks are described that ensure software is developed in a controlled environment. The effort needed to complete the tasks will vary according to the size, complexity, and risks of the project. The emphasis of this methodology is on obtaining the desired attributes for each individual High Consequence System.

  4. Different drinking motives, different adverse consequences?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wicki, Matthias; Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Eichenberger, Yvonne

    2017-01-01

    , differences across countries were tested in a multigroup analysis. RESULTS: The indirect effect (via alcohol use) was greater for injuries and academic problems than for more general outcomes such as life dissatisfaction and negative body image. For social, enhancement and coping motives, we found positive...... negative consequences, such as injuries and negative body image, were also found among those who drink for conformity motives. The pattern of association was largely comparable across countries. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: While the actual mean level of drinking motives, alcohol use and adverse consequence...

  5. Observational Consequences of an Interacting Multiverse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador J. Robles-Pérez

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The observability of the multiverse is at the very root of its physical significance as a scientific proposal. In this conference we present, within the third quantization formalism, an interacting scheme between the wave functions of different universes and analyze the effects of some particular values of the coupling function. One of the main consequences of the interaction between universes can be the appearance of a pre-inflationary stage in the evolution of the universes that might leave observable consequences in the properties of the CMB.

  6. Exploring antismoking ads: appeals, themes, and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudoin, Christopher E

    2002-01-01

    In this study we seek a descriptive understanding of antismoking television advertising in light of the problem cigarette consumption poses for society today. We establish relationships between ad characteristics and whether ads have a youth or adult orientation, based on a content analysis of 197 antismoking television advertisements produced between 1991 and 1999. The study finds that youth-oriented ads have youth characters, sociability, and humor as common appeals, and social and short-term consequences. In contrast, adult-oriented ads relied on fear appeals and long-term, health-related consequences.

  7. Child sexual abuse: consequences and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornor, Gail

    2010-01-01

    Sexual abuse is a problem of epidemic proportions in the United States. Given the sheer numbers of sexually abused children, it is vital for pediatric nurse practitioners to understand both short-term and long-term consequences of sexual abuse. Understanding consequences of sexual abuse can assist the pediatric nurse practitioner in anticipating the physical and mental health needs of patients and also may assist in the identification of sexual abuse victims. Sexual abuse typically does not occur in isolation. Implications for practice will be discussed. Copyright © 2010 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Low-Incidence, High-Consequence Pathogens

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-02-21

    Dr. Stephan Monroe, a deputy director at CDC, discusses the impact of low-incidence, high-consequence pathogens globally.  Created: 2/21/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 2/26/2014.

  9. Climate change consequences for the indoor environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ariës, M.B.C.; Bluyssen, P.M.

    2009-01-01

    Scientists warn us about climate change and its effects on the outdoor environment. These effects can have significant consequences for the indoor environment, also in the Netherlands. Climate changes will affect different aspects of the indoor environment as well as the stakeholders of that indoor

  10. Weaning the pig - Concepts and consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pluske, J.R.; Dividich, Le J.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2003-01-01

    Weaning the Pig: Concepts and Consequences addresses the major issues surrounding the weaning process, both for piglets and the breeding herd, in modern-day pig production. The post-weaned pig presents many challenges to the manager, stockperson and nutritionist, and as such is a critical phase in t

  11. Metabolic consequences of craniopharyingioma and their management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamas Oliveira, Cristina

    2013-11-01

    Most patients diagnosed with craniopharyngioma survive long-term, but suffer many consequences of the disease and its treatment. Among the metabolic consequences, there is a high prevalence of panhypopituitarism and diabetes insipidus, mainly due to the surgical treatment. Obesity is also more prevalent in these patients than in the general population, and gets worse with time. It is a consequence of a diminished basal metabolic rate and a lower physical activity compared to that of matched controls, with a similar or lower caloric intake. Many different hormonal alterations that could be responsible for those changes in the energy balance have been found. Patients whose tumor involved the hypothalamus are more prone to develop obesity and its consequences. Cardiovascular risk factors are also more prevalent in these patients, leading to a high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Sleep disturbances, dysfunction in thermoregulation and thirst and a lower bone mineral density can also be found. Although randomized clinical trials comparing different treatments are lacking, it looks like therapeutic strategies have a minor influence on the risk of long-term sequelae. Copyright © 2012 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. Consequences and complications of peritoneal adhesions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goor, H. van

    2007-01-01

    Consequences and complications of postsurgical intra-abdominal adhesion formation not including small bowel obstruction and secondary infertility are substantial but are under-exposed in the literature. Inadvertent enterotomy during reopening of the abdomen or subsequent adhesion dissection is a fea

  13. Paternal Alcoholism: Consequences for Female Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehn, Julia

    2010-01-01

    The consequences of substance abuse and addiction are profound and depredating. The desolation is incalculable in estimating the psychological damage and trauma inflicted on the children of addicted parents. According to studies and statistics gathered by the National Association for Children of Alcoholics, "there are more than 20 million children…

  14. Violence against Teachers: Prevalence and Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Catherine M.; Douglas, Kevin S.; Lyon, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Data collected from 731 teachers were used to examine the consequences of violence directed toward teachers while in the workplace. Analyses showed that the majority of respondents (n = 585, 80.0%) had experienced school-related violence--broadly defined--at one point in their careers. Serious violence (actual, attempted, or threatened physical…

  15. Separation: consequences for wealth in later life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dewilde, C.; van den Bosch, K.; van den Heede, A.; Börsch-Supan, A.; Brandt, M.; Hank, K.; Schröder, M.

    2011-01-01

    Over the course of their lives, a substantial minority of elderly European men and women have experienced the dissolution of one or more partner relationships through divorce or the ending of cohabitation. So far, most research into the economic consequences of (marital) separation has been based on

  16. Common consequence effects in pricing and choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, U.; Trautmann, S.T.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental study of common consequence effects in binary choice, willingness-to-pay (WTP) elicitation, and willingness-to-accept (WTA) elicitation. We find strong evidence in favor of the fanning out hypothesis (Machina, Econometrica 50:277–323, 1982) for both WTP and WTA. I

  17. Cognitive Consequences of Formal and Informal Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scribner, Sylvia; Cole, Michael

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the cognitive consequences of education, and reviews evidence which supports the hypothesis that differences in the social organization of education promote differences in the organization of learning and thinking skills in the individual. Proposes that new accommodations are needed between school-based learning and learning experiences…

  18. Weaning the pig - Concepts and consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pluske, J.R.; Dividich, Le J.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2003-01-01

    Weaning the Pig: Concepts and Consequences addresses the major issues surrounding the weaning process, both for piglets and the breeding herd, in modern-day pig production. The post-weaned pig presents many challenges to the manager, stockperson and nutritionist, and as such is a critical phase in t

  19. Workplace Bullying: A Tale of Adverse Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansone, Lori A.

    2015-01-01

    Workplace bullying is defined as the repetitive and systematic engagement of interpersonally abusive behaviors that negatively affect both the targeted individual and the work organization. According to the findings of 12 studies, being bullied in the workplace affects approximately 11 percent of workers. Victims are frequently blue-collar and unskilled workers. However, there also appear to be gender and milieu/management factors. Emotional/psychological consequences of workplace bullying may include increased mental distress, sleep disturbances, fatigue in women and lack of vigor in men, depression and anxiety, adjustment disorders, and even work-related suicide. Medical consequences of workplace bullying may include an increase in health complaints such as neck pain, musculoskeletal complaints, acute pain, fibromyalgia, and cardiovascular symptoms. Finally, socioeconomic consequences of workplace bullying may include absenteeism due to sick days and unemployment. Clinicians in both mental health and primary care settings need to be alert to the associations between bullying in the workplace and these potential negative consequences, as patients may not disclose workplace maltreatment due to embarrassment or fears of retribution. PMID:25852978

  20. Physiological consequences : Cardiopulmonary, vestibular, and sensory aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welsch, H.; Albery, W.; Banks, R.D.; Bles, W.

    2000-01-01

    Discussing the physiological consequences of enhanced fighter manoeuvrability (EFM), aspects of cardiopulmonary reactions will be seen during high G manoeuvres, especially the combination of negative G-load followed by high G-onset manoeuvres ("push-pull"). The aircraft's capability to reach high al

  1. Consequences of Assessment: What Is the Evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrens, William A.

    1998-01-01

    Examines the purposes of large-scale assessment programs, outlines the dangers and benefits of these assessments, considers the research evidence about the consequences of assessment, discusses how to evaluate assessment quality, and presents some ideas about the variables that influence the probabilities for good and bad assessment. (SLD)

  2. Explosion risks and consequences for tunnels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerheijm, J.; Berg, A.C. van den

    2014-01-01

    Tunnel accidents with transports of dangerous goods may lead to explosions. Risk assessment for these accidents is complicated because of the low probability and the unknown, but disastrous effects expected. Especially the lack of knowledge on the strength of the explosion and the consequences for t

  3. Stress in College Athletics: Causes, Consequences, Coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, James H.; Yow, Deborah A.; Bowden, William W.

    This book addresses the causes and consequences of stress in college sports and offers effective coping mechanisms to help individuals understand and control stressors and emotions in their environment. The chapters are: (1) "Understanding Stress"; (2) "Perceptions of Stress in College Athletics"; (3) "Stress among College Athletes"; (4) "Stress…

  4. Weaning the pig - Concepts and consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pluske, J.R.; Dividich, Le J.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2003-01-01

    Weaning the Pig: Concepts and Consequences addresses the major issues surrounding the weaning process, both for piglets and the breeding herd, in modern-day pig production. The post-weaned pig presents many challenges to the manager, stockperson and nutritionist, and as such is a critical phase in

  5. Corporate Governance Failures in Trading Financial Derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Turegeldiyev, Anuar

    2013-01-01

    The ultimate goal of the following master thesis is to identify specific mistakes in corporate governance practices that have led to colossal losses in financial derivatives trading departments, to draw lessons from these cases, and to propose possible solutions to prevent such behavior and the consequences that follow.

  6. MODERATOR ROLE OF THE CONSEQUENCES IN THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TRUST AND ITS ANTECEDENTS AND CONSEQUENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mellina da Silva Tertes

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Individuals in their day-to-day are demanded to make choices in contexts of services with mild and severeconsequences. Decisions with severe consequences are difficult situations where choices are dilemmas thatcause stress and severe emotional reactions (botti et al, 2009; Kahn, luce, 2003. The mild decisions, in turn,involve situations that represent a low risk and uncertainty to decision maker. However, despite thedifferences seen in the literature, the consequences of decisions - mild and severe - have rarely been seen inconsumer behavior studies. This theoretical essay aims to investigate the moderator effect of theconsequences of the exchange of relations between trust and its antecedents and consequences in the contextof provision of medical services. Consumer confidence plays a key role, especially in situations of severechanges, as it reduces the perception of risk, since it helps the individual to form consistent expectationsregarding the service provider. Comparing exchanges with mild versus severe consequences, affection willhave a greater impact on confidence in exchanges with severe consequences comparing with mildexchanges. In turn, the cognition effect will be moderated by the type of exchange, because it is believed thatin both exchanges, with mild and severe consequences, cognition will play an important role in reducinguncertainty and increasing confidence. Regarding the consequences of confidence, it is believed that themore severe are the consequences of the exchanges, the strongest will be the relationship between trust andthe treatment continuity intent, word-of-mouth and search for a second opinion.

  7. Sex differences in consequences of musculoskeletal pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnhoven, Hanneke A H; de Vet, Henrica C W; Picavet, H Susan J

    2007-05-20

    Cross-sectional population-based study. To study sex differences in consequences of musculoskeletal pain (MP): limited functioning, work leave or disability, and healthcare use. MP is a major public health problem in developed countries due to high prevalence rates and considerable consequences. There are indications that consequences of MP differ for men and women. Data of a Dutch population-based study were used, limited to persons 25 to 64 years of age (n = 2517). Data were collected by a postal questionnaire. Women with any MP report more healthcare use for MP, i.e., contact with a medical caregiver and use of medicines than men, while men report more work disability (ever in life) due to low back pain only, irrespective of work status. None of the sex differences can be explained by age, household composition, educational level, smoking status, overweight, physical activity, and pain catastrophizing. Older age was related to more limited functioning due to MP (women), work disability due to MP (men), and healthcare use due to MP (men and women). A one-person household was associated with work disability (women) and use of medicines (men). Low educational level was associated with limited functioning (men), work leave (men), contact with a medical caregiver (men), and work disability (men and women). Smoking was associated with limited functioning (men), work leave (women), and healthcare use (women). Physical inactivity was associated with limited functioning due to MP in women. Pain catastrophizing was associated with limited functioning, work leave, and healthcare use (men and women) and work disability (men). Consequences of MP show a slightly different pattern for men and women. Women with any MPreport more healthcare use for MP, while men report more work disability due to low back pain only. These sex differences can not be explained by general risk factors, but associations between these factors and consequences of MP show some sex differences.

  8. Nonthermal and suprathermal distributions as a consequence of superstatistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ourabah, Kamel; Ait Gougam, Leila; Tribeche, Mouloud

    2015-01-01

    We propose to put the well-known nonthermal and suprathermal empirical distributions, used in plasma physics, onto a more rigorous foundation. Their use is frequently criticized because of a lack of formal derivation and physical explanation. A connection between these non-Maxwellian distributions and the Beck-Cohen superstatistics is suggested. They are perceived as a consequence of typical temperature fluctuations. We show that the suprathermal distribution is generated by the Γ distribution of the inverse temperature, in the same way as the Tsallis q statistics. The nonthermal distribution also follows from the χ(2) distribution, with a small variance. Our contribution provides a possible physical meaning for these ad hoc distributions.

  9. Exploring the consequences of pairing algorithms for binary stars

    CERN Document Server

    Kouwenhoven, M B N; Goodwin, S P; Zwart, S F Portegies; Kaper, L

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge of the binary population in stellar groupings provides important information about the outcome of the star forming process in different environments (see, e.g., Blaauw 1991, and references therein). Binarity is also a key ingredient in stellar population studies, and is a prerequisite to calibrate the binary evolution channels. In this paper we present an overview of several commonly used methods to pair individual stars into binary systems, which we refer to as pairing functions. These pairing functions are frequently used by observers and computational astronomers, either for their mathematical convenience, or because they roughly describe the expected outcome of the star forming process. We discuss the consequences of each pairing function for the interpretation of observations and numerical simulations. The binary fraction and mass ratio distribution generally depend strongly on the selection of the range in primary spectral type in a sample. The mass ratio distribution and binary fraction deriv...

  10. Nanotube Tunneling as a Consequence of Probable Discrete Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Daryl C.

    2001-01-01

    It has been recently reported that the electrical charge in a semiconductive carbon nanotube is not evenly distributed, but is divided into charge "islands." A clear understanding of tunneling phenomena can be useful to elucidate the mechanism for electrical conduction in nanotubes. This paper represents the first attempt to shed light on the aforementioned phenomenon through viewing tunneling as a natural consequence of "discrete trajectories." The relevance of this analysis is that it may provide further insight into the higher rate of tunneling processes, which makes tunneling devices attractive. In a situation involving particles impinging on a classically impenetrable barrier, the result of quantum mechanics that the probability of detecting transmitted particles falls off exponentially is derived without wave theory. This paper should provide a basis for calculating the charge profile over the length of the tube so that nanoscale devices' conductive properties may be fully exploited.

  11. Reasoning about causes and consequences in Mulitlevel Flow Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Morten

    2012-01-01

    -end topology of the multilevel flow models and may be used for design of human machine interfaces supporting diagrammatic reasoning about spatial-temporal aspects of dynamic situations. The principles described in the paper have been used in the implementation of a model based reasoning system.......The purpose of the paper is to describe how multilevel flow models are used for reasoning about causes and consequences in complex dynamic processes. Reasoning in MFM models derives its power from representation of process knowledge on several levels of specification. The detailed specification...... is the basis for implementation of automated model based reasoning functions whereas the more abstract specifica-tions provides generic process knowledge for formulation of reasoning strategies and for giving explanations. Reasoning strategies and explanations can be directly visualized in terms of the means...

  12. Mechanisms and consequences of paternally transmitted chromosomal abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchetti, F; Wyrobek, A J

    2005-04-05

    Paternally transmitted chromosomal damage has been associated with pregnancy loss, developmental and morphological defects, infant mortality, infertility, and genetic diseases in the offspring including cancer. There is epidemiological evidence linking paternal exposure to occupational or environmental agents with an increased risk of abnormal reproductive outcomes. There is also a large body of literature on germ cell mutagenesis in rodents showing that treatment of male germ cells with mutagens has dramatic consequences on reproduction producing effects such as those observed in human epidemiological studies. However, we know very little about the etiology, transmission and early embryonic consequences of paternally-derived chromosomal abnormalities. The available evidence suggests that: (1) there are distinct patterns of germ cell-stage differences in the sensitivity of induction of transmissible genetic damage with male postmeiotic cells being the most sensitive; (2) cytogenetic abnormalities at first metaphase after fertilization are critical intermediates between paternal exposure and abnormal reproductive outcomes; and, (3) there are maternally susceptibility factors that may have profound effects on the amount of sperm DNA damage that is converted into chromosomal aberrations in the zygote and directly affect the risk for abnormal reproductive outcomes.

  13. On the Mathematical Consequences of Binning Spike Trains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cessac, Bruno; Le Ny, Arnaud; Löcherbach, Eva

    2017-01-01

    We initiate a mathematical analysis of hidden effects induced by binning spike trains of neurons. Assuming that the original spike train has been generated by a discrete Markov process, we show that binning generates a stochastic process that is no longer Markov but is instead a variable-length Markov chain (VLMC) with unbounded memory. We also show that the law of the binned raster is a Gibbs measure in the DLR (Dobrushin-Lanford-Ruelle) sense coined in mathematical statistical mechanics. This allows the derivation of several important consequences on statistical properties of binned spike trains. In particular, we introduce the DLR framework as a natural setting to mathematically formalize anticipation, that is, to tell "how good" our nervous system is at making predictions. In a probabilistic sense, this corresponds to condition a process by its future, and we discuss how binning may affect our conclusions on this ability. We finally comment on the possible consequences of binning in the detection of spurious phase transitions or in the detection of incorrect evidence of criticality.

  14. Fluid Dynamical Consequences of Current and Stress-Energy Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scofield, Dillon; Huq, Pablo

    The dynamical consequences of fluid current conservation combined with the conservation of fluid stress-energy are used to develop the geometrodynamical theory of fluid flow (GTF). In the derivation of the GTF, we highlight the fact the continuity equation, equivalently the conservation of current density, implies the existence of the fluid dynamical vortex field. The vortex field transports part of the stress-energy; the other part of the stress-energy is transported by the fluid inertia field. Two channels of energy dissipation are determined by the GTF. One is an analog of the Joule heating found in electrodynamics. This follows from the conservation of stress-energy. The other dissipation channel arises from mechanisms leading to complex-valued constitutive parameters described in the electrodynamical analogy as due to a lossy medium. The dynamical consequences of the continuity equation, combined with the conservation of total stress-energy, then lead to a causal, covariant, theory of fluid flow, consistent with thermodynamics for all physically possible flow rates.

  15. On the mathematical consequences of binning spike trains

    CERN Document Server

    Cessac, B; Loecherbach, E

    2016-01-01

    We initiate a mathematical analysis of hidden effects induced by binning spike trains of neurons. Assuming that the original spike train has been generated by a discrete Markov process, we show that binning generates a stochastic process which is not Markov any more, but is instead a Variable Length Markov Chain (VLMC) with unbounded memory. We also show that the law of the binned raster is a Gibbs measure in the DLR (Dobrushin-Lanford-Ruelle) sense coined in mathematical statistical mechanics. This allows the derivation of several important consequences on statistical properties of binned spike trains. In particular, we introduce the DLR framework as a natural setting to mathematically formalize anticipation, i.e. to tell "how good" our nervous system is at making predictions. In a probabilistic sense, this corresponds to condition a process by its future and we discuss how binning may affect our conclusions on this ability. We finally comment what could be the consequences of binning in the detection of spu...

  16. FIRE simulations: galactic outflows and their consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keres, Dusan; FIRE Team

    2016-06-01

    We study gaseous outflows and their consequences in high-resolution galaxy formation simulations with explicit stellar feedback from the Feedback in Realistic Environments project. Collective, galaxy scale, effect of stellar feedback results in episodic ejections of large amount of gas and heavy elements into the circum-galactic medium. Gas ejection episodes follow strong bursts of star formation. Properties of galactic star formation and ejection episodes depend on galaxy mass and redshift and, together with gas infall and recycling, shape the evolution of the circum-galactic medium and galaxies. As a consequence, our simulated galaxies have masses, star formation histories and heavy element content in good agreement with the observed population of galaxies.

  17. Assuring quality in high-consequence engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoover, Marcey L.; Kolb, Rachel R.

    2014-03-01

    In high-consequence engineering organizations, such as Sandia, quality assurance may be heavily dependent on staff competency. Competency-dependent quality assurance models are at risk when the environment changes, as it has with increasing attrition rates, budget and schedule cuts, and competing program priorities. Risks in Sandia's competency-dependent culture can be mitigated through changes to hiring, training, and customer engagement approaches to manage people, partners, and products. Sandia's technical quality engineering organization has been able to mitigate corporate-level risks by driving changes that benefit all departments, and in doing so has assured Sandia's commitment to excellence in high-consequence engineering and national service.

  18. Review of methodology for accident consequence assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strenge, D.L.; Soldat, J.K.; Watson, E.C.

    1978-09-01

    This report reviews current methodologies for reactor accident consequence analysis and describes areas where modifications are warranted. Methodologies reviewed are: (1) Models in Regulatory Guides 1.109, 1.111 and 1.113 used for evaluation of compliance with 10 CFR 50 Appendix I; (2) Models in Regulatory Guides used for evaluation of consequences from accidents of Classes 3-8; (3) Models for evaluation of Class 9 accidents presented in the Reactor Safety Study; and (4) Models in the Liquid Pathway Generic Study. The review is designed to aid in the ultimate goal of selection of a comprehensive set of models to extend the Class 9 methodology of the Reactor Safety Study to the analysis of Classes 3-8 accidents.

  19. Partial migration in fishes: causes and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, B B; Hulthén, K; Brodersen, J; Nilsson, P A; Skov, C; Hansson, L-A; Brönmark, C

    2012-07-01

    Partial migration, where only some individuals from a population migrate, has been widely reported in a diverse range of animals. In this paper, what is known about the causes and consequences of partial migration in fishes is reviewed. Firstly, the ultimate and proximate drivers of partial migration are reflected upon: what ecological factors can shape the evolution of migratory dimorphism? How is partial migration maintained over evolutionary timescales? What proximate mechanisms determine whether an individual is migratory or remains resident? Following this, the consequences of partial migration are considered, in an ecological and evolutionary context, and also in an applied sense. Here it is argued that understanding the concept of partial migration is crucial for fisheries and ecosystem managers, and can provide information for conservation strategies. The review concludes with a reflection on the future opportunities in this field, and the avenues of research that are likely to be fruitful to shed light on the enduring puzzle of partial migration in fishes.

  20. Partial migration in fishes: causes and consequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chapman, B.B.; Hulthén, K.; Brodersen, J.;

    2012-01-01

    migration are reflected upon: what ecological factors can shape the evolution of migratory dimorphism? How is partial migration maintained over evolutionary timescales? What proximate mechanisms determine whether an individual is migratory or remains resident? Following this, the consequences of partial...... with a reflection on the future opportunities in this field, and the avenues of research that are likely to be fruitful to shed light on the enduring puzzle of partial migration in fishes......Partial migration, where only some individuals from a population migrate, has been widely reported in a diverse range of animals. In this paper, what is known about the causes and consequences of partial migration in fishes is reviewed. Firstly, the ultimate and proximate drivers of partial...

  1. Consequences of infertility in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouchou, Brittany

    2013-05-01

    Infertility affects more than 10% of the world's population. In developing countries, there are severe social, psychological and economic consequences for infertile men and women. All of the cited references are compiled from primary peer-reviewed research articles that were conducted through one-to-one interviews or focus groups in countries of developing regions, such as Africa, Asia and the Middle East. The following paper seeks to raise awareness of the consequences of infertility in developing nations and identify infertility as an under-observed, but significant public health issue. It is proposed that education programmes tailored to each society's specific religious beliefs and grounded traditions must be implemented in order to reverse the social stigma, detrimental psychological effects, and loss of economic security that results from infertility.

  2. Galectins in angiogenesis: consequences for gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blois, Sandra M; Conrad, Melanie L; Freitag, Nancy; Barrientos, Gabriela

    2015-04-01

    Members of the galectin family have been shown to exert several roles in the context of reproduction. They contribute to placentation, maternal immune regulation and facilitate angiogenesis encompassing decidualisation and placenta formation during pregnancy. In the context of neo-vascularisation, galectins have been shown to augment signalling pathways that lead to endothelial cell activation, cell proliferation, migration and tube formation in vitro in addition to angiogenesis in vivo. Angiogenesis during gestation ensures not only proper foetal growth and development, but also maternal health. Consequently, restriction of placental blood flow has major consequences for both foetus and mother, leading to pregnancy diseases. In this review we summarise both the established and the emerging roles of galectin in angiogenesis and discuss the possible implications during healthy and pathological gestation.

  3. [Climate changes, floods, and health consequences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelozzi, Paola; de' Donato, Francesca

    2014-02-01

    In the European Region, floods are the most common natural disaster, causing extensive damage and disruption. In Italy, it has been estimated that over 68% of municipalities are at high hydrogeological risk and with the recent intense rainfall events local populations have been facing severe disruptions. The health consequences of floods are wide ranging and are dependent upon the vulnerability of the environment and the local population. Health effects can be a direct or indirect consequence of flooding. The immediate health impacts of floods include drowning, heart attacks, injuries and hypothermia. The indirect effects include, injuries and infections, water-borne infectious disease, mental health problems, respiratory disease and allergies in both the medium and long term after a flood. Future efforts should be addressed to integrate health preparedness and prevention measures into emergency flood plans and hydrological warning systems.

  4. Clinical Consequences of Polypharmacy in Elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Robert L.; Hanlon, Joseph T.; Hajjar, Emily R.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Polypharmacy, defined as the use of multiple drugs or more than are medically necessary, is a growing concern for older adults. Areas Covered We present information about; 1.) Prevalence of polypharmacy and unnecessary medication use. ; 2.) Negative Consequences of Polypharmacy; 3.) Interventions to improve polypharmacy. Expert Opinion International research shows that polypharmacy is common in older adults with the highest number of drugs taken by those residing in nursing homes. Nearly 50% of older adults take one or more medications that are not medically necessary. Research has clearly established a strong relationship between polypharmacy and negative clinical consequences. Moreover, well designed inter-professional (often incuding clinical pharmacist) intervention studies that focus on enrolling high risk older patients with polypharmacy have shown that they can be effective in improving the overall quality of prescribing with mixed results on distal health outcomes. PMID:24073682

  5. Consequences of Helicobacter pylori infection in children

    OpenAIRE

    Pacifico, Lucia; Anania, Caterina; Osborn, John F.; Ferraro, Flavia; Chiesa, Claudio

    2010-01-01

    Although evidence is emerging that the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is declining in all age groups, the understanding of its disease spectrum continues to evolve. If untreated, H. pylori infection is lifelong. Although H. pylori typically colonizes the human stomach for many decades without adverse consequences, children infected with H. pylori can manifest gastrointestinal diseases. Controversy persists regarding testing (and treating) for H. pylori infection in children wit...

  6. Population consequences of environmental sex reversal.

    OpenAIRE

    Cotton, S.; Wedekind, C

    2009-01-01

    When sex determination in a species is predominantly genetic but environmentally reversible, exposure to (anthropogenic) changes in the environment can lead to shifts in a population's sex ratio. Such scenarios may be common in many fishes and amphibians, yet their ramifications remain largely unexplored. We used a simple model to study the (short-term) population consequences of environmental sex reversal (ESR). We examined the effects on sex ratios, sex chromosome frequencies, and populatio...

  7. Central Bank Transparency: Causes, Consequences and Updates

    OpenAIRE

    Nergiz Dincer; Barry Eichengreen

    2009-01-01

    We present updated estimates of central bank for 100 countries up through 2006 and use them to analyze both the determinants and consequences of monetary policy transparency in an integrated econometric framework. We establish that there has been significant movement in the direction of greater central bank transparency in recent years. Transparent monetary policy arrangements are more likely in countries with strong and stable political institutions. They are more likely in democracies, with...

  8. Consequences of Confinement in Zeolite Acid Catalysis

    OpenAIRE

    Gounder, Rajamani Pachayappan

    2011-01-01

    The catalytic consequences of confinement within zeolite voids were examined for several elimination (alkane cracking and dehydrogenation, alkene cracking, alkanol dehydration) and addition (alkene hydrogenation, alkylation and oligomerization) reactions catalyzed by Brønsted solid acids. These reactions are mediated by cationic transition states that are confined within voids of molecular dimensions (0.4-1.3 nm) and proceed at rates that reflect the Gibbs free energies of late ion-pairs at t...

  9. Consequences of Helicobacter pylori infection in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lucia; Pacifico; Caterina; Anania; John; F; Osborn; Flavia; Ferraro; Claudio; Chiesa

    2010-01-01

    Although evidence is emerging that the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is declining in all age groups, the understanding of its disease spectrum continues to evolve. If untreated, H. pylori infection is lifelong. Although H. pylori typically colonizes the hu-man stomach for many decades without adverse con-sequences, children infected with H. pylori can manifest gastrointestinal diseases. Controversy persists regarding testing (and treating) for H. pylori infection in children with recurrent a...

  10. Consequences of long-term hyperparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graal, M B; Wolffenbuttel, B H

    1998-07-01

    We describe a young woman with long-term untreated hyperparathyroidism with a superimposed vitamin D deficiency and an extremely decreased bone mineral density that was complicated by a vertebral fracture. Despite pretreatment with intravenous pamidronate and short-term vitamin D supplementation, severe and long-standing hypocalcaemia ('hungry bone syndrome') developed after parathyroidectomy. We discuss the consequences of hyperparathyroidism, especially the effects on bone, the complications of parathyroidectomy and the possibilities of preoperative treatment with bisphosphonates.

  11. An investigation on the inhibitory action of benzazole derivatives as a consequence of sulfur atom induction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moradi, Z.; Attar, M.M., E-mail: attar@aut.ac.ir

    2014-10-30

    Highlights: • The inhibitory behavior of three benzazole based molecules was studied. • Weight loss and EIS technique revealed a marked difference between three molecules’ potential inhibitory actions, although having the same adsorption isotherm. • AFM and contact angle measurements showed a decrease in roughness and hydrophillicity as a result of introducing sulfur which was related to better adsorption of the molecule and formation of more integrated inhibitor film. • The most constant results was obtained by HF method with 6-31G (d,p) basis set in water medium. - Abstract: The inhibitory action of three benzazole based molecules namely 2-methyl benzimidazole (2-MBI), 2-methyl benzothiazole (2-MBT) and 2-mercapto benzthiazole (2-SHBT) in 1 M HCl solution was studied by gravimetric analysis and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Results showed that the inhibitor adsorption on the iron surface was according to Langmuir adsorption isotherm for 2-MBI and 2-MBT and Flory Huggins Isotherm for 2-SHBT. Surface roughness obtained by Atomic Forced Microscopy (AFM) revealed that a good inhibitor decreases the surface roughness significantly which can be related to the formation of more integrated molecular film of inhibitor on steel surface. Based on contact angle (CA) measurements as the efficiency of the inhibitor molecules improve the hydrophobicity increases. These three molecules were chosen to see the effect of introducing sulfur atom into the structure the main effect of which would be on electronic parameters. To better understand this effect, the quantum chemical descriptors including: E{sub HOMO}, E{sub LUMO}, energy gap (ΔE), dipole moment (μ), hardness (η), softness (σ), electronegativity index (χ), fraction of electrons transferred (ΔN), that are most relevant to the potential action of a molecule as corrosion inhibitor, have been calculated in water and vacuum. Electronic parameters of these three inhibitors have been studied using DFT/B3LYP, and HF methods with 6-31G (d,p) basis set.

  12. Planning of elimination of emergency consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kovalenko

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The volume of useful information in the planning of elimination of emergency consequences process is reasonable to assess with calculatory problems and mathematical models. Materials and methods. The expert survey method is used to calculate quantitative values of probability and to determine the optimal solution before the information in condition is received. Results. It is determined that the quality of the solution of elimination emergency consequences depends primarily on the number of factors that are taken into account in particular circumstances of the situation; on the level of information readiness of control bodies to take decision to eliminate emergency consequences as soon as possible and to consider several options for achieving reasonableness and concreteness of a particular decision. The ratio between volume of useful information collected and processed during operation planning which is required for identifying optimal solution is calculated. This ratio allows to construct a graph of probability of identifying a solution in existing environment and probability value of identifying optimal solution before information in P*condition is obtained. This graph also shows the ratio volume of useful information collected and processed during operation planning and necessary volume of information for identifying optimal solution. Conclusion. The results of this research can be used for improving control bodies decisions to ensure safe working conditions for employees of food industry.

  13. Resource footprints and their ecosystem consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verones, Francesca; Moran, Daniel; Stadler, Konstantin; Kanemoto, Keiichiro; Wood, Richard

    2017-01-01

    A meaningful environmental impact analysis should go beyond the accounting of pressures from resource use and actually assess how resource demand affects ecosystems. The various currently available footprints of nations report the environmental pressures e.g. water use or pollutant emissions, driven by consumption. However, there have been limited attempts to assess the environmental consequences of these pressures. Ultimately, consequences, not pressures, should guide environmental policymaking. The newly released LC-Impact method demonstrates progress on the path to providing this missing link. Here we present “ecosystem impact footprints” in terms of the consequences for biodiversity and assess the differences in impact footprint results from MRIO-based pressure footprints. The new perspective reveals major changes in the relative contribution of nations to global footprints. Wealthy countries have high pressure footprints in lower-income countries but their impact footprints often have their origin in higher-income countries. This shift in perspective provides a different insight on where to focus policy responses to preserve biodiversity.

  14. Derived logarithmic geometry I

    OpenAIRE

    Steffen, Sagave; Timo, Schurg; Gabriele, Vezzosi

    2016-01-01

    In order to develop the foundations of logarithmic derived geometry, we introduce a model category of logarithmic simplicial rings and a notion of derived log \\'etale maps and use this to define derived log stacks.

  15. Emotional consequences of nuclear power plant disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromet, Evelyn J

    2014-02-01

    The emotional consequences of nuclear power plant disasters include depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, and medically unexplained somatic symptoms. These effects are often long term and associated with fears about developing cancer. Research on disasters involving radiation, particularly evidence from Chernobyl, indicates that mothers of young children and cleanup workers are the highest risk groups. The emotional consequences occur independently of the actual exposure received. In contrast, studies of children raised in the shadows of the Three Mile Island (TMI) and Chernobyl accidents suggest that although their self-rated health is less satisfactory than that of their peers, their emotional, academic, and psychosocial development is comparable. The importance of the psychological impact is underscored by its chronicity and by several studies showing that poor mental health is associated with physical health conditions, early mortality, disability, and overuse of medical services. Given the established increase in mental health problems following TMI and Chernobyl, it is likely that the same pattern will occur in residents and evacuees affected by the Fukushima meltdowns. Preliminary data from Fukushima indeed suggest that workers and mothers of young children are at risk of depression, anxiety, psychosomatic, and post-traumatic symptoms both as a direct result of their fears about radiation exposure and an indirect result of societal stigma. Thus, it is important that non-mental health providers learn to recognize and manage psychological symptoms and that medical programs be designed to reduce stigma and alleviate psychological suffering by integrating psychiatric and medical treatment within the walls of their clinics.Introduction of Emotional Consequences of Nuclear Power Plant Disasters (Video 2:15, http://links.lww.com/HP/A34).

  16. Consequences of Predicted or Actual Asteroid Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, C. R.

    2003-12-01

    Earth impact by an asteroid could have enormous physical and environmental consequences. Impactors larger than 2 km diameter could be so destructive as to threaten civilization. Since such events greatly exceed any other natural or man-made catastrophe, much extrapolation is necessary just to understand environmental implications (e.g. sudden global cooling, tsunami magnitude, toxic effects). Responses of vital elements of the ecosystem (e.g. agriculture) and of human society to such an impact are conjectural. For instance, response to the Blackout of 2003 was restrained, but response to 9/11 terrorism was arguably exaggerated and dysfunctional; would society be fragile or robust in the face of global catastrophe? Even small impacts, or predictions of impacts (accurate or faulty), could generate disproportionate responses, especially if news media reports are hyped or inaccurate or if responsible entities (e.g. military organizations in regions of conflict) are inadequately aware of the phenomenology of small impacts. Asteroid impact is the one geophysical hazard of high potential consequence with which we, fortunately, have essentially no historical experience. It is thus important that decision makers familiarize themselves with the hazard and that society (perhaps using a formal procedure, like a National Academy of Sciences study) evaluate the priority of addressing the hazard by (a) further telescopic searches for dangerous but still-undiscovered asteroids and (b) development of mitigation strategies (including deflection of an oncoming asteroid and on- Earth civil defense). I exemplify these issues by discussing several representative cases that span the range of parameters. Many of the specific physical consequences of impact involve effects like those of other geophysical disasters (flood, fire, earthquake, etc.), but the psychological and sociological aspects of predicted and actual impacts are distinctive. Standard economic cost/benefit analyses may not

  17. Perceptual consequences of disrupted auditory nerve activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Fan-Gang; Kong, Ying-Yee; Michalewski, Henry J; Starr, Arnold

    2005-06-01

    Perceptual consequences of disrupted auditory nerve activity were systematically studied in 21 subjects who had been clinically diagnosed with auditory neuropathy (AN), a recently defined disorder characterized by normal outer hair cell function but disrupted auditory nerve function. Neurological and electrophysical evidence suggests that disrupted auditory nerve activity is due to desynchronized or reduced neural activity or both. Psychophysical measures showed that the disrupted neural activity has minimal effects on intensity-related perception, such as loudness discrimination, pitch discrimination at high frequencies, and sound localization using interaural level differences. In contrast, the disrupted neural activity significantly impairs timing related perception, such as pitch discrimination at low frequencies, temporal integration, gap detection, temporal modulation detection, backward and forward masking, signal detection in noise, binaural beats, and sound localization using interaural time differences. These perceptual consequences are the opposite of what is typically observed in cochlear-impaired subjects who have impaired intensity perception but relatively normal temporal processing after taking their impaired intensity perception into account. These differences in perceptual consequences between auditory neuropathy and cochlear damage suggest the use of different neural codes in auditory perception: a suboptimal spike count code for intensity processing, a synchronized spike code for temporal processing, and a duplex code for frequency processing. We also proposed two underlying physiological models based on desynchronized and reduced discharge in the auditory nerve to successfully account for the observed neurological and behavioral data. These methods and measures cannot differentiate between these two AN models, but future studies using electric stimulation of the auditory nerve via a cochlear implant might. These results not only show the unique

  18. [Fetal pain: immediate and long term consequences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houfflin Debarge, Véronique; Dutriez, Isabelle; Pusniak, Benoit; Delarue, Eléonore; Storme, Laurent

    2010-06-01

    Several situations are potentially painful for fetuses, such as malformations and invasive procedures. Nociceptive pathways are known to be functional at 26 weeks. Even if it is not possible to evaluate the fetal experience of pain, it is essential to examine its immediate and long-term consequences. As early as the beginning of the second trimester, hemodynamic and hormonal responses are observed following fetal nociceptive stimulation, In experimental studies, long-term changes have been noted in the corticotrop axis, subsequent responses to pain, and behavior after perinatal nociceptive stimulation.

  19. Banting lecture 2011: hyperinsulinemia: cause or consequence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corkey, Barbara E

    2012-01-01

    The Banting Medal for Scientific Achievement Award is the American Diabetes Association's highest scientific award and honors an individual who has made significant, long-term contributions to the understanding of diabetes, its treatment, and/or prevention. The award is named after Nobel Prize winner Sir Frederick Banting, who codiscovered insulin treatment for diabetes. Dr. Barbara E. Corkey received the American Diabetes Association's Banting Medal for Scientific Achievement at the Association's 71st Scientific Sessions, 24-28 June 2011, San Diego, California. She presented the Banting Lecture, "Hyperinsulinemia: Cause or Consequence?" on Sunday, 26 June 2011.

  20. LEGAL CONSEQUENCES OF MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia-Raluca ONIŞOR

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The research analyses the legal effects of mergers and acquisitions from the Romanian Company Law perspective, underlining certain general principles, the procedure of annulment of such a legal transformation of companies and the protection of the employees of companies participating in the merger according to the Law no. 67/2006. These consequences of mergers and acquisions are to be seen in the broader light of the most important purpose of this legal instrument, maximizing financial and organizational efficiencies, thus legal certainty is a desirable goal to be assumed by any merger regulation.

  1. Nutritional consequences of the African diaspora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, A; Cooper, R S; Prewitt, T E; Adeyemo, A A; Forrester, T E

    2001-01-01

    Along with their foods and dietary customs, Africans were carried into diaspora throughout the Americas as a result of the European slave trade. Their descendants represent populations at varying stages of the nutrition transition. West Africans are in the early stage, where undernutrition and nutrient deficiencies are prevalent. Many Caribbean populations represent the middle stages, with undernutrition and obesity coexisting. African-Americans and black populations in the United Kingdom suffer from the consequences of caloric excess and diets high in fat and animal products. Obesity, non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, hypertension, coronary heart disease, and certain cancers all follow an east-to-west gradient of increasing prevalence. Public health efforts must focus not only on eradicating undernutrition in West Africa and the Caribbean but also on preventing obesity, hypercholesterolemia, and their consequences. Fortunately, a coherent and well-supported set of recommendations exists to promote better nutrition. Implementation of it founders primarily as a result of the influence of commercial and political interests.

  2. Perceptual consequences of "hidden" hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plack, Christopher J; Barker, Daphne; Prendergast, Garreth

    2014-09-09

    Dramatic results from recent animal experiments show that noise exposure can cause a selective loss of high-threshold auditory nerve fibers without affecting absolute sensitivity permanently. This cochlear neuropathy has been described as hidden hearing loss, as it is not thought to be detectable using standard measures of audiometric threshold. It is possible that hidden hearing loss is a common condition in humans and may underlie some of the perceptual deficits experienced by people with clinically normal hearing. There is some evidence that a history of noise exposure is associated with difficulties in speech discrimination and temporal processing, even in the absence of any audiometric loss. There is also evidence that the tinnitus experienced by listeners with clinically normal hearing is associated with cochlear neuropathy, as measured using Wave I of the auditory brainstem response. To date, however, there has been no direct link made between noise exposure, cochlear neuropathy, and perceptual difficulties. Animal experiments also reveal that the aging process itself, in the absence of significant noise exposure, is associated with loss of auditory nerve fibers. Evidence from human temporal bone studies and auditory brainstem response measures suggests that this form of hidden loss is common in humans and may have perceptual consequences, in particular, regarding the coding of the temporal aspects of sounds. Hidden hearing loss is potentially a major health issue, and investigations are ongoing to identify the causes and consequences of this troubling condition.

  3. [Fetal pain - neurobiological causes and consequences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Nuno; Rebelo, Sandra; Tavares, Isaura

    2010-01-01

    The existence of putatively painful situations to the fetus demands a careful evaluation of the issue of fetal pain. Several indirect approaches are used to evaluate the existence of fetal pain. Neurobiological studies showed that from the 30th week on, the anatomical and physiological system for pain transmission is already developed, with the connections from the periphery to the cortex being successively established. Stress responses to a painful stimulation are complex but they can be detected from the 16th week on. There is activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis, autonomic nervous system and hemodynamic changes in response to nociceptive stimulation. In prematures exposed to pain there are significant increases of adrenaline, noradrenaline and cortisol, hemodynamic changes, motor reflexes and facial reactions. The changes induced by strong nociceptive stimulation of newborns have important postnatal consequences since they affect future reactions to noxious stimuli. Central sensitization and immaturity of the pain inhibitory system are the main neurobiological explanations for the increased pain. Detailed studies of the neurobiological mechanisms of the transmission of painful stimuli along with follow-up studies of the consequences of exposure to pain during the development of the fetus are necessary to fully understand fetal pain.

  4. Reconsidering Health Consequences of the Chernobyl Accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socol, Yehoshua

    2015-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident led to major human suffering caused by the evacuation and other counter-measures. However, the direct health consequences of the accident-related radiation exposures, besides the acute effects and small number of thyroid cancers, have not been observed. This absence is challenged by some influential groups affecting public policies who claim that the true extent of radiogenic health consequences is covered up. We consider such claims. The most conservative (in this case - overestimating) linear no-threshold hypothesis was used to calculate excess cancer expectations for cleanup workers, the population of the contaminated areas and the global population. Statistical estimations were performed to verify whether such expected excess was detectable. The calculated cancer excess for each group is much less than uncertainties in number of cancer cases in epidemiological studies. Therefore the absence of detected radiation carcinogenesis is in full correspondence with the most conservative a priori expectations. Regarding the cover-up claims, rational choice analysis was performed. Such analysis shows that these claims are ill-founded. The present overcautious attitude to radiological hazards should be corrected in order to mitigate the present suffering and to avoid such suffering in the future.

  5. Antecedents, consequences and interventions for workplace bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Vivien

    2014-09-01

    The issue of workplace bullying has become an area of research interest in the last 3 decades. Much of the extant literature is published in the business management journals. This is problematic as the targets of workplace bullying may need psychiatric treatment; as a discipline, therefore psychiatrists may benefit from a deeper understanding of the nature of workplace bullying and its sequelae. There is still no agreed upon definition, although most definitions include similar criteria. Managers and human resources personnel frequently have difficulty identifying and effectively managing workplace bullying. The consequences for the targets of bullying can be severe; they may need psychiatric treatment and it can have a lifelong impact. There is a paucity of research into effective prevention and intervention programs. Preventive measures that focus on the whole workplace culture or on targets alone have mixed results. Workplace policies and procedures may lessen the prevalence and incidence of bullying, but often competing interests of senior management, human resources personnel, supervisors and workers may mitigate any antibullying interventions. Although psychiatrists are likely to treat the targets of bullying, bullying has yet to attract much attention as a research topic in psychiatry. Although the consequences of bullying can be severe for both targets and workplaces, prevention strategies are hampered by competing interests.

  6. Population consequences of environmental sex reversal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, Samuel; Wedekind, Claus

    2009-02-01

    When sex determination in a species is predominantly genetic but environmentally reversible, exposure to (anthropogenic) changes in the environment can lead to shifts in a population's sex ratio. Such scenarios may be common in many fishes and amphibians, yet their ramifications remain largely unexplored. We used a simple model to study the (short-term) population consequences of environmental sex reversal (ESR). We examined the effects on sex ratios, sex chromosome frequencies, and population growth and persistence after exposure to environmental forces with feminizing or masculinizing tendencies. When environmental feminization was strong, X chromosomes were driven to extinction. Analogously, extinction of normally male-linked genetic factors (e.g., Y chromosomes) was caused by continuous environmental masculinization. Although moderate feminization was beneficial for population growth in the absence of large viability effects, our results suggest that the consequences of ESR are generally negative in terms of population size and the persistence of sex chromosomes. Extreme sex ratios resulting from high rates of ESR also reduced effective population sizes considerably. This may limit any evolutionary response to the deleterious effects of ESR. Our findings suggest that ESR changes population growth and sex ratios in some counter-intuitive ways and can change the predominant factor in sex determination from genetic to fully environmental, often within only a few tens of generations. Populations that lose genetic sex determination may quickly go extinct if the environmental forces that cause sex reversal cease.

  7. Temporomandibular joint ankylosis consequent to ear suppuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajeev; Hota, Ashutosh; Sikka, Kapil; Thakar, Alok

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study is to describe the complication of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) ankylosis consequent to otitis media. The method applied is prospective case series and data collection done in tertiary referral centre from April 2012 to April 2013. Case description of three adolescent male patients with unilateral TMJ ankylosis consequent to ipsilateral chronic suppurative otitis media. Further literature review of TMJ ankylosis in relation to otitis media for evaluation for predisposing conditions. Surgical treatment by ipsilateral canal wall down mastoidectomy and concurrent TMJ gap arthroplasty. Surgical exposure confirmed ipsilateral bony ankylosis in all three. Two cases with long standing trismus had developed contralateral disuse fibrous ankylosis and required bilateral gap arthroplasty. Relief of trismus achieved in all three cases. Literature review indicated three similar cases secondary to otitis media. A universal feature among all previous case reports and the current case series was the age at onset of trismus, being at 10 years or less in all. TMJ ankylosis is a rare but potential complication of paediatric ear suppuration. Dehiscence along the tympanosquamosal fissure, tympanic plate and the foraminae of Huschke and Santorini in the paediatric population may predispose to extension of tympanic suppuration to the TMJ.

  8. Metabolic consequences of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchill, S J; Wang, E T; Pisarska, M D

    2015-12-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in women and the leading cause of anovulatory infertility. The prevalence of the syndrome ranges between 6 to 15% based on broader Rotterdam diagnostic criteria verses strict NIH diagnostic criteria.1 The condition is characterized by a combination of ovulatory dysfunction, hyperandrogenism and the presence of polycystic ovaries. PCOS has been associated with multiple metabolic alterations and consequences including impaired glucose tolerance, insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, type II diabetes, dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome, obesity and subclinical cardiovascular disease. It remains unclear however if these associations lead to an increased risk of clinically significant long-term cardiovascular disease. Large prospective studies to date have not detected significant differences in overall cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in PCOS. The phenotypical variability in PCOS has made researching each of these associations challenging as different aspects of the syndrome may be contributing, opposing or confounding factors. The ability to detect significant differences in long-term cardiovascular outcomes may also be due to the variable nature of the syndrome. In this review, we attempt to describe a summary of the current literature concerning the metabolic alterations and cardiovascular consequences of polycystic ovary syndrome.

  9. Phenotypic consequences of aneuploidy in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Isabelle M; Dilkes, Brian P; Miller, Eric S; Burkart-Waco, Diana; Comai, Luca

    2010-12-01

    Aneuploid cells are characterized by incomplete chromosome sets. The resulting imbalance in gene dosage has phenotypic consequences that are specific to each karyotype. Even in the case of Down syndrome, the most viable and studied form of human aneuploidy, the mechanisms underlying the connected phenotypes remain mostly unclear. Because of their tolerance to aneuploidy, plants provide a powerful system for a genome-wide investigation of aneuploid syndromes, an approach that is not feasible in animal systems. Indeed, in many plant species, populations of aneuploid individuals can be easily obtained from triploid individuals. We phenotyped a population of Arabidopsis thaliana aneuploid individuals containing 25 different karyotypes. Even in this highly heterogeneous population, we demonstrate that certain traits are strongly associated with the dosage of specific chromosome types and that chromosomal effects can be additive. Further, we identified subtle developmental phenotypes expressed in the diploid progeny of aneuploid parent(s) but not in euploid controls from diploid lineages. These results indicate long-term phenotypic consequences of aneuploidy that can persist after chromosomal balance has been restored. We verified the diploid nature of these individuals by whole-genome sequencing and discuss the possibility that trans-generational phenotypic effects stem from epigenetic modifications passed from aneuploid parents to their diploid progeny.

  10. Unexpected behavioural consequences of preterm newborns' clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durier, Virginie; Henry, Séverine; Martin, Emmanuelle; Dollion, Nicolas; Hausberger, Martine; Sizun, Jacques

    2015-03-17

    Restrictions of preterm newborns' movements could have consequences ranging from stress enhancement to impairment of their motor development. Therefore, ability to freely express motor activities appears crucial for their behavioural and physiological development. Our aim was to evaluate behavioural issues of two types of clothing used in NICU. We observed 18 healthy 34-37 post-conception week-old preterm newborns, during resting periods, when they were undisturbed by any interventions. Newborns wore either light clothing (bodysuit and a light wrapping) or heavy clothing (pyjamas, cardigan and sleep-sack). The percentages of time each subject spent in different postures were compared between clothing situations. Arm and hand postures differed in relation to clothing: babies bent their arms more and held their hands nearer their heads when in bodysuits than when in sleepwear. Consequently, babies in bodysuits spent more time touching their body or their environment whereas the others generally were touching nothing. Self-touch is an important way to comfort one's self. Heavy clothing may impair self-soothing behaviours of preterm newborn babies that already lack other forms of contact. Results suggest that more attention should be paid to apparently routine and marginal decisions such as choice of clothes.

  11. [Legal consequences in cases of child abuse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauß, D; Richter, C; Klohs, G; Heide, S

    2013-09-01

    Medical child protection includes besides interdisciplinary diagnostics and treatment of physical and psychological symptoms also a discussion that looks at the ensuing legal consequences.This study analyses 21 criminally investigated cases of suspected child abuse from a 2 year study period and compares severity of injury to legal outcome.7 of those 21 criminal proceedings were already dropped by the prosecution and never went to trial. 4 of the 8 cases that led to a trial ended with a conviction. In all of the 4 cases that resulted in an acquittal the judges had been convinced that the child had been abused but found themselves unable to exactly identify the perpetrator. Our study's cases did not show a positive correlation between severity of injury and legal outcome.Diagnosing and treating children and minors within the context of medical child protection should always also include the ques-tion of possible legal consequences. The judicial process in cases of serious child abuse requires high medical expertise. Such expertise particularly includes the ability to determine the time of injury as exactly as possible and to provide precise written documentation of any medical findings. However, our study also shows that medical assessment is only one of many aspects in the legal response to child abuse.

  12. Early institutionalization: neurobiological consequences and genetic modifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Margaret; Drury, Stacy; McLaughlin, Kate; Almas, Alisa

    2010-12-01

    Children raised in the profound deprivation associated with institutionalization are at elevated risk for negative outcomes across a host of social and cognitive domains. This risk appears to be mitigated by early foster care or adoption into a family setting. Although pervasive developmental problems have been noted in a substantial proportion of previously institutionalized children, marked variation exists in the nature and severity of these deficits. Increasing evidence suggests that institutional deprivation impacts the developing brain, potentially underlying the wide range of outcomes with which it is associated. In the current review we examine the neural consequences of institutionalization and genetic factors associated with differences in outcome in an effort to characterize the consequences of early deprivation at a neurobiological level. Although the effects of institutional deprivation have been studied for more than 50 years much remains unanswered regarding the pathways through which institutionalization impacts child development. Through a more complete and nuanced assessment of the neural correlates of exposure and recovery as well as a better understanding of the individual factors involved we will be better able to delineate the impact of early adversity in the setting of severe social deprivation.

  13. Interest rate derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenstrup, Mikkel

    This Ph.D. thesis consists of four self-contained essays on valuation of interest rate derivatives. In particular derivatives related to management of interest rate risk care are considered.......This Ph.D. thesis consists of four self-contained essays on valuation of interest rate derivatives. In particular derivatives related to management of interest rate risk care are considered....

  14. Consequences of severe nuclear accidents in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibert, Petra; Arnold, Delia; Mraz, Gabriele; Arnold, Nikolaus; Gufler, Klaus; Kromp-Kolb, Helga; Kromp, Wolfgang; Sutter, Philipp

    2013-04-01

    A first part of the presentation is devoted to the consequences of the severe accident in the 1986 Chernobyl NPP. It lead to a substantial radioactive contaminated of large parts of Europe and thus raised the awareness for off-site nuclear accident consequences. Spatial patterns of the (transient) contamination of the air and (persistent) contamination of the ground were studied by both measurements and model simulations. For a variety of reasons, ground contamination measurements have variability at a range of spatial scales. Results will be reviewed and discussed. Model simulations, including inverse modelling, have shown that the standard source term as defined in the ATMES study (1990) needs to be updated. Sensitive measurements of airborne activities still reveal the presence of low levels of airborne radiocaesium over the northern hemisphere which stems from resuspension. Over time scales of months and years, the distribution of radionuclides in the Earth system is constantly changing, for example relocated within plants, between plants and soil, in the soil, and into water bodies. Motivated by the permanent risk of transboundary impacts from potential major nuclear accidents, the multidisciplinary project flexRISK (see http://flexRISK.boku.ac.at) has been carried out from 2009 to 2012 in Austria to quantify such risks and hazards. An overview of methods and results of flexRISK is given as a second part of the presentation. For each of the 228 NPPs, severe accidents were identified together with relevant inventories, release fractions, and release frequencies. Then, Europe-wide dispersion and dose calculations were performed for 2788 cases, using the Lagrangian particle model FLEXPART. Maps of single-case results as well as various aggregated risk parameters were produced. It was found that substantial consequences (intervention measures) are possible for distances up to 500-1000 km, and occur more frequently for a distance range up to 100-300 km, which is in

  15. Health consequences of child labour in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The paper examines the effect of child labour on child health outcomes in Bangladesh, advancing the methodologies and the results of papers published in different journals. Objective: We examine the effect of child labour on child health outcomes. Methods: We used Bangladesh National Child Labour Survey data for 2002-2003 for our analysis. Results: The main finding of the paper suggests that child labour is positively and significantly associated with the probability of being injured or becoming ill. Intensity of injury or illness is significantly higher in construction and manufacturing sectors than in other sectors. Health disadvantages for different age groups are not essentially parallel. Conclusions: The results obtained in this paper strengthen the need for stronger enforcement of laws that regulate child labour, especially given its adverse consequences on health. Although the paper focuses on Bangladesh, much of the evidence presented has implications that are relevant to policymakers in other developing countries.

  16. Community-level consequences of cannibalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlberger, Jan; Langangen, Oystein; Stenseth, Nils C; Vøllestad, L Asbjørn

    2012-12-01

    Ecological interactions determine the structure and dynamics of communities and their responses to the environment. Understanding the community-level effects of ecological interactions, such as intra- and interspecifc competition, predation, and cannibalism, is therefore central to ecological theory and ecosystem management. Here, we investigate the community-level consequences of cannibalism in populations with density-dependent maturation and reproduction. We model a stage-structured consumer population with an ontogenetic diet shift to analyze how cannibalism alters the conditions for the invasion and persistence of stage-specific predators and competitors. Our results demonstrate that cannibalistic interactions can facilitate coexistence with other species at both trophic levels. This effect of cannibalism critically depends on the food dependence of the demographic processes. The underlying mechanism is a cannibalism-induced shift in the biomass distribution between the consumer life stages. These findings suggest that cannibalism may alter the structure of ecological communities through its effects on species coexistence.

  17. Wham: Identifying Structural Variants of Biological Consequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronenberg, Zev N; Osborne, Edward J; Cone, Kelsey R; Kennedy, Brett J; Domyan, Eric T; Shapiro, Michael D; Elde, Nels C; Yandell, Mark

    2015-12-01

    Existing methods for identifying structural variants (SVs) from short read datasets are inaccurate. This complicates disease-gene identification and efforts to understand the consequences of genetic variation. In response, we have created Wham (Whole-genome Alignment Metrics) to provide a single, integrated framework for both structural variant calling and association testing, thereby bypassing many of the difficulties that currently frustrate attempts to employ SVs in association testing. Here we describe Wham, benchmark it against three other widely used SV identification tools-Lumpy, Delly and SoftSearch-and demonstrate Wham's ability to identify and associate SVs with phenotypes using data from humans, domestic pigeons, and vaccinia virus. Wham and all associated software are covered under the MIT License and can be freely downloaded from github (https://github.com/zeeev/wham), with documentation on a wiki (http://zeeev.github.io/wham/). For community support please post questions to https://www.biostars.org/.

  18. General consequences of the violated Feynman scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamberov, G.; Popova, L.

    1985-01-01

    The problem of scaling of the hadronic production cross sections represents an outstanding question in high energy physics especially for interpretation of cosmic ray data. A comprehensive analysis of the accelerator data leads to the conclusion of the existence of breaked Feynman scaling. It was proposed that the Lorentz invariant inclusive cross sections for secondaries of a given type approaches constant in respect to a breaked scaling variable x sub s. Thus, the differential cross sections measured in accelerator energy can be extrapolated to higher cosmic ray energies. This assumption leads to some important consequences. The distribution of secondary multiplicity that follows from the violated Feynman scaling using a similar method of Koba et al is discussed.

  19. Environmental consequences of energy production: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1989-01-01

    The Seventeenth Annual Illinois Energy conference entitled Environmental consequences of Energy Production was held in Chicago, Illinois on October 19-20, 1989. The purpose of the meeting was to provide a forum for exchange of information on the technical, economic and institutional issues surrounding energy production and related environmental problems. The conference program was developed by a planning committee which included Illinois energy and environmental specialists from the major sectors including energy industries, environmental organizations, research universities, utility companies, federal, state and local government agencies, and public interest groups. The conference included presentations on four major topic areas. The issue areas were: urban pollution: where are we now and what needs to be done in the future; the acid rain problem: implications of proposed federal legislation on the Midwest; global warming: an update on the scientific debate; and strategies to minimize environmental damage. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the individual presentations. (FL)

  20. Genetics and consequences of crop domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint-Garcia, Sherry A

    2013-09-01

    Phenotypic variation has been manipulated by humans during crop domestication, which occurred primarily between 3000 and 10000 years ago in the various centers of origin around the world. The process of domestication has profound consequences on crops, where the domesticate has moderately reduced genetic diversity relative to the wild ancestor across the genome, and severely reduced diversity for genes targeted by domestication. The question that remains is whether reduction in genetic diversity has affected crop production today. A case study in maize ( Zea mays ) demonstrates the application of understanding relationships between genetic diversity and phenotypic diversity in the wild ancestor and the domesticate. As an outcrossing species, maize has tremendous genetic variation. The complementary combination of genome-wide association mapping (GWAS) approaches, large HapMap data sets, and germplasm resources is leading to important discoveries of the relationship between genetic diversity and phenotypic variation and the impact of domestication on trait variation.

  1. The consequences of the heterosexual norm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Johansson

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Librarians may exclude people accidentally. This is so because there is a widespread use of classifications and subject headings reflecting the heterosexual norm. Critical classification theory tackles this norm for the reason that it affects the retrieval of gay literature. In order to allow a reconsideration of this exclusive practice in the LIS community I challenge two main questions: Firstly, how does the heterosexual norm appear in classification systems and subject headings lists? And secondly, what are the consequences of that practice for the retrieval of gay literature?This paper focuses on the professional practise in Swedish public libraries. If subject cataloguing prevents Lesbians, Gays, Bisexuals and Transgender (LGBT finding their literatures, then Swedish public libraries are upholders of the exclusive heterosexual norm in society.

  2. Cosmological Consequences of Initial State Entanglement

    CERN Document Server

    Albrecht, Andreas; Holman, R

    2014-01-01

    We explore the cosmological consequences of having the fluctuations of the inflaton field entangled with those of another scalar, within the context of a toy model consisting of non-interacting, minimally coupled scalars in a fixed de Sitter background. We find that despite the lack of interactions in the Lagrangian, the initial state entanglement modifies the mode equation for the inflaton fluctuations and thus can induce changes in cosmological observables. These effects are examined for a variety of choices of masses and we find that they can be consistent with the requirement that the back reaction of the modified state not affect the inflationary phase while still giving rise to observable effects in the power spectrum. Our results suggest that more realistic extensions of the ideas explored here beyond the simple toy model may lead to interesting observable effects.

  3. Catastrophic Consequences of Kicking the Chameleon

    CERN Document Server

    Erickcek, Adrienne L; Burrage, Clare; Huang, Zhiqi

    2013-01-01

    The physics of the "dark energy" that drives the current cosmological acceleration remains mysterious, and the dark sector may involve new light dynamical fields. If these light scalars couple to matter, a screening mechanism must prevent them from mediating an unacceptably strong fifth force locally. Here we consider a concrete example: the chameleon mechanism. We show that the same coupling between the chameleon field and matter employed by the screening mechanism also has catastrophic consequences for the chameleon during the Universe's first minutes. The chameleon couples to the trace of the stress-energy tensor, which is temporarily non-zero in a radiation-dominated universe whenever a particle species becomes non-relativistic. These "kicks" impart a significant velocity to the chameleon field, causing its effective mass to vary non-adiabatically and resulting in the copious production of quantum fluctuations. Dissipative effects strongly modify the background evolution of the chameleon field, invalidati...

  4. Consequence Identification for Maloperation in Batch Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉良; 张贝克; 马昕; 曹柳林; 吴重光

    2013-01-01

    Batch processes are important in chemical industry, in which operators usually play a major role and hazards may arise by their inadvertent acts. In this paper, based on hazard and operability study and concept of qualitative simulation, an automatic method for adverse consequence identification for potential maloperation is proposed. The qualitative model for production process is expressed by a novel directed graph. Possible operation deviations from normal operating procedure are identified systematically by using a group of guidewords. The pro-posed algorithm is used for qualitative simulation of batch processes to identify the effects of maloperations. The method is illustrated with a simple batch process and a batch reaction process. The results show that batch processes can be simulated qualitatively and hazards can be identified for operating procedures including maloperations. After analysis for possible plant maloperations, some measures can be taken to avoid maloperations or reduce losses re-sulted from maloperations.

  5. Unexpected consequences of midwifery in the NHS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Jane

    2015-11-01

    This article presents information from the Caring for the carers conference held at George Eliot Hospital in July 2015. For many midwives, feelings of stress are an unexpected consequence of rising birth rates, low staffing levels and negative organisational cultures, so our aim was that delegates would take away skills for 'surviving' in maternity services. The conference was the catalyst to a project at George Eliot NHS Trust to improve the wellbeing of staff so that they can develop a positive outlook towards the care which they offer. As part of the project, a toolkit for survival was produced which helps to prompt maternity workers to remember their own wellbeing. This project is continuing to grow and the results will be available next year.

  6. False confessions: causes, consequences, and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leo, Richard A

    2009-01-01

    In the past two decades, hundreds of convicted prisoners have been exonerated by DNA and non-DNA evidence, revealing that police-induced false confessions are a leading cause of wrongful conviction of the innocent. In this article, empirical research on the causes and correlates of false confessions is reviewed. After a description of the three sequential processes that are responsible for the elicitation of false confessions--misclassification, coercion, and contamination--the three psychologically distinct types of false confession (voluntary, compliant, and persuaded) are discussed along with the consequences of introducing false-confession evidence in the criminal justice system. The article concludes with a brief discussion of the implications of empirical research for reducing the number of false confessions and improving the accuracy of confession evidence that is introduced against a defendant at trial.

  7. Wham: Identifying Structural Variants of Biological Consequence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zev N Kronenberg

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Existing methods for identifying structural variants (SVs from short read datasets are inaccurate. This complicates disease-gene identification and efforts to understand the consequences of genetic variation. In response, we have created Wham (Whole-genome Alignment Metrics to provide a single, integrated framework for both structural variant calling and association testing, thereby bypassing many of the difficulties that currently frustrate attempts to employ SVs in association testing. Here we describe Wham, benchmark it against three other widely used SV identification tools-Lumpy, Delly and SoftSearch-and demonstrate Wham's ability to identify and associate SVs with phenotypes using data from humans, domestic pigeons, and vaccinia virus. Wham and all associated software are covered under the MIT License and can be freely downloaded from github (https://github.com/zeeev/wham, with documentation on a wiki (http://zeeev.github.io/wham/. For community support please post questions to https://www.biostars.org/.

  8. THE CONSEQUENCES OF GLOBALIZATION UPON SAFE TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Mihić

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Globalization, a phenomenon on the rise, is characterized by the free cross-bor- der movement of individuals, technologies, and capital. It has far- reaching consequen- ces for tourism, too, as it implies travel for leisure and business, and correspondingly, financial transfers between various nation states. Startinf from the status quo in the field, the current paper sets out to analyze the consequences and implications of globalization upon safe tourism and conduct a marketing research into the perceptions of consumers upon Serbia as a safe vacation destination for the purpose of safe tourism. Finally the research results will be presented and several solutions will be provided for improving security in tourism zones

  9. PSYCHOSOMATIC CONSEQUENCES OF TEACHERS’ OCUPPATIONAL STRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanowska-Tołłoczko Anna

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The need to adapt to the ever-increasing socio-professional requirements carries many risks to human health, both in somatic and psychological aspects. Strong stress associated with work leads to the occurrence of burnout syndrome. Persons performing so called aid professions, where teachers belong to a special group, are usually vulnerable to this syndrome. The aim of this paper is to present the causes, course and consequences of teacher burnout and to highlight the multidimensional nature of the phenomenon, indicating possible corrective and preventive actions. Among the that contribute to burnout important are environmental , organizational and subjective factors. Subjective factors like professional training and personality dispositions, are treated as the primary determinants of resistance or susceptibility of individuals to stress. They can intensify or protect against burning out. The lack of ability to counter stress is considered crucial in the formation and accumulation of burnout symptoms.

  10. Adverse consequences of lysergic acid diethylamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, H D; Aldridge, A M

    1993-10-01

    The continued endemic use of hallucinogenic drugs, and of LSD in particular, raises concern regarding their short and long term adverse consequences. The epidemiology of LSD abuse is reviewed suggesting an increase in LSD use among the young as the prevalence rates for other substances continues to fall. Evidence supports the association of LSD use with panic reactions, prolonged schizoaffective psychoses and post-hallucinogen perceptual disorder, the latter being present continually for as long as 5 years. Evidence does not support claims of genetic disorders arising from hallucinogens. In light of the foregoing, current data confirm earlier findings of long lasting psychopathology arising in vulnerable individuals from the use of LSD. A hypothetical long term molecular mechanism of adverse effects is proposed.

  11. Deep Impact: Unintended consequences of journal rank

    CERN Document Server

    Brembs, Björn

    2013-01-01

    Much has been said about the increasing bureaucracy in science, stifling innovation, hampering the creativity of researchers and incentivizing misconduct, even outright fraud. Many anecdotes have been recounted, observations described and conclusions drawn about the negative impact of impact assessment on scientists and science. However, few of these accounts have drawn their conclusions from data, and those that have typically relied on a few studies. In this review, we present the most recent and pertinent data on the consequences that our current scholarly communication system has had on various measures of scientific quality (such as utility/citations, methodological soundness, expert ratings and retractions). These data confirm previous suspicions: using journal rank as an assessment tool is bad scientific practice. Moreover, the data lead us to argue that any journal rank (not only the currently-favored Impact Factor) would have this negative impact. Therefore, we suggest that abandoning journals altoge...

  12. Stroke Recovery: Surprising Influences and Residual Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argye E. Hillis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There is startling individual variability in the degree to which people recover from stroke and the duration of time over which recovery of some symptoms occurs. There are a variety of mechanisms of recovery from stroke which take place at distinct time points after stroke and are influenced by different variables. We review recent studies from our laboratory that unveil some surprising findings, such as the role of education in chronic recovery. We also report data showing that the consequences that most plague survivors of stroke and their caregivers are loss of high level cortical functions, such as empathy or written language. These results have implications for rehabilitation and management of stroke.

  13. Psychosocial Consequences of Overdiagnostic of Prostate Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sigrid Brisson; Brodersen, John

    Psychosocial Consequences of Overdiagnostic of Prostate Cancer Sigrid Brisson Nielsen & John Brodersen Introduction In Denmark there are approximately 4400 men diagnosed with prostate cancer each year and nearly 1200 men dies of this disease yearly. The incidence of prostate cancer has increased...... for the past twenty years and make up 24 % of all cancer incidents in men. However, the mortality of prostate cancer has not changed in line with this increase. Empirical evidence shows that the increase in incidence of prostate cancer in Denmark without an increase in the mortality is mostly caused...... by opportunistic PSA screening in General Practice. It is recommended that men ≥ 60 year old diagnosed with prostate cancer and a Gleason score ≤ 6 are monitored with active surveillance. This is due to the probability of this type of cancer metastasizing is very small as approximately 90 % of them is assumed...

  14. Mental health consequences of the Chernobyl disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromet, Evelyn J

    2012-03-01

    The psychosocial consequences of disasters have been studied for more than 100 years. The most common mental health consequences are depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, medically unexplained somatic symptoms, and stigma. The excess morbidity rate of psychiatric disorders in the first year after a disaster is in the order of 20%. Disasters involving radiation are particularly pernicious because the exposure is invisible and universally dreaded, and can pose a long-term threat to health. After the Chernobyl disaster, studies of clean-up workers (liquidators) and adults from contaminated areas found a two-fold increase in post-traumatic stress and other mood and anxiety disorders and significantly poorer subjective ratings of health. Among liquidators, the most important risk factor was severity of exposure. In general population samples, the major risk factor was perceived exposure to harmful levels of radiation. These findings are consistent with results from A-bomb survivors and populations studied after the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant accident. With regard to children, apart from findings from ecological studies that lack direct data on radiation or other teratologic exposures and local studies in Kiev, the epidemiologic evidence suggests that neither radiation exposure nor the stress of growing up in the shadow of the accident was associated with emotional disorders, cognitive dysfunction, or impaired academic performance. Thus, based on the studies of adults, the Chernobyl Forum concluded that mental health was the largest public health problem unleashed by the accident. Since mental health is a leading cause of disability, physical morbidity, and mortality, health monitoring after radiation accidents like Fukushima should include standard measures of well-being. Moreover, given the comorbidity of mental and physical health, the findings support the value of training non-psychiatrist physicians in recognizing and treating common mental

  15. The immune consequences of preterm birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline M Melville

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Preterm birth occurs in 11% of live births globally and accounts for 35% of all newborn deaths. Preterm newborns have immature immune systems, with reduced innate and adaptive immunity; their immune systems may be further compromised by various factors associated with preterm birth.The immune systems of preterm infants have a smaller pool of monocytes and neutrophils, impaired ability of these cells to kill pathogens, and lower production of cytokines which limits T cell activation and reduces the ability to fight bacteria and detect viruses in cells, compared to term infants.Intrauterine inflammation is a major contributor to preterm birth, and causes premature immune activation and cytokine production. This can induce immune tolerance leading to reduced newborn immune function. Intrauterine inflammation is associated with an increased risk of early-onset sepsis and likely has long-term adverse immune consequences.Requisite medical interventions further impact on immune development and function. Antenatal corticosteroid treatment to prevent newborn respiratory disease is routine but may be immunosuppressive, and has been associated with febrile responses, reductions in lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine production, and increased risk of infection. Invasive medical procedures result in an increased risk of late-onset sepsis. Respiratory support can cause chronic inflammatory lung disease associated with increased risk of long-term morbidity.Colonisation of the infant by microorganisms at birth is a significant contributor to the establishment of the microbiome. Caesarean section affects infant colonisation, potentially contributing to lifelong immune function and wellbeing.Several factors associated with preterm birth alter immune function. A better understanding of perinatal modification of the preterm immune system will allow for the refinement of care to minimise lifelong adverse immune consequences.

  16. The ethics of data collection: unintended consequences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainwright, Delia; Sambrook, Sally

    2010-01-01

    The aims is to consider the political and ethical challenges involved in conducting ethnographic managerial/organisational behaviour research within the highly regulated health and social care context, in light of the emergence of more stringent "ethical approval" policies and requirements set by Local Research Ethics Committees in the United Kingdom. In the attempt and requirement to protect "vulnerable" employees, this paper aims to present an unintended paradox of consequences when participants voluntarily revealed themselves. The authors briefly review literature on research ethics and present an understanding of the ethical regulations currently existing within the British National Health Service. Within an ethnographic case study exploring the psychological contract, the authors consider the issues that arose during one stage of data collection: a qualitative questionnaire survey with 13 participants, including members of the lead author's team. Incorporating excerpts from the researcher's reflexive journal, the paper exposes the struggles of being an "insider" researcher and the tensions this raises for data analysis when participants voluntarily revealed themselves. Ethnography is at "risk" within health and social care and ethnographic "managerial" research is likely to be unduly restricted and potentially threatened. The evidence suggests that some employees either did not wish to be protected or, conversely, felt compelled to reveal their identities, raising questions of their motivation and creating a paradox of unintended consequences. This paper offers an insight into the challenges of conducting nurse-managerial ethnography in compliance with ethical guidelines, yet disrupted by participants. The findings will be useful to other nurse-researchers attempting to conduct insider research.

  17. Age-moderated effects of consequence and intent information on punishment: an intuitive prosecutorial interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ramadhar; Ramasamy, Ming Antoinette; Self, William T; Simons, Joseph J P; Lin, Patrick K F

    2013-01-01

    In responding to wrongdoings, people simultaneously pursue the goals of social control and fairness to the wrongdoer. Social control necessitates stronger weighting of consequences than causes; fairness entails the opposite. The authors hypothesized that the developmental shift from overweighting consequence to overweighting intent when determining levels of punishment illustrates a shift from a default defender of the normative order to a motivated crusader of fairness to the wrongdoer. Thus, punishment should increase slightly for intentional wrongdoings but decrease substantially for accidental wrongdoings as people age. In an experiment on disciplinary action in Singapore, 9-, 13-, and 17-year-olds learned about the consequences of and intentions behind wrongdoings by peers and predicted consistency of the same act in the future, assigned blame to the wrongdoers, and recommended punishment for them. Results supported hypotheses derived from a fair-but-biased-yet-correctible model of intuitive prosecutors.

  18. A New Principle in Physiscs: the Principle "Finiteness", and Some Consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham Sternlieb

    2010-06-25

    In this paper I propose a new principle in physics: the principle of "finiteness". It stems from the definition of physics as a science that deals (among other things) with measurable dimensional physical quantities. Since measurement results, including their errors, are always finite, the principle of finiteness postulates that the mathematical formulation of "legitimate" laws of physics should prevent exactly zero or infinite solutions. Some consequences of the principle of finiteness are discussed, in general, and then more specifically in the fields of special relativity, quantum mechanics, and quantum gravity. The consequences are derived independently of any other theory or principle in physics. I propose "finiteness" as a postulate (like the constancy of the speed of light in vacuum, "c"), as opposed to a notion whose validity has to be corroborated by, or derived theoretically or experimentally from other facts, theories, or principles.

  19. Psychosocial Consequences of Infertility on Infertile Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, P; Rahman, D; Hossain, H B; Hossain, H N; Mughi, C R

    2015-10-01

    This study explores to find out the qualitative and quantitative psychosocial consequences of infertility in women coming for infertility treatment in tertiary infertility center. A total of 400 infertile couples who agreed to participate in the study were asked to fill up the questionnaires and later interviewed to access the psychosocial consequences of infertility on their personal life in a tertiary infertility clinic in Dhaka at Center for Assisted Reproduction (CARe Hospital), Dhaka from June 2011 to December 2011 and agreed to participate in the study were included in the study. The data was analyzed and the quantitative and qualitative psychosocial factors were evaluated. Four hundred infertile couple who filled the questionnaires was included in the study. Sixty three percent of the women belonged to age group >20 30 years at the time of interview. Regarding age at marriage 43.8% of the women were married by 20 years, 51.3% were married between 20 30 years. Mean±SD duration of present married life was 7.20±4.45 (range 1 to 28) years and 74.4% of the women were living with their husbands. Of them 75.5% women were housewife. When asked whether they knew what was the reason of infertility in the couple, 32.5% knew the cause was in the female partner, 14.5%, knew the cause was in the male partner, 10.3% knew the cause was in both partners, 21.5% knew cause of infertility was not in any of the partners, and 21.3% had no idea about the cause of infertility. The male partner's response about the issue of prognosis and outcome of couple's infertility revealed 37.3% believed their wives will conceive someday, 31.3% had no intention for a second marriage, 13% were indifferent, 11.3% blamed their wives for infertility and 4.8% threatened for a second marriage. Only 2.5% of the male partners were suggested on consulting and continuing treatment by specialist. The family pressure by in-laws and relatives towards their infertility was that 57.3% insisted on consulting

  20. The Chernobyl Catastrophe. Consequences on Human Health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yablokov, A.; Labunska, I.; Blokov, I. (eds.)

    2006-04-15

    Twenty years after the Chernobyl disaster, the need for continued study of its far-reaching consequences remains as great as ever. Several million people (by various estimates, from 5 to 8 million) still reside in areas that will remain highly contaminated by Chernobyl's radioactive pollution for many years to come. Since the half-life of the major (though far from the only) radioactive element released, caesium-137 (137Cs), is a little over 30 years, the radiological (and hence health) consequences of this nuclear accident will continue to be experienced for centuries to come. This event had its greatest impacts on three neighbouring former Soviet republics: Ukraine, Belarus, and Russia. The impacts, however, extended far more widely. More than half of the caesium-137 emitted as a result of the explosion was carried in the atmosphere to other European countries. At least fourteen other countries in Europe (Austria, Sweden, Finland, Norway, Slovenia, Poland, Romania, Hungary, Switzerland, Czech Republic, Italy, Bulgaria, Republic of Moldova and Greece) were contaminated by radiation levels above the 1 Ci/km{sup 2} (or 37 kBq/m{sup 2}), limit used to define areas as 'contaminated'. Lower, but nonetheless substantial quantities of radioactivity linked to the Chernobyl accident were detected all over the European continent, from Scandinavia to the Mediterranean, and in Asia. Despite the documented geographical extent and seriousness of the contamination caused by the accident, the totality of impacts on ecosystems, human health, economic performance and social structures remains unknown. In all cases, however, such impacts are likely to be extensive and long lasting. Drawing together contributions from numerous research scientists and health professionals, including many from the Ukraine, Belarus and the Russian Federation, this report addresses one of these aspects, namely the nature and scope of the long-term consequences for human health. The range

  1. Elements modulating the prion species barrier and its passage consequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan-Maria Torres

    Full Text Available The specific characteristics of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy (TSE strains may be altered during passage across a species barrier. In this study we investigated the biochemical and biological characteristics of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE after transmission in both natural host species (cattle, sheep, pigs and mice and in transgenic mice overexpressing the corresponding cellular prion protein (PrPC in comparison with other non-BSE related prions from the same species. After these passages, most features of the BSE agent remained unchanged. BSE-derived agents only showed slight modifications in the biochemical properties of the accumulated PrPSc, which were demonstrated to be reversible upon re-inoculation into transgenic mice expressing bovine-PrPC. Transmission experiments in transgenic mice expressing bovine, porcine or human-PrP revealed that all BSE-derived agents were transmitted with no or a weak transmission barrier. In contrast, a high species barrier was observed for the non-BSE related prions that harboured an identical PrP amino acid sequence, supporting the theory that the prion transmission barrier is modulated by strain properties (presumably conformation-dependent rather than by PrP amino acid sequence differences between host and donor. As identical results were observed with prions propagated either in natural hosts or in transgenic mouse models, we postulate that the species barrier and its passage consequences are uniquely governed by the host PrPC sequence and not influenced by other host genetic factors. The results presented herein reinforce the idea that the BSE agent is highly promiscuous, infecting other species, maintaining its properties in the new species, and even increasing its capabilities to jump to other species including humans. These data are essential for the development of an accurate risk assessment for BSE.

  2. [Fertility transition in Brazil. Causes and consequences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, J A; Wong, L R

    1992-12-01

    This work examines the determinants and most important consequences of the Brazilian fertility decline. Brazil's total fertility rate declined from 6.2 in 1940 to around 3.5 in 1985. the decline began in the 1960s and amounted to 45% in about 20 years. The most rapid drop began in the late 1970s, with much of it concentrated in 2 specific periods: 1970-75 and 1980-85. The early period coincided with Brazil's so-called "Economic Miracle", a period of rapid growth accompanied however by deteriorating living conditions for the poorest population sectors. The second period coincided with the international economic crisis of the early 1980s, which was felt more strongly in Brazil than elsewhere in Latin America because of Brazil's greater degree of industrialization and closer integration into the world economy. Most of the fertility decline has been accomplished by use of just two contraceptive methods, oral contraceptives and sterilization, which together account for around 85% of contraceptive usage throughout Brazil. The third most common method, rhythm, accounts for just 6%. No reliable data on abortion are available, but it appears to be a common practice equally accessible to all socioeconomic strata despite greater associated health risks for poorer women. Brazil's fertility transition appears to have been a response to the process of proletarianization and urbanization underway in the country as well as to particular circumstances in the country. The most evident and immediate consequence of the continuous fertility decline over more than 20 years is the change in the age structure of the population. The proportions of children under 5 will decline from 14.4% in 1980 to 9.2% in 2010. The proportion aged 5-14 will decline from 24.5% to 17.4%, while the proportion aged 65 and over will increase from 4.0% to 5.6%. Brazil's recent demographic changes are scarcely reflected in development plans and political and social projects. There is almost no mention of the new

  3. A NEW FRACTAL DERIVATION

    OpenAIRE

    Ji-Huan He

    2011-01-01

    A new fractal derive is defined, which is very easy for engineering applications to discontinuous problems, two simple examples are given to elucidate to establish governing equations with fractal derive and how to solve such equations, respectively.

  4. Resurgence of derived stimulus relations: replication and extensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, Adam H; Kastner, Rebecca M; Bismark, Bryan D

    2011-01-01

    Resurgence typically refers to the recovery of a previously reinforced response when a more recently reinforced response is extinguished. Under conditions of punishment, Wilson and Hayes (1996) observed the recovery of derived stimulus relations that never had been correlated with differential consequences. The present study systematically replicated the findings of Wilson and Hayes by observing the recovery of derived stimulus relations under extinction conditions and with an additional equivalence class. College students received arbitrary-matching-to-sample training in Phase 1 that resulted in four 4-member stimulus-equivalence classes. These derived relations were not correlated with differential consequences. In Phase 2, with the same stimuli, the students received training that resulted in four different 4-member stimulus-equivalence classes. After the emergence and reinforcement of the latter derived relations, their extinction generated the recurrence of the derived relations from Phase 1. The implications of these findings for conceptualizing resurgence are discussed.

  5. Estimating Consequences of MMOD Penetrations on ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, H.; Hyde, James; Christiansen, E.; Lear, D.

    2017-01-01

    The threat from micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MMOD) impacts on space vehicles is often quantified in terms of the probability of no penetration (PNP). However, for large spacecraft, especially those with multiple compartments, a penetration may have a number of possible outcomes. The extent of the damage (diameter of hole, crack length or penetration depth), the location of the damage relative to critical equipment or crew, crew response, and even the time of day of the penetration are among the many factors that can affect the outcome. For the International Space Station (ISS), a Monte-Carlo style software code called Manned Spacecraft Crew Survivability (MSCSurv) is used to predict the probability of several outcomes of an MMOD penetration-broadly classified as loss of crew (LOC), crew evacuation (Evac), loss of escape vehicle (LEV), and nominal end of mission (NEOM). By generating large numbers of MMOD impacts (typically in the billions) and tracking the consequences, MSCSurv allows for the inclusion of a large number of parameters and models as well as enabling the consideration of uncertainties in the models and parameters. MSCSurv builds upon the results from NASA's Bumper software (which provides the probability of penetration and critical input data to MSCSurv) to allow analysts to estimate the probability of LOC, Evac, LEV, and NEOM. This paper briefly describes the overall methodology used by NASA to quantify LOC, Evac, LEV, and NEOM with particular emphasis on describing in broad terms how MSCSurv works and its capabilities and most significant models.

  6. Oxidation of pyrite: Consequences and significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrijević Mile D.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the most important studies on the oxidation of pyrite particularly in aqueous solutions. The consequences of pyrite oxidation was examined, as well as its importance, from both the technical-technological and environmental points of view. The oxidation of pyrite was considered in two parts. The spontaneous oxidation of pyrite in nature was described in the first part, with this part comprising pyrite oxidation in deposits depots and mines. It is explained how way natural electrochemical processes lead to the decomposition of pyrite and other minerals associated with pyrite. The oxidation of pyrite occurring during technological processes such as grinding, flotation and leaching, was shown in the second part. Particular emphasis was placed on the oxidation of pyrite during leaching. This part includes the leaching of sulphide and oxide ores, the leaching of pyrite coal and the leaching of refractory gold-bearing ores (pressure oxidation, bacterial oxidation, oxidation by means of strong oxidants and the electrolysis of pyrite suspensions. Various mechanisms of pyrite oxidation and of the galvanic interaction of pyrite with other sulphide minerals are shown.

  7. Internet piracy and consequences for victims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Miljan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available After the evolution of technology made it possible to perform actions via the Internet that constitute copyright violations, the analysis of the effects of internet piracy on social welfare became the subject of academic polemics. The main and the biggest victims of Internet piracy are the holders of copyright and related rights, however, the damage that piracy causes them comes from multiple sources, is difficult to quantify and is only a part of the total social cost of piracy. However, there are other categories of victims, such as those whose honor was besmirched as a result of piracy, and who suffer the consequences in the form of negative emotional reactions, loss of job as well as those who subsequently commit suicide. The object of this paper is to describe the effects of internet piracy on the victims of this phenomenon, and the goal is the analysis of the various direct and indirect effects of piracy on victims and their motivation for future creation, as well as analysis of prevention measures, with special emphasis on the Republic of Serbia.

  8. Intrauterine hypoxia: clinical consequences and therapeutic perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thompson LP

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Loren P Thompson,1 Sarah Crimmins,1 Bhanu P Telugu,2 Shifa Turan1 1Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA; 2Department of Animal Sciences, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA Abstract: Intrauterine hypoxia is a significant clinical challenge in obstetrics that affects both the pregnant mother and fetus. Intrauterine hypoxia can occur in pregnant women living at high altitude and/or with cardiovascular disease. In addition, placental hypoxia can be generated by altered placental development and spiral artery remodeling leading to placental insufficiency and dysfunction. Both conditions can impact normal maternal cardiovascular homeostasis leading to preeclampsia and/or impair transfer of O2/nutrient supply resulting in fetal growth restriction. This review discusses the mechanisms underlying altered placental vessel remodeling, maternal and fetal consequences, patient management, and potential future therapies for improving these conditions. Keywords: fetal growth restriction, oxidative stress, extravillous trophoblast invasion, Doppler ultrasound, pulsatility index, preeclampsia 

  9. Anticipating the unintended consequences of security dynamics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backus, George A.; Overfelt, James Robert; Malczynski, Leonard A.; Saltiel, David H.; Simon Paul Moulton

    2010-01-01

    In a globalized world, dramatic changes within any one nation causes ripple or even tsunamic effects within neighbor nations and nations geographically far removed. Multinational interventions to prevent or mitigate detrimental changes can easily cause secondary unintended consequences more detrimental and enduring than the feared change instigating the intervention. This LDRD research developed the foundations for a flexible geopolitical and socioeconomic simulation capability that focuses on the dynamic national security implications of natural and man-made trauma for a nation-state and the states linked to it through trade or treaty. The model developed contains a database for simulating all 229 recognized nation-states and sovereignties with the detail of 30 economic sectors including consumers and natural resources. The model explicitly simulates the interactions among the countries and their governments. Decisions among governments and populations is based on expectation formation. In the simulation model, failed expectations are used as a key metric for tension across states, among ethnic groups, and between population factions. This document provides the foundational documentation for the model.

  10. The Chernobyl catastrophe: Consequences on human health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yablokov, A.; Labunska, I.; Blokov, I.; Santillo, D.; Johnston, P.; Stringer, R.; Sadownichik, T. (eds.); Antipkin, Yu.G. [Institute of Paediatrics, Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Academy of Medical Sciences, Kiev (Ukraine); Arabskaya, L.P. [Institute of Paediatrics, Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Academy of Medical Sciences, Kiev (Ukraine); Bazyka, D.A. [Research Centre for Radiation Medicine, Academy of Medical Sciences, Kiev (Ukraine)] (and others)

    2006-04-15

    This new Greenpeace report estimates that the full consequences of the Chernobyl disaster could top a quarter of a million cancers cases and nearly 100,000 fatal cancers. It reports that the report involved 52 respected scientists and includes information never before published in English. It challenges the International Atomic Energy Agency Chernobyl Forum report, which predicted 4,000 additional deaths attributable to the accident as a gross simplification of the real breadth of human suffering. Their data, based on Belarus national cancer statistics, predicts approximately 270,000 cancers and 93,000 fatal cancer cases caused by Chernobyl. The report also concludes that on the basis of demographic data, during the last 15 years, 60,000 people have additionally died in Russia because of the Chernobyl accident, and estimates of the total death toll for the Ukraine and Belarus could reach another 140,000. The report also looks into the ongoing health impacts of Chernobyl and concludes that radiation from the disaster has had a devastating effect on survivors; damaging immune and endocrine systems, leading to accelerated ageing, cardiovascular and blood illnesses, psychological illnesses, chromosomal aberrations and an increase in foetal deformations.

  11. Insomnia causes, consequences, and therapeutics: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Christopher L; Roehrs, Timothy; Roth, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    There is growing interest in insomnia both from the perspective of recent advances in clinical management as well as research aimed at elucidating its pathophysiology. This theoretical overview of insomnia describes the negative impact, etiological considerations, and pharmacological and behavioral treatments for the disorder, with an emphasis on areas receiving increased research attention. Insomnia, the most prevalent sleep disorder, affects 10-15% of the general population. In population-based studies severe insomnia has been shown to last for a median of 4 years. In addition, insomnia has a significant negative impact on an individual's work, physical, and social performance as well as overall quality of life. Furthermore, the economic cost of insomnia related to lost productivity, work-related accidents, absenteeism, and health-care costs are enormous. There is increasing evidence linking the precipitation of insomnia to stress, and converging evidence from cognitive, endocrine, neurological, and behavioral domains provide clear evidence for hyper-arousal in insomnia. However, there remains no consensus regarding the specific etiological mechanisms of this disorder. Although the pathophysiology of primary insomnia remains an enigma, numerous treatments both pharmacological and behavioral have been developed and found to be efficacious in controlled studies. Despite the wide availability of pharmacological treatments and increased knowledge of behavioral interventions, the vast majority of individuals with insomnia do not appear to be receiving adequate treatment. The inadequate treatment of insomnia leads to several important and under-recognized consequences including subsequent development of psychiatric disease and increased substance use.

  12. Expansion Under Climate Change: The Genetic Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, Jimmy; Lewis, Mark A

    2016-11-01

    Range expansion and range shifts are crucial population responses to climate change. Genetic consequences are not well understood but are clearly coupled to ecological dynamics that, in turn, are driven by shifting climate conditions. We model a population with a deterministic reaction-diffusion model coupled to a heterogeneous environment that develops in time due to climate change. We decompose the resulting travelling wave solution into neutral genetic components to analyse the spatio-temporal dynamics of its genetic structure. Our analysis shows that range expansions and range shifts under slow climate change preserve genetic diversity. This is because slow climate change creates range boundaries that promote spatial mixing of genetic components. Mathematically, the mixing leads to so-called pushed travelling wave solutions. This mixing phenomenon is not seen in spatially homogeneous environments, where range expansion reduces genetic diversity through gene surfing arising from pulled travelling wave solutions. However, the preservation of diversity is diminished when climate change occurs too quickly. Using diversity indices, we show that fast expansions and range shifts erode genetic diversity more than slow range expansions and range shifts. Our study provides analytical insight into the dynamics of travelling wave solutions in heterogeneous environments.

  13. Hemodynamic Consequences of Changes in Microvascular Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzoni, Damiano; Agabiti-Rosei, Claudia; Agabiti-Rosei, Enrico

    2017-10-01

    In hypertension, an increased media-to-lumen ratio of small resistance arteries might play an important role in the increase of vascular resistance, and may also be an adaptive response to the increased hemodynamic load. The presence of morphological alteration in the microvasculature may be associated to an impaired tissue perfusion and/or to the development of target organ damage. Structural alterations in the microcirculation might represent a predictor of the onset of cardio-cerebrovascular events and hypertension complications. A cross-talk between the small and large artery may exaggerate arterial damage, following a vicious circle. Therefore, in the present review, possible hemodynamic consequences of the presence of microvascular structural alterations will be considered, in terms of their time of onset, role in the development and/or maintenance of high blood pressure values, and interrelationships with structural/mechanical alterations of large conductance arteries. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2017. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Corporate personhood: Lay perceptions and ethical consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jago, Arthur S; Laurin, Kristin

    2017-03-01

    Modern conceptions of corporate personhood have spurred considerable debate about the rights that society should afford business organizations. Across eight experiments, we compare lay perceptions of how corporations and people use rights, and also explore the consequences of these judgments. We find that people believe corporations, compared to humans, are similarly likely to use rights in protective ways that prevent harm but more likely to use rights in nonprotective ways that appear independent from-or even create-harm (Experiments 1a through 1c and Experiment 2). Because of these beliefs, people support corporate rights to a lesser extent than human rights (Experiment 3). However, people are more supportive of specific corporate rights when we framed them as serving protective functions (Experiment 4). Also as a result of these beliefs, people attribute greater ethical responsibility to corporations, but not to humans, that gain access to rights (Experiments 5a and 5b). Despite their equitability in many domains, people believe corporations and humans use rights in different ways, ultimately producing different reactions to their behaviors as well as asymmetric moral evaluations. (PsycINFO Database Record

  15. Consequences of School-Age Pregnancy and Motherhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Gail Hasselbach

    1980-01-01

    School-age mothers, their parents, and school personnel were interviewed independently to determine their perceptions of consequences of school-age pregnancy and motherhood. Perceived consequences differed for the three sets of interviewees. (Author)

  16. Derived equivalence of algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜先能

    1997-01-01

    The derived equivalence and stable equivalence of algebras RmA and RmB are studied It is proved, using the tilting complex, that RmA and RmB are derived-equivalent whenever algebras A and B are derived-equivalent

  17. CONSEQUENCES OF DECISIONS FOR SCIENCE-TECHNOLOGY AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov A. I.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The real facts presented in this article, demonstrate the great importance in today's world of strategic management, methods of analyses of innovations and investments and the role of the theory of decision-making in these economic disciplines. We have given the retrospective analysis of the development of nuclear physics research. For the development of fundamental and applied science in the second half of the twentieth century, we had a very great importance of the two events: the decision of US President Roosevelt to deploy nuclear program (adopted in response to a letter from Einstein and the coincidence in time between the completion of the construction of nuclear bomb and the end of World War II. The nuclear bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki has determined the developments in science and technology for the entire second half of the twentieth century. For the first time in the entire history of the world the leaders of the leading countries clearly seen that fundamental research can bring great practical benefit (from the point of view of the leaders of countries. Namely, they can give the brand new super-powerful weapon. The consequence was a broad organizational and financial support of fundamental and deriving from them applied research. Is analyzed the influence of fundamental and applied research on the development and effective use of new technology and technical progress. We consider the development of mathematical methods of research and information technology, in particular, the myth of "artificial intelligence"

  18. The evolution and consequences of sex-specific reproductive variance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullon, Charles; Reuter, Max; Lehmann, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    Natural selection favors alleles that increase the number of offspring produced by their carriers. But in a world that is inherently uncertain within generations, selection also favors alleles that reduce the variance in the number of offspring produced. If previous studies have established this principle, they have largely ignored fundamental aspects of sexual reproduction and therefore how selection on sex-specific reproductive variance operates. To study the evolution and consequences of sex-specific reproductive variance, we present a population-genetic model of phenotypic evolution in a dioecious population that incorporates previously neglected components of reproductive variance. First, we derive the probability of fixation for mutations that affect male and/or female reproductive phenotypes under sex-specific selection. We find that even in the simplest scenarios, the direction of selection is altered when reproductive variance is taken into account. In particular, previously unaccounted for covariances between the reproductive outputs of different individuals are expected to play a significant role in determining the direction of selection. Then, the probability of fixation is used to develop a stochastic model of joint male and female phenotypic evolution. We find that sex-specific reproductive variance can be responsible for changes in the course of long-term evolution. Finally, the model is applied to an example of parental-care evolution. Overall, our model allows for the evolutionary analysis of social traits in finite and dioecious populations, where interactions can occur within and between sexes under a realistic scenario of reproduction.

  19. The Selfish Goal: Unintended Consequences of Intended Goal Pursuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargh, John A; Green, Michelle; Fitzsimons, Gráinne

    2008-10-01

    Three experiments tested the hypothesis that consciously intended goal pursuits have unintended consequences for social judgment and behavior. From evolutionary theory (Dawkins 1976/2006) and empirical evidence of a nonconscious mode of goal pursuit (Bargh, 2005) we derive the hypothesis that most human goal pursuits are open-ended in nature: Once active, goals will operate on goal-relevant content in the environment, even if that content is not the intended focus of the conscious goal. Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrate that goals to evaluate a job applicant for either a waiter or crime reporter position also shape impressions of incidental bystanders in the situation, such that the bystander is later liked or disliked not on his own merits, but on how well his behavior matches the criteria consciously applied in evaluating the job applicant. Experiment 3 finds that a goal to help a specific target person spills over to influence actions toward incidental bystanders, but only while active. Implications of these findings for goal pursuit in everyday life are discussed.

  20. College students' evaluations of alcohol consequences as positive and negative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Megan E; Maggs, Jennifer L

    2011-12-01

    Alcohol expectancy, motivation, and consequences measures assume a known valence of 'positive' and 'negative' outcomes. However, different individuals may rate the same consequences of alcohol use as good or bad. The current study examines the extent to which: (a) college students rate researcher-defined positive consequences as good and researcher-defined negative consequences as bad, and (b) these evaluations predict alcohol use and problems after controlling for previous use. In longitudinal self-reports via web-surveys across the first three semesters of college, students (N=600; 54% women) reported their alcohol use and problems, experienced consequences, and evaluations of those consequences. Contrary to the generally-accepted valence of positive consequences, Fun/Social consequences were viewed as neutral or negative by 22% (having more fun) to 73% (relieving boredom) of participants. Over half of participants evaluated each of the Relaxation, Sex, and Image consequences items as neutral or negative. Consistent with the generally-accepted valence of negative consequences, Physical/Behavioral consequences were viewed by the majority as negative, although 11% (getting in trouble with police/authorities) to 34% (doing/saying something embarrassing) of students rated these consequences as neutral or positive. Independent of levels of previous drinking, more positive evaluations of Fun/Social consequences prospectively predicted frequency, quantity, and maximum drinks. Less negative evaluations of Physical/Behavioral consequences predicted more alcohol problems. There is variation in the evaluations of consequences among college students, and understanding characteristics of those who view consequences as positive or negative may have implications for future alcohol-related behaviors and problems.

  1. Meteor bodies entering the Martian atmosphere: possible impact consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, Daria; Gritsevich, Maria

    The investigation of meteorite production on Mars has attracted considerable attention during the recent years. The possible meteorite showers are identified e.g. [1], and the estimates of meteorite fluxes on Mars are found e.g. [2,3]. In this study, we develop the theory describing a meteoroid entry into an atmosphere of a planet and apply our results to the Martian atmosphere. We introduce two key dimensionless parameters, which are based on physical parameterization and have unique values for every single meteoroid case. This allows us to derive the condition for the meteorite fall identification in a simple analytical form, which can be directly implemented for analysis and classification of the possible impact consequences. To describe the motion we use the classical equations of the model of meteor body deceleration [4,5]. The analytical dimensionless solution for the mass-velocity dependence and the height-velocity dependence can be expressed using two main parameters: (i) the ballistic coefficient alpha, which shows the ratio between the mass of the atmospheric column along the trajectory and the body's pre-entry mass, and (ii) the mass loss parameter beta, which is proportional to the ratio between the initial kinetic energy of the body and energy which is required to insure total mass loss of the body due to ablation and fragmentation [6-8]. To determine the possible consequences of impact for any given meteoroid, we use the meteorite-fall condition: the terminal mass of the meteoroid should exceed or be equal to a certain chosen value. This condition can be written using the parameters alpha and beta, so the impact consequences are described by the position of the case-under-investigation point relatively to the boundary curve in the (alpha,beta) space. Following a number of studies [9-11] we analyze the hypothesis that describes the possible evolution of Martian atmospheric density until present. Based on the properties of the meteorites recently found

  2. Clinical consequences of nonnarcotic analgesic use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzke, G R

    1997-02-01

    patients from an NSAID to acetaminophen would result in significantly decreased costs and morbidity. These authors, however, did not address one key issue that impacts their economic analysis: the relative efficacy of acetaminophen and NSAIDs. If efficacy is similar, then the risk/benefit ratio and economic consequences would favor the use of acetaminophen. However, if many patients are receiving NSAIDs because they did not obtain pain relief with the use of acetaminophen, there would be neither rationale or likely benefit with a change in therapy to acetaminophen. Finally, McGoldrick and Bailie did not evaluate an issue that has perhaps the most far-reaching consequence. Many OTC analgesics are currently marketed as combinations of aspirin, acetaminophen, salicylamide, or caffeine (Table 2). Although the intent of these combinations was [Table: see text] to enhance efficacy while minimizing adverse events, it is now apparent that at least concerning adverse events, the goal was not achieved. Therefore, in light of the markedly higher risk for renal injury with combination analgesics, these agents should be withdrawn from the marketplace. While some might argue that patient education is the key and that addition of an explicit warning on the label of OTC combination products should be an adequate intervention, this agreement is not supported by the Belgium experience. The removal of combination analgesics from the OTC marketplace could be accomplished by governmental action, such as the ban on phenacetin over 10 years ago. Alternatively, pharmacists could no longer sell these products and counsel patients on the rational use of OTC analgesics. The choice among single-entity agents could then be individualized on the basis of patient's current medical status and the adverse event profile of the available agents.

  3. The Chernobyl accident consequences; Consequences de l'accident de Tchernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-04-01

    Five teen years later, Tchernobyl remains the symbol of the greater industrial nuclear accident. To take stock on this accident, this paper proposes a chronology of the events and presents the opinion of many international and national organizations. It provides also web sites references concerning the environmental and sanitary consequences of the Tchernobyl accident, the economic actions and propositions for the nuclear safety improvement in the East Europe. (A.L.B.)

  4. Ornstein-Zernike derivative relations and thermodynamic functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Hin Hark; Eu, Byung Chan

    1992-01-01

    The consequences of the derivatives of the Ornstein-Zernike relation with respect to the density (ρ) and temperature (T) are examined. An approximate closure for the Ornstein-Zernike relation is used to evaluate the derivatives of the pair-correlation function to all orders without knowing explicitly the correlation functions higher in order than the pair-correlation function. The first- and second-order thermodynamic (ρ or T) derivatives of the pair-correlation function are calculated and compared with the experiments of Egelstaff et al. In addition, the thermodynamic functions involving these derivatives are evaluated to demonstrate the utility and accuracy of the method.

  5. Consequences of Spatial Antisymmetry on Light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mascarenhas, Angelo; Fluegel, Brian

    2016-12-21

    Light propagation in two and three dimensional lattices for which the index of refraction exhibits spatial antisymmetry is investigated in the ray and photonic crystal regimes. In these regimes, all the two dimensional antisymmetry groups for which light fails to propagate are identified. In the ray-regime, it is observed that in tilings described by 7 of the 46 two dimensional antisymmetric groups, light is localized within a fundamental domain and does not propagate through the tiling, in contrast to the behavior in the other 39 groups. To understand the above phenomenon, a rule based on the number of anti-mirror planes passing through a single Bravais lattice point is derived. In the wave regime for photonic crystals, it is observed that there are no propagating eigensolutions for the same 7 tilings as above, whereas propagating solutions and energy pass band dispersion curves can be obtained for the other 39 groups. The reasons underlying this peculiar behavior are analyzed using the topological approach for modeling flow in dynamical billiards to shed light on the applicability of Bloch's theorem for these periodic antisymmetric lattices.

  6. Perfect Derived Propagators

    CERN Document Server

    Schulte, Christian

    2008-01-01

    When implementing a propagator for a constraint, one must decide about variants: When implementing min, should one also implement max? Should one implement linear equations both with and without coefficients? Constraint variants are ubiquitous: implementing them requires considerable (if not prohibitive) effort and decreases maintainability, but will deliver better performance. This paper shows how to use variable views, previously introduced for an implementation architecture, to derive perfect propagator variants. A model for views and derived propagators is introduced. Derived propagators are proved to be indeed perfect in that they inherit essential properties such as correctness and domain and bounds consistency. Techniques for systematically deriving propagators such as transformation, generalization, specialization, and channeling are developed for several variable domains. We evaluate the massive impact of derived propagators. Without derived propagators, Gecode would require 140000 rather than 40000 ...

  7. Rapid estimation of the economic consequences of global earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Kishor; Wald, David J.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER) system, operational since mid 2007, rapidly estimates the most affected locations and the population exposure at different levels of shaking intensities. The PAGER system has significantly improved the way aid agencies determine the scale of response needed in the aftermath of an earthquake. For example, the PAGER exposure estimates provided reasonably accurate assessments of the scale and spatial extent of the damage and losses following the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake (Mw 7.9) in China, the 2009 L'Aquila earthquake (Mw 6.3) in Italy, the 2010 Haiti earthquake (Mw 7.0), and the 2010 Chile earthquake (Mw 8.8). Nevertheless, some engineering and seismological expertise is often required to digest PAGER's exposure estimate and turn it into estimated fatalities and economic losses. This has been the focus of PAGER's most recent development. With the new loss-estimation component of the PAGER system it is now possible to produce rapid estimation of expected fatalities for global earthquakes (Jaiswal and others, 2009). While an estimate of earthquake fatalities is a fundamental indicator of potential human consequences in developing countries (for example, Iran, Pakistan, Haiti, Peru, and many others), economic consequences often drive the responses in much of the developed world (for example, New Zealand, the United States, and Chile), where the improved structural behavior of seismically resistant buildings significantly reduces earthquake casualties. Rapid availability of estimates of both fatalities and economic losses can be a valuable resource. The total time needed to determine the actual scope of an earthquake disaster and to respond effectively varies from country to country. It can take days or sometimes weeks before the damage and consequences of a disaster can be understood both socially and economically. The objective of the U.S. Geological Survey's PAGER system is

  8. Causes and consequences of magnetic cloud expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Démoulin, P.; Dasso, S.

    2009-05-01

    Context: A magnetic cloud (MC) is a magnetic flux rope in the solar wind (SW), which, at 1 AU, is observed ~2-5 days after its expulsion from the Sun. The associated solar eruption is observed as a coronal mass ejection (CME). Aims: Both the in situ observations of plasma velocity distribution and the increase in their size with solar distance demonstrate that MCs are strongly expanding structures. The aim of this work is to find the main causes of this expansion and to derive a model to explain the plasma velocity profiles typically observed inside MCs. Methods: We model the flux rope evolution as a series of force-free field states with two extreme limits: (a) ideal magneto-hydrodynamics (MHD) and (b) minimization of the magnetic energy with conserved magnetic helicity. We consider cylindrical flux ropes to reduce the problem to the integration of ordinary differential equations. This allows us to explore a wide variety of magnetic fields at a broad range of distances to the Sun. Results: We demonstrate that the rapid decrease in the total SW pressure with solar distance is the main driver of the flux-rope radial expansion. Other effects, such as the internal over-pressure, the radial distribution, and the amount of twist within the flux rope have a much weaker influence on the expansion. We demonstrate that any force-free flux rope will have a self-similar expansion if its total boundary pressure evolves as the inverse of its length to the fourth power. With the total pressure gradient observed in the SW, the radial expansion of flux ropes is close to self-similar with a nearly linear radial velocity profile across the flux rope, as observed. Moreover, we show that the expansion rate is proportional to the radius and to the global velocity away from the Sun. Conclusions: The simple and universal law found for the radial expansion of flux ropes in the SW predicts the typical size, magnetic structure, and radial velocity of MCs at various solar distances.

  9. Consequence Based Design. An approach for integrating computational collaborative models (Integrated Dynamic Models) in the building design phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Negendahl, Kristoffer

    affect the design process and collaboration between building designers and simulationists. Within the limits of applying the approach of Consequence based design to five case studies, followed by documentation based on interviews, surveys and project related documentations derived from internal reports...... that secures validity and quality assurance with a simulationist while sustaining autonomous control of building design with the building designer. Consequence based design is defined by the specific use of integrated dynamic models. These models include the parametric capabilities of a visual programming tool...... relies on various advancements in the area of integrated dynamic models. It also relies on the application and test of the approach in practice to evaluate the Consequence based design and the use of integrated dynamic models. As a result, the Consequence based design approach has been applied in five...

  10. Normative perceptions of alcohol-related consequences among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett, Emma I; Leavens, Eleanor L; Miller, Mary Beth; Lombardi, Nathaniel; Leffingwell, Thad R

    2016-07-01

    College students in the U.S. continue to drink in hazardous ways and experience a range of alcohol-related consequences. Personalized feedback interventions (PFIs), which often include normative components comparing personal drinking to that of similar peers, have been effective in reducing alcohol outcomes among college students. Though normative perceptions of the quantity and frequency of alcohol use have been examined in many studies, norms for alcohol-related consequences have received less attention. The current study examined self-other discrepancies (SODs) for alcohol-related consequences among college students. Participants overestimated how often alcohol-related consequences are experienced by other same-sex students on campus and rated consequences as more acceptable for others to experience than themselves. No differences in SODs were found between those who did and did not report alcohol use. Future studies should examine the efficacy of PFIs that incorporate normative feedback on alcohol-related consequences.

  11. LR-PARSING DERIVED

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, Wim H.

    1992-01-01

    The LR(k)-parsing algorithm is derived, i.e., presented and proved as an interplay between program development and parsing theory. The program development uses invariants and the new concept of weakest angelic precondition. The parsing theory involved relates rightmost derivability to three other tr

  12. 4-Aminoquinoline derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Shailja; Agarwal, Drishti; Sharma, Kumkum;

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic quinoline derivatives continue to be considered as candidates for new drug discovery if they act against CQ-resistant strains of malaria even after the widespread emergence of resistance to CQ. In this study, we explored the activities of two series of new 4-aminoquinoline derivatives...

  13. Financial Derivatives in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Francis Repka sees bright prospects for the future development of the financial derivatives market in China. Repka,Vice President of the Asian Bond Finance Department of Societe Generale, says the situation in France just after the birth of derivatives was very similar to the situation in China today.

  14. Numerical Integration with Derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Cheng

    2006-01-01

    A new formula with derivatives for numerical integration was presented. Based on this formula and the Richardson extrapolation process, a numerical integration method was established. It can converge faster than the Romberg's. With the same accuracy, the computation of the new numerical integration with derivatives is only half of that of Romberg's numerical integration.

  15. Willingness to Pay for Weather Derivatives by Australian Wheat Farmers

    OpenAIRE

    Simmons, Phil; Edwards, Miriam; Byrnes, Joel

    2007-01-01

    A theoretical optimal hedging model is developed to determine potential demand from Australian farmers for a hedging tool to remove the economic consequences of climate related variability in wheat yield. In the past, financial instruments have been developed to hedge price risk on capital markets; however, in more recent times new financial instruments, weather derivatives, have been developing that hedge the volumetric risk associated with unfavourable weather. Weather derivatives have the ...

  16. Employment protection and the consequences for displaced workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albæk, Karsten; van Audenrode, Marc; Browning, Martin

    We compare the wage and employment consequences of a job displacement in Belgium and Denmark. These two countries both have generous unemployment insurance schemes but job protection laws vary dramatically between the two. Using comparable data we find that the incidence of displacement...... and the consequences for wages are similar in the two countries. The consequences for employment are very different with Danish workers experiencing much less unemployment after a displacement...

  17. Sinkhole occurrence in consequence of heavy rainstorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parise, Mario; Pisano, Luca; Vennari, Carmela

    2016-04-01

    ) affected the lower sector of a karst depression. Their shape is predominantly circular, but the dimensions are assorted. Some of the landforms are just subdued, and appear to be less developed. Morphometry and shape of the observed sinkholes allow to attribute them to the typology of collapse or cover-collapse sinkholes. Additional sinkholes were triggered in a rural area in the northern part of Monte Sant'Angelo. These are five sinkholes linked to natural cavities, that were activated during the September 2014 storm, and subsequently were enlarged. In the area, terra rossa deposits cover limestone rocks. The largest sinkhole is 25.2 m deep and 12 m wide. From its base, speleological explorations documented a series of pits, going down at least until a depth of -130 m below the ground surface, thus testifying the direct link with the subsurface system of groundwater circulation. The sinkholes occurred in the Gargano area are natural events quite common in karst areas (Waltham et al., 2005; Ford & Williams, 2007; Parise, 2008, 2015b; Gutierrez et al., 2008, 2014; Parise et al., 2015), as a result of intense and/or prolonged rainfall events that increase the superficial and underground outflow. The speed of outflow of large quantities of water may be able to remove unconsolidated soil, creating new ways of underground water circulation, and as a consequence the material on the surface could collapse in the underlying cavities (Parise et al., 2015b). Documenting these phenomena, especially in relation to intense rainstorms, is of great importance, since in the great majority of cases they go unreported, especially where (as is the Gargano case) the karst lands are thickly covered by forests, or develop in mostly rural areas. The collection of direct data from the observed sinkholes allowed us, further, to update the chronological catalogue of sinkholes in Italy, managed by CNR-IRPI since several years (Parise & Vennari, 2013) within the framework of research projects on karst

  18. Coordination chemistry and biological activity of 5'-OH modified quinoline-B12 derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelenka, Karel; Brandl, Helmut; Spingler, Bernhard; Zelder, Felix

    2011-10-14

    The consequences of structural modifications at the 5'-OH ribofuranotide moiety of quinoline modified B12 derivatives are discussed in regard of the coordination chemistry, the electrochemical properties and the biological behaviour of the compound.

  19. Evolutionary and geologic consequences of organic carbon fixing in the primitive anoxic ocean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, W. B.N. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Paleontology; Wilde, P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Paleontology

    1983-01-01

    A model is proposed for a group of Archean pre-prokaryotes primary producers (termed Anoxium), that derived their energy from geothermal hydrogen sulfide discharged at oceanic vents. With time, competition developed for available S= due to organic oxidation and loss of sulfur to sediments. As a consequence, evolutionary advantage shifted to Anoxium isolates that could use alternative energy sources such as light to supplement diminished supplies of S=. Subsequent carbon fixing and deposition of organic carbon improved both the quality and quantity of light reaching the ocean surface so that eventually photosynthesis replaced sulfur chemosynthesis as the primary carbon dioxide-fixing mechanism. Organisms occupying niches similar to those of modern purple and green sulfur bacteria, thiobacilli and cyanobacteria could have evolved from the Anoxium complex as the environment was organically modified by the consequences of carbon fixing.

  20. Environmental Consequences of Wildlife Tourism: The Use of Formalised Qualitative Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veselý Štěpán

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a simple qualitative model of environmental consequences of wildlife tourism. Qualitative models use just three values: Positive/Increasing, Zero/Constant and Negative/Decreasing. Such quantifiers of trends are the least information intensive. Qualitative models can be useful, since models of wildlife tourism include such variables as, for example, Biodiversity (BIO, Animals’ habituation to tourists (HAB or Plant composition change (PLA that are sometimes difficult or costly to quantify. Hence, a significant fraction of available information about wildlife tourism and its consequences is not of numerical nature, for example, if HAB is increasing then BIO is decreasing. Such equationless relations are studied in this paper. The model has 10 variables and 20 equationless pairwise interrelations among them. The model is solved and 15 solutions, that is, scenarios are obtained. All qualitative states, including the first and second qualitative derivatives with respect to time, of all variables are specified for each scenario.

  1. The Consequences of Unintended Childbearing: A White Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Cassandra; Holcombe, Emily; Manlove, Jennifer; Ryan, Suzanne

    2007-01-01

    This report provides a critical review of the current research literature on the consequences of unintended childbearing for families and children. The review addresses the following potential consequences: prenatal and perinatal risks (e.g., inadequate or delayed initiation of prenatal care, smoking/drinking/substance use during pregnancy,…

  2. Exploring Reasons and Consequences of Academic Procrastination: An Interview Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunschel, Carola; Patrzek, Justine; Fries, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we broadly investigated reasons and consequences of academic procrastination. Additionally, we explored whether students seeking help from student counselling services to overcome academic procrastination (counselling group) report more serious reasons and consequences of academic procrastination than students who…

  3. The Consequences of Unintended Childbearing: A White Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Cassandra; Holcombe, Emily; Manlove, Jennifer; Ryan, Suzanne

    2007-01-01

    This report provides a critical review of the current research literature on the consequences of unintended childbearing for families and children. The review addresses the following potential consequences: prenatal and perinatal risks (e.g., inadequate or delayed initiation of prenatal care, smoking/drinking/substance use during pregnancy,…

  4. Nonmonotonic Skeptical Consequence Relation in Constrained Default Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaiela Lupea

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study of the nonmonotonic consequence relation which models the skeptical reasoning formalised by constrained default logic. The nonmonotonic skeptical consequence relation is defined using the sequent calculus axiomatic system. We study the formal properties desirable for a good nonmonotonic relation: supraclassicality, cut, cautious monotony, cumulativity, absorption, distribution. 

  5. Ingestion Pathway Consequences of a Major Release from SRTC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchard, A.

    1999-06-08

    The food ingestion consequences due to radioactive particulates of an accidental release, scenario 1-RD-3, are evaluated for Savannah River Technology Center. The sizes of land areas requiring the protective action of food interdiction are calculated. The consequences of the particulate portion of the release are evaluated with the HOTSPOT model and an EXCEL spreadsheet for particulates.

  6. Student Part-Time Employment: Characteristics and Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robotham, David

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the paper is to examine the consequences of students engaging in part-time employment during their studies. It reports the results of a survey of part-time employment among university students. The research examined the possible consequences of combining part-time employment with full-time study, with particular reference to…

  7. Developing Creativity in Social Studies II: Imagining Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wragg, Paul H.; Allen, Rodney F.

    1982-01-01

    Describes activities in which K-12 social studies students (1) imagine the consequences of decisions and policies, and (2) imagine the consequences of new personal and social possibilities. Sample activities are offered for geography, world history, sociology, U.S. history, and civics. The authors include suggestions for student evaluation and…

  8. Superstability of Generalized Derivations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansari-Piri Esmaeil

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the superstability of the functional equation , where and are the mappings on Banach algebra . We have also proved the superstability of generalized derivations associated to the linear functional equation , where .

  9. Amphetamine derivative related deaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lora-Tamayo, C; Tena, T; Rodríguez, A

    1997-02-28

    Amphetamine its methylendioxy (methylendioxyamphetamine methylenedioxymethylamphetamine, methylenedioxyethylamphetamine) and methoxy derivatives (p-methoxyamphetamine and p-methoxymethylamphetamine) are widely abused in Spanish society. We present here the results of a systematic study of all cases of deaths brought to the attention of the Madrid department of the Instituto Nacional de Toxicologia from 1993 to 1995 in which some of these drugs have been found in the cadaveric blood. The cases were divided into three categories: amphetamine and derivatives, amphetamines and alcohol, amphetamines and other drugs. Data on age, sex, clinical symptoms, morphological findings, circumstances of death, when known, and concentration of amphetamine derivatives, alcohol and other drugs in blood are given for each group. The information provided here may prove to be useful for the forensic interpretation of deaths which are directly or indirectly related to abuse of amphetamine derivatives.

  10. Derivations in a tetrahedron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladeva, Dimitrinka I.; Trendafilov, Ivan D.

    2015-11-01

    One of the natural questions which often appeared in algebra and analysis whether a map can be defined by its "local" properties. In this paper we consider maps which acts like a derivation on semirings of a special type.

  11. Consequence assessment of large rock slope failures in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppikofer, Thierry; Hermanns, Reginald L.; Horton, Pascal; Sandøy, Gro; Roberts, Nicholas J.; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Böhme, Martina; Yugsi Molina, Freddy X.

    2014-05-01

    Steep glacially carved valleys and fjords in Norway are prone to many landslide types, including large rockslides, rockfalls, and debris flows. Large rockslides and their secondary effects (rockslide-triggered displacement waves, inundation behind landslide dams and outburst floods from failure of landslide dams) pose a significant hazard to the population living in the valleys and along the fjords shoreline. The Geological Survey of Norway performs systematic mapping of unstable rock slopes in Norway and has detected more than 230 unstable slopes with significant postglacial deformation. This large number necessitates prioritisation of follow-up activities, such as more detailed investigations, periodic displacement measurements, continuous monitoring and early-warning systems. Prioritisation is achieved through a hazard and risk classification system, which has been developed by a panel of international and Norwegian experts (www.ngu.no/en-gb/hm/Publications/Reports/2012/2012-029). The risk classification system combines a qualitative hazard assessment with a consequences assessment focusing on potential life losses. The hazard assessment is based on a series of nine geomorphological, engineering geological and structural criteria, as well as displacement rates, past events and other signs of activity. We present a method for consequence assessment comprising four main steps: 1. computation of the volume of the unstable rock slope; 2. run-out assessment based on the volume-dependent angle of reach (Fahrböschung) or detailed numerical run-out modelling; 3. assessment of possible displacement wave propagation and run-up based on empirical relations or modelling in 2D or 3D; and 4. estimation of the number of persons exposed to rock avalanches or displacement waves. Volume computation of an unstable rock slope is based on the sloping local base level technique, which uses a digital elevation model to create a second-order curved surface between the mapped extent of

  12. Assessing the consequences of unrealistic optimism: Challenges and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepperd, James A; Pogge, Gabrielle; Howell, Jennifer L

    2017-04-01

    Of the hundreds of studies published on unrealistic optimism (i.e., expecting a better personal future than is reasonably likely), most have focused on demonstrating the phenomenon, examining boundary conditions, or documenting causes. Few studies have examined the consequences of unrealistic optimism. In this article, we provide an overview of the measurement of unrealistic optimism, review possible consequences, and identify numerous challenges confronting investigators attempting to understand the consequences. Assessing the consequences of unrealistic optimism is tricky, and ultimately probably impossible when researchers assess unrealistic optimism at the group level (which reveals if a group of people is displaying unrealistic optimism on average) rather than the individual level (which reveals whether a specific individual displays unrealistic optimism). We offer recommendations to researchers who wish to examine the consequences of unrealistic optimism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Gorenstein derived functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Henrik Granau

    2004-01-01

    Over any associative ring R it is standard to derive HomR(􀀀;􀀀) using projective resolutions in the rst variable, or injective resolutions in the second variable, and doing this, one obtains Extn R(􀀀;􀀀) in both cases. We examine the situation where projective...... and injective modules are replaced by Gorenstein projective and Gorenstein injective ones, respectively. Furthermore, we derive the tensor product 􀀀 R 􀀀 using Gorenstein at modules....

  14. Brain derived neurotrophic factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitchelmore, Cathy; Gede, Lene

    2014-01-01

    Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin with important functions in neuronal development and neuroplasticity. Accumulating evidence suggests that alterations in BDNF expression levels underlie a variety of psychiatric and neurological disorders. Indeed, BDNF therapies are curre......Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin with important functions in neuronal development and neuroplasticity. Accumulating evidence suggests that alterations in BDNF expression levels underlie a variety of psychiatric and neurological disorders. Indeed, BDNF therapies...

  15. Boundary layer heights derived from velocity spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoejstrup, J.; Barthelmie, R.J. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Kaellstrand, B. [Univ. of Uppsala, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1997-10-01

    It is a well-known fact that the height of the mixed layer determines the size of the largest and most energetic eddies that can be observed in the unstable boundary layer, and consequently a peak can be observed in the power spectra of the along-wind velocity component at scales comparable to the mixed layer depth. We will now show how the mixed layer depth can be derived from the u-specta and the results will be compared with direct measurements using pibal and tethersonde measurements. (au)

  16. Synthesis of β-Amino Acid Derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Yonghua; Ma Zhihua; Jiang Nan; Wang Jianbo

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, β-amino acids and their derivatives have attracted considerable attention due to their occurrence in biologically active natural products, such as dolastatins,cyclohexylnorstatine and Taxol. β-Amino acids also find application in the synthesis of β-lactams,piperidines, indolizidines. Moreover, the peptides consisting of β-amino acids, the so-called β-peptides, have been extensively studied recently. Consequently, considerable efforts have been directed to the synthesis of β-amino acids and their derivatives1. In particular, stereoselective synthesis of β-amino acids has been a challenging project, and there are only limited methods available. In this presentation, we report our efforts in this area.

  17. Positive drinking consequences among hazardous drinking college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capron, Daniel W; Schmidt, Norman B

    2012-05-01

    Negative drinking consequences in college students have been well studied, but emerging evidence points to a role for positive drinking consequences in predicting alcohol related problems. Positive drinking consequences appear to be distinct from other drinking constructs such as drinking expectancies and drinking motives. However, no work has evaluated the role of positive drinking consequences in hazardous drinking college students, a population at high risk for alcohol related problems. The goal of the current study was to examine the effect of positive drinking consequences on problem drinking and alcohol problem recognition in a hazardous drinking college sample. Participants (N=222) were hazardous drinking undergraduate students completing a battery of self-report measures about alcohol use. Findings indicated that positive drinking consequences predicted problem drinking above and beyond other related constructs including positive drinking motives (i.e. enhancement and social). However, positive drinking consequences did not appear to play a significant role in alcohol problem recognition. Future research directions and implications for interventions with hazardous drinking college students are discussed.

  18. Subject–Motion Correction in HARDI Acquisitions: Choices and Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhabian, Shireen; Gur, Yaniv; Vachet, Clement; Piven, Joseph; Styner, Martin; Leppert, Ilana R.; Pike, G. Bruce; Gerig, Guido

    2014-01-01

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is known to be prone to artifacts related to motion originating from subject movement, cardiac pulsation, and breathing, but also to mechanical issues such as table vibrations. Given the necessity for rigorous quality control and motion correction, users are often left to use simple heuristics to select correction schemes, which involves simple qualitative viewing of the set of DWI data, or the selection of transformation parameter thresholds for detection of motion outliers. The scientific community offers strong theoretical and experimental work on noise reduction and orientation distribution function (ODF) reconstruction techniques for HARDI data, where post-acquisition motion correction is widely performed, e.g., using the open-source DTIprep software (1), FSL (the FMRIB Software Library) (2), or TORTOISE (3). Nonetheless, effects and consequences of the selection of motion correction schemes on the final analysis, and the eventual risk of introducing confounding factors when comparing populations, are much less known and far beyond simple intuitive guessing. Hence, standard users lack clear guidelines and recommendations in practical settings. This paper reports a comprehensive evaluation framework to systematically assess the outcome of different motion correction choices commonly used by the scientific community on different DWI-derived measures. We make use of human brain HARDI data from a well-controlled motion experiment to simulate various degrees of motion corruption and noise contamination. Choices for correction include exclusion/scrubbing or registration of motion corrupted directions with different choices of interpolation, as well as the option of interpolation of all directions. The comparative evaluation is based on a study of the impact of motion correction using four metrics that quantify (1) similarity of fiber orientation distribution functions (fODFs), (2) deviation of local fiber orientations, (3) global

  19. Unintended consequences of imprecise Notation -- an example from mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Gangopadhyaya, Asim

    2012-01-01

    We present a conundrum that results from the imprecise use of notation for partial derivatives. Taking an example from mechanics, we show that lack of proper care in representing partial derivatives in Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formulations paradoxically leads to two different values for the time derivative of the canonical momentum. This problem also exists in other areas of physics, such as thermodynamics.

  20. Variation of radiological consequences under various weather conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xinhe; Homma, Toshimitsu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-08-01

    Stratified sampling method of determining weather sequences is widely used in Probabilistic Safety Assessment Level-3 calculations with an intention to predict the complete spectrum of the accident consequences. Intensive calculations were performed for every weather bin in order to get a general view of consequence variation in response to the indices used in the weather bin categorization procedures. The results of this case study demonstrated that there must be important factors, such as time-integrals of meteorological parameters other than initial weather conditions, which might influence the consequences for a given accident. Further improvement is needed for the choice of criteria for grouping weather sequences in the stratified sampling scheme. (author)

  1. [Dysthymia and cyclothymia--serious consequences of rarely diagnosed disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brieger, P; Marneros, A

    1998-12-01

    Dysthymia and cyclothymia are chronic affective disorders with a minimum duration of 2 years. Both ICD-10 and DSM-IV define cyclothymia as a bipolar disorder with low intensity. This disorder is rare and little research has been done on it. Its economic and social consequences vary from case to case. In contrast dysthymias, chronic depressive disorders, are frequent (prevalence 3-6%) and cause considerable distress. They have serious economic and social consequences, which are comparable to those caused by other chronic conditions such as arthritis or diabetes mellitus. Despite widely held conviction a majority of dysthymias improves under consequent pharmaco- and psychotherapy.

  2. Mental illness stigma: concepts, consequences, and initiatives to reduce stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüsch, Nicolas; Angermeyer, Matthias C; Corrigan, Patrick W

    2005-12-01

    Persons with mental illness frequently encounter public stigma and may suffer from self-stigma. This review aims to clarify the concept of mental illness stigma and discuss consequences for individuals with mental illness. After a conceptual overview of stigma we discuss two leading concepts of mental illness stigma and consequences of stigma, focussing on self-stigma/empowerment and fear of stigma as a barrier to using health services. Finally, we discuss three main strategies to reduce stigma -- protest, education, and contact -- and give examples of current anti-stigma campaigns. Well-designed anti-stigma initiatives will help to diminish negative consequences of mental illness stigma.

  3. Crises communication practices and their consequences for risk communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nina Blom

    2009-01-01

    Title of paper: Crisis communication practices and their consequences for risk communication   There is a close coverage of disasters in modern western societies in the media. And there is a growing expectation that authorities handle the tasks of crisis communication in certain ways.   The first...... aim of this paper is to show, that the communication practices about the consequences of a disaster tend to focus on the individual citizen’s situation, and include the psychological consequences and suffering to a large degree. At least for a while. Then the debates and discussions about the event...

  4. Crises communication practices and their consequences for risk communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nina Blom

    2009-01-01

    Title of paper: Crisis communication practices and their consequences for risk communication There is a close coverage of disasters in modern western societies in the media. And there is a growing expectation that authorities handle the tasks of crisis communication in certain ways. The first aim...... of this paper is to show, that the communication practices about the consequences of a disaster tend to focus on the individual citizen?s situation, and include the psychological consequences and suffering to a large degree. At least for a while. Then the debates and discussions about the event change from...

  5. Enabling quaternion derivatives: the generalized HR calculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dongpo; Jahanchahi, Cyrus; Took, Clive C; Mandic, Danilo P

    2015-08-01

    Quaternion derivatives exist only for a very restricted class of analytic (regular) functions; however, in many applications, functions of interest are real-valued and hence not analytic, a typical case being the standard real mean square error objective function. The recent HR calculus is a step forward and provides a way to calculate derivatives and gradients of both analytic and non-analytic functions of quaternion variables; however, the HR calculus can become cumbersome in complex optimization problems due to the lack of rigorous product and chain rules, a consequence of the non-commutativity of quaternion algebra. To address this issue, we introduce the generalized HR (GHR) derivatives which employ quaternion rotations in a general orthogonal system and provide the left- and right-hand versions of the quaternion derivative of general functions. The GHR calculus also solves the long-standing problems of product and chain rules, mean-value theorem and Taylor's theorem in the quaternion field. At the core of the proposed GHR calculus is quaternion rotation, which makes it possible to extend the principle to other functional calculi in non-commutative settings. Examples in statistical learning theory and adaptive signal processing support the analysis.

  6. Enabling quaternion derivatives: the generalized HR calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dongpo; Jahanchahi, Cyrus; Took, Clive C.; Mandic, Danilo P.

    2015-01-01

    Quaternion derivatives exist only for a very restricted class of analytic (regular) functions; however, in many applications, functions of interest are real-valued and hence not analytic, a typical case being the standard real mean square error objective function. The recent HR calculus is a step forward and provides a way to calculate derivatives and gradients of both analytic and non-analytic functions of quaternion variables; however, the HR calculus can become cumbersome in complex optimization problems due to the lack of rigorous product and chain rules, a consequence of the non-commutativity of quaternion algebra. To address this issue, we introduce the generalized HR (GHR) derivatives which employ quaternion rotations in a general orthogonal system and provide the left- and right-hand versions of the quaternion derivative of general functions. The GHR calculus also solves the long-standing problems of product and chain rules, mean-value theorem and Taylor's theorem in the quaternion field. At the core of the proposed GHR calculus is quaternion rotation, which makes it possible to extend the principle to other functional calculi in non-commutative settings. Examples in statistical learning theory and adaptive signal processing support the analysis. PMID:26361555

  7. CONSEQUENCES OF COLE-COLE RELAXATION IN SPIN GLASSES

    OpenAIRE

    Baalbergen, J.; Ong, T; Van Duyneveldt, A.; Verstelle, J.

    1988-01-01

    Ac susceptibility measurements in spin glasses over an extended frequency range indicate a Cole-Cole behaviour at temperatures from well above to far below the freezing temperature. The consequences of this kind of relaxation are discussed.

  8. Children in Hot Cars Result in Fatal Consequences

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Share this! Home » Health Tips » Holiday and Seasonal Children in Hot Cars Result in Fatal Consequences Emergency ... the overwhelming dangers associated with leaving anyone, especially children in hot, unventilated vehicles during the summer. Children ...

  9. Class differences in the social consequences of illness?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholm, C; Burström, B; Diderichsen, F

    2002-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To investigate adverse social consequences of limiting longstanding illness and the modifying effect of socioeconomic position on these consequences. DESIGN: Cohort study on the panel within the annual Swedish Survey of Living Conditions where participants were interviewed twice...... on unemployment and financial difficulties were equal across socioeconomic groups. CONCLUSIONS: Labour market policies as well as income maintenance policies that deal with social and economical consequences of longstanding illness are important elements of programmes to tackle inequalities in health...... with eight years interval 1979-89 and 1986-97. Sociodemographic characteristics, self reported longstanding illness, employment situation and financial conditions were measured at baseline. Social consequences (economic inactivity, unemployment, financial difficulties) of limiting longstanding illness were...

  10. Children in Hot Cars Result in Fatal Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this! Home » Health Tips » Holiday and Seasonal Children in Hot Cars Result in Fatal Consequences Emergency physicians are warning the public ... throbbing headache, dizziness, nausea, confusion and disorientation. READ IN SUMMER Children in Hot Cars Result in Fatal ...

  11. Children in Hot Cars Result in Fatal Consequences

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips » Holiday and Seasonal Children in Hot Cars Result in Fatal Consequences Emergency physicians are warning the ... the country die each year as a direct result of being left alone in a hot vehicle. “ ...

  12. [Book review] Sea level rise: history and consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Eric E.

    2004-01-01

    Review of: Sea level Rise: history and consequences. Bruce Douglas, Michael S. Kearney and Stephen P. Leatherman (eds), Sand Diego: Academic Press, 2001, 232 pp. plus CD-RIM, US$64.95, hardback. ISBN 0-12-221345-9.

  13. Differentiated thyroid carcinoma : treatment and clinical consequences of therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoftijzer, Hendrieke Catherijn

    2011-01-01

    The first chapters of this thesis describe the treatment of radioiodine non-avid thyroid carcinoma with the tyrosine kinase inhibitor sorafenib. The remainder of the thesis describes the clinical consequences of the treatment of thyroid carcinoma.

  14. Children in Hot Cars Result in Fatal Consequences

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Disasters Communication With Your Family And Your Doctor About Your Wishes Visiting the ER Who Takes ... in Hot Cars Result in Fatal Consequences Emergency physicians are warning the public about the overwhelming dangers ...

  15. Children in Hot Cars Result in Fatal Consequences

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in Fatal Consequences Emergency physicians are warning the public about the overwhelming dangers associated with leaving anyone, ... Copyright © American College of Emergency Physicians 2017 Privacy Policy Terms of Use

  16. Differentiated thyroid carcinoma : treatment and clinical consequences of therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoftijzer, Hendrieke Catherijn

    2011-01-01

    The first chapters of this thesis describe the treatment of radioiodine non-avid thyroid carcinoma with the tyrosine kinase inhibitor sorafenib. The remainder of the thesis describes the clinical consequences of the treatment of thyroid carcinoma.

  17. Prevalence and consequences of substance use among high school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Drug and Alcohol Studies ... Further, cannabis was used in selected high schools, and its abuse prevalence was greater in urban private schools, ... enhanced sexual activity, with increased risks for negative consequences.

  18. Organizational justice and health: Contextual determinants and psychobiological consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herr, R.M.

    2015-01-01

    The research presented in this thesis entitled "Organizational Justice and Health: Contextual Determinants and Psychobiological Consequences" aimed to investigate associations between organizational justice and employee health and biological functioning. Organizational justice is an occupational str

  19. The Consequences of European Integration for Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wit, Kurt

    2003-01-01

    Focuses on the growth of the European Union and the subsequent pressure on nation states as it relates to higher education policy. Outlines some consequences of the European construction of higher education for Europe and higher education research. (SLD)

  20. Diagnostic Invasiveness and Psychosocial Consequences of False-Positive Mammography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heleno, Bruno M.; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Brodersen, John

    2015-01-01

    of a cohort study of 454 womenwith abnormal screening mammography and 908 matched control women withnormal results. Using a condition-specific questionnaire (Consequences of Screening in Breast Cancer), we assessed 12 psychosocial consequences at 5 time points (0, 1, 6, 18, and 36 months after final diagnosis......) and compared the 2 groups of women with false-positives (invasive and noninvasive management groups). RESULTS: Among the 252 women with false-positive mammography eligible forthis study, psychosocial consequences were similar for those managed invasivelyand those managed noninvasively during the 36 months...... between those of women withnormal mammography and those of women determined to have breast cancer. CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence that use of more invasive diagnosticswas associated with worse psychosocial consequences. It is therefore reasonableto pool subgroups of women with false...

  1. Dysphagia in the patient after stroke: consequences and nurse intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Frias

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: to check the consequences of poststroke dysphagia and to reflect on the nurse’s intervention in dysphagia rehabilitation. Methodology: it was performed a systematic literature review of the topic in question; research based on international databases EBSCOhost, LILACS, SciELO.We were able to identify some studies publications between 2006 and 2014. We intend to answer the guiding question: What are the consequences of dysphagia in the patient after stroke? » Results vs. Discussion: after a thorough analysis, we have selected 11 articles and found that the most frequent consequences of dysphagia are the pulmonary complications by saliva and/or food suction. The nurse specialist still has a barely visible role, but his/her interventions are critical in these patients rehabilitation. Conclusions: rehabilitation is essential to avoid the consequences of poststroke dysphagia. The rehabilitation process must go through a multidisciplinary team of which nurses are an integral and essential part.

  2. The long-term consequences of anaesthetic management | Sessler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The long-term consequences of anaesthetic management. ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING AJOL · RESOURCES ... of age.1 In other words, mortality in the year after surgery is approximately 10 ...

  3. Mechanisms, kinetics, impurities and defects: consequences in macromolecular crystallization

    OpenAIRE

    McPherson, Alexander; Kuznetsov, Yurii G

    2014-01-01

    New imaging techniques, particularly AFM, permitted the elucidation of the mechanisms for protein and virus crystal growth. They have also allowed direct visualization of crystal defect structure and the consequences of impurity incorporation.

  4. Direct and indirect economic consequences of multiple sclerosis in Ireland

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fogarty, Emer

    2014-09-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) has significant financial consequences for healthcare systems, individual patients and households, and the wider society. This study examines the distribution of MS costs and resource utilisation across cost categories and from various perspectives, as MS disability increases.

  5. Children in Hot Cars Result in Fatal Consequences

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health Tips » Holiday and Seasonal Children in Hot Cars Result in Fatal Consequences Emergency physicians are warning ... it bluntly, leaving your child in a hot car is like leaving your child in a lit ...

  6. Organizational justice and health: Contextual determinants and psychobiological consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herr, R.M.

    2015-01-01

    The research presented in this thesis entitled "Organizational Justice and Health: Contextual Determinants and Psychobiological Consequences" aimed to investigate associations between organizational justice and employee health and biological functioning. Organizational justice is an occupational

  7. c-fos and its Consequences in Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Asma Hayati; Ismail, Zalina

    2002-01-01

    The discovery that c-fos, a proto-oncogene, has a role in pain, has triggered extensive research on the consequences of c-fos expression. It has been shown that c-fos, through its protein form, FOS, leads to expression of dynorphin gene and subsequently dynorphin protein which is implicated in the development of a pain state. This mini review looks at the properties of c-fos and the consequences of its expression following noxious (painful) stimulation.

  8. Organizing workplace health literacy to reduce musculoskeletal pain and consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, Anne Konring; Holtermann, Andreas; Mortensen, Ole Steen; Punnett, Laura; Rod, Morten Hulvej; Jørgensen, Marie Birk

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite numerous initiatives to improve the working environment for nursing aides, musculoskeletal disorders (pain) is still a considerable problem because of the prevalence, and pervasive consequences on the individual, the workplace and the society. Discrepancies between effort and effect of workplace health initiatives might be due to the fact that pain and the consequences of pain are affected by various individual, interpersonal and organizational factors in a complex interact...

  9. Psychosocial consequences of mild traumatic brain injury in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keightley, Michelle L; Côté, Pierre; Rumney, Peter

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To synthesize the best available evidence regarding psychosocial consequences of mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) in children. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and SPORTDiscus were searched (2001-2012). Inclusion criteria included published peer-reviewed reports......,914 records were screened; 101 of these articles were deemed scientifically admissible, of which 6 investigated the psychosocial consequences of MTBI in children. DATA EXTRACTION: Two reviewers independently extracted data from accepted studies into evidence tables. DATA SYNTHESIS: We conducted a best...

  10. Downsizing - explaining its persistence and managing the consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Richter, Manuela

    2016-01-01

    Organizational downsizing has been a popular management practice for years although its consequences are largely negative for both organizations and humans. Nevertheless, there is a lack of research considering the questions of why downsizing still persists although empirical evidence contradicts its effectiveness and what can be done to manage the negative consequences of layoffs. This dissertation addressed these research gaps and explored the role of individual cognition for explaining the...

  11. Legal consequences of the moral duty to report errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jacqulyn Kay

    2003-09-01

    Increasingly, clinicians are under a moral duty to report errors to the patients who are injured by such errors. The sources of this duty are identified, and its probable impact on malpractice litigation and criminal law is discussed. The potential consequences of enforcing this new moral duty as a minimum in law are noted. One predicted consequence is that the trend will be accelerated toward government payment of compensation for errors. The effect of truth-telling on individuals is discussed.

  12. The Czech Equity Market - Its Effectiveness and Macroeconomic Consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Helena Horská

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines features of the Czech stock market’s development from 1997 to 2003 and attempts to unveil the macroeconomic consequences of stock-price development. The analysis of the stock market’s behavior supports a cautionary stance on the hypothesis of the efficient-market theory, even in its weak form. Another finding, as regards the macroeconomic consequences of stock-price development, undermined the assumption of the positive wealth effect of rising stocks. In relation to GDP gr...

  13. Can compensatory culling offset undesirable evolutionary consequences of trophy hunting?

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    There is growing concern about the evolutionary consequences of human harvesting on phenotypic trait quality in wild populations. Undesirable consequences are especially likely with trophy hunting because of its strong bias for specific phenotypic trait values, such as large antlers in cervids and horns in bovids. Selective hunting can cause a decline in a trophy trait over time if it is heritable, thereby reducing the long-term sustainability of the activity itself. How can we build a sustai...

  14. Effects of source term characteristics on Off Site consequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Seok Jung; Ahn, Kwang Il [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Off site consequence analysis in Level 3 PSA is mainly affected by source term release characteristics of nuclear plant. The severe accident analysis codes for quantifying the source term release characteristics such as MELCOR and MAAP provide detailed information of these characteristics to assess the off site consequence. The aforementioned characteristics, however, have not been considered in the consequence analysis of domestic plants because of large uncertainty in these characteristics so far. Recently, the USNRC SOARCA report showed an approach to utilize detailed source term characteristics provided by MELCOR code to quantify the off site consequence more realistically. Main purpose of this study is to assess effects of the MELCOR source term characteristics on the off site consequence analysis of a domestic nuclear power plant, in a similar fashion to the SOARCA approach. Among many features characterizing source term, the most important one is to determine initial and boundary conditions of atmospheric dispersion such as:- Release amounts of source term - Release time and duration Moreover, plumes features (i.e., radiation clouds) affect atmospheric dispersion that shapes plume characteristics as follows: - Initial dimension of plumes - Plume rise - Deposition of radioactive materials during dispersion Although the current severe accident codes have some limitation in providing the entire source term release characteristics needed in the consequence analysis, the essential information for these features could be obtained from these codes. It is noted that the typical approaches, which generate source term information for the consequence analysis from the severe accident codes, should require a technical manipulation by the experts of consequence analysis. The present effort focused on an identification of insights to utilize source term characteristics of the severe accident codes.

  15. [Neurobiological consequences of child sexual abuse: a systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereda, Noemí; Gallardo-Pujol, David

    2011-01-01

    The results of several studies suggest that there is a critical timeframe during development in which experiences of maltreatment and sexual abuse may lead to permanent or long-lasting neurobiological changes that particularly affect the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis response. The aim of the present study was to provide an updated review on the main neurobiological consequences of child sexual abuse. We selected articles published between January 1999 and January 2010 in English or Spanish that focused on the neurobiological consequences of child sexual abuse available through Medline, Scopus and Web of Science. We also examined the references in published articles on the consequences of sexual victimization in childhood. In this review we included 34 studies on neurobiological consequences, indicating different kinds of effects, namely: neuroendocrine, structural, functional and neuropsychological consequences, which affect a large number of victims. The existing body of work on the neurobiological consequences of maltreatment shows the need to consider maltreatment and child sexual abuse as health problems that affect different areas of victims' lives, which would in turn favor the development of intervention and treatment programs that take these multiple effects into account. Copyright © 2010 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. Superstability of Generalized Derivations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmaeil Ansari-Piri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the superstability of the functional equation f(xy=xf(y+g(xy, where f and g are the mappings on Banach algebra A. We have also proved the superstability of generalized derivations associated to the linear functional equation f(γx+βy=γf(x+βf(y, where γ,β∈ℂ.

  17. Quinazolin-4-one derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosley, Cara A; Acker, Timothy M; Hansen, Kasper Bø;

    2010-01-01

    We describe a new class of subunit-selective antagonists of N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA)-selective ionotropic glutamate receptors that contain the (E)-3-phenyl-2-styrylquinazolin-4(3H)-one backbone. The inhibition of recombinant NMDA receptor function induced by these quinazolin-4-one derivatives ...

  18. Oxygenated Derivatives of Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    For the book entitled “Insect Hydrocarbons: Biology, Biochemistry and Chemical Ecology”, this chapter presents a comprehensive review of the occurrence, structure and function of oxygenated derivatives of hydrocarbons. The book chapter focuses on the occurrence, structural identification and functi...

  19. Deriving diffeomorphism symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Kleppe, Astri

    2014-01-01

    In an earlier article, we have "derived" space, as a part of the Random Dynamics project. In order to get locality we need to obtain reparametrization symmetry, or equivalently, diffeomorphism symmetry. There we sketched a procedure for how to get locality by first obtaining reparametrization symmetry, or equivalently, diffeomorphism symmetry. This is the object of the present article.

  20. Approximate *-derivations and approximate quadratic *-derivations on C*-algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Choonkil

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, we prove the stability of *-derivations and of quadratic *-derivations on Banach *-algebras. We moreover prove the superstability of *-derivations and of quadratic *-derivations on C*-algebras. 2000 Mathematics Subject Classification: 39B52; 47B47; 46L05; 39B72.

  1. Fractional Derivative Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Roberts, Mark D

    2009-01-01

    The degree by which a function can be differentiated need not be restricted to integer values. Usually most of the field equations of physics are taken to be second order, curiosity asks what happens if this is only approximately the case and the field equations are nearly second order. For Robertson-Walker cosmology there is a simple fractional modification of the Friedman and conservation equations. In general fractional gravitational equations similar to Einstein's are hard to define as this requires fractional derivative geometry. What fractional derivative geometry might entail is briefly looked at and it turns out that even asking very simple questions in two dimensions leads to ambiguous or intractable results. A two dimensional line element which depends on the Gamma-function is looked at.

  2. Systems of integrable derivations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittoria Bonanzinga

    1994-05-01

    Full Text Available Let A be a commutative k-algebra, with k a subring of A. We give the definition of n-dimensional differentiation of A over k which formally extends the known one of unidimensional differentiation and we study the group of all n-dimensional differentiation of A over k. In the second part of the work we give some theorems of strong integrability for systems of derivations in terms of n-dimensional differentiation.

  3. Dynamic Stability Derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    time; i.e., is evaluated at the steady-state reference flight condition. However, this derivation provides no definitive information about limits of...dimensional straight- tapered wing in unsteady flow. Assume that the lift is defined by a function that depends on properties of the fluid (density...kinematic viscocity, and speed-of-sound; wing geometric characteristics (area, mean aerodynamic chord and taper ratio); and its motion (free-stream

  4. People, planet and profit: Unintended consequences of legacy building materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Anthony T; Ha, HakSoo

    2017-09-16

    Although an explosion of new building materials are being introduced into today's market, adequate up-front research into their chemical and physical properties as well as their potential health and environmental consequences is lacking. History has provided us with several examples where building materials were broadly deployed into society only to find that health and environmental problems resulted in unintended sustainability consequences. In the following paper, we use lead and asbestos as legacy building materials to show their similar historical trends and sustainability consequences. Our research findings show unintended consequences such as: increased remediation and litigation costs; adverse health effects; offshoring of related industries; and impediments to urban revitalization. As numerous new building materials enter today's market, another building material may have already been deployed, representing the next "asbestos." This paper also proposes an alternative methodology that can be applied in a cost-effective way into existing and upcoming building materials, to minimize and prevent potential unintended consequences and create a pathway for sustainable communities. For instance, our findings show that this proposed methodology could have prevented the unintended incurred sustainability costs of approximately $272-$359 billion by investing roughly $24 million in constant 2014 U.S. dollars on up-front research into lead and asbestos. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. The Unintended Consequences of Health Information Technology Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coiera, E; Ash, J; Berg, M

    2016-11-10

    The introduction of health information technology into clinical settings is associated with unintended negative consequences, some with the potential to lead to error and patient harm. As adoption rates soar, the impact of these hazards will increase. Over the last decade, unintended consequences have received great attention in the medical informatics literature, and this paper seeks to identify the major themes that have emerged. Rich typologies of the causes of unintended consequences have been developed, along with a number of explanatory frameworks based on socio-technical systems theory. We however still have only limited data on the frequency and impact of these events, as most studies rely on data sets from incident reporting or patient chart reviews, rather than undertaking detailed observational studies. Such data are increasingly needed as more organizations implement health information technologies. When outcome studies have been done in different organizations, they reveal different outcomes for identical systems. From a theoretical perspective, recent advances in the emerging discipline of implementation science have much to offer in explaining the origin, and variability, of unintended consequences. The dynamic nature of health care service organizations, and the rapid development and adoption of health information technologies means that unintended consequences are unlikely to disappear, and we therefore must commit to developing robust systems to detect and manage them.

  6. Economic Consequence Analysis of Disasters: The ECAT Software Tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, Adam; Prager, Fynn; Chen, Zhenhua; Chatterjee, Samrat; Wei, Dan; Heatwole, Nathaniel; Warren, Eric

    2017-04-15

    This study develops a methodology for rapidly obtaining approximate estimates of the economic consequences from numerous natural, man-made and technological threats. This software tool is intended for use by various decision makers and analysts to obtain estimates rapidly. It is programmed in Excel and Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) to facilitate its use. This tool is called E-CAT (Economic Consequence Analysis Tool) and accounts for the cumulative direct and indirect impacts (including resilience and behavioral factors that significantly affect base estimates) on the U.S. economy. E-CAT is intended to be a major step toward advancing the current state of economic consequence analysis (ECA) and also contributing to and developing interest in further research into complex but rapid turnaround approaches. The essence of the methodology involves running numerous simulations in a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model for each threat, yielding synthetic data for the estimation of a single regression equation based on the identification of key explanatory variables (threat characteristics and background conditions). This transforms the results of a complex model, which is beyond the reach of most users, into a "reduced form" model that is readily comprehensible. Functionality has been built into E-CAT so that its users can switch various consequence categories on and off in order to create customized profiles of economic consequences of numerous risk events. E-CAT incorporates uncertainty on both the input and output side in the course of the analysis.

  7. Multifunctional Cinnamic Acid Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aikaterini Peperidou

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Our research to discover potential new multitarget agents led to the synthesis of 10 novel derivatives of cinnamic acids and propranolol, atenolol, 1-adamantanol, naphth-1-ol, and (benzylamino ethan-1-ol. The synthesized molecules were evaluated as trypsin, lipoxygenase and lipid peroxidation inhibitors and for their cytotoxicity. Compound 2b derived from phenoxyphenyl cinnamic acid and propranolol showed the highest lipoxygenase (LOX inhibition (IC50 = 6 μΜ and antiproteolytic activity (IC50 = 0.425 μΜ. The conjugate 1a of simple cinnamic acid with propranolol showed the higher antiproteolytic activity (IC50 = 0.315 μΜ and good LOX inhibitory activity (IC50 = 66 μΜ. Compounds 3a and 3b, derived from methoxylated caffeic acid present a promising combination of in vitro inhibitory and antioxidative activities. The S isomer of 2b also presented an interesting multitarget biological profile in vitro. Molecular docking studies point to the fact that the theoretical results for LOX-inhibitor binding are identical to those from preliminary in vitro study.

  8. Endostatin derivative angiogenesis inhibitors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Meng-jie

    2009-01-01

    Objective To throw light on the superiority of the anti-angiogenesis activity of endostatin (ES) derivatives by reviewing the recent progress in the field of ES molecular structure modification.Data sources The data used in this article were mainly from PubMed with relevant English articles published from 1971 to May 2008.The search terms were "endostatin" and "angiothesis".Study selection Articles involved in the ES molecular structure modification and the original milestone articles were selected.Results A number of ES derivatives were designed and studied to improve its clinical relevance.The modified ES with polyethylene glycol (PEG),low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) and IgG Fc domain extended the circulation half-life.Meanwhile the recombinant ESs showed more potent anti-tumor activity than native ES in mouse xenografts.Mutated ES also changed its anti-angiogenesis activity.Conclusions The anti-angiogenesis treatment remains a promising tumor therapeutic strategy.New ES derivatives would be a good choice to meet the future challenge on clinical application of ES.

  9. Consequences of an unstable chemical stratification on mantle dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plesa, Ana-Catalina; Tosi, Nicola; Breuer, Doris

    2013-04-01

    Early in the history of terrestrial planets, the fractional crystallization of primordial magma oceans may have led to the formation of large scale chemical heterogeneities. These may have been preserved over the entire planetary evolution as suggested for Mars by the isotopic analysis of the so-called SNC meteorites. The fractional crystallization of a magma ocean leads to a chemical stratification characterized by a progressive enrichment in heavy elements from the core-mantle boundary to the surface. This results in an unstable configuration that causes the overturn of the mantle and the subsequent formation of a stable chemical layering. Assuming scaling parameters appropriate for Mars, we first performed simulations of 2D thermo-chemical convection in Cartesian geometry with the numerical code YACC [1]. We investigated systems heated either solely from below or from within by varying systematically the buoyancy ratio B, which measures the relative importance of chemical to thermal buoyancy, and the mantle rheology, by considering systems with constant, strongly temperature-dependent and plastic viscosity. We ran a large set of simulations spanning a wide parameter space in order to understand the basic physics governing the magma ocean cumulate overturn and its consequence on mantle dynamics. Moreover, we derived scaling laws that relate the time over which chemical heterogeneities can be preserved (mixing time) and the critical yield stress (maximal yield stress that allows the lithosphere to undergo brittle failure) to the buoyancy ratio. We have found that the mixing time increases exponentially with B, while the critical yield stress shows a linear dependence. We investigated then Mars' early thermo-chemical evolution using the code GAIA in a 2D cylindrical geometry [2] and assuming a detailed magma ocean crystallization sequence as obtained from geochemical modeling [3]. We used an initial composition profile adapted from [3], accounted for an exothermic

  10. Credit derivatives and risk management

    OpenAIRE

    Michael S. Gibson

    2007-01-01

    The striking growth of credit derivatives suggests that market participants find them to be useful tools for risk management. I illustrate the value of credit derivatives with three examples. A commercial bank can use credit derivatives to manage the risk of its loan portfolio. An investment bank can use credit derivatives to manage the risks it incurs when underwriting securities. An investor, such as an insurance company, asset manager, or hedge fund, can use credit derivatives to align its...

  11. The State’s obligation to protect the individuals lives from the consequences of domestic violence: Kosovo case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Vilard Bytyqi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to treat the important aspects, which deal with State’s obligations to protect individuals’ lives from the consequences of the domestic violence. Thus, domestic violence is a concerning issue, which derives many consequences that sometimes are irreparable. In many cases, the State is obliged to save individuals’ lives from the effects of the domestic violence. The State will not be held responsible in all the cases for the consequences of the domestic violence. Due to the scarcity of the regulation of all the situations in the normative terms, the judicial practice that considers the cases of the right to live has evolved greatly, such that it has set many standards in case of increased institutional responsibility towards the consequences caused by the domestic violence. Due to a practical elaboration, the paper as such will focus in the treatment of cases from the judicial practice in the context of the State’s obligation to save individual’s life, whose life is endangered. Furthermore, there will also be an emphasis in the protection of the right to life and the State’s responsibility in relation to the consequences caused by the actions of the third parties.

  12. Forgiveness and consideration of future consequences in aggressive driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Michael; Dahlen, Eric R

    2008-09-01

    Most research on aggressive driving has focused on identifying aspects of driver personality which will exacerbate it (e.g., sensation seeking, impulsiveness, driving anger, etc.). The present study was designed to examine two theoretically relevant but previously unexplored personality factors predicted to reduce the risk of aggressive driving: trait forgiveness and consideration of future consequences. The utility of these variables in predicting aggressive driving and driving anger expression was evaluated among 316 college student volunteers. Hierarchical multiple regressions permitted an analysis of the incremental validity of these constructs beyond respondent gender, age, miles driven per week, and driving anger. Both forgiveness and consideration of future consequences contributed to the prediction of aggressive driving and driving anger expression, independent of driving anger. Research on aggressive driving may be enhanced by greater attention to adaptive, potentially risk-reducing traits. Moreover, forgiveness and consideration of future consequences may have implications for accident prevention.

  13. Development of economic consequence methodology for process risk analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadakbar, Omid; Khan, Faisal; Imtiaz, Syed

    2015-04-01

    A comprehensive methodology for economic consequence analysis with appropriate models for risk analysis of process systems is proposed. This methodology uses loss functions to relate process deviations in a given scenario to economic losses. It consists of four steps: definition of a scenario, identification of losses, quantification of losses, and integration of losses. In this methodology, the process deviations that contribute to a given accident scenario are identified and mapped to assess potential consequences. Losses are assessed with an appropriate loss function (revised Taguchi, modified inverted normal) for each type of loss. The total loss is quantified by integrating different loss functions. The proposed methodology has been examined on two industrial case studies. Implementation of this new economic consequence methodology in quantitative risk assessment will provide better understanding and quantification of risk. This will improve design, decision making, and risk management strategies.

  14. [The Fukushima nuclear accident: consequences for Japan and for us].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosche, B

    2013-04-01

    The Fukushima accident was the consequence of a preceding 2-fold natural catastrophe: the earth quake of 11 March 2011 and the subsequent tsunami. Due to favourable winds and to evacuation measures the radiation exposure to the general population in Japan as a whole and with some exceptions in the region outside the evacuation zone, too, was low. In this article the attempt is made to give an estimate of health consequences to the public. This is based upon WHO's dose estimates, knowledge of the consequences of the Chernobyl accident, of the atmospheric nuclear bomb testing in Kazakhstan and on the risk of childhood leukaemia after low dose radiation exposure. For Germany, there was no radiation threat due to the accident. Nonetheless, the events in Japan made clear that the rules and standards that were developed for the case of a reactor accident need to be revised.

  15. Procrastination, consideration of future consequences, and episodic future thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebetez, Marie My Lien; Barsics, Catherine; Rochat, Lucien; D'Argembeau, Arnaud; Van der Linden, Martial

    2016-05-01

    Despite the intrinsic temporal nature of procrastination, little research has examined the link between this form of self-regulatory failure and the consideration of future consequences, and no study has addressed the link between procrastination and episodic future thinking. The aim of the present study was to explore these relationships. Participants were asked to project themselves into possible future events and to rate the amount of sensory-perceptual details and autonoetic consciousness associated with their representations. They were also asked to complete questionnaires that assessed procrastination, the consideration of future consequences, and negative affect. Results showed that both the consideration of future consequences and episodic future thinking were associated with procrastination, and in particular with procrastination-related decision making abilities and procrastination-related motivational dispositions, respectively.

  16. [Microcirculatory consequences of a venous striction in the rat. Effect of a coumarine-rutine association].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laemmel, E; Stücker, O; Pons, C; Duverger, J P; Dedieu, F; Leutenegger, E

    1998-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the consequences of a venous striction on capillary red blood cell distribution and venular blood return and the effect of a coumarin derivative-rutoside combination. The study was conducted, in vivo, in the rat cremaster muscle using intravital microscopy. The striction lasted thirty minutes and was obtained by clamping the epigastric vein. This mechanical constraint was sufficient to induce microcirculatory modifications without disrupting microvessels. Before the striction (t-5 min), the velocities and diameters of the veins and arteries were comparable in all groups. After the striction (t5 min), in the control group, venous blood flow decreased by 60%, from 0.48 +/- 0.09 mm3/s (t-5 min) to 0.20 +/- 0.06 mm3/s (t5 min). The results showed that after thirty minutes reperfusion, venular blood flow in the control animals was only 34% of initial blood flow. The mean red blood cell velocity dropped by 56%, the percentage of low perfused capillaries increased from 7.5% to 50%. Treatment of animals with a coumarin derivative-rutoside combination, particularly at 4 mg/kg coumarin derivative-100 mg/kg rutoside, has significantly improved the microcirculation. After thirty minutes reperfusion venular blood flow was 60% and the percentage of low perfused capillaries was only 10%. The effect seemed to be more pronounced for rutoside than coumarin derivatives. The interest of this study was to set up an experimental model of a venous striction not too severe to induce micro-hemorrages but enough to modify microcirculation. This model was used to quantify the beneficial effects of a coumarin derivative-rutoside combination.

  17. Impact of the NCAM derived mimetic peptide plannexin on the acute cellular consequences of a status epilepticus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zellinger, Christina; Hadamitzky, Martin; Bock, Elisabeth;

    2011-01-01

    cells, which was evident 48h following status epilepticus. In conclusion, the data might give first evidence that plannexin can protect immature neurons in vivo. Future studies are necessary to evaluate whether disease-modifying or preventive effects are observed in models of epileptogenesis....

  18. Consequences of a hypothetical incident for different sectors

    CERN Document Server

    Bertinelli, F; Garion, C; Jimenez, J M; Parma, V; Perin, A; Schmidt, R; Tavian, L; Tock, J P; van Weelderen, R

    2011-01-01

    During the 2009 long shutdown, the LHC machine has been partially consolidated by adding safety relief devices in order to better protect the cryostats against large helium release and consequently to mitigate the risks of collateral damages. After recalling the present relief valve implementation and other mitigations related to the collateral damages, this paper describes the damage process of a hypothetical incident, presents its consequences for the different sectors and for beam energies up to 5 TeV with emphasis on the induced downtime.

  19. Effects of Positive and Negative Consequences on Altruistic Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Pacheco

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effects of different types of consequences (positive and negative for helping and not helping, was used a preparation in which each participant had to solve arithmetical operations of different complexity to accumulate interchangeable points by a compact disc. During the task the participants could accept or refuse themselves to help a virtual peer who could not accumulate his points. The results show that participants did prefer to help their virtual peer only when negative consequences for not helping were presented. Even though the quality of the help for peer wasinferior compared to the execution shown in the participant own task.

  20. Retrospective evaluation of the consequence of alleged patch test sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Charlotte D; Paulsen, Evy; Andersen, Klaus E

    2006-01-01

    consequences in cases of possible patch test sensitization. Among 7619 consecutively tested eczema patients in a 14-year period 26 (0.3%) were identified in the database as having had a late patch test reaction, which may be an indication of patch test sensitization. 9 of these cases were not suitable....... For the remaining 11 patients we could not rule out that they were patch test sensitized, and they were investigated further. 1 was diseased and 10 were interviewed regarding the possible consequences of the alleged patch test sensitization. 9 had not experienced any dermatitis problems, and 1 could not exclude...

  1. [Health consequences of smoking electronic cigarettes are poorly described].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tøttenborg, Sandra Søgaard; Holm, Astrid Ledgaard; Wibholm, Niels Christoffer; Lange, Peter

    2014-09-01

    Despite increasing popularity, health consequences of vaping (smoking electronic cigarettes, e-cigarettes) are poorly described. Few studies suggest that vaping has less deleterious effects on lung function than smoking conventional cigarettes. One large study found that e-cigarettes were as efficient as nicotine patches in smoking cessation. The long-term consequences of vaping are however unknown and while some experts are open towards e-cigarettes as a safer way of satisfying nicotine addiction, others worry that vaping in addition to presenting a health hazard may lead to an increased number of smokers of conventional cigarettes.

  2. Consequences of a Possible Di-Gamma Resonace at TRISTAN

    OpenAIRE

    Hagiwara, K.; Matsumoto, S.; Tanaka, M.

    1993-01-01

    If high mass di-gamma events observed at LEP are due to the production of a di-gamma resonance via its leptonic coupling, its consequences can be observed at TRISTAN. We find that a predicted $Z$ decay branching rate is too small to account for the observed events if the resonance spin is zero, due to a strong cancellation in the decay amplitudes. Such a cancellation is absent if the resonance has a spin two. We study the consequences of a tensor production in the processes $e^+e^- \\to e^+e^-...

  3. Motivational basis of dissonance: the singular role of behavioral consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scher, S J; Cooper, J

    1989-06-01

    This article provides the first empirical test of the idea that discrepancy is not needed in order to arouse cognitive dissonance. Dissonance was aroused when Ss felt responsible for some aversive consequence, regardless of whether their behavior was consistent (writing a proattitudinal essay) or inconsistent (a counterattitudinal essay) with beliefs. The data demonstrate that in both situations, dissonance is aroused. This result, based on the dissonance motivation model of Cooper and Fazio (1984), strongly suggests that the motivational basis for dissonance is the felt responsibility for aversive consequences. The theoretical implications of this outlook are explored, including a discussion of the many ways that it expands the applicability of dissonance theory.

  4. Radiological consequence analysis with HEU and LEU fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodruff, W.L.; Warinner, D.K.; Matos, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    A model for estimating the radiological consequences from a hypothetical accident in HEU and LEU fueled research and test reactors is presented. Simple hand calculations based on fission product yield table inventories and non-site specific dispersion data may be adequate in many cases. However, more detailed inventories and site specific data on meteorological conditions and release rates and heights can result in substantial reductions in the dose estimates. LEU fuel gives essentially the same doses as HEU fuel. The plutonium buildup in the LEU fuel does not significantly increase the radiological consequences. The dose to the thyroid is the limiting dose. 10 references, 3 figures, 7 tables.

  5. Review of methods to derive a Polar Cap (PC) index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauning, Peter

    2016-07-01

    Since a Polar Cap (PC) index was introduced in 1985, several different methods have been used to derive index values. Basically, the northern (PCN) and southern (PCS) are based on geomagnetic recordings at Qaanaaq (Thule) and Vostok, respectively. However, different derivation methods can give index values differing by more than a factor 2. The PC indices are used, among other, in scientific analyses to link solar wind conditions to relevant geophysical effects and in forecast efforts to establish numerical criteria for imminent risk of geomagnetic storms and substorms. Thus, it is unfortunate that several different versions of the PC index have been in use, often without specifically mentioning the index version being used or without ensuring that proper documention and specification of the derivation method is available. The presentation shall briefly describe the basic calculation of a Polar Cap index and point specifically to the differences between the different derivation methods and to the consequences for the index values

  6. Essays on Derivatives Pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokholm, Thomas

    The field of quantitative finance has been criticized in the mainstream media lately and been accused of being one of the causes of the financial crisis. Convenient as this explanation may be, my belief is that a part of the solution to the crisis is to use more (and not less) sophisticated....... With the existence of a liquid market for derivatives with variance as underlying, such as VIX options, VIX futures and a well-developed over-the-counter market for options on variance swaps, it is important to consider models that are able to fit these markets while consistently pricing vanilla options...

  7. Potential consequences of selection on gestation length on Holstein performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic evaluations for gestation length (GL) for Holstein service sires were studied to determine their effectiveness in predicting GL in an independent data set. Consequences of selection on GL were assessed also by examining correlated changes in milk and fitness traits. Holstein bulls, each with...

  8. The Consequences of Internet Addiction: Implications for Counseling Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Karyn Dayle; Minatrea, Neresa B.

    2001-01-01

    With an increase in Internet use has come the potential problem of excessive Internet usage or "Internet addiction." It is important that counselors recognize the signs and symptoms of Internet addiction. The purpose of this article is to present the characteristics, the consequences, and the emerging treatment approaches of Internet addiction.…

  9. Consequences of Turkish return migration from Western Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunuroglu, F.K.; Yagmur, Kutlay; van de Vijver, Fons; Kroon, Sjaak

    2015-01-01

    We studied the consequences of Turkish return migration in the reconstruction of 'migrant' identities into 'almanci' identities (literally: German-like; a pejorative term denoting Turkish returnees with a German-like identity) using semi-structured, oral interviews among 48 informants. The study use

  10. Origins, Consequences, and Management of Countertransference: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberger, Eric W.; Hayes, Jeffrey A.

    2002-01-01

    Insight into the construct of countertransference may be gained by studying the relationships among its constituents. Toward that end, a single therapy dyad was analyzed for 13 sessions. Client verbalizations predicted to trigger countertransference reactions were studied in relation to their possible consequences, and the potential mitigating…

  11. Lessons from Chernobyl and prognosis for Fukushima: radiological consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Victor K

    2012-03-01

    The following are considered: results of large-scale radiation epidemiological studies of the health effects of the Chernobyl accident, radiation risks for emergency workers and the affected population; and verification of ICRP risk models taking into account data on the Chernobyl accident and preliminary prognostic estimates of potential radiological consequences of the Fukushima disaster.

  12. Psychological symptoms as long-term consequences of war experiences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Priebe, S.; Jankovic Gavrilovic, J.; Bremner, S.; Ajdukovic, D.; Franciskovic, T.; Galeazzi, G.M.; Kucukalic, A.; Lecic-Tosevski, D.; Morina, N.; Popovski, M.; Schützwohl, M.; Bogic, M.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims: War experiences can affect mental health, but large-scale studies on the long-term impact are rare. We aimed to assess long-term mental health consequences of war in both people who stayed in the conflict area and refugees. Method: On average 8 years after the war in former

  13. 40 CFR 68.22 - Offsite consequence analysis parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offsite consequence analysis parameters. 68.22 Section 68.22 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... topography, as appropriate. Urban means that there are many obstacles in the immediate area; obstacles...

  14. 40 CFR 68.165 - Offsite consequence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (toxics only); (10) Topography (toxics only); (11) Distance to endpoint; (12) Public and environmental... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offsite consequence analysis. 68.165 Section 68.165 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...

  15. The merits and economic consequences of reputation : Three essays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollander, S.

    2007-01-01

    In business, agents are exposed to both hidden information and hidden action. Occasionally, reputation for credibility is valuable in solving or mitigating the economic consequences of these problems. A ‘good’ firm can distinguish itself from a ‘bad’ firm by sending a signal about its quality to the

  16. The Intended and Unintended Consequences of International Service-Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabtree, Robbin D.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research on service-learning in international contexts tends to focus on the benefits and outcomes for students and educational institutions. This essay is intended to provoke further examination of issues related to university-community engagement in global contexts, particularly in terms of the consequences for host communities. In…

  17. Cardiovascular consequences of obesity: how will the UK cope?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Purcell

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Summary: it is estimated that by 2050, the majority of Britain’s population will be obese. In this article, Dr Henry Purcell discusses the cardiovascular consequences of obesity and what needs to be done to equip healthcare professionals with the tools and training to help prevent and treat weight-related diseases.

  18. Implementation of School Health Promotion: Consequences for Professional Assistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boot, N. M. W. M.; de Vries, N. K.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This case study aimed to examine the factors influencing the implementation of health promotion (HP) policies and programs in secondary schools and the consequences for professional assistance. Design/methodology/approach: Group interviews were held in two schools that represented the best and worst case of implementation of a health…

  19. Prevalence, Pattern and Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    adult and adolescent women by a current or former male partner.[2]. IPV is one of the most ... Aim: To determine the prevalence, pattern and consequences of IPV during pregnancy in Abakaliki, Southeast ..... facts that women are generally reluctant to disclose IPV because of the feeling of self shame, loyalty to Husbands,.

  20. Fitness consequences of timing of migration and breeding in cormorants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip Gienapp

    Full Text Available In most bird species timing of breeding affects reproductive success whereby early breeding is favoured. In migratory species migration time, especially arrival at the breeding grounds, and breeding time are expected to be correlated. Consequently, migration time should also have fitness consequences. However, in contrast to breeding time, evidence for fitness consequences of migration time is much more limited. Climate change has been shown to negatively affect the synchrony between trophic levels thereby leading to directional selection on timing but again direct evidence in avian migration time is scarce. We here analysed fitness consequences of migration and breeding time in great cormorants and tested whether climate change has led to increased selection on timing using a long-term data set from a breeding colony on the island of Vorsø (Denmark. Reproductive success, measured as number of fledglings, correlated with breeding time and arrival time at the colony and declined during the season. This seasonal decline became steeper during the study period for both migration and breeding time and was positively correlated to winter/spring climate, i.e. selection was stronger after warmer winters/springs. However, the increasing selection pressure on timing seems to be unrelated to climate change as the climatic variables that were related to selection strength did not increase during the study period. There is indirect evidence that phenology or abundances of preferred prey species have changed which could have altered selection on timing of migration and breeding.

  1. Fitness consequences of divorce in the oystercatcher, Haematopus ostralegus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heg, D; Bruinzeel, LW; Ens, BJ

    2003-01-01

    We investigated the fitness consequences of divorce in oystercatchers. We made a distinction between two types of divorce: in desertions the disruption of the pair bond is initiated by one of the pair members, and in usurpations by a conspecific individual. Survival and reproduction prospects for oy

  2. Determinants and consequences of long-term benzodiazepine use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manthey, Leonie

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis is to describe the epidemiology of long term BZD use as well as its long term consequences. This thesis is structured into three sections: In section one, the correlates of BZD use, new use, chronic use, inappropriate use, and BZD dependence severity are investigate

  3. Consequence Maps: A Novel Behavior Management Tool for Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Catherine E.; Simpson, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Behavior management remains one of the most significant challenges faced by classroom personnel. One relatively novel and promising management approach involves the use of "Consequence Maps". In this article we discuss the use of this method, including its application and evaluation. A case study of a six-year-old boy in a self-contained special…

  4. School Sexual Abuse Prevention: Unintended Consequences and Dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trudell, Bonnie; Whatley, Mariamne H.

    1988-01-01

    Elementary school personnel should be aware of possible unintended consequences of using school sexual abuse prevention programs and materials, including emphasizing a simple solution to a complex social problem and contributing to victim blaming. Dilemmas that arise for classroom teachers around predeveloped curricular materials and mandatory…

  5. The Consequences of Internet Addiction: Implications for Counseling Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Karyn Dayle; Minatrea, Neresa B.

    2001-01-01

    With an increase in Internet use has come the potential problem of excessive Internet usage or "Internet addiction." It is important that counselors recognize the signs and symptoms of Internet addiction. The purpose of this article is to present the characteristics, the consequences, and the emerging treatment approaches of Internet addiction.…

  6. The Reversal in Migration Patterns -- Some Rural Development Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploch, Louis A.

    The reversal in migration patterns in the 1970's resulting in a net population flow from metropolitan (urban) to nonmetropolitan (rural) areas may have a variety of rural development consequences. Sizeable population increase in rural communities which traditionally have experienced net out-migration or very slow increases is evident in Maine…

  7. Hanford Waste Tank Bump Accident and Consequence Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BRATZEL, D.R.

    2000-06-20

    This report provides a new evaluation of the Hanford tank bump accident analysis and consequences for incorporation into the Authorization Basis. The analysis scope is for the safe storage of waste in its current configuration in single-shell and double-shell tanks.

  8. Psychological symptoms as long-term consequences of war experiences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Priebe; J. Jankovic Gavrilovic; S. Bremner; D. Ajdukovic; T. Franciskovic; G.M. Galeazzi; A. Kucukalic; D. Lecic-Tosevski; N. Morina; M. Popovski; M. Schützwohl; M. Bogic

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aims: War experiences can affect mental health, but large-scale studies on the long-term impact are rare. We aimed to assess long-term mental health consequences of war in both people who stayed in the conflict area and refugees. Method: On average 8 years after the war in former Yugoslav

  9. Children in Hot Cars Result in Fatal Consequences

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... this! Home » Health Tips » Holiday and Seasonal Children in Hot Cars Result in Fatal Consequences Emergency physicians are warning the public ... throbbing headache, dizziness, nausea, confusion and disorientation. READ IN SUMMER Summer Safety: Alcohol And Boating Don’t ...

  10. AACSB Accreditation and Possible Unintended Consequences: A Deming View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanovich, Paul; Mueller, James; Benson, Dan

    2014-01-01

    The AACSB accreditation process reflects basic quality principles, providing standards and a process for feedback for continuous improvement. However, implementation can lead to unintended negative consequences. The literature shows that while institutionalism and critical theory have been used as a theoretical base for evaluating accreditation,…

  11. PUFA - an index of clinical consequences of untreated dental caries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monse, B.; Heinrich-Weltzien, R.; Benzian, H.; Holmgren, C.J.; Palenstein Helderman, W.H. van

    2010-01-01

    RATIONALE: Dental caries is a global public health problem, especially in children. Most caries in developing countries remains untreated. Only limited data are available on the clinical consequences of untreated dental caries because there is no measure to quantify the prevalence and severity of or

  12. Consequences of Skill: The Case of Abacus Training in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stigler, James W.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Studies abacus calculation to explore the development of skills and the resulting consequences. Consideration of the effects of abacus training, transfer of the skill to other tasks, and the contexts in which abacus skill develops demonstrates the multiple ways in which specific skills can contribute to cognitive development. (ETS)

  13. The radiological assessment system for consequence analysis - RASCAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoreen, A.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Ramsdell, J.V. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Athey, G.F. [Athey Consulting, Charles Town, WV (United States)] [and others

    1996-04-01

    The Radiological Assessment System for Consequence Analysis, Version 2.1 (RASCAL 2.1) has been developed for use during a response to radiological emergencies. The model estimates doses for comparison with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Protective Action Guides (PAGs) and thresholds for acute health effects. RASCAL was designed to be used by U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) personnel who report to the site of a nuclear accident to conduct an independent evaluation of dose and consequence projections and personnel who conduct training and drills on emergency responses. It allows consideration of the dominant aspects of the source term, transport, dose, and consequences. RASCAL consists of three computational tools: ST-DOSE, FM-DOSE, and DECAY. ST-DOSE computes source term, atmospheric transport, and dose to man from accidental airborne releases of radionuclides. The source-term calculations are appropriate for accidents at U.S. power reactors. FM-DOSE computes doses from environmental concentrations of radionuclides in the air and on the ground. DECAY computes radiological decay and daughter in-growth. RASCAL 2.1 is a DOS application that can be run under Windows 3.1 and 95. RASCAL has been the starting point for other accident consequence models, notably INTERRAS, an international version of RASCAL, and HASCAL, an expansion of RASCAL that will model radiological, biological, and chemical accidents.

  14. Academic Administration as the Puppet Masters (Sicelankobe). The Consequences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amory, A.

    2008-01-01

    This article investigates the notions of race, gender and learning technology as a consequence of the commodification of educational administrative systems (part of new managerialism--neo-liberalism), in order to foster debate. It also asks if new managerialism is an appropriate model within an African arena. New managerialism can be defined as…

  15. Consequences of the Doha Round Trade Reforms for Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osakwe, P.N.; Tongeren, van F.W.; Achterbosch, T.J.; Hammouda, H.B.

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides a quantitative estimate of the potential economic consequences of multilateral trade reform for Africa using a framework that explicitly incorporates issues of concern to the region, such as preference erosion, loss of tariff revenue, and trade facilitation. The results suggest t

  16. The Social Consequences of Single Parenthood: A Longitudinal Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael J.

    1980-01-01

    Loneliness and lack of social support have been described as the more serious social consequences of the single-parent status. Revealed shifts in the household composition of one-parent families over time, a lower level of community participation, and a feeling of powerlessness among single-parent, family heads. (Author)

  17. Consequences of asymptomatic bacteriuria in women with diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerlings, SE; Stolk, RP; Camps, MJL; Netten, PM; Collet, JT; Schneeberger, PM; Hoepelman, AIM

    2001-01-01

    Background: Women with diabetes mellitus (DM) have asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) more often than women without DM. It is unknown, however, what the consequences of ASB are in these women. Objectives: To compare women with DM with and without ASB for the development of symptomatic urinary tract

  18. Children in Hot Cars Result in Fatal Consequences

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... this! Home » Health Tips » Holiday and Seasonal Children in Hot Cars Result in Fatal Consequences Emergency physicians are warning the public ... throbbing headache, dizziness, nausea, confusion and disorientation. READ IN SUMMER Top Tips to a Safe Memorial Day ...

  19. Exploring the consequences of nonbelieved memories in the DRM paradigm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otgaar, Henry; Moldoveanu, Georgiana; Wang, Jianqin; Howe, Mark L

    2016-01-01

    In the current experiments, we attempted to elicit nonbelieved memories (NBMs) using the Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) false memory paradigm. Furthermore, by using this approach, we explored the consequences of nonbelieved true and false memories. In Experiments 1 and 2, participants received sever

  20. The Causes and Consequences of Academic Procrastination: A Research Note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orpen, Christopher

    1998-01-01

    Examines whether students who are intrinsically motivated about learning procrastinate less than those students who are externally motivated and also explores the consequences of procrastination. Indicates that students whose motivation is external are more likely to procrastinate while procrastination is associated with poor academic performance…

  1. Studies on Determinants and Consequences of Financial Reporting Quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Elemes (Tassos)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract The purpose of this dissertation is to investigate determinants and consequences of financial reporting quality. The first study examines the impact of high quality financial reporting on private firms’ access to bank debt and trade credit capital. The results suggest

  2. NNSA/NV Consequence Management Capabilities for Radiological Emergency Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. R. Bowman

    2002-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office (NNSA/NV) provides an integrated Consequence Management (CM) response capability for the (NNSA) in the event of a radiological emergency. This encompasses planning, technical operations, and home team support. As the lead organization for CM planning and operations, NNSA/NV coordinates the response of the following assets during the planning and operational phases of a radiological accident or incident: (1) Predictive dispersion modeling through the Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and the High Consequence Assessment Group at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); (2) Regional radiological emergency assistance through the eight Radiological Assistance Program (RAP) regional response centers; (3) Medical advice and assistance through the Radiation Emergency Assistance Center/Training Site (REAC/TS) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee; (4) Aerial radiological mapping using the fixed-wing and rotor-wing aircraft of the Aerial Measuring System (AMS); (5) Consequence Management Planning Teams (CMPT) and Consequence Management Response Teams (CMRT) to provide CM field operations and command and control. Descriptions of the technical capabilities employed during planning and operations are given below for each of the elements comprising the integrated CM capability.

  3. Fitness consequences of divorce in the oystercatcher, Haematopus ostralegus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heg, Dik; Bruinzeel, Leo W.; Ens, Bruno J.

    We investigated the fitness consequences of divorce in oystercatchers. We made a distinction between two types of divorce: in desertions the disruption of the pair bond is initiated by one of the pair members, and in usurpations by a conspecific individual. Survival and reproduction prospects for

  4. Unintended Cognitive, Affective, and Behavioral Consequences of Group Assignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neu, Wayne A.

    2012-01-01

    Pedagogical strategies can be thought of as a set of stimuli placed in students' environment to influence their cognition, affect, and behavior. The design of strategies such as group assignments and a comprehensive understanding of their consequences for students should then include an analysis of all three of these elements and the…

  5. How do we communicate stereotypes? Linguistic bases and inferential consequences.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.H.J. Wigboldus; G.R. Semin; R. Spears

    2001-01-01

    The linguistic expectancy bias is defined as the tendency to describe expectancy-consistent information at a higher level of abstraction than expectancy-inconsistent information. The communicative consequences of this bias were examined in 3 experiments. Analyses of judgments that recipients made on

  6. How do we communicate stereotypes? Linguistic bases and inferential consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wigboldus, DHJ; Semin, GR; Spears, R

    2000-01-01

    The linguistic expectancy bias is defined as the tendency to describe expectancy-consistent information at a higher level of abstraction than expectancy-inconsistent information; The communicative consequences of this bias were examined in 3 experiments. Analyses of judgments that recipients made on

  7. Creative behavior: Effects of the verbal consequences type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carpio, Claudio

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different types of verbal consequences were evaluated in second order conditional discrimination tasks on creative behavior emergence in four experimental groups. In the first group, it was specified only if the responses were correct or incorrect. For the second group, it was specified the particular stimulus selected and if that response was correct or incorrect. For the third group, it was specified the relationship between selected comparative stimulus (CoS and the matching stimulus (MS and if the answer was correct or incorrect. For the fourth group, it was specified if the relation MS-CoS was equal or not to the relation between the selector stimuli (SS and if the response was correct or incorrect. Post- training transference and creative behavior tests were performed. The results showed that the different types of verbal consequences promoted contact with different aspects of the performance in the task, being partially relational consequences which promoted higher percentages in transference and creative behavior tests. The conceptual status of the verbal consequences is discussed.

  8. Logical Consequences: Using Passing Times to Prevent Misbehavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harriman, Dion; Pierre, Christina

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the No Passing Plan, a no-passing policy implemented at White Bear Lake (MN) High School-North Campus in order to prevent chronic tardiness and misbehavior in the halls. The plan is an alternative consequence for administrators to use with students who are disruptive in the halls or consistently tardy to class. Suspending…

  9. Adverse Consequences of Drug Use in the Elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.S. van der Hooft (Cornelis)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractAlthough drug therapy often results in beneficial effects and improves functional status, adverse consequences of pharmacotherapy are a major patient safety concern, especially in the growing older population '.In the well-known report 'To err is human: building a safer health care syste

  10. Consequences of asymptomatic bacteriuria in women with diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerlings, SE; Stolk, RP; Camps, MJL; Netten, PM; Collet, JT; Schneeberger, PM; Hoepelman, AIM

    2001-01-01

    Background: Women with diabetes mellitus (DM) have asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) more often than women without DM. It is unknown, however, what the consequences of ASB are in these women. Objectives: To compare women with DM with and without ASB for the development of symptomatic urinary tract infe

  11. Growing up with short stature : Psychosocial consequences of hormone treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser-van Balen, J.

    2007-01-01

    Growing up with short stature. Psychosocial consequences of hormone treatment To enhance height in children with short stature, growth hormone (GH) can be used. In short children without a detectable pathology underlying their short stature, there is no medical rationale for growth hormone treatment

  12. Third world industrialisation-The consequences for Western Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Wabe, J. Stuart

    1987-01-01

    There is growing awareness that some fundamental change has for some time been affecting the major European economies, involving a shift of manufacturing away from the developed market economies of Europe towards the developing countries. The following article analyses the process of European deindustrialisation and discusses some of the possible consequences.

  13. Proactive Disciplinary Consequences in Three Illinois High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golomb, Sara R.

    2010-01-01

    Disciplinary codes of conduct guide administrators when determining the consequences for student misconduct. The codes of conduct commonly found in schools rely on exclusionary measures that have been associated with negative student outcomes and controversy but little is being done to provide positive model for these written policies. Schools…

  14. Resistance and Its Consequences: The Street Culture of Punks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Stephen W.

    1989-01-01

    Explores the street life of an adolescent subculture through field study of the Canadian West Coast punk rock subculture. Demonstrates through observation of the members, their behavior and attitudes, and the reactions of others to them, that their activities both represent, and are consequences of, resistance to the dominant order. (Author/JS)

  15. Psychometric development of the hypersexual behavior consequences scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Rory C; Garos, Sheila; Fong, Timothy

    2012-09-01

    Background and aims The past decade has seen an increased interest in understanding hypersexual behavior and its associated features. Beyond the obvious risks for sexually transmitted infections, there is a paucity of literature examining specific challenges encountered by hypersexual individuals. This study investigated and developed a new scale, the Hypersexual Behavior Consequences Scale (HBCS), to assess the various consequences reported among hypersexual patients. Methods Participants were drawn from a sample of patients recruited in a DSM-5 Field Trial for Hypersexual Disorder (HD). Participants completed the Hypersexual Behavior Inventory, a structured diagnostic interview to assess for psychopathology and HD, and self-report measures of personality, life satisfaction, and the initial item pool for the HBCS. Results Factor analysis reduced the HBCS items to a single factor solution which showed high internal consistency and stability over time. Higher HBCS scores were positively correlated with higher levels of emotional dysregulation, impulsivity, and stress proneness and lower levels of satisfaction with life and happiness. HBCS scores among the hypersexual patients were significantly higher than non-hypersexual patients. Conclusions The HBCS possesses good psychometric properties and appears to capture various consequences associated with the DSM-5 proposed criteria for HD. The HBCS can be used to aid clinicians and researchers in identifying consequences associated with hypersexual behavior. The HBCS may also prove a useful tool to guide treatment interventions aimed at reducing the negative impact of hypersexuality in patient populations.

  16. Environmental Consequences of Volumetric Traffic Flow in Calabar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-05-20

    May 20, 2011 ... This paper seek to examined the environmental consequences of ... shows that there is a positive relationship between air pollutants ... The climate of the study area is of the semi-equatorial (monsoonal) type ... Literature Review ... of transport in Nigeria on the one hand while changing attitude and rise in.

  17. A propositional typicality logic for extending rational consequence

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Booth, R

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available in which a given formula holds. The semantics is in terms of ranked models as studied in KLM-style preferential reasoning. This allows us to show that KLM-style rational consequence relations can be embedded in our logic. Moreover we show that we can define...

  18. 39 CFR 268.2 - Consequences of non-compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-EMPLOYEE RULES OF CONDUCT § 268.2 Consequences of non-compliance. (a) The Privacy Act authorizes any... implementing regulations. In certain instances of willful or intentional non-compliance, the plaintiff may... sanctions, any employee violating any provisions of these rules of conduct is subject to disciplinary...

  19. The merits and economic consequences of reputation : Three essays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollander, S.

    2007-01-01

    In business, agents are exposed to both hidden information and hidden action. Occasionally, reputation for credibility is valuable in solving or mitigating the economic consequences of these problems. A ‘good’ firm can distinguish itself from a ‘bad’ firm by sending a signal about its quality to the

  20. Functional consequences of realistic biodiversity changes in a marine ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken, Matthew E S; Friberg, Sara E; Gonzalez-Dorantes, Cirse A; Williams, Susan L

    2008-01-22

    Declines in biodiversity have prompted concern over the consequences of species loss for the goods and services provided by natural ecosystems. However, relatively few studies have evaluated the functional consequences of realistic, nonrandom changes in biodiversity. Instead, most designs have used randomly selected assemblages from a local species pool to construct diversity gradients. It is therefore difficult, based on current evidence, to predict the functional consequences of realistic declines in biodiversity. In this study, we used tide pool microcosms to demonstrate that the effects of real-world changes in biodiversity may be very different from those of random diversity changes. Specifically, we measured the relationship between the diversity of a seaweed assemblage and its ability to use nitrogen, a key limiting nutrient in nearshore marine systems. We quantified nitrogen uptake using both experimental and model seaweed assemblages and found that natural increases in diversity resulted in enhanced rates of nitrogen use, whereas random diversity changes had no effect on nitrogen uptake. Our results suggest that understanding the real-world consequences of declining biodiversity will require addressing changes in species performance along natural diversity gradients and understanding the relationships between species' susceptibility to loss and their contributions to ecosystem functioning.

  1. Omission of Causal Indicators: Consequences and Implications for Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre-Urreta, Miguel I.; Rönkkö, Mikko; Marakas, George M.

    2016-01-01

    One of the central assumptions of the causal-indicator literature is that all causal indicators must be included in the research model and that the exclusion of one or more relevant causal indicators would have severe negative consequences by altering the meaning of the latent variable. In this research we show that the omission of a relevant…

  2. The Education Consequences of Language Proficiency for Young Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yao, Yuxin; Ohinata, Asako; van Ours, Jan

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies the educational consequences of language proficiency by investigating the relationship between dialect-speaking and academic performance of 5-6 year old children in the Netherlands. We find that dialect-speaking has a modestly negative effect on boys' language test scores. In addi

  3. The educational consequences of language proficiency for young children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yao, Yuxin; Ohinata, Asako; van Ours, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Our paper studies the educational consequences of language proficiency by investigating the relationship between dialect-speaking and academic performance of 5–6 year old children in the Netherlands. We find that dialect-speaking has a modestly negative effect on boys’ language test scores. In addit

  4. Red blood cell antibodies in pregnancy and their clinical consequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordvall, Maria; Dziegiel, Morten Hanefeld; Hegaard, Hanne Kristine;

    2009-01-01

    The objective was to determine clinical consequences of various specificities for the infant/fetus. The population was patients referred between 1998 and 2005 to the tertiary center because of detected red blood cell (RBC) alloimmunization. Altogether 455 infants were delivered by 390 alloimmunized...

  5. The Education Consequences of Language Proficiency for Young Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yao, Yuxin; Ohinata, Asako; van Ours, Jan

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies the educational consequences of language proficiency by investigating the relationship between dialect-speaking and academic performance of 5-6 year old children in the Netherlands. We find that dialect-speaking has a modestly negative effect on boys' language test scores. In

  6. The educational consequences of language proficiency for young children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yao, Yuxin; Ohinata, Asako; van Ours, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Our paper studies the educational consequences of language proficiency by investigating the relationship between dialect-speaking and academic performance of 5–6 year old children in the Netherlands. We find that dialect-speaking has a modestly negative effect on boys’ language test scores. In

  7. Consequence and Resilience Modeling for Chemical Supply Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamber, Kevin L.; Vugrin, Eric D.; Ehlen, Mark A.; Sun, Amy C.; Warren, Drake E.; Welk, Margaret E.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. chemical sector produces more than 70,000 chemicals that are essential material inputs to critical infrastructure systems, such as the energy, public health, and food and agriculture sectors. Disruptions to the chemical sector can potentially cascade to other dependent sectors, resulting in serious national consequences. To address this concern, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) tasked Sandia National Laboratories to develop a predictive consequence modeling and simulation capability for global chemical supply chains. This paper describes that capability , which includes a dynamic supply chain simulation platform called N_ABLE(tm). The paper also presents results from a case study that simulates the consequences of a Gulf Coast hurricane on selected segments of the U.S. chemical sector. The case study identified consequences that include impacted chemical facilities, cascading impacts to other parts of the chemical sector. and estimates of the lengths of chemical shortages and recovery . Overall. these simulation results can DHS prepare for and respond to actual disruptions.

  8. A Research on the Consequences of Authentic Leadership

    OpenAIRE

    Akif Tabak; Mustafa Polat; Serkan Cosar; Tolga Turkoz

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between employees' authentic leadership perceptions and three relevant authentic leadership consequences, organizational trust, organizational commitment and organizational cynicism. With 371 employees in a Turkish firm, correlation analysis results showed that authentic leadership perceptions of employees were positively related to organizational trust and organizational commitment, but was negatively related with organizational cynicism. Moreover,...

  9. The metabolic consequences of thyroxine replacement in adult hypopituitary patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filipsson Nyström, Helena; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Kourides, Ione;

    2012-01-01

    The metabolic consequences of thyroxine replacement in patients with central hypothyroidism (CH) need to be evaluated. The aim was to examine the outcome of thyroxine replacement in CH. Adult hypopituitary patients (n = 1595) with and without CH from KIMS (Pfizer International Metabolic Database...

  10. A Multilevel Analysis of eHub Adoption and Consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christiaanse, E.; Rodon, J.

    2005-01-01

    Although there has been a significant amount of research on the adoption of IS standards and consequences, most has tended to focus on traditional EDI standards, paying special attention to factors of individual adopters. However, the current proliferation of new IS standards, based on open

  11. The Education Consequences of Language Proficiency for Young Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yao, Yuxin; Ohinata, Asako; van Ours, Jan

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies the educational consequences of language proficiency by investigating the relationship between dialect-speaking and academic performance of 5-6 year old children in the Netherlands. We find that dialect-speaking has a modestly negative effect on boys' language test scores. In addi

  12. The educational consequences of language proficiency for young children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yao, Yuxin; Ohinata, Asako; van Ours, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Our paper studies the educational consequences of language proficiency by investigating the relationship between dialect-speaking and academic performance of 5–6 year old children in the Netherlands. We find that dialect-speaking has a modestly negative effect on boys’ language test scores. In addit

  13. AACSB Accreditation and Possible Unintended Consequences: A Deming View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanovich, Paul; Mueller, James; Benson, Dan

    2014-01-01

    The AACSB accreditation process reflects basic quality principles, providing standards and a process for feedback for continuous improvement. However, implementation can lead to unintended negative consequences. The literature shows that while institutionalism and critical theory have been used as a theoretical base for evaluating accreditation,…

  14. The Affective Consequences of Cognitive Inhibition: Devaluation or Neutralization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frischen, Alexandra; Ferrey, Anne E.; Burt, Dustin H. R.; Pistchik, Meghan; Fenske, Mark J.

    2012-01-01

    Affective evaluations of previously ignored visual stimuli are more negative than those of novel items or prior targets of attention or response. This has been taken as evidence that inhibition has negative affective consequences. But inhibition could act instead to attenuate or "neutralize" preexisting affective salience, predicting opposite…

  15. In defense of derivations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungan, Carl E.

    2016-05-01

    At the 2015 AAPT Summer Meeting, I presented four derivations of the formula for motional emf. Such physics derivations involve the construction of explanatory frameworks involving diagrams and mathematical models. Although textbooks devote considerable space to such explanations, many teachers and students spend their time on worksheets, end-of-chapter problems, and the like. The book is reduced to a bank of solved (i.e., example) and unsolved (i.e., homework) questions, along with equations in colored boxes that presumably are to be used to answer those questions. Such an approach encourages fragmentation of knowledge, the view that there is only one right answer to a problem with the goal of physics being to find that answer (neatly boxed of course), and the inability to reason about even a slightly different (much less a novel) situation. If we are to develop scientific literacy, significant course time must be devoted to explaining the structure of and support for the models and equations we use.

  16. Generalized Derivations and Bilocal Jordan Derivations of Nest Algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dangui Yan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Let H be a complex Hilbert space and B(H the collection of all linear bounded operators, A is the closed subspace lattice including 0 an H, then A is a nest, accordingly alg A={T∈B(H:TN⊆N,  ∀N∈A} is a nest algebra. It will be shown that of nest algebra, generalized derivations are generalized inner derivations, and bilocal Jordan derivations are inner derivations.

  17. Psychological consequences of childhood obesity: psychiatric comorbidity and prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Jean; Matthews, Lynsay; Cobley, Stephen; Han, Ahreum; Sanders, Ross; Wiltshire, Huw D; Baker, Julien S

    2016-01-01

    Childhood obesity is one of the most serious public health challenges of the 21st century with far-reaching and enduring adverse consequences for health outcomes. Over 42 million children children will be OW or OB by 2025. The purpose of this review was to focus on psychiatric, psychological, and psychosocial consequences of childhood obesity (OBy) to include a broad range of international studies. The aim was to establish what has recently changed in relation to the common psychological consequences associated with childhood OBy. A systematic search was conducted in MEDLINE, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library for articles presenting information on the identification or prevention of psychiatric morbidity in childhood obesity. Relevant data were extracted and narratively reviewed. Findings established childhood OW/OBy was negatively associated with psychological comorbidities, such as depression, poorer perceived lower scores on health-related quality of life, emotional and behavioral disorders, and self-esteem during childhood. Evidence related to the association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and OBy remains unconvincing because of various findings from studies. OW children were more likely to experience multiple associated psychosocial problems than their healthy-weight peers, which may be adversely influenced by OBy stigma, teasing, and bullying. OBy stigma, teasing, and bullying are pervasive and can have serious consequences for emotional and physical health and performance. It remains unclear as to whether psychiatric disorders and psychological problems are a cause or a consequence of childhood obesity or whether common factors promote both obesity and psychiatric disturbances in susceptible children and adolescents. A cohesive and strategic approach to tackle this current obesity epidemic is necessary to combat this increasing trend which is compromising the health and well-being of the young generation and seriously

  18. Completely monotonic functions related to logarithmic derivatives of entire functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik Laurberg

    2011-01-01

    The logarithmic derivative l(x) of an entire function of genus p and having only non-positive zeros is represented in terms of a Stieltjes function. As a consequence, (-1)p(xml(x))(m+p) is a completely monotonic function for all m ≥ 0. This generalizes earlier results on complete monotonicity...... of functions related to Euler's psi-function. Applications to Barnes' multiple gamma functions are given....

  19. A REVIEW ON REGULATORY ASPECTS OF BIOTECHNOLOGY DERIVED PRODUCT

    OpenAIRE

    Modh Nehal M; Patel P.M; Patel N. M.

    2011-01-01

    Biotechnology-derived pharmaceuticals are a well established and growing part of the therapeutic armamentarium. Beginning with recombinant versions of products such as insulin that were previously manufactured by extraction from animal and human sources, licensed biotechnology drugs and those in development now span an ever-increasing range of product types and therapeutic categories. As a consequence of this diversity, both general and product class-specific scientific guidelines have been d...

  20. Acquiring Knowledge of Derived Nominals and Derived Adjectives in Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinellie, Sally A.; Kneile, Lynn A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This research investigated children's ability to acquire semantic and syntactic knowledge of derived nominals and derived adjectives in the context of short passages. The study also investigated the relation of morphological awareness and the ability to acquire knowledge of derived words in context. Method: A total of 106 children in…

  1. Experts' Understanding of Partial Derivatives Using the Partial Derivative Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roundy, David; Weber, Eric; Dray, Tevian; Bajracharya, Rabindra R.; Dorko, Allison; Smith, Emily M.; Manogue, Corinne A.

    2015-01-01

    Partial derivatives are used in a variety of different ways within physics. Thermodynamics, in particular, uses partial derivatives in ways that students often find especially confusing. We are at the beginning of a study of the teaching of partial derivatives, with a goal of better aligning the teaching of multivariable calculus with the needs of…

  2. Fluorescein Derivatives in Intravital Fluorescence Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S. Roberts

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Intravital fluorescence microscopy enables the direct imaging of fluorophores in vivo and advanced techniques such as fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM enable the simultaneous detection of multiple fluorophores. Consequently, it is now possible to record distribution and metabolism of a chemical in vivo and to optimise the delivery of fluorophores in vivo. Recent clinical applications with fluorescein and other intravital fluorescent stains have occurred in neurosurgery, dermatology [including photodynamic therapy (PDT] and endomicroscopy. Potential uses have been identified in periodontal disease, skin graft and cancer surgery. Animal studies have demonstrated that diseased tissue can be specifically stained with fluorophore conjugates. This review focuses on the fluorescein derived fluorophores in common clinical use and provides examples of novel applications from studies in tissue samples.

  3. Dark Energy and the Schwarzian Derivative

    CERN Document Server

    Gibbons, G W

    2014-01-01

    Theories with a time dependent Newton's constant admit two natural measures of time : atomic and astronomical. Temporal parametrisation by SL(2, R) transformations gives rise to an equivalence between theories with different time dependence's, including the special Case of no time dependence, a fact noticed by Mestschersky, Vinti and by Lynden-Bell. I point out that theories with time dependent dark energy densities admit three natural measures of time : atomic and astronomical and de Sitter related by temporal re-parametrizations and I extend Mestschersky-Vinti-Lynden-Bell's result to cover this more general situation. I find a consequent equivalence between theories in which the density of dark energy is constant in time and in which it varies with time. Strikingly a time dependent cosmological constant changes by the addition of a Schwarzian derivative term unless the temporal reparameterization belongs to SL(2, R). In General Relativity one may introduce a Schwarzian tensor to investigate how the notion o...

  4. Elevation Derivatives for National Applications

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Elevation Derivatives for National Applications (EDNA) is a seamless, nationwide, multi-layered three-dimensional (3D) hydrologic database derived from a version of...

  5. Elevation Derivatives for National Applications

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Elevation Derivatives for National Applications (EDNA) is a seamless, nationwide, multi-layered three-dimensional (3D) hydrologic database derived from a version of...

  6. The biology of glucagon and the consequences of hyperglucagonemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer Albrechtsen, Nicolai J; Kuhre, Rune E; Pedersen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    The proglucagon-derived peptide hormone, glucagon, comprises 29 amino acids. Its secretion from the pancreatic α cells is regulated by several factors. Glucagon increases blood glucose levels through gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis. Elevated plasma concentrations of glucagon, hyperglucagonemia...

  7. The biology of glucagon and the consequences of hyperglucagonemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer Albrechtsen, Nicolai J; Kuhre, Rune E; Pedersen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    The proglucagon-derived peptide hormone, glucagon, comprises 29 amino acids. Its secretion from the pancreatic α cells is regulated by several factors. Glucagon increases blood glucose levels through gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis. Elevated plasma concentrations of glucagon, hyperglucagonemia...

  8. Temporal Consequences, Message Framing, and Consideration of Future Consequences: Persuasion Effects on Adult Fruit Intake Intention and Resolve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruijn, Gert-Jan; Budding, Jeen

    2016-08-01

    Message framing is a persuasive strategy that has seen mixed evidence for promoting fruit intake intentions, potentially because framed messages for fruit intake have not (a) explicitly compared short-term consequences versus long-term consequences, (b) considered individual-level differences in time perspective, and (c) used alternative measures of fruit intake intentions. In the present online study, the effects of persuasive messages created from temporal context (short term vs. long term) and message frame (gain framed vs. loss framed) were investigated on fruit intake intentions and resolve among a sample of Dutch adults who were categorized as either present oriented or future oriented. For intention and resolve, results showed a significant Type of Frame × Type of Temporal Context interaction, such that gain-framed messages were more persuasive when combined with long-term consequences and loss-framed messages were more persuasive when combined with short-term consequences. The effect sizes for these differences were similar for resolve and intention, but only differences for intentions were significant. No other effects were found. These results demonstrate that message framing theory may usefully consider the inclusion of temporal context of outcomes and alternative motivation measures to maximize their persuasive effects.

  9. The Iran nuclear ambitions and the international consequences; Les ambitions nucleaires de l'Iran et leurs consequences internationales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-01-15

    This analysis of the Iran situation concerning the nuclear policy, is presented and discussed in three parts: the data and hypothesis of the iranian nuclear program, the regional strategy of Iran and evolution scenario and their consequences. (A.L.B.)

  10. Algae Derived Biofuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahan, Kauser [Rowan Univ., Glassboro, NJ (United States)

    2015-03-31

    One of the most promising fuel alternatives is algae biodiesel. Algae reproduce quickly, produce oils more efficiently than crop plants, and require relatively few nutrients for growth. These nutrients can potentially be derived from inexpensive waste sources such as flue gas and wastewater, providing a mutual benefit of helping to mitigate carbon dioxide waste. Algae can also be grown on land unsuitable for agricultural purposes, eliminating competition with food sources. This project focused on cultivating select algae species under various environmental conditions to optimize oil yield. Membrane studies were also conducted to transfer carbon di-oxide more efficiently. An LCA study was also conducted to investigate the energy intensive steps in algae cultivation.

  11. Original and Derived Judgment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Kirsten; Foss, Nicolai Juul; Klein, Peter G.

    Recent work links entrepreneurship to the economic theory of firm using the Knightian concept of entrepreneurship as judgment. When judgment is complementary to other as-sets, and these assets or their services are traded in well-functioning markets, it makes sense for entrepreneurs to hire labor...... and own assets. The entrepreneur's role, then, is to arrange or organize the human and capital assets under his control. We extend this Knightian concept of the firm by developing a theory of delegation under Knightian uncertainty. What we call original judgment belongs exclusively to owners, but owners...... may delegate a wide range of decision rights to subordinates, who exercise derived judgment. We call these employees "proxy-entrepreneurs," and ask how the firm's or-ganizational structure — its formal and informal systems of rewards and punishments, rules for settling disputes and renegotiating...

  12. The origin of scientific neurology and its consequences for modern and future neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, David A

    2014-01-01

    John Hughlings Jackson (1835-1911) created a science of brain function that, in scope and profundity, is among the great scientific discoveries of the 19th century. It is interesting that the magnitude of his achievement is not completely recognized even among his ardent admirers. Although thousands of practitioners around the world use the clinical applications of his science every day, the principles from which bedside neurology is derived have broader consequences-for modern and future science-that remain unrecognized and unexploited. This paper summarizes the scientific formalism that created modern neurology, demonstrates how its direct implications affect a current area of neuroscientific research, and indicates how Hughlings Jackson's ideas form a path toward a novel solution to an important open problem of the brain and mind.

  13. Observational consequences of turbulent pressure in the envelopes of massive stars

    CERN Document Server

    Grassitelli, Luca; Simon-Diaz, Sergio; Langer, Norbert; Castro, Norberto; Sanyal, Debashis

    2015-01-01

    The major mass fraction of the envelope of hot luminous stars is radiatively stable. However, the partial ionisation of hydrogen, helium and iron gives rise to extended sub-surface convection zones in all of them. In this work, we investigate the effect of the pressure induced by the turbulent motion in these zones based on the mixing length theory, and search for observable consequences. We find that the turbulent pressure fraction can amount up to ~5% in OB supergiants, and to ~30% in cooler supergiants. The resulting structural changes are, however, not significantly affecting the evolutionary tracks compared to previous calculations. Instead, a comparison of macroturbulent velocities derived from high quality spectra of OB stars with the turbulent pressure fraction obtained in corresponding stellar models reveals a strong correlation of these two quantities. We discuss a possible physical connection, and conclude that turbulent pressure fluctuations may drive high-order oscillations, which - as conjecture...

  14. On Q-derived polynomials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.J. Stroeker (Roel)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractA Q-derived polynomial is a univariate polynomial, defined over the rationals, with the property that its zeros, and those of all its derivatives are rational numbers. There is a conjecture that says that Q-derived polynomials of degree 4 with distinct roots for themselves and all their

  15. On Q-derived polynomials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.J. Stroeker (Roel)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractA Q-derived polynomial is a univariate polynomial, defined over the rationals, with the property that its zeros, and those of all its derivatives are rational numbers. There is a conjecture that says that Q-derived polynomials of degree 4 with distinct roots for themselves and all their

  16. Local derivations on Jordan triples

    OpenAIRE

    Mackey, Michael

    2013-01-01

    R. V. Kadison (J. Algebra 130 (1990) 494–509) defined the notion of local derivation on an algebra and proved that every continuous local derivation on a von Neumann algebra is a derivation. We provide the analogous result in the setting of Jordan triples.

  17. The consequences of tourism for sustainable water use on a tropical island: Zanzibar, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gössling, S

    2001-02-01

    Many developing countries in the tropics have focused on tourism to generate additional income sources and to diversity the economy. Coastlines in particular have been on the forefront of tourist infrastructure development. Here, the presence of a large number of tourists has often had negative consequences for the sustainable use of the available resources, which in turn has had an effect on the integrity of the ecosystems. In this paper, the situation is described for the use of freshwater resources on the east coast of Zanzibar, Tanzania. This region is water poor, relying on freshwater derived from seasonal rains and stored in less efficient aquifers, which consist of freshwater lenses floating on the underlying seawater. Tourism in the area has grown rapidly in recent years and is expected to further increase in the future. This development is expected to put additional pressure on the freshwater resources of the east coast, which show already signs of over-use. The consequences of overexploitation can include the lowering of the groundwater table, land subsidence, deteriorating groundwater quality, and saltwater intrusion. These, in turn, determine the living conditions in coastal areas and the effects will be felt both by the local populations and the tourist industry. An investigation is made into the causes and consequences of water abstraction by the tourist industry. The results show that present levels of withdrawal are not sustainable, and parts of the local populations are already experiencing water deficits on a daily basis. In the future, if the expected increase in tourist numbers occurs, the pressure on the aquifers will correspondingly increase. The results could be that the tourism in the area becomes unsustainable, which could have an adverse effect on the national economy and also on the local population and environment. Therefore, a precautionary water-management approach is suggested.

  18. Meagre escapees: consequences of a local-absent farmed species in the W-Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Arechavala-Lopez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Meagre (Argyrosomus regius Asso, 1810 is a large sciaenid considered an emerging species in the European aquaculture, especially for W-Mediterranean countries. Meagre production has grown rapidly in recent years, being Spain, Turkey, Italy and France are the main meagre producer countries in the world, but it is also cultivated on small scale in other Mediterranean countries, such as Malta, Croatia or Morocco. However, farmed meagre might escape from net-pens of coastal floating facilities leading to economic losses for farmers, but also causing environmental problems on coastal ecosystems. The geographic distribution and genetic fragmentation of meagre native populations suggest that farmed meagre should be considered nowadays as “local-absent” fish in most of the Mediterranean regions where it is being farmed. Therefore, the potential risks of escaped meagre might be higher than those reported for native species, although often unpredictable. Meagre escapees might spread diseases and pathogens to nearby farms or local fish populations, competing for natural resources (food and habitat and predating on other species. Consequently, the interactions of escaped fish with wild populations might have also indirect socio-economic effects on local fisheries and consumers. Nevertheless, escape events from meagre aquaculture and they derived environmental and socio-economic interactions have been scarcely reported up today, and therefore, further studies are highly needed to understand and evaluate the potential consequences of what is being farmed in the Mediterranean.

  19. Some consequences from the thermodynamics of the synthesis of solar fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camacho, C.G. [Universidad de Sevilla (Spain). Departamento de Ingenieria Energetica y Mecanica de Fluidos

    2003-08-01

    This report derives thermodynamic relations that give information on questions of interest like the sustainability of the energy system, the accounting of their external costs or the harmonization between renewable energies and fossil fuels. Three important consequences of this work are, on the one hand, the existence of objective conditioners that help to the preselection of fuel candidates to be burned or solar synthesized in a certain location; for sustainability, the best fuel to be burned is carbon, whereas the one to be solar synthesized is hydrogen. On the other hand, the processing of the cycle of fuels replaced by solar synthesis, which takes place without chemical or mechanical environmental impacts, whereas the net environmental thermal impact (avoided environmental heating) is equal to the produced net work (null in the worst of the cases). Finally, the fuel replacement by solar synthesis allows to establish objective criteria of valuation of the external costs of the fossil fuel combustion. The integrating consideration between fuels suitable for their solar synthesis or for their combustion (each one of them depending on the climatic characteristics of the location, reason why they do not have to be the same) suggests the use of the fuel more suitable for solar synthesis as a chemical contribution for the replacement of the most advisable fuel for its final consumption; this consideration supposes the establishment of a parallelism between the previous results, consequence exclusively of Thermodynamics, and the corresponding ones to the biological photosynthesis, according to Biochemistry. (author)

  20. Bankruptcy – the consequence of defective bank management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imola DRIGA

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Bank failure is the result of a defective management in banking leading the bank to a stage of bankruptcy, which means that the insolvent bank is going to be closed by the banking authority. In general, the banking sector is viewed as more vulnerable to contagion than other industries since banks are viewed as more susceptible to failures. Thus, the paper addresses the issue of bank insolvency as an extreme consequence of materialized risks, resulting in a payment disability for the bank. The paper presents the causes and consequences of bankruptcy and analysis the situation of bankruptcies in the Romanian banking system which was confronted with a number of bankruptcies beginning with 1994 and involving several significant financial institutions.

  1. Economic Consequences of BREXIT after the British Referendum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Critian PĂUN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The European Union project is strongly challenged today by the historical decision of United Kingdom’s citizens to exit from this structure, with all consequences assumed. United Kingdom will be the first nation that will quit this ambitious initiative and the decision is transmitted by the organized national referendum’s results in this respect. The population’s opinion expressed by a huge number of voting persons should be taken into consideration by British politicians and transposed very soon into political actions that could have a strong and clear economic impact on both sides. This paper will discuss the possible economic consequences of such historical decision, including potential effects on a small country like Romania.

  2. Biomechanical models to simulate consequences of maxillofacial surgery

    CERN Document Server

    Payan, Y; Pelorson, X; Vilain, C; Levy, P; Luboz, V; Perrier, P; Payan, Yohan; Chabanas, Matthieu; Pelorson, Xavier; Vilain, Coriandre; Levy, Patrick; Luboz, Vincent; Perrier, Pascal

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the biomechanical finite element models that have been developed in the framework of the computer-assisted maxillofacial surgery. After a brief overview of the continuous elastic modelling method, two models are introduced and their use for computer-assisted applications discussed. The first model deals with orthognathic surgery and aims at predicting the facial consequences of maxillary and mandibular osteotomies. For this, a generic three-dimensional model of the face is automatically adapted to the morphology of the patient by the mean of elastic registration. Qualitative simulations of the consequences of an osteotomy of the mandible can thus be provided. The second model addresses the Sleep Apnoea Syndrome. Its aim is to develop a complete modelling of the interaction between airflow and upper airways walls during respiration. Dynamical simulations of the interaction during a respiratory cycle are computed and compared with observed phenomena.

  3. Consequences identification in forecasting and ethical decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenmark, Cheryl K; Antes, Alison L; Thiel, Chase E; Caughron, Jared J; Wang, Xiaoqian; Mumford, Michael D

    2011-03-01

    Forecasting involves predicting outcomes based on observations of the situation at hand. We examined the impact of the number and types of consequences considered on the quality of ethical decision-making. Undergraduates role-played several ethical problems in which they forecast potential outcomes and made decisions. Performance pressure (difficult demands placed on the situation) and interpersonal conflict (clashes among people in the problem situation) were manipulated within each problem scenario. The results indicated that the identification of potential consequences was positively associated with both higher quality forecasts and more ethical decisions. Neither performance pressure nor interpersonal conflict affected the quality of forecasts or decisions. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings and the use of this research approach are discussed.

  4. An Icing Of Aircraft – Reasons, Consequences, Counteraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gębura Andrzej

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents reasons of an helicopter’s ising as well as an aircraft’s ising. The maion attention is addressed a conteraction of an ising. Autors divide the problem an two groups: an ising of an airframe – mostly lifting surfaces, an ising of engines. According to authors reasons, an extension (first of all consequences of airframe’s ising considerably differ from seemingly similar events in an engine. The considerable attention is concentrated on a connteraction of consequences of an ising during the flight. The most complicated ising referes to helicopters, considering their particular aerodynamics characteristics. The autors dedicated is greather attention. Results reached during investigations of heating rotor blades in ITWL are presented.

  5. A Cause-Consequence Chart of a Redundant Protection System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dan Sandvik; Platz, O.; Runge, B.

    1975-01-01

    A cause-consequence chart is applied in analysing failures of a redundant protection system (a core spray system in a nuclear power plant). It is shown how the diagram provides a basis for calculating two probability measures for malfunctioning of the protection system. The test policy of compone...... of components is taken into account. The possibility of using parameter variation as a basis for the choice of test policy is indicated.......A cause-consequence chart is applied in analysing failures of a redundant protection system (a core spray system in a nuclear power plant). It is shown how the diagram provides a basis for calculating two probability measures for malfunctioning of the protection system. The test policy...

  6. Cost Consequences of a Port-Related Supply Chain Disruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Shan LOH

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Port functionality is a significant and important aspect of cargo transportation. Previous studies have identified a list of port-related supply chain disruption threats and developed a management model that seeks to address these threats. This paper adds value to these related studies by comparing four consequences of an example of these threats: (1 avoidance of disruption, (2 mitigation of disruption, (3 deviation of transportation plan and (4 delays and deviation of transportation plan. The impact of these consequences is simulated in a case study using data from a chemical manufacturer based in Singapore. This paper quantitatively measures the impact of a port-related threat on supply chains and thus highlights the importance of port-related supply chain disruption management.

  7. Consequences of severe radioactive releases to Nordic Marine environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iosjpe, M.; Isaksson, M.; Joensen, H.P.

    that the considered severe accident cases, considered in this study, do not directly attach any specific Nordic nuclear power plant or any specific submarine type. The considered radioactive releases will, however, provide specified references for more extensive consideration of environmental consequences of severe......In the report, consequences of hypothetical severe nuclear accidents releases to Nordic marine environment are preliminary considered. The considered marine area comprises the Baltic Sea (Sweden, Denmark, Finland) and the North Atlantic (Iceland, Faroes, Norway) areas. The hypothetical severe...... of various elements and nuclides to marine environment. One recent reference is of course the Fukushima accident and estimated releases there. The marine flows and dilution circumstances around the Nordic nuclear power plants and in the Baltic Sea area in general, has been studied. Respectively marine flows...

  8. Exploit and ignore the consequences: A mother of planetary issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustafa, K.

    2016-07-01

    Many environmental and planetary issues are due to an exploitation strategy based on exploit, consume and ignore the consequences. As many natural and environmental resources are limited in time and space, such exploitation approach causes important damages on earth, in the sea and maybe soon in the space. To sustain conditions under which humans and other living species can coexist in productive and dynamic harmony with their environments, terrestrial and space exploration programs may need to be based on 'scrutinize the consequences, prepare adequate solutions and then, only then, exploit'. Otherwise, the exploitation of planetary resources may put the environmental stability and sustainability at a higher risk than it is currently predicted. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. THE INTERNET ADDICTION OF PATIENTS WITH PSYCHOPATHOLOGICAL CONSEQUENCES OFCRANIOCEREBRAL INJURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. N. Voloshyna

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on the Kharkov Regional Clinical Psychiatric Hospital № 3 examined 100 male patients aged 38,35±0,96 years, with psychopathological consequences of craniocerebral injury (TBI. The control group consisted of 73 healthy male volunteers aged 36,97±1,73 years. The frequency of different degrees of Internet use was assessed by using AUDIT-like test INTERNET-UDIT (Internet Use Disorders Identification Test and calculation of addictive potential in groups. In patients with psychopathological consequences of craniocerebral trauma, despite the high prevalence of lack of experience “usage” of the Internet, high degrees of addiction and dependence were reported. The addictive potential of the Internet addiction in the study group exceeded 32% of that of the control group.

  10. Environmental consequences of rising energy use in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warwick J. McKibbin

    2006-06-15

    China is already the world's third largest energy producer and second largest energy consumer accounting for 10 percent of global energy use. This share is expected to rise to 15 percent by 2025. Energy use in China has important environmental consequences which are explored in this paper. A range of policy options are also discussed. It is argued that each major environmental issue requires a policy response that is a mix of direct government intervention as well as market based incentives. In coming decades, the choices made by China of how to tackle the environmental consequences of expanding energy use will have important implications for China, Asia and the world.48 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Destabilization of the human epigenome: consequences of foreign DNA insertions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Stefanie; Hofmann, Andrea; Herms, Stefan; Hoffmann, Per; Doerfler, Walter

    2015-08-01

    We previously reported changes of DNA methylation and transcription patterns in mammalian cells that carry integrated foreign DNA. Experiments were now designed to assess the epigenetic consequences of inserting a 5.6 kbp plasmid into the human genome. Differential transcription and CpG methylation patterns were compared between transgenomic and nontransgenomic cell clones by using gene chip microarray systems. In 4.7% of the 28.869 gene segments analyzed, transcriptional activities were up- or downregulated in the transgenomic cell clones. Genome-wide profiling revealed differential methylation in 3791 of > 480,000 CpG's examined in transgenomic versus nontransgenomic clones. The data document genome-wide effects of foreign DNA insertions on the epigenetic stability of human cells. Many fields in experimental biology and medicine employ transgenomic or otherwise genome-manipulated cells or organisms without considering the epigenetic consequences for the recipient genomes.

  12. Consequences of obesity and weight loss: a devil's advocate position

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R E; Kuk, J L

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is associated with multiple negative health consequences and current weight management guidelines recommend all obese persons to lose weight. However, recent evidence suggests that not all obese persons are negatively affected by their weight and that weight loss does not necessarily always improve health. The purpose of this review is not to trivialize the significant health risks associated with obesity, but to discuss subpopulations of obese people who are not adversely affected, or may even benefit from higher adiposity, and in who weight loss per se may not always be the most appropriate recommendation. More specifically, this review will take a devil's advocate position when discussing the consequences of obesity and weight loss for adults with established cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes, weight cyclers, metabolically healthy obese adults, youth, older adults and obese individuals who are highly fit. PMID:25410935

  13. Genetic Consequences of Antiviral Therapy on HIV-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Arenas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A variety of enzyme inhibitors have been developed in combating HIV-1, however the fast evolutionary rate of this virus commonly leads to the emergence of resistance mutations that finally allows the mutant virus to survive. This review explores the main genetic consequences of HIV-1 molecular evolution during antiviral therapies, including the viral genetic diversity and molecular adaptation. The role of recombination in the generation of drug resistance is also analyzed. Besides the investigation and discussion of published works, an evolutionary analysis of protease-coding genes collected from patients before and after treatment with different protease inhibitors was included to validate previous studies. Finally, the review discusses the importance of considering genetic consequences of antiviral therapies in models of HIV-1 evolution that could improve current genotypic resistance testing and treatments design.

  14. Probalistic Criticality Consequence Evaluation (SCPB:N/A)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Gottlieb; J.W. Davis; J.R. Massari

    1996-09-04

    This analysis is prepared by the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) Waste Package Development (WPD) department with the objective of providing a comprehensive, conservative estimate of the consequences of the criticality which could possibly occur as the result of commercial spent nuclear fuel emplaced in the underground repository at Yucca Mountain. The consequences of criticality are measured principally in terms of the resulting changes in radionuclide inventory as a function of the power level and duration of the criticality. The purpose of this analysis is to extend the prior estimates of increased radionuclide inventory (Refs. 5.52 and 5.54), for both internal and external criticality. This analysis, and similar estimates and refinements to be completed before the end of fiscal year 1997, will be provided as input to Total System Performance Assessment-Viability Assessment (TSPA-VA) to demonstrate compliance with the repository performance objectives.

  15. Transient bacteremia consequent to tooth brushing in orthodontic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Rachna; Jalili, Ved Prakash; Jain, Sandhya; Dubey, Akhilesh

    2012-11-01

    The study was conducted to find out the significance of transient bacteraemia consequent to tooth brushing in patients undergoing different orthodontic procedures. The study was carried out on 75 patients categorized in the separate groups with 25 subjects in each group of fixed, removable and myofunctional appliances. A matching control of 25 dental students was taken for comparison. The data was analyzed with the help of arithmetical mean and Chi-square test. It was observed that the transient bacteraemia consequent to tooth brushing in different orthodontic treatment groups was not significantly different from that found in subjects not wearing orthodontic appliances (control group). The risk of bacterial endocarditis and other cardiac lesions is not anyway higher in the patients wearing orthodontic appliances than those who were not undergoing any orthodontic treatment. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Srl.

  16. Prevalence and consequences of insomnia in pediatric population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Kaczor

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Insomnia presents an increasing and significant health issue in paediatric population. As the problem had grown over past decade, it became recognised by the specialists dealing with children and adolescents. In a recent study American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry members were asked about their experience with patients complaining about sleep disturbances. Doctors reported that sleep was a problem for 1/3 of their patients out of which 1/4 required pharmacotherapy [1]. Multiple studies concerning adults confirmed significance of healthy sleep in optimal cognitive, emotional, social and biological functioning. Adequate sleep is important in prophylaxis of many chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, hypertension, myocardial infarction, stroke [2]. Due to increasing prevalence of insomnia in children and adolescents growing attention is paid to its short and long term consequences in this group. This review summarises available data on chronic insomnia prevalence and its consequences in population under 18 years old.

  17. Analyzing profiles, predictors, and consequences of student engagement dispositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Michael A; Masyn, Katherine E

    2015-02-01

    Drawing from a nationally representative sample of 12,760 students attending public high schools in the United States, this study used latent class analysis (LCA) to analyze profiles, predictors, and consequences of student engagement dispositions. A student engagement disposition is an umbrella concept. It encompasses students' identification with school together with their academic competencies and overall educational aspirations. Six subpopulation profiles of engagement dispositions were culled from the data using LCA. These profiles included students who possessed "model student" attributes as well as others whose school experiences reflected ambivalence and disidentification. Where practice and policy are concerned, findings regarding the characteristics and consequences of each profile can be used by researchers, practitioners, and policy makers to facilitate tailored intervention planning as well as more nuanced policy development.

  18. Heart rate variability reactivity and new romance: Cause or consequence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Laura K; Davis, Ron

    2017-09-01

    There are documented physiological differences between single and coupled individuals during the "honeymoon period" of nascent romantic relationships. One such difference is in autonomic reactivity, specifically heart rate variability (HRV) reactivity. This finding had previously been interpreted as evidence of a stress buffering effect of relationship formation. The present study explored among university women two competing longitudinal hypotheses conceptualizing differences in HRV reactivity as either a cause or a consequence of romantic relationship formation. Results did not support the hypothesis that HRV reactivity changes as a consequence of beginning a new romantic relationship. Instead, lower HRV reactivity predicted greater relationship formation amongst women with low BMI and higher resting HRV. The functioning of the heart therefore predicted the likelihood that an individual would find love. These interactions may be the result of differing success rates of various mating strategies for women with low and high BMI and HRV. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Malaysia's Education Policies and the Law of Unintended Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kee-Cheok Cheong

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Since gaining independence in 1957, the Federation of Malaya and now Malaysia has implemented education policies to broaden access, to unify an ethnically diverse population through a common curriculum and language, to enable the disadvantaged to catch up through affirmative action, and to build human capital as the country seeks to become an advanced country in the face of globalization. While some policies, such as enhancing access have achieved their objectives, others, such as unification and development of a national identity, have not. No less important are the unintended consequences of these policies. While some, like the expansion of private higher education and transnational higher education, have been a boon to Malaysian education, others, such as ethnic polarization in education, have been damaging. Some of these consequences, while unintended, have not been unexpected.

  20. Consequences of information technology usage on retailer-supplier relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars

    limited. The purpose of this paper therefore is to study the consequences of information technology usage on retailer supplier relationships, focusing on inter-organisational systems. 2. The paper begins by discussing the nature of retailer-supplier relations, noting that whereas these relationships have...... research. Based on the propositions developed in the paper, it is stressed that managers need to carefully consider the consequences that the use of inter-organisational systems may have on inter-organisational relationship. Further, managers need to realise that the use of inter-organisational systems......1. Retailers and suppliers increasingly tend to form long-term co-operative relationships. In the literature, the use of information technology is an enabling factor behind this trend. Nevertheless, our understanding of how information technology influences retailer-supplier relationships is still...

  1. The origins, determinants, and consequences of human mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shendure, Jay; Akey, Joshua M

    2015-09-25

    Germline mutations are the principal cause of heritable disease and the ultimate source of evolutionary change. Similarly, somatic mutations are the primary cause of cancer and may contribute to the burden of human disease more broadly than previously appreciated. Here, we review recent insights into the rates, spectrum, and determinants of genomic mutations and how these parameters inform our understanding of both Mendelian and complex human diseases. We also consider models for conceptualizing mutational consequences and outline several key areas for future research, including the development of new technologies to access and quantify the full spectrum of mutations, as well as to better interpret the consequences of mutations with respect to molecular functionality, evolutionary fitness, and disease pathogenicity.

  2. Analysis of the consequences of aircraft manufacturers’ system integration model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Henrique Lopes Guerra

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This is a theoretical-conceptual, which aimed to identify some likely consequences of the integration model systems that have been adopted in the aerospace industry by major aircraft manufacturers in the world. In the model of system integration, these manufacturers maintain internally the activities associated with their basic skills and transfer their skills to peripheral suppliers. We identified the following consequences: the growth of strategic alliances in the airline industry, the internationalization of aeronautical chains, with the strengthening of productive activities in some geographic regions; challenges related to the domestic supplier base and the consolidation of national chains, the greatest power suppliers of the first layer, the contribution to the dissemination of knowledge among supply chains, and the potential emergence of new competitors.

  3. Consequences of the Continuity of the Monic Integer Transfinite Diameter

    CERN Document Server

    Hilmar, Jan

    2007-01-01

    We consider the problem of determining the monic integer transfinite diameter t_M(I)&=&\\lim_{n\\to\\infty}\\inf_{p_n\\in{\\mathcal M_n}}\\supnorm{p_n}{I}^{1/n} for real intervals of length less than 4. We show the $t_M([0,x])$, as a function in $x>0$, is continuous, therefore disproving two conjectures due to Hare and Smyth. Consequently, for $n>2\\in\

  4. The syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone: prevalence, causes and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, M J; Thompson, C J

    2010-06-01

    Hyponatraemia is the commonest electrolyte abnormality found in hospital inpatients, and is associated with a greatly increased morbidity and mortality. The syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) is the most frequent cause of hyponatraemia in hospital inpatients. SIADH is the clinical and biochemical manifestation of a wide range of disease processes, and every case warrants investigation of the underlying cause. In this review, we will examine the prevalence, pathophysiology, clinical characteristics and clinical consequences of hyponatraemia due to SIADH.

  5. The Migration’s Consequences in Albania after 1990

    OpenAIRE

    Diana Mone

    2015-01-01

    Migration is one of the most prominent phenomena in these ultimate years. It has brought some consequences, such as the concentration of population in major cities and the economic development, but also a number of social problems too. The change of political and economic system in Albania after 1990, put Albanian society in front of a series of phenomena. Democracy in Albania gave way to the free movement of people. This paper is focused on issues such as: economic-financial difficulties, un...

  6. Geometric and spectral consequences of curvature bounds on tessellations

    OpenAIRE

    Keller, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    This is a chapter of a forthcoming Lecture Notes in Mathematics "Modern Approaches to Discrete Curvature" edited by L. Najman and P. Romon. It provides a survey on geometric and spectral consequences of curvature bounds. The geometric setting are tessellations of surfaces with finite and vanishing genus. We consider a curvature arising as an angular defect. Several of the results presented here have analogues in Riemannian geometry. In some cases one can go even beyond the Riemannian results ...

  7. The meaning, modalities and consequences of return migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-03-01

    Return migration and its consequences has attracted increasing attention since Western European countries adopted policies in the mid 1970s to stop the inflow of foreign workers and to promote reintegration of emigrants. This paper explores the definition of return migration, discusses the different contexts in which return migration arises, and points out the many gaps that exist in understanding return migration and its consequences. The report concludes that there is no consensus on the definition of return migration; future advances in its analysis and measurement depend on the availability of specific criteria to distinguish return movements from other migration taking place in the world today. Also, relatively little attention has been devoted to return flows of migrants in developing countries due to paucity of information and fluidity of some of the movements involved. Yet another area for concern is the lack of information pertaining to female emigrants. Some recommendations that may lead to the eventual satisfaction of these needs include: 1) defining returnees as persons who, having the nationality of the country that they are entering, have spent at least one year abroad and have returned with the intention of staying at least one year in the country of their nationality; 2) having coontries with important emigration flows monitor return migration by gathering and publishing information on returning migrants; 3) giving particular attention to the problems faced by female returnees and adopting measures to ensure equal aid to males and females; 4) studying and monitoring the consequences of return migration on whole families instead of on only certain members of the family; 5) monitoring the consequences of sizeable repatriation flows, giving particular attention to the success of reintegration programs; 6) developing novel methods to monitor and study the impact of return flows of emigrants whose situation in the receiving state was irregular.

  8. Structural stability of soil crusts. Consequences for soil erodibility assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Darboux, Frédéric; Le Bissonnais, Yves

    2006-01-01

    Erosion and sediment transport processes depend on the soil surface properties. Because of water flow and other processes (climate, agricultural practices, biological activity, etc.), the properties of the soil surface can undergo significant changes that affect erosion. As a consequence, understanding of the transport processes and improvement in soil erosion prediction involve a better assessment of soil surface characteristics. Structural stability has been used to evaluate the sensitivity...

  9. Obesity: Prevalence, Theories, Medical Consequences, Management, and Research Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nassar Erika

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Obesity and its associated disorders are a growing epidemic across the world. Many genetic, physiological, and behavioral factors play a role in the etiology of obesity. Diet and exercise are known to play a valuable role in the treatment and prevention of obesity and associated disorders such as hypertension, heart disease, and diabetes. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to examine the prevalence, etiology, consequences, and treatment of obesity.

  10. The syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone: prevalence, causes and consequences.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hannon, M J

    2010-06-01

    Hyponatraemia is the commonest electrolyte abnormality found in hospital inpatients, and is associated with a greatly increased morbidity and mortality. The syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) is the most frequent cause of hyponatraemia in hospital inpatients. SIADH is the clinical and biochemical manifestation of a wide range of disease processes, and every case warrants investigation of the underlying cause. In this review, we will examine the prevalence, pathophysiology, clinical characteristics and clinical consequences of hyponatraemia due to SIADH.

  11. SPECIES, TEPEES, SCOTTIES, AND JOCKEYS: SELECTED BY CONSEQUENCES

    OpenAIRE

    Edward A. Wasserman

    2012-01-01

    “Ideas are like species: they must evolve.” This claim forms the conceptual core of an engaging book by Jonnie Hughes (2011), On the Origin of Tepees. Hughes asks: If evolution by natural selection explains the origin of the human species, then does selection by consequences also explain the origin of what we humans make and do? This question prompts consideration of three important analogies: between natural selection and artificial selection, between the law of natural selection and the law...

  12. PREDICTING THE CONSEQUENCES OF SEAWATER INTRUSION AND PROTECTION PROJECTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁益让; 梁栋; 芮洪兴

    2001-01-01

    The simulation of this process and the effects of protection irojects lays the foundation of its effective control and defence. The mathematical model of the problem and upwind splitting alternating direction method were presented. Using this method, the numerical simulation of seawater intrusion in Laizhou Bay Area of Shandong Provivce was finished. The numerical results turned out to be identical with the real measurements, so the prediction of the consequences of protection projectects is reasonable.

  13. Offsite Radiological Consequence Analysis for the Bounding Flammable Gas Accident

    CERN Document Server

    Carro, C A

    2003-01-01

    This document quantifies the offsite radiological consequences of the bounding flammable gas accident for comparison with the 25 rem Evaluation Guideline established in DOE-STD-3009, Appendix A. The bounding flammable gas accident is a detonation in a single-shell tank The calculation applies reasonably conservation input parameters in accordance with DOE-STD-3009, Appendix A, guidance. Revision 1 incorporates comments received from Office of River Protection.

  14. Consequences of migration and remittances for Mexican transnational communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, D; Cohen, J H

    1998-01-01

    "Our aims in this paper are to broaden explanation of remittance expenditures and to evaluate the positive contributions of remittances, return migrants, or circulating sojourners. Specifically focusing on the situation in ¿home' communities, we illustrate the multifaceted consequences of remittances and migration, emphasizing positive nonmonetary and social impacts." Data are from ethnographic research carried out in 1992-1993 in Santa Ana del Valle, Oaxaca, Mexico.

  15. Falls in Korean Polio Survivors: Incidence, Consequences, and Risk Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Nam, Kiyeun; Lee, Seungyeol; Yang, Eun Joo; Kim, Keewon; Jung, Se Hee; Jang, Soong-Nang; Han, Soo Jeong; Kim, Wan-Ho; Lim, Jae-Young

    2016-01-01

    Falls and fall-related injuries are important issue among polio survivors. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of, and consequences and factors associated with falls among Korean polio survivors. A total of 317 polio survivors participated in this study. All participants completed a questionnaire including fall history, symptoms related to post-polio syndrome and other information through a telephone interview. Among them, 80 participants visited our clinic for additional...

  16. Consequences count: against absolutism at the end of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snelling, Paul C

    2004-05-01

    There has been a considerable amount of debate in the nursing literature about euthanasia, and especially the distinctions between acts and omissions, and killing and letting die. These distinctions are required by opponents of euthanasia to justify allowing some cases of passive euthanasia while forbidding all cases of active euthanasia. This paper adds to the debate by arguing that the position that absolutely forbids euthanasia is theoretically inconsistent. The paper first considers the place of moral theory in analysing moral problems, within the framework of the principles of biomedical ethics. It is argued that despite a moral pluralism that operates in many areas, the legal status of euthanasia is based upon an absolute deontological position against deliberate killing, which cannot be overridden by appeals to favourable consequences. In order that certain forms of passive euthanasia can be allowed, this position allows distinctions within three pairs of concepts--acts and omissions, killing and letting die, and ordinary and extraordinary means. A further method of justifying certain actions near the end of life is the doctrine of double effect. These paired concepts and the doctrine of double effect are analysed with special reference to their consequences. The application of the doctrine of double effect and the three distinctions relies on consideration of their consequences, allowing in practice what in theory is denied. This is important because it weakens the absolute case against euthanasia, which disallows any direct consequentialist appeal. If consequences count in the application of the doctrine and the distinctions, then they should also count directly prior to their application. This strengthens the argument for active euthanasia in certain cases.

  17. Use and consequences of alcoholism: an educational action for students

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriella Nisimoto Sorio; Jessica Maria Bordinhon; Dante Hideo Uemura; Ayssa Teles Abrao Trad; Camila Ariely Martins; André Batocchio Quevedo; Bruna Martinez Sales; Camila Gabriel Carraro; Gabriella Fernandes Gozoli; Ivan Fernandes Filho; Ana Teresa Santos Camargo; Kalel Sangali Cascardi; Reinaldo José Gianini

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: it is increasingly noticeable the reduction of the age in which teenagers begin their experiences with alcohol and other drugs, influenced by friends, family or the media. However, they never know what are the real consequences in the short and in the long run caused by the excess of alcohol. Facing this picture, the freshman students of medicine of Pontificia Universidade Catolica of Sao Paulo - PUC - SP developed an educational act in a state primary school on the ...

  18. Causes and consequences of sleepiness among college students

    OpenAIRE

    Hershner SD; Chervin RD

    2014-01-01

    Shelley D Hershner, Ronald D ChervinDepartment of Neurology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USAAbstract: Daytime sleepiness, sleep deprivation, and irregular sleep schedules are highly prevalent among college students, as 50% report daytime sleepiness and 70% attain insufficient sleep. The consequences of sleep deprivation and daytime sleepiness are especially problematic to college students and can result in lower grade point averages, increased risk of academic failure, compromised ...

  19. Adverse Consequences of Drug Use in the Elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Hooft, Cornelis

    2006-01-01

    textabstractAlthough drug therapy often results in beneficial effects and improves functional status, adverse consequences of pharmacotherapy are a major patient safety concern, especially in the growing older population '.In the well-known report 'To err is human: building a safer health care system'', it was brought forward that a substantial number of patients is harmed by adverse drug events in medical care. This report placed patient safety and drug safety on the international agenda and...

  20. Psychologic consequences of breast cancer on partner and family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northouse, L L; Cracchiolo-Caraway, A; Appel, C P

    1991-08-01

    Breast cancer can have psychologic consequences not only for patients but also for the entire family system. Research indicates a major impact on the husband, the marital relationship, the children, and family roles and responsibilities. Greater attention needs to be given to the family members to ensure that they get the support they need, and to enable them to maintain their supportive roles with the patient.

  1. Lead based remedies for empacho: patterns and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, R D; Garcia de Alba, J; Cueto, L M; Ackerman, A; Davison, S

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses research designed to investigate the patterns and consequences of the use of lead based folk remedies in the treatment of some gastrointestinal problems in Mexico. Use of lead is seen in 35% of the population sampled in Guadalajara who treated the folk illness empacho, and 5% of a similar population in Oaxaca. Lead use seems to be associated with mestizo ethnic background, and with lower levels of parental education and income.

  2. Putting teenagers on the pill: The consequences of subsidized contraception

    OpenAIRE

    Grönqvist, Hans

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the consequences of a series of Swedish policy changes beginning in 1989 where different regions started subsidizing the birth control pill. The reforms were significant and applied to all types of oral contraceptives. My identification strategy takes advantage of the fact that the reforms were implemented successively over time and targeted specific cohorts of young women, in particular teenagers. This generates plausibly exogenous variation in access to the subsidy. ...

  3. Preventive Rad/Nuc Detection Equipment Categorization for Consequence Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buddemeier, B. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Musolino, S. V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Klemic, G. [US Dept. of Homeland Security National Security Technology Lab., New York, NY (United States)

    2017-06-01

    The overall objective of this project is to research, evaluate, and test first responder preventive radiological/nuclear detection equipment (PRND) to provide state and local agencies with guidance on how to best use this equipment for response after a radiological/nuclear release or detonation. While the equipment being tested in this effort has been specifically designed for detection and interdiction operations, the fleet of PRND equipment can help fill critical needs for radiological instrumentation should a consequence management response take place. This effort will provide scientific guidance on the best way to deploy and operate this class of equipment for consequence management missions. With the support of the US Department of Homeland Security’s (DHS) Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO), PRND equipment has been placed into service at federal, state, and local agencies throughout the nation. If the equipment capability and limitations are taken into account, this large inventory can be repurposed to support the emergency response in the aftermath of a radiological of nuclear event. This report evaluates PRND equipment to define key categories of equipment and the types of missions they can be used for. This is important because there are over 100 different types of PRND equipment, often with significantly different capabilities with respect to the consequence management mission. The current DNDO draft NIMS PRND equipment types were used as a foundation and expanded, when necessary, to address key characteristics important for the consequence mission. Table 1 provides a summary of the PRND instrument categories developed for this effort. Also included on the table are some common response mission detection equipment categories that will be used for capability comparisons.

  4. Essays on political instability: Measurement, causes and consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Jong-A-Pin, R.

    2008-01-01

    In political economy, the concept of political instability plays a prominent role as it raises uncertainty with respect to future institutions and economic policies, thereby affecting the incentives of e.g. households, firms, and politicians. This dissertation contains four quantitative studies on the measurement , causes and consequences of political instability. The research questions that are addressed are: how should political instability be measured? Does political instability hamper eco...

  5. Physical Consequences of Nonabelian Duality in the Standard Model

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, H. M.; Tsou, S. T.

    1997-01-01

    Possible physical consequences of a recently discovered nonabelian dual symmetry are explored in the standard model. It is found that both Higgs fields and fermion generations can be assigned a natural place in the dual framework, with Higgs fields appearing as frames (or `N-beins') in internal symmetry space, and generations appearing as spontaneously broken dual colour. Fermions then occur in exactly 3 generations and have a factorizable mass matrix which gives automatically one generation ...

  6. Environmental consequences of different beef production systems in the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, T Lan T; Hermansen, John Erik; Mogensen, Lisbeth

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the environmental consequences of beef meat production in the EU, using a life cycle approach. Four beef production systems were studied - three from intensively reared dairy calves and one from suckler herds. According to the results of the analysis, the contr...... on a depreciation period of 20 years. This highlights the importance of taking into account the impacts of land use in assessing the environmental impacts of livestock production....

  7. PREDICTORS AND CONSEQUENCES OF ADOLESCENTS’ NORMS AGAINST TEENAGE PREGNANCY

    OpenAIRE

    Mollborn, Stefanie

    2010-01-01

    African American and Latino teenagers and communities are frequently assumed to have weaker norms against teenage pregnancy than whites. Despite their importance, adolescents’ norms about teenage pregnancy have not been measured or their correlates and consequences documented. This study examines individual-level and contextual variation in adolescents’ embarrassment at the prospect of a teenage pregnancy and its relationship with subsequent teenage pregnancy. Descriptive analyses find that n...

  8. The consequences of mobbing and possibilities of their measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuksanović Mirjana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the consequences of mobbing in order to indicate possibilities for their measurement. Mobbing can be measured through its effects as the mental, physical and social consequences of mobbing are visible and can be quantified. The effect of mobbing can be expressed by the difference in the health of the victim of mobbing before and after exposure to the stressful mobbing activities. This can be compared through laboratory and specialist analysis of auto anamnestic data, accessible through the employee’s cumulative health record that is kept with the occupational health institution or with the employee’s chosen physician. It is expected the consequences of mobbing will correlate with the length and intensity of exposure, as well as with the personal “equation” of the victim and the circumstances of the surroundings. Using medical records, an expert could provide a statement on the degree of intangible damage made to the employee who has suffered harassment at work. The intensity of exposure to mobbing and the degree of pain caused can be measured by assessment scales. A major drawback of these instruments lies in their strong dependence on culture.

  9. Causes and Consequences of Partial Migration in a Passerine Bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegemann, Arne; Marra, Peter P; Tieleman, B Irene

    2015-10-01

    Many animal species have populations in which some individuals migrate and others remain on the breeding grounds. This phenomenon is called partial migration. Despite substantial theoretical work, empirical data on causes and consequences of partial migration remain scarce, mainly because of difficulties associated with tracking individuals over large spatial scales. We used stable hydrogen isotopes in claw material to determine whether skylarks Alauda arvensis from a single breeding population in the Netherlands had migrated or remained resident in the previous winter and investigated whether there were causes or consequences of either strategy. Age and sex had no influence on the propensity to migrate, but larger individuals were more likely to be residents. The wintering strategy was not fixed within individuals. Up to 45% of individuals measured in multiple years switched strategies. Reproductive parameters were not related to the wintering strategy, but individuals that wintered locally experienced lower future return rates, and this was directly correlated with two independent measures of immune function. Our results suggest that partial migration in skylarks is based neither on genetic dimorphism nor on an age- and sex-dependent condition. Instead, the wintering strategy is related to structural size and immune function. These new insights on causes and consequences of partial migration advance our understanding of the ecology, evolution, and coexistence of different life-history strategies.

  10. DETERMINANT FACTORS OF FINANCIAL REPORTING QUALITY AND ECONOMIC CONSEQUENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaenal Fanani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to prove empirically the determining factors that influence the quality of financialreporting and the economic consequences, and there were influence differences of quality attributes of financialreporting to the economic consequences. The research samples were taken by purposive sampling so it obtained141 listed manufacturing businesses from 2001 to 2006. The research used four data analysis technique:auxiliary regression R2, confirmatory factor analysis, simple regression, and multiple regressions. The resultsshowed seven attributes, there were five attributes that gave contribution for financial reporting quality namelyaccrual quality, predictability, smoothness, relevance value, and conservatism while the persistence and timelinessgave small contribution. The five attributes were also different each other. From the thirteen determiningfactors, it showed nine factors that produced significant influences namely operation cycle, sales volatility,firm size, firm age, loss proportion, leverage, environmental risk, institutional ownership, market concentration,and auditor quality, while the other three, they were liquidity, managerial ownership, and investmentgrowth that were not significant. Testing results of economic consequences of quality of financial reportingshowed that the quality of factorial financial reporting influenced negatively and significantly toward informationasymmetry.

  11. Mental health consequences of violence against women and girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyanarayana, Veena A; Chandra, Prabha S; Vaddiparti, Krishna

    2015-09-01

    Recent studies on mental health consequences of violence against women and girls were reviewed in a range of situations. Although several studies continued to show cross-sectional associations between child sexual abuse (CSA) and mental health outcomes, a few prospective studies showed a robust association between CSA and depression. Studies on the impact of dating violence are still at a nascent stage and focus on antecedents of violence rather than its consequences. Women at higher risk, such as adolescents, migrants, the homeless, and women in the perinatal period have been studied and specific vulnerabilities identified. Women reporting bidirectional violence had higher rates of depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Cumulative violence, severity of violence, and recent violence are associated with higher morbidity. Studies among women in conflict zones have emphasized the role of different forms of sexual and physical violence on mental health. Newer emerging areas that need more research include mental health consequences of women in conflict zones and among same sex relationships. There are also few studies on the violence experience of both older women and adolescents. The need to better delineate the psychopathology of complex manifestations of PTSD is underscored.

  12. The Consequences of Chromosome Segregation Errors in Mitosis and Meiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Potapova

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Mistakes during cell division frequently generate changes in chromosome content, producing aneuploid or polyploid progeny cells. Polyploid cells may then undergo abnormal division to generate aneuploid cells. Chromosome segregation errors may also involve fragments of whole chromosomes. A major consequence of segregation defects is change in the relative dosage of products from genes located on the missegregated chromosomes. Abnormal expression of transcriptional regulators can also impact genes on the properly segregated chromosomes. The consequences of these perturbations in gene expression depend on the specific chromosomes affected and on the interplay of the aneuploid phenotype with the environment. Most often, these novel chromosome distributions are detrimental to the health and survival of the organism. However, in a changed environment, alterations in gene copy number may generate a more highly adapted phenotype. Chromosome segregation errors also have important implications in human health. They may promote drug resistance in pathogenic microorganisms. In cancer cells, they are a source for genetic and phenotypic variability that may select for populations with increased malignance and resistance to therapy. Lastly, chromosome segregation errors during gamete formation in meiosis are a primary cause of human birth defects and infertility. This review describes the consequences of mitotic and meiotic errors focusing on novel concepts and human health.

  13. Risks and consequences of childhood and adolescent obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Must, A; Strauss, R S

    1999-03-01

    This report reviews the risks and consequences associated with childhood and adolescent obesity. Although no consensus definition of childhood obesity exists, the various measures encountered in the literature are moderately well correlated. The paper is organized in three parts. The first section reviews childhood obesity sequelae that occur during childhood. These short-term risks, for orthopedic, neurological, pulmonary, gasteroenterological, and endocrine conditions, although largely limited to severely overweight children, are becoming more common as the prevalence of severe overweight rises. The social burden of pediatric obesity, especially during middle childhood and adolescence, may have lasting effects on self-esteem, body image and economic mobility. The second section examines the intermediate consequences, such as the development of cardiovascular risk factors and persistence of obesity into adulthood. These mid-range effects of early obesity presage later adult disease and premature mortality. In the final section, the small body of research on the long-term morbidity and mortality associated with childhood obesity is reviewed. These studies suggest that risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality is elevated among those who were overweight during childhood. The high prevalence and dramatic secular trend toward increasing childhood obesity suggest that without aggressive approaches to prevention and treatment, the attendant health and social consequences will be both substantial and long-lasting.

  14. The interactional consequences of 'empowering discourse' in intercultural patient education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Tonia; Roger, Peter; Candlin, Sally

    2017-03-01

    Patient education is an important part of nurses' roles; however the inconsistent quality of communication skills, including those of registered nurses (RNs) from culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) backgrounds, risk patient safety. Empowerment in patient education has been found to influence patients' self-efficacy and participation in decision-making. Discourse analysis of a whole interaction is used in this paper to trace the consequences of patient education where empowering discourse is displayed by an RN from a CALD background. Ethnographic techniques of participant observation and audio recordings of naturally occurring interactions between nurses from CALD backgrounds and their patients were conducted and analysed using interactional sociolinguistic (IS) and theme oriented discourse analytic approaches. The interactional consequences of the nurse's empowering approach are readily observable in the data. The RN addresses the patient's education needs through a respectful encounter that illustrates the patient's active involvement. Examining the interactional consequences of empowering discourse demonstrates its effectiveness, and illustrates how empowering behaviour can be integrated into patient education, thus offering an alternative to traditional approaches. Greater awareness of how to use empowering discourse will offer an alternative and consistent approach that enables nurses to facilitate patient-centred education. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Evolutionary consequences of climate-induced range shifts in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Guillén, Rosa A; Córdoba-Aguilar, Alex; Hansson, Bengt; Ott, Jürgen; Wellenreuther, Maren

    2016-11-01

    Range shifts can rapidly create new areas of geographic overlap between formerly allopatric taxa and evidence is accumulating that this can affect species persistence. We review the emerging literature on the short- and long-term consequences of these geographic range shifts. Specifically, we focus on the evolutionary consequences of novel species interactions in newly created sympatric areas by describing the potential (i) short-term processes acting on reproductive barriers between species and (ii) long-term consequences of range shifts on the stability of hybrid zones, introgression and ultimately speciation and extinction rates. Subsequently, we (iii) review the empirical literature on insects to evaluate which processes have been studied, and (iv) outline some areas that deserve increased attention in the future, namely the genomics of hybridisation and introgression, our ability to forecast range shifts and the impending threat from insect vectors and pests on biodiversity, human health and crop production. Our review shows that species interactions in de novo sympatric areas can be manifold, sometimes increasing and sometimes decreasing species diversity. A key issue that emerges is that climate-induced hybridisations in insects are much more widespread than anticipated and that rising temperatures and increased anthropogenic disturbances are accelerating the process of species mixing. The existing evidence only shows the tip of the iceberg and we are likely to see many more cases of species mixing following range shifts in the near future. © 2015 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  16. Light pollution: the possible consequences of excessive illumination on retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contín, M A; Benedetto, M M; Quinteros-Quintana, M L; Guido, M E

    2016-02-01

    Light is the visible part of the electromagnetic radiation within a range of 380-780 nm; (400-700 on primates retina). In vertebrates, the retina is adapted to capturing light photons and transmitting this information to other structures in the central nervous system. In mammals, light acts directly on the retina to fulfill two important roles: (1) the visual function through rod and cone photoreceptor cells and (2) non-image forming tasks, such as the synchronization of circadian rhythms to a 24 h solar cycle, pineal melatonin suppression and pupil light reflexes. However, the excess of illumination may cause retinal degeneration or accelerate genetic retinal diseases. In the last century human society has increased its exposure to artificial illumination, producing changes in the Light/Dark cycle, as well as in light wavelengths and intensities. Although, the consequences of unnatural illumination or light pollution have been underestimated by modern society in its way of life, light pollution may have a strong impact on people's health. The effects of artificial light sources could have direct consequences on retinal health. Constant exposure to different wavelengths and intensities of light promoted by light pollution may produce retinal degeneration as a consequence of photoreceptor or retinal pigment epithelium cells death. In this review we summarize the different mechanisms of retinal damage related to the light exposure, which generates light pollution.

  17. Risk management of domino effects considering dynamic consequence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khakzad, Nima; Khan, Faisal; Amyotte, Paul; Cozzani, Valerio

    2014-06-01

    Domino effects are low-probability high-consequence accidents causing severe damage to humans, process plants, and the environment. Because domino effects affect large areas and are difficult to control, preventive safety measures have been given priority over mitigative measures. As a result, safety distances and safety inventories have been used as preventive safety measures to reduce the escalation probability of domino effects. However, these safety measures are usually designed considering static accident scenarios. In this study, we show that compared to a static worst-case accident analysis, a dynamic consequence analysis provides a more rational approach for risk assessment and management of domino effects. This study also presents the application of Bayesian networks and conflict analysis to risk-based allocation of chemical inventories to minimize the consequences and thus to reduce the escalation probability. It emphasizes the risk management of chemical inventories as an inherent safety measure, particularly in existing process plants where the applicability of other safety measures such as safety distances is limited. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.

  18. Educational disparities in the prevalence and consequence of physical vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Daniel O; Stump, Timothy E; Miller, Douglas K; Long, J Scott

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate educational differences in the prevalence and mortality consequence of physical vulnerability among older adults in the United States. Data came from the 1998 and 2000 waves of the Health and Retirement Study, a nationally representative cross-sectional and prospective cohort study of community-based adults aged 65 and older. We created a physical vulnerability score from age, gender, and self-reported disability measures and measured socioeconomic status via educational attainment. Mortality data came from the National Death Index. In the 1998 cohort, high physical vulnerability was more than 3 times more prevalent in individuals with less than 12 years of education compared to those with 16 or more years of education. Although less educated older adults had a higher probability of death overall, evidence of educational differences in the mortality consequence of high physical vulnerability was limited. In 2000, 2.16 million older adults had high physical vulnerability, and more than one half (53%) of these adults had less than 12 years of education. In persons 65 years of age or older, educational differences are more apparent in the prevalence of physical vulnerability than in the mortality consequence of that vulnerability.

  19. Consequence-driven cyber-informed engineering (CCE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, Sarah G. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); St Michel, Curtis [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Smith, Robert [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Assante, Michael [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-10-18

    The Idaho National Lab (INL) is leading a high-impact, national security-level initiative to reprioritize the way the nation looks at high-consequence risk within the industrial control systems (ICS) environment of the country’s most critical infrastructure and other national assets. The Consequence-driven Cyber-informed Engineering (CCE) effort provides both private and public organizations with the steps required to examine their own environments for high-impact events/risks; identify implementation of key devices and components that facilitate that risk; illuminate specific, plausible cyber attack paths to manipulate these devices; and develop concrete mitigations, protections, and tripwires to address the high-consequence risk. The ultimate goal of the CCE effort is to help organizations take the steps necessary to thwart cyber attacks from even top-tier, highly resourced adversaries that would result in a catastrophic physical effect. CCE participants are encouraged to work collaboratively with each other and with key U.S. Government (USG) contributors to establish a coalition, maximizing the positive effect of lessons-learned and further contributing to the protection of critical infrastructure and other national assets.

  20. Consequences of more extreme precipitation regimes for terrestrial ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, Alan [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Beier, Claus [Riso National Laboratory, Roskilde, Denmark; Briske, David [Texas A& M University; Classen, Aimee T [ORNL; Luo, Yiqi [University of Oklahoma; Reichstein, Markus [Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry; Smith, Melinda D [Yale University; Smith, Stanley D [University of Nevada, Las Vegas; Bell, Jesse E [University of Oklahoma; Fay, Philip [ORNL; Heisler, Jana A [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Leavitt, Steven W [unknown; Sherry, Rebecca [University of Oklahoma; Smith, Ben [unknown; Weng, Ensheng [University of Oklahoma, Norman; Norby, Richard J [ORNL

    2008-09-01

    Amplification of the hydrological cycle, as a consequence of global warming, is forecast to be manifest not only by alterations in total annual precipitation, but also through more extreme precipitation regimes characterized by larger rainfall events and more severe intervening drought periods. Based on past studies and theory, we present a conceptual framework for predicting the consequences of this projected change in intra-annual rainfall patterns for terrestrial ecosystems arrayed along a broad gradient in water availability. More extreme rainfall regimes are predicted to increase the occurrence of periodic soil water stress in mesic ecosystems due to prolonged dry periods between rainfall events. In contrast, xeric ecosystems may exhibit the opposite response because a shift to a greater proportion of rainfall delivered in large precipitation events will result in reduced proportional evaporative losses per storm event and greater soil water storage, alleviating soil water stress for longer periods of time. Hydric ecosystems may experience reduced periods of anoxia if intervals between rainfall events increase. This contingent effect of the overall soil water balance on ecosystem responses will likely cascade through all hierarchical levels of ecological processes and interact in ways currently unknown with related global change drivers such as elevated atmospheric temperatures and CO2 concentrations. Thus, multi-factor comparative experiments and systems modeling approaches are needed to more fully understand and forecast the potential ecological consequences of this underappreciated aspect of climate change.

  1. Unintended environmental consequences and co-benefits of economic restructuring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Sai; Xu, Ming; Suh, Sangwon; Tan, Raymond R

    2013-11-19

    Current economic restructuring policies have ignored unintended environmental consequences and cobenefits, the understanding of which can provide foundations for effective policy decisions for green economy transformation. Using the input-output life cycle assessment model and taking China as an example, we find that household consumption, fixed capital formation, and export are main drivers to China's environmental impacts. At the product scale, major contributors to environmental impacts vary across different types of impacts. Stimulating the development of seven strategic emerging industries will cause unintended consequences, such as increasing nonferrous metal ore usage, terrestrial acidification, photochemical oxidant formation, human toxicity, and terrestrial ecotoxicity. Limiting the surplus outputs in the construction materials industry and metallurgy industry may only help mitigate some of the environmental impacts caused by China's regulated pollutants, with little effect on reducing other impacts, such as marine eutrophication, terrestrial acidification, photochemical oxidant formation, and particulate matter formation. However, it will bring cobenefits by simultaneously reducing mineral ore usage, human toxicity, marine ecotoxicity, and terrestrial ecotoxicity. Sustainable materials management and integrated policy modeling are possible ways for policy-making to avoid unintended consequences and effectively utilize cobenefits.

  2. Bicyclic glutamic acid derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Udo; Bisel, Philippe; Weckert, Edgar; Frahm, August Wilhelm

    2006-05-15

    For the second-generation asymmetric synthesis of the trans-tris(homoglutamic) acids via Strecker reaction of chiral ketimines, the cyanide addition as the key stereodifferentiating step produces mixtures of diastereomeric alpha-amino nitrile esters the composition of which is independent of the reaction temperature and the type of the solvent, respectively. The subsequent hydrolysis is exclusively achieved with concentrated H(2)SO(4) yielding diastereomeric mixtures of three secondary alpha-amino alpha-carbamoyl-gamma-esters and two diastereomeric cis-fused angular alpha-carbamoyl gamma-lactams as bicyclic glutamic acid derivatives, gained from in situ stereomer differentiating cyclisation of the secondary cis-alpha-amino alpha-carbamoyl-gamma-esters. Separation was achieved by CC. The pure secondary trans-alpha-amino alpha-carbamoyl-gamma-esters cyclise on heating and treatment with concentrated H(2)SO(4), respectively, to diastereomeric cis-fused angular secondary alpha-amino imides. Their hydrogenolysis led to the enantiomeric cis-fused angular primary alpha-amino imides. The configuration of all compounds was completely established by NMR methods, CD-spectra, and by X-ray analyses of the (alphaR,1R,5R)-1-carbamoyl-2-(1-phenylethyl)-2-azabicyclo[3.3.0]octan-3-one and of the trans-alphaS,1S,2R-2-ethoxycarbonylmethyl-1-(1-phenylethylamino)cyclopentanecarboxamide.

  3. Data Derivation Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Kadam

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Malicious software is a major issue in today’s computer world. Such software can silently reside in user’s computer and can easily interact with computing resources. It is necessary to improve the honesty of host and its system data. For improvement in security and honesty of host, this work is introduced. This mechanism ensures the correct origin or provenance of critical system information and prevents utilization of host resources by malware. Using this mechanism the source where a piece of data is generated can be identified. A cryptographic origin approach ensures system properties and system- data integrity at kernel level. A frame work is used for restricting outbound malware traffic. This frame work identifies network activities of malware. This frame work can be used as powerful personal firewall for investigating outgoing traffic of a host. Specifically, our derivation verification scheme requires outgoing network packets to flow through a checkpoint on a host, to obtain proper origin proofs for later verification.

  4. Data Derivation Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Kadam

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Malicious software is a major issue in today’s computer world. Such software can silently reside in user’s computer and can easily interact with computing resources. It is necessary to improve the honesty of host and its system data. For improvement in security and honesty of host, this work is introduced. This mechanism ensures the correct origin or provenance of critical system information and prevents utilization of host resources by malware. Using this mechanism the source where a piece of data is generated can be identified. A cryptographic origin approach ensures system  properties and system- data integrity at kernel level. A frame work is used for restricting outbound malware traffic. This frame work identifies network activities of malware. This frame work can be used as powerful personal firewall for investigating outgoing traffic of a host. Specifically, our derivation verification scheme requires outgoing network packets to flow through a checkpoint on a host, to obtain proper origin proofs for later verification.

  5. Piroxicam derivatives THz classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterczewski, Lukasz A.; Grzelczak, Michal P.; Nowak, Kacper; Szlachetko, Bogusław; Plinska, Stanislawa; Szczesniak-Siega, Berenika; Malinka, Wieslaw; Plinski, Edward F.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper we report a new approach to linking the terahertz spectral shapes of drug candidates having a similar molecular structure to their chemical and physical parameters. We examined 27 newly-synthesized derivatives of a well-known nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug Piroxicam used for treatment of inflammatory arthritis and chemoprevention of colon cancer. The testing was carried out by means of terahertz pulsed spectroscopy (TPS). Using chemometric techniques we evaluated their spectral similarity in the terahertz range and attempted to link the position on the principal component analysis (PCA) score map to the similarity of molecular descriptors. A simplified spectral model preserved 75% and 85.1% of the variance in 2 and 3 dimensions respectively, compared to the input 1137. We have found that in 85% of the investigated samples a similarity of the physical and chemical parameters corresponds to a similarity in the terahertz spectra. The effects of data preprocessing on the generated maps are also discussed. The technique presented can support the choice of the most promising drug candidates for clinical trials in pharmacological research.

  6. Psychological consequences of childhood obesity: psychiatric comorbidity and prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rankin J

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Jean Rankin,1 Lynsay Matthews,2 Stephen Cobley,3 Ahreum Han,3 Ross Sanders,3 Huw D Wiltshire,4 Julien S Baker5 1Department of Maternal and Child Health, University of the West of Scotland, Paisley, 2MRC/CSO Social and Public Health Sciences Unit, Institute of Health and Wellbeing, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland; 3Department of Exercise and Sport Science, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia; 4Cardiff School of Sport/Ysgol Chwaraeon Caerdydd, Cardiff Metropolitan University, Cardiff, UK; 5School of Science and Sport, Institute of Clinical Exercise and Health Science, University of the West of Scotland, Hamilton, Scotland Abstract: Childhood obesity is one of the most serious public health challenges of the 21st century with far-reaching and enduring adverse consequences for health outcomes. Over 42 million children <5 years worldwide are estimated to be overweight (OW or obese (OB, and if current trends continue, then an estimated 70 million children will be OW or OB by 2025. The purpose of this review was to focus on psychiatric, psychological, and psychosocial consequences of childhood obesity (OBy to include a broad range of international studies. The aim was to establish what has recently changed in relation to the common psychological consequences associated with childhood OBy. A systematic search was conducted in MEDLINE, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library for articles presenting information on the identification or prevention of psychiatric morbidity in childhood obesity. Relevant data were extracted and narratively reviewed. Findings established childhood OW/OBy was negatively associated with psychological comorbidities, such as depression, poorer perceived lower scores on health-related quality of life, emotional and behavioral disorders, and self-esteem during childhood. Evidence related to the association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and OBy remains unconvincing because of various findings

  7. Short- and long-term health consequences of sleep disruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medic G

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Goran Medic,1,2 Micheline Wille,1 Michiel EH Hemels1 1Market Access, Horizon Pharma B.V., Utrecht, 2Unit of Pharmacoepidemiology & Pharmacoeconomics, Department of Pharmacy, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands Abstract: Sleep plays a vital role in brain function and systemic physiology across many body systems. Problems with sleep are widely prevalent and include deficits in quantity and quality of sleep; sleep problems that impact the continuity of sleep are collectively referred to as sleep disruptions. Numerous factors contribute to sleep disruption, ranging from lifestyle and environmental factors to sleep disorders and other medical conditions. Sleep disruptions have substantial adverse short- and long-term health consequences. A literature search was conducted to provide a nonsystematic review of these health consequences (this review was designed to be nonsystematic to better focus on the topics of interest due to the myriad parameters affected by sleep. Sleep disruption is associated with increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system and hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, metabolic effects, changes in circadian rhythms, and proinflammatory responses. In otherwise healthy adults, short-term consequences of sleep disruption include increased stress responsivity, somatic pain, reduced quality of life, emotional distress and mood disorders, and cognitive, memory, and performance deficits. For adolescents, psychosocial health, school performance, and risk-taking behaviors are impacted by sleep disruption. Behavioral problems and cognitive functioning are associated with sleep disruption in children. Long-term consequences of sleep disruption in otherwise healthy individuals include hypertension, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular disease, weight-related issues, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and colorectal cancer. All-cause mortality is also increased in men with sleep disturbances. For those with

  8. Experts' understanding of partial derivatives using the Partial Derivative Machine

    CERN Document Server

    Roundy, David; Dray, Tevian; Manogue, Corinne A; Weber, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Partial derivatives are used in a variety of different ways within physics. Most notably, thermodynamics uses partial derivatives in ways that students often find confusing. As part of a collaboration with mathematics faculty, we are at the beginning of a study of the teaching of partial derivatives, a goal of better aligning the teaching of multivariable calculus with the needs of students in STEM disciplines. As a part of this project, we have performed a pilot study of expert understanding of partial derivatives across three disciplines: physics, engineering and mathematics. Our interviews made use of the Partial Derivative Machine (PDM), which is a mechanical system featuring four observable and controllable properties, of which any two are independent. Using the PDM, we probed expert understanding of partial derivatives in an experimental context in which there is not a known functional form. Through these three interviews, we found that the mathematicians exhibited a striking difference in their underst...

  9. Consequences of agro-biofuel production for greenhouse gas emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Mette Sustmann; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Johansen, Anders

    2009-01-01

    that accelerated emissions of N2O associated with the production of biomass for bio-fuel purposes will outweigh the avoided emissions of fossil fuel-derived CO2 (Crutzen et al., 2008). In the present study we examined the effects on N2O and CH4 emissions when residues from bio-energy production were recycled...... associated with the use of nitrogen based fertilizers in agricultural production. Replacing fossil fuel-derived energy by biomass-derived energy is commonly and with increasing emphasis proposed as a mean to mitigate the CO2 emissions. However, a recent analysis of global emission data proposes...... as fertilizer for a maize energy crop within an organic cropping system. Furthermore, we assessed sustainability in terms of greenhouse gasses for co-production of bio-ethanol and bio-gas from maize. This was compared to estimated greenhouse gas balances for rye and grass-clover as alternative raw materials....

  10. Derivations, Products of Derivations, and Commutativity in Near-rings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Howard E. Bell; Nurcan Argac

    2001-01-01

    For a zero-symmetric 3-prime near-ring N, we study three kinds of conditions: (a) conditions involving two derivations d1, d2 which imply that d1 = 0 or d2 = 0; (b) conditions involving derivations which force (N, +) to be abelian or N to be a commutative ring; (c) the condition that dn (S) is multiplicatively central for some derivation d and subset S of N.

  11. Prospect Theory: Contributions to Understanding Actors, Causes and Consequences of Conflict in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Trott

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite many recognized shortcomings, Rational Choice Theory remains the dominant perspective on decision-making in the literature on African conflict, whether overtly acknowledged or not. Prospect Theory, originally derived from the field of behavioural economics, can complement and advance this perspective not only by explaining the behaviour of actors, but also by allowing for predictions and the devising of strategies to avoid or end on-going conflicts based on a set of systematic biases that influence how actors make decisions. After a brief definition of Prospect Theory, this work will begin with an overview of the existing literature on decision-making as it relates to conflict, examine how Rational Choice is inadequate in explaining much human behaviour and thus how Prospect Theory can fill this gap. It will then move on to give a fuller definition of the various hypotheses derived from Prospect Theory that pertain to the study of conflict. An example of the application of Prospect Theory to a related field in which thorough research has been conducted, Deterrence Theory, will be used to demonstrate the model’s potential for study in other areas. This will be followed by a more in-depth analysis of the ways in which Prospect Theory can contribute to understanding the behaviour of actors in war, the causes of conflict, and the consequences in the African context. It will conclude with a summary and proposition for further research that can advance this analysis.

  12. Consequence clauses with a meaning of measure and degree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Marina M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to present a new classification of consequence clauses that is based on a category of degree. Based on that parameter, consequence clauses are classified into the ones that have a meaning of degree and the ones that don’t have that meaning. Furthemore, consequence clauses with a meaning of degree can be divided into the clauses with a meaning of measure (Napolju je toliko hladno da smo se odmah vratili iz šetnje./It is so cold outside that we had to return immediately back; On je takav prevarant, da će te sigurno preći/ He is such a chouse - he will cheat for sure. and into excessive clauses (Previše je debela da uđe u tu haljinu/ She is too fat to fit in this dress; Devojčica je premalena da ostane sama kod kuće/ The girl is too small to stay at home alone; Buka je bila dovoljna da natera dete u plač/The noise was loud enough to cause the baby cry. The article provides the arguments that the category of degree in this sentences is grammaticalized with the help of certain modifiers and a conjunction of result da. The author applies the onomasiological method in the analysis and uses the theory of semantic locations. An existence of certain meanings is confirmed by the transformational test. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 178021: Opis i standardizacija savremenog srpskog jezika, potprojekat: Sintaksa složene rečenice

  13. Depression as a cause and consequence of victimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spasić Danijela

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I tried to show cause-and-consequence relationship between depression, as one of very frequent and specific mental disorders, and different forms of victimization. I wanted to make a modest contribution to the statement that depression, taken in a historic and temporal sequence despite our will and quite unexpectedly was transformed into some kind of "collective madness". At the beginning, it was a synonym for melancholy, a specific state into which those who were weaker were falling. But step by step and parallel with the global network of changes in all fields of human life, it got a character of world "infection" which spreading was being followed by the expansion of cardiovascular or malignant diseases, but without so obvious physical manifestations. Depression, as a long-term and "painful state of human soul" is often looking for shelter and rescue in abusing psychoactive substances, drugs and alcohols, and is often finding a way out in suicide behaviour, and therefore it becomes one of its dominant causes. Before that, it is, of course, usually manifested as a consequence of different forms of victimization; generally, it implies social conditions, either at macro or micro levels, and inadequate response of a person to them, but also criminal or any other negative acts, doings or omissions that could endanger or destruct any human good and put the man in a position of victim. In this way, depression "is closing its magic circle of causes and consequences", in which the man has three allies: himself community or other people, and time. Strength, quality and duration of allied assistance are reversely proportional to victimization dimension of depression.

  14. Can compensatory culling offset undesirable evolutionary consequences of trophy hunting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mysterud, Atle; Bischof, Richard

    2010-01-01

    1. There is growing concern about the evolutionary consequences of human harvesting on phenotypic trait quality in wild populations. Undesirable consequences are especially likely with trophy hunting because of its strong bias for specific phenotypic trait values, such as large antlers in cervids and horns in bovids. Selective hunting can cause a decline in a trophy trait over time if it is heritable, thereby reducing the long-term sustainability of the activity itself. 2. How can we build a sustainable trophy hunting tradition without the negative trait-altering effects? We used an individual-based model to explore whether selective compensatory culling of 'low quality' individuals at an early life stage can facilitate sustainability, as suggested by information from managed game populations in eastern and central Europe. Our model was rooted in empirical data on red deer, where heritability of sexual ornaments has been confirmed and phenotypic quality can be assessed by antler size in individuals as young as 1 year. 3. Simulations showed that targeted culling of low-quality yearlings could counter the selective effects of trophy hunting on the distribution of the affected trait (e.g. antler or horn size) in prime-aged individuals. Assumptions of trait heritability and young-to-adult correlation were essential for compensation, but the model proved robust to various other assumptions and changes to input parameters. The simulation approach allowed us to verify responses as evolutionary changes in trait values rather than short-term consequences of altered age structure, density and viability selection. 4. We conclude that evolutionarily enlightened management may accommodate trophy hunting. This has far reaching implications as income from trophy hunting is often channelled into local conservation efforts and rural economies. As an essential follow-up, we recommend an analysis of the effects of trophy hunting in conjunction with compensatory culling on the

  15. Psychosocial consequences of leprosy and the related deformity in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qazi Azad-uz-zaman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the psychosocial condition and consequences of the people affected by leprosy and the related deformity in some selected areas of Bangladesh. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from July to December 2015 among 92 leprosy-affected people. A pretested semi-structure questionnaire was used for collecting data by face to face interview from both the low prevalent areas of Khulna and the high prevalent area of Rangpur Division in Bangladesh. Results: Nearly two-fifth of respondents were observed having deformity. Among them, around four-fifth was from Khulna region, about half were above 50 years of age and more than half had monthly family income lower than 5 000 BDT. The development of deformity is found having highly significant association with region (P < 0.001, residence (P < 0.004, and family income (P < 0.004. Differences in consequences between ‘with deformity’ and ‘without deformity’ were found very high. About 65% of the respondents with deformity ‘think less’ of himself, and nearly 60% felt ashamed or embarrassed, 53% had to change job, and 47% was used to think having less respect in the society where the percentage was much lower in all cases to ‘without deformity’ group. Conclusions: Early diagnosis and start multidrug therapy at the earliest stages have chanced to reduce the leprosy-resulted deformity, disfigurement and disability. For those who already have had some nerve damages, health education is highly important to prevent further injury and hence psychosocial consequences.

  16. Psychosocial antecedents and consequences of workplace aggression for hospital nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Defne; Rodwell, John

    2012-12-01

    To test a full model of the antecedents to and consequences of various forms of workplace aggression, considering psychosocial factors, for hospital nursing staff. Cross-sectional survey design. Two hundred and seven nurses and midwives working across wards within a medium to large Australian hospital completed the survey. The survey response rate was 26.9%. High frequencies of nurses reported exposure to workplace bullying and internal and external emotional abuse violence types. In terms of antecedents, bullying was linked to high negative affectivity (NA), as well as low supervisor support and coworker support. Internal emotional abuse was associated with low levels of these support variables, as well as high outside work support and low job control. External threat of assault was related to high job demands and NA. In terms of consequences, bullying and verbal sexual harassment were linked to increased psychological distress levels. Bullying and internal emotional abuse were related to lowered organizational commitment. Changes in job satisfaction were not found for any of the workplace aggression types. NA was a significant covariate for all analyses examining consequences of aggression. Different combinations of work conditions (job demands-resources) and individual levels of NA predicted certain types of aggression. Further, nurse perceptions of psychological distress and organizational commitment were affected by exposure to several types of aggression, even after controlling for NA as a potential perceptual bias. This study therefore extends previous research on workplace bullying as a stressor to other types of workplace aggression for nurses. The findings highlight factors that are important in considering effective prevention and intervention of workplace aggression among nursing staff, particularly those working in hospital settings. © 2012 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  17. Causes and consequences of injuries in children in Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angalakuditi MV

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Mallik V Angalakuditi1, Nupur Angalakuditi21Georgia State University, Atlanta, Georgia, 2New York Medical College, Valhalla, New York, USAObjective: To identify the common causes and consequences of pediatric injury-related admission to an Australian children's hospital.Methods: A retrospective study was conducted at a pediatric teaching hospital. Patients , 18 years of age hospitalized between March 1, 2007 and April 30, 2007 were included. Patient medical records were reviewed if an admission diagnosis was injury related. Data collected included date of birth, gender, date of admission, date of discharge, diagnosis, procedure, and causes and outcomes of the injury.Results: A total of 184 patients were admitted as a result of injury during the study period. Of these, one neonate, six infants, 38 toddlers, 111 children, and 28 teenagers were included in this study. The most common cause of injury-related hospital admission was a fall (n = 109, 59%. Other causes of injury included crushing (8%, n = 15, the spilling of fluids (5.4%, n = 10, and bites (4.3%, n = 8. The most common consequence of an injury for children (43/111, 38.7% and teenagers (12/28, 43% was bone fracture. However, head injuries were the most common injury in toddlers (11/38, 29%, infants (5/6, 83.3%, and neonates (1/1, 100%. The radius and/ or ulna (36/63, 57% were the most common bones fractured. The majority (32/37, 86.5% of patients who suffered head injuries were diagnosed as having a minor injury.Conclusion: The main cause of injury-related admission to the hospital for children was a fall, with the most common consequences being fractures and head injuries.Keywords: injury, falls, head injuries, fractures

  18. Paying a Price: Culture, Trust, and Negotiation Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunia, Brian C.; Brett, Jeanne M.; Nandkeolyar, Amit K.; Kamdar, Dishan

    2011-01-01

    Three studies contrasting Indian and American negotiators tested hypotheses derived from theory proposing why there are cultural differences in trust and how cultural differences in trust influence negotiation strategy. Study 1 (a survey) documented that Indian negotiators trust their counterparts less than American negotiators. Study 2 (a…

  19. Paying a Price: Culture, Trust, and Negotiation Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunia, Brian C.; Brett, Jeanne M.; Nandkeolyar, Amit K.; Kamdar, Dishan

    2011-01-01

    Three studies contrasting Indian and American negotiators tested hypotheses derived from theory proposing why there are cultural differences in trust and how cultural differences in trust influence negotiation strategy. Study 1 (a survey) documented that Indian negotiators trust their counterparts less than American negotiators. Study 2 (a…

  20. Phenotypic plasticity and fitness consequences in nematodes exposed to toxicants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kammenga, J.E.

    1995-01-01

    A prevailing view in ecotoxicology is that toxicants affect organisms by impairing lifecycle traits that arc most sensitive to these toxicants, a concept also adopted by national and international legislative authorities for deriving safe standards for contaminants in soil and water. For example, a