WorldWideScience

Sample records for derived fuel markets

  1. North America markets for alcohol and alcohol-derived motor fuels and need for tax incentives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haigwood, B.

    1991-01-01

    The U.S. fuel alcohol and ether industry has grown from its infancy in 1979 to approximately 2.9 billion gallons of production capacity in 1991. With the emphasis on clean air, the uncertainties in the Middle East, and fluctuating oil prices, IRI believes the demand for alcohol-derived motor fuels is poised to begin a second phase of expansion. Historically, the two primary alcohol-derived motor fuels sold in the U.S. have been methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) and ethanol. There is also a limited but growing use of methanol as 85% blendstock for gasoline. Since 1978, fuel ethanol has provided the U.S. petroleum industry with an additional source of supply, octane, and profit. Its price was based on the price of wholesale gasoline plus available federal and state tax incentives. These incentives allowed ethanol, with production costs of $1.00 to $1.25 per gallon, to compete with gasoline at prices of 40 to 65 per gallon. Without the federal and state tax incentives, it would not be economically feasible to sell or manufacture fuel ethanol. On the other hand, the largest consumption of methanol has been as a feedstock for the production of MTBE, the world's fastest growing chemical over the past seven years. MTBE prices are based on the cost of raising the octane level of gasoline, and this commodity does not receive subsidies. Beginning in 1992, IRI predicts the price relationship between ethanol, MTBE, and gasoline will change as U.S. refiners and marketers are required to include oxygenated fuels (alcohol-derived) in their gasoline. In total, over 60 billion gallons of gasoline will need to be reformulated by the year 2000. The increased demand for oxygen will result in a 2.5-billion gallon deficit of MTBE and 1.2-billion gallon deficit of ethanol by the year 2000. 2 tabs

  2. Derivatives in emerging markets

    OpenAIRE

    Dubravko Mihaljek; Frank Packer

    2010-01-01

    Turnover of derivatives has grown more rapidly in emerging markets than in developed countries. Foreign exchange derivatives are the most commonly traded of all risk categories, with increasingly frequent turnover in emerging market currencies and a growing share of cross-border transactions. As the global reach of the financial centres in emerging Asia has expanded, the offshore trading of many emerging market currency derivatives has risen as well. Growth in derivatives turnover is positive...

  3. Market of fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carta Petrolera

    2001-01-01

    An analysis of the market of fuels is made in Colombia, with base in comparisons with other countries of Latin America, leaving of the base of the liberation of the market, from the refinement until the smallest sale in fuels, the effects of this liberation are analyzed in other regions of the continent

  4. Global Derivatives Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stankovska Aleksandra

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Globalization of financial markets led to the enormous growth of volume and diversification of financial transactions. Financial derivatives were the basic elements of this growth. Derivatives play a useful and important role in hedging and risk management, but they also pose several dangers to the stability of financial markets and thereby the overall economy. Derivatives are used to hedge and speculate the risk associated with commerce and finance.

  5. Derived enriched uranium market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutkowski, E.

    1996-01-01

    The potential impact on the uranium market of highly enriched uranium from nuclear weapons dismantling in the Russian Federation and the USA is analyzed. Uranium supply, conversion, and enrichment factors are outlined for each country; inventories are also listed. The enrichment component and conversion components are expected to cause little disruption to uranium markets. The uranium component of Russian derived enriched uranium hexafluoride is unresolved; US legislation places constraints on its introduction into the US market

  6. Credit derivatives in emerging markets

    OpenAIRE

    Romain Rancière

    2002-01-01

    Credit Derivatives are securities that offer protection against credit or default risk of bonds or loans. The credit derivatives emerging market has grown rapidly and credit derivatives are widely used. This paper describes the emerging credit derivatives market structure. The current market activity is analyzed through elementary pricing dynamics and the study of the term structure of default risk. Focusing on the performance of credit derivatives in stress situation, including legal and mar...

  7. 2009 Fuel Cell Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vincent, Bill [Breakthrough Technologies Inst., Washington, DC (United States); Gangi, Jennifer [Breakthrough Technologies Inst., Washington, DC (United States); Curtin, Sandra [Breakthrough Technologies Inst., Washington, DC (United States); Delmont, Elizabeth [Breakthrough Technologies Inst., Washington, DC (United States)

    2010-11-01

    Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that combine hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity, water, and heat. Unlike batteries, fuel cells continuously generate electricity, as long as a source of fuel is supplied. Moreover, fuel cells do not burn fuel, making the process quiet, pollution-free and two to three times more efficient than combustion. Fuel cell systems can be a truly zero-emission source of electricity, if the hydrogen is produced from non-polluting sources. Global concerns about climate change, energy security, and air pollution are driving demand for fuel cell technology. More than 630 companies and laboratories in the United States are investing $1 billion a year in fuel cells or fuel cell component technologies. This report provides an overview of trends in the fuel cell industry and markets, including product shipments, market development, and corporate performance. It also provides snapshots of select fuel cell companies, including general.

  8. The Swedish wood fuel market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillring, Bengt

    1999-01-01

    In Sweden, wood fuels are traditionally used in the Swedish forest products industry and for heating of single-family houses. More recently they are also become established as an energy source for district heating and electricity production. Energy policy, especially the energy taxation system, has favoured wood fuels and other biofuels, mainly for environmental reasons. There is now an established commercial market for wood fuels in the district heating sector, which amounts to 45 PJ and is growing 20 per cent annually. Price levels have been stable in current prices for a decade, mainly because of good access to wood fuels. Price levels are dominated by production costs on a market that is largely governed by the buyer. It is expected that the use of wood fuels will increased in Sweden in the future, which will push a further development of this section on the market and bring about technological changes in the area. (Author)

  9. The international WWER fuel market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gingold, G.E.; Goldstein, L.; Strasser, A.A.

    1994-01-01

    The state of the world nuclear fuel market and its economic complexities are described. Currently the nuclear fuel market is oversupplied and nuclear fuel fabrication in the West far exceeds the anticipated demands. Actually the current demand is not much more than half of the capacity available to supply it. The Eastern Europe (excluding the plants in the Russian Federation) with its 20 WWER-440 and 12 WWER-1000 reactors in operation and additional 4 WWER-440 and 8 WWER-1000 units under construction is considered as a potential long-term market for the Western fuel fabricators. The following significant benefits of competition in the WWER fuel market for the operators of these reactors are : 1) lower cost; 2) more favorable contract terms and improved vendor cooperation with the customer; 3) accelerated technological development. A brief description of the main WWER fuel suppliers TVEL, ABB Atom, BNFL, EVF and Westinghouse, as well as the status of some new companies as CEZ and SEP is given. The principal differences between Western and WWER fuels are outlined. The advanced features offered by the Western vendors and Russian fuel supply organisations are discussed. 2 tabs., 1 fig

  10. The international WWER fuel market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gingold, G E; Goldstein, L; Strasser, A A [Stoller (S.M.) Corp., Pleasantville, NY (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The state of the world nuclear fuel market and its economic complexities are described. Currently the nuclear fuel market is oversupplied and nuclear fuel fabrication in the West far exceeds the anticipated demands. Actually the current demand is not much more than half of the capacity available to supply it. The Eastern Europe (excluding the plants in the Russian Federation) with its 20 WWER-440 and 12 WWER-1000 reactors in operation and additional 4 WWER-440 and 8 WWER-1000 units under construction is considered as a potential long-term market for the Western fuel fabricators. The following significant benefits of competition in the WWER fuel market for the operators of these reactors are : (1) lower cost; (2) more favorable contract terms and improved vendor cooperation with the customer; (3) accelerated technological development. A brief description of the main WWER fuel suppliers TVEL, ABB Atom, BNFL, EVF and Westinghouse, as well as the status of some new companies as CEZ and SEP is given. The principal differences between Western and WWER fuels are outlined. The advanced features offered by the Western vendors and Russian fuel supply organisations are discussed. 2 tabs., 1 fig.

  11. Market analysis. Renewable fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The Agency for Renewable Resources (FNR) had on behalf of the Federal Ministry of Food and Agriculture created a study on the market development of renewable resources in Germany and published this in the year of 2006. The aim of that study was to identify of actual status and market performance of the individual market segments of the material and energetic use as a basis for policy recommendations for accelerated and long term successful market launch and market share expansion of renewable raw materials. On behalf of the FNR, a market analysis of mid-2011 was carried out until the beginning of 2013, the results of which are hereby resubmitted. This market analysis covers all markets of material and energetic use in the global context, taking account of possible competing uses. A market segmentation, which was based on the product classification of the Federal Statistical Office, formed the basis of the analysis. A total of ten markets have been defined, seven material and three energetic use. [de

  12. Fuels: market, quality, emissions in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philippon, A.

    1997-01-01

    Here is a study about the automobile fuels market. From the market trends, we find the evolution of fuels quality; but in front of the concurrence and with the imbalance between diesel fuels and gasoline fuels, the improvement in fuels quality that requires investments does not increase as well as the air quality should necessitate. (N.C.)

  13. Risk Factors in Derivatives Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimonda Martinkutė-Kaulienė

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the article is to analyse and present the classification of risks actual to derivative securities. The analysis is based on classical and modern literature findings and analysis of newest statistical data. The analysis led to the conclusion, that the main risks typical for derivatives contracts and their traders are market risk, liquidity risk, credit and counterparty risk, legal risk and transactions risk. Pricing risk and systemic risk is also quite important. The analysis showed that market risk is the most important kind of risk that in many situations influences the level of remaining risks.

  14. Combined Heat and Power Market Potential for Opportunity Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, David [Resource Dynamics Corporation, McLean, VA (United States); Lemar, Paul [Resource Dynamics Corporation, McLean, VA (United States

    2015-12-01

    This report estimates the potential for opportunity fuel combined heat and power (CHP) applications in the United States, and provides estimates for the technical and economic market potential compared to those included in an earlier report. An opportunity fuel is any type of fuel that is not widely used when compared to traditional fossil fuels. Opportunity fuels primarily consist of biomass fuels, industrial waste products and fossil fuel derivatives. These fuels have the potential to be an economically viable source of power generation in various CHP applications.

  15. Development trends of the international derivatives market

    OpenAIRE

    Motorniuk, U.; Terebukh, M.; Kharchuk, V.

    2016-01-01

    The factors forming international derivatives market trends are researched in this article. The history of the formation of the global derivatives market was analyzed, in particular, events which have led to the growth of the derivatives market. Global derivatives market has revealed major changes in its trends and witnessed the gradual transformation of its structure, observed in recent years. Global derivatives market has revealed major changes in its trends and witnessed the gradual transf...

  16. Alternative Fuels Market and Policy Trends (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, A. N.

    2013-09-01

    Market forces and policies are increasing opportunities for alternative fuels. There is no one-size-fits-all, catch-all, silver-bullet fuel. States play a critical role in the alternative fuel market and are taking a leading role.

  17. 2009 Fuel Cell Market Report, November 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-11-01

    Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that combine hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity, water, and heat. Unlike batteries, fuel cells continuously generate electricity, as long as a source of fuel is supplied. Moreover, fuel cells do not burn fuel, making the process quiet, pollution-free and two to three times more efficient than combustion. Fuel cell systems can be a truly zero-emission source of electricity, if the hydrogen is produced from non-polluting sources. Global concerns about climate change, energy security, and air pollution are driving demand for fuel cell technology. More than 630 companies and laboratories in the United States are investing $1 billion a year in fuel cells or fuel cell component technologies. This report provides an overview of trends in the fuel cell industry and markets, including product shipments, market development, and corporate performance. It also provides snapshots of select fuel cell companies, including general.

  18. World nuclear fuel market. Seventeenth annual meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    The papers presented at the seventeenth World Nuclear Fuels Market meeting are cataloged individually. This volume includes information on the following areas of interest: historical and current aspects of the uranium and plutonium market with respect to supply and demand, pricing, spot market purchasing, and other market phenomena; impact of reprocessing and recycling uranium, plutonium, and mixed oxide fuels; role of individual countries in the market: Hungary, Germany, the Soviet Union, Czechoslovakia, France, and the US; the impact of public opinion and radioactive waste management on the nuclear industry, and a debate regarding long term versus short term contracting by electric utilities for uranium and enrichment services

  19. Financial derivatives in power marketing: The basics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramesh, V.C.; Ghosh, K.

    1996-01-01

    With the ongoing changes in the power industry worldwide, electricity is beginning to be traded like other commodities. The use of financial derivative instruments in power markets is on the rise. The purpose of this paper is to explain the role of these derivatives in risk management which is vital for survival in the increasingly competitive industry. Starting with the familiar cash markets, the paper discusses the basics of futures, options, and swap markets as applied to electric energy trading

  20. 2008 Fuel Cell Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE

    2010-06-01

    Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that combine hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity, water, and heat. Unlike batteries, fuel cells continuously generate electricity, as long as a source of fuel is supplied. Moreover, fuel cells do not burn fuel, making the process quiet, pollution-free and two to three times more efficient than combustion. Fuel cell systems can be a truly zero-emission source of electricity, if the hydrogen is produced from non-polluting sources. Global concerns about climate change, energy security, and air pollution are driving demand for fuel cell technology. More than 630 companies and laboratories in the United States are investing $1 billion a year in fuel cells or fuel cell component technologies. This report provides an overview of trends in the fuel cell industry and markets, including product shipments, market development, and corporate performance. It also provides snapshots of select fuel cell companies, including general business strategy and market focus, as well as, financial information for select publicly-traded companies.

  1. 2008 Fuel Cell Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vincent, B. [Breakthrough Technologies Inst., Washington, DC (United States)

    2010-06-30

    Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that combine hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity, water, and heat. Unlike batteries, fuel cells continuously generate electricity, as long as a source of fuel is supplied. Moreover, fuel cells do not burn fuel, making the process quiet, pollution-free and two to three times more efficient than combustion. Fuel cell systems can be a truly zero-emission source of electricity, if the hydrogen is produced from non-polluting sources. Global concerns about climate change, energy security, and air pollution are driving demand for fuel cell technology. More than 630 companies and laboratories in the United States are investing $1 billion a year in fuel cells or fuel cell component technologies. This report provides an overview of trends in the fuel cell industry and markets, including product shipments, market development, and corporate performance. It also provides snapshots of select fuel cell companies, including general business strategy and market focus, as well as, financial information for select publicly-traded companies.

  2. Market dynamics of biomass fuel in California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delaney, W.F.; Zane, G.A.

    1991-01-01

    The California market for biomass fuel purchased by independent power producers has grown substantially since 1980. The PURPA legislation that based power purchase rates upon the 'avoided cost' of public utilities resulted in construction of nearly 900 Megawatts of capacity coming online by 1991. Until 1987, most powerplants were co-sited at sawmills and burned sawmill residue. By 1990 the installed capacity of stand-alone powerplants exceeded the capacity co-sited at wood products industry facilities. The 1991 demand for biomass fuel is estimated as 6,400,000 BDT. The 1991 market value of most biomass fuel delivered to powerplants is from $34 to $47 per BDT. Biomass fuel is now obtained from forest chips, agriculture residue and urban wood waste. The proportion of biomass fuel from the wood products industry is expected to decline and non-traditional fuels are expected to increase in availability

  3. Wood fuels sources and markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koopmans, Auke

    2003-01-01

    Biomass energy is an important source of energy in most Asian countries. Households and industries use substantial amounts of fuel wood, charcoal and other biomass energy, such as agricultural residues, dung, leaves and sawmill residues. The main household applications are cooking and heating whereas industrial applications range widely. This paper provides an overview of estimates on the production and trade of biomass fuels in the South-east Asia region. The flows and channels used in the supply of wood fuels in different countries were analysed. This paper may help in identifying policy gaps with regards to the supply and consumption of wood fuels from both forest and non-forest sources. (Author)

  4. Market penetration scenarios for fuel cell vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, C.E.; James, B.D.; Lomax, F.D. Jr. [Directed Technologies, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Fuel cell vehicles may create the first mass market for hydrogen as an energy carrier. Directed Technologies, Inc., working with the US Department of Energy hydrogen systems analysis team, has developed a time-dependent computer market penetration model. This model estimates the number of fuel cell vehicles that would be purchased over time as a function of their cost and the cost of hydrogen relative to the costs of competing vehicles and fuels. The model then calculates the return on investment for fuel cell vehicle manufacturers and hydrogen fuel suppliers. The model also projects the benefit/cost ratio for government--the ratio of societal benefits such as reduced oil consumption, reduced urban air pollution and reduced greenhouse gas emissions to the government cost for assisting the development of hydrogen energy and fuel cell vehicle technologies. The purpose of this model is to assist industry and government in choosing the best investment strategies to achieve significant return on investment and to maximize benefit/cost ratios. The model can illustrate trends and highlight the sensitivity of market penetration to various parameters such as fuel cell efficiency, cost, weight, and hydrogen cost. It can also illustrate the potential benefits of successful R and D and early demonstration projects. Results will be shown comparing the market penetration and return on investment estimates for direct hydrogen fuel cell vehicles compared to fuel cell vehicles with onboard fuel processors including methanol steam reformers and gasoline partial oxidation systems. Other alternative fueled vehicles including natural gas hybrids, direct injection diesels and hydrogen-powered internal combustion hybrid vehicles will also be analyzed.

  5. Supply Security in Future Nuclear Fuel Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seward, Amy M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wood, Thomas W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gitau, Ernest T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ford, Benjamin E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-11-18

    Previous PNNL work has shown the existing nuclear fuel markets to provide a high degree of supply security, including the ability to respond to supply disruptions that occur for technical and non-technical reasons. It is in the context of new reactor designs – that is, reactors likely to be licensed and market ready over the next several decades – that fuel supply security is most relevant. Whereas the fuel design and fabrication technology for existing reactors are well known, the construction of a new set of reactors could stress the ability of the existing market to provide adequate supply redundancy. This study shows this is unlikely to occur for at least thirty years, as most reactors likely to be built in the next three decades will be evolutions of current designs, with similar fuel designs to existing reactors.

  6. Supply Security in Future Nuclear Fuel Markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seward, Amy M.; Wood, Thomas W.; Gitau, Ernest T.; Ford, Benjamin E.

    2013-01-01

    Previous PNNL work has shown the existing nuclear fuel markets to provide a high degree of supply security, including the ability to respond to supply disruptions that occur for technical and non-technical reasons. It is in the context of new reactor designs - that is, reactors likely to be licensed and market ready over the next several decades - that fuel supply security is most relevant. Whereas the fuel design and fabrication technology for existing reactors are well known, the construction of a new set of reactors could stress the ability of the existing market to provide adequate supply redundancy. This study shows this is unlikely to occur for at least thirty years, as most reactors likely to be built in the next three decades will be evolutions of current designs, with similar fuel designs to existing reactors.

  7. Economy and the fuel market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The nuclear fuel manufacturing constitutes a considerable venture for the competitiveness of the nuclear power sector although it represents a relatively modest fraction (around 4%) of the nuclear kWh cost. The COGEMA group is participating through its branches in the control of the most part (32%) of the world manufacturing capacity of fuel for PWR. Amounting up to 242 operating installations this reactor type is the most widespread in the world. The paper discusses the costs, the fuel clients and the fuel suppliers. Data concerning the boiling water and fast neutron reactors, geographical localization of the PWR and VVER reactors all over the world, the PWR and fuel for PWR manufacturers are also presented

  8. Enhanced wood fuel handling: market and design studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landen, R.; Rippengal, R.; Redman, A.N.

    1997-09-01

    This report examines the potential for the manufacture and sale of novel wood fuel handling systems as a means of addressing users' concerns regarding current capital costs and potential high labour costs of non-automated systems. The report considers fuel handling technology that is basically appropriate for wood-fired heating systems of between c.100kW and c.1MW maximum continuous rating. This report details work done by the project collaborators in order to: (1) assess the current status of wood fuel handling technology; (2) evaluate the market appetite for improved wood fuel handling technology; (3) derive capital costs which are acceptable to customers; (4) review design options; and (5) select one or more design options worthy of further development. The current status of wood fuel handling technology is determined, and some basic modelling to give guidance on acceptable capital costs of 100-1000kW wood fuel handling systems is undertaken. (author)

  9. World nuclear fuel market. Eighteenth annual meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    The papers presented at the eighteenth World Nuclear Fuels Market meeting are cataloged separately. This volume includes information on the following areas of interest: world uranium enrichment capacity and enriched uranium inventories; the impact of new enrichment technologies; predictions of future market trends; non-proliferation aspects of nuclear trade; and a debate as to whether uranium can be successfully traded on a commodities exchange

  10. Environmental economics of lignin derived transport fuels

    OpenAIRE

    Obydenkova, SV; Kouris, P Panagiotis; Hensen, EJM Emiel; Heeres, Hero J; Boot, MD Michael

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the environmental and economic aspects of fast pyrolytic conversion of lignin, obtained from 2G ethanol plants, to transport fuels for both the marine and automotive markets. Various scenarios are explored, pertaining to aggregation of lignin from several sites, alternative energy carries to replace lignin, transport modalities, and allocation methodology. The results highlight two critical factors that ultimately determine the economic and/or environmental fuel viability....

  11. RELATIONSHIP DERIVATIVES FINANCIAL MARKETS, MONEY AND STOCK MARKETS AS A SUBSYSTEM OF FINANCIAL MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia Yelnikova

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Under conditions of intensive strengthening of globalization of world financial markets and deepening of the crisis, the main source of which are financial markets, financial derivatives market is rapidly developing. In such circumstances, we observe very active growing demand for tools, the main purpose of which is to reduce the financial risk – derivatives. Outlined trend has also involved Ukraine. In this connection, there is an objective need to develop estimate the interconnection of the money and stock markets and derivatives market. It should be kept in mind that achieving the outlined goal is possible only under condition of the full understanding of the scientific and methodological principles of the development of these markets. Purpose is to estimate the interconnection of the money and stock markets and derivatives market by building a mathematical model of system of structural equations that will promote the compilation of scientifically based program of derivatives market. Methodology. By using methods of economic-mathematical modelling were estimated the degree of influence of studied markets factors on financial derivatives market development and by changing this or that factor were predicted future trends of its operations. Results of the survey showed the current state and problems of derivatives market functioning. At the same time, our study allowed us to talk, that factors of the money and stock markets have a different impact on the derivatives market. So, the majority of money market factors have a reverse influence on the development of derivatives market. Instead, the stock market has a direct influence. Practical implications. The proposed scientific and methodical approach to evaluating the impact of factors on the derivatives market allows: influenced by different factors; to conduct a qualitative interpretation of the quantitative changes in the level of market development; to form a complete system of state

  12. Price formation and market mechanisms in world nuclear fuel markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neff, T.L.

    1991-01-01

    The structure of world markets for uranium, UF6 and enriched uranium product (EUP) have changed greatly since the 1970s. In the old model, firms specializing in mining, conversion, enrichment and fabrication played independent and sequential steps in the making of nuclear fuel. The great majority of users dealt directly with primary suppliers. Competition took place among suppliers at each stage of the fuel cycle and price formation occurred independently for each stage. Long-term contracts directly between primary supplier and end user dominated, whether for U3O8, conversion, enrichment or fabrication. The old model is effectively gone. uranium producers compete with traders, some of whom can offer a much larger menu of products and terms than primary suppliers. Where once there was a straight engineering-like sequence of processing from uranium to EUP for end use, today things are often reversed and far more complicated, with de-enrichment, de-conversion, loans, swaps, and other transactions. Those able to bring financial and entrepreneurial skills to bear on this complexity have an advantage. Long-term contracts between primary producers and end users no longer dominate new transactions, especially in the critical role of price formation - the process of determining or discovery of the market price. These changes have raised the question of whether participants in the nuclear fuel market need, or could benefit from, new institutional mechanisms, specifically some sort of formal exchange or commodity market

  13. Environmental economics of lignin derived transport fuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Obydenkova, Svetlana V.; Kouris, Panos D.; Hensen, Emiel J. M.; Heeres, Hero J.; Boot, Michael D.

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the environmental and economic aspects of fast pyrolytic conversion of lignin, obtained from 2G ethanol plants, to transport fuels for both the marine and automotive markets. Various scenarios are explored, pertaining to aggregation of lignin from several sites, alternative

  14. 2010 Fuel Cell Technologies Market Report, June 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-06-01

    This report summarizes 2010 data on fuel cells, including market penetration and industry trends. It also covers cost, price, and performance trends, along with policy and market drivers and the future outlook for fuel cells.

  15. WNA 2013 Fuel Market Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emsley, Ian

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: • WNA nuclear capacity projections have been revised downwards since the 2011 report. Nuclear capacity is still projected to increase at a faster rate than anytime since the 1980s to 574GW by 2030 in the reference scenario leading to projected uranium requirements of 97,000tU. • Increased uranium market uncertainty has resulted in the cancellation and deferment of a number of mining projects. Our uranium production methodology has also become more objective. As a result, existing and expected capacity plus secondary supply will be insufficient on current plans to meet reference scenario requirements by about 2024. • Conversion capacity will need to increase utilisation rates after 2017 in the reference scenario in order to meet requirements. • Enrichment capacity will adjust to current surpluses; underfeeding is expected to increase. • Fabrication capacity is expected to be sufficient to meet expected reactor requirements. • Beyond 2030 Generation IV reactors could change future uranium requirements but not to a significant degree before 2050.

  16. Derivative Securities on Romanian Capital Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Maria GOGONCEA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate whether the world wide agreed models of valuation of derivates may be properly applied to the Romanian capital market, obtaining reliable results for decision makers. The most common valuation models take into account market data such as, interest and exchange rates, volatilities and the price of the underlying instrument. The procedures for valuation must clearly define the nature of the market data to be taken into consideration (for example the zero-coupon curve for the valuation of swaps and the independent reference base to be used (Reuters at a given time, bid/offer or mid price, broker. In order to be able to obtain the results, I based my study on a self-developed software which can calculate the price and characteristics for different types of derivatives securities once the primary data are filled in. I compared the results obatined usig the valuation models with the actual prices on the Romanian capital market. I expected that the results obtained to be more accurate as the parameters used in the calculation models properly reflect market data as at that date being as widely as possible.. These assumptions were only supported for certain value orientations. In conclusion, explanations for these results are given and limitations for this study are discussed. Also, suggestions for future research are presented in the final part of the article.

  17. Fuel cells make gains in power generation market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    The ultra-low emission, highly efficient natural gas-fueled fuel cell system is beginning to penetrate the electric power generation market in the US and abroad as the fuel cell industry lowers product costs. And, even as the current market continues to grow, fuel cell companies are developing new technology with even higher levels of energy efficiency. The paper discusses fuel cell efficiency, business opportunities, work to reduce costs, and evolving fuel cell technology

  18. Clean fuel for demanding environmental markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Josewicz, W.; Natschke, D.E. [Acurex Environmental Corp., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Acurex Environmental Corporation is bringing Clean Fuel to the environmentally demand Krakow market, through the cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy. Clean fuel is a proprietary clean burning coal-based energy source intended for use in stoves and hand stoked boilers. Clean Fuel is a home heating fuel that is similar in form and function to raw coal, but is more environmentally friendly and lower in cost. The heating value of Clean Fuel is 24,45 kJ/kg. Extensive sets of confirmation runs were conducted in the Academy of Mining and Metallurgy in the Krakow laboratories. It demonstrated up to 54 percent reduction of particulate matter emission, up to 35 percent reduction of total hydrocarbon emissions. Most importantly, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (toxic and carcinogens compounds) emissions were reduced by up to 85 percent, depending on species measured. The above comparison was made against premium chunk coal that is currently available in Krakow for approximately $83 to 93/ton. Clean Fuel will be made available in Krakow at a price approximately 10 percent lower than that of the premium chunk coal.

  19. Refuse derived fuel incineration: Fuel gas monitoring and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranaldi, E.; Coronidi, M.; De Stefanis, P.; Di Palo, C.; Zagaroli, M.

    1993-11-01

    Experience and results on refuse derived fuel (selected from municipal solid wastes) incineration are reported. The study involved the investigation of inorganic compounds (heavy metals, acids and toxic gases) emissions, and included feeding materials and incineration residues characterization and mass balance

  20. New techniques for the characterization of refuse-derived fuels and solid recovered fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotter, Vera Susanne; Lehmann, Annekatrin; Marzi, Thomas; Möhle, Edda; Schingnitz, Daniel; Hoffmann, Gaston

    2011-02-01

    Solid recovered fuel (SRF) today refers to a waste-derived fuel meeting defined quality specifications, in terms of both origin (produced from non-hazardous waste) and levels of certain fuel properties. Refuse-derived fuel (RDF) nowadays is more used for unspecified waste after a basic processing to increase the calorific value and therefore this term usually refers to the segregated, high calorific fraction of municipal solid waste (MSW), commercial or industrial wastes. In comparison with conventional fuels, both types of secondary fuel show waste of inherently varying quality and an increased level of waste-specific contaminants.The transition from RDF to SRF in the emerging national and European market requires a quality assurance system with defined quality parameters and analytical methods to ensure reliable fuel characterization. However, due to the quality requirements for RDF and SRF, the current standardized analysis methods often do not meet these practical demands. Fast test methods, which minimize personnel, financial and time efforts and which are applicable for producers as well as users can be an important supporting tool for RDF- and SRF-characterization. Currently, a fast test system based on incineration and correlation analyses which enable the determination of relevant fuel parameters is under development. Fast test methods are not aimed at replacing current standardized test methods, but have to be considered as practical supporting tools for the characterization of RDF and SRF.

  1. RELATIONSHIP DERIVATIVES FINANCIAL MARKETS, MONEY AND STOCK MARKETS AS A SUBSYSTEM OF FINANCIAL MARKET

    OpenAIRE

    Yulia Yelnikova

    2016-01-01

    Under conditions of intensive strengthening of globalization of world financial markets and deepening of the crisis, the main source of which are financial markets, financial derivatives market is rapidly developing. In such circumstances, we observe very active growing demand for tools, the main purpose of which is to reduce the financial risk – derivatives. Outlined trend has also involved Ukraine. In this connection, there is an objective need to develop estimate the interconnection of the...

  2. On the Feasibility of Decentralized Derivatives Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Eskandari, Shayan; Clark, Jeremy; Sundaresan, Vignesh; Adham, Moe

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we present Velocity, a decentralized market deployed on Ethereum for trading a custom type of derivative option. To enable the smart contract to work, we also implement a price fetching tool called PriceGeth. We present this as a case study, noting challenges in development of the system that might be of independent interest to whose working on smart contract implementations. We also apply recent academic results on the security of the Solidity smart contract language in valida...

  3. Usefulness Of Derivative Instruments In Emerging Markets: Turkish Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Cem Saatcioglu; Iskender Karagul; Ara G. Volkan

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an overview of derivative markets, definitions of derivative investment instruments, development of global derivative markets and the applicability of derivative markets in Turkey, given their economic value added to the Turkish economy. Readers will acquire insight into investing in various investment instruments and hedging against risk. Turkish derivative markets will be described, supportive statistical data will be presented, and readers will be introduced to the de...

  4. Perspectives of the LPG-fuel market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    In today's context of environment protection cares and in agreement with the actions carried out by the local authorities and organizations, the LPG-fuel appears in the media with a reviving good and credible reputation. However, one can ask about its real perspectives of development. This short paper analyses the conditions for this development at the international and at the national scale. LPG-fuel is the most used and most performing alternative fuel in the world and can contribute to the energy independence of the countries with national LPG resources. Its technological mastery leads progressively the car manufacturers to propose vehicles already equipped with dual-fuel engines, but to reach its expected success, LPG-fuel needs a financial aid from the national authorities in the form of taxes reduction. Its privileged markets are the taxicabs, the public transportation systems and the fleets of intervention vehicles. In France, the network of LPG distribution stations is progressively reinforcing but a revision of the legal texts concerning the training of personnel and the approval of repair shops must be updated. (J.S.)

  5. Market power in the market for greenhouse gas emission permits - the interplay with the fossil fuel markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagem, Cathrine; Maestad, Ottar

    2002-01-01

    Implementation of the Kyoto Protocol is likely to leave Russia and other Eastern European countries with market power in the market for emission permits. Ceteris paribus, this will raise the permit price above the competitive permit price. However, Russia is also a large exporter of fossil fuels. A high price on emission permits may lower the producer price on fossil fuels. Thus, if Russia co-ordinates its permit market and fossil fuel market policies, market power will not necessarily lead to a higher permit price. Fossil fuel producers may also exert market power in the permit market, provided they conceive the permit price to be influenced by their production volumes. If higher volumes drive up the permit price Russian fuel producers may become more aggressive relative to their competitors in the fuel markets. If the sale of fuels is co-ordinated with the sale of permits. The result is reversed if high fuel production drives the permit price down. (Author)

  6. Market power in the market for greenhouse gas emission permits - the interplay with the fossil fuel markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagem, Cathrine; Maestad, Ottar

    2002-07-01

    Implementation of the Kyoto Protocol is likely to leave Russia and other Eastern European countries with market power in the market for emission permits. Ceteris paribus, this will raise the permit price above the competitive permit price. However, Russia is also a large exporter of fossil fuels. A high price on emission permits may lower the producer price on fossil fuels. Thus, if Russia co-ordinates its permit market and fossil fuel market policies, market power will not necessarily lead to a higher permit price. Fossil fuel producers may also exert market power in the permit market, provided they conceive the permit price to be influenced by their production volumes. If higher volumes drive up the permit price Russian fuel producers may become more aggressive relative to their competitors in the fuel markets. If the sale of fuels is co-ordinated with the sale of permits. The result is reversed if high fuel production drives the permit price down. (Author)

  7. MODERN TRENDS OF DEVELOPMENT OF INTERNATIONAL DERIVATIVES MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Shelydko

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Article is devoted to analysis of structure and peculiarities of development of the international derivatives market. The history of formation of the international derivatives market is investigated. The nature, functions and advantages of use of derivatives, and also their role in the modern international securities market are defined. Classification of financial derivatives is considered. Product lines of financial derivatives are analyzed. The regional structure of the international derivatives market and dynamics of its development are investigated. The comparative characteristic of volumes and structure of exchange and over-the-counter segments of international derivatives market are carried out. Dynamics and structure of international markets of interest-bearing derivatives and currency derivatives are analyzed. The fundamental trends of development of the modern international derivatives market are defined.

  8. Palm oil and derivatives: fuels or potential fuels?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pioch Daniel

    2005-03-01

    alcoholysis reaction and processing of the crude glycerin by-product. Economical outputs depend also on market price of this last commodity. The last technique opening a way for using palm oil as fuel involves catalytic cracking, then allowing to feed any kind of engine –either spark or compression ignited- although a few results are available only from laboratory or small pilot scale experiments. If the economic viability would be favored by scale-up effect for large national or international markets assuming palm oil producing cost would become and remain competitive is spite of lack of harvest mechanization, and oils would remain available for large non food markets, as this is presently the case, there is a lack of technical and economical data. This is especially the case regarding the minimum size required for applying these more sophisticated chemical transformations –alcoholysis and cracking- for supplying energy under most critical conditions found in remote areas where millions of people are facing difficult access to both electric power and transportation fuels. Today large scale production and marketing of palm oil methyl or ethyl ester is under development in oil palm cropping countries like Malaysia, Thailand or Brazil. The follow-up depends on many parameters on environment, social and economic sides.

  9. Derivative markets, speculation and oil prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babusiaux, D.; Lasserre, F.; Pierru, A.

    2010-01-01

    Recent movements in oil prices have been ascribed by a number of analysts and political leaders not to market fundamentals but to the speculative positions taken by financial investors in derivatives markets. Various economists including Nobel Prize Paul Krugman believe however that the constitution of stocks is a necessary element for speculation, a feature that was not very evident during the sudden price increase in 2008; but these points of view are not entirely incompatible. Various explanations can be put forward, among which the most important is demand inertia. On the very short run, demand price elasticity is significantly lower than that usually calculated for the short term, which can significantly reduce the impact - on stocks - of a temporary price increase provoked by financial investors' behavior. (authors)

  10. A geographical analysis of the Swedish wood fuel market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roos, Anders; Bohlin, Folke; Hektor, Bo; Hillring, Bengt; Parikka, Matti

    2000-01-01

    The geographical variation in Swedish wood fuel market characteristics for the district heating sector has been studied using Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and cross-sectional Tobit analysis. The results indicate that local availability and competition for wood fuels influence the wood fuel consumption at inland heating plants. The factors affecting the decision to use wood fuel at heating plants close to seaports, however, were not captured by the model, suggesting that coastal location reduces dependency on the local wood fuel market. The effects of changes in local wood fuel availability on wood fuel use by an inland heating plant are presented and discussed

  11. Data Analysis for ARRA Early Fuel Cell Market Demonstrations (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, J.; Wipke, K.; Sprik, S.; Ramsden, T.

    2010-05-01

    Presentation about ARRA Early Fuel Cell Market Demonstrations, including an overview of the ARRE Fuel Cell Project, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's data analysis objectives, deployment composite data products, and planned analyses.

  12. The Northeast heating fuel market: Assessment and options; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    None

    2000-01-01

    In response to a Presidential request, this study examines how the distillate fuel oil market (and related energy markets) in the Northeast behaved in the winter of 1999-2000, explains the role played by residential, commercial, industrial, and electricity generation sector consumers in distillate fuel oil markets and describes how that role is influenced by the structure of tie energy markets in the Northeast. In addition, this report explores the potential for nonresidential users to move away from distillate fuel oil and how this might impact future prices, and discusses conversion of distillate fuel oil users to other fuels over the next 5 years. Because the President's and Secretary's request focused on converting factories and other large-volume users of mostly high-sulfur distillate fuel oil to other fuels, transportation sector use of low-sulfur distillate fuel oil is not examined here

  13. The Northeast heating fuel market: Assessment and options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2000-07-01

    In response to a Presidential request, this study examines how the distillate fuel oil market (and related energy markets) in the Northeast behaved in the winter of 1999-2000, explains the role played by residential, commercial, industrial, and electricity generation sector consumers in distillate fuel oil markets and describes how that role is influenced by the structure of tie energy markets in the Northeast. In addition, this report explores the potential for nonresidential users to move away from distillate fuel oil and how this might impact future prices, and discusses conversion of distillate fuel oil users to other fuels over the next 5 years. Because the President's and Secretary's request focused on converting factories and other large-volume users of mostly high-sulfur distillate fuel oil to other fuels, transportation sector use of low-sulfur distillate fuel oil is not examined here.

  14. Price transparency on the market for automotive fuels. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meindert, L.; Van Schijndel, M.; Volkerink, B.

    2011-05-01

    The objective of this study is to answer the main question: which bottlenecks may obstruct the road to up-to-date, reliable and fully market covering price comparison services for the Dutch market for automotive fuels. [nl

  15. World market of nuclear fuel: new capabilities and difficulties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maks, A.; Kening, R.

    1992-01-01

    History of beginning, state and development prospects of the world market of nuclear fuel are considered. In detail is discussed the role of countries, being at the former USSR territory, in the uranium production and its market deliveries

  16. Fuel cells niche market applications and design studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    Mainstream fuel cell markets such as stationary power and transport propulsion have already received considerable attention. However, the niche areas considered in this report also offer considerable markets that are considered potentially ready for exploitation. This report examines those markets and considers the broad issues for exploitation. This programme of work has been funded under the DTI's Advanced Fuel Cell Programme. The overall aim of this project was to identify and evaluate niche market applications that have the potential to provide early commercially competitive market opportunities for fuel cell systems. Battery replacement, portable, mobile auxiliary power and stationary applications for non-standard generation are covered. (author)

  17. Market study on the potential for peat as a fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    A report is given on the market potential for peat as a fuel in Scotland. It is concluded that there are two distinct market segments, domestic and industrial/commercial. There is no potential for peat as a fuel in the industrial/commercial segment but there is opportunity for increased peat usage in the domestic sector. The greatest potential for market development is conversion of existing solid fuel users to peat. Pro-active input is required to realise this market potential. The market is constrained by demand. (UK)

  18. Environmental economics of lignin derived transport fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obydenkova, Svetlana V; Kouris, Panos D; Hensen, Emiel J M; Heeres, Hero J; Boot, Michael D

    2017-11-01

    This paper explores the environmental and economic aspects of fast pyrolytic conversion of lignin, obtained from 2G ethanol plants, to transport fuels for both the marine and automotive markets. Various scenarios are explored, pertaining to aggregation of lignin from several sites, alternative energy carries to replace lignin, transport modalities, and allocation methodology. The results highlight two critical factors that ultimately determine the economic and/or environmental fuel viability. The first factor, the logistics scheme, exhibited the disadvantage of the centralized approach, owing to prohibitively expensive transportation costs of the low energy-dense lignin. Life cycle analysis (LCA) displayed the second critical factor related to alternative energy carrier selection. Natural gas (NG) chosen over additional biomass boosts well-to-wheel greenhouse gas emissions (WTW GHG) to a level incompatible with the reduction targets set by the U.S. renewable fuel standard (RFS). Adversely, the process' economics revealed higher profits vs. fossil energy carrier. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. The nuclear fuel market of the next century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, R.G.

    1995-01-01

    An attempt is made to forecast the state of the nuclear fuel market 10 and 25 years ahead in 2005 and 2015. This is dependent on predicting the status of nuclear power. By 2005, nuclear power will either be phasing out or in resurgence. Although there will be increased demand for electricity, nuclear power will have to show favourable economics for new plants to be built in the USA and Europe, and in the USA high-level radioactive waste disposal will also need to be on a sound footing. Nuclear power may have reached saturation in the traditionally nuclear prone countries of Asia. A major factor in the uranium market will be the availability of high enriched uranium. By 2015 there should be a clear picture of the future of nuclear power which will either be on an upsurge or well into phase-out. Given an upsurge, there would be adequate incentive for the uranium industry to be revitalised. In uranium enrichment, gaseous diffusion will be virtually eliminated in favour of centrifuge and newer technologies. Commercial grade nuclear fuel derived from weapons could still be continuing to play a key role in the market. (UK)

  20. Australian OTC Derivatives Markets: Insights from the BIS Semiannual Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Jason Ahn; Mihovil Matic; Christian Vallence

    2012-01-01

    The Reserve Bank of Australia recently commenced surveying participants in Australian over-the-counter (OTC) derivatives markets as part of the Bank for International Settlements’ (BIS) semiannual global OTC derivatives survey. Australia’s contribution to the survey complements regulatory efforts to improve the resilience and transparency of Australia’s OTC derivatives markets. It also facilitates a higher frequency comparison of the Australian and foreign OTC derivatives markets. The survey ...

  1. Financial Derivatives Market for Grid Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Aubert, David; Lindset, Snorre; Huuse, Henning

    2007-01-01

    This Master thesis studies the feasibility and properties of a financial derivatives market on Grid computing, a service for sharing computing resources over a network such as the Internet. For the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) to perform research with the world's largest and most complex machine, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), Grid computing was developed to handle the information created. In accordance with the mandate of CERN Technology Transfer (TT) group, this thesis is a part of CERN's dissemination of the Grid technology. The thesis gives a brief overview of the use of the Grid technology and where it is heading. IT trend analysts and large-scale IT vendors see this technology as key in transforming the world of IT. They predict that in a matter of years, IT will be bought as a service, instead of a good. Commoditization of IT, delivered as a service, is a paradigm shift that will have a broad impact on all parts of the IT market, as well as on the society as a whole. Political, e...

  2. Market situation in nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    The existing uranium reserves cover the needs for at least 80 years, the probable ones are 2 to 5 times larger, seawater is an unlimited source of uranium. On the spot market the price was in 1985 355 SEK/kg U, the long-period contracts are expected to be at 700 SEK/kg U. Uranium is supplied to Finland and Sweden from Australia, Canada, France, Niger and Gabon. Conversion (about 50 SEK/kg U) is supplied to Finland and Sweden by Eldorado Resources Canada, Comurhex France, BNFL Great Britain and Allied Chemical USA. Prices for enrichment are at least 1200 SEK/kg SWU for USA and 900 SEK/kg SWU for European enrichment. Enrichment is supplied to Finland and Sweden by Eurodif France, Urenco Holland, West Germany and Great Britain, USA DOE and Techsnabexport USSR. There is about 90% exceeding capacity of fabrication. Fabrication is supplied by ASEA-ATOM Sweden, Exxon USA and FRG FRAGEMA France, KWU/FRG and Atomenergoexport USSR. These five suppliers offer 7 essentially different designs. Prices range from 1200 to 1800 SEK/kg U. Sweden established storage facility for used fuel CLAB in 1985, Finland will have such facility ready in 1987. Both Sweden and Finland are investigating disposal. Sweden has a contract for processing of a minor burnt-out fuel batch in England and France. Sweden attempts to reduce the quantities to be processed. A levellized fuel price for a nuclear power plant set into operation in 1990-ties is estimated as 6.6 SE oere/kWh. (eg)

  3. Market analysis: renewable fuels; Marktanalyse - Nachwachsende Rohstoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This new publication of Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe (FNR) e.V. presents an analysis of markets and potentials. The Meo Consulting Team of Cologne analyzed the importance of various products in Germany, as well as electric power, heat, and fuels. The ''Marktanalyse Nachwachsende Rohstoffe'' is available for free at FNR. It contains a detailed survey, with many figures and graphs. It is shown that oils, fats, sugar, starch and fibres of renewable materials have become established products in the market. Political boundary conditions have great importance, as is shown in the data for bioenergy, where dynamic growth is expected both for electric power from biogas and for biofuels. The study is in two parts. The first part analyzes electrical and thermal energy as well as biofuels. The second part goes into lubricants, chemical feedstocks, varnishes and lacquers, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. There are also sections on paper, cardboard and carton, packaging products, fibre-reinforced materials and formed parts, textiles, construction materials, insulating materials and furniture. (orig.)

  4. Market analysis: renewable fuels; Marktanalyse - Nachwachsende Rohstoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This new publication of Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe (FNR) e.V. presents an analysis of markets and potentials. The Meo Consulting Team of Cologne analyzed the importance of various products in Germany, as well as electric power, heat, and fuels. The ''Marktanalyse Nachwachsende Rohstoffe'' is available for free at FNR. It contains a detailed survey, with many figures and graphs. It is shown that oils, fats, sugar, starch and fibres of renewable materials have become established products in the market. Political boundary conditions have great importance, as is shown in the data for bioenergy, where dynamic growth is expected both for electric power from biogas and for biofuels. The study is in two parts. The first part analyzes electrical and thermal energy as well as biofuels. The second part goes into lubricants, chemical feedstocks, varnishes and lacquers, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. There are also sections on paper, cardboard and carton, packaging products, fibre-reinforced materials and formed parts, textiles, construction materials, insulating materials and furniture. (orig.)

  5. Determinants of Revenue Derived from Pineapple Marketing in Edo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determinants of Revenue Derived from Pineapple Marketing in Edo State, Nigeria. ... The results showed that an average pineapple marketer has a mean volume of 98 dozens and incurred a variable ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  6. New developments in tire derived fuels (TDF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawkins, G. [Portland Cement Association, Skokie, IL (United States)

    2006-07-01

    Portland cement is a mixture of finely ground raw materials that are processed in a rotary kiln heated to 1500 degrees C by various fuels. Cooled clinker from the kiln is ground into portland cement. This presentation provided an overview of the role that tire-derived fuels is now playing in cement manufacturing. Data on the extent of TDF use in cement manufacturing processes were presented, as well as the results of air emissions monitoring programs conducted to assess the environmental impacts of TDF. During the cement manufacturing process, shredded and chipped tires are blown into the kiln to provide fuel, while whole tires are placed in the midpoint of long dry or wet kilns. For preheater and precalciner kilns, whole tires are added to raw material entering the kiln. The kiln's controlled combustion environment ensures the complete destruction of scrap tires. Approximately 130 million scrap tires were recycled in Portland cement plants in 2003. Forty-four portland cement plants are currently using TDF in North America. The United States Department of Energy has estimated that TDF produces less carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) per unit of energy than coal. Monitoring programs at Portland cement plants have indicated that the use of TDF in place of coal has resulted in moderate reductions of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions, slightly lower sulfuric oxide (SO{sub 2}) emissions and moderate reductions in carbon monoxide (CO). Some plants have reported slight reductions in particulate matter (PM) emissions. It was concluded that the use of scrap tires as a fuel reduces a waste stream and contributes to energy and raw material requirements. Moreover, plant air emissions are either reduced or are not impacted by TDF use. refs., tabs., figs.

  7. Derivative Market: An Integral Part Of The Zimbabwe Stock Exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Kosmas Njanike

    2010-01-01

    The study assesses the need for a derivative market as an integral of Zimbabwe Stock Exchange. It also aims to evaluate the feasibility of establishing a derivative market as an essential element of Zimbabwe Stock Exchange. The research identifies factors that need to be addressed to facilitate such a market. Views of various fund managers, financial analysts and dealers drawn from asset management firms were used. Changes in market trends are influenced by hyper inflation and acute financial...

  8. Fuel cell added value for early market applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardman, Scott; Chandan, Amrit; Steinberger-Wilckens, Robert

    2015-08-01

    Fuel Cells are often considered in the market place as just power providers. Whilst fuel cells do provide power, there are additional beneficial characteristics that should be highlighted to consumers. Due to the high price premiums associated with fuel cells, added value features need to be exploited in order to make them more appealing and increase unit sales and market penetration. This paper looks at the approach taken by two companies to sell high value fuel cells to niche markets. The first, SFC Energy, has a proven track record selling fuel cell power providers. The second, Bloom Energy, is making significant progress in the US by having sold its Energy Server to more than 40 corporations including Wal-Mart, Staples, Google, eBay and Apple. Further to these current markets, two prospective added value applications for fuel cells are discussed. These are fuel cells for aircraft APUs and fuel cells for fire prevention. These two existing markets and two future markets highlight that fuel cells are not just power providers. Rather, they can be used as solutions to many needs, thus being more cost effective by replacing a number of incumbent systems at the same time.

  9. Assessment of the candidate markets for liquid boiler fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-12-01

    Liquid fuels can be produced from coal in a number of indirect and direct liquefaction processes. While indirect coal liquefaction has been proved commercially outside the United States, most attention in this country has focused on the direct liquefaction processes, which include the processes under examination in this report; namely, the Exxon Donor Solvent (EDS), the H-Coal, and the Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) II processes. The objectives of the study were to: compare the boiler fuels of direct coal liquefaction with residual fuel oil (No. 6 fuel oil) including physical characteristics and environmental hazards, such as carcinogenic characteristics and toxic hazard characteristics; determine whether a boiler fuel market would exist for the coal liquefaction products given their physical characteristics and potential environmental hazards; determine the advantages of utilizing methanol as a boiler fuel on a continuous basis in commercial boilers utilizing existing technology; identify the potential regional candidate markets for direct coal liquefaction products as liquid boiler fuels; determine the distributing and handling costs associated with marketing coal liquefaction products as liquid boiler fuels; determine the current regulatory issues associated with the marketing of coal liquefaction products as boiler fuels; and determine and evaluate other institutional issues associated with the marketing of direct coal liquefaction products as boiler fuels.

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF DERIVATIVE MARKET IN 2000-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeniya V. Vasina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available At the end of XIX century futures exchange emerged, in the early 70-ies XX century - option exchange of financial derivatives. These exchanges gave a huge boost to the development of market of the operations with derivative financial instruments. In fact, in the 1970-1980-ies a new market segment was actually formed - the stock and financial derivatives. Trade in financial derivatives began in the OTC market, which accounts for most of the trade of derivatives. Today volumes of the OTC market of derivatives are several times greater than the volume of world trade and world GDP. From 2000 to 2007 derivative OTC market grew rapidly. In 2007-2008 there is a decline in trade of derivatives, but already in 2009 the world market of OTC derivatives returned to pre-crisis growth rates. Among all the instruments of the OTC market of derivatives swaps on interest rates stand out in the volumes, which even in the crisis of2007-2008 slightly, but increased. Analysis of indicators of the global OTC market of derivatives reveals the predominance of instruments on interest rates: their share in the total world market in 2012 amounted to about 77%. If we consider the structure of the OTC market of derivatives on type contracts, in 2012 most of the contracts (66% belonged to the swaps. As regards the structure of the world market of exchange derivatives, in 2012 the options had the largest share - 54 %, futures accounted for 46 %. Among all the exchange instruments on interest rates held 92%.

  11. Development Of Derivative Market In 2000-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeniya V. Vasina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available At the end of XIX century futures exchange emerged, in the early 70-ies XX century - option exchange of financial derivatives. These exchanges gave a huge boost to the development of market of the operations with derivative financial instruments. In fact, in the 1970-1980-ies a new market segment was actually formed - the stock and financial derivatives. Trade in financial derivatives began in the OTC market, which accounts for most of the trade of derivatives. Today volumes of the OTC market of derivatives are several times greater than the volume of world trade and world GDP. From 2000 to 2007 derivative OTC market grew rapidly. In 2007-2008 there is a decline in trade of derivatives, but already in 2009 the world market of OTC derivatives returned to pre-crisis growth rates. Among all the instruments of the OTC market of derivatives swaps on interest rates stand out in the volumes, which even in the crisis of2007-2008 slightly, but increased. Analysis of indicators of the global OTC market of derivatives reveals the predominance of instruments on interest rates: their share in the total world market in 2012 amounted to about 77%. If we consider the structure of the OTC market of derivatives on type contracts, in 2012 most of the contracts (66% belonged to the swaps. As regards the structure of the world market of exchange derivatives, in 2012 the options had the largest share - 54 %, futures accounted for 46 %. Among all the exchange instruments on interest rates held 92%.

  12. Life cycle assessment of camelina oil derived biodiesel and jet fuel in the Canadian Prairies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xue; Mupondwa, Edmund

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the environmental impact of biodiesel and hydroprocessed renewable jet fuel derived from camelina oil in terms of global warming potential, human health, ecosystem quality, and energy resource consumption. The life cycle inventory is based on production activities in the Canadian Prairies and encompasses activities ranging from agricultural production to oil extraction and fuel conversion. The system expansion method is used in this study to avoid allocation and to credit input energy to co-products associated with the products displaced in the market during camelina oil extraction and fuel processing. This is the preferred allocation method for LCA analysis in the context of most renewable and sustainable energy programs. The results show that greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from 1 MJ of camelina derived biodiesel ranged from 7.61 to 24.72 g CO 2 equivalent and 3.06 to 31.01 kg CO 2 /MJ equivalent for camelina HRJ fuel. Non-renewable energy consumption for camelina biodiesel ranged from 0.40 to 0.67 MJ/MJ; HRJ fuel ranged from − 0.13 to 0.52 MJ/MJ. Camelina oil as a feedstock for fuel production accounted for the highest contribution to overall environmental performance, demonstrating the importance of reducing environmental burdens during the agricultural production process. Attaining higher seed yield would dramatically lower environmental impacts associated with camelina seed, oil, and fuel production. The lower GHG emissions and energy consumption associated with camelina in comparison with other oilseed derived fuel and petroleum fuel make camelina derived fuel from Canadian Prairies environmentally attractive. - Highlights: • LCA of camelina-derived biodiesel and jet fuel was based on the Canadian Prairies. • Overall, camelina-derived biodiesel had lower GHG emissions than is biojet fuel. • Camelina jet fuel had lower non-renewable energy (NRE) use than its biodiesel. • Camelina biofuels reduced GHG emissions and NRE use

  13. Life cycle assessment of camelina oil derived biodiesel and jet fuel in the Canadian Prairies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xue; Mupondwa, Edmund, E-mail: Edmund.Mupondwa@agr.gc.ca

    2014-05-01

    This study evaluated the environmental impact of biodiesel and hydroprocessed renewable jet fuel derived from camelina oil in terms of global warming potential, human health, ecosystem quality, and energy resource consumption. The life cycle inventory is based on production activities in the Canadian Prairies and encompasses activities ranging from agricultural production to oil extraction and fuel conversion. The system expansion method is used in this study to avoid allocation and to credit input energy to co-products associated with the products displaced in the market during camelina oil extraction and fuel processing. This is the preferred allocation method for LCA analysis in the context of most renewable and sustainable energy programs. The results show that greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from 1 MJ of camelina derived biodiesel ranged from 7.61 to 24.72 g CO{sub 2} equivalent and 3.06 to 31.01 kg CO{sub 2}/MJ equivalent for camelina HRJ fuel. Non-renewable energy consumption for camelina biodiesel ranged from 0.40 to 0.67 MJ/MJ; HRJ fuel ranged from − 0.13 to 0.52 MJ/MJ. Camelina oil as a feedstock for fuel production accounted for the highest contribution to overall environmental performance, demonstrating the importance of reducing environmental burdens during the agricultural production process. Attaining higher seed yield would dramatically lower environmental impacts associated with camelina seed, oil, and fuel production. The lower GHG emissions and energy consumption associated with camelina in comparison with other oilseed derived fuel and petroleum fuel make camelina derived fuel from Canadian Prairies environmentally attractive. - Highlights: • LCA of camelina-derived biodiesel and jet fuel was based on the Canadian Prairies. • Overall, camelina-derived biodiesel had lower GHG emissions than is biojet fuel. • Camelina jet fuel had lower non-renewable energy (NRE) use than its biodiesel. • Camelina biofuels reduced GHG emissions and NRE

  14. Power generation from refuse derived fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surroop, Dinesh; Mohee, Romeela

    2010-01-01

    Full text: The beginning of the third millennium has been characterized by a progressive increase in the demand for fossil fuels, which has caused a steep rise in oil price. At the same time, several environmental disasters have increased the sensitivity of world-wide public opinion towards the effect that environmental pollution has on human health and climate change. These conditions have fostered a renewed interest in renewable energy like solar energy, wind energy, biomass and solid wastes. In addition, the disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW) has become a critical and costly problem. The traditional landfill method requires large amounts of land and contaminates air, water and soil. The increase in socio-economic condition during the past ten years has also significantly increased the amount of solid waste generated. There are around 1200 tons of municipal solid waste (MSW) generated daily, of which the combustibles namely plastics, paper and textile waste represent 28%, and with the present generation rate, the landfill will be filled by 2012. The study was, therefore, initiated to assess the potential of power generation from refused derived fuels (RDF) from municipal solid waste (MSW) in order to reduce the dependency on fossil fuels. There are 336 tons which is equivalent to 12 tons/ h of RDF that can be generated daily from the MSW and this would generate 19.2 MW power. There will be 312 kg/ h of ash that would be generated and the NO x and SO 2 concentration were found to be 395.5 and 43.3 mg/ Nm 3 respectively. It was also found that the amount of non-biogenic CO 2 produced was 471 g/ kWhe. (author)

  15. Market integration among electricity markets and their major fuel source markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mjelde, James W.; Bessler, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Dynamic price information flows among U.S. electricity wholesale spot prices and the prices of the major electricity generation fuel sources, natural gas, uranium, coal, and crude oil, are studied. Multivariate time series methods applied to weekly price data show that in contemporaneous time peak electricity prices move natural gas prices, which in turn influence crude oil. In the long run, price is discovered in the fuel sources market (except uranium), as these prices are weakly exogenous in a reduced rank regression representation of these energy prices.

  16. Refuse derived fuel potential in DKI Jakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widyatmoko, H.

    2018-01-01

    Combustible waste fractions of municipal solid waste (MSW) which can not be easily separated or sorted, reused or recycled, may have a high calorifiv value (CV) that can be used in a fuel for energy recovery. The objective of this study was to explore the Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) potential of municipal solid waste from DKI Jakarta to produce electricity and to promote it to be socially and politically acceptable. For this purpose, 24 sampels of RDF were taken from Bantargebang, cabonized, molded and pressed to be briquette. All samples were analized for moisture, ash, and calorific value in the physical and chemistry Laboratory of ITB Bandung. The analysis of calorific value (CV) shows the CV difference of 1815.8 cal/g between the briquettes (8051.25 cal/g) and the RDF (9867.12 cal/g. The total waste DKI which can be used as briquettes 5253 ton / day or equivalent with 49154115 kWh / day. If the efficiency of electricity production from RDF was 25%, then Jakarta is able to generate electricity from RDF of 12288529 kWh / day or as much as energy needed by 573,480 middle-class households with energy needs of 642.84 kWh/month.

  17. Optimisation of fuel stocks under liberalisation of energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shipkovs, P.; Sitenko, L.; Kashkarova, G.

    2001-01-01

    The paper discusses the influence of regional fuel stocks on the reliability of the energy sector's activities in a given region. The authors give classification of stocks by their purpose and describe their role in avoiding energy shortage situations. The fuel deficiency at a regional fuel market is shown in connection with the resulting loss for the national economy. The authors employ imitative modelling for investigation of fuel supply schemes acting in Latvia. They estimate possible expenses on the maintenance of fuels - such as gas, residual oil, and coal - for different variants of fuel delivery. (author)

  18. Regional prices in the Swedish wood-fuel market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillring, Bengt

    1999-01-01

    This paper analyses, through a statistical survey, the regional distribution of prices on the commercial wood-fuel market for district heating plants and the pellets market for single family houses. The existing market watch of the national Swedish wood-fuel market has been developed for both refined and unrefined wood-fuels. The last five years the trend for wood-fuel prices on the district heating market has been stable, with a slight increase in the price of refined wood-fuels. However, on the young and fast-growing household market for pellets, prices have increased 12% during the last three years. The distribution of prices for northern, middle and southern Sweden indicates differences within 5% between the regions. The limited price difference between Swedish regions are a product of a large domestic supply and an increasing trade among regions in Europe, putting pressure on prices. Regional differences, mirrored as transportation distances and local production costs are key factors that could explain this regional price variation. However, the development of a commercial market with less regulation tends to level out prices. Consumers on the household market purchase small quantities and do not have the same possibility as district heating companies to take advantage of the oversupply opportunity and thus face a faster price development. The weaker market position of the consumers also tends to give homogeneous prices between regions of the residential sector. (Author)

  19. The worldwide market will not be short of LPG fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    This paper is a synthesis of an internal note of the French Butane and Propane Committee (CFBP) about the perspectives of the worldwide market of LPG fuels. The conclusion of this study is that the market will not be short of LPG, in particular the French market and the automotive fuels. The consumption of LPG fuels for vehicles in France is growing up rapidly (about 100% in 1997 with respect to 1996: 90000 t consumed in 1997 by 70000 vehicles) and the resource remains important and can reach 3 millions of tons per year. (J.S.)

  20. Future economics of the fuel cell housing market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdmann, G.

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines how a market of small-scale stationary fuel cells of up to 20 kW could look like, if costs of stationary fuel cell systems allow market entry. This paper analyses what the market potential for this technology would be, what types of residential buildings might be most attractive, and what would be the quantitative changes in the fuel and the power market. Finally, does the perspective of stationary fuel cells offer a business opportunity for power and gas distribution companies? The methodology of this paper differs from that of other studies in that we model the operation of stationary fuel cells on the basis of 15 min power load profiles of individual buildings. From these we draw synthetic functions describing the fuel cell power output/natural gas input, as a function of a number of specific properties of individual buildings. We then develop a statistical distribution of these properties of the residential building stock in Germany (15 million units), finally using a Monte Carlo simulation the relevant market shares are calculated. The methodology that is developed here has an advantage in that it is flexible and can be applied for different population of buildings. We know, for example, that the results would differ between rural and urban areas. The model may reflect these differences thus allowing deeper insights into future fuel cell housing markets. (author)

  1. Utility residual fuel oil market conditions: An update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, H.A. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Planning for residual fuel oil usage and management remains an important part of the generation fuel planning and management function for many utilities. EPRI's Utility Planning Methods Center has maintained its analytical overview of the fuel oil markets as part of its overall fuel planning and management research program. This overview provides an update of recent fuel oil market directions. Several key events of the past year have had important implications for residual fuel oil markets. The key events have been the changes brought about by the Persian Gulf War and its aftermath, as well as continuing environmental policy developments. The Persian Gulf conflict has created renewed interest in reducing fuel oil use by utilities as part of an overall reduction in oil imports. The policy analysis performed to date has generally failed to properly evaluate utility industry capability. The Persian Gulf conflict has also resulted in an important change in the structure of international oil markets. The result of this policy-based change is likely to be a shift in oil pricing strategy. Finally, continued change in environmental requirements is continuing to shift utility residual oil requirements, but is also changing the nature of the US resid market itself

  2. Analysis of Fuel Cell Markets in Japan and the US: Experience Curve Development and Cost Reduction Disaggregation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Max [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Smith, Sarah J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sohn, Michael D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Fuel cells are both a longstanding and emerging technology for stationary and transportation applications, and their future use will likely be critical for the deep decarbonization of global energy systems. As we look into future applications, a key challenge for policy-makers and technology market forecasters who seek to track and/or accelerate their market adoption is the ability to forecast market costs of the fuel cells as technology innovations are incorporated into market products. Specifically, there is a need to estimate technology learning rates, which are rates of cost reduction versus production volume. Unfortunately, no literature exists for forecasting future learning rates for fuel cells. In this paper, we look retrospectively to estimate learning rates for two fuel cell deployment programs: (1) the micro-combined heat and power (CHP) program in Japan, and (2) the Self-Generation Incentive Program (SGIP) in California. These two examples have a relatively broad set of historical market data and thus provide an informative and international comparison of distinct fuel cell technologies and government deployment programs. We develop a generalized procedure for disaggregating experience-curve cost-reductions in order to disaggregate the Japanese fuel cell micro-CHP market into its constituent components, and we derive and present a range of learning rates that may explain observed market trends. Finally, we explore the differences in the technology development ecosystem and market conditions that may have contributed to the observed differences in cost reduction and draw policy observations for the market adoption of future fuel cell technologies. The scientific and policy contributions of this paper are the first comparative experience curve analysis of past fuel cell technologies in two distinct markets, and the first quantitative comparison of a detailed cost model of fuel cell systems with actual market data. The resulting approach is applicable to

  3. The impact of derivatives on Malaysian stock market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malim, M. R.; Halim, F. A.; Murad, A.; Maad, H. A.; Annuar, N. F. M.

    2017-09-01

    The essential of derivatives has been discovered by researchers over recent decade. However, the conclusions made regarding the impact of derivatives on stock market volatility remains debatable. The main objective of this study is to examine the impact of derivatives on Malaysian stock market volatility by exploring FTSE Bursa Malaysia Kuala Lumpur Composite Index Futures (BMD FKLI) using FBM KLCI as the underlying asset. Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroskedasticity (GARCH) (1, 1) model was employed to realize the objective. The results have shown that the introduction of futures trading has decreased the volatility of Malaysian stock market. The volatility increased vigorously during the Asian financial crisis compared to the Global financial crisis. However, the role of futures as a risk transfer is agreed as it could improve the market by decreasing the volatility in the spot market.

  4. Market analysis. Renewable fuels; Marktanalyse. Nachwachsende Rohstoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-07-01

    The Agency for Renewable Resources (FNR) had on behalf of the Federal Ministry of Food and Agriculture created a study on the market development of renewable resources in Germany and published this in the year of 2006. The aim of that study was to identify of actual status and market performance of the individual market segments of the material and energetic use as a basis for policy recommendations for accelerated and long term successful market launch and market share expansion of renewable raw materials. On behalf of the FNR, a market analysis of mid-2011 was carried out until the beginning of 2013, the results of which are hereby resubmitted. This market analysis covers all markets of material and energetic use in the global context, taking account of possible competing uses. A market segmentation, which was based on the product classification of the Federal Statistical Office, formed the basis of the analysis. A total of ten markets have been defined, seven material and three energetic use. [German] Die Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e.V. (FNR) hatte im Auftrag des BMEL eine Studie zur Marktentwicklung von nachwachsenden Rohstoffen in Deutschland erstellen lassen und diese im Jahr 2006 veroeffentlicht. Ziel der damaligen Studie war die Ermittlung von Ist-Zustand und Marktentwicklung der einzelnen Marktsegmente der stofflichen und energetischen Nutzung als Basis fuer Handlungsempfehlungen fuer eine beschleunigte und langfristig erfolgreiche Markteinfuehrung bzw. Marktanteilsausweitung nachwachsender Rohstoffe. Im Auftrag der FNR wurde erneut eine Marktanalyse von Mitte 2011 bis Anfang 2013 durchgefuehrt, deren Ergebnisse hiermit vorgelegt werden. Diese Marktanalyse umfasst alle Maerkte der stofflichen und energetischen Nutzung im globalen Kontext unter Beruecksichtigung moeglicher Nutzungskonkurrenzen. Eine Marktsegmentierung, die sich an der Produktklassifikation des Statistischen Bundesamtes orientierte, bildete die Grundlage der Analyse. Insgesamt

  5. Analysis and modelling of the fuels european market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, V.

    1999-04-01

    The research focus on the European fuel market prices referring to the Rotterdam and Genoa spot markets as well the German, Italian and French domestic markets. The thesis try to explain the impact of the London IPE future market on spot prices too. The mainstream research has demonstrated that co-integration seems to be the best theoretical approach to investigate the long run equilibrium relations. A particular attention will be devoted to the structural change in the econometric modelling on these equilibriums. A deep analysis of the main European petroleum products markets permit a better model specification concerning each of these markets. Further, we will test if any evidence of relations between spot and domestic prices could be confirmed. Finally, alternative scenarios will be depicted to forecast prices in the petroleum products markets. The objective is to observe the model reaction to changes crude oil prices. (author)

  6. ENUSA in the international market of nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez, J. E.; Gonzalez, R.

    2002-01-01

    ENUSA Industrias Avanzadas, s. a. has a promising future into the nuclear fuel world market evolving from a starting model of a state owned company focused on the Spanish market and using exclusively the technology coming from their American partners, to a current model of a modern company where technological innovation, the competitiveness and the quality are key factors in the developments of his business. ENUSA is a company oriented to the export sustained by the integrated services provided to the Spanish nuclear sector,where Europe is his natural market, but open to seek opportunities together with his technological partners into the American and Japanese market. (Author)

  7. Marketing of fuels - energy from refuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tweedale, A W

    1986-03-01

    Ways of utilising low grade materials, achieving market acceptance and proving their technical and financial viability are discussed. Alternative ways in which wastes can be used to produce energy are outlined covering the incineration process whereby heat normally lost in the waste gases after the combustion of waste materials is recovered to produce heat and sometimes electricity, waste shredding and use in fluidised bed boilers, and combustion of waste pellets. Employment of utilities company and innovative and energetic approach to marketing are considered.

  8. Soybean-derived biofuels and home heating fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushrush, George W; Wynne, James H; Willauer, Heather D; Lloyd, Christopher L

    2006-01-01

    It is environmentally enticing to consider replacing or blending petroleum derived heating fuels with biofuels for many reasons. Major considerations include the soaring worldwide price of petroleum products, especially home heating oil, the toxicity of the petroleum-derived fuels and the environmental damage that leaking petroleum tanks afford. For these reasons, it has been suggested that domestic renewable energy sources be considered as replacements, or at the least, as blending stocks for home heating fuels. If recycled soy restaurant cooking oils could be employed for this purpose, this would represent an environmental advantage. Renewable plant sources of energy tend to be less toxic than their petroleum counterparts. This is an important consideration when tank leakage occurs. Home fuel oil storage tanks practically always contain some bottom water. This water environment has a pH value that factors into heating fuel stability. Therefore, the question is: would the biofuel help or exacerbate fuel stability and furnace maintenance issues?

  9. Ethanol, Corn, and Soybean Price Relations in a Volatile Vehicle-Fuels Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Escalante

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The rapid upward shift in ethanol demand has raised concerns about ethanol’s impact on the price level and volatility of agricultural commodities. The popular press attributes much of this volatility in commodity prices to a price bubble in ethanol fuel and recent deflation. Market economics predicts not only a softening of demand to high commodity prices but also a positive supply response. This volatility in ethanol and commodity prices are investigated using cointegration, vector error corrections (VECM, and multivariate generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedascity (MGARCH models. In terms of derived demand theory, results support ethanol and oil demands as derived demands from vehicle-fuel production. Gasoline prices directly influence the prices of ethanol and oil. However, of greater significance for the fuel versus food security issue, results support the effect of agricultural commodity prices as market signals which restore commodity markets to their equilibriums after a demand or supply event (shock. Such shocks may in the short-run increase agricultural commodity prices, but decentralized freely operating markets will mitigate the persistence of these shocks. Results indicate in recent years there are no long-run relations among fuel (ethanol, oil and gasoline prices and agricultural commodity (corn and soybean prices.

  10. Mexico; Financial Sector Assessment Program Update: Technical Note: Derivatives Market: Overview and Potential Vulnerabilities

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2007-01-01

    This technical note provides an overview of Mexico’s derivatives markets, and describes concisely the derivatives regulatory framework and risk management practices in financial institutions active in these markets. The most important derivatives market in Mexico is the over-the-counter (OTC) derivatives market, which is fully integrated with the global derivatives market. The origin of the OTC derivatives market can be traced back to the 1994 Mexican crisis that forced Mexico to abandon its ...

  11. Market-Based and System-Wide Fuel Cycle Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Paul Philip Hood [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Scopatz, Anthony [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States); Gidden, Matthew [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Carlsen, Robert [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Mouginot, Baptiste [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Flanagan, Robert [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)

    2017-06-13

    This work introduces automated optimization into fuel cycle simulations in the Cyclus platform. This includes system-level optimizations, seeking a deployment plan that optimizes the performance over the entire transition, and market-level optimization, seeking an optimal set of material trades at each time step. These concepts were introduced in a way that preserves the flexibility of the Cyclus fuel cycle framework, one of its most important design principles.

  12. Nuclear fuel cycle: international market, international constraints and international cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imai, R.

    1977-01-01

    Some of the constraints on the nuclear fuel cycle are ones arising from economic and financial reasons, those caused by uranium resources and their distribution, those arising from technical reasons, issues of public acceptance, and those quite independent of normal industrial considerations, but caused by elements of international politics. The nuclear fuel cycle and the international market, matters of nuclear non-proliferation, and international cooperation are discussed

  13. Market-Based and System-Wide Fuel Cycle Optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, Paul Philip Hood; Scopatz, Anthony; Gidden, Matthew; Carlsen, Robert; Mouginot, Baptiste; Flanagan, Robert

    2017-01-01

    This work introduces automated optimization into fuel cycle simulations in the Cyclus platform. This includes system-level optimizations, seeking a deployment plan that optimizes the performance over the entire transition, and market-level optimization, seeking an optimal set of material trades at each time step. These concepts were introduced in a way that preserves the flexibility of the Cyclus fuel cycle framework, one of its most important design principles.

  14. Hydrogen Storage Needs for Early Motive Fuel Cell Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, J.; Ainscough, C.; Simpson, L.; Caton, M.

    2012-11-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) objective for this project is to identify performance needs for onboard energy storage of early motive fuel cell markets by working with end users, manufacturers, and experts. The performance needs analysis is combined with a hydrogen storage technology gap analysis to provide the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Fuel Cell Technologies Program with information about the needs and gaps that can be used to focus research and development activities that are capable of supporting market growth.

  15. Pricing and Hedging of Derivatives in Contagious Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokholm, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    It is well documented that stock markets are contagious. A negative shock to one market increases the probability of adverse shocks to other markets. We model this contagion effect by including mutually exciting jump processes in the dynamics of the indexes' log-returns. On top of this we add...... a stochastic volatility component to the dynamics. It is important to take the contagion effect into account if derivatives written on a basket of assets are to be priced or hedged. Due to the affine model specification the joint characteristic function of the log-returns is known analytically, and for two......-asset derivatives prices and show how for certain derivatives the impact is heavy. Moreover, we derive hedge ratios for European put and call options and perform a numerical experiment, which illustrates the impact of contagious jumps on option prices and hedge ratios. Mutually exciting processes have been analyzed...

  16. Competition still fierce in the US fuel fabrication market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, M.H.

    1990-01-01

    The US market for nuclear fuel fabrication services is characterized by an annual production capacity significantly in excess of both current and anticipated demand. The trends toward longer operating cycle lengths and higher burnup fuel continue in the United States. This, together with the lack of any prospects for new light water reactors coming on line in the US during the next ten years, is expected to hold the annual demand for fuel fabrication services from US LWRs at around 2000t of uranium into the next century. (author)

  17. Life cycle assessment of camelina oil derived biodiesel and jet fuel in the Canadian Prairies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue; Mupondwa, Edmund

    2014-05-15

    This study evaluated the environmental impact of biodiesel and hydroprocessed renewable jet fuel derived from camelina oil in terms of global warming potential, human health, ecosystem quality, and energy resource consumption. The life cycle inventory is based on production activities in the Canadian Prairies and encompasses activities ranging from agricultural production to oil extraction and fuel conversion. The system expansion method is used in this study to avoid allocation and to credit input energy to co-products associated with the products displaced in the market during camelina oil extraction and fuel processing. This is the preferred allocation method for LCA analysis in the context of most renewable and sustainable energy programs. The results show that greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from 1 MJ of camelina derived biodiesel ranged from 7.61 to 24.72 g CO2 equivalent and 3.06 to 31.01 kg CO2/MJ equivalent for camelina HRJ fuel. Non-renewable energy consumption for camelina biodiesel ranged from 0.40 to 0.67 MJ/MJ; HRJ fuel ranged from -0.13 to 0.52 MJ/MJ. Camelina oil as a feedstock for fuel production accounted for the highest contribution to overall environmental performance, demonstrating the importance of reducing environmental burdens during the agricultural production process. Attaining higher seed yield would dramatically lower environmental impacts associated with camelina seed, oil, and fuel production. The lower GHG emissions and energy consumption associated with camelina in comparison with other oilseed derived fuel and petroleum fuel make camelina derived fuel from Canadian Prairies environmentally attractive. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Fuel trade in the Common Market. Brennstoffhandel im gemeinsamen Markt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faross, P [Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium)

    1989-06-01

    There is more than a finishing touch to be given to the Common Market to come. The Central Administrative Councilor of the XVII A1 Executive Board of the European Communities in Brussels points out relevant fuel trade changes. Considering the higher trade margins of some of the neighboring countries, German trade, among other things, expects a better profit and loss position. (orig.).

  19. Time-zero efficiency of European power derivatives markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peña, Juan Ignacio; Rodriguez, Rosa

    2016-01-01

    We study time-zero efficiency of electricity derivatives markets. By time-zero efficiency is meant a sequence of prices of derivatives contracts having the same underlying asset but different times to maturity which implies that prices comply with a set of efficiency conditions that prevent profitable time-zero arbitrage opportunities. We investigate whether statistical tests, based on the law of one price, and trading rules, based on price differentials and no-arbitrage violations, are useful for assessing time-zero efficiency. We apply tests and trading rules to daily data of three European power markets: Germany, France and Spain. In the case of the German market, after considering liquidity availability and transaction costs, results are not inconsistent with time-zero efficiency. However, in the case of the French and Spanish markets, limitations in liquidity and representativeness are challenges that prevent definite conclusions. Liquidity in French and Spanish markets should improve by using pricing and marketing incentives. These incentives should attract more participants into the electricity derivatives exchanges and should encourage them to settle OTC trades in clearinghouses. Publication of statistics on prices, volumes and open interest per type of participant should be promoted. - Highlights: •We test time-zero efficiency of derivatives power markets in Germany, France and Spain. •Prices in Germany, considering liquidity and transaction costs, are time-zero efficient. •In France and Spain, limitations in liquidity and representativeness prevent conclusions. •Liquidity in France and Spain should improve by using pricing and marketing incentives. •Incentives attract participants to exchanges and encourage them to settle OTC trades in clearinghouses.

  20. Overview of Aviation Fuel Markets for Biofuels Stakeholders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, C.; Newes, E.; Schwab, A.; Vimmerstedt, L.

    2014-07-01

    This report is for biofuels stakeholders interested the U.S. aviation fuel market. Jet fuel production represents about 10% of U.S. petroleum refinery production. Exxon Mobil, Chevron, and BP top producers, and Texas, Louisiana, and California are top producing states. Distribution of fuel primarily involves transport from the Gulf Coast to other regions. Fuel is transported via pipeline (60%), barges on inland waterways (30%), tanker truck (5%), and rail (5%). Airport fuel supply chain organization and fuel sourcing may involve oil companies, airlines, airline consortia, airport owners and operators, and airport service companies. Most fuel is used for domestic, commercial, civilian flights. Energy efficiency has substantially improved due to aircraft fleet upgrades and advanced flight logistic improvements. Jet fuel prices generally track prices of crude oil and other refined petroleum products, whose prices are more volatile than crude oil price. The single largest expense for airlines is jet fuel, so its prices and persistent price volatility impact industry finances. Airlines use various strategies to manage aviation fuel price uncertainty. The aviation industry has established goals to mitigate its greenhouse gas emissions, and initial estimates of biojet life cycle greenhouse gas emissions exist. Biojet fuels from Fischer-Tropsch and hydroprocessed esters and fatty acids processes have ASTM standards. The commercial aviation industry and the U.S. Department of Defense have used aviation biofuels. Additional research is needed to assess the environmental, economic, and financial potential of biojet to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and mitigate long-term upward price trends, fuel price volatility, or both.

  1. An analysis of heating fuel market behavior, 1989--1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to fully assess the heating fuel crisis from a broader and longer-term perspective. Using EIA final, monthly data, in conjunction with credible information from non-government sources, the pricing phenomena exhibited by heating fuels in late December 1989 and early January 1990 are described and evaluated in more detail and more accurately than in the interim report. Additionally, data through February 1990 (and, in some cases, preliminary figures for March) make it possible to assess the market impact of movements in prices and supplies over the heating season as a whole. Finally, the longer time frame and the availability of quarterly reports filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission make it possible to weigh the impact of revenue gains in December and January on overall profits over the two winter quarters. Some of the major, related issues raised during the House and Senate hearings in January concerned the structure of heating fuel markets and the degree to which changes in this structure over the last decade may have influenced the behavior and financial performance of market participants. Have these markets become more concentrated Was collusion or market manipulation behind December's rising prices Did these, or other, factors permit suppliers to realize excessive profits What additional costs were incurred by consumers as a result of such forces These questions, and others, are addressed in the course of this report.

  2. The impact of energy derivatives on the crude oil market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, J.; Ostdiek, B. [Jones Graduate School of Management, Rice University, MS 531, P.O. Box 1892 Houston, TX (United States)

    1999-04-01

    We examine the effects of energy derivatives trading on the crude oil market. There is a common public and regulatory perception that derivative securities increase volatility and can have a destabilizing effect on the underlying market. Consistent with this view, we find an abnormal increase in volatility for three consecutive weeks following the introduction of NYMEX crude oil futures. While there is also evidence of a longer-term volatility increase, this is likely due to exogenous factors, such as the continuing deregulation of the energy markets. Subsequent introductions of crude oil options and derivatives on other energy commodities have no effect on crude oil volatility. We also examine the effects of derivatives trading on the depth and liquidity of the crude oil market. This analysis reveals a strong inverse relation between the open interest in crude oil futures and spot market volatility. Specifically, when open interest is greater, the volatility shock associated with a given unexpected increase in volume is much smaller. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  3. The impact of energy derivatives on the crude oil market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, J.; Ostdiek, B.

    1999-01-01

    We examine the effects of energy derivatives trading on the crude oil market. There is a common public and regulatory perception that derivative securities increase volatility and can have a destabilizing effect on the underlying market. Consistent with this view, we find an abnormal increase in volatility for three consecutive weeks following the introduction of NYMEX crude oil futures. While there is also evidence of a longer-term volatility increase, this is likely due to exogenous factors, such as the continuing deregulation of the energy markets. Subsequent introductions of crude oil options and derivatives on other energy commodities have no effect on crude oil volatility. We also examine the effects of derivatives trading on the depth and liquidity of the crude oil market. This analysis reveals a strong inverse relation between the open interest in crude oil futures and spot market volatility. Specifically, when open interest is greater, the volatility shock associated with a given unexpected increase in volume is much smaller. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  4. Electricity derivative markets: Investment valuation, production planning and hedging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naesaekkaelae, E.

    2005-07-01

    This thesis studies electricity derivative markets from a view point of an electricity producer. The traditionally used asset pricing methods, based on the no arbitrage principle, are extended to take into account electricity specific features: the non storability of electricity and the variability in the load process. The sources of uncertainty include electricity forward curve, prices of resources used to generate electricity, and the size of the future production. Also the effects of competitors' actions are considered. The thesis illustrates how the information in the derivative prices can be used in investment and production planning. In addition, the use of derivatives as a tool to stabilize electricity dependent cash flows is considered. The results indicate that the information about future electricity prices and their uncertainty, obtained from derivative markets, is important in investment analysis and production planning. (orig.)

  5. Electricity derivative markets: Investment valuation, production planning and hedging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naesaekkaelae, E.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis studies electricity derivative markets from a view point of an electricity producer. The traditionally used asset pricing methods, based on the no arbitrage principle, are extended to take into account electricity specific features: the non storability of electricity and the variability in the load process. The sources of uncertainty include electricity forward curve, prices of resources used to generate electricity, and the size of the future production. Also the effects of competitors' actions are considered. The thesis illustrates how the information in the derivative prices can be used in investment and production planning. In addition, the use of derivatives as a tool to stabilize electricity dependent cash flows is considered. The results indicate that the information about future electricity prices and their uncertainty, obtained from derivative markets, is important in investment analysis and production planning. (orig.)

  6. An Empirical Analysis of the Price Discovery Function of Shanghai Fuel Oil Futures Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Zhen; Liu Zhenhai; Chen Chao

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyzes the role of price discovery of Shanghai fuel oil futures market by using methods, such as unit root test, co-integration test, error correction model, Granger causality test, impulse-response function and variance decomposition. The results showed that there exists a strong relationship between the spot price of Huangpu fuel oil spot market and the futures price of Shanghai fuel oil futures market. In addition, the Shanghai fuel oil futures market exhibits a highly effective price discovery function.

  7. Fuel Cells in Distributed Power Market Applications in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rastler, D.

    2002-01-01

    This paper reviews results from EPRI market analysis, which examined the technical and economic market potential of fuel cells in distributed power markets in the United States. A methodology and approach for developing realistic quantitative estimates of market potential in competitive electricity markets is presented. Market size estimates for phosphoric acid, polymer exchange membrane, high temperature fuel cells (carbonate and solid oxide systems) and ultra-high efficient fuel cell hybrids are estimated. Market potentials are reviewed for fuel cells systems ranging in size from 3 kW up to 20-30 MW in scale and underlying assumptions are provided. The results and implications are discussed in relation to the changing U.S. electric utility market structures. Results will be of value to energy companies and to fuel cell developers seeking to understand revenue sales estimates, market size, and most profitable segments for fuel cells in the competitive US electric markets. (author)

  8. A methodology for assessing the market benefits of alternative motor fuels: The Alternative Fuels Trade Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leiby, P.N.

    1993-09-01

    This report describes a modeling methodology for examining the prospective economic benefits of displacing motor gasoline use by alternative fuels. The approach is based on the Alternative Fuels Trade Model (AFTM). AFTM development was undertaken by the US Department of Energy (DOE) as part of a longer term study of alternative fuels issues. The AFTM is intended to assist with evaluating how alternative fuels may be promoted effectively, and what the consequences of substantial alternative fuels use might be. Such an evaluation of policies and consequences of an alternative fuels program is being undertaken by DOE as required by Section 502(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992. Interest in alternative fuels is based on the prospective economic, environmental and energy security benefits from the substitution of these fuels for conventional transportation fuels. The transportation sector is heavily dependent on oil. Increased oil use implies increased petroleum imports, with much of the increase coming from OPEC countries. Conversely, displacement of gasoline has the potential to reduce US petroleum imports, thereby reducing reliance on OPEC oil and possibly weakening OPEC`s ability to extract monopoly profits. The magnitude of US petroleum import reduction, the attendant fuel price changes, and the resulting US benefits, depend upon the nature of oil-gas substitution and the supply and demand behavior of other world regions. The methodology applies an integrated model of fuel market interactions to characterize these effects.

  9. Volatility spillovers in China’s crude oil, corn and fuel ethanol markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haixia, Wu; Shiping, Li

    2013-01-01

    Price volatility spillovers among China’s crude oil, corn and fuel ethanol markets are analyzed based on weekly price data from September 5, 2003 to August 31, 2012, employing the univariate EGARCH model and the BEKK-MVGARCH model, respectively. The empirical results indicate a higher interaction among crude oil, corn and fuel ethanol markets after September, 2008. In the overall sample period, the results simultaneously provide strong evidence that there exist unidirectional spillover effects from the crude oil market to the corn and fuel ethanol markets, and double-directional spillovers between the corn market and the fuel ethanol market. However, the spillover effects from the corn and fuel ethanol markets to the crude oil market are not significant. -- Highlights: •Employing univariate EGARCH model and BEKK-MVGARCH model, respectively. Unidirectional spillover effects from crude oil market to corn and fuel ethanol markets. •Double-directional spillovers between corn market and fuel ethanol market. •The spillover effects from corn and fuel ethanol markets to crude oil market are not significant. •The empirical results indicate a higher interaction among crude oil, corn and fuel ethanol markets after September, 2008

  10. Designing the microturbine engine for waste-derived fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seljak, Tine; Katrašnik, Tomaž

    2016-01-01

    Presented paper deals with adaptation procedure of a microturbine (MGT) for exploitation of refuse derived fuels (RDF). RDF often possess significantly different properties than conventional fuels and usually require at least some adaptations of internal combustion systems to obtain full functionality. With the methodology, developed in the paper it is possible to evaluate the extent of required adaptations by performing a thorough analysis of fuel combustion properties in a dedicated experimental rig suitable for testing of wide-variety of waste and biomass derived fuels. In the first part key turbine components are analyzed followed by cause and effect analysis of interaction between different fuel properties and design parameters of the components. The data are then used to build a dedicated test system where two fuels with diametric physical and chemical properties are tested - liquefied biomass waste (LW) and waste tire pyrolysis oil (TPO). The analysis suggests that exploitation of LW requires higher complexity of target MGT system as stable combustion can be achieved only with regenerative thermodynamic cycle, high fuel preheat temperatures and optimized fuel injection nozzle. Contrary, TPO requires less complex MGT design and sufficient operational stability is achieved already with simple cycle MGT and conventional fuel system. The presented approach of testing can significantly reduce the extent and cost of required adaptations of commercial system as pre-selection procedure of suitable MGT is done in developed test system. The obtained data can at the same time serve as an input for fine-tuning the processes for RDF production. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Geography of Existing and Potential Alternative Fuel Markets in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.; Hettinger, D.

    2014-11-01

    When deploying alternative fuels, it is paramount to match the right fuel with the right location, in accordance with local market conditions. We used six market indicators to evaluate the existing and potential regional market health for each of the five most commonly deployed alternative fuels: electricity (used by plug-in electric vehicles), biodiesel (blends of B20 and higher), E85 ethanol, compressed natural gas (CNG), and propane. Each market indicator was mapped, combined, and evaluated by industry experts. This process revealed the weight the market indicators should be given, with the proximity of fueling stations being the most important indicator, followed by alternative fuel vehicle density, gasoline prices, state incentives, nearby resources, and finally, environmental benefit. Though markets vary among states, no state received 'weak' potential for all five fuels, indicating that all states have an opportunity to use at least one alternative fuel. California, Illinois, Indiana, Pennsylvania, and Washington appear to have the best potential markets for alternative fuels in general, with each sporting strong markets for four of the fuels. Wyoming showed the least potential, with weak markets for all alternative fuels except for CNG, for which it has a patchy market. Of all the fuels, CNG is promising in the greatest number of states--largely because freight traffic provides potential demand for many far-reaching corridor markets and because the sources of CNG are so widespread geographically.

  12. The market and consumer welfare effects of mid-level ethanol blends in the US fuel market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, Paul W.; Sleper, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the prospect that a consumer-driven market could eventually replace the myriad regulations and demand quotas in the US ethanol and gasoline fuel market. Given efficient households that minimize the cost of operating automobiles, recent vehicle technology that improves blended fuel substitution, and typical market conditions of the last five years, blended fuels with 20% ethanol concentration could occupy a volume of 82.2 billion gallons in a 138.3 billion gallon gasoline market. The consumer welfare gain associated with blended fuel is $15.9 billion annually for US consumers, or about $1000 over the life of a vehicle. The ethanol demand associated with a voluntary blended fuel market is 16.4 BGY, slightly more than the conventional component of the Renewable Fuels Standard. It is time to replace the corn RFS with a free market. But an active competition policy in the fuel marketing system may also be required. Intervention for the impending Biomass Ethanol Industry, such as a subsidy or an exemption a carbon tax, may also be in order. - Highlights: • Competiveness of 20% ethanol blends replacing gasoline is examined. • Households can reduce costs by $1000 over vehicle life with ethanol blend. • Blended fuel could gain a 60% share in a voluntary US gasoline market. • US ethanol supply in a voluntary market would match current mandated output.

  13. Gas to fuel and chemicals: from technology to market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    production of clean diesel.The environmental balance from the point of view of carbon dioxide emissions is less clear however. This section makes a comparison of CO 2 emissions for a GTL based process in comparison with the traditional refining route. The availability of natural gas reserves in many regions of the world along with the environmental attractiveness of using natural gas derived products and recovery of flared gas has resulted in a number of GTL projects being developed. After South Africa and Malaysia, projects in Qatar, Australia,Venezuela and Nigeria among others are under way or under development. These projects vary significantly in size, the type of products (fuels, special waxes and lube oils, petrochemicals) and cost of feedstock (recovered flare gas). A complete description of each project is provided. Contents: Executive Summary; 1- Introduction; 2 - Technology challenges: Introduction, Review of the GTL process chain, Synthesis gas production, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, FT Product Upgrading, FT GTL Plant Efficiency, FT GTL Project Alliances, Areas for further development; 3 - Economic analysis Overview; Review of economic data: Capacity, Investment, Operating costs, Natural gas cost, incomes, Other factors, Synthesis, Economic analysis, Conclusions; 4 - Environmental analysis in terms of atmospheric emissions: Analysis 'from well to station', 'Well to Wheel' analysis, Conclusions 5 - Projects development: Overview, Natural gas availabilities, North and South America, Middle East, Asia, Africa / Europe / FSU; 6 - Conclusions; Annexes: GTL products slate and qualities; Trends in oil products quality; Gas oil / Diesel oil market trends; Major R and D program / Main company agreements

  14. EFFECTIVENESS OF CAPITAL MARKET DERIVATIVES IN HOUSING DELIVERY OF NIGERIA EMERGING MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Adjekophori

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The capital market is unarguably the most robust institution in any economy notable for mobilizing the necessary fund for financing long-term productive project. It controls relatively large amounts of capital and represent the largest institutional providing long-term credits for capital project like real estate that requires huge capital outlay. This study therefore, attempts an investigation into the effectiveness of capital market derivatives in housing delivery in Lagos. An empirical survey research was conducted in Lagos, using a random sampling technique with a structured questionnaire to collect data from 147 respondents comprising 89 stockbrokers and 58 real estate developers in Lagos mega-city. Data collected were analyzed with SPSS using descriptive and inferential statistics. The result revealed that 56.7% of the observed variations in housing delivery (R2= 0.567; p< 0.05 is explained by capital market derivatives, which suggests that, proper utilization of capital market derivatives will enhance and improve housing delivery in Nigeria. However, this is not been adequately used by developers of real estate projects in the study. Thus, the study recommends amongst other remedial steps that a synergetic effort should be created between the capital market and real estate developers which will enhance effective housing delivery, the development of people and the Nation.

  15. Market information and price volatility in petroleum derivatives spot and future markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid Nainar, S.M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between petroleum futures trading, market information and spot prices. It tests the hypothesis that there is increased spot market information with futures trading of various petroleum derivatives for weekly data during the period January 1970 to July 1985 at the new York Mercantile Exchange. Increased market information with futures trading is indicated by the insignificance of coefficients of past prices in spot price regressions in periods with futures trading. However, the estimates of the coefficient of variation indicate that price volatility tends to increase with futures trading. Thus, traders seem better informed with futures trading although the advantages of increased market information might potentially be undermined by increased price volatility as in the case of regular gasoline. (author)

  16. The importance of vehicle costs, fuel prices, and fuel efficiency to HEV market success.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santini, D. J.; Patterson, P. D.; Vyas, A. D.

    1999-12-08

    Toyota's introduction of a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) named ''Prius'' in Japan and Honda's proposed introduction of an HEV in the United States have generated considerable interest in the long-term viability of such fuel-efficient vehicles. A performance and cost projection model developed entirely at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is used here to estimate costs. ANL staff developed fuel economy estimates by extending conventional vehicle (CV) modeling done primarily under the National Cooperative Highway Research Program. Together, these estimates are employed to analyze dollar costs vs. benefits of two of many possible HEV technologies. We project incremental costs and fuel savings for a Prius-type low-performance hybrid (14.3 seconds zero to 60 mph acceleration, 260 time) and a higher-performance ''mild'' hybrid vehicle, or MHV (11 seconds 260 time). Each HEV is compared to a U.S. Toyota Corolla with automatic transmission (11 seconds 260 time). The base incremental retail price range, projected a decade hence, is $3,200-$3,750, before considering battery replacement cost. Historical data are analyzed to evaluate the effect of fuel price on consumer preferences for vehicle fuel economy, performance, and size. The relationship between fuel price, the level of change in fuel price, and consumer attitude toward higher fuel efficiency is also evaluated. A recent survey on the value of higher fuel efficiency is presented and U.S. commercial viability of the hybrids is evaluated using discount rates of 2090 and 870. Our analysis, with our current HEV cost estimates and current fuel savings estimates, implies that the U.S. market for such HEVS would be quite limited.

  17. Matched conversion sales in the nuclear fuel market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, D.M.

    1996-01-01

    The negotiations leading up to the Suspension Agreement with Russia focused solely on uranium and SWU, leaving conversion in its traditional role as the overlooked constituent of the fuel cycle. In fact, the initial agreement did not even distinguish U 3 O 8 from UF 6 ; it effectively ignored the conversion component contained in UF 6 and the possibility of matched conversion sales. After some criticism from ConverDyn and others, The US Department of Commerce issued a clarification, confirming that all three major components of the fuel cycle can be sold under matched sales agreements. However, matched conversion sales remain somewhat of an enigma as few have been done and the logistics are poorly understood. Nonetheless, in a conversion market where supply and demand are closely balanced, secondary supplies, including those from matched sales, will likely play an important role in the evolution of conversion prices

  18. Biofuels in Spain: Market penetration analysis and competitiveness in the automotive fuel market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobrino, Fernando Hernandez; Monroy, Carlos Rodriguez; Perez, Jose Luis Hernandez

    2010-01-01

    For several years the European Union (E.U.) has been promoting the use of biofuels due to their potential benefits such as the reduction of dependence on foreign energy imports (the raw materials can be produced within the E.U.), the more stable fossil fuel prices (they can replace fossil fuels on the market), the greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction (biofuels' raw materials fix CO 2 from the atmosphere) and the fact that they can represent an additional source of income for the primary sector (biofuels' raw materials are vegetables that can be grown and harvested). Despite the public aids (direct and indirect), biofuels are not competitive with fossil fuels at present, but it is possible that in the future the environment conditions change and biofuels might become competitive. It is difficult to assess whether this will happen or not, but it is possible to make an assessment of a future situation. This article presents two analyses with one objective: to determine if biofuels might become competitive in the future. The first analysis examines the dependencies of two quotations which have a strong relationship with fuels: the crude oil quotation and the CO 2 bond quotation. The analysis of these relationships may help to forecast the future competitiveness of biofuels. For instance, biofuels' future competitiveness will be higher if their raw material costs are not related to crude oil quotations or if they are related in a negative way (the higher the crude oil quotations the lower the raw material biofuels' cost). The second analysis focuses on the market penetration of biofuels in the Spanish market. There are data related to biofuels monthly consumption in Spain since 2007 and it is possible to know if biofuels are gaining market quota since then. (author)

  19. Biofuels in Spain: Market penetration analysis and competitiveness in the automotive fuel market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobrino, Fernando Hernandez; Monroy, Carlos Rodriguez [Department of Business Administration, School of Industrial Engineering, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Perez, Jose Luis Hernandez [High School Chemistry Teacher, Madrid (Spain)

    2010-12-15

    For several years the European Union (E.U.) has been promoting the use of biofuels due to their potential benefits such as the reduction of dependence on foreign energy imports (the raw materials can be produced within the E.U.), the more stable fossil fuel prices (they can replace fossil fuels on the market), the greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction (biofuels' raw materials fix CO{sub 2} from the atmosphere) and the fact that they can represent an additional source of income for the primary sector (biofuels' raw materials are vegetables that can be grown and harvested). Despite the public aids (direct and indirect), biofuels are not competitive with fossil fuels at present, but it is possible that in the future the environment conditions change and biofuels might become competitive. It is difficult to assess whether this will happen or not, but it is possible to make an assessment of a future situation. This article presents two analyses with one objective: to determine if biofuels might become competitive in the future. The first analysis examines the dependencies of two quotations which have a strong relationship with fuels: the crude oil quotation and the CO{sub 2} bond quotation. The analysis of these relationships may help to forecast the future competitiveness of biofuels. For instance, biofuels' future competitiveness will be higher if their raw material costs are not related to crude oil quotations or if they are related in a negative way (the higher the crude oil quotations the lower the raw material biofuels' cost). The second analysis focuses on the market penetration of biofuels in the Spanish market. There are data related to biofuels monthly consumption in Spain since 2007 and it is possible to know if biofuels are gaining market quota since then. (author)

  20. Batteries and fuel cells for emerging electric vehicle markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, Zachary P.; Banham, Dustin; Ye, Siyu; Hintennach, Andreas; Lu, Jun; Fowler, Michael; Chen, Zhongwei

    2018-04-01

    Today's electric vehicles are almost exclusively powered by lithium-ion batteries, but there is a long way to go before electric vehicles become dominant in the global automotive market. In addition to policy support, widespread deployment of electric vehicles requires high-performance and low-cost energy storage technologies, including not only batteries but also alternative electrochemical devices. Here, we provide a comprehensive evaluation of various batteries and hydrogen fuel cells that have the greatest potential to succeed in commercial applications. Three sectors that are not well served by current lithium-ion-powered electric vehicles, namely the long-range, low-cost and high-utilization transportation markets, are discussed. The technological properties that must be improved to fully enable these electric vehicle markets include specific energy, cost, safety and power grid compatibility. Six energy storage and conversion technologies that possess varying combinations of these improved characteristics are compared and separately evaluated for each market. The remainder of the Review briefly discusses the technological status of these clean energy technologies, emphasizing barriers that must be overcome.

  1. FX and derivatives markets in emerging economies and the internationalisation of their currencies

    OpenAIRE

    Torsten Ehlers; Frank Packer

    2013-01-01

    Derivatives markets in emerging economies have continued to grow since 2010, driven mostly by very strong growth in the OTC market. Emerging market currencies have become more international as offshore markets are a major contributor to FX turnover. The Chinese renminbi is actively traded within emerging Asia. Trading of emerging market currencies is positively related to the size of cross-border financial flows.

  2. Use of derivative instruments to integrate renewable energies into the electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, Kilian; Nelles, Michael; Candra, Dodiek Ika

    2017-01-01

    The implementation of renewable energies to the electricity market is inefficient and expensive with current measures. Further these measures are prejudicial for the existing energy-only-market. The combination of fluctuating and controllable renewable powers in virtual power plants enables the marketing of this power as a derivate on the future market. Thus would relieve the spot market and stabilize pricing on both markets. Subsequently the renewable energy obligation will reduce and renewable energies could be marketed as secured power.

  3. Combustion Of Poultry-Derived Fuel in a CFBC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Lufei; Anthony, Edward J.

    Poultry farming generates large quantities of waste. Current disposal practice is to spread the poultry wastes onto farmland as fertilizer. However, as the factory farms for poultry grow both in numbers and size, the amount of poultry wastes generated has increased significandy in recent years. In consequence, excessive application of poultry wastes on farmland is resulting in more and more contaminants entering the surface water. One of the options being considered is the use of poultry waste as power plant fuel. Since poultry-derived fuel (PDF) is biomass, its co-firing will have the added advantage of reducing greenhouse gas emissions from power generation. To evaluate the combustion characteristics of co-firing PDF with coal, combustion tests of mixtures of coal and PDF were conducted in CanmetENERGY's pilot-scale CFBC. The goal of the tests was to verify that PDF can be co-fired with coal and, more importantly, that emissions from the combustion process are not adversely affected by the presence of PDF in the fuel feed. The test results were very promising and support the view that co-firing in an existing coal-fired CFBC is an effective method of utilizing this potential fuel, both resolving a potential waste disposal problem and reducing the amount of CO2 released by the boiler.

  4. Essays on pricing electricity and electricity derivatives in deregulated markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Julia

    2008-10-01

    This dissertation is composed of four essays on the behavior of wholesale electricity prices and their derivatives. The first essay provides an empirical model that takes into account the spatial features of a transmission network on the electricity market. The spatial structure of the transmission grid plays a key role in determining electricity prices, but it has not been incorporated into previous empirical models. The econometric model in this essay incorporates a simple representation of the transmission system into a spatial panel data model of electricity prices, and also accounts for the effect of dynamic transmission system constraints on electricity market integration. Empirical results using PJM data confirm the existence of spatial patterns in electricity prices and show that spatial correlation diminishes as transmission lines become more congested. The second essay develops and empirically tests a model of the influence of natural gas storage inventories on the electricity forward premium. I link a model of the effect of gas storage constraints on the higher moments of the distribution of electricity prices to a model of the effect of those moments on the forward premium. Empirical results using PJM data support the model's predictions that gas storage inventories sharply reduce the electricity forward premium when demand for electricity is high and space-heating demand for gas is low. The third essay examines the efficiency of PJM electricity markets. A market is efficient if prices reflect all relevant information, so that prices follow a random walk. The hypothesis of random walk is examined using empirical tests, including the Portmanteau, Augmented Dickey-Fuller, KPSS, and multiple variance ratio tests. The results are mixed though evidence of some level of market efficiency is found. The last essay investigates the possibility that previous researchers have drawn spurious conclusions based on classical unit root tests incorrectly applied to

  5. Fuel Supply Defaults for Regional Fuels and Fuel Wizard Tool in MOVES201X

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fuel supply report documents the data and methodology used to derive the default gasoline, diesel and fuel-blend fuel properties, and their respective fuel market share in MOVES. The default market share of the individual fuels varies by calendar year, seasons, and several do...

  6. Pulling the Trigger or Not: Factors Affecting Behavior of Initiating a Position in Derivatives Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pennings, J.M.E.

    2002-01-01

    The behavior of managers in initiating a derivatives market position brings to the surface an interesting phenomenon: sometimes managers initiate a position in derivatives markets (i.e., futures and options markets) and sometimes they do not, even though the price volatility of the underlying asset

  7. SERA Scenarios of Early Market Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Introductions: Modeling Framework, Regional Markets, and Station Clustering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, B. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Melaina, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Penev, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Daniel, W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2013-09-01

    This report describes the development and analysis of detailed temporal and spatial scenarios for early market hydrogen fueling infrastructure clustering and fuel cell electric vehicle rollout using the Scenario Evaluation, Regionalization and Analysis (SERA) model. The report provides an overview of the SERA scenario development framework and discusses the approach used to develop the nationwidescenario.

  8. The implications of power sector trends for fuel choice and fuel markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raschke, M.G.

    1996-01-01

    Two forces are restructuring the world's electricity industry: commercialization and globalization. Commercialization, the focus of this paper, is the introduction of competition into electric generation and the dissolution of existing government or private electric generating monopolies. The winds of change now sweeping through the electric generating business are altering many old assumptions, one of which is the choice of coal as the preferred baseload fuel. In markets where natural gas is available, and both the gas and the electricity industries have been liberalized and opened to competition, there is a growing tendency for independent power producers to choose gas over coal. As well, technological advances have tended to favour the gas industry. Electricity generation by fuel type is discussed for the United States, United Kingdom, Asia and Australia, as well as the implications for the coal industry. (author). 2 tabs., 11 figs

  9. Production, quality and quality assurance of Refuse Derived Fuels (RDFs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarc, R; Lorber, K E

    2013-09-01

    This contribution describes characterization, classification, production, application and quality assurance of Refuse Derived Fuels (RDFs) that are increasingly used in a wide range of co-incineration plants. It is shown in this paper, that the fuel-parameter, i.e. net calorific value [MJ/kg(OS)], particle size d(90) or d(95) [mm], impurities [w%], chlorine content [w%], sulfur content [w%], fluorine content [w%], ash content [w%], moisture [w%] and heavy metals content [mg/kg(DM)], can be preferentially used for the classification of different types of RDF applied for co-incineration and substitution of fossil-fuel in different industial sectors. Describing the external production of RDF by processing and confectioning of wastes as well as internal processing of waste at the incineration plant, a case study is reported on the application of RDF made out of different household waste fractions in a 120,000t/yr Waste to Energy (WtE) circulating fluidized bed (CFB) incinerator. For that purpose, delivered wastes, as well as incinerator feedstock material (i.e. after internal waste processing) are extensively investigated. Starting with elaboration of sampling plan in accordance with the relevant guidelines and standards, waste from different suppliers was sampled. Moreover, manual sorting analyses and chemical analyses were carried out. Finally, results of investigations are presented and discussed in the paper. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Fossil fuel derivatives with reduced carbon. Phase I final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennel, E.B.; Zondlo, J.W.; Cessna, T.J.

    1999-06-30

    This project involves the simultaneous production of clean fossil fuel derivatives with reduced carbon and sulfur, along with value-added carbon nanofibers. This can be accomplished because the nanofiber production process removes carbon via a catalyzed pyrolysis reaction, which also has the effect of removing 99.9% of the sulfur, which is trapped in the nanofibers. The reaction is mildly endothermic, meaning that net energy production with real reductions in greenhouse emissions are possible. In Phase I research, the feasibility of generating clean fossil fuel derivatives with reduced carbon was demonstrated by the successful design, construction and operation of a facility capable of utilizing coal as well as natural gas as an inlet feedstock. In the case of coal, for example, reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions can be as much as 70% (normalized according to kilowatts produced), with the majority of carbon safely sequestered in the form of carbon nanofibers or coke. Both of these products are value-added commodities, indicating that low-emission coal fuel can be done at a profit rather than a loss as is the case with most clean-up schemes. The main results of this project were as follows: (1) It was shown that the nanofiber production process produces hydrogen as a byproduct. (2) The hydrogen, or hydrogen-rich hydrocarbon mixture can be consumed with net release of enthalpy. (3) The greenhouse gas emissions from both coal and natural gas are significantly reduced. Because coal consumption also creates coke, the carbon emission can be reduced by 75% per kilowatt-hour of power produced.

  11. Soot and chemiluminescence in diesel combustion of bio-derived, oxygenated and reference fuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein-Douwel, R.J.H.; Donkerbroek, A.J.; Vliet, A.P. van; Boot, M.D.; Somers, L.M.T.; Baert, R.S.G.; Dam, N.J.; Meulen, J.J. ter

    2009-01-01

    High-speed imaging, spectroscopy and thermodynamical characterization are applied to an optically accessible, heavy-duty diesel engine in order to compare sooting and chemiluminescence behaviour of bio-derived, oxygenated fuels and various reference fuels. The fuels concerned include the bio-derived

  12. Development of MOX facilities and the impact on the nuclear fuel markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, J.

    1990-01-01

    Mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel is nearing maturity as a fuel supply option. This paper briefly reviews the history and current status of the MOX fuel market, including the projected increase in demand for MOX fuel as more plutonium becomes available from the operation of commercial irradiated fuel reprocessing plants in Europe. The uncertainties of such projected demand are discussed, together with the anticipated requirements from the next generation of MOX fabrication plants. The impact of the growing demand for MOX fuel is assessed in the traditional sectors of the uranium fuel cycle. Finally, the author turns to a generalized treatment of the economic aspects of MOX fuel utilization, showing the financially attractive regimes of MOX use which will benefit nuclear power utilities and continue to ensure that MOX fuel can consolidate its position as a mature fuel supply option in those countries that have opted to recycle their spent fuel

  13. Fuels planning: science synthesis and integration; economic uses fact sheet 07: markets and log prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocky Mountain Research Station USDA Forest Service

    2004-01-01

    Markets and prices for logs vary widely across the West, fluctuating from place to place in response to regional variables and hauling costs. This fact sheet discusses those variables, locality of log markets, markets for low-value logs, and caveats to consider when using My Fuel Treatment Planner.

  14. The Derivation of Evaluation Criteria of Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S. K.; Ko, W. I.

    2013-01-01

    This study suggests the evaluation criteria and evaluation indicators derived using a factor analysis. As a result of a factor analysis, 5 evaluation criteria (safety (technological feature), environmental impact, economic feasibility, sociality, institution) and 24 evaluation indicators were selected. Particularly, the level of legislation for the management of radioactive waste, the level of establishment of safety standards of the country, and the level of application of international safety standards were analyzed to be qualitative evaluation indicators that should be considered in the aspect of the institution. The purpose of an analysis on diverse nuclear fuel cycles is to select the optimum nuclear fuel cycle suitable for the environment of one's own country. Accordingly, diverse evaluation criteria and evaluation indicators are necessary. In addition, individual evaluation criteria can be explained with various evaluation indicators. For example, the evaluation criteria for economic feasibility can be explained with evaluation indicators such as the unit cost or total cost. However, if too many evaluation indicators are included in one evaluation criterion, the evaluation is not easy, and if too few evaluation indicators are established, the evaluation criteria cannot be explained sufficiently, and thus the evaluation can be distorted. Accordingly, not only should the evaluation indicators be composed of an appropriate number of units, but they should also not be overlapped, and ambiguous evaluation indicators should be dropped out and necessary evaluation indicators must be included

  15. EIA model documentation: Electricity market module - electricity fuel dispatch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the National Energy Modeling System Electricity Fuel Dispatch Submodule (EFD), a submodule of the Electricity Market Module (EMM) as it was used for EIA's Annual Energy Outlook 1997. It replaces previous documentation dated March 1994 and subsequent yearly update revisions. The report catalogues and describes the model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, model source code, and forecast results generated through the synthesis and scenario development based on these components. This document serves four purposes. First, it is a reference document providing a detailed description of the model for reviewers and potential users of the EFD including energy experts at the Energy Information Administration (EIA), other Federal agencies, state energy agencies, private firms such as utilities and consulting firms, and non-profit groups such as consumer and environmental groups. Second, this report meets the legal requirement of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to provide adequate documentation in support of its statistical and forecast reports. Third, it facilitates continuity in model development by providing documentation which details model enhancements that were undertaken for AE097 and since the previous documentation. Last, because the major use of the EFD is to develop forecasts, this documentation explains the calculations, major inputs and assumptions which were used to generate the AE097

  16. EIA model documentation: Electricity market module - electricity fuel dispatch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the National Energy Modeling System Electricity Fuel Dispatch Submodule (EFD), a submodule of the Electricity Market Module (EMM) as it was used for EIA`s Annual Energy Outlook 1997. It replaces previous documentation dated March 1994 and subsequent yearly update revisions. The report catalogues and describes the model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, model source code, and forecast results generated through the synthesis and scenario development based on these components. This document serves four purposes. First, it is a reference document providing a detailed description of the model for reviewers and potential users of the EFD including energy experts at the Energy Information Administration (EIA), other Federal agencies, state energy agencies, private firms such as utilities and consulting firms, and non-profit groups such as consumer and environmental groups. Second, this report meets the legal requirement of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to provide adequate documentation in support of its statistical and forecast reports. Third, it facilitates continuity in model development by providing documentation which details model enhancements that were undertaken for AE097 and since the previous documentation. Last, because the major use of the EFD is to develop forecasts, this documentation explains the calculations, major inputs and assumptions which were used to generate the AE097.

  17. Atrium and HTP fuel elements for the U.S. market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, J.N.; Krebs, W.D.

    1994-01-01

    The international acitivities of Siemens in the nuclear fuel sector are the responsibility of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Unit of the Power Generation Division (KWU) in Germany, the Nuclear Dividion of Siemens Power Corporation (SPC) in the Unites States, and the German Siemens subsidiaries, ANF GmbH (fuel element fabrication) in Lingen and NRG - Nuklearrohr Gesellschaft mbH (cladding tube production) in Duisburg. The requirements of the U.S. market for light water reactor fuel elements are met by products from the European market. (orig.) [de

  18. Developing compressed natural gas as an automotive fuel in Nigeria: Lessons from international markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogunlowo, Olufemi O.; Bristow, Abigail L.; Sohail, M.

    2015-01-01

    The Nigerian government proposed the use of compressed natural gas (CNG) as an automotive fuel in 1997 as part of the initiatives to harness natural gas (NG) resources but progress has been slow. This paper examines the natural gas vehicle (NGV) implementation approaches and outcomes in seven countries with diverse experiences in order to gain an understanding of the barriers to the NGV market development in Nigeria. The analysis employs hermeneutic principles to secondary data derived from academic literature, published reports from a variety of international agencies, grey literature, and text from online sources and identifies eight success factors for NGV market development namely: strategic intent, legal backing, learning and adaptation, assignment of responsibilities, financial incentives, NG pricing, consumer confidence, and NG infrastructure. The paper concludes that the principal impediment to NGV market development in Nigeria is the uncoordinated implementation approach and that greater government involvement is required in setting strategic goals, developing the legal and regulatory frameworks, setting of clear standards for vehicles and refuelling stations as well as assigning responsibilities to specific agencies. Short-term low cost policy interventions identified include widening the existing NG and gasoline price gap and offering limited support for refuelling and retrofitting facilities. - Highlights: • We examined the NGV policies and implementation strategies in selected countries. • The use of legislative mandates help deepen NGV penetration. • Aligning stakeholder interest is critical to NGV adoption. • Making national interest a priority ahead of regional infrastructure is a critical success factor. • Government support drives participation

  19. Modeling of the influence of transparency of the derivatives market on financial depth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Burdenko

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The market of derivative tools becomes an integral part of the financial market, the functions which are carrying out in it peculiar only to it: hedging, distribution of risks, ensuring liquidity of basic assets, information support of future movement of the prices, decrease in asymmetry of information in the financial markets. However, the insufficiency or lack of transparent information can lead to emergence of the crisis phenomena, shocks in the financial market and growth of system risk. Emergence of need for strengthening of information function of the market of derivatives changes of requirements to transparency of information had been caused by financial crisis of 2008-2009. In this article the attempt of an assessment of influence was made by means of autoregressive models the change of requirements to standard transparency, such as qualitative characteristic of the derivatives market, on quantitative indices of the financial market, in particular financial depth. The results of research demonstrate that reforming of the legislation concerning strengthening of transparency in the derivatives market positively influences the growth of financial depth. The research of this question will promote the best understanding of importance of reforming of regulation of the derivatives market, in particular strengthening of requirements to transparency. Recommendations of the further researches concern the needs of input of reforms of financial regulation in the derivatives market in Ukraine, and, thus, to provide the corresponding conditions for his development

  20. Intraday price dynamics in spot and derivatives markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jun Sik; Ryu, Doojin

    2014-01-01

    This study examines intraday relationships among the spot index, index futures, and the implied volatility index based on the VAR(1)-asymmetric BEKK-MGARCH model. Analysis of a high-frequency dataset from the Korean financial market confirms that there is a strong intraday market linkage between the spot index, KOSPI200 futures, and VKOSPI and that asymmetric volatility behaviour is clearly present in the Korean market. The empirical results indicate that the futures return shock affects the spot market more severely than the spot return shock affects the futures market, though there is a bi-directional causal relationship between the spot and futures markets. Our results, based on a high-quality intraday dataset, satisfy both the positive risk-return relationship and asymmetric volatility effect, which are not reconciled in the frameworks of previous studies.

  1. New developments in tire-derived fuels (TDF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, G. [Kentucky Dept. for Environmental Protection, KY (United States)

    2006-07-01

    Public opinion on the use of tire derived fuels (TDF) has been influenced by images of the large, uncontrolled tire fires at landfills that fill the atmosphere with heavy black smoke. This presentation discussed some of the issues and challenges related to the introduction of TDF in communities. The United States Environmental Protection Agency currently supports the responsible use of tires in Portland cement kilns and other industrial facilities if they have a storage and handling plan and have secured a permit for all applicable state and federal environmental programs. The use of TDF falls within the EPA resource conservation challenge (RCC) which has initiated a scrap tire workgroup and a TDF committee. The RCC has asked industry using TDF to assemble and share air, water, and product data to assist new TDF users and permitting agencies. TDF is currently used in cement production, by utility boilers, and pulp and paper manufacturers. A recent comparison of TDF and coal characteristics has shown that TDF releases fewer sulphur emissions than coal and produces more energy. While hydrogen emissions are typically higher, nitrogen emissions are lower. An elemental ash analysis has shown that wire-free TDF contains less aluminum than bitumens, as well as less iron. Particulate matter (PM) emissions and volatile organic carbon (VOC) emissions from various plants using TDF are often lower than, or the same as, coal. It was concluded that in order to challenge preconceived notions about TDF, baseline compliance tests should be conducted before presenting data for a permit. Baseline tests should also be conducted with other fuels such as coal within the same timeframe. refs., tabs., figs.

  2. Coal-fueled high-speed diesel engine development: Task 2, Market assessment and economic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakwani, R. M.; Wilson, Jr., R. P.; Winsor, R. E.

    1991-12-01

    Based on the preliminary coal engine design developed, this task was conducted to identify the best opportunity(s) to enter the market with the future coal-fueled, high-speed diesel engine. The results of this market and economic feasibility assessment will be used to determine what specific heavy duty engine application(s) are most attractive for coal fuel, and also define basic economic targets for the engine to be competitive.

  3. Market survey of fuel cells in Mexico: Niche for low power portable systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez-Salgado, Joel [Programa de Ingenieria Molecular, Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Lazaro Cardenas No 152, 07730 D. F. (Mexico); Dominguez-Aguilar, Marco A. [Laboratorio de Sintesis Quimica y Electroquimica, Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Lazaro Cardenas No 152, 07730 D. F. (Mexico)

    2009-01-15

    This work provides an overview of the potential market in Mexico for portable electronic devices to be potentially powered by direct methanol fuel cells. An extrapolation method based on data published in Mexico and abroad served to complete this market survey. A review of electronics consumption set the basis for the future forecast and technology assimilation. The potential market for fuel cells for mobile phones in Mexico will be around 5.5 billion USD by 2013, considering a cost of 41 USD per cell in a market of 135 million mobile phones. Likewise, the market for notebook computers, PDAs and other electronic devices will likely grow in the future, with a combined consumption of fuel cell technology equivalent to 1.6 billion USD by 2014. (author)

  4. Market survey of fuel cells in Mexico: Niche for low power portable systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Salgado, Joel; Domínguez-Aguilar, Marco A.

    This work provides an overview of the potential market in Mexico for portable electronic devices to be potentially powered by direct methanol fuel cells. An extrapolation method based on data published in Mexico and abroad served to complete this market survey. A review of electronics consumption set the basis for the future forecast and technology assimilation. The potential market for fuel cells for mobile phones in Mexico will be around 5.5 billion USD by 2013, considering a cost of 41 USD per cell in a market of 135 million mobile phones. Likewise, the market for notebook computers, PDAs and other electronic devices will likely grow in the future, with a combined consumption of fuel cell technology equivalent to 1.6 billion USD by 2014.

  5. Leveraging fuel purchasing and management activities within a competitive power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stallard, S.; Anderson, A.; Schick, J.

    1998-01-01

    Worldwide, one can see that competition, deregulation, or at a minimum, a closer focus on the overall economies of power generation is stimulating change within the power sector. Power generation markets are becoming liberalized providing for independent power producers and, in some cases, providing third-party access to the grid. In the US, fuel costs are being transformed from a pass-through expense to the consumer to one of a strategic asset or liability. In every case, fuel quality, fuel-related costs, and managing the fuel purchasing process are key factors in the overall efficiency and financial performance on the power generator. This paper illustrates how effective fuel management requires that the utility or GenCo improve upon historical fuel management/purchasing practices to lower overall generation costs and address the opportunities present in the power and fuel markets. Key framework/principles to be discussed include: Tighter coupling of fuel purchasing, short-term planning, and dispatch functions. Effective planning to link purchased fuel to system demand forecasts, consider contract/transportation constraints/economics, evaluate alternative sources, and consider fuel mix strategies (e.g., between sport, contract, and various regions/qualities). Tools and processes needed to support the new business environment such as fuel impact analysis, application of integrated fuel evaluation/management systems, market forecasting, purchasing, and the role of fuel management in energy trading. Flexibility to support optimal purchasing strategies including shorter purchase cycles, special buys, buys for third parties, and coal tolling. This framework would be discussed using examples from the US, UK, European, and Pacific Rim markets

  6. Fuel cell two-wheelers : good market potential in Shanghai and suggestions for development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, L.; Yu, Z.; Gong, H.

    2005-01-01

    A feasibility study on the market potential of 2-wheel fuel cell vehicles in Shanghai, China was presented. The Chinese government has recently invested a considerable amount of money in fuel cell technology research programs. However, 2-wheel fuel cell vehicles are not included in the program's plans. Considering future transportation models and examining market demand, it was anticipated that the 2-wheel fuel cell vehicles have an enormous market potential in China. An outline of market demands was presented. Issues concerning technological availability, hydrogen supply availability and government policies were considered. An economic overview of Shanghai was presented. International trends in fuel cell vehicles were reviewed, as well as issues concerning traffic and environmental impacts. Recommended policies for development were presented. Supply and demand issues were also considered. At present, 2-wheelers are only at the conceptual and demonstration stage. A graduated commercial framework for fuel cell bicycles and scooters was presented, which included initial production and medium scale production phases as well as the development of a hydrogen supply network over a period of 9 years. It was concluded that, as there are more than 9 million bicycles and over 300,000 motorcycles in Shanghai, there is potentially a huge market and a good base the development phases and gradual commercialization of 2-wheel fuel cell vehicles. 9 refs., 4 tabs., 3 figs

  7. Physicochemical determinations of petroleum, heavy fuel derivative and combustion nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frias Bullain, Jorge; Padron Rodriguez, M.; Perez Barcala, B.; Lopez Guerra, S.

    2016-01-01

    In the investigation, a crude from Cuban Northern Heavy Oil Belt and its fuel oil fraction was characterized by chemical and physical techniques. Subsequent to the characterization of the derivative, MSI gas analyzer was performed, to identify and quantify concentrations of chemical species, in correspondence with EPA (2007) for external sources. Total suspended particles collected in filter holder were identified using the gravimetric method (ISO 9096). With the intention of knowing the magnitude of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons reported in literature were chosen the higher and lower molecular mass and measured on the basis of its polar covalent radii. Total aromatic hydrocarbons were identified using activated charcoal with subsequent elution with nhexane for analysis by ultraviolet spectroscopy in a Genesys 10 UV spectrophotometer. Environmental pollution control in the oil sector, is evaluated in three states. The particles in the states mentioned above, whose dimensions are between (1-100) x10-9 meters are called nanoparticles. Nanotechnology currently offers firm steps in the development of different nanoparticles, which are applied directly to the mineralogical industry. Contributions stand out sharply operations: exploration, drilling and refining oil. (Author)

  8. Fuel switching? Demand destruction? Gas market responses to price spikes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lippe, D.

    2004-01-01

    This presentation defined fuel switching and addressed the issue regarding which consumers have the capability to switch fuels. In response to short term price aberrations, consumers with fuel switching capabilities reduce their use of one fuel and increase consumption of an alternative fuel. For example, natural gas consumption by some consumers declines in response to price spikes relative to prices of alternative fuels. This presentation also addressed the issue of differentiating between fuel switching and demand destruction. It also demonstrated how to compare gas prices versus alternative fuel prices and how to determine when consumers will likely switch fuels. Price spikes have implications for long term trends in natural gas demand, supply/demand balances and prices. The power generating sector represents a particular class of gas consumers that reduce operating rates of gas fired plants and increase operating rates of other plants. Some gas consumers even shut down plants until gas prices declines and relative economies improve. Some practical considerations for fuel switching include storage tank capacity, domestic refinery production, winter heating season, and decline in working gas storage. tabs., figs

  9. Liquidity effects and FFA returns in the international shipping derivatives market

    OpenAIRE

    Alizadeh, Amir H.; Kappou, K; Tsouknidis, Dimitris; Visvikis, Ilias

    2015-01-01

    The study examines the impact of liquidity risk on freight derivatives returns. The Amihud liquidity ratio and bid–ask spreads are utilized to assess the existence of liquidity risk in the freight derivatives market. Other macroeconomic variables are used to control for market risk. Results indicate that liquidity risk is priced and both liquidity measures have a significant role in determining freight derivatives returns. Consistent with expectations, both liquidity measures are found to hav...

  10. Market impacts of hypothetical fuel treatment thinning programs on federal lands in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Ince; Henry Spelter; Kenneth Skog; Andrew Kramp; Dennis P. Dykstra

    2000-01-01

    This paper addresses the economics of forest fuel thinning programs on federal lands in the U.S. West, and presents a model of regional timber and product market impacts. The issue of economics is vital to the debate about fire management, and this paper presents market implications of two alternative silvicultural strategies, even-aged and uneven-aged...

  11. Small-scale fuel cell cogen: application potentials and market strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, Bernd

    2000-01-01

    Small (less than 5 kW) fuel-cell cogeneration systems are now being developed for use in residential buildings. The devices are expected to be on the market in five years. The article discusses the potential for their large-scale introduction, the impact of this new technology on the natural gas business, potential applications and marketing strategies

  12. Comparison of coal/solid recovered fuel (SRF) with coal/refuse derived fuel (RDF) in a fluidised bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagland, S.T.; Kilgallon, P.; Coveney, R.; Garg, A.; Smith, R.; Longhurst, P.J.; Pollard, S.J.T.; Simms, N.

    2011-01-01

    An experimental study was undertaken to compare the differences between municipal solid waste (MSW) derived solid recovered fuel (SRF) (complying with CEN standards) and refuse derived fuel (RDF). Both fuels were co-combusted with coal in a 50 kW fluidised bed combustor and the metal emissions were compared. Synthetic SRF was prepared in the laboratory by grinding major constituents of MSW such as paper, plastic, textile and wood. RDF was obtained from a local mechanical treatment plant. Heavy metal emissions in flue gas and ash samples from the (coal + 10% SRF) fuel mixture were found to be within the acceptable range and were generally lower than that obtained for coal + 10% RDF fuel mixture. The relative distribution of heavy metals in ash components and the flue gas stream shows the presence of a large fraction (up to 98%) of most of the metals in the ash (except Hg and As). Thermo-gravimetric (TG) analysis of SRF constituents was performed to understand the behaviour of fuel mixtures in the absence and presence of air. The results obtained from the experimental study will enhance the confidence of fuel users towards using MSW-derived SRF as an alternative fuel.

  13. Derivative pricing with liquidity risk: Theory and evidence from the credit default swap market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongaerts, D.; de Jong, F.; Driessen, J.

    2008-01-01

    We derive a theoretical asset-pricing model for derivative contracts that allows for expected liquidity and liquidity risk, and estimate this model for the market of credit default swaps (CDS). Our model extends the LCAPM of Acharya and Pedersen (2005) to a setting with derivative instruments and

  14. Shaping future US fuels: A local market laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    As air pollution becomes a worsening problem around the world, alternative fuels are supported by many as a way to reduce vehicle emissions without impeding mobility. On June 22, 1992, the South Coast Alternative Fuels Demonstration Project, CleanFleet, was launched. CleanFleet is a two-year program that will evaluate the performance of five alternative transportation fuels in a major commercial fleet. The study promises to identify the advantages and pitfalls of five alternative fuels on the basis of emissions, safety, maintenance, reliability, performance, and durability. This issue also contains the following: (1) the ED Refining Netback Data Series for the US Gulf and West Coasts, Rotterdam, and Singapore as of July 10, 1992; and (2) the ED Fuel Price/Tax Series for countries of the Western Hemisphere, July 1992 Edition

  15. The nuclear fuel elements' world market and the position of the Argentine Republic as producer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biondo, C.D.

    1983-01-01

    The development of the nuclear fuel elements' industry is analyzed, both in the present and projected world market, up to the year 2000, in the light of the situation affecting the nucleoelectric industry. By means of the offer/demand function, an analysis is made of the behaviour of the fuel elements' market throughout the fuel cycle structure. The regional unbalances between availability and demand of uranium resources are considered, as well as the factors having an unfavorable incidence on the fuel cycle's economic equation. The economic structure to be used for the calculation of the nucleoelectric generating cost is presented, in order to situate, within said nuclear economy, the component corresponding to the fuel cycle cost. Emphasis is placed on the 'front end' stages of the fuel cycle, but also considering those stages belonging to the 'back end'. Argentina's fuel elements market and its present and projected nucleoelectric park are analyzed, indicating their relative position in the world market. (R.J.S.) [es

  16. In individual or collective dwellings, wood-fuel: an enthusiastic market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2007-01-01

    The wood-fuel market benefits from the present day development of renewable energy sources, both in the individual residential sector where wood-fuel is becoming a main space-heating solution and not only an auxiliary one, and in the collective residential, tertiary and industrial sectors where more than 1850 wood-burning facilities have been implemented in 6 years under the impulse of the wood-fuel development plan. Sales have raised by 40% in the residential sector in 2006 and a 50% increase of renewable energy sources is expected in the heat generation sector from now to 2010. This article presents the main trends of the French wood-fuel market and the existing offer of wood-fuel boilers. (J.S.)

  17. The Conditions of Creation and Prospects of Weather Derivatives Development on the Domestic Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Binkowski

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Analysing the possibility of creations and prospects of weather derivatives development on the domestic market the first of all should be identify the business areas that are strongly exposed for weather risk, which are: energy, agricultural, building and transportation. The specificity of the Polish climate is the high volatility of the major weather factors like temperature or precipitations. Similar to other European countries where weather derivatives markets already exist (e.g.: Germany, France, and United Kingdom. Having in mind dynamic grow of companies with regards to management processes, used technologies and marketing strategies, the exposure for weather risk is getting higher. Therefore, there is a strong pressure for creation of mechanisms and instruments that will allow reducing that kind of risks. Currently in Poland there are no conditions for development of weather derivatives market due to lack of demand. That situation is caused by low level of awareness regarding to possibilities of reducing weather risks. Within a few years the demand for such the instruments will appear ñ together with growing awareness. Once the demand for weather derivative will appear, the existing infrastructure of financial sector is ready for its implementation. Of course it is hard to say what will be the direction of whether derivatives grow on the domestic financial market but taking into consideration its dynamic grow and strong correlations with global markets, there is a small probability that weather derivatives will not appear on the Polish market ñ it is only the matter of time.

  18. Redundancy of Supply in the International Nuclear Fuel Fabrication Market: Are Fabrication Services Assured?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seward, Amy M.; Toomey, Christopher; Ford, Benjamin E.; Wood, Thomas W.; Perkins, Casey J.

    2011-01-01

    For several years, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been assessing the reliability of nuclear fuel supply in support of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration. Three international low enriched uranium reserves, which are intended back up the existing and well-functioning nuclear fuel market, are currently moving toward implementation. These backup reserves are intended to provide countries credible assurance that of the uninterrupted supply of nuclear fuel to operate their nuclear power reactors in the event that their primary fuel supply is disrupted, whether for political or other reasons. The efficacy of these backup reserves, however, may be constrained without redundant fabrication services. This report presents the findings of a recent PNNL study that simulated outages of varying durations at specific nuclear fuel fabrication plants. The modeling specifically enabled prediction and visualization of the reactors affected and the degree of fuel delivery delay. The results thus provide insight on the extent of vulnerability to nuclear fuel supply disruption at the level of individual fabrication plants, reactors, and countries. The simulation studies demonstrate that, when a reasonable set of qualification criteria are applied, existing fabrication plants are technically qualified to provide backup fabrication services to the majority of the world's power reactors. The report concludes with an assessment of the redundancy of fuel supply in the nuclear fuel market, and a description of potential extra-market mechanisms to enhance the security of fuel supply in cases where it may be warranted. This report is an assessment of the ability of the existing market to respond to supply disruptions that occur for technical reasons. A forthcoming report will address political disruption scenarios.

  19. Fuel-cycle analysis of early market applications of fuel cells: Forklift propulsion systems and distributed power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elgowainy, Amgad; Gaines, Linda; Wang, Michael [Center for Transportation Research, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Ave, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2009-05-15

    Forklift propulsion systems and distributed power generation are identified as potential fuel cell applications for near-term markets. This analysis examines fuel cell forklifts and distributed power generators, and addresses the potential energy and environmental implications of substituting fuel-cell systems for existing technologies based on fossil fuels and grid electricity. Performance data and the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model are used to estimate full fuel-cycle emissions and use of primary energy sources. The greenhouse gas (GHG) impacts of fuel-cell forklifts using hydrogen from steam reforming of natural gas are considerably lower than those using electricity from the average U.S. grid. Fuel cell generators produce lower GHG emissions than those associated with the U.S. grid electricity and alternative distributed combustion technologies. If fuel-cell generation technologies approach or exceed the target efficiency of 40%, they offer significant reduction in energy use and GHG emissions compared to alternative combustion technologies. (author)

  20. Pricing and hedging in the VIX derivative market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kozarski, R.

    2013-01-01

    In course of the analysis, we take advantage of extended market evidence in the model estimation and a more complex design to assess the model pricing and hedging performance. The pursuit of more empirically relevant frameworks pays-off is a more precise pricing. However, instead of developing

  1. Mathematics, Pricing, Market Risk Management and Trading Strategies for Financial Derivatives (1/3)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Coffey, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Abstract: An introduction to the mathematics and practicalities of market trading and risk management for financial derivatives, the course will focus on examples from the short-term and long term Foreign Exchange (FX) and Interest Rate (IR) derivatives markets. Topics: - Government Bonds and IR Curves - Stochastic FX, Black-Scholes Vanilla FX Options and Martingales - Risk Management and Market Trading for Vanilla FX Options, Market Implied Volatility, Valuation and Risk Management, Market Trading Strategies - Stochastic IR Curves and Implied Volatility, IR Derivatives - Long Term FX Options: Interaction of Stochastic FX and Stochastic IR Vanilla Foreign Exchange (FX) Options - $ Government Bonds, Interest Rate (IR) Curves, Continuous IR - Domestic ($) and Foreign (Yen) Government Bonds, IR curves - Stochastic Spot FX, Forward FX: Ito processes for $ and Yen Investors - Black-Scholes Vanilla FX Options, Connection to Heat/Diffusion Equation - Stochastic Differential Equations with Mart...

  2. Refuse derived fuels in Cement Kilns: Italian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Borghi, M.; Strazza, C.; Del Borghi, A.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the results of a year (2006) of air emissions gathering in the various Italian cement plants, and, in particular, on 73 kilns subdivided by production class, kiln type and alternative fuels use for type and quantity. The emission parameters considered have been: total dust, SO 2 , NOx, CO, TOC, HCl, HF, metals, PAH and PCDD/F. The work has involved a comparison between the results of the average concentrations detected for the various pollutants, separately for the plants using only traditional fuels and using also alternative fuels. The obtained results show that the use of alternative fuels by the 22 kilns investigated has not any influence on the emission values of the pollutants examined; on the contrary, in certain cases these emissions result less than the limits legally allowed for the use of traditional fuels. A comparison between the results obtained from the Italian kilns and those published by Cembureau from 200 European kilns, confirms that the emission performances of cement kilns appear independent for the use of alternative fuels with the percentages usually employed. This study also highlights the benefits on the global environmental balance for the use of RDF as alternative fuel. [it

  3. Market Analysis and Consumer Impacts Source Document. Part III. Consumer Behavior and Attitudes Toward Fuel Efficient Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    This source document on motor vehicle market analysis and consumer impacts consists of three parts. Part III consists of studies and reviews on: consumer awareness of fuel efficiency issues; consumer acceptance of fuel efficient vehicles; car size ch...

  4. Market segment derivation and profiling via a finite mixture model framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wedel, M; Desarbo, WS

    The Marketing literature has shown how difficult it is to profile market segments derived with finite mixture models. especially using traditional descriptor variables (e.g., demographics). Such profiling is critical for the proper implementation of segmentation strategy. we propose a new finite

  5. Canola Oil Fuel Cell Demonstration: Volume 2 - Market Availability of Agricultural Crops for Fuel Cell Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adams, John W; Cassarino, Craig; Spangler, Lee; Johnson, Duane; Lindstrom, Joel; Binder, Michael J; Holcomb, Franklin H; Lux, Scott M

    2006-01-01

    .... The reformation of vegetable oil crops for fuel cell uses is not well known; yet vegetable oils such as canola oil represent a viable alternative and complement to traditional fuel cell feedstocks...

  6. Combustion Characterization of Bio-derived Fuels and Additives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hashemi, Hamid

    Climate change has become a serious concern nowadays. The main reason is believed to be the high emission of greenhouse gases, namely CO2 which is mainly produced from the combustion of fossil fuels. At the same time, energy demand has increased exponentially while the energy supply mainly depends...... on fossil fuels, especially for transportation. The practical strategy to address such problems in medium term is to increase the efficiency of combustion-propelled energy-production systems, as well as to reduce the net release of CO2 and other harmful pollutants, likely by using nonconventional fuels....... Modern internal combustion engines such as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engines are more efficient and fuel-flexible compared to the conventional engines, making opportunities to reduce the release of greenhouse and other polluting gases to the environment. Combustion temperature...

  7. The cost of fuel economy in the Indian passenger vehicle market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chugh, Randy; Cropper, Maureen; Narain, Urvashi

    2011-01-01

    To investigate how fuel economy is valued in the Indian car market, we compute the cost to Indian consumers of purchasing a more fuel-efficient vehicle and compare it to the benefit of lower fuel costs over the life of the vehicle. We estimate hedonic price functions for four market segments (petrol hatchbacks, diesel hatchbacks, petrol sedans, and diesel sedans) to compute 95% confidence intervals for the marginal cost to the consumer for an increase in fuel economy. We find that the associated present value of fuel savings falls within the 95% confidence interval for most specifications, in all market segments, for the years 2002 through 2006. Thus, we fail to consistently reject the hypothesis that consumers appropriately value fuel economy. - Highlights: → We examine the tradeoffs faced by new vehicle consumers in India. → We use hedonic price functions and instrumental variables. → We find no support for the hypothesis that consumers undervalue fuel economy. → Some consumers are willing to forgo substantial potential savings to own their preferred vehicle.

  8. Using case-mix information in strategic hospital marketing. Deriving market research from patient data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, A

    1992-01-01

    Hospital survival requires adaptation, adaptation requires understanding, and understanding requires information. These are the basic equations behind hospital strategic marketing, and one of the answers may lie in hospitals' own patient-data systems. Marketers' and administrators' enlightened application of case-mix information could become one more hospital survival tool.

  9. Modeling spot markets for electricity and pricing electricity derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Yumei

    Spot prices for electricity have been very volatile with dramatic price spikes occurring in restructured market. The task of forecasting electricity prices and managing price risk presents a new challenge for market players. The objectives of this dissertation are: (1) to develop a stochastic model of price behavior and predict price spikes; (2) to examine the effect of weather forecasts on forecasted prices; (3) to price electricity options and value generation capacity. The volatile behavior of prices can be represented by a stochastic regime-switching model. In the model, the means of the high-price and low-price regimes and the probabilities of switching from one regime to the other are specified as functions of daily peak load. The probability of switching to the high-price regime is positively related to load, but is still not high enough at the highest loads to predict price spikes accurately. An application of this model shows how the structure of the Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Maryland market changed when market-based offers were allowed, resulting in higher price spikes. An ARIMA model including temperature, seasonal, and weekly effects is estimated to forecast daily peak load. Forecasts of load under different assumptions about weather patterns are used to predict changes of price behavior given the regime-switching model of prices. Results show that the range of temperature forecasts from a normal summer to an extremely warm summer cause relatively small increases in temperature (+1.5%) and load (+3.0%). In contrast, the increases in prices are large (+20%). The conclusion is that the seasonal outlook forecasts provided by NOAA are potentially valuable for predicting prices in electricity markets. The traditional option models, based on Geometric Brownian Motion are not appropriate for electricity prices. An option model using the regime-switching framework is developed to value a European call option. The model includes volatility risk and allows changes

  10. How does market concern derived from the Internet affect oil prices?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Jian-Feng; Ji, Qiang

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The impact of market concern derived from the Web on oil volatility is analysed. • It has an equilibrium relationship between oil prices and long-run market concern. • The short-run market concerns have an asymmetric influence on oil price volatility. • The Internet can exaggerate the impact of information shocks on oil price. - Abstract: With the acceleration of oil marketisation and the rapid development of electronic information carriers, external information shocks can be easily and quickly transmitted to the oil market through the Internet. This paper analyses the impact of short- and long-run market concerns, derived from search query volumes in Google for different domains around the oil market on oil volatility using co-integration and the modified EGARCH model. Empirical results suggest there is a long-term equilibrium relationship between oil prices and long-run market concern for oil prices and oil demand. The short-run market concerns for the 2008 financial crisis and the Libyan war convulsion have a significant and asymmetric influence on oil price volatility. This indicates that market concern transmitted through the Internet can strengthen the linkage between oil price changes and external events by influencing the expectation of market traders, and to some extent it can exaggerate the impact of nonfundamental information shocks

  11. An emerging market in fuel cells? Residential combined heat and power in four countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J.E.; Hendry, C.N.; Harborne, P.

    2007-01-01

    Global concerns about fossil fuel stocks and security of supply have stimulated governments and industry to explore the development of alternative sources of energy. This has led to the emergence of liberalised markets for energy and the growth of de-centralised generation and distribution systems. Within this context, the use of a sustainable technology, such as fuel cells, as a generator of heat and electricity for the residential market, is a significant market opportunity. Using a set of framework conditions to explain the diffusion of renewable energy technologies, this paper analyses recent developments in four leading industrial countries, and concludes that Japan and Germany are competing to be the lead country for the introduction of this technology. In the process, we highlight the impact of government and the extent to which the development of a fuel cell industry is being driven by incumbent large firms acting independently or in collaboration with a range of other companies across the value chain. [Author

  12. An emerging market in fuel cells? Residential combined heat and power in four countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, James E.; Hendry, Chris N.; Harborne, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Global concerns about fossil fuel stocks and security of supply have stimulated governments and industry to explore the development of alternative sources of energy. This has led to the emergence of liberalised markets for energy and the growth of de-centralised generation and distribution systems. Within this context, the use of a sustainable technology, such as fuel cells, as a generator of heat and electricity for the residential market, is a significant market opportunity. Using a set of framework conditions to explain the diffusion of renewable energy technologies, this paper analyses recent developments in four leading industrial countries, and concludes that Japan and Germany are competing to be the lead country for the introduction of this technology. In the process, we highlight the impact of government and the extent to which the development of a fuel cell industry is being driven by incumbent large firms acting independently or in collaboration with a range of other companies across the value chain

  13. Can lignocellulosic hydrocarbon liquids rival lignocellulose-derived ethanol as a future transport fuel?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Ding

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Although transport fuels are currently obtained mainly from petroleum, alternative fuels derived from lignocellulosic biomass (LB have drawn much attention in recent years in light of the limited reserves of crude oil and the associated environmental issues. Lignocellulosic ethanol (LE and lignocellulosic hydrocarbons (LH are two typical representatives of the LB-derived transport fuels. This editorial systematically compares LE and LB from production to their application in transport fuels. It can be demonstrated that LH has many advantages over LE relative to such uses. However, most recent studies on the production of the LB-derived transport fuels have focused on LE production. Hence, it is strongly recommended that more research should be aimed at developing an efficient and economically viable process for industrial LH production.

  14. Survey of the market situation within the nuclear fuels cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-05-01

    A brief survey of the global situation in 1983 regarding resources, production costs, supply of, and demand for, uranium including a prognosis of the nuclear effect and the capacity of the western countries for conversion, with emphasis on the Scandinavian countries. The situation concerning management of spent nuclear fuels is also elaborated. (AB)

  15. Mixed waste paper to ethanol fuel. A technology, market, and economic assessment for Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the use of mixed waste paper for the production of ethanol fuels and to review the available conversion technologies, and assess developmental status, current and future cost of production and economics, and the market potential. This report is based on the results of literature reviews, telephone conversations, and interviews. Mixed waste paper samples from residential and commercial recycling programs and pulp mill sludge provided by Weyerhauser were analyzed to determine the potential ethanol yields. The markets for ethanol fuel and the economics of converting paper into ethanol were investigated.

  16. Methods for conversion of lignocellulosic-derived products to transportation fuel precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilga, Michael A.; Padmaperuma, Asanga B.

    2017-10-03

    Methods are disclosed for converting a biomass-derived product containing levulinic acid and/or gamma-valerolactone to a transportation fuel precursor product containing diesel like hydrocarbons. These methods are expected to produce fuel products at a reduced cost relative to conventional approaches.

  17. EVALUATION OF TIRE-DERIVED FUEL FOR USE IN NITROGEN OXIDE REDUCTION BY REBURNING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tire-derived fuel (TDF) was tested in a small-scale (44 kW or 150,000 Btu/hr) combustor to determine its feasibility as a fuel for use in reburning for control of nitrogen oxide (NO). TDF was gravity-fed into upward flowing combustion gases from a primary natural gas flame doped ...

  18. Shale-oil-derived additives for fuel oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raidma, E.; Leetsman, L.; Muoni, R.; Soone, Y.; Zhiryakov, Y.

    2002-01-01

    Studies have shown that the oxidation, wearing, and anticorrosive properties of shale oil as an additive to liquid fuels and oils enable to improve the conditions of their use. Studies conducted by Institute of Oil Shale have shown that it is possible, on the basis of shale oil produced by Viru Keemia Grupp AS (Viru Chemistry Group Ltd.) and, particularly, on the basis of its fractions 230-320 and 320-360 deg C to produce efficient and stable additives for liquid fuels to improve their combustion and storage properties. In the production of additives from shale oil the prerequisite taken into account is its complexity of composition and high concentration of neutral and phenolic oxygen compounds. Additives produced from shale oil have multifunctional properties which enable to improve operational data of liquid fuels and to increase the power of diesel engines and boilers. (author)

  19. Combustion of Refuse Derived Fuels; Foerbraenning av utsorterade avfallsfraktioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Magnus; Wikman, Karin [AaF-Energi och Miljoe, Stockholm (Sweden); Andersson, Christer; Myringer, Aase; Helgesson, Anna [Vattenfall Utveckling AB, Aelvkarleby (Sweden); Eskilsson, David; Ekvall, Annika [SP Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden); Oehman, Marcus; Geyter, Sigrid de [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Energy Technology and Thermal Process Chemistry

    2005-03-01

    The aim of this project was to increase the understanding of opportunities and problems connected with combustion of sorted waste fractions containing paper, wood and plastics (PWP-fuel) in fluidized bed boilers. An evaluation of the effect of sulphur containing additives in a PWP-fuel fired boiler was also performed within the project since this is not previously reported in open literature. The experience from two boilers at different plants, Johannes (BFB) and Hoegdalen P6 (CFB) during the firing season 2003/2004 was documented. In the Johannes boiler the main fuel is bark while Hoegdalen P6 combusts 100 % PWP-fuel. Analysis of the fuels shows that there are large differences between the two boilers. At Johannes the PWP-fuel contained low amounts of elements (chlorine, alkali and other metals) that are expected to result in increased operational problems or emissions. A large proportion of these unwanted elements came from the wood and paper fractions. The plastic fraction in Johannes had very low levels of unwanted elements. The fuel at Hoegdalen contained large amounts of elements such as chlorine, alkali and other metals that can cause operational problems. First of all the plastic fraction contained large amounts of chlorine, most likely from PVC, which results in a more corrosive atmosphere in the boiler. The fraction of fines in the Hoegdalen fuel contained larger concentrations of potassium and sodium compared with the other fuel fractions, substances that also are related to the formation of deposits. The fraction of fines in the fuel probably also results in combustion taking place high up in the boiler and to some extent continuing in the cyclones. The characterisation of the combustion behaviour performed in Johannes identified a maldistribution in O{sub 2}, CO and gas temperature over a cross-section of the furnace. This was not depending on the fuel mixture but is more likely depending on uneven fuel feeding or air distribution. A comparison between

  20. Implementation of direct LSC method for diesel samples on the fuel market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krištof, Romana; Hirsch, Marko; Kožar Logar, Jasmina

    2014-01-01

    The European Union develops common EU policy and strategy on biofuels and sustainable bio-economy through several documents. The encouragement of biofuel's consumption is therefore the obligation of each EU member state. The situation in Slovenian fuel market is presented and compared with other EU countries in the frame of prescribed values from EU directives. Diesel is the most common fuel for transportation needs in Slovenia. The study was therefore performed on diesel. The sampling net was determined in accordance with the fuel consumption statistics of the country. 75 Sampling points were located on different types of roads. The quantity of bio-component in diesel samples was determined by direct LSC method through measurement of C-14 content. The measured values were in the range from 0 up to nearly 6 mass percentage of bio-component in fuel. The method has proved to be appropriate, suitable and effective for studies on the real fuel market. - Highlights: • The direct LSC method was tested and applied on real fuel samples from the Slovenian market. • The results of the study are comparable with the findings of official of EUROSTAT's report. • Comparison to other EU member states and EU directive prescription was performed

  1. Place of petroleum in the U. K. fuel market. [In relation to electricity, gas, and coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolaou, G B

    1977-06-01

    An attempt is made to study the interaction process that occurs between petroleum products and the remainder of the fuel market. Petroleum competes with electricity, gas, and coal as a source of fuel, and an assessment is made of the demand elasticities of its place in the fuel market. In the U.K. fuel market the question is to what extent petroleum is a substitute or complement to the others. Petroleum consumption constituted 25 percent in 1960 of the total fuel consumption and has grown constantly since. The extent to which it changes depends upon its close substitutes. Which out of gas, coal, and electricity is, in fact, the closest substitute for petroleum; is it sensitive to price or to other things. In order to attempt to answer these questions, two models are presented. The first presents a straightforward linear equation for the demand for petroleum due to a change in total fuel consumption. This is then used in Model 2, which is basically the Slutsky equation, to obtain the mean substitution effect between petroleum and coal, gas and electricity. This, then, measures the net substitution or complementarity between petroleum and the commodities mentioned. 11 references.

  2. Derivatives Market's Payment Priorities as Financial Crisis Accelerator

    OpenAIRE

    Roe, Mark J.

    2011-01-01

    Chapter 11 bars bankrupt debtors from immediately repaying their creditors, so that the bankrupt firm can reorganize without creditors shredding the bankrupt’s business. Not so for the bankrupt’s derivatives counterparties, who unlike most creditors, even most other secured creditors, can seize and immediately liquidate collateral, net out gains and losses, terminate their contracts with the bankrupt, and keep both preferential eve-of-bankruptcy payments and fraudulent conveyances they obtain...

  3. The optimal fuel mix and redistribution of social surplus in the Korean power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyunsook; Kim, Sung-Soo

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the difference between the optimal fuel mix incorporating a pre-installed generation capacity constraint and the actual fuel mix in the Korean power market. Since the restructuring of the market, the fuel mix has been determined partly by investors and partly by the Basic Plan for Long-Term Electricity Supply and Demand (BPE). Both the system marginal price (SMP), and the capacity payment (CP), which has been based on the fixed cost of a specific gas turbine generator, were intended to provide an investment incentive in the market; however, they did not bring about an optimal fuel mix in Korea. Under the circumstances of a shortage of base load generators, these generators may garner excessive profits due to a high SMP level. However, the adjustment scheme of profit between KEPCO and Gencos left scant profit for generators. This paper suggests that a contract is needed to create the appropriate profit and tax levels for these base load generators. The redistribution of profit improves equality between consumers and generators, and the proper margin creates incentives for base load technology investment in Korea. - Research highlights: → This paper aims to determine the optimal fuel mix in Korea and shows the difference between the optimal and actual fuel mix; → We discovered that the optimal fuel mix ratio should be 63.5%:20.5%:16.0%for nuclear energy, coal, and LNG, respectively; → Because the pre-installed capacity is taken as given, the optimal fuel mix under the given installed capacity is an addition of a new nuclear unit to the current fuel mix; → The additional profit above the profit margin in the BPE should be collected and redistributed to consumers; → While we provide an incentive to build nuclear and coal units in Korea, we also suggest that a contract is needed to guarantee the profit level for generators based on a government regulation constraint, the BPE, to achieve a fair treatment.

  4. The evolution of the international nuclear fuel markets in a favorable political environment: New challenges and new chances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MKoenig, R.; Max, A.

    1993-01-01

    In the recent few years the nuclear fuel market has changed dramatically. With the new freedoms in east European countries and the former Soviet Union the uranium production capabilities and potential deliveries of these countries attracted a lot of attention in western markets. However, with the gradual decline of the uranium production in eastern Europe and the steadily increasing marketing activities of the former Soviet Union the attention of the western market participants shifted more and more to the Soviets with their delivery potentials and marketing practices. More recently, in the course of 1991, the nuclear disarmament measures triggered discussions on the potential recycling of military material into the civil nuclear fuel cycle and the potential impacts on the market. Now, after the Soviet Union has been replaced by the Commonwealth of Independent States, many questions concerning the prospects for fuel supply from Russian and the Central Asian uranium producing republics to the Western World stir the nuclear fuel market

  5. Conference Proceedings: Effectively utilizing energy derivatives in a deregulated electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This conference was devoted to a discussion about the likely impacts of deregulation on electricity markets in North America. Many of the presentations emphasized price risk in a competitive open access energy market. It was noted that deregulation is frequently associated with the creation of larger companies, higher risks and lower costs. Some of the individual topics addressed by the speakers included discussion of : (1) how underlying physical markets will work in Ontario, (2) experiences in derivative trading in the natural gas industry, (3) how to create value through multiple commodity risk management products, (4) trading with energy derivatives in the U.S. (5) how derivatives can add value for municipal electrical utilities, and (6) risk management mechanisms for energy derivative trading. refs., tabs., figs

  6. Near-term markets for PEM fuel cell power modules: industrial vehicles and hydrogen recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chintawar, P.S.; Block, G.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' Nuvera Fuel Cells, Inc. is a global leader in the development and advancement of multifuel processing and fuel cell technology. With offices located in Italy and the USA, Nuvera is committed to advancing the commercialization of hydrogen fuel cell power modules for industrial vehicles and equipment and stationary applications by 2006, natural gas fuel cell power systems for cogeneration applications by 2007, and on-board gasoline fuel processors and fuel cell stacks for automotive applications by 2010. Nuvera Fuel Cells Europe is ISO 9001:2000 certified for 'Research, Development, Design, Production and Servicing of Fuel Cell Stacks and Fuel Cell Systems.' In the chemical industry, one of the largest operating expenses today is the cost of electricity. For example, caustic soda and chlorine are produced today using industrial membrane electrolysis which is an energy intensive process. Production of 1 metric ton of caustic soda consumes 2.5 MWh of energy. However, about 20% of the electricity consumed can be recovered by converting the hydrogen byproduct of the caustic soda production process into electricity via PEM fuel cells. The accessible market is a function of the economic value of the hydrogen whether flared, used as fuel, or as chemical. Responding to this market need, we are currently developing large hydrogen fuel cell power modules 'Forza' that use excess hydrogen to produce electricity, representing a practical economic alternative to reducing the net electricity cost. Due for commercial launch in 2006, Forza is a low-pressure, steady state, base-load power generation solution that will operate at high efficiency and 100% capacity over a 24-hour period. We believe this premise is also true for chemical and electrochemical plants and companies that convert hydrogen to electricity using renewable sources like windmills or hydropower. The second near-term market that Nuvera is developing utilizes a 5.5 kW hydrogen fueled power module 'H 2 e

  7. Methane-fueled vehicles: A promising market for coalbed methane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deul, M.

    1993-01-01

    The most acceptable alternative fuel for motor vehicles is compressed natural gas (CNG). An important potential source of such gas is coalbed methane, much of which is now being wasted. Although there are no technological impediments to the use of CNG it has not been adequately promoted for a variety of reasons: structural, institutional and for coalbed gas, legal. The benefits of using CNG fuel are manifold: clean burning, low cost, abundant, and usable in any internal combustion engine. Even though more than 30,000 CNG vehicles are now in use in the U.S.A., they are not readily available, fueling stations are not easily accessible, and there is general apathy on the part of the public because of negligence by such agencies as the Department of Energy, the Department of Transportation and the Environmental Protection Agency. The economic benefits of using methane are significant: 100,000 cubic feet of methane is equivalent to 800 gallons of gasoline. Considering the many millions of cubic feet methane wasted from coal mines conservation and use of this resource is a worthy national goal

  8. Methodology of economic analysis of evidence of cartel in the resale market of fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Cleber Ribeiro da Silva; Tiryaki, Gisele Ferreira; Ramos, Maria Olivia

    2010-01-01

    The existence of anti competitive conduct such as cartels would lead to a situation of high prices and profits harming competition and society in general. The methodology of economic analysis of evidence of cartel by the ANP in the resale market of fuels involves analysis of the behavior of the average prices of resale and distribution, the nominal average gross margin on resale, the coefficient of variation of prices of resale and distribution of fuel for a given period by the municipality. Combining the analysis of these elements, the ANP has suggested the investigation into possible cartels. This text aims to bring contributions for a better definition of the relevant market in the analysis of economic evidence in cartel in the market for resale of fuel and add elements currently not considered in the analysis of ANP and regulation of the sector. To this end, this article is organized into three sections besides the introduction and final consideration. The first section takes place at the constitution some myths about cartels thread reseller retailer of automotive fuel by analyzing the main causes leading to complaints by consumers. Then presents a conceptual analysis of relevant market, since this definition is essential to characterize anti-competitive practices of operations performed by companies holding market power, notably the formation of cartels. Finally, it is a discussion on how the action of the main bodies involved in dismantling of anti competitive practices in the industry. Expected to find results that work with greater integration between agencies to safeguard competition and better defining the relevant market segment for the resale of fuel. (author)

  9. [U.S. renewable fuel standard implementation mechanism and market tracking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Liping; Earley, Robert; An, Feng; Zhang, Yu

    2013-03-01

    U.S. Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) is a mandatory policy for promoting the utilization of biofuels in road transpiration sector in order to reduce the country's dependency on foreign oil and greenhouse gas emissions. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) defines the proportion of renewable fuels according to RFS annual target, and requests obligated parties such like fossil fuel refiner, blenders and importer in the U.S. to complete Renewable Volume Obligation (RVO) every year. Obligated parties prove they have achieved their RVO through a renewable fuels certification system, which generates Renewable Identification Numbers (RINs) for every gallon of qualified renewable fuels produced or imported into U.S., RINs is a key for tracking renewable fuel consumption, which in turn is a key for implementing the RFS in the U.S., separated RINs can be freely traded in market and obligated parties could fulfill their RVO through buying RINs from other stakeholders. This briefing paper highlights RFS policy implementing mechanism and marketing tracking, mainly describes importance of RINs, and the method for generating and tracking RINs by both government and fuels industry participants.

  10. Impact of nuclear fuel performance and reliability in a deregulated electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnoski, M.; Kaiser, B.

    1997-01-01

    US nuclear plants are now placing a great deal of importance on fuel performance and reliability because of their direct effect on a plant's capacity factor, availability, operating flexibility, outage duration, and worker exposure. This is reflected by utilities making fuel reliability a principal vendor evaluation criterion and making fuel performance an important bonus/penalty provision. Defect-free fuel, combined with ever improving design features, makes it possible for plants to operate at higher outputs while reducing operating and maintenance costs. Higher electrical output at lower cost is essential for US nuclear plants to meet the expected competition in a deregulated market. Through continued investment in manufacturing improvements and a vigilant, systematic design process, ABB's nuclear fuel has contributed to helping its nuclear utility customers reduce their cost of doing business. (author) 1 fig., 1 tab

  11. Theoretical Model of Pricing Behavior on the Polish Wholesale Fuel Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bejger Sylwester

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we constructed a theoretical model of strategic pricing behavior of the players in a Polish wholesale fuel market. This model is consistent with the characteristics of the industry, the wholesale market, and the players. The model is based on the standard methodology of repeated games with a built-in adjustment to a focal price, which resembles the Import Parity Pricing (IPP mechanism. From the equilibrium of the game, we conclude that the focal price policy implies a parallel pricing strategic behavior on the market.

  12. Diesel engine performance and emissions with fuels derived from waste tyres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Puneet; Zare, Ali; Jafari, Mohammad; Bodisco, Timothy A; Rainey, Thomas; Ristovski, Zoran D; Brown, Richard J

    2018-02-06

    The disposal of waste rubber and scrap tyres is a significant issue globally; disposal into stockpiles and landfill poses a serious threat to the environment, in addition to creating ecological problems. Fuel production from tyre waste could form part of the solution to this global issue. Therefore, this paper studies the potential of fuels derived from waste tyres as alternatives to diesel. Production methods and the influence of reactor operating parameters (such as reactor temperature and catalyst type) on oil yield are outlined. These have a major effect on the performance and emission characteristics of diesel engines when using tyre derived fuels. In general, tyre derived fuels increase the brake specific fuel consumption and decrease the brake thermal efficiency. The majority of studies indicate that NOx emissions increase with waste tyre derived fuels; however, a few studies have reported the opposite trend. A similar increasing trend has been observed for CO and CO 2 emissions. Although most studies reported an increase in HC emission owing to lower cetane number and higher density, some studies have reported reduced HC emissions. It has been found that the higher aromatic content in such fuels can lead to increased particulate matter emissions.

  13. Stochastic Modeling of Wind Derivatives in Energy Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Espen Benth

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available We model the logarithm of the spot price of electricity with a normal inverse Gaussian (NIG process and the wind speed and wind power production with two Ornstein–Uhlenbeck processes. In order to reproduce the correlation between the spot price and the wind power production, namely between a pure jump process and a continuous path process, respectively, we replace the small jumps of the NIG process by a Brownian term. We then apply our models to two different problems: first, to study from the stochastic point of view the income from a wind power plant, as the expected value of the product between the electricity spot price and the amount of energy produced; then, to construct and price a European put-type quanto option in the wind energy markets that allows the buyer to hedge against low prices and low wind power production in the plant. Calibration of the proposed models and related price formulas is also provided, according to specific datasets.

  14. Pressurised combustion of biomass-derived, low calorific value, fuel gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andries, J.; Hoppesteyn, P.D.J.; Hein, K.R.G. [Lab. for Thermal Power Engineering, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Marine Technology, Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands)

    1996-12-31

    The Laboratory for Thermal Power Engineering of the Delft University of Technology is participating in an EU-funded, international R + D project which is designed to aid European industry in addressing issues regarding pressurised combustion of biomass-derived, low calorific flue fuel gas. The objects of the project are: To design, manufacture and test a pressurised, high temperature gas turbine combustor for biomass derived LCV fuel gas; to develop a steady-state and dynamic model describing a combustor using biomass-derived, low calorific value fuel gases; to gather reliable experimental data on the steady-state and dynamic characteristics of the combustor; to study the steady-state and dynamic plant behaviour using a plant layout wich incorporates a model of a gas turbine suitable for operation on low calorific value fuel gas. (orig)

  15. Pressurised combustion of biomass-derived, low calorific value, fuel gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andries, J; Hoppesteyn, P D.J.; Hein, K R.G. [Lab. for Thermal Power Engineering, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Marine Technology, Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands)

    1997-12-31

    The Laboratory for Thermal Power Engineering of the Delft University of Technology is participating in an EU-funded, international R + D project which is designed to aid European industry in addressing issues regarding pressurised combustion of biomass-derived, low calorific flue fuel gas. The objects of the project are: To design, manufacture and test a pressurised, high temperature gas turbine combustor for biomass derived LCV fuel gas; to develop a steady-state and dynamic model describing a combustor using biomass-derived, low calorific value fuel gases; to gather reliable experimental data on the steady-state and dynamic characteristics of the combustor; to study the steady-state and dynamic plant behaviour using a plant layout wich incorporates a model of a gas turbine suitable for operation on low calorific value fuel gas. (orig)

  16. The nature of the derivative market transactions traded in the Johannesburg securities exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tankiso Moloi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the study was to assess and understand the nature of derivative products traded in the Johannesburg Securities Exchange (JSE by analysing daily transactions consisting of deals and contracts concluded, as well as notional values of derivatives traded in the review period. Analysed data found that the South African derivative market continues to grow and evolve with the consistent introduction of new derivative products such as the “can do” derivatives, IDX derivatives that are now being traded at the JSE. The evolvement and growth is confirmed by the fact that the total derivative deals in the JSE has also grown by 16.6% (CAGR from 2006. The study further found that the equity index remains the largest derivative for both options and futures

  17. The nuclear fuel management in a new market: The Spanish Case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, P.

    2001-01-01

    The modification of traditional policies in nuclear business of Spanish Electrical Utilities, to meet new regulations is presented in this paper. It would be remarkable the influence of a new environment of significant economical transformation, which show us utilities affected by reorganization processes to face market demands. We will pay special attention to those activities involved in nuclear fuel management. Focusing in the field of Enriched Uranium supply, ENUSA, a state owned company, according to legal framework, played the role of sole supplier. The liberalization of primary energy sources was the turning point that triggered a process of changes. Now, the utilities rule the overall strategy and, not surprisingly they do definitively it is not. The new regulations tend to create conditions for a truly free market. So, competitiveness has become the magic word for almost all electricity producers. But in our case, the first question to be answered should be if free market does really mean a threat for us, or if it is just and external reference that puts no real pressure in our future plans. Lets remember that nuclear fuel cost in Spain is much lower than any other fuel cost. The working model we have defined is oriented to get benefit from market opportunities, improve flexibility and avoiding uncertainties in planning fuel cost strategy. (Author)

  18. An Economic Model of Brazil’s Ethanol-Sugar Markets and Impacts of Fuel Policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drabik, D.; Gorter, de H.; Just, D.R.; Timilsina, G.R.

    2014-01-01

    We develop an economic model of flex plants, export demands and two domestic fuel demand curves: E25, a 25 percent blend of ethanol with gasoline consumed by conventional cars, and E100, ethanol consumed only by flex cars. This allows us to analyze the market impacts of specific policies, namely the

  19. Assessment of the competing technologies to fuel cells in the stationary power and CHP markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pears, T.J.

    1999-07-01

    This report summarises the results of a study assessing the commercial technologies that are likely to compete with fuel cells in the fields of stationary power and cogeneration markets. The competing technologies examined include clean coal technologies, reciprocating engines, gas turbines, microturbines, and stirling engines. Energy and environmental legislation, and the ranking of the competing technologies are discussed. (UK)

  20. Time for Stability in Derivatives Markets – a New Look at Central Counterparty Clearing for Securities Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Thorsten V. Koeppl

    2011-01-01

    The recent financial crisis has driven many plans for improving the stability and resilience of the global financial system. One concept, managing the risk of default in securities or financial derivatives markets through central counterparties, receives scrutiny in this report. The author examines the role centralized clearing parties could play in improving system resilience. These centralized clearing parties are institutions that interpose themselves between counterparties in financial tr...

  1. Fuel cell two wheelers: Good market potential in Shanghai and the suggestions for development. Paper no. IGEC-1-145

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, L.; Yu, Z.; Gong, H.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the feasibility and the market potential for developing the Fuel Cell two-wheelers in Asia. Shanghai is taken as one case for this analysis. Based on the study of the transportation modal, the constitute of the vehicles both motored and non-motored, the future planning for the transportation and the market potential of two-wheelers requirement and the quick development market of Battery Bicycles in Shanghai, the potential market of Fuel Cell Two-wheelers in Shanghai is predicated. The predominance in the research and development for Fuel Cell stacks, the storage for the hydrogen and the local supply ability of hydrogen of Shanghai are also introduced. The Shanghai's Fuel Cell Market potential is also presented based on the population of motorcycles at last. The suggestions for the further development of Fuel Cell two-wheelers are proposed. (author)

  2. Transportation Energy Futures Series. Projected Biomass Utilization for Fuels and Power in a Mature Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mai, T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Newes, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Aden, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Warner, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Uriarte, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Inman, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Simpkins, T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Argo, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-03-01

    The viability of biomass as transportation fuel depends upon the allocation of limited resources for fuel, power, and products. By focusing on mature markets, this report identifies how biomass is projected to be most economically used in the long term and the implications for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and petroleum use. In order to better understand competition for biomass between these markets and the potential for biofuel as a market-scale alternative to petroleum-based fuels, this report presents results of a micro-economic analysis conducted using the Biomass Allocation and Supply Equilibrium (BASE) modeling tool. The findings indicate that biofuels can outcompete biopower for feedstocks in mature markets if research and development targets are met. The BASE tool was developed for this project to analyze the impact of multiple biomass demand areas on mature energy markets. The model includes domestic supply curves for lignocellulosic biomass resources, corn for ethanol and butanol production, soybeans for biodiesel, and algae for diesel. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  3. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Projected Biomass Utilization for Fuels and Power in a Mature Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, M.; Mai, T.; Newes, E.; Aden, A.; Warner, E.; Uriarte, C.; Inman, D.; Simpkins, T.; Argo, A.

    2013-03-01

    The viability of biomass as transportation fuel depends upon the allocation of limited resources for fuel, power, and products. By focusing on mature markets, this report identifies how biomass is projected to be most economically used in the long term and the implications for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and petroleum use. In order to better understand competition for biomass between these markets and the potential for biofuel as a market-scale alternative to petroleum-based fuels, this report presents results of a micro-economic analysis conducted using the Biomass Allocation and Supply Equilibrium (BASE) modeling tool. The findings indicate that biofuels can outcompete biopower for feedstocks in mature markets if research and development targets are met. The BASE tool was developed for this project to analyze the impact of multiple biomass demand areas on mature energy markets. The model includes domestic supply curves for lignocellulosic biomass resources, corn for ethanol and butanol production, soybeans for biodiesel, and algae for diesel. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  4. A Study on Market Efficiency of Selected Commodity Derivatives Traded on NCDEX During 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajipriya, N.

    2012-10-01

    The study aims at testing the weak form of Efficient Market Hypothesis in the context of an emerging commodity market - National Commodity Derivatives Exchange (NCDEX), which is considered as the prime commodity derivatives market in India. The study considered daily spot and futures prices of five selected commodities traded on NCDEX over 12 month period (the futures contracts originating and expiring during the period January 2011 to December 2011) The five commodities chosen are Pepper, Crude palm Oil, steel silver and Chana as they account for almost two-thirds of the value of agricultural commodity derivatives traded on NCDEX. The results of Run test indicate that both spot and futures prices are weak form efficient

  5. Interdependencies between fossil fuel and renewable energy markets. The German biodiesel market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busse, Stefan; Bruemmer, Bernard; Ihle, Rico

    2010-12-15

    With this paper, we provide the first quantitative investigation of vertical price transmission in the biodiesel supply chain in Germany with the focus on the developments during the food crisis and the impact of subsidized US biodiesel exports. With the strong promotion of the production and use of biodiesel during the first half of the past decade, the German biodiesel market became the largest national biodiesel market worldwide. This analysis utilizes prices of rapeseed oil, soya oil, biodiesel and crude oil over a sample period covering the rapid growth of the German demand in 2002 until its decline in 2009. The effects of both the market development and different policies on price transmission are analyzed in detail. Due to the numerous changes in the market, a regime-dependent Markov-switching vector error correction model is applied. The results indicate that regimes with differing error-correction behavior govern the transmission process among the various prices. Evidence was found for a strong impact of crude oil price on biodiesel prices, and of biodiesel prices on rapeseed oil prices. However, in both cases, the price adjustment behavior is found to be regime dependent, and the regime occurrence in both market segments shows similar patterns. In relation to crude oil a weak adjustment of biodiesel prices is found to be dominating in the phase of market expansion. This changed from 2007 on when stronger error-correction is found, reflected by a stronger role of the crude oil price developments. In the relationship of biodiesel to the vegetable oils, most of the growth period was dominated by a regime characterized by weak price adjustments. From 2007 on, past own price changes and past changes in soya oil prices had a strong impact particularly on rapeseed oil prices. The biodiesel price development was less important. Reasons for this are substantial changes in the market structure. The biodiesel market developed as an insulated market; biodiesel was

  6. The use of modified tyre derived fuel for compression ignition engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilusa, T J

    2017-02-01

    This study investigated physical and chemical modification of tyre-derived fuel oil (TDFO) obtained from pyrolysis of waste tyres and rubber products for application as an alternative fuel for compression ignition engines (CIE's). TDFO collected from a local waste tyre treatment facility was refined via a novel "oxidative gas-phase fractional distillation over 13× molecular sieves" to recover the light to medium fractions of the TDFO while oxidising and capturing some sulphur compounds in a gas phase. This was followed by desulphurization and chemical modification to improve cetane number, kinematic viscosity and fuel stability. The resulting fuel was tested in an ADE407T truck engine to compare its performance with petroleum diesel fuel. It was discovered that gas phase oxidative fractional distillation reduces the low boiling point sulphur compounds in TDFO such as mercaptans. Using petroleum diesel fuel as a reference, it was observed that the produced fuel has a lower cetane number, flash point and viscosity. On storage the fuel tends to form fibrous microstructures as a result of auto-oxidation of asphaltenes present in the fuel. Mixtures of alkyl nitrate, vinyl acetate, methacrylic anhydride, methyl-tert butyl ether, n-hexane and n-heptane were used to chemically modify the fuel in accordance with the minimum fuel specifications as per SANS 342. The engine performance tests results did not show any sign of engine ceasing or knocking effect. The power-torque trend was very consistent and compared well with petroleum diesel fuelled engine. The levels of total sulphur are still considerably high compared to other cleaner fuel alternatives derived from zero sulphur sources. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Status of the natural and enriched uranium market: the basic economical factor for the development of the fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nochev, T.

    1999-01-01

    Status of the Natural and Enriched Uranium Market - the Basic. Economical Factor for the Development of the Fuel Cycle An overview of the status of the natural and enriched uranium market has been performed and it offers a possibility to estimate the changes and tendencies, the knowledge of which is needed in negotiations about the fresh fuel. The simplified financial analysis presented here demonstrates the economical profitability of the storage of the spent fuel making now the allocations for the future reprocessing

  8. Markets and economics of mixed waste paper as a boiler fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, J.K.; Kerstetter, J.D.

    1991-01-01

    Mixed waste paper (MWP) is the second largest component of the municipal solid waste steam disposal of in Washington State. Recent state legislation has mandated source separation of recycled material including MWP. The quantity collected will soon saturate both domestic and foreign markets. An alternative market could be as a fuel in existing combustors. The use of MWP as a fuel requires environmental and economic acceptance by potential users. MWP was analyzed for heavy metal concentrations and elemental composition and found to be similar to existing solid and fossil fuels burned in existing boilers. Existing regulations, however, may classify MWP as a municipal solid waste, thus increasing the capital and administrative costs of using this fuel. The cost of processing MWP into a fluff and a pellet was determined. Three existing facilities were studied to determine the capital and operating costs for them to use MWP fuel. In all cases, the cost of processing and transporting the fuel was greater than the break-even price that could be paid by the potential users

  9. Annex 34 : task 1 : analysis of biodiesel options : biomass-derived diesel fuels : final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGill, R [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States); Aakko-Saksa, P; Nylund, N O [TransEnergy Consulting Ltd., Helsinki (Finland)

    2009-06-15

    Biofuels are derived from woody biomass, non-woody biomass, and organic wastes. The properties of vegetable oil feedstocks can have profound effects on the properties of the finished biodiesel product. However, all biodiesel fuels have beneficial effects on engine emissions. This report discussed the use of biodiesel fuels as replacements for part of the diesel fuel consumed throughout the world. Biodiesel fuels currently being produced from fatty acid esters today were reviewed, as well as some of the more advanced diesel replacement fuels. The report was produced as part of the International Energy Agency (IEA) Advanced Motor Fuels (AMF) Implementing Agreement Annex 34, and was divided into 14 sections: (1) an introduction, (2) biodiesel and biomass, (3) an explanation of biodiesel, (4) properties of finished biodiesel fuels, (5) exhaust emissions of finished biodiesel fuels and blends, (6) life-cycle emissions and energy, (7) international biodiesel (FAME) technical standards and specifications, (8) growth in production and use of biodiesel fuels, (9) biofuel refineries, (10) process technology, (11) development and status of biorefineries, (12) comparison of options to produce biobased diesel fuels, (13) barriers and gaps in knowledge, and (14) references. 113 refs., 37 tabs., 74 figs.

  10. A Semianalytical Solution of the Fractional Derivative Model and Its Application in Financial Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Song

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Fractional differential equation has been introduced to the financial theory, which presents new ideas and tools for the theoretical researches and the practical applications. In the work, an approximate semianalytical solution of the time-fractional European option pricing model is derived using the method of combining the enhanced technique of Adomian decomposition method with the finite difference method. And then the result is introduced in China’s financial market. The work makes every effort to test the feasibility of the fractional derivative model in the actual financial market.

  11. The Behaviour of Small Investors in the Hong Kong Derivatives Markets: A Factor Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai-Yuen Hon

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the behaviour of small investors in Hong Kong’s derivatives markets. The study period covers the global economic crisis of 2011- 2012, and we focus on small investors’ behaviour during and after the crisis. We attempt to identify and analyse the key factors that capture their behaviour in derivatives markets in Hong Kong. The data were collected from 524 respondents via a questionnaire survey. Exploratory factor analysis was employed to analyse the data, and some interesting findings were obtained. Our study enhances our understanding of behavioural finance in the setting of an Asian financial centre, namely Hong Kong.

  12. Final Report - Stationary and Emerging Market Fuel Cell System Cost Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contini, Vince [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Heinrichs, Mike [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); George, Paul [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Eubanks, Fritz [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Jansen, Mike [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Valluri, Manoj [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Mansouri, Mahan [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Swickrath, Mike [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2017-04-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is focused on providing a portfolio of technology solutions to meet energy security challenges of the future. Fuel cells are a part of this portfolio of technology offerings. To help meet these challenges and supplement the understanding of the current research, Battelle has executed a five-year program that evaluated the total system costs and total ownership costs of two technologies: (1) an ~80 °C polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) technology and (2) a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology, operating with hydrogen or reformate for different applications. Previous research conducted by Battelle, and more recently by other research institutes, suggests that fuel cells can offer customers significant fuel and emission savings along with other benefits compared to incumbent alternatives. For this project, Battelle has applied a proven cost assessment approach to assist the DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Program in making decisions regarding research and development, scale-up, and deployment of fuel cell technology. The cost studies and subsequent reports provide accurate projections of current system costs and the cost impact of state-of-the-art technologies in manufacturing, increases in production volume, and changes to system design on system cost and life cycle cost for several near-term and emerging fuel cell markets. The studies also provide information on types of manufacturing processes that must be developed to commercialize fuel cells and also provide insights into the optimization needed for use of off-the-shelf components in fuel cell systems. Battelle’s analysis is intended to help DOE prioritize investments in research and development of components to reduce the costs of fuel cell systems while considering systems optimization.

  13. Market Barriers to Clean Cooking Fuels in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Review of Literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlag, Nicolai; Zuzarte, Fiona

    2008-04-15

    In the developing nations of sub-Saharan Africa, providing households with modern energy services is a critical step towards development. A large majority of households in the region rely on traditional biomass fuels for cooking, which represent a significant proportion of energy used in the domestic setting. The disadvantages of these fuels are many: they are inefficient energy carriers and their heat is difficult to control; they produce dangerous emissions; and their current rate of extraction is not sustainable for forests. Transition to clean cooking fuels such as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) or ethanol would resolve many of these issues as they do not produce dangerous particulate emissions, and are commercially viable, offering a number of socio-economic advantages over traditional options. Despite the benefits of fuel switching, clean cooking fuels are rarely used in households in sub-Saharan Africa. Their failure to attain widespread use can be attributed to a number of market barriers. One of the major issues is cost: clean cooking fuels are prohibitively expensive for many households, and the high price of compatible stoves further discourages their use. Besides the expense, many consumers are hesitant to adopt the new technology, reflecting the lack of public awareness of the relevant issues. At the same time, Africa's underdeveloped infrastructure prevents these fuels from being made available in many local marketplaces. To date, this combination of factors has largely stifled the transition to clean cooking fuels. National governments can adopt a number of strategies to address these issues. The creation of clean cooking-fuel initiatives at the national level would be an important first step, after which governments can begin to address the issues more effectively. The introduction of relevant financial instruments would help to tackle the economic barriers to clean cooking fuels, and public outreach and education could overcome socio

  14. EU's forest fuel resources, energy technology market and international bioenergy trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asikainen, A.; Laitila, J.; Parikka, H.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the project is to provide for the Finnish bioenergy technology, machine and appliance manufactures information about forest fuel resources in the EU and international bioenergy trade mechanisms. The projects results act as an instrument for market potential assessments and provide information to the local energy producer about biomass as an energy source. The possibilities to use forest chips in CHP and heating plants will be investigated in the case studies. Total number of case studies will be 3-4, and they will mainly be located in Eastern Europe, where also large forest resources and utilisation potential are found. Case studies include three main tasks: 1) Assessment of forest fuel resources around the CHP or heating plant. 2) Forest fuel procurement cost study and 3) Study on the economics forest fuel based energy production. The project will be carried out as cooperation between Finnish research institutes and companies, and local actors. First case study was carried out at Poland. (orig.)

  15. Hydrodeoxygenation processes: advances on catalytic transformations of biomass-derived platform chemicals into hydrocarbon fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, Sudipta; Saha, Basudeb; Luque, Rafael

    2015-02-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass provides an attractive source of renewable carbon that can be sustainably converted into chemicals and fuels. Hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) processes have recently received considerable attention to upgrade biomass-derived feedstocks into liquid transportation fuels. The selection and design of HDO catalysts plays an important role to determine the success of the process. This review has been aimed to emphasize recent developments on HDO catalysts in effective transformations of biomass-derived platform molecules into hydrocarbon fuels with reduced oxygen content and improved H/C ratios. Liquid hydrocarbon fuels can be obtained by combining oxygen removal processes (e.g. dehydration, hydrogenation, hydrogenolysis, decarbonylation etc.) as well as by increasing the molecular weight via C-C coupling reactions (e.g. aldol condensation, ketonization, oligomerization, hydroxyalkylation etc.). Fundamentals and mechanistic aspects of the use of HDO catalysts in deoxygenation reactions will also be discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Processes for converting biomass-derived feedstocks to chemicals and liquid fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Held, Andrew; Woods, Elizabeth; Cortright, Randy; Gray, Matthew

    2018-04-17

    The present invention provides processes, methods, and systems for converting biomass-derived feedstocks to liquid fuels and chemicals. The method generally includes the reaction of a hydrolysate from a biomass deconstruction process with hydrogen and a catalyst to produce a reaction product comprising one of more oxygenated compounds. The process also includes reacting the reaction product with a condensation catalyst to produce C.sub.4+ compounds useful as fuels and chemicals.

  17. Processes for converting biomass-derived feedstocks to chemicals and liquid fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Held, Andrew; Woods, Elizabeth; Cortright, Randy; Gray, Matthew

    2017-05-23

    The present invention provides processes, methods, and systems for converting biomass-derived feedstocks to liquid fuels and chemicals. The method generally includes the reaction of a hydrolysate from a biomass deconstruction process with hydrogen and a catalyst to produce a reaction product comprising one of more oxygenated compounds. The process also includes reacting the reaction product with a condensation catalyst to produce C.sub.4+ compounds useful as fuels and chemicals.

  18. Implementation of direct LSC method for diesel samples on the fuel market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krištof, Romana; Hirsch, Marko; Kožar Logar, Jasmina

    2014-11-01

    The European Union develops common EU policy and strategy on biofuels and sustainable bio-economy through several documents. The encouragement of biofuel's consumption is therefore the obligation of each EU member state. The situation in Slovenian fuel market is presented and compared with other EU countries in the frame of prescribed values from EU directives. Diesel is the most common fuel for transportation needs in Slovenia. The study was therefore performed on diesel. The sampling net was determined in accordance with the fuel consumption statistics of the country. 75 Sampling points were located on different types of roads. The quantity of bio-component in diesel samples was determined by direct LSC method through measurement of C-14 content. The measured values were in the range from 0 up to nearly 6 mass percentage of bio-component in fuel. The method has proved to be appropriate, suitable and effective for studies on the real fuel market. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Residue Derived Fuels as an Alternative Fuel for the Hellenic Power Generation Sector and their Potential for Emissions ReductionConstantinos S. Psomopoulos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantinos S. Psomopoulos

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The European Union Landfill Directive (1999/31 EC promotes more environmental friendly waste management options, by reducing the amount of wastes and more specific of biodegradable wastes, disposed of in landfills. The EU member states are adopting the mechanical-biological treatment process for municipal solid waste and non-hazardous industrial wastes to comply with the abovementioned Directive's targets on landfill diversion, and produce waste derived fuels such as refuse derived fuel and solid recovered fuel. Waste derived fuels present high calorific values depending on their synthesis and are being used both in dedicated waste-to-energy plants and as fuel substitutes in industrial processes. In this paper the refuse derived fuel and solid recovered fuel production and utilisation options in European Union are presented, and the possibilities in Greece based on the waste production and National Plan for Waste Management of the Ministry of Environment is attempted. The existing and ongoing studies on co-combustion and co-gasification with brown coal support the use of refuse derived fuel and solid recovered fuel as fuel on Hellenic Power Sector, adopting in the existing lignite power plants adequate Air Pollution Control systems. If the co-combustion or co-gasification of these alternative fuels is adopted from the Hellenic Power Sector a reduction on emissions is expected that cannot be neglected.

  20. EVALUATING THE DIFFUSION OF FUEL-CELL CARS IN THE CHINA MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent RITS

    2004-01-01

    Scenario analyses confirm the widely claimed need for further technological development, but also find it insufficient. Moreover, it is found that the widespread diffusion of fuel-cell cars in China will first and only take place after 2025. Main conditions are firstly: the removal of technological and economic obstacles, the appearance of an initial niche market and the self-enforcement of diffusion (with consensus among the important actors, driven by the technological development. Secondly: either high price of fossil fuels (energy resource scarcity is required or (very strict environmental regulations by the Chinese government -i.e. a breakthrough of the present policy trend.

  1. Evaluation of next generation biomass derived fuels for the transport sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsita, Katerina G.; Pilavachi, Petros A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper evaluates next generation biomass derived fuels for the transport sector, employing the Analytic Hierarchy Process. Eight different alternatives of fuels are considered in this paper: bio-hydrogen, bio-synthetic natural gas, bio-dimethyl ether, bio-methanol, hydro thermal upgrading diesel, bio-ethanol, algal biofuel and electricity from biomass incineration. The evaluation of alternative fuels is performed according to various criteria that include economic, technical, social and policy aspects. In order to evaluate each alternative fuel, one base scenario and five alternative scenarios with different weight factors selection per criterion are presented. After deciding the alternative fuels’ scoring against each criterion and the criteria weights, their synthesis gives the overall score and ranking for all alternative scenarios. It is concluded that synthetic natural gas and electricity from biomass incineration are the most suitable next generation biomass derived fuels for the transport sector. -- Highlights: •Eight alternative fuels for the transport sector have been evaluated. •The method of the AHP was used. •The evaluation is performed according to economic, technical, social and policy criteria. •Bio-SNG and electricity from biomass incineration are the most suitable fuels

  2. Effects of coal-derived trace species on performance of molten carbonate fuel cells. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-05-01

    The Carbonate Fuel Cell is a very promising option for highly efficient generation of electricity from many fuels. If coal-gas is to be used, the interactions of coal-derived impurities on various fuel cell components need to be understood. Thus the effects on Carbonate Fuel Cell performance due to ten different coal-derived contaminants viz., NH{sub 3}, H{sub 2}S, HC{ell}, H{sub 2}Se, AsH{sub 3}, Zn, Pb, Cd, Sn, and Hg, have been studied at Energy Research Corporation. Both experimental and theoretical evaluations were performed, which have led to mechanistic insights and initial estimation of qualitative tolerance levels for each species individually and in combination with other species. The focus of this study was to investigate possible coal-gas contaminant effects on the anode side of the Carbonate Fuel Cell, using both out-of-cell thermogravimetric analysis by isothermal TGA, and fuel cell testing in bench-scale cells. Separate experiments detailing performance decay in these cells with high levels of ammonia contamination (1 vol %) and with trace levels of Cd, Hg, and Sn, have indicated that, on the whole, these elements do not affect carbonate fuel cell performance. However, some performance decay may result when a number of the other six species are present, singly or simultaneously, as contaminants in fuel gas. In all cases, tolerance levels have been estimated for each of the 10 species and preliminary models have been developed for six of them. At this stage the models are limited to isothermal, benchscale (300 cm{sup 2} size) single cells. The information obtained is expected to assist in the development of coal-gas cleanup systems, while the contaminant performance effects data will provide useful basic information for modeling fuel cell endurance in conjunction with integrated gasifier/fuel-cell systems (IGFC).

  3. Effects of coal-derived trace species on performance of molten carbonate fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-05-01

    The Carbonate Fuel Cell is a very promising option for highly efficient generation of electricity from many fuels. If coal-gas is to be used, the interactions of coal-derived impurities on various fuel cell components need to be understood. Thus the effects on Carbonate Fuel Cell performance due to ten different coal-derived contaminants viz., NH{sub 3}, H{sub 2}S, HC{ell}, H{sub 2}Se, AsH{sub 3}, Zn, Pb, Cd, Sn, and Hg, have been studied at Energy Research Corporation. Both experimental and theoretical evaluations were performed, which have led to mechanistic insights and initial estimation of qualitative tolerance levels for each species individually and in combination with other species. The focus of this study was to investigate possible coal-gas contaminant effects on the anode side of the Carbonate Fuel Cell, using both out-of-cell thermogravimetric analysis by isothermal TGA, and fuel cell testing in bench-scale cells. Separate experiments detailing performance decay in these cells with high levels of ammonia contamination (1 vol %) and with trace levels of Cd, Hg, and Sn, have indicated that, on the whole, these elements do not affect carbonate fuel cell performance. However, some performance decay may result when a number of the other six species are present, singly or simultaneously, as contaminants in fuel gas. In all cases, tolerance levels have been estimated for each of the 10 species and preliminary models have been developed for six of them. At this stage the models are limited to isothermal, benchscale (300 cm{sup 2} size) single cells. The information obtained is expected to assist in the development of coal-gas cleanup systems, while the contaminant performance effects data will provide useful basic information for modeling fuel cell endurance in conjunction with integrated gasifier/fuel-cell systems (IGFC).

  4. EMISSIONS FROM INDIRECT LAND USE CHANGE: DO THEY MATTER WITH FUEL MARKET LEAKAGES?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan Drabik

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Indirect land use change, an agricultural market leakage, has been a major controversy over the Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA requirement for corn-ethanol to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG emissions by 20 percent relative to gasoline it is assumed to replace. This paper shows that corn-ethanol policies generate far greater carbon leakage in the fuel market itself. Hence, corn-ethanol does not meet EPA’s threshold, regardless of ethanol policy and whether one includes emissions from land use change.

  5. Market-Based and System-Wide Fuel Cycle Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Paul [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2016-06-02

    The Dynamic Resource Exchange (DRE) gives agency to consumer facilities to determine the preference of any particular trade that is offered by suppliers to satisfy its requests. This provides a natural balance of power in the relationship between consumers and suppliers. However, in situations in which suppliers have flexibility surrounding the way that they respond to individual requests, they have no mechanism to assess how different bids will be received by the consumer. Theoretically, a supplier can offer multiple bids to respond to a given request in an attempt to “cover their bases”, but this introduces more arcs into the underlying network flow problem, increasing the cost to solve the problem. In the extreme, when a supplier can continuously vary the characteristics of the bid, this can represent a large number of additional arcs and have real performance consequences. To remedy this inefficiency in the implementation of the market-level optimization, the definition of a request has been extended to include a function that can be used by the supplier to query the preference that would be assigned by a consumer for a potential bid. The supplier is then free to implement arbitrarily complex algorithms to revise/optimize its bid based on responses to this function. A supplier can chose to not invoke the function at all, mimicking the original DRE behavior, can use it to select among a small set of discrete choices, or can implement an internal algorithm to seek an optimum bid on a continuous parameter space. This capability was demonstrated with a storage facility that preferred material with a specific decay heat that was as close as possible to the maximum allowable decay heat, while requiring the specific decay heat to fall between a minimum and maximum level. This archetype was used to fill multiple storage roles in a simulation that also included a standard recipe reactor: wet storage with no maximum allowable specific decay heat, dry storage with a

  6. Market-Based and System-Wide Fuel Cycle Optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The Dynamic Resource Exchange (DRE) gives agency to consumer facilities to determine the preference of any particular trade that is offered by suppliers to satisfy its requests. This provides a natural balance of power in the relationship between consumers and suppliers. However, in situations in which suppliers have flexibility surrounding the way that they respond to individual requests, they have no mechanism to assess how different bids will be received by the consumer. Theoretically, a supplier can offer multiple bids to respond to a given request in an attempt to cover their bases, but this introduces more arcs into the underlying network flow problem, increasing the cost to solve the problem. In the extreme, when a supplier can continuously vary the characteristics of the bid, this can represent a large number of additional arcs and have real performance consequences. To remedy this inefficiency in the implementation of the market-level optimization, the definition of a request has been extended to include a function that can be used by the supplier to query the preference that would be assigned by a consumer for a potential bid. The supplier is then free to implement arbitrarily complex algorithms to revise/optimize its bid based on responses to this function. A supplier can chose to not invoke the function at all, mimicking the original DRE behavior, can use it to select among a small set of discrete choices, or can implement an internal algorithm to seek an optimum bid on a continuous parameter space. This capability was demonstrated with a storage facility that preferred material with a specific decay heat that was as close as possible to the maximum allowable decay heat, while requiring the specific decay heat to fall between a minimum and maximum level. This archetype was used to fill multiple storage roles in a simulation that also included a standard recipe reactor: wet storage with no maximum allowable specific decay heat, dry storage with a modest

  7. Supply and demand elasticities in the U.S. ethanol fuel market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luchansky, Matthew S.; Monks, James

    2009-01-01

    The market for ethanol has grown from approximately 1.2 billion gallons in 1997 to almost 5 billion gallons in 2006. With the huge increase in ethanol demand in recent years, the growth in derived demand for corn has driven up many food prices. This paper uses monthly data from 1997-2006 to estimate the market supply and demand for ethanol at the national level. The simultaneous determination of the supply and demand curves using two-stage least squares allows for the calculation of supply and demand-side elasticities, which are important results in light of the tremendous growth in this market and recent legislation concerning ethanol. (author)

  8. Supply and demand elasticities in the U.S. ethanol fuel market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luchansky, Matthew S. [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign49 Roger Adams Lab, 81-5600 S. Mathews Ave., Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Monks, James [Robins School of Business, University of Richmond, Richmond, VA 23173 (United States)

    2009-05-15

    The market for ethanol has grown from approximately 1.2 billion gallons in 1997 to almost 5 billion gallons in 2006. With the huge increase in ethanol demand in recent years, the growth in derived demand for corn has driven up many food prices. This paper uses monthly data from 1997-2006 to estimate the market supply and demand for ethanol at the national level. The simultaneous determination of the supply and demand curves using two-stage least squares allows for the calculation of supply and demand-side elasticities, which are important results in light of the tremendous growth in this market and recent legislation concerning ethanol. (author)

  9. Development of OTM Syngas Process and Testing of Syngas Derived Ultra-clean Fuels in Diesel Engines and Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.T. Robinson; John Sirman; Prasad Apte; Xingun Gui; Tytus R. Bulicz; Dan Corgard; John Hemmings

    2005-05-01

    This final report summarizes work accomplished in the Program from January 1, 2001 through December 31, 2004. Most of the key technical objectives for this program were achieved. A breakthrough material system has lead to the development of an OTM (oxygen transport membrane) compact planar reactor design capable of producing either syngas or hydrogen. The planar reactor shows significant advantages in thermal efficiency and a step change reduction in costs compared to either autothermal reforming or steam methane reforming with CO{sub 2} recovery. Syngas derived ultra-clean transportation fuels were tested in the Nuvera fuel cell modular pressurized reactor and in International Truck and Engine single cylinder test engines. The studies compared emission and engine performance of conventional base fuels to various formulations of ultra-clean gasoline or diesel fuels. A proprietary BP oxygenate showed significant advantage in both applications for reducing emissions with minimal impact on performance. In addition, a study to evaluate new fuel formulations for an HCCI engine was completed.

  10. Biofuels policy and the US market for motor fuels: Empirical analysis of ethanol splashing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walls, W.D., E-mail: wdwalls@ucalgary.ca [Department of Economics, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta, T2N 1N4 (Canada); Rusco, Frank; Kendix, Michael [US GAO (United States)

    2011-07-15

    Low ethanol prices relative to the price of gasoline blendstock, and tax credits, have resulted in discretionary blending at wholesale terminals of ethanol into fuel supplies above required levels-a practice known as ethanol splashing in industry parlance. No one knows precisely where or in what volume ethanol is being blended with gasoline and this has important implications for motor fuels markets: Because refiners cannot perfectly predict where ethanol will be blended with finished gasoline by wholesalers, they cannot know when to produce and where to ship a blendstock that when mixed with ethanol at 10% would create the most economically efficient finished motor gasoline that meets engine standards and has comparable evaporative emissions as conventional gasoline without ethanol blending. In contrast to previous empirical analyses of biofuels that have relied on highly aggregated data, our analysis is disaggregated to the level of individual wholesale fuel terminals or racks (of which there are about 350 in the US). We incorporate the price of ethanol as well as the blendstock price to model the wholesaler's decision of whether or not to blend additional ethanol into gasoline at any particular wholesale city-terminal. The empirical analysis illustrates how ethanol and gasoline prices affect ethanol usage, controlling for fuel specifications, blend attributes, and city-terminal-specific effects that, among other things, control for differential costs of delivering ethanol from bio-refinery to wholesale rack. - Research Highlights: > Low ethanol prices and tax credits have resulted in discretionary blending of ethanol into fuel supplies above required levels. > This has important implications for motor fuels markets and vehicular emissions. > Our analysis incorporates the price of ethanol as well as the blendstock price to model the wholesaler's decision of whether or not to blend additional ethanol into gasoline at any particular wholesale city

  11. Biofuels policy and the US market for motor fuels: Empirical analysis of ethanol splashing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walls, W.D.; Rusco, Frank; Kendix, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Low ethanol prices relative to the price of gasoline blendstock, and tax credits, have resulted in discretionary blending at wholesale terminals of ethanol into fuel supplies above required levels-a practice known as ethanol splashing in industry parlance. No one knows precisely where or in what volume ethanol is being blended with gasoline and this has important implications for motor fuels markets: Because refiners cannot perfectly predict where ethanol will be blended with finished gasoline by wholesalers, they cannot know when to produce and where to ship a blendstock that when mixed with ethanol at 10% would create the most economically efficient finished motor gasoline that meets engine standards and has comparable evaporative emissions as conventional gasoline without ethanol blending. In contrast to previous empirical analyses of biofuels that have relied on highly aggregated data, our analysis is disaggregated to the level of individual wholesale fuel terminals or racks (of which there are about 350 in the US). We incorporate the price of ethanol as well as the blendstock price to model the wholesaler's decision of whether or not to blend additional ethanol into gasoline at any particular wholesale city-terminal. The empirical analysis illustrates how ethanol and gasoline prices affect ethanol usage, controlling for fuel specifications, blend attributes, and city-terminal-specific effects that, among other things, control for differential costs of delivering ethanol from bio-refinery to wholesale rack. - Research highlights: → Low ethanol prices and tax credits have resulted in discretionary blending of ethanol into fuel supplies above required levels. → This has important implications for motor fuels markets and vehicular emissions. → Our analysis incorporates the price of ethanol as well as the blendstock price to model the wholesaler's decision of whether or not to blend additional ethanol into gasoline at any particular wholesale city-terminal.

  12. Conference Innovations in Derivatives Market : Fixed Income Modeling, Valuation Adjustments, Risk Management, and Regulation

    CERN Document Server

    Grbac, Zorana; Scherer, Matthias; Zagst, Rudi

    2016-01-01

    This book presents 20 peer-reviewed chapters on current aspects of derivatives markets and derivative pricing. The contributions, written by leading researchers in the field as well as experienced authors from the financial industry, present the state of the art in: • Modeling counterparty credit risk: credit valuation adjustment, debit valuation adjustment, funding valuation adjustment, and wrong way risk. • Pricing and hedging in fixed-income markets and multi-curve interest-rate modeling. • Recent developments concerning contingent convertible bonds, the measuring of basis spreads, and the modeling of implied correlations. The recent financial crisis has cast tremendous doubts on the classical view on derivative pricing. Now, counterparty credit risk and liquidity issues are integral aspects of a prudent valuation procedure and the reference interest rates are represented by a multitude of curves according to their different periods and maturities. A panel discussion included in the book (featuring D...

  13. Why has the introduction of natural gas vehicles failed in Germany?—Lessons on the role of market failure in markets for alternative fuel vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters von Rosenstiel, Dirk; Heuermann, Daniel F.; Hüsig, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Despite private investments exceeding two billion Euros and tax incentives of more than 500 million Euros, the market share of natural gas vehicles (NGVs) in Germany has lagged far behind expectations and behind market developments in other countries. With total cost of ownership being on average lower for NGVs than for gasoline and diesel vehicles this raises the question of the existence of market failure in the German NGV-market. We use a case study approach where we combine quantitative data with insights from a multi-industry expert panel and in-depth interviews with experts from industry, government and civil society in order to examine whether and how different types of market failure contribute to the status quo in the German market for NGVs. We conclude that coordination failure in complementary markets, an artificially created monopoly of service stations at motorways, imperfect information, bounded consumer rationality, and principle-agent-problems are the most prominent market failures inhibiting the development of a functioning market for NGVs. Our results are instructive for the design of effective public policies and investor strategies aiming to create markets for alternative fuel vehicles. - Highlights: • We analyze market failure in the German market for natural gas vehicles. • Coordination failure is the most important reason for market failure to arise. • Minor factors: regulatory deficits, imperfect information, bounded rationality. • Policies encompass stabilizing expectations and supporting actor coordination. • Our results are instructive for policies and investor strategies in AFV-markets

  14. Evaluation of the trading development in the Iberian Energy Derivatives Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capitán Herráiz, Álvaro; Rodríguez Monroy, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    The efficiency of the Iberian Energy Derivatives Market in its first five and a half years is assessed in terms of volume, open interest and price. The continuous market shows steady liquidity growth. Its volume is strongly correlated to that of the Over The Counter (OTC) market, the amount of market makers, the enrolment of financial agents and generation companies belonging to the integrated group of last resort suppliers, and the OTC cleared volume in its clearing house. The hedging efficiency, measured through the ratio between the final open interest and the cleared volume, shows the lowest values for the Spanish base load futures as they are the most liquid contracts. The ex-post forward risk premium has diminished due to the learning curve and the effect of the fixed price retributing the indigenous coal fired generation. This market is quite less developed than the European leaders headquartered in Norway and Germany. Enrolment of more traders, mainly international energy companies, financial agents, energy intensive industries and renewable generation companies is desired. Market monitoring reports by the market operator providing post-trade transparency, OTC data access by the energy regulator, and assessment of the regulatory risk can contribute to efficiency gains. - Highlights: ► The continuous traded volumes in the Iberian power futures market grow steadily. ► Those volumes are correlated to OTC volumes and the enrolment of key players. ► Most liquid contracts show the smallest hedging ratio. ► Regulation fixing the coal fired generation price affects spot and forward prices. ► The overall efficiency can grow via market monitoring reports and OTC data access.

  15. Value added tax evasion and excise duty fraud on fuel market in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Semerád

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with analysis of current problems in the motor fuel market. It analyzes bottlenecks in setting the legislative changes in value added tax, excise tax and the legislation concerning fuels. The biggest problem is tax evasions that favor one group of business entities at the expense of another, and also cause that the state loses revenues mainly from indirect taxes. Therefore, attention is directed to quality control of fuels as a means of consumer protection and prevention of tax evasion and ways to combat tax evasion in import, distribution and storage of mineral oils. The examples are the most common errors found in fraudulent companies. Based on the data collected the possible ultimate evasion was estimated. Therefore, I propose that value added tax law should be amended and some other measures to improve supervision by public authorities like tax authorities and customs administration offices should be taken.

  16. The market for fuel pellets produced from biomass and waste in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koppejan, J.; Meulman, P.D.M.

    2001-12-01

    Several initiatives are currently being developed in the Netherlands for the production of fuel pellets from waste and biomass. This report presents an overview of the current producers and (potential) users of these pellets in the Netherlands. It also outlines the Dutch and European policies and legislations concerned. Furthermore, important barriers to market development of fuel pellets are defined and future expectations are summarized. The study covers fuel pellets made from different feedstock, varying from clean biomass to waste with traces of contaminants. In each project, pellets are produced that are unique as to their product specifications, as they are usually designed for a single application. It is therefore impossible to generalize characteristics and end use. 27 refs

  17. Biodiesel CO2 emissions: A comparison with the main fuels in the Brazilian market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coronado, Christian Rodriguez; de Carvalho, Joao Andrade Jr.; Silveira, Jose Luz

    2009-01-01

    The use of biodiesel is increasing as an attractive fuel due to the depleting fossil fuel resources and environmental degradation. This paper presents results of an investigation on the potentials of biodiesel as an alternative fuel and main substitute of diesel oil, comparing the CO 2 emissions of the main fuels in the Brazilian market with those of biodiesel, in pure form or blended in different proportions with diesel oil (2%, 5%, and 20%, called B2, B5, and B20, respectively). The results of the study are shown in ton CO 2 per m 3 and ton CO 2 per year of fuel. The fuels were analyzed considering their chemical composition, stoichiometric combustion parameters and mean consumption for a single vehicle. The fuels studied were: gasoline, diesel oil, anhydrous ethyl alcohol (anhydrous ethanol), and biodiesel from used frying oil and from soybean oil. For the case of biodiesel, its complete life cycle and the closed carbon cycle (photosynthesis) were considered. With data provided by the Brazilian Association of Automotive Vehicle Manufacturers (ANFAVEA) for the number of vehicles produced in Brazil, the emissions of CO 2 for the national fleet in 2007 were obtained per type of fuel. With data provided by the Brazilian Department of Transit (DENATRAN) concerning the number of diesel vehicles in the last five years in Brazil, the total CO 2 emissions and the percentage that they would decrease in the case of use of pure biodiesel, B100, or several mixtures, B2, B5 and B20, were calculated. Estimates of CO 2 emissions for a future scenario considering the mixtures B5 and B20 are also included in this article. (author)

  18. Tar removal from biomass derived fuel gas by pulsed corona discharges: chemical kinetic study II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nair, S.A.; Yan, K.; Pemen, A.J.M.; Heesch, van E.J.M.; Ptasinski, K.J.; Drinkenburg, A.A.H.

    2005-01-01

    Tar (heavy hydrocarbon or poly aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)) removal from biomass derived fuel gas is one of the biggest obstacles in its utilization for power generation. We have investigated pulsed corona as a method for tar removal. Our previous experimental results indicate the energy consumption

  19. First Significant Digits and the Credit Derivative Market During the Financial Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Hofmarcher

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Credit Default Swap (CDS market has both been lauded for its ability to stabilize the financial system through credit risk transfers and been the source of regulatory concern due to its size and lack of transparency. As a decentralized over-the-counter market, detailed information about pricing mechanisms is rather scarce. To investigate reported CDS prices (spreads more closely, we make use of empirical First Significant Digit (FSD distributions and analyze daily CDS prices for European and US entities during the financial crisis starting in 2007. We find that on a time-aggregated level, the European and US markets obey empirical FSD distributions similar to the theoretical ones. Surprising differences are observed in the development of the FSD distributions between the US and European markets. Whereas the FSD distribution of the US derivative market behaves nearly constantly during the last financial crisis, we find huge fluctuations in the FSD distribution of the European market. One reason for these differences might be the possibility of strategic default for US companies due to Chapter 11 and avoided contagion effects.

  20. Time-varying convergence in European electricity spot markets and their association with carbon and fuel prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menezes, Lilian M. de; Houllier, Melanie A.; Tamvakis, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Long-run dynamics of electricity prices are expected to reflect fuel price developments, since fuels generally account for a large share in the cost of generation. As an integrated European market for electricity develops, wholesale electricity prices should be converging as a result of market coupling and increased interconnectivity. Electricity mixes are also changing, spurred by a drive to significantly increase the share of renewables. Consequently, the electricity wholesale price dynamics are evolving, and the fuel–electricity price nexus that has been described in the literature is likely to reflect this evolution. This study investigates associations between spot prices from the British, French and Nordpool markets with those in connected electricity markets and fuel input prices, from December 2005 to October 2013. In order to assess the time-varying dynamics of electricity spot price series, localized autocorrelation functions are used. Electricity spot prices in the three markets are found to have stationary and non-stationary periods. When a trend in spot prices is observed, it is likely to reflect the trend in fuel prices. Cointegration analysis is then used to assess co-movement between electricity spot prices and fuel inputs to generation. The results show that British electricity spot prices are associated with fuel prices and not with price developments in connected markets, while the opposite is observed in the French and Nordpool day-ahead markets. - Highlights: • Electricity market integration policies may have altered EU spot electricity prices. • LACF is used to assess the changing nature of electricity spot prices. • EU electricity spot prices show both stationary and non-stationary periods. • Carbon and fuel prices have greater impact on British spot prices. • In continental Europe, electricity prices have decoupled from fuel prices.

  1. Assesment of the energy quality of the synthesis gas produced from biomass derived fuels conversion: Part I: Liquid Fuels, Ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arteaga Perez, Luis E; Casas, Yannay; Peralta, Luis M; Granda, Daikenel; Prieto, Julio O

    2011-01-01

    The use of biofuels plays an important role to increase the efficiency and energetic safety of the energy processes in the world. The main goal of the present research is to study from the thermodynamics and kinetics the effect of the operational variables on the thermo-conversion processes of biomass derived fuels focused on ethanol reforming. Several models are developed to assess the technological proposals. The minimization of Gibbs free energy is the criterion applied to evaluate the performance of the different alternatives considering the equilibrium constraints. All the models where validated on an experimental data base. The gas composition, HHV and the ratio H2/CO are used as measures for the process efficiency. The operational parameters are studied in a wide range (reactants molar ratio, temperature and oxygen/fuel ratio). (author)

  2. Natural gas -- introduction on the market as a motor fuel without tax reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifert, M.; Weber, J.-C.

    2001-01-01

    This extensive article reviews the history of efforts being made to promote the use of gas as a motor fuel in Switzerland and the work done in various institutions in Europe and Switzerland on natural gas driven vehicles, from small cars up to full sized trucks and hybrid vehicles. The reduction of airborne pollution as a result of using natural gas is looked at and the certification of vehicles according to European and American standards is commented. The motor fuel taxing situation in Switzerland and various parliamentary initiatives calling for the reduction of taxes on more environmentally friendly fuels such as natural gas are discussed. The use of biogas as a tax-exempted motor fuel and the technology necessary for its refinement is examined and its potential assessed. Pilot and demonstration projects in the natural gas fuels area are described and the gas industry's activities in their promotion are discussed. The article is concluded by a look at today's fiscal and technical situation; future trends and developments on the market are also discussed

  3. A critical view on temperature modelling for application in weather derivatives markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Šaltytė Benth, Jūratė; Benth, Fred Espen

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present a stochastic model for daily average temperature. The model contains seasonality, a low-order autoregressive component and a variance describing the heteroskedastic residuals. The model is estimated on daily average temperature records from Stockholm (Sweden). By comparing the proposed model with the popular model of Campbell and Diebold (2005), we point out some important issues to be addressed when modelling the temperature for application in weather derivatives market. - Highlights: ► We present a stochastic model for daily average temperature, containing seasonality, a low-order autoregressive component and a variance describing the heteroskedastic residuals. ► We compare the proposed model with the popular model of Campbell and Diebold (2005). ► Some important issues to be addressed when modelling the temperature for application in weather derivatives market are pointed out.

  4. A Semianalytical Solution of the Fractional Derivative Model and Its Application in Financial Market

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Lina

    2018-01-01

    Fractional differential equation has been introduced to the financial theory, which presents new ideas and tools for the theoretical researches and the practical applications. In the work, an approximate semianalytical solution of the time-fractional European option pricing model is derived using the method of combining the enhanced technique of Adomian decomposition method with the finite difference method. And then the result is introduced in China’s financial market. The work makes every e...

  5. A life cycle assessment of pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.) -derived jet fuel and diesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Jiqing; Shonnard, David R.; Kalnes, Tom N.; Johnsen, Peter B.; Rao, Serin

    2013-01-01

    Field Pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.) is a member of the mustard family and may be grown as a winter crop between traditional summer crops to produce renewable biomass for renewable diesel and jet fuel. This paper estimated total annual biofuel production potential of 15 million cubic metres from rotation between corn and soybeans on 16.2 million hectares in the Midwest without impact on food production. This study also investigated the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and energy balance of pennycress-derived Hydroprocessed Renewable Jet (HRJ) fuel and Renewable Diesel (RD). Both system expansion and allocation approaches were applied to distribute environmental impacts among products and co-products along the life cycle of each biofuel. The life cycle GHG emissions (excluding land use change) for RD and HRJ range from 13 to 41 g MJ −1 (CO 2 eq.) and −18 to 45 g MJ −1 (CO 2 eq.), respectively, depending on how the co-products are credited. The majority of the energy required for each biofuel product is derived from renewable biomass as opposed to non renewable fossil. The fossil energy consumptions are considerably lower than the petroleum fuels. Scenario analyses were also conducted to determine response to model assumptions, including nitrogen fertilizer application rate, nitrogen content in crop residues, and sources of H 2 . The results show that pennycress derived biofuels could qualify as advanced biofuels and as biomass-based diesel as defined by the Renewable Fuels Standard (RFS2). -- Highlights: ► Estimated total pennycress derived biofuel production potential of 15 GL y −1 ► Rotation between corn and soybeans without impact on food production. ► The GHG of RD and HRJ show over 50% of reductions compared to petroleum baseline. ► The majority of the energy required is from renewable biomass. ► The fossil energy consumptions are considerably lower than the petroleum fuels

  6. EUBIONET II. Efficient trading of biomass fuels and analysis of fuel supply chains and business models for market actors by networking. Final result-oriented report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alakangas, E.; Wiik, C.; Vesterinen, P. (and others)

    2008-02-15

    The project aimed to increase deployment of biomass fuels into European market and match technology uptake by means of market and policy analysis and other well-defined tasks to meet European policy targets in renewable energy sector. The project is to result as increased use of biomass fuels and market uptake of innovative bioenergy technologies. The objectives of the project were the following: 1) To give a clear outlook on current and future biomass fuel market trends. 2) To give feedback on the suitability of CEN 335 biofuel standard for trading of solid biofuels. 3) To provide well-analysed estimation on techno-economic potential of the biomass fuel volumes until 2010 based on the existing studies and experts opinions. Regarding the forest biomass sector, co-operation will be done with forest industry stakeholders to find proper balance between forest industry raw material and bioenergy usage. 4) To enhance biomass fuel trade and technology transfer by networking among different actors. 5) To analyse, select and describe the most suitable trading and business models for small- and largescale biofuel supply chains for heat and power production by taking into account the environmental aspects and sustainability. 6) To enhance biomass usage by the means of co-operation and information dissemination among different market actors in the fuel-utilisation chain. Target groups were biomass fuel traders and users, fuel producers and suppliers of different scales, policy makers in both current and new member states. Key associations, i.e. AEBIOM and CEPI, were participating in the project and disseminating information to various groups. The project has been structured in 5 workpackages. Project was carried out by 16 partners, which are the key national bioenergy organisations in the European countries and have a long co-operation relationship in previous bioenergy networks. The project has published summary reports and national report of each WP and this report is

  7. The global nuclear fuel market - supply and demand 1995-2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keese, H.; Kidd, S.

    1996-01-01

    The findings and main conclusions of the 1996 supply and demand report of the Uranium Institute are summarised. The previous report was published in June 1994. In 1994 and 1995, world uranium production remained at a relatively depressed level, accounting for just over half reactor requirements only. Since mid 1995, however, some increase in production has occurred alongside rises in uranium spot market prices. This may indicate that supply is becoming tighter and indicate the end of the perception that supply availability is unlimited. Answers are attempted to the questions about the future which arise from this development. Nuclear power is first set in the context of the market for energy and for electricity in particular. The report then identifies key issues for the longer term future for nuclear power and considers various aspects of nuclear fuel supply and demand over the next 20 years. Three demand scenarios are explored. Even in the lower requirements case, the overall conclusion is that supply will only meet demand from 2002 onwards when all the projected new mine capacity is in place. Adequate supply is heavily dependent on other supply sources in the higher case scenarios. The market will need the entry of blended down high enriched uranium from dismantled weapons and an increased contribution from the reprocessing of spent fuel. Additional primary production is only likely if financial incentives are available and the regulatory framework permits. Finally, there is the possibility of re-enriching depleted uranium. (9 figures). (UK)

  8. Analysis of H2 storage needs for early market non-motive fuel cell applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Terry Alan; Moreno, Marcina; Arienti, Marco; Pratt, Joseph William; Shaw, Leo; Klebanoff, Leonard E.

    2012-03-01

    Hydrogen fuel cells can potentially reduce greenhouse gas emissions and the United States dependence on foreign oil, but issues with hydrogen storage are impeding their widespread use. To help overcome these challenges, this study analyzes opportunities for their near-term deployment in five categories of non-motive equipment: portable power, construction equipment, airport ground support equipment, telecom backup power, and man-portable power and personal electronics. To this end, researchers engaged end users, equipment manufacturers, and technical experts via workshops, interviews, and electronic means, and then compiled these data into meaningful and realistic requirements for hydrogen storage in specific target applications. In addition to developing these requirements, end-user benefits (e.g., low noise and emissions, high efficiency, potentially lower maintenance costs) and concerns (e.g., capital cost, hydrogen availability) of hydrogen fuel cells in these applications were identified. Market data show potential deployments vary with application from hundreds to hundreds of thousands of units.

  9. Gas Turbine High Temperature Gas (Helium) Reactor Using Pebble Bed Fuel Derived from Spent Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, Quentin

    2013-01-01

    Project goals: Build on the $1B investment spent during the NGNP Project for the only true Inherently Safe Small Modular Reactor Design – the only SMR design that can make this claim due to negative temperature coefficient of reactivity - no containment required – less construction cost. NPMC in Partnership with Pebble Bed Modular Group, a fully owned subsidiary of Eskom, RSA to Factory Build Complete Plant in Modular Sections at Factory Site in Oswego, NY for transport to site by rail or shipping for world wide export. NPMC will provide Project and Construction Management of all new builds from plant sites through construction, commissioning and startup using local labor. License and Construct ion of spent fuel processing facility in both NY and South Africa using Proven Technology. Ultimate goals of project: 1. Award of the 2013 US DOE Innovative SMR $452M cost share grant for US NRC License Certification 2.Build Full Scale Demonstration Plant at Koeburg, RSA with World Bank Funding managed by NPMC in collaboration with our legal firm, Haynes and Boone LLP 3. Take Plant Orders Immediately (10% Down Payment) 4. Form Strategic Alliance with Domestic and/or International Utility

  10. Steam gasification of tyre waste, poplar, and refuse-derived fuel: A comparative analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvagno, S.; Casciaro, G.; Casu, S.; Martino, M.; Mingazzini, C.; Russo, A.; Portofino, S.

    2009-01-01

    In the field of waste management, thermal disposal is a treatment option able to recover resources from 'end of life' products. Pyrolysis and gasification are emerging thermal treatments that work under less drastic conditions in comparison with classic direct combustion, providing for reduced gaseous emissions of heavy metals. Moreover, they allow better recovery efficiency since the process by-products can be used as fuels (gas, oils), for both conventional (classic engines and heaters) and high efficiency apparatus (gas turbines and fuel cells), or alternatively as chemical sources or as raw materials for other processes. This paper presents a comparative study of a steam gasification process applied to three different waste types (refuse-derived fuel, poplar wood and scrap tyres), with the aim of comparing the corresponding yields and product compositions and exploring the most valuable uses of the by-products

  11. Fuel mix diversification incentives in liberalized electricity markets: A Mean-Variance Portfolio theory approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roques, Fabien A.; Newbery, David M.; Nuttall, William J.

    2008-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations of gas, coal and nuclear plant investment returns are used as inputs of a Mean-Variance Portfolio optimization to identify optimal base load generation portfolios for large electricity generators in liberalized electricity markets. We study the impact of fuel, electricity, and CO 2 price risks and their degree of correlation on optimal plant portfolios. High degrees of correlation between gas and electricity prices - as observed in most European markets - reduce gas plant risks and make portfolios dominated by gas plant more attractive. Long-term power purchase contracts and/or a lower cost of capital can rebalance optimal portfolios towards more diversified portfolios with larger shares of nuclear and coal plants

  12. Fuel mix diversification incentives in liberalized electricity markets: A Mean-Variance Portfolio theory approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roques, F.A.; Newbery, D.M.; Nuffall, W.J. [University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom). Faculty of Economics

    2008-07-15

    Monte Carlo simulations of gas, coal and nuclear plant investment returns are used as inputs of a Mean-Variance Portfolio optimization to identify optimal base load generation portfolios for large electricity generators in liberalized electricity markets. We study the impact of fuel, electricity, and CO{sub 2} price risks and their degree of correlation on optimal plant portfolios. High degrees of correlation between gas and electricity prices - as observed in most European markets - reduce gas plant risks and make portfolios dominated by gas plant more attractive. Long-term power purchase contracts and/or a lower cost of capital can rebalance optimal portfolios towards more diversified portfolios with larger shares of nuclear and coal plants.

  13. Electroreduction of carbon monoxide to liquid fuel on oxide-derived nanocrystalline copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Christina W.; Ciston, Jim; Kanan, Matthew W.

    2014-04-01

    The electrochemical conversion of CO2 and H2O into liquid fuel is ideal for high-density renewable energy storage and could provide an incentive for CO2 capture. However, efficient electrocatalysts for reducing CO2 and its derivatives into a desirable fuel are not available at present. Although many catalysts can reduce CO2 to carbon monoxide (CO), liquid fuel synthesis requires that CO is reduced further, using H2O as a H+ source. Copper (Cu) is the only known material with an appreciable CO electroreduction activity, but in bulk form its efficiency and selectivity for liquid fuel are far too low for practical use. In particular, H2O reduction to H2 outcompetes CO reduction on Cu electrodes unless extreme overpotentials are applied, at which point gaseous hydrocarbons are the major CO reduction products. Here we show that nanocrystalline Cu prepared from Cu2O (`oxide-derived Cu') produces multi-carbon oxygenates (ethanol, acetate and n-propanol) with up to 57% Faraday efficiency at modest potentials (-0.25 volts to -0.5 volts versus the reversible hydrogen electrode) in CO-saturated alkaline H2O. By comparison, when prepared by traditional vapour condensation, Cu nanoparticles with an average crystallite size similar to that of oxide-derived copper produce nearly exclusive H2 (96% Faraday efficiency) under identical conditions. Our results demonstrate the ability to change the intrinsic catalytic properties of Cu for this notoriously difficult reaction by growing interconnected nanocrystallites from the constrained environment of an oxide lattice. The selectivity for oxygenates, with ethanol as the major product, demonstrates the feasibility of a two-step conversion of CO2 to liquid fuel that could be powered by renewable electricity.

  14. Energy recovery from municipal solid waste by refuse derived fuel production in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanaz Saheri; Noorezlin Ahmad Baseri; Masoud Aghajani Mir; Malmasi Saeed

    2010-01-01

    Energy recovery from municipal solid waste (MSW) is so beneficial both for the energy and for the positive environmental implications. Mainly related to the saving of primary energy derived from fossil fuel. Malaysia as a fast growing population country has the average amount of municipal solid waste (MSW) generated around 0.5-0.8 kg/person/day and it has been increased to 1.7 kg/person/day in major cities. Regarding characterization exercise, the main parts of the Malaysian MSW were found to be food, paper and plastic, which made up almost 80 % of the waste by weight. Furthermore, the average moisture content of the MSW was about 55 %, making incineration a challenging mission. In addition waste sectors in Malaysia contributes to 1.3 million ton of CH 4 compare to total CH 4 emission which is 2.2 MT. In order to overcome waste problem considering other technical, environmental and economical methods seems to be necessarily. Resource recovery centers recovers the maximum proportion of recyclable and recoverable resources from the mixed municipal solid waste .The resource recovery process itself is one of the step-by-step segregation and elimination of all non-combustibles , and separation of the combustibles in the desired form of fuel for good combustion. Then, a further mechanical separation process converts combustible materials to refuse derived fuel (RDF) with moisture content between 20 and 30 % and an average calorific fuel value of about 3450 kcal/kg. So, the aim of this paper is taking into account resource recovery from waste using refuse derived fuel as a secondary resource with regarding advantages and disadvantages of this kind of energy production in Malaysia as a developing country. (author)

  15. Voluntary Truck and Bus Fuel-Economy-Program marketing plan. Final technical report, September 29, 1980-January 29, 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-01

    The aim of the program is to improve the utilization of fuel by commercial trucks and buses by updating and implementing specific approaches for educating and monitoring the trucking industry on methods and means of conserving fuels. The following outlines the marketing plan projects: increase use of program logo by voluntary program members and others; solicit trade publication membership and support; brief Congressional delegations on fuel conservation efforts; increase voluntary program presence before trade groups; increase voluntary program presence at truck and trade shows; create a voluntary program display for use at trade shows and in other areas; review voluntary program graphics; increase voluntary program membership; and produce placemats carrying fuel conservation messages; produce a special edition of Fuel Economy News, emphasizing the driver's involvement in fuel conservation; produce posters carrying voluntary program fuel conservation message. Project objectives, activities, and results for each project are summarized.

  16. CO-COMBUSTION OF REFUSE DERIVED FUEL WITH COAL IN A FLUIDISED BED COMBUSTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. A. WAN AB KARIM GHANI

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Power generation from biomass is an attractive technology which utilizes municipal solid waste-based refused derived fuel. In order to explain the behavior of biomass-fired fluidized bed incinerator, biomass sources from refuse derived fuel was co-fired with coal in a 0.15 m diameter and 2.3 m high fluidized bed combustor. The combustion efficiency and carbon monoxide emissions were studied and compared with those from pure coal combustion. This study proved that the blending effect had increased the carbon combustion efficiency up to 12% as compared to single MSW-based RDF. Carbon monoxide levels fluctuated between 200-1600 ppm were observed when coal is added. It is evident from this research that efficient co-firing of biomass with coal can be achieved with minimum modification of existing coal-fired boilers.

  17. The integration of major fuel source markets in China. Evidence from panel cointegration tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Hengyun; Oxley, Les

    2010-01-01

    The paper tests for energy price co-movement in China over the 'new regime' as part of a strategy to test for the existence of a national energy market. Panel cointegration test statistics suggest that not all energy commodities are spatially homogenous in prices and the processes of energy price cointegration are different over time and over groups of fuels. The statistics demonstrate China's gradual, spatially partial and idiosyncratic energy reform process. Coal and electricity price series have co-moved since 2003, while the national panel cointegration test statistics suggest that gasoline and diesel price series have co-moved since 1997. Regional panel tests also show that there are apparently differences in the emergence of energy price co-movement. This suggests that regional energy markets have emerged in China. One of the important lessons of the research is that an energy market has, to some extent, already emerged in China and, as a consequence, energy prices are much less distorted than previously. If correct, this fact is of major global significance both in terms of future environmental effects and future trade and investment negotiations as China is seen internationally as a 'market driven economy'. (author)

  18. Economic analysis of direct hydrogen PEM fuel cells in three near-term markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahadevan, K.; Stone, H.; Judd, K.; Paul, D.

    2007-01-01

    Direct hydrogen polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (H-PEMFCs) offer several near-term opportunities including backup power applications in state and local agencies of emergency response; forklifts in high throughput distribution centers; and, airport ground support equipment. This paper presented an analysis of the market requirements for introducing H-PEMFCs successfully, as well as an analysis of the lifecycle costs of H-PEMFCs and competing alternatives in three near-term markets. It also used three scenarios as examples of the potential for market penetration of H-PEMFCs. For each of the three potential opportunities, the paper presented the market requirements, a lifecycle cost analysis, and net present value of the lifecycle costs. A sensitivity analysis of the net present value of the lifecycle costs and of the average annual cost of owning and operating each of the H-PEMFC opportunities was also conducted. It was concluded that H-PEMFC-powered pallet trucks in high-productivity environments represented a promising early opportunity. However, the value of H-PEMFC-powered forklifts compared to existing alternatives was reduced for applications with lower hours of operation and declining labor rates. In addition, H-PEMFC-powered baggage tractors in airports were more expensive than battery-powered baggage tractors on a lifecycle cost basis. 9 tabs., 4 figs

  19. Market penetration analysis of fuel cell vehicles in Japan by using the energy system model MARKAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, Eiichi

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the present work is to validate the hydrogen energy roadmap of Japan by analyzing the market penetration of fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) and the effects of a carbon tax using an energy system model of Japan based on MARKAL. The results of the analysis show that a hydrogen FCV would not be cost competitive until 2050 without a more severe carbon tax than the government's planned 2400 JPY/t-C carbon tax. However, as the carbon tax rate increases, instead of conventional vehicles including the gasoline hybrid electric vehicle, hydrogen FCVs gain market penetration earlier and more. By assuming a more severe carbon tax rate, such as 10 000 JPY/t-C, the market share of hydrogen FCVs approaches the governmental goal. This suggests that cheaper vehicle cost and hydrogen cost than those targeted in the roadmap should be attained or subsidies to hydrogen FCV and hydrogen refueling station will be necessary for achieving the goal of earlier market penetration. (author)

  20. Nitrogen oxides from combustion of nitrogen-containing polymers in waste-derived fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zevenhoven, R.; Kilpinen, P.; Hupa, M.; Elomaa, M.

    2000-01-01

    Usually, waste-derived fuels present nitrogen-containing fractions, which produce nitrogen oxides (NO) during combustion. This study was mainly concerned with poly amides (PA) (nylon), poly urethanes (PU), urea formaldehyde (UF) glue, sewage sludge and refuse-derived fuels (RDF). For control purposes, the authors chose a Polish sub-bituminous coal and a Finnish pine wood sample. An almost inverse trend between fuel nitrogen content and NO emissions was revealed through analysis of NO emissions at 850 Celsius, 1 bar, 7 per cent O 2 in N 2 . It was not possible to derive a clear correlation to the amount of ash generated by the samples. PU foam decomposed through a two-step process, as suggested by thermochromatography, and PA6-containing samples yielded epsilon-caprolactam as a major decomposition product. Important decomposition products from PU, PA6, PA6/PE, sewage sludge and UF glue samples were greenhouse gases as demonstrated by pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. The work was carried out at Abo Akademi University and University of Helsinki, Finland. 5 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs

  1. From a fuel supplier to an active participant: Shell's view of the opportunities offered by a changing power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyhan, J.

    1998-01-01

    In the last 10 years, the power generation market has seen radical changes. The coming years will see yet more change. Although the pace of change may be uneven across Europe, it is clear that the old reference points for the power generation market are no longer valid. Along with other market players, Shell has re-evaluated the role it wishes to play in the power generation market. Although it has long operated large generation capacity on its own sites, Shell's role has been that of a fuel supplier to monopoly power generation and distribution organizations, which were largely state controlled . Privatization and liberalization have been followed by changing market structures tending to push risk towards the producer. This evolution presents challenges for the normal IPP structure, where market risk is transferred and offers an opportunity for the active participation of the fuel supplier in meeting these challenges. In 1996, Shell decided to embrace the changes in power generation market. Already, significant steps have been taken in markets in Asia, Latin America and in Europe. The differing requirements of each of these markets means there are no standard solutions and requires Shell to devise flexible frameworks which meet the customer's needs. Shell is bringing its significant strengths to the power generation market and looks forward to participating on a world wide scale in the industry at this exciting phase in its development

  2. Results of the production of wood derived fuels; Puupolttoaineiden tuotantotekniikka - tutkimusalueen katsaus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korpilahti, A. [Metsaeteho, Helsinki (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    During the year 1995 there were over 30 projects concerning the production of wood derived fuels going on. Nearly half of them focused on integrated production of pulp wood and wood fuel. About in ten projects work was carried out to promote wood fuel production from logging residues. Other topics were fire wood production, production logistics and wood fuel resources. For production of fuel chips from logging residues, a new chipper truck, MOHA-SISU, was introduced. Having ability to move on terrain, and equipped with drum chipper, hook technic for interchangeable containers and a trailer, the whole production chain can be carried out by the same machine. In Mikkeli region three years of active work promoted the usage of wood fuel in a district power plant to the level of over 110 000 cubic metres of fuel chips. The production costs tend to be a little high in average, and the production chain still needs to be improved. In the field of integrated production a great stride was taken when the first pilot plant using the MASSAHAKE-method started up. Components of the production line and knowledge to operate the process have increased resulting in good performance of the plant. And even another concept for integrated production was introduced. In order to fully control the debarking of small sized trees, a production line of chain flail equipment and debarking drum followed by a chipper and screening facilities was built up. Equipment and machines for harvesting young stands in a way that increases substantially the yield of energy component are still mostly first prototypes. The development of them into well functioning, efficient tools is the most important task in integrated production

  3. Results of the production of wood derived fuels; Puupolttoaineiden tuotantotekniikka - tutkimusalueen katsaus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korpilahti, A [Metsaeteho, Helsinki (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    During the year 1995 there were over 30 projects concerning the production of wood derived fuels going on. Nearly half of them focused on integrated production of pulp wood and wood fuel. About in ten projects work was carried out to promote wood fuel production from logging residues. Other topics were fire wood production, production logistics and wood fuel resources. For production of fuel chips from logging residues, a new chipper truck, MOHA-SISU, was introduced. Having ability to move on terrain, and equipped with drum chipper, hook technic for interchangeable containers and a trailer, the whole production chain can be carried out by the same machine. In Mikkeli region three years of active work promoted the usage of wood fuel in a district power plant to the level of over 110 000 cubic metres of fuel chips. The production costs tend to be a little high in average, and the production chain still needs to be improved. In the field of integrated production a great stride was taken when the first pilot plant using the MASSAHAKE-method started up. Components of the production line and knowledge to operate the process have increased resulting in good performance of the plant. And even another concept for integrated production was introduced. In order to fully control the debarking of small sized trees, a production line of chain flail equipment and debarking drum followed by a chipper and screening facilities was built up. Equipment and machines for harvesting young stands in a way that increases substantially the yield of energy component are still mostly first prototypes. The development of them into well functioning, efficient tools is the most important task in integrated production

  4. Analysis and modelling of the fuels european market; Analyse et modelisation des prix des produits petroliers combustibles en europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, V

    1999-04-01

    The research focus on the European fuel market prices referring to the Rotterdam and Genoa spot markets as well the German, Italian and French domestic markets. The thesis try to explain the impact of the London IPE future market on spot prices too. The mainstream research has demonstrated that co-integration seems to be the best theoretical approach to investigate the long run equilibrium relations. A particular attention will be devoted to the structural change in the econometric modelling on these equilibriums. A deep analysis of the main European petroleum products markets permit a better model specification concerning each of these markets. Further, we will test if any evidence of relations between spot and domestic prices could be confirmed. Finally, alternative scenarios will be depicted to forecast prices in the petroleum products markets. The objective is to observe the model reaction to changes crude oil prices. (author)

  5. The legalization of cannabis derivatives in Spain: Hypothesis on a potential emerging market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, Arturo; Gamella, Juan F; Parra, Iván

    2017-06-28

    First, this paper estimates the dimensions of the market for cannabis in Spain using data on the extent of consumption and the main patterns of use of consumers. Then the paper reviews the hypothetical production and distribution costs of these drugs in different production regimes under different legal conditions. The review shows that current prices of cannabis in the illegal market could be notably reduced if production and distribution of cannabis were decriminalized and even more if they were performed by legal enterprises. Thirdly, we examine the relationship between prices and consumption levels by analysing the price elasticity of demand. A fall in the prices of cannabis products will likely result in an increase in the number of users and in the total amount consumed. Lastly we consider several alternatives for the taxation of cannabis derivatives to counteract the likely fall in prices, and their pros and cons.

  6. Three Essays on Renewable Energy Policy and its Effects on Fossil Fuel Generation in Electricity Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Eric

    In this dissertation, I investigate the effectiveness of renewable policies and consider their impact on electricity markets. The common thread of this research is to understand how renewable policy incentivizes renewable generation and how the increasing share of generation from renewables affects generation from fossil fuels. This type of research is crucial for understanding whether policies to promote renewables are meeting their stated goals and what the unintended effects might be. To this end, I use econometric methods to examine how electricity markets are responding to an influx of renewable energy. My dissertation is composed of three interrelated essays. In Chapter 1, I employ recent scholarship in spatial econometrics to assess the spatial dependence of Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS), a prominent state-based renewable incentive. In Chapter 2, I explore the impact of the rapid rise in renewable generation on short-run generation from fossil fuels. And in Chapter 3, I assess the impact of renewable penetration on coal plant retirement decisions.

  7. Credit securitization and credit derivatives: Financial instruments and the credit risk management of middle market commercial loan portfolios

    OpenAIRE

    Henke, Sabine; Burghof, Hans-Peter; Rudolph, Bernd

    1998-01-01

    Banks increasingly recognize the need to measure and manage the credit risk of their loans on a portfolio basis. We address the subportfolio "middle market". Due to their specific lending policy for this market segment it is an important task for banks to systematically identify regional and industrial credit concentrations and reduce the detected concentrations through diversification. In recent years, the development of markets for credit securitization and credit derivatives has provided n...

  8. Characterization of pyrolytic oil obtained from pyrolysis of TDF (Tire Derived Fuel)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banar, Müfide; Akyıldız, Vildan; Özkan, Aysun; Çokaygil, Zerrin; Onay, Özlem

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We pyrolyzed Tire Derived Fuel (TDF) at different heating rates and temperatures. ► We determine convenient pyrolysis temperature for pyrolytic oil. ► The product can be used as fuel for combustion system in industry. ► TDF pyrolysis is advisable recycling system because of low hazardous constituents. - Abstract: In recent years, waste utilization before disposing to the land is the most important point about waste management. Due to the increasing emphasis on recycling, related to the two European Commission Directives (EC End of Life Vehicle Directive, EC Waste Landfill Directive) affecting the management of waste tires, there is interest in the development of alternative technologies for recycling waste tires. One of them is pyrolysis. For this purpose, a fixed bed reactor was used to pyrolysis of Tire Derived Fuel (TDF) at the temperatures of 350, 400, 450, 500, 550 and 600 °C with the heating rates of 5 and 35 °C/min. The maximum pyrolytic oil yield (38.8 wt.%) was obtained at 400 °C with 5 °C/min heating rate. The yield of pyrolytic oil decreased with increasing pyrolysis temperatures whereas the yield of gases increased. The fuel properties of the pyrolytic oil including higher heating value (HHV), elemental composition, flash point, viscosity, distillation and density were determined. Pyrolytic oil was characterized by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H NMR) and gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy (GC–MS) techniques and also, the amount of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs) and congener distribution characteristics were studied for determination of environmental effects. It was seen that the pyrolytic oils have similar fuel properties with the diesel. It was also found that pyrolytic oil contained 0.00118 I-TEQs/g at very low level. Finally, the pyrolytic oil can be evaluated for energy recovery according to Regulation

  9. Trading with energy derivatives in the U.S. electricity market : a NYMEX update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burke, L.

    1998-01-01

    This presentation provided a primer on futures and options trading, trading in energy derivatives and the role that NYMEX, the New York Mercantile Exchange plays in this area. Among many other concepts put and call options, the benefits of options, hedging, the characteristics of a hedge are defined, with an explanation of the significance and the application of these concepts in risk management. The nature of futures contracts for oil, natural gas and electricity, and the current status of the eastern and western electricity markets in the United States are also outlined. tabs., figs

  10. The oil market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amic, E.; Lautard, P.

    1999-01-01

    This chapter examines the structure of the oil industry and the impacts of the oil markets on the hedging strategies of the energy consumers, the oil company, and the energy derivatives' provider. An introduction to market perspectives is presented, and the hedging operations in the jet fuel market in the airline sector are discussed. Trading and risk management within an oil company, the derivatives provider, trading derivatives in a multi-dimensional world, locational risks, and the modelling of term structure and the role of storage are considered. Industrial spreads and the role of refining, future market developments and market strategies for crude oil and oil products, and marketing packages and market risk are addressed

  11. A preliminary evaluation of a combined tire- and refuse-derived fuel (TDF-RDF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stessel, R.I.; Amari, T.; Themelis, N.J.; Wearnick, I.K.

    1999-07-01

    In dense urban areas of the US, it is now becoming clear that waste management is far from economically-optimum. Even with the popularity of inexpensive land disposal, hauling and recycling costs are driving up the average waste bill. An historic option has been refuse-derived fuel, or RDF. Difficulties included low energy content and difficulty obtaining uniformity. Today, many resource-recovery technologies used in RDF are finding their way into materials recovery facilities (MRFs), some of which are reviving the automated processing of waste. Any MRF, automated or not, will have residue streams. Currently, one of the most significant problems is waste tires. Local options are difficult to locate in dense urban areas. As fuels, tires typically have energy contents considerably above those for which most solid-fuel combustors are designed, leading to thermal imbalances and various forms of failure. This paper suggests a new fuel that can be either co-fired with coal, or used in its own right in a combustor primarily designed for coal: TDF-RDF. A preliminary examination is undertaken of thermal and emissions characteristics, and possible costs for a few applications of the fuel. Immediately, TDF is already cleaner-burning than many coals, even in sulfur emissions. RDF has been widely-regarded as being similarly cleanly. Posited MRF residue streams should be still cleaner, and more consistent, than RDF. Overall, there is quite a potential for developing a fuel that would allow old coal powerplants in historic urban centers to be better neighbors, while helping with a few problems in municipal waste management.

  12. Biomass-derived Syngas Utilization for Fuels and Chemicals - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dayton, David C

    2010-03-24

    Executive Summary The growing gap between petroleum production and demand, mounting environmental concerns, and increasing fuel prices have stimulated intense interest in research and development (R&D) of alternative fuels, both synthetic and bio-derived. Currently, the most technically defined thermochemical route for producing alternative fuels from lignocellulosic biomass involves gasification/reforming of biomass to produce syngas (carbon monoxide [CO] + hydrogen [H2]), followed by syngas cleaning, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) or mixed alcohol synthesis, and some product upgrading via hydroprocessing or separation. A detailed techno-economic analysis of this type of process has recently been published [1] and it highlights the need for technical breakthroughs and technology demonstration for gas cleanup and fuel synthesis. The latter two technical barrier areas contribute 40% of the total thermochemical ethanol cost and 70% of the production cost, if feedstock costs are factored out. Developing and validating technologies that reduce the capital and operating costs of these unit operations will greatly reduce the risk for commercializing integrated biomass gasification/fuel synthesis processes for biofuel production. The objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate new catalysts and catalytic processes that can efficiently convert biomass-derived syngas into diesel fuel and C2-C4 alcohols. The goal is to improve the economics of the processes by improving the catalytic activity and product selectivity, which could lead to commercialization. The project was divided into 4 tasks: Task 1: Reactor Systems: Construction of three reactor systems was a project milestone. Construction of a fixed-bed microreactor (FBR), a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR), and a slurry bubble column reactor (SBCR) were completed to meet this milestone. Task 2: Iron Fischer-Tropsch (FT) Catalyst: An attrition resistant iron FT catalyst will be developed and tested

  13. Use of derivative instruments to integrate renewable energies into the electricity market; Einsatz derivativer Instrumente zur Integration erneuerbarer Energien in den Strommarkt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, Kilian [Hochschule Aschaffenburg (Germany). Fakultaet fuer Ingenieurwissenschaften; Nelles, Michael [Rostock Univ. (Germany). Agrar- und Umweltwissenschaftliche Fakultaet; Candra, Dodiek Ika

    2017-08-01

    The implementation of renewable energies to the electricity market is inefficient and expensive with current measures. Further these measures are prejudicial for the existing energy-only-market. The combination of fluctuating and controllable renewable powers in virtual power plants enables the marketing of this power as a derivate on the future market. Thus would relieve the spot market and stabilize pricing on both markets. Subsequently the renewable energy obligation will reduce and renewable energies could be marketed as secured power.

  14. ACQUISITION AS A GENERATOR STRATEGY FROM COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGES IN THE BRAZILIAN MARKET OF FUELS DISTRIBUITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Fernandes Pereira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The subject from this work is about acquisitions as organizational strategies and it is guided by the general objective on identifying if the acquisition of Texaco by Ultra Group, in Brazil, could generate competitive advantages. Thus, the main aim is to characterize, specifically, the fuel distribution sector in Brazil, presenting characteristics, strategies, classification of resources and the competitive advantage’s identification in the buying process of Texaco by Ultra Group. The methodology used for this research is a case study of qualitative nature. Data collection has been performed through literature review, documentary analysis and semi-structured interviews. In the analysis of collected data, specific objectives have been met. It was clear, therefore, the presence of features such as scale earnings, brand exposure, better management practices, synergies, tangible and intangible assets and market growth. So, those resources are classified according to the competitive implications. Then, it might be concluded that Texaco´s acquisition could bring competitive advantages for Ultra / Ipiranga Group. Respondents believe the sector is growing and businesses tend to grow despite the world crisis. They also confirmed that, in a highly competitive market, strategic alliances and market growing are factors that may ensure success to each company.

  15. Production and Optimization of Direct Coal Liquefaction derived Low Carbon-Footprint Transportation Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven Markovich

    2010-06-30

    This report summarizes works conducted under DOE Contract No. DE-FC26-05NT42448. The work scope was divided into two categories - (a) experimental program to pretreat and refine a coal derived syncrude sample to meet transportation fuels requirements; (b) system analysis of a commercial scale direct coal liquefaction facility. The coal syncrude was derived from a bituminous coal by Headwaters CTL, while the refining study was carried out under a subcontract to Axens North America. The system analysis included H{sub 2} production cost via six different options, conceptual process design, utilities requirements, CO{sub 2} emission and overall plant economy. As part of the system analysis, impact of various H{sub 2} production options was evaluated. For consistence the comparison was carried out using the DOE H2A model. However, assumptions in the model were updated using Headwaters database. Results of Tier 2 jet fuel specifications evaluation by the Fuels & Energy Branch, US Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL/RZPF) located at Wright Patterson Air Force Base (Ohio) are also discussed in this report.

  16. Performance effects of coal-derived contaminants on the carbonate fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pigeaud, A. [Energy Research Corp., Danbury, CT (United States); Wilemski, G. [Physical Sciences, Inc., Andover, MA (United States)

    1993-05-01

    Coal-derived contaminant studies have been pursued at ERC since the early 1980`s when the pace of carbonate fuel cell development began to markedly increase. Initial work was concerned with performance effects on laboratory and bench-scale carbonate fuel cells primarily due to sulfur compounds. Results have now also been obtained with respect to nine additional coal-gas contaminants, including volatile trace metal species. Thermochemical calculations, out-of-cell experiments, and cell performance as well as endurance testshave recently been conducted which have involved the following species: NH{sub 3}, H{sub 2}S [COS], HCl, AsH{sub 3}[As{sub 2}(v)], Zn(v), Pb(v), Cd(v), H{sub 2} Se, Hg(v), Sn(v). Employing thermochemically calculated results, thermogravimetric (TGA) and pre-, and post-test analytical data as well as fuel cell performance observations, it has been shown that there are four main mechanisms of contaminant interaction with the carbonate fuel cell. These have been formulated into performance models for six significant contaminant species, thus providing long-term endurance estimations.

  17. Performance effects of coal-derived contaminants on the carbonate fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pigeaud, A. (Energy Research Corp., Danbury, CT (United States)); Wilemski, G. (Physical Sciences, Inc., Andover, MA (United States))

    1993-01-01

    Coal-derived contaminant studies have been pursued at ERC since the early 1980's when the pace of carbonate fuel cell development began to markedly increase. Initial work was concerned with performance effects on laboratory and bench-scale carbonate fuel cells primarily due to sulfur compounds. Results have now also been obtained with respect to nine additional coal-gas contaminants, including volatile trace metal species. Thermochemical calculations, out-of-cell experiments, and cell performance as well as endurance testshave recently been conducted which have involved the following species: NH[sub 3], H[sub 2]S [COS], HCl, AsH[sub 3][As[sub 2](v)], Zn(v), Pb(v), Cd(v), H[sub 2] Se, Hg(v), Sn(v). Employing thermochemically calculated results, thermogravimetric (TGA) and pre-, and post-test analytical data as well as fuel cell performance observations, it has been shown that there are four main mechanisms of contaminant interaction with the carbonate fuel cell. These have been formulated into performance models for six significant contaminant species, thus providing long-term endurance estimations.

  18. Bio-derived fuels may ease the regeneration of diesel particulate traps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. Coda Zabetta; M. Hupa; S. Niemi [Aabo Akademi Process Chemistry Centre, Turku (Finland)

    2006-12-15

    Particulate is the most problematic emission from diesel engines. To comply with environmental regulations, these engines are often equipped with particulate traps, which must be regenerated frequently for the sake of efficiency. The regeneration is commonly achieved by rising the temperature in the trap till the particulate self-ignites. However, this method implies energy losses and thermal shocks in the trap. Alternatively, catalysts and additives have been recently considered for reducing the ignition temperature of particulate, but these techniques suffer from poisoning and undesirable byproducts. The present experimental study shows that the ignition temperature of particulate from seed-derived oils (SO) and from blends of SO with diesel fuel oil (DO) can be lower than that of particulate from neat DO. If substantiated by more extensive studies, such finding could have noteworthy implications on the future of fuels and traps. Short communication. 8 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. New approach to derive linear power/burnup history input for CANDU fuel codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lac Tang, T.; Richards, M.; Parent, G.

    2003-01-01

    The fuel element linear power / burnup history is a required input for the ELESTRES code in order to simulate CANDU fuel behavior during normal operating conditions and also to provide input for the accident analysis codes ELOCA and SOURCE. The purpose of this paper is to present a new approach to derive 'true', or at least more realistic linear power / burnup histories. Such an approach can be used to recreate any typical bundle power history if only a single pair of instantaneous values of bundle power and burnup, together with the position in the channel, are known. The histories obtained could be useful to perform more realistic simulations for safety analyses for cases where the reference (overpower) history is not appropriate. (author)

  20. Effects of furan derivatives and phenolic compounds on electricity generation in microbial fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catal, Tunc [Department of Biological and Ecological Engineering, Oregon State University, 116 Gilmore Hall, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Department of Wood Science and Engineering, Oregon State University, 102 97331, Corvallis, OR (United States); Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Istanbul Technical University, 34469-Maslak, Istanbul (Turkey); Fan, Yanzhen; Liu, Hong [Department of Biological and Ecological Engineering, Oregon State University, 116 Gilmore Hall, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Li, Kaichang [Department of Wood Science and Engineering, Oregon State University, 102 97331, Corvallis, OR (United States); Bermek, Hakan [Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Istanbul Technical University, 34469-Maslak, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2008-05-15

    Lignocellulosic biomass is an attractive fuel source for MFCs due to its renewable nature and ready availability. Furan derivatives and phenolic compounds could be potentially formed during the pre-treatment process of lignocellulosic biomass. In this study, voltage generation from these compounds and the effects of these compounds on voltage generation from glucose in air-cathode microbial fuel cells (MFCs) were examined. Except for 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (5-HMF), all the other compounds tested were unable to be utilized directly for electricity production in MFCs in the absence of other electron donors. One furan derivate, 5-HMF and two phenolic compounds, trans-cinnamic acid and 3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxy-cinnamic acid did not affect electricity generation from glucose at a concentration up to 10 mM. Four phenolic compounds, including syringaldeyhde, vanillin, trans-4-hydroxy-3-methoxy, and 4-hydroxy cinnamic acids inhibited electricity generation at concentrations above 5 mM. Other compounds, including 2-furaldehyde, benzyl alcohol and acetophenone, inhibited the electricity generation even at concentrations less than 0.2 mM. This study suggests that effective electricity generation from the hydrolysates of lignocellulosic biomass in MFCs may require the employment of the hydrolysis methods with low furan derivatives and phenolic compounds production, or the removal of some strong inhibitors prior to the MFC operation, or the improvement of bacterial tolerance against these compounds through the enrichment of new bacterial cultures or genetic modification of the bacterial strains. (author)

  1. Effects of furan derivatives and phenolic compounds on electricity generation in microbial fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catal, Tunc; Fan, Yanzhen; Li, Kaichang; Bermek, Hakan; Liu, Hong

    Lignocellulosic biomass is an attractive fuel source for MFCs due to its renewable nature and ready availability. Furan derivatives and phenolic compounds could be potentially formed during the pre-treatment process of lignocellulosic biomass. In this study, voltage generation from these compounds and the effects of these compounds on voltage generation from glucose in air-cathode microbial fuel cells (MFCs) were examined. Except for 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (5-HMF), all the other compounds tested were unable to be utilized directly for electricity production in MFCs in the absence of other electron donors. One furan derivate, 5-HMF and two phenolic compounds, trans-cinnamic acid and 3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxy-cinnamic acid did not affect electricity generation from glucose at a concentration up to 10 mM. Four phenolic compounds, including syringaldeyhde, vanillin, trans-4-hydroxy-3-methoxy, and 4-hydroxy cinnamic acids inhibited electricity generation at concentrations above 5 mM. Other compounds, including 2-furaldehyde, benzyl alcohol and acetophenone, inhibited the electricity generation even at concentrations less than 0.2 mM. This study suggests that effective electricity generation from the hydrolysates of lignocellulosic biomass in MFCs may require the employment of the hydrolysis methods with low furan derivatives and phenolic compounds production, or the removal of some strong inhibitors prior to the MFC operation, or the improvement of bacterial tolerance against these compounds through the enrichment of new bacterial cultures or genetic modification of the bacterial strains.

  2. Present supply and demand on the world uranium market and decision of the nuclear fuel cycle policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Luqing

    1994-01-01

    The present supply and demand relationship on the world uranium market due to the change of international situation in the last years is described and the falling price on the world uranium market is estimated. It is pointed out that the falling price would continue for a long time. Based on it the three different policy decisions on the back-end of nuclear fuel cycle are analysed

  3. Fluidized bed combustion of refuse-derived fuel in presence of protective coal ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrer, Eduardo [CIRCE, Universidad de Zaragoza, Maria de Luna, 3, Zaragoza (Spain); Aho, Martti [VTT Processes, P.O. Box 1603, 40101 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Silvennoinen, Jaani; Nurminen, Riku-Ville [Kvaerner Power, P.O.Box 109, FIN-33101 Tampere (Finland)

    2005-12-15

    Combustion of refuse-derived fuel (RDF) alone or together with other biomass leads to superheater fouling and corrosion in efficient power plants (with high steam values) due to vaporization and condensation of alkali chlorides. In this study, means were found to raise the portion of RDF to 40% enb without risk to boilers. This was done by co-firing RDF with coal and optimizing coal quality. Free aluminum silicate in coal captured alkalies from vaporized alkali chlorides preventing Cl condensation to superheaters. Strong fouling and corrosion were simultaneously averted. Results from 100 kW and 4 MW CFB reactors are reported. (author)

  4. Continuous-Flow Processes in Heterogeneously Catalyzed Transformations of Biomass Derivatives into Fuels and Chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio A. Romero

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Continuous flow chemical processes offer several advantages as compared to batch chemistries. These are particularly relevant in the case of heterogeneously catalyzed transformations of biomass-derived platform molecules into valuable chemicals and fuels. This work is aimed to provide an overview of key continuous flow processes developed to date dealing with a series of transformations of platform chemicals including alcohols, furanics, organic acids and polyols using a wide range of heterogeneous catalysts based on supported metals, solid acids and bifunctional (metal + acidic materials.

  5. Performance Analysis of Cofiring Densified Refuse Derived Fuel in a Military Boiler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-01

    Use of Waste Oils to Improve Densified Refuse-Derived Fuel 79 Study of the State of the Art of Dioxin from Corbustion Sour ,-es 81 Numerical...very large hammermills for shredu-,nt ii -et re C strean . Tne suitability of this technique has beer . : , 1:d aeauie of its undesirable proper- ,V.>- ir...oe iut- fraction while reducing the hrsepower requiie:: ,. ht uuty shredders have -c-en used as a pfre -. . :-r,der-s have not beer perfected wnich

  6. Production of wood derived fuels. Review of research projects; Puupolttoaineiden tuotantotekniikka. Tutkimusalueen katsaus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korpilahti, A [Metsaeteho Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    The research and development work was very active on the area of wood derived fuels during the past year 1996. Totally some 40 projects were going on, and till the end of the year about 15 projects were completed. The projects broadly covered the research area focusing from material flows, productivity studies, basic wood properties to several case studies. When new production methods and machinery was introduced earlier by demonstration projects, now they were investigated by follow up projects. The economical and quality results of logging residue harvesting and comminution seem quite satisfactory, but integrated methods and production chains still need research and development. (orig.)

  7. How to Avoid the Usual Price Rule on the Fuel Market in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Semerád

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with value added tax evasions on the fuel market in the Czech Republic. This commodity is used in carousel fraud. In the chains of taxpayers there are missing traders who fail to meet their tax obligations. Their business strategy is based on quick sales at unusually low prices which do not allow honest parties to compete. Tax administrators should focus on unusual prices which constitute a higher probability of tax evasions. This paper aims to verify whether or not there are ways to evade the measure, focusing specifically on applying methods which could help achieve lower sales prices while avoiding the possibility to require unpaid tax from the recipients of taxable supply. The weaknesses thus found are described and demonstrated in more detail in the paper. During a research some ways were found which could be used for avoiding this specific measure. Methods of Cash Back and Free Shipping were identified and described.

  8. Current status of hybrid, battery and fuel cell electric vehicles: From electrochemistry to market prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollet, Bruno G.; Staffell, Iain; Shang, Jin Lei

    2012-01-01

    Decarbonising transport is proving to be one of today's major challenges for the global automotive industry due to many factors such as the increase in greenhouse gas and particulate emissions affecting not only the climate but also humans, the increase in pollution, rapid oil depletion, issues with energy security and dependency from foreign sources and population growth. For more than a century, our society has been dependent upon oil, and major breakthroughs in low- and ultra-low carbon technologies and vehicles are urgently required. This review paper highlights the current status of hybrid, battery and fuel cell electric vehicles from an electrochemical and market point of view. The review paper also discusses the advantages and disadvantages of using each technology in the automotive industry and the impact of these technologies on consumers.

  9. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caroline E. Burgess Clifford; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2007-03-17

    hydrodesulfurization. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Combustion and characterization of the latest fuel oil (the high temperature fraction of RCO from the latest modification) indicates that the fraction is heavier than a No. 6 fuel oil. Combustion efficiency on our research boiler is {approx}63% for the heavy RCO fraction, lower than the combustion performance for previous co-coking fuel oils and No. 6 fuel oil. Emission testing indicates that the coal derived material has more trace metals related to coal than petroleum, as seen in previous runs. An additional coal has been procured and is being processed for the next series of delayed co-coking runs. The co-coking of the runs with the new coal have begun, with the coke yield similar to previous runs, but the gas yield is lower and the liquid yield is higher. Characterization of the products continues. Work continues on characterization of liquids and solids from co-coking of hydrotreated decant oils; liquid yields include more saturated and hydro- aromatics, while the coke quality varies depending on the conditions used. Pitch material is being generated from the heavy fraction of co-coking.

  10. Enabling the Distributed Generation Market of High Temperature Fuel Cell and Absorption Chiller Systems to Support Critical and Commercial Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMola, Ashley M.

    Buildings account for over 18% of the world's anthropogenic Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions. As a result, a technology that can offset GHG emissions associated with buildings has the potential to save over 9 Giga-tons of GHG emissions per year. High temperature fuel cell and absorption chiller (HTFC/AC) technology offers a relatively low-carbon option for meeting cooling and electric loads for buildings while producing almost no criteria pollutants. GHG emissions in the state of California would decrease by 7.48 million metric tons per year if every commercial building in the State used HTFC/AC technology to meet its power and cooling requirements. In order to realize the benefits of HTFC/AC technology on a wide scale, the distributed generation market needs to be exposed to the technology and informed of its economic viability and real-world potential. This work characterizes the economics associated with HTFC/AC technology using select scenarios that are representative of realistic applications. The financial impacts of various input factors are evaluated and the HTFC/AC simulations are compared to the economics of traditional building utilities. It is shown that, in addition to the emissions reductions derived from the systems, HTFC/AC technology is financially preferable in all of the scenarios evaluated. This work also presents the design of a showcase environment, centered on a beta-test application, that presents (1) system operating data gathered using a custom data acquisition module, and (2) HTFC/AC technology in a clear and approachable manner in order to serve the target audience of market stakeholders.

  11. Sustainable Energy Consumption in Northeast Asia: A Case from China’s Fuel Oil Futures Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The sustainable energy consumption in northeast Asia has a huge impact on regional stability and economic growth, which gives price volatility research in the energy market both theoretical value and practical application. We select China’s fuel oil futures market as a research subject and use recurrence interval analysis to investigate the price volatility pattern in different thresholds. We utilize the stretched exponential function to fit the pattern of the recurrence intervals of price fluctuations and find that the probability density functions of the recurrence intervals in different thresholds do not show the scaling behavior. Then the conditional probability density function and detrended fluctuation analysis prove that there is short-term and long-term correlation. Last, we use a hazard function to introduce the recurrence intervals into the (value at risk VaR calculation and establish a functional relationship between the mean recurrence interval and the threshold. Following this result, we also shed light on policy discussion for hedgers and government.

  12. Moderate temperature gas purification system: Application to high calorific coal-derived fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, M.; Shirai, H.; Nunokawa, M. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Kanagawa (Japan)

    2008-01-15

    Simultaneous removal of dust, alkaline and alkaline-earth metals, halides and sulfur compounds is required to enlarge application of coal-derived gas to the high-temperature fuel cells and the fuel synthesis through chemical processing. Because high calorific fuel gas, such as oxygen-blown coal gas, has high carbon monoxide content, high-temperature (above 450{sup o}C) gas purification system is always subjected to the carbon deposition. We suggest moderate temperature (around 300{sup o}C) operation of the gas purification system to avoid the harmful disproportionation reaction and efficient removal of the various contaminants. Because the reaction rate is predominant to the performance of contaminant removal in the moderate temperature gas purification system, we evaluated the chemical removal processes; performance of the removal processes for halides and sulfur compounds was experimentally evaluated. The halide removal process with sodium aluminate sorbent had potential performance at around 300{sup o}C. The sulfur removal process with zinc ferrite sorbent was also applicable to the temperature range, though the reaction kinetics of the sorbent is essential to be approved.

  13. Moderate temperature gas purification system: application to high calorific coal derived fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Kobayashi; H. Shirai; M. Nunokawa [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI), Kanagawa (Japan)

    2005-07-01

    Simultaneous removal of dust, alkaline and alkaline-earth metals, halides and sulfur compounds is required to enlarge application of coal-derived gas to the high temperature fuel cells and the fuel synthesis through chemical processing. Because high calorific fuel gas, such as oxygen-blown coal gas, has high carbon monoxide content, high temperature gas purification system is always subjected to the carbon deposition and slippage of contaminant of high vapor pressure. It was suggested that moderate temperature operation of the gas purification system is applied to avoid the harmful disproportionation reaction and efficient removal of the various contaminants. To establish the moderate temperature gas purification system, the chemical-removal processes where the reaction rate is predominant to the performance of contaminant removal should be evaluated. Performance of the removal processes for halides and sulfur compounds were experimentally evaluated. The halide removal process with sodium based sorbent had potential good performance at around 300{sup o}C. The sulfur removal process was also applicable to the temperature range, although the improvement of the sulfidation reaction rate is considered to be essential. 11 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Synthesis of high density aviation fuel with cyclopentanol derived from lignocellulose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Xueru; Li, Ning; Li, Guangyi; Wang, Wentao; Yang, Jinfan; Cong, Yu; Wang, Aiqin; Wang, Xiaodong; Zhang, Tao

    2015-03-01

    For the first time, renewable high density aviation fuels were synthesized at high overall yield (95.6%) by the Guerbet reaction of cyclopentanol which can be derived from lignocellulose, followed by the hydrodeoxygenation (HDO). The solvent-free Guerbet reaction of cyclopentanol was carried out under the co-catalysis of solid bases and Raney metals. Among the investigated catalyst systems, the combinations of magnesium-aluminium hydrotalcite (MgAl-HT) and Raney Ni (or Raney Co) exhibited the best performances. Over them, high carbon yield (96.7%) of C10 and C15 oxygenates was achieved. The Guerbet reaction products were further hydrodeoxygenated to bi(cyclopentane) and tri(cyclopentane) over a series of Ni catalysts. These alkanes have high densities (0.86 g mL-1 and 0.91 g mL-1) and can be used as high density aviation fuels or additives to bio-jet fuel. Among the investigated HDO catalysts, the 35 wt.% Ni-SiO2-DP prepared by deposition-precipitation method exhibited the highest activity.

  15. Separation of harmful impurities from refuse derived fuels (RDF) by a fluidized bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, B; Mrotzek, A; Wirtz, S

    2014-02-01

    In firing systems of cement production plants and coal-fired power plants, regular fossil fuels are increasingly substituted by alternative fuels. Rising energy prices and ambitious CO2-reduction goals promote the use of alternative fuels as a significant contribution to efficient energy recovery. One possibility to protect energy resources are refuse-derived fuels (RDF), which are produced during the treatment of municipal solid, commercial and industrial waste. The waste fractions suitable for RDF have a high calorific value and are often not suitable for material recycling. With current treatment processes, RDF still contains components which impede the utilization in firing systems or limit the degree of substitution. The content of these undesired components may amount to 4 wt%. These, in most cases incombustible particles which consist of mineral, ceramic and metallic materials can cause damages in the conveying systems (e. g. rotary feeder) or result in contaminations of the products (e. g. cement, chalk). Up-to-date separation processes (sieve machine, magnet separator or air classifier) have individual weaknesses that could hamper a secure separation of these particles. This article describes a new technology for the separation of impurities from refuse derived fuels based on a rotating fluidized bed. In this concept a rotating motion of the particle bed is obtained by the tangential injection of the fluidization gas in a static geometry. The RDF-particles experience a centrifugal force which fluidized the bed radially. The technical principle allows tearing up of particle clusters to single particles. Radially inwards the vertical velocity is much lower thus particles of every description can fall down there. For the subsequent separation of the particles by form and density an additionally cone shaped plate was installed in the centre. Impurities have a higher density and a compact form compared to combustible particles and can be separated with a high

  16. Assessing the current Brazilian sugar cane industry and directing developments for maximum fossil fuel mitigation for the international petrochemical market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brehmer, B.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2009-01-01

    The EU proposes that 5.75% of the transportation fuels market consist of biofuels by 2010 and the USA proposes that all gasoline be blended with 10% bioethanol by 2012. While these targets have not yet been reached, an aura of critique is emerging, arguing that biofuel mandates are not sustainable.

  17. Mathematics, Pricing, Market Risk Management and Trading Strategies for Financial Derivatives (2/3)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Coffey, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Market Trading and Risk Management of Vanilla FX Options - Measures of Market Risk - Implied Volatility - FX Risk Reversals, FX Strangles - Valuation and Risk Calculations - Risk Management - Market Trading Strategies

  18. Sludge derived fuel technique of sewage sludge by oil vacuum evaporation drying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seokhwan; Lim, Byungran; Lee, Sookoo

    2010-01-01

    Sewage sludge contains high content of organic materials and its water content is also very high about 80% even after filtration process. Landfill as a sludge treatment methods can cause odor problem and leachate production which can derive the secondary contamination of soil and groundwater. The ocean dumping will be prohibited according to the London Convention and domestic stringent environmental regulation. Based on domestic agenda on organic sewage sludge treatment, the ocean disposal will be prohibited from 2012, thus alternative methods are demanded. Sludge derived fuel (SDF) technology can alleviate the emission of greenhouse gas and recover energy from sludge. For proper treatment and SDF production from sludge, the vacuum evaporation and immersion frying technology was adopted in this research. This technology dries moisture in sludge after mixing with oil such as Bunker C oil, waste oil or waste food oil etc. Mixing sludge and oil secures liquidity of organic sludge to facilitate handling throughout the drying process. The boiling temperature could be maintained low through vacuum condition in whole evaporation process. This study was performed to find the optimum operating temperature and pressure, the mixing ratio of sludge and oil. Finally, we could obtained SDF which moisture content was less than 5%, its heating value was over 4,500 kcal/ kg sludge. This heating value could satisfy the Korean Fuel Standard for the Recycle Products. Assessed from the perspective of energy balance and economic evaluation, this sludge drying system could be widely used for the effective sludge treatment and the production of SDF. (author)

  19. Direct Coal -to-Liquids (CTL) for Jet Fuel Using Biomass-Derived Solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chauhan, Satya P. [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Garbark, Daniel B. [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Taha, Rachid [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Peterson, Rick [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2017-09-30

    Battelle has demonstrated a novel and potentially breakthrough technology for a direct coal-to-liquids (CTL) process for producing jet fuel using biomass-derived coal solvents (bio-solvents). The Battelle process offers a significant reduction in capital and operating costs and a substantial reduction in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, without requiring carbon capture and storage (CCS). The results of the project are the advancement of three steps of the hybrid coal/biomass-to-jet fuel process to the technology readiness level (TRL) of 5. The project objectives were achieved over two phases. In Phase 1, all three major process steps were explored and refined at bench-scale, including: (1) biomass conversion to high hydrogen-donor bio-solvent; (2) coal dissolution in biomass-derived bio-solvent, without requiring molecular H2, to produce a synthetic crude (syncrude); and (3) two-stage catalytic hydrotreating/hydrogenation of syncrude to jet fuel and other distillates. In Phase 2, all three subsystems of the CTL process were scaled up to a pre-pilot scale, and an economic analysis was carried out. A total of over 40 bio-solvents were identified and prepared. The most unique attribute of Battelle’s bio-solvents is their ability to provide much-needed hydrogen to liquefy coal and thus increase its hydrogen content so much that the resulting syncrude is liquid at room temperature. Based on the laboratory-scale testing with bituminous coals from Ohio and West Virginia, a total of 12 novel bio-solvent met the goal of greater than 80% coal solubility, with 8 bio-solvents being as good as or better than a well-known but expensive hydrogen-donor solvent, tetralin. The Battelle CTL process was then scaled up to 1 ton/day (1TPD) at a pre-pilot facility operated in Morgantown, WV. These tests were conducted, in part, to produce enough material for syncrude-upgrading testing. To convert the Battelle-CTL syncrude into a form suitable as a blending stock for jet

  20. Final Project Closeout Report for Sprint Hydrogen Fuel Cell (HFC) Deployment Project in California, Gulf Coast and Eastern Seaboard Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenny, Kevin [Sprint, Reston, VA (United States); Bradley, Dwayne [Burns & McDonnell, Kansas City, MO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Sprint is one of the telecommunications industry leaders in the deployment of hydrogen fuel cell (HFC) systems to provide backup power for their mission critical wireless network facilities. With several hundred fuel cells commissioned in California, states in the gulf coast region, and along the upper eastern seaboard. A strong incentive for advancing the integration of fuel cells into the Sprint network came through the award of a Department of Energy (DOE) grant focused on Market Transformation activities for project (EE0000486). This grant was funded by the 2009 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). The funding provided by DOE ($7.295M) was allocated to support the installation of 260 new HFC systems, equipped with an on-site refillable Medium Pressure Hydrogen Storage Solution (MPHSS), as well as for the conversion of 21 low pressure hydrogen systems to the MPHSS, in hopes of reducing barriers to market acceptance.

  1. The making of a market. Supply- and demand-side perspectives on institutional innovation in Sweden's wood fuel use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This thesis documents and analyses the rapidly increasing wood fuel use in Sweden in five separate studies of prominent actors in the making of the wood fuel market. These studies report government policy, forest owners' incentives, and district heating companies' experiences. The development of wood fuel use is examined as a story of technological and institutional change initially prompted by government policy. The change has involved dedicated action among all of the actors, with the Swedish government initiating new policies, legislation, and information activities, with district heating companies investing in new technology and trading, and with forest owners making new decisions on forest management practices. Institutional change in the wood fuel sector, in other words, is the result of innovation on the part of the actors involved. The papers included in the study identify and analyse concerns of the actors involved in making the wood fuel market. Within the district heating sector, transaction costs, as measured by problems to trade perceived by managements, have decreased with learning. Transformation costs, due to technical problems, are not perceived to have followed this trend. Technical investments in heat production have a long technical life time and demand large investment costs. This in turn means long planning and decision periods. Investments are made for a number of company-specific reasons, perhaps most importantly simply to increase heat and/or electricity generation capacity. Policy instruments may tip a decision in favor of wood fuels, but they could not be the single parameter determining company investments. Two kinds of forest owners selling wood fuels were identified, a forest manager type who acts more on his/her own initiative, and another kind, who relies more on the advice of the traditional timber buyer. Forest owners selling wood fuels contemplating whether to sell wood fuels or not are strongly influenced by soil fertility

  2. The long way to a series product - Euphoric prognoses on the market launch of fuel cells damped

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmid, W.

    2002-01-01

    This article discusses the delays being encountered in the introduction of fuel cells into various application areas and the work that is still to be done before this technology breaks through into the market. The situation in the space-heating / decentralised power generation segment is examined, where a large amount of work still has to be done before such fuel cell units attain the status of everyday domestic appliances. The situation in the combined heat and power (CHP) segment in Germany is discussed, where local utilities are working together with fuel cell manufacturers within the framework of field trails of domestic fuel cell appliances. The setting-up of 'virtual power stations' - a network of remote-controlled distributed fuel-cell CHP units - is discussed and the chances for the success of applications for miniaturised fuel cells in consumer goods such as cameras and mobile telephones is examined. The situation in the automobile industry, where the introduction of fuel cell applications in vehicles is also suffering delays, is looked at. Also, the production of hydrogen for use in the fuel cells is examined

  3. Novel polybenzimidazole derivatives for high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Lixiang

    Recent advances have made polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) a leading alternative to internal combustion engines for both stationary and transportation applications. In particular, high temperature polymer electrolyte membranes operational above 120°C without humidification offer many advantages including fast electrode kinetics, high tolerance to fuel impurities and simple thermal and water management systems. A series of polybenzimidazole (PBI) derivatives including pyridine-based PBI (PPBI) and sulfonated PBI (SPBI) homopolymers and copolymers have been synthesized using polyphosphoric acid (PPA) as both solvent and polycondensation agent. High molecular weight PBI derivative polymers were obtained with well controlled backbone structures in terms of pyridine ring content, polymer backbone rigidity and degree of sulfonation. A novel process, termed the PPA process, has been developed to prepare phosphoric acid (PA) doped PBI membranes by direct-casting of the PPA polymerization solution without isolation or re-dissolution of the polymers. The subsequent hydrolysis of PPA to PA by moisture absorbed from the atmosphere usually induced a transition from the solution-like state to a gel-like state and produced PA doped PBI membranes with a desirable suite of physiochemical properties characterized by the PA doping levels, mechanical properties and proton conductivities. The effects of the polymer backbone structure on the polymer characteristics and membrane properties, i.e., the structure-property relationships of the PBI derivative polymers have been studied. The incorporation of additional basic nitrogen containing pyridine rings and sulfonic acid groups enhanced the polymer solubility in acid and dipolar solvents while retaining the inherently high thermal stability of the PBI heteroaromatic backbone. In particular, the degradation of the SPBI polymers with reasonable high molecular weights commenced above 450°C, notably higher than other

  4. Developing the market for natural gas and biogas as a vehicle fuel on a regional level (MADEGASCAR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emmerling, Bettina; Jellinek, Reinhard (Austrian Energy Agency (Austria)); Baumgartner, Birgit (Graz Energy Agency, Graz (Austria))

    2009-07-01

    Although natural gas as a car fuel is a more environmentally clean alternative to gasoline or diesel and gas is considerable cheaper and much safer than other fuels, costumers are still suspicious of alternative fuels and vehicles. The main reasons are a lack of awareness and information on the consumer side, as well as a low information and acceptance level among car dealers and service stations. Therefore the MADEGASCAR project directly addresses major barriers by specific actions. The project MADEGASCAR (Market development for gas driven cars including supply and distribution of biogas), co-funded by the Intelligent Energy Europe programme of the European commission, aims at developing the market for natural gas vehicles by addressing target groups at the demand side (private car owners, fleet managers) as well as strengthening the supply and distribution infrastructure for Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) and Natural Gas Vehicles (NGVs) municipalities, car dealers, owners of fuel stations, natural gas and biogas suppliers) in 10 participating partner countries. The Unique Selling Point of the MADEGASCAR project is deployment in several regional areas instead of sole basic research. Country specific action plans, which are developed and implemented in the project, will have direct impact on regional markets but also affect car manufacturers and national regulations, resulting in long term changes. The main ambition of the MADEGASCAR project is to increase the number of gas vehicles in the partner regions by 50%.

  5. Permitting a tire-derived fuel system : a case study : Lafarge's Bath Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cumming, R. [Lafarge North America, Herndon, VA (United States)

    2006-07-01

    Details of a proposed automated tire-derived fuel (TDF) system for an Ontario cement plant using mid-kiln technology were presented. The TDF system will replace approximately 20 per cent of the coal currently used by the cement plant. TDF is a proven technology that is gaining wider acceptance in both North America and Europe. Recent European Union (EU) rulings have placed energy recovery from waste high within the waste management hierarchy. In order to obtain a permit to operate the TDF system in Ontario, owners of the cement plant were obliged to hold preliminary engineering sessions in addition to informal sessions, comment periods and government reviews. The plant is required to meet emission and operational standards and the Industry Emission Reduction Program regardless of the fuel type it uses. Issues complicating the permitting process included the public perception that TDF will result in higher air emissions. However, statistics from other plants using TDF have demonstrated that TDF lowers nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions compared to coal NO{sub x} emissions, and using TDF may result in fewer uncontained tire fires that pollute the atmosphere. The cement plant will use an electrostatic precipitator that is currently seen as the best available technology for controlling TDF emissions. Continuous emission monitoring will take place, and stack testing will be required when introducing alternative fuels. In order to engage with the public, the cement plant has promised to have a live, public display of emission levels, and has agreed to be monitored by a citizen's watch committee. A 2 year demonstration period will be established once TDF has been introduced, and annual reporting requirements will be fulfilled. It was concluded that the cement plant's emission standards will be stricter than any other cement plant in Ontario when TDF is introduced. refs., tabs., figs.

  6. Commercializing fuel cells: managing risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Peter B.

    Commercialization of fuel cells, like any other product, entails both financial and technical risks. Most of the fuel cell literature has focussed upon technical risks, however, the most significant risks during commercialization may well be associated with the financial funding requirements of this process. Successful commercialization requires an integrated management of these risks. Like any developing technology, fuel cells face the typical 'Catch-22' of commercialization: "to enter the market, the production costs must come down, however, to lower these costs, the cumulative production must be greatly increased, i.e. significant market penetration must occur". Unless explicit steps are taken to address this dilemma, fuel cell commercialization will remain slow and require large subsidies for market entry. To successfully address this commercialization dilemma, it is necessary to follow a market-driven commercialization strategy that identifies high-value entry markets while minimizing the financial and technical risks of market entry. The financial and technical risks of fuel cell commercialization are minimized, both for vendors and end-users, with the initial market entry of small-scale systems into high-value stationary applications. Small-scale systems, in the order of 1-40 kW, benefit from economies of production — as opposed to economies to scale — to attain rapid cost reductions from production learning and continuous technological innovation. These capital costs reductions will accelerate their commercialization through market pull as the fuel cell systems become progressively more viable, starting with various high-value stationary and, eventually, for high-volume mobile applications. To facilitate market penetration via market pull, fuel cell systems must meet market-derived economic and technical specifications and be compatible with existing market and fuels infrastructures. Compatibility with the fuels infrastructure is facilitated by a

  7. Refuse-derived fuel as a secondary energy in Taiwan - Using Hotelling space allocation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwodong Wey; Sheueching Hong

    2006-01-01

    Most Taiwanese farmers usually blend rice straws into the soil after harvest. However, rice straws possess great thermal energy, which can be used to produce refuse-derived fuel (RDF-5). As Taiwan faces energy shortage, the development benefits of the RDF-5 industry are tempting. This study employs the Hotelling model to design the locations and the optimal numbers of RDF-5 plants. From the technology and material supply point of view, turning waste rice straws into RDF-5 is feasible in Taiwan. Nevertheless, from the business operation perspective, even if the RDF-5 plant is willing to lower its profit rate, its selling price is still hard to compete with imported RDF-5. If the Taiwanese government decides to pursue RDF-5 as an alternative energy, they might need to take a step further to subsidize entrepreneurs or provide appropriate tax benefits. Otherwise, the RDF-5 industry is hard to survive in Taiwan. (Author)

  8. Effect of hydrothermal treatment temperature on the properties of sewage sludge derived solid fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Yan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available High moisture content along with poor dewaterability are the main challenges for sewage sludge treatment and utilization. In this study, the effect of hydrothermal treatment at various temperature (120-200 ˚C on the properties of sewage sludge derived solid fuel was investigated in the terms of mechanical dewatering character, drying character, calorific value and heavy metal distribution. Hydrothermal treatment (HT followed by dewatering process significantly reduced moisture content and improved calorific value of sewage sludge with the optimum condition obtained at 140˚C. No significant alteration of drying characteristic was produced by HT. Heavy metal enrichment in solid particle was found after HT that highlighted the importance of further study regarding heavy metal behavior during combustion. However, it also implied the potential application of HT on sewage sludge for heavy metal removal from wastewater.

  9. Activated carbon derived from chitosan as air cathode catalyst for high performance in microbial fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Zhao, Yong; Li, Kexun; Wang, Zhong; Tian, Pei; Liu, Di; Yang, Tingting; Wang, Junjie

    2018-02-01

    Chitosan with rich of nitrogen is used as carbon precursor to synthesis activated carbon through directly heating method in this study. The obtained carbon is activated by different amount of KOH at different temperatures, and then prepared as air cathodes for microbial fuel cells. Carbon sample treated with double amount of KOH at 850 °C exhibits maximum power density (1435 ± 46 mW m-2), 1.01 times improved, which ascribes to the highest total surface area, moderate micropore and mesoporous structure and the introduction of nitrogen. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and powder resistivity state that carbon treated with double amount of KOH at 850 °C possesses lower resistance. The other electrochemical measurements demonstrate that the best kinetic activity make the above treated sample to show the best oxygen reduction reaction activity. Besides, the degree of graphitization of samples increases with the activated temperature increasing, which is tested by Raman. According to elemental analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, all chitosan samples are nitrogen-doped carbon, and high content nitrogen (pyridinic-N) improves the electrochemical activity of carbon treated with KOH at 850 °C. Thus, carbon materials derived from chitosan would be an optimized catalyst for oxygen reduction reaction in microbial fuel cell.

  10. Biological Production of a Hydrocarbon Fuel Intermediate Polyhydroxybutyrate (Phb) from a Process Relevant Lignocellulosic Derived Sugar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wei; Mohagheghi, Ali; Mittal, Ashutosh; Pilath, Heidi; Johnson, David K.

    2015-03-22

    PHAs are synthesized by many microorganisms to serve as intracellular carbon storage molecules. In some bacterial strains, PHB can account for up to 80% of cell mass. In addition to its application in the packaging sector, PHB also has great potential as an intermediate in the production of hydrocarbon fuels. PHB can be thermally depolymerized and decarboxylated to propene which can be upgraded to hydrocarbon fuels via commercial oligomerization technologies. In recent years a great effort has been made in bacterial production of PHB, yet the production cost of the polymer is still much higher than conventional petrochemical plastics. The high cost of PHB is because the cost of the substrates can account for as much as half of the total product cost in large scale fermentation. Thus searching for cheaper and better substrates is very necessary for PHB production. In this study, we demonstrate production of PHB by Cupriavidus necator from a process relevant lignocellulosic derived sugar stream, i.e., saccharified hydrolysate slurry from pretreated corn stover. Good cell growth was observed on slurry saccharified with advanced enzymes and 40~60% of PHB was accumulated in the cells. The mechanism of inhibition in the toxic hydrolysate generated by pretreatment and saccharification of biomass, will be discussed.

  11. Δ14C level of annual plants and fossil fuel derived CO2 distribution across different regions of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi, X.T.; Ding, X.F.; Fu, D.P.; Zhou, L.P.; Liu, K.X.

    2013-01-01

    The 14 C level in annual plants is a sensitive tracer for monitoring fossil fuel derived CO 2 in the atmosphere. Corn leave samples were selected from different regions of China, including high mountains in the Tibetan Plateau, grassland in Inner Mongolia, and inland and coastal cities during the summer of 2010. The 14 C/ 12 C ratio of the samples was measured with the NEC compact AMS system at the Institute of Heavy Ion Physics, Peking University. The fossil fuel derived CO 2 was estimated by comparing the measured Δ 14 C values of corn leave samples to background atmospheric Δ 14 C level. The influences of topography, meteorological conditions and carbon cycling processes on the fossil fuel derived CO 2 concentration are considered when interpreting the data. Our results show a clear association of the low Δ 14 C values with regions where human activities are intensive.

  12. Handbook for Small-Scale Densified Biomass Fuel (Pellets) Manufacturing for Local Markets.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folk, Richard L.; Govett, Robert L.

    1992-07-01

    Wood pellet manufacturing in the Intermountain West is a recently founded and rapidly expanding energy industry for small-scale producers. Within a three-year period, the total number of manufacturers in the region has increased from seven to twelve (Folk et al., 1988). Small-scale industry development is evolving because a supply of raw materials from small and some medium-sized primary and secondary wood processors that has been largely unused. For the residue producer considering pellet fuel manufacturing, the wastewood generated from primary products often carries a cost associated with residue disposal when methods at-e stockpiling, landfilling or incinerating. Regional processors use these methods for a variety of reasons, including the relatively small amounts of residue produced, residue form, mixed residue types, high transportation costs and lack of a local market, convenience and absence of regulation. Direct costs associated with residue disposal include the expenses required to own and operate residue handling equipment, costs for operating and maintaining a combustor and tipping fees charged to accept wood waste at public landfills. Economic and social costs related to environmental concerns may also be incurred to include local air and water quality degradation from open-air combustion and leachate movement into streams and drinking water.

  13. Opportunities for biomass-derived 'bio-oil' in European heat and power markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brammer, J.G.; Lauer, M.; Bridgwater, A.V.

    2006-01-01

    Bio-oil (biomass fast pyrolysis) systems for heat, power or CHP production are nearing demonstration status. Their commercial attractiveness will depend on many factors, and will vary with the application, the scale, and importantly the location and its associated economic and logistical factors. The objective of this work, carried out as part of an EC-ALTENER project, was to evaluate the opportunities for bio-oil in the heat and power markets of Europe. Bio-oil applications were compared with conventional (fossil) alternatives for the same heat and power duty. The evaluation was carried out by a quantitative assessment of the economic competitiveness of standard applications in 14 European countries. Location-specific data were collected, and combined with technology-specific data obtained from earlier work. A competitiveness factor (c F ) was derived which represents the total annual cost of a conventional alternative relative to a bio-oil application. The results showed a wide variation across Europe. A total of six countries had at least one bio-oil application which was economically competitive. Heat-only applications were found to be the most economically competitive, followed by CHP applications, with electricity-only applications only very rarely competitive. For a given technology, the larger the scale, the better the competitiveness

  14. Opportunities for biomass-derived 'bio-oil' in European heat and power markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brammer, J.G.; Bridgwater, A.V.

    2006-01-01

    Bio-oil (biomass fast pyrolysis) systems for heat, power or CHP production are nearing demonstration status. Their commercial attractiveness will depend on many factors, and will vary with the application, the scale, and importantly the location and its associated economic and logistical factors. The objective of this work, carried out as part of an EC-ALTENER project, was to evaluate the opportunities for bio-oil in the heat and power markets of Europe. Bio-oil applications were compared with conventional (fossil) alternatives for the same heat and power duty. The evaluation was carried out by a quantitative assessment of the economic competitiveness of standard applications in 14 European countries. Location-specific data were collected, and combined with technology-specific data obtained from earlier work. A competitiveness factor (c F ) was derived which represents the total annual cost of a conventional alternative relative to a bio-oil application. The results showed a wide variation across Europe. A total of six countries had at least one bio-oil application which was economically competitive. Heat-only applications were found to be the most economically competitive, followed by CHP applications, with electricity-only applications only very rarely competitive. For a given technology, the larger the scale, the better the competitiveness. (author)

  15. Physico-Chemical Characterizations of Sawdust-Derived Bio char as Potential Solid Fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Azlina Wan Ab Karim Ghani

    2014-01-01

    Characterization Malaysian rubber-wood sawdust derived bio char (MRWSB) produced in the fixed bed pyrolysis under different temperatures (450 to 850 degree Celsius) were studied for its applicability as a solid fuel. A range of analyses were carried out, including bio char oxidation reactivity , inorganic species, oxygen and hydrogen contents in the bio chars, release of heteroatoms in bio char as the gaseous product, and bio char structural evolution during pyrolysis process. The results show that the optimum temperature for carbonization to obtain a char having moderately high yield was found as 450 degree Celsius. Thermogravimetric analyses (TG) shows that temperatures induces a progressively more ordered carbonaceous structure and leads to a significant changes in the bio char reactivity. The process is coupled with the loss of heteroatoms, released as dominantly carbon dioxide (C0 2 ) and carbon dioxide (CO). In addition, the elemental study of wood-derived bio char shows the higher carbon content but with low H/C and 0/C ratio suggested this material was dominated by highly aromatic structures and this were revealed in the Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR). More importantly, insignificant amount of inorganic species is evidenced in the samples. (author)

  16. Molecularly Engineered Azobenzene Derivatives for High Energy Density Solid-State Solar Thermal Fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Eugene N; Zhitomirsky, David; Han, Grace G D; Liu, Yun; Grossman, Jeffrey C

    2017-03-15

    Solar thermal fuels (STFs) harvest and store solar energy in a closed cycle system through conformational change of molecules and can release the energy in the form of heat on demand. With the aim of developing tunable and optimized STFs for solid-state applications, we designed three azobenzene derivatives functionalized with bulky aromatic groups (phenyl, biphenyl, and tert-butyl phenyl groups). In contrast to pristine azobenzene, which crystallizes and makes nonuniform films, the bulky azobenzene derivatives formed uniform amorphous films that can be charged and discharged with light and heat for many cycles. Thermal stability of the films, a critical metric for thermally triggerable STFs, was greatly increased by the bulky functionalization (up to 180 °C), and we were able to achieve record high energy density of 135 J/g for solid-state STFs, over a 30% improvement compared to previous solid-state reports. Furthermore, the chargeability in the solid state was improved, up to 80% charged from 40% charged in previous solid-state reports. Our results point toward molecular engineering as an effective method to increase energy storage in STFs, improve chargeability, and improve the thermal stability of the thin film.

  17. Fuel prices scenario generation based on a multivariate GARCH model for risk analysis in a wholesale electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batlle, C.; Barquin, J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a fuel prices scenario generator in the frame of a simulation tool developed to support risk analysis in a competitive electricity environment. The tool feeds different erogenous risk factors to a wholesale electricity market model to perform a statistical analysis of the results. As the different fuel series that are studied, such as the oil or gas ones, present stochastic volatility and strong correlation among them, a multivariate Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroskedastic (GARCH) model has been designed in order to allow the generation of future fuel prices paths. The model makes use of a decomposition method to simplify the consideration of the multidimensional conditional covariance. An example of its application with real data is also presented. (author)

  18. Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2010-01-01

    There is not enough marketing of dentistry; but there certainly is too much selling of poor quality service that is being passed off as dentistry. The marketing concept makes the patient and the patients' needs the ultimate criteria of marketing efforts. Myths and good practices for effective marketing that will promote oral health are described under the traditional four "Ps" categories of "product" (best dental care), "place" (availability), "promotion" (advertising and other forms of making patients aware of available services and how to use them), and "price" (the total cost to patients of receiving care).

  19. Predicting the calorific value of refuse derived fuel from the characteristics of municipal solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivapalan Kathiravale; Muhd Noor Muhd Yunus; Mohamad Puad Abu; Mohamad Azman Che Mat Isa; Mohd Fairus Abdul Farid; Norasalwa Zakaria; Khaironie Mohd Takip; Rohyiza Ba'an

    2006-01-01

    The Imposing need to manage the municipal solid waste generated by society in a proper manner has urged municipalities to look into new management methods, which are not only environmentally friendly but also economically profitable. One such way is by converting this waste material into fuel. Currently, Kajang in the State of Selangor, Malaysia, generates about 700 tons of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) a day. Due to rapid development, lack of land area for new landfill and the environmental impact of raw landfills, the local municipal council has collaborated with a local company in the management of this waste. The company has proposed to convert the MSW to Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF). In view of this, a pilot plant to convert MSW to RDF was erected by the company and begun operation in January 2002. This pilot plant has the capability of converting 15 tons of MSW to 5 tons of RDF. At the same time studies, have been carried out to assess the plant performance, the flue gas analysis, and also the MSW and RDF characteristic. This paper will highlight the findings of the MSW and RDF characterization work carried out over the past year. Sampling and analysis was carried in accordance with ASTM standards. Results of the waste analysis showed that the calorific value of the resulting RDF could be predicted from the physical characteristics as well as the moisture content. Regression analysis on the available data has been used to create equations relating the proximate composition and moisture content of the incoming municipal solid waste to the calorific value of the RDF

  20. A NEW METHOD FOR CHARACTERIZING THE KNOCK RESISTANCE OF LNG FUELS USED IN THE TRANSPORTATION MARKET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levinsky, Howard; Gersen, Sander; van Essen, Martijn; van Dijk, Gerco

    2014-01-01

    To ensure that the engines to be used in LNG-fueled vehicles are matched with the expected variations in fuel composition, the knock resistance of the fuel must be determined unambiguously. Rather than rely on empirical methods using gas mixtures and “standard” engines traditionally employed for

  1. High performance liquid chromatographic hydrocarbon group-type analyses of mid-distillates employing fuel-derived fractions as standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seng, G. T.; Otterson, D. A.

    1983-01-01

    Two high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) methods have been developed for the determination of saturates, olefins and aromatics in petroleum and shale derived mid-distillate fuels. In one method the fuel to be analyzed is reacted with sulfuric acid, to remove a substantial portion of the aromatics, which provides a reacted fuel fraction for use in group type quantitation. The second involves the removal of a substantial portion of the saturates fraction from the HPLC system to permit the determination of olefin concentrations as low as 0.3 volume percent, and to improve the accuracy and precision of olefins determinations. Each method was evaluated using model compound mixtures and real fuel samples.

  2. System and market study of bio-methane (SNG) from bio fuels; System- och marknadsstudie foer biometan (SNG) fraan biobraenslen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valleskog, Martin (CMV Konsult (Sweden)); Marbe, Aasa; Colmsjoe, Linda (Grontmij AB (Sweden))

    2008-07-01

    This study has examined whether the use of SNG produced from biofuels can constitute an alternative use for biofuel. Gasification technologies are studied: pressurized gasification with oxygen/steam, indirect gasification and hydrogen gasification. The objective of the project is to make a reasonable valuation of the production of SNG and through a market-study see if biofuel-based SNG can be an alternative to competing fuels. The report also discusses the supply and price of biofuels in Sweden. This use was 112 TWh in 2005 and assessed potential in year 2025 is 187 TWh. Biofuel prices show an upward trend and system of incentives affect the development of the biofuels market and price. The main incentives are electricity certificate system, energy and environmental taxes and emissions trading. Current energy and climate policies in Sweden and EU are expected to increase demand for biofuels and thus likely the prices. Increased volumes of waste tend to reduce pressure on the demand for biofuels generally. SNG is compared with natural gas and with other uses for biofuels and other competing fuels, depending on the application. The economic analysis has been conducted for three different cost levels in fuels and incentives, namely the year 2007, scenario in 2012 and scenario in 2020. The economics of SNG is evaluated for the three above-mentioned scenarios, both with respect to its cost of production, and in which market the SNG used (cogeneration, heating, industry and the automotive market). A sensitivity analysis has been conducted on the following parameters: fuel prices, electricity prices, the cost of emissions, taxes and investment. The results show that SNG is not a finished product available on the market today why additional support is required to make SNG competitive so that investment in production is stimulated. The production cost of SNG is between 380 - 410 SEK/MWh and necessary support is estimated to amount to 150 - 200 SEK/MWh on the basis of the

  3. Designing a Surrogate Fuel for Gas-to-Liquid Derived Diesel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choudhury, H. A.; Intikhab, S.; Kalakul, Sawitree

    2017-01-01

    loads, diesel fuel surpasses the total hydrocarbon (THC) emissions for both the surrogate and the GTL fuel. No significant variation in CO and CO2 emissions for MI-5, GTL diesel and conventional diesel is observed. Analysis of combustion as well as emission behavior of the fuels helps to understand...

  4. Energy and emission benefits of alternative transportation liquid fuels derived from switchgrass: a fuel life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, May; Wu, Ye; Wang, Michael

    2006-01-01

    We conducted a mobility chains, or well-to-wheels (WTW), analysis to assess the energy and emission benefits of cellulosic biomass for the U.S. transportation sector in the years 2015-2030. We estimated the life-cycle energy consumption and emissions associated with biofuel production and use in light-duty vehicle (LDV) technologies by using the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model. Analysis of biofuel production was based on ASPEN Plus model simulation of an advanced fermentation process to produce fuel ethanol/protein, a thermochemical process to produce Fischer-Tropsch diesel (FTD) and dimethyl ether (DME), and a combined heat and power plant to co-produce steam and electricity. Our study revealed that cellulosic biofuels as E85 (mixture of 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline by volume), FTD, and DME offer substantial savings in petroleum (66-93%) and fossil energy (65-88%) consumption on a per-mile basis. Decreased fossil fuel use translates to 82-87% reductions in greenhouse gas emissions across all unblended cellulosic biofuels. In urban areas, our study shows net reductions for almost all criteria pollutants, with the exception of carbon monoxide (unchanged), for each of the biofuel production option examined. Conventional and hybrid electric vehicles, when fueled with E85, could reduce total sulfur oxide (SO(x)) emissions to 39-43% of those generated by vehicles fueled with gasoline. By using bio-FTD and bio-DME in place of diesel, SO(x) emissions are reduced to 46-58% of those generated by diesel-fueled vehicles. Six different fuel production options were compared. This study strongly suggests that integrated heat and power co-generation by means of gas turbine combined cycle is a crucial factor in the energy savings and emission reductions.

  5. Re-evaluating neptunium in uranyl phases derived from corroded spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortner, J. A.; Finch, R. J.; Kropf, A. J.; Cunnane, J. C.; Chemical Engineering

    2004-01-01

    Interest in mechanisms that may control radioelement release from corroded commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) has been heightened by the selection of the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada as the repository for high-level nuclear waste in the United States. Neptunium is an important radionuclide in repository models owing to its relatively long half-life and its high aqueous mobility as neptunyl [Np(V)O+2]. The possibility of neptunium sequestration into uranyl alteration phases produced by corroding CSNF would suggest-a process for lowering neptunium concentration and subsequent migration from a geologic repository. However, there remains little experimental evidence that uranyl compounds will, in fact, serve as long-term host phases for the retention of neptunium under conditions expected in a deep geologic repository. To directly explore this possibility, we examined specimens of uranyl alteration phases derived from humid-air-corroded CSNF by X-ray absorption spectroscopy to better determine neptunium uptake in these phases. Although neptunium fluorescence was readily observed from as-received CSNF, it was not observed from the uranyl alteration rind. We establish upper limits for neptunium incorporation into CSNF alteration phases that are significantly below previously reported concentrations obtained by using electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). We attribute the discrepancy to a plural-scattering event that creates a spurious EELS peak at the neptunium-MV energy

  6. Libor and Swap Market Models for the Pricing of Interest Rate Derivatives : An Empirical Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, F.C.J.M.; Driessen, J.J.A.G.; Pelsser, A.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we empirically analyze and compare the Libor and Swap Market Models, developed by Brace, Gatarek, and Musiela (1997) and Jamshidian (1997), using paneldata on prices of US caplets and swaptions.A Libor Market Model can directly be calibrated to observed prices of caplets, whereas a

  7. Understanding complex dynamics in derivatives finance: why do options markets smile?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qiu, G.; Kandhai, D.; Johnson, N.F.; Sloot, P.M.A.

    2012-01-01

    The origin of the volatility smile phenomenon observed in options markets has eluded the financial world for more than two decades. We provide a new explanation of this phenomenon using a microscopic multi-agent description of markets. In our model individual trading behavior is explicitly included

  8. Deriving fuel-based emission factor thresholds to interpret heavy-duty vehicle roadside plume measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiros, David C; Smith, Jeremy D; Ham, Walter A; Robertson, William H; Huai, Tao; Ayala, Alberto; Hu, Shaohua

    2018-04-13

    Remote sensing devices have been used for decades to measure gaseous emissions from individual vehicles at the roadside. Systems have also been developed that entrain diluted exhaust and can also measure particulate matter (PM) emissions. In 2015, the California Air Resources Board (CARB) reported that 8% of in-field diesel particulate filters (DPF) on heavy-duty (HD) vehicles were malfunctioning and emitted about 70% of total diesel PM emissions from the DPF-equipped fleet. A new high-emitter problem in the heavy-duty vehicle fleet had emerged. Roadside exhaust plume measurements reflect a snapshot of real-world operation, typically lasting several seconds. In order to relate roadside plume measurements to laboratory emission tests, we analyzed carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), oxides of nitrogen (NO X ), and PM emissions collected from four HD vehicles during several driving cycles on a chassis dynamometer. We examined the fuel-based emission factors corresponding to possible exceedances of emission standards as a function of vehicle power. Our analysis suggests that a typical HD vehicle will exceed the model year (MY) 2010 emission standards (of 0.2 g NO X /bhp-hr and 0.01 g PM/bhp-hr) by three times when fuel-based emission factors are 9.3 g NO X /kg fuel and 0.11 g PM/kg using the roadside plume measurement approach. Reported limits correspond to 99% confidence levels, which were calculated using the detection uncertainty of emissions analyzers, accuracy of vehicle power calculations, and actual emissions variability of fixed operational parameters. The PM threshold was determined for acceleration events between 0.47 and 1.4 mph/sec only, and the NO X threshold was derived from measurements where aftertreatment temperature was above 200°C. Anticipating a growing interest in real-world driving emissions, widespread implementation of roadside exhaust plume measurements as a compliment to in-use vehicle programs may benefit from expanding this analysis to a larger

  9. One-step catalytic conversion of biomass-derived carbohydrates to liquid fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Ayusman; Yang, Weiran

    2014-03-18

    The invention relates to a method for manufacture of hydrocarbon fuels and oxygenated hydrocarbon fuels such as alkyl substituted tetrahydrofurans such as 2,5-dimethyltetrahydrofuran, 2-methyltetrahydrofuran, 5-methylfurfural and mixtures thereof. The method generally entails forming a mixture of reactants that includes carbonaceous material, water, a metal catalyst and an acid reacting that mixture in the presence of hydrogen. The reaction is performed at a temperature and for a time sufficient to produce a furan type hydrocarbon fuel. The process may be adapted to provide continuous manufacture of hydrocarbon fuels such as a furan type fuel.

  10. The importance of new delayed coking units in he fuel market; A importancia das novas unidade de coqueamento retardado no mercado de combustiveis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Fabricia S. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Programa de Recursos Humanos 13; Seidl, Peter R.; Guimaraes, Maria Jose O.C. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The increase in production of heavier oils and the recent changes in the demand for petroleum derivatives requires modifications in refining schemes of Brazilian refineries, which were originally projected for processing light oils and production of mainly gasoline by fluid catalytic cracking units. This is necessary because forecasts indicate a larger increase in demand for diesel oil instead of gasoline. These same forecasts reveal an expressive reduction in the demand for fuel oil, which still is produced in large amounts in Brazilian refineries due to the quality of the oils from local fields that are processed. The current challenge for the local oil industry is to adapt the present refineries to produce more valuable derivatives from heavy oils. For this purpose, PETROBRAS is investing in the construction of conversion units with technology for processing heavier feeds, especially in the Delayed Coking process. This work has as an objective to identify the importance of the delayed coke units in the current scenario of the oil industry, highlighting the main investments in construction of new units and evaluating the impact of the existing units on the market for petroleum derivatives. (author)

  11. Fossil Fuel-Derived Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Taiwan Strait, China, and Fluxes across the Air-Water Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ya, Miaolei; Xu, Li; Wu, Yuling; Li, Yongyu; Zhao, Songhe; Wang, Xinhong

    2018-06-14

    On the basis of the application of compound-specific radiocarbon analysis (CSRA) and air-water exchange models, the contributions of fossil fuel and biomass burning derived polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as well as their air-water transport were elucidated. The results showed that fossil fuel-derived PAHs (an average contribution of 89%) presented the net volatilization process at the air-water interface of the Taiwan Strait in summer. Net volatile fluxes of the dominant fluorene and phenanthrene (>58% of the total PAHs) were 27 ± 2.8 μg m -2 day -1 , significantly higher than the dry deposition fluxes (average 0.43 μg m -2 day -1 ). The Δ 14 C contents of selected PAHs (fluorene, phenanthrene plus anthracene, fluoranthene, and pyrene) determined by CSRA in the dissolved seawater ranged from -997 ± 4‰ to -873 ± 6‰, indicating that 89-100% (95 ± 4%) of PAHs were supplied by fossil fuels. The South China Sea warm current originating from the southwest China in summer (98%) and the Min-Zhe coastal current originating from the north China in winter (97%) input more fossil fuel PAHs than the Jiulong River estuary (90%) and Xiamen harbor water (93%). The more radioactive decayed 14 C of fluoranthene (a 4-ring PAH) than that of phenanthrene and anthracene (3-ring PAHs) represented a greater fossil fuel contribution to the former in dissolved seawater.

  12. EVALUATING THE DIFFUSION OF FUEL-CELL CARS IN THE CHINA MARKETS

    OpenAIRE

    RITS, Vincent; KYPREOS, Socrates; WOKAUN, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    Air pollution is a major problem in many of China's cities, with SO2, NOx and PM emissions exceeding World Health Organisation's air quality standards. The environmental (dis-) performance of Chinese vehicles contributes largely to this problem. The fuel-cell system represents a technology that could eliminate much of the local air-pollution problem. However, the chances of fuel-cell cars during the next decades are still highly questioned. In this research, the diffusion of fuel-cell cars...

  13. Well-to-wheel life cycle assessment of transportation fuels derived from different North American conventional crudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, Md. Mustafizur; Canter, Christina; Kumar, Amit

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Development of data-intensive bottom-up life cycle assessment model. • Quantification of well-to-wheel GHG emissions for five North American crudes. • Allocation of emissions to transportation fuels (gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel). • California’s Kern County heavy oil is the most GHG intensive of the crudes. - Abstract: A life cycle assessment (LCA) is an extremely useful tool to assess the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with all the stages of a crude oil’s life from well-to-wheel (WTW). All of the WTW life cycle stages of crude oil consume energy and produce significant amounts of GHG emissions. The present study attempts to quantify the WTW life cycle GHG emissions for transportation fuels derived from five North American conventional crudes through the development of an LCA model called FUNNEL-GHG-CCO (FUNdamental Engineering PrinciplEs-based ModeL for Estimation of GreenHouse Gases in Conventional Crude Oils). This model estimates GHG emissions from all the life cycle stages from recovery of crude to the combustion of transportation fuels in vehicle engines. The contribution of recovery emissions in the total WTW GHG emissions ranges from 3.12% for Mars crude to 24.25% for California’s Kern County heavy oil. The transportation of crude oil and refined fuel contributes only 0.44–1.73% of the total WTW life cycle GHG emissions, depending on the transportation methods and total distance transported. The GHG emissions for refining were calculated from the amount of energy use in the refining of crude oil to produce transportation fuels. All the upstream GHG emissions were allocated to gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel. Refining GHG emissions vary from 13.66–18.70 g-CO 2 eq/MJ-gasoline, 9.71–15.33 g-CO 2 eq/MJ-diesel, and 6.38–9.92 g-CO 2 eq/MJ-jet fuel derived from Alaska North Slope and California’s Kern County heavy oil, respectively. The total WTW life cycle GHG emissions range from 97.55 g-CO 2 eq

  14. Techno-Economic Analysis of Camelina-Derived Hydroprocessed Renewable Jet Fuel and its Implications on the Aviation Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shila, Jacob Joshua Howard

    Although the aviation industry contributes toward global economic growth via transportation of passengers and cargo, the increasing demand for air transportation causes concern due to the corresponding increase in aircraft engine exhaust emissions. Use of alternative fuels is one pathway that has been explored for reducing emissions in the aviation industry. Hydroprocessed renewable jet (HRJ) (also known as Hydroprocessed Esters and Fatty Acids - HEFA) fuels have been approved for blending with traditional jet fuel up to 50% by volume to be used as drop-in fuels. However, limited information exists on the economic viability of these fuels. While techno-economic studies have been conducted on the HRJ production process using soybean oil, different vegetable oils possess different hydrocarbon structures that affect the yield of HRJ fuels. This study involves the techno-economic analysis of producing Camelina-derived HRJ fuel using the option of hydro-deoxygenation (HDO). The hydrodeoxygenation option requires extra hydrogen and hence affects the overall cost of HRJ fuel production. Similar studies have been conducted on the production of Camelina-derived HRJ fuels using the same path of hydrodeoxygenation with minor contributions from both decarbonylation and decarboxylation reactions. This study, however, employs the UOP Honeywell procedure using the hydrodeoxygenation chemical reaction to estimate the breakeven price of Camelina-derived HRJ fuel. In addition, the study treats the cultivation of Camelina oilseeds, extraction of oilseeds, and the conversion of HRJ fuel as separate entities. The production of Camelina oilseed, Camelina oil, and finally Camelina-derived HRJ fuel is modeled in order to estimate the breakeven price of the fuel. In addition, the information obtained from the techno-economic analysis is used to assess the breakeven carbon price. All costs are analyzed based on 2016 US dollars. The breakeven price of Camelina oilseeds is found to be 228

  15. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caroline Clifford; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2008-03-31

    The final report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during length of the project. The goal of this project was to integrate coal into a refinery in order to produce coal-based jet fuel, with the major goal to examine the products other than jet fuel. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal-based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. The main goal of Task 1 was the production of coal-based jet fuel and other products that would need to be utilized in other fuels or for non-fuel sources, using known refining technology. The gasoline, diesel fuel, and fuel oil were tested in other aspects of the project. Light cycle oil (LCO) and refined chemical oil (RCO) were blended, hydrotreated to removed sulfur, and hydrogenated, then fractionated in the original production of jet fuel. Two main approaches, taken during the project period, varied where the fractionation took place, in order to preserve the life of catalysts used, which includes (1) fractionation of the hydrotreated blend to remove sulfur and nitrogen, followed by a hydrogenation step of the lighter fraction, and (2) fractionation of the LCO and RCO before any hydrotreatment. Task 2 involved assessment of the impact of refinery integration of JP-900 production on gasoline and diesel fuel. Fuel properties, ignition characteristics and engine combustion of model fuels and fuel samples from pilot-scale production runs were characterized. The model fuels used to represent the coal-based fuel streams were blended into full-boiling range fuels to simulate the mixing of fuel streams within the refinery to create potential 'finished' fuels. The representative compounds of the coal-based gasoline were cyclohexane and methyl cyclohexane, and for the coal-base diesel fuel they were fluorine and phenanthrene. Both the octane number (ON) of the coal-based gasoline and the cetane number (CN) of the coal-based diesel were low, relative to

  16. Technological growth of fuel efficiency in european automobile market 1975–2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Kejia; Chen, Yuche

    2016-01-01

    This paper looks at the technological growth of new car fleet fuel efficiency in the European Union between 1975 and 2015. According to the analysis results, from1975 to 2006 the fuel efficiency technology improvements were largely offset by vehicles' increased weight, engine size, and consumer amenities such as acceleration capacity. After 2006, downsizing in weight and engine capacity was observed in new car fleet, while fuel consumption decreased by 32% between 2006 and 2015. We adopt a statistical method and find that from 1975 to 2015, a 1% increase in weight would result in 0.3 to 0.5% increments in fuel consumption per 100 km, and a 1% reduction in 0–100 km/h acceleration time would increase fuel consumption by about 0.3%. Impacts of other attributes on fuel consumption are also assessed. To meet the European Union's 2021 fuel consumption target, downsizing of cars, as well as at least maintaining fuel efficiency technology growth trend observed between 2005 and 2015, are needed. Government policies on controlling improvement in acceleration performance or promoting alternative fuel vehicles are also important to achieve European Union 2021 target. - Highlights: • We evaluated fuel efficiency technological growth trends in European cars. • We quantified trade-offs between vehicle attributes and fuel consumption using statistical methods. • Technology development was offset by upsizing and upgrading of cars in 1975–2006. • Technology development and downsizing enabled large improvements in efficiency in 2006–2015. • Maintaining historical trend of efficiency improvement is not enough to achieve EU 2021 target.

  17. Emissions of Jatropha oil-derived biodiesel blend fuels during combustion in a swirl burner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norwazan, A. R.; Mohd. Jaafar, M. N.; Sapee, S.; Farouk, Hazir

    2018-03-01

    Experimental works on combustion of jatropha oil biodiesel blends of fuel with high swirling flow in swirl burner have been studied in various blends percentage. Jatropha oil biodiesel was produced using a two-step of esterification-transesterification process. The paper focuses on the emissions of biodiesel blends fuel using jatropha oil in lean through to rich air/fuel mixture combustion in swirl burner. The emissions performances were evaluated by using axial swirler amongst jatropha oil blends fuel including diesel fuel as baseline. The results show that the B25 has good emissions even though it has a higher emission of NOx than diesel fuel, while it emits as low as 42% of CO, 33% of SO2 and 50% of UHC emissions with high swirl number. These are due to the higher oxygen content in jatropha oil biodiesel.

  18. Exploring the role of marketing as a tool\\ud to aid smart meter adoption amongst fuel poverty\\ud and vulnerable groups

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, J; Rosborough, J

    2013-01-01

    This study is concerned with exploring the role of marketing as a tool to improve smart meter adoption amongst different fuel poverty groups. The traditional view of marketing is that it is a process by which people and firms get what they require and desire by generating and trading value with others (Kotler and Armstrong, 2010). Nonetheless, a more recent view of marketing is that it provides a vehicle to aid the achievement of a wide range of social goals. In this instance, fuel poverty an...

  19. Testing Efficiency of Derivative Markets: ISE30, ISE100, USD and EURO

    OpenAIRE

    Akal, Mustafa; Birgili, Erhan; Durmuskaya, Sedat

    2012-01-01

    This study attempts to develop new market efficiency tests depending on the spot and future prices, or the differences of them alternative to traditional unit root test build on univariate time series. As a result of the autocorrelation, normality and run tests applied to spot and futures prices or differences of them, and Adopted Purchasing Power Parity test based on a regression the future markets of ISE30, ISE100 index indicators, USD and Euro currencies, all of which have been traded dail...

  20. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caroline E. Burgess Clifford; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2006-05-17

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first six months of the third year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. Characterization of the gasoline fuel indicates a dominance of single ring alkylcycloalkanes that have a low octane rating; however, blends containing these compounds do not have a negative effect upon gasoline when blended in refinery gasoline streams. Characterization of the diesel fuel indicates a dominance of 3-ring aromatics that have a low cetane value; however, these compounds do not have a negative effect upon diesel when blended in refinery diesel streams. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Combustion and characterization of fuel oil indicates that the fuel is somewhere in between a No. 4 and a No. 6 fuel oil. Emission testing indicates the fuel burns similarly to these two fuels, but trace metals for the coal-based material are different than petroleum-based fuel oils. Co-coking studies using cleaned coal are highly reproducible in the pilot-scale delayed coker. Evaluation of the coke by Alcoa, Inc. indicated that while the coke produced is of very good quality, the metals content of the carbon is still high in iron and silica. Coke is being evaluated for other possible uses

  1. High-temperature gas reactor (HTGR) market assessment, synthetic fuels analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-08-01

    This study is an update of assessments made in TRW's October 1979 assessment of overall high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) markets in the future synfuels industry (1985 to 2020). Three additional synfuels processes were assessed. Revised synfuel production forecasts were used. General environmental impacts were assessed. Additional market barriers, such as labor and materials, were researched. Market share estimates were used to consider the percent of markets applicable to the reference HTGR size plant. Eleven HTGR plants under nominal conditions and two under pessimistic assumptions are estimated for selection by 2020. No new HTGR markets were identified in the three additional synfuels processes studied. This reduction in TRW's earlier estimate is a result of later availability of HTGR's (commercial operation in 2008) and delayed build up in the total synfuels estimated markets. Also, a latest date for HTGR capture of a synfuels market could not be established because total markets continue to grow through 2020. If the nominal HTGR synfuels market is realized, just under one million tons of sulfur dioxide effluents and just over one million tons of nitrous oxide effluents will be avoided by 2020. Major barriers to a large synfuels industry discussed in this study include labor, materials, financing, siting, and licensing. Use of the HTGR intensifies these barriers

  2. Diversification of the VVER fuel market in Eastern Europe and Ukraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirst, Michael [Westinghouse EMEA, Brussels (Belgium); Benjaminsson, Ulf; Oenneby, Carina [Westinghouse Electric Sweden AB, Vaesteraes (Sweden)

    2015-03-15

    There are a total of 33 VVER active reactors in the EU and Ukraine, accounting for the largest percentage of the total electricity supply in the countries operating these. The responsible governments and utilities operating these units want too see an increased diversification of the nuclear fuel supply. Westinghouse is the only nuclear fuel producer outside Russia, which has taken the major steps to develop, qualify and manufacture VVER fuel designs - both for VVER-440 and VVER-1000 reactors. The company has delivered reloads of VVER-440 fuel to Loviisa 2 in Finland, VVER-1000 fuel for both the initial core and follow-on regions to Temelin 1-2 in the Czech Republic and more recently reloads of VVER-1000 fuel to South Ukraine 2-3. Technical challenges in form of mechanical interference with the resident fuel have been encountered in Ukraine, but innovative solutions have been developed and successfully implemented and today Ukraine has, for the first time in its history, a viable VVER-1000 fuel design alternative, representing a tremendous lever in energy security for the country.

  3. Astrocytic glycogen-derived lactate fuels the brain during exhaustive exercise to maintain endurance capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Takashi; Omuro, Hideki; Liu, Yu-Fan; Soya, Mariko; Shima, Takeru; McEwen, Bruce S; Soya, Hideaki

    2017-06-13

    Brain glycogen stored in astrocytes provides lactate as an energy source to neurons through monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) to maintain neuronal functions such as hippocampus-regulated memory formation. Although prolonged exhaustive exercise decreases brain glycogen, the role of this decrease and lactate transport in the exercising brain remains less clear. Because muscle glycogen fuels exercising muscles, we hypothesized that astrocytic glycogen plays an energetic role in the prolonged-exercising brain to maintain endurance capacity through lactate transport. To test this hypothesis, we used a rat model of exhaustive exercise and capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry-based metabolomics to observe comprehensive energetics of the brain (cortex and hippocampus) and muscle (plantaris). At exhaustion, muscle glycogen was depleted but brain glycogen was only decreased. The levels of MCT2, which takes up lactate in neurons, increased in the brain, as did muscle MCTs. Metabolomics revealed that brain, but not muscle, ATP was maintained with lactate and other glycogenolytic/glycolytic sources. Intracerebroventricular injection of the glycogen phosphorylase inhibitor 1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-d-arabinitol did not affect peripheral glycemic conditions but suppressed brain lactate production and decreased hippocampal ATP levels at exhaustion. An MCT2 inhibitor, α-cyano-4-hydroxy-cinnamate, triggered a similar response that resulted in lower endurance capacity. These findings provide direct evidence for the energetic role of astrocytic glycogen-derived lactate in the exhaustive-exercising brain, implicating the significance of brain glycogen level in endurance capacity. Glycogen-maintained ATP in the brain is a possible defense mechanism for neurons in the exhausted brain.

  4. Supply guarantee initiatives for nuclear fuel materials and services and their compatibility with the market. Present discussions and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagano, Koji

    2008-01-01

    Under the weakening NPT (Non-Proliferation Treaty) regime, a number of proposals and initiatives for nuclear fuel supply assurance and guarantee mechanisms have been brought on the agenda of international discussions and negotiations. This report first discusses where and why those ideas came out, and then turn to the current situations of markets of nuclear fuel materials and services in terms of degree of market concentration to specific suppliers. Based on those observations, the author attempts to draw a comparison among the proposed schemes in order to examine possible steps for forward that pose least possible influences adverse to the individual markets and thereby could better attract possible recipient states' interests. The report suggests that those initiatives are classified in three types; a) physical assurance, i.e. specific nation(s) and/or entit(-y/-ies) prepare dedicated reserve of materials and/or service capacities for the purpose of supply assurance; b) collective assurance, i.e. a group of nations and/or entities collectively submit their excess materials and service capacities when assurance is activated; and c) financial measures. In view of their feasibility, a two-step approach might be found practical to implement and promote; i.e. 1) in a short-run, a 'soft' scheme which never interferes NPT signatories' right of peaceful development and use of nuclear power could be set and implemented, and 2) in a long-run, R and D efforts should be undertaken to create such a sufficient economic margin that potential recipient states may lose justification of self-development of nuclear fuel cycle technologies and businesses when compared with those services provided by foreign sources attached with a sufficient degree of supply assurances. (author)

  5. Co-firing a pressurized fluidized-bed combustion system with coal and refuse derived fuels and/or sludges. Task 16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeLallo, M.; Zaharchuk, R.

    1994-01-01

    The co-firing of waste materials with coal in utility scale power plants has emerged as an effective approach to produce energy and manage municipal waste. Leading this approach, the atmospheric fluidized-bed combustor (AFBC) has demonstrated its commercial acceptance in the utility market as a reliable source of power burning a variety of waste and alternative fuels. The fluidized bed, with its stability of combustion, reduces the amount of thermochemical transients and provides for easier process control. The application of pressurized fluidized-bed combustor (PFBC) technology, although relatively new, can provide significant enhancements to the efficient production of electricity while maintaining the waste management benefits of AFBC. A study was undertaken to investigate the technical and economic feasibility of co-firing a PFBC with coal and municipal and industrial wastes. Focus was placed on the production of electricity and the efficient disposal of wastes for application in central power station and distributed locations. Wastes considered for co-firing include municipal solid waste (MSW), tire-derived fuel (TDF), sewage sludge, and industrial de-inking sludge. Issues concerning waste material preparation and feed, PFBC operation, plant emissions, and regulations are addressed. This paper describes the results of this investigation, presents conclusions on the key issues, and provides recommendations for further evaluation.

  6. An integrated appraisal of energy recovery options in the United Kingdom using solid recovered fuel derived from municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, A; Smith, R; Hill, D; Longhurst, P J; Pollard, S J T; Simms, N J

    2009-08-01

    This paper reports an integrated appraisal of options for utilising solid recovered fuels (SRF) (derived from municipal solid waste, MSW) in energy intensive industries within the United Kingdom (UK). Four potential co-combustion scenarios have been identified following discussions with industry stakeholders. These scenarios have been evaluated using (a) an existing energy and mass flow framework model, (b) a semi-quantitative risk analysis, (c) an environmental assessment and (d) a financial assessment. A summary of results from these evaluations for the four different scenarios is presented. For the given ranges of assumptions; SRF co-combustion with coal in cement kilns was found to be the optimal scenario followed by co-combustion of SRF in coal-fired power plants. The biogenic fraction in SRF (ca. 70%) reduces greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions significantly ( approximately 2500 g CO(2) eqvt./kg DS SRF in co-fired cement kilns and approximately 1500 g CO(2) eqvt./kg DS SRF in co-fired power plants). Potential reductions in electricity or heat production occurred through using a lower calorific value (CV) fuel. This could be compensated for by savings in fuel costs (from SRF having a gate fee) and grants aimed at reducing GHG emission to encourage the use of fuels with high biomass fractions. Total revenues generated from coal-fired power plants appear to be the highest ( 95 pounds/t SRF) from the four scenarios. However overall, cement kilns appear to be the best option due to the low technological risks, environmental emissions and fuel cost. Additionally, cement kiln operators have good experience of handling waste derived fuels. The scenarios involving co-combustion of SRF with MSW and biomass were less favourable due to higher environmental risks and technical issues.

  7. An integrated appraisal of energy recovery options in the United Kingdom using solid recovered fuel derived from municipal solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, A.; Smith, R.; Hill, D.; Longhurst, P.J.; Pollard, S.J.T.; Simms, N.J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports an integrated appraisal of options for utilising solid recovered fuels (SRF) (derived from municipal solid waste, MSW) in energy intensive industries within the United Kingdom (UK). Four potential co-combustion scenarios have been identified following discussions with industry stakeholders. These scenarios have been evaluated using (a) an existing energy and mass flow framework model, (b) a semi-quantitative risk analysis, (c) an environmental assessment and (d) a financial assessment. A summary of results from these evaluations for the four different scenarios is presented. For the given ranges of assumptions; SRF co-combustion with coal in cement kilns was found to be the optimal scenario followed by co-combustion of SRF in coal-fired power plants. The biogenic fraction in SRF (ca. 70%) reduces greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions significantly (∼2500 g CO 2 eqvt./kg DS SRF in co-fired cement kilns and ∼1500 g CO 2 eqvt./kg DS SRF in co-fired power plants). Potential reductions in electricity or heat production occurred through using a lower calorific value (CV) fuel. This could be compensated for by savings in fuel costs (from SRF having a gate fee) and grants aimed at reducing GHG emission to encourage the use of fuels with high biomass fractions. Total revenues generated from coal-fired power plants appear to be the highest ( Pounds 95/t SRF) from the four scenarios. However overall, cement kilns appear to be the best option due to the low technological risks, environmental emissions and fuel cost. Additionally, cement kiln operators have good experience of handling waste derived fuels. The scenarios involving co-combustion of SRF with MSW and biomass were less favourable due to higher environmental risks and technical issues.

  8. Market driven strategy for acquisition of waste acceptance and transportation services for commercial spent fuel in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemeshewky, W.; Macaluso, C.; Smith, P.; Teer, B.

    1998-05-01

    The Department of Energy has the responsibility for the shipment of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from commercial reactors to a Federal facility for storage and/or disposal. DOE has developed a strategy for a market driven approach for the acquisition of transportation services and equipment which will maximize the participation of private industry. To implement this strategy, DOE is planning to issue a Request for Proposal (RFP) for the provision of the required services and equipment to accept SNF from the utilities and transport the SNF to a Federal facility. The paper discusses this strategy and describes the RFP

  9. Impact of Derivative Trading On Stock Market Volatility in India: A Study of S&P CNX Nifty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchika GAHLOT

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The Purpose of the study is to examine the impact of derivative trading on stock market volatility. The sample data consist of closing prices of S&P CNX Nifty as well as closing prices of five derivative stocks and five non derivative stocks from April 1, 2002 to March 31, 2005. The study uses GARCH model to capture nature of volatility over time and volatility clustering phenomenon of data. The evidences suggest that there is no significant change in the volatility of S &P CNX Nifty, but the structure of volatility has changed to some extent. However, results show mixed effect in case of 10 individual stocks. These results can assist investors in making investment decision. It also helps to identify need for regulation.

  10. Competition in the market for space heating. District heating as the infrastructure for competition among fuels and technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grohnheit, Poul Erik; Gram Mortensen, Bent Ole

    2003-01-01

    None of the EU directives on liberalisation of the electricity and gas markets are considering the district heating systems, although the district heating networks offer the possibility of competition between natural gas and a range of other fuels on the market for space heating. Cogeneration of electricity and heat for industrial processes or district heating is a technology option for increased energy efficiency and thus reduction of CO 2 emissions. In the mid-1990s less than 10% of the electricity generation in the European Union was combined production with significant variations among Member States. These variations are explained by different national legislation and relative power of institutions, rather than difference in industrial structure, climate or urban physical structure. The 'single energy carrier' directives have provisions that support the development of combined heat and power (CHP), but they do not support the development and expansion of the district heating infrastructure. The article is partly based on a contribution to the Shared Analysis Project for the European Commission DG Energy, concerning the penetration of CHP, energy saving, and renewables as instruments to meet the targets of the Kyoto Protocol within the liberalised European energy market. The quantitative and legal differences of the heat markets in selected Member States are described, and the consequences of the directives are discussed. Finally, we summarise the tasks for a European policy concerning the future regulation of district heating networks for CHP, emphasising the need for rules for a fair competition between natural gas and district heating networks

  11. DESIGNING AN OPPORTUNITY FUEL WITH BIOMASS AND TIRE-DERIVED FUEL FOR COFIRING AT WILLOW ISLAND GENERATING STATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K. Payette; D. Tillman

    2001-01-01

    During the period October 1, 2000 - December 31, 2000, Allegheny Energy Supply Co., LLC (Allegheny) executed a Cooperative Agreement with the National Energy Technology Laboratory to implement a major cofiring demonstration at the Willow Island Generating Station Boiler No.2. Willow Island Boiler No.2 is a cyclone boiler. Allegheny also will demonstrate separate injection cofiring at the Albright Generating Station Boiler No.3, a tangentially fired boiler. The Allegheny team includes Foster Wheeler as its primary subcontractor. Additional subcontractors are Cofiring Alternatives and N.S. Harding and Associates. This report summarizes the activities associated with the Designer Opportunity Fuel program, and demonstrations at Willow Island and Albright Generating Stations. The second quarter of the project involved completing the designs for each location. Further, geotechnical investigations proceeded at each site. Preparations were made to perform demolition on two small buildings at the Willow Island site. Fuels strategies were initiated for each site. Test planning commenced for each site. A groundbreaking ceremony was held at the Willow Island site on October 18, with Governor C. Underwood being the featured speaker

  12. Supply guarantee initiatives for nuclear fuel materials and services and their compatibility with the market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagano, Koji

    2009-01-01

    This paper first discusses where and why those ideas for nuclear fuel supply assurance and guarantee mechanisms came out, and attempts to draw a comparison among the proposed schemes and thereby examine possible steps forward. (author)

  13. Derivative pricing with liquidity risk : Theory and evidence from the credit default swap market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongaerts, D.; de Jong, F.C.J.M.; Driessen, J.J.A.G.

    2011-01-01

    We derive an equilibrium asset pricing model incorporating liquidity risk, derivatives, and short-selling due to hedging of nontraded risk. We show that illiquid assets can have lower expected returns if the short-sellers have more wealth, lower risk aversion, or shorter horizon. The pricing of

  14. Fuel Cell Backup Power Unit Configuration and Electricity Market Participation: A Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Zhiwen [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Eichman, Josh [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurtz, Jennifer [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-03-13

    This National Renewable Energy Laboratory industry-inspired Laboratory Directed Research and Development project evaluates the feasibility and economics of using fuel cell backup power systems in cell towers to provide grid services (e.g., balancing, ancillary services, demand response). The work is intended to evaluate the integration of thousands of under-utilized, clean, efficient, and reliable fuel cell systems that are already installed in cell towers for potential grid and ancillary services.

  15. Low Emissions Burner Technology for Metal Processing Industry using Byproducts and Biomass Derived Liquid Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, Ajay; Taylor, Robert

    2013-09-30

    This research and development efforts produced low-emission burner technology capable of operating on natural gas as well as crude glycerin and/or fatty acids generated in biodiesel plants. The research was conducted in three stages (1) Concept definition leading to the design and development of a small laboratory scale burner, (2) Scale-up to prototype burner design and development, and (3) Technology demonstration with field vefiication. The burner design relies upon the Flow Blurring (FB) fuel injection based on aerodynamically creating two-phase flow near the injector exit. The fuel tube and discharge orifice both of inside diameter D are separated by gap H. For H < 0.25D, the atomizing air bubbles into liquid fuel to create a two-phase flow near the tip of the fuel tube. Pressurized two-phase fuel-air mixture exits through the discharge orifice, which results in expansion and breakup of air bubbles yielding a spray with fine droplets. First, low-emission combustion of diesel, biodiesel and straight VO (soybean oil) was achieved by utilizing FB injector to yield fine sprays for these fuels with significantly different physical properties. Visual images for these baseline experiments conducted with heat release rate (HRR) of about 8 kW illustrate clean blue flames indicating premixed combustion for all three fuels. Radial profiles of the product gas temperature at the combustor exit overlap each other signifying that the combustion efficiency is independent of the fuel. At the combustor exit, the NOx emissions are within the measurement uncertainties, while CO emissions are slightly higher for straight VO as compared to diesel and biodiesel. Considering the large variations in physical and chemical properties of fuels considered, the small differences observed in CO and NOx emissions show promise for fuel-flexible, clean combustion systems. FB injector has proven to be very effective in atomizing fuels with very different physical properties, and it offers a

  16. Experimental setup for combustion characteristics in a diesel engine using derivative fuel from biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andi Mulkan; Zainal, Z.A.

    2006-01-01

    Reciprocating engines are normally run on petroleum fuels or diesel fuels. Unfortunately, energy reserves such as gas and oil are decreasing. Today, with renewable energy technologies petroleum or diesel can be reduced and substituted fully or partly by alternative fuels in engine. The objective of this paper is to setup the experimental rig using producer gas from gasification system mix with diesel fuel and fed to a diesel engine. The Yanmar L60AE-DTM single cylinder diesel engine is used in the experiment. A 20 kW downdraft gasifier has been developed to produce gas using cut of furniture wood used as biomass source. Air inlet of the engine has been modified to include the producer gas. An AVL quartz Pressure Transducer P4420 was installed into the engine head to measure pressure inside the cylinder of the engine. Several test were carried out on the downdraft gasifier system and diesel engine. The heating value of the producer gas is about 4 MJ/m 3 and the specific biomass fuel consumption is about 1.5 kg/kWh. Waste cooking oil (WCO) and crude palm oil (CPO) were used as biomass fuel. The pressure versus crank angle diagram for using blend of diesel are presented and compared with using diesel alone. The result shows that the peak pressure is higher. The premixed combustion is lower but have higher mixing controlled combustion. The CO and NO x emission are higher for biomass fuel

  17. Alternative Bio-Derived JP-8 Class Fuel and JP-8 Fuel: Flame Tube Combustor Test Results Compared using a GE TAPS Injector Configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Yolanda R.; Anderson, Robert; Tedder, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents results from tests in a NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) flame tube facility, where a bio-derived alternate fuel was compared with JP-8 for emissions and general combustion performance. A research version of General Electric Aviation (GE) TAPS injector was used for the tests. Results include 2D, planar laser-based imaging as well as basic flow visualization of the flame. Four conditions were selected that simulate various engine power conditions relevant to NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Supersonics and Environmentally Responsible Aviation Projects were tested.

  18. Looking to the future of new media in health marketing: deriving propositions based on traditional theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della, Lindsay J; Eroglu, Dogan; Bernhardt, Jay M; Edgerton, Erin; Nall, Janice

    2008-01-01

    Market trend data show that the media marketplace continues to rapidly evolve. Recent research shows that substantial portions of the U.S. media population are "new media" users. Today, more than ever before, media consumers are exposed to multiple media at the same point in time, encouraged to participate in media content generation, and challenged to learn, access, and use the new media that are continually entering the market. These media trends have strong implications for how consumers of health information access, process, and retain health-related knowledge. In this article we review traditional information processing models and theories of interpersonal and mass media access and consumption. We make several theory-based propositions for how traditional information processing and media consumption concepts will function as new media usage continues to increase. These propositions are supported by new media usage data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's entry into the new media market (e.g., podcasting, virtual events, blogging, and webinars). Based on these propositions, we conclude by presenting both opportunities and challenges that public health communicators and marketers will face in the future.

  19. 76 FR 722 - Governance Requirements for Derivatives Clearing Organizations, Designated Contract Markets, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-06

    ... Market Oversight (DMO), at 202-418-5569 or [email protected] ; Alicia Lewis, Attorney-Advisor, DCIO, at 202-418- 5862 or [email protected] ; Jordan O'Regan, Attorney-Advisor, DCIO, at 202-418-5984 or joregan... than two, public directors; (ii) each DCO, DCM, or SEF must have a nominating committee with at least...

  20. OPEC and the international oil market: can a cartel fuel the engine of economic development?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Noguera, Jose; Pecchenino, R. A.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 1 (2007), s. 187-199 ISSN 0167-7187 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : OPEC * International oil market * oil export Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.464, year: 2007

  1. Plasma gasification of refuse derived fuel in a single-stage system using different gasifying agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agon, N; Hrabovský, M; Chumak, O; Hlína, M; Kopecký, V; Masláni, A; Bosmans, A; Helsen, L; Skoblja, S; Van Oost, G; Vierendeels, J

    2016-01-01

    The renewable evolution in the energy industry and the depletion of natural resources are putting pressure on the waste industry to shift towards flexible treatment technologies with efficient materials and/or energy recovery. In this context, a thermochemical conversion method of recent interest is plasma gasification, which is capable of producing syngas from a wide variety of waste streams. The produced syngas can be valorized for both energetic (heat and/or electricity) and chemical (ammonia, hydrogen or liquid hydrocarbons) end-purposes. This paper evaluates the performance of experiments on a single-stage plasma gasification system for the treatment of refuse-derived fuel (RDF) from excavated waste. A comparative analysis of the syngas characteristics and process yields was done for seven cases with different types of gasifying agents (CO2+O2, H2O, CO2+H2O and O2+H2O). The syngas compositions were compared to the thermodynamic equilibrium compositions and the performance of the single-stage plasma gasification of RDF was compared to that of similar experiments with biomass and to the performance of a two-stage plasma gasification process with RDF. The temperature range of the experiment was from 1400 to 1600 K and for all cases, a medium calorific value syngas was produced with lower heating values up to 10.9 MJ/Nm(3), low levels of tar, high levels of CO and H2 and which composition was in good agreement to the equilibrium composition. The carbon conversion efficiency ranged from 80% to 100% and maximum cold gas efficiency and mechanical gasification efficiency of respectively 56% and 95%, were registered. Overall, the treatment of RDF proved to be less performant than that of biomass in the same system. Compared to a two-stage plasma gasification system, the produced syngas from the single-stage reactor showed more favourable characteristics, while the recovery of the solid residue as a vitrified slag is an advantage of the two-stage set-up. Copyright

  2. Effects of coal-derived trace species on the performance of molten carbonate fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pigeaud, A.

    1991-10-01

    The overall objective of the present study was to determine in detail the interaction effects of 10 simultaneously present, coal-gas contaminants, both on each other and on components of the Carbonate Fuel Cell. The primary goal was to assess underlying chemistries and reaction mechanisms which may cause decay in fuel cell performance or endurance as a result of both physics-chemical and/or mechanical interactions with the cell components and internal fuel cell parts. It was found, both from theory and cell test evidence, that trace contaminant interactions may occur with: Fuel-cell Electrodes (e.g., in this study with the Ni-anode), Lithium/Potassium Carbonate Electrolyte, Nickel and SS-Hardware, and by Mechanical Obstruction of Gas Flow in the Anode Plenum.

  3. REFINERY INTEGRATION OF BY-PRODUCTS FROM COAL-DERIVED JET FUELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leslie R. Rudnick; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2005-05-18

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first six months of the second year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Coal samples have procured and are being assessed for cleaning prior to use in coking studies.

  4. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leslie R. Rudnick; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; John Andresen

    2004-09-17

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first twelve months of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Coal samples have procured and are being assessed for cleaning prior to use in coking studies.

  5. Recent decreases in fossil-fuel emissions of ethane and methane derived from firn air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Murat; Verhulst, Kristal R; Saltzman, Eric S; Battle, Mark O; Montzka, Stephen A; Blake, Donald R; Tang, Qi; Prather, Michael J

    2011-08-10

    Methane and ethane are the most abundant hydrocarbons in the atmosphere and they affect both atmospheric chemistry and climate. Both gases are emitted from fossil fuels and biomass burning, whereas methane (CH(4)) alone has large sources from wetlands, agriculture, landfills and waste water. Here we use measurements in firn (perennial snowpack) air from Greenland and Antarctica to reconstruct the atmospheric variability of ethane (C(2)H(6)) during the twentieth century. Ethane levels rose from early in the century until the 1980s, when the trend reversed, with a period of decline over the next 20 years. We find that this variability was primarily driven by changes in ethane emissions from fossil fuels; these emissions peaked in the 1960s and 1970s at 14-16 teragrams per year (1 Tg = 10(12) g) and dropped to 8-10 Tg  yr(-1) by the turn of the century. The reduction in fossil-fuel sources is probably related to changes in light hydrocarbon emissions associated with petroleum production and use. The ethane-based fossil-fuel emission history is strikingly different from bottom-up estimates of methane emissions from fossil-fuel use, and implies that the fossil-fuel source of methane started to decline in the 1980s and probably caused the late twentieth century slow-down in the growth rate of atmospheric methane.

  6. Alternative Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternative fuels include gaseous fuels such as hydrogen, natural gas, and propane; alcohols such as ethanol, methanol, and butanol; vegetable and waste-derived oils; and electricity. Overview of alternative fuels is here.

  7. 17 CFR 240.15c3-1f - Optional market and credit risk requirements for OTC derivatives dealers (Appendix F to 17 CFR...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... charges for market and credit risk pursuant to this Appendix F in lieu of computing securities haircuts...)(2)(vi). Credit Risk (d) The capital charge for credit risk arising from an OTC derivatives dealer's... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Optional market and credit...

  8. Assessment of costs and benefits of flexible and alternative fuel use in the U.S. transportation sector. Technical report fourteen: Market potential and impacts of alternative fuel use in light-duty vehicles -- A 2000/2010 analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    In this report, estimates are provided of the potential, by 2010, to displace conventional light-duty vehicle motor fuels with alternative fuels--compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), methanol from natural gas, ethanol from grain and from cellulosic feedstocks, and electricity--and with replacement fuels such as oxygenates added to gasoline. The 2010 estimates include the motor fuel displacement resulting both from government programs (including the Clean Air Act and EPACT) and from potential market forces. This report also provides an estimate of motor fuel displacement by replacement and alterative fuels in the year 2000. However, in contrast to the 2010 estimates, the year 2000 estimate is restricted to an accounting of the effects of existing programs and regulations. 27 figs., 108 tabs.

  9. Solar Power and Solar Fuels Synthesis Report. Technology, market and research activities 2006-2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ridell, Bengt; Nilsson, Ronny; Rehnlund, Bjoern [Grontmij, Stockholm (Sweden); Kasemo, Bengt [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2012-11-01

    The objectives of the synthesis is to survey the situation and give an accumulated and concentrated knowledge about status, needs and opportunities for Swedish research and Swedish industry within the area of solar power and solar fuels, to be used for prioritisation of further efforts. The synthesis shall identify strengths and weaknesses in areas fundamental for development of solar power and solar fuels, focused on the development in Sweden, but in an international context. The synthesis shall also cover proposals for future Swedish research efforts and organisation of future Swedish research programs.

  10. Portland clinker production with carbonatite waste and tire-derived fuel: crystallochemistry of minor and trace elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. R. D. Andrade

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results on the composition of Portland clinkers produced with non-conventional raw-materials and fuels, focusing on the distribution of selected trace elements. Clinkers produced with three different fuel compositions were sampled in an industrial plant, where all other parameters were kept unchanged. The fuels have chemical fingerprints, which are sulfur for petroleum coke and zinc for TDF (tire-derived fuel. Presence of carbonatite in the raw materials is indicated by high amounts of strontium and phosphorous. Electron microprobe data was used to determine occupation of structural site of both C3S and C2S, and the distribution of trace elements among clinker phases. Phosphorous occurs in similar proportions in C3S and C2S; while considering its modal abundance, C3S is its main reservoir in the clinker. Sulfur is preferentially partitioned toward C2S compared to C3S. Strontium substitutes for Ca2+ mainly in C2S and in non-silicatic phases, compared to C3S.

  11. Environmental, Economic, and Scalability Considerations and Trends of Selected Fuel Economy-Enhancing Biomass-Derived Blendstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, Jennifer B. [Systems; Biddy, Mary [National; Jones, Susanne [Energy; Cai, Hao [Systems; Benavides, Pahola Thathiana [Systems; Markham, Jennifer [National; Tao, Ling [National; Tan, Eric [National; Kinchin, Christopher [National; Davis, Ryan [National; Dutta, Abhijit [National; Bearden, Mark [Energy; Clayton, Christopher [Energy; Phillips, Steven [Energy; Rappé, Kenneth [Energy; Lamers, Patrick [Bioenergy

    2017-10-30

    24 biomass-derived compounds and mixtures, identified based on their physical properties, that could be blended into fuels to improve spark ignition engine fuel economy were assessed for their economic, technology readiness, and environmental viability. These bio-blendstocks were modeled to be produced biochemically, thermochemically, or through hybrid processes. To carry out the assessment, 17 metrics were developed for which each bio-blendstock was determined to be favorable, neutral, or unfavorable. Cellulosic ethanol was included as a reference case. Overall, bio-blendstock yields in biochemical processes were lower than in thermochemical processes, in which all biomass, including lignin, is converted to a product. Bio-blendstock yields were a key determinant in overall viability. Key knowledge gaps included the degree of purity needed for use as a bio-blendstock as compared to a chemical. Less stringent purification requirements for fuels could cut processing costs and environmental impacts. Additionally, more information is needed on the blendability of many of these bio-blendstocks with gasoline to support the technology readiness evaluation. Overall, the technology to produce many of these blendstocks from biomass is emerging and as it matures, these assessments must be revisited. Importantly, considering economic, environmental, and technology readiness factors in addition to physical properties of blendstocks that could be used to boost fuel economy can help spotlight those most likely to be viable in the near term.

  12. The economic production of alcohol fuels from coal-derived synthesis gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kugler, E.L.; Dadyburjor, D.B.; Yang, R.Y.K. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The objectives of this project are to discover, (1) study and evaluate novel heterogeneous catalytic systems for the production of oxygenated fuel enhancers from synthesis gas. Specifically, alternative methods of preparing catalysts are to be investigated, and novel catalysts, including sulfur-tolerant ones, are to be pursued. (Task 1); (2) explore, analytically and on the bench scale, novel reactor and process concepts for use in converting syngas to liquid fuel products. (Task 1); (3) simulate by computer the most energy efficient and economically efficient process for converting coal to energy, with primary focus on converting syngas to fuel alcohols. (Task 2); (4) develop on the bench scale the best holistic combination of chemistry, catalyst, reactor and total process configuration integrated with the overall coal conversion process to achieve economic optimization for the conversion of syngas to liquid products within the framework of achieving the maximum cost effective transformation of coal to energy equivalents. (Tasks 1 and 2); and (5) evaluate the combustion, emission and performance characteristics of fuel alcohols and blends of alcohols with petroleum-based fuels. (Task 2)

  13. The Analysis of Prospects for Derivatives Market Development in Ukraine in View of Solving the Problems of its Normative Legal Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolodizev Oleg M.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The increased uncertainty in the country’s economy, impossibility of raising capital only by standard financial instruments substantiated the need for such financial innovations as derivatives. The relevance of the suggested topic is justified by the lack of strong legislative framework regulating the market of derivative financial instruments, as well as by significant demand for them in Ukraine. The aim of the article is to analyze the development level of the normative and legal field of trade in the derivatives market as well as the quality of the formed system of main indicators for derivatives trading in Ukraine. The paper identifies the problem, which could be neutralized through the use of derivative financial instruments. The volume and structure of the world and domestic derivatives markets have been analyzed. Based on the analysis of the legal field of regulating the market of derivative financial instruments as well as statistical analysis of its volume and structure, the reasons for the low activity in the considered market have been justified and recommendations to improve the current situation proposed.

  14. Refueling availability for alternative fuel vehicle markets: Sufficient urban station coverage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melaina, Marc; Bremson, Joel

    2008-01-01

    Alternative fuel vehicles can play an important role in addressing the challenges of climate change, energy security, urban air pollution and the continued growth in demand for transportation services. The successful commercialization of alternative fuels for vehicles is contingent upon a number of factors, including vehicle cost and performance. Among fuel infrastructure issues, adequate refueling availability is one of the most fundamental to successful commercialization. A commonly cited source reports 164,300 refueling stations in operation nationwide. However, from the perspective of refueling availability, this nationwide count tends to overstate the number of stations required to support the widespread deployment of alternative fuel vehicles. In terms of spatial distribution, the existing gasoline station networks in many urban areas are more than sufficient. We characterize a sufficient level of urban coverage based upon a subset of cities served by relatively low-density station networks, and estimate that some 51,000 urban stations would be required to provide this sufficient level of coverage to all major urban areas, 33 percent less than our estimate of total urban stations. This improved characterization will be useful for engineering, economic and policy analyses. (author)

  15. The combustion characteristics of refuse derived fuels using coke/waste tire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, M.H. [Dep. of Mechanical Eng., Samcheok Nat' l Univ., Samcheok (Korea); Shin, D.Y. [Research Center for Advanced Mineral Aggregate Composite Products, Kangwon Nat' l Univ., Chuncheon (Korea)

    2005-07-01

    Today every nation faces serious problems of energy supply. Reasonable technologies to make use of coal (including coke) can not only help the mining-related economy which is showing a downward trend but also may fit in with the governmental energy policy. In this research, we aim to supply heating systems in factories, homes, and farms with a substitute fuel by developing coke/waste tire compound fuel with high efficiency for rational use of energy and for recycling of industrial products. A coke/waste boiler was used for this experiment, and different kinds of fuel were experimented including coke, waste tire, coke/waste A and coke/waste B. Four kinds of exhaust gas were also sampled by a gas analyzer, including CO, CO{sub 2}, NO and NO{sub 2} at different temperatures. (orig.)

  16. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leslie R. Rudnick; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2005-11-17

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first six months of the second year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil are reported. Coal samples have procured and are being assessed for cleaning prior to use in coking studies.

  17. Batteries and fuel cells in the transport sector and stationary energy supply. Current status of the NIP federal market preparation programme and the electromobility model regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhelm, Tilman [NOW GmbH, Berlin (Germany)

    2013-06-01

    Hydrogen and fuel cells as well as batteries are key technologies in the context of achieving climate goals and for the transformation of the energy sector. Their successful commercial introduction requires joint efforts from public and private stakeholders. In a first step R and D and demonstration programs were implemented to accelerate their respective market preparation. The National Innovation Program for Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies (NIP) as well as large field tests of battery electric vehicles are ongoing combining technological development with market relevant aspects such as safety or public acceptance. (orig.)

  18. Emergence of Commodity Derivatives as Defensive Instrument in Portfolio Risk Hedging: A Case of Indian Commodity Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singhal Shelly

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper empirically examines whether commodity derivatives can be used as an alternative investment asset in India where commodity markets are at emerging state and provides the same diversification benefit as they provide in developed commodity markets. In India only commodity futures are prevalent so various commodity indices representing various sectors has been used in the study. Diversification aspect of commodity derivatives has been tested initially by using correlation analysis. Compounded Daily Growth rate and Relative Standard deviation has been used as a measure of calculating risk and return of daily data of SENSEX, BOND and four Commodity Indices (MCX Comdex, MCX AGRI, MCX Metal, MCX Energy. Markowitz Efficient Frontier theory has been used to calculate portfolio risk return and Sharpe risk adjusted ratio has been used to evaluate the various portfolios. Optimal portfolio has been obtained for the combination of equity, bond and commodity and overall results of the study indicate that an investor who is risk averse will prefer to invest in combination of SENSEX, BOND & MCX Energy whereas an investor who gets utility by taking more risk for more returns will prefer to invest in combination of SENSEX, BOND & MCX Metal. Investor having inclination towards moderate risk return would tend to invest in MCX AGRI along with SENSEX and BOND.

  19. Mathematics, Pricing, Market Risk Management and Trading Strategies for Financial Derivatives (3/3)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Coffey, Brian

    2009-01-01

    IR and Long Term FX Derivatives - Stochastic Martingales for IR Curves - Implied Volatility Along the IR Curve - IR Libor Bonds - Vanilla IR Options: Caplets, Floorlets - Long Term FX Options: Interaction of Stochastic FX and Stochastic IR - $-Yen Bermudan Power Reverse Duals

  20. Pd/activated carbon sorbents for mid-temperature capture of mercury from coal-derived fuel gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dekui; Han, Jieru; Han, Lina; Wang, Jiancheng; Chang, Liping

    2014-07-01

    Higher concentrations of Hg can be emitted from coal pyrolysis or gasification than from coal combustion, especially elemental Hg. Highly efficient Hg removal technology from coal-derived fuel gas is thus of great importance. Based on the very excellent Hg removal ability of Pd and the high adsorption abilities of activated carbon (AC) for H₂S and Hg, a series of Pd/AC sorbents was prepared by using pore volume impregnation, and their performance in capturing Hg and H₂S from coal-derived fuel gas was investigated using a laboratory-scale fixed-bed reactor. The effects of loading amount, reaction temperature and reaction atmosphere on Hg removal from coal-derived fuel gas were studied. The sorbents were characterized by N₂ adsorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results indicated that the efficiency of Hg removal increased with the increasing of Pd loading amount, but the effective utilization rate of the active component Pd decreased significantly at the same time. High temperature had a negative influence on the Hg removal. The efficiency of Hg removal in the N₂-H₂S-H₂-CO-Hg atmosphere (simulated coal gas) was higher than that in N₂-H₂S-Hg and N₂-Hg atmospheres, which showed that H₂ and CO, with their reducing capacity, could benefit promote the removal of Hg. The XPS results suggested that there were two different ways of capturing Hg over sorbents in N₂-H₂S-Hg and N₂-Hg atmospheres. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caroline E. Burgess Clifford; Andre' Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2006-09-17

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the second six months of the third year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts and examination of carbon material, the use of a research gasoline engine to test coal-based gasoline, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. At the pilot scale, the hydrotreating process was modified to separate the heavy components from the LCO and RCO fractions before hydrotreating in order to improve the performance of the catalysts in further processing. Characterization of the gasoline fuel indicates a dominance of single ring alkylcycloalkanes that have a low octane rating; however, blends containing these compounds do not have a negative effect upon gasoline when blended in refinery gasoline streams. Characterization of the diesel fuel indicates a dominance of 3-ring aromatics that have a low cetane value; however, these compounds do not have a negative effect upon diesel when blended in refinery diesel streams. Both gasoline and diesel continue to be tested for combustion performance. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Activated carbons have proven useful to remove the heavy sulfur components, and unsupported Ni/Mo and Ni/Co catalysts have been very effective for hydrodesulfurization. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Combustion and characterization of the latest fuel oil (the high temperature fraction of RCO

  2. Deriving Fuel Mass by Size Class in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii Using Terrestrial Laser Scanning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lloyd Queen

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Requirements for describing coniferous forests are changing in response to wildfire concerns, bio-energy needs, and climate change interests. At the same time, technology advancements are transforming how forest properties can be measured. Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS is yielding promising results for measuring tree biomass parameters that, historically, have required costly destructive sampling and resulted in small sample sizes. Here we investigate whether TLS intensity data can be used to distinguish foliage and small branches (≤0.635 cm diameter; coincident with the one-hour timelag fuel size class from larger branchwood (>0.635 cm in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii branch specimens. We also consider the use of laser density for predicting biomass by size class. Measurements are addressed across multiple ranges and scan angles. Results show TLS capable of distinguishing fine fuels from branches at a threshold of one standard deviation above mean intensity. Additionally, the relationship between return density and biomass is linear by fuel type for fine fuels (r2 = 0.898; SE 22.7% and branchwood (r2 = 0.937; SE 28.9%, as well as for total mass (r2 = 0.940; SE 25.5%. Intensity decays predictably as scan distances increase; however, the range-intensity relationship is best described by an exponential model rather than 1/d2. Scan angle appears to have no systematic effect on fine fuel discrimination, while some differences are observed in density-mass relationships with changing angles due to shadowing.

  3. Study for application of multi fuel technology in the Brazilian automobilistic market; Estudo para aplicacao da tecnologia multi combustivel no mercado automobilistico brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasparotto, Alexsander David [FIAT/GM Powertrain (Brazil); Massarani, Marcelo [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    The objective of this work is a study for the application of a new technology that will be used in the engine management system in the vehicle; where the final consumer can opt for the inquiry performance or seeking an economy for the fuel consumption depending on its daily use and of the prices offered in the gas stations. Flexible Fuel is a technology in development for the automobile market that mixes the use of two fuels (gasoline and ethanol) and their mixtures in the internal combustion engine. (author)

  4. Study for application of flexible fuel technology in the Brazilian automobile market; Estudo para aplicacao da tecnologia multi combustivel no mercado automobilistico brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasparotto, Alexsander David [FIAT/GM Powertrain (Brazil); Massarani, Marcelo [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica

    2006-07-01

    The objective of this work is a study for the application of a new technology that will be used in the engine management system in the vehicle; where the final consumer can opt for the inquiry performance or seeking an economy for the fuel consumption depending on its daily use and of the prices offered in the gas stations. Flexible Fuel is a technology in development for the auto mobile market that mixes the use of two fuels (gasoline and ethanol) and their mixtures in the internal combustion engine. (author)

  5. Influence of the pro-ecological tax on the market prices of fuels and electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szargut, Jan; Stanek, Wojciech

    2008-01-01

    The proposed pro-ecological tax should be proportional to the cumulative consumption of non-renewable natural exergy burdening the considered product. It should replace the existing value-added tax (VAT). The income of the state after introducing the new tax, should remain without any change. That principle determines the coefficient of proportionality between the cumulative consumption of non-renewable exergy and the value of the tax. The total value of the tax should be paid to the state after extracting the minerals and fuels from nature and importing the fuels and semi-finished products, then transferred to the subsequent products in a form of their elevated price. Hence, the tax is eventually paid by the consumers in the form of an elevated price of goods and services. The total income of the society should remain without any changes. The largest price increase will appear in the case of fuels and electricity. The prices of electricity produced from renewable resources are calculated too, taking into account the accompanying unavoidable consumption of non-renewable exergy for the construction of the power plant. The new VAT should enhance the economy of the most energy-consuming products, stimulate the mitigation of the total consumption level of the society and increase the application of the renewable energy resources. (author)

  6. Commercial nuclear fuel from U.S. and Russian surplus defense inventories: Materials, policies, and market effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    Nuclear materials declared by the US and Russian governments as surplus to defense programs are being converted into fuel for commercial nuclear reactors. This report presents the results of an analysis estimating the market effects that would likely result from current plans to commercialize surplus defense inventories. The analysis focuses on two key issues: (1) the extent by which traditional sources of supply, such as production from uranium mines and enrichment plants, would be displaced by the commercialization of surplus defense inventories or, conversely, would be required in the event of disruptions to planned commercialization, and (2) the future price of uranium considering the potential availability of surplus defense inventories. Finally, the report provides an estimate of the savings in uranium procurement costs that could be realized by US nuclear power generating companies with access to competitively priced uranium supplied from surplus defense inventories.

  7. Commercial nuclear fuel from U.S. and Russian surplus defense inventories: Materials, policies, and market effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-05-01

    Nuclear materials declared by the US and Russian governments as surplus to defense programs are being converted into fuel for commercial nuclear reactors. This report presents the results of an analysis estimating the market effects that would likely result from current plans to commercialize surplus defense inventories. The analysis focuses on two key issues: (1) the extent by which traditional sources of supply, such as production from uranium mines and enrichment plants, would be displaced by the commercialization of surplus defense inventories or, conversely, would be required in the event of disruptions to planned commercialization, and (2) the future price of uranium considering the potential availability of surplus defense inventories. Finally, the report provides an estimate of the savings in uranium procurement costs that could be realized by US nuclear power generating companies with access to competitively priced uranium supplied from surplus defense inventories

  8. The new car market for electric vehicles and the potential for fuel substitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kihm, Alexander; Trommer, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Electric vehicles are expected to significantly reduce road transport emissions, given an increasingly renewable power generation. While technological issues are more and more being overcome, the economic viability and thus possible adoption is still constrained, mainly by higher prices than for conventional vehicles. In our work we analyze possible market developments for electric vehicles with an application to Germany. We develop a drivetrain choice model with economical, technical and social constraints on the current vehicle registrations and inventory. It estimates the demand for electric vehicles until 2030 for private and commercially registered cars as well as light commercial vehicles. The results show a replacement potential of almost one third of the total German annual mileage for these vehicles. The result has a high granularity to allow for detailed emission calculation along different spatial areas as well as vehicle and engine types. Besides a baseline forecast, our method allows for calculating different scenarios regarding policy actions or the future development of important parameters such as energy prices. The results provide insights for policy measures as well as for transport and environmental modeling. - Highlights: • We model the potential German market for electric vehicles using total cost of ownership. • The results show a substitution potential of one third of the total German annual mileage. • Plug-in hybrid drivetrains outperform battery electric ones due to their cost advantages. • Suburbia around large cities is the largest market for EVs. • The first main vehicle categories for EVs are large and medium-sized company cars

  9. Hydrogenation and hydrodeoxygenation of biomass-derived oxygenates to liquid alkanes for transportation fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaohui Sun

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available An attractive approach for the production of transportation fuels from renewable biomass resources is to convert oxygenates into alkanes. In this paper, C5–C20 alkanes formed via the hydrogenation and hydrodeoxygenation of the oligomers of furfuryl alcohol(FA can be used as gasoline, diesel and jet fuel fraction. The first step of the process is the oligomers of FA convert into hydrogenated products over Raney Ni catalyst in a batch reactor. The second step of the process converts hydrogenated products to alkanes via hydrodeoxygenation over different bi-functional catalysts include hydrogenation and acidic deoxidization active sites. After this process, the oxygen content decreased from 22.1 wt% in the oligomers of FA to 0.58 wt% in the hydrodeoxygenation products.

  10. Hydrogenation and hydrodeoxygenation of biomass-derived oxygenates to liquid alkanes for transportation fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shaohui; Yang, Ruishu; Wang, Xin; Yan, Shaokang

    2018-04-01

    An attractive approach for the production of transportation fuels from renewable biomass resources is to convert oxygenates into alkanes. In this paper, C 5 -C 20 alkanes formed via the hydrogenation and hydrodeoxygenation of the oligomers of furfuryl alcohol(FA) can be used as gasoline, diesel and jet fuel fraction. The first step of the process is the oligomers of FA convert into hydrogenated products over Raney Ni catalyst in a batch reactor. The second step of the process converts hydrogenated products to alkanes via hydrodeoxygenation over different bi-functional catalysts include hydrogenation and acidic deoxidization active sites. After this process, the oxygen content decreased from 22.1 wt% in the oligomers of FA to 0.58 wt% in the hydrodeoxygenation products.

  11. High-Temperature Desulfurization of Heavy Fuel-Derived Reformate Gas Streams for SOFC Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, Maria; Surgenor, Angela D.

    2007-01-01

    Desulfurization of the hot reformate gas produced by catalytic partial oxidation or autothermal reforming of heavy fuels, such as JP-8 and jet fuels, is required prior to using the gas in a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). Development of suitable sorbent materials involves the identification of sorbents with favorable sulfidation equilibria, good kinetics, and high structural stability and regenerability at the SOFC operating temperatures (650 to 800 C). Over the last two decades, a major barrier to the development of regenerable desulfurization sorbents has been the gradual loss of sorbent performance in cyclic sulfidation and regeneration at such high temperatures. Mixed oxide compositions based on ceria were examined in this work as regenerable sorbents in simulated reformate gas mixtures and temperatures greater than 650 C. Regeneration was carried out with dilute oxygen streams. We have shown that under oxidative regeneration conditions, high regeneration space velocities (greater than 80,000 h(sup -1)) can be used to suppress sulfate formation and shorten the total time required for sorbent regeneration. A major finding of this work is that the surface of ceria and lanthanan sorbents can be sulfided and regenerated completely, independent of the underlying bulk sorbent. This is due to reversible adsorption of H2S on the surface of these sorbents even at temperatures as high as 800 C. La-rich cerium oxide formulations are excellent for application to regenerative H2S removal from reformate gas streams at 650 to 800 C. These results create new opportunities for compact sorber/regenerator reactor designs to meet the requirements of solid oxide fuel cell systems at any scale.

  12. Study of the feasibility of mixing Refuse Derived Fuels with wood pellets through the grey and Fuzzy theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moran, J.C.; Miguez, J.L.; Porteiro, J.; Patino, D.; Granada, E.; Collazo, J. [Universidad de Vigo E.T.S. Ingenieros Industriales, Lagoas-Marcosende, s/n. Dpto. Ing. Mecanica Maquinas y Motores Termicos, 36200 Vigo (Pontevedra) (Spain)

    2009-12-15

    This paper presents a combined grey relational and fuzzy analysis for the evaluation of the environmental feasibility of burning mixtures of pellet and RDF (Refuse Derived Fuel) in a small pellet boiler-stove. RDF is obtained from Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) and contains a biomass fraction and a non-organic fraction (plastic). As a first step, both fuels are characterized to define their properties. A special feeding system is also used to improve the stove plant and to facilitate pellet distribution, which maintains a constant rate between the two fuels. Small scale energy converters, such as chimneys, boilers, stoves, etc., which produce heat and/or hot water by burning biomass (wood, pellets, briquettes, etc.), are especially suited to domestic purposes. However, in common commercial combustion conditions, this kind of use still has some disadvantages: some emissions (volatile organic carbons, carbon monoxide or NO{sub x}) may still be high, and it is difficult to compare the quality and performance of equipment working in very different combustion conditions. The grey relational analysis of different energy and emission variables leads to the definition of a new single variable called the grey relational grade (GRG). Thus, evaluation and optimisation of complicated multiple responses can be converted into the optimisation of a standardised single variable. The aim of the work is to research the most feasible mixture of pellets according to a grey relational analysis, taking into consideration energy-related, financial and environmental aspects. (author)

  13. Highly efficient transition metal and nitrogen co-doped carbide-derived carbon electrocatalysts for anion exchange membrane fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratso, Sander; Kruusenberg, Ivar; Käärik, Maike; Kook, Mati; Puust, Laurits; Saar, Rando; Leis, Jaan; Tammeveski, Kaido

    2018-01-01

    The search for an efficient electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) to replace platinum in fuel cell cathode materials is one of the hottest topics in electrocatalysis. Among the many non-noble metal catalysts, metal/nitrogen/carbon composites made by pyrolysis of cheap materials are the most promising with control over the porosity and final structure of the catalyst a crucial point. In this work we show a method of producing a highly active ORR catalyst in alkaline media with a controllable porous structure using titanium carbide derived carbon as a base structure and dicyandiamide along with FeCl3 or CoCl2 as the dopants. The resulting transition metal-nitrogen co-doped carbide derived carbon (M/N/CDC) catalyst is highly efficient for ORR electrocatalysis with the activity in 0.1 M KOH approaching that of commercial 46.1 wt.% Pt/C. The catalyst materials are also investigated by scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to characterise the changes in morphology and composition causing the raise in electrochemical activity. MEA performance of M/N/CDC cathode materials in H2/O2 alkaline membrane fuel cell is tested with the highest power density reached being 80 mW cm-2 compared to 90 mW cm-2 for Pt/C.

  14. Zinc isotopic composition of particulate matter generated during the combustion of coal and coal + tire-derived fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrok, D.M.; Gieré, R.; Ren, M.; Landa, E.R.

    2010-01-01

    Atmospheric Zn emissions from the burning of coal and tire-derived fuel (TDF) for power generation can be considerable. In an effort to lay the foundation for tracking these contributions, we evaluated the Zn isotopes of coal, a mixture of 95 wt % coal + 5 wt % TDF, and the particulate matter (PM) derived from their combustion in a power-generating plant. The average Zn concentrations and δ(66)Zn were 36 mg/kg and 183 mg/kg and +0.24‰ and +0.13‰ for the coal and coal + TDF, respectively. The δ(66)Zn of the PM sequestered in the cyclone-type mechanical separator was the lightest measured, -0.48‰ for coal and -0.81‰ for coal+TDF. The δ(66)Zn of the PM from the electrostatic precipitator showed a slight enrichment in the heavier Zn isotopes relative to the starting material. PM collected from the stack had the heaviest δ(66)Zn in the system, +0.63‰ and +0.50‰ for the coal and coal + TDF, respectively. Initial fractionation during the generation of a Zn-rich vapor is followed by temperature-dependent fractionation as Zn condenses onto the PM. The isotopic changes of the two fuel types are similar, suggesting that their inherent chemical differences have only a secondary impact on the isotopic fractionation process.

  15. Reviewing tax system and its reform plan for the fuel market in South Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myung-Kyoon Lee

    2005-01-01

    After a long period of government intervention in the energy market, the Korean government has realized that the costs of its intervention are greater than the benefit as the economy got more complicated and more integrated into the world economy. The objective of the energy tax reform is to establish a transparent set of taxing principles, in order to internalize externalities from energy consumption. The expected effects of the reform is to motivate energy conservation and to promote R and D on energy conservation technologies which will ultimately result in the strengthening of industrial competitiveness and the reduction of urban air pollution. (author)

  16. Reviewing tax system and its reform plan for the fuel market in South Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M.-K.

    2005-01-01

    After a long period of government intervention in the energy market, the Korean government has realized that the costs of its intervention are greater than the benefit as the economy got more complicated and more integrated into the world economy. The objective of the energy tax reform is to establish a transparent set of taxing principles, in order to internalize externalities from energy consumption. The expected effects of the reform is to motivate energy conservation and to promote R and D on energy conservation technologies which will ultimately result in the strengthening of industrial competitiveness and the reduction of urban air pollution

  17. Characterization of char derived from various types of solid wastes from the standpoint of fuel recovery and pretreatment before landfilling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, I.H.; Matsuto, T.; Tanaka, N.; Sasaki, Y.; Tanaami, K.

    2007-01-01

    Carbonization is a kind of pyrolysis process to produce char from organic materials under an inert atmosphere. In this work, chars derived from various solid wastes were characterized from the standpoint of fuel recovery and pretreatment of waste before landfilling. Sixteen kinds of municipal and industrial solid wastes such as residential combustible wastes, non-combustible wastes, bulky wastes, construction and demolition wastes, auto shredder residue, and sludges were carbonized at 500 deg. C for 1 h under nitrogen atmosphere. In order to evaluate the quality of char as fuel, proximate analysis and heating value were examined. The composition of raw waste had a significant influence on the quality of produced char. The higher the ratio of woody biomass in waste, the higher heating value of char produced. Moreover, an equation to estimate heating value of char was developed by using the weight fraction of fixed carbon and volatile matter in char. De-ashing and chlorine removal were performed to improve the quality of char. The pulverization and sieving method seems to be effective for separation of incombustibles such as metal rather than ash. Most char met a 0.5 wt% chlorine criterion for utilization as fuel in a shaft blast furnace after it was subjected to repeated water-washing. Carbonization could remove a considerable amount of organic matter from raw waste. In addition, the leaching of heavy metals such as chrome, cadmium, and lead appears to be significantly suppressed by carbonization regardless of the type of raw waste. From these results, carbonization could be considered as a pretreatment method for waste before landfilling, as well as for fuel recovery

  18. Electrochemical Coupling of Biomass-Derived Acids: New C8 Platforms for Renewable Polymers and Fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Linglin; Mascal, Mark; Farmer, Thomas J; Arnaud, Sacha Pérocheau; Wong Chang, Maria-Angelica

    2017-01-10

    Electrolysis of biomass-derived carbonyl compounds is an alternative to condensation chemistry for supplying products with chain length >C 6 for biofuels and renewable materials production. Kolbe coupling of biomass-derived levulinic acid is used to obtain 2,7-octanedione, a new platform molecule only two low process-intensity steps removed from raw biomass. Hydrogenation to 2,7-octanediol provides a chiral secondary diol largely unknown to polymer chemistry, whereas intramolecular aldol condensation followed by hydrogenation yields branched cycloalkanes suitable for use as high-octane, cellulosic gasoline. Analogous electrolysis of an itaconic acid-derived methylsuccinic monoester yields a chiral 2,5-dimethyladipic acid diester, another underutilized monomer owing to lack of availability. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Advancements in rationally designed PGM-free fuel cell catalysts derived from metal–organic frameworks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkholtz, Heather M.; Liu, Di-Jia

    2016-01-01

    Over the past several years, metal-organic framework (MOF)-derived platinum group metal free (PGM-free) electrocatalysts have gained considerable attention due to their high efficiency and low cost as potential replacement for platinum in catalyzing oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). In this review, we summarize the recent advancements in design, synthesis and characterization of MOF-derived ORR catalysts and their performances in acidic and alkaline media. As a result, we also discuss the key challenges such as durability and activity enhancement critical in moving forward this emerging electrocatalyst science.

  20. Experimental investigations on a diesel engine operated with fuel blends derived from a mixture of Pakistani waste tyre oil and waste soybean oil biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qasim, Muhammad; Ansari, Tariq Mahmood; Hussain, Mazhar

    2017-10-18

    The waste tyre and waste cooking oils have a great potential to be used as alternative fuels for diesel engines. The aim of this study was to convert light fractions of pyrolysis oil derived from Pakistani waste vehicle tyres and waste soybean oil methyl esters into valuable fuel and to reduce waste disposal-associated environmental problems. In this study, the waste tyre pyrolysis liquid (light fraction) was collected from commercial tyre pyrolysis plant and biodiesel was prepared from waste soybean oil. The fuel blends (FMWO10, FMWO20, FMWO30, FMWO40 and FMWO50) were prepared from a 30:70 mixture of waste tyre pyrolysis liquid and waste soybean oil methyl esters with different proportions of mineral diesel. The mixture was named as the fuel mixture of waste oils (FMWO). FT-IR analysis of the fuel mixture was carried out using ALPHA FT-IR spectrometer. Experimental investigations on a diesel engine were carried out with various FMWO blends. It was observed that the engine fuel consumption was marginally increased and brake thermal efficiency was marginally decreased with FMWO fuel blends. FMWO10 has shown lowest NOx emissions among all the fuel blends tested. In addition, HC, CO and smoke emissions were noticeably decreased by 3.1-15.6%, 16.5-33.2%, and 1.8-4.5%, respectively, in comparison to diesel fuel, thereby qualifying the blends to be used as alternative fuel for diesel engines.

  1. The identification of metallic elements in airborne particulate matter derived from fossil fuels at Puertollano, Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, Teresa; Alastuey, Andres; Querol, Xavier; Font, Oriol [Institute of Earth Sciences ' ' Jaume Almera' ' , CSIC, C/Lluis Sole i Sabaris s/n, Barcelona 08028 (Spain); Gibbons, Wes [AP 23075, Barcelona 08080 (Spain)

    2007-07-02

    Puertollano is the largest industrial centre in central Spain, and includes fossil fuel burning power plants as well as petrochemical and fertilizer complexes. The coal-fired power plants use locally mined coal from extensive coal deposits which continue to be exploited and used locally. The coal deposits have a distinctive geochemistry, being particularly enriched in Sb and Pb, as well as several other metals/metalloids that include Zn and As. ICP-AES and ICP-MS chemical analysis of particulate matter samples (both PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5}) collected at Puertollano over a 57-week period in 2004-2005 reveals enhanced levels of several metallic trace elements, especially in the finer (PM{sub 2.5}) aerosol fraction. Factor analysis applied to the data indicates that at least some of these metallic elements are likely to originate from hydrocarbon combustion: Sb and Pb are markers linked to the local coals, whereas V and Ni are, at least in the finer (PM{sub 2.5}) fraction, likely associated with other anthropogenic sources. Other factors measured are related to natural sources such as crustal/mineral and sea spray particles. Our study provides an example of how chemical analysis of large numbers of ambient PM samples, combined with statistical factor analysis and coal geochemistry, can reveal airborne emissions from the combustion of specifically identifiable fuels. (author)

  2. Halloysite-derived nitrogen doped carbon electrocatalysts for anion exchange membrane fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yaxiang; Wang, Lianqin; Preuß, Kathrin; Qiao, Mo; Titirici, Maria-Magdalena; Varcoe, John; Cai, Qiong

    2017-12-01

    Developing the low-cost, highly active carbonaceous materials for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalysts has been a high-priority research direction for durable fuel cells. In this paper, two novel N-doped carbonaceous materials with flaky and rod-like morphology using the natural halloysite as template are obtained from urea nitrogen source as well as glucose (denoted as GU) and furfural (denoted as FU) carbon precursors, respectively, which can be directly applied as metal-free electrocatalysts for ORR in alkaline electrolyte. Importantly, compared with a benchmark Pt/C (20wt%) catalyst, the as-prepared carbon catalysts demonstrate higher retention in diffusion limiting current density (after 3000 cycles) and enhanced methanol tolerances with only 50-60mV negative shift in half-wave potentials. In addition, electrocatalytic activity, durability and methanol tolerant capability of the two N-doped carbon catalysts are systematically evaluated, and the underneath reasons of the outperformance of rod-like catalysts over the flaky are revealed. At last, the produced carbonaceous catalysts are also used as cathodes in the single cell H2/O2 anion exchange membrane fuel cell (AEMFC), in which the rod-like FU delivers a peak power density as high as 703 mW cm-2 (vs. 1106 mW cm-2 with a Pt/C benchmark cathode catalyst).

  3. A spatial price equilibrium model in the oligopolistic market for oil derivatives: an application to the brazilian scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Mezadre Pompermayer

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a spatial price equilibrium model in an oligopoly market for refined oil products. Till 1997 the Brazilian oil market was characterized by the state monopoly of Petrobras, which up to 2001 remained the only firm authorized to import oil derivatives. With several agents operating in the primary oil supply market, the government stopped fixing the prices for Petrobras, which started to determine the prices based on competition with other players. In this new scenario some questions arise regarding the price levels at which refined products will be supplied in different regions across Brazil as well as the capacity of national refineries to compete with imported products. To answer those and other questions, a new oligopoly spatial equilibrium model is herein proposed, taking into account the special characteristics of production of refined oil products. An iterative Gauss-Seidel-like algorithm with sequential adjustments was developed and applied to Brazilian market data. The model, the algorithm and its application are described in this work. Such a model may be used both by regulatory authorities and by companies in the sector.Este artigo apresenta um modelo de equilíbrio espacial de preços em um mercado oligopolizado de derivados de petróleo. Até o ano de 1997, o mercado brasileiro era caracterizado pelo monopólio estatal da Petrobrás, a qual permaneceu, até 2001, como a única empresa autorizada a importar derivados de petróleo. Com vários agentes operando no mercado, o governo deixou de fixar os preços para a Petrobrás, que passou a determinar os preços baseada na competição com outros agentes. Neste cenário, surgem algumas questões relativas aos níveis de preços a serem oferecidos no mercado e relativas à capacidade das refinarias nacionais de competir com produtos importados. Para responder a estas e outras questões, um novo modelo de equilíbrio espacial de preços para um mercado oligopolizado foi

  4. Flame blowout and pollutant emissions in vitiated combustion of conventional and bio-derived fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bhupinder

    The widening gap between the demand and supply of fossil fuels has catalyzed the exploration of alternative sources of energy. Interest in the power, water extraction and refrigeration (PoWER) cycle, proposed by the University of Florida, as well as the desirability of using biofuels in distributed generation systems, has motivated the exploration of biofuel vitiated combustion. The PoWER cycle is a novel engine cycle concept that utilizes vitiation of the air stream with externally-cooled recirculated exhaust gases at an intermediate pressure in a semi-closed cycle (SCC) loop, lowering the overall temperature of combustion. It has several advantages including fuel flexibility, reduced air flow, lower flame temperature, compactness, high efficiency at full and part load, and low emissions. Since the core engine air stream is vitiated with the externally cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) stream, there is an inherent reduction in the combustion stability for a PoWER engine. The effect of EGR flow and temperature on combustion blowout stability and emissions during vitiated biofuel combustion has been characterized. The vitiated combustion performance of biofuels methyl butanoate, dimethyl ether, and ethanol have been compared with n-heptane, and varying compositions of syngas with methane fuel. In addition, at high levels of EGR a sharp reduction in the flame luminosity has been observed in our experimental tests, indicating the onset of flameless combustion. This drop in luminosity may be a result of inhibition of processes leading to the formation of radiative soot particles. One of the objectives of this study is finding the effect of EGR on soot formation, with the ultimate objective of being able to predict the boundaries of flameless combustion. Detailed chemical kinetic simulations were performed using a constant-pressure continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) network model developed using the Cantera combustion code, implemented in C++. Results have

  5. Improving the performance of dual fuel engines running on natural gas/LPG by using pilot fuel derived from jojoba seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selim, Mohamed Y.E. [Mechanical Engineering Department, College of Engineering, UAE University, Jimmi, Al-Ain, P.O. Box 17555, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Radwan, M.S.; Saleh, H.E. [Mechanical Power Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering at Mattaria, Helwan University, Cairo (Egypt)

    2008-06-15

    The use of jojoba methyl ester as a pilot fuel was investigated for almost the first time as a way to improve the performance of dual fuel engine running on natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) at part load. The dual fuel engine used was Ricardo E6 variable compression diesel engine and it used either compressed natural gas (CNG) or LPG as the main fuel and jojoba methyl ester as a pilot fuel. Diesel fuel was used as a reference fuel for the dual fuel engine results. During the experimental tests, the following have been measured: engine efficiency in terms of specific fuel consumption, brake power output, combustion noise in terms of maximum pressure rise rate and maximum pressure, exhaust emissions in terms of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons, knocking limits in terms of maximum torque at onset of knocking, and cyclic variability data of 100 engine cycles in terms of maximum pressure and its pressure rise rate average and standard deviation. The tests examined the following engine parameters: gaseous fuel type, engine speed and load, pilot fuel injection timing, pilot fuel mass and compression ratio. Results showed that using the jojoba fuel with its improved properties has improved the dual fuel engine performance, reduced the combustion noise, extended knocking limits and reduced the cyclic variability of the combustion. (author)

  6. Combustion of biomass-derived, low caloric value, fuel gas in a gasturbine combustor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andries, J; Hoppesteyn, P D.J.; Hein, K R.G. [Technische Univ. Delf (Netherlands)

    1998-09-01

    The use of biomass and biomass/coal mixtures to produce electricity and heat reduces the net emissions of CO{sub 2}, contributes to the restructuring of the agricultural sector, helps to reduce the waste problem and saves finite fossil fuel reserves. Pressurised fluidised bed gasification followed by an adequate gas cleaning system, a gas turbine and a steam turbine, is a potential attractive way to convert biomass and biomass/coal mixtures. To develop and validate mathematical models, which can be used to design and operate Biomass-fired Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (BIGCC) systems, a Process Development Unit (PPDU) with a maximum thermal capacity of 1.5 MW{sub th}, located at the Laboratory for Thermal Power Engineering of the Delft University of Technology in The Netherlands is being used. The combustor forms an integral part of this facility. Recirculated flue gas is used to cool the wall of the combustor. (orig.)

  7. A New Human-Derived Acellular Dermal Matrix for Breast Reconstruction Available for the European Market: Preliminary Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folli, Secondo; Curcio, Annalisa; Melandri, Davide; Bondioli, Elena; Rocco, Nicola; Catanuto, Giuseppe; Falcini, Fabio; Purpura, Valeria; Mingozzi, Matteo; Buggi, Federico; Marongiu, Francesco

    2018-04-01

    The introduction of acellular dermal matrices (ADMs) contributed to the growing diffusion of direct-to-implant breast reconstruction (DTI-BR) following mastectomy for breast cancer. According to specific legislations, European specialists could not benefit from the use of human-derived ADMs, even though most evidence in the literature are available for this kind of device, showed optimal outcomes in breast reconstruction. The Skin Bank of the Bufalini Hospital (Cesena, Italy) obtained in 2009 the approval for the production and distribution of a new human cadaver-donor-derived ADM (named with the Italian acronym, MODA, for matrice omologa dermica acellulata) from the Italian National Transplant Center and National Health Institute. We report preliminary results of MODA application in direct-to-implant breast reconstruction following nipple-areola complex (NAC)-sparing mastectomy for breast cancer treatment. We prospectively enrolled all women undergoing NAC-sparing mastectomy for breast cancer and DTI-BR in our breast surgical unit from June 2015 to January 2017. We enrolled a selected population without previous chest wall irradiation, not being heavy tobacco smokers or diabetic, with a BMI MODA in direct-to-implant breast reconstruction following NAC-sparing mastectomy for breast cancer treatment. This is particularly relevant for the European market, where no other human-derived devices are available for breast reconstruction due to regulatory restrictions. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  8. Market driven strategy for acquisition of waste acceptance and transportation services for commercial spent fuel in the united states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemeshewsky, W.; Macaluso, C.; Smith, P.; Teer, B.

    1998-01-01

    The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) in the United States Department of Energy (DOE) has the responsibility under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (the Act) for the shipment of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from commercial reactors to a Federal facility for storage and/or disposal. The Act requires the use of private industry to the 'fullest extent possible' in the transportation of spent fuels. An OCRWM goal is to develop a safe, efficient and effective transportation system while meeting the mandate of the Act. OCRWM has then develop a strategy for a market driven approach for the acquisition of transportation services and equipment. To implement this strategy, OCRWM is planning to issue a Request for Proposal (RPF) for the provision of the required services and equipment to accept SNF from the utilities and transport the SNF to a Federal facility. Two draft RPFs have been issued with the second draft incorporating comments on the first draft from potential contractors and other interested parties. The overall strategy as outlined in the draft RPF relies on private industry to use the innovative powers of the marketplace to help DOE accomplish its mission objectives. DOE intends to pursue this procurement strategy whether or not the OCRWM program includes interim storage. The concept described in the draft RPF provides for DOE to purchase services and equipment from a contractor-operated waste acceptance and transportation organization. The contractor is expected to provide initial financing for the project including that necessary for initial acquisition of operational equipment, establish the necessary management organization, and mobilize the necessary resources and capabilities to provide the SNF delivery services at a fixed rate. DOE will retain final approval on all routes and maintain primary responsibility to the States, tribes, and local units of government for assuring appropriate interaction and consideration of their input on

  9. CO2-free hydrogen as a substitute to fossil fuels: What are the targets? Prospective assessment of the hydrogen market attractiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansilla, C.; Avril, S.; Imbach, J.; Le Duigou, A.

    2012-01-01

    Hydrogen is usually presented as a promising energy carrier that has a major role to play in low carbon mobility, through the use of fuel cells. However, such a market is not expected in the short term. In the meantime, hydrogen may also contribute to reduce carbon emissions in diverse sectors: oil refining, low carbon mobility through the industrial deployment of advanced bio-fuels, natural gas consumption, and methanol production. According to the targeted market, objective costs are rather different; and so is the reachable mitigated CO 2 amount. This paper assesses the dynamics of these markets' attractiveness, in order to provide target costs for CO 2 -free hydrogen production. The potential of the markets of hydrogen as a fuel and hydrogen for the biomass-to-liquid production is highlighted, as they could represent significant volumes by 2050, as well as interesting perspectives for CO 2 emission reduction. However the targets are very sensitive to the CO 2 price, thus highlighting the requirement for economic instruments in order to facilitate the penetration of such technologies. Hydrogen is then highlighted as a key player of the energy system in the years to come, as the connection of the energy and mobility sectors. (authors)

  10. The Comparison of Hydrotreated Vegetable Oils With Respect to Petroleum Derived Fuels and the Effects of Transient Plasma Ignition in a Compression-Ignition Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Content per Combustion J FAME Fatty Acid Methyl Ester FMEP Friction Mean Effective Pressure PSI or Bar FT Fischer-Tropsch h Heat...recently, algae-derived oils. Biodiesel has gained popularity in North America over the past decade, but the ester content of Fatty Acid Methyl ... Ester ( FAME ) fuel creates both cold weather and water- based operational issues. The Fischer-Tropsch (FT) process produces liquid fuels from “syngas,” a

  11. Partial Oxidation Gas Turbine for Power and Hydrogen Co-Production from Coal-Derived Fuel in Industrial Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph Rabovitser

    2009-06-30

    , pressures, and volumetric flows practically identical. In POGT mode, the turbine specific power (turbine net power per lb mass flow from expander exhaust) is twice the value of the onventional turbine. POGT based IGCC plant conceptual design was developed and major components have been identified. Fuel flexible fluid bed gasifier, and novel POGT unit are the key components of the 100 MW IGCC plant for co producing electricity, hydrogen and/or yngas. Plant performances were calculated for bituminous coal and oxygen blown versions. Various POGT based, natural gas fueled systems for production of electricity only, coproduction of electricity and hydrogen, and co production of electricity and syngas for gas to liquid and hemical processes were developed and evaluated. Performance calculations for several versions of these systems were conducted. 64.6 % LHV efficiency for fuel to electricity in combined cycle was achieved. Such a high efficiency arise from using of syngas from POGT exhaust s a fuel that can provide required temperature level for superheated steam generation in HRSG, as well as combustion air preheating. Studies of POGT materials and combustion instabilities in POR were conducted and results reported. Preliminary market assessment was performed, and recommendations for POGT systems applications in oil industry were defined. POGT technology is ready to proceed to the engineering prototype stage, which is recommended.

  12. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), General Electric Phase 1. Volume 1: Executive summary. [using coal or coal derived fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corman, J. C.

    1976-01-01

    A data base for the comparison of advanced energy conversion systems for utility applications using coal or coal-derived fuels was developed. Estimates of power plant performance (efficiency), capital cost, cost of electricity, natural resource requirements, and environmental intrusion characteristics were made for ten advanced conversion systems. Emphasis was on the energy conversion system in the context of a base loaded utility power plant. All power plant concepts were premised on meeting emission standard requirements. A steam power plant (3500 psig, 1000 F) with a conventional coal-burning furnace-boiler was analyzed as a basis for comparison. Combined cycle gas/steam turbine system results indicated competitive efficiency and a lower cost of electricity compared to the reference steam plant. The Open-Cycle MHD system results indicated the potential for significantly higher efficiency than the reference steam plant but with a higher cost of electricity.

  13. Combustion-derived substances in deep basins of Puget Sound: Historical inputs from fossil fuel and biomass combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuo, Li-Jung; Louchouarn, Patrick; Herbert, Bruce E.; Brandenberger, Jill M.; Wade, Terry L.; Crecelius, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Reconstructions of 250 years historical inputs of two distinct types of black carbon (soot/graphitic black carbon (GBC) and char-BC) were conducted on sediment cores from two basins of the Puget Sound, WA. Signatures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were also used to support the historical reconstructions of BC to this system. Down-core maxima in GBC and combustion-derived PAHs occurred in the 1940s in the cores from the Puget Sound Main Basin, whereas in Hood Canal such peak was observed in the 1970s, showing basin-specific differences in inputs of combustion byproducts. This system showed relatively higher inputs from softwood combustion than the northeastern U.S. The historical variations in char-BC concentrations were consistent with shifts in climate indices, suggesting an influence of climate oscillations on wildfire events. Environmental loading of combustion byproducts thus appears as a complex function of urbanization, fuel usage, combustion technology, environmental policies, and climate conditions. - Research highlights: → We reconstructed the historical inputs of GBC and char-BC in Puget Sound, WA, USA. → Temporal trend of GBC was linked to human activities (urbanization, fuel usage). → Temporal trend of char-BC was more likely driven by regional climate oscillations. → Historical trends of combustion byproducts show the geographical heterogeneities. - Temporal trend of GBC was directly linked to human activities, while the input of char-BC in Puget Sound was more likely driven by regional climate oscillations.

  14. Particulate emissions from a stationary engine fueled with ultra-low-sulfur diesel and waste-cooking-oil-derived biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betha, Raghu; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

    2011-10-01

    Stationary diesel engines, especially diesel generators, are increasingly being used in both developing countries and developed countries because of increased power demand. Emissions from such engines can have adverse effects on the environment and public health. In this study, particulate emissions from a domestic stationary diesel generator running on ultra-low-sulfur diesel (ULSD) and biodiesel derived from waste cooking oil were characterized for different load conditions. Results indicated a reduction in particulate matter (PM) mass and number emissions while switching diesel to biodiesel. With increase in engine load, it was observed that particle mass increased, although total particle counts decreased for all the fuels. The reduction in total number concentration at higher loads was, however, dependent on percentage of biodiesel in the diesel-biodiesel blend. For pure biodiesel (B100), the reduction in PM emissions for full load compared to idle mode was around 9%, whereas for ULSD the reduction was 26%. A large fraction of ultrafine particles (UFPs) was found in the emissions from biodiesel compared to ULSD. Nearly 90% of total particle concentration in biodiesel emissions comprised ultrafine particles. Particle peak diameter shifted from a smaller to a lower diameter with increase in biodiesel percentage in the fuel mixture.

  15. Biological Production of a Hydrocarbon Fuel Intermediate Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) from a Process Relevant Lignocellulosic Derived Sugar (Poster)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, W.; Mittal, A.; Mohagheghi, A.; Johnson, D. K.

    2014-04-01

    PHAs are synthesized by many microorganisms to serve as intracellular carbon storage molecules. In some bacterial strains, PHB can account for up to 80% of cell mass. In addition to its application in the packaging sector, PHB also has great potential as an intermediate in the production of hydrocarbon fuels. PHB can be thermally depolymerized and decarboxylated to propene which can be upgraded to hydrocarbon fuels via commercial oligomerization technologies. Cupriavidus necator is the microorganism that has been most extensively studied and used for PHB production on an industrial scale; However the substrates used for producing PHB are mainly fructose, glucose, sucrose, fatty acids, glycerol, etc., which are expensive. In this study, we demonstrate production of PHB from a process relevant lignocellulosic derived sugar stream, i.e., saccharified slurry from pretreated corn stover. The strain was first investigated in shake flasks for its ability to utilize glucose, xylose and acetate. In addition, the strain was also grown on pretreated lignocellulose hydrolyzate slurry and evaluated in terms of cell growth, sugar utilization, PHB accumulation, etc. The mechanism of inhibition in the toxic hydrolysate generated by the pretreatment and saccharification process of biomass, was also studied.

  16. The competitiveness of synthetic natural gas as a propellant in the Swedish fuel market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohseni, Farzad; Görling, Martin; Alvfors, Per

    2013-01-01

    The road transport sector today is almost exclusively dependent on fossil fuels. Consequently, it will need to face a radical change if it aims to switch from a fossil-based system to a renewable-based system. Even though there are many promising technologies under development, they must also be economically viable to be implemented. This paper studies the economic feasibility of synthesizing natural gas through methanation of carbon dioxide and hydrogen from water electrolysis. It is shown that the main influences for profitability are electricity prices, synthetic natural gas (SNG) selling prices and that the by-products from the process are sold. The base scenario generates a 16% annual return on investment assuming that SNG can be sold at the same price as petrol. A general number based on set conditions was that the SNG must be sold at a price about 2.6 times higher per kWh than when bought in form of electricity. The sensitivity analysis indicates that the running costs weigh more heavily than the yearly investment cost and off-peak production can therefore still be economically profitable with only a moderate reduction of electricity price. The calculations and prices are based on Swedish prerequisites but are applicable to other countries and regions. - Highlights: ► The production cost for synthetic natural gas corresponds to the current biogas price. ► High return on capital if the synthetic natural gas could be sold for the same price as petrol. ► Production can cost-effectively be run off-peak hence electricity is the major cost. ► This study is based on Swedish prerequisites but is applicable on other regions.

  17. Post-marketing assessment of content and efficacy of preservatives in artemisinin-derived antimalarial dry suspensions for paediatric use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plaizier-Vercammen Jacqueline

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Artemisinin-derivative formulations are now widely used to treat falciparum malaria. However, the dry powder suspensions developed for children are few and/or are of poor quality. In addition to the active compound, the presence of a suitable preservative in these medicines is essential. In this study, an evaluation of the preservative content and efficacy in some dry suspensions available on the Kenyan market was performed. Method UV spectrophotometry was used to identify the preservatives in each sample while HPLC-UV was used for quantification. After reconstitution of the powders in water, the dissolution of the preservatives was followed for 7 days. Antimicrobial efficacy of the preservatives was assessed by conducting a preservative efficacy test (PET following the European pharmacopoeia standards. Results Four different preservatives were identified namely methylparahydroxybenzoate (MP, propylparahydroxybenzoate (PP, benzoic acid and sorbic acid. MP and PP were identified in Artesiane® (artemether 300 mg/100 ml, Alaxin® (dihydroartemisinin 160 mg/80 ml andGvither ® (artemether 300 mg/100 ml respectively. Sorbic acid was presentin Artenam® (artemether 180 mg/60 ml while benzoic acid was identified in Santecxin® (dihydroartemisinin 160 mg/80 ml andArtexin® (dihydroartemisinin 160 mg/80 ml respectively. Cotecxin® (dihydroartemisinin 160 mg/80 ml did not contain any of the above preservatives. After reconstitution in water, preservativesin 50%(3/6 of the products did not completely dissolve and the PET results revealed that only Artenam® and Gvither® met the requirements for antimicrobial efficacy. The other products did not conform. Conclusion These results show that paediatric antimalarial dry powder formulations on the market may contain ineffective or incorrect amounts of preservatives. This is a potential risk to the patient. Studies conducted on the dry powder suspensions should include the analysis of both

  18. Radiological safety aspects in the fabrication of mixed oxide fuel elements. [Derived working limits in air and water for plutonium, enriched uranium and their mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnamurthi, T.N.; Janardhanan, S.; Soman, S.D. (Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Health Physics Div.)

    The problems of radiological safety in the fabrication of (U, Pu)O/sub 2/ fuel assemblies for fast reactors utilising high exposure plutonium are discussed. Derived working limits for plutonium as a function of the burn-up of RAPS (Rajasthan Atomic Power Station) fuel, external gamma and neutron exposures from feed product batches, finished fuel pins and assemblies are presented. Shielding requirements for the various glove box operations are also indicated. In general, high exposure plutonium handling calls for remote fabrication and automation at various stages would play a key role in minimising exposures to personnel in a large production plant.

  19. Release of bisphenol A and its derivatives from orthodontic adhesive systems available on the European market as a potential health risk factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrad Małkiewicz

    2015-02-01

    1 In conditions of the current experiment it was demonstrated that most of the assessed orthodontic adhesive resins available on the European market and released into the outside environment – biologically harmful bisphenol A or its derivatives, posing a potential threat to the patients’ health. 2 Release of BPA and its derivatives into aqueous solutions is the highest in the early stages of sample incubation.

  20. Evaluation of the uranium market and its consequences in the strategy of a nuclear fuel supplier that is also a uranium producer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esteves, R.G.

    2005-01-01

    On January 2005, the uranium spot market price reached the value of $21.00/lbU3O8. One month before, at the end of December, the average price was $20.70/lbU3O8 and in November the spot price registered $20.50. When we review this abstract, on July 2005, the price has reached $30.00/lbU3O8. In 1984, the uranium spot price dropped below the twenties and remained so reaching meanwhile even one-digit values, even considering that the uranium offer in this period was always below the demand. The main reason for that distortion in the market was and still is, the interference of the developing countries governments after the end of the cold war The Industrias Nucleares do Brasil - INB is in an odd situation in the market of fuel suppliers due to being also a uranium producer and in short future will also be an enrichment services supplier. This peculiar position brings additional advantages due to the flexibility to play with the uranium costs versus tail assay to optimize its nuclear fuel costs. That odd position, equivalent only in the market to AREVA, allows INB to exchange uranium by SWU and vice versa according to its uranium cost (not market sell price) and in the future to the SWU's costs obtaining a better margin that can not be reached by other fuel suppliers. In the first part of this paper it is evaluated, based on the recent market information, the consequences in the 2004 uranium spot price, expected to be more emphasized during 2005. This paper also evaluate the market mechanisms for expecting the price to cross the $40/lbU3O8 in short time The market supply mechanisms used up to now to fulfil the market deficit may be interrupted in case the developing countries governments stop the availability of the non civil uranium reserves from its stockpile. Different hypotheses for supplying the primary uranium deficit in this last case are analyzed in this work and evaluated its consequences. The solution of reducing the actual tails assay used aiming at

  1. Governmental interventions in the energy market. Study of the Dutch level playing field for fossil fuels, renewable sources, nuclear energy and energy conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Visser, E.; Winkel, T.; De Jager, D.; De Vos, R.; Blom, M.; Afman, M.

    2011-06-01

    This study has made an inventory of 53 governmental interventions in the Dutch energy market. Moreover, the consequences for the playing field for fossil fuels, renewable sources, nuclear energy and energy saving have been quantified. It shows that the government still stimulates the use of energy and fossil fuels more than it stimulates use of renewable energy sources. Policy that focuses on decreasing the price differences between sustainable and fossil should therefore focus on the phase-out of this support and subsequently on bridging the remaining financial gap. [nl

  2. DESIGNING AND OPPORTUNITY FUEL WITH BIOMASS AND TIRE-DERIVED FUEL FOR COFIRING AT WILLOW ISLAND GENERATING STATION AND COFIRING SAWDUST WITH COAL AT ALBRIGHT GENERATING STATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Payette; D. Tillman

    2004-06-01

    During the period July 1, 2000-March 31, 2004, Allegheny Energy Supply Co., LLC (Allegheny) conducted an extensive demonstration of woody biomass cofiring at its Willow Island and Albright Generating Stations. This demonstration, cofunded by USDOE and Allegheny, and supported by the Biomass Interest Group (BIG) of EPRI, evaluated the impacts of sawdust cofiring in both cyclone boilers and tangentially-fired pulverized coal boilers. The cofiring in the cyclone boiler--Willow Island Generating Station Unit No.2--evaluated the impacts of sawdust alone, and sawdust blended with tire-derived fuel. The biomass was blended with the coal on its way to the combustion system. The cofiring in the pulverized coal boiler--Albright Generating Station--evaluated the impact of cofiring on emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) when the sawdust was injected separately into the furnace. The demonstration of woody biomass cofiring involved design, construction, and testing at each site. The results addressed impacts associated with operational issues--capacity, efficiency, and operability--as well as formation and control of airborne emissions such as NO{sub x}, sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}2), opacity, and mercury. The results of this extensive program are detailed in this report.

  3. Development of a market penetration forecasting model for Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles considering infrastructure and cost reduction effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sang Yong; Kim, Jong Wook; Lee, Duk Hee

    2011-01-01

    In order to cope with climate change, the development and deployment of Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles (HFCVs) is becoming more important. In this study, we developed a forecasting model for HFCVs based on the generalized Bass diffusion model and a simulation model using system dynamics. Through the developed model, we could forecast that the saturation of HFCVs in Korea can be moved up 12 years compared with the US. A sensitivity analysis on external variables such as price reduction rates of HFCVs and number of hydrogen refueling stations is also conducted. The results of this study can give insights on the effects of external variables on the market penetration of HFCVs, and the developed model can also be applied to other studies in analyzing the diffusion effects of HFCVs. - Highlights: → A forecasting model for HFCVs was developed using the generalized Bass diffusion model. → A simulation model using system dynamics was also developed. → The empirical study shows that the infrastructure is an important factor to the initial purchase. → The results of this study can promote research related to the diffusion of innovation.

  4. Blemished image? Results of an Emnid study into the effects of recent spent fuel cask transports and the deregulation of the energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinzmann, U.

    1998-01-01

    Have the radioactivity leaks from spent nuclear fuel casks conveyed to waste management sites in Germany left a stain on the image of the electric power companies? The Bielefeld-based Emnid Institute, unit for energy market research, carried out an opinion poll among the population late in May and again in mid-June 1998, in oder to find out whether the leaking casks have blemished the image of the nuclear power industry. Another aspect inquired was the expectations of the population in connection with the deregulation of the electric power market. (orig./CB) [de

  5. Fuel consumption and associated emissions from seagoing ships at berth derived from an on-board survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulskotte, J.H.J.; Denier van der Gon, H.A.C.

    2010-01-01

    A methodology is presented to estimate the emissions of ships at berth based on their actual fuel consumption and the fuel quality. Accurate estimates of emissions from ships at berth demand reliable knowledge of the fuel consumption while at berth and associated fuel characteristics. However,

  6. Theoretical Derivation of Simplified Evaluation Models for the First Peak of a Criticality Accident in Nuclear Fuel Solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Yasushi

    2000-01-01

    In a reprocessing facility where nuclear fuel solutions are processed, one could observe a series of power peaks, with the highest peak right after a criticality accident. The criticality alarm system (CAS) is designed to detect the first power peak and warn workers near the reacting material by sounding alarms immediately. Consequently, exposure of the workers would be minimized by an immediate and effective evacuation. Therefore, in the design and installation of a CAS, it is necessary to estimate the magnitude of the first power peak and to set up the threshold point where the CAS initiates the alarm. Furthermore, it is necessary to estimate the level of potential exposure of workers in the case of accidents so as to decide the appropriateness of installing a CAS for a given compartment.A simplified evaluation model to estimate the minimum scale of the first power peak during a criticality accident is derived by theoretical considerations only for use in the design of a CAS to set up the threshold point triggering the alarm signal. Another simplified evaluation model is derived in the same way to estimate the maximum scale of the first power peak for use in judging the appropriateness for installing a CAS. Both models are shown to have adequate margin in predicting the minimum and maximum scale of criticality accidents by comparing their results with French CRiticality occurring ACcidentally (CRAC) experimental data

  7. Comparative techno-economic analysis and process design for indirect liquefaction pathways to distillate-range fuels via biomass-derived oxygenated intermediates upgrading: Liquid Transportation Fuel Production via Biomass-derived Oxygenated Intermediates Upgrading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Eric C. D. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO USA; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Talmadge, Michael [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO USA; Dutta, Abhijit [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO USA; Jones, Susanne [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Gray, Michel [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Dagle, Robert [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Padmaperuma, Asanga [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Gerber, Mark [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Sahir, Asad H. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO USA; Tao, Ling [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO USA; Zhang, Yanan [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO USA

    2016-09-27

    This paper presents a comparative techno-economic analysis (TEA) of five conversion pathways from biomass to gasoline-, jet-, and diesel-range hydrocarbons via indirect liquefaction with specific focus on pathways utilizing oxygenated intermediates. The four emerging pathways of interest are compared with one conventional pathway (Fischer-Tropsch) for the production of the hydrocarbon blendstocks. The processing steps of the four emerging pathways include: biomass to syngas via indirect gasification, gas cleanup, conversion of syngas to alcohols/oxygenates followed by conversion of alcohols/oxygenates to hydrocarbon blendstocks via dehydration, oligomerization, and hydrogenation. Conversion of biomass-derived syngas to oxygenated intermediates occurs via three different pathways, producing: 1) mixed alcohols over a MoS2 catalyst, 2) mixed oxygenates (a mixture of C2+ oxygenated compounds, predominantly ethanol, acetic acid, acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate) using an Rh-based catalyst, and 3) ethanol from syngas fermentation. This is followed by the conversion of oxygenates/alcohols to fuel-range olefins in two approaches: 1) mixed alcohols/ethanol to 1-butanol rich mixture via Guerbet reaction, followed by alcohol dehydration, oligomerization, and hydrogenation, and 2) mixed oxygenates/ethanol to isobutene rich mixture and followed by oligomerization and hydrogenation. The design features a processing capacity of 2,000 tonnes/day (2,205 short tons) of dry biomass. The minimum fuel selling prices (MFSPs) for the four developing pathways range from $3.40 to $5.04 per gasoline-gallon equivalent (GGE), in 2011 US dollars. Sensitivity studies show that MFSPs can be improved with co-product credits and are comparable to the commercial Fischer-Tropsch benchmark ($3.58/GGE). Overall, this comparative TEA study documents potential economics for the developmental biofuel pathways via mixed oxygenates.

  8. 2010 Manufacturing Readiness Assessment Update to the 2008 Report for Fuel Cell Stacks and Systems for the Backup Power and Materials Handling Equipment Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheeler, D.; Ulsh, M.

    2012-08-01

    In 2008, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), under contract to the US Department of Energy (DOE), conducted a manufacturing readiness assessment (MRA) of fuel cell systems and fuel cell stacks for back-up power and material handling applications (MHE). To facilitate the MRA, manufacturing readiness levels (MRL) were defined that were based on the Technology Readiness Levels previously established by the US Department of Energy (DOE). NREL assessed the extensive existing hierarchy of MRLs developed by Department of Defense (DoD) and other Federal entities, and developed a MRL scale adapted to the needs of the Fuel Cell Technologies Program (FCTP) and to the status of the fuel cell industry. The MRL ranking of a fuel cell manufacturing facility increases as the manufacturing capability transitions from laboratory prototype development through Low Rate Initial Production to Full Rate Production. DOE can use MRLs to address the economic and institutional risks associated with a ramp-up in polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell production. In 2010, NREL updated this assessment, including additional manufacturers, an assessment of market developments since the original report, and a comparison of MRLs between 2008 and 2010.

  9. Marketing marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. Karel Jan van Alsem

    2013-01-01

    In deze installatierede betoogt Karel Jan Alsem dat marketing een grotere strategische rol in organisaties zou moeten krijgen. Want marketing is bij uitstek de verbinding tussen klantwensen en het DNA van een organisatie. Doordat merken gemiddeld voor mensen niet heel belangrijk zijn, is goede

  10. The relevance of imports to the liberalization of the fuel market; O papel das importacoes na liberalizacao do mercado de combustiveis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraes, Ricardo Kalil; Saintive, Marcelo Barbosa [Ministerio da Fazenda, Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Kuhn, Ernani Lustosa [Agencia Nacional de Transportes Terrestres (ANTT), Brasilia, DF (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    In this draft, we discuss the play of importation in the Brazilian fuel market. After two years, one would be allowed to state how effective importation is and we analyze the structural restriction in the sector. For that, we illustrate these ideas with the theoretical pricing for the gap between import parity and export parity, with data for the gasoline and heating oil domestic prices, with the quantum of importation. For one hand, this simple analyze not allow the rejection of the import parity pricing. For the other hand, we suggest this market maybe not contestable by importation. Also, it seems that importation would not be enough for eliminate anti competitive conduct in this market. (author)

  11. Effects of subchronic inhalation exposure of rats to emissions from a diesel engine burning soybean oil-derived biodiesel fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, G L; Hobbs, C H; Blair, L F; Barr, E B; Hahn, F F; Jaramillo, R J; Kubatko, J E; March, T H; White, R K; Krone, J R; Ménache, M G; Nikula, K J; Mauderly, J L; Van Gerpen, J; Merceica, M D; Zielinska, B; Stankowski, L; Burling, K; Howell, S

    2002-10-01

    There is increasing interest in diesel fuels derived from plant oils or animal fats ("biodiesel"), but little information on the toxicity of biodiesel emissions other than bacterial mutagenicity. F344 rats were exposed by inhalation 6 h/day, 5 days/wk for 13 wk to 1 of 3 dilutions of emissions from a diesel engine burning 100% soybean oil-derived fuel, or to clean air as controls. Whole emissions were diluted to nominal NO(x) concentrations of 5, 25, or 50 ppm, corresponding to approximately 0.04, 0.2, and 0.5 mg particles/m(3), respectively. Biologically significant, exposure-related effects were limited to the lung, were greater in females than in males, and were observed primarily at the highest exposure level. There was a dose-related increase in the numbers of alveolar macrophages and the numbers of particles in the macrophages, as expected from repeated exposure, but no neutrophil response even at the highest exposure level. The macrophage response was reduced 28 days after cessation of the exposure. Among the high-level females, the group mean lung weight/body weight ratio was increased, and minimal, multifocal bronchiolar metaplasia of alveolar ducts was observed in 4 of 30 rats. Lung weights were not significantly increased, and metaplasia of the alveolar ducts was not observed in males. An increase in particle-laden macrophages was the only exposure-related finding in lungs at the intermediate and low levels, with fewer macrophages and fewer particles per macrophage at the low level. Alveolar histiocytosis was observed in a few rats in both exposed and control groups. There were statistically significant, but minor and not consistently exposure-related, differences in body weight, nonpulmonary organ weights, serum chemistry, and glial fibrillary acidic protein in the brain. There were no significant exposure-related effects on survival, clinical signs, feed consumption, ocular toxicity, hematology, neurohistology, micronuclei in bone marrow, sister

  12. Lignin-derived electrospun carbon nanofiber mats with supercritically deposited Ag nanoparticles for oxygen reduction reaction in alkaline fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, Chuilin; Kolla, Praveen; Zhao, Yong; Fong, Hao; Smirnova, Alevtina L.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Electrospun carbon nanofiber mats were prepared from a natural product of lignin. • The freestanding mats were flexible with BET specific surface area of ∼583 m 2 /g. • The mats were surface-deposited with Ag nanoparticles via the scCO 2 method. • Novel electrocatalytic systems of Ag/ECNFs exhibited high activities towards ORR. - Abstract: Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) (11, 15, and 25 wt.%) were deposited on the surface of the freestanding and mechanically flexible mats consisting of lignin-derived electrospun carbon nanofibers (ECNFs) by the supercritical CO 2 method followed by the thermal treated at 180 °C. The electrochemical activity of Ag/ECNFs electrocatalyst systems towards oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) was studied in 0.1 M KOH aqueous solution using the rotating disk/rotating ring disk electrode (RDE/RRDE) technique. The SEM, TEM, and XRD results indicated that, the spherical AgNPs were uniformly distributed on the ECNF surface with sizes in the range of 2-10 nm. The electrocatalytic results revealed that, all of the Ag/ECNFs systems exhibited high activity in ORR and demonstrated close-to-theoretical four-electron pathway. In particular, the mass activity of 15 wt.% Ag/ECNFs system was the highest (119 mA mg −1 ), exceeding that of HiSPEC 4100™ commercial Pt/C catalyst (98 mA mg −1 ). This study suggested that the lignin-derived ECNF mats surface-deposited with AgNPs would be promising as cost-effective and highly efficient electrocatalyst for ORR in alkaline fuel cells

  13. Studies of the combustion of coal/refuse derived fuels using thermogravimetric-Fourier transform infrared-mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Huagang; Li, Jigui; Lloyd, W.G.

    1995-01-01

    According to a report of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 'Characterization of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) in the United States', the total MSW produced in the U.S. increased from 179 million tons in 1988 to 195 million tons in 1990. The EPA predicted that the country would produce about 216 million tons of garbage in the year 2000. The amount of waste generated and the rapidly declining availability of sanitary landfills has forced most municipalities to evaluate alternative waste management technologies for reducing the volume of waste sent to landfills. The fraction of MSW that is processed by such technologies as separation and recycling, composting, and waste-to-energy was forecast to increase from a few percent today to 30-40% by the year 2000. Waste-to-energy conversion of MSW can appear to be attractive because of the energy recovered, the economic value of recycled materials, and the cost savings derived from reduced landfill usage. However, extra care needs to be taken in burning MSW or refuse-derived fuel (RDF) to optimize the operating conditions of a combustor so that the combustion takes place in an environmentally acceptable manner. For instance, polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) have been found in the precipitator fly ash and flue gas of some incinerator facilities in the United States and Europe. The amount of PCDDs and PCDFs occurs only in the parts-per-billion to parts-per-trillion range, but these chlorinated organics exhibit very high toxicity (LD 50 < 10 μg/Kg). The compound 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin has been found to be acnegenic, carcinogenic, and teratogenic. This has slowed or even stopped the construction and operation of waste-to-energy plants

  14. Studies of the combustion of coal/refuse derived fuels using thermogravimetric-Fourier transform infrared-mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Huagang; Li, Jigui; Lloyd, W.G.

    1995-11-01

    According to a report of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), `Characterization of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) in the United States`, the total MSW produced in the U.S. increased from 179 million tons in 1988 to 195 million tons in 1990. The EPA predicted that the country would produce about 216 million tons of garbage in the year 2000. The amount of waste generated and the rapidly declining availability of sanitary landfills has forced most municipalities to evaluate alternative waste management technologies for reducing the volume of waste sent to landfills. The fraction of MSW that is processed by such technologies as separation and recycling, composting, and waste-to-energy was forecast to increase from a few percent today to 30-40% by the year 2000. Waste-to-energy conversion of MSW can appear to be attractive because of the energy recovered, the economic value of recycled materials, and the cost savings derived from reduced landfill usage. However, extra care needs to be taken in burning MSW or refuse-derived fuel (RDF) to optimize the operating conditions of a combustor so that the combustion takes place in an environmentally acceptable manner. For instance, polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) have been found in the precipitator fly ash and flue gas of some incinerator facilities in the United States and Europe. The amount of PCDDs and PCDFs occurs only in the parts-per-billion to parts-per-trillion range, but these chlorinated organics exhibit very high toxicity (LD{sub 50} < 10 {mu}g/Kg). The compound 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin has been found to be acnegenic, carcinogenic, and teratogenic. This has slowed or even stopped the construction and operation of waste-to-energy plants.

  15. Market Survey Turkey. Electricity Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-12-01

    The present market survey presents the Turkish power market and derives business opportunities and prospects for Dutch trade and industry. This market survey has been carried out for the following four, from time to time overlapping, sectors that have been identified by EVD as potential opportunities for Dutch small and medium-sized enterprises (SME): renewable energy, energy efficiency, electricity generation, electricity distribution

  16. Research and evaluation of biomass resources/conversion/utilization systems (market/experimental analysis for development of a data base for a fuels from biomass model. Volume I. Biomass allocation model. Technical progress report for the period ending September 30, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Y.K.; Chen, H.T.; Helm, R.W.; Nelson, E.T.; Shields K.J.

    1980-01-01

    A biomass allocation model has been developed to show the most profitable combination of biomass feedstocks thermochemical conversion processes, and fuel products to serve the seasonal conditions in a regional market. This optimization model provides a tool for quickly calculating the most profitable biomass missions from a large number of potential biomass missions. Other components of the system serve as a convenient storage and retrieval mechanism for biomass marketing and thermochemical conversion processing data. The system can be accessed through the use of a computer terminal, or it could be adapted to a portable micro-processor. A User's Manual for the system has been included in Appendix A of the report. The validity of any biomass allocation solution provided by the allocation model is dependent on the accuracy of the data base. The initial data base was constructed from values obtained from the literature, and, consequently, as more current thermochemical conversion processing and manufacturing costs and efficiencies become available, the data base should be revised. Biomass derived fuels included in the data base are the following: medium Btu gas low Btu gas, substitute natural gas, ammonia, methanol, electricity, gasoline, and fuel oil. The market sectors served by the fuels include: residential, electric utility, chemical (industrial), and transportation. Regional/seasonal costs and availabilities and heating values for 61 woody and non-woody biomass species are included. The study has included four regions in the United States which were selected because there was both an availability of biomass and a commercial demand for the derived fuels: Region I: NY, WV, PA; Region II: GA, AL, MS; Region III: IN, IL, IA; and Region IV: OR, WA.

  17. Nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangwani, Saloni; Chakrabortty, Sumita

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear fuel is a material that can be consumed to derive nuclear energy, by analogy to chemical fuel that is burned for energy. Nuclear fuels are the most dense sources of energy available. Nuclear fuel in a nuclear fuel cycle can refer to the fuel itself, or to physical objects (for example bundles composed of fuel rods) composed of the fuel material, mixed with structural, neutron moderating, or neutron reflecting materials. Long-lived radioactive waste from the back end of the fuel cycle is especially relevant when designing a complete waste management plan for SNF. When looking at long-term radioactive decay, the actinides in the SNF have a significant influence due to their characteristically long half-lives. Depending on what a nuclear reactor is fueled with, the actinide composition in the SNF will be different. The following paper will also include the uses. advancements, advantages, disadvantages, various processes and behavior of nuclear fuels

  18. Identification of prenatal toxic components of complex PAH mixtures derived from fossil fuel combustion employing rodent embryo culture systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irvin, T.R.; Akgerman, A.

    1991-01-01

    Many adverse health effects caused by combustion-generated toxins have been recognized for some time. Acute pulmonary toxicity among urban populations has been repeatedly recorded during periods of high smoke, soot, and organo-particulate pollution. The combustion of coals and petroleum-derived fuels results in emission of particulate and organic vapor-phase components to the atmosphere. Isolation of these particle-absorbed compounds and subsequent toxicological testing has further indicated the importance of chronic, low-level exposure to airborne combustion-generated toxins in the etiology of many forms of human cancer; particulate phases of these emissions have been found to contain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heterocyclic organic compounds, absorbed onto the particle matrix, which possess potent carcinogenic and mutagenic properties. In this paper, the authors define a postimplantation rat embryo culture system constructed to identify prenatal toxic components of complex polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon soots. Employing this culture system, we also describe its application to identify prenatal toxic components of diesel soot particulates

  19. Comparative Study on Characteristics and Potential of Rice Straws and Dry Leaves as a Binder in Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zulhafizal Othman; Lias, K.; Hashim, N.H.; Clement, F.N.

    2013-01-01

    Integrated waste management systems are one of the greatest challenges in order to develop the green environment. In this research, two types of binder were chosen in producing of Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) which is rice straws and dry leaves. The objective of the research is to identify which types of binder that can give the optimum performance. This two binder was mixed with paper and plastic waste with controlled mixing ratio which is 3:1 (ratio 1), 3:1.5(ratio 2) and 3:2 (ratio 3). In order to identify the optimum ratio of RDF, 45 number of samples was prepared and their properties such as moisture content, carbon content, sulfur content, chlorine content and calorific value were evaluated. Result indicated that samples with rice straw as a binder give the optimum result with the ratio of 3:1. The optimum values of the carbon content is 50.9 %, moisture content is 5.5 %, chlorine content is 0.0 %, sulfur content is 2.1 % and calorific value is 29.0 MJ/ kg. Hence, rice straws shows a great potential to be used as binder in production of RDF. (author)

  20. Production and characterization refuse derived fuel (RDF) from high organic and moisture contents of municipal solid waste (MSW)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dianda, P.; Mahidin; Munawar, E.

    2018-03-01

    Many cities in developing countries is facing a serious problems to dealing with huge municipal solid waste (MSW) generated. The main approach to manage MSW is causes environmental impact associated with the leachate and landfill gas emissions. On the other hand, the energy available also limited by rapid growth of population and economic development due to shortage of the natural resource. In this study, the potential utilized of MSW to produce refuse derived fuel (RDF) was investigate. The RDF was produced with various organic waste content. Then, the RDF was subjected to laboratory analysis to determine its characteristic including the calorific value. The results shows the moisture content was increased by increasing organic waste content, while the calorific value was found 17-36 MJ/kg. The highest calorific value was about 36 MJ/kg obtained at RDF with 40% organic waste content. This results indicated that the RDF can be use to substitute coal in main burning process and calcinations of cement industry.

  1. Potensi Material Sampah Combustible pada Zona Pasif TPA Jatibarang Semarang sebagai Bahan Baku RDF (Refuse Derived Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Natasya Hutabarat

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak: Peningkatan jumlah timbulan sampah menyebabkan meningkatnya kebutuhan lahan pada TPA Jatibarang. Untuk menghindari terjadinya kekurangan lahan perlu dilakukan penanganan pada sampah yakni dengan mengubah sampah menjadi sumber energi seperti bahan baku RDF (Refused Derived Fuel. RDF merupakan salah satu teknik penanganan sampah dengan mengubah sampah menjadi sesuatu yang bermanfaat yaitu bahan bakar. Sampah tersebut dapat dimanfaatkan menjadi bahan baku RDF dengan cara menganalisis nilai kalor yang dihasilkan. Untuk menganalisis nilai kalor pada sampah combustible zona pasif TPA Jatibarang dapat dilakukan dengan cara pengujian sampel sebanyak 100 gram dengan alat bom kalorimeter. Sampel tersebut diambil pada kedalaman 0-3 m dengan metode random sampling. Kemudian akan didapat nilai kalor tinggi yang dihasilkan sampel tersebut. Nilai Kalor Tinggi yang dihasilkan sampel tersebut sebesar 5,25 kkal/ton pada kedalaman 0-1 m, 5,76 kkal/ton pada kedalaman 1-2 m dan 6,31 kkal/ton pada kedalaman 2-3 m. Nilai kalor tinggi yang dihasilkan sampah combustible tersebut menunjukkan bahwa semakin rendah kedalaman sampah maka akan semakin tinggi nilai kalor yang dihasilkan dan sampah tersebut berpotensi sebagai bahan baku RDF.

  2. Effects of low-temperature pretreatment on enhancing properties of refuse-derived fuel via microwave irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhen; Wang, Han-Qing; Zhou, Yue-Yun; Zhang, Xiao-Dong; Liu, Jian-Wen

    2017-07-01

    The present study focuses on pretreatment of enhancing the properties of refuse-derived fuel (RDF) via low-temperature microwave irradiation. These improved properties include lower chlorine content, a more porous surface structure and better combustion characteristics. In this study, low-temperature microwave irradiation was carried out in a modified microwave apparatus and the range of temperature was set to be 220-300℃. We found that the microwave absorbability of RDF was enhanced after being partly carbonized. Moreover, with the increasing of the final temperature, the organochlorine removal ratio was greatly increased to 80% and the content of chlorine was dramatically decreased to an extremely low level. It was also interesting to find that the chlorine of RDF was mainly released as HCl rather than organic chloride volatiles. The finding is just the same as the polyvinyl chloride pyrolysis process. In addition, pores and channels emerged during the modifying operation and the modified RDF has better combustibility and combustion stability than traditional RDF. This work revealed that low-temperature modification of RDF via microwave irradiation is significant for enhancing the quality of RDF and avoiding HCl erosion of equipment substantially.

  3. Valuing call options on single stock futures: Does the put-call parity relationship hold in the South African derivatives market?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biebuyck, A.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Research has shown that violations of put-call parity do occur and that these violations present an investor with opportunities to profit from arbitrage deals. Mispricing may lead to significant superior returns and maximisation of shareholders’ wealth if found and acted upon in a timely manner. This study attempts to determine whether this mispricing of financial derivatives is present in the South African derivatives market. This will be achieved through the valuation of options on single stock futures using the put-call parity relationship. The theoretical fair values obtained, is compared to the actual market values over a period of three years, that is, from 2009 to 2011. The results show that arbitrage opportunities do present themselves for the chosen shares. Further research may involve more shares over a longer period to determine whether any pattern may exist which may form the basis of an arbitrage trading strategy

  4. Environmental Life Cycle Assessment of Coal-Biomass to Liquid Jet Fuel Compared to Petroleum-Derived JP-8 Jet Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    is a Metal Deactivator Additive (MDA) to prevent fuel oxidation with trace metals such as copper or zinc that may be in the jet fuel (MIL- HDBK-510-1...react in the FT synthesis process). The gasifier is of the slagging type and a direct contact water quench spray system is used to cool the syngas...exiting the gasifier. The quench also removes particulate matter and contaminants not removed in the slag . However, because the ash from biomass is

  5. A Generalized Nash-Cournot Model for the North-Western European Natural Gas Markets with a Fuel Substitution Demand Function: The GaMMES Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abada, Ibrahim; Briat, Vincent; GABRIEL, Steve A.; MASSOL, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a dynamic Generalized Nash-Cournot model to describe the evolution of the natural gas markets. The major players along the gas chain are depicted including: producers, consumers, storage and pipeline operators, as well as intermediate local traders. Our economic structure description takes into account market power and the demand representation tries to capture the possible fuel substitution that can be made between the consumption of oil, coal, and natural gas in the overall fossil energy consumption. We also take into account long-term contracts in an endogenous way, which makes the model a Generalized Nash Equilibrium problem. We discuss some means to solve such problems. Our model has been applied to represent the European natural gas market and forecast, until 2030, after a calibration process, consumption, prices, production, and natural gas dependence. A comparison between our model, a more standard one that does not take into account energy substitution, and the European Commission natural gas forecasts is carried out to analyze our results. Finally, in order to illustrate the possible use of fuel substitution, we studied the evolution of the natural gas price as compared to the coal and oil prices. (authors)

  6. Detection of the arylpropionamide-derived selective androgen receptor modulator (SARM) S-4 (Andarine) in a black-market product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevis, Mario; Geyer, Hans; Kamber, Matthias; Schänzer, Wilhelm

    2009-08-01

    Non-steroidal and tissue-selective anabolic agents such as selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) represent a promising class of therapeutics for the treatment of various diseases such as sarcopenia or cancer cachexia. Advanced compounds of SARMs are based on an arylpropionamide-derived structure and leading drug candidates have successfully completed phase-II-clinical trials. Although none of these therapeutics have been approved, their performance-enhancing qualities and the black-market availability of these products makes them a viable target for misuse in the athletic community. In 2008, SARMs were added to the Prohibited List established by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). That SARMs are the subject of misuse even without clinical approval was proved for the first time by the detection of the drug candidate Andarine (also referred to as S-4, S-3-(4-acetylamino-phenoxy)-2-hydroxy-2-methyl-N-(4-nitro-3-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-propionamide), advertised, sold and supplied via the Internet. The oily liquids, declared as green tea extracts and face moisturizer, were assayed using state-of-the-art analytical procedures and S-4 was found at concentrations of approximately 150 mg/mL. The authenticity of the product was demonstrated in comparison to reference material by liquid chromatography, high resolution/high accuracy (tandem) mass spectrometry using positive and negative electrospray ionization, and comparison to reference material. Moreover, an impurity resulting from poor product purification was detected, accounting for approximately 10% of S-4. This consisted of 2-hydroxy-2-methyl-N-(4-nitro-3-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-3-(4-nitro-3-trifluoromethyl-phenylamino)-propionamide. The ease of purchasing non-approved drug candidates that could potentially increase athletic performance demonstrates the need to operate proactively in the continued fight against doping. The early inclusion of emerging drugs into routine sports drug testing procedures is a key

  7. Combustion studies of coal derived solid fuels by thermogravimetric analysis. III. Correlation between burnout temperature and carbon combustion efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostam-Abadi, M.; DeBarr, J.A.; Chen, W.T.

    1990-01-01

    Burning profiles of 35-53 ??m size fractions of an Illinois coal and three partially devolatilized coals prepared from the original coal were obtained using a thermogravimetric analyzer. The burning profile burnout temperatures were higher for lower volatile fuels and correlated well with carbon combustion efficiencies of the fuels when burned in a laboratory-scale laminar flow reactor. Fuels with higher burnout temperatures had lower carbon combustion efficiencies under various time-temperature conditions in the laboratory-scale reactor. ?? 1990.

  8. Optimal allocation of energy storage in a co-optimized electricity market: Benefits assessment and deriving indicators for economic storage ventures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnan, Venkat; Das, Trishna

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a framework for optimally allocating storage technologies in a power system. This decision support tool helps in quantitatively answering the questions on “where to and how much to install” considering the profits from arbitrage opportunities in a co-optimized electricity market. The developed framework is illustrated on a modified IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) 24 bus RTS (Reliability Test System), and the framework finds the optimal allocation solution and the revenues storage earns at each of these locations. Bulk energy storage, CAES (compressed air energy storage) is used as the representative storage technology, and the benefits of optimally allocated storage integration onto the grid are compared with transmission expansion solution. The paper also discusses about system-level indicators to identify candidate locations for economical storage ventures, which are derived based on the optimal storage allocation solution; and applies the market price based storage venture indicators on MISO (Mid-continental Independent System Operator) and PJM (Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Maryland Interconnection) electricity markets. - Highlights: • Storage optimal allocation framework based on high-fidelity storage dispatch model. • Storage with transmission addresses energy and ancillary issues under high renewables. • Bulk storage earns higher revenues from co-optimization (∼10× energy only market). • Grid offers distributed opportunities for investing in a strategic mix of storage. • Storage opportunities depend on cross-arbitrage, as seen from MISO (Mid-continental Independent System Operator) and PJM (Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Maryland Interconnection) markets

  9. A Lifecycle Emissions Model (LEM): Lifecycle Emissions from Transportation Fuels, Motor Vehicles, Transportation Modes, Electricity Use, Heating and Cooking Fuels, and Materials, APPENDIX A: Energy Use and Emissions from the Lifecycle of Diesel-Like Fuels Derived From Biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Delucchi, Mark; Lipman, Timothy

    2003-01-01

    An Appendix to the Report, “A Lifecycle Emissions Model (LEM): Lifecycle Emissions From Transportation Fuels, Motor Vehicles, Transportation Modes, Electricity Use, Heating and Cooking Fuels, and Materialsâ€

  10. Delivering market-based access to clean cooking fuel for displaced populations the Kigoma region, Tanzania: a business plan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rivoal, Morgane; Haselip, James Arthur

    the relatively high financial and non-financial costs of woodfuel and charcoal use in the camp, which in turn is a function of the size and profile of the camp. Where there is a willingness to pay (WTP) for any given good or service, but where the market is constrained in meeting this demand (such...... as in a refugee camp), there is a need for an intervention to create a market. This market creation plan is the outcome of various discussions with key stakeholders which took place between November 2017 and January 2018, the full list is presented in section 7. It intends to give a clear picture...... of the opportunities and challenges, along with the different options available to developing a market for LPG in the Kigoma region. The aims and intended outcomes of the LPG market creation programme support the Tanzanian government's ambition to scale up the use of LPG across the nation. In the context...

  11. Performances of TN {sup registered} 24 E. An AREVA used fuel transport and interim storage cask for the German market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brion, Thomas [AREVA TN International, Montigny Le Bretonneux (France)

    2013-07-01

    Part of the AREVA Group, TN International offers a complete range of transport and interim storage solutions for radioactive materials throughout the entire nuclear fuel cycle. A world leader in its sector, TN International has supported for 50 years the expansion of the nuclear industry, in particular by providing expertise in secure packing systems for the storage of used fuel assemblies. As an answer to EON and EnBW, two German utilities, needs, TN International has designed and manufactured the TN {sup registered} 24E cask, offering the following high level performances: 1. transport and storage over a period of 40 years of up to 21 PWR spent nuclear fuel (SNF), allowing for example to load up to 17 MOX fuel assemblies and 4 UOX SNF. 2. high flexibility in the fuel assemblies loading plans, inducing no general predefined constraints with regards to the MOX or UOX fuel positions in the basket of the cask Safety margin related to radioprotection, thermal and mechanical behaviour of the fuel assemblies can be calculated loading plan per loading plan. (orig.)

  12. Self-reported Impacts of LED Lighting Technology Compared to Fuel-based Lighting on Night Market Business Prosperity in Kenya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnstone, Peter; Jacobson, Arne; Mills, Evan; Mumbi, Maina

    2009-02-11

    The notion of"productive use" is often invoked in discussions about whether new technologies improve productivity or otherwise enhance commerce in developing-country contexts. It an elusive concept,especially when quantitative measures are sought. Improved and more energy efficient illumination systems for off-gridapplication--the focus of the Lumina Project--provide a case in which a significant productivity benefit can be imagined, given the importance of light to the successful performance of many tasks, and the very low quality of baseline illumination provided by flame-based source. This Research Note summarizes self-reported quantitative and qualitative impacts of switching to LED lighting technology on the prosperity of night-market business owners and operators. The information was gathered in the context of our 2008 market testing field work in Kenya?s Rift Valley Province, which was performed in the towns of Maai Mahiu and Karagita by Arne Jacobson, Kristen Radecsky, Peter Johnstone, Maina Mumbi, and others. Maai Mahiu is a crossroads town; provision of services to travelers and freight carriers is a primary income source for the residents. In contrast, the primary income for Karagita's residents is from work in the large, factory style flower farms on the eastern shores of Lake Naivasha that specialize in producing cut flowers for export to the European market. According to residents, both towns had populations of 6,000 to 8,000 people in June 2008. We focused on quantifying the economics of fuel-based and LED lighting technology in the context of business use by night market vendors and shop keepers. Our research activities with the business owners and operators included baseline measurement of their fuel-based lighting use, an initial survey, offering for sale data logger equipped rechargeable LED lamps, monitoring the adoption of the LED lamps, and a follow-up survey.

  13. Review of changes in the regulation of derivatives in compliance with the directive No. 2014/65/ЕС “The Markets in Financial Instruments Directive”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika M. Kriger

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective to identify and analyze the changes in the legal regulation of financial markets in the EU which occurred as a result of continuous reforms one of the key steps of which was the adoption of Directive 201465EC ldquoOn financial tools marketsrdquo. This document defines the framework for transactions with derivative financial instruments. Methods formallegal comparative historical analytical methods of scientific cognition. Results it was found that Regulation No. 6002014EU of the European Parliament and of the EU Council ldquoOn the financial tools marketsrdquo introduced the trading obligation to transactions with derivative financial instruments that is the rules on signing contracts on a certain type of regulated platforms. These platforms include regulated markets multilateral and organized trading platforms as well as similar platforms registered in the third states. The delegated regulations of the European Commission define the criteria for the diffusion of trading obligations onto various types of financial derivatives. At the moment it is impossible to fully evaluate the innovations results as most of the provisions and secondary legal acts have not yet come into force or have not been adopted. However it is clear that the reform of 2014 will not leave the derivatives market in its previous state. Directive No. 201465EU and Regulation No. 6002014EU ldquoOn financial tools marketsrdquo produced a revolution for them. The trading obligation imposed by these documents has forced the parties involved into transactions with derivative financial instruments to adopt a new perspective on their activities. As a result of the innovation a huge part of transactions with them has to be transferred onto regulated platforms and the OTC contracts for many will become illegal. Scientific novelty the article for the first time analyses and studies the reform of the derivatives market in the European Union as well as peculiarities of

  14. Alternate-Fueled Combustion-Sector Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Nikita T.; Thomas, Anna E.; Shouse, Dale T.; Neuroth, Craig; Hendricks, Robert C.; Lynch, Amy; Frayne, Charles W.; Stutrud, Jeffrey S.; Corporan, Edwin; Hankins, Terry

    2012-01-01

    In order to meet rapidly growing demand for fuel, as well as address environmental concerns, the aviation industry has been testing alternate fuels for performance and technical usability in commercial and military aircraft. Currently, alternate aviation fuels must satisfy MIL-DTL- 83133F(2008) (military) or ASTM D 7566- Annex(2011) (commercial) standards and are termed drop-in fuel replacements. Fuel blends of up to 50% alternative fuel blended with petroleum (JP-8), which have become a practical alternative, are individually certified on the market. In order to make alternate fuels (and blends) a viable option for aviation, the fuel must be able to perform at a similar or higher level than traditional petroleum fuel. They also attempt to curb harmful emissions, and therefore a truly effective alternate fuel would emit at or under the level of currently used fuel. This paper analyzes data from gaseous and particulate emissions of an aircraft combustor sector. The data were evaluated at various inlet conditions, including variation in pressure and temperature, fuel-to-air ratios, and percent composition of alternate fuel. Traditional JP-8+100 data were taken as a baseline, and blends of JP- 8+100 with synthetic-paraffinic-kerosene (SPK) fuel (Fischer-Tropsch (FT)) were used for comparison. Gaseous and particulate emissions, as well as flame luminosity, were assessed for differences between FT composition of 0%, 50%, and 100%. The data showed that SPK fuel (a FT-derived fuel) had slightly lower harmful gaseous emissions, and smoke number information corroborated the hypothesis that SPK-FT fuels are cleaner burning fuels.

  15. {Delta}{sup 14}C level of annual plants and fossil fuel derived CO{sub 2} distribution across different regions of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xi, X.T.; Ding, X.F.; Fu, D.P. [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology and Institute of Heavy Ion Physics, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zhou, L.P. [Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes, Department of Geography, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Liu, K.X., E-mail: kxliu@pku.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology and Institute of Heavy Ion Physics, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2013-01-15

    The {sup 14}C level in annual plants is a sensitive tracer for monitoring fossil fuel derived CO{sub 2} in the atmosphere. Corn leave samples were selected from different regions of China, including high mountains in the Tibetan Plateau, grassland in Inner Mongolia, and inland and coastal cities during the summer of 2010. The {sup 14}C/{sup 12}C ratio of the samples was measured with the NEC compact AMS system at the Institute of Heavy Ion Physics, Peking University. The fossil fuel derived CO{sub 2} was estimated by comparing the measured {Delta}{sup 14}C values of corn leave samples to background atmospheric {Delta}{sup 14}C level. The influences of topography, meteorological conditions and carbon cycling processes on the fossil fuel derived CO{sub 2} concentration are considered when interpreting the data. Our results show a clear association of the low {Delta}{sup 14}C values with regions where human activities are intensive.

  16. Refuse derived fuel (RDF) plasma torch gasification as a feasible route to produce low environmental impact syngas for the cement industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Sabirón, Ana M; Fleiger, Kristina; Schäfer, Stefan; Antoñanzas, Javier; Irazustabarrena, Ane; Aranda-Usón, Alfonso; Ferreira, Germán A

    2015-08-01

    Plasma torch gasification (PTG) is currently researched as a technology for solid waste recovery. However, scientific studies based on evaluating its environmental implications considering the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology are lacking. Therefore, this work is focused on comparing the environmental effect of the emissions of syngas combustion produced by refuse derived fuel (RDF) and PTG as alternative fuels, with that related to fossil fuel combustion in the cement industry. To obtain real data, a semi-industrial scale pilot plant was used to perform experimental trials on RDF-PTG.The results highlight that PTG for waste to energy recovery in the cement industry is environmentally feasible considering its current state of development. A reduction in every impact category was found when a total or partial substitution of alternative fuel for conventional fuel in the calciner firing (60 % of total thermal energy input) was performed. Furthermore, the results revealed that electrical energy consumption in PTG is also an important parameter from the LCA approach. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Continental-scale enrichment of atmospheric 14CO2 from the nuclear power industry: potential impact on the estimation of fossil fuel-derived CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graven, H. D.; Gruber, N.

    2011-12-01

    The 14C-free fossil carbon added to atmospheric CO2 by combustion dilutes the atmospheric 14C/C ratio (Δ14C), potentially providing a means to verify fossil CO2 emissions calculated using economic inventories. However, sources of 14C from nuclear power generation and spent fuel reprocessing can counteract this dilution and may bias 14C/C-based estimates of fossil fuel-derived CO2 if these nuclear influences are not correctly accounted for. Previous studies have examined nuclear influences on local scales, but the potential for continental-scale influences on Δ14C has not yet been explored. We estimate annual 14C emissions from each nuclear site in the world and conduct an Eulerian transport modeling study to investigate the continental-scale, steady-state gradients of Δ14C caused by nuclear activities and fossil fuel combustion. Over large regions of Europe, North America and East Asia, nuclear enrichment may offset at least 20% of the fossil fuel dilution in Δ14C, corresponding to potential biases of more than -0.25 ppm in the CO2 attributed to fossil fuel emissions, larger than the bias from plant and soil respiration in some areas. Model grid cells including high 14C-release reactors or fuel reprocessing sites showed much larger nuclear enrichment, despite the coarse model resolution of 1.8°×1.8°. The recent growth of nuclear 14C emissions increased the potential nuclear bias over 1985-2005, suggesting that changing nuclear activities may complicate the use of Δ14C observations to identify trends in fossil fuel emissions. The magnitude of the potential nuclear bias is largely independent of the choice of reference station in the context of continental-scale Eulerian transport and inversion studies, but could potentially be reduced by an appropriate choice of reference station in the context of local-scale assessments.

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF OTM SYNGAS PROCESS AND TESTING OF SYNGAS-DERIVED ULTRA-CLEAN FUELS IN DIESEL ENGINES AND FUEL CELLS; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    E.T. Robinson; James P. Meagher; Ravi Prasad

    2001-01-01

    This topical report summarizes work accomplished for the Program from January 1 through September 15, 2001 in the following task areas: Task 1--materials development; Task 2--composite element development; Task 3--tube fabrication; Task 4--reactor design and process optimization; Task 5--catalyst development; Task 6--P-1 operation; Task 8--fuels and engine testing; and Task 10--project management. OTM benchmark material, LCM1, exceeds the commercial oxygen flux target and was determined to be sufficiently robust to carry on process development activities. Work will continue on second-generation OTM materials that will satisfy commercial life targets. Three fabrication techniques for composite elements were determined to be technically feasible. These techniques will be studied and a lead manufacturing process for both small and large-scale elements will be selected in the next Budget Period. Experiments in six P-0 reactors, the long tube tester (LTT) and the P-1 pilot plant were conducted. Significant progress in process optimization was made through both the experimental program and modeling studies of alternate reactor designs and process configurations. Three tailored catalyst candidates for use in OTM process reactors were identified. Fuels for the International diesel engine and Nuvera fuel cell tests were ordered and delivered. Fuels testing and engine development work is now underway

  19. Stationary fuel cell systems. Danish strategy for maturing micro- combined power and heat generation for the market. To make the house owners environmentally conscious prosumers; Stationaere braendselscellesystemer. Dansk plan for markedsmodning af mikrokraftvarme. Goer boligejerne til miljoevenlige prosumenter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-04-15

    The aim of this new market maturing plan is to show how innovative technologies for micro stationary fuel cell cogeneration systems can enter both the Danish and the international markets. The report first presents a general description of all types of stationary plants. Not all of them are yet ready for commercialization - some are still in the research and development phase. The plan documents that there is a need for incentives for maturing the technologies for the market after the demonstration phase, and it presents methods for market introduction in Denmark and internationally. (ln)

  20. Effects of coal-derived trace species on the performance of molten carbonate fuel cells. Topical report on thermochemical studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pigeaud, A.

    1991-10-01

    The overall objective of the present study was to determine in detail the interaction effects of 10 simultaneously present, coal-gas contaminants, both on each other and on components of the Carbonate Fuel Cell. The primary goal was to assess underlying chemistries and reaction mechanisms which may cause decay in fuel cell performance or endurance as a result of both physics-chemical and/or mechanical interactions with the cell components and internal fuel cell parts. It was found, both from theory and cell test evidence, that trace contaminant interactions may occur with: Fuel-cell Electrodes (e.g., in this study with the Ni-anode), Lithium/Potassium Carbonate Electrolyte, Nickel and SS-Hardware, and by Mechanical Obstruction of Gas Flow in the Anode Plenum.

  1. Furfural and other furane-derivates as diesel fuel additives. Furfural und andere Furanderivate als Zusatz zum Dieselkraftstoff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemling, O.

    1982-01-01

    Alternative energies such as fuel additives or fuel-substitutes are on their way upwards as they may help to reduce the dependency on crude and crude-based fuels. A number of solutions has already been indicated for carburettor engines whereas a lot more of research and development is needed to find a safe alternative to diesel fuels. Possibilities of using furfural, furfuralcohol and furan-2-carbonic acid-methylester as additives to diesel or as a substitute were investigated. A survey on the characteristic properties of these substances is given, then several tests are set up in order to describe the properties of diesel additive mixtures at low temperatures. Based on these tests two mixtures are proposed both with a furfural/butanole mixture. Furfural is suitable as diesel additive, a solubilizer is needed though.

  2. Fuel Property Blend Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitz, William J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mehl, Marco [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wagnon, Scott J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Zhang, Kuiwen [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kukkadapu, Goutham [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Westbrook, Charles K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-01-12

    The object of this project is to develop chemical models and associated correlations to predict the blending behavior of bio-derived fuels when mixed with conventional fuels like gasoline and diesel fuels.

  3. Physical Characterisation and Quantification of Total Above Ground Biomass Derived from First Thinnings for Wood Fuel Consumption in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Mockler, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    Comprehensive knowledge of wood fuel properties assists in the optimisation of operations concerned with the harvesting, seasoning, processing and conversion of wood to energy. This study investigated the physical properties of wood fuel. These properties included moisture content and basic density. The field work also allowed for the quantification of above ground biomass partitions. The species investigated were alder (Alnus glutinosa), ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.), birch (Betula spp.), lodg...

  4. Determination of Vaporization Properties and Volatile Hazardous Components Relevant to Kukersite Oil Shale Derived Fuel Oil Handling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada TRAUMANN

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate vaporization properties of shale fuel oil in relation to inhalation exposure. The shale fuel oil was obtained from kukersite oil shale. The shale oil and its light fraction (5 % of the total fuel oil were characterized by vapor pressure curve, molecular weight distribution, elemental composition and functional groups based on FTIR spectra. The rate of vaporization from the total fuel oil at different temperatures was monitored as a function of time using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. It is shown that despite its relatively low vapor pressure at room temperature a remarkable amount of oil vaporizes influencing air quality significantly. From the TGA data the changes in the vapor pressure during vaporization process were estimated. Although the shale fuel oil has a strong, unpleasant smell, the main hazards to workplace air quality depend on the vaporization rate of different toxic compounds, such as benzene, toluene, xylene or phenolic compounds. The presence of these hazardous substances in the vapor phase of shale fuel oil was monitored using headspace analysis coupled with selective ion monitoring (SIM and confirmed by the NIST Mass Spectral library and retention times of standards. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.20.3.4549

  5. Role of Indian Commodity Derivatives Market in Hedging Price Risk: Estimation of Constant and Dynamic Hedge Ratio, and Hedging Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brajesh Kumar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This  paper  examines  hedging  effectiveness  of  four  agricultural  (soybean,  corn,  castor seed and guar seed and seven non-agricultural (gold, silver, aluminium, copper, zinc, crude oil  and,  natural  gas  futures  contracts  traded  in  India,  using  VECM  and  CCC-MGARCH model to estimate constant hedge ratio and dynamic hedge ratios, respectively. We ind that agricultural  futures  contracts  provide  higher  hedging  effectiveness  (30-70%  as  compared to  non-agricultural  futures  (20%.  In  the  more  recent  period,  the  hedging  effectiveness  of Indian futures markets has increased. When hedging effectiveness of non-agricultural Indian futures  contracts  with  the  world  spot  markets  (NYMEX  and  LME  is  analyzed,  hedging effectiveness  increases  dramatically  which  indicates  the  fact  that  Indian  futures  contracts are more effective for hedging exposures to global prices. Other reasons of lower hedging effectiveness  of  Indian  futures  contracts  may  be  low  awareness  of  futures  markets  among participants,  high  transaction  costs  in  the  futures  markets,  policy  restrictions,  inadequate contract design, or high transaction costs in the spot market. These are, of course, expected birth pays for a nascent futures markets in an emerging economy. ";} // -->activate javascript

  6. Effect of fuel type and deposition surface temperature on the growth and structure of ash deposit collected during co-firing of coal with sewage-sludge, saw-dust and refuse derived fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupka, Tomasz; Zajac, Krzysztof; Weber, Roman [Clausthal Univ. of Technology, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany). Inst. of Energy Process Engineering and Fuel Technology

    2008-07-01

    Blends of a South African bituminous ''Middleburg'' coal and three alternative fuels (a municipal sewage-sludge, a saw-dust and a refuse derived fuel) have been fired in the slagging reactor to examine the effect of the added fuel on slagging propensity of the mixtures. Two kinds of deposition probes have been used, un-cooled ceramic probes and air-cooled steal probes. Distinct differences in physical and chemical structures of the deposits collected using the un-cooled ceramic probes and air-cooled metal probes have been observed. Glassy, easily molten deposits collected on un-cooled ceramic deposition probes were characteristic for co-firing of municipal sewage-sludge with coal. Porous, sintered (not molten) but easily removable deposits of the same fuel blend have been collected on the air-cooled metal deposition probes. Loose, easy removable deposits have been sampled on air-cooled metal deposition probe during co-firing of coal/saw-dust blends. The mass of the deposit sampled at lower surface temperatures (550-700 C) was always larger than the mass sampled at higher temperatures (1100-1300 C) since the higher temperature ash agglomerated and sintered much faster than the low temperature deposit. (orig.)

  7. Nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azevedo, J.B.L. de.

    1980-01-01

    All stages of nuclear fuel cycle are analysed with respect to the present situation and future perspectives of supply and demand of services; the prices and the unitary cost estimation of these stages for the international fuel market are also mentioned. From the world resources and projections of uranium consumption, medium-and long term analyses are made of fuel availability for several strategies of use of different reactor types. Finally, the cost of nuclear fuel in the generation of electric energy is calculated to be used in the energetic planning of the electric sector. (M.A.) [pt

  8. Microstructural changes in NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} ceramics prepared with powders derived from different fuels in sol-gel auto-combustion technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chauhan, Lalita, E-mail: chauhan.lalita5@gmail.com; Sreenivas, K. [Department of Physics & Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi-110007 (India); Bokolia, Renuka

    2016-05-23

    Structural properties of Nickel ferrite (NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) ceramics prepared from powders derived from sol gel auto-combustion method using different fuels (citric acid, glycine and Dl-alanine) are compared. Changes in the structural properties at different sintering temperatures are investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirms the formation of single phase material with cubic structure. Ceramics prepared using the different powders obtained from different fuels show that that there are no significant changes in lattice parameters. However increasing sintering temperatures show significant improvement in density and grain size. The DL-alanine fuel is found to be the most effective fuel for producing NIFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} powders by the sol-gel auto combustion method and yields highly crystalline powders in the as-burnt stage itself at a low temperature (80 °C). Subsequent use of the powders in ceramic manufacturing produces dense NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} ceramics with a uniform microstructure and a large grain size.

  9. Microstructural changes in NiFe_2O_4 ceramics prepared with powders derived from different fuels in sol-gel auto-combustion technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauhan, Lalita; Sreenivas, K.; Bokolia, Renuka

    2016-01-01

    Structural properties of Nickel ferrite (NiFe_2O_4) ceramics prepared from powders derived from sol gel auto-combustion method using different fuels (citric acid, glycine and Dl-alanine) are compared. Changes in the structural properties at different sintering temperatures are investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirms the formation of single phase material with cubic structure. Ceramics prepared using the different powders obtained from different fuels show that that there are no significant changes in lattice parameters. However increasing sintering temperatures show significant improvement in density and grain size. The DL-alanine fuel is found to be the most effective fuel for producing NIFe_2O_4 powders by the sol-gel auto combustion method and yields highly crystalline powders in the as-burnt stage itself at a low temperature (80 °C). Subsequent use of the powders in ceramic manufacturing produces dense NiFe_2O_4 ceramics with a uniform microstructure and a large grain size.

  10. Microstructural changes in NiFe2O4 ceramics prepared with powders derived from different fuels in sol-gel auto-combustion technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Lalita; Bokolia, Renuka; Sreenivas, K.

    2016-05-01

    Structural properties of Nickel ferrite (NiFe2O4) ceramics prepared from powders derived from sol gel auto-combustion method using different fuels (citric acid, glycine and Dl-alanine) are compared. Changes in the structural properties at different sintering temperatures are investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirms the formation of single phase material with cubic structure. Ceramics prepared using the different powders obtained from different fuels show that that there are no significant changes in lattice parameters. However increasing sintering temperatures show significant improvement in density and grain size. The DL-alanine fuel is found to be the most effective fuel for producing NIFe2O4 powders by the sol-gel auto combustion method and yields highly crystalline powders in the as-burnt stage itself at a low temperature (80 °C). Subsequent use of the powders in ceramic manufacturing produces dense NiFe2O4 ceramics with a uniform microstructure and a large grain size.

  11. Fuel cells: Project Volta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vellone, R.; Di Mario, F.

    1987-09-01

    This paper discusses research and development in the field of fuel cell power plants. Reference is made to the Italian research Project Volta. Problems related to research program financing and fuel cell power plant marketing are discussed.

  12. World nuclear-fuel procurement: relationships between uranium and enrichment markets. Final report. International energies studies program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neff, T.L.

    1982-03-01

    This article explores the relationships between international uranium and enrichment markets under current contracting and equity arrangements and in comparison with actual feed requirements for existing and committed reactors. We begin with an overview of the world situation, examining current and prospective conditions. We then consider enrichment and uranium supply and demand situations of the three consumer nations outside the United States with the largest nuclear programs: France, Japan, and the Federal Republic of Germany. We conclude with an evaluation of likely directions of change in the coupled markets for uranium and enrichment services

  13. World nuclear power and its fuel cycle after Three Mile Island: a guide for marketing and strategic planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    This work forecasts installed nuclear capacity through the year 2000. It discusses fuel-cycle capacity and compares it with predicted requirements.Research and development, nonproliferation, the anti-nuclear movement and its leaders, economics and a number of other topics are considered

  14. Organic reactions for the electrochemical and photochemical production of chemical fuels from CO2--The reduction chemistry of carboxylic acids and derivatives as bent CO2 surrogates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luca, Oana R; Fenwick, Aidan Q

    2015-11-01

    The present review covers organic transformations involved in the reduction of CO2 to chemical fuels. In particular, we focus on reactions of CO2 with organic molecules to yield carboxylic acid derivatives as a first step in CO2 reduction reaction sequences. These biomimetic initial steps create opportunities for tandem electrochemical/chemical reductions. We draw parallels between long-standing knowledge of CO2 reactivity from organic chemistry, organocatalysis, surface science and electrocatalysis. We point out some possible non-faradaic chemical reactions that may contribute to product distributions in the production of solar fuels from CO2. These reactions may be accelerated by thermal effects such as resistive heating and illumination. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Burning characteristics and gaseous/solid emissions of blends of pulverized coal with waste tire-derived fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levendis, Y.A.; Atal, A.; Courtemanche, B.; Carlson, J.B. [Northeastern University, Boston, MA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical, Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering

    1998-10-01

    The combustion behaviour and the emissions from blends of a pulverized bituminous coal and ground waste automobile tires were investigated. Combustion took place under steady flow conditions, in an electrically-heated drop-tube furnace in air at a gas temperature of 1150{degree}C and a particle heating rate of approximate to 10{sup 5}{degree}C/s. Combustion observations were conducted with simultaneous pyrometry and cinematography. Interparticle flame interactions were visually observed in the near-stoichiometric and fuel-rich regions. Volatile flame interactions were apparent at a lower phi for tire crumb particles than for coal particles and became progressively more intense with increasing phi until at sufficiently high phi`s large group flames formed for tire particles. As particle flame interactions increased, average maximum temperatures in the flame decreased. Coal particles resisted the formation of group flames, even at high phi`s. Such observations correlated with the trends observed for the PAH emissions of the two fuels, those of tire crumb being much higher than those of coal Some stratification in the combustion of blends of particles of the two fuels was observed. This kept the PAH emissions lower levels than expected. NO{sub x} emissions from tires were much lower than those of coal, while those of the blends were close to the weighted average emissions. SO{sub 2} emissions from the blends were close to the weighted average emissions of the two fuels. Blending coal with tire reduced the CO{sub 2} emissions of coal but increased the CO emissions. Particulate emissions (soot and ash), measured in the range of 0.4 to 8{mu}m, increased with phi. Generally, tire produced more mass of submicron particulates than coal. Particulate emissions of blends of the two fuels were close to those expected based on weighted average of the two fuels.

  16. Characterization of size, number, concentration and morphology of particulate matter emitted from a high performance diesel combustion system using biomass derived fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhardwaj, Om Parkash; Krishnamurthy, Ketan; Kremer, Florian; Pischinger, Stefan [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Inst. for Combustion Engines; Berg, Angelika von; Roth, Georg [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Crystallography; Lueers, Bernhard; Kolbeck, Andreas; Koerfer, Thomas [FEV GmbH, Aachen (Germany)

    2013-06-01

    Motor vehicle emissions have been identified as a major source of particulates. Although the low limits of particulate matter cause a need for a particulate trap in most of the present day diesel engines, the physical and chemical characterization of particles with the measures of size, number, volatility and reactivity etc. is of increasing interest with respect to the regeneration frequency and regeneration efficiency of a particulate trap. Within the Cluster of Excellence ''Tailor-Made Fuels from Biomass (TMFB)'' at RWTH Aachen University, the Institute for Combustion Engines carried out a detailed investigation program to explore the potential of future biofuel candidates for future combustion systems. The experiments for particulate measurements and analysis were conducted on a EURO 6 compliant High Efficiency Diesel Combustion System (HECS) with petroleum based diesel fuel as reference and today's biofuel (i.e. FAME) as well as a potential future biomass derived fuel candidate (i.e. 2-MTHF I DBE), being developed under TMFB approach. Soot samples collected on polycarbonate filters were analyzed using SEM; revealing vital informations regarding particle size distribution. Furthermore, thermophoretic sampling was also performed on copper grids and samples were analyzed using TEM to determine its graphitic micro-structure. In addition, X-Ray diffraction (XRD) measurements were also performed to get further quantitative information regarding crystal lattice parameters and structure of investigated soot. The results indicate more than 90% reduction in the mass and number concentrations of engine out particle emissions using future biomass derived fuel candidate. A good co-relation was observed between TEM micro-structure results and quantitative crystal lattice and structure information obtained from XRD studies, indicating higher reactivity for soot emitted from 2-MTHF/DBE. (orig.)

  17. Gamma radiation treatment applied to microbial decontamination of products derived from eggs collected from the retail market in São Paulo, SP, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquino, S.; Lui, C.C., E-mail: siaq06@hotmail.com [Universidade Nove de Julho (UNINOVE), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Corrêa, B. [Universidade de São Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil)

    2017-11-15

    The quality of products derived from eggs depends on the quality of the raw material source and the industrial production. The contamination by fungi and bacteria can occur after exposure of the product in the retail market. The objective of this study was to evaluate the microbiological quality of 60 samples of derived egg products and evaluate the effects of gamma radiation of cobalt-60, using the dose of 5 and 10 kGy, for decontamination of products collected in the retail market in the São Paulo city. The bacterial count was performed by the most probable number (MPN) and the fungal counts by serial dilution after plating surface. It was observed a decrease in the humidity and water activity (Aw) values of irradiated whole egg powder and white egg powder samples (p<0.05), but there was no significant change in the pH of the same samples irradiated with 5 and 10 kGy (p>0.05). In the powdered yolk the values of pH and Aw presented a significant difference (p<0.05), but no significant difference in the humidity values of 5 and 10 kGy irradiated samples (p>0.05). Effective microbial sterilization of all products occurred at the dose of 10 kGy. (author)

  18. Gamma radiation treatment applied to microbial decontamination of products derived from eggs collected from the retail market in São Paulo, SP, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquino, S.; Lui, C.C.; Corrêa, B.

    2017-01-01

    The quality of products derived from eggs depends on the quality of the raw material source and the industrial production. The contamination by fungi and bacteria can occur after exposure of the product in the retail market. The objective of this study was to evaluate the microbiological quality of 60 samples of derived egg products and evaluate the effects of gamma radiation of cobalt-60, using the dose of 5 and 10 kGy, for decontamination of products collected in the retail market in the São Paulo city. The bacterial count was performed by the most probable number (MPN) and the fungal counts by serial dilution after plating surface. It was observed a decrease in the humidity and water activity (Aw) values of irradiated whole egg powder and white egg powder samples (p<0.05), but there was no significant change in the pH of the same samples irradiated with 5 and 10 kGy (p>0.05). In the powdered yolk the values of pH and Aw presented a significant difference (p<0.05), but no significant difference in the humidity values of 5 and 10 kGy irradiated samples (p>0.05). Effective microbial sterilization of all products occurred at the dose of 10 kGy. (author)

  19. EMPIRICAL TESTING OF MODIFIED BLACK-SCHOLES OPTION PRICING MODEL FORMULA ON NSE DERIVATIVE MARKET IN INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambrish Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objectives of this paper are to incorporate modification in Black-Scholes option pricing model formula by adding some new variables on the basis of given assumption related to risk-free interest rate, and also shows the calculation process of new risk-free interest rate on the basis of modified variable. This paper also identifies the various situations in empirical testing of modified and original Black-Scholes formula with respect to the market value on the basis of assumed and calculated risk-free interest rate.

  20. Strategic analysis of biomass and waste fuels for electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGowin, C.R.; Wiltsee, G.A.

    1996-01-01

    Although the environmental and other benefits of using biomass and waste fuel energy to displace fossil fuels are well known, the economic realities are such that these fuels cannot compete effectively in the current market without tax credits, subsidies and other artificial measures. In 1992, EPRI initiated a strategic analysis of biomass and waste fuels and power technologies, both to develop consistent performance and cost data for the leading fuels and technologies and to identify the conditions which favor and create market pull for biomass and waste fuel energy. Using the final results of the EPRI project, this paper compares the relative performance and cost of power generation from coal, natural gas, and biomass and waste fuels. The range of fuels includes wood, agricultural wastes, municipal solid waste, refuse-derived fuel, scrap tires and tire-derived fuel. The power technologies include pulverized coal and natural gas/combined cycle power plants, cofiring with coal in coal-fired utility boilers, direct combustion in dedicated mass burn, stoker and fluidized bed boilers, and wood gasification/combined cycle-power plants. The analysis suggests that, in the near term, the highest-efficiency, lowest-cost, lowest-risk technology is cofiring with coal in industrial and utility boilers. However, this approach is economically feasible only when the fuel is delivered at a deep discount relative to fossil fuel, or the fuel user receives a tipping fee, subsidy, or emissions credit. (author)

  1. Toxicity of water-soluble fractions of biodiesel fuels derived from castor oil, palm oil, and waste cooking oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Maria Bernadete Neiva Lemos; de Araújo, Milena Maria Sampaio; Nascimento, Iracema Andrade; da Cruz, Andrea Cristina Santos; Pereira, Solange Andrade; do Nascimento, Núbia Costa

    2011-04-01

    Concerns over the sustained availability of fossil fuels and their impact on global warming and pollution have led to the search for fuels from renewable sources to address worldwide rising energy demands. Biodiesel is emerging as one of the possible solutions for the transport sector. It shows comparable engine performance to that of conventional diesel fuel, while reducing greenhouse gas emissions. However, the toxicity of products and effluents from the biodiesel industry has not yet been sufficiently investigated. Brazil has a very high potential as a biodiesel producer, in view of its climatic conditions and vast areas for cropland, with consequent environmental risks because of possible accidental biodiesel spillages into water bodies and runoff to coastal areas. This research determined the toxicity to two marine organisms of the water-soluble fractions (WSF) of three different biodiesel fuels obtained by methanol transesterification of castor oil (CO), palm oil (PO), and waste cooking oil (WCO). Microalgae and sea urchins were used as the test organisms, respectively, for culture-growth-inhibition and early-life-stage-toxicity tests. The toxicity levels of the analyzed biodiesel WSF showed the highest toxicity for the CO, followed by WCO and the PO. Methanol was the most prominent contaminant; concentrations increased over time in WSF samples stored up to 120 d. Copyright © 2010 SETAC.

  2. Liquid fuel from biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breinholt, T.; Gylling, M.; Parsby, M.; Meyer Henius, U.; Sander Nielsen, B.

    1992-09-01

    Various options for Danish production of liquid motor fuels from biomass have been studied in the context of the impact of EEC new common agricultural policy on prices and production quantities of crops, processes and production economy, restraints concerning present and future markets in Denmark, environmental aspects, in particular substitution of fossil fuels in the overall production and end-use, revenue loss required to assure competition with fossil fuels and national competence in business, industry and research. The options studied are rapeseed oil and derivates, ethanol, methanol and other thermo-chemical conversion products. The study shows that the combination of fuel production and co-generation of heat and electricity carried out with energy efficiency and utilization of surplus electricity is important for the economics under Danish conditions. Considering all aspects, ethanol production seems most favorable but in the long term, pyrolyses with catalytic cracking could be an interesting option. The cheapest source of biomass in Denmark is straw, where a considerable amount of the surplus could be used. Whole crop harvested wheat on land otherwise set aside to be fallow could also be an important source for ethanol production. Most of the options contribute favorably to reductions of fossil fuel consumption, but variations are large and the substitution factor is to a great extent dependent on the individual case. (AB) (32 refs.)

  3. Commercialization analysis for fuels from Pinyon-Juniper biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, G.P.

    1993-01-01

    Pinyon-Juniper (P-J) is a predominant forest type in the Southwestern US, and in many areas it is considered a hinderance to optimal land use management. There is only limited commercial demand for the traditional products that are produced from PJ biomass, like Christmas trees, fence poles, and firewood, and their production does not always promote overall land-management goals. This research effort, which is supported by the DOE through the Western Regional Biomass Energy Program, identifies commercially feasible energy markets to promote sustainable land clearing operations for alternative land uses of P-J woodlands in Eastern Nevada. All of the woodlands under consideration are federal lands managed by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management, which is supportive of our concept. Three possible markets are available or could reasonably be developed to use fuels derived from PJ biomass in Nevada: (1) The existing market for biomass power-plant fuels in California. (2) The emerging market for fuels for residential pellet-burning stoves. (3) The development of a biomass-fired power plant in the Eastern Nevada Area. The study analyzes the cost of harvesting, processing, transporting, and delivering fuels derived from P-J biomass, and identifies commercialization strategies for bringing these fuels to market. The best opportunity for near term commercial conversion of P-J biomass to fuel lies in the area of entering the pellet-stove fuel market, establishing a 10,000 ton per year pelletizing facility in Lincoln County. Such a facility would have excellent access to markets in Las Vegas, Phoenix, Denver, and Salt Lake City

  4. Methodology of economic analysis of evidence of cartel in the resale market of fuels; Metodologia de analise de indicios economicos de cartel no segmento de revenda varejista de combustiveis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Cleber Ribeiro da Silva [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e BiocombustIveis (ANP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Tiryaki, Gisele Ferreira [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil); Ramos, Maria Olivia [Universidade Salvador (UNIFACS), BA (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The existence of anti competitive conduct such as cartels would lead to a situation of high prices and profits harming competition and society in general. The methodology of economic analysis of evidence of cartel by the ANP in the resale market of fuels involves analysis of the behavior of the average prices of resale and distribution, the nominal average gross margin on resale, the coefficient of variation of prices of resale and distribution of fuel for a given period by the municipality. Combining the analysis of these elements, the ANP has suggested the investigation into possible cartels. This text aims to bring contributions for a better definition of the relevant market in the analysis of economic evidence in cartel in the market for resale of fuel and add elements currently not considered in the analysis of ANP and regulation of the sector. To this end, this article is organized into three sections besides the introduction and final consideration. The first section takes place at the constitution some myths about cartels thread reseller retailer of automotive fuel by analyzing the main causes leading to complaints by consumers. Then presents a conceptual analysis of relevant market, since this definition is essential to characterize anti-competitive practices of operations performed by companies holding market power, notably the formation of cartels. Finally, it is a discussion on how the action of the main bodies involved in dismantling of anti competitive practices in the industry. Expected to find results that work with greater integration between agencies to safeguard competition and better defining the relevant market segment for the resale of fuel. (author)

  5. Synthesis of Acetone-Derived C6 , C9 , and C12 Carbon Scaffolds for Chemical and Fuel Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Cameron M; Jenkins, Rhodri W; Janicke, Michael T; Kubic, William L; Polikarpov, Evgueni; Semelsberger, Troy A; Sutton, Andrew D

    2016-12-20

    A simple, inexpensive catalyst system (Amberlyst 15 and Ni/SiO 2 -Al 2 O 3 ) is described for the upgrading of acetone to a range of chemicals and potential fuels. Stepwise hydrodeoxygenation of the produced ketones can yield branched alcohols, alkenes, and alkanes. An analysis of these products is provided, which demonstrates that this approach can provide a product profile of valuable bioproducts and potential biofuels. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Jet-Fuel Range Hydrocarbons from Biomass-Derived Sorbitol over Ni-HZSM-5/SBA-15 Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujing Weng

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aromatics and cyclic-hydrocarbons are the significant components of jet fuel with high energy-density. However, conventional technologies for bio-fuel production cannot produce these products without further aromatization and isomerization. In this work, renewable liquid fuel with high content of aromatics and cyclic-hydrocarbons was obtained through aqueous catalytic conversion of biomass sorbitol over Ni-HZSM-5/SBA-15 catalyst. Texture characteristics of the catalyst were determined by physisorption of N2, which indicated its bimodal pore structures were microporous (HZSM-5, pore width: 0.56 nm and mesoporous (SBA-15, pore width: 8 nm. The surface acidity included weak and strong acid sites, predominantly Lewis type, and was further confirmed by the NH3-TPD and Py-IR analysis. The catalytic performances were tested in a fixed-bed reactor under the conditions of 593 K, WHSV of 0.75 h−1, GHSV of 2500 h−1 and 4.0 MPa of hydrogen pressure, whereby oil yield of 40.4 wt. % with aromatics and cyclic-hydrocarbons content of 80.0% was obtained.

  7. The analysis of quantitative methods for renewable fuel processes and lubricant of materials derived from plastic waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagukguk, J. R.

    2018-01-01

    Plastic has become an important component in modern life today. Its role has replaced wood and metal, given its advantages such as light and strong, corrosion resistant, transparent and easy to color and good insulation properties. The research method is used with quantitative and engineering research methods. Research objective is to convert plastic waste into something more economical and to preserve the environment surrounding. Renewable fuel and lubricant variables are simultaneously influenced significantly to the sustainable environment. This is based on Fh> Ft of 62.101> 4.737) and its significance is 0.000 sustainable, the value of correlation coefficient 0.941 or 94.1% which means there is a very strong relationship between renewable fuel variables and lubricants to the sustainable environment. And utilizing plastic waste after being processed by pyrolysis method produces liquid hydrocarbons having elements of compounds such as crude oil and renewable fuels obtained from calculations are CO2 + H2O + C1-C4 + Residual substances. Then the plastic waste can be processed by isomerization process + catalyst to lubricating oil and the result of chemical calculation obtained is CO2, H2O, C18H21 and the rest.

  8. Homecell: design and development of a 2 kW fuel cell based electric energy generating system, for the domestic market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bordallo, C.R.; Moreno, E.; Brey, J.J.; Garcia, C.; Castro, A.; Sarmiento, B. [Hynergreen Technologies, S.A., Seville (Spain)

    2004-07-01

    'Full text:' Even though fuel cell technology has been known in industry for decades now, it has come to the fore in recent years hand in hand with renewable energy sources and the hydrogen vector, as a clean, reliable and efficient electric energy source. Within the stationary applications of fuel cells, the production of high output electric energy has always stood out and this could range from several hundreds of watts to megawatts to supply large plants. The objective of this project is to develop, construct and experimentally validate an electric energy generating system for domestic applications of up to 2 kW. This is due to the fact that multiple domestic applications currently exist for which an electric output of 2 kW is sufficient. On the other hand, an electricity supply might not exist, or might be deficient; and this system will enable electricity supply even under these circumstances. Moreover, the existing system is very versatile and could be complemented with other hydrogen production ones (using photovoltaic energy for example), or else two systems could be used in parallel if outputs up to 4 kW were required, and other applications in other markets, such as telecommunications or tele-metering systems, could be undertaken. (author)

  9. Deployment of hydrogen supply chain for fuel market in 2050: Design and development of a decision support system for scenarios analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patay, E.

    2008-07-01

    The deployment of a market for hydrogen energy is a new problem, considered by governments, industrialists and scientists to meet global targets of greenhouse gases emissions reduction and to ensure security in energy supply. In this context, the optimization problem of scheduling the deployment until 2050 of the hydrogen supply chain for fuel market throughout a country has been the object of our study. We get support of Air Liquide Company, his experience and experts in production and distribution of industrial hydrogen, to build an approach to the problem meeting the requirements of an industrial context. After defining and characterizing the optimization problem through a systemic analysis of the distribution infrastructure, we proposed a method suited to its resolution. Monte Carlo simulations enabled us to develop cost functions. Then we developed a heuristic algorithm for approximate optimization of these cost functions. Our approach has necessitated the definition of simulation rules, a design of experiment and a regression method, as well as a heuristic algorithm adapted to the structure of the problem. The specification, development and use of software tools have helped to validate the chosen methodology for the optimization of the uncertain problem of our study. The scenario of evolution has created a reference to validate the model and provide some analysis for early studies of deployment. (author)

  10. Well-to-Wheels Greenhouse Gas Emissions Analysis of High-Octane Fuels with Various Market Shares and Ethanol Blending Levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Jeongwoo [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Elgowainy, Amgad [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wang, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Divita, Vincent [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-07-14

    In this study, we evaluated the impacts of producing HOF with a RON of 100, using a range of ethanol blending levels (E10, E25, and E40), vehicle efficiency gains, and HOF market penetration scenarios (3.4% to 70%), on WTW petroleum use and GHG emissions. In particular, we conducted LP modeling of petroleum refineries to examine the impacts of different HOF production scenarios on petroleum refining energy use and GHG emissions. We compared two cases of HOF vehicle fuel economy gains of 5% and 10% in terms of MPGGE to baseline regular gasoline vehicles. We incorporated three key factors in GREET — (1) refining energy intensities of gasoline components for the various ethanol blending options and market shares, (2) vehicle efficiency gains, and (3) upstream energy use and emissions associated with the production of different crude types and ethanol — to compare the WTW GHG emissions of various HOF/vehicle scenarios with the business-as-usual baseline regular gasoline (87 AKI E10) pathway.

  11. Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Technology Validation | Hydrogen and Fuel Cells |

    Science.gov (United States)

    NREL Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Technology Validation Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Technology Validation The NREL technology validation team works on validating hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles; hydrogen fueling infrastructure; hydrogen system components; and fuel cell use in early market applications such as

  12. Estimation of emissions of volatile organic compounds in the fuel marketing terminal Recope, Alto de Ochomogo, Cartago, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Vanessa Quesada Carvajal

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: This study presents the estimation of the evaporative emissions generated in the fuel distribution plant in El Alto de Ochomogo, Cartago, Costa Rica and the selection of the adequate recovery system to reduce the emission of these gases into the atmosphere, thus decreasing the adverse effects caused by these compounds in the environment and the health of nearby populations. Method: The fugitive emission rate estimated in the tanker vehicle loading process, using load loss emission factors, and fuel storage, through specialized software. Subsequently, we proceeded to make the selection of the appropriate treatment system, considering the flow capacity of the gaseous current that each technology can treat. Results: It was determined that the generation of VOCs is greater in the loading area than in the storage tanks, since they correspond to 95% and 5% respectively. Due to this, the proposal of the vapor treatment system focuses on the fuel-loading zone, selecting the cryogenic condensation as non-destructive recovery treatment. Conclusions: The estimation of the fugitive emission rate allowed to have a base to establish a strategy for the reduction of these emissions in favor of the health of the workers who are constantly exposed to them. To reduce direct emissions to the atmosphere during the loading of tanks. Necessary changes must be made to adapt them to an airtight system. That allows sending gasoline vapors that generated by the presence of residual product on the walls of trucks and due to the turbulence that arises during the loading of the new product, to the vapor recovery unit.

  13. Fuels and chemicals from biomass using solar thermal energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giori, G.; Leitheiser, R.; Wayman, M.

    1981-01-01

    The significant nearer term opportunities for the application of solar thermal energy to the manufacture of fuels and chemicals from biomass are summarized, with some comments on resource availability, market potential and economics. Consideration is given to the production of furfural from agricultural residues, and the role of furfural and its derivatives as a replacement for petrochemicals in the plastics industry.

  14. Bio-diesel fuels production: Feasibility studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabasso, L.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reviews the efforts being made by Italy's national government and private industry to develop diesel engine fuels derived from vegetable oils, in particular, sunflower seed oil. These fuels are being promoted in Italy from the environmental protection stand-point in that they don't contain any sulfur, the main cause of acid rain, and from the agricultural stand-point in that they provide Italian farmers, whose food crop production capacity is limited due to European Communities agreements, with the opportunity to use their set-aside land for the production of energy crops. This paper provides brief notes on the key performance characteristics of bio-diesel fuels, whose application doesn't require any modifications to diesel engines, apart from minor adjustments to the air/fuel mix regulating system, and assesses commercialization prospects. Brief mention is made of the problems being encountered by the Government in the establishing fair bio-fuel production tax rebates which are compatible with the marketing practices of the petroleum industry. One of the strategies being considered is to use the bio-fuels as additives to be mixed with conventional fuel oils so as to derive a fuel which meets the new European air pollution standards

  15. Release of bisphenol A and its derivatives from orthodontic adhesive systems available on the European market as a potential health risk factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrad Małkiewicz

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available [b]Introduction[/b]. Treatment with fixed orthodontic appliances requires the application of adhesive systems to enable secure fastening of brackets and retainers to the surface of tooth enamel. The orthodontic bonding systems are similar in terms of chemical composition to dental filling materials, the chemical stability of which is not satisfactory. Particularly alarming is the release of bisphenol A and its derivatives to the external environment, which has been well-documented for materials used in conservative dentistry. [b]Objectives[/b]. The aim of the study was an in vitro assessment of the release of biologically harmful bisphenol A and its derivatives from orthodontic adhesives available on the European market, as a potential health risk factor for orthodontic patients. [b]Material and methods[/b]. The study assessed levels of BPA, BPA polymers and Bis-GMA resin in eluates of six commonly used orthodontic adhesives: Light Bond, Transbond XT, Resilence, Aspire, GrĕnGloo and ConTec LC, obtained after one hour, 24 hours, 7 days and 31 days of material sample storage in water. The presence and concentration of the studied chemicals in the obtained solutions were identified using the HPLC method. [b]Results[/b]. The highest (p≤0.05 concentration of BPA at 32.10µg/ml was observed in the Resilence material eluates. The highest concentration of poly-bisphenol A was found in solutions obtained after incubation of ConTec LC adhesive at 371.90µg/ml, whereas the highest amount of Bis-GMA resin (425.07µg/ml was present in Aspire material eluates. [b]Conclusions[/b]. 1 In conditions of the current experiment it was demonstrated that most of the assessed orthodontic adhesive resins available on the European market and released into the outside environment – biologically harmful bisphenol A or its derivatives, posing a potential threat to the patients’ health. 2 Release of BPA and its derivatives into aqueous solutions is the highest in the

  16. Concentrations of bisphenol a, bisphenol a diglycidyl ether, and their derivatives in canned foods in Japanese markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonekubo, Jun; Hayakawa, Kazuichi; Sajiki, Junko

    2008-03-26

    Bisphenol A (BPA), bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE), and their derivatives in 38 canned foods sold in Japan were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and LC-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). BPA, BADGE, BADGE.2H 2O, BADGE.HCl.H2O, BADGE.HCl, and BADGE.2HCl were 0-235.4, 0-3.4, 0-247.2, 0.2-196.4, 0-3.0, and 0-25.7 ng/g, respectively, which did not exceed acceptable daily intake for BPA and specific migration limit for BADGEs. BADGE was degraded by 58, 100, 46, and 58% in water (pH 7), 0.01 N HCl (pH 2), 0.01 N NaCl (pH 6.8), and 0.01 N NaCl with acetic acid (pH 2.5), respectively, when it was allowed to stand at 120 degrees C for 30 min. The prominent derivatives formed were BADGE.2H 2O and BADGE.HCl.H2O, which was formed not only in BADGE with added HCl but also in that with NaCl. Acetic acid accelerated the formation of both BADGE.2H2O and BADGE.HCl.H2O in NaCl. No BPA was detected in any simulation samples started from BADGE. The results suggest that BPA and BADGE are independently leached into canned foods and that BADGE is easily changed to more stable compounds such as BADGE.2H2O and BADGE.HCl.H2O by sterilization.

  17. Valuing put options on single stock futures: Does the put-call parity relationship hold in the South African derivatives market?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Biebuyck

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to determine whether mispricing of options on single stock futures is present in the South African derivatives market. The valuation of options on single stock futures is considered through the put-call parity relationship. The theoretical fair values obtained, are compared to the actual market values over a period of three years, that is, from 2009 to 2011. Only put options are considered in this research.The results show that arbitrage put option opportunities do present themselves for the chosen shares. The actual put options were found to be underpriced in 5 out of 6 (83% of the cases considered over the evaluation periods chosen. The mispricing was significant for both the BHP Billiton options with 100% and in the case of Sasol options (66% of the time. Whether profitable arbitrage opportunities is possible, will depend on the magnitude of the mispricing and the transaction fees payable. Further, more extensive research may help identify tendencies which may be of use for the formulation of arbitrage strategies

  18. Emerging Market Firms’ Acquisitions in Advanced Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stucchi, Tamara

    2012-01-01

    markets. These antecedents can influence emerging market firms’ capacities to absorb or exploit technological and/or marketing advantages in advanced markets. In order to be successful, emerging market firms have to undertake those upmarket acquisitions that best “fit” their antecedents. Four mutually......This study draws upon the resource-based view and the institution-based view of the firm to provide a comprehensive overview of how different resource-, institution- and industry-based antecedents affect the motivations guiding the acquisitions that emerging market firms undertake in advanced...... exclusive acquisition strategies are derived, which are then illustrated using examples of Indian firms’ acquisitions in advanced markets....

  19. A comparison of the environmental benefits of bagasse-derived electricity and fuel ethanol on a life-cycle basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botha, Tyron; Blottnitz, Harro von

    2006-01-01

    The energetic utilisation of agricultural residues is considered to be an important element in any strategy to achieve renewable energy targets. In the approximately 80 cane-sugar producing countries there is potential to make better use of the fibrous residue known as bagasse. Subject to improved energy efficiency, sugar producers could supply energy either as 'green', co-generated electricity, or as fuel ethanol through cellulose hydrolysis followed by fermentation. This paper compares their projected environmental benefits from a life-cycle perspective, using South African data. Mass and energy analyses were prepared for the two systems and a base case (producing sugar with current methods), relative to the annual sugarcane production on one hectare. In both cases, the environmental burdens avoided by replacing an equivalent amount of fossil energy were included. The results obtained confirm that for all the impact categories considered, both 'bioenergy' products result in environmental benefits. The co-generation option results in lower energy-related emissions (i.e. lower global warming, acidification and eutrophication potentials), whereas the fuel ethanol option is preferred in terms of resource conservation (since it is assumed to replace oil not coal), and also scores better in terms of human and eco-toxicity if assumed to replace lead-bearing oxygenates

  20. Analysing Performance Characteristics of Biomass Haulage in Ireland for Bioenergy Markets with GPS, GIS and Fuel Diagnostic Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Sosa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In Ireland, truck transport by road dominates and will remain the main transportation mode of biomass. Cost efficiency and flexibility of forest transport can be typically improved by optimising routes. It is important to know every process and attributes within the workflow of roundwood transport. This study aimed to analyse characteristics of timber trucking in Ireland, and to estimate the least-cost route for the distribution of biomass with the use of geographic information systems (GIS. Firstly, a tracking system that recorded the truck’s movements and fuel consumption was installed. A total of 152 trips were recorded, routes were chosen by the truck driver. The recorded information was used to analyse the distances and times travelled loaded and unloaded per road class, breaks, loading and unloading times as well as fuel consumption. Secondly, the routes taken by the truck where compared with routes created using Network Analyst (NA, an extension of ArcGIS. Four scenarios based on route selection criteria were selected: shortest distance (S1, shorted time (S2, and prioritising high-class roads with shortest distance (S3 and time (S4. Results from the analysis of the tracking system data showed that driving both loaded and unloaded occupied on average 69% of the driver’s working shift; with an average time driving loaded of 49%. The travel distance per trip varied from 112 km and 197 km, with the truck driver using mostly national and regional roads. An average 2% of the total distance and 11% of the total time was spent driving on forest roads. In general, the truck’s speed recorded on the different road classes was on average 30% lower than the legal maximum speed. The average fuel consumption was 0.64 L/km. In terms of the route comparison, the driving directions from the truck routes coincided with 77% of the directions of the routes based on shortest driving time (S2 and S4. All the routes chosen by the driver had 22% longer