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Sample records for derivatives caffeine theophylline

  1. Vibrational spectral investigation on xanthine and its derivatives--theophylline, caffeine and theobromine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunasekaran, S; Sankari, G; Ponnusamy, S

    2005-01-01

    A normal coordinate analysis has been carried out on four compounds having a similar ring structure with different side chain substitutions, which are xanthine, caffeine, theophylline, and theobromine. Xanthine is chemically known as 2,6-dihydroxy purine. Caffeine, theophylline and theobromine are methylated xanthines. Considering the methyl groups as point mass, the number of normal modes of vibrations can be distributed as Gamma(vib) = 27 A' + 12 A" based on C(s) point group symmetry associated with the structures. In the present work 15 A' and 12 A'' normal modes are considered. A new set of orthonormal symmetry co-ordinates have been constructed. Wilson's F-G matrix method has been adopted for the normal coordinate analysis. A satisfactory vibrational band assignment has been made by employing the FTIR and FT Raman spectra of the compounds. The potential energy distribution is calculated with the arrived values of the force constants and hence the agreement of the frequency assignment has been checked.

  2. Thermochemical parameters of caffeine, theophylline, and xanthine

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    Ngo Tuan Cuong; Truong Ba Tai [Department of Chemistry, and Mathematical Modeling and Computational Science Center (LMCC), Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Vu Thi Thu Ha [Institute of Chemistry, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Minh Tho Nguyen, E-mail: minh.nguyen@chem.kuleuven.b [Department of Chemistry, and Mathematical Modeling and Computational Science Center (LMCC), Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2010-04-15

    Thermochemical parameters of caffeine 1, theophylline 2, xanthine 3, uracil, and imidazole derivatives are determined by quantum chemical calculations. Using the composite G3B3 method, the standard heat of formation of caffeine in the gaseous phase amounts to DELTA{sub f}H{sub g}{sup 0}(1)=-243+-8kJ.mol{sup -1}, which lends a support for the recent experimental value of -237.0 +- 2.5 kcal . mol{sup -1}. We also obtain DELTA{sub f}H{sub g}{sup 0}(2)=-232+-8kJ.mol{sup -1}andDELTA{sub f}H{sub g}{sup 0}(3)=-209+-8kJ.mol{sup -1}. The adiabatic ionization energies are IE{sub a}(1) = 7.9 eV, IE{sub a}(2) = 8.1 eV, and IE{sub a}(3) = 8.5 eV using B3LYP calculations. The enhanced ability of caffeine to eject electron, as compared to the parent compounds and cyclic components, is of interest with regard to its potential use as a corrosion inhibitor.

  3. RNA binding efficacy of theophylline, theobromine and caffeine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, I Maria; Kumar, S G Bhuvan; Malathi, R

    2003-04-01

    The binding of naturally occurring methylxanthines such as theophylline, theobromine and caffeine to nucleic acids are reckoned to be pivotal as they are able to modulate the cellular activities. We explore the interaction of yeast RNA binding efficacy of the above xanthine derivatives by using UV absorption differential spectroscopy and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Both the analyses show discrimination in their binding affinity to RNA. The differential UV-spectrum at P/D 3.3 reveals the greater RNA binding activity for theophylline (85 +/- 5%), whereas moderate and comparatively less binding activity for theobromine (45 +/- 5%) and caffeine (30 +/- 5%) and the binding activity was found to depend on concentration of the drugs. In FTIR analysis we observed changes in the amino group (NH) of RNA complexed by drugs, where the NH band is found to become very broad, indicating hydrogen bonding (H-bonding) with theophylline (3343.4 cm(-1)), theobromine (3379.8 cm(-1)) and caffeine (3343 cm(-1)) as compared to the free RNA (3341.6 cm(-1)). Furthermore in RNA-theophylline complex, it is observed that the carbonyl (C=O) vibration frequency (nu(C=O)) of both drug (nu(C=O)=1718, 1666 cm(-1)) as well as RNA (nu(C=O)=1699, 1658 cm(-1)) disappeared and a new vibration band appeared around 1703 cm(-1), indicating that the C=O and NH groups of drug and RNA are effectively involved in H-bonding. Whereas in RNA-theobromine and RNA-caffeine complexes, we found very little changes in C=O frequency and only broadening of the NH band of RNA due to complexation is observed in these groups. The changes in the vibrations of G-C/A-U bands and other bending frequencies are discussed. Thus the discrimination in the binding affinity of methylxanthines with RNA molecule shows that strong RNA binding drugs like theophylline can selectively be delivered to RNA targets of microbial pathogens having the mechanism of RNA catalysis.

  4. Synthesis and anticancer activity of silver(I)-N-heterocyclic carbene complexes derived from the natural xanthine products caffeine, theophylline and theobromine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Heba A; Lake, Benjamin R M; Laing, Thomas; Phillips, Roger M; Willans, Charlotte E

    2015-04-28

    A new library of silver(I)-N-heterocyclic carbene complexes prepared from the natural products caffeine, theophylline and theobromine is reported. The complexes have been fully characterised using a combination of NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, elemental analysis and X-ray diffraction analysis. Furthermore, the hydrophobicity of the complexes has been measured. The silver(I)-N-heterocyclic carbenes have been evaluated for their antiproliferative properties against a range of cancer cell lines of different histological types, and compared to cisplatin. The data shows different profiles of response when compared to cisplatin in the same panel of cells, indicating a different mechanism of action. Furthermore, it appears that the steric effect of the ligand and the hydrophobicity of the complex both play a role in the chemosensitivity of these compounds, with greater steric bulk and greater hydrophilicity delivering higher cytotoxicity.

  5. Comparative study of the binding of trypsin to caffeine and theophylline by spectrofluorimetry

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    Wang, Ruiyong, E-mail: wangry@zzu.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001 (China); Kang, Xiaohui [Department of Chemistry, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001 (China); Wang, Ruiqiang [The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052 (China); Wang, Rui; Dou, Huanjing; Wu, Jing; Song, Chuanjun [Department of Chemistry, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001 (China); Chang, Junbiao, E-mail: changjunbiao@zzu.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001 (China)

    2013-06-15

    The interactions between trypsin and caffeine/theophylline were investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy, UV–visible absorption spectroscopy, resonance light scattering and synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy under mimic physiological conditions. The results revealed that the fluorescence quenching of trypsin by caffeine and theophylline was the result of the formed complex of caffeine–trypsin and theophylline–trypsin. The binding constants and thermodynamic parameters at three different temperatures were obtained. The hydrophobic interaction was the predominant intermolecular forces to stabilize the complex. Results showed that caffeine was the stronger quencher and bound to trypsin with higher affinity than theophylline. -- Highlights: ► The fluorescence of trypsin can be quenched by caffeine or theophylline via hydrophobic contacts. ► Caffeine binds to trypsin with higher affinity than theophylline. ► The influence of molecular structure on the binding aspects is reported.

  6. Comparative study of the binding of trypsin to caffeine and theophylline by spectrofluorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ruiyong; Kang, Xiaohui; Wang, Ruiqiang; Wang, Rui; Dou, Huanjing; Wu, Jing; Song, Chuanjun; Chang, Junbiao

    2013-01-01

    The interactions between trypsin and caffeine/theophylline were investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy, UV–visible absorption spectroscopy, resonance light scattering and synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy under mimic physiological conditions. The results revealed that the fluorescence quenching of trypsin by caffeine and theophylline was the result of the formed complex of caffeine–trypsin and theophylline–trypsin. The binding constants and thermodynamic parameters at three different temperatures were obtained. The hydrophobic interaction was the predominant intermolecular forces to stabilize the complex. Results showed that caffeine was the stronger quencher and bound to trypsin with higher affinity than theophylline. -- Highlights: ► The fluorescence of trypsin can be quenched by caffeine or theophylline via hydrophobic contacts. ► Caffeine binds to trypsin with higher affinity than theophylline. ► The influence of molecular structure on the binding aspects is reported

  7. Effects of caffeine, theophylline and theobromine on scheduled controlled responding in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, J. M.

    1982-01-01

    1 Rats were trained to respond under a variable interval 30 s (VI 30) schedule of food reinforcement. Caffeine (0.32-32 mg/kg), theophylline (1.0-56 mg/kg) and theobromine (10-320 mg/kg) in general produced dose-related decreases in operant responding. At relatively low doses, caffeine (1.0 mg/kg) and theophylline (3.2 mg/kg) produced slight but nonsignificant increases in VI 30 responding. 3 The rank order of potency for producing decreases in responding was caffeine greater than theophylline greater than theobromine. 4 Daily caffeine injections (32 mg/kg, i.p.) resulted in the development of caffeine tolerance. This tolerance was characterized by a 6 fold shift to the right in the caffeine dose-effect curve. Saline substitution for the 32.0 mg/kg caffeine maintenance dose resulted in a substantial decrease in responding. PMID:7066599

  8. Two Distinct Pathways for Metabolism of Theophylline and Caffeine Are Coexpressed in Pseudomonas putida CBB5▿ †

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    Yu, Chi Li; Louie, Tai Man; Summers, Ryan; Kale, Yogesh; Gopishetty, Sridhar; Subramanian, Mani

    2009-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida CBB5 was isolated from soil by enrichment on caffeine. This strain used not only caffeine, theobromine, paraxanthine, and 7-methylxanthine as sole carbon and nitrogen sources but also theophylline and 3-methylxanthine. Analyses of metabolites in spent media and resting cell suspensions confirmed that CBB5 initially N demethylated theophylline via a hitherto unreported pathway to 1- and 3-methylxanthines. NAD(P)H-dependent conversion of theophylline to 1- and 3-methylxanthines was also detected in the crude cell extracts of theophylline-grown CBB5. 1-Methylxanthine and 3-methylxanthine were subsequently N demethylated to xanthine. CBB5 also oxidized theophylline and 1- and 3-methylxanthines to 1,3-dimethyluric acid and 1- and 3-methyluric acids, respectively. However, these methyluric acids were not metabolized further. A broad-substrate-range xanthine-oxidizing enzyme was responsible for the formation of these methyluric acids. In contrast, CBB5 metabolized caffeine to theobromine (major metabolite) and paraxanthine (minor metabolite). These dimethylxanthines were further N demethylated to xanthine via 7-methylxanthine. Theobromine-, paraxanthine-, and 7-methylxanthine-grown cells also metabolized all of the methylxanthines mentioned above via the same pathway. Thus, the theophylline and caffeine N-demethylation pathways converged at xanthine via different methylxanthine intermediates. Xanthine was eventually oxidized to uric acid. Enzymes involved in theophylline and caffeine degradation were coexpressed when CBB5 was grown on theophylline or on caffeine or its metabolites. However, 3-methylxanthine-grown CBB5 cells did not metabolize caffeine, whereas theophylline was metabolized at much reduced levels to only methyluric acids. To our knowledge, this is the first report of theophylline N demethylation and coexpression of distinct pathways for caffeine and theophylline degradation in bacteria. PMID:19447909

  9. Effects of caffeine and its reactive metabolites theophylline and theobromine on the differentiating testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, I; Locquet, O; Solvar, A; Magre, S

    2001-01-01

    A previous study in the rat (Pollard et al. 1990) established that caffeine, when administered during pregnancy, significantly inhibited the differentiation of the seminiferous cords and subsequent Leydig cell development in the interstitium. However, that study could not distinguish between the direct effects of caffeine and/or the intermediary secondary toxic effects of metabolites such as theophylline and theobromine. Because the fetus lacks the appropriate enzyme systems, clearance of toxic substances takes place via the placenta and maternal liver. Thus, a suitable in vitro system can effectively differentiate between primary and secondary drug effects. In the present study, 13-day-old fetal testis, at the stage of incipient differentiation, were cultured for 4 days in vitro in the presence of graded doses of caffeine, theophylline or theobromine. It was found that explants exposed to caffeine or theobromine differentiated normally, developing seminiferous cords made up of Sertoli and germ cells, soon followed by the differentiation of functionally active Leydig cells appearing in the newly formed interstitium. However, explants exposed to theophylline failed to develop seminiferous cords and, as a consequence, Leydig cells. In conclusion, insights obtained from different experimental methods, such as organ culture or whole organism studies, are not always identical. It may be prudent, therefore, to take into account that certain experimental techniques, despite providing valuable information, may require confirmation by other test methods in order to obtain an in-depth understanding of mechanisms of action involved.

  10. Vibrational spectral investigation on xanthine and its derivatives—theophylline, caffeine and theobromine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunasekaran, S.; Sankari, G.; Ponnusamy, S.

    2005-01-01

    A normal coordinate analysis has been carried out on four compounds having a similar ring structure with different side chain substitutions, which are xanthine, caffeine, theophylline, and theobromine. Xanthine is chemically known as 2,6-dihydroxy purine. Caffeine, theophylline and theobromine are methylated xanthines. Considering the methyl groups as point mass, the number of normal modes of vibrations can be distributed as Γ vib=27 A'+12 A″ based on C s point group symmetry associated with the structures. In the present work 15 A' and 12 A″ normal modes are considered. A new set of orthonormal symmetry co-ordinates have been constructed. Wilson's F- G matrix method has been adopted for the normal coordinate analysis. A satisfactory vibrational band assignment has been made by employing the FTIR and FT Raman spectra of the compounds. The potential energy distribution is calculated with the arrived values of the force constants and hence the agreement of the frequency assignment has been checked.

  11. A molecular imprint-coated stirrer bar for selective extraction of caffeine, theobromine and theophylline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Quanfei; Ma, Chao; Chen, Huaixia; Wu, Yaqi; Huang, Jianlin

    2014-01-01

    We have prepared a novel caffeine imprinted polymer on a stir bar that can be used for selective extraction of caffeine, theobromine and theophylline from beverages. The polymerization time and quantities of reagents (template, cross-linker, porogenic solvent) were optimized. The morphology of the molecularly imprinted polymer-coating was studied by scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform IR spectroscopy. A rapid and sensitive method was worked out for the extraction of caffeine, theobromine and theophylline from beverages by using the molecularly imprinted stir bar followed by HPLC analysis. The effects of extraction solvent, stirring speed, desorption solvent, adsorption and desorption time were optimized. The method displays a linear response in the 5–150 μg L −1 caffeine concentration range, with a correlation coefficient of >0.9904. The recoveries for three analytes in tea, carbonated and functional beverages were 91–108 %, 90–110 % and 93–109 %, with relative standard deviations ranging from 3.6–5.7 %, 3.5–7.9 % and 3.2–7.9 %, respectively. (author)

  12. The laser desorption/laser ionization mass spectra of some methylated xanthines and the laser desorption of caffeine and theophylline from thin layer chromatography plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Kevin; Milnes, John; Gormally, John

    1993-02-01

    Laser desorption/laser ionization time-of-flight mass spectra of caffeine, theophylline, theobromine and xanthine are reported. These mass spectra are compared with published spectra obtained using electron impact ionization. Mass spectra of caffeine and theophylline obtained by IR laser desorption from thin layer chromatography plates are also described. The laser desorption of materials from thin layer chromatography plates is discussed.

  13. Spectral analysis of naturally occurring methylxanthines (theophylline, theobromine and caffeine) binding with DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Irudayam Maria; Prakash, Halan; Prathiba, Jeyaguru; Raghunathan, Raghavachary; Malathi, Raghunathan

    2012-01-01

    Nucleic acids exist in a dynamic equilibrium with a number of molecules that constantly interact with them and regulate the cellular activities. The inherent nature of the structure and conformational integrity of these macromolecules can lead to altered biological activity through proper targeting of nucleic acids binding ligands or drug molecules. We studied the interaction of naturally occurring methylxanthines such as theophylline, theobromine and caffeine with DNA, using UV absorption and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic methods, and especially monitored their binding affinity in the presence of Mg(2+) and during helix-coil transitions of DNA by temperature (T(m)) or pH melting profiles. The study indicates that all these molecules effectively bind to DNA in a dose dependent manner. The overall binding constants of DNA-theophylline = 3.5×10(3) M(-1), DNA-theobromine = 1.1×10(3) M(-1), and DNA-Caffeine = 3.8×10(3) M(-1). On the other hand T(m)/pH melting profiles showed 24-35% of enhanced binding activity of methylxanthines during helix-coil transitions of DNA rather than to its native double helical structure. The FTIR analysis divulged that theophylline, theobromine and caffeine interact with all the base pairs of DNA (A-T; G-C) and phosphate group through hydrogen bond (H-bond) interaction. In the presence of Mg(2+), methylxanthines altered the structure of DNA from B to A-family. However, the B-family structure of DNA remained unaltered in DNA-methylxanthines complexes or in the absence of Mg(2+). The spectral analyses indicated the order of binding affinity as "caffeine≥theophylline>theobromine" to the native double helical DNA, and "theophylline≥theobromine>caffeine to the denatured form of DNA and in the presence of divalent metal ions.

  14. Spectral analysis of naturally occurring methylxanthines (theophylline, theobromine and caffeine binding with DNA.

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    Irudayam Maria Johnson

    Full Text Available Nucleic acids exist in a dynamic equilibrium with a number of molecules that constantly interact with them and regulate the cellular activities. The inherent nature of the structure and conformational integrity of these macromolecules can lead to altered biological activity through proper targeting of nucleic acids binding ligands or drug molecules. We studied the interaction of naturally occurring methylxanthines such as theophylline, theobromine and caffeine with DNA, using UV absorption and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopic methods, and especially monitored their binding affinity in the presence of Mg(2+ and during helix-coil transitions of DNA by temperature (T(m or pH melting profiles. The study indicates that all these molecules effectively bind to DNA in a dose dependent manner. The overall binding constants of DNA-theophylline = 3.5×10(3 M(-1, DNA-theobromine = 1.1×10(3 M(-1, and DNA-Caffeine = 3.8×10(3 M(-1. On the other hand T(m/pH melting profiles showed 24-35% of enhanced binding activity of methylxanthines during helix-coil transitions of DNA rather than to its native double helical structure. The FTIR analysis divulged that theophylline, theobromine and caffeine interact with all the base pairs of DNA (A-T; G-C and phosphate group through hydrogen bond (H-bond interaction. In the presence of Mg(2+, methylxanthines altered the structure of DNA from B to A-family. However, the B-family structure of DNA remained unaltered in DNA-methylxanthines complexes or in the absence of Mg(2+. The spectral analyses indicated the order of binding affinity as "caffeine≥theophylline>theobromine" to the native double helical DNA, and "theophylline≥theobromine>caffeine to the denatured form of DNA and in the presence of divalent metal ions.

  15. Determination of caffeine, theobromine and theophylline in Mate beer and Mate soft drinks by high-performance thin-layer chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oellig, Claudia; Schunck, Jacob; Schwack, Wolfgang

    2018-01-19

    Mate beer and Mate soft drinks are beverages produced from the dried leaves of Ilex paraguariensis (Yerba Mate). In Yerba Mate, the xanthine derivatives caffeine, theobromine and theophylline, also known as methylxanthines, are important active components. The presented method for the determination of caffeine, theobromine and theophylline in Mate beer and Mate soft drinks by high-performance thin-layer chromatography with ultraviolet detection (HPTLC-UV) offers a fully automated and sensitive determination of the three methylxanthines. Filtration of the samples was followed by degassing, dilution with acetonitrile in the case of Mate beers for protein precipitation, and centrifugation before the extracts were analyzed by HPTLC-UV on LiChrospher silica gel plates with fluorescence indicator and acetone/toluene/chloroform (4:3:3, v/v/v) as the mobile phase. For quantitation, the absorbance was scanned at 274nm. Limits of detection and quantitation were 1 and 4ng/zone, respectively, for caffeine, theobromine and theophylline. With recoveries close to 100% and low standard deviations reliable results were guaranteed. Experimental Mate beers as well as Mate beers and Mate soft drinks from the market were analyzed for their concentrations of methylxanthines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Simultaneous determination of caffeine, theophylline and theobromine in food samples by a kinetic spectrophotometric method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Zhenzhen; Ni, Yongnian; Kokot, Serge

    2013-12-15

    A novel kinetic spectrophotometric method was developed for the simultaneous determination of caffeine, theobromine and theophylline in food samples. This method was based on the different kinetic characteristics between the reactions of analytes with cerium sulphate in sulphuric acid and the associated change in absorbance at 320 nm. Experimental conditions, the effects of sulphuric acid, cerium sulphate and temperature, were optimised. Linear ranges (0.4-8.4 μg mL(-1)) for all three analytes were established, and the limits of detection were: 0.30 μg mL(-1) (caffeine), 0.33 μg mL(-1) (theobromine) and 0.16 μg mL(-1) (theophylline). The recorded data were processed by partial least squares and artificial neural network, and the developed mathematical models were then used for prediction. The proposed, novel method was applied to determine the analytes in commercial food samples, and there were no significant differences between the results from the proposed method and those obtained by high-performance liquid chromatography. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Simultaneous HPLC determination of caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline in food, drinks, and herbal products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srdjenovic, Branislava; Djordjevic-Milic, Vukosava; Grujic, Nevena; Injac, Rade; Lepojevic, Zika

    2008-02-01

    A rapid and selective high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method is developed for the separation and determination of caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline. The chromatography is performed on a Zorbax Eclipse XDB-C8 column (4.6x150 mm i.d., 5-microm particle size) at 25 degrees C, with a mobile phase of water-THF (0.1% THF in water, pH 8)-acetonitrile (90:10, v/v). The flow rate is 0.8 mL/min, and detection is by UV at 273 nm. This method permits the simultaneous determination of caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline in food, drinks, and herbal products with detection limits of 0.07-0.2 mg/L and recoveries of 100.20-100.42%. Correlation coefficients, for the calibration curves in the linear range of 0.2-100 mg/L, are greater than 0.9999 for all compounds. The within- and between-day precision is determined for both retention times and peak area. The data suggests that the proposed HPLC method can be used for routine quality control of food, drinks, and herbal products.

  18. Use of Resting Cells of Native Screened Rhodotorula sp. CW03 in Biotransformation of Caffeine to Theophylline and Paraxanthine

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    M. Ashengroph

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: In recent years, microorganisms have been applied as biocatalysts for making pharmaceutically natural products. Microbial biotransformation of caffeine suggests a dual approach for biodegradation of toxic caffeine from polluted environments and a method for the production of medically and pharmaceutically valuable dimethylxanthines. The present work describes the identification of native yeasts capable of biotransformation of caffeine into theophylline and paraxanthine. Materials & Methods: In this experimental study fourteen yeast strains which were able to de-grade caffeine isolated based on their morphology were selected as biocatalysts for biotrans-formation of caffeine as a low-cost substrate to high value added dimethylxanthines such as theophylline and theobromine. The selected strains were characterized based on phenotypic and genetic tests. Screening was performed by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC analyses. Results: The results obtained using TLC and HPLC analyses suggest formation of two main metabolites of theophylline and paraxanthine from biotransformation of caffeine under resting cells of Rhodotorula sp. CW03 (GenBank accession number KF414531. The results showed that under resting cell conditions a maximum concentration of theophylline 380 mg/l (molar yield of 16.4% and paraxanthine 880 mg/l (molar yield of 37.9% were obtained after 72 h and 120 h of conversion time, respectively. Conclusion: In the current investigation, done for the first time in Iran, we describe the isola-tion and identification of yeast strains with caffeine degradation ability which can be proposed as safe and cost-effective biocatalysts in production of value added dimethylxanthines from caffeine as a low-cost substrate.(Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2015; 22 (2: 83-92

  19. Monkey liver cytochrome P450 2C9 is involved in caffeine 7-N-demethylation to form theophylline.

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    Utoh, Masahiro; Murayama, Norie; Uno, Yasuhiro; Onose, Yui; Hosaka, Shinya; Fujino, Hideki; Shimizu, Makiko; Iwasaki, Kazuhide; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2013-12-01

    Caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine) is a phenotyping substrate for human cytochrome P450 1A2. 3-N-Demethylation of caffeine is the main human metabolic pathway, whereas monkeys extensively mediate the 7-N-demethylation of caffeine to form pharmacological active theophylline. Roles of monkey P450 enzymes in theophylline formation from caffeine were investigated using individual monkey liver microsomes and 14 recombinantly expressed monkey P450 enzymes, and the results were compared with those for human P450 enzymes. Caffeine 7-N-demethylation activity in microsomes from 20 monkey livers was not strongly inhibited by α-naphthoflavone, quinidine or ketoconazole, and was roughly correlated with diclofenac 4'-hydroxylation activities. Monkey P450 2C9 had the highest activity for caffeine 7-N-demethylation. Kinetic analysis revealed that monkey P450 2C9 had a high Vmax/Km value for caffeine 7-N-demethylation, comparable to low Km value for monkey liver microsomes. Caffeine could dock favorably with monkey P450 2C9 modeled for 7-N-demethylation and with human P450 1A2 for 3-N-demethylation. The primary metabolite theophylline was oxidized to 8-hydroxytheophylline in similar ways by liver microsomes and by recombinant P450s in both humans and monkeys. These results collectively suggest a high activity for monkey liver P450 2C9 toward caffeine 7-N-demethylation, whereas, in humans, P450 1A2-mediated caffeine 3-N-demethylation is dominant.

  20. [Rapid determination of theophylline, theobromine and caffeine in dietary supplements containing guarana by ultra-performance liquid chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Takashi; Takahashi, Kazunaga; Saijo, Masaaki; Ishii, Toshiyasu; Nagata, Tomoko

    2009-12-01

    A rapid and simple method for determination of theophylline, theobromine and caffeine in dietary supplements containing guarana by ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) has been developed. Theophylline, theobromine and caffeine were extracted from finely powdered samples with water in a boiling water bath for 20 min, then the extracts were filtered and the filtrates were subjected to UPLC. Liquid samples were diluted with water and filteres, and the filtrates were subjected to UPLC. UPLC separation was performed on an AQUITY UPLC BEH C18 column (2.1 mm i.d.x50 mm, 1.7 microm, Waters) with 10 mmol/L ammonium acetate buffer (pH 4.0)-acetonitrile gradient and eluates were monitored at 275 nm. The recoveries of theophylline (spiked at 200 microg/g [tablet] and 50 microg/mL [liquid]), theobromine (spiked at 200 microg/g [tablet] and 50 microg/mL [liquid]) and caffeine (spiked at 1,000 microg/g [tablet] and 250 microg/mL [liquid]) were 97.6-98.7%, 97.3-99.7%, 97.1-105.4%, respectively. The quantitation limits of theophylline, theobromine and caffeine were 10 microg/g (seed, seed powder, tablet and capsule) and 2.0 microg/mL (liquid) each. When this analytical method was applied to commercial dietary supplements, theophylline, theobromine and caffeine were found at concentrations of 4.45 mg/tablet, 5.48 mg/tablet, 139 mg/tablet, respectively. Taking 4 tablets of this product according to the directions on the package could be dangerous to consumers because of possible overdosing of these ingredients.

  1. Determination of caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline in standard reference material 2384, baking chocolate, using reversed-phase liquid chromatography.

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    Thomas, Jeanice Brown; Yen, James H; Schantz, Michele M; Porter, Barbara J; Sharpless, Katherine E

    2004-06-02

    A rapid and selective isocratic reversed-phase liquid chromatographic method has been developed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology to simultaneously measure caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline in a food-matrix standard reference material (SRM) 2384, Baking Chocolate. The method uses isocratic elution with a mobile phase composition (volume fractions) of 10% acetronitrile/90% water (pH adjusted to 2.5 using acetic acid) at a flow rate of 1.5 mL/min with ultraviolet absorbance detection (274 nm). Total elution time for these analytes is less than 15 min. Concentration levels of caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline were measured in single 1-g samples taken from each of eight bars of chocolate over an eight-day period. Samples were defatted with hexane, and beta-hydroxyethyltheophylline was added as the internal standard. The repeatability for the caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline measurements was 5.1, 2.3, and 1.9%, respectively. The limit of quantitation for all analytes was theobromine, and theophylline in SRM 2384.

  2. Binding of caffeine, theophylline, and theobromine with human serum albumin: A spectroscopic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-Mei; Chen, Ting-Ting; Zhou, Qiu-Hua; Wang, Yan-Qing

    2009-12-01

    The interaction between three purine alkaloids (caffeine, theophylline, and theobromine) and human serum albumin (HSA) was investigated using UV/vis absorption, circular dichroism (CD), fluorescence, synchronous fluorescence, and three-dimensional fluorescence spectra techniques. The results revealed that three alkaloids caused the fluorescence quenching of HSA by the formation of alkaloid-HSA complex. The binding site number n and apparent binding constant KA, corresponding thermodynamic parameters the free energy change (Δ G), enthalpy change (Δ H), and entropy change (Δ S) at different temperatures were calculated. The hydrophobic interaction plays a major role in stabilizing the complex. The distance r between donor (HSA) and acceptor (alkaloids) was obtained according to fluorescence resonance energy transfer. The effect of alkaloids on the conformation of HSA was analyzed using circular dichroism (CD), UV/vis absorption, synchronous fluorescence and three-dimensional fluorescence spectra techniques.

  3. Simultaneous determination of caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bispo, Marcia S; Veloso, Márcia Cristina C; Pinheiro, Heloísa Lúcia C; De Oliveira, Rodolfo F S; Reis, José Oscar N; De Andrade, Jailson B

    2002-01-01

    This work relates the development of an analytical methodology to simultaneously determine three methylxanthines (caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline) in beverages and urine samples based on reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Separation is made with a Bondesil C18 column using methanol-water-acetic acid or ethanol-water-acetic acid (20:75:5, v/v/v) as the mobile phase at 0.7 mL/min. Identification is made by absorbance detection at 273 nm. Under optimized conditions, the detection limit of the HPLC method is 0.1 pg/mL for all three methylxanthines. This method is applied to urine and to 25 different beverage samples, which included coffee, tea, chocolate, and coconut water. The concentration ranges determined in the beverages and urine are: < 0.1 pg/mL to 350 microg/mL and 3.21 microg/mL to 71.2 microg/mL for caffeine; < 0.1 pg/mL to 32 microg mL and < 0.1 pg/mL to 13.2 microg/mL for theobromine; < 0.1 pg/mL to 47 microg/mL and < 0.1 pg/mL to 66.3 microg/mL for theophylline. The method proposed in this study is rapid and suitable for the simultaneous quantitation of methylxanthines in beverages and human urine samples and requires no extraction step or derivatization.

  4. 1H NMR method for simultaneous identification and determination of caffeine and theophylline in human serum and pharmaceutical preparations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talebpour, Z.; Bijanzadeh, H.R.; Haghgoo, S.; Shamsipur, M.

    2004-01-01

    A 1 H NMR method for simultaneous identification and determination of caffeine and theophylline in pharmaceutical preparations and human serum has been developed. 1 H NMR spectrum of caffeine exhibits three sharp singlets at 2.75, 2.93 and 3.4 ppm, while that of theophyline shows two singlet peaks at 2.77 and 2.97 ppm. For the purpose of quantitative analyses of the mixtures of these two alkaloids 1 H NMR spectra of caffeine and theophylline was compared to that of maleic acid as an internal standard at the constant temperature. The suitable peaks were selected and standard deviation and reproducibility of the results were studied applying the full factorial design method. The obtained detection limits are 1.6 μgL - 1 and 1.43 μg L 1 for caffeine and theophylline, respectively. The average recoveries of the studied applying compounds in various samples, pharmaceutical preparations and human serum ranged from 90.2 to 107.5% (author)

  5. Simultaneous determination of theophylline and caffeine on novel [Tetra-(5-chloroquinolin-8-yloxy) phthalocyanato] manganese(III)-Carbon nanotubes composite electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koçak, Çağrı Ceylan; Nas, Asiye; Kantekin, Halit; Dursun, Zekerya

    2018-07-01

    This work reports the synthesis of new symmetrically substituted manganese(III) phthalocyanine (2eOHMnPc) (2) containing tetra 5-chloroquinolin-8-yloxy group at the peripheral position for the first time. Manganese(III) phthalocyanine (2) was synthesized by cyclotetramerization of 4-(5-chloroquinolin-8-yloxy)phthalonitrile (1) in the presence of corresponding metal salt (manganese(II) chloride). This peripherally substituted phthalocyanine complex (2) was purified by column chromatography and characterized by several techniques such as IR, mass and UV-Visible spectral data. This novel synthesized phthalocyanine was mixed with multiwalled carbon nanotubes in order to prepare the novel catalytic surface on glassy carbon electrode for theophylline and caffeine detection in acidic medium. The novel composite electrode surfaces were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Individual and simultaneous determination of theophylline and caffeine were studied by differential pulse voltammetry. The detection limits were individually calculated for theophylline and caffeine as 6.6 × 10 -9 M and 5.0 × 10 -8 M, respectively. In simultaneous determination, LODs were calculated for theophylline and caffeine as 8.1 × 10 -9 M and 3.0 × 10 -7 M, respectively. The practical applicability of the proposed modified electrode was tested for the determination of theophylline and caffeine in green tea, cola and theophylline serum. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Population pharmacokinetics of caffeine and its metabolites theobromine, paraxanthine and theophylline after inhalation in combination with diacetylmorphine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandvliet, Anthe S; Huitema, Alwin D R; de Jonge, Milly E; den Hoed, Rob; Sparidans, Rolf W; Hendriks, Vincent M; van den Brink, Wim; van Ree, Jan M; Beijnen, Jos H

    2005-01-01

    The stimulant effect of caffeine, as an additive in diacetylmorphine preparations for study purposes, may interfere with the pharmacodynamic effects of diacetylmorphine. In order to obtain insight into the pharmacology of caffeine after inhalation in heroin users, the pharmacokinetics of caffeine and its dimethylxanthine metabolites were studied. The objectives were to establish the population pharmacokinetics under these exceptional circumstances and to compare the results to published data regarding intravenous and oral administration in healthy volunteers. Diacetylmorphine preparations containing 100 mg of caffeine were used by 10 persons by inhalation. Plasma concentrations of caffeine, theobromine, paraxanthine and theophylline were measured by high performance liquid chromatography. Non-linear mixed effects modelling was used to estimate population pharmacokinetic parameters. The model was evaluated by the jack-knife procedure. Caffeine was rapidly and effectively absorbed after inhalation. Population pharmacokinetics of caffeine and its dimethylxanthine metabolites could adequately and simultaneously be described by a linear multi-compartment model. The volume of distribution for the central compartment was estimated to be 45.7 l and the apparent elimination rate constant of caffeine at 8 hr after inhalation was 0.150 hr(-1) for a typical individual. The bioavailability was approximately 60%. The presented model adequately describes the population pharmacokinetics of caffeine and its dimethylxanthine metabolites after inhalation of the caffeine sublimate of a 100 mg tablet. Validation proved the stability of the model. Pharmacokinetics of caffeine after inhalation and intravenous administration are to a large extent similar. The bioavailability of inhaled caffeine is approximately 60% in experienced smokers.

  7. The interaction of lysozyme with caffeine, theophylline and theobromine in solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-Mei; Tang, Bo-Ping; Wang, Yan-Qing

    2010-10-01

    The interactions of lysozyme with caffeine (Caf), theophylline (Tph) and theobromine (Tbr) were investigated using UV-Vis absorption, fluorescence, synchronous fluorescence, and three-dimensional fluorescence spectra techniques. The results revealed that Caf (Tph or Tbr) caused the fluorescence quenching of lysozyme by the formation of Caf (Tph or Tbr)-lysozyme complex. The binding constants (K(A)) and thermodynamic parameters (ΔG°, ΔH°, ΔS°) at two different temperatures, the binding locality, and the binding power were obtained. The results showed that the process of binding Caf (Tph or Tbr) to lysozyme was a spontaneous molecular interaction procedure and the hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions play a major role in stabilizing the complex; The distance r between donor (lysozyme) and acceptor (Caf, Tph or Tbr) was obtained according to fluorescence resonance energy transfer. The effect of Caf (Tph or Tbr) on the conformation of lysozyme was analyzed using synchronous fluorescence and three-dimensional fluorescence spectra techniques. The results showed that the binding of Caf (Tph or Tbr) to lysozyme induced some micro-environmental and conformational changes in lysozyme and disturbed the environment of the polypeptide of lysozyme.

  8. Comparative pharmacokinetics of caffeine and its primary demethylated metabolites paraxanthine, theobromine and theophylline in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelo, A; Birkett, D J; Robson, R A; Miners, J O

    1986-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of caffeine (CA), paraxanthine (PX), theobromine (TB) and theophylline (TP) were studied in six healthy male volunteers after oral administration of each compound on separate occasions. The total plasma clearances of CA and PX were similar in value (2.07 and 2.20 ml min-1 kg-1, respectively) as were those for TP and TB (0.93 and 1.20 ml min-1 kg-1, respectively). The unbound plasma clearances of CA and PX were also similar in magnitude (3.11 and 4.14 ml min-1 kg-1, respectively) as were those of TP and TB (1.61 and 1.39 ml min-1 kg-1, respectively). The half-lives of TP and TB (6.2 and 7.2 h, respectively) were significantly longer than those of CA and PX (4.1 and 3.1 h, respectively). The volume of distribution at steady state of TP (0.44 l kg-1) was lower than that of the other methylxanthines (0.63-0.72 l kg-1). The unbound volume of distribution of TP (0.77 l kg-1) was however the same as that of TB (0.79 l kg-1) whereas the unbound volume of distribution of PX (1.18 l kg-1) was similar to that of CA (1.06 l kg-1). PMID:3756065

  9. Study on the paper substrate room temperature phosphorescence of theobromine, caffeine and theophylline and analytical application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuan, Dong; Yan-Li, Wei; Shao-Min, Shuang

    2003-05-01

    Paper substrate room temperature phosphorescence (RTP) of theobromine (TB), caffeine (CF) and theophylline (TP) were investigated. The method is based on fast speed quantitative filter paper as substrate and KI-NaAc as heavy atom perturber. Various factors affecting their RTP were discussed in detail. Under the optimum experimental conditions, the linear dynamic range, limit of detection (LOD), and relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) were 14.41˜576.54 ng per spot, 1.14 ng per spot, 4.8% for TB, 5.44˜699.08 ng per spot, 0.78 ng per spot, 1.56% for CF, 7.21˜360.34 ng per spot, 1.80 ng per spot, 3.80% for TP, respectively. The first analytical application for the determination of these compounds was developed. The recovery of standard samples added to commercial products chocolate, tea, coffee and aminophylline is in the range 92.80-106.08%. The proposed method was successfully applied to real sample analysis without separation.

  10. In vitro transdermal delivery of caffeine, theobromine, theophylline and catechin from extract of Guarana, Paullinia Cupana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heard, Charles M; Johnson, Sarah; Moss, Gary; Thomas, Chris P

    2006-07-06

    Extracts of guarana (Paullinia cupana) feature as putatively stimulating ingredients in a number of foods, drinks and dietary/herbal supplements. The objective of this work was to investigate in vitro the transdermal delivery of the major pharmacologically active compounds contained in guarana extract. Saturated solutions of guarana were prepared in polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG400), propylene glycol (PG) and H(2)O at 32 degrees C. Guarana extract was also formulated in Duro-tak 2287 transdermal adhesive in a range of concentrations and the diffusional release was determined in addition to adhesive properties. Transdermal delivery across full thickness pig ear skin was investigated in vitro using Franz-type diffusion cells, with reverse-phase HPLC being used for the quantification of the permeation of theobromine (TB), theophylline (TP), (+)-catechin (C) and caffeine (CF). Based upon a combination of release and adhesive property data a patch containing 5.55 mg guarana extract cm(-2) was deemed optimal. The general trend for the delivery of the 4 analytes was: water >5.55 mg cm(-2) patch approximately PG>PEG400. For CF the greatest steady state flux was obtained from the water vehicle: 19 microg cm(-2)h(-1), with approximately 420 microg cm(-2) permeating after 24h. This was some 6x times more than from the drug-in-adhesive patch and 10x greater than PG, a well-known penetration enhancer, and 50x that of the 'regular' excipient PEG400. A water vehicle also provided the greatest delivery of TB (0.45 microg cm(-2) h(-1)), TP (0.022 microg cm(-2) h(-1)), and C (0.10 microg cm(-2) h(-1)). An inverse relationship was noted between lipophilicity and k(p) in each vehicle. The simultaneous transdermal delivery of the major actives of guarana was established, with permeation rates being highly concentration and vehicle dependent.

  11. Overcoming of P-glycoprotein mediated vincristine resistance of L1210/VCR mouse leukemic cells could be induced by pentoxifylline but not by theophylline and caffeine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefankova, Z.; Barancik, M.; Breier, A.

    1996-01-01

    Effects of xanthine derivatives (pentoxifylline (PTX), caffeine, theophylline, 1-methyl-3-isobutylxanthine) on P-glycoprotein mediated vincristine resistance of L1210/VCR mouse leukemic cell sub-line were studied. From the applied xanthines only PTX was found to reverse the vincristine resistance of the above cells. Moreover, only PTX, but not other xanthine, increased the accumulation of [ 3 H]vincristine by L1210/VCR cells. Thus it may be concluded that PTX-induced reversal of vincristine (VCR) resistance could not be explained from the point of known pharmacological effects of PTX that are common for other xanthines such as inhibition of phosphodiesterase activity, calcium mobilizing effect, inhibition of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF), etc. (author)

  12. The effect of increased caffeine intake on the metabolism and pharmacokinetics of theophylline in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monks, T J; Lawrie, C A; Caldwell, J

    1981-01-01

    The metabolism and pharmacokinetics of intravenously administered theophylline (100 mg) have been investigated in three healthy male volunteers who consumed 6 bottles/day of a cola beverage, in addition to their usual intake of methylxanthines, for 7 days prior to and during the study. Five urinary metabolites were detected in addition to unchanged theophylline, that is 3-methylxanthine, 1,3-dimethyluric acid, 1-methyluric acid, and two minor unknown metabolites. The elimination of theophylline, 1,3-dimethyluric acid, 1-methyluric acid, and the two unknowns was described by first-order kinetics, whereas that of 3-methylxanthine was described by Michaelis-Menten kinetics. The results have been compared with those previously obtained in the same volunteers while consuming their usual intake of methylxanthine-containing foods and beverages, and this shows that the addition of extra methylxanthines to the diet does not influence the disposition of theophylline. This is in marked contrast to the effect of deprivation of dietary methylxanthines on theophylline metabolism. The results are discussed in terms of the influence of methylxanthines on theophylline metabolism, and of its possible dose-dependency.

  13. Control of methylxanthines in the competition horse: pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic studies on caffeine, theobromine and theophylline for the assessment of irrelevant concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machnik, Marc; Kaiser, Simone; Koppe, Sophie; Kietzmann, Manfred; Schenk, Ina; Düe, Michael; Thevis, Mario; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Toutain, Pierre-Louis

    2017-09-01

    Methylxanthines positives in competition samples have challenged doping control laboratories and racing jurisdictions since methylxanthines are naturally occurring prohibited substances and often constituents of feed. For theobromine, an international threshold (renamed in International Residue Limit, IRL) of 2 µg/mL in urine has been established. On the basis of the data presented herein, a threshold or rather an IRL for theobromine in plasma of 0.3 µg/mL was proposed and was thereupon approved by the International Federation of Horseracing Authorities (IFHA). Official recommendations for reporting caffeine and theophylline are still lacking. The aim of the study was to investigate IRLs for theobromine in blood and for caffeine and theophylline in blood and urine. Therefore, a set of six administrations were carried out including both single i.v. and single oral administrations of caffeine, theobromine and theophylline. Plasma and urine concentrations were determined using a validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Applying the Toutain model approach an effective plasma concentration (EPC) of caffeine was estimated at 3.05 µg/mL, irrelevant concentrations in blood (IPC) and urine (IUC) approached 6 and 12 ng/mL, respectively. EPC of theobromine was calculated with 3.80 µg/mL, and irrelevant concentrations of theobromine were determined at 8 ng/mL in plasma and at 142 ng/mL in urine. Toutain modelling of the theophylline data produced an EPC, IPC, and IUC of 3.20 µg/mL, 6 ng/mL, and 75 ng/mL, respectively. The obtained irrelevant concentrations were used to postulate IRLs for theobromine in plasma and for caffeine and theophylline in plasma and urine. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. [Synthesis, biotransformation and pharmacodynamics of a new theophylline derivative].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelschläger, H; Harsche, C; Engel, J

    1991-09-01

    7-[(RS)2-((S)-1-Methyl-2-phenyl-ethylamino)propyl]-theophylline (3) was not described until now. This fenetylline analogue is available by reaction of 7 with an excess of 2 at 150 degrees C. If 2 reacts with 4, an E2-elimination overwhelms SN-nucleophilic displacement yielding compound 5. In vivo studies with male White-Wistar rats, comparing biotransformation of 3 and 1, demonstrate, that the amount of 2 is decreased from 4.7% of (RS)-2 to 1%, probably due to steric hindrance of the attacking monooxygenases by the methyl group at C-11 of 3. Pharmacodynamic studies of 3, tested with mice, gave similar results to those obtained with 1.

  15. Simultaneous determination of artificial sweeteners, preservatives, caffeine, theobromine and theophylline in food and pharmaceutical preparations by ion chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Q C; Wang, J

    2001-12-07

    A novel ion chromatographic method was proposed for the simultaneous determination of artificial sweeteners (sodium saccharin, aspartame, acesulfame-K), preservatives (benzoic acid, sorbic acid), caffeine, theobromine and theophylline. The separation was performed on an anion-exchange analytical column operated at 40 degrees C within 45 min by an isocratic elution with 5 mM aqueous NaH2PO4 (pH 8.20) solution containing 4% (v/v) acetonitrile as eluent, and the determination by wavelength-switching ultraviolet absorbance detection. The detection limits (signal-to-noise ratio 3:1) for all analytes were below the sub-microg/ml level. Under the experimental conditions, several organic acids, including citric acid, malic acid, tartaric acid and ascorbic acid, did not interfere with the determination. The method has been successfully applied to the analysis of various food and pharmaceutical preparations, and the average recoveries for real samples ranged from 85 to 104%. The levels of all analytes determined by this method were in good agreement with those obtained by the high-performance liquid chromatographic procedure. The results also indicated that ion chromatography would be possibly a beneficial alternative to conventional high-performance liquid chromatography for the separation and determination of these compounds.

  16. Determination of theobromine, theophylline, and caffeine in by-products of cupuacu and cacao seeds by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Coco, F; Lanuzza, F; Micali, G; Cappellano, G

    2007-01-01

    Theobromine, theophylline, and caffeine are determined simultaneously by a rapid and selective reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with UV detection in by-products of cupuacu and cacao seeds. The determination is carried out in the raw and roasted ground cupuacu seeds and in the corresponding powders obtained after pressure treatment. The by-products of both cupuacu seeds and cacao seeds are obtained under the same technological conditions. The HPLC method uses isocratic elution with a mobile phase of methanol-water-acetic acid (80:19:1) (v/v) at a flow rate of 1 mL/min and UV absorbance detection at 275 nm. Total elution time for these analytes is less than 10 min, and the detection limit for all analytes is 0.1 mg/g. The amounts of theobromine and caffeine found in all the cupuacu samples are one or more orders of magnitude lower than those from cacao. Theophylline is found in all cacao samples except for the roasted ground paste, and it is only found in the roasted ground paste in the cupuacu samples.

  17. Population pharmacokinetics of caffeine and its metabolites theobromine, paraxanthine and theophylline after inhalation in combination with diacetylmorphine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandvliet, Anthe S.; Huitema, Alwin D. R.; de Jonge, Milly E.; den Hoed, Rob; Sparidans, Rolf W.; Hendriks, Vincent M.; van den Brink, Wim; van Ree, Jan M.; Beijnen, Jos H.

    2005-01-01

    The stimulant effect of caffeine, as an additive in diacetylmorphine preparations for study purposes, may interfere with the pharmacodynamic effects of diacetylmorphine. In order to obtain insight into the pharmacology of caffeine after inhalation in heroin users, the pharmacokinetics of caffeine

  18. Structure-affinity relationship in the interactions of human organic anion transporter 1 with caffeine, theophylline, theobromine and their metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawara, Mitsuru; Mochizuki, Takahiro; Takekuma, Yoh; Miyazaki, Katsumi

    2005-08-15

    It is well known that human organic anion transporter 1 (hOAT1) transports many kinds of drugs, endogenous compounds, and toxins. However, little is known about the structure-affinity relationship. The aim of this study was to elucidate the structure-affinity relationship using a series of structurally related compounds that interact with hOAT1. Inhibitory effects of xanthine- and uric acid-related compounds on the transport of p-aminohippuric acid were examined using CHO-K1 cells stably expressing hOAT1. The order of potency for the inhibitory effects of xanthine-related compounds on PAH uptake was 1-methyl derivative>7-methyl derivative>3-methyl derivative falling dotsxanthine>1,3,7-trimethyl derivative (caffeine). The order of potency of the inhibition was 1,3,7-trimethyluric acid>1,3-dimethyluric acid>1,7-dimethyluric acid>1-methyluric acid>uric acid. A significant correlation between inhibitory potency and lipophilicity of the tested uric acid-related compounds was observed. The main determinant of the affinity of xanthine-related compounds is the position of the methyl group. On the other hand, lipophilicity is the main determinant of the affinity of uric acid-related compounds.

  19. Simultaneous determination of caffeine, theophylline and theobromine in human plasma by on-line solid-phase extraction coupled to reversed-phase chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emara, Samy

    2004-10-01

    A reversed-phase liquid chromatographic column switching system was described for the determination of caffeine (CF), theophylline (TH) and theobromine (TB) in human plasma with a direct injection procedure. A short protein-coated mu Bondapak CN silica pre-column (20 x 3 mm, i.d.) was used for enrichment of the drugs and clean up from weakly retained plasma components using phosphate buffer saline pH 7.4. After washing step, the retained drugs were flushed into a reversed-phase column (5 microm TSK gel ODS-80 TM, 150 x 4.6 mm i.d.) with a mobile phase of methanol-0.01 M phosphate buffer, pH 3.5 (30:70, v/v) for the final separation. The eluent was monitored with a UV detector at 275 nm. The resulting chromatograms showed no interference from endogenous plasma components. A linear relationship between the concentration of drug and peak height was confirmed in the range of 0.5-20 microg/mL for all drugs. High extraction recoveries from plasma ranging from 96.12 to 100.32% were achieved. Validation of the method was examined performing intra- and inter-day accuracy and precision and was found to be satisfactory. The coefficients of variation of the three drugs were less than 3% for intra-day and less than 4% for inter-day run assays.

  20. Caffeine Content of Tea and Coffee

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-03-13

    Mar 13, 1974 ... The xanthines (caffeine, theophylline, and theobromine) occur in plants widely distributed throughout the world. Best known for the preparation of beverages are coffee beans which contain caffeine, tea leaves which contain caffeine and theophylline, and cocoa seeds which contain caffeine and ...

  1. Synthesis of the row of new functional derivatives of 7-arylalkyl-8-hydrazine theophyllines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmytro Korobko

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Hydrazine functional derivatives are widely used in medical practice as remedies applied for pharmacotherapy of depression, infection diseases, hypertension, diabetes, etc. It is worth mentioning that among obtained 7-R-8-hydrazine derivatives of 1,3-dimethylxantine promising substances have been identified. Due to the fact that literature sources display only results of occasional studies of the reactions between 7-R-8-hydrazine theophyllines and mono- or dicarbonyle substances, the use of other keto reagents for xanthine bicycle at 8th position functionalization will allow to explore synthetic potential of the last one, and with high probability may lead to obtaining original biologically active substances.Aim. To study types of reaction between 8-hydrazinyl-1,3-dimethyl-7-aryl alkyl-1H-purine-2,6(3H,7H-diones and a number of carbonyl containing reagents.Methods. A nucleophilic addition reaction followed by dehydration or ethanol splitting was used, as well as the complex of the modern analysis methods to confirm the structure and individuality of the synthesized substances.Results. Different directions of 8-hydrazinyl-1,3,-dimethyl-7(fenetyl-, 3-phenylpropyl-, 3-phenylalyl-1H-purine-2,6(3H,7H-diones chemical transformations in reactions with the appropriate carbonyl containing compounds have been studied experimentally. The structure of synthesized substances was confirmed by chromatography/mass and 1H NMR spectroscopy.Conclusion. The group of 7-arylalkyl-8-(3,5-R,R1-pyrazole-1-yltheophyllines, consisting of two functionally substituted bioactive heterocycles, has been synthesized by reaction between initial substances and selected mono- and dicarbonyl compounds

  2. Three-dimensional model of a selective theophylline-binding RNA molecule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tung, Chang-Shung; Oprea, T.I.; Hummer, G.; Garcia, A.E.

    1995-07-01

    We propose a three-dimensional (3D) model for an RNA molecule that selectively binds theophylline but not caffeine. This RNA, which was found using SELEX [Jenison, R.D., et al., Science (1994) 263:1425] is 10,000 times more specific for theophylline (Kd=320 nM) than for caffeine (Kd=3.5 mM), although the two ligands are identical except for a methyl group substituted at N7 (present only in caffeine). The binding affinity for ten xanthine-based ligands was used to derive a Comparative Molecular Field Analysis (CoMFA) model (R{sup 2} = 0.93 for 3 components, with cross-validated R{sup 2} of 0.73), using the SYBYL and GOLPE programs. A pharmacophoric map was generated to locate steric and electrostatic interactions between theophylline and the RNA binding site. This information was used to identify putative functional groups of the binding pocket and to generate distance constraints. Based on a model for the secondary structure (Jenison et al., idem), the 3D structure of this RNA was then generated using the following method: each helical region of the RNA molecule was treated as a rigid body; single-stranded loops with specific end-to-end distances were generated. The structures of RNA-xanthine complexes were studied using a modified Monte Carlo algorithm. The detailed structure of an RNA-ligand complex model, as well as possible explanations for the theophylline selectivity will be discussed.

  3. Caffeine

    Science.gov (United States)

    What is caffeine? Caffeine is a bitter substance that occurs naturally in more than 60 plants including Coffee beans Tea leaves Kola nuts, ... chocolate products There is also synthetic (man-made) caffeine, which is added to some medicines, foods, and ...

  4. Caffein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørager, Charlotte Buchard; Jensen, Martin Bach; Madsen, Mogens Rørbæk

    2005-01-01

    /kg) can increase the endurance of athletes engaged in running, bicycling, swimming and other endurance sports. Caffeine is used both in training and in competitions, and the International Olympic Commitée (IOC) has included caffeine as a drug used for doping. There are several theories about caffeine...

  5. Caffeine for asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Welsh, EJ; Bara, A; Barley, E; Cates, CJ

    2010-01-01

    Background\\ud \\ud Caffeine has a variety of pharmacological effects; it is a weak bronchodilator and it also reduces respiratory muscle fatigue. It is chemically related to the drug theophylline which is used to treat asthma. It has been suggested that caffeine may reduce asthma symptoms and interest has been expressed in its potential role as an asthma treatment. A number of studies have explored the effects of caffeine in asthma, this is the first review to systematically examine and summar...

  6. Cytochrome P450-Dependent Metabolism of Caffeine in Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Alexandra; Fraichard, Stephane; Le Goff, Gaëlle; Faure, Philippe; Artur, Yves; Ferveur, Jean-François; Heydel, Jean-Marie

    2015-01-01

    Caffeine (1, 3, 7-trimethylxanthine), an alkaloid produced by plants, has antioxidant and insecticide properties that can affect metabolism and cognition. In vertebrates, the metabolites derived from caffeine have been identified, and their functions have been characterized. However, the metabolites of caffeine in insects remain unknown. Thus, using radiolabelled caffeine, we have identified some of the primary caffeine metabolites produced in the body of Drosophila melanogaster males, including theobromine, paraxanthine and theophylline. In contrast to mammals, theobromine was the predominant metabolite (paraxanthine in humans; theophylline in monkeys; 1, 3, 7-trimethyluric acid in rodents). A transcriptomic screen of Drosophila flies exposed to caffeine revealed the coordinated variation of a large set of genes that encode xenobiotic-metabolizing proteins, including several cytochromes P450s (CYPs) that were highly overexpressed. Flies treated with metyrapone—an inhibitor of CYP enzymes—showed dramatically decreased caffeine metabolism, indicating that CYPs are involved in this process. Using interference RNA genetic silencing, we measured the metabolic and transcriptomic effect of three candidate CYPs. Silencing of CYP6d5 completely abolished theobromine synthesis, whereas CYP6a8 and CYP12d1 silencing induced different consequences on metabolism and gene expression. Therefore, we characterized several metabolic products and some enzymes potentially involved in the degradation of caffeine. In conclusion, this pioneer approach to caffeine metabolism in insects opens novel perspectives for the investigation of the physiological effects of caffeine metabolites. It also indicates that caffeine could be used as a biomarker to evaluate CYP phenotypes in Drosophila and other insects. PMID:25671424

  7. Cytochrome P450-dependent metabolism of caffeine in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Coelho

    Full Text Available Caffeine (1, 3, 7-trimethylxanthine, an alkaloid produced by plants, has antioxidant and insecticide properties that can affect metabolism and cognition. In vertebrates, the metabolites derived from caffeine have been identified, and their functions have been characterized. However, the metabolites of caffeine in insects remain unknown. Thus, using radiolabelled caffeine, we have identified some of the primary caffeine metabolites produced in the body of Drosophila melanogaster males, including theobromine, paraxanthine and theophylline. In contrast to mammals, theobromine was the predominant metabolite (paraxanthine in humans; theophylline in monkeys; 1, 3, 7-trimethyluric acid in rodents. A transcriptomic screen of Drosophila flies exposed to caffeine revealed the coordinated variation of a large set of genes that encode xenobiotic-metabolizing proteins, including several cytochromes P450s (CYPs that were highly overexpressed. Flies treated with metyrapone--an inhibitor of CYP enzymes--showed dramatically decreased caffeine metabolism, indicating that CYPs are involved in this process. Using interference RNA genetic silencing, we measured the metabolic and transcriptomic effect of three candidate CYPs. Silencing of CYP6d5 completely abolished theobromine synthesis, whereas CYP6a8 and CYP12d1 silencing induced different consequences on metabolism and gene expression. Therefore, we characterized several metabolic products and some enzymes potentially involved in the degradation of caffeine. In conclusion, this pioneer approach to caffeine metabolism in insects opens novel perspectives for the investigation of the physiological effects of caffeine metabolites. It also indicates that caffeine could be used as a biomarker to evaluate CYP phenotypes in Drosophila and other insects.

  8. Simultaneous determination of acetaminophen, theophylline and caffeine using a glassy carbon disk electrode modified with a composite consisting of poly(Alizarin Violet 3B), multiwalled carbon nanotubes and graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yan; Wu, Ting; Bi, Chun-yan

    2016-01-01

    The authors describe a glassy carbon disk electrode which after modification with poly(Alizarin Violet 3B), multiwalled carbon nanotubes and graphene enables simultaneous determination of the drugs acetaminophen (AP), theophylline (TP) and caffeine (CF). The electrochemical response to AP, TP and CF at the modified electrode was studied by cyclic voltammetry, and the results revealed an excellent electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of the three analytes at potentials of typically 0.5, 1.15 and 1.4 V (vs. SCE) respectively. The anodic peaks are well defined and occur at lower oxidation potential and enhanced oxidation peak currents (compared to an unmodified electrode). Simultaneous differential pulse voltammetric measurements resulted in calibration plot for AP, TP and CF were obtained that cover range from 0.2 to 100 μM for AP, from 0.5 to 120 μM for TP, and from 1.0 to 120 μM for CF. The respective detection limits are 0.01, 0.02 and 0.10 μM. The method was applied to simultaneous determination of AP, TP and CF in spiked human serum and gave satisfactory results. (author)

  9. Molecular imprinting of caffeine on cellulose/silica composite and its characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Rajinder Singh

    This dissertation presents a study to prepare molecularly imprinted inorganic/organic hybrid composite which not only confirm the higher binding capabilities for the target molecule (template) but also discriminate its structural analogs. Molecularly imprinted Cellulose/Silica composite (MIP) was prepared by using caffeine as the template. Silica derived from TEOS by using sol-gel techniques was deposited on cheap, abundant organic matrix such as cellulose, which can provide a filtering medium while coffee brewing. Removal of the template from the precursor was verified by Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (DRIFTS). Remarkably reduced intensity of -NH2 scissor like mode of caffeine and the presence of traces of "N" by elemental analysis, confirmed the complete removal of caffeine on washing with ethanol. Cellulose to TEOS mass ratio of 2:1 was found to be close to optimal during our analysis. Energy dispersive spectroscopy results leads to an important fact that the deposition of silica was stable even at 373 K. Focus was on the adsorption affinities of caffeine by MIP and was tested by performing relative adsorption of caffeine by MIP and blank (standard) using demountable path length cell in IR. It was observed that MIP showed almost 3-folds higher adsorption capabilities as compared to blank. The initial rate of adsorption of caffeine by MIP is much higher than blank which is one of the desirable feature according the its intended use. The higher adsorption of caffeine by MIP not only depends on the amount of silica deposited but also the available binding sites present on its surface. Selectivity of MIP was also verified by the competitive adsorption of caffeine and its structure analogs such as theophylline. Clearly, MIP showed greater and more rapid binding capabilities for caffeine than theophylline. At short contact times, the binding capability for caffeine is almost 1.8 times greater than the binding capabilities for theophylline.

  10. QSAR Study on Caffeine Derivatives Docked on Poly(ARNA Polymerase Protein Cid1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodora E. Harsa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Caffeine is the most commonly ingested alkylxantine and is recognized as a psycho-stimulant. It improves some aspects of cognitive performance, however it reduces the cerebral blood flow both in animals and humans. In this paper a QSAR study on caffeine derivatives, docked on the Poly(ARNA polymerase protein cid1, is reported. A set of forty caffeine derivatives, downloaded from PubChem, was modeled, within the hypermolecule strategy; the predicted activity was LD50 and prediction was done on similarity clusters with the leaders chosen as the best docked ligands on the Poly(ARNA polymerase protein cid1. It was concluded that LD50 of the studied caffeines is not influenced by their binding to the target protein. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

  11. Determinação simultânea de teobromina, teofilina e cafeína em chás por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência Simultaneous determination of theobromine, theophylline and caffeine in teas by high performance liquid chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Barreto Alves

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Para a realização deste trabalho, foram analisadas 10 amostras de diferentes tipos e marcas de chás com o objetivo de se quantificar teobromina, teofilina e cafeína simultaneamente. Para tanto, otimizou-se técnica de cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE baseada na ISO 10095 (1992, utilizando-se coluna Inertsil ODS-3 (150x4 mm, 5 mm, fase móvel de ácido acético 1% + acetonitrila (95:5, v/v, fluxo de 1 mL/min e detector de UV/VIS ajustado em 273 nm. Os resultados de cafeína obtidos por esse método foram comparados com os obtidos por um método espectrofotométrico de acordo com Schormüller (1970. Não houve diferença significativa nos resultados de cafeína nas amostras de chá preto obtidos pelos dois métodos. As amostras de chá preto foram as que apresentaram maiores teores de teobromina e cafeína e nenhuma das amostras apresentou quantidades significativas de teofilina.To carry out this study, 10 samples of different kinds and brands of teas were analyzed with the purpose of quantifying simultaneously theobromine, theophylline and caffeine. For this, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was used based on ISO 10095 (1992. The conditions were: a reversed phase column (Inertisil ODS-3, 150x4 mm, 5 mm; acetic acid 1% + acetonitrile (95:5, v/v as mobile phase; flow of 1 ml/min and UV-VIS detector set at 273 nm. The results of caffeine obtained by this method were compared with those using a spectrophotometric method according to Schormüller (1970. In the case of black tea, no difference was observed in the caffeine, by both methods. The samples of black tea had the highest amounts of theobromine and caffeine and no sample had a significant amount of theophylline.

  12. Thiolated chitosan nanoparticles enhance anti-inflammatory effects of intranasally delivered theophylline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Won; Shirley, Shawna A; Lockey, Richard F; Mohapatra, Shyam S

    2006-08-24

    Chitosan, a polymer derived from chitin, has been used for nasal drug delivery because of its biocompatibility, biodegradability and bioadhesiveness. Theophylline is a drug that reduces the inflammatory effects of allergic asthma but is difficult to administer at an appropriate dosage without causing adverse side effects. It was hypothesized that adsorption of theophylline to chitosan nanoparticles modified by the addition of thiol groups would improve theophylline absorption by the bronchial epithelium and enhance its anti-inflammatory effects. We sought to develop an improved drug-delivery matrix for theophylline based on thiolated chitosan, and to investigate whether thiolated chitosan nanoparticles (TCNs) can enhance theophylline's capacity to alleviate allergic asthma. A mouse model of allergic asthma was used to test the effects of theophylline in vivo. BALB/c mice were sensitized to ovalbumin (OVA) and OVA-challenged to produce an inflammatory allergic condition. They were then treated intranasally with theophylline alone, chitosan nanoparticles alone or theophylline adsorbed to TCNs. The effects of theophylline on cellular infiltration in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, histopathology of lung sections, and apoptosis of lung cells were investigated to determine the effectiveness of TCNs as a drug-delivery vehicle for theophylline. Theophylline alone exerts a moderate anti-inflammatory effect, as evidenced by the decrease in eosinophils in BAL fluid, the reduction of bronchial damage, inhibition of mucus hypersecretion and increased apoptosis of lung cells. The effects of theophylline were significantly enhanced when the drug was delivered by TCNs. Intranasal delivery of theophylline complexed with TCNs augmented the anti-inflammatory effects of the drug compared to theophylline administered alone in a mouse model of allergic asthma. The beneficial effects of theophylline in treating asthma may be enhanced through the use of this novel drug delivery

  13. Thiolated chitosan nanoparticles enhance anti-inflammatory effects of intranasally delivered theophylline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohapatra Shyam S

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chitosan, a polymer derived from chitin, has been used for nasal drug delivery because of its biocompatibility, biodegradability and bioadhesiveness. Theophylline is a drug that reduces the inflammatory effects of allergic asthma but is difficult to administer at an appropriate dosage without causing adverse side effects. It was hypothesized that adsorption of theophylline to chitosan nanoparticles modified by the addition of thiol groups would improve theophylline absorption by the bronchial epithelium and enhance its anti-inflammatory effects. Objectives We sought to develop an improved drug-delivery matrix for theophylline based on thiolated chitosan, and to investigate whether thiolated chitosan nanoparticles (TCNs can enhance theophylline's capacity to alleviate allergic asthma. Methods A mouse model of allergic asthma was used to test the effects of theophylline in vivo. BALB/c mice were sensitized to ovalbumin (OVA and OVA-challenged to produce an inflammatory allergic condition. They were then treated intranasally with theophylline alone, chitosan nanoparticles alone or theophylline adsorbed to TCNs. The effects of theophylline on cellular infiltration in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid, histopathology of lung sections, and apoptosis of lung cells were investigated to determine the effectiveness of TCNs as a drug-delivery vehicle for theophylline. Results Theophylline alone exerts a moderate anti-inflammatory effect, as evidenced by the decrease in eosinophils in BAL fluid, the reduction of bronchial damage, inhibition of mucus hypersecretion and increased apoptosis of lung cells. The effects of theophylline were significantly enhanced when the drug was delivered by TCNs. Conclusion Intranasal delivery of theophylline complexed with TCNs augmented the anti-inflammatory effects of the drug compared to theophylline administered alone in a mouse model of allergic asthma. The beneficial effects of theophylline in

  14. Biosynthesis of caffeine by tea-leaf extracts. Enzymic formation of theobromine from 7-methylxanthine and of caffeine from theobromine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, T; Takahashi, E

    1975-01-01

    1. Extracts prepared from tea leaves with Polyclar AT (insoluble polyvinylpyrrolidine) contained two methyltransferase activities catalysing the transfer of methyl groups from S-adenosylmethionine to 7-methylxanthine, producing theobromine, and to theobromine, producing caffeine. 2. The methyltransferases exhibited the same pH optimum (8.4) and a similar pattern of effects by metal ions, thiol inhibitors and metal-chelating reagents, both for theobromine and caffeine synthesis. Mg2+, Mn2+ and Ca2+ slightly stimulated enzyme activity but they were not essential. Paraxanthine was shown to be most active among methylxanthines, as the methyl acceptor. However, the formation of paraxanthine from 1-methylxanthine was very low and that from 7-methylxanthine was nil, suggesting that the synthesis of caffeine from paraxanthine is of little importance in intact plants. Xanthine, xanthosine, XMP and hypoxanthine were all inactive as methyl acceptors, whereas [2(-14)C]xanthine and [8(-14)C]hypoxanthine were catabolized to allantoin and urea by tea-leaf extracts. The apparent Km values are as follows: 7-methylxanthine, 1.0 times 10(-14)M; theobromine, 1.0 times 10(-3)M; paraxanthine, 0.2 times 10(-3)M; S-adenosylmethionine, 0.25 times 10(-4)M (with each of the three substrates). 3. The results suggest that the pathway for caffeine biosynthesis is as follows: 7-methylxanthine leads to theobromine leads to caffeine. In contrast, it is suggested that theophylline is synthesized from 1-methylxanthine. The methyl groups of the purine ring of caffeine are all derived directly from the methyl group of S-adenosylmethionine. Little is known about the pathways leading to the formation of 7-methylxanthine. 4. A good correlation between caffeine synthesis and shoot formation or growth of tea seedlings was shown, suggesting that the methylating systems in caffeine synthesis are closely associated with purine nucleotide and nucleic acid metabolism in tea plants. PMID:238504

  15. Non-covalent interactions between thio-caffeine derivatives and water-soluble porphyrin in ethanol-water environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipke, Agnieszka; Makarska-Bialokoz, Magdalena; Sierakowska, Arleta; Jasiewicz, Beata

    2018-03-01

    To determine the binding interactions and ability to form the non-covalent systems, the association process between 5,10,15,20-tetrakis[4-(trimethylammonio)phenyl]-21H,23H-porphine tetra-p-tosylate (H2TTMePP) and a series of five structurally diverse thio-caffeine analogues has been studied in ethanol and ethanol-water solutions, analyzing its absorption and steady-state fluorescence spectra. The porphyrin fluorescence lifetimes in the systems studied were established as well. During the titration with thio-caffeine compounds the slight bathochromic effect and considerable hypochromicity of the porphyrin Soret band maximum can be noted. The fluorescence quenching effect observed for interactions in H2TTMePP - thio-caffeine derivative systems, as well as the order of binding and fluorescence quenching constants (of 105-103 mol- 1) suggest the existence of the mechanism of static quenching due to the formation of non-covalent and non-fluorescent stacking complexes. In all the systems studied the phenomenon of the fractional accessibility of the fluorophore for the quencher was observed as well. Additionally, the specific binding interactions, due to the changes in reaction environment polarity, can be observed. It was found that thio-caffeine compounds can quench the porphyrin fluorescence according to the structure of thio-substituent in caffeine molecule. The obtained results can be potentially useful from scientific, therapeutic or environmental points of view.

  16. Influence of acute consumption of caffeine vs. placebo over Bia-derived measurements of body composition: a randomized, double-blind, crossover design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Cassie M; Nickerson, Brett S; Bechke, Emily E; McLester, Cherilyn N; Kliszczewicz, Brian M

    2018-01-01

    Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is often used to estimate total body water (TBW), intracellular body water (ICW), extracellular body water (ECW), and body fat percentage (BF%). A common restriction for BIA analysis is abstinence from caffeine 12-h prior to testing. However, research has yet to determine whether the consumption of caffeine influences BIA testing results. The purpose of this study was to determine if the consumption of caffeine influences BIA-derived BF% and body water values in habitual caffeine users. Twenty apparently healthy males (26.6 ± 4.1 years) identified as habitual caffeine consumers (≥ one 95 mg serving per day ≥ four days per week) participated in this study. Participants came to the lab on three occasions, the first visit serving as the control (CON) with no supplementation. The remaining two visits were performed in a randomized double-blind, cross-over fashion. Participants consumed 200 mg of dextrose (PLA) or caffeine (CAF) in capsule form. During each visit, seven multi-frequency BIA measurements were conducted before (PRE) and after (15-min, 30-min, 45-min, 60-min, 75-min, 90-min) consumption. Repeated measures ANOVA revealed BF% for CAF was lower than the CON and PLA conditions at PRE and 15-min ( p  Caffeine consumption in habitual users produced trivial changes in TBW, ECW, ICW, or BF%. Therefore, the pre-testing guidelines for caffeine consumption may not be necessary in habitual caffeine consumers.

  17. Compound list: theophylline [Open TG-GATEs

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available theophylline TEO 00096 ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Human.../in_vitro/theophylline.Human.in_vitro.Liver.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/i...n_vitro/theophylline.Rat.in_vitro.Liver.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vi...vo/Liver/Single/theophylline.Rat.in_vivo.Liver.Single.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc

  18. [The antitussive effect of theophylline].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemceková, E; Nosál'ová, G; Rybár, A

    1994-08-01

    Theophylline belongs to a group of medicaments used in asthma therapy. It yields an antiinflammatory effect, reduces allergic reactions, and in respiratory airways it improves the mucociliary clearance and eminently dilates smooth muscles. Therefore, the main aim of our interest is its effect on the cough reflex. Cough was evoked by mechanical irritation of the airways in cats with chronic tracheal cannula. It has been discovered that theophylline, when dosed 10 mg per kg of body weight i.p. achieved a more intensive effect than dextromethorphane, namely in evaluation of cough parameters, but it had a lower suppressive effect than codeine. (Fig. 3, Ref. 13.)

  19. Degradation of exogenous caffeine by Populus alba and its effects on endogenous caffeine metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierattini, Erika C; Francini, Alessandra; Raffaelli, Andrea; Sebastiani, Luca

    2016-04-01

    This is the first study reporting the presence of endogenous caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline in all organs of poplar plants. Liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was used in order to evaluate the uptake, translocation, and metabolism of caffeine-(trimethyl-(13)C) in Populus alba L. Villafranca clone grown in hydroponic conditions. We investigated the remediation of caffeine since it is one of the most widely consumed drugs and it is frequently detected in wastewater treatment plant effluents, surface water, and groundwater worldwide. Our results demonstrated that poplar can absorb and degrade exogenous caffeine without negative effects on plant health. Data showed that concentrations of all endogenous compounds varied depending on caffeine-(trimethyl-(13)C) treatments. In particular, in control conditions, endogenous caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline were mainly distributed in roots. On the other hand, once caffeine-(trimethyl-(13)C) was provided, this compound and its dimethy-(13)C metabolites are mainly localized at leaf level. In conclusion, our results support the possible use of Villafranca clone in association with other water treatment systems in order to complete the process of caffeine remediation.

  20. Caffeine, cyclic AMP and postreplication repair of mammalian DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehmann, U.K.

    1976-01-01

    The methylxanthines, caffeine and theophylline, inhibit postreplication repair of DNA in mammalian cells. Because they also inhibit cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase, it was thought that there might be some connection between concentrations of cyclic AMP and postreplication repair. This possibility was tested by performing DNA sedimentation experiments with a cyclic AMP-resistant mouse lymphoma cell mutant and its wild-type counterpart. The results show that there is no connection between cellular cyclic AMP concentrations and the rate of postreplication repair. Therefore, it is more likely that caffeine and theophylline inhibit postreplication repair by some other means, such as by binding to DNA

  1. Caffeine prevents age-associated recognition memory decline and changes brain-derived neurotrophic factor and tirosine kinase receptor (TrkB) content in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, M S; Botton, P H; Mioranzza, S; Souza, D O; Porciúncula, L O

    2008-06-02

    The beneficial effects of caffeine on cognition are controversial in humans, whereas its benefit in rodents had been well characterized. However, most studies were performed with acute administration of caffeine and the tasks used to evaluate cognition had aversive components. Here, we evaluated adulthood administration of caffeine up to old age on recognition memory in mice using the object recognition task (ORT) and on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BNDF) and tyrosine kinase receptor (TrkB) immunocontent in the hippocampus. Adult mice (6 months old) received either drinking water or caffeine (1 mg/mL) during 12 months. At 18 months of age both groups were tested for ORT. Our results showed that aged mice exhibited lower performance in the recognition memory compared with adults (6 months old). Furthermore, caffeine-treated mice showed similar performance to adult mice in the ORT and an improvement compared with their age-matched control mice. Caffeine also counteracted the age-related increase in BDNF and TrkB immunocontent. Our results corroborate with other studies and reinforce that caffeine consumed in adulthood may prevent recognition memory decline with aging. This preventive effect may involve a decrease in the hippocampal BDNF and TrkB immunocontent.

  2. Self-association of caffeine in aqueous solution. Study of dilute solutions by normal and second derivative UV absorption spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iza, N.; Gil, M.; Montero, J. L.; Morcillo, J.

    1988-05-01

    The concentration dependence of the spectral parameters of caffeine bands at ˜205 and 273 nm has been studied in aqueous solution by normal and second derivative spectroscopy. The concentration range was 5 x 10 -6 - 5 x 10 -3 M and thirty-five different concentrations were used. Discontinuities in parameter variation of these two bands at ˜7.5 x 10 -5, ˜2 x 10 -4, and ˜1 x 10 -3M were observed as concentration was increased. These "limiting" concentrations define three quite differenciated hyper- or hipochromic effects: the first one can be explained as caffeine-water molecule interaction and the second and third as dimer and (dimer + polymer) stacking, respectively. Apparent self-association constants using the isodesmic model have been obtained K= 160 M -1 (for the second hypochromic effect) and K= 13.6 M -1 (for the third hypochromic effect), for the 273 nm band. It is noteworthy that the three "limiting" concentrations coincide with changes in DNA-caffeine interaction modes (H. Lang , 1976) and biological activity (I.B. Syed , 1976).

  3. A metabolic and pharmacokinetic comparison of theophylline and aminophylline (theophylline ethylenediamine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monks, T J; Smith, R L; Caldwell, J

    1981-02-01

    The metabolism and pharmacokinetics of intravenously administered theophylline and aminophylline (theophylline ethylenediamine) have been studied in 3 volunteers, using 14C-labelled theophylline. Both compounds were metabolized extensively and 1,3-dimethyluric acid, 1-methyluric acid, 3-methylxanthine and two unknown minor metabolites were excreted in the urine, in addition to theophylline. The elimination of theophylline, 1,3-dimethyluric acid, 1-methyluric acid and the unknown metabolites followed first-order kinetics, but that of 3-methylxanthine followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics. When given as aminophylline, theophylline was metabolized more rapidly and extensively than when given alone. The recovery of 14C in the urine was significantly higher after aminophylline than after theophylline. Abstention from intake of dietary methylxanthines for 7 days resulted in more rapid and extensive metabolism of aminophylline compared with results from the same subjects on their usual diets. The results indicate that, from a metabolic and pharmacokinetic viewpoint, aminophylline and theophylline are not equivalent.

  4. Adsorption behavior of caffeine as a green corrosion inhibitor for copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Fernando Sílvio de; Giacomelli, Cristiano; Gonçalves, Reinaldo Simões; Spinelli, Almir

    2012-01-01

    Electrochemical and impedance experiments were carried out to evaluate the corrosion behavior of copper in aerated 0.1 mol L −1 H 2 SO 4 solutions in the presence of three xanthine derivatives with similar chemical structures. The corrosion rate of copper was found to increase in the presence of theophylline and theobromine and decrease in the presence of caffeine. The adsorption and inhibitory effect of caffeine on copper surfaces in aerated 0.1 mol L −1 H 2 SO 4 solutions were then investigated in detail by potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), contact angle measurements, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and fluorescence experiments. The data obtained indicate that caffeine behaves as a cathodic-type inhibitor adsorbing onto the copper surface according to the Temkin isotherm, with the negative ∆G° ads value of − 31.1 kJ mol −1 signifying a spontaneous adsorption process. The corrosion inhibition efficiency increased with caffeine concentration in the range of 1.0–10.0 mmol L −1 . Furthermore, the EIS results obtained at the open-circuit potential and surface analysis (SEM, EDS and fluorescence) clearly demonstrated the adsorption of the organic compound onto the copper electrode. The contact angle measurements revealed the formation of a hydrophobic protective film. This film covers up to 72% of the total active surface, acts as a protective barrier and prevents interaction between the metal, water and oxygen molecules. - Highlights: ► We have investigated the adsorption and corrosion inhibition of caffeine on copper surfaces. ► Caffeine behaves as a cathodic-type inhibitor. ► Caffeine adsorbs onto copper surface according to Temkin isotherm. ► There exists the formation of a hydrophobic film that acts as a protective barrier. ► This corrosion inhibitor covers up to 72% of the total active surface of copper.

  5. Measurement of theophylline in human serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stetten, O. von; Zech, K.

    1980-01-01

    A radioimmunological (RIA-matsup(R) Theophylline) and a HPLC method for the determination of theophylline concentrations in human serum are compared. HPLC as most specific and precise method is not suitable for greater numbers of analyses due to time needed for chromatography. Theophylline-RIA yields excellent results regarding precision, specificity and recovery with excellent correlation and considerable time savings compared to HPLC. (orig.) [de

  6. A monoclinic polymorph of theophylline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Zhang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A monoclinic polymorph of theophylline, C7H8N4O2, has been obtained from a chloroform/methanol mixture by evaporation under ambient conditions. The new polymorph crystallizes with two molecules in the asymmetric unit. The structure features intermolecular N—H...O hydrogen bonds, resulting in the formation of dimers between two crystallographically different molecules; each molecule acts as both donor and acceptor.

  7. Quantitative capillary electrophoresis and its application in analysis of alkaloids in tea, coffee, coca cola, and theophylline tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengjia; Zhou, Junyi; Gu, Xue; Wang, Yan; Huang, Xiaojing; Yan, Chao

    2009-01-01

    A quantitative CE (qCE) system with high precision has been developed, in which a 4-port nano-valve was isolated from the electric field and served as sample injector. The accurate amount of sample was introduced into the CE system with high reproducibility. Based on this system, consecutive injections and separations were performed without voltage interruption. Reproducibilities in terms of RSD lower than 0.8% for retention time and 1.7% for peak area were achieved. The effectiveness of the system was demonstrated by the quantitative analysis of caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline in real samples, such as tea leaf, roasted coffee, coca cola, and theophylline tablets.

  8. The preparation of 11C-labeled caffeine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denutte, H.R.; Cattoir, H.J.; Jonckheere, J.A.; Gelijkens, C.F.; Leenheer, A.P. de; Vandewalle, T.; Vandecasteele, C.; Slegers, G.

    1982-01-01

    A rapid and mild procedure for the preparation of [N-7-methyl- 11 C] caffeine is described. Gaseous 11 C-methyl iodide was led into dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO), containing theophylline (1,3-dimethylxanthine) and sodium hydride. Purification of the reaction product was achieved by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). (author)

  9. Doxofylline is not just another theophylline!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matera MG

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Maria Gabriella Matera,1 Clive Page,2 Mario Cazzola3 1Department of Experimental Medicine, Unit of Pharmacology, University of Campania ‘Luigi Vanvitelli’, Naples, Italy; 2Sackler Institute of Pulmonary Pharmacology, Institute of Pharmaceutical Science, King’s College London, London, UK; 3Department of Experimental Medicine and Surgery, Chair of Respiratory Medicine, University of Rome ‘Tor Vergata’, Rome, Italy Abstract: Doxofylline, which differs from theophylline in containing the dioxalane group at position 7, has comparable efficacy to theophylline in the treatment of respiratory diseases, but with an improved tolerability profile and a favorable risk-to-benefit ratio. Furthermore, it does not have significant drug–drug interactions as exhibited with theophylline, which make using theophylline more challenging, especially in elderly patients with co-morbidities receiving multiple classes of drug. It is now clear that doxofylline also possesses a distinct pharmacological profile from theophylline (no significant effect on any of the known phosphodiesterase isoforms, no significant adenosine receptor antagonism, no direct effect on histone deacetylases, interaction with β2-adrenoceptors and therefore, should not be considered as just a modified theophylline. Randomized clinical trials of doxofylline to investigate the use of this drug to reduce exacerbations and hospitalizations due to asthma or COPD as an alternative to expensive biologics, and certainly as an alternative to theophylline are to be encouraged. Keywords: doxofylline, theophylline, mechanisms of action, therapeutic effects, adverse effects

  10. Study of theophylline stability on polymer matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Kiriaki M.S.; Parra, Duclerc F.; Oliveira, Maria Jose A.; Bustillos, Oscar V.; Lugao, Ademar B.

    2007-01-01

    Theophylline is a bronchodilator, commonly known and used as a drug model in the development of pharmaceutical formulations. The stability of the drug and the matrix, scope of this study, was evaluated in the solid formulation. Polymeric matrix based on PHB containing the drug (theophylline) was prepared and submitted to radiation sterilization at different doses of: 5, 10, 20 and 25 kGy using a Cobalt- 60 source. The modified drug release of theophylline sterilized tablets has been studied. Modern techniques of HPLC (High Pressure Liquid Chromatography), DSC (Differential scanning calorimetry) and TGA (Thermogravimetry analysis) were employed. The results have shown the influence of sterilization by radiation process in both the theophylline and the polymeric drug delivery matrix samples. The increasing of polymeric matrix crosslinking under radiation conditions retards the drug release while the theophylline structure is stable under the radiation (author)

  11. A multi-target caffeine derived rhodium(i) N-heterocyclic carbene complex: evaluation of the mechanism of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing-Jing; Muenzner, Julienne K; Abu El Maaty, Mohamed A; Karge, Bianka; Schobert, Rainer; Wölfl, Stefan; Ott, Ingo

    2016-08-16

    A rhodium(i) and a ruthenium(ii) complex with a caffeine derived N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligand were biologically investigated as organometallic conjugates consisting of a metal center and a naturally occurring moiety. While the ruthenium(ii) complex was largely inactive, the rhodium(i) NHC complex displayed selective cytotoxicity and significant anti-metastatic and in vivo anti-vascular activities and acted as both a mammalian and an E. coli thioredoxin reductase inhibitor. In HCT-116 cells it increased the reactive oxygen species level, leading to DNA damage, and it induced cell cycle arrest, decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential, and triggered apoptosis. This rhodium(i) NHC derivative thus represents a multi-target compound with promising anti-cancer potential.

  12. Associations of ambulatory blood pressure with urinary caffeine and caffeine metabolite excretions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guessous, Idris; Pruijm, Menno; Ponte, Belén; Ackermann, Daniel; Ehret, Georg; Ansermot, Nicolas; Vuistiner, Philippe; Staessen, Jan; Gu, Yumei; Paccaud, Fred; Mohaupt, Markus; Vogt, Bruno; Pechère-Bertschi, Antoinette; Pechère-Berstchi, Antoinette; Martin, Pierre-Yves; Burnier, Michel; Eap, Chin B; Bochud, Murielle

    2015-03-01

    Intake of caffeinated beverages might be associated with reduced cardiovascular mortality possibly via the lowering of blood pressure. We estimated the association of ambulatory blood pressure with urinary caffeine and caffeine metabolites in a population-based sample. Families were randomly selected from the general population of Swiss cities. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring was conducted using validated devices. Urinary caffeine, paraxanthine, theophylline, and theobromine excretions were measured in 24 hours urine using ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. We used mixed models to explore the associations of urinary excretions with blood pressure although adjusting for major confounders. The 836 participants (48.9% men) included in this analysis had mean age of 47.8 and mean 24-hour systolic and diastolic blood pressure of 120.1 and 78.0 mm Hg. For each doubling of caffeine excretion, 24-hour and night-time systolic blood pressure decreased by 0.642 and 1.107 mm Hg (both P values theobromine excretion was not associated with blood pressure. Anti-hypertensive therapy, diabetes mellitus, and alcohol consumption modify the association of caffeine urinary excretion with systolic blood pressure. Ambulatory systolic blood pressure was inversely associated with urinary excretions of caffeine and other caffeine metabolites. Our results are compatible with a potential protective effect of caffeine on blood pressure. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. Extracorporeal treatment for theophylline poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghannoum, Marc; Wiegand, Timothy J; Liu, Kathleen D

    2015-01-01

    review of the literature, a subgroup reviewed articles, extracted data, summarized findings, and proposed structured voting statements following a pre-determined format. A two-round modified Delphi method was chosen to reach a consensus on voting statements and the RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method...... was used to quantify disagreement. Anonymous votes were compiled, returned, and discussed. A second vote determined the final recommendations. RESULTS: 141 articles were included: 6 in vitro studies, 4 animal studies, 101 case reports/case series, 7 descriptive cohorts, 4 observational studies, and 19...... pharmacokinetic studies, yielding a low-to-very-low quality of evidence for all recommendations. Data on 143 patients were reviewed, including 10 deaths. The workgroup concluded that theophylline is dialyzable (level of evidence = A) and made the following recommendations: ECTR is recommended in severe...

  14. Caffeine overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002579.htm Caffeine overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Caffeine is a substance that exists naturally in certain ...

  15. Comparison of the effects of caffeine and other methylxanthines on [Ca2+]i in rat ventricular myocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoso, P.; O'Neill, S. C.; Dilly, K. W.; Negretti, N.; Eisner, D. A.

    1994-01-01

    1. The effects of caffeine and other methylxanthines were investigated on intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) and contraction in rat isolated ventricular myocytes. The use of the fluorescent indicator, Indo-1, allowed simultaneous measurement of [Ca2+]i and the intracellular concentration of the methylxanthines. 2. Rapid application of caffeine (10 mM) produced a transient rise of [Ca2+]i which decayed to resting levels. This was accompanied by a transient contraction which decayed to a level above baseline. The addition of theophylline also produced a transient increase of [Ca2+]i. However, following the initial transient, contraction decayed before redeveloping to a maintained level. 3. Direct measurements showed that [caffeine]i rose more quickly than did [theophylline]i. The slower rise of [theophylline]i was associated with a delay in the increase of [Ca2+]i. At lower concentrations of the methylxanthines, theophylline was less effective than caffeine at initiating Ca release. The rate of entry of theobromine was similar to that of theophylline. 4. Isocaffeine did not produce a rise of [Ca2+]i. The rate of rise of [isocaffeine]i was much slower than that of either caffeine or theophylline. 5. Measurements of the oil:water partition coefficient showed that the order of relative partitioning into oil was: caffeine > theophylline > theobromine > isocaffeine. This is similar to the order of rate of entry into the cell. 6. We conclude that many of the differences in the effects of these methylxanthines can be attributed to differences in membrane permeability due to differences in oil:water partition. PMID:8004389

  16. Evaluation of Controlled Release Theophylline Microspheres ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    High drug/polymer ratio, low processing temperature and low HLB value of ... Keywords: Microsphere, Emulsion solvent evaporation, Theophylline, Temperature, ... evaporation, stirring rate, viscosity of ... organic solvent is removed from the.

  17. The new trends in theophylline therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Mehmedagić

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Sustained-release theophylline pellets formulation for once-daily evening administration significantly improved patients compliance and adjusted serum levels profile of the drug. The patients conversion from i.v. to p.o. therapy is one of the most critical steps in the treatment of asthma according to its chronopathophysiological character. In our study we have examined safety and efficiency of this conversion in twelve hospitalised asthmatic patients who were given the new sustained-release theophylline pellets formulation for once-daily evening administration. The lung function parameters (FEV1, VC, RV, and Rt and serum theophylline concentrations were monitored. So, the values obtained for the last day of i.v. therapy and the fifth day of p.o. therapy were compared. We found that 75% of the patients had no change or improved lung function on the conversion. Our results indicate that this conversion from i.v. to p.o. theophylline therapy is safe and could be efficacious. Also, the maximum theophylline serum levels could safely be predicted by measuring only one serum concentration in p.o. therapy with sustained-release theophylline pellets formulation for once-daily evening administration.

  18. Complex interactions of caffeine and its structural analogs with ultraviolet light in cell killing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, G.L.; Little, J.B.

    1981-01-01

    We measured the clonogenic survival response of cultured mouse 10 Tsup(1/2) cells exposed to UV light and caffeine post-treatment. When 0.5 and 1 mM caffeine were present for 24 h immediately following UV, the D 0 values of the biphasic survival curves suggest that one subpopulation was sensitized and one subpopulation was protected from killing by UV light. A cloned survivor from the radioprotected subpopulation responded to UV plus caffeine in identical manner as the parent cells. When the caffeine exposure was prolonged to 48 h, only the radiosensitizing effect was observed. Two demethylated analogs of caffeine were also tested. The response of 10 Tsup(1/2) cells to 1 mM theophylline present for 24 h after UV irradiation was approximately the same as that for the same treatment with 1 mM caffeine. However, prolonging the theophylline exposure to 48 h failed to produce the same kind of potentiation of cell killing as that observed for caffeine. Xanthine by itself was a toxic to 10 Tsup(1/2) cells as caffeine, but had no synergistic effect as caffeine when given to UV-irradiated cells for 24 or 48 h. It is therefore unlikely that all the effects of caffeine on UV-irradiated cells are mediated by its demethylated metabolites. (orig.)

  19. Treatment of theophylline intoxication using continuous venovenous haemofiltration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koeijers, J.J.; Verhoeven, C.L.; Boersma, H.H.; van Mook, W.N.K.A

    2008-01-01

    Theophylline intoxication can cause serious complications such as seizures, cardiac arrhythmias and eventually cardiac arrest. Because of these potentially life-threatening clinical manifestations of theophylline intoxication, treatment methods that rapidly eliminate the drug are essential. These

  20. [Caffeine dependence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Naoshi; Ueki, Hirofumi

    2010-08-01

    Caffeine is the most widely consumed psychoactive substance in the world and is a legal stimulant that is readily available to children. The potential for dependence on caffeine has been debated. Presently, due to a paucity of clinical evidence on caffeine dependence, no such diagnosis is included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR). Although in recent studies, a subset of the general population was found to demonstrate caffeine dependence. It is valuable for psychiatrists and primary care physicians to recognize caffeine dependence as a clinical syndrome, since some people are distressed by their caffeine use and feel they can not control or stop their problematic use.

  1. PILOT STUDY: An international comparison of mass fraction purity assignment of theophylline: CCQM Pilot Study CCQM-P20.e (Theophylline)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westwood, S.; Josephs, R.; Daireaux, A.; Wielgosz, R.; Davies, S.; Kang, M.; Ting, H.; Phillip, R.; Malz, F.; Shimizu, Y.; Frias, E.; Pérez, M.; Apps, P.; Fernandes-Whaley, M.; DeVos, B.; Wiangnon, K.; Ruangrittinon, N.; Wood, S.; Duewer, D.; Schantz, M.; Bedner, M.; Hancock, D.; Esker, J.

    2009-01-01

    Under the auspices of the Organic Analysis Working Group (OAWG) of the Comité Consultatif pour la Quantité de Matière (CCQM) a laboratory comparison, CCQM-P20.e, was coordinated by the Bureau International de Poids et Mesures (BIPM) in 2006/2007. Nine national measurement institutes, two expert laboratories and the BIPM participated in the comparison. Participants were required to assign the mass fraction of theophylline present as the main component in two separate study samples (CCQM-P20.e.1 and CCQM-P20.e.2). CCQM-P20.e.1 consisted of a high-purity theophylline material obtained from a commercial supplier. CCQM-P20.e.2 consisted of theophylline to which known amounts of the related structure compounds theobromine and caffeine were added in a homogenous, gravimetrically controlled fashion. For the CCQM-P20.e.2 sample it was possible to estimate gravimetric reference values both for the main component and for the two spiked impurities. In addition to assigning the mass fraction content of theophylline for both materials, participants were requested but not obliged to provide mass fraction estimates for the minor components they identified in each sample. The results reported by the study participants for the mass fraction content of theophylline in both materials showed good levels of agreement both with each other and with the gravimetric reference value assigned to the CCQM-P20.e.2 material. There was also satisfactory agreement overall, albeit at higher levels of uncertainty, in the quantification data reported for the minor components present in both samples. In the few cases where a significant deviation was observed from the consensus values reported by the comparison participants or gravimetric reference values where these where available, they appeared to arise from the use of non-optimal chromatographic separation conditions. The results demonstrate the feasibility for laboratories to assign mass fraction content with associated absolute expanded

  2. Raman spectroscopic characterisations and analytical discrimination between caffeine and demethylated analogues of pharmaceutical relevance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, H. G. M.; Munshi, T.; Anstis, M.

    2005-05-01

    The FT Raman spectrum of caffeine was analysed along with that of its demethylated analogues, theobromine and theophylline. The similar but not identical structures of these three compounds allowed a more detailed assignment of the Raman bands. Noticeable differences in the Raman spectra of these compounds were apparent and key marker bands have been identified for the spectroscopic identification of these three compounds.

  3. Caffeine intake among adolescents in Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mridul Gera

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Availability and advertising of caffeinated drinks is on the rise in Indian market. Excess caffeine intake may have deleterious effects on health. Objective: To estimate the daily consumption of caffeine among urban school-going adolescents from Delhi. Materials and Methods: A school-based survey was conducted to determine the amount and pattern of caffeine consumption among students of classes 9-12, using a self-administered questionnaire. Results: Of 300 participants (median age 15 year, 174 boys, 291 (97% were consuming caffeine [mean (SD: 121.0 (98.2 mg/day]. Nineteen (6% students were consuming more than 300 mg of caffeine per day. Tea/coffee contributed to more than 50% of the caffeine intake. The rest was derived from cola beverages, chocolates, and energy drinks. Conclusion: Average caffeine consumption among school-going adolescents from Delhi is high. The findings of this preliminary survey need to be confirmed in larger data sets.

  4. Caffeine Confusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 20 mg* Milk chocolate 1 ounce 6 mg* Cocoa beverage 5 ounces 4 mg* Chocolate milk beverage 8 ounces 5 mg* Cold relief medication 1 tablet 30 mg* *This is an average amount of caffeine. That means some of these products may contain a little more caffeine; some may ...

  5. Study on inclusion complex of cyclodextrin with methyl xanthine derivatives by fluorimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yan-Li; Ding, Li-Hua; Dong, Chuan; Niu, Wei-Ping; Shuang, Shao-Min

    2003-10-01

    The inclusion complexes of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and HP-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) with caffeine, theophylline and theobromine were investigated by fluorimetry. Various factors affecting the formation of inclusion complexes were discussed in detail including forming time, pH effect and temperature. The results indicate that inclusion process was affected seriously by laying time and pH. The forming time of β-CD inclusion complexes is much longer than that of HP-β-CD. The optimum pH range is about 7-12 for caffeine, 8-10 for TP, 10.5-12 for TB. The intensities of their fluorescence increase with the decreasing of temperature. Their maximum excitation wavelengths are all in the range of 280-290 nm. The emission wavelength of caffeine and theophylline are both in the range of 340-360 nm, and that of theobromine is about 325 nm. The fluorescence signals are intensified with the increasing concentration of CD. The stoichiometry of the inclusion complexes of CD with these three methyl xanthine derivatives are all 1:1 and the formation constant are all calculated.

  6. Effects of theophylline administration and intracranial abnormalities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine effects of theophylline therapy for recurrent apnoea of prematurity and abnormal early (within the first 24 hours) cranial ultrasound abnormalities on protective neck turning response in preterm infants. Design: A cross sectional descriptive study. Setting: The Neonatal Unit of Hammersmith Hospital, ...

  7. Adsorption behavior of caffeine as a green corrosion inhibitor for copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Fernando Silvio de [Grupo de Estudos de Processos Eletroquimicos e Eletroanaliticos, Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Giacomelli, Cristiano [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Av. Roraima 1000, 97119-900, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Goncalves, Reinaldo Simoes [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Goncalves 9500, 91501-970, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Spinelli, Almir, E-mail: almir.spinelli@ufsc.br [Grupo de Estudos de Processos Eletroquimicos e Eletroanaliticos, Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2012-12-01

    Electrochemical and impedance experiments were carried out to evaluate the corrosion behavior of copper in aerated 0.1 mol L{sup -1} H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solutions in the presence of three xanthine derivatives with similar chemical structures. The corrosion rate of copper was found to increase in the presence of theophylline and theobromine and decrease in the presence of caffeine. The adsorption and inhibitory effect of caffeine on copper surfaces in aerated 0.1 mol L{sup -1} H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solutions were then investigated in detail by potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), contact angle measurements, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and fluorescence experiments. The data obtained indicate that caffeine behaves as a cathodic-type inhibitor adsorbing onto the copper surface according to the Temkin isotherm, with the negative Increment G Degree-Sign {sub ads} value of - 31.1 kJ mol{sup -1} signifying a spontaneous adsorption process. The corrosion inhibition efficiency increased with caffeine concentration in the range of 1.0-10.0 mmol L{sup -1}. Furthermore, the EIS results obtained at the open-circuit potential and surface analysis (SEM, EDS and fluorescence) clearly demonstrated the adsorption of the organic compound onto the copper electrode. The contact angle measurements revealed the formation of a hydrophobic protective film. This film covers up to 72% of the total active surface, acts as a protective barrier and prevents interaction between the metal, water and oxygen molecules. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We have investigated the adsorption and corrosion inhibition of caffeine on copper surfaces. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Caffeine behaves as a cathodic-type inhibitor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Caffeine adsorbs onto copper surface according to Temkin isotherm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer There exists the formation of a hydrophobic film that acts as a

  8. [Determination of six main components in compound theophylline tablet by convolution curve method after prior separation by column partition chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S. Y.; Wang, G. F.; Wu, Y. T.; Baldwin, K. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    On a partition chromatographic column in which the support is Kieselguhr and the stationary phase is sulfuric acid solution (2 mol/L), three components of compound theophylline tablet were simultaneously eluted by chloroform and three other components were simultaneously eluted by ammonia-saturated chloroform. The two mixtures were determined by computer-aided convolution curve method separately. The corresponding average recovery and relative standard deviation of the six components were as follows: 101.6, 1.46% for caffeine; 99.7, 0.10% for phenacetin; 100.9, 1.31% for phenobarbitone; 100.2, 0.81% for theophylline; 99.9, 0.81% for theobromine and 100.8, 0.48% for aminopyrine.

  9. Pregnancy-Induced Changes in the Pharmacokinetics of Caffeine and Its Metabolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tian; Campbell, Sarah C.; Stockmann, Chris; Tak, Casey; Schoen, Katherine; Clark, Erin A. S.; Varner, Michael W.; Spigarelli, Michael G.; Sherwin, Catherine M. T.

    2017-01-01

    This study sought to assess the pharmacokinetic (PK) changes of caffeine and its CYP1A2 metabolites across the 3 trimesters of pregnancy. A prospective, multicenter PK study was conducted among 59 pregnant women (93.2% white) who were studied once during a trimester. One beverage with 30–95 mg caffeine was consumed, and a blood/urine sample was collected within 1 hour postingestion. Concentrations of caffeine and its primary metabolites were quantified from serum and urine by LC-MS/MS. There was a significant increase in dose-normalized caffeine serum and urine concentrations between the first and third trimesters (Ptheobromine concentrations. This study identified decreased caffeine metabolism and an increase in the active metabolite theophylline concentrations during pregnancy, especially in the third trimester, revealing evidence of the large role that pregnancy plays in influencing caffeine metabolism. PMID:26358647

  10. Spectral investigations and DFT studies of 3,7-dihydro-1,3,7-trimethyl-1H-purine-2,6-dione (caffeine) interaction and recognition by single amino acid derived self-assembled nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindhan, R.; Karthikeyan, B.

    2018-03-01

    Recognition of xanthine alkaloid caffeine with 3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)benzylamine derived peptide nanotubes (BTTPNTs) through chemical interaction have been achieved through the host-guest like interaction. DFT simulation is carried out for caffeine interacted with BTTPNTs system and also experimentally characterized by ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) absorbance, confocal Raman spectra (CRS) with microscopic imaging (CRM), FT-Raman, surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), UV-diffuse reflectance spectra (UV-DRS), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) and cyclic voltammetry (CV) studies. The results are used to examine the morphologies, size of the nanostructure and study of its interaction with the caffeine molecule. The results show that BTTPNTs is having potential for sensing the caffeine molecules through the binding occurred from the NH2 of tyrosine moiety of the BTTPNTs. This intermolecular association through face-to-face stacking of BTTPNTs is explained by detailed DFT calculations.

  11. Caffeine in the diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - caffeine ... Caffeine is absorbed and passes quickly into the brain. It does not collect in the bloodstream or ... been consumed. There is no nutritional need for caffeine. It can be avoided in the diet. Caffeine ...

  12. Caffeine controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentle, Samuel J; Travers, Colm P; Carlo, Waldemar A

    2018-04-01

    Caffeine use in preterm infants has endured several paradigms: from standard of care to possible neurotoxin to one of the few medications for which there is evidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) risk reduction. The purpose of the review is to analyze this dynamic trajectory and discuss controversies that still remain after decades of caffeine use. Following concerns for caffeine safety in preterm infants, a large randomized controlled trial demonstrated a reduction in BPD and treatment for patent ductus arteriosus. The lower rate of death or neurodevelopmental impairment noted at 18-21 months was not statistically different at later timepoints; however, infants in the caffeine group had lower rates of motor impairment at 11-year follow-up. The time of caffeine therapy initiation is now substantially earlier, and doses used are sometimes higher that previously used, but there are limited data to support these practices. Caffeine therapy for apnea of prematurity (AOP) remains one of the pillars of neonatal care, although more evidence to support dosing and timing of initiation and discontinuation are needed.

  13. Associations of Urinary Caffeine and Caffeine Metabolites With Arterial Stiffness in a Large Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponte, Belen; Pruijm, Menno; Ackermann, Daniel; Ehret, Georg; Ansermot, Nicolas; Staessen, Jan A; Vogt, Bruno; Pechère-Bertschi, Antoinette; Burnier, Michel; Martin, Pierre-Yves; Eap, Chin B; Bochud, Murielle; Guessous, Idris

    2018-05-01

    To assess the influence of caffeine on arterial stiffness by exploring the association of urinary excretion of caffeine and its related metabolites with pulse pressure (PP) and pulse wave velocity (PWV). Families were randomly selected from the general population of 3 Swiss cities from November 25, 2009, through April 4, 2013. Pulse pressure was defined as the difference between the systolic and diastolic blood pressures obtained by 24-hour ambulatory monitoring. Carotid-femoral PWV was determined by applanation tonometry. Urinary caffeine, paraxanthine, theophylline, and theobromine excretions were measured in 24-hour urine collections. Multivariate linear and logistic mixed models were used to explore the associations of quartiles of urinary caffeine and metabolite excretions with PP, high PP, and PWV. We included 863 participants with a mean ± SD age of 47.1±17.6 years, 24-hour PP of 41.9±9.2 mm Hg, and PWV of 8.0±2.3 m/s. Mean (SE) brachial PP decreased from 43.5 (0.5) to 40.5 (0.6) mm Hg from the lowest to the highest quartiles of 24-hour urinary caffeine excretion (P<.001). The odds ratio (95% CI) of high PP decreased linearly from 1.0 to 0.52 (0.31-0.89), 0.38 (0.22-0.65), and 0.31 (0.18-0.55) from the lowest to the highest quartile of 24-hour urinary caffeine excretion (P<.001). Mean (SE) PWV in the highest caffeine excretion quartile was significantly lower than in the lowest quartile (7.8 [0.1] vs 8.1 [0.1] m/s; P=.03). Similar associations were found for paraxanthine and theophylline, whereas no associations were found with theobromine. Urinary caffeine, paraxanthine, and theophylline excretions were associated with decreased parameters of arterial stiffness, suggesting a protective effect of caffeine intake beyond its blood pressure-lowering effect. Copyright © 2017 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Quantitative assessment of caffeine partial clearances in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelo, A; Miners, J O; Robson, R A; Birkett, D J

    1986-01-01

    Five subjects who participated in an earlier study (Lelo et al., 1986b) of the comparative pharmacokinetics of caffeine (CA) and its primary monodemethylated metabolites paraxanthine (PX), theobromine (TB) and theophylline (TP) were administered CA to steady-state. Using areas under the plasma concentration-time curves for each of the dimethylxanthines derived from CA in the steady-state study and individual plasma clearances of PX, TB and TP determined in the previous study, the fractional conversion of CA to PX, TB and TP and the individual partial clearances of CA have been defined. The mean (+/- s.d.) fractional conversion of CA to PX, TB and TP was 79.6 +/- 21.0%, 10.8 +/- 2.4% and 3.7 +/- 1.3%, respectively. When only demethylation pathways are considered PX, TB and TP accounted for 83.9 +/- 5.4%, 12.1 +/- 4.1% and 4.0 +/- 1.4%, respectively of the CA demethylations. The mean partial clearance of CA to PX was approximately 8-fold and 23-fold greater than those to TB and TP respectively. These data confirm earlier reports that PX is the major metabolite of CA in humans but suggest that PX formation is quantitatively more important than previously believed. PMID:3756066

  15. Intercalated theophylline-smectite hybrid for pH-mediated delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Vivek; Nandi, Uttom; Maniruzzaman, Mohammed; Coleman, Nichola J

    2018-01-23

    On the basis of their large specific surface areas, high adsorption and cation exchange capacities, swelling potential and low toxicity, natural smectite clays are attractive substrates for the gastric protection of neutral and cationic drugs. Theophylline is an amphoteric xanthine derivative that is widely used as a bronchodilator in the treatment of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. This study considers the in vitro uptake and release characteristics of the binary theophylline-smectite system. The cationic form of theophylline was readily ion exchanged into smectite clay at pH 1.2 with a maximum uptake of 67 ± 2 mg g -1 . Characterisation of the drug-clay hybrid system by powder X-ray diffraction analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and scanning electron microscopy confirmed that the theophylline had been exclusively intercalated into the clay system in an amorphous form. The drug remained bound within the clay under simulated gastric conditions at pH 1.2; and the prolonged release of approximately 40% of the drug was observed in simulated intestinal fluid at pH 6.8 and 7.4 within a 2-h timeframe. The incomplete reversibility of the intercalation process was attributed to chemisorption of the drug within the clay lattice. These findings indicate that smectite clay is a potentially suitable vehicle for the safe passage of theophylline into the duodenum. Protection from absorption in the stomach and subsequent prolonged release in the small intestine are advantageous in reducing fluctuations in serum concentration which may impact therapeutic effect and toxicity.

  16. Molecularly imprinted poly(4-amino-5-hydroxy-2,7-naphthalenedisulfonic acid) modified glassy carbon electrode as an electrochemical theophylline sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aswini, K.K.; Vinu Mohan, A.M.; Biju, V.M.

    2016-01-01

    Theophylline is an inexpensive drug employed in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder medications and is toxic at higher concentration. The development of a molecularly imprinted polymer based theophylline electrochemical sensor on glassy carbon electrode by the electropolymerization of 4-amino-5-hydroxy-2,7-naphthalenedisulfonic acid is being discussed in this work. The MIP modification enhances the theophylline recognition ability and the electron transfer kinetics of the bare electrode. The parameters, controlling the performance of the imprinted polymer based sensor, like number of electropolymerization cycles, composition of the pre-polymerization mixture, pH and immersion time were investigated and optimized. The interaction energy and the most stable conformation of the template–monomer complex in the pre-polymerization mixture were determined computationally using ab initio calculations based on density functional theory. The amperometric measurements showed that the developed sensor has a method detection limit of 0.32 μM for the dynamic range of 0.4 to 17 μM, at optimized conditions. The transducer possesses appreciable selectivity in the presence of structurally similar interferents such as theobromine, caffeine and doxofylline. The developed sensor showed remarkable stability and reproducibility and was also successfully employed in theophylline detection from commercially available tablets. - Highlights: • Molecularly imprinted polymer based theophylline sensor was developed. • Imprinted poly(4-amino-5-hydroxy-2,7-naphthalenedisulfonic acid) was electrodeposited. • Most stable template-monomer complex was assigned by computational analysis. • Possessed remarkable selectivity in the presence of structurally similar interferents • Employed for theophylline detection from commercially available tablets

  17. Molecularly imprinted poly(4-amino-5-hydroxy-2,7-naphthalenedisulfonic acid) modified glassy carbon electrode as an electrochemical theophylline sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aswini, K.K., E-mail: aswinikk@ymail.com; Vinu Mohan, A.M.; Biju, V.M., E-mail: vmbiju@ymail.com

    2016-08-01

    Theophylline is an inexpensive drug employed in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder medications and is toxic at higher concentration. The development of a molecularly imprinted polymer based theophylline electrochemical sensor on glassy carbon electrode by the electropolymerization of 4-amino-5-hydroxy-2,7-naphthalenedisulfonic acid is being discussed in this work. The MIP modification enhances the theophylline recognition ability and the electron transfer kinetics of the bare electrode. The parameters, controlling the performance of the imprinted polymer based sensor, like number of electropolymerization cycles, composition of the pre-polymerization mixture, pH and immersion time were investigated and optimized. The interaction energy and the most stable conformation of the template–monomer complex in the pre-polymerization mixture were determined computationally using ab initio calculations based on density functional theory. The amperometric measurements showed that the developed sensor has a method detection limit of 0.32 μM for the dynamic range of 0.4 to 17 μM, at optimized conditions. The transducer possesses appreciable selectivity in the presence of structurally similar interferents such as theobromine, caffeine and doxofylline. The developed sensor showed remarkable stability and reproducibility and was also successfully employed in theophylline detection from commercially available tablets. - Highlights: • Molecularly imprinted polymer based theophylline sensor was developed. • Imprinted poly(4-amino-5-hydroxy-2,7-naphthalenedisulfonic acid) was electrodeposited. • Most stable template-monomer complex was assigned by computational analysis. • Possessed remarkable selectivity in the presence of structurally similar interferents • Employed for theophylline detection from commercially available tablets.

  18. Interaction of Ketotifen Fumarate with Anhydrous Theophylline in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to investigate interaction between ketotifen fumarate and anhydrous theophylline in aqueous media of various pH. Methods: By using Job's continuous-variation analysis and Ardon's spectrophotomeric methods, the values of stability constants of theophylline with ketotifen ...

  19. Determination of Theophylline Binding to Human Serum Proteins by Isotachophoresis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijenga, J.C.; Gaijkema, A.P.M.; Mikkers, F.E.P.

    1984-01-01

    Free theophylline was isolated from human serum by ultrafiltration and analysed in a leading electrolyte of 7.5 mM morpholinoethanesulphoric acid with ammediol as a counter ion at pH 8.90 and -alanine as a terminator. The UV (280 nm) absorbance of the theophylline spike between serine and bicine as

  20. Pharmacokinetics of theophylline after administration of suppositories formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Basha, L I; Wahman, L F; Hamza, A; Aboul-Enein, Hassan Y

    2005-01-01

    Asthma is a public health problem for developed countries. It attacks all age groups but often starts in childhood. Theophylline ethanoate of piperazine in a suppository form is one of the treatments of asthmatic children. The pharmacokinetics of theophylline were evaluated in 24 healthy male subjects after administration of theophylline ethanoate of piperazine suppositories (PR) (Minophylline 500 mg. Alexandria Co.) and single injection intravenous (IV) of theophylline ethanoate of piperazine (Minophylline ampoules 500 mg Alexandria Co.). The theophylline serum levels were determined by an ELISA method. Peak theophylline plasma concentration, Cmax, (mean +/- S.D) was 21.5 +/- 2.10 microg/mL & 14 +/- 0.90 microg/mL; AUC(0-t), values were 80.9 and 67. 4 microg x ml x hr for the reference IV preparation and suppositories, respectively. The median peak time, Tmax, was 0.5 hr for theophylline rectal administration. The above mentioned results demonstrate the possibilities of using theophylline (Minophylline Suppositories--500 mg Alexandria Co.) in asthmatic children in rural and desert areas away from health care personnel.

  1. Interaction of Ketotifen Fumarate with Anhydrous Theophylline in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Theophylline in Simulated Gastric and Intestinal Media and Effect on ... However, following theophylline interaction with ketotifen, stability constant was < 1 at gastric pH (0.4 and 2.0) ..... from pH as low as stomach acid (pH 0.4 to 3) to as high ...

  2. Molecularly imprinted poly(4-amino-5-hydroxy-2,7-naphthalenedisulfonic acid) modified glassy carbon electrode as an electrochemical theophylline sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aswini, K K; Vinu Mohan, A M; Biju, V M

    2016-08-01

    Theophylline is an inexpensive drug employed in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder medications and is toxic at higher concentration. The development of a molecularly imprinted polymer based theophylline electrochemical sensor on glassy carbon electrode by the electropolymerization of 4-amino-5-hydroxy-2,7-naphthalenedisulfonic acid is being discussed in this work. The MIP modification enhances the theophylline recognition ability and the electron transfer kinetics of the bare electrode. The parameters, controlling the performance of the imprinted polymer based sensor, like number of electropolymerization cycles, composition of the pre-polymerization mixture, pH and immersion time were investigated and optimized. The interaction energy and the most stable conformation of the template-monomer complex in the pre-polymerization mixture were determined computationally using ab initio calculations based on density functional theory. The amperometric measurements showed that the developed sensor has a method detection limit of 0.32μM for the dynamic range of 0.4 to 17μM, at optimized conditions. The transducer possesses appreciable selectivity in the presence of structurally similar interferents such as theobromine, caffeine and doxofylline. The developed sensor showed remarkable stability and reproducibility and was also successfully employed in theophylline detection from commercially available tablets. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Molecular structures and vibrational frequencies of xanthine and its methyl derivatives (caffeine and theobromine) by ab initio Hartree-Fock and density functional theory calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ucun, Fatih; Sağlam, Adnan; Güçlü, Vesile

    2007-06-01

    The molecular structures, vibrational frequencies and corresponding vibrational assignments of xanthine and its methyl derivatives (caffeine and theobromine) have been calculated using ab initio Hartree-Fock (HF) and density functional theory (B3LYP) methods with 6-31G(d, p) basis set level. The calculations were utilized to the CS symmetries of the molecules. The obtained vibrational frequencies and optimised geometric parameters (bond lengths and bond angles) were seen to be well agreement with the experimental data. The used scale factors which have been obtained the ratio of the frequency values of the strongest peaks in the calculated and experimental spectra seem to cause the gained vibrations well corresponding to the experimental ones. Theoretical infrared intensities and Raman activities are also reported.

  4. Measurement of caffeine and its three primary metabolites in human plasma by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS and clinical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feng; Hu, Zhe-Yi; Parker, Robert B; Laizure, S Casey

    2017-06-01

    Caffeine is a mild stimulant with significant potential for abuse, being consumed in larger doses with the widespread availability of energy drinks and by novel routes of administration such as inspired powder, oral sprays and electronic cigarettes. How these recent changes in caffeine consumption affecting caffeine disposition and abuse potential is of growing concern. In the study of caffeine disposition in humans, it is common to only measure the caffeine concentration; however, caffeine's three major metabolites (paraxanthine, theobromine and theophylline) retain central nervous system stimulant activity that may contribute to the overall pharmacological activity and toxicity. Therefore, it would be scientifically more rigorous to measure caffeine and its major metabolites in the evaluation of caffeine disposition in human subjects. Herein, we report a method for the simultaneous quantification of caffeine and its three major metabolites in human plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS). Human plasma samples were treated by simple protein precipitation and the analytes were separated using a 6 min gradient program. Precision and accuracy were well within in the 15% acceptance range. The simple sample preparation, short runtime, sensitivity and the inclusion of caffeine's major metabolites make this assay methodology optimal for the study of caffeine's pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in human subjects. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Caffeine and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Caffeine KidsHealth / For Parents / Caffeine What's in this article? ... español La cafeína y su hijo What Is Caffeine? Caffeine is a natural stimulant found in coffee, ...

  6. Effect of Terbinafine on Theophylline Pharmacokinetics in Healthy Volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trépanier, Eric F.; Nafziger, Anne N.; Amsden, Guy W.

    1998-01-01

    Twelve healthy volunteers were enrolled in an open-label, randomized, crossover study. Subjects received single doses of theophylline (5 mg/kg) with and without multiple-dose terbinafine, and 11 blood samples were collected over 24 h. The study phases were separated by a 4-week washout period. Theophylline serum data were modeled via noncompartmental analysis. When the control phase (i.e., no terbinafine) was compared to the treatment phase (terbinafine), theophylline exposure (the area under the serum concentration-time curve from time zero to infinity) increased by 16% (P = 0.03), oral clearance decreased by 14% (P = 0.04), and half-life increased by 24% (P = 0.002). No significant changes in other theophylline pharmacokinetic parameters were evident. PMID:9517954

  7. Preparation, Characterization and In vitro Evaluation of Theophylline ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To design and characterize theophylline nanoparticles synthesized with dextran-conjugated soy protein ... However, reports on the synthesis and evaluation of SPI- ... Calcium chloride and all other reagents were of analytical grade.

  8. Lack of drug interaction between omeprazole, lansoprazole, pantoprazole and theophylline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilger, Karin; Zheng, Zhichang; Klotz, Ulrich

    1999-01-01

    Aims Theophylline is a model substrate of cytochrome P4501A2. The ability of the proton pump inhibitors (PPI) omeprazole, lansoprazole and pantoprazole to induce cytochrome P4501A2 has not yet been unequivocally resolved. The aim of this comprehensive study was to compare directly the effect of the three PPI on the absorption and disposition of theophylline. Methods Twenty healthy, nonsmoking, male and female volunteers (extensive metabolisers of cytochrome P4502C19 and Helicobacter pylori negative) participated in a randomized, double-blind, four-period, placebo-controlled crossover study. In each of the four periods they received either omeprazole (40 mg), lansoprazole (60 mg), pantoprazole (80 mg) or placebo once daily for 10 days. Sustained release theophylline (350 mg twice daily) was coadministered from day 8–10. Pharmacokinetics of theophylline as well as of all three PPI were determined at steady-state (day 10). Results In all periods, point estimates and 90% confidence intervals of the area under the concentration-time curves (AUC), maximum steady-state concentrations and peak-trough fluctuations of theophylline were not altered by PPI pretreatment and met the required limits for bioequivalence. Point estimates (90% confidence intervals) of the AUC ratios of theophylline plus PPI to theophylline alone were 0.92 (0.87–0.97), 0.90 (0.85–0.95) and 1.00 (0.95–1.06) for omeprazole, lansoprazole and pantoprazole, respectively. Conclusions Concomitant intake of omeprazole, lansoprazole or pantoprazole at high therapeutic doses does not affect the absorption and disposition of theophylline. PMID:10510158

  9. Caffeine dependence in teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Gail A; Carroll, Marilyn E; Thuras, Paul D; Cosgrove, Kelly P; Roth, Megan E

    2002-03-01

    This study identifies and characterizes symptoms of caffeine dependence in adolescents. Thirty-six adolescents who consumed caffeine daily and had some features of caffeine dependence on telephone screen were scheduled for outpatient evaluation. Evaluation included the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children-IV-Youth Version (DISC-IV) and modified DISC-IV questions that assessed caffeine dependence based on DSM-IV substance dependence criteria. Of 36 subjects, 41.7% (n=15) reported tolerance to caffeine, 77.8% (n=28) described withdrawal symptoms after cessation or reduction of caffeine intake, 38.9% (n=14) reported desire or unsuccessful attempts to control use, and 16.7% (n=6) endorsed use despite knowledge of physical or psychological problems associated with caffeine. There was no significant difference in the amount of caffeine consumed daily by caffeine dependent versus non-dependent teenagers. These findings are important due to the vast number of adolescents who drink caffeinated beverages.

  10. Anti-fibrotic effects of theophylline on lung fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yano, Yukihiro; Yoshida, Mitsuhiro; Hoshino, Shigenori; Inoue, Koji; Kida, Hiroshi; Yanagita, Masahiko; Takimoto, Takayuki; Hirata, Haruhiko; Kijima, Takashi; Kumagai, Toru; Osaki, Tadashi; Tachibana, Isao; Kawase, Ichiro

    2006-01-01

    Theophylline has been used in the management of bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease for over 50 years. It has not only a bronchodilating effect, but also an anti-inflammatory one conducive to the inhibition of airway remodeling, including subepithelial fibrosis. To date however, whether theophylline has a direct inhibitory effect on airway fibrosis has not been established. To clarify this question, we examined whether theophylline affected the function of lung fibroblasts. Theophylline suppressed TGF-β-induced type I collagen (COL1) mRNA expression in lung fibroblasts and also inhibited fibroblast proliferation stimulated by FBS and TGF-β-induced α-SMA protein. A cAMP analog also inhibited TGF-β-induced COL1 mRNA expression in lung fibroblasts. A PKA inhibitor reduced the inhibitory effect of theophylline on TGF-β-induced COL1 mRNA expression. These results indicate that theophylline exerts anti-fibrotic effects, at least partly, through the cAMP-PKA pathway

  11. Caffeine accelerates recovery from general anesthesia via multiple pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Robert; Khokhar, Suhail; Chowdhury, Atif N; Xie, Kelvin G; Wong, Josiah Hiu-Yuen; Fox, Aaron P; Xie, Zheng

    2017-09-01

    Various studies have explored different ways to speed emergence from anesthesia. Previously, we have shown that three drugs that elevate intracellular cAMP (forskolin, theophylline, and caffeine) accelerate emergence from anesthesia in rats. However, our earlier studies left two main questions unanswered. First, were cAMP-elevating drugs effective at all anesthetic concentrations? Second, given that caffeine was the most effective of the drugs tested, why was caffeine more effective than forskolin since both drugs elevate cAMP? In our current study, emergence time from anesthesia was measured in adult rats exposed to 3% isoflurane for 60 min. Caffeine dramatically accelerated emergence from anesthesia, even at the high level of anesthetic employed. Caffeine has multiple actions including blockade of adenosine receptors. We show that the selective A 2a adenosine receptor antagonist preladenant or the intracellular cAMP ([cAMP] i )-elevating drug forskolin, accelerated recovery from anesthesia. When preladenant and forskolin were tested together, the effect on anesthesia recovery time was additive indicating that these drugs operate via different pathways. Furthermore, the combination of preladenant and forskolin was about as effective as caffeine suggesting that both A 2A receptor blockade and [cAMP] i elevation play a role in caffeine's ability to accelerate emergence from anesthesia. Because anesthesia in rodents is thought to be similar to that in humans, these results suggest that caffeine might allow for rapid and uniform emergence from general anesthesia in humans at all anesthetic concentrations and that both the elevation of [cAMP] i and adenosine receptor blockade play a role in this response. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Currently, there is no method to accelerate emergence from anesthesia. Patients "wake" when they clear the anesthetic from their systems. Previously, we have shown that caffeine can accelerate emergence from anesthesia. In this study, we show that

  12. Produção de anticorpos para cafeína e seu derivado cafeinidina Antisera production to caffeine and its derivative caffeinidine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. MAZZAFERA

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available São apresentados dados sobre a conjugação de cafeína e seu derivado cafeinidina com albumina de soro bovino e sua utilização para a produção de anticorpos. Galinhas poedeiras foram imunizadas e as globulinas extraídas das gemas dos ovos. Por ensaios de imunoprecipitação pode-se verificar que ambos anticorpos reagiram com seus respectivos antígenos, cafeína e cafeinidina. Também verificou-se que a posição do radical metil em mono e dimetilxantinas era importante para o reconhecimento antígeno-anticorpo. Metilação na posição N-3 pareceu ser determinante para o reconhecimento pelo anticorpo produzido para o conjugado cafeinidina-BSA. Por outro lado, metilação na posição N-7 foi importante para o conjugado cafeína-BSA. Discute-se as vantagens de um anticorpo sobre o outro e a possibilidade de seu emprego em testes imunológicos para determinação de alcalóides purínicos totais em material vegetal e seus derivados alimentícios.Data on the conjugation of caffeine and its derivative caffeinidine with bovine serum albumin and their use to produce antisera are reported here. Chickens were immunized with the conjugates and antisera were extracted from egg yolks. In immunoprecipitation assays it was verified that both antisera were efficient against their respective antigens. It was also observed that the methyl position in mono and dimethylxanthines played a role in the recognition by the antisera. Methyl at N-3 position seemed to be important for the precipitation by the antisera produced to caffeinidine-BSA conjugate. On the other hand, methylation at N-7 position was important for caffeine-BSA conjugate. The advantages of each antisera and their potential application in imunological tests as a tool to determine total purine alkaloids in plant material and derived foodstuffs are discussed.

  13. Enhancement of SV40 transformation by treatment of C3H2K cells with uv light and caffeine. I. Combined effect of uv light and caffeine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ide, T.; Anzai, K.; Andoh, T.

    1975-01-01

    Treatment of cultured mouse cells, C3H2K, with uv light and/or caffeine enhanced the frequency of SV40-induced transformation. This enhancement depends upon the doses of uv and caffeine and the mode of combination of these agents. Irradiation of cells with increasing doses of uv just before infection resulted in approximately 2-fold enhancement of the transformation frequency up to a dose of 90 ergs/mm 2 and 3.3-fold at 150 ergs/mm 2 . Addition of 1 mM caffeine to the medium for 4 days subsequent to infection brought about a 2-fold enhancement. When cells were irradiated and treated with 1 mM caffeine, the enhancement was approximately 4-fold up to a uv dose of 90 ergs/mm 2 and 5.9-fold at 150 ergs/mm 2 . When 0.1 to 4 mM caffeine was added for 4 days postinfection, the absolute number of transformations increased, and an enhancement ratio of 1.3 to 6.8 resulted. After the addition of the same increasing doses of caffeine to uv-irradiated cells (75 ergs/mm 2 ), the enhancement of transformation frequency was even higher ranging 2.0 to 13.3. The transformation frequencies thus obtained by the double treatment were always higher than those predicted if uv and caffeine acted additively. The transformation frequency was little affected by the addition of dibutyrylcyclic AMP and theophylline

  14. Simultaneous quantification of caffeine and its three primary metabolites in rat plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eu Jin; Bae, Soo Hyeon; Park, Jung Bae; Kwon, Min Jo; Jang, Su Min; Zheng, Yu Fen; Lee, Young Sun; Lee, Su-Jun; Bae, Soo Kyung

    2013-12-01

    A rapid, sensitive, simple and accurate LC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous quantitation of caffeine, and its three primary metabolites, theobromine, paraxanthine, and theophylline, in rat plasma was developed and validated. Chromatographic separation was performed on an Agilent Poroshell 120 EC-C18 column using 1 μg/mL acetaminophen as an internal standard. Each sample was run at 0.5 mL/min for a total run time of 7 min/sample. Detection and quantification were performed using a mass spectrometer in selected reaction-monitoring mode with positive electrospray ionization. The lower limit of quantification was 5 ng/mL for all analytes with linear ranges up to 5000 ng/mL for caffeine and 1000 ng/mL for its metabolites. The coefficient of variation for assay precision was less than 12.6%, with an accuracy of 93.5-114%. The assay was successfully applied to determine plasma concentrations of caffeine, theobromine, paraxanthine, and theophylline in rat administered various energy drinks containing the same caffeine content. Various energy drinks exhibited considerable variability in the pharmacokinetic profiles of caffeine and its three primary metabolites, even containing the same caffeine. Different additives of energy drinks might contribute to these results. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of overlapping spectra of paracetamol and caffeine in laboratory prepared mixtures and pharmaceutical preparations using continuous wavelet and derivative transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Ashour

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, two spectrophotometric methods were used for the simultaneous analysis of paracetamol (PCT and caffeine (CAF in their laboratory prepared mixtures and pharmaceutical preparations. Simple spectrophotometric analysis of PCT and CAF is not possible due to their complete spectral overlap. The proposed methods are based on the application of continuous wavelet transform (CWT and derivative transform (using Savitsky–Golay filters on the ratio spectra to predict each of CAF and PCT. Several wavelet families were tested. Coif1 and Sym2 were found to give best results under optimum conditions. The transformed signals of ratio spectra were used to plot the calibration curves for both components. The predictability of the built calibrations was validated through their application on several synthetic mixtures of both drugs. The proposed methods were used for the prediction of CAF and PCT in pharmaceutical preparation. The obtained results were statistically compared to a reference HPLC method. No significant differences were found between the obtained results and those from the reference method. Being simple, rapid, cheap and sensitive, the proposed methods are recommended for the routine daily analysis of these two drugs in their mixtures in quality control laboratories.

  16. Anaphylaxis due to caffeine

    OpenAIRE

    Sugiyama, Kumiya; Cho, Tatsurai; Tatewaki, Masamitsu; Onishi, Shogo; Yokoyama, Tatsuya; Yoshida, Naruo; Fujimatsu, Takayoshi; Hirata, Hirokuni; Fukuda, Takeshi; Fukushima, Yasutsugu

    2015-01-01

    We report a rare case of anaphylaxis due to caffeine intake. A 27-year-old woman suffered her first episode of anaphylaxis and a positive skin prick test suggested that the anaphylaxis was due to an IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reaction to caffeine. She was diagnosed with caffeine allergy and has not had an allergic reaction after avoiding foods and drinks containing caffeine. Although caffeine is known to have antiallergic effects, this case shows that caffeine can be an allergen and cause ...

  17. Caffeine Increases Apolipoprotein A-1 and Paraoxonase-1 but not Paraoxonase-3 Protein Levels in Human-Derived Liver (HepG2) Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayılan Özgün, Gülben; Özgün, Eray; Tabakçıoğlu, Kıymet; Süer Gökmen, Selma; Eskiocak, Sevgi; Çakır, Erol

    2017-12-01

    Apolipoprotein A-1, paraoxonase-1 and paraoxonase-3 are antioxidant and anti-atherosclerotic structural high-density lipoprotein proteins that are mainly synthesized by the liver. No study has ever been performed to specifically examine the effects of caffeine on paraoxonase enzymes and on liver apolipoprotein A-1 protein levels. To investigate the dose-dependent effects of caffeine on liver apolipoprotein A-1, paraoxonase-1 and paraoxonase-3 protein levels. In vitro experimental study. HepG2 cells were incubated with 0 (control), 10, 50 and 200 μM of caffeine for 24 hours. Cell viability was evaluated by 3-(4,5-Dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide assay. Apolipoprotein A-1, paraoxonase-1 and paraoxonase-3 protein levels were measured by western blotting. We observed a significant increase on apolipoprotein A-1 and paraoxonase-1 protein levels in the cells incubated with 50 µM of caffeine and a significant increase on paraoxonase-1 protein level in the cells incubated with 200 µM of caffeine. Our study showed that caffeine does not change paraoxonase-3 protein level, but the higher doses used in our study do cause an increase in both apolipoprotein A-1 and paraoxonase-1 protein levels in liver cells.

  18. Aspirin, Butalbital, and Caffeine

    Science.gov (United States)

    The combination of aspirin, butalbital, and caffeine comes as a capsule and tablet to take by mouth. It usually is taken every 4 ... explain any part you do not understand. Take aspirin, butalbital, and caffeine exactly as directed. Do not ...

  19. Caffeine in Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Map Premature Birth Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... Nutrition, weight & fitness > Caffeine in pregnancy Caffeine in pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please fill in ...

  20. Adaptive control of theophylline therapy: importance of blood sampling times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Argenio, D Z; Khakmahd, K

    1983-10-01

    A two-observation protocol for estimating theophylline clearance during a constant-rate intravenous infusion is used to examine the importance of blood sampling schedules with regard to the information content of resulting concentration data. Guided by a theory for calculating maximally informative sample times, population simulations are used to assess the effect of specific sampling times on the precision of resulting clearance estimates and subsequent predictions of theophylline plasma concentrations. The simulations incorporated noise terms for intersubject variability, dosing errors, sample collection errors, and assay error. Clearance was estimated using Chiou's method, least squares, and a Bayesian estimation procedure. The results of these simulations suggest that clinically significant estimation and prediction errors may result when using the above two-point protocol for estimating theophylline clearance if the time separating the two blood samples is less than one population mean elimination half-life.

  1. Caffeine Use and Extroversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landrum, R. Eric; Meliska, Charles J.

    Some research on the stimulant effect of caffeine suggests that the amount of behavioral enhancement produced by caffeine may depend on subjects' prior experience with the task and the drug. A study was undertaken to test whether prior experience with a task while under the influence of caffeine would facilitate performance of that task. Male…

  2. Caffeine, fatigue, and cognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorist, M.M.; Tops, M.

    2003-01-01

    Effects of caffeine and fatigue are discussed with special attention to adenosine-dopamine interactions. Effects of caffeine on human cognition are diverse. Behavioural measurements indicate a general improvement in the efficiency of information processing after caffeine, while the EEG data support

  3. Caffeine withdrawal symptoms and self-administration following caffeine deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, S H; de Wit, H; Zacny, J P

    1995-08-01

    This study examined the effects of complete or partial caffeine deprivation on withdrawal symptomatology and self-administration of coffee in caffeine-dependent coffee drinkers. Nine habitual coffee drinkers abstained from dietary sources of caffeine for 33.5 h. Caffeine deprivation was manipulated by administering capsules containing 0%, 50%, or 100% of each subject's daily caffeine intake (complete, partial, and no deprivation conditions). Caffeine withdrawal symptomatology was measured using self-report questionnaires. Caffeine self-administration was measured using: i) the amount of coffee subjects earned on a series of concurrent random-ratio schedules that yielded coffee and money reinforcers; ii) the amount of earned coffee they consumed. Saliva samples revealed that subjects complied with the caffeine abstinence instructions. Caffeine withdrawal symptoms occurred reliably following complete caffeine deprivation, though not in the partial deprivation condition. Caffeine self-administration was not related to deprivation condition. We conclude that caffeine withdrawal symptomatology is not necessarily associated with increased caffeine consumption.

  4. Nutrition Influences Caffeine-Mediated Sleep Loss in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keebaugh, Erin S; Park, Jin Hong; Su, Chenchen; Yamada, Ryuichi; Ja, William W

    2017-11-01

    Plant-derived caffeine is regarded as a defensive compound produced to prevent herbivory. Caffeine is generally repellent to insects and often used to study the neurological basis for aversive responses in the model insect, Drosophila melanogaster. Caffeine is also studied for its stimulatory properties where sleep or drowsiness is suppressed across a range of species. Since limiting access to food also inhibits fly sleep-an effect known as starvation-induced sleep suppression-we tested whether aversion to caffeinated food results in reduced nutrient intake and assessed how this might influence fly studies on the stimulatory effects of caffeine. We measured sleep and total consumption during the first 24 hours of exposure to caffeinated diets containing a range of sucrose concentrations to determine the relative influence of caffeine and nutrient ingestion on sleep. Experiments were replicated using three fly strains. Caffeine reduced total consumption and nighttime sleep, but only at intermediate sucrose concentrations. Although sleep can be modeled by an exponential dose response to nutrient intake, caffeine-mediated sleep loss cannot be explained by absolute caffeine or sucrose ingestion alone. Instead, reduced sleep strongly correlates with changes in total consumption due to caffeine. Other bitter compounds phenocopy the effect of caffeine on sleep and food intake. Our results suggest that a major effect of dietary caffeine is on fly feeding behavior. Changes in feeding behavior may drive caffeine-mediated sleep loss. Future studies using psychoactive compounds should consider the potential impact of nutrition when investigating effects on sleep. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Caffeine-11C, ephedrine-11C and methylephedrine-11C: synthesis and distribution in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saji, Hideo; Ido, Tatsuo; Iwata, Ren; Suzuki, Kazutoshi; Tamate, Kazuhiko

    1978-01-01

    Caffeine, ephedrine and methylephedrine were labeled with carbon-11 by the action of methyliodide- 11 C on theophylline, norephedrine and ephedrine, respectively. Caffeine- 11 C was prepared in 44 min. with a radiochemical yield of 40%, ephedrine- 11 C in 45 min. with a 11% radiochemical yield and methylephedrine- 11 C in 36 min. with a 43% radiochemical yield. When injected in mice intravenously, these products show a high uptake in the liver, the kidney and the blood for caffeine- 11 C and in the liver and the kidney for ephedrine- 11 C and methylephedrine- 11 C. The brain uptake for these products was found to be 2.4 to 3.9% of the injected dose per gram at 5 min. after injection. These studies in mice have demonstrated that these products are potentially useful agents for the dynamic studies of the brain. (auth.)

  6. Caffeine: Friend or Foe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doepker, Candace; Lieberman, Harris R; Smith, Andrew Paul; Peck, Jennifer D; El-Sohemy, Ahmed; Welsh, Brian T

    2016-01-01

    The debate on the safety of and regulatory approaches for caffeine continues among various stakeholders and regulatory authorities. This decision-making process comes with significant challenges, particularly when considering the complexities of the available scientific data, making the formulation of clear science-based regulatory guidance more difficult. To allow for discussions of a number of key issues, the North American Branch of the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) convened a panel of subject matter experts for a caffeine-focused session entitled "Caffeine: Friend or Foe?," which was held during the 2015 ILSI Annual Meeting. The panelists' expertise covered topics ranging from the natural occurrence of caffeine in plants and interindividual metabolism of caffeine in humans to specific behavioral, reproductive, and cardiovascular effects related to caffeine consumption. Each presentation highlighted the potential risks, benefits, and challenges that inform whether caffeine exposure warrants concern. This paper aims to summarize the key topics discussed during the session.

  7. Caffeine and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paluska, Scott A

    2003-08-01

    Caffeine is the most commonly consumed drug in the world, and athletes frequently use it as an ergogenic aid. It improves performance and endurance during prolonged, exhaustive exercise. To a lesser degree it also enhances short-term, high-intensity athletic performance. Caffeine improves concentration, reduces fatigue, and enhances alertness. Habitual intake does not diminish caffeine's ergogenic properties. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the physiologic effects of caffeine, but adenosine receptor antagonism most likely accounts for the primary mode of action. It is relatively safe and has no known negative performance effects, nor does it cause significant dehydration or electrolyte imbalance during exercise. Routine caffeine consumption may cause tolerance or dependence, and abrupt discontinuation produces irritability, mood shifts, headache, drowsiness, or fatigue. Major sport governing bodies ban excessive use of caffeine, but current monitoring techniques are inadequate, and ethical dilemmas persist regarding caffeine intake by athletes.

  8. Caffeine administration alters the behaviour and development of Galleria mellonella larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Ronan; Kunc, Martin; Hyrsl, Pavel; Kavanagh, Kevin

    2017-11-01

    The effect of feeding caffeine on the behaviour and neural proteome of Galleria mellonella larvae was assessed. Caffeine was administered to larvae by force feeding and the metabolites theobromine and theophylline were subsequently detected by RP-HPLC analysis. Administration of caffeine to larvae resulted in reduced movement and a reduction in the formation of pupae. The production of the muscle relaxant theophylline may contribute to the reduction in larval movement. Analysis of the changes in proteome of the brain and surrounding tissues of caffeine fed larvae revealed an increase in the abundance of immune related proteins such as immune-related Hdd1 (6.28 fold increase) and hemolin (1.68 fold increase), ATPase associated proteins such as H+ transporting ATP synthase O subunit isoform 1 (1.87 fold increase) and H+ transporting ATP synthase delta subunit (1.53 fold increase) and proteins indicative of brain trauma such as troponin T transcript variant B, partial (1.55 fold increase). Proteins involved in development and protein degradation such as SUMO-activating enzyme subunit 1 (3.08 fold decrease) and chitin deacetylase, partial (3.67 fold decrease) were decreased in abundance. The results presented here indicate that caffeine is metabolised in a similar way in G. mellonella larvae to that in mammals and results in a variety of behavioural and developmental alterations. Utilisation of insects for studying the effects of caffeine and other neuroactive compounds may offer new insights into their mode of action and reduce the need to use mammals for this type of analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Molecularly Imprinted Polypyrrole Based Impedimentric Sensor for Theophylline Determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratautaite, Vilma; Janssens, Stoffel D.; Haenen, Ken; Nesládek, Milos; Ramanaviciene, Almira; Baleviciute, Ieva; Ramanavicius, Arunas

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Sensor based on polypyrrole imprinted by theophylline (MIP) deposited on oxygen terminated boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond was developed. • This structure was applied as impedimetric sensor sensitive for theophylline. • Optimal polymer formation conditions suitable for MIP formation were elaborated. • Some analytical parameters were determined and evaluated. - Abstract: In this study development of impedimetric sensor based on oxygen terminated boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond (B:NCD:O) modified with theophylline imprinted polypyrrole is described. Hydrogen peroxide induced chemical formation of polypyrrole molecularly imprinted by theophylline was applied for the modification of conducting silicon substrate covered by B:NCD:O film. Non-imprinted polypyrrole layer was formed on similar substrate in order to prove efficiency of imprinted polypyrrole. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was applied for the evaluation of analyte-induced changes in electrochemical capacitance/resistance. The impact of polymerization duration on the capacitance of impedimetric sensor was estimated. A different impedance behavior was observed at different ratio of polymerized monomer and template molecule in the polymerization media. The influence of ethanol as additive to polymerization media on registered changes in capacitance/resistance was evaluated. Degradation of sensor stored in buffer solution was evaluated

  10. Evaluating Suspension Formulations of Theophylline Cocrystals With Artificial Sweeteners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitipamula, Srinivasulu; Wong, Annie B H; Kanaujia, Parijat

    2018-02-01

    Pharmaceutical cocrystals have garnered significant interest as potential solids to address issues associated with formulation development of drug substances. However, studies concerning the understanding of formulation behavior of cocrystals are still at the nascent stage. We present results of our attempts to evaluate suspension formulations of cocrystals of an antiasthmatic drug, theophylline, with 2 artificial sweeteners. Stability, solubility, drug release, and taste of the suspension formulations were evaluated. Suspension that contained cocrystal with acesulfame showed higher drug release rate, while a cocrystal with saccharin showed a significant reduction in drug release rate. The cocrystal with saccharin was found stable in suspension for over 9 weeks at accelerated test condition; in contrast, the cocrystal with acesulfame was found unstable. Taste analysis using an electronic taste-sensing system revealed improved sweetness of the suspension formulations with cocrystals. Theophylline has a narrow therapeutic index with a short half-life which necessitates frequent dosing. This adversely impacts patient compliance and enhances risk of gastrointestinal and cardiovascular adverse effects. The greater thermodynamic stability, sweetness, and sustained drug release of the suspension formulation of theophylline-saccharin could offer an alternative solution to the short half-life of theophylline and make it a promising formulation for treating asthmatic pediatric and geriatric patients. Copyright © 2018 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A new insight into the oxidative mechanism of caffeine and related methylxanthines in aprotic medium: May caffeine be really considered as an antioxidant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrucci, Rita; Zollo, Giuseppe; Curulli, Antonella; Marrosu, Giancarlo

    2018-05-12

    Antioxidant properties have been recently suggested for caffeine that seems showing protective effects against damages caused by oxidative stress. In particular, a HO scavenging activity has been ascribed to caffeine. Even if the oxidation of caffeine has been widely studied, the antioxidant mechanism is still far to be understood. The electrochemical behavior of caffeine, theobromine and theophylline was studied in aprotic medium by cyclic voltammetry and electrolysis in UV-vis cell; a computational analysis of the molecular structures based on the Density Functional Theory was performed; the reactivity of all substrates towards lead dioxide, superoxide and galvinoxyl radical was followed by UV-vis spectrophotometry. Results supported the mono-electronic oxidation of the C 4 C 5 bond for all substrates at high oxidation potentials, the electron-transfer process leading to a radical cation or a neutral radical according to the starting methylxanthine N 7 -substituted (caffeine and theobromine) or N 7 -unsubstituted (theophylline), respectively. A different following chemical fate might be predicted for the radical cation or the neutral radical. No interaction was evidenced towards the tested reactive oxygen species. No reactivity via H-atom transfer was evidenced for all studied compounds, suggesting that an antiradical activity should be excluded. Some reactivity only with strong oxidants could be predicted via electron-transfer. The acclaimed HO scavenging activity should be interpreted in these terms. The study suggested that CAF might be hardly considered an antioxidant. Beyond the experimental methods used, the discussion of the present results might provide food for thought to the wide audience working on antioxidants. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Caffeine, fatigue, and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorist, Monicque M; Tops, Mattie

    2003-10-01

    Effects of caffeine and fatigue are discussed with special attention to adenosine-dopamine interactions. Effects of caffeine on human cognition are diverse. Behavioural measurements indicate a general improvement in the efficiency of information processing after caffeine, while the EEG data support the general belief that caffeine acts as a stimulant. Studies using ERP measures indicate that caffeine has an effect on attention, which is independent of specific stimulus characteristics. Behavioural effects on response related processes turned out to be mainly related to more peripheral motor processes. Recent insights in adenosine and dopamine physiology and functionality and their relationships with fatigue point to a possible modulation by caffeine of mechanisms involved in the regulation of behavioural energy expenditure.

  13. Food interactions with sustained-release theophylline preparations. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonkman, J H

    1989-03-01

    Currently, theophylline is being used predominantly as sustained-release capsules or tablets. In the mid-seventies the first preparations for use with a dosage interval of 12 hours (twice-daily preparations) were introduced. Since 1983, theophylline preparations that can be given with an interval of 24 hours (once-daily preparations) have become available. The release of theophylline from some of these products can be influenced (either increased or decreased) by concomitant intake of food. With some preparations the composition of the meal (especially the fat content) has an influence on the degree of effect. The consequence may be an effect on the rate of absorption or on the amount absorbed, or both simultaneously. This could result in an unexpected shift of the plasma theophylline concentration. Such a shift is therapeutically undesirable, because theophylline has a fairly narrow therapeutic range. A review is given of those food interactions with the sustained-release theophylline preparations, both twice-daily and once-daily products, that are currently on the world market. Special attention is paid to the specific (bio)pharmaceutical characteristics of the different products, and to the influence of the composition and timing of the meals. For each preparation the effect of food on the following pharmacokinetic parameters is discussed: area under the plasma concentration-time curve, peak plasma drug concentration and time to reach this peak. Where possible, the results for both adults and children are discussed. There are indications that children are more susceptible to food-effects than adults. The regulatory aspects are mentioned briefly. Clinically important effects of food have been observed with the following twice-daily products: 'Theo-Dur Sprinkle', 'Theolair SR' (= 'Nuelin SR') and 'Theograd'. Pronounced effects could have an even greater impact with once-daily preparations, as the total daily dose will be given at a single time. A particularly

  14. Low- and high-frequency Raman investigations on caffeine: polymorphism, disorder and phase transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hédoux, Alain; Decroix, Anne-Amandine; Guinet, Yannick; Paccou, Laurent; Derollez, Patrick; Descamps, Marc

    2011-05-19

    Raman investigations are carried out both in crystalline forms of caffeine and during the isothermal transformation of the orientationally disordered form I into the stable form II at 363 K. The time dependence of the Raman spectrum exhibits no significant change in the intramolecular regime (above 100 cm(-1)), resembling the spectrum of the liquid state. By contrast, significant changes are observed below 100 cm(-1), and the low-frequency spectra of forms I and II are observed to be different from that of the liquid. The temperature dependence of the 5-600 cm(-1) spectrum gives information on the static disorder through the analysis of collective motions, while information on dynamic disorder are obtained from the study of the 555 cm(-1) band corresponding to internal vibrations in the pyrimidine ring. This analysis indubitably reveals that form II is also orientationally disordered with a local molecular arrangement that mimics that in form I and the liquid state. The comparison of the low-frequency spectra recorded in theophylline and form II of caffeine allows one to describe the stable form of caffeine from the packing arrangement of anhydrous theophylline with the consideration of reorientational molecular disorder. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  15. Increases in cerebrospinal fluid caffeine concentration are associated with favorable outcome after severe traumatic brain injury in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachse, Kathleen T; Jackson, Edwin K; Wisniewski, Stephen R; Gillespie, Delbert G; Puccio, Ava M; Clark, Robert SB; Dixon, C Edward; Kochanek, Patrick M

    2013-01-01

    Caffeine, the most widely consumed psychoactive drug and a weak adenosine receptor antagonist, can be neuroprotective or neurotoxic depending on the experimental model or neurologic disorder. However, its contribution to pathophysiology and outcome in traumatic brain injury (TBI) in humans is undefined. We assessed serial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of caffeine and its metabolites (theobromine, paraxanthine, and theophylline) by high-pressure liquid chromatography/ultraviolet in 97 ventricular CSF samples from an established bank, from 30 adults with severe TBI. We prospectively selected a threshold caffeine level of ≥1 μmol/L (194 ng/mL) as clinically significant. Demographics, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score, admission blood alcohol level, and 6-month dichotomized Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) score were assessed. Mean time from injury to initial CSF sampling was 10.77±3.13 h. On initial sampling, caffeine was detected in 24 of 30 patients, and the threshold was achieved in 9 patients. Favorable GOS was seen more often in patients with CSF caffeine concentration ≥ versus theobromine and paraxanthine were also associated with favorable outcome (P = 0.018 and 0.056, respectively). Caffeine and its metabolites are commonly detected in CSF in patients with severe TBI and in an exploratory assessment are associated with favorable outcome. We speculate that caffeine may be neuroprotective by long-term upregulation of adenosine A1 receptors or acute inhibition of A2a receptors. PMID:17684518

  16. Effects of chronic administration of caffeine and stress on feeding behavior of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettenuzzo, Leticia Ferreira; Noschang, Cristie; von Pozzer Toigo, Eduardo; Fachin, Andrelisa; Vendite, Deusa; Dalmaz, Carla

    2008-10-20

    Anorectic effects of caffeine are controversial in the literature, while stress and obesity are growing problems in our society. Since many stressed people are coffee drinkers, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of stress and chronic administration of caffeine on feeding behavior and body weight in male and female rats. Wistar rats (both males and females) were divided into 3 groups: control (receiving water), caffeine 0.3 g/L and caffeine 1.0 g/L (in the drinking water). These groups were subdivided into non-stressed and stressed (repeated-restraint stress for 40 days). During the entire treatment, chow consumption was monitored and rats were weighed monthly. Afterwards, feeding behavior was evaluated during 3-min trials in food-deprived and ad libitum fed animals and also in repeated exposures, using palatable food (Froot Loops and Cheetos). Chronic administration of caffeine did not affect rat chow consumption or body weight gain, but diminished the consumption of both salty (Cheetos) and sweet (Froot Loops) palatable food. In the repeated trial tests, stress diminished savory snack consumption in the later exposures [I.S. Racotta, J. Leblanc, D. Richard The effect of caffeine on food intake in rats: involvement of corticotropin-releasing factor and the sympatho-adrenal system. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1994, 48:887-892; S.D. Comer, M. Haney, R.W. Foltin, M.W. Fischman Effects of caffeine withdrawal on humans living in a residential laboratory. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol. 1997, 5:399-403; A. Jessen, B. Buemann, S. Toubro, I.M. Skovgaard, A. Astrup The appetite-suppressant effect of nicotine is enhanced by caffeine. Diab Ob Metab. 2005, 7:327-333; J.M. Carney Effects of caffeine, theophylline and theobromine on scheduled controlled responding in rats. Br J Pharmacol. 1982, 75:451-454] and caffeine diminished consumption of both palatable foods (savory and sweet) during the early and later exposures. Most responses to caffeine were stronger

  17. Heritability of caffeine metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthaei, Johannes; Tzvetkov, Mladen V; Strube, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    Heritability of caffeine pharmacokinetics and CYP1A2 activity is controversial. Here we analyzed the pharmacokinetics of caffeine, an in vivo probe drug for CYP1A2 and arylamine N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) activity, in monozygotic and dizygotic twins. In the entire group, common and unique...... environmental effects explained most variation in caffeine AUC. Apparently, smoking and hormonal contraceptives masked the genetic effects on CYP1A2 activity. However, when excluding smokers and users of hormonal contraceptives, 89% of caffeine AUC variation was due to genetic effects and even in the entire...... group, 8% of caffeine AUC variation could be explained by a CYP1A1/1A2 promotor polymorphism (rs2470893). In contrast, nearly all of the variation (99%) of NAT2 activity was explained by genetic effects. This study illustrates two very different situations in pharmacogenetics, from an almost exclusively...

  18. Spectrophotometric Analysis of Caffeine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Showkat Ahmad Bhawani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The nature of caffeine reveals that it is a bitter white crystalline alkaloid. It is a common ingredient in a variety of drinks (soft and energy drinks and is also used in combination with various medicines. In order to maintain the optimum level of caffeine, various spectrophotometric methods have been developed. The monitoring of caffeine is very important aspect because of its consumption in higher doses that can lead to various physiological disorders. This paper incorporates various spectrophotometric methods used in the analysis of caffeine in various environmental samples such as pharmaceuticals, soft and energy drinks, tea, and coffee. A range of spectrophotometric methodologies including chemometric techniques and derivatization of spectra have been used to analyse the caffeine.

  19. Analysis of the impact of cryopreservation and theophylline on motility of sperm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaheh Gorji

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Sperm parameters, particularly motility, decrease during cryopreservation. Theophylline generally enhances sperm motility. We analyzed effects of theophylline and freezing on sperm motility.Design: Experimental study.Setting: Private IVF lab.Setting: IVF lab of Mehrgan Hospital. Method: 22–55 year-old men participated in this study (30 fresh ejaculation and 8 TESE samples. After sperm analysis, we added theophylline (40 mM to half of our samples as case group to compare motility with the remaining samples as control group. Cryopreservation was performed in two groups. After thawing, motility of both groups was recorded. Furthermore, theophylline (40 mM was applied to both groups after thawing again. Result: After adding theophylline, sperm motility improved significantly in all samples. Sperm motility reduced in control group more than the study group after freeze-thaw procedure (P < 0.002, normal morphology <5%. Sperm motility was not enhanced significantly by re-adding of theophylline to the two groups. Interactions between stages and groups were statistically significant in semen and biopsy samples (p < 0.001. Conclusion: Adding theophylline before freezing can preserve motility of sperms in samples with different parameters and even sperms extracted in testicular biopsy. Theophylline may have protective impact on sperms in freezing procedure. Keywords: Sperm motility, Theophylline, Freezing, Morphology, Biopsy

  20. Caffeine-enhanced survival of radiation-sensitive, repair-deficient Chinese hamster cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utsumi, H.; Elkind, M.M.

    1983-01-01

    A clone of V79 Chinese hamster cells (V79-AL162/S-10) with unique properties has been isolated after a challenge of parental cells (V79-AL162) with 1 mM ouabain. Compared with parental cells, or with other clones isolated after the ouabain challenge, these cells form smaller colonies, are more sensitive to both x rays and fission-spectrum neutrons, and respond atypically to a postirradiation treatment with caffeine. Their enhanced response to x rays results mainly from a large reduction in the shoulder of their survival curve, probably because in late S phase, the most resistant phase in the cell cycle, the survival curve of these cells has a reduced shoulder width. Caffeine, and to a lesser extent theophylline, added to the colony-forming medium immediately after exposure appreciably increases the width of the shoulder of these sensitive cells, whereas caffeine has the opposite effect on the response of normal V79 cells. Thus the unique response of the V79-AL162/S-10 cells to a radiation posttreatment with caffeine (increased survival) results from a net increase in their ability to repair damage that is otherwise lethal; caffeine treatment ordinarly prevents normal V79 cells from repairing damage that is only potentially lethal

  1. Caffeine as a Gelator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nonappa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Caffeine (a stimulant and ethanol (a depressant may have opposite effects in our body, but under in vitro conditions they can “gel” together. Caffeine, being one of the widely used stimulants, continued to surprise the scientific community with its unprecedented biological, medicinal and physicochemical properties. Here, we disclose the supramolecular self-assembly of anhydrous caffeine in a series of alcoholic and aromatic solvents, rendering a highly entangled microcrystalline network facilitating the encapsulation of the solvents as illustrated using direct imaging, microscopy analysis and NMR studies.

  2. Caffeine triggers behavioral and neurochemical alterations in adolescent rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardais, A P; Borges, M F; Rocha, A S; Sallaberry, C; Cunha, R A; Porciúncula, L O

    2014-06-13

    Caffeine is the psychostimulant most consumed worldwide but concerns arise about the growing intake of caffeine-containing drinks by adolescents since the effects of caffeine on cognitive functions and neurochemical aspects of late brain maturation during adolescence are poorly known. We now studied the behavioral impact in adolescent male rats of regular caffeine intake at low (0.1mg/mL), moderate (0.3mg/mL) and moderate/high (1.0mg/mL) doses only during their active period (from 7:00 P.M. to 7:00 A.M.). All tested doses of caffeine were devoid of effects on locomotor activity, but triggered anxiogenic effects. Caffeine (0.3 and 1mg/mL) improved the performance in the object recognition task, but the higher dose of caffeine (1.0mg/mL) decreased the habituation to an open-field arena, suggesting impaired non-associative memory. All tested doses of caffeine decreased the density of glial fibrillary acidic protein and synaptosomal-associated protein-25, but failed to modify neuron-specific nuclear protein immunoreactivity in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex. Caffeine (0.3-1mg/mL) increased the density of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and proBDNF density as well as adenosine A1 receptor density in the hippocampus, whereas the higher dose of caffeine (1mg/mL) increased the density of proBDNF and BDNF and decreased A1 receptor density in the cerebral cortex. These findings document an impact of caffeine consumption in adolescent rats with a dual impact on anxiety and recognition memory, associated with changes in BDNF levels and decreases of astrocytic and nerve terminal markers without overt neuronal damage in hippocampal and cortical regions. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Theophylline toxicity leading to suicidal ideation in a patient with no prior psychiatric illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Kapoor

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Suicidal behavior is a common psychiatric emergency and is associated with psychiatric illness and history of prior suicide attempts. Neuropsychiatric manifestations related to theophylline toxicity are well described in literature. We report a case of theophylline toxicity manifesting as suicidal ideation in a patient with no prior psychiatric illness.

  4. Theophylline enhances glucose recovery after hypoglycemia in healthy man and in type I diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidberg, A; Rasmussen, M H; Christensen, N J

    1994-01-01

    followed by IV infusion of 1 mg/kg/h) was administered from 1 hour before induction of hypoglycemia until the end of the study period. On the other day, NaCl was administered. Plasma glucose before induction of hypoglycemia was equal on the 2 study days. The plasma glucose area under the curve (AUC......). The incremental AUC for cAMP was larger with theophylline for diabetic patients (P = .01). For healthy subjects, cAMP was greater with theophylline 30 minutes after insulin (P = .03). In conclusion, glucose recovery after hypoglycemia is significantly increased when theophylline is administered in an asthma......The principal mediators of glucose counterregulation (glucagon and epinephrine) use intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) to mediate glucose release. Since theophylline increases cAMP (by inhibiting its decomposition), we investigated the effect of theophylline on glucose recovery...

  5. [birthweight And Caffeine Consumption].

    OpenAIRE

    Bicalho, Gladys Gripp; Barros Filho, Antônio de Azevedo

    2015-01-01

    To assess the association between maternal caffeine consumption during pregnancy and low birth weight, prematurity and intrauterine growth retardation. A case-control was carried out and 354 newborns of single labor with birthweight 3,000 g (controls) were analyzed. Caffeine consumption was calculated based on daily consumption of coffee, soft drinks and tea. Results were adjusted using multiple logistic regression for the following confounders: mother's age, schooling, income, marital status...

  6. Caffeine and cardiovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, Duncan; Rodricks, Joseph V; Mariano, Gregory F; Chowdhury, Farah

    2017-10-01

    This report evaluates the scientific literature on caffeine with respect to potential cardiovascular outcomes, specifically relative risks of total cardiovascular disease (CVD), coronary heart disease (CHD) and acute myocardial infarction (AMI), effects on arrhythmia, heart failure, sudden cardiac arrest, stroke, blood pressure, hypertension, and other biomarkers of effect, including heart rate, cerebral blood flow, cardiac output, plasma homocysteine levels, serum cholesterol levels, electrocardiogram (EKG) parameters, heart rate variability, endothelial/platelet function and plasma/urine catecholamine levels. Caffeine intake has been associated with a range of reversible and transient physiological effects broadly and cardiovascular effects specifically. This report attempts to understand where the delineations exist in caffeine intake and corresponding cardiovascular effects among various subpopulations. The available literature suggests that cardiovascular effects experienced by caffeine consumers at levels up to 600 mg/day are in most cases mild, transient, and reversible, with no lasting adverse effect. The point at which caffeine intake may cause harm to the cardiovascular system is not readily identifiable in part because data on the effects of daily intakes greater than 600 mg is limited. However, the evidence considered within this review suggests that typical moderate caffeine intake is not associated with increased risks of total cardiovascular disease; arrhythmia; heart failure; blood pressure changes among regular coffee drinkers; or hypertension in baseline populations. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Extracorporeal treatment for theophylline poisoning: systematic review and recommendations from the EXTRIP workgroup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghannoum, Marc; Wiegand, Timothy J; Liu, Kathleen D; Calello, Diane P; Godin, Melanie; Lavergne, Valery; Gosselin, Sophie; Nolin, Thomas D; Hoffman, Robert S

    2015-05-01

    The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning workgroup was created to provide evidence-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments (ECTRs) in poisoning. Here, the workgroup presents its systematic review and recommendations for theophylline. After a systematic review of the literature, a subgroup reviewed articles, extracted data, summarized findings, and proposed structured voting statements following a pre-determined format. A two-round modified Delphi method was chosen to reach a consensus on voting statements and the RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method was used to quantify disagreement. Anonymous votes were compiled, returned, and discussed. A second vote determined the final recommendations. 141 articles were included: 6 in vitro studies, 4 animal studies, 101 case reports/case series, 7 descriptive cohorts, 4 observational studies, and 19 pharmacokinetic studies, yielding a low-to-very-low quality of evidence for all recommendations. Data on 143 patients were reviewed, including 10 deaths. The workgroup concluded that theophylline is dialyzable (level of evidence = A) and made the following recommendations: ECTR is recommended in severe theophylline poisoning (1C). Specific recommendations for ECTR include a theophylline concentration [theophylline] > 100 mg/L (555 μmol/L) in acute exposure (1C), the presence of seizures (1D), life-threatening dysrhythmias (1D) or shock (1D), a rising [theophylline] despite optimal therapy (1D), and clinical deterioration despite optimal care (1D). In chronic poisoning, ECTR is suggested if [theophylline] > 60 mg/L (333 μmol/L) (2D) or if the [theophylline] > 50 mg/L (278 μmol/L) and the patient is either less than 6 months of age or older than 60 years of age (2D). ECTR is also suggested if gastrointestinal decontamination cannot be administered (2D). ECTR should be continued until clinical improvement is apparent or the [theophylline] is poisoning is amenable to ECTRs. The workgroup recommended

  8. Differential responsiveness to caffeine and perceived effects of caffeine in moderate and high regular caffeine consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attwood, A S; Higgs, S; Terry, P

    2007-03-01

    Individual differences in responsiveness to caffeine occur even within a caffeine-consuming population, but the factors that mediate differential responsiveness remain unclear. To compare caffeine's effects on performance and mood in a group of high vs moderate consumers of caffeine and to examine the potential role of subjective awareness of the effects of caffeine in mediating any differential responsiveness. Two groups of regular caffeine consumers (200 mg/day) attended two sessions at which mood and cognitive functions were measured before and 30 min after consumption of 400-mg caffeine or placebo in a capsule. Cognitive tests included visual information processing, match-to-sample visual search (MTS) and simple and choice reaction times. Post-session questionnaires asked participants to describe any perceived effect of capsule consumption. High consumers, but not moderate consumers, demonstrated significantly faster simple and choice reaction times after caffeine relative to placebo. These effects were not attributable to obvious group differences in withdrawal or tolerance because there were no group differences in baseline mood or in reports of negative affect after caffeine. Instead, the high consumers were more likely to report experiencing positive effects of caffeine, whereas the moderate consumers were more likely to report no effect. The sensitivity of caffeine consumers to the mood- and performance-enhancing effects of caffeine is related to their levels of habitual intake. High caffeine consumers are more likely than moderate consumers to perceive broadly positive effects of caffeine, and this may contribute to their levels of use.

  9. Caffeine, extraversion and working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew P

    2013-01-01

    Research has shown that extraverts performing a working memory task benefit more from caffeine than do introverts. The present study aimed to replicate this and extend our knowledge by using a lower dose of caffeine (65 mg) and a range of tasks related to different components of working memory. In addition, tasks assessing psychomotor speed and the encoding of new information were included to determine whether caffeine-extraversion interactions were restricted to working memory tasks. A double-blind design was used, with 128 participants being randomly assigned to caffeinated or de-caffeinated coffee conditions. The results showed that caffeine interacted with extraversion in the predicted direction for serial recall and running memory tasks. Caffeine improved simple reaction time and the speed of encoding of new information, effects which were not modified by extraversion. These results suggest possible biological mechanisms underlying effects of caffeine on cognitive performance.

  10. Caffeine content of decaffeinated coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCusker, Rachel R; Fuehrlein, Brian; Goldberger, Bruce A; Gold, Mark S; Cone, Edward J

    2006-10-01

    Caffeine is the most widely consumed drug in the world with coffee representing a major source of intake. Despite widespread availability, various medical conditions necessitate caffeine-restricted diets. Patients on certain prescription medications are advised to discontinue caffeine intake. Such admonition has implications for certain psychiatric patients because of pharmacokinetic interactions between caffeine and certain anti-anxiety drugs. In an effort to abstain from caffeine, patients may substitute decaffeinated for caffeinated coffee. However, decaffeinated beverages are known to contain caffeine in varying amounts. The present study determined the caffeine content in a variety of decaffeinated coffee drinks. In phase 1 of the study, 10 decaffeinated samples were collected from different coffee establishments. In phase 2 of the study, Starbucks espresso decaffeinated (N=6) and Starbucks brewed decaffeinated coffee (N=6) samples were collected from the same outlet to evaluate variability of caffeine content of the same drink. The 10 decaffeinated coffee samples from different outlets contained caffeine in the range of 0-13.9 mg/16-oz serving. The caffeine content for the Starbucks espresso and the Starbucks brewed samples collected from the same outlet were 3.0-15.8 mg/shot and 12.0-13.4 mg/16-oz serving, respectively. Patients vulnerable to caffeine effects should be advised that caffeine may be present in coffees purported to be decaffeinated. Further research is warranted on the potential deleterious effects of consumption of "decaffeinated" coffee that contains caffeine on caffeine-restricted patients. Additionally, further exploration is merited for the possible physical dependence potential of low doses of caffeine such as those concentrations found in decaffeinated coffee.

  11. Topology of the interactions pattern in pharmaceutically relevant polymorphs of methylxanthines (caffeine, theobromine, and theophiline): combined experimental (¹H-¹⁴N nuclear quadrupole double resonance) and computational (DFT and Hirshfeld-based) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latosińska, Jolanta Natalia; Latosińska, Magdalena; Olejniczak, Grzegorz A; Seliger, Janez; Žagar, Veselko

    2014-09-22

    Three anhydrous methylxanthines: caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine; 1,3,7-trimethyl-1H-purine-2,6-(3H,7H)-dione) and its two metabolites theophylline (1,3-dimethylxanthine; 1,3-dimethyl-7H-purine-2,6-dione) and theobromine (3,7-dimethyl-xanthine; 3,7-dimethyl-7H-purine-2,6-dione), which reveal multifaceted therapeutic potential, have been studied experimentally in solid state by (1)H-(14)N NMR-NQR (nuclear magnetic resonance-nuclear quadrupole resonance) double resonance (NQDR). For each compound the complete NQR spectrum consisting of 12 lines was recorded. The multiplicity of NQR lines indicates the presence of a stable β form of anhydrous caffeine at 233 K and stable form II of anhydrous theobromine at 213 K. The assignment of signals detected in NQR experiment to particular nitrogen atoms was made on the basis of quantum chemistry calculations performed for monomer, cluster, and solid at the DFT/GGA/BLYP/DPD level. The shifts due to crystal packing interactions were evaluated, and the multiplets detected by NQR were assigned to N(9) in theobromine and N(1) and N(9) in caffeine. The ordering theobromine > theophylline > caffeine site and theophylline theobromine theobromine) to π···π stacking (caffeine). Substantial differences in the intermolecular interactions in stable forms of methylxanthines differing in methylation (site or number) were analyzed within the Hirshfeld surface-based approach. The analysis of local environment of the nitrogen nucleus permitted drawing some conclusions on the nature of the interactions required for effective processes of recognition and binding of a given methylxanthine to A1-A(2A) receptor (target for caffeine in the brain). Although the interactions responsible for linking neighboring methylxanthines molecules in crystals and methylxanthines with targets in the human organism can differ significantly, the knowledge of the topology of interactions provides reliable preliminary information about the nature of this binding.

  12. Does Caffeine Enhance Athletic Performance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcou Juliana

    2016-04-01

    Conclusion: Caffeine consumption may enhance athletic endurance, based on strong evidence, but further research needs to be conducted. High caffeine doses than the optimal, 3-6 mg/kg, before exercise does not confer any additional improvement in athletic performance. Additional, higher caffeine doses may cause side effects in athletes.

  13. Is caffeine a cognitive enhancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehlig, Astrid

    2010-01-01

    The effects of caffeine on cognition were reviewed based on the large body of literature available on the topic. Caffeine does not usually affect performance in learning and memory tasks, although caffeine may occasionally have facilitatory or inhibitory effects on memory and learning. Caffeine facilitates learning in tasks in which information is presented passively; in tasks in which material is learned intentionally, caffeine has no effect. Caffeine facilitates performance in tasks involving working memory to a limited extent, but hinders performance in tasks that heavily depend on working memory, and caffeine appears to rather improve memory performance under suboptimal alertness conditions. Most studies, however, found improvements in reaction time. The ingestion of caffeine does not seem to affect long-term memory. At low doses, caffeine improves hedonic tone and reduces anxiety, while at high doses, there is an increase in tense arousal, including anxiety, nervousness, jitteriness. The larger improvement of performance in fatigued subjects confirms that caffeine is a mild stimulant. Caffeine has also been reported to prevent cognitive decline in healthy subjects but the results of the studies are heterogeneous, some finding no age-related effect while others reported effects only in one sex and mainly in the oldest population. In conclusion, it appears that caffeine cannot be considered a ;pure' cognitive enhancer. Its indirect action on arousal, mood and concentration contributes in large part to its cognitive enhancing properties.

  14. Caffeine and cognitive performance: persistent methodological challenges in caffeine research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Jack E

    2014-09-01

    Human cognitive performance is widely perceived to be enhanced by caffeine at usual dietary doses. However, the evidence for and against this belief continues to be vigorously contested. Controversy has centred on caffeine withdrawal and withdrawal reversal as potential sources of experimental confounding. In response, some researchers have enlisted "caffeine-naïve" experimental participants (persons alleged to consume little or no caffeine) assuming that they are not subject to withdrawal. This mini-review examines relevant research to illustrate general methodological challenges that have been the cause of enduring confusion in caffeine research. At issue are the processes of caffeine withdrawal and withdrawal reversal, the definition of caffeine-naïve, the population representativeness of participants deemed to be caffeine-naïve, and confounding due to caffeine tolerance. Attention to these processes is necessary if premature conclusions are to be avoided, and if caffeine's complex effects and the mechanisms responsible for those effects are to be illuminated. Strategies are described for future caffeine research aimed at minimising confounding from withdrawal and withdrawal reversal. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A liquid chromatographic method for determination of theophylline in serum and capillary blood--a comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartzke, J; Jäger, H; Vins, I

    1991-01-01

    A simple, fast and reliable liquid chromatographic method for the determination of theophylline in serum and capillary blood after a solid phase extraction is described for therapeutic drug monitoring. The employment of capillary blood permits the determination of an individual drug profile and other pharmacokinetic studies in neonates and infants. There were no differences in venous- and capillary-blood levels but these values compared poorly with those in serum. An adjustment of the results by correction of the different volumes of serum and blood by haematocrit was unsuccessful. Differences in the binding of theophylline to erythrocytes could be an explanation for the differences in serum at blood levels of theophylline.

  16. Caffeine in an Urbanized Estuary: Past and Present Influence ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffeine has been identified by previous research as a potential tracer of sanitary wastewater. To further assess the utility of caffeine as a tracer of wastewater sources, samples from 25 sites throughout Boston Harbor were collected and analyzed for caffeine by LC-MS/MS. Caffeine concentrations in Boston Harbor ranged from 15 ng/L in the outer harbor to a high of 185 ng/L in the inner harbor; mean concentrations and median concentrations were 51 ng/L were 33 ng/L respectively. These data were visualized by a simple inverse distance weighting model to improve the understanding of transport and fate dynamics of wastewater derived contaminants. Elevated concentrations of caffeine in the inner harbor during the sampling period were determined to be the result of a combined sewage overflow (CSO) event as well as illicit discharge of sanitary sewage into municipal storm drains. A comparison of contemporary results to data from 1998 to 1999 shows significant reductions in caffeine levels within the harbor. For instance, concentrations were reduced by a factor of approximately 20 at the site of the former wastewater effluent discharge outfall in Boston Harbor. Lower present-day concentrations throughout the harbor were attributed to the relocation of effluent discharge from within the harbor to Massachusetts Bay, and a reduction in the number and discharge volume of CSOs. Spatial distributions of caffeine identified CSOs as the major contemporary source of con

  17. EFFECT OF CAFFEINE ON OXIDATIVE STRESS DURING MAXIMUM INCREMENTAL EXERCISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo J. Olcina

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine is an habitual substance present in a wide variety of beverages and in chocolate-based foods and it is also used as adjuvant in some drugs. The antioxidant ability of caffeine has been reported in contrast with its pro- oxidant effects derived from its action mechanism such as the systemic release of catecholamines. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of caffeine on exercise oxidative stress, measuring plasma vitamins A, E, C and malonaldehyde (MDA as markers of non enzymatic antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation respectively. Twenty young males participated in a double blind (caffeine 5mg·kg- 1 body weight or placebo cycling test until exhaustion. In the exercise test, where caffeine was ingested prior to the test, exercise time to exhaustion, maximum heart rate, and oxygen uptake significantly increased, whereas respiratory exchange ratio (RER decreased. Vitamins A and E decreased with exercise and vitamin C and MDA increased after both the caffeine and placebo tests but, regarding these particular variables, there were no significant differences between the two test conditions. The results obtained support the conclusion that this dose of caffeine enhances the ergospirometric response to cycling and has no effect on lipid peroxidation or on the antioxidant vitamins A, E and C

  18. Caffeine intake and fecundability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Kold; Henriksen, T B; Hjollund, N H

    1998-01-01

    and caffeine intake from different sources on the probability of conception. From 1992 to 1995, a total of 430 couples were recruited after a nationwide mailing of a personal letter to 52,255 trade union members who were 20 to 35 years old, lived with a partner, and had no previous reproductive experience...... of menstrual cycle. No dose-response relationship was found among smokers. Among males, the same decline in point estimates of the FR was present. Smoking women whose only source of caffeine was coffee (>300 mg/d) had a reduced fecundability odds-ratio (FR = 0.34; 95% CI 0.12-0.98). An interaction between...

  19. Novel, Highly Specific N-Demethylases Enable Bacteria To Live on Caffeine and Related Purine Alkaloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, Ryan M.; Louie, Tai Man; Yu, Chi-Li; Gakhar, Lokesh; Louie, Kailin C.

    2012-01-01

    The molecular basis for the ability of bacteria to live on caffeine as a sole carbon and nitrogen source is unknown. Pseudomonas putida CBB5, which grows on several purine alkaloids, metabolizes caffeine and related methylxanthines via sequential N-demethylation to xanthine. Metabolism of caffeine by CBB5 was previously attributed to one broad-specificity methylxanthine N-demethylase composed of two subunits, NdmA and NdmB. Here, we report that NdmA and NdmB are actually two independent Rieske nonheme iron monooxygenases with N1- and N3-specific N-demethylation activity, respectively. Activity for both enzymes is dependent on electron transfer from NADH via a redox-center-dense Rieske reductase, NdmD. NdmD itself is a novel protein with one Rieske [2Fe-2S] cluster, one plant-type [2Fe-2S] cluster, and one flavin mononucleotide (FMN) per enzyme. All ndm genes are located in a 13.2-kb genomic DNA fragment which also contained a formaldehyde dehydrogenase. ndmA, ndmB, and ndmD were cloned as His6 fusion genes, expressed in Escherichia coli, and purified using a Ni-NTA column. NdmA-His6 plus His6-NdmD catalyzed N1-demethylation of caffeine, theophylline, paraxanthine, and 1-methylxanthine to theobromine, 3-methylxanthine, 7-methylxanthine, and xanthine, respectively. NdmB-His6 plus His6-NdmD catalyzed N3-demethylation of theobromine, 3-methylxanthine, caffeine, and theophylline to 7-methylxanthine, xanthine, paraxanthine, and 1-methylxanthine, respectively. One formaldehyde was produced from each methyl group removed. Activity of an N7-specific N-demethylase, NdmC, has been confirmed biochemically. This is the first report of bacterial N-demethylase genes that enable bacteria to live on caffeine. These genes represent a new class of Rieske oxygenases and have the potential to produce biofuels, animal feed, and pharmaceuticals from coffee and tea waste. PMID:22328667

  20. Caffeine Reinforces Flavor Preference and Behavior in Moderate Users but Not in Low Caffeine Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dack, Charlotte; Reed, Phil

    2009-01-01

    The study examined the role of caffeine consumption in caffeine reinforcement. Previous findings have shown that caffeine reinforced flavor preference in moderate caffeine consumers who are caffeine deprived. However, most of these studies have employed rating procedures only, and have not shown the effectiveness of caffeine to reinforce behaviors…

  1. Theophylline is able to partially revert cachexia in tumour-bearing rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivan Mireia

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and aims The aim of the present investigation was to examine the anti-wasting effects of theophylline (a methylxantine present in tea leaves on a rat model of cancer cachexia. Methods The in vitro effects of the nutraceuticals on proteolysis were examined on muscle cell cultures submitted to hyperthermia. Individual muscle weights, muscle gene expression, body composition and cardiac function were measured in rats bearing the Yoshida AH-130 ascites hepatoma, following theophylline treatment. Results Theophylline treatment inhibited proteolysis in C2C12 cell line and resulted in an anti-proteolytic effect on muscle tissue (soleus and heart, which was associated with a decrease in circulating TNF-alpha levels and with a decreased proteolytic systems gene expression. Treatment with the nutraceutical also resulted in an improvement in body composition and cardiac function. Conclusion Theophylline - alone or in combination with drugs - may be a candidate molecule for the treatment of cancer cachexia.

  2. Mood, music, and caffeine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jolij, Jacob; Lorist, Monicque

    2014-01-01

    What we see is affected by how we feel: in positive moods, we are more sensitive to positive stimuli, such as happy faces, but in negative moods we are more sensitive to negative stimuli, such as sad faces. Caffeine is known to affect mood - a cup of coffee results in a more positive mood, but also

  3. Theophylline Cocrystals Prepared by Spray Drying: Physicochemical Properties and Aerosolization Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Alhalaweh, Amjad; Kaialy, Waseem; Buckton, Graham; Gill, Hardyal; Nokhodchi, Ali; Velaga, Sitaram P.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to characterize theophylline (THF) cocrystals prepared by spray drying in terms of the physicochemical properties and inhalation performance when aerosolized from a dry powder inhaler. Cocrystals of theophylline with urea (THF-URE), saccharin (THF-SAC) and nicotinamide (THF-NIC) were prepared by spray drying. Milled THF and THF-SAC cocrystals were also used for comparison. The physical purity, particle size, particle morphology and surface energy of the materials ...

  4. Influence of processing-induced phase transformations on the dissolution of theophylline tablets

    OpenAIRE

    Debnath, Smita; Suryanarayanan, Raj

    2004-01-01

    The object of this investigation was to evaluate the influence of (1) processing-induced decrease in drug crystallinity and (2) phase transformations during dissolution, on the per-formance of theophylline tablet formulations. Anhydrous theophylline underwent multiple transformations (anhydrate »hydrate»anhydrate) during processing. Although the crystallinity of the anhydrate obtained finally was lower than that of the unprocessed drug, it dissolved at a slower rate. This decrease in dissolut...

  5. Caffeine and sports performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Louise M

    2008-12-01

    Athletes are among the groups of people who are interested in the effects of caffeine on endurance and exercise capacity. Although many studies have investigated the effect of caffeine ingestion on exercise, not all are suited to draw conclusions regarding caffeine and sports performance. Characteristics of studies that can better explore the issues of athletes include the use of well-trained subjects, conditions that reflect actual practices in sport, and exercise protocols that simulate real-life events. There is a scarcity of field-based studies and investigations involving elite performers. Researchers are encouraged to use statistical analyses that consider the magnitude of changes, and to establish whether these are meaningful to the outcome of sport. The available literature that follows such guidelines suggests that performance benefits can be seen with moderate amounts (~3 mg.kg-1 body mass) of caffeine. Furthermore, these benefits are likely to occur across a range of sports, including endurance events, stop-and-go events (e.g., team and racquet sports), and sports involving sustained high-intensity activity lasting from 1-60 min (e.g., swimming, rowing, and middle and distance running races). The direct effects on single events involving strength and power, such as lifts, throws, and sprints, are unclear. Further studies are needed to better elucidate the range of protocols (timing and amount of doses) that produce benefits and the range of sports to which these may apply. Individual responses, the politics of sport, and the effects of caffeine on other goals, such as sleep, hydration, and refuelling, also need to be considered.

  6. Interindividual Differences in Caffeine Metabolism and Factors Driving Caffeine Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehlig, Astrid

    2018-04-01

    Most individuals adjust their caffeine intake according to the objective and subjective effects induced by the methylxanthine. However, to reach the desired effects, the quantity of caffeine consumed varies largely among individuals. It has been known for decades that the metabolism, clearance, and pharmacokinetics of caffeine is affected by many factors such as age, sex and hormones, liver disease, obesity, smoking, and diet. Caffeine also interacts with many medications. All these factors will be reviewed in the present document and discussed in light of the most recent data concerning the genetic variability affecting caffeine levels and effects at the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic levels that both critically drive the level of caffeine consumption. The pharmacokinetics of caffeine are highly variable among individuals due to a polymorphism at the level of the CYP1A2 isoform of cytochrome P450, which metabolizes 95% of the caffeine ingested. Moreover there is a polymorphism at the level of another critical enzyme, N -acetyltransferase 2. At the pharmacodynamic level, there are several polymorphisms at the main brain target of caffeine, the adenosine A2A receptor or ADORA2. Genetic studies, including genome-wide association studies, identified several loci critically involved in caffeine consumption and its consequences on sleep, anxiety, and potentially in neurodegenerative and psychiatric diseases. We start reaching a better picture on how a multiplicity of biologic mechanisms seems to drive the levels of caffeine consumption, although much more knowledge is still required to understand caffeine consumption and effects on body functions. Copyright © 2018 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  7. Psychostimulant and other effects of caffeine in 9- to 11-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heatherley, Susan V; Hancock, Katie M F; Rogers, Peter J

    2006-02-01

    /low-consumers. These results suggest that, like adults, children probably derive little or no benefit from habitual caffeine intake, although negative symptoms associated with overnight caffeine withdrawal are avoided or rapidly reversed by subsequent caffeine consumption.

  8. Evaluating Dependence Criteria for Caffeine

    OpenAIRE

    Striley, Catherine L.W.; Griffiths, Roland R.; Cottler, Linda B.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Although caffeine is the most widely used mood-altering drug in the world, few studies have operationalized and characterized Diagnostic and Statistical Manual IV (DSM-IV) substance dependence criteria applied to caffeine. Methods: As a part of a nosological study of substance use disorders funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse, we assessed caffeine use and dependence symptoms among high school and college students, drug treatment patients, and pain clinic patients who re...

  9. Modification of radiation-induced division delay by caffeine analogues and dibutyryl cyclic AMP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimler, B.F.; Leeper, D.B.; Snyder, M.H.; Rowley, R.; SChneiderman, M.H.

    1982-01-01

    The mitotic selection procedure for cell cycle analysis was utilized to investigate the concentration-dependent modification of x-radiation-induced division delay in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells by methyl xanthines (caffeine, theophylline, and theobromine) and by dibutyryl cyclic AMP. The methyl xanthines (concentrations from 0.5 to 1000 μg/ml) all reduced radiation-induced division delay with the effect being linear between approximately 100 and 1000 μg/ml. After doses of 100-300 rad, delay was reduced by 75, 94 or 83 per cent at 1000 μg/ml for each drug, respectively. However, the addition of dibutyryl cyclic AMP had an opposite effect: radiation-induced delay was increased by the concentration range of 0.3 to 300 μg/ml. These results indicate that in mammalian cells the control of cell cycle progression and the modification of radiation-induced division delay are not simply related to intracellular levels of cyclic AMP. Rather, there appear to be at least two competing mechanisms which are differentially affected by caffeine analogues or by direct addition of dibutyryl cyclic AMP. The direct effect of caffeine and the methyl xanthines on membrane calcium permeability is considered. (author)

  10. Modification of radiation-induced division delay by caffeine analogues and dibutyryl cyclic AMP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimler, B.F.; Leeper, D.B.; Snyder, M.H.; Rowley, R.; Schneiderman, M.H. (Thomas Jefferson Univ., Philadelphia, PA (USA). Hospital)

    1982-01-01

    The mitotic selection procedure for cell cycle analysis was utilized to investigate the concentration-dependent modification of x-radiation-induced division delay in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells by methyl xanthines (caffeine, theophylline, and theobromine) and by dibutyryl cyclic AMP. The methyl xanthines (concentrations from 0.5 to 1000 ..mu..g/ml) all reduced radiation-induced division delay with the effect being linear between approximately 100 and 1000 ..mu..g/ml. After doses of 100-300 rad, delay was reduced by 75, 94 or 83 per cent at 1000 ..mu..g/ml for each drug, respectively. However, the addition of dibutyryl cyclic AMP had an opposite effect: radiation-induced delay was increased by the concentration range of 0.3 to 300 ..mu..g/ml. These results indicate that in mammalian cells the control of cell cycle progression and the modification of radiation-induced division delay are not simply related to intracellular levels of cyclic AMP. Rather, there appear to be at least two competing mechanisms which are differentially affected by caffeine analogues or by direct addition of dibutyryl cyclic AMP. The direct effect of caffeine and the methyl xanthines on membrane calcium permeability is considered.

  11. Evaluating Dependence Criteria for Caffeine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striley, Catherine L W; Griffiths, Roland R; Cottler, Linda B

    2011-12-01

    Background: Although caffeine is the most widely used mood-altering drug in the world, few studies have operationalized and characterized Diagnostic and Statistical Manual IV (DSM-IV) substance dependence criteria applied to caffeine. Methods: As a part of a nosological study of substance use disorders funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse, we assessed caffeine use and dependence symptoms among high school and college students, drug treatment patients, and pain clinic patients who reported caffeine use in the last 7 days and also reported use of alcohol, nicotine, or illicit drugs within the past year ( n =167). Results: Thirty-five percent met the criteria for dependence when all seven of the adopted DSM dependence criteria were used. Rates of endorsement of several of the most applicable diagnostic criteria were as follows: 26% withdrawal, 23% desire to cut down or control use, and 44% continued use despite harm. In addition, 34% endorsed craving, 26% said they needed caffeine to function, and 10% indicated that they talked to a physician or counselor about problems experienced with caffeine. There was a trend towards increased caffeine dependence among those dependent on nicotine or alcohol. Within a subgroup that had used caffeine, alcohol, and nicotine in the past year, 28% fulfilled criteria for caffeine dependence compared to 50% for alcohol and 80% for nicotine. Conclusion: The present study adds to a growing literature suggesting the reliability, validity, and clinical utility of the caffeine dependence diagnosis. Recognition of caffeine dependence in the DSM-V may be clinically useful.

  12. Palladium-catalyzed C-H olefination of uracils and caffeines using molecular oxygen as the sole oxidant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinyu; Su, Lv; Qiu, Lin; Fan, Zhenwei; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Lin, Shen; Huang, Qiufeng

    2017-04-18

    The palladium-catalyzed oxidative C-H olefination of uracils or caffeines with alkenes using an atmospheric pressure of molecular oxygen as the sole oxidant has been disclosed. This novel strategy offers an efficient and environmentally friendly method to biologically important C5-alkene uracil derivatives or C8-alkene caffeine derivatives.

  13. Mechanisms of the psychostimulant effects of caffeine: Implications for substance use disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferré, Sergi

    2016-01-01

    Background The psychostimulant properties of caffeine are reviewed and compared with those of prototypical psychostimulants, able to cause substance use disorders (SUD). Caffeine produces psychomotor activating, reinforcing and arousing effects, which depend on its ability to disinhibit the brake that endogenous adenosine imposes on the ascending dopamine and arousal systems. Objectives A model that considers the striatal adenosine A2A-dopamine D2 receptor heteromer as a key modulator of dopamine-dependent striatal functions (reward-oriented behavior and learning of stimulus-reward and reward-response associations) is introduced, which should explain most of the psychomotor and reinforcing effects of caffeine. Highlights The model can explain the caffeine-induced rotational behavior in rats with unilateral striatal dopamine denervation and the ability of caffeine to reverse the adipsic-aphagic syndrome in dopamine-deficient rodents. The model can also explain the weaker reinforcing effects and low abuse liability of caffeine, compared with prototypical psychostimulants. Finally the model can explain the actual major societal dangers of caffeine: the ability of caffeine to potentiate the addictive and toxic effects of drugs of abuse, with the particularly alarming associations of caffeine (as adulterant) with cocaine, amphetamine derivatives and synthetic cathinones and energy drinks with alcohol; and the higher sensitivity of children and adolescents to the psychostimulants effects of caffeine and its possible increase in the vulnerability to develop SUD. Conclusions The striatal A2A-D2 receptor heteromer constitutes an unequivocal main pharmacological target of caffeine and provides the main mechanisms by which caffeine potentiates the acute and long-term effects of prototypical psychostimulants. PMID:26786412

  14. Theophylline, a methylxanthine drug induces osteopenia and alters calciotropic hormones, and prophylactic vitamin D treatment protects against these changes in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, Subhashis; Khan, Kainat; China, Shyamsundar Pal; Mittal, Monika; Porwal, Konica; Shrivastava, Richa; Taneja, Isha; Hossain, Zakir; Mandalapu, Dhanaraju; Gayen, Jiaur R.; Wahajuddin, Muhammad; Sharma, Vishnu Lal; Trivedi, Arun K.; Sanyal, Sabyasachi; Bhadauria, Smrati; Godbole, Madan M.; Gupta, Sushil K.; Chattopadhyay, Naibedya

    2016-01-01

    The drug, theophylline is frequently used as an additive to medications for people suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD). We studied the effect of theophylline in bone cells, skeleton and parameters related to systemic calcium homeostasis. Theophylline induced osteoblast apoptosis by increasing reactive oxygen species production that was caused by increased cAMP production. Bone marrow levels of theophylline were higher than its serum levels, indicating skeletal accumulation of this drug. When adult Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with theophylline, bone regeneration at fracture site was diminished compared with control. Theophylline treatment resulted in a time-dependent (at 4- and 8 weeks) bone loss. At 8 weeks, a significant loss of bone mass and deterioration of microarchitecture occurred and the severity was comparable to methylprednisone. Theophylline caused formation of hypomineralized osteoid and increased osteoclast number and surface. Serum bone resorption and formation marker were respectively higher and lower in the theophylline group compared with control. Bone strength was reduced by theophylline treatment. After 8 weeks, serum 25-D3 and liver 25-hydroxylases were decreased in theophylline group than control. Further, theophylline treatment reduced serum 1, 25-(OH) 2 vitamin D 3 (1,25-D3), and increased parathyroid hormone and fibroblast growth factor-23. Theophylline treated rats had normal serum calcium and phosphate but displayed calciuria and phosphaturia. Co-administration of 25-D3 with theophylline completely abrogated theophylline-induced osteopenia and alterations in calcium homeostasis. In addition, 1,25-D3 protected osteoblasts from theophylline-induced apoptosis and the attendant oxidative stress. We conclude that theophylline has detrimental effects in bone and prophylactic vitamin D supplementation to subjects taking theophylline could be osteoprotective. - Highlights: • Theophylline induced osteoblast apoptosis

  15. Theophylline, a methylxanthine drug induces osteopenia and alters calciotropic hormones, and prophylactic vitamin D treatment protects against these changes in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pal, Subhashis; Khan, Kainat; China, Shyamsundar Pal; Mittal, Monika; Porwal, Konica [Division of Endocrinology and Center for Research in Anabolic Skeletal Target in Health and Illness (ASTHI), Central Drug Research Institute - CDRI, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Lucknow 226021 (India); Shrivastava, Richa [Division of Toxicology, CDRI-CSIR, Lucknow 226021 (India); Taneja, Isha; Hossain, Zakir [Pharmacokinetics and Metabolism Division, CDRI-CSIR, Lucknow 226021 (India); Mandalapu, Dhanaraju [Division of Medicinal and Process Chemistry, CDRI-CSIR, Lucknow 226021 (India); Gayen, Jiaur R.; Wahajuddin, Muhammad [Pharmacokinetics and Metabolism Division, CDRI-CSIR, Lucknow 226021 (India); Sharma, Vishnu Lal [Division of Medicinal and Process Chemistry, CDRI-CSIR, Lucknow 226021 (India); Trivedi, Arun K.; Sanyal, Sabyasachi [Division of Biochemistry, CDRI-CSIR, Lucknow 226021 (India); Bhadauria, Smrati [Division of Toxicology, CDRI-CSIR, Lucknow 226021 (India); Godbole, Madan M.; Gupta, Sushil K. [Department of Medical Endocrinology, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow 226014 (India); Chattopadhyay, Naibedya, E-mail: n_chattopadhyay@cdri.res.in [Division of Endocrinology and Center for Research in Anabolic Skeletal Target in Health and Illness (ASTHI), Central Drug Research Institute (CDRI), Council of Scientific and Industrial Research - CSIR, Lucknow 226021 (India)

    2016-03-15

    The drug, theophylline is frequently used as an additive to medications for people suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD). We studied the effect of theophylline in bone cells, skeleton and parameters related to systemic calcium homeostasis. Theophylline induced osteoblast apoptosis by increasing reactive oxygen species production that was caused by increased cAMP production. Bone marrow levels of theophylline were higher than its serum levels, indicating skeletal accumulation of this drug. When adult Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with theophylline, bone regeneration at fracture site was diminished compared with control. Theophylline treatment resulted in a time-dependent (at 4- and 8 weeks) bone loss. At 8 weeks, a significant loss of bone mass and deterioration of microarchitecture occurred and the severity was comparable to methylprednisone. Theophylline caused formation of hypomineralized osteoid and increased osteoclast number and surface. Serum bone resorption and formation marker were respectively higher and lower in the theophylline group compared with control. Bone strength was reduced by theophylline treatment. After 8 weeks, serum 25-D3 and liver 25-hydroxylases were decreased in theophylline group than control. Further, theophylline treatment reduced serum 1, 25-(OH){sub 2} vitamin D{sub 3} (1,25-D3), and increased parathyroid hormone and fibroblast growth factor-23. Theophylline treated rats had normal serum calcium and phosphate but displayed calciuria and phosphaturia. Co-administration of 25-D3 with theophylline completely abrogated theophylline-induced osteopenia and alterations in calcium homeostasis. In addition, 1,25-D3 protected osteoblasts from theophylline-induced apoptosis and the attendant oxidative stress. We conclude that theophylline has detrimental effects in bone and prophylactic vitamin D supplementation to subjects taking theophylline could be osteoprotective. - Highlights: • Theophylline induced osteoblast

  16. The role of theophylline in prevention of radiocontrast media-induced nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malhis Mahmoud

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Contrast media induced nephropathy (CIN results in significant morbidity and mortality. We therefore investigated whether theophylline (adenosine antagonist reduces the inci-dence of contrast media induced nephropathy. Two hundred and eighty patients were randomly assigned to prophylactic administration of hydration with sodium bicarbonate plus theophylline (either orally or intravenously (n=128 or hydration with sodium bicarbonate only (n=152. Blood Urea, creatinine, and glomerular filtration rate (MDRD were measured before and after administration of contrast media. Both groups were similar in clinical characteristics and amount of contrast used. Theophylline prophylaxis significantly reduced the incidence of CIN (1.6% vs 7.9%; P= 0.015. Compared to low-risk patients, Theophylline prophylaxis significantly reduced the incidence of CIN in moderate and high-risk patients (0% vs 8.8%; P= 0.022 and 9.1% vs 42.1%; P= 0.014 respectively. In conclusion, prophylactic administration of theophylline re-duces the incidence of CIN in moderate and high-risk patients for CIN.

  17. The effect of theophylline on the labelling of nitracellular myocardial calcium with 45Ca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sausen, F.H.

    1973-01-01

    The effect of theophylline of varying concentration on the labelling of intracellular myocardial calcium was investigated by isotope tests with radioactively labelled Ca ( 45 Ca) in isolated, electrically stimulated left auricles of guinea pigs. The preparates were incubated in a 45 Ca solution for 60 minutes, and activity uptake and intracellular Ca concentration were determined. In contrast to earlier investigations, the extracellular Ca was removed after charge by rinsing the resting auricles with inactive, Ca ++ - and Na + -free choline chloride solution. Under controlled conditions, the intercellular Ca was found to be 45 Ca-labelled by about 36% theophylline in 'therapeutical' concentration (5 x 10 -4 g/ml) induced a significant increase of the labelled Ca fraction of 16.9% as compared to the controls. 'Toxic' theophylline concentrations, too, lead to a significantly higher absorption of 45 Ca. The interchangeable intracellular Ca fraction increased by 11.7% and 10.3% as compared to the untreated preparates. The findings are discussed with regard to earlier investigations on the influence of methylxanthines on the Ca metabolism of the heart. The author assumes that the positively inotropic effect of theophylline and the theophylline-induced contracture may be ascribed to a shift in the intracellular Ca distribution towards ionized Ca. This shift could be explained by a suppression of Ca rebinding in intracellular Ca storage places or by Ca release from these structures. (orig./AK) [de

  18. Protective effect of theophylline on renal functions in experimental pneumoperitoneum model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Sefa Alperen; Ceylan, Cavit; Serel, Tekin Ahmet; Doluoglu, Omer Gokhan; Soyupek, Arap Sedat; Guzel, Ahmet; Özorak, Alper; Uz, Efkan; Savas, Hasan Basri; Baspinar, Sirin

    2015-07-01

    Our objective in this experimental study is to research the effect of the intra-abdominal pressure which rises following pneumoperitoneum and whether Theophylline has a possible protective activity on this situation. In our study, 24 Wistar Albino rats were used. Rats were divided into two groups. The first group was set for only pneumoperitoneum model. The second group was given 15 mg/kg of Theophylline intraperitoneally before setting pneumoperitoneum model. Then urea, creatinine, cystatin-C, tissue and serum total antioxidant capacity, total oxidant capacity and oxidative stress index in two groups were measured and compared with each other. Apoptosis and histopathological conditions in the renal tissues were examined. The differences between the groups were analyzed with the Mann-Whitney U test. Results were considered significant at p OSI values (p > 0.05). The mean value of urea were similar in pneumoperitoneum and pneumoperitoneum + theophylline groups (p = 0.12). The mean cystatin-C value was 2.2 ± 0.3 µg/mL in pneumoperitoneum, 1.74 ± 0.33 µg/mL in pneumoperitoneum + theophylline (p = 0.002). According to our study, lower cystatin-C levels in the group, where Theophylline was given, are suggestive of lower renal injury in this group. However, this opinion is interrogated as there is no difference in terms of tissue and serum TAS, TOS, OSI and urea values between the groups.

  19. Caffeine: sleep and daytime sleepiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roehrs, Timothy; Roth, Thomas

    2008-04-01

    Caffeine is one of the most widely consumed psychoactive substances and it has profound effects on sleep and wake function. Laboratory studies have documented its sleep-disruptive effects. It clearly enhances alertness and performance in studies with explicit sleep deprivation, restriction, or circadian sleep schedule reversals. But, under conditions of habitual sleep the evidence indicates that caffeine, rather then enhancing performance, is merely restoring performance degraded by sleepiness. The sleepiness and degraded function may be due to basal sleep insufficiency, circadian sleep schedule reversals, rebound sleepiness, and/or a withdrawal syndrome after the acute, over-night, caffeine discontinuation typical of most studies. Studies have shown that caffeine dependence develops at relatively low daily doses and after short periods of regular daily use. Large sample and population-based studies indicate that regular daily dietary caffeine intake is associated with disturbed sleep and associated daytime sleepiness. Further, children and adolescents, while reporting lower daily, weight-corrected caffeine intake, similarly experience sleep disturbance and daytime sleepiness associated with their caffeine use. The risks to sleep and alertness of regular caffeine use are greatly underestimated by both the general population and physicians.

  20. Caffeine, Diabetes, Cognition, and Dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biessels, Geert Jan

    2010-01-01

    People with diabetes mellitus are at increased risk of cognitive dysfunction. This review explores the relation between caffeine intake, diabetes, cognition and dementia, focusing on type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Epidemiological studies on caffeine/coffee intake and T2DM risk are reviewed. Next, the

  1. The Janus face of caffeine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porciúncula, Lisiane O; Sallaberry, Cássia; Mioranzza, Sabrina; Botton, Paulo Henrique S; Rosemberg, Denis B

    2013-11-01

    Caffeine is certainly the psychostimulant substance most consumed worldwide. Over the past years, chronic consumption of caffeine has been associated with prevention of cognitive decline associated to aging and mnemonic deficits of brain disorders. While its preventive effects have been reported extensively, the cognitive enhancer properties of caffeine are relatively under debate. Surprisingly, there are scarce detailed ontogenetic studies focusing on neurochemical parameters related to the effects of caffeine during prenatal and earlier postnatal periods. Furthermore, despite the large number of epidemiological studies, it remains unclear how safe is caffeine consumption during pregnancy and brain development. Thus, the purpose of this article is to review what is currently known about the actions of caffeine intake on neurobehavioral and adenosinergic system during brain development. We also reviewed other neurochemical systems affected by caffeine, but not only during brain development. Besides, some recent epidemiological studies were also outlined with the control of "pregnancy signal" as confounding variable. The idea is to tease out how studies on the impact of caffeine consumption during brain development deserve more attention and further investigation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Association Between Early Caffeine Citrate Administration and Risk of Acute Kidney Injury in Preterm Neonates: Results From the AWAKEN Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harer, Matthew W; Askenazi, David J; Boohaker, Louis J; Carmody, J Bryan; Griffin, Russell L; Guillet, Ronnie; Selewski, David T; Swanson, Jonathan R; Charlton, Jennifer R

    2018-04-02

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) occurs commonly in preterm neonates and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. To examine the association between caffeine citrate administration and AKI in preterm neonates in the first 7 days after birth and to test the hypothesis that caffeine administration would be associated with reduced incidence and severity of AKI. This study was a secondary analysis of the Assessment of Worldwide Acute Kidney Injury Epidemiology in Neonates (AWAKEN) study, a retrospective observational cohort that enrolled neonates born from January 1 to March 31, 2014. The dates of analysis were October 2016 to December 2017. The setting was an international, multicenter cohort study of neonates admitted to 24 participating level III or IV neonatal intensive care units. Participants met the original inclusion and exclusion criteria of the AWAKEN study. Additional exclusion criteria for this study included participants greater than or equal to 33 weeks' gestation at birth, admission after age 7 days, use of theophylline in the neonatal intensive care unit, or lack of data to define AKI. There were 675 preterm neonates available for analysis. Administration of caffeine in the first 7 days after birth. The primary outcome was the incidence of AKI (based on the modified neonatal Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes [KDIGO] definition) in the first 7 days after birth. The hypothesis that caffeine administration would be associated with reduced AKI incidence was formulated before data analysis. The study cohort (n = 675) was 55.4% (n = 374) male, with a mean (SD) gestational age of 28.9 (2.8) weeks and a mean (SD) birth weight of 1285 (477) g. Acute kidney injury occurred in 122 neonates (18.1%) in the first 7 days after birth. Acute kidney injury occurred less frequently among neonates who received caffeine than among those who did not (50 of 447 [11.2%] vs 72 of 228 [31.6%], P < .01). After multivariable adjustment, administration of

  3. CORRELATION BETWEEN CAFFEINE CONTENTS OF GREEN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KEY WORDS: Green coffee beans, Caffeine, Correlation between caffeine content and altitude of coffee plant,. UV-Vis .... The extraction of caffeine from green coffee bean samples in to water was carried out by the reported method ..... caffeine in proposed green tea standard reference materials by liquid chromatography.

  4. Effect of maintenance oral theophylline on dipyridamole-thallium-201 myocardial imaging using SPECT and dipyridamole-induced hemodynamic changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daley, P.J.; Mahn, T.H.; Zielonka, J.S.; Krubsack, A.J.; Akhtar, R.; Bamrah, V.S.

    1988-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of maintenance oral theophylline therapy on the diagnostic efficacy of dipyridamole-thallium-201 single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging for coronary artery disease, dipyridamole-thallium-201 SPECT imaging was performed in eight men with documented coronary artery disease before initiation of theophylline treatment and repeated while these patients were receiving therapeutic doses of oral theophylline. Before theophylline treatment, intravenous dipyridamole caused a significant increase in heart rate, decrease in blood pressure, angina in seven of eight patients, and ST segment depression in four of eight patients. While they were being treated with theophylline, none of the patients had angina or ST segment depression, and there were no hemodynamic changes with intravenous dipyridamole. Before theophylline treatment, dipyridamole-thallium-201 SPECT imaging showed reversible perfusion defects in myocardial segments supplied by stenotic coronary arteries. With theophylline treatment, dipyridamole-thallium-201 SPECT showed total absence of reversible perfusion defects. Treatment with theophylline markedly reduced the diagnostic accuracy of dipyridamole-thallium-201 imaging for coronary artery disease

  5. Theophylline prevents NAD+ depletion via PARP-1 inhibition in human pulmonary epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moonen, Harald J.J.; Geraets, Liesbeth; Vaarhorst, Anika; Bast, Aalt; Wouters, Emiel F.M.; Hageman, Geja J.

    2005-01-01

    Oxidative DNA damage, as occurs during exacerbations in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), highly activates the nuclear enzyme poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase-1 (PARP-1). This can lead to cellular depletion of its substrate NAD + , resulting in an energy crisis and ultimately in cell death. Inhibition of PARP-1 results in preservation of the intracellular NAD + pool, and of NAD + -dependent cellular processes. In this study, PARP-1 activation by hydrogen peroxide decreased intracellular NAD + levels in human pulmonary epithelial cells, which was found to be prevented in a dose-dependent manner by theophylline, a widely used compound in the treatment of COPD. This enzyme inhibition by theophylline was confirmed in an ELISA using purified human PARP-1 and was found to be competitive by nature. These findings provide new mechanistic insights into the therapeutic effect of theophylline in oxidative stress-induced lung pathologies

  6. Effects of excipients on hydrate formation in wet masses containing theophylline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Airaksinen, Sari; Luukkonen, Pirjo; Jørgensen, Anna

    2003-01-01

    its dissolution rate. The aim of this study was to investigate whether excipients, such as alpha-lactose monohydrate or the highly water absorbing silicified microcrystalline cellulose (SMCC) can influence the hydrate formation of theophylline. In particular, the aim was to study if SMCC offers...... protection against the formation of theophylline monohydrate relative to alpha-lactose monohydrate in wet masses after an overnight equilibration and the stability of final granules during controlled storage. In addition, the aim was to study the use of spectroscopic methods to identify hydrate formation...... in the formulations containing excipients. Off-line evaluation of materials was performed using X-ray powder diffractometry, near infrared and Raman spectroscopy. alpha-Lactose monohydrate with minimal water absorbing potential was not able to prevent but enhanced hydrate formation of theophylline. Even though SMCC...

  7. Delivery of theophylline as dry powder for inhalation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Zhu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Theophylline (TP is a very well established orally or intravenously delivered antiasthma drug with many beneficial effects. This study aims to improve asthma treatment by creating a dry powder inhalable (DPI formulation of TP to be delivered directly to the lung, avoiding the side effects associated with conventional oral delivery. The DPI TP formulation was investigated for its physico-chemical characteristics using scanning electron microscopy, laser diffraction, thermal analysis and dynamic vapour sorption. Furthermore, aerosol performance was assessed using the Multi Stage Liquid Impinger (MSLI. In addition, a Calu-3 cell transport assay was conducted in vitro using a modified ACI to study the impact of the DPI formulation on lung epithelial cells. Results showed DPI TP to be physico-chemically stable and of an aerodynamic size suitable for lung delivery. The aerosolisation performance analysis showed the TP DPI formulation to have a fine particle fraction of 29.70 ± 2.59% (P < 0.05 for the TP formulation containing 1.0% (w/w sodium stearate, the most efficient for aerosolisation. Regarding the deposition of TP DPI on Calu-3 cells using the modified ACI, results demonstrated that 56.14 ± 7.62% of the total TP deposited (13.07 ± 1.69 µg was transported across the Calu-3 monolayer over 180 min following deposition, while 37.05 ± 12.62% of the deposited TP was retained in the cells. This could be due to the presence of sodium stearate in the current formulation that increased its lipophilicity. A DPI formulation of TP was developed that was shown to be suitable for inhalation.

  8. Theophylline as an add-on to thrombolytic therapy in acute ischaemic stroke (TEA-Stroke)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Modrau, Boris; Hjort, Niels; Østergaard, Leif

    2016-01-01

    the collateral supply in acute ischaemic brain tissue and thus facilitate reperfusion despite proximal vessel occlusion. The primary study objective is to evaluate whether theophylline is safe and efficient in acute ischaemic stroke patients as an add-on to thrombolytic therapy.MethodsThe TEA-Stroke Trial...... models, clinical case series and randomized clinical trials are controversial. A Cochrane analysis from 2004 concluded that there was not enough evidence to assess whether theophylline is safe and improves outcomes in patients with acute ischaemic stroke. The TEA-Stroke Trial will clarify whether...

  9. Effects of caffeine on performance and mood depend on the level of caffeine abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeomans, Martin R; Ripley, Tamzin; Davies, Laura H; Rusted, Jennifer M; Rogers, Peter J

    2002-11-01

    Most studies of the effects of caffeine on performance have used regular caffeine consumers who are deprived at test. Thus the reported effects of caffeine could be explained through reversal of caffeine withdrawal. To test how preloading deprived caffeine consumers with 0, 1 or 2 mg/kg caffeine altered the subsequent ability of caffeine to modify mood and performance. Thirty moderate caffeine consumers were given a drink containing 0, 1 or 2 mg/kg caffeine at breakfast followed 60 min later by a second drink containing either 0 or 1 mg/kg caffeine. Performance on a measure of sustained attention and mood were measured before and after each drink. Administration of both 1 and 2 mg/kg caffeine at breakfast decreased reaction time and 1 mg/kg caffeine also increased performance accuracy on the sustained attention (RVIP) task relative to placebo. Both breakfast doses of caffeine also improved rated mental alertness. Similarly, 1 mg/kg caffeine administered 60 min after breakfast decreased reaction time and increased rated mental alertness in the group who had not been given caffeine at breakfast. However, this second dose of caffeine had no effect on subsequent performance or mood in the two groups who had received caffeine at breakfast. Caffeine reliably improved performance on a sustained attention task, and increased rated mental alertness, in moderate caffeine consumers who were tested when caffeine-deprived. However, caffeine had no such effects when consumers were no longer caffeine deprived. These data are consistent with the view that reversal of caffeine withdrawal is a major component of the effects of caffeine on mood and performance.

  10. Faster but not smarter:effects of caffeine and caffeine withdrawal on alertness and performance

    OpenAIRE

    Rogers, Peter J; Heatherley, Susan V; Mullings, Emma L; Smith, Jessica E

    2013-01-01

    Despite 100 years of psychopharmacological research, the extent to which caffeine consumption benefits human functioning remains unclear.To measure the effects of overnight caffeine abstinence and caffeine administration as a function of level of habitual caffeine consumption.Medium-high (n = 212) and non-low (n = 157) caffeine consumers completed self-report measures and computer-based tasks before (starting at 10:30 AM) and after double-blind treatment with either caffeine (100 mg, then 150...

  11. Caffeine-catalyzed gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiCiccio, Angela M; Lee, Young-Ah Lucy; Glettig, Dean L; Walton, Elizabeth S E; de la Serna, Eva L; Montgomery, Veronica A; Grant, Tyler M; Langer, Robert; Traverso, Giovanni

    2018-07-01

    Covalently cross-linked gels are utilized in a broad range of biomedical applications though their synthesis often compromises easy implementation. Cross-linking reactions commonly utilize catalysts or conditions that can damage biologics and sensitive compounds, producing materials that require extensive post processing to achieve acceptable biocompatibility. As an alternative, we report a batch synthesis platform to produce covalently cross-linked materials appropriate for direct biomedical application enabled by green chemistry and commonly available food grade ingredients. Using caffeine, a mild base, to catalyze anhydrous carboxylate ring-opening of diglycidyl-ether functionalized monomers with citric acid as a tri-functional crosslinking agent we introduce a novel poly(ester-ether) gel synthesis platform. We demonstrate that biocompatible Caffeine Catalyzed Gels (CCGs) exhibit dynamic physical, chemical, and mechanical properties, which can be tailored in shape, surface texture, solvent response, cargo release, shear and tensile strength, among other potential attributes. The demonstrated versatility, low cost and facile synthesis of these CCGs renders them appropriate for a broad range of customized engineering applications including drug delivery constructs, tissue engineering scaffolds, and medical devices. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. The combination of L-theanine and caffeine improves cognitive performance and increases subjective alertness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesbrecht, T; Rycroft, J A; Rowson, M J; De Bruin, E A

    2010-12-01

    The non-proteinic amino acid L-theanine and caffeine, a methylxanthine derivative, are naturally occurring ingredients in tea. The present study investigated the effect of a combination of 97 mg L-theanine and 40 mg caffeine as compared to placebo treatment on cognitive performance, alertness, blood pressure, and heart rate in a sample of young adults (n = 44). Cognitive performance, self-reported mood, blood pressure, and heart rate were measured before L-theanine and caffeine administration (i.e. at baseline) and 20 min and 70 min thereafter. The combination of moderate levels of L-theanine and caffeine significantly improved accuracy during task switching and self-reported alertness (both P effects on other cognitive tasks, such as visual search, choice reaction times, or mental rotation. The present results suggest that 97 mg of L-theanine in combination with 40 mg of caffeine helps to focus attention during a demanding cognitive task.

  13. Thermodynamic properties of caffeine: Reconciliation of available experimental data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emel' yanenko, Vladimir N. [Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Rostock, Hermannstrasse 14, D-18051 Rostock (Germany); Verevkin, Sergey P. [Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Rostock, Hermannstrasse 14, D-18051 Rostock (Germany)], E-mail: sergey.verevkin@uni-rostock.de

    2008-12-15

    Molar enthalpies of sublimation of two crystal forms of caffeine were obtained from the temperature dependence of the vapour pressure measured by the transpiration method. A large number of primary experimental results on the temperature dependences of vapour pressure and phase transitions have been collected from the literature and have been treated in a uniform manner in order to derive sublimation enthalpies of caffeine at T = 298.15 K. This collection together with the new experimental results reported here has helped to resolve contradictions in the available sublimation enthalpies data and to recommend a consistent and reliable set of sublimation and formation enthalpies for both crystal forms under study. Ab initio calculations of the gaseous molar enthalpy of formation of caffeine have been performed using the G3MP2 method and the results are in excellent agreement with the selected experimental data.

  14. Thermodynamic properties of caffeine: Reconciliation of available experimental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emel'yanenko, Vladimir N.; Verevkin, Sergey P.

    2008-01-01

    Molar enthalpies of sublimation of two crystal forms of caffeine were obtained from the temperature dependence of the vapour pressure measured by the transpiration method. A large number of primary experimental results on the temperature dependences of vapour pressure and phase transitions have been collected from the literature and have been treated in a uniform manner in order to derive sublimation enthalpies of caffeine at T = 298.15 K. This collection together with the new experimental results reported here has helped to resolve contradictions in the available sublimation enthalpies data and to recommend a consistent and reliable set of sublimation and formation enthalpies for both crystal forms under study. Ab initio calculations of the gaseous molar enthalpy of formation of caffeine have been performed using the G3MP2 method and the results are in excellent agreement with the selected experimental data

  15. Modulation of Radiation Induced Toxicity by Caffeine Pre injection in Female Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashry, O.M.

    2003-01-01

    The present work aims to evaluate the antioxidative role of caffeine (80 mg/kg b.w.). injected 1hour before exposure of female rats to a dose of (7 Gy) gamma irradiation. Haematological parameters, lipid peroxides, glutathione, AST and ALT were investigated 1, 3 and 7 days post irradiation and/or caffeine treatment. Exposure to ionizing radiation resulted in haematological disorders, elevated lipid peroxides, dropped glutathione levels and disturbed AST and ALT levels. Caffeine preinjection led to noticeable limitation of the drop in RBCs, Hb and Ht, improved MCV, MCHC, elevated glutathione, depressed lipid peroxide levels and moderated ALT level. Caffeine is an alkaloid (purine derivative) that contains flavonoids, which increases the antioxidative capacity of blood plasma (Hempel et al., 1999). It is an antioxidant that may help to protect against chemically-induced or radiation induced cancer in mice (Abraham, 1991 and Haung et al., 1997). Caffeine competes with oxygen for electrons and also scavenges hydroxyl radicals and reactive oxygen (Devasagayam and Kesavan, 1996). Contrary to previous investigations, conducted since 1960 reporting that caffeine potentiates DNA damage (Kihlman, 1977 and George et al., 1999) administered caffeine i.p. at a dose of 80 mg/kg body weight 1hour before irradiation of mice at 7.5 Gy. They described remarkable protection by caffeine resulting in the survival of 70% of mice at the end of 25 days and the number remained the same till 90 days

  16. Cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the association between cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption and the occurrence of spontaneous abortion. METHODS: The study population consisted of 330 women with spontaneous abortion and 1168 pregnant women receiving antenatal care. A case-control design was utilized;...... units alcohol per week and 375 mg or more caffeine per day during pregnancy may increase the risk of spontaneous abortion.......OBJECTIVE: To study the association between cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption and the occurrence of spontaneous abortion. METHODS: The study population consisted of 330 women with spontaneous abortion and 1168 pregnant women receiving antenatal care. A case-control design was utilized......; cases were defined as women with a spontaneous abortion in gestational week 6-16 and controls as women with a live fetus in gestational week 6-16. The variables studied comprise age, parity, occupational situation, cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption. The association between cigarette, alcohol...

  17. Compound list: caffeine [Open TG-GATEs

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available caffeine CAF 00097 ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Human/in_vitro/caffeine....Human.in_vitro.Liver.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vitro/caffeine....Rat.in_vitro.Liver.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Single/caffeine...-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Repeat/caffeine.Rat.in_vivo.Liver.Repeat.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/ar...chive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Kidney/Single/caffeine.Rat.in_vivo.Kidney.Single.zip ftp://ftp.bioscie

  18. Caffeine, exercise and the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeusen, Romain; Roelands, Bart; Spriet, Lawrence L

    2013-01-01

    Caffeine can improve exercise performance when it is ingested at moderate doses (3-6 mg/kg body mass). Caffeine also has an effect on the central nervous system (CNS), and it is now recognized that most of the performance-enhancing effect of caffeine is accomplished through the antagonism of the adenosine receptors, influencing the dopaminergic and other neurotransmitter systems. Adenosine and dopamine interact in the brain, and this might be one mechanism to explain how the important components of motivation (i.e. vigor, persistence and work output) and higher-order brain processes are involved in motor control. Caffeine maintains a higher dopamine concentration especially in those brain areas linked with 'attention'. Through this neurochemical interaction, caffeine improves sustained attention, vigilance, and reduces symptoms of fatigue. Other aspects that are localized in the CNS are a reduction in skeletal muscle pain and force sensation, leading to a reduction in perception of effort during exercise and therefore influencing the motivational factors to sustain effort during exercise. Because not all CNS aspects have been examined in detail, one should consider that a placebo effect may also be present. Overall, it appears that the performance-enhancing effects of caffeine reside in the brain, although more research is necessary to reveal the exact mechanisms through which the CNS effect is established. Copyright © 2013 Nestec Ltd., Vevey/S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Caffeine and the olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadfield, M G

    1997-08-01

    Caffeine, a popular CNS stimulant, is the most widely used neuroactive drug. Present in coffee, tea, chocolate, and soft drinks as well as over-the-counter and prescription medications, it influences millions of users. This agent has achieved recent notoriety because its dependency consequences and addictive potential have been re-examined and emphasized. Caffeine's central actions are thought to be mediated through adenosine (A) receptors and monoamine neurotransmitters. The present article suggests that the olfactory bulb (OB) may be an important site in the brain that is responsible for caffeine's central actions in several species. This conclusion is based on the extraordinarily robust and selective effects of caffeine on norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA), and particularly serotonin (5HT) utilization in the OB of mice. We believe that these phenomena should be given appropriate consideration as a basis for caffeine's central actions, even in primates. Concurrently, we review a rich rodent literature concerned with A, 5HT, NE, and DA receptors in the OB and related structures along with other monoamine parameters. We also review a more limited literature concerned with the primate OB. Finally, we cite the literature that treats the dependency and addictive effects of caffeine in humans, and relate the findings to possible olfactory mechanisms.

  20. Absorption kinetics and steady-state plasma concentrations of theophylline following therapeutic doses of two sustained-release preparations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, O; Nielsen, M K; Eriksen, P B

    1983-01-01

    Ten healthy volunteers received two sustained-release preparations as a single and multiple dose regimen in an open crossover study. Plasma theophylline concentrations were measured by an enzyme immunoassay. The limited fluctuation of the theophylline levels at steady state, with twice daily...... formulation, whereas this was not the case for the other (r = 0.27 and 0.49). The daily dose necessary to keep the plasma concentration within the therapeutic range of 55-110 mumole/liter varied from 7.9 to 22.9 mg/kg. Only mild side effects were recorded, but they were not correlated to the plasma...... theophylline concentration....

  1. Clinical importance of caffeine dependence and abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Naoshi; Ueki, Hirofumi

    2007-06-01

    Caffeine is the most widely consumed psychoactive substance and is a legal stimulant that is readily available to children. Caffeine has occasionally been considered a drug of abuse and the potential for dependence on caffeine has been debated. Presently, due to a paucity of clinical evidence on caffeine dependence or abuse, no such diagnosis is included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder-fourth edition. The authors present two cases of abuse or dependence on the caffeine contained in 'eutrophic' (energy/nutritional) beverages or caffeine preparations, followed by a review of clinical studies demonstrating evidence that some people can manifest a clinical syndrome of caffeine dependence or abuse. The cases suggest that caffeine can produce a clinical dependence syndrome similar to those produced by other psychoactive substances and has a potential for abuse. In a recent study using a structured interview and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder-fourth edition criteria for substance dependence and abuse, a subset of the general population was found to demonstrate caffeine dependence or caffeine abuse. Therefore, the authors propose that companies or businesses manufacturing or marketing caffeine or products containing caffeine must meet the following guidelines: (i) clearly indicate the caffeine content of products containing comparatively higher quantities of caffeine; (ii) warn that such products should be avoided by infants and children wherever possible, and inform adult consumers about the precise quantity of caffeine that is considered safe for consumption; and (iii) clearly state that consuming large quantities of caffeine and the long-term use of caffeine carry health risks.

  2. Caffeine as a model drug of dependence: recent developments in understanding caffeine withdrawal, the caffeine dependence syndrome, and caffeine negative reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, R R; Chausmer, A L

    2000-11-01

    Caffeine is an excellent model compound for understanding drugs of abuse/dependence. The results of self-administration and choice studies in humans clearly demonstrate the reinforcing effects of low and moderate doses of caffeine. Caffeine reinforcement has been demonstrated in about 45% of normal subjects with histories of moderate and heavy caffeine use. Recent studies provide compelling evidence that caffeine physical dependence potentiates the reinforcing effects of caffeine through the mechanism of withdrawal symptom avoidance. Tolerance to the subjective and sleep-disrupting effects of caffeine in humans has been demonstrated. Physical dependence as reflected in a withdrawal syndrome in humans has been repeatedly demonstrated in adults and recently demonstrated in children. Withdrawal severity is an increasing function of caffeine maintenance dose, with withdrawal occurring at doses as low as 100 mg per day. Increased cerebral blood flow may be the physiological mechanism for caffeine withdrawal headache. Case studies in adults and adolescents clearly demonstrate that some individuals meet DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for a substance dependence syndrome on caffeine, including feeling compelled to continue caffeine use despite desires and recommendations to the contrary. Survey data suggest that 9% to 30% percent of caffeine consumers may be caffeine dependent according to DSM-IV criteria.

  3. THE EFFECT OF CAFFEINE ON TEAR FORMATION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    improvement in physical performance and other. Caffeine is of ... function is also influenced by other factors like age, menopause ... influence of such drugs on the lacrimal gland function .... Pharmacokinetic profile on caffeine in premature ...

  4. Antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of new di- and polyamine caffeine analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasiewicz, Beata; Sierakowska, Arleta; Jankowski, Wojciech; Hoffmann, Marcin; Piorońska, Weronika; Górnicka, Agnieszka; Bielawska, Anna; Bielawski, Krzysztof; Mrówczyńska, Lucyna

    2018-04-18

    A series of new di- and polyamine-caffeine analogues were synthesized and characterized by NMR, FT-IR and MS spectroscopic methods. To access stability of the investigated caffeine analogues Molecular Dynamic simulations were performed in NAMD 2.9 assuming CHARMM36 force field. To evaluate the antioxidant capacity of new compounds, three different antioxidant assays were used, namely 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl free radical (DPPH • ) scavenging activity, ferrous ions (Fe 2+ ) chelating activity and Fe 3+ →Fe 2+ reducing ability. In vitro, the ability of new derivatives to protect human erythrocytes against oxidative haemolysis induced by free radical from 2,2'-azobis(2-methylpropionamidine) dihydrochloride (AAPH) was estimated. The cytotoxic activity was tested using MCF-7 breast cancer cells and human erythrocytes. All compounds showed the antioxidant capacity depending mostly on their ferrous ions chelating activity. In the presence of AAPH, some derivatives were able to effectively inhibit the oxidative haemolysis. Two derivatives, namely 8-(methyl(2-(methylamino)ethyl)-amino)caffeine and 8-(methyl(3-(methylamino)propyl)amino)caffeine, showed cytotoxic activity against MCF-7 breast cancer cells but not against human erythrocytes. Therefore, it is concluded that the selected di- and polyamine caffeine analogues, depending on their chemical structure, were able to minimize the oxidative stress and to inhibit the tumour cell grow. The confirmed antioxidant and cytotoxic properties of some caffeine derivatives make them attractive for potential applications in food or pharmaceutical industries.

  5. Molecular simulations and Markov state modeling reveal the structural diversity and dynamics of a theophylline-binding RNA aptamer in its unbound state.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becka M Warfield

    Full Text Available RNA aptamers are oligonucleotides that bind with high specificity and affinity to target ligands. In the absence of bound ligand, secondary structures of RNA aptamers are generally stable, but single-stranded and loop regions, including ligand binding sites, lack defined structures and exist as ensembles of conformations. For example, the well-characterized theophylline-binding aptamer forms a highly stable binding site when bound to theophylline, but the binding site is unstable and disordered when theophylline is absent. Experimental methods have not revealed at atomic resolution the conformations that the theophylline aptamer explores in its unbound state. Consequently, in the present study we applied 21 microseconds of molecular dynamics simulations to structurally characterize the ensemble of conformations that the aptamer adopts in the absence of theophylline. Moreover, we apply Markov state modeling to predict the kinetics of transitions between unbound conformational states. Our simulation results agree with experimental observations that the theophylline binding site is found in many distinct binding-incompetent states and show that these states lack a binding pocket that can accommodate theophylline. The binding-incompetent states interconvert with binding-competent states through structural rearrangement of the binding site on the nanosecond to microsecond timescale. Moreover, we have simulated the complete theophylline binding pathway. Our binding simulations supplement prior experimental observations of slow theophylline binding kinetics by showing that the binding site must undergo a large conformational rearrangement after the aptamer and theophylline form an initial complex, most notably, a major rearrangement of the C27 base from a buried to solvent-exposed orientation. Theophylline appears to bind by a combination of conformational selection and induced fit mechanisms. Finally, our modeling indicates that when Mg2+ ions are

  6. Biodegradation of Caffeine by Trichosporon asahii Isolated from Caffeine Contaminated Soil

    OpenAIRE

    LAKSHMI V.; NILANJANA DAS

    2011-01-01

    Studies were carried out on caffeine degradation using Trichosporon asahii, a yeast species isolated from caffeine contaminated soil. There was 100 % degradation of caffeine at 54 h by the yeast cells acclimated to the medium containing caffeine and sucrose both. Experiments with T. asahii growing on caffeine in the presenceof 1 mM 1-aminobenzotriazole (ABT), an inhibitor of the cytochrome P-450 enzyme system, resulted inhibition of biomass production relative to positive control implicating ...

  7. Caffeine, sleep and quality of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorist, M.M.; Snel, J.; Verster, J.C.; Pandi-Perumal, S.R.; Streiner, D.L.

    2008-01-01

    Caffeine is regarded as a mild stimulant acting on the central nervous system that is responsible for a significant portion of the behavioural and physiological effects of coffee and tea. Motives why people take caffeine are reflected in consumption patterns. Early in the morning caffeine might help

  8. 21 CFR 182.1180 - Caffeine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Caffeine. 182.1180 Section 182.1180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN....1180 Caffeine. (a) Product. Caffeine. (b) Tolerance. 0.02 percent. (c) Limitations, restrictions, or...

  9. The Effects of Caffeine Use on Driving Safety Among Truck Drivers Who Are Habitual Caffeine Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaton, Karen; Griffin, Russell

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe caffeine use among a group of habitual caffeine users, truck drivers, and to explore the associations between caffeine use and critical safety events by age in the naturalistic work setting. A secondary analysis of existing data from the Naturalistic Truck Driving Study was conducted. Analyses focused on the association between sleep and caffeine consumption by duty status, comparisons of sleep and caffeine use by age, and the associations between caffeine use and safety-critical events (SCEs). Findings indicated differences in caffeine use by duty status. However, no difference in sleep time by duty status, or between sleep time and caffeine use was found regardless of when the caffeine was consumed during the 5 hours prior to sleep. Sleep time did not vary significantly by age, although increasing age was associated with decreased caffeine use. Overall, a 6% reduction in the rate of SCEs per eight ounces of caffeinated beverage consumed was found. This study makes a unique scientific contribution because it uses real-time observations of truckers in the naturalistic work setting. It also does not involve caffeine withdrawal but rather an investigation of the effects of the naturalistic consumption of caffeine on sleep and driving performance. Findings suggest that caffeine use among habitual users offers a protective effect for safety-critical driving events. Occupational health nurses may use this information to counsel workers in the use of caffeine to enhance driving safety. © 2015 The Author(s).

  10. Theophylline-induced respiratory recovery following cervical spinal cord hemisection is augmented by serotonin 2 receptor stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basura, Gregory J; Nantwi, Kwaku D; Goshgarian, Harry G

    2002-11-22

    Cervical spinal cord hemisection leads to a disruption of bulbospinal innervation of phrenic motoneurons resulting in paralysis of the ipsilateral hemidiaphragm. We have previously demonstrated separate therapeutic roles for theophylline, and more recently serotonin (5-HT) as modulators to phrenic nerve motor recovery; mechanisms that likely occur via adenosine A1 and 5-HT2 receptors, respectively. The present study was designed to specifically determine if concurrent stimulation of 5-HT2 receptors may enhance motor recovery induced by theophylline alone. Adult female rats (250-350 g; n=7 per group) received a left cervical (C2) hemisection that resulted in paralysis of the ipsilateral hemidiaphragm. Twenty-four hours later rats were given systemic theophylline (15 mg/kg, i.v.), resulting in burst recovery in the ipsilateral phrenic nerve. Theophylline-induced recovery was enhanced with the 5-HT2A/2C receptor agonist, (+/-)-2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine hydrochloride (DOI; 1.0 mg/kg). DOI-evoked augmentation of theophylline-induced recovery was attenuated following subsequent injection of the 5-HT2 receptor antagonist, ketanserin (2.0 mg/kg). In a separate group, rats were pretreated with ketanserin, which did not prevent subsequent theophylline-induced respiratory recovery. However, pretreatment with ketanserin did prevent DOI-induced augmentation of the theophylline-evoked phrenic nerve burst recovery. Lastly, using immunocytochemistry and in situ hybridization, we showed for the first time a positive co-localization of adenosine A1 receptor mRNA and immunoreactivity with phrenic motoneurons of the cervical ventral horns. Taken together, the results of the present study suggest that theophylline may induce motor recovery likely at adenosine A1 receptors located at the level of the spinal cord, and the concurrent stimulation of converging 5-HT2 receptors may augment the response.

  11. Administration of Caffeine in Alternate Forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickham, Kate A; Spriet, Lawrence L

    2018-03-01

    There has been recent interest in the ergogenic effects of caffeine delivered in low doses (~ 200 mg or ~ 3 mg/kg body mass) and administered in forms other than capsules, coffee and sports drinks, including chewing gum, bars, gels, mouth rinses, energy drinks and aerosols. Caffeinated chewing gum is absorbed quicker through the buccal mucosa compared with capsule delivery and absorption in the gut, although total caffeine absorption over time is not different. Rapid absorption may be important in many sporting situations. Caffeinated chewing gum improved endurance cycling performance, and there is limited evidence that repeated sprint cycling and power production may also be improved. Mouth rinsing with caffeine may stimulate nerves with direct links to the brain, in addition to caffeine absorption in the mouth. However, caffeine mouth rinsing has not been shown to have significant effects on cognitive performance. Delivering caffeine with mouth rinsing improved short-duration, high-intensity, repeated sprinting in normal and depleted glycogen states, while the majority of the literature indicates no ergogenic effect on aerobic exercise performance, and resistance exercise has not been adequately studied. Studies with caffeinated energy drinks have generally not examined the individual effects of caffeine on performance, making conclusions about this form of caffeine delivery impossible. Caffeinated aerosol mouth and nasal sprays may stimulate nerves with direct brain connections and enter the blood via mucosal and pulmonary absorption, although little support exists for caffeine delivered in this manner. Overall, more research is needed examining alternate forms of caffeine delivery including direct measures of brain activation and entry of caffeine into the blood, as well as more studies examining trained athletes and female subjects.

  12. Caffeine consumption and self-assessed stress, anxiety, and depression in secondary school children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Gareth; Smith, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Previous research suggests that effects of caffeine on behaviour are positive unless one is investigating sensitive groups or ingestion of large amounts. Children are a potentially sensitive subgroup, and especially so considering the high levels of caffeine currently found in energy drinks. The present study used data from the Cornish Academies Project to investigate associations between caffeine (both its total consumption, and that derived separately from energy drinks, cola, tea, and coffee) and single-item measures of stress, anxiety, and depression, in a large cohort of secondary school children from the South West of England. After adjusting for additional dietary, demographic, and lifestyle covariates, positive associations between total weekly caffeine intake and anxiety and depression remained significant, and the effects differed between males and females. Initially, effects were also observed in relation to caffeine consumed specifically from coffee. However, coffee was found to be the major contributor to high overall caffeine intake, providing explanation as to why effects relating to this source were also apparent. Findings from the current study increase our knowledge regarding associations between caffeine intake and stress, anxiety, and depression in secondary school children, though the cross-sectional nature of the research made it impossible to infer causality. PMID:26508718

  13. Make Caffeine Visible: a Fluorescent Caffeine “Traffic Light” Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wang; Kim, Tae-Hyeong; Zhai, Duanting; Er, Jun Cheng; Zhang, Liyun; Kale, Anup Atul; Agrawalla, Bikram Keshari; Cho, Yoon-Kyoung; Chang, Young-Tae

    2013-07-01

    Caffeine has attracted abundant attention due to its extensive existence in beverages and medicines. However, to detect it sensitively and conveniently remains a challenge, especially in resource-limited regions. Here we report a novel aqueous phase fluorescent caffeine sensor named Caffeine Orange which exhibits 250-fold fluorescence enhancement upon caffeine activation and high selectivity. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy indicate that π-stacking and hydrogen-bonding contribute to their interactions while dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy experiments demonstrate the change of Caffeine Orange ambient environment induces its fluorescence emission. To utilize this probe in real life, we developed a non-toxic caffeine detection kit and tested it for caffeine quantification in various beverages. Naked-eye sensing of various caffeine concentrations was possible based on color changes upon irradiation with a laser pointer. Lastly, we performed the whole system on a microfluidic device to make caffeine detection quick, sensitive and automated.

  14. Effect of Melatonin and Caffeine Interaction on Caffeine Induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chigo Okwuosa

    Caffeine Induced Oxidative Stress and Sleep Disorders. Obochi G. O., Amali ... pregnancy, and use of oral contraceptives slow the ..... a shaking water bath at 37oC for 48 hours. The tubes .... availability and delivery of energy to all cells of the.

  15. Caffeine Increases Hippocampal Sharp Waves in Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yusuke; Ikegaya, Yuji

    2017-01-01

    Caffeine promotes memory consolidation. Memory consolidation is thought to depend at least in part on hippocampal sharp waves (SWs). In the present study, we investigated the effect of bath-application of caffeine in spontaneously occurring SWs in mouse acute hippocampal slices. Caffeine induced an about 100% increase in the event frequency of SWs at concentrations of 60 and 200 µM. The effect of caffeine was reversible after washout of caffeine and was mimicked by an adenosine A 1 receptor antagonist, but not by an A 2A receptor antagonist. Caffeine increased SWs even in dentate-CA3 mini-slices without the CA2 regions, in which adenosine A 1 receptors are abundantly expressed in the hippocampus. Thus, caffeine facilitates SWs by inhibiting adenosine A 1 receptors in the hippocampal CA3 region or the dentate gyrus.

  16. Evaluation of automated enzyme immunoassays for five anticonvulsants and theophylline adapted to a centrifugal analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquhart, N; Godolphin, W; Campbell, D J

    1979-05-01

    We report a clinical evaluation of the enzyme immunoassay (EMIT) performed with the GEMSAEC centrifugal analyzer as compared to gas-liquid and liquid chromatography for anticonvulsant drugs and theophylline, respectively. A good correlation was obtained for all drugs, although some difficulties were experienced with one lot of reagent for ethosuximide. The analyzer has an economic advantage if many samples are being analyzed for few drugs in each sample.

  17. Effect of potassium chloride on diffusion of theophylline at T = 298.15 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Cecilia I.A.V., E-mail: cecilia.alves@uah.e [Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Alcala, 28871 Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Lobo, Victor M.M., E-mail: vlobo@ci.uc.p [Department of Chemistry, University of Coimbra, 3004-535 Coimbra (Portugal); Esteso, Miguel A., E-mail: miguel.esteso@uah.e [Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Alcala, 28871 Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Ribeiro, Ana C.F., E-mail: anacfrib@ci.uc.p [Department of Chemistry, University of Coimbra, 3004-535 Coimbra (Portugal)

    2011-06-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Mutual diffusion coefficients of theophylline in aqueous dilute solutions. {yields} Influence of the presence of potassium chloride in the aqueous media. {yields} Estimation of the association constant, K, between THP and KCl. - Abstract: Ternary mutual diffusion coefficients measured by Taylor dispersion method (D{sub 11}, D{sub 22}, D{sub 12}, and D{sub 21}) are reported for aqueous solutions of KCl + theophylline (THP) at T = 298.15 K at carrier concentrations from (0.000 to 0.010) mol {center_dot} dm{sup -3}, for each solute. These diffusion coefficients have been measured having in mind a better understanding of the structure of these systems and the thermodynamic behavior of potassium chloride and theophylline in solution. For example, from these data it will be possible to make conclusions about the influence of this electrolyte in diffusion of THP and to estimate some parameters, such as the diffusion coefficient of the aggregate between KCl and THP.

  18. Nutrition and Healthy Eating: Caffeine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Nutrition and healthy eating By Mayo Clinic Staff If you're like most adults, caffeine is a part of ... US adults: 2001-2010. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2015;101:1081. 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for ...

  19. Caffeine Modulates Attention Network Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunye, Tad T.; Mahoney, Caroline R.; Lieberman, Harris R.; Taylor, Holly A.

    2010-01-01

    The present work investigated the effects of caffeine (0 mg, 100 mg, 200 mg, 400 mg) on a flanker task designed to test Posner's three visual attention network functions: alerting, orienting, and executive control [Posner, M. I. (2004). "Cognitive neuroscience of attention". New York, NY: Guilford Press]. In a placebo-controlled, double-blind…

  20. Does caffeine affect cardiovascular responses?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Bradamante; L. Barenghi (Livia); S. Versari (Silvia); A. Villa (Alessandro); J.W. de Jong (Jan Willem)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractCaffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine), a natural alkaloid present in many beverages such as coffee, tea and cola drinks, is the most widely consumed pharmacological compound. Due to its common use and frequent intake in stressful conditions, a great deal of data have been produced by

  1. Caffeine's implications for women's health and survey of obstetrician-gynecologists' caffeine knowledge and assessment practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Britta L; Juliano, Laura M; Schulkin, Jay

    2009-09-01

    Caffeine has relevance for women's health and pregnancy, including significant associations with spontaneous abortion and low birth weight. According to scientific data, pregnant women and women of reproductive age should be advised to limit their caffeine consumption. This article reviews the implications of caffeine for women's psychological and physical health, and presents data on obstetrician-gynecologists' (ob-gyns) knowledge and practices pertaining to caffeine. Ob-gyns (N = 386) who are members of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists' Collaborative Ambulatory Research Network responded to a 21-item survey about caffeine. Although most knew that caffeine is passed through breast milk, only 24.8% were aware that caffeine metabolism significantly slows as pregnancy progresses. Many respondents were not aware of the caffeine content of commonly used products, such as espresso and Diet Coke, with 14.3% and 57.8% indicating amounts within an accurate range, respectively. Furthermore, ob-gyns did not take into account large differences in caffeine content across different caffeinated beverages with most recommending one to two servings of coffee or tea or soft drinks per day. There was substantial inconsistency in what was considered to be "high levels" of maternal caffeine consumption, with only 31.6% providing a response. When asked to indicate the risk that high levels of caffeine have on various pregnancy outcomes, responses were not consistent with scientific data. For example, respondents overestimated the relative risk of stillbirths and underestimated the relative risk of spontaneous abortion. There was great variability in assessment and advice practices pertaining to caffeine. More than half advise their pregnant patients to consume caffeine under certain circumstances, most commonly to alleviate headache and caffeine withdrawal. The data suggest that ob-gyns could benefit from information about caffeine and its relevance to their

  2. A comparison of the effects of caffeine following abstinence and normal caffeine use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addicott, Merideth A; Laurienti, Paul J

    2009-12-01

    Caffeine typically produces positive effects on mood and performance. However, tolerance may develop following habitual use, and abrupt cessation can result in withdrawal symptoms, such as fatigue. This study investigated whether caffeine has a greater stimulant effect in a withdrawn state compared to a normal caffeinated state, among moderate daily caffeine consumers. Using a within-subjects design, 17 caffeine consumers (mean +/- sd = 375 +/- 101 mg/day) ingested placebo or caffeine (250 mg) following 30-h of caffeine abstention or normal dietary caffeine use on four separate days. Self-reported mood and performance on choice reaction time, selective attention, and memory tasks were measured. Caffeine had a greater effect on mood and choice reaction time in the abstained state than in the normal caffeinated state, but caffeine improved selective attention and memory in both states. Although improvements in mood and reaction time may best explained as relief from withdrawal symptoms, other performance measures showed no evidence of withdrawal and were equally sensitive to an acute dose of caffeine in the normal caffeinated state.

  3. Caffeine, mental health, and psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Diogo R

    2010-01-01

    Caffeine intake is so common that its pharmacological effects on the mind are undervalued. Since it is so readily available, individuals can adjust their own dose, time of administration and dose intervals of caffeine, according to the perceived benefits and side effects of each dose. This review focuses on human studies of caffeine in subjects with and without psychiatric disorders. Besides the possibility of mild drug dependence, caffeine may bring benefits that contribute to its widespread use. These benefits seem to be related to adaptation of mental energy to the context by increasing alertness, attention, and cognitive function (more evident in longer or more difficult tasks or situations of low arousal) and by elevating mood. Accordingly, moderate caffeine intake (caffeine can induce psychotic and manic symptoms, and more commonly, anxiety. Patients with panic disorder and performance social anxiety disorder seem to be particularly sensitive to the anxiogenic effects of caffeine, whereas preliminary data suggests that it may be effective for some patients with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). The threshold for the anxiogenic effect of caffeine is influenced by a polymorphism of the A2A receptor. In summary, caffeine can be regarded as a pharmacological tool to increase energy and effortful behavior in daily activities. More populational (cross-sectional and prospective) and experimental studies are necessary to establish the role of caffeine intake in psychiatric disorders, especially its putative efficacy on depressive mood and cognitive/attentional disorders.

  4. Caffeine tolerance: behavioral, electrophysiological and neurochemical evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, D.T.; Khan, S.; Forde, J.; Hirsh, K.R.

    1985-01-01

    The development of tolerance to the stimulatory action of caffeine upon mesencephalic reticular neurons and upon spontaneous locomotor activity was evaluated in rats after two weeks of chronic exposure to low doses of caffeine (5-10 mg/kg/day via their drinking water). These doses are achievable through dietary intake of caffeine-containing beverages in man. Concomitant measurement of [ 3 H]-CHA binding in the mesencephalic reticular formation was also carried out in order to explore the neurochemical basis of the development of tolerance. Caffeine, 2.5 mg/kg i.v., markedly increased the firing rate of reticular neurons in caffeine naive rats but failed to modify the neuronal activity in a group exposed chronically to low doses of caffeine. In addition, in spontaneous locomotor activity studies, the data show a distinct shift to the right of the caffeine dose-response curve in caffeine pretreated rats. These results clearly indicate that tolerance develops to the stimulatory action of caffeine upon the reticular formation at the single neuronal activity level as well as upon spontaneous locomotor activity. Furthermore, in chronically caffeine exposed rats, an increase in the number of binding sites for [ 3 H]-CHA was observed in reticular formation membranes without any change in receptor affinity. 28 references, 4 figures

  5. Prediction of Caffeine Content in Java Preanger Coffee Beans by NIR Spectroscopy Using PLS and MLR Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budiastra, I. W.; Sutrisno; Widyotomo, S.; Ayu, P. C.

    2018-05-01

    Caffeine is one of important components in coffee that contributes to the coffee beverages flavor. Caffeine concentration in coffee bean is usually determined by chemical method which is time consuming and destructive method. A nondestructive method using NIR spectroscopy was successfully applied to determine the caffeine concentration of Arabica gayo coffee bean. In this study, NIR Spectroscopy was assessed to determine the caffeine concentration of java preanger coffee bean. A hundred samples, each consist of 96 g coffee beans were prepared for reflectance and chemical measurement. Reflectance of the sample was measured by FT-NIR spectrometer in the wavelength of 1000-2500 nm (10000-4000 cm-1) followed by determination of caffeine content using LCMS method. Calibration of NIR spectra and the caffeine content was carried out using PLS and MLR methods. Several spectra data processing was conducted to increase the accuracy of prediction. The result of the study showed that caffeine content could be determined by PLS model using 7 factors and spectra data processing of combination of the first derivative and MSC of spectra absorbance (r = 0.946; CV = 1.54 %; RPD = 2.28). A lower accuracy was obtained by MLR model consisted of three caffeine and other four absorption wavelengths (r = 0.683; CV = 3.31%; RPD = 1.18).

  6. Caffeine improves attention deficit in neonatal 6-OHDA lesioned rats, an animal model of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, Miguel; Núñez, Fabiana; Ahern, Siobhán; Cuffí, Maria L; Carbonell, Lourdes; Sánchez, Silvia; Fernández-Dueñas, Víctor; Ciruela, Francisco

    2011-04-20

    Nowadays the pharmacological treatment of the attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is based on amphetamine derivatives (i.e. methylphenidate). However, these drugs induce a large array of adverse side effects, thus less aggressive psychostimulant drugs (i.e. caffeine) are being proposed in the management of ADHD. Following this tendency, we decided to study the possible therapeutic use of caffeine in an animal model of ADHD, namely the neonatal 6-hydroxy-dopamine (6-OHDA)-lesioned rat. Therefore, at postnatal day 7 rats were lesioned at the left striatum with 6-OHDA or with saline. Thereafter, at postnatal day 25 their activity and attention were measured with the Olton maze before caffeine was administered ad libitum in the drinking water. Next, after 14 days of caffeine treatment, we repeated these measurements to assess the effect of caffeine on motor activity and attention deficit. Interestingly, while no changes in the motor activity measurements were observed before and after caffeine administration, a significant improvement in the attention deficit of the 6-OHDA lesioned rats was achieved after caffeine treatment. Thus, our results led us to hypothesize that caffeine might be useful to manage the attention deficit during the prepubertal period of ADHD. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Caffeine in the milk prevents respiratory disorders caused by in utero caffeine exposure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodineau, Laurence; Saadani-Makki, Fadoua; Jullien, Hugues; Frugière, Alain

    2006-01-25

    Consequences of postnatal caffeine exposure by the milk on ponto-medullary respiratory disturbances observed following an in utero caffeine exposure were analysed. Ponto-medullary-spinal cord preparations from newborn rats exposed to caffeine during gestation but not after the birth display an increase in respiratory frequency and an exaggeration of the hypoxic respiratory depression compared to not treated preparations. These data suggest that tachypneic and apneic episodes encountered in human newborns whose mother consumed caffeine during pregnancy are due in large part to central effect of caffeine at the ponto-medullary level. Both baseline respiratory frequency increase and emphasis of hypoxic respiratory depression are not encountered if rat dams consumed caffeine during nursing. Our hypothesis is that newborn rats exposed to caffeine during gestation but not after the birth would be in withdrawal situation whereas, when caffeine is present in drinking fluid of lactating dams, it goes down the milk and is able to prevent ponto-medullary respiratory disturbances.

  8. Caffeine metabolites not caffeine protect against riboflavin photosensitized oxidative damage related to skin and eye health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scurachio, R. S.; Mattiucci, F.; Santos, W. G.

    2016-01-01

    . Caffeine metabolites rather than caffeine seem accordingly important for the observed protective effect against cutaneous melanoma identified for drinkers of regular but not of decaffeinated coffee. The caffeine metabolites, but not caffeine, were by time resolved single photon counting found to quench...... singlet excited riboflavin through exothermic formation of ground-state precursor complexes indicating importance of hydrogen bounding through keto-enol tautomer's for protection of oxidizable substrates and sensitive structures against riboflavin photosensitization....

  9. Expectation of having consumed caffeine can improve performance and mood

    OpenAIRE

    Dawkins, Lynne; Shahzad, Fatima-Zahra; Ahmed, Suada S.; Edmonds, Caroline J.

    2011-01-01

    We explored whether caffeine, and expectation of having consumed caffeine, affects attention, reward responsivity and mood using double-blinded methodology. 88 participants were randomly allocated to ‘drink-type’ (caffeinated/decaffeinated coffee) and ‘expectancy’ (told caffeinated/told decaffeinated coffee) manipulations. Both caffeine and expectation of having consumed caffeine improved attention and psychomotor speed. Expectation enhanced self-reported vigour and reward responsivity. Self-...

  10. Caffeine, coffee, and appetite control: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Matthew M; Irwin, Christopher; Seay, Rebekah F; Clarke, Holly E; Allegro, Deanne; Desbrow, Ben

    2017-12-01

    Coffee and caffeine consumption has global popularity. However, evidence for the potential of these dietary constituents to influence energy intake, gut physiology, and appetite perceptions remains unclear. The purpose of this review was to examine the evidence regarding coffee and caffeine's influence on energy intake and appetite control. The literature was examined for studies that assessed the effects of caffeine and coffee on energy intake, gastric emptying, appetite-related hormones, and perceptual measures of appetite. The literature review indicated that coffee administered 3-4.5 h before a meal had minimal influence on food and macronutrient intake, while caffeine ingested 0.5-4 h before a meal may suppress acute energy intake. Evidence regarding the influence of caffeine and coffee on gastric emptying, appetite hormones, and appetite perceptions was equivocal. The influence of covariates such as genetics of caffeine metabolism and bitter taste phenotype remain unknown; longer controlled studies are needed.

  11. Estimation of caffeine intake from analysis of caffeine metabolites in wastewater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gracia-Lor, E.; Rousis, N.I.; Zuccato, E.; Bade, R.; Baz-Lomba, J.A.; Castrignanò, E.; Causanilles Llanes, A.; Hernández, F.; Kasprzyk-Hordern, B.; Kinyua, J.; McCall, A.-K.; van Nuijs, A.L.N.; Plósz, B.G.; Ramin, P.; Ryu, Y.; Santos, M.M.; Thomas, K.; de Voogt, P.; Yang, Z.; Castiglioni, S.

    2017-01-01

    Caffeine metabolites in wastewater were investigated as potential biomarkers for assessing caffeine intake in a population. The main human urinary metabolites of caffeine were measured in the urban wastewater of ten European cities and the metabolic profiles in wastewater were compared with the

  12. Consumption of caffeinated beverages and the awareness of their caffeine content among Dutch students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mackus, Marlou; van de Loo, Aurora J A E; Benson, Sarah; Scholey, Andrew; Verster, Joris C

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the knowledge of caffeine content of a variety of caffeinated beverages among Dutch university students. A pencil-and-paper survey was conducted among N = 800 Dutch students. Most participants (87.8%) reported consuming caffeinated beverages during the

  13. Role of adenosine receptors in caffeine tolerance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holtzman, S.G.; Mante, S.; Minneman, K.P. (Emory Univ. School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (USA))

    1991-01-01

    Caffeine is a competitive antagonist at adenosine receptors. Receptor up-regulation during chronic drug treatment has been proposed to be the mechanism of tolerance to the behavioral stimulant effects of caffeine. This study reassessed the role of adenosine receptors in caffeine tolerance. Separate groups of rats were given scheduled access to drinking bottles containing plain tap water or a 0.1% solution of caffeine. Daily drug intake averaged 60-75 mg/kg and resulted in complete tolerance to caffeine-induced stimulation of locomotor activity, which could not be surmounted by increasing the dose of caffeine. 5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (0.001-1.0 mg/kg) dose dependently decreased the locomotor activity of caffeine-tolerant rats and their water-treated controls but was 8-fold more potent in the latter group. Caffeine (1.0-10 mg/kg) injected concurrently with 5-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine antagonized the decreases in locomotor activity comparably in both groups. Apparent pA2 values for tolerant and control rats also were comparable: 5.05 and 5.11. Thus, the adenosine-antagonist activity of caffeine was undiminished in tolerant rats. The effects of chronic caffeine administration on parameters of adenosine receptor binding and function were measured in cerebral cortex. There were no differences between brain tissue from control and caffeine-treated rats in number and affinity of adenosine binding sites or in receptor-mediated increases (A2 adenosine receptor) and decreases (A1 adenosine receptor) in cAMP accumulation. These results are consistent with theoretical arguments that changes in receptor density should not affect the potency of a competitive antagonist. Experimental evidence and theoretical considerations indicate that up-regulation of adenosine receptors is not the mechanism of tolerance to caffeine-induced stimulation of locomotor activity.

  14. Role of adenosine receptors in caffeine tolerance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holtzman, S.G.; Mante, S.; Minneman, K.P.

    1991-01-01

    Caffeine is a competitive antagonist at adenosine receptors. Receptor up-regulation during chronic drug treatment has been proposed to be the mechanism of tolerance to the behavioral stimulant effects of caffeine. This study reassessed the role of adenosine receptors in caffeine tolerance. Separate groups of rats were given scheduled access to drinking bottles containing plain tap water or a 0.1% solution of caffeine. Daily drug intake averaged 60-75 mg/kg and resulted in complete tolerance to caffeine-induced stimulation of locomotor activity, which could not be surmounted by increasing the dose of caffeine. 5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (0.001-1.0 mg/kg) dose dependently decreased the locomotor activity of caffeine-tolerant rats and their water-treated controls but was 8-fold more potent in the latter group. Caffeine (1.0-10 mg/kg) injected concurrently with 5-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine antagonized the decreases in locomotor activity comparably in both groups. Apparent pA2 values for tolerant and control rats also were comparable: 5.05 and 5.11. Thus, the adenosine-antagonist activity of caffeine was undiminished in tolerant rats. The effects of chronic caffeine administration on parameters of adenosine receptor binding and function were measured in cerebral cortex. There were no differences between brain tissue from control and caffeine-treated rats in number and affinity of adenosine binding sites or in receptor-mediated increases (A2 adenosine receptor) and decreases (A1 adenosine receptor) in cAMP accumulation. These results are consistent with theoretical arguments that changes in receptor density should not affect the potency of a competitive antagonist. Experimental evidence and theoretical considerations indicate that up-regulation of adenosine receptors is not the mechanism of tolerance to caffeine-induced stimulation of locomotor activity

  15. Expectation of having consumed caffeine can improve performance and mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawkins, Lynne; Shahzad, Fatima-Zahra; Ahmed, Suada S; Edmonds, Caroline J

    2011-12-01

    We explored whether caffeine, and expectation of having consumed caffeine, affects attention, reward responsivity and mood using double-blinded methodology. 88 participants were randomly allocated to 'drink-type' (caffeinated/decaffeinated coffee) and 'expectancy' (told caffeinated/told decaffeinated coffee) manipulations. Both caffeine and expectation of having consumed caffeine improved attention and psychomotor speed. Expectation enhanced self-reported vigour and reward responsivity. Self-reported depression increased at post-drink for all participants, but less in those receiving or expecting caffeine. These results suggest caffeine expectation can affect mood and performance but do not support a synergistic effect. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Caffeine, sleep and wakefulness: implications of new understanding about withdrawal reversal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Jack E; Keane, Michael A

    2007-12-01

    The broad aim of this review is to critically examine the implications of new understanding concerning caffeine withdrawal and withdrawal reversal in the context of research concerned with the effects of caffeine on sleep and wakefulness. A comprehensive search was conducted for relevant experimental studies in the PubMED and PsycINFO databases. Studies were assessed with particular reference to methodological adequacy for controlling against confounding due to caffeine withdrawal and withdrawal reversal. This assessment was used to clarify evidence of effects, highlight areas of ambiguity and derive recommendations for future research. It was found that researchers have generally failed to take account of the fact that habitual use of caffeine, even at moderate levels, leads to physical dependence evidenced by physiological, behavioural and subjective withdrawal effects during periods of abstinence. Consequently, there has been near-complete absence of adequate methodological controls against confounding due to reversal of withdrawal effects when caffeine is experimentally administered. The findings of what has been a substantial research effort to elucidate the effects of caffeine on sleep and wakefulness, undertaken over a period spanning decades, are ambiguous. Current shortcomings can be redressed by incorporating suitable controls in new experimental designs.

  17. Caffeine Intake, Smoking, and Risk of Parkinson Disease in Men and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui; Guo, Xuguang; Park, Yikyung; Huang, Xuemei; Sinha, Rashmi; Freedman, Neal D.; Hollenbeck, Albert R.; Blair, Aaron; Chen, Honglei

    2012-01-01

    The authors prospectively examined whether caffeine intake was associated with lower risk of Parkinson disease (PD) in both men and women among 304,980 participants in the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study and whether smoking affected this relation. Multivariate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were derived from logistic regression models. Higher caffeine intake as assessed in 1995–1996 was monotonically associated with lower PD risk (diagnosed in 2000–2006) in both men and women. After adjustment for age, race, and physical activity, the odds ratio comparing the highest quintile of caffeine intake with the lowest was 0.75 (95% confidence interval: 0.60, 0.94; Ptrend = 0.005) for men and 0.60 (95% confidence interval: 0.39, 0.91; Ptrend = 0.005) for women. Further adjustment for duration of smoking and analyses carried out among never smokers showed similar results. A joint analysis with smoking suggested that smoking and caffeine may act independently in relation to PD risk. Finally, the authors conducted a meta-analysis of prospective studies and confirmed that caffeine intake was inversely associated with PD risk in both men and women. These findings suggest no gender difference in the relation between caffeine and PD. PMID:22505763

  18. Caffeine-containing energy drink improves physical performance of elite rugby players during a simulated match.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Coso, Juan; Ramírez, Juan A; Muñoz, Gloria; Portillo, Javier; Gonzalez-Millán, Cristina; Muñoz, Víctor; Barbero-Álvarez, José C; Muñoz-Guerra, Jesús

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a caffeine-containing energy drink in enhancing rugby players' physical performance during a simulated match. A second purpose was to determine the urinary caffeine excretion derived from the energy drink intake. In a randomized and counterbalanced order, 26 elite rugby players (mean ± SD for age and body mass, 25 ± 2 y and 93 ± 15 kg) played 2 simulated rugby games (2 × 30 min) 60 min after ingesting (i) 3 mg of caffeine per kilogram of body mass in the form of an energy drink (Fure, ProEnergetics) or (ii) the same drink without caffeine (placebo). During the matches, the individual running distance and the instantaneous speed were measured, and the number of running actions above 20 km·h(-1) (i.e., sprints) were determined, using global positioning system devices. The number of impacts above 5 g during the matches was determined by accelerometry. The ingestion of the energy drink, compared with the placebo, increased the total distance covered during the match (4749 ± 589 vs 5139 ± 475 m, p caffeine concentration (0.1 ± 0.1 vs 2.4 ± 0.9 μg·mL(-1), p caffeine dose equivalent to 3 mg·kg(-1) considerably enhanced the movement patterns of rugby players during a simulated match.

  19. Dataset on exogenous application of salicylic acid and methyljasmonate and the accumulation of caffeine in young leaf tissues and catabolically inactive endosperms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinash Kumar

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Exogenous exposure of coffee plants to 50 μM and 500 μM salicylic acid through liquid hydroponic medium or the exposure to volatile fumes of methyljasmonate was carried out to study the role of salicylic acid and methyljasmonate on the accumulation of caffeine and other methylxanthines like 7-methylxanthine, theobromine and theophylline. Transcript levels of the first, second and third N-methyltransferase involved in the core caffeine biosynthetic pathway namely, xanthosine methyltransferase (XMT, methylxanthine methyltransferase (MXMT and di-methylxanthine methyltransferase (DXMT was investigated by semi-quantitative RT-PCR for validating the reason behind the changes of caffeine biosynthetic potential under the influence of the two analogues of plant phytohormones. Maturing coffee fruits are known to be biologically inactive with respect to caffeine biosynthetic activity in the endosperms. To understand this, fruits were treated with different doses of salicylic acid in a time-course manner and the de-repression of tissue maturation-mediated knockdown of caffeine biosynthesis by exogenously applied salicylic acid was achieved. In our companion paper [1] it was shown that the repression of NMT genes during the dry weight accumulation phase of maturing endosperm could be relaxed by the exogenous application of salicylic acid and methyljasmonate. A probable model based on the work carried out therein and based on other literature [2–4] was proposed to describe that the crosstalk between salicylic acid or methyljasmonate and the ABA/ethylene pathway and might involve transcription factors downstream to the signaling cascade.

  20. Attentional bias for caffeine-related stimuli in high but not moderate or non-caffeine consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeomans, Martin R; Javaherian, Shabnam; Tovey, Heather M; Stafford, Lorenzo D

    2005-09-01

    Attentional bias for drug-related cues has been reported with a wide range of drugs, but to date the extent to which caffeine consumers show similar biases for caffeine-related stimuli has not been tested. The present study therefore examined this issue in terms of differences in attentional bias for caffeine-related words in High, Moderate and Non-caffeine consumers using a dot-probe word task following overnight caffeine abstinence. This study was conducted to test whether caffeine consumers show an attentional bias for caffeine-related words, and whether such biases relate to habitual levels of caffeine use. Sixteen High, Moderate and Non-consumers of caffeine were asked to complete a modified dot-probe task in order to measure attentional bias for caffeine-related relative to neutral control word groups. The task was completed following overnight caffeine abstinence, and participants also completed mood and caffeine-craving measures. The High consumer group showed a significant attentional bias for the caffeine-related words, but no such bias was seen in Moderate or Non-consumer groups. As expected, craving for caffeine was strongest in the High consumers and weakest in the Non-consumers. Attentional bias in the High group correlated with self-reported caffeine consumption and with craving for caffeine, but neither effect was significant in the Moderate group. These data confirm that High caffeine consumers show attentional bias for caffeine-related stimuli, consistent with current theories of drug addiction.

  1. A nanocomplex of Cu(II) with theophylline drug; synthesis, characterization, and anticancer activity against K562 cell line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlabadi, Maryam; Daryanavard, Marzieh; Hadadzadeh, Hassan; Amirghofran, Zahra

    2018-03-01

    A new mononuclear of copper (II), [Cu(theophylline)2(H2O)3]·2H2O, has been synthesized by reaction of theophylline (1,3-dimethyl-7H-purine-2,6-dione) with copper (II) nitrate in water. Further, its nanocomplex has been prepared through the three different methods including sonication, grinding, and a combination thereof, sonication-grinding. The prepared nanocomplex was characterized using different techniques including FT-IR, UV-Vis, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). Moreover, the anticancer activity of the precursor complex, nanocomplex, free theophylline ligand, and the starting copper salt (Cu(NO3)2·3H2O) was investigated against the K562 cell line. The results show that the nanocomplex is an effective nano metal-based anticancer agent with IC50 = 11.7 μM.

  2. Role of excipients in hydrate formation kinetics of theophylline in wet masses studied by near-infrared spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anna C; Airaksinen, Sari; Karjalainen, Milja

    2004-01-01

    . Anhydrous theophylline was chosen as the hydrate-forming model drug compound and two excipients, silicified microcrystalline cellulose (SMCC) and alpha-lactose monohydrate, with different water absorbing properties, were used in formulation. An early stage of wet massing was studied with anhydrous...... theophylline and its 1:1 (w/w) mixtures with alpha-lactose monohydrate and SMCC with 0.1g/g of purified water. The changes in the state of water were monitored using near-infrared spectroscopy, and the conversion of the crystal structure was verified using X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD). SMCC decreased...... the hydrate formation rate by absorbing water, but did not inhibit it. The results suggest that alpha-lactose monohydrate slightly increased the hydrate formation rate in comparison with a mass comprising only anhydrous theophylline....

  3. Subjective, behavioral, and physiological effects of acute caffeine in light, nondependent caffeine users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, Emma; de Wit, Harriet

    2006-05-01

    Caffeine produces mild psychostimulant effects that are thought to underlie its widespread use. However, the direct effects of caffeine are difficult to evaluate in regular users of caffeine because of tolerance and withdrawal. Indeed, some researchers hypothesize that the psychostimulant effects of caffeine are due largely to the reversal of withdrawal and question whether there are direct effects of caffeine consumption upon mood, alertness, or mental performance in nondependent individuals. This study investigated the physiological, subjective, and behavioral effects of 0, 50, 150, and 450 mg caffeine in 102 light, nondependent caffeine users. Using a within-subjects design, subjects participated in four experimental sessions, in which they received each of the four drug conditions in random order under double blind conditions. Participants completed subjective effects questionnaires and vital signs were measured before and at repeated time points after drug administration. Forty minutes after the capsules were ingested, subjects completed behavioral tasks that included tests of sustained attention, short-term memory, psychomotor performance, and behavioral inhibition. Caffeine significantly increased blood pressure, and produced feelings of arousal, positive mood, and high. Caffeine increased the number of hits and decreased reaction times in a vigilance task, but impaired performance on a memory task. We confirm that acute doses of caffeine, at levels typically found in a cup of coffee, produce stimulant-like subjective effects and enhance performance in light, nondependent caffeine users. These findings support the idea that the drug has psychoactive effects even in the absence of withdrawal.

  4. Long-term administration of theophylline and glucose recovery after hypoglycaemia in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidberg, A; Rosenfalck, A; Christensen, N J

    1998-01-01

    .0241) but there were no concomitant significant increases in plasma c-AMP or in endogenous glucose production rate. Whether the increase in glucose recovery is large enough to suggest that chronic theophylline administration will protect against insulin-induced hypoglycaemia remains unsettled....... hormone secretion. In this study we tested the hypothesis that long-term administration of theophylline might augment glucose recovery after insulin-induced hypoglycaemia. Eleven healthy subjects and 8 patients with Type 1 diabetes mellitus were made hypoglycaemic by 60 min insulin infusion (40 mU m(-2...

  5. Caffeine withdrawal and high-intensity endurance cycling performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Christopher; Desbrow, Ben; Ellis, Aleisha; O'Keeffe, Brooke; Grant, Gary; Leveritt, Michael

    2011-03-01

    In this study, we investigated the impact of a controlled 4-day caffeine withdrawal period on the effect of an acute caffeine dose on endurance exercise performance. Twelve well-trained and familiarized male cyclists, who were caffeine consumers (from coffee and a range of other sources), were recruited for the study. A double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over design was employed, involving four experimental trials. Participants abstained from dietary caffeine sources for 4 days before the trials and ingested capsules (one in the morning and one in the afternoon) containing either placebo or caffeine (1.5 mg · kg(-1) body weight · day(-1)). On day 5, capsules containing placebo or caffeine (3 mg · kg(-1) body weight) were ingested 90 min before completing a time trial, equivalent to one hour of cycling at 75% peak sustainable power output. Hence the study was designed to incorporate placebo-placebo, placebo-caffeine, caffeine-placebo, and caffeine-caffeine conditions. Performance time was significantly improved after acute caffeine ingestion by 1:49 ± 1:41 min (3.0%, P = 0.021) following a withdrawal period (placebo-placebo vs. placebo-caffeine), and by 2:07 ± 1:28 min (3.6%, P = 0.002) following the non-withdrawal period (caffeine-placebo vs. caffeine-caffeine). No significant difference was detected between the two acute caffeine trials (placebo-caffeine vs. caffeine-caffeine). Average heart rate throughout exercise was significantly higher following acute caffeine administration compared with placebo. No differences were observed in ratings of perceived exertion between trials. A 3 mg · kg(-1) dose of caffeine significantly improves exercise performance irrespective of whether a 4-day withdrawal period is imposed on habitual caffeine users.

  6. Effects of caffeine and caffeine withdrawal on mood and cognitive performance degraded by sleep restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Peter J; Heatherley, Susan V; Hayward, Robert C; Seers, Helen E; Hill, Joanne; Kane, Marian

    2005-06-01

    It has been suggested that caffeine is most likely to benefit mood and performance when alertness is low. To measure the effects of caffeine on psychomotor and cognitive performance, mood, blood pressure and heart rate in sleep-restricted participants. To do this in a group of participants who had also been previously deprived of caffeine for 3 weeks, thereby potentially removing the confounding effects of acute caffeine withdrawal. Participants were moderate to moderate-high caffeine consumers who were provided with either decaffeinated tea and/or coffee for 3 weeks (LTW) or regular tea and/or coffee for 3 weeks (overnight caffeine-withdrawn participants, ONW). Then, following overnight caffeine abstinence, they were tested on a battery of tasks assessing mood, cognitive performance, etc. before and after receiving caffeine (1.2 mg/kg) or on another day after receiving placebo. Final analyses were based on 17 long-term caffeine-withdrawn participants (LTW) and 17 ONW participants whose salivary caffeine levels on each test day confirmed probable compliance with the instructions concerning restrictions on consumption of caffeine-containing drinks. Acute caffeine withdrawal (ONW) had a number of negative effects, including impairment of cognitive performance, increased headache, and reduced alertness and clear-headedness. Caffeine (versus placebo) did not significantly improve cognitive performance in LTW participants, although it prevented further deterioration of performance in ONW participants. Caffeine increased tapping speed (but tended to impair hand steadiness), increased blood pressure, and had some effects on mood in both groups. The findings provide strong support for the withdrawal reversal hypothesis. In particular, cognitive performance was found to be affected adversely by acute caffeine withdrawal and, even in the context of alertness lowered by sleep restriction, cognitive performance was not improved by caffeine in the absence of these withdrawal

  7. Caffeine: How Much Is Too Much?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Nutrition and healthy eating Caffeine has its perks, but it can pose problems too. Find out how much is too much and if you need to curb ... By Mayo Clinic Staff If you rely on caffeine to wake you up and keep you going, ...

  8. CORRELATION BETWEEN CAFFEINE CONTENTS OF GREEN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AND ALTITUDES OF THE COFFEE PLANTS GROWN IN SOUTHWEST ETHIOPIA .... sublimation temperature of caffeine, during it only a small percentage of .... the tube and extracted for a second time with 5.00 mL of boiling water. ..... Sridevi, V.; Giridhar, P. Changes in caffeine content during fruit development in Coffea.

  9. HPLC determination of caffeine in coffee beverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajara, B. E. P.; Susanti, H.

    2017-11-01

    Coffee is the second largest beverage which is consumed by people in the world, besides the water. One of the compounds which contained in coffee is caffeine. Caffeine has the pharmacological effect such as stimulating the central nervous system. The purpose of this study is to determine the level of caffeine in coffee beverages with HPLC method. Three branded coffee beverages which include in 3 of Top Brand Index 2016 Phase 2 were used as samples. Qualitative analysis was performed by Parry method, Dragendorff reagent, and comparing the retention time between sample and caffeine standard. Quantitative analysis was done by HPLC method with methanol-water (95:5v/v) as mobile phase and ODS as stationary phasewith flow rate 1 mL/min and UV 272 nm as the detector. The level of caffeine data was statistically analyzed using Anova at 95% confidence level. The Qualitative analysis showed that the three samples contained caffeine. The average of caffeine level in coffee bottles of X, Y, and Z were 138.048 mg/bottle, 109.699 mg/bottle, and 147.669 mg/bottle, respectively. The caffeine content of the three coffee beverage samples are statistically different (pcoffee beverage samples were not meet the requirements set by the Indonesian Standard Agency of 50 mg/serving.

  10. Effects of Caffeine on Auditory Brainstem Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleheh Soleimanian

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Blocking of the adenosine receptor in central nervous system by caffeine can lead to increasing the level of neurotransmitters like glutamate. As the adenosine receptors are present in almost all brain areas like central auditory pathway, it seems caffeine can change conduction in this way. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of caffeine on latency and amplitude of auditory brainstem response(ABR.Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial study 43 normal 18-25 years old male students were participated. The subjects consumed 0, 2 and 3 mg/kg BW caffeine in three different sessions. Auditory brainstem responses were recorded before and 30 minute after caffeine consumption. The results were analyzed by Friedman and Wilcoxone test to assess the effects of caffeine on auditory brainstem response.Results: Compared to control group the latencies of waves III,V and I-V interpeak interval of the cases decreased significantly after 2 and 3mg/kg BW caffeine consumption. Wave I latency significantly decreased after 3mg/kg BW caffeine consumption(p<0.01. Conclusion: Increasing of the glutamate level resulted from the adenosine receptor blocking brings about changes in conduction in the central auditory pathway.

  11. Creatine and Caffeine: Considerations for Concurrent Supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trexler, Eric T; Smith-Ryan, Abbie E

    2015-12-01

    Nutritional supplementation is a common practice among athletes, with creatine and caffeine among the most commonly used ergogenic aids. Hundreds of studies have investigated the ergogenic potential of creatine supplementation, with consistent improvements in strength and power reported for exercise bouts of short duration (≤ 30 s) and high intensity. Caffeine has been shown to improve endurance exercise performance, but results are mixed in the context of strength and sprint performance. Further, there is conflicting evidence from studies comparing the ergogenic effects of coffee and caffeine anhydrous supplementation. Previous research has identified independent mechanisms by which creatine and caffeine may improve strength and sprint performance, leading to the formulation of multi-ingredient supplements containing both ingredients. Although scarce, research has suggested that caffeine ingestion may blunt the ergogenic effect of creatine. While a pharmacokinetic interaction is unlikely, authors have suggested that this effect may be explained by opposing effects on muscle relaxation time or gastrointestinal side effects from simultaneous consumption. The current review aims to evaluate the ergogenic potential of creatine and caffeine in the context of high-intensity exercise. Research directly comparing coffee and caffeine anhydrous is discussed, along with previous studies evaluating the concurrent supplementation of creatine and caffeine.

  12. Caffeinated Energy Drinks -- A Growing Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reissig, Chad J.; Strain, Eric C.; Griffiths, Roland R.

    2009-01-01

    Since the introduction of Red Bull in Austria in 1987 and in the United States in 1997, the energy drink market has grown exponentially. Hundreds of different brands are now marketed, with caffeine content ranging from a modest 50 mg to an alarming 505 mg per can or bottle. Regulation of energy drinks, including content labeling and health warnings differs across countries, with some of the most lax regulatory requirements in the U.S. The absence of regulatory oversight has resulted in aggressive marketing of energy drinks, targeted primarily toward young males, for psychoactive, performance-enhancing and stimulant drug effects. There are increasing reports of caffeine intoxication from energy drinks, and it seems likely that problems with caffeine dependence and withdrawal will also increase. In children and adolescents who are not habitual caffeine users, vulnerability to caffeine intoxication may be markedly increased due to an absence of pharmacological tolerance. Genetic factors may also contribute to an individual’s vulnerability to caffeine related disorders including caffeine intoxication, dependence, and withdrawal. The combined use of caffeine and alcohol is increasing sharply, and studies suggest that such combined use may increase the rate of alcohol-related injury. Several studies suggest that energy drinks may serve as a gateway to other forms of drug dependence. Regulatory implications concerning labeling and advertising, and the clinical implications for children and adolescents are discussed. PMID:18809264

  13. Effects of caffeine on sleep and cognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snel, Jan; Lorist, Monicque M.; van Dongen, H.P.A.; Kerkhof, G.A.

    2011-01-01

    Caffeine can be used effectively to manipulate our mental state. It is beneficial in restoring low levels of wakefulness and in counteracting degraded cognitive task performance due to sleep deprivation. However, caffeine may produce detrimental effects on subsequent sleep, resulting in daytime

  14. Excessive oral intake caffeine altered cerebral cortex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Caffeine is commonly consumed in an effort to enhance speed in performance and wakefulness. However, little is known about the deleterious effects it can produce on the brain, this study aimed at determining the extents of effects and damage that can be caused by excessive consumption of caffeine on the cerebral cortex ...

  15. Caffeine reduces dipyridamole-induced myocardial ischemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smits, P.; Aengevaeren, W.R.; Corstens, F.H.; Thien, T. (Univ. of Nijmegen (Netherlands))

    1989-10-01

    The mechanism of action of coronary vasodilation after dipyridamole may be based on inhibition of cellular uptake of circulating endogenous adenosine. Since caffeine has been reported to be a competitive antagonist of adenosine we studied the effect of caffeine on the outcome of dipiridamole-{sup 201}Tl cardiac imaging in one patient. During caffeine abstinence dipyridamole induced myocardial ischemia with down-slope ST depressions on the ECG, and reversible perfusion defects on the scintigrams. When the test was repeated 1 wk later on similar conditions, but now shortly after infusion of caffeine (4 mg/kg), the ECG showed nodepressions, and the scintigrams only slight signs of ischemia. We conclude that when caffeine abstinence is not sufficient, the widespread use of coffee and related products may be responsible for false-negative findings in dipyridamole-201Tl cardiac imaging.

  16. Caffeine reduces dipyridamole-induced myocardial ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smits, P.; Aengevaeren, W.R.; Corstens, F.H.; Thien, T.

    1989-01-01

    The mechanism of action of coronary vasodilation after dipyridamole may be based on inhibition of cellular uptake of circulating endogenous adenosine. Since caffeine has been reported to be a competitive antagonist of adenosine we studied the effect of caffeine on the outcome of dipiridamole- 201 Tl cardiac imaging in one patient. During caffeine abstinence dipyridamole induced myocardial ischemia with down-slope ST depressions on the ECG, and reversible perfusion defects on the scintigrams. When the test was repeated 1 wk later on similar conditions, but now shortly after infusion of caffeine (4 mg/kg), the ECG showed nodepressions, and the scintigrams only slight signs of ischemia. We conclude that when caffeine abstinence is not sufficient, the widespread use of coffee and related products may be responsible for false-negative findings in dipyridamole-201Tl cardiac imaging

  17. Studies of action of heavy metals on caffeine degradation by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Caffeine is an important naturally occurring compound that can be degraded by bacteria. Excessive caffeine consumption is known to have some adverse problems. Previously, Leifsonia sp. strain SIU capable of degrading caffeine was isolated from agricultural soil. The bacterium was tested for its ability to degrade caffeine ...

  18. Theophylline cocrystals prepared by spray drying: physicochemical properties and aerosolization performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhalaweh, Amjad; Kaialy, Waseem; Buckton, Graham; Gill, Hardyal; Nokhodchi, Ali; Velaga, Sitaram P

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this work was to characterize theophylline (THF) cocrystals prepared by spray drying in terms of the physicochemical properties and inhalation performance when aerosolized from a dry powder inhaler. Cocrystals of theophylline with urea (THF-URE), saccharin (THF-SAC) and nicotinamide (THF-NIC) were prepared by spray drying. Milled THF and THF-SAC cocrystals were also used for comparison. The physical purity, particle size, particle morphology and surface energy of the materials were determined. The in vitro aerosol performance of the spray-dried cocrystals, drug-alone and a drug-carrier aerosol, was assessed. The spray-dried particles had different size distributions, morphologies and surface energies. The milled samples had higher surface energy than those prepared by spray drying. Good agreement was observed between multi-stage liquid impinger and next-generation impactor in terms of assessing spray-dried THF particles. The fine particle fractions of both formulations were similar for THF, but drug-alone formulations outperformed drug-carrier formulations for the THF cocrystals. The aerosolization performance of different THF cocrystals was within the following rank order as obtained from both drug-alone and drug-carrier formulations: THF-NIC>THF-URE>THF-SAC. It was proposed that micromeritic properties dominate over particle surface energy in terms of determining the aerosol performance of THF cocrystals. Spray drying could be a potential technique for preparing cocrystals with modified physical properties.

  19. [Relation between dose, plasma concentration and therapeutic effect of theophylline in children with sleep apnea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Palomares, C; Ugartechea, J C; Palma-Aguirre, J A; Juárez-Olguín, H; Calderón-Mandujano, B

    1989-12-01

    The plasma concentration of theophylline was determined in twelve children with infantile sleep apnea (average age 48.5 days). The purpose of the study was to correlate concentrations with the dosages given, the therapeutic response and any adverse effects which could arise. In addition, other pharmacokinetic values were found, half-life (t 1/2) and clearance concentrations (Clss). The oral maintenance dose used was 4 mg/kg/24 h. The serum concentration of theophylline was determined by a homogeneous immunoassay enzyme technique (EMIT). A bad correlation was found (r = 0.45) between the oral dosage given and the plasma concentrations found. This was probably due to variations in the clearance of the drug. Yet, plasma concentrations fell between 3.0 and 12.6 micrograms/mL, enough to satisfactorily control apneic episodes in all the children included in the study without undesirable side-effects. Only one patient had some trouble in falling asleep and showed signs of irritability. The half-life was 13.30 +/- 7.46 hours and Clss was 36.64 +/- 12.98 mL/h/kg. In general, our results correlate with those reported in the literature. The accuracy of the pharmacokinetic parameters with two samples is reliable, therefore avoiding the use of multiple sampling in this group of children.

  20. Caffeine Consumption Among Naval Aviation Candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sather, Thomas E; Williams, Ronald D; Delorey, Donald R; Woolsey, Conrad L

    2017-04-01

    Education frequently dictates students need to study for prolonged periods of time to adequately prepare for examinations. This is especially true with aviation preflight indoctrination (API) candidates who have to assimilate large volumes of information in a limited amount of time during API training. The purpose of this study was to assess caffeine consumption patterns (frequency, type, and volume) among naval aviation candidates attending API to determine the most frequently consumed caffeinated beverage and to examine if the consumption of a nonenergy drink caffeinated beverage was related to energy drink consumption. Data were collected by means of an anonymous 44-item survey administered and completed by 302 students enrolled in API at Naval Air Station Pensacola, FL. Results indicated the most frequently consumed caffeinated beverage consumed by API students was coffee (86.4%), with daily coffee consumption being approximately 28% and the most frequent pattern of consumption being 2 cups per day (85%). The least frequently consumed caffeinated beverages reported were energy drinks (52%) and energy shots (29.1%). The present study also found that the consumption patterns (weekly and daily) of caffeinated beverages (coffee and cola) were positively correlated to energy drink consumption patterns. Naval aviation candidates' consumption of caffeinated beverages is comparable to other college and high school cohorts. This study found that coffee and colas were the beverages of choice, with energy drinks and energy shots being the least frequently reported caffeinated beverages used. Additionally, a relationship between the consumption of caffeinated beverages and energy drinks was identified.Sather TE, Williams RD, Delorey DR, Woolsey CL. Caffeine consumption among naval aviation candidates. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(4):399-405.

  1. Caffeine Citrate Dosing Adjustments to Assure Stable Caffeine Concentrations in Preterm Neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Gilbert; Datta, Alexandre N; Jost, Kerstin; Schulzke, Sven M; van den Anker, John; Pfister, Marc

    2017-12-01

    To identify dosing strategies that will assure stable caffeine concentrations in preterm neonates despite changing caffeine clearance during the first 8 weeks of life. A 3-step simulation approach was used to compute caffeine doses that would achieve stable caffeine concentrations in the first 8 weeks after birth: (1) a mathematical weight change model was developed based on published weight distribution data; (2) a pharmacokinetic model was developed based on published models that accounts for individual body weight, postnatal, and gestational age on caffeine clearance and volume of distribution; and (3) caffeine concentrations were simulated for different dosing regimens. A standard dosing regimen of caffeine citrate (using a 20 mg/kg loading dose and 5 mg/kg/day maintenance dose) is associated with a maximal trough caffeine concentration of 15 mg/L after 1 week of treatment. However, trough concentrations subsequently exhibit a clinically relevant decrease because of increasing clearance. Model-based simulations indicate that an adjusted maintenance dose of 6 mg/kg/day in the second week, 7 mg/kg/day in the third to fourth week and 8 mg/kg/day in the fifth to eighth week assures stable caffeine concentrations with a target trough concentration of 15 mg/L. To assure stable caffeine concentrations during the first 8 weeks of life, the caffeine citrate maintenance dose needs to be increased by 1 mg/kg every 1-2 weeks. These simple adjustments are expected to maintain exposure to stable caffeine concentrations throughout this important developmental period and might enhance both the short- and long-term beneficial effects of caffeine treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. [Severe caffeine poisoning with rhabdomyolysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolter, J; Grün, D; Otto, S

    2018-04-01

    We report the case of a young man who took a large amount of caffeine powder dissolved in water in a suicide attempt. He was found comatose. The initial diagnosis was difficult. In hospital he suffered from rhabdomyolysis with renal failure and sepsis rapidly developed. After renal replacement treatment with hemodialysis, long-term artificial ventilation with tracheotomy and a 3‑week stay in the intensive care unit, the patient could be discharged to a rehabilitation center.

  3. Synthesis, biological and physicochemical properties of Zinc(II) salicylate and 5-chlorosalicylate complexes with theophylline and urea

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bujdošová, Z.; Gyoryova, K.; Kovářová, Jana; Hudecová, D.; Halás, L.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 98, č. 1 (2009), s. 151-159 ISSN 1388-6150 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : zinc(II) salicylate * theophylline * urea Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.587, year: 2009

  4. Characterization of Individuals Seeking Treatment for Caffeine Dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Juliano, Laura M.; Evatt, Daniel P.; Richards, Brian D.; Griffiths, Roland R.

    2012-01-01

    Previous investigations have identified individuals who meet criteria for DSM-IV-TR substance dependence as applied to caffeine, but there is little research on treatments for caffeine dependence. This study aimed to thoroughly characterize individuals who are seeking treatment for problematic caffeine use. Ninety-four individuals who identified as being psychologically or physically dependent on caffeine, or who had tried unsuccessfully to modify caffeine consumption participated in a face-t...

  5. Caffeine products consumption habits of vilnius university students

    OpenAIRE

    Acus, Edgaras

    2017-01-01

    A small amount of caffeine in caffeine-containing products helps with stimulating labor activity, but an overdose of caffeine can cause a health hazard, so it is important to pay close attention to the use of caffeine-containing products. The use of psychoactive drugs is very important public health problem, because students attitude to addictive substances can influence their behavior in their family, the labor market and in society in general. Although caffeine is a natural product, but the...

  6. Energy Drinks and the Neurophysiological Impact of Caffeine

    OpenAIRE

    Persad, Leeana Aarthi Bagwath

    2011-01-01

    Caffeine is the most widely used psychoactive stimulant with prevalent use across all age groups. It is a naturally occurring substance found in the coffee bean, tea leaf, the kola nut, cocoa bean. Recently there has been an increase in energy drink consumption leading to caffeine abuse, with aggressive marketing and poor awareness on the consequences of high caffeine use. With caffeine consumption being so common, it is vital to know the impact caffeine has on the body, as its effects can in...

  7. Energy drinks and the neurophysiological impacts of caffeine

    OpenAIRE

    Leeana eBagwath Persad

    2011-01-01

    Caffeine is the most widely used psychoactive stimulant with prevalent use across all age groups. It is a naturally occurring substance found in the coffee bean, tea leaf, the kola nut, cocoa bean. Recently there has been an increase in energy drink consumption leading to caffeine abuse, with aggressive marketing and poor awareness on the consequences of high caffeine use. With caffeine consumption being so common, it is vital to know the impact caffeine has on the body, as its effects can in...

  8. Caffeine degradation by Rhizopus delemar in packed bed column bioreactor using coffee husk as substrate Degradação de cafeína por Rhizopus delemar em biorreator de colunas usando casca de café como substrato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Vanessa Tagliari

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Various microorganisms including bacteria, yeast and fungi can degrade caffeine. There are few publications about caffeine degradation pathway in filamentous fungi, mainly by solid-state fermentation (SSF. Studies were carried out on degradation of caffeine and their metabolites by filamentous fungi in SSF using coffee husk as substrate. The purpose of this work was to investigate the caffeine degradation pathway by Rhizopus delemar in packed bed column fermenter and to compare this degradation metabolism with glass flasks fermentation. The methylxanthines were quantified by HPLC analysis. The experiments were realized with the optimized conditions in previous experiments: pH 6.5, 28ºC, inoculation rate 10(6 spores/g substrate, aeration rate 60 mL/min and initial moisture 73%. Under these conditions, after 72 hous of fermentation was achieved only 0.19% of caffeine and 0.014% of theophylline in the coffee husk. The strain proved to be able for caffeine and theophylline degradation by SSF in packed bed column bioreactor.Diversos microrganismos incluindo bactérias, fungos e leveduras são capazes de assimilar a cafeína de meios sintéticos ou de resíduos de café. Existem poucos trabalhos sobre a via de degradação da cafeína em fungos filamentosos, principalmente por fermentação no estado sólido (FES. Estudos de degradação da cafeína por fungos filamentosos em FES usando casca de café como substrato vêm sendo realizados. O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar a via de degradação da cafeína por Rhizopus delemar em biorreator de colunas aeradas e comparar este metabolismo de degradação com o da fermentação em frascos de vidro. As metilxantinas foram quantificadas por análises em HPLC. Os experimentos foram realizados com as condições otimizadas previamente: pH 6,5, 28ºC, 10(6 espores/g substrato, vazão de ar 60 mL/min e 73% de umidade inicial. Após 90 horas de fermentação, 65% da cafeína foi reduzida, resultando 0

  9. Dispelling the myth that habitual caffeine consumption influences the performance response to acute caffeine supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Lívia de Souza; Painelli, Vitor de Salles; Yamaguchi, Guilherme; Oliveira, Luana Farias de; Saunders, Bryan; da Silva, Rafael Pires; Maciel, Erika; Artioli, Guilherme Giannini; Roschel, Hamilton; Gualano, Bruno

    2017-07-01

    This study investigates the influence of habitual caffeine intake on aerobic exercise-performance responses to acute caffeine supplementation. A double-blind, crossover, counterbalanced study was performed. Forty male endurance-trained cyclists were allocated into tertiles, according to their daily caffeine intake: low (58 ± 29 mg/d), moderate (143 ± 25 mg/d), and high (351 ± 139 mg/d) consumers. Participants completed three trials in which they performed simulated cycling time trials (TTs) in the fastest time possible following ingestion of the following: caffeine (CAF: 6 mg/kg body mass), placebo (PLA), and no supplement (CON). A mixed-model analysis revealed that TT performance was significantly improved in CAF compared with PLA and CON (29.92 ± 2.18 vs. 30.81 ± 2.67 and 31.14 ± 2.71 min, respectively; P = 0.0002). Analysis of covariance revealed no influence of habitual caffeine intake as a covariate on exercise performance ( P = 0.47). TT performance was not significantly different among tertiles ( P = 0.75). No correlation was observed between habitual caffeine intake and absolute changes (CAF - CON) in TT performance with caffeine ( P = 0.524). Individual analysis showed that eight, seven, and five individuals improved above the variation of the test in CAF in the low, moderate, and high tertiles, respectively. A Fisher's exact test did not show any significant differences in the number of individuals who improved in CAF among the tertiles ( P > 0.05). Blood lactate and ratings of perceived exertion were not different between trials and tertiles ( P > 0.05). Performance effects of acute caffeine supplementation during an ~30-min cycling TT performance were not influenced by the level of habitual caffeine consumption. NEW & NOTEWORTHY There has been a long-standing paradigm that habitual caffeine intake may influence the ergogenicity of caffeine supplementation. Low, moderate, and high caffeine consumers showed similar absolute and

  10. The distribution dynamics and desorption behaviour of mobile pharmaceuticals and caffeine to combined sewer sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajj-Mohamad, M; Darwano, H; Duy, S Vo; Sauvé, S; Prévost, M; Arp, H P H; Dorner, S

    2017-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals are discharged to the environment from wastewater resource recovery facilities, sewer overflows, and illicit sewer connections. To understand the fate of pharmaceuticals, there is a need to better understand their sorption dynamics to suspended sediments (SS) and settled sediments (StS) in sewer systems. In this study, such sorption dynamics to both SS and StS were assessed using a batch equilibrium method under both static and dynamic conditions. Experiments were performed with natively occurring and artificially modified concentrations of sewer pharmaceuticals (acetaminophen, theophylline, carbamazepine, and a metabolite of carbamazepine) and caffeine. Differences in apparent distribution coefficients, K d,app , between SS and StS were related to differences in their organic carbon (OC) content, and the practice of artificially modifying the concentration. K d,app values of modified contaminant concentrations and high OC sediments were substantially higher. Pseudo-second order desorption rates for these mobile compounds were also quantified. Successive flushing events to simulate the addition of stormwater to sewer networks revealed that aqueous concentrations would not necessarily decrease, because the added water will rapidly return to equilibrium concentrations with the sediments. Sorption and desorption kinetics must be considered in addition to dilution, to avoid underestimating the influence of dilution on concentrations of pharmaceuticals discharged to the environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Caffeine addiction: Need for awareness and research and regulatory measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Shobhit; Srivastava, Adya Shanker; Verma, Raghunath Prasad; Maggu, Gaurav

    2017-02-04

    Caffeine consumption has been constantly growing in India especially among children and youngsters. Addictive potential of caffeine has long been reported, still there is lack of awareness about caffeine abuse in India. There is an intense need for appropriate public health regulatory measures and awareness about addictive potential & harms related to caffeine. To the best of our knowledge this is first case from India highlighting several important issues with progressive caffeine abuse resulting in dependence leading to physical, psychological, academic and social consequences; psychotic symptoms during intoxication; predisposing factors as impulsivity and novelty seeking traits in pre-morbid personality; psychosis in family; poor awareness of health hazards even among medical professionals. Widely variable caffeine containing products are available but caffeine content or its safety limit is not mentioned on caffeine products in India. Due to harmful consequences, legal availability to children, growing consumption of caffeine products, it is utmost essential to recognize caffeine as addictive substance and impose regulatory measures on sale, advertisement, maximum caffeine content, health consequences and safety limits of caffeine containing products. Further school teachers, parents and medical practitioners need to be made aware of health hazards of caffeine. Caffeine use shall always be enquired from patients presenting with psychiatric complaints. Further research and survey are required on caffeine use and related problems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Caffeine deprivation affects vigilance performance and mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, J D; Phillips-Bute, B G

    1998-08-01

    The effects of brief caffeine deprivation on vigilance performance, mood, and symptoms of caffeine withdrawal were studied in habitual coffee drinkers. Thirty male and female coffee drinkers were tested twice at midday (1130 to 1330 hours) after mornings in which they either consumed caffeinated beverages ad lib or abstained. Vigilance performance was tested with a 30-min computerized visual monitoring task. Mood and withdrawal symptom reports were collected by questionnaires. Caffeine deprivation was associated with impaired vigilance performance characterized by a reduction in the percentage of targets detected and an increase in response time, and by subjective reports of decreased vigor and increased fatigue and symptoms characterized by sleepiness, headache, and reduced ability to work. Even short periods of caffeine deprivation, equivalent in length to skipping regular morning coffee, can produce deficits in sustained attention and noticeable unpleasant caffeine-withdrawal symptoms in habitual coffee drinkers. Such symptoms may be a common side-effect of habitual caffeine consumption that contributes to the maintenance of this behavior.

  13. Caffeine-containing energy drink improves sprint performance during an international rugby sevens competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Coso, Juan; Portillo, Javier; Muñoz, Gloria; Abián-Vicén, Javier; Gonzalez-Millán, Cristina; Muñoz-Guerra, Jesús

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a caffeine-containing energy drink on physical performance during a rugby sevens competition. A second purpose was to investigate the post-competition urinary caffeine concentration derived from the energy drink intake. On two non-consecutive days of a friendly tournament, 16 women from the Spanish National rugby sevens Team (mean age and body mass = 23 ± 2 years and 66 ± 7 kg) ingested 3 mg of caffeine per kg of body mass in the form of an energy drink (Fure(®), ProEnergetics) or the same drink without caffeine (placebo). After 60 min for caffeine absorption, participants performed a 15-s maximal jump test, a 6 × 30 m sprint test, and then played three rugby sevens games against another national team. Individual running pace and instantaneous speed during the games were assessed using global positioning satellite (GPS) devices. Urine samples were obtained pre and post-competition. In comparison to the placebo, the ingestion of the energy drink increased muscle power output during the jump series (23.5 ± 10.1 vs. 25.6 ± 11.8 kW, P = 0.05), running pace during the games (87.5 ± 8.3 vs. 95.4 ± 12.7 m/min, P caffeine concentration than the placebo (3.3 ± 0.7 vs. 0.2 ± 0.1 μg/mL; P caffeine in the form of a commercially available energy drink considerably enhanced physical performance during a women's rugby sevens competition.

  14. Content of 4(5-methylimidazole, caffeine and chlorogenic acid in commercial coffee brands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thi Thanh Dieu Phan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Content of 4(5-methylimidazole (4-MeI, caffeine and chlorogenic acid in commercial coffee brands were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC with UV DAD and MS detectors. Positive ion ESI mass spectra of the 4-MeI standard yielded intense signals corresponding to [M+H]+ (83.0604 and [2M+H]+ ions (165.1115. Also, adducts of 4-MeI with acetonitrile from mobile were detected - [M+ACN]+ ions (124.0849. The LOD of 2.5 ng mL-1 and LOQ of 8.4 ng.mL-1 were calculated according to the following formulas: LOD = 3.SD/S, and LOQ = 10.SD/S, where S is the slope of the calibration curve and SD is the standard deviation of the noise. The caffeine content was compared to the results of the standard addition, 1st derivative and liquid-liquid extraction spectrophotometry. 4-MeI was in tens µg g-1 in the Vietnamese coffees while in units µg.g-1 in all Czech and Brazilian coffees (<2.4 µg.g-1 and <4.9 µg.g-1, respectively. The results for caffeine were within the documented range (0.31 - 2.20% in all coffee samples. The lower content of caffeine and chlorogenic acid was observed in Vietnamese coffees. All the methods used for determination of caffeine in the Czech and Brazilian coffees gave acceptable precision and accuracy. However, there were significant differences in the results in Vietnamese coffees. The caffeine extractability (100 °C, 3 min brewing almost reached 100% in Czech and Brazilian coffees, while it was less than 90% in Vietnamese coffees. The Czech and Brazilian coffees tend to produce more caffeine in brews than the Vietnamese coffee because of the different composition of blends and the particle size degree.  

  15. Estimation of caffeine intake from analysis of caffeine metabolites in wastewater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gracia-Lor, Emma; Rousis, Nikolaos I.; Zuccato, Ettore

    2017-01-01

    with the human urinary excretion profile. A good match was found for 1,7-dimethyluric acid, an exclusive caffeine metabolite, suggesting that might be a suitable biomarker in wastewater for assessing population-level caffeine consumption. A correction factor was developed considering the percentage of excretion......Caffeine metabolites in wastewater were investigated as potential biomarkers for assessing caffeine intake in a population. The main human urinary metabolites of caffeine were measured in the urban wastewater of ten European cities and the metabolic profiles in wastewater were compared...... of this metabolite in humans, according to published pharmacokinetic studies. Daily caffeine intake estimated from wastewater analysis was compared with the average daily intake calculated from the average amount of coffee consumed by country per capita. Good agreement was found in some cities but further...

  16. Ameliorative effect of salicylic acid and theophylline on photosynthetic pigment content in gamma irradiated french bean varieties, using "6"0Co as a source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, Pradeep K.; Vishwakarma, Kapil Kumar; Shukla, Saumya; Sharma, Richa; Ramteke, P.W.; Misra, Pragati

    2017-01-01

    Irradiation of seeds may cause genetic variability that enable plant breeders to select new genotypes with improved qualitative and quantitative characteristics. An experiment was conducted to study the protective role of salicylic acid and theophylline on photosynthetic pigments of gamma exposed french bean. Seeds of four French bean were treated by different doses of gamma radiation using "6"0Co as source. The results showed that the application of salicylic acid and theophylline significantly increased chlorophyll a content, chlorophyll b content, total chlorophyll content and carotenoid content. Salicylic acid was more effective than theophylline in overcoming the radiation effects and therefore, showed more protection to the photosynthetic pigments. (author)

  17. Cognitive and psychomotor performance, mood, and pressor effects of caffeine after 4, 6 and 8 h caffeine abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heatherley, Susan V; Hayward, Robert C; Seers, Helen E; Rogers, Peter J

    2005-04-01

    Many studies have found that caffeine consumed after overnight caffeine abstinence improves cognitive performance and mood. Much less is known, however, about the effects of caffeine after shorter periods of caffeine abstinence. The aim of this study was to measure the effects on psychomotor and cognitive performance, mood, hand steadiness, blood pressure and heart rate of caffeine administration after periods of 4, 6, and 8 h of caffeine abstinence. Participants (n = 49, 27 female) were moderate to moderate-high caffeine consumers (mean daily intake 370 mg/day). Following overnight caffeine abstinence, a 'pre-dose' of caffeine (1.2 mg/kg) was administered at 9 A.M, 11 A.M or 1 P.M. The participants started a baseline battery of measurements at 4 P.M.: before receiving caffeine (1.2 mg/kg) or placebo at 5 P.M.: They then performed the battery of tests again, starting at 5:30 P.M. This was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised study. Performance and mood measurements confirmed a psychostimulant action of caffeine (versus placebo), but only after 8 h of caffeine abstinence. Caffeine also increased blood pressure after 8-h abstinence, whereas hand steadiness was decreased and perception of task demand was increased by caffeine after 4 h, but not after 6- and 8-h abstinence. A second cup-of-coffee equivalent dose of caffeine only reliably affected cognitive performance and mood after an 8-h interval between doses, but not after shorter intervals (when caffeine had some adverse effects). These results show that, apart from caffeine consumption soon after waking, the daily pattern of caffeine intake of many typical caffeine consumers is not well explained by the short-term psychostimulant effects of caffeine.

  18. Caffeine promotes global spatial processing in habitual and non-habitual caffeine consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace E. Giles

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Information processing is generally biased toward global cues, often at the expense of local information. Equivocal extant data suggests that arousal states may accentuate either a local or global processing bias, at least partially dependent on the nature of the manipulation, task and stimuli. To further differentiate the conditions responsible for such equivocal results we varied caffeine doses to alter physiological arousal states and measured their effect on tasks requiring the retrieval of local versus global spatial knowledge. In a double-blind, repeated-measures design, non-habitual (Exp. 1; N=36, M=42.5±29 mg/day caffeine and habitual (Exp. 2; N=34, M=579.5±311.5 mg/day caffeine caffeine consumers completed four test sessions corresponding to each of four caffeine doses (0 mg, 100 mg, 200 mg, 400 mg. During each test session, participants consumed a capsule containing one of the three doses of caffeine or placebo, waited sixty minutes, and then completed two spatial tasks, one involving memorizing maps and one spatial descriptions. A spatial statement verification task tested local versus global spatial knowledge by differentially probing memory for proximal versus distal landmark relationships. On the map learning task, results indicated that caffeine enhanced memory for distal (i.e. global compared to proximal (i.e. local comparisons at 100 (marginal, 200, and 400 mg caffeine in non-habitual consumers, and marginally beginning at 200 mg caffeine in habitual consumers. On the spatial descriptions task, caffeine enhanced memory for distal compared to proximal comparisons beginning at 100 mg in non-habitual but not habitual consumers. We thus provide evidence that caffeine-induced physiological arousal amplifies global spatial processing biases, and these effects are at least partially driven by habitual caffeine consumption.

  19. Faster but not smarter: effects of caffeine and caffeine withdrawal on alertness and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Peter J; Heatherley, Susan V; Mullings, Emma L; Smith, Jessica E

    2013-03-01

    Despite 100 years of psychopharmacological research, the extent to which caffeine consumption benefits human functioning remains unclear. To measure the effects of overnight caffeine abstinence and caffeine administration as a function of level of habitual caffeine consumption. Medium-high (n = 212) and non-low (n = 157) caffeine consumers completed self-report measures and computer-based tasks before (starting at 10:30 AM) and after double-blind treatment with either caffeine (100 mg, then 150 mg) or placebo. The first treatment was given at 11:15 AM and the second at 12:45 PM, with post-treatment measures repeated twice between 1:45 PM and 3:30 PM. Caffeine withdrawal was associated with some detrimental effects at 10:30 AM, and more severe effects, including greater sleepiness, lower mental alertness, and poorer performance on simple reaction time, choice reaction time and recognition memory tasks, later in the afternoon. Caffeine improved these measures in medium-high consumers but, apart from decreasing sleepiness, had little effect on them in non-low consumers. The failure of caffeine to increase mental alertness and improve mental performance in non-low consumers was related to a substantial caffeine-induced increase in anxiety/jitteriness that offset the benefit of decreased sleepiness. Caffeine enhanced physical performance (faster tapping speed and faster simple and choice reaction times) in both medium-high and non-low consumers. While caffeine benefits motor performance and tolerance develops to its tendency to increase anxiety/jitteriness, tolerance to its effects on sleepiness means that frequent consumption fails to enhance mental alertness and mental performance.

  20. Caffeine enhances working memory for extraverts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smillie, Luke D; Gökçen, Elif

    2010-12-01

    Using a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled design we examined the effects of caffeine on working memory (WM) as a function of extraverted personality. Participants (N=59) received 200mg of caffeine and placebo in counterbalanced-order over two sessions prior to completing a 'N-Back' WM paradigm. Findings revealed that caffeine administration relative to the placebo condition resulted in heightened WM performance, but only for extraverted participants. We suggest based on previous theory and research that dopamine function (DA) may be the most plausible mechanism underlying this finding. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Administration of Caffeine in Alternate Forms

    OpenAIRE

    Wickham, Kate A.; Spriet, Lawrence L.

    2018-01-01

    There has been recent interest in the ergogenic effects of caffeine delivered in low doses (~ 200 mg or ~ 3 mg/kg body mass) and administered in forms other than capsules, coffee and sports drinks, including chewing gum, bars, gels, mouth rinses, energy drinks and aerosols. Caffeinated chewing gum is absorbed quicker through the buccal mucosa compared with capsule delivery and absorption in the gut, although total caffeine absorption over time is not different. Rapid absorption may be importa...

  2. Multi-unit dosage formulations of theophylline for controlled release applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhumwangho, Michael U; Okor, Roland S

    2007-01-01

    The study was carried out to investigate the drug release profiles of multi-unit dosage formulations of theophylline consisting of both the fast and slow release components in a unit dose. The fast release component consisted of conventional granules of theophylline formed by mixing the drug powder with starch mucilage (20% w/v) while the slow release component consisted of wax granulations of theophylline formed by triturating the drug powder with a melted Carnauba wax (drug:wax ratio, 4:1). The granules were either filled into capsules or tabletted. In the study design, the drug release characteristics of the individual fast or slow release particles were first determined separately and then mixed in various proportions for the purpose of optimizing the drug release profiles. The evaluating parameters were the prompt release in the first 1 h (mp), the maximum release (m infinity) and the time to attain it (t infinity). Total drug content in each capsule or tablet was 300 mg and two of such were used in dissolution studies. The release kinetics and hence the release mechanism was confirmed by measuring the linear regression coefficient (R2 values) of the release data. The release kinetics was generally most consistent with the Higuchi square root of time relationship (R2 = 0.95). indicating a diffusion-controlled mechanism. The mp (mg) and t infinity (h) values for capsules and tablets of the conventional granules were (420 mg, 3 h) and (348 mg, 5 h), respectively, while for the capsules and tablets of the wax granulations mp and t infinity values were (228 mg, 9 h) and (156 mg, 12 h), respectively, indicating that a combination of wax granulation and tableting markedly retarded drug release. In the multi-unit dose formulations where the conventional and wax granulations were mixed in the ratios 2:1, 1:1 and 1:2 (conventional: matrix), the m infinity and t infinity values for the capsules were (378 mg, 6 h), (326 mg, 6 h) and (272 mg, 7 h), reSpectively. The

  3. Quantitative HPLC Analysis of an Analgesic/Caffeine Formulation: Determination of Caffeine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Glenda K.

    1998-04-01

    A modern high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) laboratory experiment which entails the separation of acetaminophen, aspirin, and caffeine and the quantitative assay of caffeine in commercial mixtures of these compounds has been developed. Our HPLC protocol resolves these compounds in only three minutes with a straightforward chromatographic apparatus which consists of a C-18 column, an isocratic mobile phase, UV detection at 254 nm, and an integrator; an expensive, sophisticated system is not required. The separation is both repeatable and rapid. Moreover, the experiment can be completed in a single three-hour period. The experiment is appropriate for any chemistry student who has completed a minimum of one year of general chemistry and is ideal for an analytical or instrumental analysis course. The experiment detailed herein involves the determination of caffeine in Goody's Extra Strength Headache Powders, a commercially available medication which contains acetaminophen, aspirin, and caffeine as active ingredients. However, the separation scheme is not limited to this brand of medication nor is it limited to caffeine as the analyte. With only minor procedural modifications, students can simultaneously quantitate all of these compounds in a commercial mixture. In our procedure, students prepare a series of four caffeine standard solutions as well as a solution from a pharmaceutical analgesic/caffeine mixture, chromatographically analyze each solution in quadruplicate, and plot relative average caffeine standard peak area versus concentration. From the mathematical relationship that results, the concentration of caffeine in the commercial formulation is obtained. Finally, the absolute standard deviation of the mean concentration is calculated.

  4. Performance effects and metabolic consequences of caffeine and caffeinated energy drink consumption on glucose disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, Jane; Graham, Terry E

    2014-10-01

    This review documents two opposing effects of caffeine and caffeine-containing energy drinks, i.e., their positive effects on athletic performance and their negative impacts on glucose tolerance in the sedentary state. Analysis of studies examining caffeine administration prior to performance-based exercise showed caffeine improved completion time by 3.6%. Similar analyses following consumption of caffeine-containing energy drinks yielded positive, but more varied, benefits, which were likely due to the diverse nature of the studies performed, the highly variable composition of the beverages consumed, and the range of caffeine doses administered. Conversely, analyses of studies administering caffeine prior to either an oral glucose tolerance test or insulin clamp showed a decline in whole-body glucose disposal of ~30%. The consequences of this resistance are unknown, but there may be implications for the development of a number of chronic diseases. Both caffeine-induced performance enhancement and insulin resistance converge with the primary actions of caffeine on skeletal muscle. © 2014 International Life Sciences Institute.

  5. The effects of caffeine ingestion on cortical areas: functional imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chan-A; Kang, Chang-Ki; Son, Young-Don; Choi, Eun-Jung; Kim, Sang-Hoon; Oh, Seung-Taek; Kim, Young-Bo; Park, Chan-Woong; Cho, Zang-Hee

    2014-05-01

    The effect of caffeine as a cognitive enhancer is well known; however, caffeine-induced changes in the cortical regions are still not very clear. Therefore, in this study, we conducted an investigation of the activation and deactivation with blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and of metabolic activity change with positron emission tomography (PET) in the human brain. Fourteen healthy subjects performed a visuomotor task inducing attention with 3T MRI, and PET imaging was also carried out in seven subjects to determine the cerebral glucose metabolic changes of caffeine at rest. The result by fMRI showed increased BOLD activation in the left cerebellum, putamen, insula, thalamus and the right primary motor cortex, and decreased BOLD deactivation in the posterior medial and the left posterior lateral cortex. Also, the resting state PET data showed reduced metabolic activity in the putamen, caudate nucleus, insula, pallidum and posterior medial cortex. The common cortical regions between fMRI and PET, such as putamen, insula and posterior medial cortex, where significant changes occurred after caffeine ingestion, are well known to play an important role in cognitive function like attention. This result suggests that the effect of caffeine as a cognitive enhancer is derived by modulating the attentional areas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Caffeine and Aspirin Protecting Albino Rats A gainst Biochemical and Histological Disorders Induced by Whole Body Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-Rahman, N.A.; Sherif, N.H.

    2015-01-01

    Caffeine is an alkaloid (purine derivative) that contains flavonoids, where as aspirin, natural component of mammalian tissue ( acetylsalicylic acid) is one of the most commonly used non steroidal anti - inflammatory , and it is a necessary factor in the utilization of long - chain fatty acids to produce energy. Furthermore, it has been shown to protect cells from per oxidative stress. Th e objective of the present study is to evaluate the efficacy of caffeine (1,3,7 - trimethyl xanthine) 80 mg/kg b.wt. a nd aspirin ( acetylsalicylic acid) in the amelioration of the physiological and histological changes in stomach and intestine of rats exposed to gamma irradiation . Male albino rats were divided into 8 groups. 1 - Control group: rats not subject to any treatment, 2 - Caffeine group: rats received caffeine ( 80 ml/Kg body weight )via intraperitoneal injection for 21 days, 3 - Aspirin group: rats received aspirin (150 mg / kg body) via intraperitoneal injection for 21 days , 4 - Caffeine + Aspirin group: rats received caffeine a nd aspirin treatment, 5 - Radiation groups: rats were whole body gamma irradiated at 8 Gy , 6 - Caffeine + Radiation group: rats received caffeine for 21 days before whole body gamma irradiation at 8 Gy, 7 - Aspirin + Radiation group: rats received aspirin during 21 days before w hole body gamma irradiation , 8 - Caffeine + Aspirin + Radiation group: rats received caffeine parallel to aspirin for 21 days before whole body gamma irradiation. Animals were sacrificed 24 hrs post irradiation. The results demonstrated that rats exposed to whole body gamma irradiation showed a significant increase in alanine amino transferase (AL ) , aspartate amino transferase ( AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities, and a significant decrease in total protein indicating liver injury. A significant increase in urea, creatinine, Na + ,and K + were recorded indicating kidney damage. Alteration of liver and kidney functions was accompanied by a significant

  7. Effects of low doses of caffeine on cognitive performance, mood and thirst in low and higher caffeine consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, H J; Rogers, P J

    2000-10-01

    Caffeine is present in many widely consumed drinks and some foods. In the fairly extensive literature on the psychostimulant effects of caffeine, there are few dose-response studies and even fewer studies of the effects of doses of caffeine lower than 50 mg (the range of the amounts of caffeine contained in, for example, a typical serving of tea or cola). This study measured the effects of 0, 12.5, 25, 50 and 100 mg caffeine on cognitive performance, mood and thirst in adults with low and moderate to high habitual caffeine intakes. This was a double-blind, within-subjects study. Following overnight caffeine abstinence, participants (n=23) completed a test battery once before and three times after placebo or caffeine administration. The test battery consisted of two performance tests, a long duration simple reaction time task and a rapid visual information processing task, and a mood questionnaire (including also an item on thirst). Effects on performance and mood confirmed a psychostimulant action of caffeine. All doses of caffeine significantly affected cognitive performance, and the dose-response relationships for these effects were rather flat. The effects on performance were more marked in individuals with a higher level of habitual caffeine intake, whereas caffeine increased thirst only in low caffeine consumers. After overnight caffeine abstinence, caffeine can significantly affect cognitive performance, mood and thirst at doses within and even lower than the range of amounts of caffeine contained in a single serving of popular caffeine-containing drinks. Regular caffeine consumers appear to show substantial tolerance to the thirst-increasing but not to the performance and mood effects of caffeine.

  8. Molecular imprinting polymer electrosensor based on gold nanoparticles for theophylline recognition and determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kan, X.; Liu, T.; Zhou, H.; Li, C.; Fang, B.

    2010-01-01

    An electrochemical sensor for theophylline (ThPh) was prepared by electropolymerizing o-phenylenediamine on a glassy carbon electrode in the presence of ThPh via cyclic voltammetry, followed by deposition of gold nanoparticles using a potentiostatic method. The effects of pH, ratio between template molecule and monomer, number of cycles for electropolymerization, and of the solution for extraction were optimized. The current of the electro-active model system hexacyanoferrate(III) and hexacyanoferrate(IV) decreased linearly with successive addition of ThPh in the concentration range between 4. 0 x 10 -7 ∼ 1. 5 x 10 -5 mol.L -1 and 2. 4 x 10 -4 ∼ 3. 4 x 10 -3 mol.L -1 , with a detection limit of 1. 0 x 10 -7 mol.L -1 . The sensor has an excellent recognition capability for ThPh compared to structurally related molecules, can be regenerated and is stable. (author)

  9. Development of theophylline sustained release dosage form based on Kollidon SR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reza, Md Selim; Quadir, Mohiuddin Abdul; Haider, Syed Shabbir

    2002-01-01

    Sustained release theophylline matrix tablets constituting Kollidon SR (Polyvinyl acetate and povidone based matrix retarding polymer) were developed in this study in an attempt to design a dosage form that manifests desirable release profile and thorough adherence to official monographs. Four matrix tablet formulations were prepared by dry blending and direct compression of Kollidon SR and HPMC-15cps (hydroxypropylmethylcellulose) in varying proportion with fixed percentage of theophylline. Tablets containing only Kollidon SR with the active ingredient demonstrated a rapid rate of drug release with an initial burst effect. Incorporation of HPMC-15cps in the matrix tablet prolonged the release of drug with subsequent minimization of burst effect as confirmed by mean dissolution time, T50 and Higuchi release rate data. Among the batches containing HPMC-15 cps, a direct relationship was obtained between release rate and the percentage of HPMC used. A suitable controlled release profile was obtained with the matrix tablets containing 20% Kollidon SR and 30% HPMC-15cps. The formulation showed close resemblance to commercial products and compliance with USP specification. The results were explored and explained by the difference of physico-chemical property and hydration characteristics of the polymers. In addition to this result, the exponential model was applied to characterize the drug release behaviour from polymeric systems. It was found that, Fickian release is predominant in tablets containing Kollidon SR alone and non-Fickian mechanism plays an important role in the release of drug from HPMC containing tablets with a trend towards zero-order or case II release. In vitro release profile of two commercial brands were also undertaken for comparison and modulation of the experimental batches.

  10. Caffeine: How Does It Affect Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... naturally increase your blood pressure, such as exercise, weightlifting or hard physical labor. To see if caffeine ... blood pressure and stress indices in healthy individuals. Nutrition Journal. 2016;15:26. Cano-Marquina A, et ...

  11. Caffeine adsorption of montmorillonite in coffee extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiono, Takashi; Yamamoto, Kenichiro; Yotsumoto, Yuko; Yoshida, Aruto

    2017-08-01

    The growth in health-conscious consumers continues to drive the demand for a wide variety of decaffeinated beverages. We previously developed a new technology using montmorillonite (MMT) in selective decaffeination of tea extract. This study evaluated and compared decaffeination of coffee extract using MMT and activated carbon (AC). MMT adsorbed caffeine without significant adsorption of caffeoylquinic acids (CQAs), feruloylquinic acids (FQAs), dicaffeoylquinic acids (di-CQAs), or caffeoylquinic lactones (CQLs). AC adsorbed caffeine, chlorogenic acids (CGAs) and CQLs simultaneously. The results suggested that the adsorption selectivity for caffeine in coffee extract is higher in MMT than AC. The caffeine adsorption isotherms of MMT in coffee extract fitted well to the Langmuir adsorption model. The adsorption properties in coffee extracts from the same species were comparable, regardless of roasting level and locality of growth. Our findings suggest that MMT is a useful adsorbent in the decaffeination of a wide range of coffee extracts.

  12. Caffeinated alcohol beverages: a public health concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attwood, Angela S

    2012-01-01

    Consumption of alcohol mixed with caffeinated energy drinks is becoming popular, and the number of pre-mixed caffeinated alcohol products on the worldwide market is increasing. There is public health concern and even occasional legal restriction relating to these drinks, due to associations with increased intoxication and harms. The precise nature and degree of the pharmacological relationship between caffeine and alcohol is not yet elucidated, but it is proposed that caffeine attenuates the sedative effects of alcohol intoxication while leaving motor and cognitive impairment unaffected. This creates a potentially precarious scenario for users who may underestimate their level of intoxication and impairment. While legislation in some countries has restricted production or marketing of pre-mixed products, many individuals mix their own energy drink-alcohol 'cocktails'. Wider dissemination of the risks might help balance marketing strategies that over-emphasize putative positive effects.

  13. Caffeine: Can It Help Me Lose Weight?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... consumption, functionality, safety, and regulatory matters. Journal of Food Science. 2010;75:R77. Bouchard D, et al. Coffee, tea and their additives: Association with BMI and waist circumference. Obesity Facts. 2010;3:345. Caffeine. Natural Medicines Comprehensive ...

  14. Characterization of individuals seeking treatment for caffeine dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliano, Laura M; Evatt, Daniel P; Richards, Brian D; Griffiths, Roland R

    2012-12-01

    Previous investigations have identified individuals who meet criteria for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; DSM-IV-TR; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) substance dependence as applied to caffeine, but there is little research on treatments for caffeine dependence. This study aimed to thoroughly characterize individuals who are seeking treatment for problematic caffeine use. Ninety-four individuals who identified as being psychologically or physically dependent on caffeine, or who had tried unsuccessfully to modify caffeine consumption participated in a face-to-face diagnostic clinical interview. They also completed measures concerning caffeine use and quitting history, reasons for seeking treatment, and standardized self-report measures of psychological functioning. Caffeine treatment seekers (mean age 41 years, 55% women) consumed an average of 548 mg caffeine per day. The primary source of caffeine was coffee for 50% of the sample and soft drinks for 37%. Eighty-eight percent reported prior serious attempts to modify caffeine use (mean 2.7 prior attempts), and 43% reported being advised by a medical professional to reduce or eliminate caffeine. Ninety-three percent met criteria for caffeine dependence when generic DSM-IV-TR substance dependence criteria were applied to caffeine use. The most commonly endorsed criteria were withdrawal (96%), persistent desire or unsuccessful efforts to control use (89%), and use despite knowledge of physical or psychological problems caused by caffeine (87%). The most common reasons for wanting to modify caffeine use were health-related (59%) and not wanting to be dependent on caffeine (35%). This investigation reveals that there are individuals with problematic caffeine use who are seeking treatment and suggests that there is a need for effective caffeine dependence treatments. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  15. Plasma concentrations of the cyclic nucleotides, adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate and guanosine 3'.5'-monophosphate, in healthy adults treated with theophylline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, M; Eriksen, P B; Andersen, O

    1982-01-01

    Plasma concentrations of cyclic adenosine monophosphate and cyclic guanosine monophosphate were measured in 10 health adults before, during and after periods of theophylline administration. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate concentrations did not change significantly, but cyclic guanosine monophosph...

  16. Acute effects of theanine, caffeine and theanine-caffeine combination on attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahathuduwa, Chanaka N; Dassanayake, Tharaka L; Amarakoon, A M Tissa; Weerasinghe, Vajira S

    2017-07-01

    l-theanine is a constituent of tea which is claimed to enhance cognitive functions. We aimed to determine whether theanine and theanine-caffeine combination have acute positive effects on cognitive and neurophysiological measures of attention, compared to caffeine (a positive control) and a placebo in healthy individuals. In a placebo-controlled, five-way crossover trial in 20 healthy male volunteers, we compared the effects of l-theanine (200 mg), caffeine (160 mg), their combination, black tea (one cup) and a placebo (distilled water) on cognitive (simple [SVRT] and recognition visual reaction time [RVRT]) and neurophysiological (event-related potentials [ERPs]) measures of attention. We also recorded visual (VEPs) and motor evoked potentials (MEPs) to examine any effects of treatments on peripheral visual and motor conduction, respectively. Mean RVRT was significantly improved by theanine (P = 0.019), caffeine (P = 0.043), and theanine-caffeine combination (P = 0.001), but not by tea (P = 0.429) or placebo (P = 0.822). VEP or MEP latencies or SVRT did not show significant inter-treatment differences. Theanine (P = 0.001) and caffeine (P = 0.001) elicited significantly larger mean peak-to-peak N2-P300 ERP amplitudes than the placebo, whereas theanine-caffeine combination elicited a significantly larger mean N2-P300 amplitude than placebo (P caffeine (P = 0.005). No significant theanine × caffeine interaction was observed for RVRT or N2-P300 amplitude. A dose of theanine equivalent of eight cups of back tea improves cognitive and neurophysiological measures of selective attention, to a degree that is comparable with that of caffeine. Theanine and caffeine seem to have additive effects on attention in high doses.

  17. A Randomized, Two-Way Crossover Study to Evaluate the Pharmacokinetics of Caffeine Delivered Using Caffeinated Chewing Gum Versus a Marketed Caffeinated Beverage in Healthy Adult Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadek, Paul; Pan, Xiao; Shepherd, Phil; Malandain, Elise; Carney, John; Coleman, Hugh

    2017-12-01

    Background: This study was conducted to compare the pharmacokinetics of caffeine delivered using caffeinated chewing gum to that delivered using a marketed caffeinated beverage (instant coffee) in 16 healthy adult volunteers. Materials and Methods: This was a controlled open-label, randomized, two-period crossover study. Caffeinated chewing gum and a serving of instant coffee, each containing ∼50 mg caffeine, were administered with blood samples collected before and up to 24 hours after administration starts. Plasma caffeine levels were analyzed using validated liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry methodology. Results: There were no statistical differences between the two caffeine products in t max ( p  = 0.3308) and k a ( p  = 0.3894). Although formulated at ∼50 mg caffeine each, mean dose released from chewing gum was ∼18% less than beverage. Dose-normalized area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) 0-t , AUC 0-∞ , and C max was similar between products. Although the criteria were not set a priori and the study was not powered for concluding bioequivalence, the 90% confidence intervals fell within the bioequivalence limit of 80% to 125%. Conclusions: Existing scientific literature on caffeine, based mostly on data from caffeinated beverages, can be leveraged to support the safety of caffeine delivered by chewing gum and current maximum safe caffeine dose advice should be applicable irrespective of delivery method.

  18. Caffeine delays autonomic recovery following acute exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunsawat, Kanokwan; White, Daniel W; Kappus, Rebecca M; Baynard, Tracy

    2015-11-01

    Impaired autonomic recovery of heart rate (HR) following exercise is associated with an increased risk of sudden death. Caffeine, a potent stimulator of catecholamine release, has been shown to augment blood pressure (BP) and sympathetic nerve activity; however, whether caffeine alters autonomic function after a bout of exercise bout remains unclear. In a randomized, crossover study, 18 healthy individuals (26 ± 1 years; 23.9 ± 0.8 kg·m(-2)) ingested caffeine (400 mg) or placebo pills, followed by a maximal treadmill test to exhaustion. Autonomic function and ventricular depolarization/repolarization were determined using heart rate variability (HRV) and corrected QT interval (QTc), respectively, at baseline, 5, 15, and 30 minutes post-exercise. Maximal HR (HRmax) was greater with caffeine (192 ± 2 vs. 190 ± 2 beat·min(-1), p < 0.05). During recovery, HR, mean arterial pressure (MAP), and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) remained elevated with caffeine (p < 0.05). Natural log transformation of low-to-high frequency ratio (LnLF/LnHF) of HRV was increased compared with baseline at all time points in both trials (p < 0.05), with less of an increase during 5 and 15 minutes post-exercise in the caffeine trial (p < 0.05). QTc increased from baseline at all time points in both trials, with greater increases in the caffeine trial (p < 0.05). Caffeine ingestion disrupts post-exercise autonomic recovery because of increased sympathetic nerve activity. The prolonged sympathetic recovery time could subsequently hinder baroreflex function during recovery and disrupt the stability of autonomic function, potentiating a pro-arrhythmogenic state in young adults. © The European Society of Cardiology 2014.

  19. Electrophysiological studies in healthy subjects involving caffeine

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Mamede de; Marcelino, Erica; Mendonça, Alexandre de

    2010-01-01

    Copyright ©2012 IOS Press All rights reserved. We review the electrophysiological studies concerning the effects of caffeine on muscle, lower and upper motor neuron excitability and cognition. Several different methods have been used, such as electromyography, recruitment analysis, H-reflex, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), electroencephalography and event-related potentials. The positive effect of caffeine on vigilance, attention, speed of reaction, information processing and arou...

  20. Inhibitory effects of caffeine on hippocampal neurogenesis and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Myoung-Eun; Park, Kyu-Hyun; Baek, Sun-Yong; Kim, Bong-Seon; Kim, Jae-Bong; Kim, Hak-Jin; Oh, Sae-Ock

    2007-05-18

    Caffeine is one of the most extensively consumed psychostimulants in the world. However, compared to short-term effects of caffeine, the long-term effects of caffeine consumption on learning and memory are poorly characterized. The present study found that long-term consumption of low dose caffeine (0.3 g/L) slowed hippocampus-dependent learning and impaired long-term memory. Caffeine consumption for 4 weeks also significantly reduced hippocampal neurogenesis compared to controls. From these results, we concluded that long-term consumption of caffeine could inhibit hippocampus-dependent learning and memory partially through inhibition of hippocampal neurogenesis.

  1. Electrophysiological studies in healthy subjects involving caffeine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Mamede; Marcelino, Erica; de Mendonça, Alexandre

    2010-01-01

    We review the electrophysiological studies concerning the effects of caffeine on muscle, lower and upper motor neuron excitability and cognition. Several different methods have been used, such as electromyography, recruitment analysis, H-reflex, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), electroencephalography and event-related potentials. The positive effect of caffeine on vigilance, attention, speed of reaction, information processing and arousal is supported by a number of electrophysiological studies. The evidence in favor of an increased muscle fiber resistance is not definitive, but higher or lower motor neuron excitability can occur as a consequence of a greater excitation of the descending input from the brainstem and upper motor neurons. TMS can address the influence of caffeine on the upper motor neuron. Previous studies showed that cortico-motor threshold and intracortical excitatory and inhibitory pathways are not influenced by caffeine. Nonetheless, our results indicate that cortical silent period (CSP) is reduced in resting muscles after caffeine consumption, when stimulating the motor cortex with intensities slightly above threshold. We present new data demonstrating that this effect is also observed in fatigued muscle. We conclude that CSP can be considered a surrogate marker of the effect of caffeine in the brain, in particular of its central ergogenic effect.

  2. Caffeine effects on mood and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herz, R S

    1999-09-01

    The purpose of the present research was to assess whether a psychoactive dose of caffeine would have differential affects on the mood dimensions of arousal versus feelings of pleasantness and whether these mood alterations would influence memory either by (1) the experience of arousal at learning and/or (2) altered and congruent mood states at learning and recall. To address these questions, the administration of 5 mg/kg caffeine or placebo at learning and retrieval sessions was manipulated and subjects' mood was evaluated by several different self-report measures. Sixteen words were incidentally studied during the learning session and memory was evaluated by the number of words correctly recalled at the retrieval session two days later. Results revealed that caffeine reliably increased arousal, but did not affect any emotion dimensions related to feelings of pleasure. Subjects who received caffeine at learning and retrieval were also in equivalent mood states at both sessions. Moreover, caffeine did not produce any effects on memory; thus, neither hypothesis concerning the influence of arousal on memory was supported. These data show that caffeine is a useful method for manipulating arousal in the laboratory without influencing feelings of pleasantness or learning and memory performance.

  3. Prenatal Caffeine Exposure Impairs Pregnancy in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Yadegari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years, concerns have been raised about human reproductive disorders. Caffeine consumption is increasing by the world’s population and there is a relationship between caffeine intake and adverse reproductive outcomes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of caffeine on implantation sites, number of live births, birth weight, crown-rump length (CRL and abnormality in pregnant rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 40 female albino rats (170-190 g were randomly divided into two experimental and two control groups (n=10/each group. In both experimental groups, animals received caffeine intraperitoneally (IP: 150 mg/kg/day on days 1-5 of pregnancy. In experimental group 1, treated animals were euthanized on day 7of pregnancy and the number of implantation sites was counted. In experimental group 2, treated animals maintained pregnant and after delivery, the number of live births, birth weight, CRL and abnormality of neonates were investigated. In control group, animals received IP injections of distilled water. Data were analyzed by independent t test. Results: Results showed that administration of caffeine significantly decreased the number of implantation sites, number of live births and CRL as compared with control group (P<0.05. There were no significant differences regarding birth weight and abnormality of neonate rats between experimental and control groups. Conclusion: These results suggest that caffeine caused anti-fertility effect and significantly decreased CRL in neonate rats.

  4. Caffeine dependence in combination with a family history of alcoholism as a predictor of continued use of caffeine during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svikis, Dace S; Berger, Nathan; Haug, Nancy A; Griffiths, Roland R

    2005-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine whether caffeine dependence and a family history of alcoholism are associated with continued use of caffeine during pregnancy. Forty-four women seeking obstetrical care in an office-based practice completed questionnaires and provided saliva samples at three prenatal visits occurring 2-3, 3-4, and 7 months postconception. On visit 1, the patients received the physician's instructions to stop using caffeine. Structured interviews were used to assign a diagnosis of caffeine dependence (lifetime) and to identify family history of alcoholism. Outcome measures included self-reported levels of caffeine use and saliva caffeine levels at the three prenatal visits. Although most women eliminated or substantially reduced their caffeine consumption between pregnancy awareness and prenatal visit 1, those with a lifetime diagnosis of caffeine dependence and a family history of alcoholism had higher levels of caffeine use and lower rates of abstinence throughout pregnancy. Saliva caffeine levels confirmed these effects. Withdrawal symptoms, functional impairment, and craving were cited as reasons they failed to eliminate or cut back on caffeine use. Fifty percent of the women with both a lifetime diagnosis of caffeine dependence and a family history of alcoholism continued to use caffeine in amounts (>300 mg/day) greater than those considered safe during pregnancy, compared to none of the women without caffeine dependence and a family history of alcoholism. Women with a lifetime diagnosis of caffeine dependence and a family history of alcoholism also reported higher rates of past cigarette smoking and problematic alcohol use. Caffeine-dependent women with a family history of alcoholism were not able to follow their physician's advice to reduce or eliminate caffeine consumption during pregnancy, despite their wanting to do so. This subgroup may require more intensive intervention to ensure caffeine abstinence and may be at greater risk for

  5. Caffeine alters emotion and emotional responses in low habitual caffeine consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Grace E; Spring, Alexander M; Urry, Heather L; Moran, Joseph M; Mahoney, Caroline R; Kanarek, Robin B

    2018-02-01

    Caffeine reliably increases emotional arousal, but it is unclear whether and how it influences other dimensions of emotion such as emotional valence. These experiments documented whether caffeine influences emotion and emotion regulation choice and success. Low to abstinent caffeine consumers (maximum 100 mg/day) completed measures of state anxiety, positive and negative emotion, and salivary cortisol before, 45 min after, and 75 min after consuming 400 mg caffeine or placebo. Participants also completed an emotion regulation choice task, in which they chose to employ cognitive reappraisal or distraction in response to high and low intensity negative pictures (Experiment 1), or a cognitive reappraisal task, in which they employed cognitive reappraisal or no emotion regulation strategy in response to negative and neutral pictures (Experiment 2). State anxiety, negative emotion, and salivary cortisol were heightened both 45 and 75 min after caffeine intake relative to placebo. In Experiment 1, caffeine did not influence the frequency with which participants chose reappraisal or distraction, but reduced negativity of the picture ratings. In Experiment 2, caffeine did not influence cognitive reappraisal success. Thus, caffeine mitigated emotional responses to negative situations, but not how participants chose to regulate such responses or the success with which they did so.

  6. Theophylline and adenosine modulate the inflammatory functions of the human neutrophil by exerting an opposing influence on the stimulus-induced increase in intracellular calcium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmeichel Morley, C.J.

    1988-01-01

    Based on evidence that endogenously-produced adenosine inhibited neutrophil responses, the influence of methylxanthine bronchodilators on neutrophil responses stimulated in vitro by n-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP) was examined. At concentrations between 10/sup /minus/5/ M and 10/sup /minus/4/ M, theophylline potentiated lysosomal enzyme release by 30 to 50%, superoxide anion formation by 30 to 60%, and neutrophil aggregation. Theophylline at concentrations >10/sup /minus/4/ M inhibited the same responses by >90%. Adenosine deaminase mimicked, whereas adenosine reversed the theophylline potentiation. A potential role for calcium in the modulation of the neutrophil responses by theophylline and adenosine was explored. Theophylline enhanced by >150% the fMLP-stimulated increase in cytoplasmic calcium concentration ([Ca 2+ ]/sub i/) at time points between 5 and 90 sec as measured by Fura-2. Adenosine deaminase induced a comparable enhancement, whereas 3 /times/ 10/sup /minus/7/ M adenosine and 10/sup /minus/7/ M N-ethylcarboxamideadenosine decreased the [Ca 2+ ]/sub i/ in fMLP-stimulated neutrophils. Extracellular calcium was not required for the opposing influences of theophylline and adenosine and neither compound altered fMLP-stimulated 45 Ca uptake at the early time points

  7. Synthesis and investigation of the physicochemical properties of 2-(5-((theophylline-7'-ylmethyl-4-phenyl-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-ylthio-acetic acid salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Gotsulya

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In last decades considerable interest to the search of biologically active compounds in series of azole derivatives is indicated. This is mainly connected with the successful use of several drugs with heterocyclic system in the structure. Analysis of the pharmacological properties of heterocyclic nitrogen–containing compounds of the known groups let us to suggest, that the triazole substituent is an important pharmacophore fragment, responsible for the availability of diverse physiological activity. In addition, it causes a little toxicity. Considerable attention belongs to synthesis and research of the biological activity of 1,2,4-triazoles derivatives. The great importance also has research of the influence of heterocyclic fragments of different nature in combination in one molecule on the activity of the synthesized compounds. Like different synthons in the structure of 1,2,4-triazoles in various kinds of biological activity of the reaction products with an aim of new and highly efficient low-toxicity compounds reception. The aim of work was to study synthesis and properties of substances among salts of 2-(5-((theophylline-7'-ylmethyle-4-phenyle-4Н-1,2,4-triazole-3-ylthioacetate acid. Materials and methods of the research. In the process as a starting material for reception of new series of compounds theophylline has been chosen. It is important to note, that by the diversity and strength of pharmacological effects, which appears, this structure takes its rightful place among heterocyclic compounds. Through the series of the successive stages 4-phenyle-5-(1',3'-dimethylxantine-7'-ylmethyle-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiol was obtained from the theophylline. Research of the physico-chemical properties of the received compounds conducted according to methods, described in the State Pharmacopoeia of Ukraine. open capillary method, elemental analysis (Elementar Vario L cube (CHNS. 1H NMR spectra of compounds were recorded with a

  8. Caffeine intake by patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vendramini, L.C.; Nishiura, J.L.; Baxmann, A.C.; Heilberg, I.P.

    2012-01-01

    Because caffeine may induce cyst and kidney enlargement in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), we evaluated caffeine intake and renal volume using renal ultrasound in ADPKD patients. Caffeine intake was estimated by the average of 24-h dietary recalls obtained on 3 nonconsecutive days in 102 ADPKD patients (68 females, 34 males; 39 ± 12 years) and compared to that of 102 healthy volunteers (74 females, 28 males; 38 ± 14 years). The awareness of the need for caffeine restriction was assessed. Clinical and laboratory data were obtained from the medical records of the patients. Mean caffeine intake was significantly lower in ADPKD patients versus controls (86 vs 134 mg/day), and 63% of the ADPKD patients had been previously aware of caffeine restriction. Caffeine intake did not correlate with renal volume in ADPKD patients. There were no significant differences between the renal volumes of patients in the highest and lowest tertiles of caffeine consumption. Finally, age-adjusted multiple linear regression revealed that renal volume was associated with hypertension, chronic kidney disease stage 3 and the time since diagnosis, but not with caffeine intake. The present small cross-sectional study indicated a low level of caffeine consumption by ADPKD patients when compared to healthy volunteers, which was most likely due to prior awareness of the need for caffeine restriction. Within the range of caffeine intake observed by ADPKD patients in this study (0-471 mg/day), the renal volume was not directly associated with caffeine intake

  9. Caffeine intake by patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vendramini, L.C.; Nishiura, J.L.; Baxmann, A.C.; Heilberg, I.P. [Disciplina de Nefrologia, Departamento de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-20

    Because caffeine may induce cyst and kidney enlargement in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), we evaluated caffeine intake and renal volume using renal ultrasound in ADPKD patients. Caffeine intake was estimated by the average of 24-h dietary recalls obtained on 3 nonconsecutive days in 102 ADPKD patients (68 females, 34 males; 39 ± 12 years) and compared to that of 102 healthy volunteers (74 females, 28 males; 38 ± 14 years). The awareness of the need for caffeine restriction was assessed. Clinical and laboratory data were obtained from the medical records of the patients. Mean caffeine intake was significantly lower in ADPKD patients versus controls (86 vs 134 mg/day), and 63% of the ADPKD patients had been previously aware of caffeine restriction. Caffeine intake did not correlate with renal volume in ADPKD patients. There were no significant differences between the renal volumes of patients in the highest and lowest tertiles of caffeine consumption. Finally, age-adjusted multiple linear regression revealed that renal volume was associated with hypertension, chronic kidney disease stage 3 and the time since diagnosis, but not with caffeine intake. The present small cross-sectional study indicated a low level of caffeine consumption by ADPKD patients when compared to healthy volunteers, which was most likely due to prior awareness of the need for caffeine restriction. Within the range of caffeine intake observed by ADPKD patients in this study (0-471 mg/day), the renal volume was not directly associated with caffeine intake.

  10. Design, formulation and evaluation of caffeine chewing gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslani, Abolfazl; Jalilian, Fatemeh

    2013-01-01

    Caffeine which exists in drinks such as coffee as well as in drug dosage forms in the global market is among the materials that increase alertness and decrease fatigue. Compared to other forms of caffeine, caffeine gum can create faster and more prominent effects. In this study, the main goal is to design a new formulation of caffeine gum with desirable taste and assess its physicochemical properties. Caffeine gum was prepared by softening of gum bases and then mixing with other formulation ingredients. To decrease the bitterness of caffeine, sugar, aspartame, liquid glucose, sorbitol, manitol, xylitol, and various flavors were used. Caffeine release from gum base was investigated by mechanical chewing set. Content uniformity test was also performed on the gums. The gums were evaluated in terms of organoleptic properties by the Latin-Square design at different stages. After making 22 formulations of caffeine gums, F11 from 20 mg caffeine gums and F22 from 50 mg caffeine gums were chosen as the best formulation in organoleptic properties. Both types of gum released about 90% of their own drug content after 30 min. Drug content of 20 and 50 mg caffeine gum was about 18.2-21.3 mg and 45.7-53.6 mg respectively. In this study, 20 and 50 mg caffeine gums with suitable and desirable properties (i.e., good taste and satisfactory release) were formulated. The best flavor for caffeine gum was cinnamon. Both kinds of 20 and 50 mg gums succeeded in content uniformity test.

  11. Anomalous dose-response characteristics induced by caffeine in ultraviolet-irradiated V79-79 Chinese hamster cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroy, C.B.; Todd, P.

    1979-01-01

    Cultured Chinese hamster cell line V79-79 exhibited an increase in survival with increasing UV fluence after a sharp decrease when exposed to 2.5 mM caffeine for 44 h after far-UV irradiation resulting in an anomalous maximum in the survival curve. No survival maximum was evident when either 0 or 1 mM caffeine is administered under the same conditions. The UV survival curve for 2.5 mM caffeine crossed the corresponding 1 mM curve and apparently became asymptotic to the 0 mM curve as UV fluence was increased. Chinese hamster cell lines V79-753B (related to V79-79 by derivation from the same parental line) and M3-1F3 (unrelated) exhibited only potentiation of post-UV lethality by the same concentration of caffeine and had no caffeine-induced anomalies in their survival curves. Xanthine, used alone or in combination with caffeine, only potentiated a slight amount of lethality and appeared not to be a major causative factor of the anomaly. (author)

  12. Time of Day and Training Status Both Impact the Efficacy of Caffeine for Short Duration Cycling Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James C. Boyett

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This project was designed to assess the effects of time of day and training status on the benefits of caffeine supplementation for cycling performance. Twenty male subjects (Age, 25 years; Peak oxygen consumption, 57 mL·kg−1·min−1 were divided into tertiles based on training levels, with top and bottom tertiles designated as ‘trained’ (n = 7 and ‘untrained’ (n = 7. Subjects completed two familiarization trials and four experimental trials consisting of a computer-simulated 3-km cycling time trial (TT. The trials were performed in randomized order for each combination of time of day (morning and evening and treatment (6mg/kg of caffeine or placebo. Magnitude-based inferences were used to evaluate all treatment effects. For all subjects, caffeine enhanced TT performance in the morning (2.3% ± 1.7%, ‘very likely’ and evening (1.4% ± 1.1%, ‘likely’. Both untrained and trained subjects improved performance with caffeine supplementation in the morning (5.5% ± 4.3%, ‘likely’; 1.0% ± 1.7%, ‘likely’, respectively, but only untrained subjects rode faster in the evening (2.9% ± 2.6%, ‘likely’. Altogether, our observations indicate that trained athletes are more likely to derive ergogenic effects from caffeine in the morning than the evening. Further, untrained individuals appear to receive larger gains from caffeine in the evening than their trained counterparts.

  13. Chronic caffeine prevents changes in inhibitory avoidance memory and hippocampal BDNF immunocontent in middle-aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallaberry, Cássia; Nunes, Fernanda; Costa, Marcelo S; Fioreze, Gabriela T; Ardais, Ana Paula; Botton, Paulo Henrique S; Klaudat, Bruno; Forte, Thomás; Souza, Diogo O; Elisabetsky, Elaine; Porciúncula, Lisiane O

    2013-01-01

    Beneficial effects of caffeine on memory processes have been observed in animal models relevant to neurodegenerative diseases and aging, although the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Because brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is associated with memory formation and BDNF's actions are modulated by adenosine receptors, the molecular targets for the psychostimulant actions of caffeine, we here compare the effects of chronic caffeine (1 mg/mL drinking solution for 30 days) on short- and long term memory and on levels of hippocampal proBDNF, mature BDNF, TrkB and CREB in young (3 month old) and middle-aged (12 month old) rats. Caffeine treatment substantially reduced i) age-related impairments in the two types of memory in an inhibitory avoidance paradigm, and ii) parallel increases in hippocampal BDNF levels. In addition, chronic caffeine increased proBDNF and CREB concentrations, and decreased TrkB levels, in hippocampus regardless of age. These data provide new evidence in favor of the hypothesis that modifications in BDNF and related proteins in the hippocampus contribute to the pro-cognitive effects of caffeine on age-associated losses in memory encoding. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Cognitive Enhancers'. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Time of Day and Training Status Both Impact the Efficacy of Caffeine for Short Duration Cycling Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyett, James C; Giersch, Gabrielle E W; Womack, Christopher J; Saunders, Michael J; Hughey, Christine A; Daley, Hannah M; Luden, Nicholas D

    2016-10-14

    This project was designed to assess the effects of time of day and training status on the benefits of caffeine supplementation for cycling performance. Twenty male subjects (Age, 25 years; Peak oxygen consumption, 57 mL·kg -1 ·min -1 ) were divided into tertiles based on training levels, with top and bottom tertiles designated as 'trained' ( n = 7) and 'untrained' ( n = 7). Subjects completed two familiarization trials and four experimental trials consisting of a computer-simulated 3-km cycling time trial (TT). The trials were performed in randomized order for each combination of time of day (morning and evening) and treatment (6mg/kg of caffeine or placebo). Magnitude-based inferences were used to evaluate all treatment effects. For all subjects, caffeine enhanced TT performance in the morning (2.3% ± 1.7%, 'very likely') and evening (1.4% ± 1.1%, 'likely'). Both untrained and trained subjects improved performance with caffeine supplementation in the morning (5.5% ± 4.3%, 'likely'; 1.0% ± 1.7%, 'likely', respectively), but only untrained subjects rode faster in the evening (2.9% ± 2.6%, 'likely'). Altogether, our observations indicate that trained athletes are more likely to derive ergogenic effects from caffeine in the morning than the evening. Further, untrained individuals appear to receive larger gains from caffeine in the evening than their trained counterparts.

  15. Design and statistical optimization of an effervescent floating drug delivery system of theophylline using response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srikanth Meka Venkata

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to formulate effervescent floating drug delivery systems of theophylline using different release retarding polymers such as ethyl cellulose, Eudragit® L100, xanthan gum and polyethylene oxide (PEO N12K. Sodium bicarbonate was used as a gas generating agent. Direct compression was used to formulate floating tablets and the tablets were evaluated for their physicochemical and dissolution characteristics. PEO based formulations produced better drug release properties than other formulations. Hence, it was further optimized by central composite design. Further subjects of research were the effect of formulation variables on floating lag time and the percentage of drug released at the seventh hour (D7h. The optimum quantities of PEO and sodium bicarbonate, which had the highest desirability close to 1.0, were chosen as the statistically optimized formulation. No interaction was found between theophylline and PEO by Fourier Transformation Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC studies.

  16. Caffeine intake and abstract reasoning among 1374 unselected men and women from general population. Role of the -163C>A polymorphism of CYP1A2 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casiglia, Edoardo; Tikhonoff, Valérie; Albertini, Federica; Favaro, Jacopo; Montagnana, Martina; Danese, Elisa; Finatti, Francesco; Benati, Marco; Mazza, Alberto; Dal Maso, Lucia; Spinella, Paolo; Palatini, Paolo

    2017-08-01

    The possible effect of caffeine as an enhancer of cognitive performance, particularly that on abstract reasoning, has never been studied in an epidemiological setting, especially in relation to -163C>A polymorphism of CYP1A2 gene, largely controlling caffeine metabolism. Aim of this study was to ascertain whether in general population free chronic caffeine intake modifies abstract reasoning, and if this effect is influenced by the above mentioned genotype, by age, schooling, ethanol intake and smoking habits. We studied 1374 unselected men and women aged 51 ± 15 years (range 18-89) from a general population. Daily caffeine intake deriving from coffee, tea, chocolate or cola was calculated from an anamnestic questionnaire and from a 7-day dietary diary. Abstract reasoning was measured in the frame of a neuropsychological assessment as the ability to find a concept linking two words indicating objects or actions and explaining how they were connected. In age-schooling-adjusted linear regression, the higher the caffeine intake, the better the abstraction score. Abstract reasoning depended on caffeine in the -163C>A CC homozygous only (so-called slow metabolizers), where it was higher in the 3rd tertile of caffeine intake. Age and ethanol reduced while smoking and schooling enhanced this association. The interaction term between caffeine and the -163C>A polymorphism was accepted in linear regressions. Caffeine consumption resulted innocuous for the A-carriers (so-called fast metabolizers). In general population, a positive association between caffeine intake and abstract reasoning exists in the CC homozygous of the -163C>A polymorphism of CYP1A2 gene. Copyright © 2017 European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Caffeine improves adult mice performance in the object recognition task and increases BDNF and TrkB independent on phospho-CREB immunocontent in the hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Marcelo S; Botton, Paulo H; Mioranzza, Sabrina; Ardais, Ana Paula; Moreira, Julia D; Souza, Diogo O; Porciúncula, Lisiane O

    2008-09-01

    Caffeine is one of the most psychostimulants consumed all over the world that usually presents positive effects on cognition. In this study, effects of caffeine on mice performance in the object recognition task were tested in different intertrial intervals. In addition, it was analyzed the effects of caffeine on brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its receptor, TrkB, immunocontent to try to establish a connection between the behavioral finding and BDNF, one of the neurotrophins strictly involved in memory and learning process. CF1 mice were treated during 4 consecutive days with saline (0.9g%, i.p.) or caffeine (10mg/kg, i.p., equivalent dose corresponding to 2-3 cups of coffee). Caffeine treatment was interrupted 24h before the object recognition task analysis. In the test session performed 15min after training session, caffeine-treated mice recognized more efficiently both the familiar and the novel object. In the test session performed 90min and 24h after training session, caffeine did not change the time spent in the familiar object but increased the object recognition index, when compared to control group. Western blotting analysis of hippocampus from caffeine-treated mice revealed an increase in BDNF and TrkB immunocontent, compared to their saline-matched controls. Phospho-CREB immunocontent did not change with caffeine treatment. Our results suggest that acute treatment with caffeine improves recognition memory, and this effect may be related to an increase of the BDNF and TrkB immunocontent in the hippocampus.

  18. D-ribose--an additive with caffeine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrick, Jim; Shecterle, L M; St Cyr, J A

    2009-05-01

    Caffeine acts as a stimulant, in which approximately 90% of people in the United States consume daily. Besides its beneficial effects, many individuals have experienced unpleasant reactions following the consumption of caffeine: such as insomnia, an increase in heart rate, feelings of nervousness, headaches, occasional lightheadedness, a state of "jitters," and a potential "crash" state following its metabolism. Researchers have proposed mechanisms responsible for caffeine's interactions, which include its blocking capacity of adenosine receptors, its role with the pituitary gland, increasing levels of dopamine, and its role with the intracellular release of calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum, which is dependent on intracellular adenosine triphosphate levels. Specific substrates have been investigated to lessen the undesirable effects of caffeine and still preserve its stimulatory benefits. The results of these investigations have produced no positive consensus. However, D-ribose, an important pentose carbohydrate in the energy molecule of adenosine triphosphate, as well as our genetic code and other cellular processes, could offer such a solution to this problem. D-ribose could potentially aid in maintaining or potentially lowering extra-cellular adenosine concentrations, aid in the flux of intracellular calcium, aid in intracellular energy production, and potentially lessen the perceived "crash" state felt by many. Every cell requires adequate levels of energy to maintain its integrity and function. Caffeine has the potential to task this energy equilibrium. D-ribose with caffeine may be the substrate to aid in the potential intracellular energy demand, aid in lessening the perceived unpleasant side effects of caffeine, and still preserving the desired benefits of this stimulant consumed by all of us daily.

  19. Caffeine effects on resting-state arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Robert J; Rushby, Jacqueline A; Wallace, Mark J; Clarke, Adam R; Johnstone, Stuart J; Zlojutro, Ilinka

    2005-11-01

    This study examined the use of caffeine to manipulate arousal level without the confounds associated with task-related activation. From previous work in our laboratory, an increase in skin conductance level (SCL) and EEG alpha frequency, together with a global decrease in alpha power, were used as markers of arousal increase, and we sought to identify these effects with caffeine ingestion. We examined the effect of a single oral dose of caffeine (250 mg) in a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled repeated-measures cross-over study. Eighteen healthy university students (mean age 21 years; 13/18 females) participated in two sessions 1 week apart. EEG and autonomic data (SCL, heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and respiration rate) from a 2 min eyes-closed epoch, commencing approximately 30 min after ingestion of caffeine or placebo, were examined. Caffeine was associated with increased SCL, a global reduction in EEG power in the alpha band, and a global increase in alpha frequency. There were no cardiovascular effects. The positive results are consistent with recent electrodermal and EEG studies of arousal and suggest that caffeine may be utilised as a task-free means of manipulating arousal in future investigations. Further work is necessary to clarify the absence of cardiovascular effects, and to integrate those data with emerging conceptualisations of arousal and activation. The present data support the use of caffeine as a simple tool to explore the role of arousal in both normal and atypical functioning, and this may be useful in determining the validity and importance of supposed hyper- or hypo-arousal in such syndromes as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD).

  20. effect of caffeine -coconut products interactions on induction of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    INDUCTION OF MICROSOMAL DRUG-METABOLIZING ENZYMES IN ... examine several biochemical parameters, ie, total protein and RNA levels, ... Caffeine also acts to increase alertness, ... Mechanisms of action of caffeine involve.

  1. Smoking and caffeine consumption: a genetic analysis of their association

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Treur, J.L.; Taylor, A.E.; Ware, J.J.; Nivard, M.G.; Neale, M.C.; McMahon, G.; Hottenga, J.J.; Baselmans, B.M.L.; Boomsma, D.I.; Munafò, M.; Vink, J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Smoking and caffeine consumption show a strong positive correlation, but the mechanism underlying this association is unclear. Explanations include shared genetic/environmental factors or causal effects. This study employed three methods to investigate the association between smoking and caffeine.

  2. Oxidation of caffeine by phosphate radical anion in aqueous ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    reactions in our body generate reactive oxygen species mainly comprising free radicals .... caffeine might be acting as a sensitizer to transfer energy to PDP to produce phosphate ... The lifetime of the excited singlet 21 state of caffeine is of the.

  3. Histophatologic changes of lung in asthmatic male rats treated with hydro-alcoholic extract of Plantago major and theophylline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farah Farokhi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Plantago major (P. major is one of the medicinal crops in the world which has therapeutic properties for treatment of respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases. Theophylline is commonly used for the treatment of respiratory diseases. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of hydro-alcoholic extract of P. major on lung in asthmatic male rats. Materials and Methods: 32 male adult rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: The control group (C received normal saline; Asthma (A group received a normal diet; Asthma group treated with Theophylline (200 mg/kg b.w. (T; Asthma group which received p.major (100 mg/kg b.w. (P. Asthma was induced by citric acid, 0.1 mg in form of spraying. The injection of P.major extract and theophylline was administered intraperitoneally for four weeks. At the end of the treatment, all of the rats were sacrificed and lungs were taken out, fixed, and stained with H&E, toluidine blue, and PAS, then histological studies were followed with light microscope. Results: Results showed that, in asthmatic group, the mean number of mast cells was significantly increased (p<0.05. Thickness of alveolar epithelium and accumulation of glycoprotein in airways was increased. Moreover, in some of alveolar sac hemorrhaging was observed. Administration of p.major extract in asthmatic rats restored these changes towards normal group.Conclusion: The present study revealed that P. major compared with theophylline, has a protective effect on lung in asthmatic rats.

  4. Caffeinated alcohol consumption profiles and associations with use severity and outcome expectancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau-Barraco, Cathy; Milletich, Robert J; Linden, Ashley N

    2014-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that the consumption of caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CAB) may be riskier than alcohol alone. Efforts to identify patterns of CAB use and the correlates of such drinking patterns could further our conceptualization of and intervention for this health issue. Consequently, the current study aimed to (1) identify distinct classes of CAB users, (2) examine differences between classes on measures of alcohol and caffeine problems, and (3) compare distinct classes of CAB users on caffeine and alcohol outcome expectancies. Participants were 583 (31% men) undergraduate students from a psychology research pool. Latent profile analysis models were derived using four indicators: CAB use quantity, CAB use frequency, alcohol use quantity, and alcohol use frequency. Finding revealed four classes of drinkers: High Alcohol/High CAB (6.00%), High Alcohol/Moderate CAB (5.15%), High Alcohol/Low CAB (22.99%), and Low Alcohol/Low CAB (65.87%). The Low Alcohol/Low CAB class reported the lowest relative levels of caffeine dependence symptoms, caffeine withdrawal, alcohol use problems, and heavy episodic drinking frequency. Further, results indicated differential expectancy endorsement based on use profiles. CAB users in the High Alcohol/Low CAB class endorsed more positive alcohol expectancies than the Low Alcohol/Low CAB group. Those in the High Alcohol/High CAB class endorsed stronger withdrawal symptom caffeine expectancies than all other classes. Inclusion of substance-specific expectancies into larger theoretical frameworks in future work of CAB use may be beneficial. Findings may inform intervention efforts for those at greatest risk related to CAB consumption. © 2013.

  5. Study on Effectiveness of Low Dose Theophylline as Add-on to Inhaled Corticosteroid for Patients with Sulfur Mustard Induced Bronchiolitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunes Panahi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Theophylline may reverse steroid resistance and decrease inflammation in patients with chronic pulmonary disease and sulfur mustard (SM induced bronchiolitis. This study was designed to assess the effects of low-dose theophylline on improvement of pulmonary function tests (PFTs of SM exposed patients.Methods: In this comparative observational study, a group of SM-exposed victims during the Iraq-Iran war who were treated with oral slow releasing (SR theophylline, salmetrol, fluxitide, omeprazole and NAC (study group were compared to a group of age and gender matched SM-exposed patients who received same medications except oral SR theophylline (historical control group. PFTs were measured at the beginning of the study and after 8 weeks of the treatment.Results: In total, 33 subjects in the study group and 27 subjects in the control group were studied. Mean (SD age of all subjects was 51 (14.1 years. In the study group, on the 8th week post-treatment, PFTs decreased, though the differences of tests between before and after treatment were not significant. In the control group, all the tests decreased in the same period and these reductions were not also significant. However, the changes in PFTs were significantly different between the two groups. The results of most PFTs in the controls decreased in greater extents compared to theophylline treated patients. This shows that despite theophylline was unable to improve the patients; it was partially able to decelerate the reductions in PFTs.Conclusion: Theophylline may not improve PFTs of SM exposed patients but it may decelerate the progress of the underlying respiratory disease. Further studies in this setting with higher doses of theophylline and longer term of evaluation are needed to better understand the pathophysiological mechanism of SM induced bronchiolitis and the effectiveness of the treatment with theophylline.   How to cite this article: Panahi Y, Poursaleh Z, Amini-Harandi A

  6. Histophatologic changes of lung in asthmatic male rats treated with hydro-alcoholic extract of plantago major and theophylline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farah Farokhi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Plantago major (P. major is one of the medicinal crops in the world which has therapeutic properties for treatment of respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases. Theophylline is commonly used for the treatment of respiratory diseases. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of hydro-alcoholic extract of P. majoron lung in asthmatic male rats. Materials and Methods: 32 male adult rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: The control group (C received normal saline; Asthma (A group received a normal diet; Asthma group treated with Theophylline (200 mg/kg b.w. (T; Asthma group which received p.major (100 mg/kg b.w. (P. Asthma was induced by citric acid, 0.1 mg in form of spraying. The injection of P.major extract and theophylline was administered intraperitoneally for four weeks. At the end of the treatment, all of the rats were sacrificed and lungs were taken out, fixed, and stained with H&E, toluidine blue, and PAS, then histological studies were followed with light microscope. Results: Results showed that, in asthmatic group, the mean number of mast cells was significantly increased (p

  7. Self-organizing map analysis using multivariate data from theophylline tablets predicted by a thin-plate spline interpolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Akihito; Onuki, Yoshinori; Obata, Yasuko; Yamamoto, Rie; Takayama, Kozo

    2013-01-01

    The "quality by design" concept in pharmaceutical formulation development requires the establishment of a science-based rationale and a design space. We integrated thin-plate spline (TPS) interpolation and Kohonen's self-organizing map (SOM) to visualize the latent structure underlying causal factors and pharmaceutical responses. As a model pharmaceutical product, theophylline tablets were prepared based on a standard formulation. The tensile strength, disintegration time, and stability of these variables were measured as response variables. These responses were predicted quantitatively based on nonlinear TPS. A large amount of data on these tablets was generated and classified into several clusters using an SOM. The experimental values of the responses were predicted with high accuracy, and the data generated for the tablets were classified into several distinct clusters. The SOM feature map allowed us to analyze the global and local correlations between causal factors and tablet characteristics. The results of this study suggest that increasing the proportion of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) improved the tensile strength and the stability of tensile strength of these theophylline tablets. In addition, the proportion of MCC has an optimum value for disintegration time and stability of disintegration. Increasing the proportion of magnesium stearate extended disintegration time. Increasing the compression force improved tensile strength, but degraded the stability of disintegration. This technique provides a better understanding of the relationships between causal factors and pharmaceutical responses in theophylline tablet formulations.

  8. Caffeine Use Disorder: A Comprehensive Review and Research Agenda

    OpenAIRE

    Meredith, Steven E.; Juliano, Laura M.; Hughes, John R.; Griffiths, Roland R.

    2013-01-01

    Caffeine is the most commonly used drug in the world. Although consumption of low to moderate doses of caffeine is generally safe, an increasing number of clinical studies are showing that some caffeine users become dependent on the drug and are unable to reduce consumption despite knowledge of recurrent health problems associated with continued use. Thus, the World Health Organization and some health care professionals recognize caffeine dependence as a clinical disorder. In this comprehensi...

  9. Interaction of Caffeine Molecular Associates with Water: Theory and Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Shestopalova, Anna V.

    1990-01-01

    Results of a Monte Carlo simulation of the association process of caffeine (1,3,7-trimethyl-2,6-dioxipurine) in water are presented. Simulation was performed in a cluster approximation ; the system contained 200 water molecules. The nature of the stabilization of caffeine stacking associates in water was considered. Hydrophobic behaviour of methyl group s during association of caffeine molecules in water is shown. The peculiarity of interaction of caffeine associates with wa...

  10. Determination of CaffeineIn Beverages: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Igelige Gerald; David Ebuka Arthur; Adebiyi Adedayo

    2014-01-01

    Caffeine is a well-known stimulant which is added as an ingredient to various carbonated soft drinks. Caffeine has drawn more attention due to its physiological effects beyond that of its stimulatory effect. Consumers are interested in knowing the exact amounts of caffeine existing in beverages. However, limited data exist, especially for store brand beverages. Therefore, it is pertinent to review the various methods that will effectively determine the caffeine contents in different carbonate...

  11. Reinforcing effects of caffeine in coffee and capsules.

    OpenAIRE

    Griffiths, R R; Bigelow, G E; Liebson, I A

    1989-01-01

    In a residential research ward the reinforcing and subjective effects of caffeine were studied under double-blind conditions in volunteer subjects with histories of heavy coffee drinking. In Experiment 1, 6 subjects had 13 opportunities each day to self-administer either a caffeine (100 mg) or a placebo capsule for periods of 14 to 61 days. All subjects developed a clear preference for caffeine, with intake of caffeine becoming relatively stable after preference had been attained. Preference ...

  12. Post-study caffeine administration enhances memory consolidation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borota, Daniel; Murray, Elizabeth; Keceli, Gizem; Chang, Allen; Watabe, Joseph M; Ly, Maria; Toscano, John P; Yassa, Michael A

    2014-02-01

    It is currently not known whether caffeine has an enhancing effect on long-term memory in humans. We used post-study caffeine administration to test its effect on memory consolidation using a behavioral discrimination task. Caffeine enhanced performance 24 h after administration according to an inverted U-shaped dose-response curve; this effect was specific to consolidation and not retrieval. We conclude that caffeine enhanced consolidation of long-term memories in humans.

  13. Exercise and Sport Performance with Low Doses of Caffeine

    OpenAIRE

    Spriet, Lawrence L.

    2014-01-01

    Caffeine is a popular work-enhancing supplement that has been actively researched since the 1970s. The majority of research has examined the effects of moderate to high caffeine doses (5–13 mg/kg body mass) on exercise and sport. These caffeine doses have profound effects on the responses to exercise at the whole-body level and are associated with variable results and some undesirable side effects. Low doses of caffeine (

  14. Temporal patterns of caffeine intake in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyn, Danika; Lau, Annette; Richardson, Philip; Roberts, Ashley

    2018-01-01

    To investigate whether caffeine intake among adolescents and adults in the U.S. varies across the week or throughout the day, data from a 7-day online beverage consumption survey (2010-2011) were analyzed. Mean (206.8-213.0 mg/day) and 90th percentile (437.4-452.6 mg/day) daily caffeine intakes among consumers 13 years and older were relatively constant across the week with no marked difference among weekdays versus weekend days. Percent consumers of caffeinated beverages likewise remained stable across the week. Mean daily caffeine intake for coffee and energy drink consumers 13 years and older was higher than contributions for tea and carbonated soft drink consumers. Caffeinated beverage consumers (13 + yrs) consumed most of their caffeine in the morning (61% versus 21% and 18% in the afternoon and evening) which was driven by coffee. Caffeinated beverage consumption patterns among adolescents (13-17 yrs) - who typically consume less daily caffeine - were more evenly distributed throughout the day. These findings provide insight into U.S. temporal caffeine consumption patterns among specific caffeinated beverage consumers and different age brackets. These data suggest that while caffeine intakes do not vary from day-to-day, mornings generally drive the daily caffeine intake of adults and is predominantly attributed to coffee. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Caffeine Consumption Patterns and Beliefs of College Freshmen

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIlvain, Gary E.; Noland, Melody P.; Bickel, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Background: Caffeine consumption by young people has increased dramatically over the last decade through increased coffee consumption and "energy drinks." In higher amounts, caffeine causes many adverse effects that are cause for concern. Purpose: Purposes of this study were to determine: (1) the amount of caffeine consumed by a sample…

  16. Metabolic effects of physiological levels of caffeine in myotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnuck, Jamie K; Gould, Lacey M; Parry, Hailey A; Johnson, Michele A; Gannon, Nicholas P; Sunderland, Kyle L; Vaughan, Roger A

    2018-02-01

    Caffeine has been shown to stimulate multiple major regulators of cell energetics including AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and Ca 2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII). Additionally, caffeine induces peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α) and mitochondrial biogenesis. While caffeine enhances oxidative metabolism, experimental concentrations often exceed physiologically attainable concentrations through diet. This work measured the effects of low-level caffeine on cellular metabolism and gene expression in myotubes, as well as the dependence of caffeine's effects on the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta/delta (PPARβ/δ). C2C12 myotubes were treated with various doses of caffeine for up to 24 h. Gene and protein expression were measured via qRT-PCR and Western blot, respectively. Cellular metabolism was determined via oxygen consumption and extracellular acidification rate. Caffeine significantly induced regulators of mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative metabolism. Mitochondrial staining was suppressed in PPARβ/δ-inhibited cells which was rescued by concurrent caffeine treatment. Caffeine-treated cells also displayed elevated peak oxidative metabolism which was partially abolished following PPARβ/δ inhibition. Similar to past observations, glucose uptake and GLUT4 content were elevated in caffeine-treated cells, however, glycolytic metabolism was unaltered following caffeine treatment. Physiological levels of caffeine appear to enhance cell metabolism through mechanisms partially dependent on PPARβ/δ.

  17. Caffeine Use Disorder: A Comprehensive Review and Research Agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Steven E; Juliano, Laura M; Hughes, John R; Griffiths, Roland R

    2013-09-01

    Caffeine is the most commonly used drug in the world. Although consumption of low to moderate doses of caffeine is generally safe, an increasing number of clinical studies are showing that some caffeine users become dependent on the drug and are unable to reduce consumption despite knowledge of recurrent health problems associated with continued use. Thus, the World Health Organization and some health care professionals recognize caffeine dependence as a clinical disorder. In this comprehensive literature review, we summarize published research on the biological evidence for caffeine dependence; we provide a systematic review of the prevalence of caffeine dependence and rates of endorsement of clinically meaningful indicators of distress and functional impairment among habitual caffeine users; we discuss the diagnostic criteria for Caffeine Use Disorder-a condition for further study included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders ( 5 th ed .); and we outline a research agenda to help guide future clinical, epidemiological, and genetic investigations of caffeine dependence. Numerous controlled laboratory investigations reviewed in this article show that caffeine produces behavioral and physiological effects similar to other drugs of dependence. Moreover, several recent clinical studies indicate that caffeine dependence is a clinically meaningful disorder that affects a nontrivial proportion of caffeine users. Nevertheless, more research is needed to determine the reliability, validity, and prevalence of this clinically important health problem.

  18. The Safety of Ingested Caffeine: A Comprehensive Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. Temple

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Caffeine is the most widely consumed psychoactive drug in the world. Natural sources of caffeine include coffee, tea, and chocolate. Synthetic caffeine is also added to products to promote arousal, alertness, energy, and elevated mood. Over the past decade, the introduction of new caffeine-containing food products, as well as changes in consumption patterns of the more traditional sources of caffeine, has increased scrutiny by health authorities and regulatory bodies about the overall consumption of caffeine and its potential cumulative effects on behavior and physiology. Of particular concern is the rate of caffeine intake among populations potentially vulnerable to the negative effects of caffeine consumption: pregnant and lactating women, children and adolescents, young adults, and people with underlying heart or other health conditions, such as mental illness. Here, we review the research into the safety and safe doses of ingested caffeine in healthy and in vulnerable populations. We report that, for healthy adults, caffeine consumption is relatively safe, but that for some vulnerable populations, caffeine consumption could be harmful, including impairments in cardiovascular function, sleep, and substance use. We also identified several gaps in the literature on which we based recommendations for the future of caffeine research.

  19. Caffeine taste signaling in Drosophila larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthi A Apostolopoulou

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Drosophila larva has a simple peripheral nervous system with a comparably small number of sensory neurons located externally at the head or internally along the pharynx to assess its chemical environment. It is assumed that larval taste coding occurs mainly via external organs (the dorsal, terminal and ventral organ. However, the contribution of the internal pharyngeal sensory organs has not been explored. Here we find that larvae require a single pharyngeal gustatory receptor neuron pair called D1, which is located in the dorsal pharyngeal sensilla, in order to avoid caffeine and to associate an odor with caffeine punishment. In contrast, caffeine-driven reduction in feeding in non-choice situations does not require D1. Hence, this work provides data on taste coding via different receptor neurons, depending on the behavioral context. Furthermore, we show that the larval pharyngeal system is involved in bitter tasting. Using ectopic expressions, we show that the caffeine receptor in neuron D1 requires the function of at least four receptor genes: the putative coreceptors Gr33a, Gr66a, the putative caffeine-specific receptor Gr93a, and yet unknown additional molecular component(s. This suggests that larval taste perception is more complex than previously assumed already at the sensory level. Taste information from different sensory organs located outside at the head or inside along the pharynx of the larva is assembled to trigger taste guided behaviours.

  20. A fluvoxamine-caffeine interaction study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, U; Loft, S; Poulsen, H E

    1996-01-01

    The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluvoxamine is a very potent inhibitor of the liver enzyme CYP1A2, which is the major P450 catalysing the biotransformation of caffeine. Thus, a pharmacokinetic study was undertaken with the purpose of documenting a drug-drug interaction between fluvoxam......The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluvoxamine is a very potent inhibitor of the liver enzyme CYP1A2, which is the major P450 catalysing the biotransformation of caffeine. Thus, a pharmacokinetic study was undertaken with the purpose of documenting a drug-drug interaction between...... fluvoxamine and caffeine. The study was carried out as a randomized, in vivo, cross-over study including eight healthy volunteers. In Period A of the study, each subject took 200 mg caffeine orally, and in Period B, the subjects took fluvoxamine 50 mg per day for 4 days and 100 mg per day for 8 days. On day 8...... fluvoxamine treatment may lead to caffeine intoxication. Finally, our study provides additional evidence that fluvoxamine can be used to probe CYP1A2 in drug metabolism....

  1. Caffeine use in sports. A pharmacological review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, C J; Geiger, J D

    2000-03-01

    Caffeine is the most widely ingested psychoactive drug in the world. As many know, chronic use of caffeine leads to dependence, tolerance, drug craving, and upon abrupt cessation unpleasant withdrawal symptoms. Thus, caffeine fulfills pharmacological criteria by which agents are classified as drugs of abuse. Nevertheless, its use is legal and only at high, but readily attainable, levels is it banned from sport. Its use is widespread by athletes as young as 11 years of age who are seeking athletic advantage over fellow competitors. It is likely that its use will not decline any time soon because it is inexpensive, readily available, medically quite safe, socially acceptable, and by most measures legal. However, at levels allowed in sport, caffeine through its wide-ranging physiological and psychological effects increases endurance in well-trained athletes. If the goal of drug-testing and education programs in sport is to protect the health of athletes, prevent unfair advantage (cheating) and encourage ethical behavior then it seems obvious that the allowable levels of caffeine ingestion should be decreased. The alternative is to continue with policies designed largely to punish only those that get caught.

  2. Caffeine levels in beverages from Argentina's market: application to caffeine dietary intake assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmos, V; Bardoni, N; Ridolfi, A S; Villaamil Lepori, E C

    2009-03-01

    The caffeine content of different beverages from Argentina's market was measured. Several brands of coffees, teas, mates, chocolate milks, soft and energy drinks were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ultraviolet detection. The highest concentration level was found in short coffee (1.38 mg ml(-1)) and the highest amount per serving was found in instant coffee (95 mg per serving). A consumption study was also carried out among 471 people from 2 to 93 years of age to evaluate caffeine total dietary intake by age and to identify the sources of caffeine intake. The mean caffeine intake among adults was 288 mg day(-1) and mate was the main contributor to that intake. The mean caffeine intake among children of 10 years of age and under was 35 mg day(-1) and soft drinks were the major contributors to that intake. Children between 11 and 15 years old and teenagers (between 16 and 20 years) had caffeine mean intakes of 120 and 240 mg day(-1), respectively, and mate was the major contributor to those intakes. Drinking mate is a deep-rooted habit among Argentine people and it might be the reason for their elevated caffeine mean daily intake.

  3. Determination of caffeine and identification of undeclared substances in dietary supplements and caffeine dietary exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Diana Brito da Justa; Caldas, Eloisa Dutra

    2017-07-01

    Caffeine is one of the most consumed stimulants in the world, and is a frequent ingredient of dietary supplements. The aims of this work were to validate a GC-MS method for the quantitation of caffeine and identification of other substances in supplements, mainly weight loss products, and to estimate the caffeine intake by consumers. Sample preparation included extraction with chloroform:water in ultrasonic bath, centrifugation and analysis of the organic layer for caffeine quantitation, and extraction with methanol for identification of other substances. A total of 213 samples of 52 supplement products not registered in Brazil and seized by the Brazilian Federal Police were analyzed. From the 109 samples that declared the amount of caffeine present, 26.6% contained more than 120% of the specified content. Considering the maximum recommended dose stated on the product labels, the consumption of 47.9% of the samples would lead to a daily intake of caffeine above the safe limit of 400 mg. Undeclared drugs, including sibutramine, phenolphthalein, amphepramone and femproporex were found in 28 samples. These results show that consumers of dietary supplements should be aware that these products might contain caffeine at levels that could represent potential health risks, in addition to undeclared pharmaceutical drugs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Chronic ingestion of a low dose of caffeine induces tolerance to the performance benefits of caffeine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumont, Ross; Cordery, Philip; Funnell, Mark; Mears, Stephen; James, Lewis; Watson, Phillip

    2017-10-01

    This study examined effects of 4 weeks of caffeine supplementation on endurance performance. Eighteen low-habitual caffeine consumers (caffeine (1.5-3.0 mg · kg -1 day -1 ; titrated) or placebo for 28 days. Groups were matched for age, body mass, V̇O 2peak and W max (P > 0.05). Before supplementation, all participants completed one V̇O 2peak test, one practice trial and 2 experimental trials (acute 3 mg · kg -1 caffeine [precaf] and placebo [testpla]). During the supplementation period a second V̇O 2peak test was completed on day 21 before a final, acute 3 mg · kg -1 caffeine trial (postcaf) on day 29. Trials consisted of 60 min cycle exercise at 60% V̇O 2peak followed by a 30 min performance task. All participants produced more external work during the precaf trial than testpla, with increases in the caffeine (383.3 ± 75 kJ vs. 344.9 ± 80.3 kJ; Cohen's d effect size [ES] = 0.49; P = 0.001) and placebo (354.5 ± 55.2 kJ vs. 333.1 ± 56.4 kJ; ES = 0.38; P = 0.004) supplementation group, respectively. This performance benefit was no longer apparent after 4 weeks of caffeine supplementation (precaf: 383.3 ± 75.0 kJ vs. postcaf: 358.0 ± 89.8 kJ; ES = 0.31; P = 0.025), but was retained in the placebo group (precaf: 354.5 ± 55.2 kJ vs. postcaf: 351.8 ± 49.4 kJ; ES = 0.05; P > 0.05). Circulating caffeine, hormonal concentrations and substrate oxidation did not differ between groups (all P > 0.05). Chronic ingestion of a low dose of caffeine develops tolerance in low-caffeine consumers. Therefore, individuals with low-habitual intakes should refrain from chronic caffeine supplementation to maximise performance benefits from acute caffeine ingestion.

  5. Caffeine-Not just a stimulant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glade, Michael J

    2010-10-01

    The beneficial effects of human caffeine consumption deserve clarification. A detailed literature review was conducted and summarized. A large body of scientific evidence describes the beneficial effects of human caffeine consumption on a number of physiologic systems. The consumption of moderate amounts of caffeine 1) increases energy availability, 2) increases daily energy expenditure, 3) decreases fatigue, 4) decreases the sense of effort associated with physical activity, 5) enhances physical performance, 6) enhances motor performance, 7) enhances cognitive performance, 8) increases alertness, wakefulness, and feelings of "energy," 9) decreases mental fatigue, 10) quickens reactions, 11) increases the accuracy of reactions, 12) increases the ability to concentrate and focus attention, 13) enhances short-term memory, 14) increases the ability to solve problems requiring reasoning, 15) increases the ability to make correct decisions, 16) enhances cognitive functioning capabilities and neuromuscular coordination, and 17) in otherwise healthy non-pregnant adults is safe. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Differential Behavioral and Biochemical Responses to Caffeine in Male and Female Rats from a Validated Model of Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Fernanda; Pochmann, Daniela; Almeida, Amanda Staldoni; Marques, Daniela Melo; Porciúncula, Lisiane de Oliveira

    2018-03-20

    Epidemiological studies suggest sex differences in attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptomatology. The potential benefits of caffeine have been reported in the management of ADHD, but its effects were not properly addressed with respect to sex differences. The present study examined the effects of caffeine (0.3 g/L) administered since childhood in the behavior and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its related proteins in both sexes of a rat model of ADHD (spontaneously hypertensive rats-SHR). Hyperlocomotion, recognition, and spatial memory disturbances were observed in adolescent SHR rats from both sexes. However, females showed lack of habituation and worsened spatial memory. Although caffeine was effective against recognition memory impairment in both sexes, spatial memory was recovered only in female SHR rats. Besides, female SHR rats showed exacerbated hyperlocomotion after caffeine treatment. SHR rats from both sexes presented increases in the BDNF, truncated and phospho-TrkB receptors and also phospho-CREB levels in the hippocampus. Caffeine normalized BDNF in males and truncated TrkB receptor at both sexes. These findings provide insight into the potential of caffeine against fully cognitive impairment displayed by females in the ADHD model. Besides, our data revealed that caffeine intake since childhood attenuated behavioral alterations in the ADHD model associated with changes in BDNF and TrkB receptors in the hippocampus.

  7. Caffeine Inhibits Acetylcholinesterase, But Not Butyrylcholinesterase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Dobes

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Caffeine is an alkaloid with a stimulant effect in the body. It can interfere in transmissions based on acetylcholine, epinephrine, norepinephrine, serotonin, dopamine and glutamate. Clinical studies indicate that it can be involved in the slowing of Alzheimer disease pathology and some other effects. The effects are not well understood. In the present work, we focused on the question whether caffeine can inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE and/or, butyrylcholinesterase (BChE, the two enzymes participating in cholinergic neurotransmission. A standard Ellman test with human AChE and BChE was done for altering concentrations of caffeine. The test was supported by an in silico examination as well. Donepezil and tacrine were used as standards. In compliance with Dixon’s plot, caffeine was proved to be a non-competitive inhibitor of AChE and BChE. However, inhibition of BChE was quite weak, as the inhibition constant, Ki, was 13.9 ± 7.4 mol/L. Inhibition of AChE was more relevant, as Ki was found to be 175 ± 9 µmol/L. The predicted free energy of binding was −6.7 kcal/mol. The proposed binding orientation of caffeine can interact with Trp86, and it can be stabilize by Tyr337 in comparison to the smaller Ala328 in the case of human BChE; thus, it can explain the lower binding affinity of caffeine for BChE with reference to AChE. The biological relevance of the findings is discussed.

  8. The effect of theophylline on canine bile flow, biliary excretion and concentration of ioglycamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toetterman, S.

    1982-01-01

    Theophylline (TH), which has been shown in experimental dogs to increase bile-salt-independent bile flow, was studied in its effect on the biliary excretion and concentration of the intravenous contrast medium ioglycamide in cholecystectomized anesthetized dogs equipped with a Thomas cannula through which the common bile duct could be cannulated. One hour after cannulation, i.v. infusion of ioglycamide at the rate of 4 mol/min/kg was started. Two hours later, 10 mg/kg of TH was injected intravenously and the experiment continued for a further 75 minutes. Bile was collected at 15 min, intervals throughout the whole experiment and simultaneous intravenous blood samples were taken. In this study, TH increased bile flow and decreased biliary ioglycamide concentration. Although TH increased bile flow, it had no effect on the biliary excretion of ioglycamide. It may be postulated that the organic anion ioglycamide, and possibly other organic anions, are secreted into the bile by mechanisms, unaffected by drugs which increase bile-salt-independent bile flow in a similar manner to TH. (orig.)

  9. Acute redistribution of thyroxine after the administration of univalent anions, salicylate, theophylline and barbiturates in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langer, P; Kokesova, H; Gschwendtova, K [Slovenska Akademia Vied, Bratislava (Czechoslovakia). Ustav Experimentalni Endocrinologie

    1976-01-01

    Rats were injected with (/sup 125/I)L-thyroxine (T/sub 4/) ip 16 h before the experiment and samples of blood were frequently taken from polyethylene tubing inserted into the femoral artery in anaesthetized and heparin-injected animals. In each sample of plasma T/sub 4/ counts per ml were estimated with the acid of paper chromatography. Rapid decrease of circulating T/sub 4/ level was found at 20 min after iv injection of thiocyanate, iodide, fluoroborate, theophylline and salicylate and a dose-response relationship was established between such a decrease and the administered dose of salicylate (5-160 mg/400 g b.w.). A similar decrease was observed at 60 min after ip injection of some general anaesthetics or tranquilizers. An increase of T/sub 4/ fractional disposal rate was found between 120 and 480 min after the administration of some of the anaesthetics and this effect was abolished by the administration of thiocyanate. It was concluded that there are two different effects of drugs on the circulating T/sub 4/ level: 1. the immediate effect resulting apparently from a decreased plasma protein binding. 2. the prolonged effect which presumably results from the increased turnover of T/sub 4/ by peripheral tissues, the metabolic basis of which remains unexplained.

  10. Molecular Dynamics Simulation Studies of Caffeine Aggregation in Aqueous Solution

    OpenAIRE

    Tavagnacco, Letizia; Schnupf, Udo; Mason, Philip E.; Saboungi, Marie-Louise; Cesàro, Attilio; Brady, John W.

    2011-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations were carried out on a system of eight independent caffeine molecules in a periodic box of water at 300 K, representing a solution near the solubility limit for caffeine at room temperature, using a newly-developed CHARMM-type force field for caffeine in water. Simulations were also conducted for single caffeine molecules in water using two different water models (TIP3P and TIP4P). Water was found to structure in a complex fashion around the planar caffeine molec...

  11. Hemodynamic mechanisms underlying the incomplete tolerance to caffeine's pressor effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Noha H; Vincent, Andrea S; McKey, Barbara S; Whitsett, Thomas L; Lovallo, William R

    2005-06-01

    Blood pressure (BP) and cardiovascular hemodynamics were assessed at baseline and after caffeine administration in a 4-week, placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized, crossover trial of caffeine tolerance formation. Half of the subjects developed tolerance to the pressor effect of caffeine, whereas the other half continued to show increases in BP after caffeine ingestion (F = 16.7, p <0.0001). In the subjects who did not develop tolerance, peripheral resistance increased incrementally as the daily dose of caffeine increased (F = 2.8, p = 0.05).

  12. Impact of caffeine and coffee on our health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez de Mejia, Elvira; Ramirez-Mares, Marco Vinicio

    2014-10-01

    Coffee is the most frequently consumed caffeine-containing beverage. The caffeine in coffee is a bioactive compound with stimulatory effects on the central nervous system and a positive effect on long-term memory. Although coffee consumption has been historically linked to adverse health effects, new research indicates that coffee consumption may be beneficial. Here we discuss the impact of coffee and caffeine on health and bring attention to the changing caffeine landscape that includes new caffeine-containing energy drinks and supplements, often targeting children and adolescents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Adenosine A1 receptor mRNA expression and the effects of systemic theophylline administration on respiratory function 4 months after C2 hemisection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nantwi, Kwaku D; Basura, Gregory J; Goshgarian, Harry G

    2003-01-01

    Previous studies from our laboratory have demonstrated that in an animal model of acute cervical spinal cord injury (SCI), respiratory function can be restored by theophylline. We also have shown that respiratory recovery occurs spontaneously after prolonged postinjury survival periods when a hemidiaphragm is paralyzed by an ipsilateral upper cervical (C2) spinal cord hemisection. Theophylline mediates functional recovery by central nervous system adenosine A1 receptor antagonism; however, it is unclear whether adenosine receptors are altered after prolonged postinjury periods and whether theophylline can further enhance restored respiratory function that occurs spontaneously. To assess putative effects of systemic theophylline administration on further enhancing spontaneous respiratory muscle recovery 4 months after C2 hemisection in rats and to determine whether adenosine A1 receptor mRNA expression is altered in these animals. Electrophysiologic assessment of respiratory activity in the phrenic nerves was conducted in C2 hemisected rats 4 months after hemisection under standardized conditions. Immediately thereafter, rats were killed and the cervical spinal cords were prepared for adenosine A1 receptor mRNA expression by in situ hybridization. Spontaneous recovery of respiratory activity in the ipsilateral phrenic nerve was detected in a majority (15/20) of C2 hemisected animals and amounted to 44.06% +/- 2.38% when expressed as a percentage of activity in the homolateral phrenic nerve in noninjured animals. At the optimal dosage used in the acute studies, theophylline (15 mg/kg) did not enhance, but rather unexpectedly blocked, recovered respiratory activity in 4 out of 5 animals tested. At dosages of 5 mg/kg and 2.5 mg/kg, the drug blocked recovered respiratory activity in 3 out of 4 and 3 out of 5 animals tested, respectively. Quantitative analysis of adenosine A1 receptor mRNA expression did not reveal a significant difference between experimental animals

  14. Caffeine promotes wakefulness via dopamine signaling in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nall, Aleksandra H.; Shakhmantsir, Iryna; Cichewicz, Karol; Birman, Serge; Hirsh, Jay; Sehgal, Amita

    2016-01-01

    Caffeine is the most widely-consumed psychoactive drug in the world, but our understanding of how caffeine affects our brains is relatively incomplete. Most studies focus on effects of caffeine on adenosine receptors, but there is evidence for other, more complex mechanisms. In the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, which shows a robust diurnal pattern of sleep/wake activity, caffeine reduces nighttime sleep behavior independently of the one known adenosine receptor. Here, we show that dopamine is required for the wake-promoting effect of caffeine in the fly, and that caffeine likely acts presynaptically to increase dopamine signaling. We identify a cluster of neurons, the paired anterior medial (PAM) cluster of dopaminergic neurons, as the ones relevant for the caffeine response. PAM neurons show increased activity following caffeine administration, and promote wake when activated. Also, inhibition of these neurons abrogates sleep suppression by caffeine. While previous studies have focused on adenosine-receptor mediated mechanisms for caffeine action, we have identified a role for dopaminergic neurons in the arousal-promoting effect of caffeine. PMID:26868675

  15. The pH dependent Raman spectroscopic study of caffeine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jian; Gu, Huaimin; Zhong, Liang; Hu, Yongjun; Liu, Fang

    2011-02-01

    First of all the surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) and normal Raman spectra of caffeine aqueous solution were obtained at different pH values. In order to obtain the detailed vibrational assignments of the Raman spectroscopy, the geometry of caffeine molecule was optimized by density functional theory (DFT) calculation. By comparing the SERS of caffeine with its normal spectra at different pH values; it is concluded that pH value can dramatically affect the SERS of caffeine, but barely affect the normal Raman spectrum of caffeine aqueous solution. It can essentially affect the reorientation of caffeine molecule to the Ag colloid surface, but cannot impact the vibration of functional groups and chemical bonds in caffeine molecule.

  16. Energy drinks and the neurophysiological impact of caffeine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persad, Leeana Aarthi Bagwath

    2011-01-01

    Caffeine is the most widely used psychoactive stimulant with prevalent use across all age groups. It is a naturally occurring substance found in the coffee bean, tea leaf, the kola nut, cocoa bean. Recently there has been an increase in energy drink consumption leading to caffeine abuse, with aggressive marketing and poor awareness on the consequences of high caffeine use. With caffeine consumption being so common, it is vital to know the impact caffeine has on the body, as its effects can influence cardio-respiratory, endocrine, and perhaps most importantly neurological systems. Detrimental effects have being described especially since an over consumption of caffeine has being noted. This review focuses on the neurophysiological impact of caffeine and its biochemical pathways in the human body.

  17. Energy drinks and the neurophysiological impacts of caffeine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leeana eBagwath Persad

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Caffeine is the most widely used psychoactive stimulant with prevalent use across all age groups. It is a naturally occurring substance found in the coffee bean, tea leaf, the kola nut, cocoa bean. Recently there has been an increase in energy drink consumption leading to caffeine abuse, with aggressive marketing and poor awareness on the consequences of high caffeine use. With caffeine consumption being so common, it is vital to know the impact caffeine has on the body, as its effects can influence cardio-respiratory, endocrine and perhaps most importantly neurological systems. Detrimental effects have being described especially since an over consumption of caffeine has being noted. This review focuses on the neurophysiological impact of caffeine and its biochemical pathways in the human body.

  18. Beneficial Role of Coffee and Caffeine in Neurodegenerative Diseases: A Minireview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yenisetti SC

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Coffee is among the most widespread and healthiest beverages in the world. Coffee typically contains more caffeine than most other beverages, and is widely and frequently consumed. Thus, it contributes significantly to the overall caffeine consumption within the general population, particularly in adults. Controversies regarding its benefits and risks still exist as reliable evidence is becoming available supporting its health-promoting potential. Several lines of evidence have highlighted the beneficial effects towards several disease conditions including Type II diabetes, hepatitis C virus, hepatocellular carcinoma, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD, Parkinson's disease (PD and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS. The health-promoting properties of coffee are largely attributed to its rich phytochemistry, including caffeine, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, and hydroxy hydroquinone. In this minireview, an attempt has been made to discuss the various evidences which are mainly derived from animal and cell models. Various mechanisms chiefly responsible for the beneficial effects of caffeine have also been briefly outlined. A short note on the undesirable effects of excessive coffee intakes is also presented.

  19. Effects of hyperoxia and caffeine on the expression of fragile site at Xq27.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafi, S.K.; Surana, R.B.; Christopher, K.L. [Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington, DC (United States)] [and others

    1996-02-02

    To enhance the cytogenetic expression of the fragile X chromosome, we studied the effects of hyperoxia and caffeine on the induction of fragile Xq27.3. A lymphoblastoid cell line (GM 06912) derived from a fragile X male proband was cultured in RPMI 1640 containing 16% dialyzed fetal calf serum. The cells were synchronously subjected to one of 3 different atmospheric oxygen tensions (21%, 21.3 kPa, hyperoxic) during the last 24 hours of the 72 hour culture, immediately after the addition of 2{prime}-deoxy-5-fluorouridine (FUdR) at 25 ng/ml. To study the enhancing effect of caffeine, with or without hyperoxia, a second set of cultures was additionally subjected to caffeine (2.5 mM) during the last 6 hours of the culture. When the fragility of hyperoxic cells (38.1 kPa dissolved oxygen) was compared to that of normoxic control cells (13.3 kPa dissolved oxygen), the difference was significant (P < 0.05). These data suggest that there is a mean increase in the fragile Xq27.3 expressivity as the dissolved oxygen tension increases. Additionally, we observed that caffeine, with or without hyperoxia, significantly (P <0.05) suppressed the expression of the fragile X site in this lymphoblastoid cell line. 34 refs., 2 tabs.

  20. Modeling caffeine concentrations with the Stanford Caffeine Questionnaire: preliminary evidence for an interaction of chronotype with the effects of caffeine on sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nova, Philip; Hernandez, Beatriz; Ptolemy, Adam S; Zeitzer, Jamie M

    2012-04-01

    To examine the validity of a novel caffeine intake questionnaire and to examine the effects of caffeine on sleep in college students. One-week, ad libitum behavior of 50 university students (28 female, 22 male; aged 20.9 ± 1.78 years) was examined with sleep logs, wrist actigraphy, and a novel daily questionnaire assessing caffeine intake at different times of day. Saliva samples were collected for caffeine assessment (questionnaire validation) and DNA extraction, and for analysis of a single nucleotide polymorphism in the adenosine receptor 2A (ADORA2A) gene. The caffeine questionnaire was able to accurately predict salivary concentrations of caffeine (R(2) = 0.41, Psleep were correlated with wake after sleep onset (WASO) most strongly in morning-type individuals (R(2) = 0.49; Psleep and genotype and chronotype. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Caffeine Expectancy Questionnaire (CaffEQ): Construction, Psychometric Properties, and Associations with Caffeine Use, Caffeine Dependence, and Other Related Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntley, Edward D.; Juliano, Laura M.

    2012-01-01

    Expectancies for drug effects predict drug initiation, use, cessation, and relapse, and may play a causal role in drug effects (i.e., placebo effects). Surprisingly little is known about expectancies for caffeine even though it is the most widely used psychoactive drug in the world. In a series of independent studies, the nature and scope of…

  2. Effects of 2-deoxy-D-glucose, oligomycin and theophylline on in vitro glycerol metabolism in rat adipose tissue: response to insulin and epinephrine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez, M C; Herrera, E [Barcelona Univ. (Spain). Catedra de Fisiologia General

    1976-01-01

    The effects of 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2DG), oligomycin and theophylline on the in vitro production and metabolism of glycerol and its response to insulin and epinephrine were studied in epididymal fat pads from fed rats. 2-DG failed to affect basic or epinephrine-stimulated glycerol production but decreased the uptake of 1-/sup 14/C-glycerol by the tissue and its conversion to glyceride-glycerol. Oligomycin also failed to affect the basic production of glycerol, but it inhibited the affect of epinephrine on this parameter as well as the uptake and utilization of 1-/sup 14/C-glycerol. Theophylline enhanced the production of glycerol by the tissue, and this effect was not further augmented by epinephrine. Theophylline also inhibited the uptake and utilization of 1-/sup 14/C-glycerol; the most pronounced effect of theophylline was observed in the formation of /sup 14/C-fatty acids from 1-/sup 14/C-glycerol in the presence of glucose. Insulin, but not epinephrine, decreased the inhibitory effect of theophylline on glycerol utilization. It is concluded that these compounds affect the ability of adipose tissue to metabolize glycerol more intensely than the ability to release it through lipolysis. The pathway for glycerol utilization in adipose tissue appears to be more sensitive to changes in the availability of ATP than the mechanisms for the release of glycerol from the tissue.

  3. Study for luminescence performance of three methyl xanthine derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yan-Li; Dong, Chuan; Shuang, Shao-Min; Liu, Dian-Sheng

    2005-09-01

    In this paper, the low-temperature phosphorescence (LTP), the low-temperature fluorescence (LTF), the paper substrate room-temperature phosphorescence (PS-RTP) and the room fluorescence (RTF) properties of caffeine (CF), theophylline (TP), and theobromine (TB) are investigated and compared, and some rules are found out: their maximal excitation wavelength and emission wavelength are in the range of 270-300 nm and 395-445 nm, respectively. And the PS-RTP characters of lifetime, polarization and quanta yield are also investigated and compared. It is found that their lifetimes of PS-RTP are all in the level of 0.1 s. They belong to long-life phosphorescence and their PS-RTP spectra are incompletely polarized.

  4. Reinforcing effects of caffeine in coffee and capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, R R; Bigelow, G E; Liebson, I A

    1989-09-01

    In a residential research ward the reinforcing and subjective effects of caffeine were studied under double-blind conditions in volunteer subjects with histories of heavy coffee drinking. In Experiment 1, 6 subjects had 13 opportunities each day to self-administer either a caffeine (100 mg) or a placebo capsule for periods of 14 to 61 days. All subjects developed a clear preference for caffeine, with intake of caffeine becoming relatively stable after preference had been attained. Preference for caffeine was demonstrated whether or not preference testing was preceded by a period of 10 to 37 days of caffeine abstinence, suggesting that a recent history of heavy caffeine intake (tolerance/dependence) was not a necessary condition for caffeine to function as a reinforcer. In Experiment 2, 6 subjects had 10 opportunities each day to self-administer a cup of coffee or (on different days) a capsule, dependent upon completing a work requirement that progressively increased and then decreased over days. Each day, one of four conditions was studied: caffeinated coffee (100 mg/cup), decaffeinated coffee, caffeine capsules (100 mg/capsule), or placebo capsules. Caffeinated coffee maintained the most self-administration, significantly higher than decaffeinated coffee and placebo capsules but not different from caffeine capsules. Both decaffeinated coffee and caffeine capsules were significantly higher than placebo capsules but not different from each other. In both experiments, subject ratings of "linking" of coffee or capsules covaried with the self-administration measures. These experiments provide the clearest demonstrations to date of the reinforcing effects of caffeine in capsules and in coffee.

  5. The CYP1A2 -163C>A polymorphism does not alter the effects of caffeine on basketball performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puente, Carlos; Abián-Vicén, Javier; Del Coso, Juan; Lara, Beatriz; Salinero, Juan José

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to analyze the influence of the genetic variations of the -163C>A polymorphism of the CYP1A2 gene on the ergogenic effects of caffeine in elite basketball players. Nineteen elite basketball players (10 men and 9 women) ingested 3 mg⋅kg-1 of caffeine or a placebo 60 min before performing 10 repetitions of the following series: the Abalakov jump test followed by the Change-of-Direction and Acceleration Test (CODAT). The players then competed in a 20-min simulated basketball game. Self-perceived performance and side effects were recorded by questionnaires after the trials. The effects of caffeine on basketball performance were established according to players' CYP1A2 genotype (rs762551): AA homozygotes (n = 10) and C-allele carriers (n = 9). In the 10 repetitions, caffeine increased Abalakov jump height by a mean of 2.9±3.6% in AA homozygotes (p = 0.03) while this effect did not reach statistical significance for C-allele carriers (2.3 ± 6.8%; p = 0.33). Caffeine did not affect sprint time in the CODAT test in either genotype group but it increased the number of impacts performed during the simulated game in both AA homozygotes (4.1 ± 5.3%; p = 0.02) and C-allele carriers (3.3 ± 3.2%; p = 0.01). During the 24 h following the test, AA homozygotes tended to experience increased insomnia with caffeine while C-allele carriers did not present this effect. The remaining variables were unaffected by the genotype. The CYP1A2 -163C>A polymorphism minimally altered the ergogenicity derived from the consumption of a moderate dose of caffeine in elite basketball players.

  6. The CYP1A2 -163C>A polymorphism does not alter the effects of caffeine on basketball performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puente, Carlos; Abián-Vicén, Javier; Lara, Beatriz; Salinero, Juan José

    2018-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this investigation was to analyze the influence of the genetic variations of the -163C>A polymorphism of the CYP1A2 gene on the ergogenic effects of caffeine in elite basketball players. Methods Nineteen elite basketball players (10 men and 9 women) ingested 3 mg⋅kg-1 of caffeine or a placebo 60 min before performing 10 repetitions of the following series: the Abalakov jump test followed by the Change-of-Direction and Acceleration Test (CODAT). The players then competed in a 20-min simulated basketball game. Self-perceived performance and side effects were recorded by questionnaires after the trials. The effects of caffeine on basketball performance were established according to players’ CYP1A2 genotype (rs762551): AA homozygotes (n = 10) and C-allele carriers (n = 9). Results In the 10 repetitions, caffeine increased Abalakov jump height by a mean of 2.9±3.6% in AA homozygotes (p = 0.03) while this effect did not reach statistical significance for C-allele carriers (2.3 ± 6.8%; p = 0.33). Caffeine did not affect sprint time in the CODAT test in either genotype group but it increased the number of impacts performed during the simulated game in both AA homozygotes (4.1 ± 5.3%; p = 0.02) and C-allele carriers (3.3 ± 3.2%; p = 0.01). During the 24 h following the test, AA homozygotes tended to experience increased insomnia with caffeine while C-allele carriers did not present this effect. The remaining variables were unaffected by the genotype. Conclusion The CYP1A2 -163C>A polymorphism minimally altered the ergogenicity derived from the consumption of a moderate dose of caffeine in elite basketball players. PMID:29668752

  7. CYP1A2 Genotype Variations Do Not Modify the Benefits and Drawbacks of Caffeine during Exercise: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan J. Salinero

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Previous investigations have determined that some individuals have minimal or even ergolytic performance effects after caffeine ingestion. The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of the genetic variations of the CYP1A2 gene on the performance enhancement effects of ingesting a moderate dose of caffeine. In a double-blind randomized experimental design, 21 healthy active participants (29.3 ± 7.7 years ingested 3 mg of caffeine per kg of body mass or a placebo in testing sessions separated by one week. Performance in the 30 s Wingate test, visual attention, and side effects were evaluated. DNA was obtained from whole blood samples and the CYP1A2 polymorphism was analyzed (rs762551. We obtained two groups: AA homozygotes (n = 5 and C-allele carriers (n = 16. Caffeine ingestion increased peak power (682 ± 140 vs. 667 ± 137 W; p = 0.008 and mean power during the Wingate test (527 ± 111 vs. 518 ± 111 W; p < 0.001 with no differences between AA homozygotes and C-allele carriers (p > 0.05. Reaction times were similar between caffeine and placebo conditions (276 ± 31 vs. 269 ± 71 milliseconds; p = 0.681 with no differences between AA homozygotes and C-allele carriers. However, 31.3% of the C-allele carriers reported increased nervousness after caffeine ingestion, while none of the AA homozygotes perceived this side effect. Genetic variations of the CYP1A2 polymorphism did not affect the ergogenic effects and drawbacks derived from the ingestion of a moderate dose of caffeine.

  8. CYP1A2 Genotype Variations Do Not Modify the Benefits and Drawbacks of Caffeine during Exercise: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinero, Juan J; Lara, Beatriz; Ruiz-Vicente, Diana; Areces, Francisco; Puente-Torres, Carlos; Gallo-Salazar, César; Pascual, Teodoro; Del Coso, Juan

    2017-03-11

    Previous investigations have determined that some individuals have minimal or even ergolytic performance effects after caffeine ingestion. The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of the genetic variations of the CYP1A2 gene on the performance enhancement effects of ingesting a moderate dose of caffeine. In a double-blind randomized experimental design, 21 healthy active participants (29.3 ± 7.7 years) ingested 3 mg of caffeine per kg of body mass or a placebo in testing sessions separated by one week. Performance in the 30 s Wingate test, visual attention, and side effects were evaluated. DNA was obtained from whole blood samples and the CYP1A2 polymorphism was analyzed (rs762551). We obtained two groups: AA homozygotes ( n = 5) and C-allele carriers ( n = 16). Caffeine ingestion increased peak power (682 ± 140 vs. 667 ± 137 W; p = 0.008) and mean power during the Wingate test (527 ± 111 vs. 518 ± 111 W; p 0.05). Reaction times were similar between caffeine and placebo conditions (276 ± 31 vs. 269 ± 71 milliseconds; p = 0.681) with no differences between AA homozygotes and C-allele carriers. However, 31.3% of the C-allele carriers reported increased nervousness after caffeine ingestion, while none of the AA homozygotes perceived this side effect. Genetic variations of the CYP1A2 polymorphism did not affect the ergogenic effects and drawbacks derived from the ingestion of a moderate dose of caffeine.

  9. Caffeine Toxicity Due to Supplement Use in Caffeine--Naïve Individual: A Cautionary Tale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lystrup, Robert M; Leggit, Jeffery C

    2015-08-01

    Thousands of military members self-medicate with dietary supplements containing unknown quantities of pharmacologically active compounds. These poorly regulated substances can cause real harm to the military population, especially when they contain stimulants such as caffeine. When taken regularly, caffeine has several performance-enhancing benefits. However, when used excessively or in vulnerable populations, caffeine can cause several unwanted side effects such as nervousness, sensory disturbances, insomnia, arrhythmia, excitability, inattentiveness, restlessness, mood changes, gastrointestinal disturbances, and even psychosis. Vulnerable patients include the caffeine-naïve, physiologically stressed, young, and mentally ill patients. One such case describes a caffeine-naïve service member who suffered an adverse reaction after taking an allegedly moderate dose of caffeine from a pill he obtained from a teammate. This case highlights the importance of supplement awareness among service members, increased provider vigilance, third party verification, and enhanced regulation on the approval and marketing of dietary supplements. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  10. Altered expression of the caffeine synthase gene in a naturally caffeine-free mutant of Coffea arabica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirian Perez Maluf

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we studied the biosynthesis of caffeine by examining the expression of genes involved in this biosynthetic pathway in coffee fruits containing normal or low levels of this substance. The amplification of gene-specific transcripts during fruit development revealed that low-caffeine fruits had a lower expression of the theobromine synthase and caffeine synthase genes and also contained an extra transcript of the caffeine synthase gene. This extra transcript contained only part of exon 1 and all of exon 3. The sequence of the mutant caffeine synthase gene revealed the substitution of isoleucine for valine in the enzyme active site that probably interfered with enzymatic activity. These findings indicate that the absence of caffeine in these mutants probably resulted from a combination of transcriptional regulation and the presence of mutations in the caffeine synthase amino acid sequence.

  11. Caffeine Does Not Modulate Inhibitory Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tieges, Zoe; Snel, Jan; Kok, Albert; Ridderinkhof, K. Richard

    2009-01-01

    The effects of a 3 mg/kg body weight (BW) dose of caffeine were assessed on behavioral indices of response inhibition. To meet these aims, we selected a modified AX version of the Continuous Performance Test (CPT), the stop task, and the flanker task. In three double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subjects experiments, these tasks were…

  12. Caffeinated drinks, alcohol consumption and hangover severity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penning, R.; de Haan, L.; Verster, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between consumption of caffeinated beverages and alcohol, and effects on next day hangover severity. In 2010, a survey funded by Utrecht University was conducted among N=549 Dutch students. Beverages consumed on their latest drinking session that produced a

  13. Caffeine improves anticipatory processes in task switching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tieges, Zoe; Snel, Jan; Kok, Albert; Wijnen, Jasper G.; Lorist, Monicque M.; Ridderinkhof, K. Richard

    We studied the effects of moderate amounts of caffeine on task switching and task maintenance using mixed-task (AABB) blocks, in which participants alternated predictably between two tasks, and single-task (AAAA, BBBB) blocks. Switch costs refer to longer reaction times (RT) on task switch trials

  14. Spectrophotometric determination of caffeine using polyaniline films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monlinong, Jason Paul C.; Portilla, Ma. Cristina B.; Agustin, Katrina Jane D.; Pascual, Cherrie B.

    2015-01-01

    Polyaniline (PANI) films were fabricated by chemical oxidative polymerization of aniline monomers using ammonium persulfate (APS). The effects of varying oxidant concentration, oxidant solvent and washing solution in the PANI film deposition were first evaluated. 0.250 M APS in 0.200 M HCl and 0.200 M aniline in 0.200 M HCl were used to produce the emeraldine PANI (green) films which were deposited onto commercially available acctate films. The fabricated PANI film acts as an optical sensor baed on its redox-dependent switching of polyaniline from emeraldine (green) to pernigranilline (blue) form. The change in absorbance of blue PANI films immerse in caffeine-containing solution vs green fabricated PANI films were utilized in analysis of caffeine at 829 nm using a UV-VIS spectrophotometer. Repeatable results were obtained in intra-branch and inter-branch repeatability studies, with coefficient of variation (CV) values ranging rom 9.8-13.9% and 5.1-14.5%, respectively. Linear response was obtained over the concentration of 10.0-50.0 μg/mL. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ) were determined to be 2.5 and 8.5μg/mL, respectively. The obtained % recovery values of caffeine spiked in aqueous solution ranged from 84.9-107%. Three pharmaceutical formulations containing 20.0 or 25.0 μg/Ml caffeine where analyzed using PANI films by external calibration method. The obtained average caffeine values were 25.2 mg/tablet, 22.4 mg/tablet and 15.4 mg/capsule for Fevadol®, Fevergan® and Alaxan®FR, respectively. These values were 77.0% to 101% of the label claims. Human urine samples spiked with caffeine were also analyzed, after sample pre-treatment. Obtained percent recovery values ranged from 79.1 to 105%. This method demonstrated the potential of laboratory-fabricated PANI films as a low-cost rapid, reliable, simple and accurate method for caffeine quantification in pharmaceutical and clinical specimens. (author)

  15. Evaluation of tableting and tablet properties of Kollidon SR: the influence of moisture and mixtures with theophylline monohydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauschild, Karsten; Picker-Freyer, Katharina M

    2006-02-01

    The aim of the study was firstly to investigate the influence of moisture on the tableting and tablet properties of Kollidon SR and secondly to investigate the influence of theophylline monohydrate on the tableting behavior and tablet properties produced from binary mixtures with Kollidon SR. In comparison to Kollidon SR, microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) was used. The glass transition temperature (Tg) of the powder over the whole range of RH (0-90%), and in addition, the Tg of tablets of Kollidon SR were measured. Densities and flowability of the powders were analyzed. The tablets were produced at five different maximum relative densities (rho(rel), max) on an instrumented eccentric tableting machine. They were produced at three different relative humidities (RH), 30%, 45%, and 60% RH for the pure substances and binary mixtures with different ratios of drug and excipient were tableted at 45% RH. The tableting properties were analyzed by 3D modeling, force-displacement profiles, and compactibility plots. First, the Tg of the powder decreased with increasing RH and the Tg of the tablet was 4-8 K lower than the powder. The predominant deformation of Kollidon SR is plastic deformation and Kollidon SR showed a higher compactibility than MCC. The parameters of the 3D model showed an extreme change between 45 and 60% RH, and at higher RH more and more particles deformed elastically. This was confirmed by analysis of force-displacement profiles. At 60% RH, the radial tensile strength of the Kollidon SR tablets was half of the radial tensile strength at 45% RH. The reason is a higher relative energy of plastic deformation than for MCC. This results in a better utilization of the energy to deform the powder into a tablet and the exceeding of the glass transition temperature at higher RH. In conclusion, at 60% RH at the same rho(rel, max), tableting and tablet properties of Kollidon SR are extremely changed since plasticity is significantly higher. In the second part of the

  16. Sleep deprivation prevents stimulation-induced increases of levels of P-CREB and BDNF: protection by caffeine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhaider, Ibrahim A; Aleisa, Abdulaziz M; Tran, Trinh T; Alkadhi, Karim A

    2011-04-01

    It is well known that caffeine and sleep deprivation have opposing effects on learning and memory; therefore, this study was undertaken to determine the effects of chronic (4wks) caffeine treatment (0.3g/l in drinking water) on long-term memory deficit associated with 24h sleep deprivation. Animals were sleep deprived using the modified multiple platform method. The results showed that chronic caffeine treatment prevented the impairment of long-term memory as measured by performance in the radial arm water maze task and normalized L-LTP in area CA1 of the hippocampi of sleep-deprived anesthetized rats. Sleep deprivation prevents the high frequency stimulation-induced increases in the levels of phosphorylated-cAMP response element binding protein (P-CREB) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) seen during the expression of late phase long-term potentiation (L-LTP). However, chronic caffeine treatment prevented the effect of sleep-deprivation on the stimulated levels of P-CREB and BDNF. The results suggest that chronic caffeine treatment may protect the sleep-deprived brain probably by preserving the levels of P-CREB and BDNF. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Teratogenic effects of caffeine and clomipramine on rat fetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takzare N

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obsessive-compulsive disorders and depression have a high prevalence during pregnancy therefore, pregnant women may take clomipramine and also take other drugs or consume foods that contain caffeine. As investigations about the teratogenic effects of clomipramine and its concurrent administration with caffeine during organogenesis period are scarce, we aimed to study the teratogenicity of simultaneous administration of clomipramine and caffeine in rat fetus.Methods: After dividing 42 pregnant rats to several case and control groups, we injected different doses of caffeine and clomipramine to the animals. All the injections were performed on the eighth until the 15th day of pregnancy. We removed the fetuses on the 17th day of pregnancy and studied the morphological features and apparent anomalies of the fetuses macroscopically. Results: We found a significant rate of mortality, apparent anomalies, abnormal torsion, shrinkage of skin and subcutaneous bleeding in fetuses of rats receiving high doses of caffeine or a combination of caffeine and clomipramine. Statistical analysis of the data revealed a significant increase (P?0.001 in teratogenicity of high doses of caffeine and its combination with clomipramine. Conclusion: This study implies simultaneous intake of high amounts of caffeine and clomipramine lead to teratogenicity. We recommend pregnant women to avoid uncontrolled consumption of foods that contain caffeine or drugs that contain high amounts of this substance. They should not also take clomipramine with caffeine in the first trimester of pregnancy.

  18. Caffeine Withdrawal and Dependence: A Convenience Survey Among Addiction Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budney, Alan J; Brown, Pamela C; Griffiths, Roland R; Hughes, John R; Juliano, Laura M

    2013-06-01

    Caffeine withdrawal was included in the research appendix of the DSM-IV to encourage additional research to assist with determining its status for the next version of the manual. Caffeine dependence was not included because of a lack of empirical research at the time of publication. This study assessed the beliefs of addiction professionals about the clinical importance of caffeine withdrawal and dependence. A 6-item survey was developed and delivered electronically to the members of six professional organizations that focus on addiction. Open-ended comments were also solicited. Five hundred members responded. The majority (95%) thought that cessation of caffeine could produce a withdrawal syndrome, and that caffeine withdrawal can have clinical importance (73%); however, only half (48%) thought that caffeine withdrawal should be included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). A majority (58%) believed that some people develop caffeine dependence; however, only 44% indicated that it should be in the DSM. Comments suggested that trepidation about inclusion of caffeine diagnoses was due to the concerns about the field of psychiatry being criticized for including common disorders with a relatively low clinical severity. Others, however, expressed an urgent need to take caffeine-related problems more seriously. The majority of addiction professionals believe that caffeine withdrawal and dependence disorders exist and are clinically important; however, these professionals are divided in whether caffeine withdrawal and dependence should be included in DSM. Wider dissemination of the extant literature on caffeine withdrawal and additional research on caffeine dependence will be needed to provide additional guidance to policymakers and healthcare workers.

  19. In vitro studies of theophylline-induced changes in Na, K and Cl transport in hen (Gallus domesticus) colon suggesting bidirectional, basolateral NaK2Cl cotransport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Vibeke; Munck, B G; Munck, L K

    1990-01-01

    1. In isolated mucosa from a NaCl-loaded hen theophylline stimulates both unidirectional chloride fluxes (JmsCl and JsmCl). Conductive and electroneutral exchange processes, besides a bumetanide-sensitive, rheogenic process contribute. 2. The bumetanide-sensitive fraction of the theophylline......-induced delta JcmCl is sodium-dependent. 3. Incubation in nominally K(+)-free solutions reduces the bumetanide-sensitive fraction delta JsmCl more than treatment with ouabain. 4. With respect to chloride the bumetanide-sensitive fraction of delta JsmCl has a Hill coefficient of 1.93 +/- 0.03, a Jmax of 12...

  20. Use of low-dose oral theophylline as an adjunct to inhaled corticosteroids in preventing exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devereux, Graham; Cotton, Seonaidh; Barnes, Peter; Briggs, Andrew; Burns, Graham; Chaudhuri, Rekha; Chrystyn, Henry; Davies, Lisa; De Soyza, Anthony; Fielding, Shona; Gompertz, Simon; Haughney, John; Lee, Amanda J; McCormack, Kirsty; McPherson, Gladys; Morice, Alyn; Norrie, John; Sullivan, Anita; Wilson, Andrew; Price, David

    2015-06-10

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with high morbidity, mortality, and health-care costs. An incomplete response to the anti-inflammatory effects of inhaled corticosteroids is present in COPD. Preclinical work indicates that 'low dose' theophylline improves steroid responsiveness. The Theophylline With Inhaled Corticosteroids (TWICS) trial investigates whether the addition of 'low dose' theophylline to inhaled corticosteroids has clinical and cost-effective benefits in COPD. TWICS is a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial conducted in primary and secondary care sites in the UK. The inclusion criteria are the following: an established predominant respiratory diagnosis of COPD (post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in first second/forced vital capacity [FEV1/FVC] of less than 0.7), age of at least 40 years, smoking history of at least 10 pack-years, current inhaled corticosteroid use, and history of at least two exacerbations requiring treatment with antibiotics or oral corticosteroids in the previous year. A computerised randomisation system will stratify 1424 participants by region and recruitment setting (primary and secondary) and then randomly assign with equal probability to intervention or control arms. Participants will receive either 'low dose' theophylline (Uniphyllin MR 200 mg tablets) or placebo for 52 weeks. Dosing is based on pharmacokinetic modelling to achieve a steady-state serum theophylline of 1-5 mg/l. A dose of theophylline MR 200 mg once daily (or placebo once daily) will be taken by participants who do not smoke or participants who smoke but have an ideal body weight (IBW) of not more than 60 kg. A dose of theophylline MR 200 mg twice daily (or placebo twice daily) will be taken by participants who smoke and have an IBW of more than 60 kg. Participants will be reviewed at recruitment and after 6 and 12 months. The primary outcome is the total number of participant-reported COPD exacerbations requiring

  1. Molecular Dynamics and Neutron Scattering Studies of Mixed Solutions of Caffeine and Pyridine in Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavagnacco, Letizia; Mason, Philip E; Neilson, George W; Saboungi, Marie-Louise; Cesàro, Attilio; Brady, John W

    2018-05-31

    Insight into the molecular interactions of homotactic and heterotactic association of caffeine and pyridine in aqueous solution is given on the basis of both experimental and simulation studies. Caffeine is about 5 times more soluble in a 3 m aqueous pyridine solution than it is in pure water (an increase from ∼0.1 m to 0.5 m). At this elevated concentration the system becomes suitable for neutron scattering study. Caffeine-pyridine interactions were studied by neutron scattering and molecular dynamics simulations, allowing a detailed characterization of the spatial and orientational structure of the solution. It was found that while pyridine-caffeine interactions are not as strong as caffeine-caffeine interactions, the pyridine-caffeine interactions still significantly disrupted caffeine-caffeine stacking. The alteration of the caffeine-caffeine stacking, occasioned by the presence of pyridine molecules in solution and the consequent formation of heterotactic interactions, leads to the experimentally detected increase in caffeine solubility.

  2. Effects of long-term theophylline exposure on recovery of respiratory function and expression of adenosine A1 mRNA in cervical spinal cord hemisected adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nantwi, Kwaku D; Basura, Gregory J; Goshgarian, Harry G

    2003-07-01

    Our lab has previously shown that when administered acutely, the methylxanthine theophylline can activate a latent respiratory motor pathway to restore function to the hemidiaphragm paralyzed by an ipsilateral C2 spinal cord hemisection. The recovery is mediated by the antagonism of CNS adenosine A1 receptors. The objective of the present study was to assess quantitatively recovery after chronic theophylline administration, the effects of weaning from the drug, and the effects of the drug on adenosine A1 receptor mRNA expression in adult rats subjected to a C2 hemisection. Rats subjected to a left C2 hemisection received theophylline orally for 3, 7, 12, or 30 days and were classified as 3D, 7D, 12D, or 30D respectively. Separate groups of 3D animals were weaned from drug administration for 7, 12, and 30 days before assessment of respiratory recovery. Additional groups of 7D and 12D animals were also weaned from drug administration for 7 and 12 days prior to assessment. Sham-operated controls received theophylline vehicle for similar periods. Quantitative assessment of recovered respiratory activity was conducted under standardized electrophysiologic recording conditions approximately 18 h after each drug application period. Serum theophylline analysis was conducted at the end of electrophysiologic recordings. Adenosine A1 receptor mRNA expression in the phrenic nucleus was assessed with in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Chronic theophylline induced a dose-dependent effect on respiratory recovery over a serum theophylline range of 1.2-1.9 microg/ml. Recovery was characterized as respiratory-related activity in the left phrenic nerve and expressed as a percentage of activity in the homolateral nerve in noninjured animals under similar recording conditions. Recovered activity was 34.13 +/- 2.07, 55.89 +/- 2.96, 74.78 +/- 1.93, and 79.12 +/- 1.75% respectively in the 3D, 7D, 12D, and 30D groups. Theophylline-induced recovered activity persisted for as

  3. Caffeine and cognition in functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppelstaetter, Florian; Poeppel, Thorsten D; Siedentopf, Christian M; Ischebeck, Anja; Kolbitsch, Christian; Mottaghy, Felix M; Felber, Stephan R; Jaschke, Werner R; Krause, Bernd J

    2010-01-01

    Caffeine has been consumed since ancient times due to its beneficial effects on attention, psychomotor function, and memory. Caffeine exerts its action mainly through an antagonism of cerebral adenosine receptors, although there are important secondary effects on other neurotransmitter systems. Recently, functional MRI (fMRI) entered the field of neuropharmacology to explore the intracerebral sites and mechanisms of action of pharmacological agents. However, as caffeine possesses vasoconstrictive properties it may interfere with the mechanisms underlying the functional contrast in fMRI. Yet, only a limited number of studies dealt with the effect of caffeine on measures in fMRI. Even fewer neuroimaging studies examined the effects that caffeine exerts on cognition: Portas and colleagues used fMRI in an attentional task under different levels of arousal (sleep deprivation or caffeine administration), concluding that the thalamus is involved in mediating the interaction of attention and arousal. Bendlin and colleagues found caffeine to stabilize the extent of neuronal activation in repetitive word stem completion, counteracting the general task practice effect. Recently, Koppelstaetter and colleagues assessed the effect of caffeine on verbal working memory demonstrating a modulatory effect of caffeine on brain regions (medial frontopolar and anterior cingulate cortex) that have been associated with attentional and executive functions. This review surveys and discusses neuroimaging findings on 1) how caffeine affects the contrast underlying fMRI techniques, particularly the blood oxygen level dependent contrast (BOLD fMRI), and 2) how caffeine operates on neuronal activity underlying cognition, to understand the effect of caffeine on behavior and its neurobiological underpinnings.

  4. Caffeine As An Indicator Of Estrogenic Activity In Source Water.

    OpenAIRE

    Montagner, C C; Umbuzeiro, G A; Pasquini, C; Jardim, W F

    2015-01-01

    Caffeine has already been used as an indicator of anthropogenic impacts, especially the ones related to the disposal of sewage in water bodies. In this work, the presence of caffeine has been correlated with the estrogenic activity of water samples measured using the BLYES assay. After testing 96 surface water samples, it was concluded that caffeine can be used to prioritize samples to be tested for estrogenic activity in water quality programs evaluating emerging contaminants with endocrine ...

  5. Caffeine as an indicator of estrogenic activity in source water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagner, C C; Umbuzeiro, G A; Pasquini, C; Jardim, W F

    2014-08-01

    Caffeine has already been used as an indicator of anthropogenic impacts, especially the ones related to the disposal of sewage in water bodies. In this work, the presence of caffeine has been correlated with the estrogenic activity of water samples measured using the BLYES assay. After testing 96 surface water samples, it was concluded that caffeine can be used to prioritize samples to be tested for estrogenic activity in water quality programs evaluating emerging contaminants with endocrine disruptor activity.

  6. The effects of caffeine and expectancy on attention and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oei, Adam; Hartley, Laurence R

    2005-04-01

    The present study contrasted caffeine's effects on individuals who expect caffeine to stimulate them and those who do not. Secondly, whether a message that caffeine rather than placebo was administered would also affect these two groups of subjects differently was investigated. The study was conducted single-blind in a 2x2x2 mixed design. The between subjects factor was whether they expected caffeine to stimulate them (E+) or not (E-) according to their self reports obtained before the experiment began. The within subjects factors were message (told caffeine vs told placebo) and beverage type (given caffeine vs placebo). Sixteen subjects in each group (n=32) performed on signal detection, memory scanning and delayed free recall tasks following ingestion of either caffeinated or decaffeinated coffee on two sessions each, a total of four experimental sessions. On each session, subjects were given a message regarding their drink (told caffeine vs told placebo). However, on two sessions there was a mismatch between the message and drink given. For signal detection, performance under caffeine was better than placebo in the E+ but not the E- group. However, subjects in the E+ group did not benefit more than the E- group in either message condition. On memory scanning, detections and false alarms did not differ for either beverage, nor was there a differential finding in the E+ and E- groups. However, reaction time under caffeine condition was shorter. No effects of message were found. Caffeine and message also did not have any effect on performance on the delayed free recall task. The hypothesis that caffeine and message would affect E+ and E- subjects differentially was partly supported. Copyright (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Caffeine: Cognitive and Physical Performance Enhancer or Psychoactive Drug?

    OpenAIRE

    Cappelletti, Simone; Daria, Piacentino; Sani, Gabriele; Aromatario, Mariarosaria

    2015-01-01

    Caffeine use is increasing worldwide. The underlying motivations are mainly concentration and memory enhancement and physical performance improvement. Coffee and caffeine-containing products affect the cardiovascular system, with their positive inotropic and chronotropic effects, and the central nervous system, with their locomotor activity stimulation and anxiogenic-like effects. Thus, it is of interest to examine whether these effects could be detrimental for health. Furthermore, caffeine a...

  8. Self-organizing map analysis using multivariate data from theophylline powders predicted by a thin-plate spline interpolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Akihito; Onuki, Yoshinori; Kikuchi, Shingo; Takayama, Kozo

    2010-11-01

    The quality by design concept in pharmaceutical formulation development requires establishment of a science-based rationale and a design space. We integrated thin-plate spline (TPS) interpolation and Kohonen's self-organizing map (SOM) to visualize the latent structure underlying causal factors and pharmaceutical responses. As a model pharmaceutical product, theophylline powders were prepared based on the standard formulation. The angle of repose, compressibility, cohesion, and dispersibility were measured as the response variables. These responses were predicted quantitatively on the basis of a nonlinear TPS. A large amount of data on these powders was generated and classified into several clusters using an SOM. The experimental values of the responses were predicted with high accuracy, and the data generated for the powders could be classified into several distinctive clusters. The SOM feature map allowed us to analyze the global and local correlations between causal factors and powder characteristics. For instance, the quantities of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) and magnesium stearate (Mg-St) were classified distinctly into each cluster, indicating that the quantities of MCC and Mg-St were crucial for determining the powder characteristics. This technique provides a better understanding of the relationships between causal factors and pharmaceutical responses in theophylline powder formulations. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association

  9. Excess caffeine exposure impairs eye development during chick embryogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zheng-lai; Wang, Guang; Cheng, Xin; Chuai, Manli; Kurihara, Hiroshi; Lee, Kenneth Ka Ho; Yang, Xuesong

    2014-01-01

    Caffeine has been an integral component of our diet and medicines for centuries. It is now known that over consumption of caffeine has detrimental effects on our health, and also disrupts normal foetal development in pregnant mothers. In this study, we investigated the potential teratogenic effect of caffeine over-exposure on eye development in the early chick embryo. Firstly, we demonstrated that caffeine exposure caused chick embryos to develop asymmetrical microphthalmia and induced the orbital bone to develop abnormally. Secondly, caffeine exposure perturbed Pax6 expression in the retina of the developing eye. In addition, it perturbed the migration of HNK-1+ cranial neural crest cells. Pax6 is an important gene that regulates eye development, so altering the expression of this gene might be the cause for the abnormal eye development. Thirdly, we found that reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was significantly increased in eye tissues following caffeine treatment, and that the addition of anti-oxidant vitamin C could rescue the eyes from developing abnormally in the presence of caffeine. This suggests that excess ROS induced by caffeine is one of the mechanisms involved in the teratogenic alterations observed in the eye during embryogenesis. In sum, our experiments in the chick embryo demonstrated that caffeine is a potential teratogen. It causes asymmetrical microphthalmia to develop by increasing ROS production and perturbs Pax6 expression. PMID:24636305

  10. Antibacterial activity of caffeine against plant pathogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sledz, Wojciech; Los, Emilia; Paczek, Agnieszka; Rischka, Jacek; Motyka, Agata; Zoledowska, Sabina; Piosik, Jacek; Lojkowska, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the antibacterial properties of a plant secondary metabolite - caffeine. Caffeine is present in over 100 plant species. Antibacterial activity of caffeine was examined against the following plant-pathogenic bacteria: Ralstonia solanacearum (Rsol), Clavibacter michiganesis subsp. sepedonicus (Cms), Dickeya solani (Dsol), Pectobacterium atrosepticum (Pba), Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (Pcc), Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst), and Xanthomonas campestris subsp. campestris (Xcc). MIC and MBC values ranged from 5 to 20 mM and from 43 to 100 mM, respectively. Caffeine increased the bacterial generation time of all tested species and caused changes in cell morphology. The influence of caffeine on the synthesis of DNA, RNA and proteins was investigated in cultures of plant pathogenic bacteria with labelled precursors: [(3)H]thymidine, [(3)H]uridine or (14)C leucine, respectively. RNA biosynthesis was more affected than DNA or protein biosynthesis in bacterial cells treated with caffeine. Treatment of Pba with caffeine for 336 h did not induce resistance to this compound. Caffeine application reduced disease symptoms caused by Dsol on chicory leaves, potato slices, and whole potato tubers. The data presented indicate caffeine as a potential tool for the control of diseases caused by plant-pathogenic bacteria, especially under storage conditions.

  11. Variation in caffeine concentration in single coffee beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Glen P; Wu, Alex; Yiran, Liang; Force, Lesleigh

    2013-11-13

    Twenty-eight coffee samples from around the world were tested for caffeine levels to develop near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) calibrations for whole and ground coffee. Twenty-five individual beans from five of those coffees were used to develop a NIRS calibration for caffeine concentration in single beans. An international standard high-performance liquid chromatography method was used to analyze for caffeine content. Coffee is a legal stimulant and possesses a number of heath properties. However, there is variation in the level of caffeine in brewed coffee and other caffeinated beverages. Being able to sort beans on the basis of caffeine concentration will improve quality control in the level of caffeine in those beverages. The range in caffeine concentration was from 0.01 mg/g (decaffeinated coffee) to 19.9 mg/g (Italian coffee). The majority of coffees were around 10.0-12.0 mg/g. The NIRS results showed r(2) values for bulk unground and ground coffees were >0.90 with standard errors coffee beans. One application of this calibration could be sorting beans on caffeine concentration to provide greater quality control for high-end markets. Furthermore, bean sorting may open new markets for novel coffee products.

  12. [Caffeine: a nutrient, a drug or a drug of abuse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo Lozano, Ricardo; Alvarez García, Yolanda; Barral Tafalla, Diego; Farré Albaladejo, Magí

    2007-01-01

    Coffee, tea, chocolate and caffeinated drinks are the main sources of caffeine, which is consumed in almost all ages and socioeconomic levels. Caffeine acts as a non-selective adenosine receptor antagonist in the central nervous system. Its main effects are as psychostimulant, acting in addition on the respiratory, muscular and cardiovascular systems. Basically, caffeine is metabolized by the hepatic cytochrome P-450 1A2 enzymes (CYP1A2). Several drugs can interact with its metabolism. The observed interindividual differences of its effects can be explained by variations in its metabolism. The main therapeutic use of caffeine is bronchodilator in respiratory diseases. Other possible uses are under investigation. Acute or chronic consumption of caffeine can induce several adverse effects, including intoxication that can be lethal. Finally, caffeine can be considered a drug of abuse. It has positive reinforcing actions, produces tolerance, and a withdrawal syndrome after stopping its consumption. Caffeine can cause different mental disorders such as dependence, which is not included in the DSM-IV-R, withdrawal syndrome and intoxication. Depending on its use, caffeine can be considered a nutrient, a drug or a drug of abuse.

  13. Caffeine Content in Popular Energy Drinks and Energy Shots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attipoe, Selasi; Leggit, Jeffrey; Deuster, Patricia A

    2016-09-01

    The use of energy beverages is high among the general population and military personnel. Previous studies have reported discrepancies between the actual amount of caffeine in products and the amount of caffeine on stated labels. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the content of caffeine listed on the labels of various energy drinks and energy shots. Top-selling energy drinks (n = 9) and energy shots (n = 5) were purchased from retail stores. Three of each of the 14 products were purchased and analyzed for caffeine content by an independent laboratory. Of the 14 products tested, 5 did not provide caffeine amounts on their facts panel-of those, 3 listed caffeine as an ingredient and 2 listed caffeine as part of a proprietary blend. The remaining 9 (of 14) products stated the amounts of caffeine on their labels, all of which were within 15% of the amount indicated on the label. In this study, although the energy beverages that indicated the amount of caffeine it contained had values within ±15% of the amount listed on the label, a potentially acceptable range, this finding is not acceptable with regard to current labeling regulations, which require added ingredients to total 100%. Reprint & Copyright © 2016 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  14. The Interaction of Sorbitol with Caffeine in Aqueous Solution

    OpenAIRE

    Tavagnacco, Letizia; Brady, John W.; Cesàro, Attilio

    2013-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations were carried out on a system of caffeine interacting with the sugar alcohol sorbitol. The system examined had a caffeine concentration 0.083 m and a sugar concentration 1.08 m. The trajectories of all molecules in the system were collected over a period of 80 ns and analyzed to determine whether there is any tendency for sorbitol to bind to caffeine, and if so, by what mechanism. The results show that the sorbitol molecules have an affinity for the caffeine mole...

  15. Regulation of cerebrospinal fluid production by caffeine consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Sik

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Caffeine is the most commonly consumed psycho-stimulant in the world. The effects of caffeine on the body have been extensively studied; however, its effect on the structure of the brain has not been investigated to date. Results In the present study we found that the long-term consumption of caffeine can induce ventriculomegaly; this was observed in 40% of the study rats. In the caffeine-treated rats with ventriculomegaly, there was increased production of CSF, associated with the increased expression of Na+, K+-ATPase and increased cerebral blood flow (CBF. In contrast to the chronic effects, acute treatment with caffeine decreased the production of CSF, suggesting 'effect inversion' associated with caffeine, which was mediated by increased expression of the A1 adenosine receptor, in the choroid plexus of rats chronically treated with caffeine. The involvement of the A1 adenosine receptor in the effect inversion of caffeine was further supported by the induction of ventriculomegaly and Na+, K+-ATPase, in A1 agonist-treated rats. Conclusion The results of this study show that long-term consumption of caffeine can induce ventriculomegaly, which is mediated in part by increased production of CSF. Moreover, we also showed that adenosine receptor signaling can regulate the production of CSF by controlling the expression of Na+, K+-ATPase and CBF.

  16. Caffeine, creatine, GRIN2A and Parkinson's disease progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, David K; Wu, Cai; Tilley, Barbara C; Lohmann, Katja; Klein, Christine; Payami, Haydeh; Wills, Anne-Marie; Aminoff, Michael J; Bainbridge, Jacquelyn; Dewey, Richard; Hauser, Robert A; Schaake, Susen; Schneider, Jay S; Sharma, Saloni; Singer, Carlos; Tanner, Caroline M; Truong, Daniel; Wei, Peng; Wong, Pei Shieen; Yang, Tianzhong

    2017-04-15

    Caffeine is neuroprotective in animal models of Parkinson's disease (PD) and caffeine intake is inversely associated with the risk of PD. This association may be influenced by the genotype of GRIN2A, which encodes an NMDA-glutamate-receptor subunit. In two placebo-controlled studies, we detected no association of caffeine intake with the rate of clinical progression of PD, except among subjects taking creatine, for whom higher caffeine intake was associated with more rapid progression. We now have analyzed data from 420 subjects for whom DNA samples and caffeine intake data were available from a placebo-controlled study of creatine in PD. The GRIN2A genotype was not associated with the rate of clinical progression of PD in the placebo group. However, there was a 4-way interaction between GRIN2A genotype, caffeine, creatine and the time since baseline. Among subjects in the creatine group with high levels of caffeine intake, but not among those with low caffeine intake, the GRIN2A T allele was associated with more rapid progression (p=0.03). These data indicate that the deleterious interaction between caffeine and creatine with respect to rate of progression of PD is influenced by GRIN2A genotype. This example of a genetic factor interacting with environmental factors illustrates the complexity of gene-environment interactions in the progression of PD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Radiation enhaced reactivation of herpes simplex virus: effect of caffeine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellman, K.B.; Lytle, C.D.; Bockstahler, L.E.

    1976-01-01

    Ultraviolet enhanced (Weigle) reactivation of UV-irradiated herpes simplex virus in UV-irradiated CV-1 monkey kidney cell monolayers was decreased by caffeine. X-ray enhanced reactivation of UV-irradiated virus in X-irradiated monolayers (X-ray reactivation) and UV- or X-ray-inactivated capacity of the cells to support unirradiated virus plaque formation were unaffected by caffeine. The results suggest that a caffeine-sensitive process is necessary for the expression of Weigle reactivation for herpes virus. Since caffeine did not significantly affect X-ray reactivation, different mechanisms may be responsible for the expression of Weigle reactivation and X-ray reactivation

  18. Exercise and sport performance with low doses of caffeine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spriet, Lawrence L

    2014-11-01

    Caffeine is a popular work-enhancing supplement that has been actively researched since the 1970s. The majority of research has examined the effects of moderate to high caffeine doses (5-13 mg/kg body mass) on exercise and sport. These caffeine doses have profound effects on the responses to exercise at the whole-body level and are associated with variable results and some undesirable side effects. Low doses of caffeine (caffeine doses (1) do not alter the peripheral whole-body responses to exercise; (2) improve vigilance, alertness, and mood and cognitive processes during and after exercise; and (3) are associated with few, if any, side effects. Therefore, the ergogenic effect of low caffeine doses appears to result from alterations in the central nervous system. However, several aspects of consuming low doses of caffeine remain unresolved and suffer from a paucity of research, including the potential effects on high-intensity sprint and burst activities. The responses to low doses of caffeine are also variable and athletes need to determine whether the ingestion of ~200 mg of caffeine before and/or during training and competitions is ergogenic on an individual basis.

  19. APPLICATION OF A POLYSACCHARIDE DERIVED FROM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While Tragacanth was superior to Treculia gum, the latter performed better than sodium carboxymethylcellulose (SCMC) as a sustained release hydrophilic matrix for theophylline hydrate. Key Words: Polysaccharide, Treculia africana, Moreaceae, Hydrophilic matrix, theophylline hydrate and dissolution rate. Nig. J. Nat.

  20. Could caffeine have some vaso protective effect?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buitrago, Lorena; Barrera, Gladys; Zuniga, Carolina and others

    2004-01-01

    Coffee is the most consumed hot drink in the world. it is part of the current and cultural diet of our society. There is a myth around coffee, considering it injurious based on clinical studies, whose results have been contradictory and without a solid scientific support. Nevertheless, in the last few years, there have been studies that describe the kindness of the coffee upon convecting, digestive and cardiovascular system. We want to present the vasodilator effect of caffeine in a experimental model that used aorta rings of normal and hipercholesterolemic rabbits, mounted in a organ bath system (Kent scientific corporation, Litchfield CT containing krebs, solution. The solution was kept at 37 Celsius degrade and aerated continuously with a 95% o 2 5% CO 2 gas mixture. The rings were pre contracted with norepinephrine (-5.5 log m) and relaxed with nitroglycerin (endothelium independent relaxation), acetylcholine (endothelium dependant relaxation) and caffeine

  1. Gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS)-based metabolomics for comparison of caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee and its implications for Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kai Lun; Ho, Paul C

    2014-01-01

    Findings from epidemiology, preclinical and clinical studies indicate that consumption of coffee could have beneficial effects against dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD). The benefits appear to come from caffeinated coffee, but not decaffeinated coffee or pure caffeine itself. Therefore, the objective of this study was to use metabolomics approach to delineate the discriminant metabolites between caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee, which could have contributed to the observed therapeutic benefits. Gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS)-based metabolomics approach was employed to characterize the metabolic differences between caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee. Orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) showed distinct separation between the two types of coffee (cumulative Q(2) = 0.998). A total of 69 discriminant metabolites were identified based on the OPLS-DA model, with 37 and 32 metabolites detected to be higher in caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee, respectively. These metabolites include several benzoate and cinnamate-derived phenolic compounds, organic acids, sugar, fatty acids, and amino acids. Our study successfully established GC-TOF-MS based metabolomics approach as a highly robust tool in discriminant analysis between caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee samples. Discriminant metabolites identified in this study are biologically relevant and provide valuable insights into therapeutic research of coffee against AD. Our data also hint at possible involvement of gut microbial metabolism to enhance therapeutic potential of coffee components, which represents an interesting area for future research.

  2. Consumption of Caffeinated Products and Cardiac Ectopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Shalini; Stein, Phyllis K; Dewland, Thomas A; Dukes, Jonathan W; Vittinghoff, Eric; Heckbert, Susan R; Marcus, Gregory M

    2016-01-26

    Premature cardiac contractions are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Though experts associate premature atrial contractions (PACs) and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) with caffeine, there are no data to support this relationship in the general population. As certain caffeinated products may have cardiovascular benefits, recommendations against them may be detrimental. We studied Cardiovascular Health Study participants with a baseline food frequency assessment, 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiography (Holter) monitoring, and without persistent atrial fibrillation. Frequencies of habitual coffee, tea, and chocolate consumption were assessed using a picture-sort food frequency survey. The main outcomes were PACs/h and PVCs/hour. Among 1388 participants (46% male, mean age 72 years), 840 (61%) consumed ≥1 caffeinated product per day. The median numbers of PACs and PVCs/h and interquartile ranges were 3 (1-12) and 1 (0-7), respectively. There were no differences in the number of PACs or PVCs/h across levels of coffee, tea, and chocolate consumption. After adjustment for potential confounders, more frequent consumption of these products was not associated with ectopy. In examining combined dietary intake of coffee, tea, and chocolate as a continuous measure, no relationships were observed after multivariable adjustment: 0.48% fewer PACs/h (95% CI -4.60 to 3.64) and 2.87% fewer PVCs/h (95% CI -8.18 to 2.43) per 1-serving/week increase in consumption. In the largest study to evaluate dietary patterns and quantify cardiac ectopy using 24-hour Holter monitoring, we found no relationship between chronic consumption of caffeinated products and ectopy. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  3. Caffeine Sodium Benzoate for Electroconvulsive Therapy Augmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozymski, Kevin M; Potter, Teresa G; Venkatachalam, Vasu; Pandurangi, Ananda K; Crouse, Ericka L

    2018-05-15

    Because of an ongoing manufacturer shortage of injectable caffeine sodium benzoate (CSB), patients at our health system were given CSB compounded in-house to increase seizure response during electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). Therefore, we aimed to evaluate its effectiveness and safety as an ECT augmentation agent. Medical records of patients who received compounded CSB at Virginia Commonwealth University Health System were reviewed to identify adults receiving it as part of an index ECT treatment course between June 2012 and December 2016. The primary outcome was change in electroencephalogram seizure duration from pre-caffeine session to initial caffeine session. Data were also collected on demographics, motor seizure duration, maximum heart rate, mean arterial pressure, and concurrent medication use for these sessions and the last caffeine session. Seven-one patients were included in the study, predominantly white females with a mean age of 58.6 years. The most common indication for ECT was major depressive disorder resistant to pharmacotherapy (71.8%), followed by catatonia associated with another mental disorder (19.7%). Electroencephalogram seizure duration increased by 24.1 seconds on average with first CSB use (P < 0.0001), allowing 24 more patients overall to achieve goal of at least 30 seconds (P < 0.0001). No clinically significant changes in maximum heart rate or mean arterial pressure were observed, nor did any patients require an abortive agent for prolonged seizure. Five patients (7%) discontinued CSB prematurely: 4 related to adverse effects and 1 secondary to ineffectiveness. We confirm results of prior studies of the utility of CSB and add that compounded CSB is effective for ECT augmentation, maintaining effectiveness throughout the index course with minimal safety concerns.

  4. Effects of caffeine on alcohol-related changes in behavioural control and perceived intoxication in light caffeine consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attwood, Angela S; Rogers, Peter J; Ataya, Alia F; Adams, Sally; Munafò, Marcus R

    2012-06-01

    Caffeinated alcoholic beverages have been associated with increased risk of alcohol-related harms. However, few studies have examined these combined effects on behavioural control, which is believed to underlie many of the negative effects of alcohol consumption. In addition, studies have often omitted subjective measures, and none have directly assessed the role of caffeine consumer history. To examine the combined effects of alcohol and caffeine on measures of behavioural control and perceived intoxication in abstinent, light caffeine consumers. Participants (n = 28; 50% male) attended four sessions at which they consumed one of the following beverages in a randomised order: placebo, alcohol alone (0.6 g/kg), caffeine alone (2.0 mg/kg), and alcohol/caffeine. They completed measures of mood, intoxication, anxiety and alcohol craving before and after a task battery comprising measures of behavioural control and reaction time performance. Caffeine attenuated alcohol-related performance deficits on stop-signal accuracy, had no effect on go-no-go performance deficits, and worsened accuracy on the Stroop task. Caffeine did not influence absolute changes in perceived intoxication but there was suggestion that caffeine may have changed the nature of intoxication with increases in stimulation. Caffeine appears to have mixed effects on alcohol intoxication that are task-dependent. We found increased stimulation in the alcohol/caffeine condition, supporting the contention that caffeinated alcoholic beverages enable an individual to drink for longer. Future research should model real world drinking behaviour by examining how these effects change across multiple drink administrations.

  5. Effects of Smoking Cues on Caffeine Urges in Heavy Smokers and Caffeine Consumers with and without Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Adolfo, Amy B.; AhnAllen, Christopher G.; Tidey, Jennifer W.

    2008-01-01

    Cigarette smoking and caffeine use are established and problematic drug-use behaviors in people with schizophrenia. Associative links between drugs of abuse may occur but the relationship between caffeine use and cigarette smoking has received little attention in schizophrenia. In this cross-cue reactivity laboratory study, we examined the effects of neutral and smoking cues on craving for caffeinated beverages in participants with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (SS; n = 15) and no...

  6. Alcohol and caffeine consumption and decreased fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakim, R B; Gray, R H; Zacur, H

    1998-10-01

    To examine the effects of alcohol and caffeine on conception. Prospective observational study. Healthy volunteers in two manufacturing facilities. One hundred twenty-four women who provided daily urine samples for measurement of steroid hormones and hCG, and prospective information about alcohol and caffeine consumption. Probability of conception per 100 menstrual cycles. There was >50% reduction in the probability of conception during a menstrual cycle during which participants consumed alcohol. Caffeine consumption did not independently affect the probability of conception but may enhance alcohol's negative effect. Women who abstained from alcohol and consumed less than one cup of coffee or its equivalent per day conceived 26.9 pregnancies per 100 menstrual cycles compared with 10.5 per 100 menstrual cycles among those who consumed any alcohol and more than one cup of coffee per day. This study revealed an independent dose-related negative effect of alcohol consumption on the ability to conceive. Our results suggest that women who are attempting to conceive should abstain from consuming alcohol.

  7. No psychophysiological interactions between caffeine and stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasenfratz, M; Bättig, K

    1992-01-01

    In earlier studies, the predominantly beta-adrenergic effects of mental tasks and the alpha-adrenergic effects of caffeine on cardiovascular functions were observed to be simply additive without interaction. In the present study, annoying electrical shocks were superimposed on a mental task affording either active coping, which specifically raises beta-adrenergic activation, or passive coping, and the 40 female subjects were preselected so as to differ in subjective stress susceptibility. Caffeine as well as the type of coping and the considered personality dimension produced significant effects, but almost no interactions were obtained. The stress resistant subjects, who tended toward more extraversion, emotional stability and more masculinity, had lower anxiety scores, rated their performance higher and had a greater cardiac output than the stress non-resistant subjects, who represented a rather normal population according to the FPI personality dimensions. Caffeine increased EEG alpha and beta frequency and delta power and decreased beta power, raised blood pressure and enhanced stress reactions in respiration amplitude and pre-ejection period. Active stress coping induced greater stress reactions in heart rate (increase), left ventricular ejection time (decrease) and ear pulse arrival time (decrease) than passive coping.

  8. Effects of smoking cues on caffeine urges in heavy smokers and caffeine consumers with and without schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolfo, Amy B; AhnAllen, Christopher G; Tidey, Jennifer W

    2009-02-01

    Cigarette smoking and caffeine use are established and problematic drug-use behaviors in people with schizophrenia. Associative links between drugs of abuse may occur but the relationship between caffeine use and cigarette smoking has received little attention in schizophrenia. In this cross-cue reactivity laboratory study, we examined the effects of neutral and smoking cues on craving for caffeinated beverages in participants with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (SS; n=15) and non-psychiatric controls (CS; n=18) all of whom were heavy smokers and daily caffeine users. Participants were tested under non-abstinent and 5-hour abstinent conditions. SS tended to report greater daily levels of caffeine use than CS. Although this difference was not significant, that may be due to the small sample sizes as the size of this effect was large. Daily caffeine intake was significantly correlated with daily smoking rate in SS but not CS. A significant interaction between group and cue type after controlling for caffeine intake indicated that exposure to smoking cues increased urge for caffeinated beverages in SS but not CS. These results indicate support for associative connections between cigarette smoking cues and craving for caffeine in smokers with schizophrenia.

  9. Effect of pH, buffer concentration and buffer composition on the absorption of theophylline from the small intestine of the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaey, C.J. de; Schurgers, N.

    1984-01-01

    The absorption of theophylline from the small intestine of the rat was investigated using buffer solutions of different pH (3.0–9.2), composition and concentration. The technique used, encloses luminal perfusion of an intestinal loop with collection of the blood draining the perfused loop, which

  10. Chronic caffeine treatment reverses memory impairment and the expression of brain BNDF and TrkB in the PS1/APP double transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer?s disease

    OpenAIRE

    HAN, KUN; JIA, NING; LI, JI; YANG, LI; MIN, LIAN-QIU

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of varying doses of caffeine on memory impairment and the expression of brain neurotrophic derived factor (BNDF) and TrkB in PS1/APP double transgenic mouse models. PS1/APP double transgenic mice were administered 0.3 ml/day of saline, 1.5 mg/day of caffeine or 0.75 mg/day of caffeine for eight weeks. A water maze test and western blotting were used to determine the memory capability and expression of hippocampal BNDF and TrkB of the ...

  11. Caffeine's influence on gambling behavior and other types of impulsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jon E; Chamberlain, Samuel R

    2018-01-01

    Young adulthood is a developmental period frequently associated with occurrence of impulsive behaviors including gambling. It is estimated that 73% of children and 87% of adults in the United States regularly use caffeine. Questions remain, however, concerning the role of caffeine in the development and maintenance of impulsive behaviors such as gambling. Sixty-one young adults with at least some degree of disordered gambling were recruited from two Mid-Western university communities in the United States using media advertisements. Caffeine intake over the preceding month was quantified using the Caffeine Use Questionnaire. Clinician rating scales, questionnaires, and cognitive tests germane to impulsivity were completed. Relationships between caffeine intake and demographic, gambling symptom, and neurocognitive measures were evaluated using the statistical technique of partial least squares (PLS). Average weekly caffeine intake in the gamblers was 1218.5mg (a figure higher than previously reported in the general population). PLS yielded an optimal model with one latent factor, which explained 14.8% of variation in demographic/clinical/cognitive measures and 32.3% of variation in caffeine intake. In this model, higher caffeine intake was significantly associated with earlier age at first gambling, higher personality-related impulsiveness, more nicotine consumption, older age, and more impulsive decision-making. These data suggest a particularly strong relationship between caffeine intake, earlier age of first gambling, and certain types of impulsivity in gamblers. Providing education about healthy caffeine use may be especially valuable in gamblers. Future work should explore whether the relationship between caffeine use and gambling is due to a common predisposing factor (impulsive tendencies) or, rather, constitutes a form of self-medication in gamblers (or a means of sustaining gambling habits for longer). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Energy drink consumption and impact on caffeine risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Barbara M; Campbell, Donald M; Cressey, Peter; Egan, Ursula; Horn, Beverley

    2014-01-01

    The impact of caffeine from energy drinks occurs against a background exposure from naturally occurring caffeine (coffee, tea, cocoa and foods containing these ingredients) and caffeinated beverages (kola-type soft drinks). Background caffeine exposure, excluding energy drinks, was assessed for six New Zealand population groups aged 15 years and over (n = 4503) by combining concentration data for 53 caffeine-containing foods with consumption information from the 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey (ANS). Caffeine exposure for those who consumed energy drinks (n = 138) was similarly assessed, with inclusion of energy drinks. Forty-seven energy drink products were identified on the New Zealand market in 2010. Product volumes ranged from 30 to 600 ml per unit, resulting in exposures of 10-300 mg caffeine per retail unit consumed. A small percentage, 3.1%, of New Zealanders reported consuming energy drinks, with most energy drink consumers (110/138) drinking one serving per 24 h. The maximum number of energy drinks consumed per 24 h was 14 (total caffeine of 390 mg). A high degree of brand loyalty was evident. Since only a minor proportion of New Zealanders reported consuming energy drinks, a greater number of New Zealanders exceeded a potentially adverse effect level (AEL) of 3 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1) for caffeine from caffeine-containing foods than from energy drinks. Energy drink consumption is not a risk at a population level because of the low prevalence of consumption. At an individual level, however, teenagers, adults (20-64 years) and females (16-44 years) were more likely to exceed the AEL by consuming energy drinks in combination with caffeine-containing foods.

  13. Caffeine and blood pressure response: sex, age, and hormonal status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Noha H; Whitsett, Thomas L; McKey, Barbara S; Wilson, Michael F; Vincent, Andrea S; Everson-Rose, Susan A; Lovallo, William R

    2010-06-01

    The pressor effect of caffeine has been established in young men and premenopausal women. The effect of caffeine on blood pressure (BP) remains unknown in postmenopausal women and in relation to hormone replacement therapy (HRT) use. In a randomized, 2-week cross-over design, we studied 165 healthy men and women in 6 groups: men and premenopausal women (35-49 yrs) vs. men and postmenopausal women (50-64 yrs), with postmenopausal women divided into those taking no hormone replacements (HR), estrogen alone, or estrogen and progesterone. Testing during one week of the study involved 6 days of caffeine maintenance at home (80 mg, 3x/day) followed by testing of responses to a challenge dose of caffeine (250 mg) in the laboratory. The other week involved ingesting placebos on maintenance and lab days. Resting BP responses to caffeine were measured at baseline and at 45 to 60 min following caffeine vs placebo ingestion, using automated monitors. Ingestion of caffeine resulted in a significant increase in systolic BP in all 6 groups (4 +/- .6, p < 0.01). Diastolic BP significantly increased in response to caffeine in all (3 +/- .4, p < 0.04) but the group of older men (2 +/- 1.0, p = 0.1). The observed pressor responses to caffeine did not vary by age. Caffeine resulted in an increase in BP in healthy, normotensive, young and older men and women. This finding warrants the consideration of caffeine in the lifestyle interventions recommended for BP control across the age span.

  14. Effect of abiraterone acetate plus prednisone on the pharmacokinetics of dextromethorphan and theophylline in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, K N; Tolcher, A; Lee, P; Rosen, P J; Kollmannsberger, C K; Papadopoulos, K P; Patnaik, A; Molina, A; Jiao, J; Pankras, C; Kaiser, B; Bernard, A; Tran, N; Acharya, M

    2013-01-01

    To assess the effect of abiraterone acetate plus prednisone on the pharmacokinetics of dextromethorphan HBr (CYP2D6 substrate) and theophylline (CYP1A2 substrate) in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Men with progressive metastatic mCRPC who failed gonadotropin-releasing hormone therapy and ≥1 lines of chemotherapy were enrolled. Patients received two doses of dextromethorphan HBr-30 mg (n = 18; group A) or theophylline-100 mg (n = 16; group B) under fasting conditions; one dose on cycle 1, day -8, and the other dose on cycle 1, day 8. Only patients with extensive CYP2D6 metabolizing status were assigned to group A. All patients received continuous daily oral abiraterone acetate (1,000 mg) plus prednisone (10 mg) starting on cycle 1, day 1. Coadministration of abiraterone acetate plus prednisone increased the systemic exposure of dextromethorphan by approximately 100%. Ratios of geometric means for maximum plasma concentration (C(max)) (275.36%) and area under plasma concentration-time curves from time 0 to 24 h (AUC(24h)) (268.14%) of dextromethorphan were outside the bioequivalence limit. The pharmacokinetics of theophylline was unaltered following coadministration of abiraterone acetate plus prednisone. Ratios of geometric means [C(max); 102.36% and AUC(24h); 108.03%] of theophylline exposure parameters were within the bioequivalence limit. The safety profile of abiraterone acetate was consistent with reported toxicities. Abiraterone acetate plus prednisone increased the exposure of dextromethorphan, suggesting a need for caution when coadministrating with known CYP2D6 substrates. The pharmacokinetics of theophylline was unaffected when coadministered with abiraterone acetate plus prednisone.

  15. Acute Ingestion of Caffeinated Chewing Gum Improves Repeated Sprint Performance of Team Sport Athletes With Low Habitual Caffeine Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Mark; Tierney, Peter; Gray, Nicola; Hawe, Greg; Macken, Maria; Egan, Brendan

    2018-04-23

    The effects of acute ingestion of caffeine on short-duration high-intensity performance are equivocal, while studies of novel modes of delivery and the efficacy of low doses of caffeine are warranted. The aims of the present study were to investigate the effect of acute ingestion of caffeinated chewing gum on repeated sprint performance (RSP) in team sport athletes, and whether habitual caffeine consumption alters the ergogenic effect, if any, on RSP. A total of 18 male team sport athletes undertook four RSP trials using a 40-m maximum shuttle run test, which incorporates 10 × 40-m sprints with 30 s between the start of each sprint. Each participant completed two familiarization sessions, followed by caffeine (CAF; caffeinated chewing gum; 200 mg caffeine) and placebo (PLA; noncaffeinated chewing gum) trials in a randomized, double-blind manner. RSP, assessed by sprint performance decrement (%), did not differ (p = .209; effect size = 0.16; N = 18) between CAF (5.00 ± 2.84%) and PLA (5.43 ± 2.68%). Secondary analysis revealed that low habitual caffeine consumers (130 mg/day, n = 6; 3.98 ± 2.57% vs. 3.80 ± 1.79%, respectively; p = .684; effect size = 0.08). The data suggest that a low dose of caffeine in the form of caffeinated chewing gum attenuates the sprint performance decrement during RSP by team sport athletes with low, but not moderate-to-high, habitual consumption of caffeine.

  16. Caffeine in the management of patients with headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipton, Richard B; Diener, Hans-Christoph; Robbins, Matthew S; Garas, Sandy Yacoub; Patel, Ketu

    2017-10-24

    Caffeinated headache medications, either alone or in combination with other treatments, are widely used by patients with headache. Clinicians should be familiar with their use as well as the chemistry, pharmacology, dietary and medical sources, clinical benefits, and potential safety issues of caffeine. In this review, we consider the role of caffeine in the over-the-counter treatment of headache. The MEDLINE and Cochrane databases were searched by combining "caffeine" with the terms "headache," "migraine," and "tension-type." Studies that were not placebo-controlled or that involved medications available only with a prescription, as well as those not assessing patients with migraine and/or tension-type headache (TTH), were excluded. Compared with analgesic medication alone, combinations of caffeine with analgesic medications, including acetaminophen, acetylsalicylic acid, and ibuprofen, showed significantly improved efficacy in the treatment of patients with TTH or migraine, with favorable tolerability in the vast majority of patients. The most common adverse events were nervousness (6.5%), nausea (4.3%), abdominal pain/discomfort (4.1%), and dizziness (3.2%). This review provides evidence for the role of caffeine as an analgesic adjuvant in the acute treatment of primary headache with over-the-counter drugs, caffeine doses of 130 mg enhance the efficacy of analgesics in TTH and doses of ≥100 mg enhance benefits in migraine. Additional studies are needed to assess the relationship between caffeine dosing and clinical benefits in patients with TTH and migraine.

  17. Caffeine. Courseware Evaluation for Vocational and Technical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This courseware evaluation rates the "Caffeine" program developed by Lane Community College and sold by the Oregon Department of Education. (The program--not included in this document--is part of a computer-assisted instruction project with nursing applications.) Part A describes "Caffeine" in terms of topics (food and…

  18. Letter to the editor: Caffeine and incident hypertension in women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geleijnse, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Dr Winkelmayer and colleagues1 found an inverse U-shaped relationship between habitual caffeine consumption and incident hypertension in a prospective cohort study of US women followed up for 12 years in the Nurses' Health Studies. However, when examining classes of caffeinated beverages, coffee

  19. Caffeine Use among Active Duty Navy and Marine Corps Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapik, Joseph J.; Trone, Daniel W.; McGraw, Susan; Steelman, Ryan A.; Austin, Krista G.; Lieberman, Harris R.

    2016-01-01

    Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) indicate 89% of Americans regularly consume caffeine, but these data do not include military personnel. This cross-sectional study examined caffeine use in Navy and Marine Corps personnel, including prevalence, amount of daily consumption, and factors associated with use. A random sample of Navy and Marine Corps personnel was contacted and asked to complete a detailed questionnaire describing their use of caffeine-containing substances, in addition to their demographic, military, and lifestyle characteristics. A total of 1708 service members (SMs) completed the questionnaire. Overall, 87% reported using caffeinated beverages ≥1 time/week, with caffeine users consuming a mean ± standard error of 226 ± 5 mg/day (242 ± 7 mg/day for men, 183 ± 8 mg/day for women). The most commonly consumed caffeinated beverages (% users) were coffee (65%), colas (54%), teas (40%), and energy drinks (28%). Multivariable logistic regression modeling indicated that characteristics independently associated with caffeine use (≥1 time/week) included older age, white race/ethnicity, higher alcohol consumption, and participating in less resistance training. Prevalence of caffeine use in these SMs was similar to that reported in civilian investigations, but daily consumption (mg/day) was higher. PMID:27735834

  20. Endorsement of DSM-IV dependence criteria among caffeine users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, J R; Oliveto, A H; Liguori, A; Carpenter, J; Howard, T

    1998-10-01

    The purpose of this article is to determine whether some caffeine users endorse clinical indicators of dependence and abuse. We asked 162 randomly-selected caffeine users generic DSM-IV criteria for dependence, abuse, intoxication and withdrawal pertaining to their caffeine use in the last year via a structured telephone interview. The prevalence of endorsement of dependence items was 56% for strong desire or unsuccessful attempt to stop use, 50% for spending a great deal of time with the drug, 28% for using more than intended, 18% for withdrawal, 14% for using despite knowledge of harm, 8% for tolerance and 1% for foregoing activities to use. Seven percent of users met DSM-IV criteria for caffeine intoxication and, among those who had tried to stop caffeine permanently, 24% met DSM-IV research criteria for caffeine withdrawal. Test-retest interviews for dependency agreed in 29/30 cases (97%). Eight expert substance abuse clinicians agreed with self-endorsed caffeine dependence 91% of the time. Our results replicate earlier work and suggest that a substantial proportion of caffeine users exhibit dependence-like behaviors. Further studies are needed to determine whether such users exhibit a clinically significant syndrome of drug dependence.

  1. The Interaction of Sorbitol with Caffeine in Aqueous Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavagnacco, Letizia; Brady, John W; Cesàro, Attilio

    2013-09-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations were carried out on a system of caffeine interacting with the sugar alcohol sorbitol. The system examined had a caffeine concentration 0.083 m and a sugar concentration 1.08 m. The trajectories of all molecules in the system were collected over a period of 80 ns and analyzed to determine whether there is any tendency for sorbitol to bind to caffeine, and if so, by what mechanism. The results show that the sorbitol molecules have an affinity for the caffeine molecules and that the binding occurred by the interaction of the aliphatic hydrophobic protons of the sugar with the caffeine face. This intermolecular association via face-to-face stacking, as suggested by simulation studies, is similar to that found for sucrose and for D-glucose, which overwhelmingly exists in the pyranose ring chair form in aqueous solution, as well as for caffeine-caffeine association. The sorbitol molecules, however, exist as relatively extended chains and are, therefore, topologically quite different from the sugars sucrose and glucose. The comparison of the average conformation of sorbitol molecules bound to caffeine with that of molecules in the free state shows a substantial similarity.

  2. Caffeine and human DNA metabolism: the magic and the mystery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaufmann, William K.; Heffernan, Timothy P.; Beaulieu, Lea M.; Doherty, Sharon; Frank, Alexandra R.; Zhou Yingchun; Bryant, Miriam F.; Zhou Tong; Luche, Douglas D.; Nikolaishvili-Feinberg, Nana; Simpson, Dennis A.; Cordeiro-Stone, Marila

    2003-11-27

    The ability of caffeine to reverse cell cycle checkpoint function and enhance genotoxicity after DNA damage was examined in telomerase-expressing human fibroblasts. Caffeine reversed the ATM-dependent S and G2 checkpoint responses to DNA damage induced by ionizing radiation (IR), as well as the ATR- and Chk1-dependent S checkpoint response to ultraviolet radiation (UVC). Remarkably, under conditions in which IR-induced G2 delay was reversed by caffeine, IR-induced G1 arrest was not. Incubation in caffeine did not increase the percentage of cells entering the S phase 6-8 h after irradiation; ATM-dependent phosphorylation of p53 and transactivation of p21{sup Cip1/Waf1} post-IR were resistant to caffeine. Caffeine alone induced a concentration- and time-dependent inhibition of DNA synthesis. It inhibited the entry of human fibroblasts into S phase by 70-80% regardless of the presence or absence of wildtype ATM or p53. Caffeine also enhanced the inhibition of cell proliferation induced by UVC in XP variant fibroblasts. This effect was reversed by expression of DNA polymerase {eta}, indicating that translesion synthesis of UVC-induced pyrimidine dimers by DNA pol {eta} protects human fibroblasts against UVC genotoxic effects even when other DNA repair functions are compromised by caffeine.

  3. Caffeine and human DNA metabolism: the magic and the mystery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufmann, William K.; Heffernan, Timothy P.; Beaulieu, Lea M.; Doherty, Sharon; Frank, Alexandra R.; Zhou Yingchun; Bryant, Miriam F.; Zhou Tong; Luche, Douglas D.; Nikolaishvili-Feinberg, Nana; Simpson, Dennis A.; Cordeiro-Stone, Marila

    2003-01-01

    The ability of caffeine to reverse cell cycle checkpoint function and enhance genotoxicity after DNA damage was examined in telomerase-expressing human fibroblasts. Caffeine reversed the ATM-dependent S and G2 checkpoint responses to DNA damage induced by ionizing radiation (IR), as well as the ATR- and Chk1-dependent S checkpoint response to ultraviolet radiation (UVC). Remarkably, under conditions in which IR-induced G2 delay was reversed by caffeine, IR-induced G1 arrest was not. Incubation in caffeine did not increase the percentage of cells entering the S phase 6-8 h after irradiation; ATM-dependent phosphorylation of p53 and transactivation of p21 Cip1/Waf1 post-IR were resistant to caffeine. Caffeine alone induced a concentration- and time-dependent inhibition of DNA synthesis. It inhibited the entry of human fibroblasts into S phase by 70-80% regardless of the presence or absence of wildtype ATM or p53. Caffeine also enhanced the inhibition of cell proliferation induced by UVC in XP variant fibroblasts. This effect was reversed by expression of DNA polymerase η, indicating that translesion synthesis of UVC-induced pyrimidine dimers by DNA pol η protects human fibroblasts against UVC genotoxic effects even when other DNA repair functions are compromised by caffeine

  4. Effects of Oral Maternal Administration of Caffeine on Reproductive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Offspring of GD 8-14 and GD 15-21 dams treated with 3.42 and 5.70 mg/kg body weight of caffeine respectively, showed significantly reduced serum testosterone level. There was a significant decrease in the weight of testes of offspring from dams treated with caffeine during GD 8-14. Histological sections of testes of ...

  5. Determination of percentage of caffeine content in some analgesic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two methods were employed for the determination of percentage Caffeine content in three brands of analgesic tablets which are; Extraction using only water as a solvent and Extraction using both water and chloroform as solvents, watch glass has been used as the weighing apparatus and the percentage of Caffeine ...

  6. Acute Effect of Caffeine on Amplitude of Accommodation and Near ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Caffeine is widely consumed in kola nuts and in other products in Sub-Saharan Africa. We examined the acute effect of caffeine on the amplitude of accommodation and near point of convergence of healthy Nigerians. Forty volunteers between ages of 20 and 27 years with refractive power± 0.50 DS were employed.

  7. Effect of Some Thermal Processing Methods on the Caffeine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The nuts were then diced, grated and stored for subsequent analysis in a Haier thermocool freezer. Subsequent study of the effects of the various treatments on the proximate and the caffeine contents of the kola nuts revealed that increase in temperature and duration of boiling resulted in product with lower caffeine content.

  8. Caffeine markedly sensitizes human mesothelioma cell lines to pemetrexed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Sang Hee; Goldman, I. David; Zhao, Rongbao

    2013-01-01

    Pemetrexed is a new generation antifolate approved for the treatment of mesothelioma and non-small cell lung cancer. Caffeine is known to augment radiation or chemotherapeutic drug-induced cell killing. The current study addresses the impact of caffeine on the activity of pemetrexed in mesothelioma cell lines. Caffeine enhanced pemetrexed activity in all four mesothelioma cell lines tested (H2052, H2373, H28 and MSTO-211H). Caffeine sensitized H2052 cells in a dose- and schedule-dependent manner, and was associated with a markedly decreased clonogenic survival. Caffeine sensitization occurred only in cells subjected to pulse, but not continuous, exposure to pemetrexed. Similar pemetrexed sensitization was also observed with the clinically better tolerated caffeine analog, theobromine. Pemetrexed sensitization by caffeine was associated with an increase in pemetrexed-induced phosphorylation of ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) and Chk1. These data indicate that caffeine and its analog, theobromine, may be a useful approach to enhance pemetrexed-based chemotherapy. PMID:17594092

  9. Low-dose caffeine physical dependence in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, R R; Evans, S M; Heishman, S J; Preston, K L; Sannerud, C A; Wolf, B; Woodson, P P

    1990-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of terminating low dose levels of caffeine (100 mg/day) in 7 normal humans. Substitution of placebo capsules for caffeine capsules occurred under double-blind conditions while subjects rated various dimensions of their mood and behavior. In the first phase of the study, substitution of placebo for 12 consecutive days resulted in an orderly withdrawal syndrome in 4 subjects which peaked on days 1 or 2 and progressively decreased toward prewithdrawal levels over about 1 week. Data from the remaining three subjects provided no evidence of withdrawal. In the second phase of the study, the generality of the withdrawal effect was examined by repeatedly substituting placebo for 100 mg/day of caffeine for 1-day periods separated by an average of 9 days. Despite differences within and across subjects with respect to the presence, nature and magnitude of symptoms, each of the seven subjects demonstrated a statistically significant withdrawal effect. Although the phenomenon of caffeine withdrawal has been described previously, the present report documents that the incidence of caffeine withdrawal is higher (100% of subjects), the daily dose level at which withdrawal occurs is lower (roughly equivalent to the amount of caffeine in a single cup of strong brewed coffee or 3 cans of caffeinated soft drink) and the range of symptoms experienced is broader (including headache, fatigue and other dysphoric mood changes, muscle pain/stiffness, flu-like feelings, nausea/vomiting and craving for caffeine) than heretofore recognized.

  10. International society of sports nutrition position stand: caffeine and performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wildman Robert

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Position Statement: The position of The Society regarding caffeine supplementation and sport performance is summarized by the following seven points: 1. Caffeine is effective for enhancing sport performance in trained athletes when consumed in low-to-moderate dosages (~3-6 mg/kg and overall does not result in further enhancement in performance when consumed in higher dosages (≥ 9 mg/kg. 2. Caffeine exerts a greater ergogenic effect when consumed in an anhydrous state as compared to coffee. 3. It has been shown that caffeine can enhance vigilance during bouts of extended exhaustive exercise, as well as periods of sustained sleep deprivation. 4. Caffeine is ergogenic for sustained maximal endurance exercise, and has been shown to be highly effective for time-trial performance. 5. Caffeine supplementation is beneficial for high-intensity exercise, including team sports such as soccer and rugby, both of which are categorized by intermittent activity within a period of prolonged duration. 6. The literature is equivocal when considering the effects of caffeine supplementation on strength-power performance, and additional research in this area is warranted. 7. The scientific literature does not support caffeine-induced diuresis during exercise, or any harmful change in fluid balance that would negatively affect performance.

  11. role of adrenergic receptors in the caffeine-induced increase

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Daniel Owu

    pattern of increase in glucose uptake in response to kolanut extract ... vein was moved into an extracorporeal position and ... blood pressure and blood flow, a bolus injection of caffeine at a ... other words, the effect of caffeine on hindlimb blood ...

  12. determination of perce rmination of percentage of caffeine content

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    ABSTRACT. Two methods were employed for the deter brands of analgesic tablets which are;. Extraction using both water and chlorofor weighing apparatus and the percentage of. The percentage of caffeine using only water. Boska, and Panadol Extra were 7.40%, 5.60 caffeine using both water and chloroform i.

  13. Fast inhibition of glutamate-activated currents by caffeine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas P Vyleta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Caffeine stimulates calcium-induced calcium release (CICR in many cell types. In neurons, caffeine stimulates CICR presynaptically and thus modulates neurotransmitter release. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique we found that caffeine (20 mM reversibly increased the frequency and decreased the amplitude of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs in neocortical neurons. The increase in mEPSC frequency is consistent with a presynaptic mechanism. Caffeine also reduced exogenously applied glutamate-activated currents, confirming a separate postsynaptic action. This inhibition developed in tens of milliseconds, consistent with block of channel currents. Caffeine (20 mM did not reduce currents activated by exogenous NMDA, indicating that caffeine block is specific to non-NMDA type glutamate receptors. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Caffeine-induced inhibition of mEPSC amplitude occurs through postsynaptic block of non-NMDA type ionotropic glutamate receptors. Caffeine thus has both pre and postsynaptic sites of action at excitatory synapses.

  14. The Effects of Caffeine on Memory for Word Lists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erikson, George; And Others

    Research has suggested that behavioral differences may account for the effects of caffeine on information processing. To investigate the effects of caffeine on memory for supraspan word lists, 107 college students (47 males, 60 females), divided into 12 groups by high and low impulsivity scores on the Eysenck Personality Inventory, participated in…

  15. Design, formulation and evaluation of caffeine chewing gum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Aslani

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: In this study, 20 and 50 mg caffeine gums with suitable and desirable properties (i.e., good taste and satisfactory release were formulated. The best flavor for caffeine gum was cinnamon. Both kinds of 20 and 50 mg gums succeeded in content uniformity test.

  16. Correlation between caffeine contents of green coffee beans and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A moderate negative correlation (R = 0.5463) was found between the caffeine contents of green coffee beans and the altitudes at which the coffee plants were grown. The caffeine contents of 9 of the green coffee bean samples analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) provided comparable results in the ...

  17. Determination of Caffeine Content in Non-Alcoholic Beverages and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was found that Burn®, XL energy drink® and Red Bull® had the highest amount of caffeine. It was however noted that though most of the non-alcoholic beverages had high caffeine content they had no label claim. Key Words: Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid chromatography (HPLC), Ultra violet visible (UV/VIS), ...

  18. Effect of Coffee and Caffeine Ingestion on Resistance Exercise Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Darren L; Clarke, Neil D

    2016-10-01

    Richardson, DL and Clarke, ND. Effect of coffee and caffeine ingestion on resistance exercise performance. J Strength Cond Res 30(10): 2892-2900, 2016-The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of ingesting caffeine dose-matched anhydrous caffeine, coffee, or decaffeinated coffee plus anhydrous caffeine during resistance exercise on performance. Nine resistance-trained men (mean ± SD: age, 24 ± 2 years; weight, 84 ± 8 kg; height, 180 ± 8 cm) completed a squat and bench press exercise protocol at 60% 1 repetition maximum until failure on 5 occasions consuming 0.15 g·kg caffeinated coffee (COF), 0.15 g·kg decaffeinated coffee (DEC), 0.15 g·kg decaffeinated coffee plus 5 mg·kg anhydrous caffeine (D + C), 5 mg·kg anhydrous caffeine (CAF), or a placebo (PLA). Felt arousal and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were used to assess perceptual variables and heart rate (HR) to assess physiological responses between trials. There were significant differences in total weight lifted for the squat between conditions (p caffeine have the ability to improve performance during a resistance exercise protocol, although possibly not over multiple bouts.

  19. Caffeine Use among Active Duty Navy and Marine Corps Personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph J. Knapik

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES indicate 89% of Americans regularly consume caffeine, but these data do not include military personnel. This cross-sectional study examined caffeine use in Navy and Marine Corps personnel, including prevalence, amount of daily consumption, and factors associated with use. A random sample of Navy and Marine Corps personnel was contacted and asked to complete a detailed questionnaire describing their use of caffeine-containing substances, in addition to their demographic, military, and lifestyle characteristics. A total of 1708 service members (SMs completed the questionnaire. Overall, 87% reported using caffeinated beverages ≥1 time/week, with caffeine users consuming a mean ± standard error of 226 ± 5 mg/day (242 ± 7 mg/day for men, 183 ± 8 mg/day for women. The most commonly consumed caffeinated beverages (% users were coffee (65%, colas (54%, teas (40%, and energy drinks (28%. Multivariable logistic regression modeling indicated that characteristics independently associated with caffeine use (≥1 time/week included older age, white race/ethnicity, higher alcohol consumption, and participating in less resistance training. Prevalence of caffeine use in these SMs was similar to that reported in civilian investigations, but daily consumption (mg/day was higher.

  20. Influence of caffeine and caffeine withdrawal on headache and cerebral blood flow velocities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Couturier, EGM; Laman, DM; vanDuijn, MAJ; vanDuijn, H

    Caffeine consumption may cause headache, particularly migraine. Its withdrawal also produces headaches and may be related to weekend migraine attacks. Transcranial Doppler sonography (TCD) has shown changes in cerebral blood flow velocities (BFV) during and between attacks of migraine. In order to

  1. Effects of caffeine or maternal repair systems in Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osgood, C.; Zimmering, S.

    1979-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster females were treated with 1% caffeine, mated with X-rayed males and the frequencies of induced sex-chromosome loss, translocations between the major autosomes and between the Y-chromosome and the major autosomes determined. In a reversal of the results obtained previously with 0.2% caffeine by Mendelson and Sobels, treatment of females with 1% caffeine led to a decrease in sex-chromosome loss, confirming preliminary data of Zimmering and Osgood and in increase in autosome-autosome translocations. It is suggested that the higher concentration of caffeine inhibits replication permitting more time available for chromosome-type restitutions by means of caffeine-insensitive repair mechanisms. In contrast with results for autosome-autosome translocation, the fequency of Y-autosome translocations was depressed below controls suggesting an isolation (by any one of several means) of Y-chromosome breaks from those in the autosomes. (Auth.)

  2. Caffeine challenge test and panic disorder: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilarim, Marina Machado; Rocha Araujo, Daniele Marano; Nardi, Antonio Egidio

    2011-08-01

    This systematic review aimed to examine the results of studies that have investigated the induction of panic attacks and/or the anxiogenic effect of the caffeine challenge test in patients with panic disorder. The literature search was performed in PubMed, Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde and the ISI Web of Knowledge. The words used for the search were caffeine, caffeine challenge test, panic disorder, panic attacks and anxiety disorder. In total, we selected eight randomized, double-blind studies where caffeine was administered orally, and none of them controlled for confounding factors in the analysis. The percentage of loss during follow-up ranged between 14.3% and 73.1%. The eight studies all showed a positive association between caffeine and anxiogenic effects and/or panic disorder.

  3. Modifying effect of caffeine on lethality and mutability of Chlamydomonas reinhardii cells following UV irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podstavkova, S.; Vlcek, D.; Miadokova, E.

    1983-01-01

    The modifying effect of caffeine was studied using two standard and two UV-sensitive strains of Chlamydomonas reinhardii Dang. Cell survival and mutation frequency was microscopically evaluated on media without caffeine and on media with 1.5 mM of caffeine. The obtained results were indicative of the stimulating effect of caffeine upon survival in all strains. (author)

  4. Caffeine exposure alters cardiac gene expression in embryonic cardiomyocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiefan; Mei, Wenbin; Barbazuk, William B.; Rivkees, Scott A.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that in utero caffeine treatment at embryonic day (E) 8.5 alters DNA methylation patterns, gene expression, and cardiac function in adult mice. To provide insight into the mechanisms, we examined cardiac gene and microRNA (miRNA) expression in cardiomyocytes shortly after exposure to physiologically relevant doses of caffeine. In HL-1 and primary embryonic cardiomyocytes, caffeine treatment for 48 h significantly altered the expression of cardiac structural genes (Myh6, Myh7, Myh7b, Tnni3), hormonal genes (Anp and BnP), cardiac transcription factors (Gata4, Mef2c, Mef2d, Nfatc1), and microRNAs (miRNAs; miR208a, miR208b, miR499). In addition, expressions of these genes were significantly altered in embryonic hearts exposed to in utero caffeine. For in utero experiments, pregnant CD-1 dams were treated with 20–60 mg/kg of caffeine, which resulted in maternal circulation levels of 37.3–65.3 μM 2 h after treatment. RNA sequencing was performed on embryonic ventricles treated with vehicle or 20 mg/kg of caffeine daily from E6.5-9.5. Differential expression (DE) analysis revealed that 124 genes and 849 transcripts were significantly altered, and differential exon usage (DEU) analysis identified 597 exons that were changed in response to prenatal caffeine exposure. Among the DE genes identified by RNA sequencing were several cardiac structural genes and genes that control DNA methylation and histone modification. Pathway analysis revealed that pathways related to cardiovascular development and diseases were significantly affected by caffeine. In addition, global cardiac DNA methylation was reduced in caffeine-treated cardiomyocytes. Collectively, these data demonstrate that caffeine exposure alters gene expression and DNA methylation in embryonic cardiomyocytes. PMID:25354728

  5. Coffee and caffeine intake and male infertility: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Elena; Viganò, Paola; Cipriani, Sonia; Somigliana, Edgardo; Chiaffarino, Francesca; Bulfoni, Alessandro; Parazzini, Fabio

    2017-06-24

    Semen quality, a predictor of male fertility, has been suggested declining worldwide. Among other life style factors, male coffee/caffeine consumption was hypothesized to influence semen parameters, but also sperm DNA integrity. To summarize available evidence, we performed a systematic review of observational studies on the relation between coffee/caffeine intake and parameters of male fertility including sperm ploidy, sperm DNA integrity, semen quality and time to pregnancy. A systematic literature search was performed up to November 2016 (MEDLINE and EMBASE). We included all observational papers that reported the relation between male coffee/caffeine intake and reproductive outcomes: 1. semen parameters, 2. sperm DNA characteristics, 3. fecundability. All pertinent reports were retrieved and the relative reference lists were systematically searched in order to identify any potential additional studies that could be included. We retrieved 28 papers reporting observational information on coffee/caffeine intake and reproductive outcomes. Overall, they included 19,967 men. 1. Semen parameters did not seem affected by caffeine intake, at least caffeine from coffee, tea and cocoa drinks, in most studies. Conversely, other contributions suggested a negative effect of cola-containing beverages and caffeine-containing soft drinks on semen volume, count and concentration. 2. As regards sperm DNA defects, caffeine intake seemed associated with aneuploidy and DNA breaks, but not with other markers of DNA damage. 3. Finally, male coffee drinking was associated to prolonged time to pregnancy in some, but not all, studies. The literature suggests that caffeine intake, possibly through sperm DNA damage, may negatively affect male reproductive function. Evidence from epidemiological studies on semen parameters and fertility is however inconsistent and inconclusive. Well-designed studies with predefined criteria for semen analysis, subject selection, and life style habits

  6. Caffeine enhanced measurement of mutagenesis by low levels of [gamma]-irradiation in human lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puck, T.P.; Johnson, R.; Waldren, C.A. (Eleanor Roosevelt Institute for Cancer Research, Denver, CO (United States)); Morse, H. (Univ. of Colorado Cancer Center, Denver, CO (United States))

    1993-09-01

    The well-known action of caffeine in synergizing mutagenesis (including chromosome aberrations) of agents like ionizing radiation by inhibition of cellular repair processes has been incorporated into a rapid procedure for detection of mutagenicity with high sensitivity. Effects of 5-10 rads of [gamma]-irradiation, which approximate the human lifetime dose accumulation from background radiation, can be detected in a two-day procedure using an immortalized human WBC culture. Chromosomally visible lesions are scored on cells incubated for 2 h after irradiation in the presence and absence of 1.0 mg/ml of caffeine. An eightfold amplification of scorable lesions is achieved over the action of radiation alone. This approach provides a closer approximation to absolute mutagenicity unmitigated by repair processes, which can vary in different situations. It is proposed that mutagenesis testing of this kind, using caffiene or other repair-inhibitory agents, be employed to identify mutagens in their effective concentrations to which human populations may be exposed; to detect agents such as caffeine that may synergize mutagenic actions and pose epidemiologic threats; and to discover effective anti-mutagens. Information derived from the use of such procedures may help prevent cancer and newly acquired genetic disease.

  7. Synthesis of coumarin-theophylline hybrids as a new class of anti-tubercular and anti-microbial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangasuli, Sumitra N; Hosamani, Kallappa M; Devarajegowda, Hirihalli C; Kurjogi, Mahantesh M; Joshi, Shrinivas D

    2018-02-25

    A series of novel coumarin-theophylline hybrids were synthesized and examined for their anti-tubercular activity in vitro against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H 37 Rv, anti-microbial activity in vitro against gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus) and gram-negative bacterias (Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi) as well as fungi (Candida albicans). The compound (3a) has shown excellent anti-tubercular activity with MIC of 0.12 μg/mL. Electron donating compounds (3a, 3f) have displayed significant anti-microbial activity. The compounds have also been precisely elucidated using single crystal X-ray diffraction techniques. Molecular docking study has been performed against 4DQU enzyme of Mycobacterium tuberculosis showed good binding interactions and is in agreement with the in vitro results. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  8. Caffeine Abolishes the Ultraviolet-Induced REV3 Translesion Replication Pathway in Mouse Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouichi Yamada

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available When a replicative DNA polymerase stalls upon encountering a photoproduct on the template strand, it is relieved by other low-processivity polymerase(s, which insert nucleotide(s opposite the lesion. Using an alkaline sucrose density gradient sedimentation technique, we previously classified this process termed UV-induced translesion replication (UV-TLS into two types. In human cancer cells or xeroderma pigmentosum variant (XP-V cells, UV-TLS was inhibited by caffeine or proteasome inhibitors. However, in normal human cells, the process was insensitive to these reagents. Reportedly, in yeast or mammalian cells, REV3 protein (a catalytic subunit of DNA polymerase ζ is predominantly involved in the former type of TLS. Here, we studied UV-TLS in fibroblasts derived from the Rev3-knockout mouse embryo (Rev3KO-MEF. In the wild-type MEF, UV-TLS was slow (similar to that of human cancer cells or XP-V cells, and was abolished by caffeine or MG-262. In 2 cell lines of Rev3KO-MEF (Rev3−/− p53−/−, UV-TLS was not observed. In p53KO-MEF, which is a strict control for Rev3KO-MEF, the UV-TLS response was similar to that of the wild-type. Introduction of the Rev3 expression plasmid into Rev3KO-MEF restored the UV-TLS response in selected stable transformants. In some transformants, viability to UV was the same as that in the wild-type, and the death rate was increased by caffeine. Our findings indicate that REV3 is predominantly involved in UV-TLS in mouse cells, and that the REV3 translesion pathway is suppressed by caffeine or proteasome inhibitors.

  9. Evaluation of ethylcellulose and its pseudolatex (Surelease in preparation of matrix pellets of theophylline using extrusion-spheronization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Afrasiabi Garekani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: This study evaluates the effect of substitution of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC with ethylcellulose (EC on mechanical and release characteristics of theophylline pellets. Materials and Methods: The effect of addition of EC was investigated on characteristics of pellets with varying drug content prepared by extrusion-spheronization. Also the effect of type of granulating liquid (water or Surelease was investigated on characteristics of selected pellets. The pellets were characterized for particle size (sieve analysis, mechanical strength, morphology (microscopy, thermal (DSC and dissolution behaviors. Results: The exrtudability of the wet mass was reduced upon inclusion of EC so that complete replacement of MCC was not possible. Increase in EC percentage led to lower production yield and formation of pellets with larger diameter and slightly rough surfaces. Inclusion of EC also affected the mechanical properties of pellets but had negligible effect on drug release profile. The surface of selected pellets became smoother and their production yield increased upon the use of Surelease as granulating liquid. In addition the rate of drug release decreased to some extent when Surelease was used. Conclusion: Preparation of theophylline pellets with EC alone was not possible in process of extrusion-spheronization. Partial replacement of MCC with EC changed physicomechanical properties of pellets but hardly affected drug release. Although the use of Surelease as granulation liquid slightly decreased the rate of drug release, desirable matrix pellets with sustained drug release could not be produced. Despite this outcome however, these pellets could benefit from reduced coating thickness for drug release control.

  10. Caffeine Use Disorder: A Review of the Evidence and Future Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addicott, Merideth A

    2014-09-01

    The latest edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-5) has introduced new provisions for caffeine-related disorders. Caffeine Withdrawal is now an officially recognized diagnosis, and criteria for caffeine use disorder have been proposed for additional study. caffeine use disorder is intended to be characterized by cognitive, behavioral, and physiological symptoms indicative of caffeine use despite significant caffeine-related problems, similar to other Substance Use Disorders. However, since nonproblematic caffeine use is so common and widespread, it may be difficult for some health professionals to accept that caffeine use can result in the same types of pathological behaviors caused by alcohol, cocaine, opiates, or other drugs of abuse. Yet there is evidence that some individuals are psychologically and physiologically dependent on caffeine, although the prevalence and severity of these problems is unknown. This article reviews the recent changes to the DSM, the concerns regarding these changes, and some potential impacts these changes could have on caffeine consumers.

  11. Caffeinated Energy Drinks -- A Growing Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Reissig, Chad J.; Strain, Eric C.; Griffiths, Roland R.

    2008-01-01

    Since the introduction of Red Bull in Austria in 1987 and in the United States in 1997, the energy drink market has grown exponentially. Hundreds of different brands are now marketed, with caffeine content ranging from a modest 50 mg to an alarming 505 mg per can or bottle. Regulation of energy drinks, including content labeling and health warnings differs across countries, with some of the most lax regulatory requirements in the U.S. The absence of regulatory oversight has resulted in aggres...

  12. Replicative bypass repair of ultraviolet damage to DNA of mammalian cells: caffeine sensitive and caffeine resistant mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Y.; Tatsumi, M.

    1976-01-01

    Replicative bypass repair of UV damage to DNA was studied in a wide variaty of human, mouse and hamster cells in culture. Survival curve analysis revealed that in established cell lines (mouse L, Chinese hamster V79, HeLa S3 and SV40-transformed xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), post-UV caffeine treatment potentiated cell killing by reducing the extrapolation number and mean lethal UV fluence (Do). In the Do reduction as the result of random inactivation by caffeine of sensitive repair there were marked clonal differences among such cell lines, V79 being most sensitive to caffeine potentiation. However, other diploid cell lines (normal human, excision-defective XP and Syrian hamster) exhibited no obvious reduction in Do by caffeine. In parallel, alkaline sucrose sedimentation results showed that the conversion of initially smaller segments of DNA synthesized after irradiation with 10 J/m 2 to high-molecular-weight DNA was inhibited by caffeine in transformed XP cells, but not in the diploid human cell lines. Exceptionally, diploid XP variants had a retarded ability of bypass repair which was drastically prevented by caffeine, so that caffeine enhanced the lethal effect of UV. Neutral CsCl study on the bypass repair mechanism by use of bromodeoxyuridine for DNA synthesis on damaged template suggests that the pyrimodine dimer acts as a block to replication and subsequently it is circumvented presumably by a new process involving replicative bypassing following strand displacement, rather than by gap-filling de novo. This mechanism worked similarly in normal and XP cells, whether or not caffeine was present, indicating that excision of dimer is not always necessary. However, replicative bypassing became defective in XP variant and transformed XP cells when caffeine was present. It appears, therefore, that the replicative bypass repair process is either caffeine resistant or sensitive, depending on the cell type used, but not necessarily on the excision repair capability

  13. Caffeine Content Labeling: A Missed Opportunity for Promoting Personal and Public Health

    OpenAIRE

    Kole, Jon; Barnhill, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Current regulation of caffeine-containing products is incoherent, fails to protect consumers' interests, and should be modified in multiple ways. We make the case for one of the regulatory reforms that are needed: all consumable products containing added caffeine should be required by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to include caffeine quantity on their labels. Currently, no foods or beverages that contain caffeine are required to include caffeine content on their labels. Strengthening...

  14. The buzz on caffeine in invertebrates: effects on behavior and molecular mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Mustard, Julie A.

    2013-01-01

    A number of recent studies from as diverse fields as plant-pollinator interactions, analyses of caffeine as an environmental pollutant, and the ability of caffeine to provide protection against neurodegenerative diseases have generated interest in understanding the actions of caffeine in invertebrates. This review summarizes what is currently known about the effects of caffeine on behavior and its molecular mechanisms in invertebrates. Caffeine appears to have similar effects on locomotion an...

  15. Role of state-dependent learning in the cognitive effects of caffeine in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Sanday, Leandro [UNIFESP; Zanin, Karina Agustini [UNIFESP; Patti, Camilla de Lima [UNIFESP; Fernandes-Santos, Luciano [UNIFESP; Oliveira, Larissa C. [UNIFESP; Longo, Beatriz Monteiro [UNIFESP; Andersen, Monica Levy [UNIFESP; Tufik, Sergio [UNIFESP; Frussa-Filho, Roberto [UNIFESP

    2013-01-01

    Caffeine is the most widely used psychoactive substance in the world and it is generally believed that it promotes beneficial effects on cognitive performance. However, there is also evidence suggesting that caffeine has inhibitory effects on learning and memory. Considering that caffeine may have anxiogenic effects, thus changing the emotional state of the subjects, state-dependent learning may play a role in caffeine-induced cognitive alterations. Mice were administered 20 mg/kg caffeine be...

  16. The Combined Effects of Alcohol, Caffeine and Expectancies on Subjective Experience, Impulsivity and Risk-Taking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, Adrienne J.; de Wit, Harriet; Lilje, Todd C.; Kassel, Jon D.

    2013-01-01

    Caffeinated alcoholic beverage (CAB) consumption is a rapidly growing phenomenon among young adults and is associated with a variety of health-risk behaviors. The current study examined whether either caffeinated alcohol or the expectation of receiving caffeinated alcohol altered affective, cognitive and behavioral outcomes hypothesized to contribute to risk behavior. Young adult social drinkers (N=146) participated in a single session where they received alcohol (peak Breath Alcohol Content = .088 g/dL, SD = .019; equivalent to about 4 standard drinks) and were randomly assigned to one of four further conditions 1) no caffeine, no caffeine expectancy, 2) caffeine and caffeine expectancy, 3) no caffeine but caffeine expectancy, 4) caffeine but no caffeine expectancy. Participants’ habitual CAB consumption was positively correlated with measures of impulsivity and risky behavior, independently of study drugs. Administration of caffeine (mean dose = 220 mg, SD = 38; equivalent to about 2.75 Red Bulls) in the study reduced subjective ratings of intoxication and reversed the decrease in desire to continue drinking, regardless of expectancy. Caffeine also reduced the effect of alcohol on inhibitory reaction time (faster incorrect responses). Participants not expecting caffeine were less attentive after alcohol, whereas participants expecting caffeine were not, regardless of caffeine administration. Alcohol decreased response accuracy in all participants except those who both expected and received caffeine. Findings suggest that CABs may elevate risk for continued drinking by reducing perceived intoxication, and by maintaining the desire to continue drinking. Simply expecting to consume caffeine may reduce the effects of alcohol on inattention, and either expecting or consuming caffeine may protect against other alcohol-related performance decrements. Caffeine, when combined with alcohol, has both beneficial and detrimental effects on mechanisms known to contribute to

  17. The influence of CYP1A2 genotype in the blood pressure response to caffeine ingestion is affected by physical activity status and caffeine consumption level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Rogerio Nogueira; Schneider, Augusto; Valle, Sandra Costa; Schenkel, Paulo Cavalheiro

    2018-03-06

    This study aimed to investigate whether the influence of CYP1A2 genotype in the blood pressure (BP) response to caffeine ingestion was affected by physical activity status and habitual caffeine consumption. Thirty-seven participants (19-50 years old) took place in the study and were categorized according to i) genotype: CYP1A2 (AA) "fast metabolizer", and CYP1A2 (AC) "slow metabolizer"; ii) physical activity level: sedentary (S) and physically active (A); and iii) caffeine consumption level: non-habitual caffeine consumer (NC) and habitual heavy caffeine consumer (C). All groups had BP assessed before (basal) and 1 hourh after (post) caffeine ingestion (6 mg·kg -1 ). It was observed that AC genotype individuals had increased basal-DBP and post-caffeine SBP when compared to AA individuals. Additionally, acute caffeine ingestion increased SBP only in the AC group. It was also found that physical activity only modulated the BP responses to acute caffeine ingestion in AC individuals. Furthermore, the results indicated that the habitual heavy caffeine consumers AC individuals had increased basal-DBP when compared to the AA ones. Our results suggest that the influence of CYP1A2 genotype in the basal and post-caffeine BP response to caffeine ingestion is modified by physical activity status and caffeine consumption level. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Beliefs, Behaviors, and Contexts of Adolescent Caffeine Use: A Focus Group Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludden, Alison B; O'Brien, Elizabeth M; Pasch, Keryn E

    2017-07-29

    Caffeinated products are widely available to adolescents, and consumption of caffeine products-energy drinks and coffee in particular-is on the rise in this age group (Branum, Rossen, & Schoendorf, 2014). Yet, little is known about the psychosocial context of caffeine use. Previous studies on adolescent caffeine use have focused on caffeine's acute physiological effects, rather than the psychosocial contexts and beliefs regarding different types of caffeinated beverages (e.g., coffee, energy drinks, soda). The current research examines the contexts and beliefs associated with adolescents' use of caffeinated beverages (e.g., coffee, energy drinks, soda) using a focus group approach. Eleven focus group interviews (49 total participants) addressed adolescents' motivations for and patterns of caffeine use; they were transcribed and axial coding was used to identify common themes. Coffee and energy drinks were perceived to be the most popular caffeinated beverages. Reasons for consuming caffeine included the effect of caffeine as a stimulant, the pleasant feelings experienced when drinking it, and the fact that caffeine was available. As for contexts, coffee was consumed in more diverse social contexts than other caffeinated beverages. Friends and sports were the most popular contexts for energy drink use. The present findings inform adolescent health promotion efforts and provide researchers and practitioners alike detailed information in adolescents' own words about how and why they use caffeine. Adolescents' beliefs about caffeinated products are not uniform; the reasons adolescents articulate regarding their use of coffee, soda, and energy drinks are different across contexts and beverage type.

  19. Caffeine and acetaminophen association: Effects on mitochondrial bioenergetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Débora F; de Carvalho, Nelson R; Leite, Martim B; Courtes, Aline A; Hartmann, Diane D; Stefanello, Sílvio T; da Silva, Ingrid K; Franco, Jéferson L; Soares, Félix A A; Dalla Corte, Cristiane L

    2018-01-15

    Many studies have been demonstrating the role of mitochondrial function in acetaminophen (APAP) hepatotoxicity. Since APAP is commonly consumed with caffeine, this work evaluated the effects of the combination of APAP and caffeine on hepatic mitochondrial bioenergetic function in mice. Mice were treated with caffeine (20mg/kg, intraperitoneal (i.p.)) or its vehicle and, after 30minutes, APAP (250mg/kg, i.p.) or its vehicle. Four hours later, livers were removed, and the parameters associated with mitochondrial function and oxidative stress were evaluated. Hepatic cellular oxygen consumption was evaluated by high-resolution respirometry (HRR). APAP treatment decreased cellular oxygen consumption and mitochondrial complex activities in the livers of mice. Additionally, treatment with APAP increased swelling of isolated mitochondria from mice livers. On the other hand, caffeine administered with APAP was able to improve hepatic mitochondrial bioenergetic function. Treatment with APAP increased lipid peroxidation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and decreased glutathione levels in the livers of mice. Caffeine administered with APAP was able to prevent lipid peroxidation and the ROS production in mice livers, which may be associated with the improvement of mitochondrial function caused by caffeine treatment. We suggest that the antioxidant effects of caffeine and/or its interactions with mitochondrial bioenergetics may be involved in its beneficial effects against APAP hepatotoxicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Development and initial validation of a caffeine craving questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Oliver; Roderique-Davies, Gareth

    2008-01-01

    Craving for caffeine has received little empirical attention, despite considerable research into the potential for caffeine dependence. The main aim of this study was to develop, and initially validate, a multi-item, multidimensional instrument to measure cravings for caffeine. Participants were 189 caffeine consumers who completed the Questionnaire of Caffeine Cravings, which was based on the Questionnaire of Smoking Urges (QSU), in one of five naturally occurring periods of abstinence; 1-15 min; 16-120 mins; 3-7 h; 12-48 h and +48 h. Exploratory factor analysis suggested a three-factor solution best described the data; Factor 1 reflected strong desires, intentions and positive reinforcement; Factor 2 reflected mild/general positive and negative reinforcement and Factor 3 reflected functional/mood-based negative reinforcement. Significantly higher Factor 1 and Factor 2 scores were recorded for high frequency users; significantly higher Factor 1 and Factor 3 scores were recorded as a function of increased levels of dependence. Duration of abstinence did not significantly effect cravings across all three factors. Regression analyses suggested level of dependence best predicted both current cravings and frequency of daily use. These findings suggest caffeine cravings may be conceptualized multidimensionally and further validates the use of multidimensional, multi-item instruments. Cravings for caffeine may manifest and be detected across varying levels of dependence and, frequency of use and independently of duration of abstinence.

  1. Caffeine dependence in rats: effects of exposure duration and concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingle, Rachel N; Dreumont-Boudreau, Sarah E; Lolordo, Vincent M

    2008-09-03

    Groups of rats were chronically exposed to a 1.0-g/L caffeine solution for 5, 10, 15 or 20 days. Upon removal of caffeine, rats were given brief exposure to a novel flavour CS (withdrawal CS) followed by 12 days of plain water and then brief exposure to a second flavour CS (neutral CS). Only rats exposed to 20 days of caffeine strongly preferred the neutral CS to the withdrawal CS in a 2-bottle test. In Experiment 2, groups of rats were chronically exposed to caffeine at one of four concentrations (1.0, 0.5, 0.25, or 0.125 g/L) for 21 days, after which withdrawal and neutral CSs were established. Only rats that drank the highest caffeine concentration, 1.0 g/L, preferred the neutral CS to the withdrawal CS. This suggests that long exposure to a strong caffeine solution is required in order to induce dependence in rats such that a CS associated with the withdrawal of caffeine becomes avoided.

  2. Effect of caffeine on prospective and retrospective duration judgements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Ronald P; Block, Richard A

    2003-07-01

    The effects of caffeine on prospective and retrospective duration judgements were evaluated in a double-blind placebo-controlled experiment. After taking either 200 mg caffeine or a placebo, participants touched a 17-sided polygon for 15 s. Then they verbally estimated the number of angles and the duration. Participants in the prospective group were told in advance they would be making a duration estimate, whereas those in the retrospective group were not told. Caffeine reduced duration estimates in the prospective condition but not in the retrospective condition. The effect of caffeine on very long duration comparisons (the past year compared with a year at one-half and one-quarter of one's age) was also evaluated, but none was found. The findings do not support the hypothesis that caffeine affects duration experience by increasing the internal clock rate as a result of its dopamine D(2) agonist properties. The hypothesis that caffeine produces its effect by enhancing memory was considered and rejected. The most parsimonious explanation is that caffeine increased arousal level, which led to a narrowing of the focus of attention to the most salient task. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. The paradox of caffeine-zolpidem interaction: a network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myslobodsky, Michael

    2009-10-01

    A widely prescribed and potent short-acting hypnotic, zolpidem has become the mainstay for the treatment of middle-of-the-night sleeplessness. It is expected to be antagonized by caffeine. Paradoxically, in some cases caffeine appears to slightly enhance zolpidem sedation. The pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic nature of this odd effect remains unexplored. The purpose of this study is to reproduce a hypothetical molecular network recruited by caffeine when co-administered with zolpidem using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. Thus generated, network drew attention to several possible contributors to caffeine sedation, such as tachykinin precursor 1, cannabinoid, and GABA receptors. The present overview is centered on the possibility that caffeine potentiation of zolpidem sedation does not involve a centralized interaction of specific neurotransmitters, but rather is contributed by its antioxidant capacity. It is proposed that by modifying the cellular redox state, caffeine ultimately reduces the pool of reactive oxygen species, thereby increasing the bioavailability of endogenous melatonin for interaction with zolpidem. This side effect of caffeine encourages further studies of multiple antioxidants as an attractive way to potentially increasing somnolence.

  4. Molecular dynamics simulation studies of caffeine aggregation in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavagnacco, Letizia; Schnupf, Udo; Mason, Philip E; Saboungi, Marie-Louise; Cesàro, Attilio; Brady, John W

    2011-09-22

    Molecular dynamics simulations were carried out on a system of eight independent caffeine molecules in a periodic box of water at 300 K, representing a solution near the solubility limit for caffeine at room temperature, using a newly developed CHARMM-type force field for caffeine in water. Simulations were also conducted for single caffeine molecules in water using two different water models (TIP3P and TIP4P). Water was found to structure in a complex fashion around the planar caffeine molecules, which was not sensitive to the water model used. As expected, extensive aggregation of the caffeine molecules was observed, with the molecules stacking their flat faces against one another like coins, with their methylene groups staggered to avoid steric clashes. A dynamic equilibrum was observed between large n-mers, including stacks with all eight solute molecules, and smaller clusters, with the calculated osmotic coefficient being in acceptable agreement with the experimental value. The insensitivity of the results to water model and the congruence with experimental thermodynamic data suggest that the observed stacking interactions are a realistic representation of the actual association mechanism in aqueous caffeine solutions.

  5. Influence of drug concentration on the diffusion parameters of caffeine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, R.Ben; Lafforgue, C.; Fenina, N.; Marty, J.P.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objectives: In the fields of the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries and in toxicology, the study of the skin penetration of molecules is very interesting. Various studies have considered the impact of different physicochemical drug characteristics, skin thickness, and formulations, on the transition from the surface of the skin to the underlying tissues or to the systemic circulation; however, the influence of drug concentration on the permeation flux of molecules has rarely been raised. Our study aims to discover the influence of caffeine concentration in a formulation on the percutaneous penetration from gels, as a result of different dose applications to polysulfate membrane and human skin. Materials and Methods: For this purpose, three identical base gels were used at 1, 3, and 5% of caffeine, to evaluate the effect of the concentration of caffeine on in vitro release through the synthetic membrane and ex vivo permeation through the human skin, using diffusion FranzTM cells. Results: The diffusion through the epidermal tissue was significantly slower than through the synthetic membrane, which recorded an increase of flux with an increase in the concentration of caffeine. The skin permeation study showed that diffusion depended not only on the concentration, but also on the deposited amount of gel. Nevertheless, for the same amount of caffeine applied, the flux was more significant from the less concentrated gel. Conclusion: Among all the different concentrations of caffeine examined, 1% gel of caffeine applied at 5 mg / cm2 showed the highest absorption characteristics across human skin. PMID:21572649

  6. Caffeine Augments Anesthesia Neurotoxicity in the Fetal Macaque Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, Kevin K; Johnson, Stephen A; Manzella, Francesca M; Masuoka, Kobe L; Williams, Sasha L; Martin, Lauren D; Dissen, Gregory A; Ikonomidou, Chrysanthy; Schenning, Katie J; Olney, John W; Brambrink, Ansgar M

    2018-03-28

    Caffeine is the most frequently used medication in premature infants. It is the respiratory stimulant of choice for apnea associated with prematurity and has been called the silver bullet in neonatology because of many proven benefits and few known risks. Research has revealed that sedative/anesthetic drugs trigger apoptotic death of neurons and oligodendrocytes in developing mammalian brains. Here we evaluated the influence of caffeine on the neurotoxicity of anesthesia in developing nonhuman primate brains. Fetal macaques (n = 7-8/group), at a neurodevelopmental age comparable to premature human infants, were exposed in utero for 5 hours to no drug (control), isoflurane, or isoflurane + caffeine and examined for evidence of apoptosis. Isoflurane exposure increased apoptosis 3.3 fold for neurons and 3.4 fold for oligodendrocytes compared to control brains. Isoflurane + caffeine caused neuronal apoptosis to increase 8.0 fold compared to control levels but did not augment oligoapoptosis. Neuronal death was particularly pronounced in the basal ganglia and cerebellum. Higher blood levels of caffeine within the range considered therapeutic and safe for human infants correlated with increased neuroapoptosis. Caffeine markedly augments neurotoxicity of isoflurane in the fetal macaque brain and challenges the assumption that caffeine is safe for premature infants.

  7. Effects of theobromine and caffeine on mood and vigilance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judelson, Daniel A; Preston, Amy G; Miller, Debra L; Muñoz, Colleen X; Kellogg, Mark D; Lieberman, Harris R

    2013-08-01

    Like caffeine, theobromine crosses the blood-brain barrier and binds to adenosine receptors, suggesting it might share caffeine's beneficial effects on mood and vigilance. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the effect of theobromine doses commonly found in foods on mood and vigilance parameters sensitive to caffeine. Caffeine was tested as a positive control. Twenty-four men (age, 23 [3] years) completed 6 double-blind trials during which they consumed experimental beverages, assessed their mood using standardized self-report questionnaires, and completed a 2-hour visual vigilance task. Three experimental doses (100, 200, and 400 mg theobromine) were delivered in a cocoa-based beverage; 3 matched control treatments (0 mg theobromine, 400 mg theobromine, and 100 mg caffeine) were delivered in a non-cocoa beverage. Mean salivary concentrations of theobromine exhibited significant dose-dependent differences (400 mg trials > 200 mg trial > 100 mg trial > 0 mg trials; P affect mood state or vigilance (P > 0.05), but 100-mg caffeine significantly decreased lethargy/fatigue and increased vigor (P = 0.006 and 0.011, respectively). These findings indicate theobromine does not influence mood and vigilance when administered in nutritionally relevant doses, despite sharing many of caffeine's structural characteristics.

  8. Caffeine as a cause of urticaria-angioedema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Tognetti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a young woman presenting with recurrent urticaria. The episodes occurred both in and out of the workplace. On three occasions it presented as urticaria-angioedema, requiring emergency care on one occassion. A thorough clinical history along with serological and allergological tests allowed a diagnosis of caffeine-induced urticaria-angioedema. We advised the patient to follow a caffeine-free diet and to avoid all caffeine or methylxanthine-containing drugs. After two years of caffeine abstinence, she had not experienced any further episodes of urticaria-angioedema. Only a few cases of caffeine-induced urticaria and/or anaphylaxis have been reported till date, with varying outcomes in allergologic investigations. Moreover, several cases are probably undiagnosed or misdiagnosed as idiopathic urticaria or as occupational allergy. We speculate that hypersensitivity to caffeine rather than autoimmine reaction may be the probable cause of urticaria. Caffeine should considered as a potential urticaria-inducing agent and should be included in the allergological test series.

  9. Caffeine cravings impair memory and metacognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Matthew A; Sauer, James D; Ling, Angus; Riza, Joshua

    2017-10-01

    Cravings for food and other substances can impair cognition. We extended previous research by testing the effects of caffeine cravings on cued-recall and recognition memory tasks, and on the accuracy of judgements of learning (JOLs; predicted future recall) and feeling-of-knowing (FOK; predicted future recognition for items that cannot be recalled). Participants (N = 55) studied word pairs (POND-BOOK) and completed a cued-recall test and a recognition test. Participants made JOLs prior to the cued-recall test and FOK judgements prior to the recognition test. Participants were randomly allocated to a craving or control condition; we manipulated caffeine cravings via a combination of abstinence, cue exposure, and imagery. Cravings impaired memory performance on the cued-recall and recognition tasks. Cravings also impaired resolution (the ability to distinguish items that would be remembered from those that would not) for FOK judgements but not JOLs, and reduced calibration (correspondence between predicted and actual accuracy) for JOLs but not FOK judgements. Additional analysis of the cued-recall data suggested that cravings also reduced participants' ability to monitor the likely accuracy of answers during the cued-recall test. These findings add to prior research demonstrating that memory strength manipulations have systematically different effects on different types of metacognitive judgements.

  10. Rapid methods to determine procyanidins, anthocyanins, theobromine and caffeine in rat tissues by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, Aida; Macià, Alba; Romero, Maria-Paz; Piñol, Carme; Motilva, Maria-José

    2011-06-01

    Rapid, selective and sensitive methods were developed and validated to determine procyanidins, anthocyanins and alkaloids in different biological tissues, such as liver, brain, the aorta vein and adipose tissue. For this purpose, standards of procyanidins (catechin, epicatechin, and dimer B(2)), anthocyanins (cyanidin-3-glucoside and malvidin-3-glucoside) and alkaloids (theobromine, caffeine and theophylline) were used. The methods included the extraction of homogenized tissues by off-line liquid-solid extraction, and then solid-phase extraction to analyze alkaloids, or microelution solid-phase extraction plate for the analysis of procyanidins and anthocyanins. The eluted extracts were then analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry, using a triple quadrupole as the analyzer. The optimum extraction solution was water/methanol/phosphoric acid 4% (94/4.5/1.5, v/v/v). The extraction recoveries were higher than 81% for all the studied compounds in all the tissues, except the anthocyanins, which were between 50 and 65% in the liver and brain. In order to show the applicability of the developed methods, different rat tissues were analyzed to determine the procyanidins, anthocyanins and alkaloids and their generated metabolites. The rats had previously consumed 1g of a grape pomace extract (to analyze procyanidins and anthocyanins) or a cocoa extract (to analyze alkaloids) per kilogram of body weight. Different tissues were extracted 4h after administration of the respective extracts. The analysis of the metabolites revealed a hepatic metabolism of procyanidins. The liver was the tissue which produced a greater accumulation of these metabolites. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of the Reproductive and Developmental Risks of Caffeine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brent, Robert L; Christian, Mildred S; Diener, Robert M

    2011-01-01

    A risk analysis of in utero caffeine exposure is presented utilizing epidemiological studies and animal studies dealing with congenital malformation, pregnancy loss, and weight reduction. These effects are of interest to teratologists, because animal studies are useful in their evaluation. Many of the epidemiology studies did not evaluate the impact of the “pregnancy signal,” which identifies healthy pregnancies and permits investigators to identify subjects with low pregnancy risks. The spontaneous abortion epidemiology studies were inconsistent and the majority did not consider the confounding introduced by not considering the pregnancy signal. The animal studies do not support the concept that caffeine is an abortafacient for the wide range of human caffeine exposures. Almost all the congenital malformation epidemiology studies were negative. Animal pharmacokinetic studies indicate that the teratogenic plasma level of caffeine has to reach or exceed 60 µg/ml, which is not attainable from ingesting large amounts of caffeine in foods and beverages. No epidemiological study described the “caffeine teratogenic syndrome.” Six of the 17 recent epidemiology studies dealing with the risk of caffeine and fetal weight reduction were negative. Seven of the positive studies had growth reductions that were clinically insignificant and none of the studies cited the animal literature. Analysis of caffeine's reproductive toxicity considers reproducibility and plausibility of clinical, epidemiological, and animal data. Moderate or even high amounts of beverages and foods containing caffeine do not increase the risks of congenital malformations, miscarriage or growth retardation. Pharmacokinetic studies markedly improve the ability to perform the risk analyses. Birth Defects Res (Part B) 92:152–187, 2011. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:21370398

  12. Patterns of caffeine consumption in psychiatric patients. An Italian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciapparelli, A; Paggini, R; Carmassi, C; Taponecco, C; Consoli, G; Ciampa, G; Ramacciotti, C E; Marazziti, D; Dell'Osso, L

    2010-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore and compare the caffeine intake, intoxication, withdrawal and dependence prevalence in Italian psychiatric patients and healthy subjects. Three hundred and sixty-nine out- and inpatients, suffering from different psychiatric disorders, and 104 healthy subjects were included in the study. They were assessed by the SCID and by a structured interview for caffeine intoxication and withdrawal and for substance dependence applied to caffeine use. Patients and healthy subjects did not differ in terms of current caffeine intake (mg/day, mean+/-SD: 281+/-325 vs. 288+/-148, respectively), while the maximum lifetime intake of caffeine was significantly higher in the first group (mg/day, mean SD: 630+/-549 vs. 504+/-344, respectively; F=4.897, p=.03) where it was significantly related to the CGI severity item scores (rho=.107; p=.04). In both patients and healthy subjects, a lower age was related to a higher current caffeine intake, while both current and maximum lifetime caffeine intake in the healthy subjects were significantly higher in men than in women. The patients suffering from eating disorders reported higher current caffeine intake than those with anxiety or mood disorders. The prevalence of dependence and intoxication was significantly higher in the patients than in the healthy subjects, without inter-group differences. Healthy subjects showed a trend towards a higher prevalence of withdrawal. Our study highlights the need that a more accurate attention should be paid to the caffeine use which seems to be strongly, although generically, related to different psychiatric disorders. (c) 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Radiation enhanced reactivation of herpes simplex virus: effect of caffeine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellman, K B; Lytle, C D; Bockstahler, L E

    1976-09-01

    Ultaviolet enhanced (Weigle) reactivation of UV-irradiated herpes simplex virus in UV-irradiated CV-1 monkey kidney cell monolayers was decreased by caffeine. X-ray enhanced reactivation of UV-irradiated virus in X-irradiated monolayers (X-ray reactivation) and UV- or X-ray-inactivated capacity of the cells to support unirradiated virus plaque formation were unaffected by caffeine. The results suggest that a caffeine-sensitive process is necessary for the expression of Weigle reactivation for herpes virus. Since cafeine did not significantly affect X-ray reactivation, different mechanisms may be responsible for the expression of Weigle reactivation and X-ray reactivation.

  14. UV-enhanced reactivation in mammalian cells: increase by caffeine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lytle, C.D.; Iacangelo, A.L.; Lin, C.H.; Goddard, J.G.

    1981-01-01

    It has been reported that caffeine decreases UV-enhanced reactivation of UV-irradiated Herpes simplex virus in CV-l monkey kidney cells. That occurred when there was no delay between cell irradiation and virus infection. In the present study, virus infection was delayed following cell irradiation to allow an 'induction' period separate from the 'expression' period which occurs during the virus infection. Thus, the effects of caffeine on 'induction' and 'expression' could be determined separately. Caffeine increased the expression of UV-enhanced reactivation, while causing a small decrease in the 'induction' of enhanced reactivation. (author)

  15. [Caffeine as adjuvant analgeticum for treating acute pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolajsen, Lone; Haroutiunian, Simon

    2013-10-14

    Based on 19 studies (7,238 participants) a Cochrane review concludes that the addition of caffeine to an analgesic drug provides superior analgesia compared with the analgesic drug alone. The benefit is small, with a number needed to treat of approx. 16. The use of analgesics containing caffeine is associated with an increased risk of the development of physical dependence, overuse headache, and withdrawal symptoms upon abrupt discontinuation. Combination analgesics with caffeine should only be used temporarily and exclusively for the treatment of acute pain conditions.

  16. Acute caffeine effect on repeatedly measured P300

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Jingbo; Takeshita, Tatsuya; Morimoto, Kanehisa

    2000-01-01

    The acute effect of a single-dose of caffeine on the P300 event-related brain potential (ERP) was assessed in a study using a repeatedly presented auditory oddball button-press task. A dose (5mg/kg body-weight) of either caffeine or placebo lactose, dissolved in a cup of decaffeinated coffee, was administered double-blindly to coffee drinkers who had abstained from coffee for 24hrs, with the presentation order of the sessions counterbalanced and separated by 2–4 weeks. The caffeine-treatment ...

  17. Radioprotective and antioxidant action of caffeine: mechanistic considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devasagayam, T.P.A.; Kesavan, P.C.

    1996-01-01

    Caffeine, a major constituent of coffee and other beverages has significant abilities to scavenge highly reactive free radicals and excited states of oxygen and to protect crucial biological molecules against these species. This is one of the possible reasons why caffeine acts as a radioprotector against oxygen-dependent (oxic) pathway of radiation damage and as an anti mutagen/anti carcinogen under certain conditions. The possible physicochemical and molecular mechanisms of caffeine action are briefly reviewed in the light of the recent finding. (author). 69 refs., 1 fig

  18. Association of the Anxiogenic and Alerting Effects of Caffeine with ADORA2A and ADORA1 Polymorphisms and Habitual Level of Caffeine Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Peter J; Hohoff, Christa; Heatherley, Susan V; Mullings, Emma L; Maxfield, Peter J; Evershed, Richard P; Deckert, Jürgen; Nutt, David J

    2010-01-01

    Caffeine, a widely consumed adenosine A1 and A2A receptor antagonist, is valued as a psychostimulant, but it is also anxiogenic. An association between a variant within the ADORA2A gene (rs5751876) and caffeine-induced anxiety has been reported for individuals who habitually consume little caffeine. This study investigated whether this single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) might also affect habitual caffeine intake, and whether habitual intake might moderate the anxiogenic effect of caffeine. Participants were 162 non-/low (NL) and 217 medium/high (MH) caffeine consumers. In a randomized, double-blind, parallel groups design they rated anxiety, alertness, and headache before and after 100 mg caffeine and again after another 150 mg caffeine given 90 min later, or after placebo on both occasions. Caffeine intake was prohibited for 16 h before the first dose of caffeine/placebo. Results showed greater susceptibility to caffeine-induced anxiety, but not lower habitual caffeine intake (indeed coffee intake was higher), in the rs5751876 TT genotype group, and a reduced anxiety response in MH vs NL participants irrespective of genotype. Apart from the almost completely linked ADORA2A SNP rs3761422, no other of eight ADORA2A and seven ADORA1 SNPs studied were found to be clearly associated with effects of caffeine on anxiety, alertness, or headache. Placebo administration in MH participants decreased alertness and increased headache. Caffeine did not increase alertness in NL participants. With frequent consumption, substantial tolerance develops to the anxiogenic effect of caffeine, even in genetically susceptible individuals, but no net benefit for alertness is gained, as caffeine abstinence reduces alertness and consumption merely returns it to baseline. PMID:20520601

  19. Theophylline-assisted, eco-friendly synthesis of PtAu nanospheres at reduced graphene oxide with enhanced catalytic activity towards Cr(VI) reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ling-Ya; Chen, Li-Xian; Liu, Meng-Ting; Wang, Ai-Jun; Wu, Lan-Ju; Feng, Jiu-Ju

    2017-05-01

    Theophylline as a naturally alkaloid is commonly employed to treat asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder. Herein, a facile theophylline-assisted green approach was firstly developed for synthesis of PtAu nanospheres/reduced graphene oxide (PtAu NSs/rGO), without any surfactant, polymer, or seed involved. The obtained nanocomposites were applied for the catalytic reduction and removal of highly toxic chromium (VI) using formic acid as a model reductant at 50°C, showing the significantly enhanced catalytic activity and improved recyclability when compared with commercial Pt/C (50%) and home-made Au nanocrystals supported rGO (Au NCs/rGO). It demonstrates great potential applications of the catalyst in wastewater treatment and environmental protection. The eco-friendly route provides a new platform to fabricate other catalysts with enhanced catalytic activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Caffeine promotes global spatial processing in habitual and non-habitual caffeine consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Grace E. Giles; Caroline R. Mahoney; Tad T. Brunye; Holly A. Taylor; Robin B. Kanarek

    2013-01-01

    Information processing is generally biased toward global cues, often at the expense of local information. Equivocal extant data suggests that arousal states may accentuate either a local or global processing bias, at least partially dependent on the nature of the manipulation, task, and stimuli. To further differentiate the conditions responsible for such equivocal results we varied caffeine doses to alter physiological arousal states and measured their effect on tasks requiring the retrieval...

  1. Chronic caffeine treatment reverses memory impairment and the expression of brain BNDF and TrkB in the PS1/APP double transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kun; Jia, Ning; Li, Ji; Yang, Li; Min, Lian-Qiu

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of varying doses of caffeine on memory impairment and the expression of brain neurotrophic derived factor (BNDF) and TrkB in PS1/APP double transgenic mouse models. PS1/APP double transgenic mice were administered 0.3 ml/day of saline, 1.5 mg/day of caffeine or 0.75 mg/day of caffeine for eight weeks. A water maze test and western blotting were used to determine the memory capability and expression of hippocampal BNDF and TrkB of the mice. The results demonstrated that 0.75 mg/day and 1.5 mg/day doses of caffeine significantly increased memory capability and the expression of hippocampal BDNF and TrkB in PS1/APP mice with a dose-response effect. The results suggested that chronic caffeine treatment may reverse memory impairment in PS1/APP transgenic mice, and BDNF and its receptor TrkB, may be involved in this process.

  2. Breast Milk and Hair Testing to Detect Illegal Drugs, Nicotine, and Caffeine in Donors to a Human Milk Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escuder-Vieco, Diana; Garcia-Algar, Óscar; Joya, Xavier; Marchei, Emilia; Pichini, Simona; Pacifici, Roberta; Pallás-Alonso, Carmen Rosa

    2016-08-01

    The use of illegal drugs and tobacco is an exclusion criteria for accepting a nursing mother as a milk donor. The detection window for human milk testing is typically a few hours. Hair testing has been considered the gold standard to assess chronic exposure to these toxic substances. The aim of this study was to determine the levels of illegal drugs, nicotine, and caffeine in breast milk and hair samples from donors to assess whether these substances were being used during the donation period and the months leading up to it. Thirty-six samples of hair and breast milk were obtained from 36 donors. The tests performed identified nicotine, caffeine, morphine, cocaine, cannabis, amphetamines, codeine, methadone, and other substances derived therefrom. No illegal drugs were found in any of the samples analyzed. Nicotine and cotinine were found in 33.3% (12/36) of all hair samples. Among these 12 samples, 10 had cotinine concentrations consistent with cutoff values for unexposed nonsmokers, 1 had concentrations consistent with cutoff values for passive smokers, and 1 had concentrations consistent with cutoff values for active smokers. Caffeine was found in 77.7% of the hair samples and in 50% of the donor milk samples. The correlation for caffeine between donor milk and hair samples was r = 0.288, P = .0881. Donors do not use illegal drugs during either the donation period or the months leading up to it. They are occasionally exposed to tobacco smoke and almost all of them consume caffeine. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. Long-term Treatment with Low-Dose Caffeine Worsens BPSD-Like Profile in 3xTg-AD Mice Model of Alzheimer’s Disease and Affects Mice with Normal Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Baeta-Corral

    2018-02-01

    indicator of their impaired peripheral immune system, and trended to increase their corticosterone levels. Our observations of adverse caffeine effects in an Alzheimer’s disease model together with previous clinical observations suggest that an exacerbation of BPSD-like symptoms may partly interfere with the beneficial cognitive effects of caffeine. These results are relevant when coffee-derived new potential treatments for dementia are to be devised and tested.

  4. [Caffeine--common ingredient in a diet and its influence on human health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierzejska, Regina

    2012-01-01

    Caffeine is widely consumed by people of all ages. In the last period a market of caffeine-containing products, particularly energy drinks and food supplements increased. Caffeine for years is under discussion, whether has positive whether adverse impact on health. Children are a group of special anxieties. Caffeine is a stimulant of central nervous system and therefore is probably the most commonly used psychoactive substance in the world. The physiological effect of caffeine and the lack of nutrition value causes a great interest its impact on health, especially with reference to the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Results of scientific research are not clear. The influence of caffeine on the human body is conditioned with the individual metabolism of caffeine which also depends on many endogenic and environmental factors. According to the current knowledge moderate caffeine intake by healthy adults at a dose level of 400 mg a day is not associated with adverse effects, but it also depends on other health determinants of a lifestyle. Excessive caffeine consumption can cause negative health consequences such as psychomotor agitation, insomnia, headache, gastrointestinal complaints. Adverse effect of caffeine intoxication is classified in World Health Organization's International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). Metabolism of caffeine by pregnant woman is slowed down. Caffeine and its metabolites pass freely across the placenta into a fetus. For this reason pregnant women should limit caffeine intake. Children and adolescents should also limit daily caffeine consumption. It results from the influence of caffeine on the central nervous system in the period of rapid growth and the final stage of brain development, calcium balance and sleep duration. Average daily caffeine consumption in European countries ranging from 280-490 mg. The highest caffeine intake is in Scandinavian countries what results from the great consumption of the coffee. As far as caffeine

  5. The impact of caffeine use across the lifespan on cognitive performance in elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Clinton S; Thomas, Ayanna K; Taylor, Holly A; Jacques, Paul F; Kanarek, Robin B

    2016-12-01

    Habitual caffeine consumption has often been associated with decreasing age-related cognitive decline. However, whether habitual caffeine use preferentially spares different cognitive processes is unclear. Furthermore, whether basing habitual caffeine consumption patterns on current consumption or on a lifetime measure better represents an individual's use remains unclear. In the present study, we collected information from women, aged 56-83, about their current caffeine consumption patterns and history of use, including age they began consuming caffeine. Regression models assessed the relationship between caffeine consumption and performance on batteries designed to probe speed of processing, inhibition, memory, and executive function. While we found no direct associations between caffeine exposure and cognitive performance, we found that caffeine consumption and participant BMI interacted for inhibitory function and speed of processing performance. We discuss possible protective effects of long term caffeine use as well as the possibility of dose dependent effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Blood biochemistry, thyroid hormones, and performance in broilers with ascites caused by caffeine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamely, Mohammad; Karimi Torshizi, Mohammad Amir; Rahimi, Shaban

    2016-11-01

    Previously, we demonstrated that caffeine, a natural alkaloid, stimulates increased incidences of pulmonary hypertension syndrome (ascites) in broilers. The present study was designed to evaluate the ergogenic effects of caffeine on broiler performance and blood parameters. One-hundred-and-ninety-two Ross 308 male broiler chicks were randomly assigned at one d of age to 16 pens with 4 treatment groups. On d 3, the drinking water was supplemented with caffeine at levels of zero, 12.5, 25, and 50 mg/kg BW/day. Caffeine supplementation linearly improved (P caffeine (P > 0.05). On d 28, increasing caffeine supplementation caused linear reductions in plasma albumin, total protein, globulin, and triglyceride concentrations, and caffeine supplementation increased plasma uric acid concentrations (P caffeine did not consistently affect plasma albumin, globulin, triglyceride, total protein, uric acid, or urea concentrations (P > 0.05), whereas plasma glucose concentrations increased linearly with increasing caffeine levels (P caffeine (P > 0.05), but plasma T 3 concentrations were reduced by caffeine supplementation on d 28 and 42 (P caffeine supplementation on d 42. Skin temperature was not influenced by caffeine supplementation (P > 0.05). There was a negative correlation between thyroid hormone concentrations and BW on d 42 (P caffeine supplementation at the levels of 12.5 to 25 mg/kg BW/day increased BWG, decreased FCR and T 3 , and significantly altered blood biochemistry parameters. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  7. Thermochemical study of two anhydrous polymorphs of caffeine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, Susana S. [Centro de Quimica Estrutural, Complexo Interdisciplinar, Instituto Superior Tecnico, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal)]. E-mail: susanapinto@ist.utl.pt; Diogo, Herminio P. [Centro de Quimica Estrutural, Complexo Interdisciplinar, Instituto Superior Tecnico, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal)]. E-mail: hdiogo@ist.utl.pt

    2006-12-15

    The mean values of the standard massic energy of combustion of caffeine in phase I (or alpha) and in phase II (or beta) measured by static-bomb combustion calorimetry in oxygen, at T=298.15K, are {delta}{sub c}u{sup o} (C{sub 8}H{sub 10}O{sub 2}N{sub 4}, I)=-(21823.27+/-0.68)J.g{sup -1} and {delta}{sub c}u{sup o} (C{sub 8}H{sub 10}O{sub 2}N{sub 4}, II)=-(21799.96+/-1.08)J.g{sup -1}, respectively. The standard (p{sup o}=0.1MPa) molar enthalpy of formation in condensed phase for each form was derived from the corresponding standard molar enthalpies of combustion as, {delta}{sub f}H{sub m}{sup o} (C{sub 8}H{sub 10}O{sub 2}N{sub 4},cr,I)=-(340.6+/-2.3)kJ.mol{sup -1} and {delta}{sub f}H{sub m}{sup o} (C{sub 8}H{sub 10}O{sub 2}N{sub 4},cr,II)=-(345.1+/-2.3)kJ.mol{sup -1}. The difference between the standard enthalpy of formation of the two polymorphs in condensed phase was also evaluated by using reaction-solution calorimetry. The obtained result, 2.04+/-0.25kJ.mol{sup -1}, is in agreement, within the uncertainty, with the difference between the molar enthalpies of formation obtained from combustion experiments (4.5+/-3.2)kJ.mol{sup -1}, which can be considered as an internal test for consistency of the results. A value for the standard enthalpy of formation of caffeine in the gaseous state was proposed: {delta}{sub f}H{sub m}{sup o} (C{sub 8}H{sub 10}O{sub 2}N{sub 4},g)=-(229.7+/-6.1)kJ.mol{sup -1}, estimated from the values of the standard enthalpies of formation of both crystalline forms obtained in this work, and the data on standard enthalpies of sublimation collected from the literature.

  8. Determination of Synthetic Food Colors, Caffeine, Sodium Benzoate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determination of Synthetic Food Colors, Caffeine, Sodium Benzoate and Potassium Sorbate in Sports Drinks. Fatemeh Zamani Mazdeh, Zeinab Moradi, Ghazaleh Moghaddam, Zhila Moradi-Khatoonabadi, Farideh Esmaeili Aftabdari, Parnaz Badaei, Mannan Hajimahmoodi ...

  9. On the interaction of caffeine with nucleic acids. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritzsche, H.; Lang, H.; Sprinz, H.; Pohle, W.

    1980-01-01

    The DNA-caffeine interaction at high concentration of caffeine (Cf) leads to an arrangement of Cf molecules outside of the DNA double helix with an orientation parallel to the bases both in the A and B form as demonstrated by infrared linear dichroism. Addition of DNA broadens the 1 H NMR lines of Cf in aqueous solution indicating a specific binding. Intercalation is not the predominant mechanism, the deuterium relaxation time T 1 = (38 +- 7) ms and the estimated reorientation correlation time tausub(cb) = 0.17 ns of caffeine-8-[ 2 H] in the Cf-DNA complex suggest an outside stacking of the ligand. According to the results a model on the DNA-Cf complex at high Cf concentration (binding process II) is suggested including the caffeine-induced reorientation of the hydration shell of DNA. (Auth.)

  10. Consumption and foraging behaviors for common stimulants (nicotine, caffeine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, James G; Currie, Jonathan; Ogeil, Rowan P

    2016-01-01

    Models are needed to understand the emerging capability to track consumers' movements. Therefore, we examined the use of legal and readily available stimulants that vary in their addictive potential (nicotine, caffeine). One hundred sixty-six participants answered the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10), the Severity of Dependence Scale for nicotine and caffeine, and reported the number of times and locations stimulants were purchased and used. On average, nicotine dependent individuals made their purchases from 2 locations, while caffeine dependent individuals consumed caffeine at 2 locations, but some people exhibited a greater range and intensity of use. Stimulant foraging behavior could be described by power laws, and is exacerbated by dependency. The finding has implications for attempts to control substance use.

  11. In vitro interaction between caffeine and some penicillin antibiotics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro interaction between caffeine and some penicillin antibiotics against ... Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the drugs were determined separately ... coffee, beverages or from other food sources may affect the effectiveness of a co ...

  12. Cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption: risk factors for spontaneous abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the association between cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption and the occurrence of spontaneous abortion. METHODS: The study population consisted of 330 women with spontaneous abortion and 1168 pregnant women receiving antenatal care. A case-control design was utilized;...... units alcohol per week and 375 mg or more caffeine per day during pregnancy may increase the risk of spontaneous abortion.......OBJECTIVE: To study the association between cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption and the occurrence of spontaneous abortion. METHODS: The study population consisted of 330 women with spontaneous abortion and 1168 pregnant women receiving antenatal care. A case-control design was utilized......; cases were defined as women with a spontaneous abortion in gestational week 6-16 and controls as women with a live fetus in gestational week 6-16. The variables studied comprise age, parity, occupational situation, cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption. The association between cigarette, alcohol...

  13. Medical students' use of caffeine for 'academic purposes' and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Third-year students were the heaviest consumers of coffee for academic purposes. .... Caffeine can, however, only reliably affect cognitive performance and mood if the ... decreased alertness, drowsiness, decreased contentedness, depressed.

  14. Effects of a Single Dose of Caffeine on Resting Cardiovascular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    stimulation of the central nervous system (CNS) or direct action on the heart and ... significant effect of caffeine on the cardiovascular system. Several other studies .... carbohydrate or fat metabolism in human skeletal muscle during exercise.

  15. A Review of the Biochemical and Haematological Effects of Caffeine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Review of the Biochemical and Haematological Effects of Caffeine. ... be found in different food and drinks which includes; coffee, tea, chocolate, beverages, ... when taken in excess over a period of time can result in adverse health hazards.

  16. Association between coffee or caffeine consumption and fecundity and fertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngsø, Julie; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia; Bay, Bjørn

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The aim was to investigate whether coffee or caffeine consumption is associated with reproductive endpoints among women with natural fertility (ie, time to pregnancy [TTP] and spontaneous abortion [SAB]) and among women in fertility treatment (ie, clinical pregnancy rate or live birth...... independent reviewers assessed the manuscript quality using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS). A two-stage dose-response meta-analysis was applied to assess a potential association between coffee/caffeine consumption and the outcomes: TTP, SAB, clinical pregnancy, and live birth. Heterogeneity between studies...... was assessed using Cochrane Q-test and I2 statistics. Publication bias was assessed using Egger's regression test. Results: The pooled results showed that coffee/caffeine consumption is associated with a significantly increased risk of SAB for 300 mg caffeine/day (relative risk [RR]: 1.37, 95% confidence...

  17. High versus standard dose caffeine for apnoea: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, Roos; Miedema, Martijn; Hutten, Gerard J.; van Kaam, Anton H.; Onland, Wes

    2018-01-01

    Placebo-controlled trials have shown that caffeine is highly effective in treating apnoea of prematurity and reduces the risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI). To identify, appraise and summarise studies investigating the modulating effect of different

  18. Fewer but heavier caffeine consumers in schizophrenia: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurpegui, Manuel; Aguilar, M Carmen; Martínez-Ortega, José M; Jurado, Dolores; Diaz, Francisco J; Quintana, Hernando M; de Leon, Jose

    2006-09-01

    According to the literature, there is an association between schizophrenia and caffeine consumption, but it is not clear whether schizophrenia is associated with either higher prevalence of daily caffeine intake or the amount consumed. In this study we compared our previously published schizophrenia patients (n=250) with a control sample (n=290) after controlling for demographic variables and tobacco and alcohol consumption. Current caffeine intake was less frequent in schizophrenia patients (59%, 147/250) than in controls (70%, 204/290). In the multivariate analyses, caffeine intake was less frequent at an older age and in schizophrenia patients, and more frequent in smokers and alcohol users. Among caffeine consumers, heavy caffeine intake (> or =200 mg/day) was significantly associated with schizophrenia (64%, 94/147 in schizophrenia versus 36%, 73/204 in controls), as well as older age and smoking. Daily amount of caffeine intake and smoked cigarettes correlated significantly in the schizophrenia group but not in the control group; the correlation of caffeine intake with nicotine dependence was low and non-significant in both groups. The association between current smoking and heavy caffeine intake may be partly explained by a pharmacokinetic effect: tobacco smoke compounds induce caffeine metabolism by the cytochrome P450 1A2. Although schizophrenia by itself may be associated with heavy caffeine intake in caffeine users, part of this association was explained by the association between schizophrenia and smoking. The relationship between caffeine and alcohol intake appeared to be more complex; alcohol and caffeine use were significantly associated, but within caffeine users alcohol was associated with less frequent heavy caffeine consumption among smokers. In future studies, the measurement of plasma caffeine levels will help both to better define heavy caffeine intake and to control for smoking pharmacokinetic effects.

  19. Differential cognitive effects of energy drink ingredients: caffeine, taurine, and glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Grace E; Mahoney, Caroline R; Brunyé, Tad T; Gardony, Aaron L; Taylor, Holly A; Kanarek, Robin B

    2012-10-01

    Energy drinks containing caffeine, taurine, and glucose may improve mood and cognitive performance. However, there are no studies assessing the individual and interactive effects of these ingredients. We evaluated the effects of caffeine, taurine, and glucose alone and in combination on cognitive performance and mood in 24-hour caffeine-abstained habitual caffeine consumers. Using a randomized, double-blind, mixed design, 48 habitual caffeine consumers (18 male, 30 female) who were 24-hour caffeine deprived received one of four treatments (200 mg caffeine/0 mg taurine, 0 mg caffeine/2000 mg taurine, 200 mg caffeine/2000 mg taurine, 0 mg caffeine/0 mg taurine), on each of four separate days, separated by a 3-day wash-out period. Between-participants treatment was a glucose drink (50 g glucose, placebo). Salivary cortisol, mood and heart rate were measured. An attention task was administered 30-minutes post-treatment, followed by a working memory and reaction time task 60-minutes post-treatment. Caffeine enhanced executive control and working memory, and reduced simple and choice reaction time. Taurine increased choice reaction time but reduced reaction time in the working memory tasks. Glucose alone slowed choice reaction time. Glucose in combination with caffeine, enhanced object working memory and in combination with taurine, enhanced orienting attention. Limited glucose effects may reflect low task difficulty relative to subjects' cognitive ability. Caffeine reduced feelings of fatigue and increased tension and vigor. Taurine reversed the effects of caffeine on vigor and caffeine-withdrawal symptoms. No effects were found for salivary cortisol or heart rate. Caffeine, not taurine or glucose, is likely responsible for reported changes in cognitive performance following consumption of energy drinks, especially in caffeine-withdrawn habitual caffeine consumers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Caffeine Extraction from Raw and Roasted Coffee Beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Donyau; Lin, Chih-Yang; Hu, Chen-Ti; Lee, Sanboh

    2018-04-01

    Coffee is a stimulant, psychoactive, popular daily beverage, and its caffeine affects human physiological health and behavior. These important issues prompted us to study caffeine extraction from both the raw and roasted coffee beans of 3 types at different temperatures. A hemispheric model is developed to simulate the extraction process of the caffeine from the coffee beans of hemisphere is proposed. The experimental data are in good agreement with the predicted model. The effective diffusivities of caffeine in both the raw and roasted beans increase with temperature in all 3 types. An incubation period, decreasing with increasing temperature, is observed in all samples studied. Caffeine extraction in roasted beans is more rapid than that for the raw beans and the time difference is significant at low temperatures. In both the raw and roasted samples, caffeine diffusion in the raw beans and the incubation behavior are thermally activated processes. Single activation energies are obtained for diffusion within the extraction temperature range for all beans tested with the exception of one type of the coffee beans, Mandheling, which exhibits 2 activation energies in raw samples. The surface energies of the epidermis of the raw beans and roasted beans obtained from the contact angle measurements are used to interpret the difference of incubation periods. This study has a potential application to the decaffeinated coffee industry.Caffeine affects human physiological health and behavior so that caffeine extraction from coffee beans of different types at different temperatures is important for product refining and customers. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.