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Sample records for der radionuklide tritium

  1. Longtime radionuclide monitoring in the vicinity of Salaspils nuclear reactor; Dauerhaftes Monitoring der Radionuklide in Umgebung von Salaspils Kernreaktor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riekstina, D.; Berzins, J.; Krasta, T. [Latvia Univ. (Latvia). Inst. of Solid State Physics; Skrypnik, O.; Alksnis, J. [Latvia Univ. (Latvia). Inst. of Chemical Physics

    2016-07-01

    The research nuclear reactor in Salaspils was decommissioned in 1998. Now reactor is partially dismantled and its territory is used as a temporary storage of radioactivity contaminated materials and water. Environment radioactivity monitoring for presence of artificial radionuclides in the vicinity of Salaspils nuclear reactor is carried out since 1990. Data include Cs-137 concentration in soils, tritium concentration in ground water, as well as H-3, Cs-137, Co-60 concentration and gross beta-activity of reactors sewage and rainwater drainage. The systematic monitoring allowed to detect in December 2014 a leakage from the special wastewater basin and so to prevent a pollution of ground water outside reactors territory.

  2. Guidelines for direct radionuclide cystography; Empfehlungen zur Durchfuehrung der direkten Radionuklid-Zystographie bei Kindern. Richtlinie uebernommen vom Paediatric Committee der European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fettich, J. [Univ. Medical Centre Ljubljana (Slovenia); Colarinha, P. [Inst. Portugues de Oncologia, Lisboa (Portugal); Fischer, S.; Hahn, K.; Porn, U. [Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, LMU Muenchen (Germany); Froekier, J. [Aarhus Univ. Hospital - Skejby (Denmark); Gordon, I. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London (United Kingdom); Kabasakal, L. [Cerraphasa Tip Fakultesi, Nukleer Tip Ana Bilim Dali, Aksaray (Turkey); Mann, M. [Inst. of Child Health, Rondebosh, Red Cross Hospital, Capetown (South Africa); Mitjavila, M. [Hospital Universitario de Getafe, Madrid (Spain); Olivier, P. [CHU Nancy (France); Piepsz, A. [CHU St Pierre (Belgium); Roca, I. [Hospital Vall d' Hebron, Barcelona (Spain); Sixt, R. [The Queen Silvia Children' s Hospital, Goeteborg (Sweden); Velzen, J. van [ARPES (Netherlands)

    2002-07-01

    These ''Empfehlungen'' are the german translation of the Guidelines on MIBG-Scintigraphy in Children, which were published by the Paediatric Committee of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine. (orig.) [German] Bei den vorliegenden Empfehlungen handelt es sich um die deutsche Uebersetzung der vom Paediatric Committee der European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) publizierten Guidelines. (orig.)

  3. Tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    The role played the large amount supply of tritium and its effects are broadly reviewed. This report is divided into four parts. The introductory part includes the history of tritium research. The second part deals with the physicochemical properties of tritium and the compounds containing tritium such as tritium water and labeled compounds, and with the isotope effects and self radiation effects of tritium. The third part deals with the tritium production by artificial reaction. Attention is directed to the future productivity of tritium from B, Be, N, C, O, etc. by using the beams of high energy protons or neutrons. The problems of the accepting market and the accuracy of estimating manufacturing cost are discussed. The expansion of production may bring upon the reduction of cost but also a large possibility of social impact. The irradiation problem and handling problem in view of environmental preservation are discussed. The fourth part deals with the use of tritium as a target, as a source of radiation or light, and its utilization for geochemistry. The future development of the solid tritium target capable of elongating the life of neutron sources is expected. The rust thickness of the surface of iron can be measured with the X-ray of Ti-T or Zr-T. The tritium can substitute self-light emission paint or lamp. The tritium is suitable for tracing the movement of sea water and land surface water because of its long half life. (Iwakiri, K.)

  4. Tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiege, A.

    1992-07-01

    This report contains information on chemical and physical properties, occurence, production, use, technology, release, radioecology, radiobiology, dose estimates, radioprotection and legal aspects of tritium. The objective of this report is to provide a reliable data base for the public discussion on tritium, especially with regard to its use in future nuclear fusion plants and its radiological assessment. (orig.) [de

  5. Tritium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    QUESTIONS 5 4 CONSTRAINTS OF BASIC PHYSICS 7 4.1 Neutronics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 4.2 Tritium Burnup Fraction...Requirements for tritium-breeding should be one of the key tradeoffs 5 in reactor design. For example, maximizing the burnup fraction fb (a plasma-physics...account for the heterogeneous geometry and structural materials of the reactor, it should be possible to calculate values of the TBR that will be

  6. Gaseous Tritium Light Sources in armament and watches industries; Tritium-Gas-Lichtquellen in der Ruestungs- und Uhrenindustrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amme, Marcus; Siegenthaler, Roger [mb-microtec ag, Niederwangen (Switzerland)

    2015-07-01

    The industrial application of Tritium gas enclosed in glass tubes is a modern way illuminating instruments and items wherever instant and independent readability is prerequisite. The GTLS (Gaseous Tritium Light Sources) technology follows the principle of radiation-induced luminescence and supersedes the luminous radioactive paints and their hazards such as particles erasure or heavy isotope use. Enclosure of tritium in glass is a demanding micro technology process and work needs to be performed in controlled areas due to handling of open sources. The storage and transport of the Tritium is done via licensed B(U)-containers coming from heavy water reactor sites, and disposal of radioactive Tritium wastes has to be compliant with national and international regulations for transport and waste management.

  7. Environmental Tritium.

    OpenAIRE

    1984-01-01

    Environmental tritium was first observed in a helium fraction at a liquid air production facility in Germany in 1949. During the 1950s and early 1960s, huge amounts of artificial tritium were released into the atmosphere by nuclear testing. The environmental tritium level increased to more than 200 times the natural tritium level. Since the signing of a test ban treaty in 1963, the environmental tritium level has decreased, and analysis of recent Japanese rain samples has shown that the envir...

  8. Criteria for assembly of in vivo measuring systems using high-resolution {gamma}-spectroscopy for evaluation of incorporated radionuclides; Kriterien zum Aufbau von In Vivo Messsystemen zur hochaufloesenden {gamma}-Spektrometrie inkorporierter Radionuklide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahl, W. [GSF Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit, Neuherberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Strahlenschutz

    1997-12-01

    The paper reviews the available, fundamental measuring methods relying on {gamma}-spectroscopy for their possible application in whole-body and partial-body counters for detection of manifold incorporation of radionuclides. Particular emphasis is placed on the response functions of various detectors, the assembly, the differentiated radioactivity distribution in the body, the various components of background activity and the corresponding suppression mechanisms, and possible ways of using the energy dependence for optimised detection of specific {gamma} energies in a given body region. Criteria and relations as well as their advantages and drawbacks are discussed. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Diese Arbeit prueft die zur Verfuegung stehenden grundlegenden, {gamma}-spektroskopischen Messmethoden auf deren moegliche Anwendung im Spektrum der Ganz- und Teilkoerperzaehler zum Nachweis der mannigfach inkorporierten Radionuklide. Insbesondere wird eingegangen auf die Response Funktionen verschiedener Detektoren, die Anordnung, die differenzierte Aktivitaetsverteilung im Koerper, die verschiedenen Untergrundkomponenten und deren Unterdrueckungsmechanismen sowie die Beeinflussung durch die Energieabhaengigkeit zum optimalen Nachweis spezifischer {gamma}-Energien an einem bestimmten Ort am Koerper. Kriterien und Relationen sowie deren Vor- und Nachteile werden diskutiert. (orig.)

  9. Tritium conference days; Journees tritium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garnier-Laplace, J.; Lebaron-Jacobs, L.; Sene, M.; Devin, P.; Chretien, V.; Le Guen, B.; Guetat, Ph.; Baglan, N.; Ansoborlo, E.; Boyer, C.; Masson, M.; Bailly-Du-Bois, P.; Jenkinson, St.; Wakeford, R.; Saintigny, Y.; Romeo, P.H.; Thompson, P.; Leterq, D.; Chastagner, F.; Cortes, P.; Philippe, M.; Paquet, F.; Fournier, M.

    2009-07-01

    This document gathers the slides of the available presentations given during this conference day. Twenty presentations out of 21 are assembled in the document and deal with: 1 - tritium in the environment (J. Garnier-Laplace); 2 - status of knowledge about tritium impact on health (L. Lebaron-Jacobs); 3 - tritium, discrete but present everywhere (M. Sene); 4 - management of tritium effluents from Areva NC La Hague site - related impact and monitoring (P. Devin); 5 - tritium effluents and impact in the vicinity of EDF's power plants (V. Chretien and B. Le Guen); 6 - contribution of CEA-Valduc centre monitoring to the knowledge of atmospheric tritiated water transfers to the different compartments of the environment (P. Guetat); 7 - tritium analysis in environment samples: constraints and means (N. Baglan); 8 - organically-linked tritium: the analyst view (E. Ansoborlo); 9 - study of tritium transfers to plants via OBT/HTO{sub air} and OBT/HTO{sub free} (C. Boyer); 10 - tritium in the British Channel (M. Masson and P. Bailly-Du-Bois); 11 - tritium in British coastal waters (S. Jenkinson); 12 - recent results from epidemiology (R. Wakeford); 13 - effects of tritiated thymidine on hematopoietic stem cells (P.H. Romeo); 14 - tritium management issue in Canada: the point of view from authorities (P. Thompson); 15 - experience feedback of the detritiation process of Valduc centre (D. Leterq); 16 - difficulties linked with tritiated wastes confinement (F. Chastagner); 17 - optimisation of tritium management in the ITER project (P. Cortes); 18 - elements of thought about the management of tritium generated by nuclear facilities (M. Philippe); 19 - CIPR's position about the calculation of doses and risks linked with tritium exposure (F. Paquet); 20 - tritium think tanks (M. Fournier). (J.S.)

  10. Tritium sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glodic, S.; Boreli, F.

    1993-01-01

    Tritium is the only radioactive isotope of hydrogen. It directly follows the metabolism of water and it can be bound into genetic material, so it is very important to control levels of contamination. In order to define the state of contamination it is necessary to establish 'zero level', i.e. actual global inventory. The importance of tritium contamination monitoring increases with the development of fusion power installations. Different sources of tritium are analyzed and summarized in this paper. (author)

  11. Tritium storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hircq, B.

    1989-01-01

    A general synthesis about tritium storage is achieved in this paper and a particular attention is given to practical application in the Fusion Technology Program. Tritium, storage under gaseous form and solid form are discussed (characteristics, advantages, disadvantages and equipments). The way of tritium storage is then discussed and a choice established as a function of a logic which takes into account the main working parameters

  12. Tritium trick

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, W. V.; Zukas, E. G.; Eash, D. T.

    1971-01-01

    Large controlled amounts of helium in uniform concentration in thick samples can be obtained through the radioactive decay of dissolved tritium gas to He3. The term, tritium trick, applies to the case when helium, added by this method, is used to simulate (n,alpha) production of helium in simulated hard flux radiation damage studies.

  13. Environmental tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gans, I.

    1974-10-01

    The radioactive hydrogen isotope tritium can be found in all water occurrences. The concentration of natural tritium measured before 1954 amounts to 26 picocuries per liter in precipitation, 5 to 20 picocuries per liter in surface water, and 1 picocurie per liter in sea water. Since then, due to thermonuclear waepons tests in the atmosphere, considerably higher concentrations have been measured - 1963 the annual mean for precipitation went up to 10 4 picocuries per liter. Today in Middle Europe some hundred picocuries per liter are found in precipitation and surface water, less than 100 picocuries per liter in sea water, and in general less than 15 picocuries per liter in ground water. Artificial tritium today is applied in large scale in research and industry. It is of special importance as waste in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. In the future, however, tritium emissions from nuclear power plants are less important than releases from reprocessing plants. Estimations show that the global environmental impact is small. For regions with a large density of nuclear power installations, radiation exposures of the order of magnitude of 10 mrem are predicted with pessimistic assumptions. More realistic assumptions lead to dose values of about 0.1 mrem caused by the influence of tritium. This is 80% of the dose caused by the release of radioactive material from nuclear power installations. (orig.) [de

  14. Tritium handling in vacuum systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill, J.T. [Monsanto Research Corp., Miamisburg, OH (United States). Mound Facility; Coffin, D.O. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1986-10-01

    This report provides a course in Tritium handling in vacuum systems. Topics presented are: Properties of Tritium; Tritium compatibility of materials; Tritium-compatible vacuum equipment; and Tritium waste treatment.

  15. Magmatic tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goff, F.; Aams, A.I.; McMurtry, G.M.; Shevenell, L.; Pettit, D.R.; Stimac, J.A.; Werner, C.

    1997-01-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Detailed geochemical sampling of high-temperature fumaroles, background water, and fresh magmatic products from 14 active volcanoes reveal that they do not produce measurable amounts of tritium ( 3 H) of deep origin ( 2 O). On the other hand, all volcanoes produce mixtures of meteoric and magmatic fluids that contain measurable 3 H from the meteoric end-member. The results show that cold fusion is probably not a significant deep earth process but the samples and data have wide application to a host of other volcanological topics

  16. Man-made radionuclides in the environment and resulting radiation exposures; Anthropogene Radionuklide in der Umwelt und daraus resultierende Strahlenexpositionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michel, R. [Leibniz Univ. Hannover (Germany). Zentrum fuer Strahlenschutz und Radiooekologie

    2009-07-01

    This contribution gives a survey about the sources of man-made environmental radioactivity and quantifies some of the resulting radiation exposures. The relevance of the different radionuclides with respect to the radiation exposures is discussed. Finally, the question of the effects of small doses is addressed. (orig.)

  17. Tritium accountancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avenhaus, R.; Spannagel, G.

    1995-01-01

    Conventional accountancy means that for a given material balance area and a given interval of time the tritium balance is established so that at the end of that interval of time the book inventory is compared with the measured inventory. In this way, an optimal effectiveness of accountancy is achieved. However, there are still further objectives of accountancy, namely the timely detection of anomalies as well as the localization of anomalies in a major system. It can be shown that each of these objectives can be optimized only at the expense of the others. Recently, Near-Real-Time Accountancy procedures have been studied; their methodological background as well as their merits will be discussed. (orig.)

  18. Magmatic tritium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goff, F.; Aams, A.I. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); McMurtry, G.M. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Shevenell, L. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Pettit, D.R. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration (United States); Stimac, J.A. [Union Geothermal Company (United States); Werner, C. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    1997-07-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Detailed geochemical sampling of high-temperature fumaroles, background water, and fresh magmatic products from 14 active volcanoes reveal that they do not produce measurable amounts of tritium ({sup 3}H) of deep origin (<0.1 T.U. or <0.32 pCi/kg H{sub 2}O). On the other hand, all volcanoes produce mixtures of meteoric and magmatic fluids that contain measurable {sup 3}H from the meteoric end-member. The results show that cold fusion is probably not a significant deep earth process but the samples and data have wide application to a host of other volcanological topics.

  19. Tritium activities in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gierszewski, P.

    1995-01-01

    Canadian tritium activites comprise three major interests: utilites, light manufacturers, and fusion. There are 21 operating CANDU reactors in Canada; 19 with Ontario Hydro and one each with Hydro Quebec and New Brunswick Power. There are two light manufacturers, two primary tritium research facilities (at AECL Chalk River and Ontario Hydro Technologies), and a number of industry and universities involved in design, construction, and general support of the other tritium activities. The largest tritum program is in support of the CANDU reactors, which generate tritium in the heavy water as a by-product of normal operation. Currently, there are about 12 kg of tritium locked up in the heavy water coolant and moderator of these reactors. The fusion work is complementary to the light manufacturing, and is concerned with tritium handling for the ITER program. This included design, development and application of technologies related to Isotope Separation, tritium handling, (tritiated) gas separation, tritium-materials interaction, and plasma fueling

  20. The Tritium White Paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This publication proposes a synthesis of the activities of two work-groups between May 2008 and April 2010. It reports the ASN's (the French Agency for Nuclear Safety) point of view, describes its activities and actions, and gives some recommendations. It gives a large and detailed overview of the knowledge status on tritium: tritium source inventory, tritium origin, management processes, capture techniques, reduction, tritium metrology, impact on the environment, impacts on human beings

  1. Tritium in the Channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masson, M.; Fievet, B.; Bailly-Du-Bois, P.; Olivier, A.; Tenailleau, L.

    2009-01-01

    After having recalled that sea waters entering the Channel exhibit a natural concentration of tritium, the authors outline that spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plants are now the main sources of tritium for marine ecosystems as some oceanographic campaigns showed it. If data about the presence of tritium in water are numerous, data concerning the presence of tritiated water and of organically bound tritium in organisms are much less frequent. However, some surveys have been performed along the Channel French coasts

  2. TFTR tritium handling concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garber, H.J.

    1976-01-01

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor, to be located on the Princeton Forrestal Campus, is expected to operate with 1 to 2.5 MA tritium--deuterium plasmas, with the pulses involving injection of 50 to 150 Ci (5 to 16 mg) of tritium. Attainment of fusion conditions is based on generation of an approximately 1 keV tritium plasma by ohmic heating and conversion to a moderately hot tritium--deuterium ion plasma by injection of a ''preheating'' deuterium neutral beam (40 to 80 keV), followed by injection of a ''reacting'' beam of high energy neutral deuterium (120 to 150 keV). Additionally, compressions accompany the beam injections. Environmental, safety and cost considerations led to the decision to limit the amount of tritium gas on-site to that required for an experiment, maintaining all other tritium in ''solidified'' form. The form of the tritium supply is as uranium tritide, while the spent tritium and other hydrogen isotopes are getter-trapped by zirconium--aluminum alloy. The issues treated include: (1) design concepts for the tritium generator and its purification, dispensing, replenishment, containment, and containment--cleanup systems; (2) features of the spent plasma trapping system, particularly the regenerable absorption cartridges, their integration into the vacuum system, and the handling of non-getterables; (3) tritium permeation through the equipment and the anticipated releases to the environment; (4) overview of the tritium related ventilation systems; and (5) design bases for the facility's tritium clean-up systems

  3. Safe handling of tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The main objective of this publication is to provide practical guidance and recommendations on operational radiation protection aspects related to the safe handling of tritium in laboratories, industrial-scale nuclear facilities such as heavy-water reactors, tritium removal plants and fission fuel reprocessing plants, and facilities for manufacturing commercial tritium-containing devices and radiochemicals. The requirements of nuclear fusion reactors are not addressed specifically, since there is as yet no tritium handling experience with them. However, much of the material covered is expected to be relevant to them as well. Annex III briefly addresses problems in the comparatively small-scale use of tritium at universities, medical research centres and similar establishments. However, the main subject of this publication is the handling of larger quantities of tritium. Operational aspects include designing for tritium safety, safe handling practice, the selection of tritium-compatible materials and equipment, exposure assessment, monitoring, contamination control and the design and use of personal protective equipment. This publication does not address the technologies involved in tritium control and cleanup of effluents, tritium removal, or immobilization and disposal of tritium wastes, nor does it address the environmental behaviour of tritium. Refs, figs and tabs

  4. Surface tritium contamination studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sienkiewicz, C.J.

    1986-01-01

    Glovebox wipe surveys were conducted to correlate surface tritium contamination with atmospheric tritium levels. Surface contamination was examined as a function of tritium concentration and limited to the HT/T 2 form. The previously predicted relationship between atmospheric HTO concentration and cleanup times was examined in order to predict a model for atmospheric detritiation of stainless steel enclosures. 2 figures, 2 tables

  5. Tritium conference days

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnier-Laplace, J.; Lebaron-Jacobs, L.; Sene, M.; Devin, P.; Chretien, V.; Le Guen, B.; Guetat, Ph.; Baglan, N.; Ansoborlo, E.; Boyer, C.; Masson, M.; Bailly-Du-Bois, P.; Jenkinson, St.; Wakeford, R.; Saintigny, Y.; Romeo, P.H.; Thompson, P.; Leterq, D.; Chastagner, F.; Cortes, P.; Philippe, M.; Paquet, F.; Fournier, M.

    2009-01-01

    This document gathers the slides of the available presentations given during this conference day. Twenty presentations out of 21 are assembled in the document and deal with: 1 - tritium in the environment (J. Garnier-Laplace); 2 - status of knowledge about tritium impact on health (L. Lebaron-Jacobs); 3 - tritium, discrete but present everywhere (M. Sene); 4 - management of tritium effluents from Areva NC La Hague site - related impact and monitoring (P. Devin); 5 - tritium effluents and impact in the vicinity of EDF's power plants (V. Chretien and B. Le Guen); 6 - contribution of CEA-Valduc centre monitoring to the knowledge of atmospheric tritiated water transfers to the different compartments of the environment (P. Guetat); 7 - tritium analysis in environment samples: constraints and means (N. Baglan); 8 - organically-linked tritium: the analyst view (E. Ansoborlo); 9 - study of tritium transfers to plants via OBT/HTO air and OBT/HTO free (C. Boyer); 10 - tritium in the British Channel (M. Masson and P. Bailly-Du-Bois); 11 - tritium in British coastal waters (S. Jenkinson); 12 - recent results from epidemiology (R. Wakeford); 13 - effects of tritiated thymidine on hematopoietic stem cells (P.H. Romeo); 14 - tritium management issue in Canada: the point of view from authorities (P. Thompson); 15 - experience feedback of the detritiation process of Valduc centre (D. Leterq); 16 - difficulties linked with tritiated wastes confinement (F. Chastagner); 17 - optimisation of tritium management in the ITER project (P. Cortes); 18 - elements of thought about the management of tritium generated by nuclear facilities (M. Philippe); 19 - CIPR's position about the calculation of doses and risks linked with tritium exposure (F. Paquet); 20 - tritium think tanks (M. Fournier). (J.S.)

  6. Environmental aspects of tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quisenberry, D.R.

    1979-01-01

    The potential radiological implications of environmental tritium releases must be determined in order to develop a programme for dealing with the tritium inventory predicted for the nuclear power industry which, though still in its infancy, produces tritium in megacurie quantities annually. Should the development of fusion power generation become a reality, it will create a potential source for large releases of tritium, much of it in the gaseous state. At present about 90% of the tritium produced enters the environment through gaseous and liquid effluents and is deposited in the hydrosphere as tritiated water. Tritium can be assimilated by plants and animals and organically bound, regardless of the exposure pathway. However, there appears to be no concentration factor relative to hydrogen at any level of food chains analysed to date. The body burden, for man, is dependent on the exposure pathway and tissue-bound fractions are primarily the result of organically bound tritium in food. (author)

  7. Tritium pellet injector results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, P.W.; Bauer, M.L.; Baylor, L.R.; Deleanu, L.E.; Fehling, D.T.; Milora, S.L.; Whitson, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    Injection of solid tritium pellets is considered to be the most promising way of fueling fusion reactors. The Tritium Proof-of- Principle (TPOP) experiment has demonstrated the feasibility of forming and accelerating tritium pellets. This injector is based on the pneumatic pipe-gun concept, in which pellets are formed in situ in the barrel and accelerated with high-pressure gas. This injector is ideal for tritium service because there are no moving parts inside the gun and because no excess tritium is required in the pellet production process. Removal of 3 He from tritium to prevent blocking of the cryopumping action by the noncondensible gas has been demonstrated with a cryogenic separator. Pellet velocities of 1280 m/s have been achieved for 4-mm-diam by 4-mm-long cylindrical tritium pellets with hydrogen propellant at 6.96 MPa (1000 psi). 10 refs., 10 figs

  8. Tritium sampling and measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, M.J.; McElroy, R.G.; Surette, R.A.; Brown, R.M.

    1993-01-01

    Current methods for sampling and measuring tritium are described. Although the basic techniques have not changed significantly over the last 10 y, there have been several notable improvements in tritium measurement instrumentation. The design and quality of commercial ion-chamber-based and gas-flow-proportional-counter-based tritium monitors for tritium-in-air have improved, an indirect result of fusion-related research in the 1980s. For tritium-in-water analysis, commercial low-level liquid scintillation spectrometers capable of detecting tritium-in-water concentrations as low as 0.65 Bq L-1 for counting times of 500 min are available. The most sensitive method for tritium-in-water analysis is still 3He mass spectrometry. Concentrations as low as 0.35 mBq L-1 can be detected with current equipment. Passive tritium-oxide-in-air samplers are now being used for workplace monitoring and even in some environmental sampling applications. The reliability, convenience, and low cost of passive tritium-oxide-in-air samplers make them attractive options for many monitoring applications. Airflow proportional counters currently under development look promising for measuring tritium-in-air in the presence of high gamma and/or noble gas backgrounds. However, these detectors are currently limited by their poor performance in humidities over 30%. 133 refs

  9. Confinement and Tritium Stripping Systems for APT Tritium Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, R.H. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Heung, L.K.

    1997-10-20

    This report identifies functions and requirements for the tritium process confinement and clean-up system (PCCS) and provides supporting technical information for the selection and design of tritium confinement, clean-up (stripping) and recovery technologies for new tritium processing facilities in the Accelerator for the Production of Tritium (APT). The results of a survey of tritium confinement and clean-up systems for large-scale tritium handling facilities and recommendations for the APT are also presented.

  10. Environmental tritium in trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.M.

    1979-01-01

    The distribution of environmental tritium in the free water and organically bound hydrogen of trees growing in the vicinity of the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories (CRNL) has been studied. The regional dispersal of HTO in the atmosphere has been observed by surveying the tritium content of leaf moisture. Measurement of the distribution of organically bound tritium in the wood of tree ring sequences has given information on past concentrations of HTO taken up by trees growing in the CRNL Liquid Waste Disposal Area. For samples at background environmental levels, cellulose separation and analysis was done. The pattern of bomb tritium in precipitation of 1955-68 was observed to be preserved in the organically bound tritium of a tree ring sequence. Reactor tritium was discernible in a tree growing at a distance of 10 km from CRNL. These techniques provide convenient means of monitoring dispersal of HTO from nuclear facilities. (author)

  11. NNSA TRITIUM SUPPLY CHAIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyrick, Steven [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC, USA; Cordaro, Joseph [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC, USA; Founds, Nanette [National Nuclear Security Administration, Albuquerque, NM, USA; Chambellan, Curtis [National Nuclear Security Administration, Albuquerque, NM, USA

    2013-08-21

    Savannah River Site plays a critical role in the Tritium Production Supply Chain for the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). The entire process includes: • Production of Tritium Producing Burnable Absorber Rods (TPBARs) at the Westinghouse WesDyne Nuclear Fuels Plant in Columbia, South Carolina • Production of unobligated Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) at the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) in Portsmouth, Ohio • Irradiation of TPBARs with the LEU at the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Watts Bar Reactor • Extraction of tritium from the irradiated TPBARs at the Tritium Extraction Facility (TEF) at Savannah River Site • Processing the tritium at the Savannah River Site, which includes removal of nonhydrogen species and separation of the hydrogen isotopes of protium, deuterium and tritium.

  12. High-pressure tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffin, D.O.

    1976-01-01

    Some solutions to problems of compressing and containing tritium gas to 200 MPa at 700 0 K are discussed. The principal emphasis is on commercial compressors and high-pressure equipment that can be easily modified by the researcher for safe use with tritium. Experience with metal bellows and diaphragm compressors has been favorable. Selection of materials, fittings, and gauges for high-pressure tritium work is also reviewed briefly

  13. Tritium in metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schober, T.

    1990-01-01

    In this Chapter a review is given of some of the important features of metal tritides as opposed to hydrides and deuterides. After an introduction to the topics of tritium and tritium in metals information will be presented on a variety of metal-tritium systems. Of main interest here are the differences from the classic hydrogen behavior; the so called isotope effect. A second important topic is that of aging effects produced by the accumulation of 3 He in the samples. (orig.)

  14. Radionuclide Basics: Tritium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tritium is a hydrogen atom that has two neutrons in the nucleus and one proton. It is radioactive and behaves like other forms of hydrogen in the environment. Tritium is produced naturally in the upper atmosphere and as a byproduct of nuclear fission.

  15. Protection against tritium radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bal, Georges

    1964-05-01

    This report presents the main characteristics of tritium, describes how it is produced as a natural or as an artificial radio-element. It outlines the hazards related to this material, presents how materials and tools are contaminated and decontaminated. It addresses the issue of permissible maximum limits: factors of assessment of the risk induced by tritium, maximum permissible activity in body water, maximum permissible concentrations in the atmosphere. It describes the measurement of tritium activity: generalities, measurement of gas activity and of tritiated water steam, tritium-induced ionisation in an ionisation chamber, measurement systems using ionisation chambers, discontinuous detection of tritium-containing water in the air, detection of surface contamination [fr

  16. Tritium fuel cycle modeling and tritium breeding analysis for CFETR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Hongli; Pan, Lei; Lv, Zhongliang; Li, Wei; Zeng, Qin, E-mail: zengqin@ustc.edu.cn

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • A modified tritium fuel cycle model with more detailed subsystems was developed. • The mean residence time method applied to tritium fuel cycle calculation was updated. • Tritium fuel cycle analysis for CFETR was carried out. - Abstract: Attaining tritium self-sufficiency is a critical goal for fusion reactor operated on the D–T fuel cycle. The tritium fuel cycle models were developed to describe the characteristic parameters of the various elements of the tritium cycle as a tool for evaluating the tritium breeding requirements. In this paper, a modified tritium fuel cycle model with more detailed subsystems and an updated mean residence time calculation method was developed based on ITER tritium model. The tritium inventory in fueling system and in plasma, supposed to be important for part of the initial startup tritium inventory, was considered in the updated mean residence time method. Based on the model, the tritium fuel cycle analysis of CFETR (Chinese Fusion Engineering Testing Reactor) was carried out. The most important two parameters, the minimum initial startup tritium inventory (I{sub m}) and the minimum tritium breeding ratio (TBR{sub req}) were calculated. The tritium inventories in steady state and tritium release of subsystems were obtained.

  17. Tritium breeding in fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdou, M.A.

    1982-10-01

    Key technological problems that influence tritium breeding in fusion blankets are reviewed. The breeding potential of candidate materials is evaluated and compared to the tritium breeding requirements. The sensitivity of tritium breeding to design and nuclear data parameters is reviewed. A framework for an integrated approach to improve tritium breeding prediction is discussed with emphasis on nuclear data requirements

  18. Der Fachbereich Fertigungstechnik der Zukunft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alting, Leo

    1998-01-01

    Forscher sowie für eine industrielle Zusammenarbeit/Beratung eine attraktive Umgebung zu bieten.Im vorliegenden Papier wird ein internes Entwicklungsprojekt, genannt "Der Fachberich der Zukunft", beschrieben. Ausgehend von den Bedürfnissen und Erwartungen der Kunden (Studierende, Einrichtungen der...

  19. Tritium permeation through iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagi, Hideki; Hayashi, Yasunori

    1989-01-01

    An experimental method for measuring diffusion coefficients and permeation rates of tritium in metals around room temperature has been established, and their values in iron have been obtained by using the method. Permeation rates of tritium and hydrogen through iron were measured by the electrochemical method in which a tritiated aqueous solution was used as a cathodic electrolyte. Tritium and hydrogen were introduced from one side of a membrane specimen by cathodic polarization, while at the other side of the specimen the permeating tritium and hydrogen were extracted by potentiostatical ionization. The amount of permeated hydrogen was obtained by integrating the anodic current, and that of tritium was determined by measuring the radioactivity of the electrolyte sampled from the extraction side. Diffusion coefficients of tritium (D T ) and hydrogen (D H ) were determined from the time lag of tritium and hydrogen permeation. D T =9x10 -10 m 2 /s and D H =4x10 -9 m 2 /s at 286 K for annealed iron specimens. These values of D T and D H were compared with the previous data of the diffusion coefficients of hydrogen and deuterium, and the isotope effect in diffusion was discussed. (orig.)

  20. Tritium technology. A Canadian overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemmings, R.L.

    2002-01-01

    An overview of the various tritium research and operational activities in Canada is presented. These activities encompass tritium processing and recovery, tritium interactions with materials, and tritium health and safety. Many of these on-going activities form a sound basis for the tritium use and handling aspects of the ITER project. Tritium management within the CANDU heavy water reactor, associated detritiation facilities, research and development facilities, and commercial industry and improving the understanding of tritium behaviour in humans and the environment remain the focus of a long-standing Canadian interest in tritium. While there have been changes in the application of this knowledge and experience over time, the operating experience and the supporting research and development continue to provide for improved plant and facility operations, an improved understanding of tritium safety issues, and improved products and tools that facilitate tritium management. (author)

  1. Experience in handling concentrated tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holtslander, W.J.

    1985-12-01

    The notes describe the experience in handling concentrated tritium in the hydrogen form accumulated in the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories Tritium Laboratory. The techniques of box operation, pumping systems, hydriding and dehydriding operations, and analysis of tritium are discussed. Information on the Chalk River Tritium Extraction Plant is included as a collection of reprints of papers presented at the Dayton Meeting on Tritium Technology, 1985 April 30 - May 2

  2. Problems of anthropogenic tritium limitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kochetkov О.A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article contains the current situation in respect to the environmental concentrations of anthropogenic and natural tritium. There are presented and analyzed domestic standards for НТО of all Radiation Safety Standards (NRB, as well as the regulations analyzed for tritium in drinking water taken in other countries today. This article deals with the experience of limitation of tritium and focuses on the main problem of rationing of tritium — rationing of organically bound tritium.

  3. Tritium protective clothing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, T. P.; Easterly, C. E.

    1979-06-01

    Occupational exposures to radiation from tritium received at present nuclear facilities and potential exposures at future fusion reactor facilities demonstrate the need for improved protective clothing. Important areas relating to increased protection factors of tritium protective ventilation suits are discussed. These areas include permeation processes of tritium through materials, various tests of film permeability, selection and availability of suit materials, suit designs, and administrative procedures. The phenomenological nature of film permeability calls for more standardized and universal test methods, which would increase the amount of directly useful information on impermeable materials. Improvements in suit designs could be expedited and better communicated to the health physics community by centralizing devlopmental equipment, manpower, and expertise in the field of tritium protection to one or two authoritative institutions.

  4. Tritium waste package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossmassler, Rich; Ciebiera, Lloyd; Tulipano, Francis J.; Vinson, Sylvester; Walters, R. Thomas

    1995-01-01

    A containment and waste package system for processing and shipping tritium xide waste received from a process gas includes an outer drum and an inner drum containing a disposable molecular sieve bed (DMSB) seated within outer drum. The DMSB includes an inlet diffuser assembly, an outlet diffuser assembly, and a hydrogen catalytic recombiner. The DMSB absorbs tritium oxide from the process gas and converts it to a solid form so that the tritium is contained during shipment to a disposal site. The DMSB is filled with type 4A molecular sieve pellets capable of adsorbing up to 1000 curies of tritium. The recombiner contains a sufficient amount of catalyst to cause any hydrogen add oxygen present in the process gas to recombine to form water vapor, which is then adsorbed onto the DMSB.

  5. Tritium protective clothing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, T.P.; Easterly, C.E.

    1979-06-01

    Occupational exposures to radiation from tritium received at present nuclear facilities and potential exposures at future fusion reactor facilities demonstrate the need for improved protective clothing. Important areas relating to increased protection factors of tritium protective ventilation suits are discussed. These areas include permeation processes of tritium through materials, various tests of film permeability, selection and availability of suit materials, suit designs, and administrative procedures. The phenomenological nature of film permeability calls for more standardized and universal test methods, which would increase the amount of directly useful information on impermeable materials. Improvements in suit designs could be expedited and better communicated to the health physics community by centralizing devlopmental equipment, manpower, and expertise in the field of tritium protection to one or two authoritative institutions

  6. PRODUCTION OF TRITIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenks, G.H.; Shapiro, E.M.; Elliott, N.; Cannon, C.V.

    1963-02-26

    This invention relates to a process for the production of tritium by subjecting comminuted solid lithium fluoride containing the lithium isotope of atomic mass number 6 to neutron radiation in a self-sustaining neutronic reactor. The lithium fiuoride is heated to above 450 deg C. in an evacuated vacuum-tight container during radiation. Gaseous radiation products are withdrawn and passed through a palladium barrier to recover tritium. (AEC)

  7. Tritium at Jefferson Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bane, Jason; Jefferson Lab Hall A Collaboration Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    Jefferson Lab's recently upgraded accelerator will provide the perfect opportunity to increase the quality and quantity of the electron scattering world data on tritium. Tritium, the radioactive isotope of hydrogen with a half-life of 12 years, was last used in a large scale electron scattering experiment a few decades ago. This Fall Jefferson Lab will play host to a set of very exciting electron scattering experiments involving tritium. A 25 cm aluminum cell will be filled with 1 kCi of tritium with an internal pressure of approximately 200 psi at 295 kelvin. The tritium target will first see a 10.6 GeV beam to probe the deep inelastic scattering region to study the down to up quark ratio and the EMC effect. Then the beam will be set to 4.3 GeV to investigate SRCs and momentum distributions in the quasi-elastic scattering regime. If time permits, elastic scattering will be used to extract the ratio of the charge radius of tritium and helium3.

  8. Tritium in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badyaev, V.V.; Egorov, Yu.A.; Sklyarov, V.P.; Stegachev, G.V.

    1981-01-01

    The problem of tritium formation during NPP operation is considered on the basis of available published data. Tritium characteristics are given, sources of the origin of natural and artificial tritium are described. NPP contribution to the total tritium amount in the environment is determined, as well as contribution of each process in the reactor to the quantity of tritium, produced at the NPP. Thermal- and fast-neutron reactions with tritium production are shown, their contribution to the total amount of tritium in a coolant is estimated, taking into account the type of reactor. Data on tritium content in NPP wastes and in the air of working premises are presented. Methods for sampling and sample preparation to measurements as well as the appropriate equipment are considered. Design of the gas-discharge counter of internal filling, used for measuring tritium activity in samples is described [ru

  9. Tritium Assay and Dispensing of KEPRI Tritium Lab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, S. H.; Song, K. M.; Lee, S. K.; Lee, K.W.; Ko, B. W.

    2009-01-01

    The Wolsong Tritium Removal Facility(WTRF) has been constructed to reduce tritium levels in the heavy water systems and environmental emissions at the site. The WTRF was designed to process 100 kg/h of heavy water with the overall tritium extraction efficiency of 97% per single pass and to produce ∼700 g of tritium as T2 per year at the feed concentration of 0.37 TBq/kg. The high purity tritium greater than 99% is immobilized as a metal hydride to secure its long term storage. The recovered tritium will be made available for industrial uses and some research applications in the future. Then KEPRI is constructing the tritium lab. to build-up infrastructure to support tritium research activities and to support tritium control and accountability systems for tritium export. This paper describes the initial phases of the tritium application program including the laboratory infrastructure to support the tritium related R and D activities and the tritium controls in Korea

  10. Hazards of exposure to tritium and tritium oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, R.C.; Kornberg, H.A.

    1954-01-01

    Experimental data pertinent to the evaluation of hazards involved in the exposure of personnel to tritium and tritium oxide are reviewed. Conclusions are drawn and recommendations made with regard to the control of these hazards.

  11. Tritium emissions reduction facility (TERF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamberger, P.H.; Hedley, W.H.

    1993-01-01

    Tritium handling operations at Mound include production of tritium-containing devices, evaluation of the stability of tritium devices, tritium recovery and enrichment, tritium process development, and research. In doing this work, gaseous process effluents containing 400,000 to 1,000,000 curies per year of tritium are generated. These gases must be decontaminated before they can be discharged to the atmosphere. They contain tritium as elemental hydrogen, as tritium oxide, and as tritium-containing organic compounds at low concentrations (typically near one ppm). The rate at which these gases is generated is highly variable. Some tritium-containing gas is generated at all times. The systems used at Mound for capturing tritium from process effluents have always been based on the open-quotes oxidize and dryclose quotes concept. They have had the ability to remove tritium, regardless of the form it was in. The current system, with a capacity of 1.0 cubic meter of gas per minute, can effectively remove tritium down to part-per-billion levels

  12. Tritium in the Channel; Le tritium en Manche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masson, M.; Fievet, B.; Bailly-Du-Bois, P. [Laboratoire de Radioecologie de Cherbourg-Octeville, IRSN /DEI /SECRE, 50 (France); Olivier, A.; Tenailleau, L. [Groupe d' Etudes Atomiques, EAMEA, 50 - Cherbourg (France)

    2009-07-01

    After having recalled that sea waters entering the Channel exhibit a natural concentration of tritium, the authors outline that spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plants are now the main sources of tritium for marine ecosystems as some oceanographic campaigns showed it. If data about the presence of tritium in water are numerous, data concerning the presence of tritiated water and of organically bound tritium in organisms are much less frequent. However, some surveys have been performed along the Channel French coasts

  13. Tritium Systems Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cafasso, F.A.; Maroni, V.A.; Smith, W.H.; Wilkes, W.R.; Wittenberg, L.J.

    1978-01-01

    This TSTF proposal has two principal objectives. The first objective is to provide by mid-FY 1981 a demonstration of the fuel cycle and tritium containment systems which could be used in a Tokamak Experimental Power Reactor for operation in the mid-1980's. The second objective is to provide a capability for further optimization of tritium fuel cycle and environmental control systems beyond that which is required for the EPR. The scale and flow rates in TSTF are close to those which have been projected for a prototype experimental power reactor (PEPR/ITR) and will permit reliable extrapolation to the conditions found in an EPR. The fuel concentrations will be the same as in an EPR. Demonstrations of individual components of the deuterium-tritium fuel cycle and of monitoring, accountability and containment systems and of a maintenance methodology will be achieved at various times in the FY 1979-80 time span. Subsequent to the individual component demonstrations--which will proceed from tests with hydrogen (and/or deuterium) through tracer levels of tritium to full operational concentrations--a complete test and demonstration of the integrated fuel processing and tritium containment facility will be performed. This will occur near the middle of FY 1981. Two options were considered for the TSTF: (1) The modification of an existing building and (2) the construction of a new facility

  14. Handling of tritium at TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, C.W.; Howe, H.J.; Yemin, L.; Lind, K.

    1977-01-01

    Some of the engineering approaches taken at TFTR for the tritium control systems are discussed as the requirements being placed on the tritium systems by the operating scenarios of the Tokamak. The tritium control systems presently being designed for TFTR will limit the annual release to the environment to less than 100 curies

  15. Tritium effluent removal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamberger, P.H.; Gibbs, G.E.

    1978-01-01

    An air detritiation system has been developed and is in routine use for removing tritium and tritiated compounds from glovebox effluent streams before they are released to the atmosphere. The system is also used, in combination with temporary enclosures, to contain and decontaminate airborne releases resulting from the opening of tritium containment systems during maintenance and repair operations. This detritiation system, which services all the tritium handling areas at Mound Facility, has played an important role in reducing effluents and maintaining them at 2 percent of the level of 8 y ago. The system has a capacity of 1.7 m 3 /min and has operated around the clock for several years. A refrigerated in-line filtration system removes water, mercury, or pump oil and other organics from gaseous waste streams. The filtered waste stream is then heated and passed through two different types of oxidizing beds; the resulting tritiated water is collected on molecular sieve dryer beds. Liquids obtained from regenerating the dryers and from the refrigerated filtration system are collected and transferred to a waste solidification and packaging station. Component redundancy and by-pass capabilities ensure uninterrupted system operation during maintenance. When processing capacity is exceeded, an evacuated storage tank of 45 m 3 is automatically opened to the inlet side of the system. The gaseous effluent from the system is monitored for tritium content and recycled or released directly to the stack. The average release is less than 1 Ci/day. The tritium effluent can be reduced by isotopically swamping the tritium; this is accomplished by adding hydrogen prior to the oxidizer beds, or by adding water to the stream between the two final dryer beds

  16. Development of tritium technology at the Tritium Systems Test Assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J.L.; Bartlit, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    The Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is dedicated to the development, demonstration, and interfacing of technologies related to the deuterium-tritium fuel cycle for large scale fusion reactor systems starting with the Fusion Engineering Device (FED) or the International Tokamak Reactor (INTOR). This paper briefly describes the fuel cycle and safety systems at TSTA including the Vacuum Facility, Fuel Cleanup, Isotope Separation, Transfer Pumping, Emergency Tritium Cleanup, Tritium Waste Treatment, Tritium Monitoring, Data Acquisition and Control, Emergency Power and Gas Analysis systems. Discussed in further detail is the experimental program proposed for the startup and testing of these systems

  17. Monitoring of tritium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, James A.; Meacham, Sterling A.

    1981-01-01

    The fluid from a breeder nuclear reactor, which may be the sodium cooling fluid or the helium reactor-cover-gas, or the helium coolant of a gas-cooled reactor passes over the portion of the enclosure of a gaseous discharge device which is permeable to hydrogen and its isotopes. The tritium diffused into the discharge device is radioactive producing beta rays which ionize the gas (argon) in the discharge device. The tritium is monitored by measuring the ionization current produced when the sodium phase and the gas phase of the hydrogen isotopes within the enclosure are in equilibrium.

  18. ARIES-I tritium system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sze, D.K.; Tam, S.W.; Billone, M.C.; Hassanein, A.M.; Martin, R.

    1990-09-01

    A key safety concern in a D-T fusion reactor is the tritium inventory. There are three components in a fusion reactor with potentially large inventories, i.e., the blanket, the fuel processing system and the plasma facing components. The ARIES team selected the material combinations, decided the operating conditions and refined the processing systems, with the aiming of minimizing the tritium inventories and leakage. The total tritium inventory for the ARIES-I reactor is only 700 g. This paper discussed the calculations and assumptions we made for the low tritium inventory. We also addressed the uncertainties about the tritium inventory. 13 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  19. Natural radionuclides in urine and feces samples and their importance for incorporation monitoring; Natuerliche Radionuklide in Urin- und Stuhlproben und deren Bedeutung in der Inkorporationsueberwachung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froning, Martina; Burow, Mechthild; Droop, Philipp; Laumen-Sentis, Sandra; Zoriy, Myroslav [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany)

    2017-08-01

    Incorporation monitoring is performed for personnel dealing with open radioactive materials if incorporation cannot be excluded. Besides occupational exposure everybody is exposed to natural radioactivity. For the interpretation of occupational incorporation or in case of a radiation accident it is necessary to know the diet related share of natural radioactivity.

  20. Tritium retention in TFTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dylla, H.F.; Wilson, K.L. (eds.)

    1988-04-01

    This report discusses the materials physics related to D-T operation in TFTR. Research activities are described pertaining to basic studies of hydrogenic retention in graphite, hydrogen recycling phenomena, first-wall and limiter conditioning, surface analysis of TFTR first-wall components, and estimates of the tritium inventory.

  1. Properties of tritium and its compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belovodskij, L.F.; Gaevoj, V.K.; Grishmanovskij, V.I.

    1985-01-01

    Ways of tritium preparation and different aspects of its application are considered. Physicochemical properties of this isotope and some compounds of it - tritium oxides, lithium, titanium, zirconium, uranium tritides, tritium organic compounds - are discussed. In particular, diffusion of tritium and its oxide through different materials, tritium oxidation processes, decomposition of tritium-containing compounds under the action of self-radiation are considered. Main radiobiological tritium properties are described

  2. Tritium in the aquatic environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaylock, B.G.; Hoffman, F.O.; Frank, M.L.

    1986-02-01

    Tritium is of environmental importance because it is released from nuclear facilities in relatively large quantities and because it has a half life of 12.26 y. Most of the tritium released into the atmosphere eventually reaches the aqueous environment, where it is rapidly taken up by aquatic organisms. This paper reviews the current literature on tritium in the aquatic environment. Conclusions from the review, which covered studies of algae, aquatic macrophytes, invertebrates, fish, and the food chain, were that aquatic organisms incorporate tritium into their tissue-free water very rapidly and reach concentrations near those of the external medium. The rate at which tritium from tritiated water is incorporated into the organic matter of cells is slower than the rate of its incorporation into the tissue-free water. If organisms consume tritiated food, incorporation of tritium into the organic matter is faster, and a higher tritium concentration is reached than when the organisms are exposed to only tritiated water alone. Incorporation of tritium bound to molecules into the organic matter depends on the chemical form of the ''carrier'' molecule. No evidence was found that biomagnification of tritium occurs at higher trophic levels. Radiation doses from tritium releases to large populations of humans will most likely come from the consumption of contaminated water rather than contaminated aquatic food products.

  3. Tritium in the aquatic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaylock, B.G.; Hoffman, F.O.; Frank, M.L.

    1986-02-01

    Tritium is of environmental importance because it is released from nuclear facilities in relatively large quantities and because it has a half life of 12.26 y. Most of the tritium released into the atmosphere eventually reaches the aqueous environment, where it is rapidly taken up by aquatic organisms. This paper reviews the current literature on tritium in the aquatic environment. Conclusions from the review, which covered studies of algae, aquatic macrophytes, invertebrates, fish, and the food chain, were that aquatic organisms incorporate tritium into their tissue-free water very rapidly and reach concentrations near those of the external medium. The rate at which tritium from tritiated water is incorporated into the organic matter of cells is slower than the rate of its incorporation into the tissue-free water. If organisms consume tritiated food, incorporation of tritium into the organic matter is faster, and a higher tritium concentration is reached than when the organisms are exposed to only tritiated water alone. Incorporation of tritium bound to molecules into the organic matter depends on the chemical form of the ''carrier'' molecule. No evidence was found that biomagnification of tritium occurs at higher trophic levels. Radiation doses from tritium releases to large populations of humans will most likely come from the consumption of contaminated water rather than contaminated aquatic food products

  4. Universal tritium transmitter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordaro, J. V.; Wood, M.

    2008-01-01

    At the Savannah River Site and throughout the National Nuclear Security Agency (NNSA) tritium is measured using Ion or Kanne Chambers. Tritium flowing through an Ion Chamber emits beta particles generating current flow proportional to tritium radioactivity. Currents in the 1 x 10 -15 A to 1 x 10 -6 A are measured. The distance between the Ion Chamber and the electrometer in NNSA facilities can be over 100 feet. Currents greater than a few micro-amperes can be measured with a simple modification. Typical operating voltages of 500 to 1000 Volts and piping designs require that the Ion Chamber be connected to earth ground. This grounding combined with long cable lengths and low currents requires a very specialized preamplifier circuit. In addition, the electrometer must be able to supply 'fail safe' alarm signals which are used to alert personnel of a tritium leak, trigger divert systems preventing tritium releases to the environment and monitor stack emissions as required by the United States federal Government and state governments. Ideally the electrometer would be 'self monitoring'. Self monitoring would reduce the need for constant checks by maintenance personnel. For example at some DOE facilities monthly calibration and alarm checks must be performed to ensure operation. NNSA presently uses commercially available electrometers designed specifically for this critical application. The problems with these commercial units include: ground loops, high background currents, inflexibility and susceptibility to Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) which includes RF and Magnetic fields. Existing commercial electrometers lack the flexibility to accommodate different Ion Chamber designs required by the gas pressure, type of gas and range. Ideally the electrometer could be programmed for any expected gas, range and high voltage output. Commercially available units do not have 'fail safe' self monitoring capability. Electronics used to measure extremely low current must have

  5. Environmental monitoring for tritium at tritium separation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varlam, C.; Stefanescu, I.; Steflea, D.; Lazar, R.E.

    2001-01-01

    The Cryogenic Pilot is an experimental project in the nuclear energy national research program, which has the aim of developing technologies for tritium and deuterium separation by cryogenic distillation. The experimental installation is located 15 km near the highest city of the area and 1 km near Olt River. An important chemical activity is developed in the area and the Experimental Cryogenic Pilot's, almost the entire neighborhood are chemical plants. It is necessary to emphasize this aspect because the sewerage system is connected with the other three chemical plants from the neighborhood. This is the reason that we progressively established elements of an environmental monitoring program well in advance of tritium operation in order to determine baseline levels. The first step was the tritium level monitoring in environmental water and waste water of industrial activity from neighborhood. In this work, a low background liquid scintillation is used to determine tritium activity concentration according to ISO 9698/1998. We measured drinking water, precipitation, river water, underground water and waste water. The tritium level was between 10 TU and 27 TU that indicates there is no source of tritium contamination in the neighborhood of Cryogenic Pilot. In order to determine baseline levels we decide to monitories monthly each location. In this paper a standard method is presented which it is used for tritium determination in water sample, the precautions needed in order to achieve reliable results, and the evolution of tritium level in different location near the Experimental Pilot Tritium and Deuterium Cryogenic Separation.(author)

  6. Evaluation of tritium release properties of advanced tritium breeders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshino, T. [Breeding Functional Materials Development Group, Department of Blanket Systems Research, JAEA, Rokkasho Fusion Institute, Omotedate, Rokkasho-mura (Japan); Ochiai, K. [Fusion Neutronics Group, Department of Blanket Systems Research, JAEA, Tokai-mura (Japan); Edao, Y.; Kawamura, Y. [Tritium Technology Group, Department of Blanket Systems Research, JAEA, Tokai-mura (Japan)

    2015-03-15

    Demonstration power plant (DEMO) fusion reactors require advanced tritium breeders with high thermal stability. Lithium titanate (Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3}) advanced tritium breeders with excess Li (Li{sub 2+x}TiO{sub 3+y}) are stable in a reducing atmosphere at high temperatures. Although the tritium release properties of tritium breeders are documented in databases for DEMO blanket design, no in situ examination under fusion neutron (DT neutron) irradiation has been performed. In this study, a preliminary examination of the tritium release properties of advanced tritium breeders was performed, and DT neutron irradiation experiments were performed at the fusion neutronics source (FNS) facility in JAEA. Considering the tritium release characteristics, the optimum grain size after sintering is <5 μm. From the results of the optimization of granulation conditions, prototype Li{sub 2+x}TiO{sub 3+y} pebbles with optimum grain size (<5 μm) were successfully fabricated. The Li{sub 2+x}TiO{sub 3+y} pebbles exhibited good tritium release properties similar to the Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} pebbles. In particular, the released amount of HT gas for easier tritium handling was higher than that of HTO water. (authors)

  7. Tritium concentration monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shono, Kosuke.

    1991-01-01

    A device for measuring the concentration of tritium in gaseous wastes in a power plant and a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant is reduced in the size and improved in performance. The device of the present invention pressurizes a sampling gas and cools it to a dew point. Water content in the sampling gas cooled to the dew point is condensated and recovered to a fine tube-like water content recovering container. The concentration of the recovered condensates is measured by a tritium density analyzer. With such procedures, since the specimen is pressurized, the dew point can be elevated. Accordingly, the size of the cooling device can be decreased, enabling to contribute to the reduction of the size of the entire device. Further, since the water content recovering device is formed as a fine tube, the area of contact between the specimen gas and the liquid condensated water can be reduced. Accordingly, evaporation of the liquid condensates can be prevented. (I.S.)

  8. Tritium monitoring : present status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rathnakaran, M.; Singh, A.N.

    1993-01-01

    The report summarizes the present status of techniques employed for the monitoring of tritium in water, air and other samples. A brief mention of the work done by numerous workers in the field, critical comments about the work and a fairly exhaustive list of references about the work done during the last 4 decades has been presented. On-line monitoring on real time basis in nuclear reactors is also discussed. (author). 83 refs., 10 refs., 2 tabs

  9. Effects of tritium in elastomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapp, P.E.

    1982-01-01

    Elastomers are used as flange gaskets in the piping system of the Savannah River Plant tritium facilities. A number of elastomers is being examined to identify those compounds more radiation-resistant than the currently specified Buna-N rubber and to study the mechanism of tritium radiation damage. Radiation resistance is evaluated by compression set tests on specimens exposed to about 1 atm tritium for several months. Initial results show that ethylene-propylene rubber and three fluoroelastomers are superior to Buna-N. Off-gassing measurements and autoradiography show that retained surface absorption of tritium varies by more than an order of magnitude among the different elastomer compounds. Therefore, tritium solubility and/or exchange may have a role in addition to that of chemical structure in the damage process. Ongoing studies of the mechanism of radiation damage include: (1) tritium absorption kinetics, (2) mass spectroscopy of radiolytic products, and (3) infrared spectroscopy

  10. Effects of tritium in elastomers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zapp, P.E.

    1982-01-01

    Elastomers are used as flange gaskets in the piping system of the Savannah River Plant tritium facilities. A number of elastomers is being examined to identify those compounds more radiation-resistant than the currently specified Buna-N rubber and to study the mechanism of tritium radiation damage. Radiation resistance is evaluated by compression set tests on specimens exposed to about 1 atm tritium for several months. Initial results show that ethylene-propylene rubber and three fluoroelastomers are superior to Buna-N. Off-gassing measurements and autoradiography show that retained surface absorption of tritium varies by more than an order of magnitude among the different elastomer compounds. Therefore, tritium solubility and/or exchange may have a role in addition to that of chemical structure in the damage process. Ongoing studies of the mechanism of radiation damage include: (1) tritium absorption kinetics, (2) mass spectroscopy of radiolytic products, and (3) infrared spectroscopy.

  11. Metabolism of organically bound tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travis, C.C.

    1984-01-01

    The classic methodology for estimating dose to man from environmental tritium ignores the fact that organically bound tritium in foodstuffs may be directly assimilated in the bound compartment of tissues without previous oxidation. We propose a four-compartment model consisting of a free body water compartment, two organic compartments, and a small, rapidly metabolizing compartment. The utility of this model lies in the ability to input organically bound tritium in foodstuffs directly into the organic compartments of the model. We found that organically bound tritium in foodstuffs can increase cumulative total body dose by a factor of 1.7 to 4.5 times the free body water dose alone, depending on the bound-to-loose ratio of tritium in the diet. Model predictions are compared with empirical measurements of tritium in human urine and tissue samples, and appear to be in close agreement. 10 references, 4 figures, 3 tables

  12. A prototype wearable tritium monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surette, R. A.; Dubeau, J.

    2008-01-01

    Sudden unexpected changes in tritium-in-air concentrations in workplace air can result in significant unplanned exposures. Although fixed area monitors are used to monitor areas where there is a potential for elevated tritium in air concentrations, they do not monitor personnel air space and may require some time for acute tritium releases to be detected. There is a need for a small instrument that will quickly alert staff of changing tritium hazards. A moderately sensitive tritium instrument that workers could wear would bring attention to any rise in tritium levels that were above predetermined limits and help in assessing the potential hazard therefore minimizing absorbed dose. Hand-held instruments currently available can be used but require the assistance of a fellow worker or restrict the user to using only one hand to perform some duties. (authors)

  13. Toxicity of tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobson, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    Among radionuclides of importance in atomic energy, 3 H has relatively low toxicity. The main health and environmental worry is the possibility that significant biological effects may follow from protracted exposure to low concentrations in water. To examine this possible hazard and measure toxicity at low tritium concentrations, chronic exposure studies were done on mice and monkeys. During vulnerable developmental periods animals were exposed to 3 HOH, and mice were exposed also to 60 Co gamma irradiation and energy-related chemical agents. The biological endpoint measured was the irreversible loss of female germ cells. Effects from tritium were observed at surprisingly low concentrations where 3 H was found more damaging than previously thought. Comparisons between tritium and gamma radiation showed the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) to be greater than 1 and to reach approximately 3 at very low exposures. For perspective, other comparisons were made: between radiation and chemical agents, which revealed parallels in action on germ cells, and between pre- and postnatal exposure, which warn of possible special hazard to the fetus from both classes of energy-related byproducts

  14. Tritium inventory tracking and management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichenberg, T.W.; Klein, A.C.

    1990-01-01

    This investigation has identified a number of useful applications of the analysis of the tracking and management of the tritium inventory in the various subsystems and components in a DT fusion reactor system. Due to the large amounts of tritium that will need to be circulated within such a plant, and the hazards of dealing with the tritium an electricity generating utility may not wish to also be in the tritium production and supply business on a full time basis. Possible scenarios for system operation have been presented, including options with zero net increase in tritium inventory, annual maintenance and blanket replacement, rapid increases in tritium creation for the production of additional tritium supplies for new plant startup, and failures in certain system components. It has been found that the value of the tritium breeding ratio required to stabilize the storage inventory depends strongly on the value and nature of other system characteristics. The real operation of a DT fusion reactor power plant will include maintenance and blanket replacement shutdowns which will affect the operation of the tritium handling system. It was also found that only modest increases in the tritium breeding ratio are needed in order to produce sufficient extra tritium for the startup of new reactors in less than two years. Thus, the continuous operation of a reactor system with a high tritium breeding ratio in order to have sufficient supplies for other plants is not necessary. Lastly, the overall operation and reliability of the power plant is greatly affected by failures in the fuel cleanup and plasma exhaust systems

  15. Tritium removal and retention device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyle, R.F.; Durigon, D.D.

    1980-01-01

    A device is provided for removing and retaining tritium from a gaseous medium, and also a method of manufacturing the device. The device, consists of an inner core of zirconium alloy, preferably Zircaloy-4, and an outer adherent layer of nickel which acts as a selective and protective window for passage of tritium. The tritium then reacts with or is absorbed by the zirconium alloy, and is retained until such time as it is desirable to remove it during reprocessing. (auth)

  16. An overview of tritium production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Kaihui; Huang Jinghua; Feng Kaiming

    2002-01-01

    The characteristics of three types of proposed tritium production facilities, fissile type, accelerator production tritium (APT), and fusion type, are presented. The fissile reactors, especially commercial light water reactor, use comparatively mature technology and are designed to meet current safety and environmental guidelines. Conversely, APT shows many advantages except its rather high cost, while fusion reactors appear to offer improved safety and environmental impact, in particular, tritium production based on the fusion-based neutron source. However, its cost keeps unknown

  17. Tritium monitor and collection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, G.L.; Meikrantz, D.H.; Ely, W.E.; Tuggle, D.G.; Grafwallner, E.G.; Wickham, K.L.; Maltrud, H.R.; Baker, J.D.

    1992-01-14

    This system measures tritium on-line and collects tritium from a flowing inert gas stream. It separates the tritium from other non-hydrogen isotope contaminating gases, whether radioactive or not. The collecting portion of the system is constructed of various zirconium alloys called getters. These alloys adsorb tritium in any of its forms at one temperature and at a higher temperature release it as a gas. The system consists of four on-line getters and heaters, two ion chamber detectors, two collection getters, and two guard getters. When the incoming gas stream is valved through the on-line getters, 99.9% of it is adsorbed and the remainder continues to the guard getter where traces of tritium not collected earlier are adsorbed. The inert gas stream then exits the system to the decay chamber. Once the on-line getter has collected tritium for a predetermined time, it is valved off and the next on-line getter is valved on. Simultaneously, the first getter is heated and a pure helium purge is employed to carry the tritium from the getter. The tritium loaded gas stream is then routed through an ion chamber which measures the tritium activity. The ion chamber effluent passes through a collection getter that readsorbs the tritium and is removable from the system once it is loaded and is then replaced with a clean getter. Prior to removal of the collection getter, the system switches to a parallel collection getter. The effluent from the collection getter passes through a guard getter to remove traces of tritium prior to exiting the system. The tritium loaded collection getter, once removed, is analyzed by liquid scintillation techniques. The entire sequence is under computer control except for the removal and analysis of the collection getter. 7 figs.

  18. Tritium-assisted fusion breeders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenspan, E.; Miley, G.H.

    1983-08-01

    This report undertakes a preliminary assessment of the prospects of tritium-assisted D-D fuel cycle fusion breeders. Two well documented fusion power reactor designs - the STARFIRE (D-T fuel cycle) and the WILDCAT (Cat-D fuel cycle) tokamaks - are converted into fusion breeders by replacing the fusion electric blankets with 233 U producing fission suppressed blankets; changing the Cat-D fuel cycle mode of operation by one of the several tritium-assisted D-D-based modes of operation considered; adjusting the reactor power level; and modifying the resulting plant cost to account for the design changes. Three sources of tritium are considered for assisting the D-D fuel cycle: tritium produced in the blankets from lithium or from 3 He and tritium produced in the client fission reactors. The D-D-based fusion breeders using tritium assistance are found to be the most promising economically, especially the Tritium Catalyzed Deuterium mode of operation in which the 3 He exhausted from the plasma is converted, by neutron capture in the blanket, into tritium which is in turn fed back to the plasma. The number of fission reactors of equal thermal power supported by Tritium Catalyzed Deuterium fusion breeders is about 50% higher than that of D-T fusion breeders, and the profitability is found to be slightly lower than that of the D-T fusion breeders

  19. Tritium removal and retention device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The patent discloses an apparatus comprising a two-layered composite with an internal core of zirconium or zirconium alloy which retains tritium, and an adherent nickel outer layer which acts as a protective and selective window for passage of the tritium. The invention provides a device to remove and store tritium from a gaseous medium as well as a method for manufacturing the device. It specifically provides a device which may be incorporated in the fuel rod of a nuclear reactor to minimize release of tritium to the reactor coolant

  20. Overview of tritium fast-fission yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanner, J.E.

    1981-03-01

    Tritium production rates are very important to the development of fast reactors because tritium may be produced at a greater rate in fast reactors than in light water reactors. This report focuses on tritium production and does not evaluate the transport and eventual release of the tritium in a fast reactor system. However, if an order-of-magnitude increase in fast fission yields for tritium is confirmed, fission will become the dominant production source of tritium in fast reactors

  1. Gestalttheorie in der Psychotherapie

    OpenAIRE

    Kästl, Rainer; Stemberger, Gerhard

    2005-01-01

    Der vorliegende Beitrag gliedert sich in zwei Abschnitte. Der erste stellt eine Spurensuche zur Geschichte der Anwendung der Gestalttheorie auf das psychotherapeutische Arbeitsfeld ohne Anspruch auf Vollständigkeit dar. Im zweiten Abschnitt werden einige metatheoretische Grundkonzepte der Gestalttheoretischen Psychotherapie vorgestellt, einem von H.-J. P. Walter begründeten, auf der Gestalttheorie der Berliner Schule aufbauenden psychotherapeutischen Ansatz, der während der letzten 30 Jahre i...

  2. JET experiments with tritium and deuterium–tritium mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horton, L.; Batistoni, P.; Boyer, H.; Challis, C.; Ciric, D.; Donne, A. J. H.; Eriksson, L. G.; Garcia, J.; Garzotti, L.; Gee, S.; Hobirk, J.; Joffrin, E.; Jones, T.; King, D. B.; Knipe, S.; Litaudon, X.; Matthews, G. F.; Monakhov, I.; Murari, A.; Nunes, I.; Riccardo, V.; Sips, A. C. C.; Warren, R.; Weisen, H.; Zastrow, K. D.

    2016-01-01

    Extensive preparations are now underway for an experiment in the Joint European Torus (JET) using tritium and deuterium–tritium mixtures. The goals of this experiment are described as well as the progress that has been made in developing plasma operational scenarios and physics reference pulses for

  3. Tritium contaminated waste management at the tritium systems test assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalbert, R.A.; Carlson, R.V.

    1987-01-01

    The Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) at Los Alamos continues to move toward full operation of an integrated, full-sized, computer-controlled fusion fuel processing loop. Concurrent nonloop experiments further the development of advanced tritium technologies and handling methods. Since tritium operations began in June 1984, tritium contaminated wastes have been produced at TSTA that are roughly typical in kind and amount of those to be produced by tritium fueling operations at fusion reactors. Methods of managing these wastes are described, including information on some methods of decontamination so that equipment can be reused. Data are given on the kinds and amounts of wastes and the general level of contamination. Also included are data on environmental emissions and doses to personnel that have resulted from TSTA operations. Particular problems in waste managements are discussed

  4. Tritium transport and control in the FED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, M.L.

    1981-01-01

    The tritium systems for the FED have three primary purposes. The first is to provide tritium and deuterium fuel for the reactor. This fuel can be new tritium or deuterium delivered to the plant site, or recycled DT from the reactor that must be processed before it can be recycled. The second purpose of the FED tritium systems is to provide state-of-the-art tritium handling to limit worker radiation exposure and to minimize tritium losses to the environment. The final major objective of the FED tritium systems is to provide an integrated system test of the tritium handling technology necessary to support the fusion reactor program. Every effort is being made to incorporate available information from the Tritium System Test Assembly (TSTA) at Los Alamos National Laboratory, the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) tritium systems, and the tritium handling information generated within DOE for the past 20 years

  5. Ontario Hydro diversifies into tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    A report is given on a plant which is to be built at the Darlington Candu reactor site in Canada for the extraction of tritium from heavy water. As tritium is used as a fuel in fusion research the market for it is expected to grow. The design of the system is outlined with the help of a flow diagram. (U.K.)

  6. The tritium operations experience on TFTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    von Halle, A.; Gentile, C. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.; Anderson, J.L. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) tritium gas system is administratively limited to 5 grains of tritium and provides the feedstock gas for the neutral beam and torus injection systems. Tritium operations on TFTR began with leak checking of gas handling systems, qualification of the gas injection systems, and high power plasma operations using using trace amounts of tritium in deuterium feedstock gas. Full tritium operation commenced with four highly diagnosed neutral beam pulses into a beamline calorimeter to verify planned tritium beam operating routines and to demonstrate the deuterium to tritium beam isotope exchange. Since that time, TFTR has successfully operated each of the twelve neutral beam ion sources in tritium during hundreds of tritium beam pulses and torus gas injections. This paper describes- the TFTR tritium gas handling systems and TFTR tritium operations of the gas injection systems and the neutral beam ion sources. Tritium accounting and accountability is discussed, including tritium retention issues of the torus limiters and beam impinged surfaces of the beamline components. Also included is tritium beam velocity analysis that compares the neutral beam extracted ion species composition for deuterium and tritium and that determines the extent of beam isotope exchange on subsequent deuterium and tritium beam pulses. The required modifications to TFTR operating routines to meet the US Department of Energy regulations for a low hazard nuclear facility and the problems encountered during initial tritium operations are described.

  7. Tritium practices past and present

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gede, V.P.; Gildea, P.D.

    1980-01-01

    History of the production and use of tritium, as well as handling techniques, are reviewed. Handling techniques first used at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory made use of glass vacuum systems and relatively crude ion chambers for monitoring airborne activity. The first use of inert atmosphere glove boxes demonstrated that uptake through the skin could be a serious personnel exposure problem. Growing environmental concerns in the early 1970's resulted in the implementation by the Atomic Energy Commission of a new criteria to limit atmospheric tritium releases to levels as low as practicable. An important result of the new criteria was the development of containment and recovery systems to capture tritium rather than vent it to the atmosphere. The Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, Tritium Research Laboratory containment and decontamination systems are presented as a typical example of this technology. The application of computers to control systems is expected to provide the greatest potential for change in future tritium handling practices

  8. Tritium behaviour in higher plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenot, J.

    1984-05-01

    Vine grapes and potato seedlings have been exposed in situ to tritiated water vapor and 14 C labeled carbon dioxide. Leaves sampling was done during and after the exposition. Measurements allowed to distinguish the three forms of tritium in leaves, i.e. tissue free water tritium (TFWT) and organically bound tritium (OBT), in exchangeable position or not. The results lead to a description of the dynamical behaviour of tritium between these three compartments. It has been shown that 20% of organically bound hydrogen is readily exchangeable thus being in permanent isotopic equilibium with tissue free water. Moreover, the activity of nonexchangeable OBT appears to be strongly related to the organic 14 C, which shows that photosynthesis is responsible of tritium incorporation in organic nonexchangeable position, and occurs with a 20% discrimination in favor of protium. In contrast with the other two compartments, this fixation is almost irreversible, which is a fact of importance from a radiological point of view [fr

  9. Tritium metabolism in rat tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, H.

    1982-01-01

    As part of a series of studies designed to evaluate the relative radiotoxicity of various tritiated compounds, metabolism of tritium in rat tissues was studied after administration of tritiated water, leucine, thymidine, and glucose. The distribution and retention of tritium varied widely, depending on the chemical compound administered. Tritium introduced as tritiated water behaved essentially as body water and became uniformly distributed among the tissues. However, tritium administered as organic compounds resulted in relatively high incorporation into tissue constituents other than water, and its distribution differed among the various tissues. Moreover, the excretion rate of tritium from tissues was slower for tritiated organic compounds than for tritiated water. Administrationof tritiated organic compounds results in higher radiation doses to the tissues than does administration of tritiated water. Among the tritiated compounds examined, for equal radioactivity administered, leucine gave the highest radiation dose, followed in turn by thymidine, glucose, and water. (author)

  10. Der Heilige Geist und die Realisierung des Glaubens in der ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    29. Juli 2016 ... Erörtert wird der Gottesgeist in der Trinitätslehre, der Lehre von der Heilszueignung. (Soteriologie) und der von der Ekklesiologie, aber auch in der Schriftlehre sowie der Eschatologie und der Lehre von der Schöpfung. Als eine eigenständige dogmatische Lehre ist die. Pneumatologie nicht ausgearbeitet ...

  11. Gesellschaftlicher Wandel und der Umbau der Jugendhilfe

    OpenAIRE

    Plankensteiner, Annette

    2013-01-01

    Gesellschaftlicher Wandel und der Umbau der Jugendhilfe. - In: Flexible Erziehungshilfen : Grundlagen und Praxis des "Augsburger Weges" zur Modernisierung der Jugendhilfe / Annette Plankensteiner ... (Hrsg.). - Weinheim u.a. : Beltz Juventa, 2013. - S. 14-32

  12. Tritium-surface interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkaldy, J.S.

    1983-06-01

    The report deals broadly with tritium-surface interactions as they relate to a fusion power reactor enterprise, viz., the vacuum chamber, first wall, peripherals, pumping, fuel recycling, isotope separation, repair and maintenance, decontamination and safety. The main emphasis is on plasma-surface interactions and the selection of materials for fusion chamber duty. A comprehensive review of the international (particularly U.S.) research and development is presented based upon a literature review (about 1 000 reports and papers) and upon visits to key laboratories, Sandia, Albuquerque, Sandia, Livermore and EGβG Idaho. An inventory of Canadian expertise and facilities for RβD on tritium-surface interactions is also presented. A number of proposals are made for the direction of an optimal Canadian RβD program, emphasizing the importance of building on strength in both the technological and fundamental areas. A compendium of specific projects and project areas is presented dealing primarily with plasma-wall interactions and permeation, anti-permeation materials and surfaces and health, safety and environmental considerations. Potential areas of industrial spinoff are identified

  13. Tritium-fueled betacells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walko, R.J.; Lincoln, R.C.; Baca, W.E.; Goods, S.H.; Negley, G.H.

    1991-01-01

    Betavoltaic power sources operate by converting the nuclear decay energy of beta-emitting radioisotopes into electricity. Since they are not chemically driven, they could operate at temperatures which would either be too hot or too cold for typical chemical batteries. Further, for long lived isotopes, they offer the possibility of multi-decade active lifetimes. In this paper two approaches are investigated: direct and indirect conversion. Direct conversion cells consist of semiconductor diodes similar to photovoltaic cells. Beta particles directly bombard these cells, generating electron-hole pairs in the semiconductor which are converted to useful power. When using low power flux beta emitters, wide bandgap semiconductors are required to achieve useful power. When using low power flux beta emitters, wide bandgap semiconductors are required to achieve useful conversion efficiencies. The combination of tritium, as the beta emitter, and gallium phosphide (GaP), as the semiconductor converter, was evaluated. Indirect conversion betacells first convert the beta energy to light with a phosphor, and then to electricity with photovoltaic cells. An indirect conversion power source using a tritium radioluminescent (RL) light is being investigated. The authors analysis indicates that this approach has the potential for significant volume and cost savings over the direct conversion method

  14. Overview of the tritium system of Ignitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizzello, C.; Tosti, S.

    2008-01-01

    Among the recent design activities of the Ignitor program, the analysis of the tritium system has been carried out with the aim to describe the main equipments and the operations needed for supplying the deuterium-tritium mixtures and recovering the plasma exhaust. In fact, the tritium system of Ignitor provides for injecting deuterium-tritium mixtures into the vacuum chamber in order to sustain the fusion reaction: furthermore, it generally manages and controls the tritium and the tritiated materials of the machine fuel cycle. Main functions consist of tritium storage and delivery, tritium injection, tritium recovery from plasma exhaust, treatment of the tritiated wastes, detritiation of the contaminated atmospheres, tritium analysis and accountability. In this work an analysis of the designed tritium system of Ignitor is summarized

  15. Tritium handling experience at TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J.L.; Gentile, C.; Hosea, J.

    1994-01-01

    In December 1993 the high power D-T experimental program on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) began. The transit the TFTR from a DOE general use facility to a low hazard category III nuclear facility has been completed successfully. The low hazard nuclear facility designation that the allowable on-site tritium inventory not exceed 50,000 Curies (1 Ci = 37 GBq). This is a TFTR Technical Safety Requirement. Tritium sealed in approved shipping containers does riot count against this inventory limit A second Technical Safety Requirement at TFTR is to have no more than 25,000 Ci at risk in a single location. From December, 1993 through mid-August, 1994 about 20 grams of tritium have been used in two gas injector assemblies and twelve neutral beam tritium injectors. The gas injected into TFTR vacuum is pumped by helium cryo-panels in the four neutral beam boxes. During non-operating periods the cryo-panels are warmed and the hydrogen am released and pumped into gas holding tanks in the tritium area. Gas in the holding tanks is oxidized in the Torus Cleanup System (TCS) and the hydrogen isotopes are collected, as water, on disposable molecular sieve beds (DMSB). These beds are then removed from the system and shipped off-site for tritium recovery or for long-term storage. Several problems in the tritium cleanup systems have occurred following a leak of sulfur hexafluoride (SF 6 ) from a neutral hewn high voltage enclosure ion source and subsequent pumping to the gas holding tanks. These problems included failure of several-moisture sensors, false readings on tritium monitors and, partial loss of catalytic activity in the TCS recombiner. Procedures for dealing with and removing this contaminant gas had to be developed and implemented. The results from this occurrence provide valuable guidance for future tritium burning fusion machines

  16. Tritium, biography of an element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, C.

    1980-01-01

    Tritium is the lightest radioactive atom, an isotope of hydrogen. In science it has many uses, particularly for marking organic molecules in order to find out about biochemical and medical processes. But also the traces of tritium contained in rain or sea water are used for investigations; they range from establishing the vintage of old wines to ascertaining sea water mixtures. Tritium will become important in large-scale technology if it should become possible to construct fusion reactors, since it is one of the fuels. (orig.) [de

  17. The organically bound tritium: an analyst vision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansoborlo, E.; Baglan, N.

    2009-01-01

    The authors report the work of a work group on tritium analysis. They recall the different physical forms of tritium: gas (HT, hydrogen-tritium), water vapour (HTO or tritiated water) or methane (CH3T), but also in organic compounds (OBT, organically bound tritium) which are either exchangeable or non-exchangeable. They evoke measurement techniques and methods, notably to determine the tritium volume activity. They discuss the possibilities to analyse and distinguish exchangeable and non-exchangeable OBTs

  18. Tritium containment of controlled thermonuclear fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Yoshihisa; Tsukumo, Kiyohiko; Suzuki, Tatsushi

    1979-01-01

    It is well known that tritium is used as the fuel for nuclear fusion reactors. The neutrons produced by the nuclear fusion reaction of deuterium and tritium react with lithium in blankets, and tritium is produced. The blankets reproduce the tritium consumed in the D-T reaction. Tritium circulates through the main cooling system and the fuel supply and evacuation system, and is accumulated. Tritium is a radioactive substance emitting β-ray with 12.6 year half-life, and harmful to human bodies. It is an isotope of hydrogen, and apt to diffuse and leak. Especially at high temperature, it permeates through materials, therefore it is important to evaluate the release of tritium into environment, to treat leaked tritium to reduce its release, and to select the method of containing tritium. The permeability of tritium and its solubility in structural materials are discussed. The typical blanket-cooling systems of nuclear fusion reactors are shown, and the tungsten coating of steam generator tubes and tritium recovery system are adopted for reducing tritium leak. In case of the Tokamak type reactor of JAERI, the tritium recovery system is installed, in which the tritium gas produced in blankets is converted to tritium steam with a Pd-Pt catalytic oxidation tower, and it is dehydrated and eliminated with a molecular sieve tower, then purified and recovered. (Kako, I.)

  19. Epidemiologie der Osteoporose in der Tschechischen Republik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stepan JJ

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Die tschechische Population ist zahlenmäßig langfristig stabil,die Altersstruktur der Bevölkerung jedoch ändert sich bedeutend.Zwischen 1960 und 2000 ist die Anzahl der Krankenhausaufenthalte wegen Hüftfrakturen um fast das Zwanzigfache gestiegen. Durch das Altern der Population kann man bis zu 80%der erhöhten Inzidenz von Hüftfrakturen in der CR erklären.Eine zusätzliche Ursache kann der sich ändernde Lebensstil sein,insbesondere die körperliche Aktivität. Im Jahre 1997 betrug die Prävalenz der Osteoporose im Alter über 50 Jahre bei Männern 14,8% und bei Frauen 32,9 %, war aber im Alter über 75 Jahre bei Frauen sowie bei Männern sehr ähnlich. Bei Männern steigt die spezifische Inzidenz von Frakturen des proximalen Femurs exponentiell mit dem Alter, parallel mit der steigenden Prävalenz von Osteoporose. Bei Frauen dagegen korreliert der Anstieg der Inzidenz von Frakturen mit dem linearen Anstieg der Prävalenz von Osteoporose nur im Alter von 70-74 Jahren. Bei Frauen im Alter über 75 Jahre kann die Inzidenz von Frakturen nicht nur aufgrund der Prävalenz der Osteoporose,sondern auch in Folge der früher erlittenen Frakturen und der Frequenz der Stürze erklärt werden.

  20. TFTR tritium inventory accountability system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saville, C.; Ascione, G.; Elwood, S.; Nagy, A.; Raftopoulos, S.; Rossmassler, R.; Stencel, J.; Voorhees, D.; Tilson, C.

    1995-01-01

    This paper discusses the program, PPPL (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory) Material Control and Accountability Plan, that has been implemented to track US Department of Energy's tritium and all other accountable source material. Specifically, this paper details the methods used to measure tritium in various systems at the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor; resolve inventory differences; perform inventory by difference inside the Tokamak; process and measure plasma exhaust and other effluent gas streams; process, measure and ship scrap or waste tritium on molecular sieve beds; and detail organizational structure of the Material Control and Accountability group. In addition, this paper describes a Unix-based computerized software system developed at PPPL to account for all tritium movements throughout the facility. 5 refs., 2 figs

  1. Tritium management for fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouyer, J.L.; Djerassi, H.

    1985-01-01

    To determine a waste management strategy, one has to identify first the wastes (quantities, activities, etc.), then to define options, and to compare these options by appropriate criteria and evaluations. Two European Associations are working together, i.e., Studsvik and CEA, on waste treatment and tritium problems. A contribution to fusion specific tritiated waste management strategy is presented. It is demonstrated that the best strategy is to retain tritium (outgas and recover, or immobilize it) so that residual tritium releases are kept to a minimum. For that, wastes are identified, actual regulations are described and judged inadequate without amendments for fusion problems. Appropriate criteria are defined. Options for treatment and disposal of tritiated wastes are proposed and evaluated. A tritium recovery solution is described

  2. Radiotoxicity of tritium in mammals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silini, G.; Metalli, P.; Vulpis, G.

    1972-12-01

    Basic data relative to tritium, its physicochemical behaviour in environment, its major sources of contamination and its metabolism through the mammalian organisms are reviewed. After considering the radiotoxicity of tritium particularly at the cellular and whole-body level the conclusion is drawn that the major uncertainties regard the fraction of tritium incorporated into the nuclei of some tissues. This fraction is eliminated very slowly and is capable of modifying the genetic structures of the nucleus. A more refined analysis of radiobiological phenomena and a better knowledge of the dose effect relationship should permit the extrapolation of the data to the low doses of tritium contamination. This extrapolation is of great interest in the field of public health for the elaboration of the relevant radioprotection standards

  3. TFTR tritium inventory accountability system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saville, C.; Ascione, G.; Elwood, S.; Nagy, A.; Raftopoulos, S.; Rossmassler, R.; Stencel, J.; Voorhees, D.; Tilson, C. [Plasma Physics Lab., Princeton, NJ (United States)

    1995-10-01

    This paper discusses the program, PPPL (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory) Material Control and Accountability Plan, that has been implemented to track US Department of Energy`s tritium and all other accountable source material. Specifically, this paper details the methods used to measure tritium in various systems at the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor; resolve inventory differences; perform inventory by difference inside the Tokamak; process and measure plasma exhaust and other effluent gas streams; process, measure and ship scrap or waste tritium on molecular sieve beds; and detail organizational structure of the Material Control and Accountability group. In addition, this paper describes a Unix-based computerized software system developed at PPPL to account for all tritium movements throughout the facility. 5 refs., 2 figs.

  4. Tritium transport around nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, C.E. Jr.; Sweet, C.W.

    1981-01-01

    The transport and cycling of tritium around nuclear facilities is reviewed with special emphasis on studies at the Savannah River Laboratory, Aiken, South Carolina. These studies have shown that the rate of deposition from the atmosphere, the site of deposition, and the subsequent cycling are strongly influenced by the compound with which the tritium is associated. Tritiated hydrogen is largely deposited in the soil, while tritiated water is deposited in the greatest quantity in the vegetation. Tritiated hydrogen is converted in the soil to tritiated water that leaves the soil slowly, through drainage and transpiration. Tritiated water deposited directly to the vegetation leaves the vegetation more rapidly after exposure. Only a small part of the tritium entering the vegetation becomes bound in organic molecules. However, it appears tht the existence of soil organic compounds with tritium concentrations greater than the equilibrium concentration in the associated water can be explained by direct metabolism of tritiated hydrogen in vegetation

  5. Tritium in fusion reactor components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, J.S.; Fisher, P.W.; Talbot, J.B.

    1980-01-01

    When tritium is used in a fusion energy experiment or reactor, several implications affect and usually restrict the design and operation of the system and involve questions of containment, inventory, and radiation damage. Containment is expected to be particularly important both for high-temperature components and for those components that are prone to require frequent maintenance. Inventory is currently of major significance in cases where safety and environmental considerations limit the experiments to very low levels of tritium. Fewer inventory restrictions are expected as fusion experiments are placed in more-remote locations and as the fusion community gains experience with the use of tritium. However, the advent of power-producing experiments with high-duty cycle will again lead to serious difficulties based principally on tritium availability; cyclic operations with significant regeneration times are the principal problems

  6. Design and test about de tritium system to filling tritium glove box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei, Jiarong; Du, Yang; Yang, Yong

    2008-01-01

    In order to deal tritium permeated from inflating tritium system at the scene of inflating tritium, dealing waste tritium gas system was designed according to demand and action of dealing waste tritium gas from inflating tritium, and the data of character and volume about appliance of catalyst reaction and drying agent was calculated. Through the test at the scene of inflating tritium, it is result that dealing waste tritium gas system's efficiency reaches above 85% average in circulatory system, so that it can be used in practice extensively. (author)

  7. Tritium control and accountability instructions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wall, W.R.

    1981-03-01

    This instruction describes the tritium accountability procedures practiced by the Tritium Research Laboratory, Building 968 at Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore. The accountability procedures are based upon the Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, Nuclear Materials Operations Manual, SAND78-8018. The Nuclear Materials Operations Manual describes accountability techniques which are in compliance with the Department of Energy Manual, Code of Federal Regulations, and Sandia National Laboratories Instructions

  8. Tritium control and accountability instructions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wall, W.R.; Cruz, S.L.

    1985-08-01

    This instruction describes the tritium accountability procedures practiced by the Tritium Research Laboratory, at Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore. The accountability procedures are based upon the Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, Nuclear Materials Operations Manual, SAND83-8036. The Nuclear Materials Operations Manual describes accountability techniques which are in compliance with the Department of Energy 5630 series Orders, Code of Federal Regulations, and Sandia National Laboratories Instructions

  9. Tritium pellet injector for TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouge, M.J.; Baylor, L.R.; Cole, M.J.; Combs, S.K.; Dyer, G.R.; Fehling, D.T.; Fisher, P.W.; Foust, C.R.; Langley, R.A.; Milora, S.L.; Qualls, A.L.; Wilgen, J.B.; Schmidt, G.L.; Barnes, G.W.; Persing, R.G.

    1992-01-01

    The tritium pellet injector (TPI) for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) will provide a tritium pellet fueling capability with pellet speeds in the 1- to 3-km/s range for the TFTR deuterium-tritium (D-T) phase. The existing TFTR deuterium pellet injector (DPI) has been modified at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to provide a four-shot, tritium-compatible, pipe-gun configuration with three upgraded single-stage pneumatic guns and a two-stage light gas gun driver. The TPI was designed to provide pellets ranging from 3.3 to 4.5 mm in diameter in arbitrarily programmable firing sequences at speeds up to approximately 1.5 km/s for the three single-stage drivers and 2.5 to 3 km/s for the two-stage driver. Injector operation is controlled by a programmable logic controller. The new pipe-gun injector assembly was installed in the modified DPI guard vacuum box, and modifications were made to the internals of the DPI vacuum injection line, including a new pellet diagnostics package. Assembly of these modified parts with existing DPI components was then completed, and the TPI was tested at ORNL with deuterium pellet. Results of the limited testing program at ORNL are described. The TPI is being installed on TFTR to support the D-D run period in 1992. In 1993, the tritium pellet injector will be retrofitted with a D-T fuel manifold and secondary tritium containment systems and integrated into TFTR tritium processing systems to provide full tritium pellet capability

  10. Tritium research activities in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Ki Jung, E-mail: kjjung@nfri.re.kr [National Fusion Research Institute, Yusung-gu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Sei-Hun, E-mail: shyun@nfri.re.kr [National Fusion Research Institute, Yusung-gu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Min Ho; Kang, Hyun-Goo; Chung, Dongyou; Cho, Seungyon; Lee, Hyeon Gon [National Fusion Research Institute, Yusung-gu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Hongsuk; Choi, Woo-Seok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Yusung-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Kyu-Min; Moon, Chang-Bae [Korea Hydro & Nuclear Power Central Research Institute, Yusung-gu, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Euy Soo [Dongguk University, Jung-gu, Seoul, 100-715 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Jungho; Kim, Dong-Sun [Kongju National University, Cheonan, Chungnam, 330-717 (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Hung-Man [Daesung Industrial Gases Co., Ltd., Danwon-gu, Ansan-si, Gyeonggi-do, 425-090 (Korea, Republic of); Noh, Seung Jeong [Dankook University, Suji-gu, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do, 448-701 (Korea, Republic of); Ju, Hyunchul [Inha University, Nam-gu, Incheon, 402-751 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Tae-Whan [Korea National University of Transportation, Chungju, Chungbuk, 380-702 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • NFRI, KAERI and KHNP CRI are major leading group for the ITER tritium SDS design; studying engineering, simulation of hydride bed, risk analysis (on safety, HAZOP), basic study, control logic & sequential operation, and others. KHNP has WTRF which gives favorable experiences for collaboration researchers. • Supplementary research partners: Five Universities (Dongguk University and POSTECH, Inha University, Dankook University, Korea National Transport University, and Kongju National University) and one industrial company (Daesung Industrial Gases Co., Ltd.); studying on basic and engineering, programming & simulation on the various topics for ITER tritium SDS, TEP, ISS, ADS, and etc. - Abstract: Major progress in tritium research in the Republic of Korea began when Korea became responsible for ITER tritium Storage and Delivery System (SDS) procurement package which is part of the ITER Fuel Cycle. To deliver the tritium SDS package, a variety of research institutes, universities and industry have respectively taken roles and responsibilities in developing technologies that have led to significant progress. This paper presents the current work and status of tritium related technological research and development (R&D) in Korea and introduces future R&D plans in the area of fuel cycle systems for fusion power generation.

  11. Separation of Tritium from Wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JEPPSON, D.W.

    2000-01-01

    A proprietary tritium loading bed developed by Molecular Separations, Inc (MSI) has been shown to selectively load tritiated water as waters of hydration at near ambient temperatures. Tests conducted with a 126 (micro)C 1 tritium/liter water standard mixture showed reductions to 25 (micro)C 1 /L utilizing two, 2-meter long columns in series. Demonstration tests with Hanford Site wastewater samples indicate an approximate tritium concentration reduction from 0.3 (micro)C 1 /L to 0.07 (micro)C 1 /L for a series of two, 2-meter long stationary column beds Further reduction to less than 0.02 (micro)C 1 /L, the current drinking water maximum contaminant level (MCL), is projected with additional bed media in series. Tritium can be removed from the loaded beds with a modest temperature increase and the beds can be reused Results of initial tests are presented and a moving bed process for treating large quantities of wastewaters is proposed. The moving bed separation process appears promising to treat existing large quantities of wastewater at various US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The enriched tritium stream can be grouted for waste disposition. The separations system has also been shown to reduce tritium concentrations in nuclear reactor cooling water to levels that allow reuse. Energy requirements to reconstitute the loading beds and waste disposal costs for this process appear modest

  12. Primer on tritium safe handling practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-01

    This Primer is designed for use by operations and maintenance personnel to improve their knowledge of tritium safe handling practices. It is applicable to many job classifications and can be used as a reference for classroom work or for self-study. It is presented in general terms for use throughout the DOE Complex. After reading it, one should be able to: describe methods of measuring airborne tritium concentration; list types of protective clothing effective against tritium uptake from surface and airborne contamination; name two methods of reducing the body dose after a tritium uptake; describe the most common method for determining amount of tritium uptake in the body; describe steps to take following an accidental release of airborne tritium; describe the damage to metals that results from absorption of tritium; explain how washing hands or showering in cold water helps reduce tritium uptake; and describe how tritium exchanges with normal hydrogen in water and hydrocarbons.

  13. Applications of tritium in industry and research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, T.S.; Iyengar, T.S.

    1990-01-01

    As a naturally occuring isotope and as an injected tracer tritium has been found to be useful in meteorology, cosmology, geohydrology, biology, agriculture, and medical sciences both in aqueous and organic forms. In selfluminous compounds, paints and plastics the radioisotopic power of tritium (0.26 w/g) is found to be useful. Several biochemically significant tritium labelled compounds have been produced for use in industry and research. Tritium loaded consumer products are extensively used all over the world. In gas chromatographs and for neutron research tritium targets are found to be useful. This review summarises the various aspects of tritium as a tracer. (author). 7 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig

  14. Balance of natural radionuclides in the brown coal based power generation and harmlessness of the residues and side product utilization; Bilanz natuerlicher Radionuklide in der Braunkohleverstromung und Unbedenklichkeit bei der Verwendung von Rueckstaenden und Nebenprodukten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, Hartmut; Kunze, Christian; Hummrich, Holger [IAF-Radiooekologie GmbH, Radeberg (Germany)

    2017-04-01

    During brown coal combustion a partial enrichment of natural radionuclides occurs in different residues. Residues and side product from brown coal based power generation are used in different ways, for example filter ashes and gypsum from flue gas desulfurization facilities are used in the construction materials fabrication and slags for road construction. Detailed measurement and accounting of radionuclides in the mass throughputs in coal combustion power plants have shown that the utilized gypsum and filter ashes are harmless in radiologic aspects.

  15. Studies on chemical phenomena of high concentration tritium water and organic compounds of tritium from viewpoint of the tritium confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanishi, Toshihiko; Hayashi, Takumi; Iwai, Yasunori; Isobe, Kanetsugu; Hara, Masanori; Sugiyama, Takahiko; Okuno, Kenji

    2009-01-01

    As a part of the grant-in-aid for scientific research on priority areas entitled 'frontiers of tritium researches toward fusion reactors', coordinated two research programs on chemical phenomena of high concentration tritium water and organic compounds of tritium from view point of the tritium confinement have been conducted by the C01 team. The results are summarized as follows: (1) Chemical effects of the high concentration tritium water on stainless steels as structural materials of fusion reactors were investigated. Basic data on tritium behaviors at the metal-water interface and corrosion of metal in tritium water were obtained. (2) Development of the tritium confinement and extraction system for the circulating cooling water in the fusion reactor was studied. Improvement was obtained in the performance of a chemical exchange column and catalysts as major components of the water processing system. (J.P.N.)

  16. Landschaftsbereiche der Provinz Latina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Piemontese

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Das Konzept der Landschaft setz sich zusammen aus verschiedenen Bezugspunkten und Interpretationen, je nach dem Blickpunkt, und ihre Wahnehrung veraendert sich je nach der verschiedenartigen Brille mit der man sie sieht. Der Artikel, geht von der Definition der Landschaft aus, wie sie in der Eurpaischen Konvention zitiert ist :“ Ein Teil des Landes, wie es von seinen Volk gesehen ist, dessen Charakter geformt ist aus naturlichen und menschlichen Faktoren und deren Wechselverhaeltnis”. Er wird fortgefuehrt mit der Identifikation der Landschaftsbereiche der Provinz Latina, die angesehn werden sollen als klimatisch, litologisch und morphologisch aenliche Landschaftsportionen, in denen erstens die Merkmale der Flora und Fauna klar werden und an zweiter Stelle, durch den Gebrauch des Territoriums und die Veraendungen mit denen er es gezeichnet hat, das Tun des Menschen. Die Methodik ruht teilweise auf der Klassifizierung des Territoriums, ausgearbeitet von C.Blasio und dem Konkretfall angeglichen.

  17. Evaluation of tritium analysis techniques for a continuous tritium monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, S.J.; Girton, R.C.

    1978-04-01

    Present methods for tritium monitoring are evaluated and a program is proposed to modify the existing methods or develop new instrumentation to establish a state-of-the-art monitoring capability for nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. The capabilities, advantages, and disadvantages of the most popular counting and separation techniques are described. The following criteria were used to evaluate present methods: specificity, selectivity, precision, insensitivity to gamma radiation, and economy. A novel approach is explored to continuously separate the tritium from a complex mixture of stack gases. This approach, based on the different permeabilities of the stack gas constituents, is integrated into a complete monitoring system. This monitoring system is designed to perform real time tritium analysis. A schedule is presented for development and demonstration of the completed system

  18. Turkey Point tritium. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostlund, H.G.; Dorsey, H.G.

    1976-01-01

    In 1972-73 the Florida Power and Light Company (FPL) began operation of two nuclear reactors at Turkey Point on lower Biscayne Bay. One radioactive by-product resulting from the operation of the nuclear reactors, tritium, provides a unique opportunity to study transport and exchange processes on a local scale. Since the isotope in the form of water is not removed from the liquid effluent, it is discharged to the cooling canal system. By studying its residence time in the canal and the pathways by which it leaves the canals, knowledge of evaporative process, groundwater movement, and bay exchange with the ocean can be obtained. Preliminary results obtained from measurement of tritium levels, both in the canal system and in the surrounding environment are discussed. Waters in lower Biscayne Bay and Card and Barnes Sounds receive only a small portion of the total tritium produced by the nuclear plant. The dominating tritium loss most likely is through evaporation from the canals. The capability of measuring extremely low HTO levels allows the determination of the evaporation rate experimentally by measuring the tritium levels of air after having passed over the canals

  19. Tritium Management Loop Design Status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rader, Jordan D. [ORNL; Felde, David K. [ORNL; McFarlane, Joanna [ORNL; Greenwood, Michael Scott [ORNL; Qualls, A L. [ORNL; Calderoni, Pattrick [Idaho National Laboratory (INL)

    2017-12-01

    This report summarizes physical, chemical, and engineering analyses that have been done to support the development of a test loop to study tritium migration in 2LiF-BeF2 salts. The loop will operate under turbulent flow and a schematic of the apparatus has been used to develop a model in Mathcad to suggest flow parameters that should be targeted in loop operation. The introduction of tritium into the loop has been discussed as well as various means to capture or divert the tritium from egress through a test assembly. Permeation was calculated starting with a Modelica model for a transport through a nickel window into a vacuum, and modifying it for a FLiBe system with an argon sweep gas on the downstream side of the permeation interface. Results suggest that tritium removal with a simple tubular permeation device will occur readily. Although this system is idealized, it suggests that rapid measurement capability in the loop may be necessary to study and understand tritium removal from the system.

  20. Tritium in the environment. Knowledge synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This report first presents the nuclear and physical-chemical properties of tritium and addresses the notions of bioaccumulation, bio-magnification and remanence. It describes and comments the natural and anthropic origins of tritium (natural production, quantities released in the environment in France by nuclear tests, nuclear plants, nuclear fuel processing plants, research centres). It describes how tritium is measured as a free element (sampling, liquid scintillation, proportional counting, enrichment method) or linked to organic matter (combustion, oxidation, helium-3-based measurement). It discusses tritium concentrations noticed in different parts of the environment (soils, continental waters, sea). It describes how tritium is transferred to ecosystems (transfer of atmospheric tritium to ground ecosystems, and to soft water ecosystems). It discusses existing models which describe the behaviour of tritium in ecosystems. It finally describes and comments toxic effects of tritium on living ground and aquatic organisms

  1. Recommended radiological controls for tritium operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansfield, G.

    1992-01-01

    This informal report presents recommendations for an adequate radiological protection program for tritium operations. Topics include hazards analysis, facility design, personnel protection equipment, training, operational procedures, radiation monitoring, to include surface and airborne tritium contamination, and program management

  2. Tritium in metals: Techniques of preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laesser, R.; Klatt, K.H.; Mecking, P.; Wenzl, H.

    1982-08-01

    In order to study the behavior of tritium in metals, an all metal apparatus has been built for the safe handling of 100 mg of tritium. Samples of palladium, vanadium, niobium, and tantalum were loaded with tritium, deuterium or hydrogen. Some details of the phase diagrams could be established by DTA and by measurement of the lattice parameters. The diffusion of tritium in V, Nb, and Ta was studied with the Gorsky-effect. (TWO)

  3. Tritium decontamination of machine components and walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hircq, B.; Wong, K.Y.; Jalbert, R.A.; Shmayda, W.T.

    1991-01-01

    Tritium decontamination techniques for machine components and their application at tritium handling facilities are reviewed. These include commonly used methods such as vacuuming, purging, thermal desorption and isotopic exchange as well as less common methods such as chemical/electrochemical etching, plasma discharge cleaning, and destructive methods. Problems associated with tritium contamination of walls and use of protective coatings are reviewed. Tritium decontamination considerations at fusion facilities are discussed

  4. Design of the Target Fabrication Tritium Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherohman, J.W.; Roberts, D.H.; Levine, B.H.

    1982-01-01

    The design of the Target Fabrication Tritium Laboratory for deuterium-tritium fuel processing for laser fusion targets has been accomplished with the intent of providing redundant safeguard systems. The design of the tritium laboratory is based on a combination of tritium handling techniques that are currently used by experienced laboratories. A description of the laboratory in terms of its interrelated processing systems is presented to provide an understanding of the design features for safe operation

  5. Zur Sozialgeschichte der Gerechtigkeit in der Neuzeit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koller Peter

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Der Beitrag verfolgt das Ziel, die Entwicklung der Idee der Gerechtigkeit in der Neuzeit im Kontext des sozialen Wandels zu erhellen. Zu diesem Zweck wird nach einer einleitenden Erörterung des dieser Idee zugrundeliegenden Gerechtigkeitsbegriffs (1 zuerst das Projekt einer vertragstheoretischen Begründung einer gerechten staatlichen Ordnung in der frühen Neuzeit vor dem Hintergrund des Herausbildung des modernen Staates behandelt (2. Im Anschluss werden die theoretischen Leitideen und gesellschaftlichen Triebkräfte des Kampfes um bürgerliche Freiheit und demokratische Teilhabe beleuchtet (3, wovon ausgehend dann die Entstehung der heute vorherrschenden Vorstellung von sozialer Gerechtigkeit einer näheren Betrachtung unterzogen wird (4. Der Beitrag endet mit einigen Bemerkungen über die Gerechtigkeitsprobleme der Gegenwart und die künftigen Herausforderungen im Kampf um Gerechtigkeit (5.

  6. Linear accelerator for tritium production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnett, R.W.; Billen, J.H.; Chan, K.C.D.

    1995-01-01

    For many years now, Los Alamos National Laboratory has been working to develop a conceptual design of a facility for accelerator production of tritium (API). The APT accelerator will produce high energy protons which will bombard a heavy metal target, resulting in the production of large numbers of spallation neutrons. These neutrons will be captured by a low-Z target to produce tritium. This paper describes the latest design of a room-temperature, 1.0 GeV, 100 mA, cw proton accelerator for tritium production. The potential advantages of using superconducting cavities in the high-energy section of the linac are also discussed and a comparison is made with the baseline room-temperature accelerator

  7. Implanted-tritium permeation experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, P.Y.; Longhurst, G.R.; Miller, L.G.; Watts, K.D.; Kershner, C.J.; Rogers, M.L.

    1981-01-01

    Recent theoretical investigations have pointed to considerable uncertainty in estimating the amount of tritium which will permeate the first wall of a fusion reactor and enter the primary coolant system due in part to the implantation of energetic ions. An experiment is being planned to study this problem in a small test reactor where the 3 He(n,p) 3 T reaction is used to generate protons and tritons for implantation in and permeation of a simulated first wall. By comparing the amount of tritium moving through the wall in the presence of implantation with that in its absence while maintaining the time background partial pressure and temperature, the efflct of implantation on tritium permeation will be determined. The experiment offers an interesting and important complement to similar experiments based on plasmas or ion beams

  8. Tritium calorimeter setup and operation

    CERN Document Server

    Rodgers, D E

    2002-01-01

    The LBNL tritium calorimeter is a stable instrument capable of measuring tritium with a sensitivity of 25 Ci. Measurement times range from 8-hr to 7-days depending on the thermal conductivity and mass of the material being measured. The instrument allows accurate tritium measurements without requiring that the sample be opened and subsampled, thus reducing personnel exposure and radioactive waste generation. The sensitivity limit is primarily due to response shifts caused by temperature fluctuation in the water bath. The fluctuations are most likely a combination of insufficient insulation from ambient air and precision limitations in the temperature controller. The sensitivity could probably be reduced to below 5 Ci if the following improvements were made: (1) Extend the external insulation to cover the entire bath and increase the top insulation. (2) Improve the seal between the air space above the bath and the outside air to reduce evaporation. This will limit the response drift as the water level drops. (...

  9. Tritium oxidation and exchange: preliminary studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, J.E.; Easterly, C.E.

    1978-05-01

    The radiological hazard resulting from an exposure to either tritium oxide or tritium gas is discussed and the factors contributing to the hazard are presented. From the discussion it appears that an exposure to tritium oxide vapor is 10 4 to 10 5 times more hazardous than exposure to tritium gas. Present and future sources of tritium are briefly considered and indicate that most of the tritium has been and is being released as tritium oxide. The likelihood of gaseous releases, however, is expected to increase in the future, calling to task the present general release assumption that 100% of all tritium released is as oxide. Accurate evaluation of the hazards from a gaseous release will require a knowledge of the conversion rate of tritium gas to tritium oxide. An experiment for determining the conversion rate of tritium gas to tritium oxide is presented along with some preliminary data. The conversion rates obtained for low initial concentrations (10 -4 to 10 -1 mCi/ml) indicate the conversion may proceed more rapidly than would be expected from an extrapolation of previous data taken at higher concentrations

  10. 10 CFR 30.55 - Tritium reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tritium reports. 30.55 Section 30.55 Energy NUCLEAR..., Inspections, Tests, and Reports § 30.55 Tritium reports. (a)-(b) [Reserved] (c) Except as specified in paragraph (d) of this section, each licensee who is authorized to possess tritium shall report promptly to...

  11. Umsetzung der Unternehmensstrategie mit der Balanced Scorecard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, Isabel; Bergmann, Lars; Portmann, Stefan; Lacker, Thomas; Lacker, Michael; Fleischmann, Jürgen; Kozó, Hans

    Die Balanced Scorecard (BSC) ist ein Ansatz zum strategischen Management, der neben der Ausrichtung des Unternehmens auf finanzielle Zielwerte ebenso großes Gewicht auf so genannte weiche Faktoren legt, die den wirtschaftlichen Erfolg eines Unternehmens erst ermöglichen. Das entscheidende Merkmal der Balanced Scorecard ist dabei, dass sie ein ausgewogenes System strategischer Ziele herstellt, welches das Unternehmen hinsichtlich der vier Perspektiven Finanzen, Kunden, interne Prozesse und Mitarbeiter und Potenziale strategisch ausrichtet (Kaplan u. Norton 1997).

  12. Toxicity and dosimetry of tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, D.K.; Johnson, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    Tritium doses to the general public are very low (currently about 0.2 μSv per year). Radiation doses from tritium to members of the public living in the vicinity of a CANDU power station are higher but rarely exceed 20 μSv per year or 1% of normal exposures to radiation from all natural sources, but doses to some radiation workers can approach ten mSv per year. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of tritium beta rays varies appreciably depending upon the biological endpoint. Observed RBE values at low doses and low dose-rates are usually about 2 to 3 when tritium beta rays are compared to 60 Co gamma rays but are closer to 1 than to 2 when compared to 200 kVp X-rays. This conclusion is supported by microdosimetric considerations of the quality of tritium beta rays, 60 Co gamma rays and X-rays. Since X-rays have traditionally been accepted as reference radiation by the International Commission on Radiological Protection, it seems reasonable that the quality factor (Q) assigned to tritium beta rays should be close to one. Recommended procedures in Canada for estimation of effective dose equivalents from exposures to HTO and HT assume that Q = 1 and that body water represents 67% of the mass of soft tissue; they take into account conversions of HTO to appear to be reasonable for radiation protection purposes when the source of exposure is HTO or HT, but will not be adequate for exposures to other tritiated compounds. (modified author abstract) (137 refs., 11 figs., 12 tabs.)

  13. Tritium turnover in succulent plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnamoorthy, T.M.; Gogate, S.S.; Soman, S.D.

    1977-01-01

    Measurements of turnover rates for tissue free water tritium (TFWT) and tissue bound tritium (TBT) were carried out in three succulent plants, Opuntia sp., E. Trigona and E. Mili using tritiated water as tracer. The estimated half-times were 52, 57.5 and 80 days for TFWT and 212, 318 and 132 days for TBT in the stems of the above plants respectively. Opuntia sp. showed significant incorporation of TBT, 10% of TFWT on weight basis, while the other two plants showed lesser incorporation, 2-3% of TFWT. However, the leaves of E. Mili indicated the same level of fixation of TBT as the stem of Opuntia sp. (author)

  14. Tritium processing in JT-60U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miya, Naoyuki; Masaki, Kei

    1997-01-01

    Tritium retention analysis and tritium concentration measurement have been made during the large Tokamak JT-60U deuterium operations. This work has been carried out to evaluate the tritium retention for graphite tiles inside the vacuum vessel and tritium release characteristics in the tritium cleanup operations. JT-60U has carried out D-D experiments since July 1991. In the deuterium operations during the first two years, about 1.7 x 10 19 D-D fusion neutrons were produced by D (d, p) T reactions in plasma, which are expected to produce ∼31 GBq of tritium. The tritium produced is evacuated by a pumping system. A part of tritium is, however, trapped in the graphite tiles. Several sample tiles were removed from the vessel and the retained tritium Distribution in the tiles was measured using a liquid scintillator. The results of poloidal distribution showed that the tritium concentration in the divertor tiles was higher than that in the first wall tiles and it peaked in the tiles between two strike points of divertor magnetic lines. Tritium concentration in the exhaust gas from the vessel have also been measured with an ion chamber during the tritium cleanup operations with hydrogen divertor discharges and He-GDC. Total of recovered tritium during the cleanup operations was ∼ 7% of that generated. The results of these measurements showed that the tritium of 16-23 GBq still remained in the graphite tiles, which corresponded to about 50-70% of the tritium generated in plasma. The vessel is ventilated during the in-vessel maintenance works, then the atmosphere is always kept lower than the legal concentration guide level of 0.7 Bq/cm 3 for radiation work permit requirements. (author)

  15. Tritium compatibility of alumina and Fosterite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coffin, D.O.

    1979-09-01

    Many pressure measurements are required to control processing of the fuel gases associated with fusion power reactors. Since most pressure transducers respond to changes in pressure sensitive electrical parameters, insulators will be required to withstand chronic exposures to concentrated tritium. For this investigation samples of alumina and Fosterite were exposed to concentrated tritium gas for 11 weeks. Gas phase impurities were then analyzed for clues that would indicate decomposition of the exposed materials. The only gaseous impurity resulting from these tritium exposures was tritio-methane, which is always produced when tritium is stored in stainless steel containers. There was no evidence that either alumina or Fosterite decomposed in the presence of tritium.

  16. Synthesis of plant hormones labelled by tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidorov, G.V.; Myasoedov, N.F.

    1999-01-01

    Reaction of solid-phase catalytic hydrogenation, isotopic exchange with enriched tritium water, catalytic heterogenous isotopic exchange with gaseous tritium, hydrogenolysis as applied to synthesis of plants labelled by tritium were studied. Auxins, cytokinins, gibberellins, fusicoccins - representatives of the basic hormones of plants - were objects of investigations. In dependence on synthesis method compounds labelled by tritium were prepared with molar radioactivity from 5 up to 155 Ci/mmol. Order of universal approaches to synthesis of plant hormones labelled by tritium was formulated [ru

  17. Management of tritium at nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This report presents extending summaries of the works of the participants to an IAEA co-ordinated research programme, ''Handling Tritium - bearing effluents and wastes''. The subjects covered include production of tritium in nuclear power plants (mainly heavy water and light water reactors), as well as at reprocessing plants; removal and enrichment of tritium at nuclear facilities; conditioning methods and characteristics of immobilized tritium of low and high concentration; some potential methods of storage and disposal of tritium. In addition to the conclusions of this three-years work, possible activities in the field are recommended

  18. Neurobiologie der Dissoziation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gebauer, C; Daniels, Judith; Thiel, Freya; Spitzer, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    Dissoziation ist ein Prozess der Desintegration des Bewusstseins, der Identität, des Gedächtnisses und der Wahrnehmung, der vermutlich durch vielfältige neuronale und physiologische Anpassungen charakterisiert ist. Aber was passiert eigentlich genau, wenn sich die Wahrnehmung plötzlich verändert,

  19. Tritium transport analysis for CFETR WCSB blanket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Pinghui, E-mail: phzhao@mail.ustc.edu.cn; Yang, Wanli; Li, Yuanjie; Ge, Zhihao; Nie, Xingchen; Gao, Zhongping

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • A simplified tritium transport model for CFETR WCSB blanket was developed. • Tritium transport process in CFETR WCSB blanket was analyzed. • Sensitivity analyses of tritium transport parameters were carried out. - Abstract: Water Cooled Solid Breeder (WCSB) blanket was put forward as one of the breeding blanket candidate schemes for Chinese Fusion Engineering Test Reactor (CFETR). In this study, a simplified tritium transport model was developed. Based on the conceptual engineering design, neutronics and thermal-hydraulic analyses of CFETR WCSB blanket, tritium transport process was analyzed. The results show that high tritium concentration and inventory exist in primary water loop and total tritium losses exceed CFETR limits under current conditions. Conducted were sensitivity analyses of influential parameters, including tritium source, temperature, flow-rate capacity and surface condition. Tritium performance of WCSB blanket can be significantly improved under a smaller tritium impinging rate, a larger flow-rate capacity or a better surface condition. This work provides valuable reference for the enhancement of tritium transport behavior in CFETR WCSB blanket.

  20. Tritium behavior intentionally released in the room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, K.; Hayashi, T.; Iwai, Y.; Yamanishi, T.; Willms, R. S.; Carlson, R. V.

    2008-01-01

    To construct a fusion reactor with high safety and acceptability, it is necessary to establish and to ensure tritium safe handling technology. Tritium should be well-controlled not to be released to the environment excessively and to prevent workers from excess exposure. It is especially important to grasp tritium behavior in the final confinement area, such as the room and/or building. In order to obtain data for actual tritium behavior in a room and/or building, a series of intentional Tritium Release Experiments (TREs) were planned and carried out within a radiologically controlled area (main cell) at Tritium System Test Assembly (TSTA) in Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) under US-JAPAN collaboration program. These experiments were carried out three times. In these experiments, influence of a difference in the tritium release point and the amount of hydrogen isotope for the initial tritium behavior in the room were suggested. Tritium was released into the main cell at TSTA/LANL. The released tritium reached a uniform concentration about 30 - 40 minutes in all the experiments. The influence of the release point and the amount of hydrogen isotope were not found to be important in these experiments. The experimental results for the initial tritium behavior in the room were also simulated well by the modified three-dimensional eddy flow analysis code FLOW-3D. (authors)

  1. Weapons engineering tritium facility overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Najera, Larry [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-20

    Materials provide an overview of the Weapons Engineering Tritium Facility (WETF) as introductory material for January 2011 visit to SRS. Purpose of the visit is to discuss Safety Basis, Conduct of Engineering, and Conduct of Operations. WETF general description and general GTS program capabilities are presented in an unclassified format.

  2. Generation of gaseous tritium standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohorst, F.A.

    1994-09-01

    The determination of aqueous and non-aqueous tritium in gaseous samples is one type of determination often requested of radioanalytical laboratories. This determination can be made by introducing the sample as a gas into a sampling train containing two silica gel beds separated by.a catalytic oxidizer bed. The first bed traps tritiated water. The sample then passes into and through the oxidizer bed where non-aqueous tritium containing species are oxidized to water and other products of combustion. The second silica gel bed then traps the newly formed tritiated water. Subsequently, silica gel is removed to plastic bottles, deionized water is added, and the mixture is permitted to equilibrate. The tritium content of the equilibrium mixture is then determined by conventional liquid scintillation counting (LSC). For many years, the moisture content of inert, gaseous samples has been determined using monitors which quantitatively electrolyze the moisture present after that moisture has been absorbed by phosphorous pentoxide or other absorbents. The electrochemical reaction is quantitative and definitive, and the energy consumed during electrolysis forms the basis of the continuous display of the moisture present. This report discusses the experimental evaluation of such a monitor as the basis for a technique for conversion of small quantities of SRMs of tritiated water ( 3 HOH) into gaseous tritium standards ( 3 HH)

  3. Tritium pellet injection sequences for TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houlberg, W.A.; Milora, S.L.; Attenberger, S.E.; Singer, C.E.; Schmidt, G.L.

    1983-01-01

    Tritium pellet injection into neutral deuterium, beam heated deuterium plasmas in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) is shown to be an attractive means of (1) minimizing tritium use per tritium discharge and over a sequence of tritium discharges; (2) greatly reducing the tritium load in the walls, limiters, getters, and cryopanels; (3) maintaining or improving instantaneous neutron production (Q); (4) reducing or eliminating deuterium-tritium (D-T) neutron production in non-optimized discharges; and (5) generally adding flexibility to the experimental sequences leading to optimal Q operation. Transport analyses of both compression and full-bore TFTR plasmas are used to support the above observations and to provide the basis for a proposed eight-pellet gas gun injector for the 1986 tritium experiments

  4. Die Rolle der Zytokine in der Pathophysiologie der extrakorporalen Zirkulation

    OpenAIRE

    Sroka, Jan

    2002-01-01

    Koronarchirurgische Bypassoperationen unter Zuhilfenahme der Herz-Lungen-Maschine stellen auch heutzutage trotz erweiterter technischer Möglichkeiten noch immer einen schwerwiegenden Eingriff in die menschliche Physiologie dar. Veränderungen von Entzündungsmediatoren (wie beispielsweise Zytokinen oder Leukozytenadhäsionsmolekülen) lassen sich praktisch bei jedem Patienten feststellen, bei denen das Verfahren der extrakorporalen Zirkulation angewandt wurde. In der vorliegenden Stu...

  5. On line tritium measurement; La mesure du tritium en ligne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2011-07-01

    Berthold Technologies has developed a new beacon able to measure the activity of tritium in the atmosphere. The real-time measurement will allow the operator to be warned of the exceeding of radiation thresholds. The air sample to be measured is mixed with a counting gas (generally argon/methane) and pumped through a proportional counter. The device counts the electric impulses due to the interaction between the beta particles generated by the tritium and the counting gas. The detection threshold is 500 Bq/m{sup 3} for a counting time of 1 hour. The device also allows the operator to get an emission spectrum of the air sample. (A.C.)

  6. The Chalk River Tritium Extraction Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holtslander, W.J.; Harrison, T.E.; Spagnolo, D.A.

    1990-01-01

    The Chalk River Tritium Extraction Plant for removal of tritium from heavy water is described. Tritium is present in the heavy water from research reactors in the form of DTO at a concentration in the range of 1-35 Ci/kg. It is removed by a combination of catalytic exchange to transfer the tritium from DTO to DT, followed by cryogenic distillation to separate and concentrate the tritium to T 2 . The tritium product is reacted with titanium and packaged for transportation and storage as titanium tritide. The plant processes heavy water at a rate of 25 kg/h and removes 80% of the tritium and 90% of the protium per pass. Catalytic exchange is carried out in the liquid phase using a proprietary wetproofed catalyst. The plant serves two roles in the Canadian fusion program: it produces pure tritium for use in fusion research and development, and it demonstrates on an industrial scale many of the tritium technologies that are common to the tritium systems in fusion reactors (author)

  7. Estimation of Biological Effects of Tritium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umata, Toshiyuki

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear fusion technology is expected to create new energy in the future. However, nuclear fusion requires a large amount of tritium as a fuel, leading to concern about the exposure of radiation workers to tritium beta radiation. Furthermore, countermeasures for tritium-polluted water produced in decommissioning of the reactor at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station may potentially cause health problems in radiation workers. Although, internal exposure to tritium at a low dose/low dose rate can be assumed, biological effect of tritium exposure is not negligible, because tritiated water (HTO) intake to the body via the mouth/inhalation/skin would lead to homogeneous distribution throughout the whole body. Furthermore, organically-bound tritium (OBT) stays in the body as parts of the molecules that comprise living organisms resulting in long-term exposure, and the chemical form of tritium should be considered. To evaluate the biological effect of tritium, the effect should be compared with that of other radiation types. Many studies have examined the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of tritium. Hence, we report the RBE, which was obtained with radiation carcinogenesis classified as a stochastic effect, and serves as a reference for cancer risk. We also introduce the outline of the tritium experiment and the principle of a recently developed animal experimental system using transgenic mouse to detect the biological influence of radiation exposure at a low dose/low dose rate.

  8. The LLNL portable tritium processing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    The end of the Cold War significantly reduced the need for facilities to handle radioactive materials for the US nuclear weapons program. The LLNL Tritium Facility was among those slated for decommissioning. The plans for the facility have since been reversed, and it remains open. Nevertheless, in the early 1990s, the cleanup (the Tritium Inventory Removal Project) was undertaken. However, removing the inventory of tritium within the facility and cleaning up any pockets of high-level residual contamination required that we design a system adequate to the task and meeting today's stringent standards of worker and environmental protection. In collaboration with Sandia National Laboratory and EG ampersand G Mound Applied Technologies, we fabricated a three-module Portable Tritium Processing System (PTPS) that meets current glovebox standards, is operated from a portable console, and is movable from laboratory to laboratory for performing the basic tritium processing operations: pumping and gas transfer, gas analysis, and gas-phase tritium scrubbing. The Tritium Inventory Removal Project is now in its final year, and the portable system continues to be the workhorse. To meet a strong demand for tritium services, the LLNL Tritium Facility will be reconfigured to provide state-of-the-art tritium and radioactive decontamination research and development. The PTPS will play a key role in this new facility

  9. Tritium in Exit Signs | RadTown USA | US EPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-07

    Many exit signs contain tritium to light the sign without batteries or electricity. Using tritium in exit signs allows the sign to remain lit if the power goes out. Tritium is most dangerous when it is inhaled or swallowed. Never tamper with a tritium exit sign. If a tritium exit sign is broken, leave the area immediately and notify the building maintenance staff.

  10. The tritium content of precipitation and groundwater at Yola, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tritium is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen which occurs in precipitation. In groundwater studies tritium measurements give information on the time of recharge to the system; the tritium content of precipitation being used to estimate the input of tritium to the groundwater system. At Yola, the tritium ontents in precipitation and ...

  11. Simulation of tritium behavior after intended tritium release in ventilated room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwai, Yasunori; Hayashi, Takumi; Yamanishi, Toshihiko; Kobayashi, Kazuhiro; Nishi, Masataka

    2001-01-01

    At the Tritium Process Laboratory (TPL) at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), Caisson Assembly for Tritium Safety study (CATS) with 12 m 3 of large airtight vessel (Caisson) was fabricated for confirmation and enhancement of fusion reactor safety to estimate tritium behavior in the case where a tritium leak event should happen. One of the principal objectives of the present studies is the establishment of simulation method to predict the tritium behavior after the tritium leak event should happen in a ventilated room. The RNG model was found to be valid for eddy flow calculation in the 50 m 3 /h ventilated Caisson with acceptable engineering precision. The calculated initial and removal tritium concentration histories after intended tritium release were consistent with the experimental observations in the 50 m 3 /h ventilated Caisson. It is found that the flow near a wall plays an important role for the tritium transport in the ventilated room. On the other hand, tritium behavior intentionally released in the 3,000 m 3 of tritium handling room was investigated experimentally under a US-Japan collaboration. The tritium concentration history calculated with the same method was consistent with the experimental observations, which proves that the present developed method can be applied to the actual scale of tritium handling room. (author)

  12. Kosmische Katastrophen und der Ursprung der Religion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyle, F.

    This book is a German translation, by V. Delavre, from the English original "The origin of the Universe and the origin of religion", published in 1993. Contents: E. Sens: Die unterbrochene Musikstunde. Einleitung zur deutschen Ausgabe. C. Ryskamp: Einführung. R. N. Anshen: Vorwort. F. Hoyle: Kosmische Katastrophen und der Ursprung der Religion - Die Folgen der Respektabilität; Eiszeiten und Kometen; Die allgemeine Situation in den Nacheiszeiten; Kometen und der Ursprung der Religionen; Der Übergang zu Mittelalter und Neuzeit. Diskussionsbeiträge: Ruth Nanda Anshen, Freeman Dyson, Paul Oscar Kristeller, John Archibald Wheeler, James Schwartz, Roger Shinn, Milton Gatch, Philip Solomon, Norman Newell. F. Hoyle: Schlußwort. A. Tollmann: Nachwort zur deutschen Ausgabe.

  13. Behaviour of tritium in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Full text: There is considerable interest in the behaviour of radionuclides of global character that may be released to the environment through the development of nuclear power. Tritium is of particular interest due to its direct incorporation into water and organic tissue. Although there has been a large decrease (more than ten times) in tritium concentration since the stopping of nuclear weapons tests in the atmosphere, the construction in the near future of many water reactors and in the far future of fusion reactors could increase the present levels. Progress has been made during recent years in the assessment of tritium distribution, in detection methods and in biological studies While several meetings have given scientists an opportunity to present papers on tritium, no specific symposium on this topic has been organized by the IAEA since 1961. Thus the purpose of the meeting was to review recent advances and to report on the practical aspects of tritium utilization and monitoring. The symposium was jointly organized with OECD/NEA, in co-operation with the US Department of Energy and the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. Papers were presented on distribution of tritium, evaluation of future discharges, measurement of tritium, tritium in the aquatic environment, tritium in the terrestrial environment, tritium in man and monitoring of tritium Very interesting papers were given on distribution of tritium and participants got a good idea of the circulation of this radionuclide Some new data were provided on tritium pollution from luminous compounds and we learnt that the tritium release of the Swiss luminous compounds industry is of the same order of magnitude as the tritium release of Windscale. Projections indicate that, in the USA, the total quantity of tritium contained in discarded digital watches will be equal, approximately ten years in the future, to the release of nuclear power reactors Whereas nuclear reactor discharges are controlled there is no control

  14. Radiological training for tritium facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-12-01

    This program management guide describes a recommended implementation standard for core training as outlined in the DOE Radiological Control Manual (RCM). The standard is to assist those individuals, both within DOE and Managing and Operating contractors, identified as having responsibility for implementing the core training recommended by the RCM. This training may also be given to radiological workers using tritium to assist in meeting their job specific training requirements of 10 CFR 835

  15. Radiological training for tritium facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    This program management guide describes a recommended implementation standard for core training as outlined in the DOE Radiological Control Manual (RCM). The standard is to assist those individuals, both within DOE and Managing and Operating contractors, identified as having responsibility for implementing the core training recommended by the RCM. This training may also be given to radiological workers using tritium to assist in meeting their job specific training requirements of 10 CFR 835.

  16. HiPER Tritium factory elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaume, Didier

    2011-06-01

    HiPER will include a Tritium target factory. This presentation is an overview. We start from process ideas to go to first sketch passing through safety principles. We will follow the Tritium management process. We need first a gas factory producing the right gas mixture from hydrogen, Deuterium and Tritium storage. Then we could pass through the target factory. It is based on our LMJ single shot experiment and some new development like the injector. Then comes pellet burst and vapour recovery. The Tritium factory has to include the waste recovery, recycling process with gas purification before storage. At least, a nuclear plant is not a classical building. Tritium is also very special... All the design ideas have to be adapted. Many facilities are necessary, some with redundancy. We all have to well known these constraints. Tritium budget will be a major contributor for a material point of view as for a financial one.

  17. Modeling tritium transport in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, C.E. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A model of tritium transport in the environment near an atmospheric source of tritium is presented in the general context of modeling material cycling in ecosystems. The model was developed to test hypotheses about the process involved in tritium cycling. The temporal and spatial scales of the model were picked to allow comparison to environmental monitoring data collected in the vicinity of the Savannah River Plant. Initial simulations with the model showed good agreement with monitoring data, including atmospheric and vegetation tritium concentrations. The model can also simulate values of tritium in vegetation organic matter if the key parameter distributing the source of organic hydrogen is varied to fit the data. However, because of the lack of independent conformation of the distribution parameter, there is still uncertainty about the role of organic movement of tritium in the food chain, and its effect on the dose to man

  18. Tritium Removal from Carbon Plasma Facing Components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, C.H.; Coad, J.P.; Federici, G.

    2003-01-01

    Tritium removal is a major unsolved development task for next-step devices with carbon plasma-facing components. The 2-3 order of magnitude increase in duty cycle and associated tritium accumulation rate in a next-step tokamak will place unprecedented demands on tritium removal technology. The associated technical risk can be mitigated only if suitable removal techniques are demonstrated on tokamaks before the construction of a next-step device. This article reviews the history of codeposition, the tritium experience of TFTR (Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor) and JET (Joint European Torus) and the tritium removal rate required to support ITER's planned operational schedule. The merits and shortcomings of various tritium removal techniques are discussed with particular emphasis on oxidation and laser surface heating

  19. Purification of tritium-free water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, S.D.

    1982-10-01

    Ground water which has been out of contact with the atmosphere for a long time as compared to the half life of tritium (12.43 years) does not contain any measureable amount of tritium. Such water is called tritium-free water. It may contain dissolved and suspended impurities and has to be purified before it can be used for the preparation of blanks and standards required in the routine measurement of low level tritium in water samples. The purification of tritium-free water by distillation in a closed system has been described. The quality of processed tritium-free water was precisely checked at International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Vienna and found satisfactory. (authors)

  20. Tritium management in fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galloway, T.R.

    1978-05-01

    This is a review paper covering the key environmental and safety issues and how they have been handled in the various magnetic and inertial confinement concepts and reference designs. The issues treated include: tritium accident analyses, tritium process control, occupational safety, HTO formation rate from the gas-phase, disposal of tritium contaminated wastes, and environmental impact--each covering the Joint European Tokamak (J.E.T. experiment), Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR), Russian T-20, The Next Step (TNS) designs by Westinghouse/ORNL and General Atomic/ANL, the ANL and ORNL EPR's, the G.A. Doublet Demonstration Reactor, the Italian Fintor-D and the ORNL Demo Studies. There are also the following full scale plant reference designs: UWMAK-III, LASL's Theta Pinch Reactor Design (RTPR), Mirror Fusion Reactor (MFR), Tandem Mirror Reactor (TMR), and the Mirror Hybrid Reactor (MHR). There are four laser device breakeven experiments, SHIVA-NOVA, LLL reference designs, ORNL Laser Fusion power plant, the German ''Saturn,'' and LLL's Laser Fusion EPR I and II

  1. Tritium production in fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, E.

    1981-08-01

    The present analyses on the possibilities of extracting tritium from the liquid and solid fusion reactor blankets show up many problems. A consistent ensemble of materials and devices for extracting the heat and the tritium has not yet been integrated in a fusion reactor blanket project. The dimensioning of the many pipes required for shifting the tritium can only be done very approximately and the volume taken up by the blanket is difficult to evaluate, etc. The utilization of present data leads to over-dimensioning the installations by prudence and perhaps rejecting the best solutions. In order to measure the parameters of the most promising materials, work must be carried out on well defined samples and not only determine the base physical-chemical coefficients, such as thermal conductivity, scattering coefficients, Sievert parameters, but also the kinetic parameters conventional in chemical engineering, such as the hourly space rates of degassing. It is also necessary to perform long duration experiments under radiation and at operating temperatures, or above, in order to study the ageing of the bodies employed [fr

  2. Regulating tritium in drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluke, R.

    1994-01-01

    This article incorporates an article by E. Koehl from an internal Ontario Hydro publication, and a letter from the Joint Committee of Health and Safety of the Royal Society of Canada and the Canadian Academy of Engineering, submitted to the Ontario Minister of the Environment and Energy. The Advisory Committee on Environmental Standards had recommended that the limit for tritium in Ontario drinking water be reduced from 40,000 to 100 Bq/L, with a further reduction to 20 in five years. Some facts and figures are adduced to show that the effect of tritium in drinking water in Ontario is negligible compared to the effect of background radiation. The risk from tritium to the people of Ontario is undetectably small, and the attempt to estimate this risk by linear extrapolation is extremely dubious. Regulation entails social and economic costs, and the government ought to ensure that the benefits exceed the costs. The costs translate into nothing less than wasted opportunity to save lives in other ways. 3 refs

  3. Transgenerationale Wertevermittlung in der Familie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demuth, Carolin

    2013-01-01

    Der vorliegende Beitrag geht der Frage nach, inwiefern sich in den biografisch-narrativen Konstruktionen junger Erwachsener transgenerationale Aspekte der Identifizierung bzw. Abgrenzung zu den Wertevorstellungen der Ursprungsfamilie finden lassen. Besonderes Augenmerk liegt hierbei auf den Dimen...

  4. Tritium handling systems for TFTR and PITR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lind, K.E.; Yemin, L.; Rossmassler, R.; Phillips, H.O.; Youssef, N.S.; Levine, J.D.; Howe, H.J.; Pierce, C.W.

    1978-01-01

    Operation of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) and the proposed Princeton Ignition Test Reactor (PITR) will involve the generation and burning of a deuterium-tritium plasma. Systems associated with both the TFTR and PITR will be designed to minimize the potential release of tritium and other radioisotopes under both routine operational and accidental conditions. Systems have been proposed for the control and processing of large tritium inventories

  5. Tritium-Powered Radiation Sensor Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    sources Tritium-filled, phosphor-lined vials are commercially available for night-vision gear applications.16 The tritium capsules purchased...support and are filled with silicon (Si) rubber adhesive producing sealed modules that meet DOT shipping regulations. The BA5590-style military...Ag) phosphor in the tritium capsules was not always a spectral match to all PV cells. We discovered that space-grade heterojunction PV cells (multi

  6. Tritium radioluminescent devices, Health and Safety Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traub, R.J.; Jensen, G.A.

    1995-06-01

    This document consolidates available information on the properties of tritium, including its environmental chemistry, its health physics, and safe practices in using tritium-activated RL lighting. It also summarizes relevant government regulations on RL lighting. Chapters are divided into a single-column part, which provides an overview of the topic for readers simply requiring guidance on the safety of tritium RL lighting, and a dual-column part for readers requiring more technical and detailed information.

  7. Ontario approves limited sales of tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    The Ontario government announced at the end of August 1989 that it had authorized the limited sale of tritium to help establish a self-powered lighting industry, and for certain other specified purposes including fusion research. To ensure that the tritium will be used only for peaceful purposes, sales will be restricted and subject to strict controls. All sales of tritium will be made public

  8. The movement of tritium in ecological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polevoy, Y; Laichter, Y.

    1988-11-01

    This literature survey summarizes the interaction of tritium gas and tritiated water with various components of the ecological system. The intake of tritium gas and tritiated water in plants and soil is described as well as the location of the highest measurable concentration. This information may serve as a basis for risk assessment from tritium to man through the food chain and enables effective tracing of its concentration in the environment. (author)

  9. Degradation of elastomers by tritium beta radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapp, P.E.; Tuer, G.L. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Based on its tritium radiation resistance, ethylene propylene rubber has been selected as a candidate for replacement of nitrile rubber in the SRP tritium facilities. A specification for flange gasket material has been developed for ethylene propylene such that its mechanical properties are similar to those of nitrile rubber. In-process testing of ethylene propylene and nitrile gaskets will be conducted in the tritium facilities under identical exposure conditions

  10. Effluent Treatment Facility tritium emissions monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, D.L.

    1991-01-01

    An Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) approved sampling and analysis protocol was developed and executed to verify atmospheric emissions compliance for the new Savannah River Site (SRS) F/H area Effluent Treatment Facility. Sampling equipment was fabricated, installed, and tested at stack monitoring points for filtrable particulate radionuclides, radioactive iodine, and tritium. The only detectable anthropogenic radionuclides released from Effluent Treatment Facility stacks during monitoring were iodine-129 and tritium oxide. This paper only examines the collection and analysis of tritium oxide

  11. Tritium radioluminescent devices, Health and Safety Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traub, R.J.; Jensen, G.A.

    1995-06-01

    This document consolidates available information on the properties of tritium, including its environmental chemistry, its health physics, and safe practices in using tritium-activated RL lighting. It also summarizes relevant government regulations on RL lighting. Chapters are divided into a single-column part, which provides an overview of the topic for readers simply requiring guidance on the safety of tritium RL lighting, and a dual-column part for readers requiring more technical and detailed information

  12. Tritium in precipitation of Vostok (Antarctica): conclusions on the tritium latitude effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebert, Detlef

    2011-09-01

    During the Antarctic summer of 1985 near the Soviet Antarctic station Vostok, firn samples for tritium measurements were obtained down to a depth of 2.40 m. The results of the tritium measurements are presented and discussed. Based on this and other data, conclusions regarding the tritium latitude effect are derived.

  13. Tritium loss in molten flibe systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longhurst, G.R.; Anderl, R.A.; Scott Willms, R.

    2000-01-01

    An emerging issue relative to beryllium technology in fusion involves tritium interactions with molten beryllium-bearing salts. Innovative designs for fusion reactors, both magnetic and inertially confined, feature the molten salt mixture 2LiF.BeF 2 , commonly called Flibe, as a tritium breeder and coolant. Tritium is bred in the Flibe as neutrons from the plasma are absorbed by Li atoms, which then transmute to tritium and helium. Transmutation of tritium from Be also occurs. Among the issues to be resolved for such coolant systems is the potential loss of tritium from the Flibe coolant to the walls of the system, particularly through heat exchanger tubes, and from there into secondary coolants or working fluids and the environment. Effectively removing tritium from Flibe in clean-up units is also important. In quiescent or low Reynolds number flow, tritium movement through Flibe is governed by diffusion. For Flibe in turbulent flow, as in heat exchanger tubes, transport is by turbulent mixing, and the same flow conditions and structural design features that maximize heat transfer to the heat exchanger walls will enhance the transport of tritium to those same surfaces. Analyses have been performed to estimate the fractional loss of tritium through heat exchanger tubes and release rates from Flibe droplets in vacuum disengagers in molten Flibe systems. The calculations suggest unacceptably large losses of tritium through heat exchanger tubes. The gravity of the implications of these estimates calls for experimental verification to determine if tritium losses through molten Flibe heat exchangers or other Flibe systems can really be so high and whether vacuum disengagers will really work. There is also a need for better information on evolution of tritium from Flibe droplets in a vacuum. Several experiments are presently being planned to address these issues and are discussed. These include experiments to induce tritium in Flibe using spontaneous fission neutrons

  14. Development of tritium handing technology(II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, H. S.; Ahn, D. H.; Kim, K. R.; Yook, D. S.; Song, K. M.; Son, S. H.; Lee, K. J.; Jung, H. Y.; Song, M. C.

    2004-02-01

    The buildup rate of tritium in heavy water moderator and coolant of pressurized heavy water reactors in Wolsong Nuclear Power Plant is about 4MCi/a. The control of tritium is of increasing concern to the power reactor industry and general public in Korea. Metal tritides have the advantage of significantly decreasing the volume required to store tritium without increasing the pressure of storage vessel. Titanium hydride was safely used for the long-term storage of tritium. The experimental thermodynamic P-C-T data show that titanium soaks up hydrogen isotope gas at ambient temperature and modest pressures

  15. Tritium resources available for fusion reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovari, M.; Coleman, M.; Cristescu, I.; Smith, R.

    2018-02-01

    The tritium required for ITER will be supplied from the CANDU production in Ontario, but while Ontario may be able to supply 8 kg for a DEMO fusion reactor in the mid-2050s, it will not be able to provide 10 kg at any realistic starting time. The tritium required to start DEMO will depend on advances in plasma fuelling efficiency, burnup fraction, and tritium processing technology. It is in theory possible to start up a fusion reactor with little or no tritium, but at an estimated cost of 2 billion per kilogram of tritium saved, it is not economically sensible. Some heavy water reactor tritium production scenarios with varying degrees of optimism are presented, with the assumption that only Canada, the Republic of Korea, and Romania make tritium available to the fusion community. Results for the tritium available for DEMO in 2055 range from zero to 30 kg. CANDU and similar heavy water reactors could in theory generate additional tritium in a number of ways: (a) adjuster rods containing lithium could be used, giving 0.13 kg per year per reactor; (b) a fuel bundle with a burnable absorber has been designed for CANDU reactors, which might be adapted for tritium production; (c) tritium production could be increased by 0.05 kg per year per reactor by doping the moderator with lithium-6. If a fusion reactor is started up around 2055, governments in Canada, Argentina, China, India, South Korea and Romania will have the opportunity in the years leading up to that to take appropriate steps: (a) build, refurbish or upgrade tritium extraction facilities; (b) extend the lives of heavy water reactors, or build new ones; (c) reduce tritium sales; (d) boost tritium production in the remaining heavy water reactors. All of the alternative production methods considered have serious economic and regulatory drawbacks, and the risk of diversion of tritium or lithium-6 would also be a major concern. There are likely to be serious problems with supplying tritium for future

  16. Development of tritium handing technology(II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, H. S.; Ahn, D. H.; Kim, K. R. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Yook, D. S.; Song, K. M.; Son, S. H. [KEPRI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, K. J.; Jung, H. Y.; Song, M. C. [KAIST, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-02-01

    The buildup rate of tritium in heavy water moderator and coolant of pressurized heavy water reactors in Wolsong Nuclear Power Plant is about 4MCi/a. The control of tritium is of increasing concern to the power reactor industry and general public in Korea. Metal tritides have the advantage of significantly decreasing the volume required to store tritium without increasing the pressure of storage vessel. Titanium hydride was safely used for the long-term storage of tritium. The experimental thermodynamic P-C-T data show that titanium soaks up hydrogen isotope gas at ambient temperature and modest pressures.

  17. Tritium control in helium-cooled blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, C.P.C.; Maya, I.; Kessel, C.; Roelant, D.; Schultz, K.R.

    1985-06-01

    As a part of the Blanket Comparison and Selection Study (BCSS), GA Technologies was responsible for the design of helium-cooled, solid- and liquid-metal breeder blankets. Conceptual blanket designs were developed, including the consideration of the generation, transport, and extraction of tritium. Evaluations were made of the inventory and leakage of tritium for helium-cooled Li 2 O and LiAlO 2 and liquid lithium breeder blankets for tokamak and tandem mirror reactors. To facilitate the evaluation, a solid breeder tritium code TRIT4 was developed. The results from this study indicate that tritium inventories and leakages are acceptable for the proposed helium-cooled blankets. An assumption made in the tritium leakage calculations was that tritium is released to the helium purge and coolant streams as T 2 and remains in that form. If oxidation to T 2 O is possible, significant reduction in the tritium leakage will be possible. We conclude that more experimental data on breeder material properties and tritium permeation behavior are needed. However, we are certain that an adequate number of different techniques are available to control the breeder tritium inventory and leakage to an acceptable level in helium-cooled solid- and lithium-breeder blankets

  18. Measurement of tritium concentration in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekiyama, Shigenobu; Deshimaru, Takehide

    1979-01-01

    Concerning the safety management of the advanced thermal reactor ''Fugen'', the internal exposure management for tritium is important, because heavy water is used as the moderator in the reactor, and tritium is produced in the heavy water. Tritium is the radioactive nuclide with the maximum β-ray energy of 18 keV, and the radiation exposure is limited to the internal exposure in human bodies, as tritium is taken in through the skin and by breathing. The tritium concentration in urine of the operators of the Fugen plant was measured. As for tritium measurement, the analysis of raw urine, the analysis after passing through mixed ion exchange resin and the analysis after distillation are applied. The scintillator, the liquid scintillation counter, the ion exchange resin and the distillator are introduced. The preliminary survey was conducted on the urine sample, the scintillator the calibration, etc. The measuring condition, the measurement of efficiency, and the limitation of detection with various background are explained, with the many experimental data and the calculating formula. Concerning the measured tritium concentration in urine, the tritium concentrations in distilled urine, raw urine and the urine refined with ion exchange resin were compared, and the correlation formulae are presented. The actual tritium concentration value in urine was less than 50 pci/ml. The measuring methods of raw urine and the urine refined with ion exchange resin are adequate as they are quick and accurate. (Nakai, Y.)

  19. Tritium proof-of-principle pellet injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, P.W.

    1991-07-01

    The tritium proof-of-principle (TPOP) experiment was designed and built by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to demonstrate the formation and acceleration of the world's first tritium pellets for fueling of future fusion reactors. The experiment was first used to produce hydrogen and deuterium pellets at ORNL. It was then moved to the Tritium Systems Test Assembly at Los Alamos National Laboratory for the production of tritium pellets. The injector used in situ condensation to produce cylindrical pellets in a 1-m-long, 4-mm-ID barrel. A cryogenic 3 He separator, which was an integral part of the gun assembly, was capable of lowering 3 He levels in the feed gas to <0.005%. The experiment was housed to a glovebox for tritium containment. Nearly 1500 pellets were produced during the course of the experiment, and about a third of these were pure tritium or mixtures of deuterium and tritium. Over 100 kCi of tritium was processed through the experiment without incident. Tritium pellet velocities of 1400 m/s were achieved with high-pressure hydrogen propellant. The design, operation, and results of this experiment are summarized. 34 refs., 44 figs., 3 tabs

  20. Tritium stripping by a catalytic exchange stripper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heung, L.K.; Gibson, G.W.; Ortman, M.S.

    1991-01-01

    A catalytic exchange process for stripping elemental tritium from gas streams has been demonstrated. The process uses a catalyzed isotopic exchange reaction between tritium in the gas phase and protium or deuterium in the solid phase on alumina. The reaction is catalyzed by platinum deposited on the alumina. The process has been tested with both tritium and deuterium. Decontamination factors (ration of inlet and outlet tritium concentrations) as high as 1000 have been achieved, depending on inlet concentration. The test results and some demonstrated applications are presented

  1. Tritium in the environment: origins and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baglan, N.

    2009-01-01

    The author recalls the chemical reactions at the origin of tritium formation, that tritium has been introduced in the atmosphere by nuclear tests, and that it is now produced by nuclear reactors. He also outlines that tritium is mainly released in waters (oceans, seas, rivers) or in the atmosphere. Some high concentrations may therefore occur. He discusses measurements of activity in rain waters and surface waters, and outlines the impact of the end of atmospheric nuclear tests. He discusses the technical challenges of low level tritium analysis and activity measurement

  2. Pathogenese der Endometriose

    OpenAIRE

    Samartzis, E P; Imesch, P; Fink, D

    2012-01-01

    Ein grundlegendes Verständnis der Pathogenese der Endometriose ist eine zwingende Voraussetzung zur Etablierung neuer und wirksamer Therapieoptionen. Dabei erscheint die Endometriose als heterogene Gruppe von Krankheitsformen, die sich unterschiedlich manifestieren. Dies erklärt, weshalb die genaue Pathogenese der Endometriose bis heute ein nicht abschliessend erforschtes Gebiet bleibt.

  3. van der Waals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    University education was beyond reach for van der Waals as he had to work for earning his daily bread ... languages, which was a prerequisite for entering a University those days. van der Waals worked as a school ... take academic examinations at the University yet, van der Waals continued studying at Leiden. University ...

  4. Tritium transport and release from lithium ceramic breeder materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.E.; Kopasz, J.P.; Tam, S.W.

    1994-01-01

    In an operating fusion reactor,, the tritium breeding blanket will reach a condition in which the tritium release rate equals the production rate. The tritium release rate must be fast enough that the tritium inventory in the blanket does not become excessive. Slow tritium release will result in a large tritium inventory, which is unacceptable from both economic and safety viewpoints As a consequence, considerable effort has been devoted to understanding the tritium release mechanism from ceramic breeders and beryllium neutron multipliers through theoretical, laboratory, and in-reactor studies. This information is being applied to the development of models for predicting tritium release for various blanket operating conditions

  5. Determination of tritium by counting; Dosage du tritium par comptage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schott, R.; Froment, G.; Pinson, J.; Genty, C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France). Centre d' Etudes

    1968-07-01

    Ionisation chamber assay of tritium in any gaseous mixture is a simple, fast and accurate method. We used the method of relative determination by comparison to a standard rather than the method of absolute assay in which case the constants are known with too little accuracy. The efficiency of the chamber was studied in connection to the pressure inside the chamber and its total volume. The calibration is linear in the range we are taking into account (1 to 80 millicuries). The reproducibility of the method is good: 13 runs gave a coefficient of variation of 1.6 per cent. The relative accuracy was found equal to {+-} 1.3 per cent. To end the paper, we describe in detail the apparatus and the ways of proceedings. (authors) [French] Le comptage du tritium par chambre d'ionisation est une methode simple, rapide et precise pour determiner la teneur en tritium d'un melange gazeux quelconque. Nous avons prefere utiliser la methode de determination relative par rapport a un etalon car, dans le cas d'une determination absolue, les constantes sont connues avec une trop grande incertitude. L'efficacite de la chambre a ete etudiee en fonction de la variation de la pression d'argon a l'interieur de la chambre et du volume total, de cette derniere. L'etalonnage s'est revele lineaire dans le domaine de mesures qui nous interessaient (1 a 80 millicuries). La reproductibillte de la methode est tres bonne, le coefficient de variation pour une serie de 13 essais etant de 1,6 pour cent, quant a la precision relative, elle a ete evaluee a {+-} 1,3 pour cent. Pour terminer, nous donnons une description detaillee de l'appareillage utilise et du mode operatoire suivi. (auteurs)

  6. The effective cost of tritium for tokamak fusion power reactors with reduced tritium production systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilligan, J.G.; Evans, K.

    1983-01-01

    If sufficient tritium cannot be produced and processed in tokamak blankets then at least two alternatives are possible. Tritium can be purchased; or reactors with reduced tritium (RT) content in the plasma can be designed. The latter choice may require development of magnet technology etc., but the authors show that the impact on the cost-of-electricity may be mild. Cost tradeoffs are compared to the market value of tritium. Adequate tritium production in fusion blankets is preferred, but the authors show there is some flexibility in the deployment of fusion if this is not possible

  7. Transfer and incorporation of tritium in mammals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoek, J. van den; Juan, N.B.

    1979-01-01

    The metabolism of tritium in mammals has been studied in a number of laboratories which have participated in the IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme on the Behaviour of Tritium in the Environment. The results of these studies are discussed and related to data obtained elsewhere. The animals studied are small laboratory and domestic animals. Tritium has been administered as THO, both in single and long-term dosing experiments, and also as organically bound tritium. The biological half-life of tritium in the body water pool has been determined in different species. The following values have been found: 1.1 days in mice; 13.2 days in kangaroo rats; 3.8 days in pigs; 4.1 days in lactating versus 8.3 in non-lactating goats and 3.1-4.0 days in lactating cows and steers. Much attention has been paid to the incorporation of tritium into organic constituents, both in the animal organism (organs, tissues) and in the secretions of the animal after continuous administration of tritium, mostly as THO. When compared with tritium levels in body water, and expressed as the ratio of specific activities, values of 0.25 and 0.40 have been found in mice liver and testis respectively. In cow's milk, these ratios vary from 0.30 for casein to 0.60 for lactose. The transfer of tritium into milk after continuous ingestion of THO by a lactating cow is about 1.50% of the daily ingested tritium per litre of milk. Some results of experiments, utilizing organically bound tritium, are also presented. (author)

  8. Tritium sorption on protective coatings for concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.M.; Senohrabek, J.A.; Allsop, P.A.

    1992-11-01

    Because of the high sorption level of tritium on unprotected concrete, a program to examine the effectiveness of various concrete coatings and sealants in reducing tritium sorption was undertaken, and various exposure conditions were examined. Coatings of epoxy, polyurethane, bituminous sealant, bituminous sealant covered with polyvinylidene chloride wrap, alkyd paint, and sodium silicate were investigated with tritium (HTO) vapor concentration, humidity and contact time being varied. An exposure to HT was also carried out, and the effect of humidity on the tritium desorption rate was investigated. The relative effectiveness of the coatings was in the order of bituminous sealant + wrap > bituminous sealant > solvent-based epoxy > 100%-solids epoxy > alkyd paint > sodium silicate. The commercially available coatings for concrete resulted in tritium sorption being reduced to less than 7% of unprotected concrete. This was improved to ∼0.1% with the use of the Saran wrap (polyvinylidene chloride). The amount of tritium sorbed was proportional to tritium concentration. The total tritium sorbed decreased with an increase in humidity. A saturation effect was observed with increasing exposure time for both the coated and unprotected samples. Under the test conditions, complete saturation was not achieved within the maximum 8-hour contact time, except for the solvent-based epoxy. The desorption rate increased with a higher-humidity air purge stream. HT desorbed more rapidly than HTO, but the amount sorbed was smaller. The experimental program showed that HTO sorption by concrete can be significantly reduced with the proper choice of coating. However, tritium sorption on concrete and proposed coatings will continue to be a concern until the effects of the various conditions that affect the adsorption and desorption of tritium are firmly established for both chronic and acute tritium release conditions. Material sorption characteristics must also be considered in

  9. Application of tritium behavior simulation code (TBEHAVIOR) to an actual-scale tritium handling room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwai, Yasunori; Hayashi, Takumi; Kobayashi, Kazuhiro; Yamanishi, Toshihiko

    2007-11-01

    It is essential from the viewpoint of fusion safety to confine and remove tritium in a room since tritium handling room is placed as 'final barrier' of fusion plant to prevent the environmental discharge of tritium. At the Tritium Process Laboratory (TPL) of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), the application of our original three-dimensional TBEHAVIOR code to the tritium behavior in a room of 3000 m 3 was verified. The Renormalization Group Theory (RNG) model was selected as Low-Reynolds model for practical calculation time as well as to reasonable precision in evaluation of velocity from the engineering viewpoint. A series of evaluated results indicated that a flow adjacent to a wall surface plays an important role for tritium transport in a ventilated room. Evaluation of attenuating behavior is further important since the ventilation is normally stopped for the tritium confinement in the case of tritium leakage. We demonstrated that an attenuating behavior can also be evaluated well by the TBEHAVIOR code. Even an attenuating or stagnant flow of less than 10mm/s in a room mixed tritium concentration uniform promptly. The presence of apparatuses in a room did not generally affect tritium behavior. Although the effect of buoyancy was limited to the initial period after the leak, the spread of tritium was promoted by buoyancy. It led to the shortening of elapsed time until the concentration became uniform. (author)

  10. Doses due to tritium releases by NET - data base and relevant parameters on biological tritium behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diabate, S.; Strack, S.

    1990-12-01

    This study gives an overview on the current knowledge about the behaviour of tritium in plants and in food chains in order to evaluate the ingestion pathway modelling of existing computer codes for dose estimations. The tritium uptake and retention by plants standing at the beginning of the food chains is described. The different chemical forms of tritium, which may be released into the atmosphere (HT, HTO and tritiated organics), and incorporation of tritium into organic material of plants are considered. Uptake and metabolism of tritiated compounds in animals and man are reviewed with particular respect to organically bound tritium and its significance for dose estimations. Some basic remarks on tritium toxicity are also included. Furthermore, a choice of computer codes for dose estimations due to chronic or accidental tritium releases has been compared with respect to the ingestion pathway. (orig.) [de

  11. Tritium removal using vanadium hydride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, F.B.; Wong, Y.W.; Chan, Y.N.

    1978-01-01

    The results of an initial examination of the feasibility of separation of tritium from gaseous protium-tritium mixtures using vanadium hydride in cyclic processes is reported. Interest was drawn to the vanadium-hydrogen system because of the so-called inverse isotope effect exhibited by this system. Thus the tritide is more stable than the protide, a fact which makes the system attractive for removal of tritium from a mixture in which the light isotope predominates. The initial results of three phases of the research program are reported, dealing with studies of the equilibrium and kinetics properties of isotope exchange, development of an equilibrium theory of isotope separation via heatless adsorption, and experiments on the performance of a single heatless adsorption stage. In the equilibrium and kinetics studies, measurements were made of pressure-composition isotherms, the HT--H 2 separation factors and rates of HT--H 2 exchange. This information was used to evaluate constants in the theory and to understand the performance of the heatless adsorption experiments. A recently developed equilibrium theory of heatless adsorption was applied to the HT--H 2 separation using vanadium hydride. Using the theory it was predicted that no separation would occur by pressure cycling wholly within the β phase but that separation would occur by cycling between the β and γ phases and using high purge-to-feed ratios. Heatless adsorption experiments conducted within the β phase led to inverse separations rather than no separation. A kinetic isotope effect may be responsible. Cycling between the β and γ phases led to separation but not to the predicted complete removal of HT from the product stream, possibly because of finite rates of exchange. Further experimental and theoretical work is suggested which may ultimately make possible assessment of the feasibility and practicability of hydrogen isotope separation by this approach

  12. Environmental tritium monitoring around Tokai Reprocessing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamato, A.

    1982-01-01

    The environmental tritium monitoring in the sea near Tokai Reprocessing Plant has been performed since 1977, the year of having started the hot test operation of the plant. On the other hand, atmospheric tritium monitoring was started almost at the same time as a research program instead of a routine program. This paper is a review for tritium monitoring in the sea and in the air around the Tokai Reprocessing Plant. The plant is located in Tokai Village, Ibaraki Prefecture, on the Pacific coast. It is based on the Purex process, and the nominal capacity is 210 tons per year. Around the TRP, there are four uranium fabrication facilities, five research reactors, two power reactors and other research facilities. About 173,000 inhabitants are within 10 km range from the plant. The authorized discharge limit of tritium is 200 Ci per day and 51,100 Ci per year in the sea. That in the atmosphere is 50 Ci per day and about 15,000 Ci per year. The tritium from the TRP was discharged mainly into the sea. The sea water samples were distilled, and the tritium concentration was measured by liquid scintillation counting. During three years of the hot operation of TRP, discharged tritium was about 7,000 Ci into the sea and about 140 Ci into the atmosphere. The tritium level has been maintained, and its significant increase was not observed. (Kako, I.)

  13. Enantiospecific tritium labeling of 28-homocastasterone

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Elbert, Tomáš; Patil, Mahadeo Rajshekhar; Marek, Aleš

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 3 (2017), s. 176-182 ISSN 0362-4803 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400550801 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : 28-homocastasterone * brassinosteroids * enantiospecific reaction * tritium dehalogenation * tritium labeling Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry OBOR OECD: Organic chemistry Impact factor: 1.745, year: 2016

  14. Tritium labeling of detonation nanodiamonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Hugues A; El-Kharbachi, Abdelouahab; Garcia-Argote, Sébastien; Petit, Tristan; Bergonzo, Philippe; Rousseau, Bernard; Arnault, Jean-Charles

    2014-03-18

    For the first time, the radioactive labeling of detonation nanodiamonds was efficiently achieved using a tritium microwave plasma. According to our measurements, the total radioactivity reaches 9120 ± 120 μCi mg(-1), with 93% of (3)H atoms tightly bonded to the surface and up to 7% embedded into the diamond core. Such (3)H doping will ensure highly stable radiolabeled nanodiamonds, on which surface functionalization is still allowed. This breakthrough opens the way to biodistribution and pharmacokinetics studies of nanodiamonds, while this approach can be scalable to easily treat bulk quantities of nanodiamonds at low cost.

  15. Methane generated from graphite--tritium interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffin, D.O.; Walthers, C.R.

    1979-01-01

    When hydrogen isotopes are separated by cryogenic distillation, as little as 1 ppM of methane will eventually plug the still as frost accumulates on the column packings. Elemental carbon exposed to tritium generates methane spontaneously, and yet some dry transfer pumps, otherwise compatible with tritium, convey the gas with graphite rotors. This study was to determine the methane production rate for graphite in tritium. A pump manufacturer supplied graphite samples that we exposed to tritium gas at 0.8 atm. After 137 days we measured a methane synthesis rate of 6 ng/h per cm 2 of graphite exposed. At this rate methane might grow to a concentration of 0.01 ppM when pure tritium is transferred once through a typical graphite--rotor transfer pump. Such a low methane level will not cause column blockage, even if the cryogenic still is operated continuously for many years

  16. The organic tritium in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchmann, R.

    1979-01-01

    Sources, organization process, and biological availability of organic tritium released in the environment, transfer of organic tritium in the environment from methane or soil to plants and from food to mammals, transfer of tritium in aquatic ecosystems, and dose to man resulting of the ingestion of tritiated food were reviewed and discussed. Some data about transfer of organic tritium in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems reported by literatures were summarized and were supplied with recent data on biological accumulation of organic tritium in the food chain. It was stressed that more research must be done in future because data available were still insufficient. Last, some research programs in progress or planned were stated. (Tsunoda, M.)

  17. Handling of tritium-bearing wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The generation of nuclear power and reprocessing of nuclear fuel results in the production of tritium and the possible need to control the release of tritium-contaminated effluents. In assessing the need for controls, it is necessary to know the production rates of tritium at different nuclear facilities, the technologies available for separating tritium from different gaseous and liquid streams, and the methods that are satisfactory for storage and disposal of tritiated wastes. The intention in applying such control technologies and methods is to avoid undesirable effects on the environment, and to reduce the radiation burden on operational personnel and the general population. This technical report is a result of the IAEA Technical Committee Meeting on Handling of Tritium-bearing Effluents and Wastes, which was held in Vienna, 4 - 8 December 1978. It summarizes the main topics discussed at the meeting and appends the more detailed reports on particular aspects that were prepared for the meeting by individual participants

  18. DOE handbook: Tritium handling and safe storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The DOE Handbook was developed as an educational supplement and reference for operations and maintenance personnel. Most of the tritium publications are written from a radiological protection perspective. This handbook provides more extensive guidance and advice on the null range of tritium operations. This handbook can be used by personnel involved in the full range of tritium handling from receipt to ultimate disposal. Compliance issues are addressed at each stage of handling. This handbook can also be used as a reference for those individuals involved in real time determination of bounding doses resulting from inadvertent tritium releases. This handbook provides useful information for establishing processes and procedures for the receipt, storage, assay, handling, packaging, and shipping of tritium and tritiated wastes. It includes discussions and advice on compliance-based issues and adds insight to those areas that currently possess unclear DOE guidance.

  19. DOE handbook: Tritium handling and safe storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-03-01

    The DOE Handbook was developed as an educational supplement and reference for operations and maintenance personnel. Most of the tritium publications are written from a radiological protection perspective. This handbook provides more extensive guidance and advice on the null range of tritium operations. This handbook can be used by personnel involved in the full range of tritium handling from receipt to ultimate disposal. Compliance issues are addressed at each stage of handling. This handbook can also be used as a reference for those individuals involved in real time determination of bounding doses resulting from inadvertent tritium releases. This handbook provides useful information for establishing processes and procedures for the receipt, storage, assay, handling, packaging, and shipping of tritium and tritiated wastes. It includes discussions and advice on compliance-based issues and adds insight to those areas that currently possess unclear DOE guidance

  20. Disposal of tritium-exposed metal hydrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nobile, A.; Motyka, T.

    1991-01-01

    A plan has been established for disposal of tritium-exposed metal hydrides used in Savannah River Site (SRS) tritium production or Materials Test Facility (MTF) R ampersand D operations. The recommended plan assumes that the first tritium-exposed metal hydrides will be disposed of after startup of the Solid Waste Disposal Facility (SWDF) Expansion Project in 1992, and thus the plan is consistent with the new disposal requiremkents that will be in effect for the SWDF Expansion Project. Process beds containing tritium-exposed metal hydride powder will be disposed of without removal of the powder from the bed; however, disposal of tritium-exposed metal hydride powder that has been removed from its process vessel is also addressed

  1. Uptake of atmospheric tritium by market foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Y.; Tanaka-Miyamoto, K.; Iwakura, T.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper uptake of tritium by market foods from tritiated water vapor in the air is investigated using cereals and beans purchased in Deep River, Canada. The concentrations of tissue free water tritium (TFWT) and organically bound tritium (OBT) range from 12 to 79% and from 10 to 38% respectively, of that estimated for atmospheric water vapor of the sampling month. The specific activity ratios of OBT to TFWT were constant for cereals, but variable for beans. The elevated OBT was shown to be the result of isotopic exchange of labile hydrogen by the fact that washing the foods with tritium free-water reduced their tritium contents to levels characteristic of their production sites

  2. Experiences with decontaminating tritium-handling apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maienschein, J.L.; Garcia, F.; Garza, R.G.; Kanna, R.L.; Mayhugh, S.R.; Taylor, D.T.

    1992-01-01

    Tritium-handling apparatus has been decontaminated as part of the downsizing of the LLNL Tritium Facility. Two stainless-steel glove boxes that had been used to process lithium deuteride-tritide (LiDT) slat were decontaminated using the Portable Cleanup System so that they could be flushed with room air through the facility ventilation system. In this paper the details on the decontamination operation are provided. A series of metal (palladium and vanadium) hydride storage beds have been drained of tritium and flushed with deuterium, in order to remove as much tritium as possible. The bed draining and flushing procedure is described, and a calculational method is presented which allows estimation of the tritium remaining in a bed after it has been drained and flushed. Data on specific bed draining and flushing are given

  3. Management of Tritium in European Spallation Source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ene, Daniela; Andersson, Kasper Grann; Jensen, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    The European Spallation Source (ESS) will produce tritium via spallation and activation processes during operational activities. Within the location of ESS facility in Lund, Sweden site it is mandatory to demonstrate that the management strategy of the produced tritium ensures the compliance...... with the country regulation criteria. The aim of this paper is to give an overview of the different aspects of the tritium management in ESS facility. Besides the design parameter study of the helium coolant purification system of the target the consequences of the tritium releasing into the environment were also...... analyzed. Calculations shown that the annual release of tritium during the normal operations represents a small fraction from the estimated total dose. However, more refined calculations of migration of activated-groundwater should be performed for higher hydraulic conductivities, with the availability...

  4. Recent environmental tritium levels in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwakura, T.; Inoue, Y.; Tanaka, K.; Kasida, Y.

    1982-01-01

    Data of the tritium surveillance program are summarized for the period of 1967 through 1980. Samples of surface water, tap water, coastal sea water and ground water were collected from environs of commercial nuclear power plants and nuclear facilities, and were analyzed by liquid scintillation counting. Although the results show some differences in tritium concentrations in water samples from various part of the country, there is a general tendency of the concentration in surface waters to decline as a function of time. This implies that environmental waters in Japan generally have not been influenced by the discharged effluents of the facilities or the stations with regard to tritium contamination and that the tritium content of precipitation still plays the dominant role in reflecting annual variation of tritium concentration in surface waters. (J.P.N.)

  5. Diurnal variations of tritium uptake by plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hettinger, M.; Diabate, S.; Strack, S.

    1991-02-01

    The influence of the diurnal cycle is important for the behaviour of environmental tritium in the vegetation. A mathematical model has been used to calculate the deposition of tritium in plants as a function of diurnal variations of climatic parameters. The necessary physiological parameters (relationship of net photosynthesis and growth) were derived from growth experiments for tomatoes and maize. In chamber experiments, tomato and maize plants were exposed to tritium with natural diurnal variations of the climatic conditions. Within the range of standard deviations the measured concentrations of tritium in tissue free water of tomatoes correspond well to the estimated values. Furthermore, the incorporation into non-exchangeable organically bound tritium (OBT nx) can be sufficiently modelled and explained. There are deviations from the estimated concentrations in some parts of maize leaves. (orig.) [de

  6. Influence of autochthonous micro-organisms on sorption and remobilization of technetium and selenium. Final report; Einfluss der autochthonen Mikroflora auf die Sorption und Remobilisierung des Technetiums und des Selens. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maue, G.; Stroetmann, I.; Dott, W. [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Fachgebiet Umwelthygiene; Taute, T.; Winkler, A.; Pekdeger, A. [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Fachrichtung Rohstoff- und Umweltgeologie

    1996-10-31

    Within this research project the influence of autochthonous mirco-organisms on immobilization and remobilization of Technetium and Selenium was investigated. Both redoxsensitive radionuclides are part of the waste of nuclear fuel (Tc app. 6%). Former investigations have shown, that immobilization behaviour of both elements could be influenced by micro-organisms. It has not been known, if the autochthonous (or in situ) organisms from greater depth do also have an influence on radionuclide mobility. The autochthonous populations of micro-organisms in deep sediments and their influence on the migration of Tc and Se were investigated in this study. For this reason recirculation column experiments were carried out. Absolutely sterile and anaerobic handling was necessary for the sampling and the further treatment of the sediments and waters used in the experiments. Therefor special methods for sampling, storage and handling had been developed. The results of recirculation column test with autochthonous micro-organisms were compared with sterile parallel tests and were verified with the results of an elaborated version of the hydrogeochemical equilibration code PHREEQE. It was shown that the autochthonous micro-organisms had only very little influence on the migration behaviour. The reason is the very low population (less than 10 E+6 CFU). Nevertheless it has to be taken into consideration, that conventional laboratory experiments for the estimation of the retention capacities of sediments for hazardous waste lead to an overestimation, if the sediments are contaminated with allochthonous micro-organisms (CFU=colony forming units). (orig.) [Deutsch] In dem Forschungsvorhaben wurde der Einfluss der autochthonen Mikroorgansimen auf die Mobilitaet von Technetium und Selen untersucht. Beide redoxsensitiven Radionuklide sind im Abfall von Kernbrennelementen enthalten (Tc ca. 6%). Aus vorangegangenen Forschungsarbeiten ist bekannt, dass die Mobilitaet der beiden Elemente durch

  7. Investigation of the radiation risk in mouse embryos - malformations, cytogenetic alterations and mechanisms; Untersuchungen zum Strahlenrisiko in der fruehen Schwangerschaft der Maus - Fehlbildungen, zytogenetische Veraenderungen und Mechanismen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streffer, C.; Mueller, W.U.; Bauch, T.; Hillebrandt, S.; Wojcik, A.

    1998-12-31

    The project research work summarized in this concluding report was to investigate the radiosensitivity of pre-implantation mouse embryos with regard to various biological development stages. The results are: The radiotoxicity of tritium very strongly depends on the localisation of decaying nuclides in the cell. In mouse strains with a genetic predisposition for certain malformations, these have been found to be induced also by irradiation of pre-implantation embryos, which contradicts earlier statements. The malformations may also be accompanied by modifications in the expression of proteins in the liver of the damaged fetuses. By way of backcrossing experiments it was found that three gene loci are involved in the expression of gastroschisis. Irradiation of one-cell embryos allows determination of chromosome aberrations at the 1., second, and 3. post-irradiation mitotic division. The embryos revealed a very differentiated mechanism of DNA repair after irradiation. The G2 block obviously is a reaction of the cell for achieving DNA repair. No `adaptive response` was found upon low-dose irradiation. (MG/CB) [Deutsch] In dem Forschungsvorhaben, ueber das hier abschliessend berichtet wird, wurde die Strahlenempfindlichkeit von Praeimplantationsembryonen der Maus mit verschiedenen biologischen Endpunkten untersucht. Es wurden folgende Ergebnisse erzielt: Die Radiotoxizitaet von Tritium haengt sehr stark von der Lokalisation der zerfallenden Tritiumnuklide in der Zelle ab. Bei Maeusestaemmen mit einer genetischen Praedisposition fuer bestimmte Fehlbildungen werden diese entgegen frueheren Regeln auch durch eine Bestrahlung der Embryonen in der Praeimplantationsphase verursacht. Es treten auch Veraenderungen in der Expression von Proteinenin der Leber der missgebildeten Foeten auf. Durch Rueckkreuzungsexperimente wurde festgestellt, dass drei Gen-Loci an der Auspraegung der Gastroschisis beteiligt sind. Eine Bestrahlung im 1-Zell-Stadium gibt die Moeglichkeit

  8. Tritium behavior in an aquatic ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komatsu, K.

    1982-01-01

    Tritium behavior in aquatic organisms through a model food chain was investigated. In this model food chain, tritium in water reaches bacteria or Japanese killifish via diatoms and brine shrimps. Tritium accumulation in these organisms as organic bound form was expressed as the R value which is defined as the ratio of tritium specific activity in lyophilized organisms (μCi/gH) to that in water (μCi/gH). The maximum R values were 0.5 in diatoms: Chaetoceros gracilis, 0.2 in bacteria: Escherichia coli, 0.5 in brine shrimps: Artemia salina, and 0.32 in Japanese killifish: Oryzias latipes under the growing condition in which tritium accumulation was due to tritium in tritiated water and not tritiated foods. Brine shrimps and Japanese killifish were grown from larve to adult in tritiated sea water and were fed on tritiated foods (model food chain). Their R values were 0.70 and 0.67, respectively. Bacteria, which grew in tritiated water by adding the hydrolysate of tritiated brine shrimps, showed a maximum R value at 0.32. The R values of each organ of Japanese killifish and of DNA and the nucleotides purified from brine shrimps growing in tritiated water with or without tritiated food were measured to estimate the tritium distribution in the body or various molecules of the organisms. These results did not indicate concentration of tritium in specific organs or compounds. The changes of specific activity of tritium in these organisms were measured when they were transferred to non-tritiated water. These retention of tritium was not only different among the tissues but also depended on whether or not the organisms were reared with tritiated foods. (author)

  9. Tritium decay helium-3 effects in tungsten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shimada

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Tritium (T implanted by plasmas diffuses into bulk material, especially rapidly at elevated temperatures, and becomes trapped in neutron radiation-induced defects in materials that act as trapping sites for the tritium. The trapped tritium atoms will decay to produce helium-3 (3He atoms at a half-life of 12.3 years. 3He has a large cross section for absorbing thermal neutrons, which after absorbing a neutron produces hydrogen (H and tritium ions with a combined kinetic energy of 0.76 MeV through the 3He(n,HT nuclear reaction. The purpose of this paper is to quantify the 3He produced in tungsten by tritium decay compared to the neutron-induced helium-4 (4He produced in tungsten. This is important given the fact that helium in materials not only creates microstructural damage in the bulk of the material but alters surface morphology of the material effecting plasma-surface interaction process (e.g. material evolution, erosion and tritium behavior of plasma-facing component materials. Effects of tritium decay 3He in tungsten are investigated here with a simple model that predicts quantity of 3He produced in a fusion DEMO FW based on a neutron energy spectrum found in literature. This study reveals that: (1 helium-3 concentration was equilibrated to ∼6% of initial/trapped tritium concentration, (2 tritium concentration remained approximately constant (94% of initial tritium concentration, and (3 displacement damage from 3He(n,HT nuclear reaction became >1 dpa/year in DEMO FW.

  10. TRITIUM RESERVOIR STRUCTURAL PERFORMANCE PREDICTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, P.S.; Morgan, M.J

    2005-11-10

    The burst test is used to assess the material performance of tritium reservoirs in the surveillance program in which reservoirs have been in service for extended periods of time. A materials system model and finite element procedure were developed under a Savannah River Site Plant-Directed Research and Development (PDRD) program to predict the structural response under a full range of loading and aged material conditions of the reservoir. The results show that the predicted burst pressure and volume ductility are in good agreement with the actual burst test results for the unexposed units. The material tensile properties used in the calculations were obtained from a curved tensile specimen harvested from a companion reservoir by Electric Discharge Machining (EDM). In the absence of exposed and aged material tensile data, literature data were used for demonstrating the methodology in terms of the helium-3 concentration in the metal and the depth of penetration in the reservoir sidewall. It can be shown that the volume ductility decreases significantly with the presence of tritium and its decay product, helium-3, in the metal, as was observed in the laboratory-controlled burst tests. The model and analytical procedure provides a predictive tool for reservoir structural integrity under aging conditions. It is recommended that benchmark tests and analysis for aged materials be performed. The methodology can be augmented to predict performance for reservoir with flaws.

  11. Issues Associated with Tritium Legacy Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, Michael

    2008-01-01

    This paper highlights some of the issues associated with the treatment of legacy materials linked to research into tritium over many years and also of materials used to contain or store tritium. The aim of the work is to recover tritium where practicable, and to leave the residual materials passively safe, either for disposal or for continued storage. A number of materials are currently stored at AWE which either contain tritium or have been used in tritium processing. It is essential that these materials are characterised such that a strategy may be developed for their safe stewardship, and ultimately for their treatment and disposal. Treatment processes for such materials are determined by the application of best practicable means (BPM) studies in accordance with the requirements of the Environment Agency of England and Wales. Clearly, it is necessary to understand the objectives of legacy material treatment / processing and the technical options available before a definitive BPM study is implemented. The majority of tritium legacy materials with which we are concerned originate from the decommissioning of a facility that was operational from the late 1950's through to the late 1990's when, on post-operative clear-out (POCO), the entire removable and transportable tritium inventory was moved to new, purpose built facilities. One of the principle tasks to be undertaken in the new facilities is the treatment of the legacy materials to recover tritium wherever practicable, and render the residual materials passively safe for disposal or continued storage. Where tritium recovery was not reasonably or technically feasible, then a means to assure continued safe storage was to be devised and implemented. The legacy materials are in the following forms: - Uranium beds which may or may not contain adsorbed tritium gas; - Tritium gas stored in containers; - Tritide targets for neutron generation; - Tritides of a broad spectrum of metals manufactured for research / long

  12. PDRD (SR13046) TRITIUM PRODUCTION FINAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, P.; Sheetz, S.

    2013-09-30

    Utilizing the results of Texas A&M University (TAMU) senior design projects on tritium production in four different small modular reactors (SMR), the Savannah River National Laboratory’s (SRNL) developed an optimization model evaluating tritium production versus uranium utilization under a FY2013 plant directed research development (PDRD) project. The model is a tool that can evaluate varying scenarios and various reactor designs to maximize the production of tritium per unit of unobligated United States (US) origin uranium that is in limited supply. The primary module in the model compares the consumption of uranium for various production reactors against the base case of Watts Bar I running a nominal load of 1,696 tritium producing burnable absorber rods (TPBARs) with an average refueling of 41,000 kg low enriched uranium (LEU) on an 18 month cycle. After inputting an initial year, starting inventory of unobligated uranium and tritium production forecast, the model will compare and contrast the depletion rate of the LEU between the entered alternatives. This is an annual tritium production rate of approximately 0.059 grams of tritium per kilogram of LEU (g-T/kg-LEU). To date, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) license has not been amended to accept a full load of TPBARs so the nominal tritium production has not yet been achieved. The alternatives currently loaded into the model include the three light water SMRs evaluated in TAMU senior projects including, mPower, Holtec and NuScale designs. Initial evaluations of tritium production in light water reactor (LWR) based SMRs using optimized loads TPBARs is on the order 0.02-0.06 grams of tritium per kilogram of LEU used. The TAMU students also chose to model tritium production in the GE-Hitachi SPRISM, a pooltype sodium fast reactor (SFR) utilizing a modified TPBAR type target. The team was unable to complete their project so no data is available. In order to include results from a fast reactor, the SRNL

  13. Tritium module for ITER/Tiber system code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finn, P.A.; Willms, S.; Busigin, A.; Kalyanam, K.M.

    1988-01-01

    A tritium module was developed for the ITER/Tiber system code to provide information on capital costs, tritium inventory, power requirements and building volumes for these systems. In the tritium module, the main tritium subsystems/emdash/plasma processing, atmospheric cleanup, water cleanup, blanket processing/emdash/are each represented by simple scaleable algorithms. 6 refs., 2 tabs

  14. Optimization of tritium management within the ITER project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortes, P.; Elbez-Uzan, J.; Glugla, M.; Rosanvallon, S.; Ciattaglia, S.; Iseli, M.; Rodriguez-Rodrigo, L.

    2009-01-01

    The authors describe the tritium cycle existing within the ITER project and which has been considered since its beginning. They indicate how confinement systems ensure tritium confinement, how tritium is recovered and processed. They indicate the different tritium management optimization ways which have been identified and integrated into the ITER design

  15. 10 CFR 39.55 - Tritium neutron generator target sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tritium neutron generator target sources. 39.55 Section 39... Equipment § 39.55 Tritium neutron generator target sources. (a) Use of a tritium neutron generator target....77. (b) Use of a tritium neutron generator target source, containing quantities exceeding 1,110 GBg...

  16. Dienogest (DNG in der Therapie der Endometriose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebert AD

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Schon seit Jahren sind Gestagene in der Therapie der Endometriose etabliert. Dienogest (DNG, als „neues Gestagen“ der 19- Nortestosteron-Gruppe propagiert, nimmt eine Sonderstellung ein. DNG zeigt eine relativ starke antiandrogene Wirkung sowie auch eine günstige Pharmakokinetik. Bereits kurz nach seiner Entwicklung (1979 wurde es aufgrund seiner starken Wirkung am Endometrium als effektive endokrine Therapieoption bei Endometriose untersucht. Mehrere Studien mit etablierten GnRHAnaloga zeigten einen vergleichbaren Effekt von DNG auf den Endpunkt Schmerz mit deutlich geringeren Nebenwirkungen. DNG ist seit 2009 als Visanne® in der Dosierung 2 mg/d auf dem Markt und als Therapie bei Endometriose zugelassen. Diese neue Therapieoption ist ein weiterer wichtiger Schritt in Richtung der Endometriosetherapieoptimierung. Die stadiengerechte endokrine Endometriosetherapie wurde nach den GnRH-Analoga, den vorhandenen Gestagenen, den kombinierten oralen Kontrazeptiva nun durch ein weiteres effektives Präparat – DNG – bereichert. Obwohl Dienogest nach Studienlage eine effektive Langzeittherapie mit guter Lebensqualität bietet, wird auch dieses interessante Präparat noch nicht das Ende unserer Bemühungen darstellen können, innovative Ansätze für die kausale Therapie der Endometriose zu suchen und zu finden.

  17. Tritium distributing in stainless steel determined by chemical etchin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong Yifu; Luo Deli; Chen Changan; Chen Shicun; Jing Wenyong

    2009-01-01

    The depth distribution of tritium in stainless steel was measured by chemical etching. The results show that the method can more quantitatively evaluate the tritium distributing in stainless steel. The maximum amount of tritium which distributed in crystal lattice of stainless steel is limitted by its solubility at room temperature. The other form of tritium in stainless steel is gaseous tritium that are trapped by defects, impurities, fractures, etc. within it. The gaseous tritium is several times more than the solid-dissolved tritium. (authors)

  18. Tritium monitor with improved gamma-ray discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Samson A.; Bennett, Edgar F.; Yule, Thomas J.

    1985-01-01

    Apparatus and method for selective measurement of tritium oxide in an environment which may include other radioactive components and gamma radiation, the measurement including the selective separation of tritium oxide from a sample gas through a membrane into a counting gas, the generation of electrical pulses individually representative by rise times of tritium oxide and other radioactivity in the counting gas, separation of the pulses by rise times, and counting of those pulses representative of tritium oxide. The invention further includes the separate measurement of any tritium in the sample gas by oxidizing the tritium to tritium oxide and carrying out a second separation and analysis procedure as described above.

  19. Tritium Decay Helium-3 Effects in Tungsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimada, M. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Merrill, B. J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-06-01

    A critical challenge for long-term operation of ITER and beyond to a Demonstration reactor (DEMO) and future fusion reactor will be the development of plasma-facing components (PFCs) that demonstrate erosion resistance to steady-state/transient heat fluxes and intense neutral/ion particle fluxes under the extreme fusion nuclear environment, while at the same time minimizing in-vessel tritium inventories and permeation fluxes into the PFC’s coolant. Tritium will diffuse in bulk tungsten at elevated temperatures, and can be trapped in radiation-induced trap site (up to 1 at. % T/W) in tungsten [1,2]. Tritium decay into helium-3 may also play a major role in microstructural evolution (e.g. helium embrittlement) in tungsten due to relatively low helium-4 production (e.g. He/dpa ratio of 0.4-0.7 appm [3]) in tungsten. Tritium-decay helium-3 effect on tungsten is hardly understood, and its database is very limited. Two tungsten samples (99.99 at. % purity from A.L.M.T. Co., Japan) were exposed to high flux (ion flux of 1.0x1022 m-2s-1 and ion fluence of 1.0x1026 m-2) 0.5%T2/D2 plasma at two different temperatures (200, and 500°C) in Tritium Plasma Experiment (TPE) at Idaho National Laboratory. Tritium implanted samples were stored at ambient temperature in air for more than 3 years to investigate tritium decay helium-3 effect in tungsten. The tritium distributions on plasma-exposed was monitored by a tritium imaging plate technique during storage period [4]. Thermal desorption spectroscopy was performed with a ramp rate of 10°C/min up to 900°C to outgas residual deuterium and tritium but keep helium-3 in tungsten. These helium-3 implanted samples were exposed to deuterium plasma in TPE to investigate helium-3 effect on deuterium behavior in tungsten. The results show that tritium surface concentration in 200°C sample decreased to 30 %, but tritium surface concentration in 500°C sample did not alter over the 3 years storage period, indicating possible tritium

  20. Kants Theorie der Sonne: Physikgeschichte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobi, Manfred

    2005-01-01

    Im Rahmen seiner Kosmogonie entwickelte der junge Immanuel Kant eine Theorie der Sonne. Sie ist ein einzigartiges Zeugnis seiner intuitiven Vorstellungskraft und beweist auch die Leistungsfähigkeit der damaligen, vorwiegend von Newton geprägten Weltsicht. Entstehung, Aufbau und Dynamik der Sonne werden in Kants Theorie ebenso erklärt wie etwa das Phänomen der Sonnenflecken.

  1. Tritium Room Air Monitor Operating Experience Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. C. Cadwallader; B. J. Denny

    2008-09-01

    Monitoring the breathing air in tritium facility rooms for airborne tritium is a radiological safety requirement and a best practice for personnel safety. Besides audible alarms for room evacuation, these monitors often send signals for process shutdown, ventilation isolation, and cleanup system actuation to mitigate releases and prevent tritium spread to the environment. Therefore, these monitors are important not only to personnel safety but also to public safety and environmental protection. This paper presents an operating experience review of tritium monitor performance on demand during small (1 mCi to 1 Ci) operational releases, and intentional airborne inroom tritium release tests. The tritium tests provide monitor operation data to allow calculation of a statistical estimate for the reliability of monitors annunciating in actual tritium gas airborne release situations. The data show a failure to operate rate of 3.5E-06/monitor-hr with an upper bound of 4.7E-06, a failure to alarm on demand rate of 1.4E-02/demand with an upper bound of 4.4E-02, and a spurious alarm rate of 0.1 to 0.2/monitor-yr.

  2. Thermal release of tritium from SS316

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torikai, Y.; Naoe, S.; Penzhorn, R.D.; Akaishi, K.; Watanabe, K.; Matsuyama, M.

    2007-01-01

    In an effort to improve current understanding of the mechanisms controlling the long-term release of tritium incorporated thermally into stainless steel SS316 and to develop reliable as well as economically feasible techniques for the conditioning of tritium-containing metallic wastes, a systematic investigation is underway in Toyama under carefully controlled conditions. The release rate of tritium from SS316 at ambient pressure was determined experimentally in a flow system at several constant temperatures within the range 287-573 K for rather extended periods of time. Under these conditions HTO was found to constitute by far the most important tritium-containing species being released, i.e. approx. 99 %. Much data has accumulated in recent years with a variety of specimens, i.e. type of stainless steel and specimen dimension, loaded with tritium under different pressure and temperature conditions. Dynamic behavior of long-term tritium release has been successfully modeled using a onedimensional diffusion equation and assuming that the release rate is governed by the tritium flux at the metal surface boundary. The implications of the results for interim storage and thermal conditioning of stainless steel waste will be discussed. (orig.)

  3. Cernavoda NPP - Management of internal tritium exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chitu, Catalina; Popescu, Ion; Samson, Liliana; Simionov, Vasile

    2010-01-01

    Full text: During normal operation of a CANDU nuclear power plant significant tritium quantities are generated. Through design solutions that have been implemented we manage to control the tritium losses from the reactor systems and keep them as low as possible. Special dryers are designed and are used to remove moisture from different ventilation systems of a CANDU reactor in order to maintain tritium in air concentration and gaseous tritium emissions below the limits established by the national authorities. Vapor Recovery System is designed to control tritium in air concentration and to recover heavy water loss from PHT and Moderator Systems and to control the air circulation, providing atmosphere separation between different areas of the Reactor Building. Cernavoda NPP developed a special strategy in order to control workers' internal exposures to tritium and dedicated programs are running to implement this strategy: improvement of radiation protection procedures; increasing equipment performances; leakages prevention through maintenance program; finalization of the de-tritiation facility. This paper presents the evolution of workers tritium exposure and emphasizes the results of the ALARA policy promoted by Cernavoda NPP management. (authors)

  4. Risks of tritium and their mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichimasa, Y.; Shiba, H.; Ichimasa, M.; Chikuuti, M.; Akita, Y.

    1992-01-01

    In this study, the effects of an antibacterial drug, norfloxacin, and an antibiotic, clindamycin, on in vivo oxidation of tritium gas in rats were investigated. Wistar strain male rats were used. They were provided with a standard diet, water ad libitum, and maintained in glass metabolic cages of approximately 20 liters capacity. The air flow and temperature were controlled. To investigate the availability of norfloxacin and clindamycin on the inhibition effects of the oxidation of tritium gas, two types of the experiments were conducted one was that, before the exposure to tritium gas for 2 hours, norfloxacin or clindamycin was administrated to rats three times a day for 4 days, and the other was administration of a drug after tritium gas exposure. After the exposure to tritium gas, blood, the liver, urine and feces samples were collected from rats and the radioactivity of them was determined after combustion using a sample oxidizer. In the case of norfloxacin, tritium concentration in rat body decreased one fifth of that in non-treated rats. On the other hand, administration of clindamycin shortened the biological half-life of tritium in urine to three fifth of that of non-treated rats. (author)

  5. Quick management of accidental tritium exposure cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vishwanath P; Badiger, N M; Managanvi, S S; Bhat, H R

    2012-07-01

    Removal half-life (RHL) of tritium is one of the best means for optimising medical treatment, reduction of committed effective dose (CED) and quick/easy handling of a large group of workers for medical treatment reference. The removal of tritium from the body depends on age, temperature, relative humidity and daily rainfall; so tritium removal rate, its follow-up and proper data analysis and recording are the best techniques for management of accidental acute tritium exposed cases. The decision of referring for medical treatment or medical intervention (MI) would be based on workers' tritium RHL history taken from their bodies at the facilities. The workers with tritium intake up to 1 ALI shall not be considered for medical treatment as it is a derived limit of annual total effective dose. The short-term MI may be considered for tritium intake of 1-10 ALI; however, if the results show intake ≥100 ALI, extended strong medical/therapeutic intervention may be recommended based on the severity of exposure for maximum CED reduction requirements and annual total effective dose limit. The methodology is very useful for pressurized heavy water reactors (PHWRs) which are mainly operated by Canada and India and future fusion reactor technologies. Proper management will optimise the cases for medical treatment and enhance public acceptance of nuclear fission and fusion reactor technologies.

  6. Isotopic fractionation of tritium in biological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Goff, Pierre; Fromm, Michel; Vichot, Laurent; Badot, Pierre-Marie; Guétat, Philippe

    2014-04-01

    Isotopic fractionation of tritium is a highly relevant issue in radiation protection and requires certain radioecological considerations. Sound evaluation of this factor is indeed necessary to determine whether environmental compartments are enriched/depleted in tritium or if tritium is, on the contrary, isotopically well-distributed in a given system. The ubiquity of tritium and the standard analytical methods used to assay it may induce biases in both the measurement and the signification that is accorded to the so-called fractionation: based on an exhaustive review of the literature, we show how, sometimes large deviations may appear. It is shown that when comparing the non-exchangeable fraction of organically bound tritium (neOBT) to another fraction of tritium (e.g. tritiated water) the preparation of samples and the measurement of neOBT reported frequently led to underestimation of the ratio of tritium to hydrogen (T/H) in the non-exchangeable compartment by a factor of 5% to 50%. In the present study, corrections are proposed for most of the biological matrices studied so far. Nevertheless, the values of isotopic fractionation reported in the literature remain difficult to compare with each other, especially since the physical quantities and units often vary between authors. Some improvements are proposed to better define what should encompass the concepts of exchangeable and non-exchangeable fractions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Quick management of accidental tritium exposure cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, V. P.; Badiger, N. M.; Managanvi, S. S.; Bhat, H. R.

    2008-01-01

    Removal half-life (RHL) of tritium is one of the best means for optimising medical treatment, reduction of committed effective dose (CED) and quick/easy handling of a large group of workers for medical treatment reference. The removal of tritium from the body depends on age, temperature, relative humidity and daily rainfall; so tritium removal rate, its follow-up and proper data analysis and recording are the best techniques for management of accidental acute tritium exposed cases. The decision of referring for medical treatment or medical intervention (MI) would be based on workers' tritium RHL history taken from their bodies at the facilities. The workers with tritium intake up to 1 ALI shall not be considered for medical treatment as it is a derived limit of annual total effective dose. The short-term MI may be considered for tritium intake of 1-10 ALI; however, if the results show intake ≥100 ALI, extended strong medical/therapeutic intervention may be recommended based on the severity of exposure for maximum CED reduction requirements and annual total effective dose limit. The methodology is very useful for pressurized heavy water reactors (PHWRs) which are mainly operated by Canada and India and future fusion reactor technologies. Proper management will optimise the cases for medical treatment and enhance public acceptance of nuclear fission and fusion reactor technologies. (authors)

  8. Conceptual design of tritium accountancy system for LLCB TBM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, Rudreksh; Sircar, Amit

    2017-01-01

    Lead Lithium Ceramic Breeder (LLCB) Test Blanket Module (TBM) will be tested in ITER for performance evaluation of high grade of heat extraction and tritium breeding. The bred tritium in the breeder materials is extracted and recovered by Tritium Extraction System (TES), whereas tritium permeated from breeder materials to helium coolants, viz., primary coolant and secondary coolant, is recovered by Coolant Purification System (CPS). This recovered tritium has to be accounted before transferring it to tritium plant (i.e., ITER inner fuel). This tritium accountancy is performed by Tritium Accountancy System (TAS). In addition to tritium accountancy, TAS also provides necessary data for the validation of design and modelling tools.In this work, we have presented conceptual design of TAS. It also describes operational philosophy, process parameters, process flow diagram, and interface details with ITER tritium plant. (author)

  9. Tritium system design studies of fusion experimental breeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Baiquan; Huang Jinhua

    2003-01-01

    A summary of the tritium system design studies for the engineering outline design of a fusion experimental breeder (FEB-E) is presented. This paper is divided into three sections. In first section, the geometry, loading features and tritium concentrations in liquid lithium of tritium breeding zones of blanket are described. The tritium flow chart corresponding to the tritium fuel cycle system has been constructed, and the inventories in ten subsystems are calculated using SWITRIM code in section 2. Results show that the necessary initial tritium storage to start up FEB-E with fusion power of 143 MW is about 319 g. In final section, the tritium leakage issues under different operation circumstances have been analyzed. It was found that the potential danger of tritium leakage could be resulted from the exhausted gas of the diverter system. It is important to elevate the tritium burnup fraction and reduce the tritium throughput. (authors)

  10. Tritium extraction technologies and DEMO requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demange, D., E-mail: david.demange@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Technical Physics, Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Antunes, R.; Borisevich, O.; Frances, L. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Technical Physics, Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Rapisarda, D. [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusión, EURATOM-CIEMAT, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Santucci, A. [ENEA for EUROfusion, Via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, Roma (Italy); Utili, M. [ENEA CR Brasimone, 40032 Camugnano, BO (Italy)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • We detail the R&D plan for tritium technology of the European DEMO breeding blanket. • We study advanced and efficient extraction techniques to improve tritium management. • We consider inorganic membranes and catalytic membrane reactor for solid blankets. • We consider permeator against vacuum and vacuum sieve tray for liquid blankets. - Abstract: The conceptual design of the tritium extraction system (TES) for the European DEMO reactor is worked out in parallel for four different breeding blankets (BB) retained by EUROfusion. The TES design has to be tackled in an integrated manner optimizing the synergy with the directly interfacing inner fuel cycle, while minimizing the tritium permeation into the coolant. Considering DEMO requirements, it is most likely that only advanced technologies will be suitable for the tritium extraction systems of the BB. This paper overviews the European work programme for R&D on tritium technology for the DEMO BB, summaries the general first outcomes, and details the specific and comprehensive R&D program to study experimentally immature but promising technologies such as vacuum sieve tray or permeator against vacuum for tritium extraction from PbLi, and advanced inorganic membranes and catalytic membrane reactor for tritium extraction from He. These techniques are simple, fully continuous, likely compact with contained energy consumption. Several European Laboratories are joining their efforts to deploy several new experimental setups to accommodate the tests campaigns that will cover small scale experiments with tritium and inactive medium scale tests so as to improve the technology readiness level of these advanced processes.

  11. Optimization of tritium management within the ITER project; Optimisation de la gestion du tritium dans le projet ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortes, P.; Elbez-Uzan, J.; Glugla, M.; Rosanvallon, S.; Ciattaglia, S.; Iseli, M.; Rodriguez-Rodrigo, L. [ITER Organization, CS 9 0046, 13067 St Paul lez Durance Cedex (France)

    2009-07-01

    The authors describe the tritium cycle existing within the ITER project and which has been considered since its beginning. They indicate how confinement systems ensure tritium confinement, how tritium is recovered and processed. They indicate the different tritium management optimization ways which have been identified and integrated into the ITER design

  12. Tritium labeling of amino acids and peptides with liquid and solid tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souers, P.C.; Coronado, P.R.; Peng, C.T.; Hua, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    Amino acids and peptides were labeled with liquid and solid tritium at 21/degree/K and 9/degree/K. At these low temperatures radiation degradation is minimal, and tritium incorporation increases with tritium concentration and exposure time. Ring saturation in L-phenylalanine does not occur. Peptide linkage in oligopeptides is stable toward tritium. Deiodination in 3-iodotyrosine and 3,5-diiodotyrosine occurs readily and proceeds in steps by losing one iodine atom at a time. Nickel and noble metal supported catalysts when used as supports for dispersion of the substrate promote tritium labeling at 21 K. Our study shows that both liquid and solid tritiums are potentially useful agents for labeling peptides and proteins

  13. Conversion of tritium gas to tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papagiannakopoulos, P.J.; Easterly, C.E.

    1979-05-01

    The mechanisms of conversion of tritium gas to tritiated water (HTO) have been examined for several tritium gaseous mixtures. The physical and chemical processes involved in the self-radiolysis of such mixtures have been analyzed and the kinetics involved in the formation of HTO has been presented. It has been determined that the formation of the H and/or OH free radicals, as intermediate species, are of significance in the formation of HTO. Therefore, the problem of reducing the rate of formation of tritiated water in a mixture of gaseous tritium with atmospheric components is one of finding an effective scavenger for the H and/or OH free radicals

  14. Preparation of honey sample for tritium monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Bingru; Wang Chenlian; Wang Weihua

    1989-01-01

    The method of preparation of honey sample for tritium monitoring was described. The equipments consist of an air and honey supply system, a quartz combustor with CM-type monolithic combustion catalyst and a condensation system. In the equipments, honey sample was converted into cooling water by the distilling, cracking and carbonizing procedures for tritium counting. The recovery ratio is 99.0 ± 4.5 percent for tritiated water and 96.0 ± 2.0 for tritiated organic compounds. It is a feasible preparing method for the total tritium monitoring in honey sample

  15. Tritium behaviour in ceramic breeder blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Tritium release from the candidate ceramic materials, Li 2 O, LiA10 2 , Li 2 SiO 3 , Li 4 SiO 4 and Li 2 ZrO 3 , is being investigated in many blanket programs. Factors that affect tritium release from the ceramic into the helium sweep gas stream include operating temperature, ceramic microstructure, tritium transport and solubility in the solid. A review is presented of the material properties studied and of the irradiation programs and the results are summarized. The ceramic breeder blanket concept is briefly reviewed

  16. Electrolytic gettering of tritium from air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souers, P.C.; Tsugawa, R.T.; Stevens, C.G.

    1983-01-01

    We have removed 90% of 1 part-per-million tritium gas in air of 25% to 35% humidity by the dc electrical action of the solid proton electrolyte hydrogen uranyl phosphate (HUP). Gettering takes 5 to 24 hours for a 1 cm 2 HUP disc at 2 to 4 V in a static, 1200 cc gas volume. Hydrogen gas may be used to flush captured tritium through the HUP. Liquid water leaches out the tritium but water vapor is ineffective. This technique promises an alternative to the conventional catalyst/zeolite method

  17. Aktuelle Diagnose der Osteoporose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallamar M

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Die Erfassung von klinischen und anamnestischen Risikofaktoren stellt die Basis der derzeitigen Osteoporose-Diagnostik dar. Sekundäre Ursachen für eine erniedrigte Knochendichte sind durch laborchemische und bildgebende Verfahren auszuschließen. Alle derzeit in klinischer Anwendung stehenden densitometrischen Verfahren können Aussagen über das individuelle Frakturrisiko des Patienten treffen. Die Dual X-ray-Absorptiometry (DXA gilt darüber hinaus als der Goldstandard in der Osteoporose-Diagnostik. Ziel der Diagnostik ist die Einleitung von geeigneten Maßnahmen bei Patienten mit erhöhtem Frakturrisiko.

  18. Tritium containing polymers having a polymer backbone substantially void of tritium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, G.A.; Nelson, D.A.; Molton, P.M.

    1992-03-31

    A radioluminescent light source comprises a solid mixture of a phosphorescent substance and a tritiated polymer. The solid mixture forms a solid mass having length, width, and thickness dimensions, and is capable of self-support. In one aspect of the invention, the phosphorescent substance comprises solid phosphor particles supported or surrounded within a solid matrix by a tritium containing polymer. The tritium containing polymer comprises a polymer backbone which is essentially void of tritium. 2 figs.

  19. Natural radionuclides in the environment. A contribution for the localization and characterization of natural hot particles in solid samples; Natuerliche Radionuklide in der Umwelt. Ein Beitrag zur Lokalisierung und Charakterisierung natuerlicher Heisser Teilchen in festen Proben

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehnke, A.

    2006-07-01

    In the present thesis appearance, spreading, origin, and mineralogical properties of natural hot particles are studied and the radioecological relevance of these particles judged. For this first relevent quaestions on radioactivity in the environment and on hot particles are theoretically treated. In the following detailedly the method of the autoradiography and solid-state track detectors is considered, which make possible to quote the precise position, the number and distribution of radioactive particles on the cutting area or surface of a sample. Basing on these methodical considerations by laboratory experiments determined track pattern formations of alpha emitters are documentated and interpreted. Starting from the knowledge obtained from this in the further part of the thesis a detection technique is developed, by means of which it is possible, to determine and mark the position of natural hot particles in sold samples. Thereafter follows a description of the electron-microscopical studies for the identification of the localized natural hot particles. Using the developed detection technique, as well as the electron-microscopical methods, a broad spectrum of samples - anthropogeneous depositions (industrial residues, industry products, by-products) and natural depositions (rocks, sediments, minerals) - is studied.

  20. Kinetic behaviour of tritium water in the simulated paddy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shouxiang; Chen Chuanqun; Zhang Yongxi; Sun Zhiming; Huang Dan; Hu Bingmin

    1993-02-01

    The dynamic process of movement and transportation for tritium water in the simulated paddy have been investigated. The results showed that after the paddy water was filled the tritium water not only was transferred to the components of the system but also was rapidly dissipated to the outside of the system. The states of tritium in the rice and soil were tritium of free water and bound tritium. The tritium concentration in the early paddy water and late paddy water was monotonously decreasing with the time increasing. The tritium concentration of free water in the overground part of early rice was increasing at begin, and reached to maximum at the 8th day, then went down. The tritium concentration in bound tritium was monotonously increasing, and at the 22th day it was higher than free water tritium. The tritium concentration in early rice root was lower than in the overground part. The tritium concentrations of free water tritium and bound tritium in the overground part and root of late rice were decreasing at the sampling period. The total tritium in the soil of early rice could reach the maximum value within one day and then it decreased, but in the soil of late rice it was monotonously decreasing with the time

  1. Tritium metabolism in cow's milk after administration of tritiated water and of organically bound tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoek, J. van den

    1982-01-01

    Tritium was administered as THO and as organically bound tritium (OBT) to lactating cows. Urine and milk samples were collected and analyzed for tritium content. Plateau levels in milk water and in milk fat, lactose and casein were reached in about 20 days after feeding either THO or OBT. Comparison of the specific activity (pCi 3 H/g H) of the various milk constituents with the specific activity of the body water showed that, after administration of THO, the highest tritium incorporation occurred in lactose (0.58), followed by milk fat (0.36) and casein (0.27). Tritium incorporation in milk dry matter (0.45) is considerably higher than in most tissue components of several mammalian species after continuous ingestion of THO as reported in the literature. After feeding OBT, the highest tritium incorporation occurred in milk fat and to a lesser extent in casein. Tritium levels in lactose were surprisingly low and the reason for this is not clear. They were similar to those in milk water. Tritium levels in milk and urine water showed systematic differences during administration of OBT and after this was stopped. There was more tritium in milk water until the last day of OBT feeding and this situation was reversed after this. (author)

  2. Overview of tritium processing development at the tritium systems test assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    The Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory has been operating with tritium since June 1984. Presently there are some 50 g of tritium in the main processing loop. This 50 g has been sufficient to do a number of experiments involving the cryogenic distillation isotope separation system and to integrate the fuel cleanup system into the main fuel processing loop. In January 1986 two major experiments were conducted. During these experiments the fuel cleanup system was integrated, through the transfer pumping system, with the isotope separation system, thus permitting testing on the integrated fuel processing loop. This integration of these systems leaves only the main vacuum system to be integrated into the TSTA fuel processing loop. In September 1986 another major tritium experiment was performed in which the integrated loop was operated, the tritium inventory increased to 50 g and additional measurements on the performance of the distillation system were taken. In the period June 1984 through September 1986 the TSTA system has processed well over 10 8 Ci of tritium. Total tritium emissions to the environment over this period have been less than 15 Ci. Personnel exposures during this period have totaled less than 100 person-mRem. To date, the development of tritium technology at TSTA has proceeded in progressive and orderly steps. In two years of operation with tritium, no major design flows have been uncovered

  3. Methods of tritium recovery from molten lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farookhi, R.; Rogers, J.E.

    1968-01-01

    It is important to keep the tritium inventory in a blanket of a thermonuclear reactor at a low level both to eliminate possible hydriding of structural components and to reduce inventory cost. Removing the tritium from a lithium blanket by fractional distillation, flash vaporization, and fractional crystallization was investigated. No definitive data are available either on the vapor-liquid equilibrium between lithium and tritium at low T 2 concentrations, or on the rate of formation and decomposition of lithium tritide. The final distinction between the recovery systems discussed in this report will depend on such data, but presently distillation appears to be the best alternate to the diffusion scheme proposed by A.P. Fraas. The capital cost of equipment necessary to remove tritium by distillation appears to be greater than 10 million dollars for a 5000 MW system, whereas the capital cost associated with the diffusion process has been estimated to be 4 million dollars

  4. Technologies for immobilization and disposal of tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coppari, N.R.

    1996-01-01

    This study was done within a program one of whose objectives was to know the state of the technology development for tritium separation in the moderator circuit at HWR and to define the possible technologies to be applied to the Argentine nuclear power plants. Within this framework the strategies adopted by each country and the available technologies for a safe disposal of tritium, not only in its gaseous state tritium but also as tritiated water were analyzed. It is considered that if the selected separation method is such that the tritium is in its gaseous state, the hydride formation for long periods of immobilization should be studied. whereas if it were triated water immobilization should be studied to choose the technology between cementation and drying agents, in both cases the final disposal site will have to be selected. (author). 8 refs

  5. Survey of pumps for tritium gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowell, T.M.

    1983-05-01

    This report considers many different types of pumps for their possible use in pumping tritium gas in the low, intermediate and high vacuum ranges. No one type of pump is suitable for use over the wide range of pumping pressure required in a typical pumping system. The favoured components for such a system are: bellows pump (low vacuum); orbiting scroll pump (intermediate vacuum); magnetically suspended turbomolecular pump (high vacuum); cryopump (high vacuum). Other pumps which should be considered for possible future development are: mound modified vane pump; SRTI wobble pump; roots pump with canned motor. It is proposed that a study be made of a future tritium pumping system in a Canadian tritium facility, e.g. a tritium laboratory

  6. Tritium proof-of-principle injector experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, P.W.; Milora, S.L.; Combs, S.K.; Carlson, R.V.; Coffin, D.O.

    1988-01-01

    The Tritium Proof-of-Principle (TPOP) pellet injector was designed and built by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to evaluate the production and acceleration of tritium pellets for fueling future fision reactors. The injector uses the pipe-gun concept to form pellets directly in a short liquid-helium-cooled section of the barrel. Pellets are accelerated by using high-pressure hydrogen supplied from a fast solenoid valve. A versatile, tritium-compatible gas-handling system provides all of the functions needed to operate the gun, including feed gas pressure control and flow control, plus helium separation and preparation of mixtures. These systems are contained in a glovebox for secondary containment of tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). 18 refs., 3 figs

  7. Tritium Measurements in Slovenia - Chronology Till 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logar, Jasmina Kozar; Vaupotic, Janja; Kobal, Ivan

    2005-01-01

    Almost all the analyses of tritium in Slovenia have been performed by the tritium laboratory at the Jozef Stefan Institute. Nearly 90 % of its measurements have been covered by two national programs, both approved by the Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration: the radioactive monitoring program in the environs of Krsko Nuclear Power Plant (KNPP) and the program of global radioactive contamination monitoring in the environment. These programs include samples of groundwaters, surface waters, precipitation and drinking waters, as well as liquid and gaseous effluents from KNPP. Tritium was determined in some research projects and in hydrological studies of thermal waters, groundwater and coalmine waters. Tritium in the Karst region was mapped as well as the springs of entire territory of Slovenia. Around 5500 samples have been analyzed up to 2004

  8. Tritium handling facility at KMS Fusion Inc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, C.C.; Vis, V.A.

    1990-01-01

    The tritium facility at KMS Fusion, Inc. supports the inertial confinement fusion research program. The main function of the facility is to fill glass and polymer Microshell (TM) capsules (small fuel containers) to a maximum pressure of 100 atm with tritium (T 2 ) or deuterium--tritium (DT). The recent upgrade of the facility allows us to fill Microshell capsules to a maximum pressure of 200 atm. A second fill port allows us to run long term fills of Macroshell (TM) capsules (large fuel containers) concurrently. The principle processes of the system are: (1) storage of the tritium as a uranium hydride; (2) pressure intensification using cryogenics; and (3) filling of the shells by permeation at elevated temperatures. The design of the facility was centered around a NRC license limit of 6000 Ci

  9. Tritium Inventory in ARIES-AT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longhurst, Glen R.

    2001-01-01

    This report documents an investigation into the tritium inventory expected in the ARIES-AT fusion reactor. ARIES-AT features silicon carbide fibers in a silicon carbide matrix as its primary construction. It uses the same fusion power core as the previous ARIES-RS. Based on experimental results of several researchers, consideration was given to swelling, sputtering, film coatings, erosion, and implantation. Estimates were made of tritium inventory using the TMAP4 code. About 700 g of tritium may be expected in the machine, two thirds of which would reside in the first wall. Under assumed accident conditions that involve first wall temperatures up to 1000 C, evolution of retained tritium may be expected to vary from 0.8 to nearly 40 percent depending on the temperature of the first wall

  10. Investigation of tritium in the aquatic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, L.K.

    1977-01-01

    The behavior, cycling and distribution of tritium in an aquatic ecosystem was studied in the field and in the laboratory from 1969 through 1971. Field studies were conducted in the Hudson River Estuary, encompassing a 30 mile region centered about the Indian Point Nuclear Plant. Samples of water, bottom sediment, rooted emergent aquatic plants, fish, and precipitation were collected over a year and a half period from more than 15 locations. Specialized equipment and systems were built to combust and freeze-dry aquatic media to remove and recover the loose water and convert the bound tritium into an aqueous form. An electrolysis system was set up to enrich the tritium concentrations in the aqueous samples to improve the analytical sensitivity. Liquid scintillation techniques were refined to measure the tritium activity in the samples. Over 300 samples were analyzed during the course of the study

  11. FDMH - The tritium model in RODOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galeriu, D.; Mateescu, G.; Melintescu, A.; Turcanu, C.; Raskob, W.

    2000-01-01

    Under the auspices of its RTD (Research and Technological Development) Framework Programmes, the European Commission has supported the development of the RODOS (Real-time On-line DecisiOn Support) system for off-site emergency management. The project started in 1989 focusing on PWR/LWR type accidents and using experience from the Chernobyl accident. In 1996 it was realised that tritium should be included in the list of radionuclides, as large tritium sources exist in Europe and to allow a potential expansion of the RODOS system for application on future fusion reactor accidents. The National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (IFIN-HH) in Romania - in close co-operation with the Research Centre Karlsruhe (FZK) - was charged to develop the tritium module, based on previous experience in environmental tritium modelling and the operation of CANDU reactor-based NPP in Romania (with potential tritium accidents). Tritium, being an isotope of hydrogen, is incorporated immediately in the life cycle and its transport into the biosphere differs considerably from other radionuclides treated by the RODOS system. Concentrations in the individual compartments may change very rapidly (hours) under varying environmental conditions and conversion to organic forms by biochemical and metabolic processes takes place in plants and animals. Consequently, the tritium code in RODOS was developed as a separate module and harmonisation in data sets and interfaces with other food chain modules integrated in RODOS was ensured. Presently, the tritium module - FDMH- is integrated and documented in the RODOS system, delivering time dependent tritium concentration (as tritiated water or organically bound tritium) in plant and animal products, inhalation dose and ingestion dose for various groups of population, after an accident emitting tritiated water and for up to 2520 locations around the source. FDMH incorporates many improved techniques in radiological assessment and makes

  12. Review of tritium behavior in HTGR systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gainey, B.W.

    1976-01-01

    The available experimental evidence from laboratory and reactor studies pertaining to tritium production, capture, release, and transport within an HTGR leading to release to the environment is reviewed. Possible mechanisms for release, capture, and transport are considered and a simple model was used to calculate the expected tritium release from HTGRs. Comparison with Federal regulations governing tritium release confirm that expected HTGR releases will be well within the allowable release limits. Releases from HTGRs are expected to be somewhat less than from LWRs based on the published LWR operating data. Areas of research deserving further study are defined but it is concluded that a tritium surveillance at Fort St. Vrain is the most immediate need

  13. Calibrations of a tritium extraction facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bretscher, M.M.; Oliver, B.M.; Farrar, H. IV.

    1983-01-01

    A tritium extraction facility has been built for the purpose of measuring the absolute tritium concentration in neutron-irradiated lithium metal samples. Two independent calibration procedures have been used to determine what fraction, if any, of tritium is lost during the extraction process. The first procedure compares independently measured 4 He and 3 H concentrations from the 6 Li(n,α)T reaction. The second procedure compared measured 6 Li(n,α)T/ 197 Au (n,γ) 198 Au thermal neutron reaction rate ratios with those obtained from Monte Carlo calculations using well-known cross sections. Both calibration methods show that within experimental errors (approx. 1.5%) no tritium is lost during the extraction process

  14. Tritium glovebox stripper system seismic design evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grinnell, J. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Klein, J. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-09-01

    The use of glovebox confinement at US Department of Energy (DOE) tritium facilities has been discussed in numerous publications. Glovebox confinement protects the workers from radioactive material (especially tritium oxide), provides an inert atmosphere for prevention of flammable gas mixtures and deflagrations, and allows recovery of tritium released from the process into the glovebox when a glovebox stripper system (GBSS) is part of the design. Tritium recovery from the glovebox atmosphere reduces emissions from the facility and the radiological dose to the public. Location of US DOE defense programs facilities away from public boundaries also aids in reducing radiological doses to the public. This is a study based upon design concepts to identify issues and considerations for design of a Seismic GBSS. Safety requirements and analysis should be considered preliminary. Safety requirements for design of GBSS should be developed and finalized as a part of the final design process.

  15. Tritium means of detection and of protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutra-Fourcade, Y.

    1967-01-01

    The report is an attempt to correlate present data concerning tritium, especially from the health physics points of view. The various detection and measurement methods are reviewed in turn: measurement of tritium in the atmosphere, in liquids and on surfaces. The operation of various types of apparatus is analyzed and the sensitivity limits deduced from laboratory tests are given. Otter sections are devoted to the means of protection which can be used against inhalation of tritium (ventilation, protective clothing) and to calculations of the changes in atmospheric pollution in a given place and of the time spent in a contaminated zone. The last part deals with the decontamination of equipment contaminated with tritium. (author) [fr

  16. Tritium Issues in Next Step Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.H. Skinner; G. Federici

    2001-09-05

    Tritium issues will play a central role in the performance and operation of next-step deuterium-tritium (DT) burning plasma tokamaks and the safety aspects associated with tritium will attract intense public scrutiny. The orders-of-magnitude increase in duty cycle and stored energy will be a much larger change than the increase in plasma performance necessary to achieve high fusion gain and ignition. Erosion of plasma-facing components will scale up with the pulse length from being barely measurable on existing machines to centimeter scale. Magnetic Fusion Energy (MFE) devices with carbon plasma-facing components will accumulate tritium by co-deposition with the eroded carbon and this will strongly constrain plasma operations. We report on a novel laser-based method to remove co-deposited tritium from carbon plasma-facing components in tokamaks. A major fraction of the tritium trapped in a co-deposited layer during the deuterium-tritium (DT) campaign on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) was released by heating with a scanning laser beam. This technique offers the potential for tritium removal in a next-step DT device without the use of oxidation and the associated deconditioning of the plasma-facing surfaces and expense of processing large quantities of tritium oxide. The operational lifetime of alternative materials such as tungsten has significant uncertainties due to melt layer loss during disruptions. Production of dust and flakes will need careful monitoring and minimization, and control and accountancy of the tritium inventory will be critical issues. Many of the tritium issues in Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) are similar to MFE, but some, for example those associated with the target factory, are unique to IFE. The plasma-edge region in a tokamak has greater complexity than the core due to lack of poloidal symmetry and nonlinear feedback between the plasma and wall. Sparse diagnostic coverage and low dedicated experimental run time has hampered the

  17. Tritium Issues in Next Step Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C.H. Skinner; G. Federici

    2001-01-01

    Tritium issues will play a central role in the performance and operation of next-step deuterium-tritium (DT) burning plasma tokamaks and the safety aspects associated with tritium will attract intense public scrutiny. The orders-of-magnitude increase in duty cycle and stored energy will be a much larger change than the increase in plasma performance necessary to achieve high fusion gain and ignition. Erosion of plasma-facing components will scale up with the pulse length from being barely measurable on existing machines to centimeter scale. Magnetic Fusion Energy (MFE) devices with carbon plasma-facing components will accumulate tritium by co-deposition with the eroded carbon and this will strongly constrain plasma operations. We report on a novel laser-based method to remove co-deposited tritium from carbon plasma-facing components in tokamaks. A major fraction of the tritium trapped in a co-deposited layer during the deuterium-tritium (DT) campaign on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) was released by heating with a scanning laser beam. This technique offers the potential for tritium removal in a next-step DT device without the use of oxidation and the associated deconditioning of the plasma-facing surfaces and expense of processing large quantities of tritium oxide. The operational lifetime of alternative materials such as tungsten has significant uncertainties due to melt layer loss during disruptions. Production of dust and flakes will need careful monitoring and minimization, and control and accountancy of the tritium inventory will be critical issues. Many of the tritium issues in Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) are similar to MFE, but some, for example those associated with the target factory, are unique to IFE. The plasma-edge region in a tokamak has greater complexity than the core due to lack of poloidal symmetry and nonlinear feedback between the plasma and wall. Sparse diagnostic coverage and low dedicated experimental run time has hampered the

  18. Desactivation of tritium waters by rectification methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egorov, A.I.; Tyunis, V.M.

    2002-01-01

    Results of experiments into the basic rectification processes dedicated to tritium separation from reactor, technological and waste waters are presented. Coefficients of separation for rectification of water (1.028), ammonia (1.05), azeotrope H 2 O - HTO - HNO 3 (1.098) and D 2 O - DTO - DNO 3 (1.039) are performed. Operating schemes of tritium separating units are reviewed [ru

  19. Extraction of tritium from lithium aluminate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yunker, W.

    1976-09-01

    Complete data are presented for the extraction of tritium from neutron irradiated lithium aluminate pellets. Two methods were used: (a) thermal/vacuum extraction at temperatures up to 980 0 C and (b) dissolution of the pellets in sodium tetraborate at 850 0 C followed by vacuum extraction. Approximately 1 percent of the tritium was in a noncondensable (at -195 0 C and 10 -3 torr) form. Extraction efficiency was greater than 95 percent

  20. Extraction of tritium from lithium aluminate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yunker, W [ed.

    1976-09-01

    Complete data are presented for the extraction of tritium from neutron irradiated lithium aluminate pellets. Two methods were used: (a) thermal/vacuum extraction at temperatures up to 980/sup 0/C and (b) dissolution of the pellets in sodium tetraborate at 850/sup 0/C followed by vacuum extraction. Approximately 1 percent of the tritium was in a noncondensable (at -195/sup 0/C and 10/sup -3/ torr) form. Extraction efficiency was greater than 95 percent.

  1. Enantiospecific tritium labeling of 28-homocastasterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbert, Tomáš; Patil, Mahadeo R; Marek, Aleš

    2017-03-01

    A regiospecific and enantiospecific synthesis of tritium-labeled 28-homocastasterone is reported. Appropriate chlorocarbonate, efficiently synthesized from the starting 28-homocastasterone in an overall yield of 46%, undergoes catalytic tritium dechlorination by the T 2 /Pd[0]/Et 3 N system, providing 28-[3β- 3 H]homocastasterone, in a good yield, radiochemical purity (>97%), and with a high specific activity (5.8 Ci/mmol). Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Energy Metabolism and Human Dosimetry of Tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galeriu, D.; Takeda, H.; Melintescu, A.; Trivedi, A.

    2005-01-01

    In the frame of current revision of human dosimetry of 14 C and tritium, undertaken by the International Commission of Radiological Protection, we propose a novel approach based on energy metabolism and a simple biokinetic model for the dynamics of dietary intake (organic 14 C, tritiated water and Organically Bound Tritium-OBT). The model predicts increased doses for HTO and OBT comparing to ICRP recommendations, supporting recent findings

  3. Die Kosmologie der Griechen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittelstraß, J.

    Contents: 1. Mythische Eier. 2. Thales-Welten. 3. "Alles ist voller Götter". 4. Griechische Astronomie. 5. "Rettung der Phänomene". 6. Aristotelische Kosmololgie. 7. Aristoteles-Welt und Platon-Welt. 8. Noch einmal: die Göttlichkeit der Welt. 9. Griechischer Idealismus.

  4. Tritium release from neutron irradiated beryllium pebbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scaffidi-Argentina, F.; Werle, H. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Inst. fuer Neutronenphysik und Reactortechnik

    1998-01-01

    One of the most important open issues related to beryllium for fusion applications refers to the kinetics of the tritium release as a function of neutron fluence and temperature. The EXOTIC-7 as well as the `Beryllium` experiments carried out in the HFR reactor in Petten are considered as the most detailed and significant tests for investigating the beryllium response under neutron irradiation. This paper reviews the present status of beryllium post-irradiation examinations performed at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe with samples from the above mentioned irradiation experiments, trying to elucidate the tritium release controlling processes. In agreement with previous studies it has been found that release starts at about 500-550degC and achieves a maximum at about 700-750degC. The observed release at about 500-550degC is probably due to tritium escaping from chemical traps, while the maximum release at about 700-750degC is due to tritium escaping from physical traps. The consequences of a direct contact between beryllium and ceramics during irradiation, causing tritium implanting in a surface layer of beryllium up to a depth of about 40 mm and leading to an additional inventory which is usually several times larger than the neutron-produced one, are also presented and the effects on the tritium release are discussed. (author)

  5. Tritium evolution from various morphologies of palladium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuggle, D.G.; Claytor, T.N.; Taylor, S.F.

    1994-01-01

    The authors have been able to extend the tritium production techniques to various novel morphologies of palladium. These include small solid wires of various diameters and a type of pressed powder wire and a plasma cell. In most successful experiments, the amount of palladium required, for an equivalent tritium output, has been reduced by a factor of 100 over the older powder methods. In addition, they have observed rates of tritium production (>5 nCi/h) that far exceed most of the previous results. Unfortunately, the methods that they currently use to obtain the tritium are poorly understood and consequently there are numerous variables that need to be investigated before the new methods are as reliable and repeatable as the previous techniques. For instance, it seems that surface and/or bulk impurities play a major role in the successful generation of any tritium. In those samples with total impurity concentrations of >400 ppM essentially no tritium has been generated by the gas loading and electrical simulation methods

  6. A model for global cycling of tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Killough, G.G.; Kocher, D.C.

    1988-01-01

    Dynamic compartment models are widely used to describe global cycling of radionuclides for purposes of dose estimation. In this paper, we present a new global tritium model that reproduces environmental time-series data on concentrations in precipitation, ocean surface waters, and surface fresh waters in the northern hemisphere, concentrations of atmospheric tritium in the soutehrn hemisphere, and the latitude dependence of tritium in both hemispheres. Named TRICYCLE for Tritium CYCLE, the model is based on the global hydrologic cycle and includes hemisphereic stratospheric compartments, disaggregation of the troposphere and ocean surface waters into eight latitudezones, consideration of the different concentrations of atmospheric tritium over land and over the ocean, and a diffusive model for transport in the ocean. TRICYCLE reproduces the environmental data if we assume that about 50% of the tritium from atmospheric weapons testing was injected directly into the northern stratosphere as HTO. The models latitudinal disaggregation permits taking into account the distribution of population. For a unfiormaly distributed release of HTO into the worldwide troposphere, TRICYCLE predicts a collective dose commitment to the world population that exceeds the corresponding prediction by the NCRP model by about a factor of 3. 11 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  7. Separation of tritium from aqueous effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruggeman, A.; Leysen, R.; Meynendonckx, L.; Parmentier, C.; Bellien, H.; Smets, D.; Stevens, J.

    1984-01-01

    This report describes the further development of the so-called ELEX process, carried out from 1 July 1980 until 31 December 1982. The ELEX process is the combination of electrolysis with the catalytic tritium exchange between hydrogen and water in order to accumulate the tritium in the liquid phase. The experimental study of the catalytic tritium exchange between hydrogen and liquid water was continued and the overall exchange rate could be substantially increased. An alternative process based on bithermal exchange of tritium has been evaluated. In the 10 mol h -1 mini-pilot bench scale detritiation unit the ELEX process was successfully demonstrated by detritiating up to now more than 1m 3 of water containing up to 100 mCi tritium per dm 3 , which is the feed concentration to be expected for application of the process in a reprocessing plant. A 280 mol h -1 pilot detritiation installation now being constructed is described. This installation will realize a volume reduction factor of 100 and a process decontamination factor of 100. The maximum total tritium inventory will be about 1000 Ci. The plant consists mainly of a 80 kW electrolyser and a 10 cm diameter exchange column and can be considered as the ultimate step before industrial application of the ELEX process

  8. Experiments on tritium behavior in beryllium, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Hiroshi; Ishizuka, Etsuo; Matsumoto, Mikio; Inada, Seiji; Sezaki, Katsuji; Saito, Minoru; Kato, Mineo.

    1989-06-01

    In JMTR, it was observed that the tritium concentration of the primary coolant increases with the reactor operation at 50 MW. As one of the tritium generation sources, we paid attention to a neutron reflector made of beryllium because the tritium generation rate in the beryllium is bigger than other components in the reactor core. On the other hand, the irradiation test of blanket materials (i.e. tritium breeding materials and neutron multipling materials) are planned for development of the fusion reactor in JMTR and the beryllium will be also irradiated as a neutron multiplier with tritium breeding materials. Therefore, as the irradiated specimens, we used a hot-pressed beryllium disk fabricated by the same method as the neutron reflector or the neutron multiplier and conducted the irradiation tests in JMTR. The purpose of these tests are to clarify the tritium behavior in the hot-pressed beryllium. In this paper, from a viewpoint of the fabrication of capsules for neutron irradiation, the specifications of the irradiated specimens and capsules are summarized. Additionally, the results on the puncture test of the container of the irradiation specimens are described. (author)

  9. Ideengeschichte der Physik

    CERN Document Server

    Kuhn, Wildfried

    2016-01-01

    Die Ideengeschichte der Physik geht neue Wege, indem sie den umfangreichen historischen Stoff nicht additiv darstellt, sondern wissenschaftstheoretisch reflektiert und nach thematischen Leitlinien (Materievorstellungen, Raum und Zeit, Erhaltungskonzepte, Extremalprinzipien, Theorie und Experiment) strukturiert. Damit vermittelt diese Darstellung im historischen Kontext ein tieferes Verständnis des physikalischen Denkens von der Antike bis heute und lotet zugleich die Dimension der Genesis physikalischer Begriffe aus, die in modernen Lehrbüchern zumeist nicht dargelegt wird. Das Credo Kuhns: Wer über die handwerkliche Handhabung von Physik hinausgehen will, muss sich zwingend mit der Frage befassen, was physikalisches Denken ausmacht und wie es entstanden ist. Die vorliegende zweite Auflage wurde ergänzt durch ein Vorwort von Prof. Dr. Oliver Schwarz, der im Institut Wilfried Kuhns forschen konnte und dabei dessen Denk- und Arbeitsweisen kennengelernt hat.

  10. Tritium behavior in the Caisson, a simulated fusion reactor room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Takumi; Kobayashi, Kazuhiro; Iwai, Yasunori; Yamada, Masayuki; Suzuki, Takumi; O'hira, Shigeru; Nakamura, Hirofumi; Shu, Weimin; Yamanishi, Toshihiko; Kawamura, Yoshinori; Isobe, Kanetsugu; Konishi, Satoshi; Nishi, Masataka

    2000-01-01

    In order to confirm tritium confinement ability in the deuterium-tritium (DT) fusion reactor, intentional tritium release experiments have been started in a specially fabricated test stand called 'Caisson', at Tritium Process Laboratory in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. The Caisson is a stainless steel leak-tight vessel of 12 m 3 , simulating a reactor room or a tritium handling room. In the first stage experiments, about 260 MBq of pure tritium was put into the Caisson under simulated constant ventilation of four times air exchanges per h. The tritium mixing and migration in the Caisson was investigated with tritium contamination measurement and detritiation behavior measurement. The experimental tritium migration and removal behavior was almost perfectly reproduced and could almost be simulated by a three-dimensional flow analysis code

  11. Studies on steps affecting tritium residence time in solid blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Satoru

    1987-01-01

    For the self sustaining of CTR fuel cycle, the effective tritium recovery from blankets is essential. This means that not only tritium breeding ratio must be larger than 1.0, but also high recovering speed is required for the short residence time of tritium in blankets. Short residence time means that the tritium inventory in blankets is small. In this paper, the tritium residence time and tritium inventory in a solid blanket are modeled by considering the steps constituting tritium release. Some of these tritium migration processes were experimentally evaluated. The tritium migration steps in a solid blanket using sintered breeding materials consist of diffusion in grains, desorption at grain edges, diffusion and permeation through grain boundaries, desorption at particle edges, diffusion and percolation through interconnected pores to purging stream, and convective mass transfer to stream. Corresponding to these steps, diffusive, soluble, adsorbed and trapped tritium inventories and the tritium in gas phase are conceivable. The code named TTT was made for calculating these tritium inventories and the residence time of tritium. An example of the results of calculation is shown. The blanket is REPUTER-1, which is the conceptual design of a commercial reversed field pinch fusion reactor studied at the University of Tokyo. The experimental studies on the migration steps of tritium are reported. (Kako, I.)

  12. Design options to minimize tritium inventories at Savannah River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, J.E.; Wilson, J.; Heroux, K.J.; Poore, A.S.; Babineau, D.W.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • La-Ni-Al alloys are used as tritium storage materials and retain He-3. • La-Ni-Al He-3 effects decrease useable process tritium inventory. • Use of Pd or depleted uranium beds decreases process tritium inventories. • Reduced inventory tritium facilities will lower public risk. - Abstract: Large quantities of tritium are stored and processed at the Savannah River Site (SRS) Tritium Facilities. In many design basis accidents (DBAs), it is assumed the entire tritium inventory of the in-process vessels are released from the facility and the site for inclusion in public radiological dose calculations. Pending changes in public dose calculation methodologies are driving the need for smaller in-process tritium inventories to be released during DBAs. Reducing the in-process tritium inventory will reduce the unmitigated source term for public dose calculations and will also reduce the production demand for a lower inventory process. This paper discusses process design options to reduce in-process tritium inventories. A Baseline process is defined to illustrate the impact of removing or replacing La-Ni-Al alloy tritium storage beds with palladium (Pd) or depleted uranium (DU) storage beds on facility in-process tritium inventories. Elimination of La-Ni-Al alloy tritium storage beds can reduce in-process tritium inventories by over 1.5 kg, but alternate process technologies may needed to replace some functions of the removed beds.

  13. Medienbildung in der Volksschule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Grubesic

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In dieser Untersuchung steht der Zusammenhang zwischen Schule und Medien in Bezug auf die Wertvorstellungen und Einstellungen der Akteure auf Grundlage des Habituskonzepts von Bourdieu sowie des Konzepts des medialen Habitus von Kommer und Biermann im Mittelpunkt. Die von den Lehrenden vorgelebten verinnerlichten Dispositionen im handlungsspezifischen Umgang mit unterschiedlichen Medien als auch der zu Grunde liegende „legitime Geschmack“, in dem sich diese Veranlagungen ausdrücken, sind hierbei bedeutsam. Die Rekonstruktion des medialen Habitus von LehrerInnen wird durch einen Vergleich zweier divergierender Unterrichtskonzeptionen mit der Methode der Videoanalyse erreicht. Das mediendidaktische Design, die Mediennutzung und die aktive Unterrichtsbeteiligung stellen die Analyseschwerpunkte dar, die der Beschreibung der verinnerlichten Dispositionen aufgrund der vorgelebten Haltungen und Wertvorstellungen dienen. Die anschließende relationierte Beobachtung ermöglicht es, in Anlehnung an die Habitustypen von Mutsch, die Differenzen und Gemeinsamkeiten der Unterrichtskonzepte sowie der daraus resultierenden Chancen und Schwierigkeiten im Unterricht zu verdeutlichen. This study attempts to show the correlation between school and media based on media habits, experiences and patterns of media usage of teachers and pupils in primary schools. As a theoretical framework, Bourdieu’s conception of habitus and the conception of media habitus of Kommer and Biermann are used to reconstruct the media habitus of primary school teachers in different educational settings. In this research, media habitus is understood as a combination of media economic capital, media activities, experience and preferences, values and attitudes of media in daily routine just as purposes and motives of media usage and educational intervention in family life. This work focuses on pointing out the relevance of teachers’ media habitus in different educational designs in

  14. EINE UNTERSUCHUNG UBER DIE NUTZUNG DER WINDENERGIE IN DER WELT UND IN DER TURKEI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aydoğan ÖZDAMAR

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available In dieser Arbeit wurde die Nutzung der in Zukunft bei der Energieversorgung eine wichtige Rolle zuspielende Windenergie allgemein bewertet. Zu dem Zweck wurde zuerst Potential und geschichtliche Entwicklung der Windenergienutzung in der Welt und in der Türkei, Entstehung des Windes und Windmessungen betrachtet. Anschließend wurden Kritiken über die Unstetigkeit der Windenergie, der Deckung des Energiebedarfs eines Hauses vollständig von Windenergie und der Wirtschaftlichkeit des Windstroms behandelt und Antworten mit konkreten Beispielen auf diese Kritiken gegeben.

  15. Tritium levels in milk in the vicinity of chronic tritium releases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Goff, P; Guétat, Ph; Vichot, L; Leconte, N; Badot, P M; Gaucheron, F; Fromm, M

    2016-01-01

    Tritium is the radioactive isotope of hydrogen. It can be integrated into most biological molecules. Even though its radiotoxicity is weak, the effects of tritium can be increased following concentration in critical compartments of living organisms. For a better understanding of tritium circulation in the environment and to highlight transfer constants between compartments, we studied the tritiation of different agricultural matrices chronically exposed to tritium. Milk is one of the most frequently monitored foodstuffs in the vicinity of points known for chronic release of radionuclides firstly because dairy products find their way into most homes but also because it integrates deposition over large areas at a local scale. It is a food which contains all the main nutrients, especially proteins, carbohydrates and lipids. We thus studied the tritium levels of milk in chronic exposure conditions by comparing the tritiation of the main hydrogenated components of milk, first, component by component, then, sample by sample. Significant correlations were found between the specific activities of drinking water and free water of milk as well as between the tritium levels of cattle feed dry matter and of the main organic components of milk. Our findings stress the importance of the metabolism on the distribution of tritium in the different compartments. Overall, dilution of hydrogen in the environmental compartments was found to play an important role dimming possible isotopic effects even in a food chain chronically exposed to tritium. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Results of observations of the tritium concentration in water fractions in the disposition regions of tritium laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koval, G.N.; Kuzmina, A.I.; Kolomiets, N.F.; Svarichevskaya, E.V.; Rogosin, V.N.; Svyatun, O.V.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper results of the long term of control of tritium concentration in the water fractions in the region close to the tritium laboratories of INR NAS of Ukraine are presented. The regular observations for the tritium concentration in the water fractions (thawed water of the snow cover, birch juice and sewer water) in the influence region of tritium laboratories shows small amount of tritium concentration in all kinds of investigated water fractions in comparison with the tritium concentration in the reper points. The proper connection of the levels of tritium concentration of the water samples with the quantity of the technology production is observed. In common, the tritium pollution on the territory of INR shows the tendency for a considerable decrease of the environmental pollution levels from year to year. It can be explained by the perfection of the production technology of tritium structures and targets as well as the rising of the qualification of the personnel. 3 refs., 4 figs

  17. Method and apparatus for controlling accidental releases of tritium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Terry R. [Berkeley, CA

    1980-04-01

    An improvement in a tritium control system based on a catalytic oxidation reactor wherein accidental releases of tritium into room air are controlled by flooding the catalytic oxidation reactor with hydrogen when the tritium concentration in the room air exceeds a specified limit. The sudden flooding with hydrogen heats the catalyst to a high temperature within seconds, thereby greatly increasing the catalytic oxidation rate of tritium to tritiated water vapor. Thus, the catalyst is heated only when needed. In addition to the heating effect, the hydrogen flow also swamps the tritium and further reduces the tritium release.

  18. Method and apparatus for controlling accidental releases of tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galloway, T.R.

    1980-01-01

    An improvement in a tritium control system based on a catalytic oxidation reactor is provided wherein accidental releases of tritium into room air are controlled by flooding the catalytic oxidation reactor with hydrogen when the tritium concentration in the room air exceeds a specified limit. The sudden flooding with hydrogen heats the catalyst to a high temperature within seconds, thereby greatly increasing the catalytic oxidation rate of tritium to tritiated water vapor. Thus, the catalyst is heated only when needed. In addition to the heating effect, the hydrogen flow also swamps the tritium and further reduces the tritium release

  19. Analysis of in-pile tritium release experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopasz, J.P.; Tam, S.W.; Johnson, C.E.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this work is to characterize tritium release behavior from lithium ceramics and develop insight into the underlying tritium release mechanisms. Analysis of tritium release data from recent laboratory experiments with lithium aluminate has identified physical processes which were previously unaccounted for in tritium release models. A new model that incorporates the recent data and provides for release from multiple sites rather than only one site was developed. Calculations of tritium release using this model are in excellent agreement with the tritium release behavior reported for the MOZART experiment

  20. Der Weg von der Computerkompetenz zur Medienkompetenz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Zuliani

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Weiterführende Gedanken zur „Schlüsselkompetenz Nr.4“ des Europäischen Rates im Bereich des lebenslangen Lernens: Computerkompetenz bzw. Medienkompetenz, sowie Anwendungsbeispiele aus dem Bereich der Volksschule: Klassenblog und verschiedener Apps via iPad - 2 Praxisberichte

  1. Procedures for the retention of gaseous tritium released from a tritium enrichment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutowski, H.; Bracha, M.

    1987-01-01

    General aim of the study is the comparison of two alternative processes for the retention of gaseous tritium which is released during normal operation and emergency operation in a tritium-enrichment-plant. Two processes for the retention of tritium were compared: 1. Oxidation-process. The hydrogen-gas containing HT will be burnt on an oxidation catalyst to H 2 O and HTO. In a subsequent step the water will be removed from the process by condensation, freezing and adsorption. 2. TROC-process (Tritium Removal by Organic Compounds). The tritium is added to an organic compound (acid) via catalyst. This reaction is irreversible and leads to solid products. (orig./RB) [de

  2. FDNH - the tritium module in RODOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galeriu, D.; Melintescu, A.; Turcanu, C. O.; Raskob, W.

    2001-01-01

    Under the auspices of its RTD (Research and Technological Development) Framework Programmes, the European Commission has supported the development of the RODOS (Real-time On-line Decision Support) system for off-site emergency management. The project started in 1989 focusing on PWR/LWR type accidents and using experience from the Chernobyl accident. In 1997 it was realised that tritium should be included in the list of radionuclides, as large tritium sources exists in Europe and to allow a potential expansion of the RODOS system for application on future fusion reactor accidents. The National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (IFIN-HH) in Romania - in close co-operation with the Research Centre Karlsruhe (FZK) - was charged to develop the tritium module, based on previous experience in environmental tritium modelling and the operation of CANDU reactors in Romania (with potential tritium accidents). At present, the Food and Dose Module Hydrogen -(FDMH) - for tritium applications - is integrated and documented in the RODOS system. It calculates the time dependent tritium concentration (as tritiated water or organically bound tritium) in crops (as much as 22 different species) and up to 12 animal products, inhalation doses and ingestion dose from up to 34 diet items for various groups of the population and for up to 2520 locations around the source, following an accidental emission of tritiated water. FDMH incorporates many improved techniques in radiological assessment and makes intensively use of interdisciplinary research. It is developed in a modular structure with a variable time grid according to the physical processes. Differing from other models, using generic transfer parameters or parameters fitted on individual experiments, FDMH derives tritium transfer rates based on physical and physiological process analysis, using scientifically accepted results from interdisciplinary research on, among others, land-atmosphere interaction, water cycle in the

  3. Simulation study of intentional tritium release experiments in the caisson assembly for tritium safety at the TPL/JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwai, Y.; Hayashi, T.; Kobayashi, K.; Nishi, M.

    2001-01-01

    At the Tritium Process Laboratory (TPL) in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), Caisson assembly for tritium safety study (CATS) with 12 m 3 of large airtight vessel (Caisson) was fabricated for confirmation and enhancement of fusion reactor safety to estimate the tritium behavior in the case, where the tritium leak accident should happen. One of the principal objectives of the present studies is the establishment of simulation method to predict the tritium behavior after the tritium leak accident should happen in a ventilated room. As for the understanding of initial tritium behavior until the tritium concentration become steady, the precise estimation of local flow rate in a room and time-dependent release behavior from the leak point are essential to predict the tritium behavior by simulation code. The three-dimensional eddy flow model considering, tritium-related phenomena was adopted to estimate the local flow rate in the 50 m 3 /h ventilated Caisson. The time-dependent tritium release behavior from the sample container was calculated by residence time distribution function. The calculated tritium concentrations were in good agreement with the experimental observations. The primary removal tritium behavior was also investigated by another code. Tritium gas concentrations decreased logarithmically to the time by ventilation. These observations were understandable by the reason that the flow in the ventilated Caisson was regarded as the perfectly mixing flow. The concentrations of tritiated water measured, and indications of tritium concentration by tritium monitors became gradually flat. This phenomena called 'tritium soaking effect' was found to be reasonably explained by considering the contribution of the exhaustion velocity by ventilation system, and the adsorption and desorption reaction rate of tritiated water on the wall material which is SUS 304. The calculated tritium concentrations were in good agreement with the experimental observations

  4. A compact tritium AMS system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, M.L.; Hamm, R.W.; Dingley, K.H.; Chiarappa-Zucca, M.L.; Love, A.H.

    2000-01-01

    Tritium ( 3 H) is a radioisotope that is extensively utilized in biological and environmental research. For biological research, 3 H is generally quantified by liquid scintillation counting requiring gram-sized samples and counting times of several hours. For environmental research, 3 H is usually quantified by 3 He in-growth which requires gram-sized samples and in-growth times of several months. In contrast, provisional studies at LLNL's Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry have demonstrated that accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) can be used to quantify 3 H in milligram-sized biological samples with a 100 to 1000-fold improvement in detection limits when compared to scintillation counting. This increased sensitivity is expected to have great impact on the biological and environmental research community. However, in order to make the 3 H AMS technique more broadly accessible, smaller, simpler, and less expensive AMS instrumentation must be developed. To meet this need, a compact, relatively low cost prototype 3 H AMS system has been designed and built based on an LLNL ion source/sample changer and an AccSys Technology radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linac. With the prototype system, 3 H/ 1 H ratios ranging from 1x10 -10 to 1x10 -13 have be measured from milligram-sized samples. With improvements in system operation and sample preparation methodology, the sensitivity limit of the system is expected to increase to approximately 1x10 -15

  5. Tritium technology and safety at JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, A.C.

    1994-01-01

    D-T plasma operation has always been envisaged since the beginning of the JET Project and both the original design and subsequent modifications have been designed to take account of the requirements of D-T operation. A limited tritium experiment was carried out in November 1991 which generated 1.7 MW of fusion power. In addition to the physics objectives, this experiment was intended to provide results which would be important for the technology to be used in full D-T phase, such as tritium accounting and hold-up. Because of the limited usage of tritium it was possible to use a open-quotes once-throughclose quotes system in which around 99% of the tritium was recovered. It is currently planned to have a daily throughput of around l0g of tritium per day in the full D-T phase, introduced through neutral beam and/or gas puffing. As it would be neither environmentally acceptable nor cost-effective to discharge even 1% of this to the atmosphere, a tritium recycling plant, known as the Active Gas Handling System (AGHS) has been constructed and is currently being commissioned. It was necessary to take several issues into consideration in the design of the AGHS to ensure that it and the JET machine would be capable of being licensed for handling tritium. These were ensuring that open-quotes Best Practicable Meansclose quotes were used to limit routine discharges to the environment; ensuring that routine radiation exposure of the JET workforce would be minimised; and ensuring that the risk to the workforce and the public arising from accidents would be acceptably low. The technology involved, waste management and regulatory issues are discussed further in the paper

  6. Tritium surveillance around nuclear facilities in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Y.; Kasida, Y.

    1978-01-01

    In order to measure the tritium levels in the environmental water around the nuclear facilities, the tritium surveillance program began in 1967 locally at Tsuruga and Mihama districts. Nowadays it has been expanded to the ten commercial nuclear power stations and three nuclear facilities. For samples whose tritium concentration is believed less than about 100 pCi/l, they were electrolytically enriched, and then counted by the liquid scintillation counter. Some of samples believed higher than 100 pCi/l were analysed without any enrichment by the low background liquid scintillation counters, Aloka LB 600 or Aloka LB 1. The results of each station are listed in Table. The sampling points corresponding to each results are shown in Figure. Tritium from the effluent was not reflected in all the land water and the tap water around the nuclear power stations and the nuclear facilities. Tritium concentration in rivers, streams, and reservoirs (pools) decreased exponentially from about 600 pCi/l in 1967 to about 150 pCi/l in 1972 at Tsuruga and Mihama, and 360 pCi/l in 1968 to 120 pCi/l in 1973 at Genkai, with the half life of about 2.5 years in both cases. After around 1972, tritium levels of river system in all districts of Japan kept nearly constant up to the end of 1975 and they were in the range from 100 to 300 pCi/l corresponding to the districts. Thereafter, it seems to start to decrease again in 1976. Sea water sampled at the intake of the station or on the seashore far from the outlet was regarded not to be influenced by the effluent from the nuclear reactors or facilities. Tritium concentration in these coastal waters decreased from 100 - 300 pCi/l in 1971 to 30 - 40 pCi/l in 1972 in Fukushima, Ibaraki and Fukui prefectures. (author)

  7. Die Mythen von der Globalisierung

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nell, Phillip; Schmitt, Jan; Decreton, Benoit

    2017-01-01

    Der Wissensstand über den Grad und die Art der Globalisierung ist viel niedriger als angenommen. Daraus entstehen Fehleinschätzungen.......Der Wissensstand über den Grad und die Art der Globalisierung ist viel niedriger als angenommen. Daraus entstehen Fehleinschätzungen....

  8. Herausforderungen der Diffusion sozialer Innovationen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandsen, T.

    2014-01-01

    Unter Rückgriff auf das Diffusions-Modell von Everett M. Rogers und mithilfe der Metapher der Übermittlung von Nachrichten zeigt der Autor auf, hinsichtlich welcher Aspekte sich die Diffusion sozialer Innovationen von der Diffusion anderer, besser erforschter Innovations- Typen im Wirtschaftssektor

  9. Anticholinerge Therapie der OAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hampel C

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Kenntnisse über Differentialdiagnostik und Pathophysiologie des Blasenüberaktivitäts-Syndroms sind essentiell für eine erfolgreiche Therapie. Obwohl Verhaltenstraining und Elektrostimulation ihre Wirksamkeit bei OAB bewiesen haben, ist die Therapie der ersten Wahl nach wie vor die anticholinerge Behandlung. Dessen ungeachtet ist die Einnahmetreue der Patienten unbefriedigend, was in der letzten Zeit zu verschiedenen Medikamentenneuentwicklungen mit verbesserter Verträglichkeit bei gleichbleibend hoher Effektivität geführt hat. Retard-Formulierungen, extraenterale Applikationswege und Rezeptor-Subselektivität sind hierbei die Prinzipien, welche die Behandlungsakzeptanz und Patientenzufriedenheit steigern sollen.

  10. Teilchen, Felder, Quanten von der Quantenmechanik zum Standardmodell der Teilchenphysik

    CERN Document Server

    Ecker, Gerhard

    2017-01-01

    Dieses Buch bietet Ihnen eine Einführung in den aktuellen Stand unseres Wissens über die Struktur der Materie. Gerhard Ecker beschreibt verständlich die Entwicklung der modernen Physik vom Beginn des Quantenzeital­ters bis zum Standardmodell der Teilchenphysik, der umfassenden Theorie der fundamentalen Wechselwir­kungen des Mikrokosmos. Dabei wird der Schwerpunkt auf die wichtigsten Entdeckungen und Entwicklungen, beispielsweise der Quantenfeldtheorie, der Eichtheorien und die Zukunft der Teilchenphysik, gelegt. Besonders hebt der Autor auch das Wechselspiel zwischen Theorie und Experiment hervor, die uns helfen, die tiefsten Rätsel der Natur zu ergründen. Teilchen, Felder, Quanten ist für alle geschrieben, die Freude an der Physik haben. Es bietet Abitu­rienten und Studierenden der Physik in den ersten Semestern einen Ansporn, die Physik tiefer zu verstehen. Lehrer und andere an der Phy­sik Interessierte werden darin nützliche Einblicke in die Welt der Teilchenphysik finden. Für Studierende in ...

  11. Tritium and helium-3 in metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lasser, R.

    1989-01-01

    The book surveys recent results on the behaviour of tritium and its decay product helium-3 metals. In contrast to many earlier books which discuss the properties of the stable hydrogen isotopes without mentioning tritium, this book reviews mainly the results on tritium in metals. Due to the difficulties in preparing metal tritide samples, very important quantities such as diffusivity, superconductivity, solubility, etc. have only been determined very recently. The book not only presents the measured tritium data, but also the isotopic dependency of the different physical properties by comparing H, D and T results. A chapter is devoted to helium-3 in metals. Aspects such as helium release, generation of helium bubbles, swelling, and change of the lattice parameter upon aging are discussed. The book provides the reader with up-to-date information and deep insight into the behaviour of H, D, T and He-3 in metals. Further important topics such a tritium production, its risks, handling and discharge to the environment are also addressed

  12. Selection of fluids for tritium pumping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chastagner, P.

    1984-02-01

    The degradation characteristics of three types of vacuum pump fluids, polyphenyl ethers, perfluoropolyethers and hydrocarbon oils were reviewed. Fluid selection proved to be a critical factor in the long-term performance of tritium pumping systems and subsequent tritium recovery operations. Thermal degradation and tritium radiolysis of pump fluids produce contaminants which can damage equipment and interfere with tritium recovery operations. General characteristics of these fluids are as follows: polyphenyl ether has outstanding radiation resistance, is very stable under normal diffusion pump conditions, but breaks down in the presence of oxygen at anticipated operating temperatures. Perfluoropolyether fluids are very stable and do not react chemically with most gases. Thermal and mechanical degradation products are inert, but the radiolysis products are very corrosive. Most of the degradation products of hydrogen oils are volatile and the principal radiolysis product is methane. Our studies show that polyphenyl ethers and hydrocarbon oils are the preferred fluids for use in tritium pumping systems. No corrosive materials are formed and most of the degradation products can be removed with suitable filter systems

  13. Tritium in the Savannah River Site environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, C.E. Jr.; Bauer, L.R.; Hayes, D.W.; Marter, W.L.; Zeigler, C.C.; Stephenson, D.E.; Hoel, D.D.; Hamby, D.M.

    1991-05-01

    Tritium is released to the environment from many of the operations at the Savannah River Site. The releases from each facility to the atmosphere and to the soil and streams, both from normal operations and inadvertent releases, over the period of operation from the early 1950s through 1988 are presented. The fate of the tritium released is evaluated through environmental monitoring, special studies, and modeling. It is concluded that approximately 91% of the tritium remaining after decay is now in the oceans. A dose and risk assessment to the population around the site is presented. It is concluded that about 0.6 fatal cancers may be associated with the tritium released during all the years of operation to the population of about 625,000. This same population (based on the overall US cancer statistics) is expected to experience about 105,000 cancer fatalities from all types of cancer. Therefore, it is considered unlikely that a relationship between any of the cancer deaths occurring in this population and releases of tritium from the SRS will be found.

  14. Experiences with decontaminating tritium-handling apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maienschein, J.L.; Garcia, F.; Garza, R.G.; Kanna, R.L.; Mayhugh, S.R.; Taylor, D.T.

    1991-07-01

    Tritium-handling apparatus has been decontaminated as part of the shutdown of the LLNL Tritium Facility. Two stainless-steel gloveboxes that had been used to process lithium deuteride-tritide (LiDT) salt were decontaminated using the Portable Cleanup System so that they could be flushed with room air through the facility ventilation system. Further surface decontamination was performed by scrubbing the interior with paper towels and ethyl alcohol or Swish trademark. The surface contamination, as shown by swipe surveys, was reduced from 4x10 4 --10 6 disintegrations per minute (dpm)/cm 2 to 2x10 2 --4x10 4 dpm/cm 2 . Details on the decontamination operation are provided. A series of metal (palladium and vanadium) hydride storage beds have been drained of tritium and flushed with deuterium in order to remove as much tritium as possible. The bed draining and flushing procedure is described, and a calculational method is presented which allows estimation of the tritium remaining in a bed after it has been drained and flushed. Data on specific bed draining and flushing are given

  15. Tritium in the Savannah River Site environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, C.E. Jr.; Bauer, L.R.; Hayes, D.W.; Marter, W.L.; Zeigler, C.C.; Stephenson, D.E.; Hoel, D.D.; Hamby, D.M.

    1991-05-01

    Tritium is released to the environment from many of the operations at the Savannah River Site. The releases from each facility to the atmosphere and to the soil and streams, both from normal operations and inadvertent releases, over the period of operation from the early 1950s through 1988 are presented. The fate of the tritium released is evaluated through environmental monitoring, special studies, and modeling. It is concluded that approximately 91% of the tritium remaining after decay is now in the oceans. A dose and risk assessment to the population around the site is presented. It is concluded that about 0.6 fatal cancers may be associated with the tritium released during all the years of operation to the population of about 625,000. This same population (based on the overall US cancer statistics) is expected to experience about 105,000 cancer fatalities from all types of cancer. Therefore, it is considered unlikely that a relationship between any of the cancer deaths occurring in this population and releases of tritium from the SRS will be found

  16. Tritium and radon risks for humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauna, Traian; Mauna, Andriesica

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The gaseous and liquid releases into environment from the two CANDU type units of Cernavoda NPP now in operation has more tritium contents than other kind of western power reactors. CANDU type reactor uses heavy water as moderator and primary circuit heat transfer agent. In normal operation deuterium go to tritium by neutron capture, the molecule of tritiated heavy water can escape from nuclear systems in very small amounts and so it is released into environment. After release the tritium follows the way of water into environment. One year ago the antinuclear NGO led a hard attack against Units 3 and 4 during the procedure of public acceptance request. This attack tried to demonstrate the great risk for humans of the tritium released by Cernavoda NPP. Obviously this risk is very low as demonstrated by many years reactor operation. SNN as owner of Cernavoda NPP ensures by all kind of information channels about the radioactive potential risk for humans. By the other hand, ironically, the antinuclear NGO makes nothing to inform the people about radon risk magnitude in some areas. This is a well-known fact but the radon concentration in dwellings can be decreased by some improved building procedures. The radon is the first natural cause of lung cancer. The environmental NGO and Romanian authorities do not have an information service about radon hazard data neither in dwellings or in uranium mining areas. The paper compares the properties and risks for tritium and radon. (authors)

  17. Bilder auf der virtuellen Landkarte

    OpenAIRE

    Bove, Jens

    2007-01-01

    Ob Standorte von Kirchen in Deutschland, Schlössern und Rittergütern in Sachsen oder Mühlen in Brandenburg, ob hausnummerngenauer Nachweis von Wohnhäusern in der Dresdner Neustadt oder der Sammlungsorte von Kunstwerken – seit Sommer 2007 können die geografischen Bezüge der Aufnahmen aus der Bilddatenbank der Deutschen Fotothek komfortabel und übersichtlich auf Karten- und Satellitenbildern dargestellt werden.

  18. Der kurze Traum der Französischen Revolution von der Androgynie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achim Aurnhammer

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Die Studie zeigt, wie Winckelmanns Ideal des schönen Jünglings in der Französischen Revolution zu einem Idol politisiert wurde. Der Androgyn behauptete sich in der krisenhaften Umbruchszeit um 1800 als Oppositionsbild, bis er um 1830 durch eine Heroisierung der Männlichkeit verdrängt wurde.

  19. Radiation-induced tritium labelling and product analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, C.T. (California Univ., San Francisco, CA (United States). Dept. of Pharmaceutical Chemistry)

    1993-05-01

    By-products formed in radiation-induced tritium labelling are identified by co-chromatography with authentic samples or by structure prediction using a quantitative structure-retention index relationship. The by-products, formed from labelling of steroids, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, 7-membered heterocyclic ring structures, 1,4-benzodiazepines, 1-haloalkanes, etc. with activated tritium and adsorbed tritium, are shown to be specifically labelled and anticipated products from known chemical reactions. From analyses of the by-products, one can conclude that the hydrogen abstraction by tritium atoms and the substitution by tritium ions are the mechanisms of labelling. Classification of the tritium labelling methods, on the basis of the type of tritium reagent, clearly shows the active role played by tritium atoms and ions in radiation-induced methods. (author).

  20. Mapping of tritium in drinking water from various Indian states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, Chirag A.; Baburajan, A.; Ravi, P.M.; Tripathi, R.M.

    2015-01-01

    The tritium in fresh water used for drinking purpose across five state of India was analyzed for tritium activity. The tritium data obtained were compared with the monitoring data of tritium in drinking water sources at Tarapur site, which houses a number of nuclear facilities. It is observed that the tritium activity in the water sample from various out station locations were in the range of < 0.48 to 1.33 Bq/l. The tritium value obtained in the drinking water sources at Tarapur was found to be in the range of 0.91 to 3.10 Bq/l. The monitoring of tritium in drinking water from Tarapur and from various out station location indicate that the level is negligible compared to the USEPA limit of 10000 Bq/l and the contribution of operation nuclear facilities to the tritium activity in drinking water source at Tarapur is insignificant. (author)

  1. Modelization of tritium transfer into the organic compartments of algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonotto, S.; Gerber, G.B.; Arapis, G.; Kirchmann, R.

    1982-01-01

    Uptake of tritium oxide and its conversion into organic tritium was studied in four different types of algae with widely varying size and growth characteristics (Acetabularia acetabulum, Boergesenia forbesii, two strains of Chlamydomonas and Dunaliella bioculata). Water in the cell and the vacuales equilibrates rapidly with external tritium water. Tritium is actively incorporated into organically bound form as the organisms grow. During the stationary phase, incorporation of tritium is slow. There exists a discrimination against the incorporation of tritium into organically bound form. A model has been elaborated taking in account these different factors. It appears that transfer of organic tritium by algae growing near the sites of release would be significant only for actively growing algae. Algae growing slowly may, however, be useful as cumulative indicators of discontinuous tritium release. (author)

  2. Tritium activity in Australian rainwater 1962-1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calf, G.E.

    1988-07-01

    Atmospheric tritirecipitated in rainfall has been measured since 1962 in samples from a network of Australian monitoring stations. Atmospheric thermonuclear bomb tests have injected into the atmosphere about 350 kg of tritium, mostly into the northern hemisphere's troposphere and stratosphere, causing atmospheric concentrations of tritium to reach peak values of 50 to 100 tritium units (TU) in the southern hemisphere. Tritium from underground testing has not contributed significantly to the amounts in the atmosphere or in surface waters. In Australia, peak concentrations of precipitated tritium were observed in 1962, 1964 and 1969. The tritium activity in rainwater for all Australian stations decreased after 1969. Radioactive decay of bomb tritium will decrease the tritium budget to the natural level by the early 1990s in Australian precipitation

  3. Tritium in surface water of the Yenisei river Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondareva, L.G.; Bolsunovsky, A.Ya.

    2005-01-01

    The paper reports an investigation of the tritium content in the surface waters of the Yenisei River basin near the Mining-and-Chemical Combine (MCC). In 2001-2003 the maximum tritium concentration in the Yenisei River did not exceed 4±1 Bq/L. It has been found that there are surface waters containing enhanced tritium, up to 168 Bq/L, as compared with the background values for the Yenisei River. There are two possible sources of tritium input. First, the last operating reactor of the MCC, which still uses the Yenisei water as coolant. Second, tritium may come from the deep aquifers at the Severny testing site. For the first time tritium has been found in two aquatic plant species of the Yenisei River with maximal tritium concentration 304 Bq/Kg wet weight. Concentration factors of tritium for aquatic plants are much higher than 1

  4. Tritium Safety-Related Studies at TPL of JAERI

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'hira, S.; Hayashi, T.; Okuno, K.

    1997-09-01

    Activities regarding tritium safety technology in the Tritium Process Laboratory (TPL) at Tokai Establishment of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute are reviewed. Research and development of a new tritium removal system is being carried out by using a gas separation membrane which enable to make the ITER atmosphere detritiation system more compact and cost-effective. Techniques of gas flowing calorimetry and laser Raman spectroscopy are applied to develop new tritium accountancy methods. Studies of tritium-material interaction, such as plasma material interactions, radiochemical reaction of tritium in gas phase, radiolysis of tritiated water, and waste processing are being carried out under ITER/EDA and U.S.-Japan collaboration. Tritium release experiments for research of tritium behavior in confinements and environment and demonstration of safety related components are planned.

  5. Lexikon der bulgarischen Alltagsgesten

    OpenAIRE

    Kolarova, Zornitza

    2012-01-01

    Die vorliegende Dissertation untersucht die Alltagsgesten der Bulgaren. Das Lexikon der bulgarischen Alltagsgesten umfasst 56 Embleme, die derzeit in Bulgarien benutzt werden und die nicht weltweit und nicht in Nord-und Westeuropa verbreitet sind. Auch solche Gesten, die in Westeuropa bekannt sind, aber in Bulgarien einen oder mehrere morphologische oder semantische Unterschiede aufweisen, wurden in getrennten Einträgen beschrieben. Die Gesten werden in Gestenfamilien – einer Reihe ausdrucksv...

  6. Tritium handling safety and operating experience at the Tritium Systems Test Assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, R.V.

    1989-01-01

    The Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) at Los Alamos National Laboratory is a facility designed to develop and demonstrate, in full scale, technologies necessary for safe and efficient operation of tokamak fusion reactors. TSTA currently consists of systems for pumping DT gas mixtures; for removing impurities; for separating the isotopes of hydrogen; for storage of hydrogen isotopes; for gas analysis; and for assuring safety by the necessary control, monitoring, and detritiation of effluent gaseous streams. TSTA also has several small scale experiments to develop and test new equipment and processes necessary for fusion reactors. Tritium was introduced into TSTA in June 1984. Current inventory is approximately 100 grams. Approximately 10{sup 9} Curies of tritium have been processed in closed loop operation at TSTA. Total tritium releases from the facility stack have been less than 75 Curies. Total operating personnel exposures are less than 500 person-mrem. Exposures to the general public from TSTA tritium releases are extremely small (less than 10{sup {minus}2} mrem). Total tritium buried as waste is less than 36,000 Curies. In this paper, data on component reliability, failure types and rates, and waste quantities are presented. Operational experience under normal, abnormal, and emergency conditions is presented. The DOE requirements for the operation of a tritium facility like TSTA include personnel training, emergency preparedness, radiation protection, safety analysis, and preoperational appraisals. 4 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Source function for tritium transport models in the Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fine, R.A.; Ostlund, H.G.

    1977-01-01

    An empirically fitted function describes surface Pacific Ocean tritium concentrations as varying exponentially with latitude, the r.m.s. fit to observations is 18%. The oceanic tritium concentration maximum in the North Pacific, which resulted from nuclear weapons testing, lagged the rain data by two to three years occurring in 1965--66. Tritium-salinity correlations are consistent with climatology. Tritium-longitude correlations are consistent with surface water circulation

  8. The operation of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor Tritium Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentile, C.A.; LaMarche, P.H.

    1995-01-01

    The TFTR tritium operations staff has successfully received, stored, handled, and processed over five hundred thousand curies of tritium for the purpose of supporting D-T (Deuterium-Tritium) operations at TFTR. Tritium operations personnel nominally provide continuous round the clock coverage (24 hours/day, 7 days/week) in shift complements consisting of I supervisor and 3 operators. Tritium Shift Supervisors and operators are required to have 5 years of operational experience in either the nuclear or chemical industry and to become certified for their positions. The certification program provides formal instruction, as well as on the job training. The certification process requires 4 to 6 months to complete, which includes an oral board lasting up to 4 hours at which time the candidate is tested on their knowledge of Tritium Technology and TFTR Tritium systems. Once an operator is certified, the training process continues with scheduled training weeks occurring once every 5 weeks. During D-T operations at TFTR the operators must evacuate the tritium area due to direct radiation from TFTR D-T pulses. During '' time operators maintain cognizance over tritium systems via a real time TV camera system. Operators are able to gain access to the Tritium area between TFTR D-T pulses, but have been excluded from die tritium area during D-T pulsing for periods up to 30 minutes. Tritium operators are responsible for delivering tritium gas to TFRR as well as processing plasma exhaust gases which lead to the deposition of tritium oxide on disposable molecular sieve beds (DMSB). Once a DMSB is loaded, the operations staff remove the expended DMSB, and replace it with a new DMSB container. The TFIR tritium system is operated via detailed procedures which require operator sign off for system manipulation. There are >300 procedures controlling the operation of the tritium systems

  9. Technology and component development for a closed tritium cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hircq, B.; Penzhorn, R.D.; Haange, R.; Naruse, Y.

    1991-01-01

    A brief summary on recent advances in the field of tritium technology concerning the most important subsystems of the fuel cycle of a fusion reactor, i.e. the plasma exhaust pumping system, the exhaust gas clean up system, the isotope separation, the tritium storage and the tritium extraction from a blanket is provided. Experimental results, single component developments, and technical tests including those with relevants amounts of tritium that constitute the basis of proposed integral process concepts are described. 48 refs

  10. The operation of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor Tritium Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gentile, C.A.; LaMarche, P.H. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.; Anderson, J.L. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1995-07-01

    The TFTR tritium operations staff has successfully received, stored, handled, and processed over five hundred thousand curies of tritium for the purpose of supporting D-T (Deuterium-Tritium) operations at TFTR. Tritium operations personnel nominally provide continuous round the clock coverage (24 hours/day, 7 days/week) in shift complements consisting of I supervisor and 3 operators. Tritium Shift Supervisors and operators are required to have 5 years of operational experience in either the nuclear or chemical industry and to become certified for their positions. The certification program provides formal instruction, as well as on the job training. The certification process requires 4 to 6 months to complete, which includes an oral board lasting up to 4 hours at which time the candidate is tested on their knowledge of Tritium Technology and TFTR Tritium systems. Once an operator is certified, the training process continues with scheduled training weeks occurring once every 5 weeks. During D-T operations at TFTR the operators must evacuate the tritium area due to direct radiation from TFTR D-T pulses. During `` time operators maintain cognizance over tritium systems via a real time TV camera system. Operators are able to gain access to the Tritium area between TFTR D-T pulses, but have been excluded from die tritium area during D-T pulsing for periods up to 30 minutes. Tritium operators are responsible for delivering tritium gas to TFRR as well as processing plasma exhaust gases which lead to the deposition of tritium oxide on disposable molecular sieve beds (DMSB). Once a DMSB is loaded, the operations staff remove the expended DMSB, and replace it with a new DMSB container. The TFIR tritium system is operated via detailed procedures which require operator sign off for system manipulation. There are >300 procedures controlling the operation of the tritium systems.

  11. Non-labile tritium in Savannah River Plant pine trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, S.M. Jr.

    1976-06-01

    Non-labile tritium bound in cellulose of pine trees was measured to learn about the effects and fate of tritium contributed to the environment by the Savannah River Plant (SRP). An estimation of the regional inventory and the distance tritium can be observed from SRP was desired because tritium is a major component of the radioactivity released by SRP, and as the oxide, it readily disperses in the environment

  12. Distribution of tritium in a chronically contaminated lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaylock, B.G.; Frank, M.L.

    1978-01-01

    White Oak Lake located on the U.S. Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation receives a continuous input of tritium from operating facilities and waste disposal operations at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The purpose of this paper was (1) to determine the distribution and concentration of tritium in an aquatic environment which has received releases of tritium significantly greater than expected releases from nuclear power plants, and (2) to determine the effect of fluctuating tritium concentrations in ambient water on the concentration of tritium in fish. Aquatic biota from White Oak Lake were analyzed for tissue water tritium and tissue bound tritium. Except for one plant species, the ratio of tissue water tritium to lake water tritium ranged from 0.80 to 1.02. The tissue water tritium in Gambusia affinis, the mosquito fish, followed closely the significant changes in tritium concentration in lake water. The turnover of tissue water tritium was very rapid; Gambusia from White Oak Lake eliminated 50% of their tissue water tritium in 14 min. The ratio of the specific activity of the tissue bound tritium to the specific activity of the lake water was greatest for the larger species of fish but never exceeded unity. The radiation dose to man from tritium which could be acquired through the aquatic food chain was relatively small when compared to other pathways. The whole body dose to a hypothetical individual taking in concentrations of tritium measured in White Oak Lake was 1.8 mrem/yr from eating fish and 10.0 mrem/yr from drinking water

  13. Continuous aqueous tritium monitor applying membrane technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigg, R.A.

    1992-01-01

    Efforts to develop continuous, real-time tritium monitors are focusing on liquid scintillation (LS) counting because its sensitivity for tritium can be below Environmental Protection Agency guidelines (20 pCi/ml). A flow-through LS counter should have a counting efficiency = 0.48, instrumental backgrounds = 5 count/min counting cell volume = 5 ml, and sample water loading capacities = 15 wt%. The system would offer minimum quantifiable activities at the ±10% level of <18 pCi/ml in a 10-min count or <1 pCi/ml if data are averaged for 1 day. The latter value is below the tritium background of surface waters worldwide. However, good time response in a flow-through LS monitor requires flow rates of at least several milliliters per minute. Such a single-pass system would consume large volumes of expensive LS cocktail, and it would generate notable amounts of mixed organic waste

  14. Low-exposure tritium radiotoxicity in mammals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobson, R.L.

    1982-01-01

    Studies of tritium radiotoxicity involving chronic 3 H0H exposures in mammals demonstrate in both mice and monkeys that biological effects can be measured following remarkably low levels of exposure - levels in the range of serious practical interest to radiation protection. These studies demonstrate also that deleterious effects of 3 H beta radiation do not differ significantly from those of gamma radiation at high exposures. In contrast, however, at low exposures tritium is significantly more effective than gamma rays, rad for rad, by a factor approaching 3. This is important for hazard evaluation and radiation protection because knowledge concerning biological effects of chronic low-level radiation exposure has come mainly from gamma-ray data; and predictions based on gamma-ray data will underestimate tritium effects - especially at low exposures - unless the RBE is fully taken into account

  15. Advancement Of Tritium Powered Betavoltaic Battery Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staack, G. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Gaillard, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hitchcock, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Peters, B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Colon-Mercado, H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Teprovich, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Coughlin, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Neikirk, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Fisher, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-10-14

    Due to their decades-long service life and reliable power output under extreme conditions, betavoltaic batteries offer distinct advantages over traditional chemical batteries, especially in applications where frequent battery replacement is hazardous, or cost prohibitive. Although many beta emitting isotopes exist, tritium is considered ideal in betavoltaic applications for several reasons: 1) it is a “pure” beta emitter, 2) the beta is not energetic enough to damage the semiconductor, 3) it has a moderately long half-life, and 4) it is readily available. Unfortunately, the widespread application of tritium powered betavoltaics is limited, in part, by their low power output. This research targets improving the power output of betavoltaics by increasing the flux of beta particles to the energy conversion device (the p-n junction) through the use of low Z nanostructured tritium trapping materials.

  16. Tritium releases, birth defects and infant deaths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The AECB has published a report 'Tritium releases from the Pickering Nuclear Generating Station and Birth Defects and Infant Mortality in Nearby Communities 1971-1988' (report number INFO-0401). This presents the results of a detailed analysis of deaths and birth defects occurring in infants born to mothers living in the area (25 Km radius) of the Pickering nuclear power plant, over an 18-year period. The analysis looked at the frequency of these defects and deaths in comparison to the general rate for Ontario, and also in relation to airborne and waterborne releases of tritium from the power plant. The overall conclusion was that the rates of infant death and birth defects were generally not higher in the study population than in all of Ontario. There was no prevalent relationship between these deaths and defects and tritium releases measured either at the power plant or by ground monitoring stations t some distance from the facility

  17. Tritium monitoring system for near ambient measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falter, K.G.; Bauer, M.L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the current status of research on an improved tritium measurement system at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the U.S. Navy. Present tritium-in-air monitoring systems installed by the Navy can reliably measure to less than 10 μCi/m 3 , but medical and safety issues are pushing measurement needs to below 1 μCi/m 3 , which is equivalent to 1-10 nCi/ml in liquid samples, using calcium metal converter. A significant effort has been expended over the past 10 years by the Navy RADIAC Development Program at ORNL on various schemes to improve the detection of tritium in both air and liquid at near ambient levels. One such scheme includes a liquid flow-through system based on an NE102 sponge scintillator with dual photomultiplier tubes for tube noise rejection

  18. Safety analysis of tritium recycling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yong; Zhang Dong; Xing Shixiong

    2009-04-01

    Safety of a tritium recycling system is analysed according to the structure of the system. The method of accident tree is used to analyse the leakage probability of the system. The result show that the leakage probability of the system failure is 1.1 x 10 -3 and the leakage probability of human fault is 7.2 x 10 -3 , which is are in safe limit. But the leakage probability of human fault is higher than system failure. The MCA will occur because of tritium waste emission cell breakage or misplay, in this case, all tritium in the system will leak, which is about 5.84 TBq. The maximal effective individual dose is 1.24 x 10 -3 mSv, the maximal effective close of the collectivity is 15.33 Person·mSv. (authors)

  19. Tritium in water ecosystems of Ural

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chebotina, M.Ya.; Nikolin, O.A.

    2005-01-01

    The paper provides the data on tritium monitoring in water ecosystems of the Ural region. The study area comprises the Beloyarsk Atomic Power Plant (cooling reservoir and the Olkhovsk bog-river ecosystem), a territory around the 'Mayak' Enterprise, and control territory, for comparison, located in the North of Sverdlovsk region. It was found that a large area in the Ural region, particularly near the power plant and the 'Mayak,, was characterized by increased tritium content in water as compared with technogenic background is typical for control areas. It may be considered that nearly all the tritium within the study area including control ones are of anthropogenic origin taking into account the act that the global background level for the radionuclide is 1 Bq/l.(author)

  20. Experiment of hydrogen embrittlement of tritium storage vessel material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Hai Yong; Lee, Kun Jai; Chung, H.; Paek, S.

    2000-01-01

    The tritium storage is one of the most important problems for the safety of tritium removal facility. In current, many researches for tritium immobilization have been carried out. The research for tritium storage could be divided into two parts, one is for the metal getter of tritium and another is for the integrity of tritium storage vessel. Especially, the integrity of tritium storage vessel is up to the tritium embrittlement of vessel material, for tritium vessel is mostly made of metal material. In this work, the evaluation of the tritium embrittlement for the tritium storage vessel material is performed with the equipment that is made for high temperature and high vacuum. However, tritium is the radioactivity material, so hydrogen is used for this work. In this work, three metals were chosen for the vessel candidate material, carbon steel, austenitic stainless steel (SUS) 304 and 316L. The experiment was carried out for the several conditions of temperature and pressure. The property change of metal was investigated through the tensile test. Austenitic stainless steel has a high resistance for the hydrogen embrittlement from the result. But the obvious gap between SUS 304 and SUS 316L is not revealed, because the experiment condition may be not sufficient to show the difference between SUS 304 and SUS 316L

  1. Design and operations at the National Tritium Labelling Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morimoto, H.; Williams, P.G.

    1991-09-01

    The National Tritium Labelling Facility (NTLF) is a multipurpose facility engaged in tritium labeling research. It offers to the biomedical research community a fully equipped laboratory for the synthesis and analysis of tritium labeled compounds. The design of the tritiation system, its operations and some labeling techniques are presented

  2. Operating experience and procedures at the tritium systems test assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, R.V.; Binning, K.E.; Cole, S.P.; Jenkins, E.M.; Wilhelm, R.C.; Cole, S.P.

    1988-01-01

    Operating procedures are important for the safe and efficient operation of the Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA). TSTA has been operating for four years with tritium in a safe and efficient manner. The inventory of tritium in the process loop is 100 grams and several milestone runs have been completed. This paper describes the methods used to operate TSTA. 3 refs., 1 fig

  3. Preliminary measures of tritium content in the Hague (Cotentin) area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umezu, T.

    1971-01-01

    Tritium content of about thirty samples (seawater, algae and rainwater) taken during April-July 1973 in La Hague (Cotentin) area was determined with a liquid scintillation detector after electrolytic enrichment. Tritium content was 15 to 130 tritium units not much higher than concentration generally observed in environment nowadays [fr

  4. Tritium contamination of concrete walls and floors in tritium-handling laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawano, T.; Kuroyanagi, M.; Tabei, T.

    2006-01-01

    A tritium handling laboratory was constructed at the National Institute for Fusion Science about twenty years ago and it was recently closed down. We completed the necessary work that is legally required in Japan at the laboratory, when the use of radioisotopes is discontinued, involving measurements of radioactive contamination. We mainly used smear and direct-immersion methods for the measurements. In applying the smear method, we used a piece of filter paper to wipe up the tritium staining the surfaces. The filter paper containing the tritium was placed directly into a dedicated vial, a scintillation cocktail was then poured over it, and the tritium was measured with a liquid scintillation counter. With the direct-immersion method, a piece of concrete was placed directly into a vial containing a scintillation cocktail, and the tritium in the concrete was measured with a liquid scintillation counter. As well as these measurements, we investigated water-extraction and heating-cooling methods for measuring tritium contamination in concrete. With the former, a piece of concrete was placed into water in a tube to extract the tritium, the water containing the extracted tritium was then poured into a dedicated vial containing a scintillation cocktail, and the tritium contamination was measured. With the latter, a piece of concrete was placed into a furnace and heated to 800 degrees centigrade to vaporize the tritiated water into flowing dry air. The flowing air was then cooled to collect the vaporized tritiated water in a tube. The collected water was placed in a vial for scintillation counting. To evaluate the direct-immersion method, ratios were determined by dividing the contamination measured with the heating-cooling method by that measured with the direct-immersion method. The average ratio was about 2.5, meaning a conversion factor from contamination obtained with the direct-immersion method to that with the heating-cooling method. We also investigated the

  5. Tritium Research Laboratory safety analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, D.A.

    1979-03-01

    Design and operational philosophy has been evolved to keep radiation exposures to personnel and radiation releases to the environment as low as reasonably achievable. Each experiment will be doubly contained in a glove box and will be limited to 10 grams of tritium gas. Specially designed solid-hydride storage beds may be used to store temporarily up to 25 grams of tritium in the form of tritides. To evaluate possible risks to the public or the environment, a review of the Sandia Laboratories Livermore (SLL) site was carried out. Considered were location, population, land use, meteorology, hydrology, geology, and seismology. The risks and the extent of damage to the TRL and vital systems were evaluated for flooding, lightning, severe winds, earthquakes, explosions, and fires. All of the natural phenomena and human error accidents were considered credible, although the extent of potential damage varied. However, rather than address the myriad of specific individual consequences of each accident scenario, a worst-case tritium release caused indirectly by an unspecified natural phenomenon or human error was evaluated. The maximum credible radiological accident is postulated to result from the release of the maximum quantity of gas from one experiment. Thus 10 grams of tritium gas was used in the analysis to conservatively estimate the maximum whole-body dose of 1 rem at the site boundary and a maximum population dose of 600 man-rem. Accidental release of this amount of tritium implies simultaneous failure of two doubly contained systems, an occurrence considered not credible. Nuclear criticality is impossible in this facility. Based upon the analyses performed for this report, we conclude that the Tritium Research Laboratory can be operated without undue risk to employees, the general public, or the environment

  6. Tritium Research Laboratory safety analysis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, D.A.

    1979-03-01

    Design and operational philosophy has been evolved to keep radiation exposures to personnel and radiation releases to the environment as low as reasonably achievable. Each experiment will be doubly contained in a glove box and will be limited to 10 grams of tritium gas. Specially designed solid-hydride storage beds may be used to store temporarily up to 25 grams of tritium in the form of tritides. To evaluate possible risks to the public or the environment, a review of the Sandia Laboratories Livermore (SLL) site was carried out. Considered were location, population, land use, meteorology, hydrology, geology, and seismology. The risks and the extent of damage to the TRL and vital systems were evaluated for flooding, lightning, severe winds, earthquakes, explosions, and fires. All of the natural phenomena and human error accidents were considered credible, although the extent of potential damage varied. However, rather than address the myriad of specific individual consequences of each accident scenario, a worst-case tritium release caused indirectly by an unspecified natural phenomenon or human error was evaluated. The maximum credible radiological accident is postulated to result from the release of the maximum quantity of gas from one experiment. Thus 10 grams of tritium gas was used in the analysis to conservatively estimate the maximum whole-body dose of 1 rem at the site boundary and a maximum population dose of 600 man-rem. Accidental release of this amount of tritium implies simultaneous failure of two doubly contained systems, an occurrence considered not credible. Nuclear criticality is impossible in this facility. Based upon the analyses performed for this report, we conclude that the Tritium Research Laboratory can be operated without undue risk to employees, the general public, or the environment. (ERB)

  7. Tritium metrology within different media: focus on organically bound tritium (OBT); Metrologie du tritium dans differentes matrices: cas du tritium organiquement lie (TOL)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baglan, N. [CEA Bruyeres-le-Chatel, DIF, 91 (France); Ansoborlo, E. [CEA Marcoule, DEN/DRCP/CETAMA, 30 (France); Cossonnet, C. [IRSN, DEI/STEME/LMRE, 91 - Orsay (France); Fouhal, L. [CEA Cadarache, DEN/D2S/LANSE, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Deniau, I.; Mokili, M. [SUBATECH/IN2P3/CNRS, 44 - Nantes (France); Henry, A. [AREVA-NC/DQSSE/PR - La Hague, 50 - Beaumont-Hague, (France); Fourre, E. [CEA Saclay, DSM/DRECAM/LSCE, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Olivier, A. [GEA-Marine nationale, 50 - Cherbourg (France)

    2010-07-15

    The measurement of tritium in its various forms (mainly gas (HT), water (HTO) or solid (hydrides)), is an important key step for evaluating health and environmental risks and finally, dosimetry assessment. In vegetable or animal samples, tritium is often associated with the free water fraction, but may be included in the organic form as organically bound tritium (OBT). In this case, 2 forms exist: (i) a fraction called exchangeable or labile (E-OBT), bound to oxygen and nitrogen atoms, and (ii) a so-called non-exchangeable fraction (NE-OBT) bound to carbon atoms. The main technique for tritium analysis is liquid scintillation, which enables one to measure concentrations in the range of several Bq.L{sup -1}. The standards (AFNOR, ISO) published to date relate only to tritium analysis in water. Only one CETAMA method addresses OBT analysis in biological environments. This method has been tested since 2001 through intercomparison circuits on grass samples collected from the environment. Regarding tritium analysis in water, the strengths are reliability of this analysis at low concentrations (order of Bq.L{sup -1}), robustness and simplicity, and weaknesses are linked to problems of background, conservation and contamination of samples. Concerning OBT analysis, the analysis is reliable for values around 50 Bq.kg{sup -1} of fresh sample. The weaknesses are problems of contamination, reproducibility, analysis time (2 to 6 days) and lack of reference materials. The difficulty to date is the separation between E-OBT and NE-OBT, that will need experimental validation. (authors)

  8. Hansestadt Rostock : Perspektiven der Stadtentwicklung im Bereich der Binnenwarnow

    OpenAIRE

    Fellner, Anne

    1999-01-01

    Die geschützte Lage am Flußlauf der Warnow in der Nähe der Ostsee war einst Anlaß zur Gründung und Motor der Geschichte der Hansestadt Rostock. Heute hat die Stadt aus unterschiedlichen Gründen dem Fluß den Rücken gekehrt. Es ist eine Vielzahl von Barrieren entstanden, die den RostockerInnen den Zugang zum Wasser verwehren. Die Beziehung der Stadt zum Wasser ist zerschnitten durch die Zwänge des Wiederaufbaus, durch den Verkehr und die ehemalige militärische Nutzung des Stadthafens. Die Rückg...

  9. Roving Librarians in der Zentralbibliothek der Hochschule Hannover: ein Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Hofmann

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In der Zentralbibliothek der Hochschule Hannover wurde ab Wintersemester 2012 ein Experiment mit Roving Librarians durchgeführt, um die Auskunftsqualität zu verbessern. Die Mitarbeiterinnen und Mitarbeiter der Bibliothek liefen zu diesem Zweck mit einem Netbook ausgerüstet durch den Benutzungsbereich der Bibliothek, um Fragen der Nutzer und Nutzerinnen gleich dort aufzufangen, wo sie entstehen. Der Versuch kann nicht als erfolgreich bezeichnet werden, doch konnten während des Experiments wertvolle Einblicke in Nutzerwünsche gewonnen werden.

  10. Decommissioning of a tritium-contaminated laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, J.R.; Garde, R.

    1981-11-01

    A tritium laboratory facility at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, was decommissioned in 1979. The project involved dismantling the laboratory equipment and disposing of the equipment and debris at an on-site waste disposal/storage area. The laboratory was constructed in 1953 and was in service for tritium research and fabrication of lithium tritide components until 1974. The major features of the laboratory included some 25 meters of gloveboxes and hoods, associated vacuum lines, utility lines, exhaust ducts, electrodryers, blowers, and laboratory benches. This report presents details on the decommissioning, health physics, waste management, environmental surveillance, and costs for the operation

  11. Tritium transport in lithium ceramics porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tam, S.W.; Ambrose, V.

    1991-01-01

    A random network model has been utilized to analyze the problem of tritium percolation through porous Li ceramic breeders. Local transport in each pore channel is described by a set of convection-diffusion-reaction equations. Long range transport is described by a matrix technique. The heterogeneous structure of the porous medium is accounted for via Monte Carlo methods. The model was then applied to an analysis of the relative contribution of diffusion and convective flow to tritium transport in porous lithium ceramics. 15 refs., 4 figs

  12. Polymeric media for tritium fixation. Supplement I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franz, J.A.; Burger, L.L.

    1976-01-01

    Procedures for the fixation of tritium as TH or THO in two different polymeric media are described. The complete procedure for THO fixation in a polyureylene-polyurethane polumer, including polymer molding procedures and leach tests is presented. The catalytic tritiation of polystyrene under very mild conditions using a rhodium catalyst is also described. Thermal stabilities and cost estimates for the polymers examined under this program are discussed. Organic polymers were found to have attractive features for the fixation and storage of concentrated tritium wastes due to the convenience of fixation procedures and favorable properties of the resulting media

  13. Measurement of tritium in dial painting industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawant, J.V.; Rudran, Kamala

    1995-01-01

    Tritium in the form of polystyrene is used coated on zinc sulphide as the active component for the manufacture of self-luminous paint. To study the radiological implication of airborne tritium in the luminous paint industry air monitoring study was conducted by cold strip method and Andersen method. Airborne particulate in different locations in luminous paint (LP) building and background areas were observed to be associated with activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD) of 1.8 to 5.0 um. Dose to soft tissue and lungs and effective whole body dose were evaluated. (author). 6 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs., 2 ills

  14. Tritium projectiles for fueling magnetic fusion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, P.W.; Gouge, M.J.

    1995-01-01

    As part of the International Thermonuclear Engineering Reactor (ITER) plasma fueling development program, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has fabricated a pellet (cylindrical projectile of frozen hydrogenic gas at a temperature in the range 6--16 K) injection system to test the mechanical and thermal properties of extruded tritium, a radioactive isotope of hydrogen. This repeating, single-stage, pneumatic injector, called the Tritium-Proof-of-Principle Phase 2 (TPOP-2) Pellet Injector, has a piston-driven mechanical extruder and is designed to extrude and accelerate hydrogenic pellets sized for the ITER device. The TPOP-2 program has the following development goals: evaluate the feasibility of extruding tritium and deuterium-tritium (D-T) mixtures for use in future pellet injection systems; determine the mechanical and thermal properties of tritium and D-T extrusions; integrate, test, and evaluate the extruder in a repeating, single-stage light gas gun that is sized for the ITER application (pellet diameter ∼ 7 to 8 mm); evaluate options for recycling propellant and extruder exhaust gas; evaluate operability and reliability of ITER prototypical fueling systems in an environment of significant tritium inventory that requires secondary and room containment systems. In initial tests with deuterium feed at ORNL, up to 13 pellets have been extruded at rates up to 1 Hz and accelerated to speeds of 1.0 to 1.1 km/s, using hydrogen propellant gas at a supply pressure of 65 bar. The pellets, typically 7.4 mm in diameter and up to 11 mm in length, are the largest cryogenic pellets produced by the fusion program to date. These pellets represent about a 11% density perturbation to ITER. Hydrogenic pellets will be used in ITER to sustain the fusion power in the plasma core and may be crucial in reducing first-wall tritium inventories by a process called isotopic fueling in which tritium-rich pellets fuel the burning plasma core and deuterium gas fuels the edge

  15. Development of an environmental tritium model; ETDOSE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andoh, Mariko; Takahashi, Tomoyuki; Amano, Hikaru [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1999-03-01

    ETDOSE is a simple computer code to calculate atmospheric distribution patterns of tritium for an acute and a chronic release of HT and HTO. This code calculates tritium concentrations in air, soil, plant free water and OBT, and estimates dose impact by inhalation of air and ingestion of food. Participation in IAEA`s model validation program BIOMASS has been done using this code for BIOMASS Scenario 1. This paper shows the outline of ETDOSE and preliminary results of model comparison in BIOMASS program. (author)

  16. Tritium and the environment 3H

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    After a presentation of Tritium properties (radioactivity, presence in solids, liquids and gases), this document gives comments and assessments of its natural origin, its presence in relationship with nuclear tests, nuclear power plants, processing plants and other industrial installations, its presence in waters and oceans, in the atmosphere and soils, in plants, animals and mankind. It indicates the main exposure ways (ingestion, inhalation, skin) and its biological effects. It gives an overview of the Tritium-containing waste issue, and indicates some related standards

  17. Report of the Task Group on operation Department of Energy tritium facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    This report discusses the following topics on the operation of DOE Tritium facilities: Environment, Safety, and Health Aspects of Tritium; Management of Operations and Maintenance Functions; Safe Shutdown of Tritium Facilities; Management of the Facility Safety Envelope; Maintenance of Qualified Tritium Handling Personnel; DOE Tritium Management Strategy; Radiological Control Philosophy; Implementation of DOE Requirements; Management of Tritium Residues; Inconsistent Application of Requirements for Measurement of Tritium Effluents; Interdependence of Tritium Facilities; Technical Communication among Facilities; Incorporation of Confinement Technologies into New Facilities; Operation/Management Requirements for New Tritium Facilities; and Safety Management Issues at Department of Energy Tritium Facilities.

  18. Die Institution der Sonnenjungfrauen bei den Inkas : ihre Rolle in der Religion und der Gesellschaft / Tarmo Kulmar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kulmar, Tarmo, 1950-

    2003-01-01

    Ettekanne sümpoosionilt: Gemeinsames Symposium der Evangelisch-Theologischen Fakultät der Universität Tartu, der Estnischen Studiengesellschaft für Morgenlandkunde und der Deutschen Religionsgeschichtlichen Studiengesellschaft. Tartu, 2001

  19. [Mechanism of tritium persistence in porous media like clay minerals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dong-Jie; Wang, Jin-Sheng; Teng, Yan-Guo; Zhang, Ke-Ni

    2011-03-01

    To investigate the mechanisms of tritium persistence in clay minerals, three types of clay soils (montmorillonite, kaolinite and illite) and tritiated water were used in this study to conduct the tritium sorption tests and the other related tests. Firstly, the ingredients, metal elements and heat properties of clay minerals were studied with some instrumental analysis methods, such as ICP and TG. Secondly, with a specially designed fractionation and condensation experiment, the adsorbed water, the interlayer water and the structural water in the clay minerals separated from the tritium sorption tests were fractionated for investigating the tritium distributions in the different types of adsorptive waters. Thirdly, the location and configuration of tritium adsorbed into the structure of clay minerals were studied with infrared spectrometry (IR) tests. And finally, the forces and mechanisms for driving tritium into the clay minerals were analyzed on the basis of the isotope effect of tritium and the above tests. Following conclusions have been reached: (1) The main reason for tritium persistence in clay minerals is the entrance of tritium into the adsorbed water, the interlayer water and the structural water in clay minerals. The percentage of tritium distributed in these three types of adsorptive water are in the range of 13.65% - 38.71%, 0.32% - 5.96%, 1.28% - 4.37% of the total tritium used in the corresponding test, respectively. The percentages are different for different types of clay minerals. (2) Tritium adsorbed onto clay minerals are existed in the forms of the tritiated hydroxyl radical (OT) and the tritiated water molecule (HTO). Tritium mainly exists in tritiated water molecule for adsorbed water and interlayer water, and in tritiated hydroxyl radical for structural water. (3) The forces and effects driving tritium into the clay minerals may include molecular dispersion, electric charge sorption, isotope exchange and tritium isotope effect.

  20. Mathematik in der Drahtlosen Kommunikation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boche, Holger; Eisenblätter, Andreas

    Die Mobilkommunikation besitzt heute große wirtschaftliche Bedeutung. Sie hat seit der Einführung des derzeit noch dominierenden Mobilfunkstandards GSM Anfang der neunziger Jahre einen enormen Einfluss auf das gesellschaftliche Leben genommen. Mit neuen Anwendungsfeldern, z. B. im Maschinen- und Anlagenbau, in der Automobilindustrie und im Wohnbereich, wird die Bedeutung der Mobilkommunikation weiter steigen. Um der Vielfalt der Anwendungen gerecht zu werden und die Wünsche nach neuen Diensten erfüllen zu können, werden fortwährend neue Mobilfunksysteme eingeführt.

  1. Tritium dynamics in soils and plants at a tritium processing facility in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihok, S.; St-Amanat, N.; Kwamena, N.O. [Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (Canada); Clark, I.; Wilk, M.; Lapp, A. [University of Ottawa (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    The dynamics of tritium released as tritiated water (HTO) have been studied extensively with results incorporated into environmental models such as CSA N288.1 used for regulatory purposes in Canada. The dispersion of tritiated gas (HT) and rates of oxidation to HTO have been studied under controlled conditions, but there are few studies under natural conditions. HT is a major component of the tritium released from a gaseous tritium light manufacturing facility in Canada (CNSC INFO-0798). To support the improvement of models, a garden was set up in one summer near this facility in a spot with tritium in air averaging ∼ 5 Bq/m{sup 3} HTO (passive diffusion monitors). Atmospheric stack releases (575 GBq/week) were recorded weekly. HT releases occur mainly during working hours with an HT:HTO ratio of 2.6 as measured at the stack. Soils and plants (leaves/stems and roots/tubers) were sampled for HTO and organically-bound tritium (OBT) weekly. Active day-night monitoring of air was conducted to interpret tritium dynamics relative to weather and solar radiation. The experimental design included a plot of natural grass/soil, contrasted with grass (sod) and Swiss chard, pole beans and potatoes grown in barrels under different irrigation regimes (in local topsoil at 29 Bq/L HTO, 105 Bq/L OBT). All treatments were exposed to rain (80 Bq/L) and atmospheric releases of tritium (weekdays), and reflux of tritium from soils (initial conditions of 284 Bq/L HTO, 3,644 Bq/L OBT) from 20 years of operations. Three irrigation regimes were used for barrel plants to mimic home garden management: rain only, low tritium tap water (5 Bq/L), and high tritium well water (mean 10,013 Bq/L). This design provided a range of plants and starting conditions with contrasts in initial HTO/OBT activity in soils, and major tritium inputs from air versus water. Controls were two home gardens far from any tritium sources. Active air monitoring indicated that the plume was only occasionally present for

  2. Incorporation of tritium in milk lipids after feeding organically bound tritium to cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochalska, M.; Hoek, J. van den

    1982-01-01

    Hay labelled with organically bound tritium was given to two cows for a period of 26 to 28 days. During hay feeding and at different times thereafter, lipids (fatty acids, cholesterol, glycerol, choline phospholipids, other phospholipids, flycolipids and gangliosides) were isolated from milk fat, and their total and specific activities were determined. During tritium administration, fatty acids and cholesterol contained the highest total activity, but the specific activity was highest in cholesterol and choline phospholipids. Activity decreased most rapidly for fatty acids and cholesterol, so that at 56 and 182 days after termination of 3 H feedings, phospholipids and glycolipids made an important contribution to lipid activity in milk. Regression analysis of the values for tritium activity in milk fat samples after stopping tritium administration, showed that three components with different half lives could be distinguished. The differences in metabolic behaviour of the various lipids in milk fat are mainly concerned with their relative participation in these components. (author)

  3. Development of nuclear micro-battery with solid tritium source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sook-Kyung; Son, Soon-Hwan; Kim, KwangSin; Park, Jong-Wan; Lim, Hun; Lee, Jae-Min; Chung, Eun-Su

    2009-01-01

    A micro-battery powered by tritium is being developed to utilize tritium produced from the Wolsong Tritium Removal Facility. The 3D p-n junction device has been designed and fabricated for energy conversion. Titanium tritide is adopted to increase tritium density and safety. Sub micron films or nano-powders of titanium tritide is applied on silicon semiconductor device to reduce the self absorption of beta rays. Until now protium has been used instead of tritium for safety. Hydrogen was absorbed up to atomic ratio of ∼1.3 and ∼1.7 in titanium powders and films, respectively.

  4. Quantitative determination of tritium in metals and oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vance, D.E.; Smith, M.E.; Waterbury, G.R.

    1979-04-01

    Metallic samples are analyzed for tritium by heating the sample at 1225 K in a moist oxygen stream. The volatile products are trapped and the tritium is quantitatively determined by scintillation spectroscopy. The method is used to determine less than 1 ppb of tritium in 100-mg samples of lithium, iron, nickel, cerium, plutonium, and plutonium dioxide. Analysis of 18 cuts of a tritium-zirconium, copper foil standard over a 3-yr period showed a tritium content of 45 ppM and a standard deviation of 6 ppM

  5. Tritium experience in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skinner, C.H.; Blanchard, W.; Hosea, J.; Mueller, D.; Nagy, A. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Princeton Plasma Physics Lab.; Brooks, J.N. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Hogan, J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1998-07-01

    Tritium management is a key enabling element in fusion technology. Tritium fuel was used in 3.5 years of successful deuterium-tritium (D-T) operations in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. The D-T campaign enabled TFTR to explore the transport, alpha physics, and MHD stability of a reactor core. It also provided experience with tritium retention and removal that highlighted the importance of these issues in future D-T machines. In this paper, the authors summarize the tritium retention and removal experience in TFTR and its implications for future reactors.

  6. TFTR D-T experience with tritium radioactivity during maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rule, K.; Gilbert, J.; Ascione, G.; Birckbichler, D.; Elwood, S.; Flournoy, R.; Stencel, J.; Tilson, C. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab., NJ (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor facility began operations with trace tritium consisting of the delivery, storage, injection, and subsequent processing of tritium gas in support of the D-T fusion program. The tritium is transferred throughout the facility using vacuum pumping systems and expansion volumes. This paper discusses the operational health physics program with regard to the performance of maintenance on tritium contaminated systems. Data and findings are provided from the maintenance situations ranging from work on small volume piping to large volume neutral beam systems. Results and comparisons of the tritium contamination levels, airborne radioactivity levels, and oil concentrations are presented for these systems. 4 refs., 1 fig.

  7. Tritium time series in precipitation of Rm. Valcea, Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varlam, Carmen; Duliu, Octavian G; Faurescu, Ionut; Vagner, Irina; Faurescu, Denisa

    2016-01-01

    Following tritium concentration records in precipitation for the period 1999-2013 and tritium concentration behaviour during this period for the Ramnicu Valcea (Rm. Valcea) location, the tritium level of individual precipitations of the late spring and summer for the 2009-2013 period was investigated. Despite good correlation between monthly mean tritium concentrations and monthly mean precipitations over the 15-year period of observations (Pearson coefficient 0.87), the individual precipitations had no linear correlation between the tritium concentration and the amount of precipitation.

  8. Tritium experience in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, C.H.; Blanchard, W.; Hosea, J.; Mueller, D.; Nagy, A.; Hogan, J.

    1998-01-01

    Tritium management is a key enabling element in fusion technology. Tritium fuel was used in 3.5 years of successful deuterium-tritium (D-T) operations in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. The D-T campaign enabled TFTR to explore the transport, alpha physics, and MHD stability of a reactor core. It also provided experience with tritium retention and removal that highlighted the importance of these issues in future D-T machines. In this paper, the authors summarize the tritium retention and removal experience in TFTR and its implications for future reactors

  9. Elements of thought on the health risk associated to tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This report addresses and analyses the health problematic set by tritium and assesses the robustness of the radiation protection system with respect to this radionuclide by highlighting the lack of scientific knowledge on biological effects, and researches to be promoted. After a presentation of epidemiologic and dosimetric approaches of the radiological risk assessment, the authors discuss results and knowledge gained by epidemiologic studies on the risk associated to tritium for mankind, and discuss the knowledge on biological effects of tritium and on the relative biological effectiveness of tritium. The report finally discusses the possibility of reconsidering the radiation weighting factor in the case of tritium

  10. Effekt der selektiven Hemmung der induzierbaren NO-Synthase (iNOS) in einem experimentellen Model der Pulmonalen Hypertonie

    OpenAIRE

    Krug, Christoffer

    2008-01-01

    Die Rolle der verschiedenen Stickstoffmonoxidsynthasen (NOS) in der Pathogenese der Pulmonalen Hypertonie wird kontrovers diskutiert. Insbesondere die Rolle der induzierbaren NO-Synthase (iNOS oder NOS2) ist wenig untersucht. Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit erfolgten Untersuchungen in einem etablierten experimentellen Modell der Pulmonalen Hypertonie durch Injektion des Alkaloids Monocrotalin in der Ratte. In diesem klinisch relevanten Modell der PH konnte eine signifikant erhöhte Expression der iNOS...

  11. Der Vertragsarzt als Schlüsselfigur der Leistungsversorgung

    OpenAIRE

    Gassner, Ulrich M. (Prof.)

    2010-01-01

    Der Vertragsarzt als Schlüsselfigur der Leistungsversorgung. - In: Tıpta işbirliği ve hukuksal sorunlar = Delegation und Kooperation im Gesundheitswesen / ed.: Hakan Hakeri ... - Samsun : Adalet, 2010. - S. 209-222

  12. Improving tritium exposure reconstructions using accelerator mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, J. R.; Vogel, J. S.; Knezovich, J. P.

    2010-01-01

    Direct measurement of tritium atoms by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) enables rapid low-activity tritium measurements from milligram-sized samples and permits greater ease of sample collection, faster throughput, and increased spatial and/or temporal resolution. Because existing methodologies for quantifying tritium have some significant limitations, the development of tritium AMS has allowed improvements in reconstructing tritium exposure concentrations from environmental measurements and provides an important additional tool in assessing the temporal and spatial distribution of chronic exposure. Tritium exposure reconstructions using AMS were previously demonstrated for a tree growing on known levels of tritiated water and for trees exposed to atmospheric releases of tritiated water vapor. In these analyses, tritium levels were measured from milligram-sized samples with sample preparation times of a few days. Hundreds of samples were analyzed within a few months of sample collection and resulted in the reconstruction of spatial and temporal exposure from tritium releases. Although the current quantification limit of tritium AMS is not adequate to determine natural environmental variations in tritium concentrations, it is expected to be sufficient for studies assessing possible health effects from chronic environmental tritium exposure. PMID:14735274

  13. Tritium release experiments with CATS and numerical simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munakata, Kenzo, E-mail: kenzo@gipc.akita-u.ac.jp [Faculty of Engineering and Resource Sciences, Akita University, Tegata-gakuen-cho 1-1, Akita 010-8502 (Japan); Wajima, Takaaki; Hara, Keisuke; Wada, Kohei [Faculty of Engineering and Resource Sciences, Akita University, Tegata-gakuen-cho 1-1, Akita 010-8502 (Japan); Takeishi, Toshiharu; Shinozaki, Yohei; Mochizuki, Kazuhiro; Katekari, Kenichi [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Science, Kyushu University, Hakozaki 6-10-1, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Kobayashi, Kazuhiro; Iwai, Yasunori; Hayashi, Takumi; Yamanishi, Toshihiko [Tritium Technology Group, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)

    2010-12-15

    In D-T fusion power plants, large amounts of tritium would be handled. Tritium is the radioisotope of protium, and is easily taken into the human body, and thus the behavior of tritium accidentally released in fusion power plants should be studied for the safety design and radioprotection of workers. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the behavior of tritium released into large rooms with objectives, since complex flow fields should exist in such rooms and they could influence the ventilation of the air containing released tritium. Thus, tritium release experiments were conducted using Caisson Assembly for Tritium Safety Study (CATS) in TPL/JAEA. Some data were taken for tritium behavior in the ventilated area and response of tritium monitors. In the experiments, approximately 17 GBq of tritium was released into Caisson with the total volume of 12 m{sup 3}, and the room was ventilated at the rate of 12 m{sup 3}/h after release of tritium. It was found that placement of an objective in the vessel substantially affects decontamination efficiency. With regard to an experimental result, numerical calculation was performed and the experimental result and the result of numerical calculation were compared, which indicates that experimental results are qualitatively reproduced by numerical calculation. However, further R and D needs to be carried out for quantitative reproduction of the experimental results.

  14. Tritium burning in inertial electrostatic confinement fusion facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohnishi, Masami, E-mail: onishi@kansai-u.ac.jp [Department of Science and Engineering, Kansai University, 3-3-35 Yamate-cho, Suita, Osaka 564-8680 (Japan); Yamamoto, Yasushi; Osawa, Hodaka [Department of Science and Engineering, Kansai University, 3-3-35 Yamate-cho, Suita, Osaka 564-8680 (Japan); Hatano, Yuji; Torikai, Yuji [Hydrogen Isotope Science Center, University of Toyama, Gofuku, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan); Murata, Isao [Faculty of Engineering Environment and Energy Department, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Kamakura, Keita; Onishi, Masaaki; Miyamoto, Keiji; Konda, Hiroki [Department of Science and Engineering, Kansai University, 3-3-35 Yamate-cho, Suita, Osaka 564-8680 (Japan); Masuda, Kai [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Hotta, Eiki [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuda-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • An experiment on tritium burning is conducted in an inertial electrostatic confinement fusion (IECF) facility. • A deuterium–tritium gas mixture with 93% deuterium and 7% tritium is used. • The neutron production rate is measured to be 5–8 times more than that of pure deuterium gas. • The neutron production rate of the D–T gas mixture in 1:1 ratio is expected to be more than 10{sup 8}(1/sec) in the present D–T experiment. - Abstract: An experiment on tritium burning is conducted to investigate the enhancement in the neutron production rate in an inertial electrostatic confinement fusion (IECF) facility. The facility is designed such that it is shielded from the outside for safety against tritium and a getter pump is used for evacuating the vacuum chamber and feeding the fuel gas. A deuterium–tritium gas mixture with 93% deuterium and 7% tritium is used, and its neutron production rate is measured to be 5–8 times more than that of pure deuterium gas. Moreover, the results show good agreement with those of a simplified theoretical estimation of the neutron production rate. After tritium burning, the exhausted fuel gas undergoes a tritium recovery procedure through a water bubbler device. The amount of gaseous tritium released by the developed IECF facility after tritium burning is verified to be much less than the threshold set by regulations.

  15. Preliminary Tritium Management Design Activities at ORNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, Thomas J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Felde, David K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Logsdon, Randall J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); McFarlane, Joanna [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Qualls, A. L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Interest in salt-cooled and salt-fueled reactors has increased over the last decade (Forsberg et al. 2016). Several private companies and universities in the United States, as well as governments in other countries, are developing salt reactor designs and/or technology. Two primary issues for the development and deployment of many salt reactor concepts are (1) the prevention of tritium generation and (2) the management of tritium to prevent release to the environment. In 2016, the US Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a research project under the Advanced Reactor Technology Program to (1) experimentally assess the feasibility of proposed methods for tritium mitigation and (2) to perform an engineering demonstration of the most promising methods. This document describes results from the first year’s efforts to define, design, and build an experimental apparatus to test potential methods for tritium management. These efforts are focused on producing a final design document as the basis for the apparatus and its scheduled completion consistent with available budget and approvals for facility use.

  16. Installation of the Tritium Purification System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labik, G.; Golian, T.; Satkofsky, J.; Sichta, P.; Crook, D.; Dudek, L.; Coward, G.; Parsells, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab., NJ (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes and details the design, the tasks, and the considerations for the mechanical and electrical installation of the TFTR Tritium Purification System (TPS) at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL). Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project (CFFTP) designed, fabricated, assembled and tested the Tritium Purification System in Ontario, Canada. After system tests were accepted by Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, the assembled components were disassembled into a set of subassemblies and were shipped to PPPL. The subassemblies were reassembled at PPPL and installed primarily in the Decon Facility. The original site selection was within the TFTR tritium processing area and that selection impacted the column design. The Decon Facility was later chosen to permit a better layout of equipment and improved access for installation personnel. Selection of the Decon Facility site resulted in longer line runs for most of the process streams including the tritium product line. The initial review of the proposed installation was conducted during September of 1994 and the System Integrated Test began during April 1995, subsequent to a successful Operational Readiness Assessment conducted during March of 1995.

  17. Tritium concentrations in some European foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi; Takizawa, Yukio

    1989-01-01

    Tritium concentrations in some European foods imported into Japan are reported here. The specific activity ratio of so-called tissue-bound 3 H to free water 3 H was found to be lower than that previously reported by European and American research groups. This discrepancy might be caused by the difference in sampling year and/or by analytical problems. (author)

  18. Release of gaseous tritium during reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruecher, H.; Hartmann, K.

    1983-01-01

    About 50% of the tritium put through an LWR reprocessing plant is obtained as tritium-bearing water, HTO. Gaseous tritium, HT has a radiotoxicity which is by 4 orders of magnitude lower than that of HTO. A possibility for the removal of HTO could therefore be its conversion into the gas phase with subsequent emission of the HT into the atmosphere. However, model computations which are, in part, supported by experimental data reveal that the radiation exposure caused by HT release is only by about one order of magnitude below that caused by HTO. This is being attributed to the relatively quick reoxidation of HT by soil bacteria. Two alternatives for producing HT from HTO (electrolysis; voloxidation with subsequent electrolysis) are presented and compared with the reference process of deep-well injection of HTO. The authors come to the conclusion that tritium removal by HT release into the atmosphere cannot be recommended at present under either radiological or economic aspects. (orig.) [de

  19. Permeability of protective coatings to tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, J.M.

    1987-10-01

    The permeability of four protective coatings to tritium gas and tritiated water was investigated. The coatings, including two epoxies, one vinyl and one urethane, were selected for their suitability in CANDU plant service in Ontario Hydro. Sorption rates of tritium gas into the coatings were considerably larger than for tritiated water, by as much as three to four orders of magnitude. However, as a result of the very large solubility of tritiated water in the coatings, the overall permeability to tritium gas and tritiated water are comparable, being somewhat larger for HTO. Marked differences were also evident among the four coatings, the vinyl proving to be unique in behaviour and morphology. Because of a highly porous surface structure water condensation takes place at high relative humidities, leading to an abnormally high retention of free water. Desorption rates from the four coatings were otherwise quite similar. Of practical importance was the observation that more effective desorption of tritiated water could be carried out at relatively high humidities, in this case 60%. It was believed that isotopic exchange was responsible for this phenomenon. It appears that epoxy coatings having a high pigment-to-binder ratio are most suited for coating concrete in tritium handling facilities

  20. Frustrated Lewis pairs-assisted tritium labeling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marek, Aleš; Široká, Sabina; Elbert, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 5 (2016), s. 219 ISSN 2336-7202. [Sjezd českých a slovenských chemických společností /68./. 04.09.2016-07.09.2016, Praha] Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : frustrated Lewis pairs * one-pot synthesis * tritium -labeling Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  1. Stereo and regioselectivity in ''Activated'' tritium reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrenkaufer, R.L.E.; Hembree, W.C.; Wolf, A.P.

    1988-01-01

    To investigate the stereo and positional selectivity of the microwave discharge activation (MDA) method, the tritium labeling of several amino acids was undertaken. The labeling of L-valine and the diastereomeric pair L-isoleucine and L-alloisoleucine showed less than statistical labeling at the α-amino C-H position mostly with retention of configuration. Labeling predominated at the single β C-H tertiary (methyne) position. The labeling of L-valine and L-proline with and without positive charge on the α-amino group resulted in large increases in specific activity (greater than 10-fold) when positive charge was removed by labeling them as their sodium carboxylate salts. Tritium NMR of L-proline labeled both as its zwitterion and sodium salt showed also large differences in the tritium distribution within the molecule. The distribution preferences in each of the charge states are suggestive of labeling by an electrophilic like tritium species(s). 16 refs., 5 tabs

  2. Carbon 14 and tritium radioactivity of alcohols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerain, J.; Tourliere, S.

    1975-01-01

    The method of measuring carbon 14 radioactivity of alcohols has been perfected in order to establish the correct determination of synthetic alcohol added to fermentation alcohol. The specific carbon and tritium activity of alcohol of different origins have been determined for 1973 and 1974. The Suess effect and nuclear fall-out are observed [fr

  3. Operation of the tokamak fusion test reactor tritium systems during initial tritium experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J.L.; Gentile, C.; Kalish, M.; Kamperschroer, J.; Kozub, T.; LaMarche, P.; Murray, H.; Nagy, A.; Raftopoulos, S.; Rossmassler, R.; Sissingh, R.; Swanson, J.; Tulipano, F.; Viola, M.; Voorhees, D.; Walters, R.T.

    1995-01-01

    The high power D-T experiments on the tokamak fusion test reactor (TFTR) at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory commenced in November 1993. During initial operation of the tritium systems a number of start-up problems surfaced and had to be corrected. These were corrected through a series of system modifications and upgrades and by repair of failed or inadequate components. Even as these operational concerns were being addressed, the tritium systems continued to support D-T operations on the tokamak. During the first six months of D-T operations more than 107kCi of tritium were processed successfully by the tritium systems. D-T experiments conducted at TFTR during this period provided significant new data. Fusion power in excess of 9MW was achieved in May 1994. This paper describes some of the early start-up issues, and reports on the operation of the tritium system and the tritium tracking and accounting system during the early phase of TFTR D-T experiments. (orig.)

  4. Tritium forms discrimination in ryegrass under constant tritium exposure: From seed germination to seedling autotrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renard, H; Maro, D; Le Dizès, S; Escobar-Gutiérrez, A; Voiseux, C; Solier, L; Hébert, D; Rozet, M; Cossonnet, C; Barillot, R

    2017-10-01

    Uncertainties remain regarding the fate of atmospheric tritium after it has been assimilated in grasslands (ryegrass) in the form of TFWT (Tissue Free Water Tritium) or OBT (Organically Bound Tritium). One such uncertainty relates to the tritium forms discrimination during transfer from TFWT to OBT resulting from photosynthesis (OBT photo ), corresponding to the OBT photo /TFWT ratio. In this study, the OBT/TFWT ratio is determined by experiments in the laboratory using a ryegrass model and hydroponic cultures, with constant activity of tritium in the form of tritiated water (denoted as HTO) in the "water" compartment (liquid HTO) and "air" compartment (HTO vapour in the air). The OBT photo /TFWT ratio and the exchangeable OBT fraction are measured for three parts of the plant: the leaf, seed and root. Plant growth is modelled using dehydrated biomass measurements taken over time in the laboratory and integrating physiological functions of the plant during the first ten days after germination. The results suggest that there is no measurable discrimination of tritium in the plant organic matter produced by photosynthesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Tokamak fusion reactors with less than full tritium breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, K. Jr.; Gilligan, J.G.; Jung, J.

    1983-05-01

    A study of commercial, tokamak fusion reactors with tritium concentrations and tritium breeding ratios ranging from full deuterium-tritium operation to operation with no tritium breeding is presented. The design basis for these reactors is similar to those of STARFIRE and WILDCAT. Optimum operating temperatures, sizes, toroidal field strengths, and blanket/shield configurations are determined for a sequence of reactor designs spanning the range of tritium breeding, each having the same values of beta, thermal power, and first-wall heat load. Additional reactor parameters, tritium inventories and throughputs, and detailed costs are calculated for each reactor design. The disadvantages, advantages, implications, and ramifications of tritium-depleted operation are presented and discussed

  6. Plasma wall interaction and tritium retention in TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, C.H.; Amarescu, E.; Ascione, G.

    1996-01-01

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) has been operating safely and routinely with deuterium-tritium fuel for more than two years. In this time, TFTR has produced an impressive number of record breaking results including core fusion power, ∼ 2 MW/m 3 , comparable to that expected for ITER. Advances in wall conditioning via lithium pellet injection have played an essential role in achieving these results. Deuterium-tritium operation has also provided a special opportunity to address the issues of tritium recycling and retention. Tritium retention over two years of operation was approximately 40%. Recently, the in-torus tritium inventory was reduced by half through a combination of glow discharge cleaning, moist-air soaks, and plasma discharge cleaning. The tritium inventory is not a constraint in continued operations. The authors present recent results from TFTR in the context of plasma wall interactions and deuterium-tritium issues

  7. Plasma wall interaction and tritium retention in TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, C.H.; Amarescu, E.; Ascione, G.

    1997-01-01

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) has been operating safely and routinely with deuterium-tritium fuel for more than two years. In this time, TFTR has produced a number of record breaking results including core fusion power, ∝2 MW/m 3 , comparable to that expected for ITER. Advances in wall conditioning via lithium pellet injection have played an essential role in achieving these results. Deuterium-tritium operation has also provided a special opportunity to address the issues of tritium recycling and retention. Tritium retention over two years of operation was approximately 40%. Recently the in-torus tritium inventory was reduced by half through a combination of glow discharge cleaning, moist-air soaks, and plasma discharge cleaning. The tritium inventory is not a constraint in continued operations. Recent results from TFTR in the context of plasma wall interactions and deuterium-tritium issues are presented. (orig.)

  8. Investigation of tritium in groundwater at Site 300

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buddemeier, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    In 1984, landfill monitoring wells at Site 300, a Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) explosive test site, revealed the presence of groundwater contaminated with tritium. These tritium levels were in excess of the State of California drinking water standard. A major investigation was initiated that included a search of records concerning tritium use, disposal, and previous analyses, and a survey of tritium levels in soil, vegetation, and water in contaminated and potentially contaminated areas. Over 50 boreholes were drilled for this investigation to characterize the local hydrogeology and tritium distributions, and a network of soil moisture and groundwater monitoring points was installed. This report presents the work completed through the end of September 1985: the records search; records for drilling completed as part of this study; characterization of the geology, hydrology, and tritium distributions in the contaminated area; and an initial assessment of the probable tritium sources, pathways, and migration rates. 19 refs

  9. Investigation of tritium in groundwater at Site 300

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buddemeier, R.W.

    1985-12-30

    In 1984, landfill monitoring wells at Site 300, a Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) explosive test site, revealed the presence of groundwater contaminated with tritium. These tritium levels were in excess of the State of California drinking water standard. A major investigation was initiated that included a search of records concerning tritium use, disposal, and previous analyses, and a survey of tritium levels in soil, vegetation, and water in contaminated and potentially contaminated areas. Over 50 boreholes were drilled for this investigation to characterize the local hydrogeology and tritium distributions, and a network of soil moisture and groundwater monitoring points was installed. This report presents the work completed through the end of September 1985: the records search; records for drilling completed as part of this study; characterization of the geology, hydrology, and tritium distributions in the contaminated area; and an initial assessment of the probable tritium sources, pathways, and migration rates. 19 refs.

  10. Plasma wall interaction and tritium retention in TFTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skinner, C.H.; Amarescu, E.; Ascione, G. [and others

    1997-02-01

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) has been operating safely and routinely with deuterium-tritium fuel for more than two years. In this time, TFTR has produced a number of record breaking results including core fusion power, {proportional_to}2 MW/m{sup 3}, comparable to that expected for ITER. Advances in wall conditioning via lithium pellet injection have played an essential role in achieving these results. Deuterium-tritium operation has also provided a special opportunity to address the issues of tritium recycling and retention. Tritium retention over two years of operation was approximately 40%. Recently the in-torus tritium inventory was reduced by half through a combination of glow discharge cleaning, moist-air soaks, and plasma discharge cleaning. The tritium inventory is not a constraint in continued operations. Recent results from TFTR in the context of plasma wall interactions and deuterium-tritium issues are presented. (orig.).

  11. Plasma wall interaction and tritium retention in TFTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skinner, C. H. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Amarescu, E. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Ascione, G. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Synakowski, E. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States)

    1996-05-01

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) has been operating safely and routinely with deuterium-tritium fuel for more than two years. In this time, TFTR has produced an impressive number of record breaking results including core fusion power, ~ 2 MW/m³, comparable to that expected for ITER. Advances in wall conditioning via lithium pellet injection have played an essential role in achieving these results. Deuterium-tritium operation has also provided a special opportunity to address the issues of tritium recycling and retention. Tritium retention over two years of operation was approximately 40%. Recently, the in-torus tritium inventory was reduced by half through a combination of glow discharge cleaning, moist-air soaks, and plasma discharge cleaning. The tritium inventory is not a constraint in continued operations. The authors present recent results from TFTR in the context of plasma wall interactions and deuterium-tritium issues.

  12. Measurement of Tritium Surface Distribution on TFTR Bumper Limiter Tiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, K.; Tanabe, T.; Skinner, C.H.; Gentile, C.A.

    2004-01-01

    The tritium surface distribution on graphite tiles used in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) bumper limiter and exposed to TFTR deuterium-tritium (D-T) discharges from 1993 to 1997 was measured by the Tritium Imaging Plate Technique (TIPT). The TFTR bumper limiter shows both re-/co-deposition and erosion. The tritium images for all tiles measured are strongly correlated with erosion and deposition patterns, and long-term tritium retention was found in the re-/co-depositions and flakes. The CFC tiles located at erosion dominated areas clearly showed their woven structure in their tritium images owing to different erosion yields between fibers and matrix. Significantly high tritium retention was observed on all sides of the erosion tiles, indicating carbon transport via repetition of local erosion/deposition cycles

  13. Die Entwicklung der Kulturlandschaft "Elbtal Dresden"

    OpenAIRE

    Roch, Isolde

    2006-01-01

    Der Beitrag beleuchtet die Herausbildung der Stadtlandschaft am Fluss von der Gestaltungsidee für die Residenzstadt bis zur Großstadt im Industriezeitalter, bezogen auf planerische Einflussnahmen, die Wirksamkeit der Unterschutzstellung von Landschaften und Denkmalen sowie der Beteiligung der Bürgerschaft an Entscheidungen zur Stadtentwicklung. Aus den Vorgehensweisen beim Wiederaufbau der Stadt und der Herausbildung einer Kulturlandschaft von Weltgeltung werden Erfolgsfaktoren...

  14. Die Zeitung der Zukunft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieser, Christoph; Schaffert, Sebastian

    Schon lange wird spekuliert, wie wir in Zukunft Zeitung lesen werden. Werden wir am Frühstückstisch wie gewohnt in einer Zeitung aus Papier schmökern oder werden wir die Zeitung als biegsame Folie beschrieben mit elektronischer Tinte in Händen halten? Wird die Zeitung mit anderen Medien wie Radio und Fernsehen verschmelzen? Viele Varianten sind denkbar. Heute lässt sich schon ein Trend ablesen: Immer mehr Leser entdecken die Online-Zeitung als Informationsmedium, eine Voraussetzung für die Nutzung neuer Technologien in der Zeitung der Zukunft. In diesem Kapitel stellen wir Entwicklungsmöglichkeiten der Online-Zeitung dar, wie sie im Social Semantic Web möglich werden.

  15. Die Last mit der Lust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutz Sauerteig

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Robert Jütte legt mit Lust ohne Last eine umfassende, allgemeinverständliche und spannend zu lesende Geschichte der Empfängnisverhütung von der Antike bis in die unmittelbare Gegenwart vor.

  16. Mit dem Makel der Kollaboration

    OpenAIRE

    Hajduk, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Vor 200 Jahren wurde der Rheinbund gegründet. Erst in ihm entstanden die Grundlagen des modernen deutschen Föderalismus. (http://www.welt.de/print-welt/article228798/Mit-dem-Makel-der-Kollaboration.html)

  17. Historisierung der Energiefrage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeskleba-Dupont, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    Anmeldelse af prof.em.Bent Sørensens bog, der præsenterer energiregnskaber fra Neanderthalerne til vor tid inden for det geografiske område, som Danmark dækker/har dækket. Bidrag til et kommende fag energi-historie.......Anmeldelse af prof.em.Bent Sørensens bog, der præsenterer energiregnskaber fra Neanderthalerne til vor tid inden for det geografiske område, som Danmark dækker/har dækket. Bidrag til et kommende fag energi-historie....

  18. DER 83: outstanding events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The DER's activity is presented through 82 ''outstanding events''. Each one is a stage in the effort of research and development of the DER. These events concern the following fields: new applications of electric power for customers; environment protection and new energy sources; improvements of electric power production units; electrical materials; electric network planning and control; computer codes. In the production field, one deals more particularly with nuclear reactor safety studies: analysis of the behaviour of different components; reactor safety experiments; reliability of different systems (safety, communications...) [fr

  19. Tritium concentrations in natural waters in Japan before use of a large quantity of tritium on its fusion program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaji, Toshio; Momoshima, Noriyuki; Takashima, Yoshimasa.

    1989-01-01

    To clarify environmental tritium levels in Japan before use of a large quantity of tritium on its fusion program, the authors analyzed the tritium concentrations in various water samples, such as rain, river, lake, coastal sea and deep sea waters in Japan. The tritium concentrations in rain water were high at higher latitude. The definite differences of the tritium concentrations due to the weather conditions or seasons were not observed. The average tritium concentration in river water was 51.5 pCi/l in 1982 and that in lake water was 63.5 pCi/l in 1983. The vertical profiles of the tritium concentrations in the representative lakes were almost homogeneous except surface water. The average tritium concentrations in coastal seawater were about 20 pCi/l in both 1982 and 1983. The tendency of the increased tritium level with latitude as reported in literature was not observed by these experiments. Tritium levels in natural water in small isolated islands were lower than those at other places. In the Japan Sea, it was recognized that tritium was distributed down to around 2000 m in depth. This means that the more active vertical mixing of water masses than that in the Pacific Ocean is taking place. (author)

  20. Digitale Multimediaformate in der Psychologie

    OpenAIRE

    Dehnhard, Ina; Weichselgartner, Erich

    2010-01-01

    Die Bereitstellung und der Abruf von Multimediainhalten ist eine der meistgenutzten Funktionen des Internets. Videoportale wie Youtube oder Hulu sind international bekannt und zeichnen sich durch eine große Diversität von Inhalten aus. Auch im wissenschaftlichen Bereich wird zunehmend von der Möglichkeit Gebrauch gemacht, Lehr- und Forschungsinhalte durch Multimedia zu vermitteln und zu verbreiten. Die Bandbreite der multimedialen Formate reicht dabei von Podcasts über Videos bis hin zu kompl...

  1. LEXIKALISCHE MITTEL IN DER HOTELWERBUNG

    OpenAIRE

    Blažević, Nevenka

    2003-01-01

    Werbung ist das wichtigste Marketinginstrument in der Hotellerie. Bei jeder Werbekampagne ist die sprachliche Seite von großer Bedeutung. In diesem Beitrag wird die lexikalische Ebene der Prospekttexte analysiert. Es wird auf allgemeine sprachliche Merkmale dieser Textsorte verwiesen. In Hotelprospekten lassen sich zwei Funktionen erkennen: die Informationsfunktion und die Appellfunktion. Die Appellfunktion wird meistens durch Adjektive ausgedrückt. Bei der Auswahl der lexikalischen Mittel...

  2. Qualitative Forschung in der Technikpsychologie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schraube, Ernst; Chimirri, Niklas Alexander

    2017-01-01

    methodologische Ansätze qualitativ forschender Technikpsychologie. Dabei wird zum einen der Bedarf zur Erneuerung des psychologischen Wissenschaftsverständnisses aufgezeigt, zum andren werden die Möglichkeiten qualitativer und partizipativer Methodologie zur psychologischen Erforschung der Bedeutung der Technik...

  3. Kurz- bis mittelfristige Ergebnisse der Druckscheibenendoprothese in der Behandlung der Femurkopfnekrose

    OpenAIRE

    Käsemann, Bertram

    2007-01-01

    In der vorliegenden klinischen Studie wurden 45 implantierte Druckscheibenendoprothesen von 39 Patienten, die ab dem Stadium ARCO II an einer Femurkopfnekrose erkrankt waren, zwischen Mai 1994 bis April 1999 beobachtet. Die mittlere Nachuntersuchungszeit belief sich, bei einer Spanne von 2-57 Monaten, auf 21,2 Monaten. Das durchschnittliche Follow-up betrug 3,1 Jahre. Im Vorfeld der Untersuchung erfolgte eine eigene Einteilung der Osteonekroseausbreitung im Stadium I-IV der röntgologischen- u...

  4. Using the Tritium Plasma Experiment to evaluate ITER PFC safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longhurst, G.R.; Anderl, R.A.; Bartlit, J.R.; Causey, R.A.; Haines, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    The Tritium Plasma Experiment was assembled at Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore to investigate interactions between dense plasmas at low energies and plasma-facing component materials. This apparatus has the unique capability of replicating plasma conditions in a tokamak divertor with particle flux densities of 2 x 10 19 ions/cm 2 · s and a plasma temperature of about 15 eV using a plasma that includes tritium. With the closure of the Tritium Research Laboratory at Livermore, the experiment was moved to the Tritium Systems Test Assembly facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory. An experimental program has been initiated there using the Tritium Plasma Experiment to examine safety issues related to tritium in plasma-facing components, particularly the ITER divertor. Those issues include tritium retention and release characteristics, tritium permeation rates and transient times to coolant streams, surface modification and erosion by the plasma, the effects of thermal loads and cycling, and particulate production. A considerable lack of data exists in these areas for many of the materials, especially beryllium, being considered for use in ITER. Not only will basic material behavior with respect to safety issues in the divertor environment be examined, but innovative techniques for optimizing performance with respect to tritium safety by material modification and process control will be investigated. Supplementary experiments will be carried out at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratory to expand and clarify results obtained on the Tritium Plasma Experiment

  5. Use of Tritium Accelerator Mass Spectrometry for Tree Ring Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    LOVE, ADAM H.; HUNT, JAMES R.; ROBERTS, MARK L.; SOUTHON, JOHN R.; CHIARAPPA - ZUCCA, MARINA L.; DINGLEY, KAREN H.

    2010-01-01

    Public concerns over the health effects associated with low-level and long-term exposure to tritium released from industrial point sources have generated the demand for better methods to evaluate historical tritium exposure levels for these communities. The cellulose of trees accurately reflects the tritium concentration in the source water and may contain the only historical record of tritium exposure. The tritium activity in the annual rings of a tree was measured using accelerator mass spectrometry to reconstruct historical annual averages of tritium exposure. Milligram-sized samples of the annual tree rings from a Tamarix located at the Nevada Test Site are used for validation of this methodology. The salt cedar was chosen since it had a single source of tritiated water that was well-characterized as it varied over time. The decay-corrected tritium activity of the water in which the salt cedar grew closely agrees with the organically bound tritium activity in its annual rings. This demonstrates that the milligram-sized samples used in tritium accelerator mass spectrometry are suited for reconstructing anthropogenic tritium levels in the environment. PMID:12144257

  6. On the mechanism of biological activation by tritium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozhko, T V; Badun, G A; Razzhivina, I A; Guseynov, O A; Guseynova, V E; Kudryasheva, N S

    2016-06-01

    The mechanism of biological activation by beta-emitting radionuclide tritium was studied. Luminous marine bacteria were used as a bioassay to monitor the biological effect of tritium with luminescence intensity as the physiological parameter tested. Two different types of tritium sources were used: HTO molecules distributed regularly in the surrounding aqueous medium, and a solid source with tritium atoms fixed on its surface (tritium-labeled films, 0.11, 0.28, 0.91, and 2.36 MBq/cm(2)). When using the tritium-labeled films, tritium penetration into the cells was prevented. The both types of tritium sources revealed similar changes in the bacterial luminescence kinetics: a delay period followed by bioluminescence activation. No monotonic dependences of bioluminescence activation efficiency on specific radioactivities of the films were found. A 15-day exposure to tritiated water (100 MBq/L) did not reveal mutations in bacterial DNA. The results obtained give preference to a "non-genomic" mechanism of bioluminescence activation by tritium. An activation of the intracellular bioluminescence process develops without penetration of tritium atoms into the cells and can be caused by intensification of trans-membrane cellular processes stimulated by ionization and radiolysis of aqueous media. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Analysis and speciation of the tritium in environmental matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacchetta, Audrey

    2014-01-01

    This study deals with environmental monitoring. The main aims are (i) the optimisation of the analytical procedure for the tritium in organic form determination, and (ii) the identification of the tritium bearing molecules which are responsible for its transfer from the environment to man. The study was divided into three stages. First an analytical method was developed to determine hydrogen content of several samples, which is a key element to calculate accurate organically bound tritium activities. Secondly, the impact of the organically bound tritium fractions separation (labile exchange) for the determination of the representative fraction of the level of environmental tritium activity was then evaluated. For that, the amount of solubilised sample was estimated. Finally, the speciation of tritium in environmental samples was investigated. Several molecules classes and organic compounds dissolved in the labile exchanges solvent were identified. The results show that the distribution of tritium in organisms depends on both properties of the chemical bond in which it is involved and chemical properties of tritium bearing molecules. The identified compounds belong to the molecules classes such as carbohydrates or amino acids, constitutive of living organisms. It would now be of interest to study the tritium distribution in an environmental sample to target molecules of interest and study the impact of tritium from the environment to man. (author) [fr

  8. Der digitalisierte Steuerzahler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirchhof, Gregor

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Die nach dem österreichischen Vorbild beschlossene Modernisierung des Besteuerungsverfahrens in Deutschland verletzt solange das Grundgesetz, bis ein Ertragsteuerrecht in Kraft tritt, das gesetzeskonform und gleichheitsgerecht digital angewandt werden kann. Auch die steuerlichen Erhebungslasten fordern eine Vereinfachung des materiellen Rechts: Selbst wenn die Mitwirkungspflichten, die Lenkungswirkungen, auch die steuerstrafrechtlichen Vorgaben und datenrechtlichen Lasten isoliert betrachtet noch zumutbar wären, verletzt jedenfalls deren Kumulation das verfassungsrechtliche Maß. Schließlich wird der Kampf gegen „aggressive Steuerplanungen“ internationaler Unternehmen nur erfolgreich sein, wenn das anzuwendende Steuerrecht grundlegend vereinfacht wird. Diese Reformforderungen werden durch die historischen Motive der Soll-Ertragsbesteuerung bestätigt: Steuerhinterziehungen sollten vermieden, die Privatsphäre der Steuerpflichtigen sollte geschont und jeder gleichheitsgerecht zur Steuer herangezogen werden. Das geltende Steuerrecht belastet zu Recht den tatsächlichen, den Ist-Ertrag. Die geltende unübersichtliche Konkretisierung dieses Ausgangspunktes durch Elemente der Soll-Ertragsbesteuerung ist aber in einer grundlegenden Vereinfachung des Steuerrechts zu rationalisieren und zum System zu machen.

  9. Ledelse der giver mening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Torsten

    2014-01-01

    supervision i praksis (Joyce & Showers, 2002). Artiklen sigter mod at bidrage med en øget forståelse af implementeringen af politiske beslutninger ved at belyse de forhold, der præger implementeringen med særligt fokus på skoleledelsen, medarbejderne og deres relation. Artiklen søger også at belyse, hvordan...

  10. Der Shakeout im Industrielebenszyklus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Croonenbroeck, Carsten; Grimpe, Christoph; Stadtmann, Georg

    In vormals aufstrebenden Branchen wie z. B. der Solarindustrie kommt es plötzlich zu einem massiven Austritt selbst großer Marktteilnehmer. Warum? Dieser Artikel zeigt, wie mit mikroökonomischen Überlegungen argumentiert werden kann, um die Anzahl an Unternehmen in einem Markt zu bestimmen. Es wird...

  11. Der Dichter Roman Svendborg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schweppenhäuser, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    Roman Svendborg? Mein Großvater, Hermann Schweppenhäuser, schenkte mir vor einigen Jahren einmal einen Gedichtband, dessen Verfasser mir bis lang noch nicht bekannt war. Damals noch ein junger dänischer Student der Skandinavistik waren mir schließlich nicht alle deutschsprachigen Dichter geläufig...

  12. Wasserpflanzen in der Natur

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ole; Christensen, Claus

    2011-01-01

    Unsere Aquarienpflanzen kommen in der Natur vor oder sind Zuchtformen natürlicher Arten. Dennoch konnten erst sehr wenige Aquarianer diese Pflanzen in ihrer natürlichen Umgebung beobachten. Oft stellten sie fest, dass die Pflanzen meist ganz anders aussehen als im Aquarium. Neben einem ständigen...

  13. Tritium in Australian precipitation: A 50 year record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadros, Carol V.; Hughes, Catherine E.; Crawford, Jagoda; Hollins, Suzanne E.; Chisari, Robert

    2014-05-01

    Tritium in precipitation has been measured in Australia over the past 50 years, as an essential research tool in hydro-climate studies, and to contribute to the Global Network for Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP). Tritium, a component of the water molecule (HTO), is the only true age tracer for waters. The elevated level of tritium in the environment as a result of last century’s atmospheric thermonuclear testing delivers the benefit of tracing groundwater systems over a 100 year timeframe. The concentration of tritium in Australian precipitation reached a maximum of 160 Tritium Units (TU) in 1963, during one of the most intense periods of nuclear weapons testing. From 1963 to present we observe a rapid drop in the concentration of tritium, more than expected from natural decay, and this can be attributed to the wash out of tritium into the oceans and groundwater. Spikes in the tritium level are superimposed over this general trend; the first around 1969, with levels ranging from 39.4 to 84.4 TU was due to French atmospheric weapon testing, and again in 1990, levels peaked between 6.6 and 12.9 TU, which is attributed to tritium leaking from underground tests in the French Pacific. Since 1990 the levels of tritium have declined globally and regionally. Currently the levels of tritium in Australia are stabilising to around 2-3 TU increasing with latitude across the continent, suggesting that today the tritium in precipitation is predominantly natural. The spatial distribution of tritium is presented and found to be dominated by the annual stratosphere-troposphere exchange in combination with latitude and continental effects. A precipitation amount effect is also observed for inland sites.

  14. A metabolic derivation of tritium transfer factors in animal products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galeriu, D.; Melintescu, A.; Crout, N. M. J.; Bersford, N. A.; Peterson, S. R.; Hess, M. van

    2001-01-01

    Tritium is a potentially important environmental contaminant arising from the nuclear industry. Because tritium is an isotope of hydrogen, its behaviour in the environment is controlled by the behaviour of hydrogen. Chronic releases of tritium to the atmosphere, in particular, will result in tritium-to-hydrogen (T/H) ratios in plants and animals that are more or less in equilibrium with T/H ratios in the air moisture. Tritium is thus a potentially important contaminant of plant and animal food products. The transfer of tritium from air moisture to plants is quite well understood. In contrast, although a number of regulatory agencies have published transfer coefficient values for diet tritium transfer for a limited number of animal products, a fresh evaluation of these transfers needs to be made In this paper we present an approach for the derivation of tritium transfer coefficients which is based on the metabolism of hydrogen in animals in conjunction with experimental data on tritium transfer. The derived transfer coefficients separately account for transfer to and from free (i.e. water) and organically bound tritium. The predicted transfer coefficients are compared to available data independent of model development. Agreement is good, with the exception of the transfer coefficient for transfer from tritiated water to organically bound tritium in ruminants, which may be attributable to the particular characteristics of ruminant digestion. We show that transfer coefficients will vary in response to the metabolic status of an animal (e.g. stage of lactation, digestibility of diet, etc.) and that the use of a single transfer coefficient from diet to animal product is not appropriate for tritium. It is possible to derive concentration ratio values which relate the concentration of tritiated water and organically bound tritium in an animal product to the corresponding concentrations in the animals diet. These concentration ratios are shown to be less subject to

  15. Final characterization report for the 104-B-1 Tritium Vault and 104-B-2 Tritium Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Encke, D.B.; Harris, R.A.

    1996-11-01

    This report is a compilation of the characterization data collected from the 104-B-1 Tritium Vault and the 104-B-2 Trillium Laboratory. The characterization activities were organized and implemented to evaluate the radiological status and identify any hazardous materials. The data contained in this report reflects the current conditions and status of the 104-B-1 Tritium Vault and 104-B-2 Tritium Laboratory. This information is intended to be utilized in support of future building decontamination and demolition, to allow for proper disposal of the demolition debris as required by the Washington Administrative Code, WAC 173-303, the Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria, WHC-EP-0063, and the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility Waste Acceptance Criteria, BHI-00139. Based on the historical information and facility inspections, the only hazardous materials sampling and analysis activities necessary were to identify lead paint and asbestos containing materials (ACM) in the 104-B-1 Tritium Vault and the 104-B-2 Tritium Laboratory. Asbestos samples were obtained from the outer boundary of the roof areas to confirm the presence and type of asbestos containing fibers. Lead paint samples were obtained to confirm the presence and quantity of lead paint on the roof trim, doors and vents

  16. Increase in the specific radioactivity of tritium-labeled compounds obtained by tritium thermal activation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badun, G.A.; Chernysheva, M.G.; Ksenofontov, A.L.

    2012-01-01

    A method of tritium introduction into different types of organic molecules that is based on the interaction of atomic tritium with solid organic target is described. Tritium atoms are formed on the hot W-wire, which is heated by the electric current. Such an approach is called 'tritium thermal activation method'. Here we summarize the results of labeling globular proteins (lysozyme, human and bovine serum albumins); derivatives of pantothenic acid and amino acids; ionic surfactants (sodium dodecylsulfate and alkyltrimethylammonium bromides) and nonionic high-molecular weight surfactants - pluronics. For the first time it is observed that if the target-compound is fixed and its radicals are stable the specific radioactivity of the labeled product can be drastically increased (up to 400 times) when the target temperature is ca. 295 K compared with the results obtained at 77 K. The influence of labeling parameters as tritium gas pressure, exposure time and W-wire temperature was tested for each target temperature that results in the optimum labeling conditions with high specific radioactivity and chemical yield of the resulting compound. (orig.)

  17. Human factors engineering for the TERF (Tritium Emissions Reduction Facility) project. [Tritium Emissions Reduction Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedley, W.H.; Adams, F.S. (EG and G Mound Applied Technologies, Miamisburg, OH (USA)); Wells, J.E. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA))

    1990-12-14

    The Tritium Emissions Reduction Facility (TERF) is being built by EG G Mound Applied Technologies to provide improved control of the tritium emissions from gas streams being processed. Mound handles tritium in connection with production, development, research, disassembly, recovery, and surveillance operations. During these operations, a small fraction of the tritium being processed escapes from its original containment. The objective of this report is to describe the human factors engineering as performed in connection with the design, construction, and testing of the TERF as required in DOE Order 6430.1A, section 1300-12. Human factors engineering has been involved at each step of the process and was considered during the preliminary research on tritium capture before selecting the specific process to be used. Human factors engineering was also considered in determining the requirements for the TERF and when the specific design work was initiated on the facility and the process equipment. Finally, human factors engineering was used to plan the specific acceptance tests that will be made during TERF installation and after its completion. These tests will verify the acceptability of the final system and its components. 16 refs., 8 figs.

  18. Tritium system for compact high field devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roccella, M.; Bonizzoni, G.; Chiesa, P.; Ghezzi, F.; Nassi, M.; Pavesi, U.; Amedeo, P.; Boschetti, G.; Giffanti, F.; Moriggio, A.

    1988-01-01

    Some theoretical results and the current status of the work on a prototype plant for the Tritium cycle of compact high-field tokamaks (such as, Ignitor, CIT, etc.), using the SAES Getter St 707 getter material, are described in this report. The schematics and present status of the main subplants of the cycle are reported together with some experimental results demostrating the possibility of utilizing the St 707 material to purify the inert atmosphere of the glove-boxes and the secondary containment of the double-containment metal canalization which is to eventually house the various parts of the plant. Finally, as an example, the FTU machine, under construction at ENEA Frascati, has been taken as a reference, and theoretical evaluations are given for the inventory, permeation and release of the Tritium from the first wall and the thermal shieldes of such a tokamak

  19. Tritium source identification in CANDU reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allsop, P.J.; Aydogdu, K.; MacWilliams, R.; Miller, J.M.

    1997-06-01

    Very small amounts of tritiated heavy water may escape from the moderator and heat-transport systems of CANDU reactors during maintenance and normal operation. Through comprehensive tritium management, the impact of this leaked heavy water on operating personnel and the environment can be controlled. One useful management technique is source identification, a set of methods for locating very small heavy-water leaks. This technique permits an operator to optimize plant performance, adapting to changes in plant conditions. Various identification methods are available, including local-hazard monitoring, tritium mapping and the correlation of measured hazards with emissions and hazards in other areas. The suitability of each method depends on the management objectives. In this report, each of these methods is reviewed and applications discussed. (author)

  20. Low-exposure tritium radiotoxicity in mammals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobson, R.L.

    1982-01-01

    A special feature of tritium radiation is the very low energy of the beta particles (5.7 keV average, 18 keV maximum). This low energy results in very short particle ranges in tissue, ranges that are less than cell dimensions. Another result of the low energy is that the ionization density along beta-ray tracks (even though the tracks are short) is significantly greater than that associated with secondary electrons from gamma rays. The studies of tritium radiotoxicity reviewed, involving chronic 3 HOH exposures in mammals, demonstrate in both mice and monkeys that biological effects can be measured following remarkably low levels of exposure --- levels in the range of serious practical interest to radiation protection. (Namekawa, K.)

  1. IN-SITU TRITIUM BETA DETECTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.W. Berthold; L.A. Jeffers

    1998-04-15

    The objectives of this three-phase project were to design, develop, and demonstrate a monitoring system capable of detecting and quantifying tritium in situ in ground and surface waters, and in water from effluent lines prior to discharge into public waterways. The tritium detection system design is based on measurement of the low energy beta radiation from the radioactive decay of tritium using a special form of scintillating optical fiber directly in contact with the water to be measured. The system consists of the immersible sensor module containing the optical fiber, and an electronics package, connected by an umbilical cable. The system can be permanently installed for routine water monitoring in wells or process or effluent lines, or can be moved from one location to another for survey use. The electronics will read out tritium activity directly in units of pico Curies per liter, with straightforward calibration. In Phase 1 of the project, we characterized the sensitivity of fluor-doped plastic optical fiber to tritium beta radiation. In addition, we characterized the performance of photomultiplier tubes needed for the system. In parallel with this work, we defined the functional requirements, target specifications, and system configuration for an in situ tritium beta detector that would use the fluor-doped fibers as primary sensors of tritium concentration in water. The major conclusions from the characterization work are: A polystyrene optical fiber with fluor dopant concentration of 2% gave best performance. This fiber had the highest dopant concentration of any fibers tested. Stability may be a problem. The fibers exposed to a 22-day soak in 120 F water experienced a 10x reduction in sensitivity. It is not known whether this was due to the build up of a deposit (a potentially reversible effect) or an irreversible process such as leaching of the scintillating dye. Based on the results achieved, it is premature to initiate Phase 2 and commit to a prototype

  2. IN-SITU TRITIUM BETA DETECTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthold, J.W.; Jeffers, L.A.

    1998-01-01

    The objectives of this three-phase project were to design, develop, and demonstrate a monitoring system capable of detecting and quantifying tritium in situ in ground and surface waters, and in water from effluent lines prior to discharge into public waterways. The tritium detection system design is based on measurement of the low energy beta radiation from the radioactive decay of tritium using a special form of scintillating optical fiber directly in contact with the water to be measured. The system consists of the immersible sensor module containing the optical fiber, and an electronics package, connected by an umbilical cable. The system can be permanently installed for routine water monitoring in wells or process or effluent lines, or can be moved from one location to another for survey use. The electronics will read out tritium activity directly in units of pico Curies per liter, with straightforward calibration. In Phase 1 of the project, we characterized the sensitivity of fluor-doped plastic optical fiber to tritium beta radiation. In addition, we characterized the performance of photomultiplier tubes needed for the system. In parallel with this work, we defined the functional requirements, target specifications, and system configuration for an in situ tritium beta detector that would use the fluor-doped fibers as primary sensors of tritium concentration in water. The major conclusions from the characterization work are: A polystyrene optical fiber with fluor dopant concentration of 2% gave best performance. This fiber had the highest dopant concentration of any fibers tested. Stability may be a problem. The fibers exposed to a 22-day soak in 120 F water experienced a 10x reduction in sensitivity. It is not known whether this was due to the build up of a deposit (a potentially reversible effect) or an irreversible process such as leaching of the scintillating dye. Based on the results achieved, it is premature to initiate Phase 2 and commit to a prototype

  3. Tritium removal by CO2 laser heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, C.H.; Kugel, H.; Mueller, D.

    1997-01-01

    Efficient techniques for rapid tritium removal will be necessary for ITER to meet its physics and engineering goals. One potential technique is transient surface heating by a scanning CO 2 or Nd:Yag laser that would release tritium without the severe engineering difficulties of bulk heating of the vessel. The authors have modeled the heat propagation into a surface layer and find that a multi-kW/cm 2 flux with an exposure time of order 10 ms is suitable to heat a 50 micron co-deposited layer to 1,000--2,000 degrees. Improved wall conditioning may be a significant side benefit. They identify remaining issues that need to be addressed experimentally

  4. Tritium removal by CO2 laser heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, C.H.; Kugel, H.; Mueller, D.

    1997-10-01

    Efficient techniques for rapid tritium removal will be necessary for ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) to meet its physics and engineering goals. One potential technique is transient surface heating by a scanning CO 2 or Nd:YAG laser that would release tritium without the severe engineering difficulties of bulk heating of the vessel. The authors have modeled the heat propagation into a surface layer and find that a multi-kW/cm 2 flux with an exposure time of order 10 msec is suitable to heat a 50 micron co-deposited layer to 1,000--2,000 degrees. Improved wall conditioning may be a significant side benefit. They identify remaining issues that need to be addressed experimentally

  5. Elementos Romanos en la Antigua Tritium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José María ALONSO PASCUAL

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Nos encontramos ante una ciudad muy pocas veces mencionada y nunca estudiada. Es una de tantas ciudades que el tiempo ha ido sepultando en el olvido y con las que la memoria de los hombres se ha mostrado ingrata.Su origen se sitúa, con toda probabilidad, en la lista de los primeros núcleos indígenas de nuestra península. Razones de tipo lingüístico vienen a confirmar esta pretendida antigüedad de Tritium. A. Tovar1 considera el término Tritium formado del numeral indoeuropeo m.*trei-, n* tú- «3».

  6. Evaluation of Unfixed Tritium Surface Contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Postolache, C.; Matei, Lidia

    2005-01-01

    Surface unfixed radioactive contamination represents the amount of surface total radioactive contamination which can be eliminated by pure mechanical processes. This unfixed contamination represents the main risk factor for contamination of the personnel which operates in tritium laboratories. Unfixed contamination was determined using sampling smears type FPCSN-PSE-AA. Those FPCSN-PSE-AA smears are disks of expanded polystyrene which contain acrylic acid fragments superficially grafted. Sampling factor was determinated by contaminated surface wiping with moisten smears in 50 μL butylic alcohol and activity measuring at liquid scintillation measuring device. Sampling factor was determined by the ratio between measured activity and initially real conventional activity. The sampling factor was determined for Tritium Laboratory existent surfaces: stainless steel, aluminum, glass, ceramics, linoleum, washable coats, epoxy resins type ALOREX LP-52.The sampling factors and the reproducibility were determined in function of surface nature

  7. Continuous monitoring of tritium in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Descours, S.; Guerin, P.

    1980-02-01

    TRYDYN is a detector studied for continuous monitoring of tritium in water. Its sensitivity of approximately 10 -3 μCi/milliliter (one third of the maximum permissible tritium concentration for the population at large) makes it ideal for radiological protection applications (effluents flowing in process drains, sewers, etc ...). The effluent is filtered and then passed through a transparent flowcell contaIning plastic scintillator beads held between two photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The cell's geometry and scintillator's geometry are designed to maximize measuring efficiency. Background is minimized by a 50 millimeter thick lead shielding and electronic circuitry of the same type as employed with liquid scintillators. This effluent purification unit can operate continuously for 8 days without manual intervention, the scintillator can operate for 6 months with a loss of sensitivity of less of 10%. The response time of the TRIDYN is less than 30 minutes for a concentration of 3.10 -3 μCi/milliliter [fr

  8. Tritium uptake kinetics in crayfish (Orconectes immunis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patrick, P.H.

    1985-06-01

    Uptake of tritiated water (HTO) by Orconectes immunis was investigated under laboratory conditions. Tritium uptake in the tissue-free water fraction (TFWT) was described using an exponential model. When steady-state was reached, the ratio of TFWT to HTO was approximately 0.9. Uptake of tritium in the organically-bound fraction (OBT) proceeded slowly, and had not reached steady-state after 117 days of culture. Although steady-state was never reached, the maximum observed ration of OBT to TFWT in whole animals was approximately 0.6. However, this ratio exceeded unity in the exoskeleton. Specific activity ratios of OBT between crayfish and lettuce (food source) were less than or at unity for various test conditions

  9. Determination of tritium in wine yeast samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotarlea, Monica-Ionela; Paunescu Niculina; Galeriu, D; Mocanu, N.; Margineanu, R.; Marin, G.

    1998-01-01

    Analytical procedures were developed to determine tritium in wine and wine yeast samples. The content of organic compounds affecting the LSC measurement is reduced by fractioning distillation for wine samples and azeotropic distillation/fractional distillation for wine yeast samples. Finally, the water samples were normally distilled with K MO 4 . The established procedures were successfully applied for wine and wine samples from Murfatlar harvests of the years 1995 and 1996. (authors)

  10. Tritium labeling by thermally generated tritons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morimoto, H.; Williams, P.G.; Saljoughian, M.

    1988-06-01

    The predominant effect of thermal atom irradiation on solid molecules is saturation of their aromatic functions. Only low level of tritium exchange is observed for aliphatic solids. In contrast, liquids whose frozen surface can be rendered somewhat mobile at appropriate temperatures exhibit more exchange than addition. The rank order of effectiveness of several metals in promoting exchange/addition appears similar to the rank order for heterogeneous catalytic hydrogenation. 3 refs., 8 figs

  11. Transfer operations with tritium: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folkers, C.L.; Gede, V.P.

    1975-01-01

    Controlled thermonuclear reactors will involve pumping operations with tritium that may involve pressures ranging from submillipascals to megapascals. A variety of pumps are available that can cover portions of this range, and these can be staged to cover the entire pressure range. Some of these pumps can be adapted to virtually any size requirement currently anticipated. Special attention must be paid to operating features and construction materials. (U.S.)

  12. Progress report on the tritium reemission simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbieri, J. F.

    1997-05-01

    A mathematical model has been developed which computes the concentration of tritiated water reemitted into the atmosphere by surface evaporation and plant transpiration using the Penman-Monteith equation. Using these rates, and assuming a deposition velocity for tritium, a coupled set of diffusion equations are then solved which yield the concentration of tritiated water as a function of time. The model is driven by a number of environmental parameters

  13. Tritium handling and processing experience at TSTA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J.L.; Okuno, K.

    1994-01-01

    In 1987, the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and the US Department of Energy (DOE) signed a collaborative agreement (Annex IV) for the joint funding and operation of the Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for a five year period ending June, 1992. After this initial five year collaboration, the Annex IV agreement was extended for another two year period ending June, 1994. During the first five years, a number of the integrated process loop tests of TSTA were conducted, as well as off-line testing of TSTA subsystems. During integrated loop testing the vacuum system, fuel cleanup systems, isotope separation system, transfer pumping system and gas analysis system, are interconnected and tested using 100 g-inventories of tritium to demonstrate steady-state operation of a tritium fuel processing cycle for a fusion reactor. These tests have resulted in a number of significant accomplishments and an experience data base on research, development and operation of the fuel processing system. One of the most significant accomplishments during the initial five year period was the continuous operation of the fuel processing loop for 25 days. During this 25-day extended operation, both the JAERI fuel cleanup system (J-FCU) and the original TSTA fuel cleanup system (FCU) were operated under similar conditions of flow, pressure, and impurity content of the DT gas. Both fuel cleanup systems were demonstrated to provide adequate impurity removal for plasma exhaust gas processing. The isotope separation system was operated continuously, producing pure tritium while rejecting protium as an impurity

  14. Safety analysis of tritium processing system based on PHA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Wanfa; Luo Deli; Tang Tao

    2012-01-01

    Safety analysis on primary confinement of tritium processing system for TBM was carried out with Preliminary Hazard Analysis. Firstly, the basic PHA process was given. Then the function and safe measures with multiple confinements about tritium system were described and analyzed briefly, dividing the two kinds of boundaries of tritium transferring through, that are multiple confinement systems division and fluid loops division. Analysis on tritium releasing is the key of PHA. Besides, PHA table about tritium releasing was put forward, the causes and harmful results being analyzed, and the safety measures were put forward also. On the basis of PHA, several kinds of typical accidents were supposed to be further analyzed. And 8 factors influencing the tritium safety were analyzed, laying the foundation of evaluating quantitatively the safety grade of various nuclear facilities. (authors)

  15. Tritium in groundwater investigation at the Pickering Nuclear Generating Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeWilde, J.; Yu, L.; Wootton, R.; Belanger, D.; Hansen, K.; McGurk, E.; Teare, A.

    2001-01-01

    Ontario Power Generation Inc. (OPG) investigated tritium in groundwater at the Pickering Nuclear Generating Station (PNGS). The objectives of the study were to evaluate and define the extent of radionuclides, primarily tritium, in groundwater, investigate the causes or sources of contamination, determine impacts on the natural environment, and provide recommendations to prevent future discharges. This paper provides an overview of the investigations conducted in 1999 and 2000 to identity the extent of the tritium beneath the site and the potential sources of tritium released to the groundwater. The investigation and findings are summarized with a focus on unique aspects of the investigation, on lessons learned and benefits. Some of the investigative techniques discussed include process assessments, video inspections, hydrostatic and tracer tests, Helium 3 analysis for tritium age dating, deuterium and tritium in soil analysis. The investigative techniques have widespread applications to other nuclear generating stations. (author)

  16. Investigation of tritium in groundwater at Pickering NGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeWilde, J.; Yu, L.; Belanger, D.; Wootton, R.; Hansen, K.; McGurk, E.; Teare, A.

    2001-01-01

    Ontario Power Generation Inc. (OPG) investigated tritium in groundwater at the Pickering Nuclear Generating Station (PNGS). The objectives of the study were to evaluate and define the extent of radio-nuclides, primarily tritium, in groundwater, investigate the causes or sources of contamination, determine impacts on the natural environment, and provide recommendations to prevent future discharges. This paper provides an overview of the investigations conducted in 1999 and 2000 to identify the extent of the tritium beneath the site and the potential sources of tritium released to the groundwater. The investigation and findings are summarized with a focus on unique aspects of the investigation, on lessons learned and benefits. Some of the investigative techniques discussed include process assessments, video inspections, hydrostatic and tracer tests, Helium 3 analysis for tritium age dating, deuterium and tritium in soil analysis. The investigative techniques have widespread applications to other nuclear generating stations. (author)

  17. Necessity for quality assurance tests of tritium gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, L.; Bhat, R.; Guadagno, J.; Sotomayor, R.; Funkhouser, M.; Plasket, E.

    1989-01-01

    For the past 20 years, the U.S. Army has used self-illuminating tritium excited phosphor vials inside the Lensatic compass for night illumination. Tritium was selected as the illuminating mechanism based on calculations from its half-life that projected its field life to be 12 years. Studies conducted by the Radiation Research Group detected deficiencies between the actual luminosity life of the compass and the projected life. Based on this observation, the group conducted subsequent studies to determine if the discrepancy could be attributed to the phosphor or the composition of the tritium contained in the vial. These studies revealed that the composition of tritium gas used in the compass did not match the specifications set for the gas. The group has since incorporated rigorous quality controls in the specifications to avoid future discrepancies. This work has pointed out the need for all tritium vial users to establish specifications and quality control tests for tritium vials

  18. Tritium adsorption/release behaviour of advanced EU breeder pebbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Matthias H. H.; Rolli, Rolf; Knitter, Regina

    2017-06-01

    The tritium loading of current grades of advanced ceramic breeder pebbles with three different lithium orthosilicate (LOS)/lithium metatitanate (LMT) compositions (20-30 mol% LMT in LOS) and pebbles of EU reference material, was performed in a consistent way. The temperature dependent release of the introduced tritium was subsequently investigated by temperature programmed desorption (TPD) experiments to gain insight into the desorption characteristics. The obtained TPD data was decomposed into individual release mechanisms according to well-established desorption kinetics. The analysis showed that the pebble composition of the tested samples does not severely change the release behaviour. Yet, an increased content of lithium metatitanate leads to additional desorption peaks at medium temperatures. The majority of tritium is released by high temperature release mechanisms of chemisorbed tritium, while the release of physisorbed tritium is marginal in comparison. The results allow valuable projections for the tritium release behaviour in a fusion blanket.

  19. Measurements of tritium retention and removal on TFTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skinner, C.H.; Blanchard, W.; Kamperschroer, J. [and others

    1996-05-01

    Recent experiments on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) have afforded an opportunity to measure the retention of tritium in a graphite limiter that is subject to erosion, codeposition and high neutron flux. The tritium was injected by both gas puff and neutral beams. The isotopic mix of hydrogenic recycling was measured spectroscopically and the tritium fraction T/(H+D+T) increased to as high as 75%. Some tritium was pumped out during the experimental run and some removed in a subsequent campaign using various clean-up techniques. While the short term retention of tritium was high, various conditioning techniques were successful in removing {approx} 8,000 Ci and restoring the tritium inventory to a level well below the administrative limit.

  20. Measurements of tritium retention and removal on TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, C.H.; Blanchard, W.; Kamperschroer, J.

    1996-05-01

    Recent experiments on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) have afforded an opportunity to measure the retention of tritium in a graphite limiter that is subject to erosion, codeposition and high neutron flux. The tritium was injected by both gas puff and neutral beams. The isotopic mix of hydrogenic recycling was measured spectroscopically and the tritium fraction T/(H+D+T) increased to as high as 75%. Some tritium was pumped out during the experimental run and some removed in a subsequent campaign using various clean-up techniques. While the short term retention of tritium was high, various conditioning techniques were successful in removing ∼ 8,000 Ci and restoring the tritium inventory to a level well below the administrative limit

  1. Tritium in the global atmosphere: distribution patterns and recent trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozanski, K.; Gonfiantini, R.; Araguas-Araguas, L.

    1991-01-01

    Temporal and spacial variations of tritium in the global atmosphere during the past three decades are discussed, with emphasis on the tritium content of monthly precipitation, as derived from the database of the IAEA/WMO global network ''Isotopes in Precipitation''. Whereas the tritium levels in precipitation have, in recent years, returned close to natural, pre-bomb values in most parts of the world, the technogenic emissions of tritium are becoming more and more visible. The most important sources of technogenic tritium are nuclear facilities as well as manufacturing and disposal of luminous consumer products. Examples of local and regional scale contamination of the lower troposphere due to ground-level tritium releases are presented. (author)

  2. Variation of atmospheric tritium concentrations in Fukuoka, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okai, T.; Momoshima, N.

    2005-01-01

    Tritium is present in the atmosphere in various chemical forms, such as tritiated water vapor (HTO), tritiated hydrogen (HT) and tritiated methane (CH 3 T). Atmospheric tritium levels had remarkably increased because of atmospheric nuclear tests in the 1950's and the early 1960's, and they have been decreasing as a radioactive decay and removal process from a atmosphere. It is important to know the present background levels in each chemical form of tritium in the atmosphere for analysis of the tritium behavior in the environment or for assessment of the public dose. Therefore, tritium concentrations of atmospheric HTO, HT and CH 3 T have been measured in Fukuoka, Japan from 1984 to the present. The present HTO concentrations are already close to the tritium level before nuclear tests. However, the present HT and CH 3 T concentrations are still higher by a factor of 74 and 22, respectively, than those before the tests. (author)

  3. Bestimmung der Exposition der Bevölkerung in der Umgebung von GSM und UMTS Basisstationen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Bornkessel

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Vorliegender Beitrag fasst die Ergebnisse von zwei Projekten aus dem Deutschen Mobilfunk Forschungsprogramm (DMF zusammen, die vom Bundesamt für Strahlenschutz und dem Ministerium für Umwelt, Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit (BMU gefördert wurden. Sie beschäftigen sich mit der Entwicklung von Mess- und Berechnungsverfahren zur Bestimmung der Exposition der Bevölkerung in der Umgebung von GSM- und UMTS-Basisstationen sowie einer Analyse der elektromagnetischen Feldverteilung in verschiedenen Szenarien im Umfeld derartiger Sendeanlagen.

  4. Das Ende der befestigten Stadt. Stadtentwicklung in der Zeit der Entfestigung der Städte am Beispiel Gießen

    OpenAIRE

    Großmann, Katrin

    2002-01-01

    Festungsschleifungen haben in der Geschichte der abendländischen Städte eine große Tragweite: Sie sind der Endpunkt jeglicher Stadtbefestigungen. Welche Veränderungen der Gesellschaft dazu führten, weshalb und an welchem Punkt der Entwicklung man aufhörte, Städte zu vefestigen, wird beispielhaft an der Stadt Gießen mit Hilfe der "Dichten Beschreibung" nach Clifford Geertz nachvollzogen.

  5. The Tritium Content of Atmospheric Methane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishop, K.F.; Delafield, H.J.; Eggleton, A.E.J.; Peabody, C.O.; Taylor, B.T.

    1962-01-01

    The tritium content of atmospheric methane. The presence of significant amounts of tritium in atmospheric methane is reported. Methane extracted from air samples obtained from various altitudes in the northern and southern hemispheres showed T/H ratios ranging from 6.3 x 10 3 to 3.4 x 10 4 T.U. (1 T.U. equals a T/H ratio of 10 -18 ) during the period September 1957 to February 1959 and a continuous rise in the southern hemisphere from 9 x 10 2 T. U. in 1953 to 8 x 10 3 T. U. in 1958. Considerable short-term fluctuations were observed at Wembley, England. The tritiated methane distribution in 1958 was consistent with a tropospheric source (or sources) in the northern hemisphere and the Dobson-Brewer model of global stratospheric circulation. The global integral for tritium in the form of atmospheric methane was very roughly 2.3 x 10 5 c in 1958. No satisfactory explanation of the source of the tritiated methane has been found. (author) [fr

  6. Tritium labeling for bio-med research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemmon, R.M.

    1980-01-01

    A very large fraction of what we know about biochemical pathways in the living cell has resulted from the use of radioactively-labeled tracer compounds; the use of tritium-labeled compounds has been particularly important. As research in biochemistry and biology has progressed the need has arisen to label compounds of higher specific activity and of increasing molecular complexity - for example, oligo-nucleotides, polypeptides, hormones, enzymes. Our laboratory has gradually developed special facilities for handling tritium at the kilocurie level. These facilities have already proven extremely valuable in producing labeled compounds that are not available from commercial sources. The principal ways employed for compound labeling are: (1) microwave discharge labeling, (2) catalytic tritio-hydrogenation, (3) catalytic exchange with T 2 O, and (4) replacement of halogen atoms by T. Studies have also been carried out on tritiation by the replacement of halogen atoms with T atoms. These results indicate that carrier-free tritium-labeled products, including biomacromolecules, can be produced in this way

  7. Irradiation of lithium aluminate and tritium extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, E.; Abassin, J.J.; Botter, F.; Briec, M.; Chenebault, P.; Masson, M.; Rasneur, B.; Roux, N.

    1984-12-01

    After preselection of the preparation procedures, following short irradiations, γ LiAl0 2 samples submitted to 2.10 19 fast neutrons cm -2 and 1.5 10 20 thermal neutrons cm -2 fluences experienced no apparent damage. Post-irradiation tritium extraction from samples irradiated to 2.10 17 neutrons/cm 2 in quartz ampoules produced mostly tritiated water. When in-pile experiments are performed the sample container material influences greatly the measured ratio of tritium gas to tritiated water - Stainless steel capsules yield more T 2 gas than quartz capsules probably because of a reduction process. Difficulties in interpretation arise from adsoption of tritiated water on the measuring lines. Both experiments showed that much faster extraction rates are obtained from small grain size samples than from large ones at the same open porosity. If diffusion in the grains controls the extraction rates, apparent D values vary from 10 -16 to 1.5 10 -15 cm 2 S -1 in the temperature range explored. Around 500 0 C small grain samples reached equilibrium tritium concentration of a few mCi in 4 hours. Such values are suitable for a blanket concept

  8. Synthesis of tritium labeled renin inhibitor ditekiren

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsi, R.S.P.; Stolle, W.T.; Bundy, G.L.

    1994-01-01

    In the search for a radioactive form of the peptidomimetic renin inhibitor, ditekiren, with a metabolically suitable radiolabel for conducting drug disposition studies, we prepared [ 3 H]ditekiren with tritium labels in the N-methyl-histidine moiety and in the leu-val alcohol transition-state insert. [His- 3 H]ditekiren was obtained by first introducing two iodine substituents into the N-methyl-histidine moiety of the parent drug, followed by catalytic hydrodehalogenation with tritium gas. Administration of this labeled drug to monkeys, however, resulted in prolonged retention of radioactivity in the test animals, even though little or no tritiated water was detected in urine. The results, together with similar earlier findings after administration of [ 3 H]ditekiren labeled in the proline moiety of the drug, led us to synthesize [ 3 H]ditekiren labeled in the ''unnatural'' leu-val alcohol (LVA) portion of the molecule. The tritium label in [LVA- 3 H]ditekiren was found to be metabolically suitable for conducting drug disposition studies, with no liability for tritiated water production or prolonged retention of radioactivity in tissues of test animals. (author)

  9. Recovery and packaging of tritium from Canadian heavy water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holtslander, W.J.; Goyette, V.; Harrison, T.E.; Miller, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    The Tritium Extraction Plant being built at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories (CRNL) will be the first industrial scale demonstration of the Liquid Phase Catalytic Exchange (LPCE) process for transfer of tritium from heavy water to deuterium. The plant will also demonstrate new technology in the areas of electrolytic cells for D 2 generation, water cooled recombiners, metal hydride packaging and magnetically coupled blowers for tritium service. It will be used to detritiate the heavy water in Atomic Energy of Canada Limited's (AECL) reactors

  10. Separation of hydrogen isotopes for tritium waste removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkes, W.R.

    1975-01-01

    A distillation cascade for separating hydrogen isotopes was simulated by means of a multicomponent, multistage computer code. A hypothetical test mixture containing equal atomic fractions of protium, deuterium and tritium, equilibrated to high temperature molecular concentrations was used as feed. The results show that a two-column cascade can be used to separate the protium from the tritium. Deuterium appears both in the protium and the tritium product streams. (auth)

  11. Measurement of tritium permeation through resistant materials near room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maienschein, J.; DuVal, V.; McMurphy, F.; Uribe, F.; Musket, R.; Brown, D.

    1985-01-01

    To measure tritium permeation through low-permeability materials at 50 to 170 0 C, we use highly-sensitive liquid scintillation counting to detect the permeating tritium. To validate our method, we conducted extensive experiments with copper, for which much data exists for comparison. We report permeability of tritium through copper at 50, 100, and 170 0 C, and discuss details of the experimental technique. Further plans are outlined. 15 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  12. TRIO-01 experiment: in-situ tritium-recovery results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clemmer, R.G.; Finn, P.A.; Billone, M.C.; Misra, B.; Arons, R.M.; Poeppel, R.B.; Dyer, F.F.; Dudley, I.T.; Bate, L.C.; Clemmer, E.D.

    1983-08-01

    The TRIO-01 experiment is a test of in-situ tritium recovery from ..gamma..-LiAlO/sub 2/ with test conditions chosen to simulate those anticipated in fusion power reactors. A status report is presented which describes qualitatively the results observed during the irradiation phase of the experiment. Both the rate of tritium release and the chemical forms of tritium were measured using a helium sweep gas which flowed past the breeder material to a gas analysis system.

  13. Operation of the TSTA (Tritium Systems Test Assembly) with 100 gram tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherman, R.H.; Bartlit, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    In March of 1988 full operation of the 4-column isotope separation system (ISS) was realized in runs that approximated the design load of tritium. Previous operations had been fraught with operating difficulties principally due to external systems. This report will examine the recent highly successful 6-day period of operation. During this time the system was cooled from room temperature, loaded with hydrogen isotopes including 109 grams of tritium, integrated with the transfer pumping, impurity injection, and impurity removal systems, as well as the remote computer control system. At the end of the operation 12 grams of tritium having a measured purity of 99.987% (remainder deuterium) were offloaded from the system. Observed profiles in the columns in general agree with computer models. A Height Equivalent to a Theoretical Plate (HETP) of 5.0 cm is confirmed. 3 refs., 5 figs

  14. Tritium proof-of-principle pellet injector results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, P.W.; Fehling, D.T.; Gouge, M.J.; Milora, S.L.

    1989-01-01

    The tritium proof-of-principle (TPOP) experiment was built by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to demonstrate the feasibility of forming solid tritium pellets and accelerating them to high velocities for fueling future fusion reactors. TPOP used a pneumatic pipe-gun with a 4-mm-i.d. by 1-m-long barrel. Nearly 1500 pellets were fired by the gun during the course of the experiment; about a third of these were tritium or mixtures of deuterium and tritium. The system also contained a cryogenic 3 He separator that reduced the 3 He level to <0.005%. Pure tritium pellets were accelerated to 1400 m/s. Experiments evaluated the effect of cryostat temperature and fill pressure on pellet size, the production of pellets from mixtures of tritium and deuterium, and the effect of aging on pellet integrity. The tritium phase of these experiments was performed at the Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) at Los Alamos National Laboratory. About 100 kCi of tritium was processed through the apparatus without incident. 8 refs., 7 figs

  15. Elemental tritium deposition and conversion in the terrestrial environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunstall, T.G.; Ogram, G.L.; Spencer, F.S.

    1985-01-01

    Studies were undertaken to determine the deposition and conversion of atmospheric elemental tritium in soils and vegetation. In the field tritium deposition velocities ranged between 0.007 and 0.07 cm s -1 during the summer and autumn and were less than 0.0005 cm s -1 during the winter. Deposition velocity was found to depend significantly on soil water content, total pore space and organic content in controlled laboratory experiments. In contrast to soils, exposure of vegetation to atmospheric elemental tritium resulted in negligible uptake and conversion in foliage. These studies are of significance to the assessment of behaviour and impact of elemental tritium releases

  16. Development of organic tritium light technology at Ontario Hydro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullins, D.F.; Krasznai, J.P.; Mueller, D.A.

    1992-01-01

    Tritium is a by-product of CANDU heavy water reactor operations and is the major contributor to internal dose for plant workers. The Darlington Tritium Removal Facility (DTRF) is decontaminating heavy water by removing tritium and storing it as a metal hydride. In view of the large tritium separation capacity, (24 MCi/a, 888 PBq/a). This paper reports that Ontario Hydro is interested in pursuing markets for the peaceful uses of tritium. One of these peaceful uses is in self-luminous lighting. The state of the art at present is a phosphor coated tube filled with tritium gas. However, safety considerations have restricted the use of these lights to outdoor or essential safety applications. Binding the tritium to a solid non-volatile matrix would increase the safety of tritium lights and allow the use of other phosphors, matrices and construction geometries. Solid, organic based tritium lights were produced using two different polymer matrices. While both these materials produced visible light, the intensity was low and radiolytic damage to the polymers was evident

  17. Helium-3 induced enhancement of tritium production for fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, G.F.

    1983-11-01

    This report provides the results of an inquiry into the feasibility of enhancing tritium production levels through the activation of helium-3 following its external addition to the moderator system of a CANDU reactor. The physical basis for the scheme lies in the fact that the cross section for the activation of helium-3 to tritium is several orders of magnitude larger than the cross section for deuterium activation. The imminent introduction of a centralized facility for the removal, immobilization, and storage of tritium ensures a supply of helium-3, the product of tritium decay

  18. Comparison and Evaluation of Various Tritium Decontamination Techniques and Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentile, C.A.; Langish, S.W.; Skinner, C.H.; Ciebiera, L.P.

    2005-01-01

    In support of fusion energy development, various techniques and processes have been developed over the past two decades for the removal and decontamination of tritium from a variety of items, surfaces, and components. The motivational force for tritium decontamination by chemical, physical, mechanical, or a combination of these methods, is driven by two underlying forces. The first of these motivational forces is safety. Safety is paramount to the established culture associated with fusion energy. The second of these motivational forces is cost. In all aspects, less tritium contamination equals lower operational and disposal costs. This paper will discuss and evaluate the various processes employed for tritium removal and decontamination

  19. Biokinetic aspects of tissue-bound tritium in algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strack, S.; Kistner, G.

    1978-01-01

    For the estimate of the radiation exposure of man and for the calculation of the risk of artificial tritium from nuclear power plants, organic tissue-bound tritium is of decisive importance. In model experiments, a tritium incorporation of 61 to 71% was found from tritiated water (HTO) into organic matter of planctonic algae under reproducible conditions and this was related to the theoretical value. In further experiments the tritium release from these high tritiated algae was of interest. Kept in darkness in tritium-free, non-sterile river water, so that autolytic processes and bacterial decomposition could occur, the concentration of HTO was measured over a period of three weeks. A relatively long half-life of tissue-bound tritium was found under various temperature conditions. Therefore it must be considered that a significant retention of tritium in biological matter has to be taken into account in a natural ecosystem. In streams into which the cooling water of a nuclear reactor is released all conditions are found already for a long turnover and cycling of artificial tritium in living organisms as well as the conditions for a favourable transport of tritium by food chains to man. (Auth.)

  20. Comparison and Evaluation of Various Tritium Decontamination Techniques and Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentile, C.A.; Langish, S.W.; Skinner, C.H.; Ciebiera, L.P.

    2004-01-01

    In support of fusion energy development, various techniques and processes have been developed over the past two decades for the removal and decontamination of tritium from a variety of items, surfaces, and components. Tritium decontamination, by chemical, physical, mechanical, or a combination of these methods, is driven by two underlying motivational forces. The first of these motivational forces is safety. Safety is paramount to the established culture associated with fusion energy. The second of these motivational forces is cost. In all aspects, less tritium contamination equals lower operational and disposal costs. This paper will discuss and evaluate the various processes employed for tritium removal and decontamination

  1. Concentration of tritium in precipitation and river water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatani, Kunio

    1983-01-01

    The concentration of tritium in precipitation and river water has been measured sice 1973 in Aichi, Japan. The tritium in water samples was enriched by electrolysis, and measured by liquid scintillation counting. The concentration of tritium in precipitation decreased from 27 TU in 1973 to 17 TU in 1979, and showed seasonal variation. During this period, there was a rise of concentration because of Chinese nuclear detonation. The concentration of tritium in river water gradually decreased from 44 TU in 1973 to 24 TU in 1979, and the seasonal variation was not observed. Based on the observed values, the relation among precipitation, river water and ground water was analyzed. (J.P.N.)

  2. Extracellular KCl effect on organic bound tritium in human cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonen, Rafi; Uzi, German; Priel, Esther; Alfassi, Zeev B.

    2008-01-01

    Tritium atoms can replace hydrogen atoms in organic compounds, forming Organic Bound Tritium. Therefore, exposure of the body to tritium may lead to binding of tritium in tissue molecules, retaining it in the body longer than HTO, and causing higher doses. Ignoring this effect when evaluating inner exposures, may lead to under-estimation of tritium exposures. It was published, that tritium bound to some organic molecules has the potential to accumulate in organisms at higher levels as in the surrounding media. In order to investigate this effect and to identify physiological factors, OBT production in human malignant MG-63 osteoblast cells was studied. The purpose of the present work was to investigate the influence of the ionic extracellular potassium concentration on the amount of tritium in cells. Potassium is known as an ionic compound present in the body, which has the potential to cause cells swelling. Therefore, cells were exposed to isotonic and hypotonic media, supplemented with different concentrations of KCl, and the tritium accumulations were determined after incubation with HTO. An increase in the total Organic Bound Tritium production was observed, as well as an increase of the intracellular HTO content when increasing the KCl concentration. (author)

  3. Technology and component development for a closed tritium cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penzhorn, R.D.; Haange, R.; Hircq, B.; Meikle, A.; Naruse, Y.

    1991-01-01

    A brief summary on recent advances in the field of tritium technology concerning the most important subsystems of the fuel cycle of a fusion reactor, i.e. the plasma exhaust pumping system, the exhaust gas clean up system, the isotope separation, the tritium storage and the tritium extraction from a blanket is provided. Experimental results, single component developments, and technical tests including those with relevant amounts of tritium that constitute the basis of proposed integral process concepts are described. 48 refs., 2 tabs

  4. The hazard to man of accidental releases of tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brearley, I.R.

    1985-03-01

    Some aspects of the atmospheric dispersion of tritium are discussed, followed by consideration of the dosimetric pathways. In order to assess the significance of a tritium release the doses from various pathways are estimated and compared with the doses estimated from a similar release of iodine-131. The major hazard from tritium is the ingestion of contaminated food products. For similar releases of tritium and I 131 the ingestion hazard can be comparable if the release occurs near and before the end of the harvest season. However, in the tritium release case the agricultural season influences the consequences markedly and, at other times during the year, the ingestion hazard from tritium may be approximately 20 times less. The dose from inhalation of tritium is sensitive to its chemical form and for similar releases of tritiated water and tritium gas then the dose from tritiated water is approximately 10 4 greater than the dose from tritium gas. For similar releases of tritiated water and iodine-131 then a comparison of the inhalation shows that the dose from the iodine is approximately 300 times greater. (author)

  5. Bioaccumulation factor of tritium in oyster and tilapia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, T.Y.; Juan, N.B.

    1984-01-01

    This paper reports on the bioaccumulation factor as well as the residence time of tritium in marine organisms such as tilapia fish (Tilapia mossambica) and oyster (Crassostrea iredalei) reared under laboratory conditions. The organisms were submerged in aquarium water containing tritium with specific activity of 1.0 nCi/ml. The samples were analyzed for tissue-free water tritium (TFWT) by freeze drying and for tissue-bound tritium (TBT) by combustion methods. Tritiated water collected was assayed using the liquid scintillation counting technique. (author)

  6. Tritium Formation and Mitigation in High-Temperature Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piyush Sabharwall; Carl Stoots

    2012-10-01

    Tritium is a radiologically active isotope of hydrogen. It is formed in nuclear reactors by neutron absorption and ternary fission events and can subsequently escape into the environment. To prevent the tritium contamination of proposed reactor buildings and surrounding sites, this study examines the root causes and potential mitigation strategies for permeation of tritium (such as: materials selection, inert gas sparging, etc...). A model is presented that can be used to predict permeation rates of hydrogen through metallic alloys at temperatures from 450–750 degrees C. Results of the diffusion model are presented for a steady production of tritium

  7. Tritium Formation and Mitigation in High-Temperature Reactor Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piyush Sabharwall; Carl Stoots; Hans A. Schmutz

    2013-03-01

    Tritium is a radiologically active isotope of hydrogen. It is formed in nuclear reactors by neutron absorption and ternary fission events and can subsequently escape into the environment. To prevent the tritium contamination of proposed reactor buildings and surrounding sites, this study examines the root causes and potential mitigation strategies for permeation of tritium (such as: materials selection, inert gas sparging, etc...). A model is presented that can be used to predict permeation rates of hydrogen through metallic alloys at temperatures from 450–750 degrees C. Results of the diffusion model are presented for a steady production of tritium

  8. EFFECTS OF TRITIUM GAS EXPOSURE ON EPDM ELASTOMER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, E.

    2009-12-11

    Samples of four formulations of ethylene-propylene diene monomer (EPDM) elastomer were exposed to initially pure tritium gas at one atmosphere and ambient temperature for various times up to about 420 days in closed containers. Two formulations were carbon-black-filled commercial formulations, and two were the equivalent formulations without filler synthesized for this work. Tritium effects on the samples were characterized by measuring the sample volume, mass, flexibility, and dynamic mechanical properties and by noting changes in appearance. The glass transition temperature was determined by analysis of the dynamic mechanical properties. The glass transition temperature increased significantly with tritium exposure, and the unfilled formulations ceased to behave as elastomers after the longest tritium exposure. The filled formulations were more resistant to tritium exposure. Tritium exposure made all samples significantly stiffer and therefore much less able to form a reliable seal when employed as O-rings. No consistent change of volume or density was observed; there was a systematic lowering of sample mass with tritium exposure. In addition, the significant radiolytic production of gas, mainly protium (H{sub 2}) and HT, by the samples when exposed to tritium was characterized by measuring total pressure in the container at the end of each exposure and by mass spectroscopy of a gas sample at the end of each exposure. The total pressure in the containers more than doubled after {approx}420 days tritium exposure.

  9. Overview of tritium systems for the Compact Ignition Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlit, J.R.; Gruetzmacher, K.M.; Fleming, R.B.

    1987-01-01

    The Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT) is being designed at several laboratories to produce and study fully ignited plasma discharges. The tritium systems which will be needed for CIT include fueling systems and radiation monitoring and safety systems. Design of the tritium systems is the responsibility of the Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Major new tritium systems for CIT include a pellet injector, an air detritiation system and a glovebox atmosphere detritiation system. The pellet injector is being developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. 7 refs., 2 figs

  10. Osteoporose aus der Sicht der physikalischen Medizin und Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preisinger E

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Die klinische Manifestation der Osteoporose sind Frakturen. Wirbelkörper, Hüfte, Radius und viele andere Skelettabschnitte sind davon betroffen. Die Folgen dieser Frakturen sind chronische Schmerzen, Bewegungseinschränkungen, weitere Knochenbrüche und eine beeinträchtigte Lebensqualität. Die Vermeidung und Behandlung der Knochenfragilität, der Schmerzen und der funktionellen Defizite des Bewegungsapparates sind für das Management des Osteoporosepatienten notwendig. Muskelkraft, Flexibilität, neuromuskuläre Koordinations- und Balancefähigkeit sind neben der Knochendichte wichtige Prädiktoren für die Frakturinzidenz. Die Etablierung von therapeutischen Strategien, die sowohl die Knochenstärkung als auch die funktionellen Probleme des Betroffenen und seine Lebensqualität berücksichtigen, sind Thema der Physikalischen Medizin und Rehabilitation.

  11. Die Rolle der Finite-Elemente-Berechnung in der Produktentwicklung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban, Ignacio

    Der Preisdruck wird in allen Industriebranchen immer größer. Aufgrund der Qualitätsstandards gewinnt der Entwicklungsprozess immer mehr an Bedeutung, so dass die Produktkosten durch diese Phase erheblich beeinflusst werden. Die Anwendung computergestützter Konstruktion und Berechnung hat sich als effektives Entwicklungswerkzeug erwiesen, um kürzere Entwicklungszeiten und eine höhere Qualität zu erreichen. Dadurch tragen diese virtuellen Werkzeuge zu niedrigeren Produktkosten bei. Dieser Artikel orientiert sich am Potential der Finite-Elemente (FE)-Berechnung im Entwicklungsprozess. Eine der neuesten Anwendungsmöglichkeiten der FE-Simulation wird am Beispiel einer Werkzeugmaschine präsentiert. In diesem Beispiel wird die Maschinensteuerung in das FE-Modell implementiert, und ein Beschleunigungsvorgang wird simuliert.

  12. Typologische Aufgaben der historischen Textlinguistik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingo Warnke

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Die gegenwärtige germanistische Historiolinguistik ist geprägt durch eine pragmatische Ausweitung ihres traditionell sprachstrukturellen Erkenntnisinteresses. Ausdruck dieser Entwicklung ist z.B. die gänzliche Neubearbeitung der Sprachgeschichte von P. von Polenz (1991 und 1994, die an Stelle der wiederholt neu aufgelegten und auf H. Sperber (1926 gründenden Geschichte der deutschen Sprache (von Polenz 1978 erschienen ist und insbesondere eine "sozial- und mediengeschichtliche Fundierung" (ebd., 3 anstrebt, wobei neben anderen Aspekten als Schwerpunkt der Darstellung explizi1t die Sprachpragmatik genannt wird (ebd.. Sind die konzeptionellen Ecksteine einer solchen pragmatischen Sprachgeschichtsschreibung auch schon Anfang der 1980er Jahre insbesondere mit H. Sitta (1980 und D. Cherubim (1984 gesetzt, so verstärkt sich das sprachhandlungsbezogene Interesse an der Geschichte des Deutschen erst in jüngster Zeit. Die Entwicklung läuft dabei parallel zur Konstituierung eines pragmatischen Paradigmas, das als Gemeinschaftswerk geisteswissenschaftlicher Forschung ebenfalls in den 1980er Jahren an Bedeutung gewann und als dessen notwendige Folge H. Stachowiak ([Hg.] 1986, XVII einen '"Paradigmawechsel' großen Stils" prophezeit hat.1 Bei den Pragmatisierungstendenzen sprachgeschichtlicher Fragestellungen kommt der historischen Dimensionierung textlinguistischer Erkenntnisfelder besondere Bedeutung zu. Es ist bekannt, daß die in den späten 1960er und 70er Jahren begründete Textlinguistik zunächst ebenso ahistorisch gewesen ist, wie die Historiolinguistik apragmatisch. Doch mit der fortschreitenden Rezeption sprachhandlungsorientierter Ansätze in der Sprachgeschichte gewann der Text i.S. einer komplexen sprachlichen Handlung (vgl. u.a. Sandig 1978, 69f., 99ff., 157f. als Analyseobjekt für die pragmatische Orientierung der Sprachgeschichte zunehmend an Bedeutung. In diesem Zusammenhang ist die Forderung nach textlinguistischer bzw

  13. Effect of tritium (tritium water) on prenatal and postnatal development of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajrakova, A.; Baev, I.; Yagova, A.

    1983-01-01

    Female rats were injected intraperitoneally on the first day after their fecundation with 3,7 kBq/g b.w. tritium water - activity which under these conditions does not increase prenatal death rate. The postnatal development of the born alive was traced in respect to the lethality rate and growth rate (mean bodily weight in dynamics up to the 60-th day p.p.) and compared with that of the offsprings from the control group. It was shown that the used activity tritium water during the initial stages of embryonic development does not result in deviations from the norm. (authors)

  14. Grundlagen der zeichnerischen Darstellung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döring, Peter

    Eine Technische Zeichnung muss nach DIN 6774 Teil 1 in der Weise angefertigt werden, dass sie übersichtlich, unmissverständlich, auch in verkleinertem Maßstab lesbar bleibt, kostengünstig reproduzierbar und dauerhaft archivierbar ist. Zu dem Zweck benötigt man entsprechendes Papier und angepasstes Zeichengerät. Heute ist die Anfertigung mit entsprechenden Rechnerprogrammen möglich.

  15. Emotionalisierung der Nachhaltigkeitskommunikation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Grethe Julius

    emotional (mehr als rational) angesprochen - Welche Emotionalisierungsstrategien werden benutzt - Inwieweit unterscheidet sich die deutschsprachige Nachhaltigkeitskommunikation von der dänischsprachigen. Das Textkorpus umfasst online verfügbare Nachhaltigkeitskommunikation auf Websites und in neuen Medien......, Charakteristika und Herausforderungen. Wiesbaden: Gabler. Kress, G./ van Leuwen, T. (1995): Reading images: grammar of visual design, London: Routledge. Kress.G. (2010): Multimodality: Exploring Contemporary Methods of Communication, London: Routledge. Martin, J.R./ White. P. R.R. (2005): The Language...

  16. Theorien der Zustandserkennung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bölke, Klaus-Peter

    Heute gibt es überwiegend noch keine ausreichenden fachtheoretischen Weiterbildungsmöglichkeiten. Das sog. "Fachwissen“ wird in der Regel in verschiedenen Ländern vom älteren auf den jüngeren Mitarbeiter weiter gegeben. Diese Weitergabe kann immer nur so gut sein, wie das Wissen seines Inhabers. Man nennt eine derartige Wissensvermittlung eine "empirische Methode“. Diese ist auch heute noch oftmals zusätzlich landesspezifisch geprägt.

  17. Der Neokortex der Säugetiere : Evolution und Funktion

    OpenAIRE

    Kern, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    In der Neurobiologie nimmt die Untersuchung der Großhirnrinde (Neokortex) eine gewisse Sonderstellung ein, weil das Verständnis dieser hierarchisch übergeordneten Region für die Analyse bzw. Rekonstruktion der Hirnfunktionen insgesamt von entscheidender Bedeutung ist. Dabei macht Folgendes die bedeutungsvolle Stellung des Neokortex aus: seine späte stammesgeschichtliche und ontogenetische Entwicklung, welche bei mehreren Säugetiergruppen mit einer ungewöhnlichen Massenzunahme und Plastizit...

  18. Der Preis als Kaufbarriere?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller Loose, Simone

    2012-01-01

    Die Preispolitik hat eine herausragende Stellung im Marketing. Der Preis eines Produktes ist für Verbraucher ein direkter Kostenfaktor und für Unternehmen die Stellgröße im Mar-ketingmix, die den Umsatz am stärksten beeinflusst (vgl. Nieschlag et al. 2002). Wenn die Akzeptanz und der regelmäßige...... Verzehr gesunder Lebensmittel erhöht werden soll, ist es sowohl für die Verbraucherpolitik als auch für Lebensmittelproduzenten wichtig, den Ein-fluss des Preises auf die Kaufentscheidung zu verstehen. Aus Verbrauchersicht ist der Preis neben dem Geschmack die wichtigste Produkteigen-schaft beim Kauf von...... Lebensmitteln (vgl. Brunsø/Grunert 1998) und stellt eine Kaufbarrie-re für Lebensmittel mit gesundheitsfördernden Eigenschaften dar. Studien in den USA (vgl. Cassady et al. 2007), Frankreich (vgl. Drewnowski et al. 2004; Andrieu et al. 2005) und Deutschland (vgl. Karg et al. 2008) kommen übereinstimmend zu dem...

  19. Rheumatologische Manifestation der Xanthomatose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haberhauer G

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperlipoproteinämien (HLP resultieren aus Störungen der Synthese und des Stoffwechsels von Lipiden. Hohe LDL-Gewebskonzentrationen können zur Bildung von (multiplen Xanthomen und zu (frühzeitiger Artherosklerose führen. HLP und Xanthome können auch Sehnen- und Gelenkmanifestationen verursachen. Sehnenxanthome bei (familiärer HLP finden sich meist im Bereich der Achillessehnen, Quadrizepssehnen und Strecksehnen im Bereich der Hände und Füße. Auch eine eigene HLP- und Xanthomatose-assoziierte Arthritis wurde publiziert. Sie ist asymmetrisch, persistierend, oligooder polyartikulär und nur minimal deformierend. Sie befällt vorwiegend Knie-, Schulter- und Sprunggelenke, aber auch die kleinen Hand- und Fußgelenke. Ossäre Xanthome sind selten und können Ursache pathologischer Frakturen und aseptischer Knochennekrosen sein. Daher sollten bei unklaren Tendinitiden, Arthritiden und Knochenzysten auch die Serum-Lipidspiegel nicht unbeachtet bleiben. NSAR (nichtsteroidale Antirheumatika und Lipidsenker führen meist zum Rückgang von HLP-assoziierten rheumatologischen Beschwerden.

  20. Tritium Plasma Experiment Upgrade and Improvement of Surface Diagnostic Capabilities at STAR Facility for Enhancing Tritium and Nuclear PMI Sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimada, M.; Taylor, C. N.; Pawelko, R. J.; Cadwallader, L. C.; Merrill, B. J.

    2016-04-01

    The Tritium Plasma Experiment (TPE) is a unique high-flux linear plasma device that can handle beryllium, tritium, and neutron-irradiated plasma facing materials, and is the only existing device dedicated to directly study tritium retention and permeation in neutron-irradiated materials with tritium [M. Shimada et.al., Rev. Sci. Instru. 82 (2011) 083503 and and M. Shimada, et.al., Nucl. Fusion 55 (2015) 013008]. The plasma-material-interaction (PMI) determines a boundary condition for diffusing tritium into bulk PFCs, and the tritium PMI is crucial for enhancing fundamental sciences that dictate tritium fuel cycles and safety and are high importance to an FNSF and DEMO. Recently the TPE has undergone major upgrades in its electrical and control systems. New DC power supplies and a new control center enable remote plasma operations from outside of the contamination area for tritium, minimizing the possible exposure risk with tritium and beryllium. We discuss the electrical upgrade, enhanced operational safety, improved plasma performance, and development of optical spectrometer system. This upgrade not only improves operational safety of the worker, but also enhances plasma performance to better simulate extreme plasma-material conditions expected in ITER, Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF), and Demonstration reactor (DEMO). This work was prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fusion Energy Sciences, under the DOE Idaho Field Office contract number DE-AC07-05ID14517.

  1. Radiation protection with consumer products containing gaseous tritium light sources; Strahlenschutz bei Konsumguetern mit Tritium-Gaslichtquellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahders, Erio; Haeusler, Uwe [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Berlin (Germany)

    2017-08-01

    Consumer products containing gaseous tritium light sources (GTLS) were examined with respect to their radiological safety potential regarding leak tightness or accidents. The maximum tritium leakage rate of 2.7 Bq/d determined from experimental testing is well below the criterion for leak tightness of sealed radioactive sources in DIN 25426-4. In order to investigate the incorporation of tritium due to contact with consumer products, 2 scenarios were reviewed; the correct use of a tritium watch and the accident scenario with a keyring.

  2. Two investigations concerning the release of tritium. I. Tritium leakage from 3H(Sc) EC-detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, C.; Wesslen, E.

    1977-01-01

    Recently the manufacturers of EC-detectors for gas chromatographs introduced a new type of 3 H EC-detector where the tritium is bound to scandium instead of to titanium and has an activity up to 1 Ci. It is expected that the scandium-based detector will take a great part of the Swedish EC-detector market. The Swedish National Institute of Radiation Protection is anxious to make sure that the introduction of the new detector, which will be used at higher temperature, will not give rise to any increased risk of tritium intake to the personnel handling the chromatographs. The leakage of tritium from commercially available 3 H(Sc) EC-detectors containing 1 Ci of tritium was measured as a function of the detector temperature. Tritium appears both in the form of tritium gas dissolved in the scandium and in the form of tritide. The gas evaporates rather easily with increasing temperature while the dissociation of the tritide is a slower process. The evaporation of tritium due to the dissociation of the tritide was found to be negligible, less than 0.2 μCi/h at temperatures less than 100 0 C, but rises rapidly with temperature. The study also showed that even when the detector is stored at room temperature, a re-distribution of the tritium occures, from the tritide to the dissolved tritium gas, which then easily evaporates even at moderately elevated temperatures

  3. Probleme der Introspektion an der Schnittstelle zwischen analytischer Philosophie und Neurophilosophie

    OpenAIRE

    Grimm, Oliver

    2006-01-01

    Weshalb ist eine Betrachtung des Begriffs der „Introspektion“ in den Neurowissenschaften interessant? Noch zu Anfang der Neuzeit wurde die Introspektion als selbstverständliches Werkzeug der Philosophie gesehen. So waren auch Locke und Hume neben einer begrifflichen Fassung und Definition der Introspektion auch an einer psychologischen Theorie derselben interessiert. Das Konzept der I. nahm innerhalb der Psychologie und später auch der Neurowissenschaften eine interessante Wende. Während der ...

  4. Handbuch der Forschung zum Lehrerberuf

    CERN Document Server

    Bennewitz, Hedda; Rothland, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Die große Bedeutung, die dem Lehrerberuf in der Öffentlichkeit, aber auch in den Bildungswissenschaften für die Qualität von Schule und Unterricht zugemessen wird, stand bislang in deutlichem Kontrast zu Umfang und Intensität der Forschung, die auf den Lehrerberuf gerichtet war. Diese immer wieder beklagte Situation hat sich jedoch gewandelt. Seit etwa einem Jahrzehnt ist eine deutliche Intensivierung und allmähliche Verstetigung der Forschung zum Lehrerberuf zu beobachten. Mit dem vorliegenden Handbuch wird erstmalig eine repräsentative Übersicht über den aktuellen Stand der Forschung zum Lehrerberuf vermittelt. Unter intensiver Berücksichtigung der internationalen Fachdiskussion informieren die 45 Beiträge des Handbuchs über Forschung zu folgenden Themenfeldern: Geschichte des Lehrerberufs, Charakteristika und Rahmenbedingungen des Lehrerberufs, Konzepte der Forschung zum Lehrerberuf, Berufsbiographien von Lehrerinnen und Lehrern, Lehrerbildung, Kognitionen, Emotionen und Kompetenzen von Lehrern...

  5. Prothetischer Ersatz der thorakalen Aorta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Bernhard; Bauernschmitt, Robert; Brockmann, Gernot; Lange, Rüdiger

    Die Aorta ist das Stammgefäß des arteriellen Körperkreislaufs, von dem aus alle Organe mit Blut versorgt werden. Die Aorta entspringt der linken Herzkammer, beginnend mit dem aufsteigenden Teil (Aorta ascendens). Der Anfangsteil der Aorta ascendens ist natürlicherweise etwas erweitert und wird als Aortenbulbus oder nach seinem Erstbeschreiber als Sinus valsalvae bezeichnet. An dessen Basis liegt die Aortenklappe, die einen Rückfluss von Blut in den linken Ventrikel verhindert. Etwa 1 cm oberhalb der Aortenklappe entspringen die Herzkranzgefäße, die den Herzmuskel mit Blut versorgen. Die Aorta ascendens endet mit Beginn des Aortenbogens, aus dem die 3 Kopfhalsgefäße (Truncus bracheocephalicus, linke Arteria carotis und linke Arteria subclavia) abgehen. Nach Abgang der linken Arteria subclavia zieht die Aorta nach unten. Dieser Abschnitt wird als "Aorta descendens“ bezeichnet, wobei der thorakale Anteil bis zum Zwerchfelldurchtritt reicht.

  6. Grundlagen der Nieren- und Leberdialyse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Christian; Al-Chalabi, Ahmed N. Ar.; Tanase, Oana; Kreymann, Bernhard

    Die Dialyse ist ein künstliches Blutreinigungsverfahren, das sowohl mit der Nachahmung physiologischer Vorgänge als auch mit der Benutzung bestimmter physikalisch- chemischer Gesetze arbeitet. Ihre technische Umsetzung in einer Dialysemaschine sowie chirurgische und internistische Interventionen gehören zu dem Zusammenspiel unterschiedlicher Disziplinen, die eine Dialyse ermöglichen. Die Grundlagen des Dialyseverfahrens, die Maschine und die Unterschiede von Nieren- und Leberdialyse sollen im Folgenden erklärt werden. Heute besteht in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland bei ca. 55.000 Patienten ein chronisch dialysepflichtiges Nierenversagen (Stand 2005). Das Leben dieser Patienten kann mit der Dialyse um Jahrzehnte verlängert werden. Damit ist die Nierendialyse eines der erfolgreichsten medizintechnischen Verfahren. Bei der Leberdialyse sind ebenbürtige Erfolge noch nicht erzielt worden. Umso wichtiger ist es, hier neue Wege zu finden, um auch für Leberpatienten ein effizientes Dialyseverfahren zu etablieren.

  7. Tritium inventory and recovery in next-step fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Causey, R.A.; Brooks, J.N.; Federici, G.

    2002-01-01

    Future fusion devices will use tritium and deuterium fuel. Because tritium is both radioactive and expensive, it is absolutely necessary that there be an understanding of the tritium retention characteristics of the materials used in these devices as well as how to recover the tritium. There are three materials that are strong candidates for plasma-facing-material use in next-step fusion devices. These are beryllium, tungsten, and carbon. While beryllium has the disadvantage of high sputtering and low melting point (which limits its power handling capabilities in divertor areas), it has the advantages of being a low-Z material with a good thermal conductivity and the ability to get oxygen from the plasma. Due to beryllium's very low solubility for hydrogen, implantation of beryllium with deuterium and tritium results in a saturated layer in the very near-surface with limited inventory (J. Nucl. Mater. 273 (1999) 1). Unfortunately, there are nuclear reactions generated by neutrons that will breed tritium and helium in the material bulk (J. Nucl. Mater. 179 (1991) 329). This process will lead to a substantial tritium inventory in the bulk of the beryllium after long-term neutron exposure (i.e. well beyond the operation life time of a next-step reactor like ITER). Tungsten is a high-Z material that will be used in the divertor region of next-step devices (e.g. ITER) and possibly as a first wall material in later devices. The divertor is the preferred location for tungsten use because net erosion is very low there due to low sputtering and high redeposition. While experiments are still continuing on tritium retention in tungsten, present data suggest that relatively low tritium inventories will result with this material (J. Nucl. Mater. 290-293 (2001) 505). For tritium inventories, carbon is the problem material. Neutron damage to the graphite can result in substantial bulk tritium retention (J. Nucl. Mater. 191-194 (1992) 368), and codeposition of the sputtered carbon

  8. Treatment of tritiated exhaust gases at the Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutter, E.; Besserer, U. [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (Germany); Jacqmin, G. [NUKEM GmbH, Industreistr, Alzenau (Germany)

    1995-02-01

    The Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK) accomplished commissioning; tritium involving activities will start this year. The laboratory is destined mainly to investigating processing of fusion reactor fuel and to developing analytic devices for determination of tritium and tritiated species in view of control and accountancy requirements. The area for experimental work in the laboratory is about 800 m{sup 2}. The tritium infrastructure including systems for tritium storage, transfer within the laboratory and processing by cleanup and isotope separation methods has been installed on an additional 400 m{sup 2} area. All tritium processing systems (=primary systems), either of the tritium infrastructure or of the experiments, are enclosed in secondary containments which consist of gloveboxes, each of them connected to the central depressurization system, a part integrated in the central detritiation system. The atmosphere of each glovebox is cleaned in a closed cycle by local detritiation units controlled by two tritium monitors. Additionally, the TLK is equipped with a central detritiation system in which all gases discharged from the primary systems and the secondary systems are processed. All detritiation units consist of a catalyst for oxidizing gaseous tritium or tritiated hydrocarbons to water, a heat exchanger for cooling the catalyst reactor exhaust gas to room temperature, and a molecular sieve bed for adsorbing the water. Experiments with tracer amounts of tritium have shown that decontamination factors >3000 can be achieved with the TLK detritiation units. The central detritiation system was carefully tested and adjusted under normal and abnormal operation conditions. Test results and the behavior of the tritium barrier preventing tritiated exhaust gases from escaping into the atmosphere will be reported.

  9. Das Smart Meter Gateway - Der kritische Erfolgsfaktor für die Digitalisierung der Energiewende

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abs, Paul-Vincent

    Der kritische Erfolgsfaktor der Digitalisierung in der Energiewirtschaft liegt im bevorstehenden hohen Investitionsvolumen und der Beherrschung der neuen Technik. Ein Weg zur Kostenminimierung liegt im Zusammenschluss der einzelnen Akteure, um gemeinsame Skalenvorteile zu heben. Auch bieten neue Geschäftsmodelle die Möglichkeit, zusätzliche Erlöse zu generieren.

  10. Kompetenzorientierung in der beruflichen Bildung

    OpenAIRE

    Bethscheider, Monika; Höhns, Gabriela; Münchhausen, Gesa

    2011-01-01

    In den letzten Jahren hat die Kompetenzorientierung in der Berufsbildung an Bedeutung gewonnen. Kompetenzansätze sollen Handlungs- und Reaktionsmöglichkeiten bereitstellen, um den nationalen und internationalen Anforderungen und Herausforderungen im Bildungsbereich wirkungsvoll zu begegnen. Ständig stattfindende Veränderungen in der Arbeitswelt, neue Entwicklungen in der Informations- und Kommunikationstechnologie und die Auflösung stabiler Berufsverläufe führen dazu, dass die Menschen mit si...

  11. Det der, det er arabisk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Kitte Søndergaard

    2013-01-01

    Artiklen beskriver projektet Biliteracy i børnehaven, hvor der i en 3-årig periode arbejdes med tosprogede småbørns erfaringer med skrift på flere sprog. Der gøres kort rede for formålet med projektet og der gives et lille indblik i, hvordan forældrene inddrages som en sproglig ressource i...

  12. Der kollektive Kulturschock im Postkommunismus

    OpenAIRE

    Feichtinger, Claudia; Fink, Gerhard

    1999-01-01

    Das Konzept des individuellen Kulturschocks ist bekannt. Es beschreibt psychische und mitunter auch physische Belastungen während des Aufenthalts in einer fremden Kultur, die durch die Konfrontation zwischen eigener und fremder Kultur ausgelöst werden. Nach der Meinung der Autoren gibt es Symptome eines Kulturschocks auch auf der kollektiven (gesellschaftlichen) Ebene. Dieser kollektive Kulturschock löst bestimmte Verhaltensweisen aus, die im Management und in den wirtschaftlichen Beziehungen...

  13. Die verschiedenen Modi der Existenz

    OpenAIRE

    Souriau, Étienne

    2015-01-01

    "Wäre die Philosophie auch nur eine Stunde der Mühe wert, wenn sie uns nicht für das Leben rüstete?" Gezielten Schrittes entwirft der französische Philosoph Étienne Souriau in diesem dicht gedrängten Buch eine Grammatik der Existenz. Im Fokus steht nicht nur ihre Theorie, sondern auch die tatsächliche Ausübung der "Kunst des Existierens". Wie Gilles Deleuze und William James vertritt Souriau dabei die These eines existenziellen Pluralismus: Es gibt Phänomene, Dinge, das Virtuelle, fiktionale ...

  14. Das politische Gewicht der Bilder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahra Dornick

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Lutz Hieber und Paula-Irene Villa setzen sich sowohl aus soziologischer als auch aus kulturwissenschaftlicher und politischer Perspektive mit der Historie und Aktualität von Queer Theory auseinander. Grundlegende theoretische Debatten und Denkfiguren wie Postmodernismus, Feminismus in der Postmoderne oder auch Kritik von Identität und Normalisierung werden anschaulich dargestellt. Gleichzeitig werden gewinnbringende Akzente in Form von Analysen verschiedener Praxen von Politik, wie etwa der Politisierung von Kunst, gesetzt. Insgesamt werden auf gelungene Weise erstens spezifische Begriffe der Queer Theory in ihre jeweiligen Kontexte eingeordnet und erläutert und zweitens spezifische Formen und Möglichkeiten politischer Praxis dargelegt.

  15. Stand der ICD-Therapie

    OpenAIRE

    Stix G; Mayer Ch; Pezawas T; Schmidinger H; Wolzt M

    2001-01-01

    Der ICD ist die effizienteste Therapie von ventrikulären Tachyarrhythmien, seine Entwicklung stellt einen Meilenstein in der Prävention des plötzlichen Herztodes dar. Bei der ICD-Implantation fallen für die technisch höchst komplexen Generatoren einmalig erhöhte Kosten an, in multiplen Studien wurde jedoch die Kosteneffizienz gegenüber konservativen Therapien belegt. Am AKH Wien ist bei mehr als zwei Drittel der Erstimplantationen ein überlebter plötzlicher Herztod oder eine bereits dokumenti...

  16. Role of soil-to-leaf tritium transfer in controlling leaf tritium dynamics: Comparison of experimental garden and tritium-transfer model results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Masakazu; Kwamena, Nana-Owusua A; Mihok, Steve; Korolevych, Volodymyr

    2017-11-01

    Environmental transfer models assume that organically-bound tritium (OBT) is formed directly from tissue-free water tritium (TFWT) in environmental compartments. Nevertheless, studies in the literature have shown that measured OBT/HTO ratios in environmental samples are variable and generally higher than expected. The importance of soil-to-leaf HTO transfer pathway in controlling the leaf tritium dynamics is not well understood. A model inter-comparison of two tritium transfer models (CTEM-CLASS-TT and SOLVEG-II) was carried out with measured environmental samples from an experimental garden plot set up next to a tritium-processing facility. The garden plot received one of three different irrigation treatments - no external irrigation, irrigation with low tritium water and irrigation with high tritium water. The contrast between the results obtained with the different irrigation treatments provided insights into the impact of soil-to-leaf HTO transfer on the leaf tritium dynamics. Concentrations of TFWT and OBT in the garden plots that were not irrigated or irrigated with low tritium water were variable, responding to the arrival of the HTO-plume from the tritium-processing facility. In contrast, for the plants irrigated with high tritium water, the TFWT concentration remained elevated during the entire experimental period due to a continuous source of high HTO in the soil. Calculated concentrations of OBT in the leaves showed an initial increase followed by quasi-equilibration with the TFWT concentration. In this quasi-equilibrium state, concentrations of OBT remained elevated and unchanged despite the arrivals of the plume. These results from the model inter-comparison demonstrate that soil-to-leaf HTO transfer significantly affects tritium dynamics in leaves and thereby OBT/HTO ratio in the leaf regardless of the atmospheric HTO concentration, only if there is elevated HTO concentrations in the soil. The results of this work indicate that assessment models

  17. BEATRIX-II: In-situ tritium recovery data correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slagle, O.D.; Hollenberg, G.W.; Kurasawa, T.; Verrall, R.A.

    1993-09-01

    BEATRIX-II was an in-situ tritium recovery experiment in a fast reactor to characterize the irradiation behavior of fusion ceramic breeder materials. Correcting and compiling the in-situ tritium recovery data involved correcting the ion chamber response for the effect of sweep gas composition or amount of hydrogen in the helium sweep gas and for the buildup of background. The effect of sweep gas composition was addressed in the previous workshop. During the operation of Phase I of the experiment the backgrounds of the ion chambers were found to reach significant levels relative to the tritium recovery concentrations in the sweep gas from the specimen canisters. The measured tritium concentrations were corrected for background by comparing the tritium recovery rate during reference conditions with the predicted tritium generation rate. Background increases were found to be associated with tritium recovery peaks and elevated levels of moisture in the sweep gas. These conditions typically occurred when the hydrogen concentration in the sweep gas was increased to 0.1% after extended operation in He or He-0.01% H 2 . Three examples of this increase in ionization chamber background are described. The final corrected BEATRIX-II, Phase I tritium recovery data provide a valuable resource to be used for predicting the performance of Li 2 O in a fusion blanket application

  18. Dose Assessment Model for Chronic Atmospheric Releases of Tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Huifang; Yao Rentai

    2010-01-01

    An improved dose assessment model for chronic atmospheric releases of tritium was proposed. The proposed model explicitly considered two chemical forms of tritium.It was based on conservative assumption of transfer of tritiated water (HTO) from air to concentration of HTO and organic beam tritium (OBT) in vegetable and animal products.The concentration of tritium in plant products was calculated based on considering dividedly leafy plant and not leafy plant, meanwhile the concentration contribution of tritium in the different plants from the tritium in soil was taken into account.Calculating the concentration of HTO in animal products, average water fraction of animal products and the average weighted tritium concentration of ingested water based on the fraction of water supplied by each source were considered,including skin absorption, inhalation, drinking water and food.Calculating the annual doses, the ingestion doses were considered, at the same time the contribution of inhalation and skin absorption to the dose was considered. Concentrations in foodstuffs and dose of annual adult calculated with the specific activity model, NEWTRI model and the model proposed by the paper were compared. The results indicate that the model proposed by the paper can predict accurately tritium doses through the food chain from chronic atmospheric releases. (authors)

  19. Final programmatic environmental impact statement for tritium supply and recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-10-01

    Tritium, a radioactive gas used in all of the Nation's nuclear weapons, has a short half-life and must be replaced periodically in order for the weapon to operate as designed. Currently, there is no capability to produce the required amounts of tritium within the Nuclear Weapons Complex. The PEIS for Tritium Supply and Recycling evaluates the alternatives for the siting, construction, and operation of tritium supply and recycling facilities at each of five candidate sites: the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, the Nevada Test Site, the Oak Ridge Reservation, the Pantex Plant, and the Savannah River Site. Alternatives for new tritium supply and recycling facilities consist of four different tritium supply technologies: Heavy Water Reactor, Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor, Advanced Light Water Reactor, and Accelerator Production of Tritium. The PEIS also evaluates the impacts of the DOE purchase of an existing operating or partially completed commercial light water reactor or the DOE purchase of irradiation services contracted from commercial power reactors. Additionally, the PEIS includes an analysis of multipurpose reactors that would produce tritium, dispose of plutonium, and produce electricity. Evaluation of impacts on land resources, site infrastructure, air quality and acoustics, water resources, geology and soils, biotic resources, cultural and paleontological resources, socioeconomics, radiological and hazardous chemical impacts during normal operation and accidents to workers and the public, waste management, and intersite transport are included in the assessment

  20. Influence of neutron irradiation on the tritium retention in beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rolli, R.; Ruebel, S.; Werle, H. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Inst. fuer Neutronenphysik und Reaktortechnik, Karlsruhe (Germany); Wu, C.H.

    1998-01-01

    Carbon-based materials and beryllium are the candidates for protective layers on the components of fusion reactors facing plasma. In contact with D-T plasma, these materials absorb tritium, and it is anticipated that tritium retention increases with the neutron damage due to neutron-induced traps. Because of the poor data base for beryllium, the work was concentrated on it. Tritium was loaded into the samples from stagnant T{sub 2}/H{sub 2} atmosphere, and afterwards, the quantity of the loaded tritium was determined by purged thermal annealing. The specification of the samples is shown. The samples were analyzed by SEM before and after irradiation. The loading and the annealing equipments are contained in two different glove boxes with N{sub 2} inert atmosphere. The methods of loading and annealing are explained. The separation of neutron-produced and loaded tritium and the determination of loaded tritium in irradiated samples are reported. Also the determination of loaded tritium in unirradiated samples is reported. It is evident that irradiated samples contained much more loaded tritium than unirradiated samples. The main results of this investigation are summarized in the table. (K.I.)

  1. Development and Verification of Behavior of Tritium Analytic Code (BOTANIC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Min Young; Kim, Eung Soo

    2014-01-01

    VHTR, one of the Generation IV reactor concepts, has a relatively high operation temperature and is usually suggested as a heat source for many industrial processes, including hydrogen production process. Thus, it is vital to trace tritium behavior in the VHTR system and the potential permeation rate to the industrial process. In other words, tritium is a crucial issue in terms of safety in the fission reactor system. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the behavior of tritium and the development of the tool to enable this is vital.. In this study, a Behavior of Tritium Analytic Code (BOTANIC) an analytic tool which is capable of analyzing tritium behavior is developed using a chemical process code called gPROMS. BOTANIC was then further verified using the analytic solutions and benchmark codes such as Tritium Permeation Analysis Code (TPAC) and COMSOL. In this study, the Behavior of Tritium Analytic Code, BOTANIC, has been developed using a chemical process code called gPROMS. The code has several distinctive features including non-diluted assumption, flexible applications and adoption of distributed permeation model. Due to these features, BOTANIC has the capability to analyze a wide range of tritium level systems and has a higher accuracy as it has the capacity to solve distributed models. BOTANIC was successfully developed and verified using analytical solution and the benchmark code calculation result. The results showed very good agreement with the analytical solutions and the calculation results of TPAC and COMSOL. Future work will be focused on the total system verification

  2. Control of the tritium path in process heat HTR's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirch, N.; Scheidler, G.

    1985-01-01

    Nuclear Process Heat plant converting fossil fuels into liquid or gaseous secondary energy carriers generate tritium by several nuclear reactions. Control of the tritium path through the walls of the heat exchanger is highly important to meet regulatory requirements on the acceptable contamination in the product gas or liquid. Therefore, significant effort in the project 'Prototypanlage Nukleare Prozesswaerme' was put not only into generating a data base, but also into means of reducing tritium generation and permeation. Clean graphites with lithium impurities in the ppb level provide a low tritium source term. Realistic modeling of graphite retention and special helium purification systems are essentials. The main barrier to tritium permeation are heat exchanger walls requiring detailed characterization of in-situ surface layers. Studies to optimize the water/steam mass flow in the conversion process offer possibilities for further tritium retention. Progress can be demonstrated as follows: In 1980, between 2 and 8 Bq tritium per gram of product were predicted based on available data and even higher concentrations during startup. However, present day validated code predictions are below required 0.5 Bq/g equilibrium concentration level. During transients - particularly startup - this limit cannot be guaranteed as yet, but further retention potential is being offered by tritium gettering or filtering. An expected increase of the German regulatory requirement to 5 Bq/g will easily be met by present plant design under all operational conditions. (author)

  3. Synthesis of tritium-labeled nitrogen-containing organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shevchenko, V.P.; Nagaev, I.Yu.; Potapova, A.V.

    1995-01-01

    Conditions of tritium labeling of certain nitrogen-containing organic compounds have been determined. Combination of isotope exchange or hydrogenation with gaseous tritium and chemical synthesis allowed preparation of N-oleyldihydrosphingosine (I) and spermine with molar radioactivities of 200-210 and 23-25 Ci mmol -1 respectively

  4. Separation of tritium from gaseous and aqueous effluent systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobisk, E.H.

    1977-01-01

    Three processes are discussed for separating tritium from gaseous and aqueous effluent systems: separation in the gas phase using Pd-25 wt percent Ag alloy diffusion membranes; electrolytic separation in the aqueous phase using ''bipolar'' electrodes; and the countercurrent exchange of tritium-containing hydrogen gas with water on catalytic surfaces combined with separation by direct electrolysis

  5. Effectiveness Monitoring Report, MWMF Tritium Phytoremediation Interim Measures.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hitchcock, Dan; Blake, John, I.

    2003-02-10

    This report describes and presents the results of monitoring activities during irrigation operations for the calendar year 2001 of the MWMF Interim Measures Tritium Phytoremediation Project. The purpose of this effectiveness monitoring report is to provide the information on instrument performance, analysis of CY2001 measurements, and critical relationships needed to manage irrigation operations, estimate efficiency and validate the water and tritium balance model.

  6. Conclusions drawn of tritium balance in light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolle, L.; Bazin, J.

    1978-01-01

    In the tritium balance of pressurized water reactors, using boric acid and lithium in the cooling water, contribution of the tritium produced by fission, diffusing through the zircalloy of the fuel cladding estimated to 0.1%, was not in agreement with quantities measured in reactors. It is still difficult to estimate what percentage is represented by the tritium formed by fission in the fuel, owing to diffusion through cladding. The tritium balance in different working nuclear power stations is consequently of interest. The tritium balance method in the water of the cooling circuit of PWR is fast and experimentally simple. It is less sensitive to errors originating from fission yields than balance of tritium produced by fission in the fuel. A tritium balance in the water of the cooling circuit of Biblis-A, with a specific burn-up of 18000 MWd/t gives a better precision. Diffusion rate of tritium produced by fission was less than 0.2%. So low a contribution is a justification to the use of lithium with an isotopic purity of 99.9% of lithium 7 to limit at a low value the residual lithium 6 [fr

  7. A small and compact AMS facility for tritium depth profiling

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Depth profiling measurements of tritium in carbon samples have been performed during the past seven years at the AMS facility installed at the Rossendorf 3 MV Tandetron. The samples have been cut from the inner walls of the fusion experiments ASDEX-upgrade/Garching and JET/Culham. The tritium content of the ...

  8. Investigation of tritium release and retention in lithium aluminate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopasz, J.P.; Tistchenko, S.; Botter, F.

    1991-01-01

    Tritium release from lithium aluminate, although previously investigated by both in-reactor and ex-reactor experiments, remains poorly understood. Agreement between experiments is lacking, and the mechanisms responsible for tritium release from lithium aluminate are under debate. In an effort to improve our understanding of the mechanisms of tritium release from lithium ceramics, we have investigated tritium release from pure lithium aluminate and lithium aluminate doped with impurities. The results of these experiments on large grain size material indicate that after anneals at low temperature, a large fraction of the tritium present before the anneal remains in the sample. We have modeled this behavior based on first-order release from three types of sites. At the lowest temperature, the release is dominated by one site, while the tritium in the other sites is retained in the solid. Adding magnesium dopant to the ceramic appears to alter the distribution of tritium between the sites. This addition decreases the fraction of tritium released at 777 degree C, while increasing the fractions released at 538 and 950 degree C. 11 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  9. Tritium formation and elimination in light-water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolle, L.; Briec, M.; Miquel, P.

    1976-01-01

    Light-water reactors have a tritium balance which should be considered from both the working constraint and environmental pollution aspects. The formation of tritium in the primary circuit and in the fuel, the elimination and enrichment processes are considered [fr

  10. Cellular- and micro-dosimetry of heterogeneously distributed tritium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Tsi-Chian; Wang, Chun-Ching; Li, Junli; Li, Chunyan; Tung, Chuan-Jong

    2012-01-01

    The assessment of radiotoxicity for heterogeneously distributed tritium should be based on the subcellular dose and relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for cell nucleus. In the present work, geometry-dependent absorbed dose and RBE were calculated using Monte Carlo codes for tritium in the cell, cell surface, cytoplasm, or cell nucleus. Penelope (PENetration and Energy LOss of Positrins and Electrons) code was used to calculate the geometry-dependent absorbed dose, lineal energy, and electron fluence spectrum. RBE for the intestinal crypt regeneration was calculated using a lineal energy-dependent biological weighting function. RBE for the induction of DNA double strand breaks was estimated using a nucleotide-level map for clustered DNA lesions of the Monte Carlo damage simulation (MCDS) code. For a typical cell of 10 μm radius and 5 μm nuclear radius, tritium in the cell nucleus resulted in much higher RBE-weighted absorbed dose than tritium distributed uniformly. Conversely, tritium distributed on the cell surface led to trivial RBE-weighted absorbed dose due to irradiation geometry and great attenuation of beta particles in the cytoplasm. For tritium uniformly distributed in the cell, the RBE-weighted absorbed dose was larger compared to tritium uniformly distributed in the tissue. Cellular- and micro-dosimetry models were developed for the assessment of heterogeneously distributed tritium.

  11. Tritium application: self-luminous glass tube(SLGT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K.; Lee, S.K.; Chung, E.S.; Kim, K.S.; Kim, W.S.; Nam, G.J.

    2005-01-01

    To manufacture SLGTs (self-luminous glass tubes), 4 core technologies are needed: coating technology, tritium injection technology, laser sealing/cutting technology and tritium handling technology. The inside of the glass tubes is coated with greenish ZnS phosphor particles with sizes varying from 4∝5 [μm], and Cu, and Al as an activator and a co-dopant, respectively. We also found that it would be possible to produce a phosphor coated glass tube for the SLGT using the well established cold cathode fluorescent lamp (CCFL) bulb manufacturing technology. The conceptual design of the main process loop (PL) is almost done. A delicate technique will be needed for the sealing/cutting of the glass tubes. Instead of the existing torch technology, a new technology using a pulse-type laser is under investigation. The design basis of the tritium handling facilities is to minimize the operator's exposure to tritium uptake and the emission of tritium to the environment. To fulfill the requirements, major tritium handling components are located in the secondary containment such as the glove boxes (GBs) and/or the fume hoods. The tritium recovery system (TRS) is connected to a GB and PL to minimize the release of tritium as well as to remove the moisture and oxygen in the GB. (orig.)

  12. Modeling of tritium behavior in Li2O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billone, M.C.; Attaya, H.; Kopasz, J.P.

    1992-08-01

    The TIARA and DISPL2 codes are being developed at Argonne National Laboratory to predict tritium retention and release from lithium ceramics under steady-state and transient conditions, respectively. Tritium retention and release are important design and safety issues for tritium-breeding blankets of fusion reactors. Emphasis has been placed on tritium behavior in Li 2 O because of the selection of this ceramic as a first option for the ITER driver blanket and because of the relatively good material properties data base for Li 2 O. Models and correlations for diffusion, surface desorption/adsorption, and solubility/precipitation of tritium in Li 2 0 have been developed based on well-controlled laboratory data from as-fabricated and irradiated samples. With the models and correlations, the codes are validated to the results of in-reactor purge flow tests. The results of validation of TIARA to tritium retention data from VOM-15H, EXOTIC-2, and CRITIC-1 are presented, along with predictions of tritium retention in BEATRIX-II. For DISPL2, results are presented for tritium release predictions vs. data for MOZART, CRITIC-1, and BEATRIX-II. Recommendations are made for improving both the data base and the modeling to allow extrapolation with reasonable uncertainty levels to fusion reactor design conditions

  13. Probleme der Textauswahl fiir einen elektronischen Thesautus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1. Nov. 1996 ... zu "Problemen der Textauswahl fur einen elektronischen Thesaurus" statt. Dieses Kolloquium wurde zugleich als Einleitung zu einer Reihe von wis- senschaftlichen Veranstaltungen verstanden, die sich mit den Problemen der historischen deutschen Wortforschung als einem Tell der Rahmenbedingungen.

  14. Der Tod im Leben. Einige Grundgedanken zu und aus Franz Rosenzweigs der Stern der Erlösung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brasser Martin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Franz Rosenzweig gilt als Existenzphilosoph, weil er das Thema des Todes ins Zentrum der Argumentation in seinem philosophisch-theologischen Hauptwerk Der Stern der Erlösung gestellt hat. Die Religion wird dort als der Ort verstanden, an dem der Tod nicht mehr wie im a-religiösen Leben aus dem Leben herausgedrängt werden muss. Wenn Religion Liebe ist, dann ist der Tod so Teil des Lebens wie er Teil der Liebe zwischen zwei Liebenden ist: als bejahter Bestandteil ihres gemeinsamen Lebens. Der Aufsatz versucht diese Argumentation nachzuzeichnen und zu plausibilisieren.

  15. Die Sprache der Mode - Eine linguistische Betrachtung lexikalischer und stilistischer Besonderheiten in der Sprache der Modewelt

    OpenAIRE

    Suchert, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Diese wissenschaftliche Arbeit beschäftigt sich mit der Eigentümlichkeit der geschriebenen Modesprache. Da die Modesprache offensichtliche sprachliche Auffälligkeiten sowie einen überaus kreativen und erfrischend humorvollen Umgang mit Sprache aufweist, sollte sie unter wissenschaftlichen Aspekten betrachtet werden. Mode ist eine Institution mit der sich die Soziologie seit jeher ausführlich beschäftigt. Somit stellt sie auch einen interessanten Untersuchungsgegenstand für die Soziolinguisti...

  16. Platz der Östrogene in der Primärprävention der Osteoporose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birkhäuser M

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Die Gabe von Östrogenen allein (EET oder Östrogene + Gestagen (HET führt zu einer signifikanten Senkung des Frakturrisikos. Die Osteoporoseprävention bleibt in der frühen Postmenopause nach Meinung der Schweizerischen (SMG, der Europäischen (EMAS und der Internationalen (IMS Menopausengesellschaften einer der gesicherten Nutzen einer Östrogengabe und somit eine Therapie der ersten Wahl zur Frakturprävention bei Frauen in der Peri- und frühen Postmenopause. Bei schweren klimakterischen Beschwerden sind EET oder HET das unbestritten wirksamste Therapieprinzip (Hauptindikation einer EET/HET. Die gleichzeitig gesicherte Frakturprävention ist bei der Behandlung des klimakterischen Syndroms ein erwünschter günstiger Nebeneffekt. Jede EET/HET muss individualisiert sein und soll nur solange erfolgen, als sie notwendig ist. Bei gegebener Indikation kann die EET oder HET über die üblichen 3–5 Jahre hinaus fortgesetzt werden. Bei vorzeitiger Menopause (vor dem 40. Altersjahr und früher Menopause (vor dem 45. Altersjahr besteht eine absolute Indikation zum Beginn einer EET/HET. Frauen mit vorzeitiger Ovarialinsuffizienz benötigen meist höhere Dosierungen als solche mit zeitgerechter Menopause. Die EET/HET soll auch aus Gründen der Osteoporoseprävention mindestens bis zum normalen Menopausenalter weitergeführt werden (51– 52 Jahre. Bei Beginn einer HET innerhalb von 10 Jahren nach der Menopause oder in einem Alter von bis zu 60 Jahren überwiegt bei gegebener Indikation der Nutzen die Risiken. Dies muss bei der Behandlungswahl bei jüngeren postmenopausalen Frauen mit erhöhtem Osteoporoserisiko wieder vermehrt berücksichtigt werden, vor allem, wenn gleichzeitig klimakterische Beschwerden vorliegen.

  17. Der Wandel in der Benutzung des World Wide Webs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weinreich, H.; Heinecke, A.; Obendorf, H.; Paul, H.; Mayer, M.; Herder, E.

    2006-01-01

    Dieser Beitrag präsentiert ausgewählte Ergebnisse einer Langzeitstudie mit 25 Teilnehmern zur Benutzung des Webs. Eine Gegenüberstellung mit den Ergebnissen der letzten vergleichbaren Studien offenbart eine deutliche Veränderung im Navigationsverhalten der Nutzer. Neue Angebote und Dienste des Webs

  18. und Fremdsprachen im Prozess der Alphabetisierung und der ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gemüseanbau, Fischfang und Viehzucht gehört. Die Landwirte, die von ihren täglichen. Tätigkeiten leben wollen, sind meist Analphabeten und können daher über ihre Projekte weder in der eigenen noch in der Fremdsprache schreiben. Deshalb werden in allen Regionen. Burkinas Alphabetisierungszentren gegründet ...

  19. Elementarteilchenphysik: Meilenstein in der Physik der B-Mesonen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Thomas

    2006-09-01

    In Japan hat die Belle-Kollaboration am KEK einen wichtigen Durchbruch erzielt. Zum ersten Mal wurde der sehr seltene, rein leptonische Zerfall eines B-Mesons beobachtet. Er bietet die Möglichkeit, andere wichtige Größen der Elementarteilchenphysik, wie die Masse des Higgs-Teilchens, besser vorhersagen und verstehen zu können.

  20. Tritium systems test assembly quality assurance program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerstiens, F.L.; Wilhelm, R.C.

    1986-07-01

    A quality assurance program should establish the planned and systematic actions necessary to provide adequate confidence that fusion facilities and their subsystems will perform satisfactorily in service. The Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) Quality Assurance Program has been designed to assure that the designs, tests, data, and interpretive reports developed at TSTA are valid, accurate, and consistent with formally specified procedures and reviews. The quality consideration in all TSTA activities is directed toward the early detection of quality problems, coupled with timely and positive disposition and corrective action