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Sample records for deprived urban area

  1. Area Deprivation Affects Behavioral Problems of Young Adolescents in Mixed Urban and Rural Areas : The TRAILS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijneveld, S.A.; Veenstra, R.; De Winter, A.F.; Verhulst, F.C.; Ormel, J.; de Meer, G.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Behavioral problems occur more frequently among adolescents in deprived areas, but most evidence concerns urbanized areas. Our aim was to assess the impact of area deprivation and urbanization on the occurrence and development of behavioral problems among adolescents in a mixed urban and

  2. Distribution of physical activity facilities in Scotland by small area measures of deprivation and urbanicity

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    Ogilvie David

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to examine the distribution of physical activity facilities by area-level deprivation in Scotland, adjusting for differences in urbanicity, and exploring differences between and within the four largest Scottish cities. Methods We obtained a list of all recreational physical activity facilities in Scotland. These were mapped and assigned to datazones. Poisson and negative binomial regression models were used to investigate associations between the number of physical activity facilities relative to population size and quintile of area-level deprivation. Results The results showed that prior to adjustment for urbanicity, the density of all facilities lessened with increasing deprivation from quintiles 2 to 5. After adjustment for urbanicity and local authority, the effect of deprivation remained significant but the pattern altered, with datazones in quintile 3 having the highest estimated mean density of facilities. Within-city associations were identified between the number of physical activity facilities and area-level deprivation in Aberdeen and Dundee, but not in Edinburgh or Glasgow. Conclusions In conclusion, area-level deprivation appears to have a significant association with the density of physical activity facilities and although overall no clear pattern was observed, affluent areas had fewer publicly owned facilities than more deprived areas but a greater number of privately owned facilities.

  3. Mortality, material deprivation and urbanization: exploring the social patterns of a metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Paula; Costa, Claudia; Marí-Dell'Olmo, Marc; Gotsens, Mercè; Borrell, Carme

    2015-06-09

    Socioeconomic inequalities affecting health are of major importance in Europe. The literature enhances the role of social determinants of health, such as socioeconomic characteristics and urbanization, to achieve health equity. Yet, there is still much to know, mainly concerning the association between cause-specific mortality and several social determinants, especially in metropolitan areas. This study aims to describe the geographical pattern of cause-specific mortality in the Lisbon Metropolitan Area (LMA), at small area level (parishes), and analyses the statistical association between mortality risk and health determinants (material deprivation and urbanization level). Fourteen causes have been selected, representing almost 60% of total mortality between 1995 and 2008, particularly those associated with urbanization and material deprivation. A cross-sectional ecological study was carried out. Using a hierarchical Bayesian spatial model, we estimated sex-specific smoothed Standardized Mortality Ratios (sSMR) and measured the relative risks (RR), and 95% credible intervals, for cause-specific mortality relative to 1. urbanization level, 2. material deprivation and 3. material deprivation adjusted by urbanization. The statistical association between mortality and material deprivation and between mortality and urbanization changes by cause of death and sex. Dementia and MN larynx, trachea, bronchus and lung are the causes of death showing higher relative risk associated with urbanization. Infectious and parasitic diseases, Chronic liver disease and Diabetes are the causes of death presenting higher relative risk associated with material deprivation. Ischemic heart disease was the only cause with a statistical association with both determinants, and MN female breast was the only without any statistical association. Urbanization level reduces the impact of material deprivation for most of the causes of death. Men face a higher impact of material deprivation and

  4. Addiction treatment in deprived urban areas in EU countries: Accessibility of care for people from socially marginalized groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welbel, Marta; Matanov, Aleksandra; Moskalewicz, Jacek; Barros, Henrique; Canavan, Reamonn; Gabor, Edina; Gaddini, Andrea; Greacen, Tim; Kluge, Ulrike; Lorant, Vincent; Esteban Pena, Mercedes; Schene, Aart H.; Soares, Joaquim J. F.; Strassmayr, Christa; Vondrackova, Petra; Priebe, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Aim: This study examines the accessibility of addiction treatment within services providing mental health care and support for people from socially marginalized groups in deprived urban areas across EU countries. Methods: Services providing mental health care and support in deprived areas of 14 EU

  5. Youth mental health in deprived urban areas: a Delphi study on the role of the GP in early intervention.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Schaffalitzky, E

    2014-09-06

    GPs, as healthcare professionals with whom young people commonly interact, have a central role in early intervention for mental health problems. However, successfully fulfilling this role is a challenge, and this is especially in deprived urban areas.

  6. Primary care and youth mental health in Ireland: qualitative study in deprived urban areas.

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    Leahy, Dorothy; Schaffalitzky, Elisabeth; Armstrong, Claire; Bury, Gerard; Cussen-Murphy, Paula; Davis, Rachel; Dooley, Barbara; Gavin, Blanaid; Keane, Rory; Keenan, Eamon; Latham, Linda; Meagher, David; McGorry, Pat; McNicholas, Fiona; O'Connor, Ray; O'Dea, Ellen; O'Keane, Veronica; O'Toole, Tom P; Reilly, Edel; Ryan, Patrick; Sanci, Lena; Smyth, Bobby P; Cullen, Walter

    2013-12-17

    Mental disorders account for six of the 20 leading causes of disability worldwide with a very high prevalence of psychiatric morbidity in youth aged 15-24 years. However, healthcare professionals are faced with many challenges in the identification and treatment of mental and substance use disorders in young people (e.g. young people's unwillingness to seek help from healthcare professionals, lack of training, limited resources etc.) The challenge of youth mental health for primary care is especially evident in urban deprived areas, where rates of and risk factors for mental health problems are especially common. There is an emerging consensus that primary care is well placed to address mental and substance use disorders in young people especially in deprived urban areas. This study aims to describe healthcare professionals' experience and attitudes towards screening and early intervention for mental and substance use disorders among young people (16-25 years) in primary care in deprived urban settings in Ireland. The chosen method for this qualitative study was inductive thematic analysis which involved semi-structured interviews with 37 healthcare professionals from primary care, secondary care and community agencies at two deprived urban centres. We identified three themes in respect of interventions to increase screening and treatment: (1) Identification is optimised by a range of strategies, including raising awareness, training, more systematic and formalised assessment, and youth-friendly practices (e.g. communication skills, ensuring confidentiality); (2) Treatment is enhanced by closer inter-agency collaboration and training for all healthcare professionals working in primary care; (3) Ongoing engagement is enhanced by motivational work with young people, setting achievable treatment goals, supporting transition between child and adult mental health services and recognising primary care's longitudinal nature as a key asset in promoting treatment engagement

  7. Uncovering How Urban Regeneration Programs May Stimulate Leisure-time Walking Among Adults in Deprived Areas: A Realist Review.

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    Kramer, Daniëlle; Lakerveld, Jeroen; Stronks, Karien; Kunst, Anton E

    2017-10-01

    Evidence suggests that urban regeneration programs can stimulate leisure-time walking (LTW) in deprived areas. However, underlying pathways remain unclear. This study explored how urban regeneration might stimulate LTW among adults in deprived areas. We conducted a realist review, a theory-driven approach to evidence synthesis that focuses on mechanisms. We searched three electronic databases for peer-reviewed literature that describes how the neighborhood environment or urban regeneration influences LTW among adults in deprived areas. Evidence from 13 qualitative studies was synthesized. All studies indicated that safety problems and poor physical neighborhood design make adults fearful of walking. Seven studies indicated that poor aesthetics makes walking less relaxing and stress releasing. Seven studies indicated that poor infrastructure makes it inconvenient for adults to walk. A limited number of studies indicated that a lack of LTW facilities creates a shortage of settings for walking and that low levels of social capital constrain social support for walking and social interaction while walking. Evidence from this study suggests that urban regeneration might stimulate LTW among adults in deprived areas by creating a neighborhood that is less frightening, more relaxing, and more convenient to walk in.

  8. GP income in relation to workload in deprived urban areas in the Netherlands: before and after the 1996 pay review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheij, R.A.; Bakker, D.H. de; Reijneveld, S.A.

    2001-01-01

    General practitioner workload is higher in deprived urban areas and for the elderly. This led to the introduction of additional GP payment regarding these patients, in the UK and in the Netherlands. This study examines whether this has resulted in more equal payment for work done in the

  9. Access all areas? An area-level analysis of accessibility to general practice and community pharmacy services in England by urbanity and social deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Adam; Copeland, Alison; Husband, Andy; Kasim, Adetayo; Bambra, Clare

    2015-05-08

    (1) To determine the percentage of the population in England that has access to a general practitioner (GP) premises within a 20 min walk (the accessibility); (2) explore the relationship between the walking distance to a GP premises and urbanity and social deprivation and (3) compare accessibility of a GP premises to that of a community pharmacy--and how this may vary by urbanity and social deprivation. This area-level analysis spatial study used postcodes for all GP premises and community pharmacies in England. Each postcode was assigned to a population lookup table and Lower Super Output Area (LSOA). The LSOA was then matched to urbanity (urban, town and fringe, or village, hamlet and isolated dwellings) and deprivation decile (using the Index of Multiple Deprivation score 2010). Living within a 20 min walk of a GP premises. Overall, 84.8% of the population is estimated to live within a 20 min walk of a GP premises: 81.2% in the most affluent areas, 98.2% in the most deprived areas, 94.2% in urban and 19.4% in rural areas. This is consistently lower when compared with the population living within a 20 min walk of a community pharmacy. Our study shows that the vast majority of the population live within a 20 min walk of a GP premises, with higher proportions in the most deprived areas--a positive primary care law. However, more people live within a 20 min walk of a community pharmacy compared with a GP premises, and this potentially has implications for the commissioning of future services from these healthcare providers in England. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  10. Income Differences in Smoking Prevalences in 245 Districts of South Korea: Patterns by Area Deprivation and Urbanity, 2008-2014

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    Ikhan Kim

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The aim of this study was to measure income differences in smoking prevalence at the district level and to investigate correlations among area deprivation, smoking prevalence, and income differences in smoking prevalence, stratified by urbanity. Methods Data were pooled from the Community Health Survey data of South Korea between 2008 and 2014. The age-standardized prevalence of smoking and its interquintile income differences were calculated. We conducted correlation analyses to investigate the association of the deprivation index with smoking prevalence and interquintile differences in smoking prevalence. Results Across 245 districts, the median prevalence of smoking in men was 45.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 43.4 to 48.5%, with an interquartile range (IQR of 4.6% points. In women, the median prevalence was 3.0% (95% CI, 2.4 to 3.6% and IQR was 1.6% points. The median interquintile difference in smoking prevalence was 7.4% points (95% CI, 1.6 to 13.2% points in men and 2.7% points (95% CI, 0.5 to 4.9% points in women. The correlation coefficients for the association between the deprivation index and smoking prevalence was 0.58, 0.15, -0.22 in metropolitan, urban, and rural areas, respectively, among men, and 0.54, -0.33, -0.43 among women. No meaningful correlation was found between area deprivation and interquintile difference in smoking prevalence. The correlation between smoking prevalence and interquintile difference in smoking prevalence was more evident in women than in men. Conclusions This study provides evidence of geographical variations in smoking prevalence and interquintile difference in smoking prevalence. Neither smoking prevalence nor the deprivation index was closely correlated with interquintile income difference in smoking prevalence. Measuring inequalities in smoking prevalence is crucial to developing policies aimed at reducing inequalities in smoking.

  11. Income Differences in Smoking Prevalences in 245 Districts of South Korea: Patterns by Area Deprivation and Urbanity, 2008-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ikhan; Bahk, Jinwook; Yoon, Tae-Ho; Yun, Sung-Cheol; Khang, Young-Ho

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to measure income differences in smoking prevalence at the district level and to investigate correlations among area deprivation, smoking prevalence, and income differences in smoking prevalence, stratified by urbanity. Data were pooled from the Community Health Survey data of South Korea between 2008 and 2014. The age-standardized prevalence of smoking and its interquintile income differences were calculated. We conducted correlation analyses to investigate the association of the deprivation index with smoking prevalence and interquintile differences in smoking prevalence. Across 245 districts, the median prevalence of smoking in men was 45.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 43.4 to 48.5%), with an interquartile range (IQR) of 4.6% points. In women, the median prevalence was 3.0% (95% CI, 2.4 to 3.6%) and IQR was 1.6% points. The median interquintile difference in smoking prevalence was 7.4% points (95% CI, 1.6 to 13.2% points) in men and 2.7% points (95% CI, 0.5 to 4.9% points) in women. The correlation coefficients for the association between the deprivation index and smoking prevalence was 0.58, 0.15, -0.22 in metropolitan, urban, and rural areas, respectively, among men, and 0.54, -0.33, -0.43 among women. No meaningful correlation was found between area deprivation and interquintile difference in smoking prevalence. The correlation between smoking prevalence and interquintile difference in smoking prevalence was more evident in women than in men. This study provides evidence of geographical variations in smoking prevalence and interquintile difference in smoking prevalence. Neither smoking prevalence nor the deprivation index was closely correlated with interquintile income difference in smoking prevalence. Measuring inequalities in smoking prevalence is crucial to developing policies aimed at reducing inequalities in smoking.

  12. The effects of air pollution on mortality in socially deprived urban areas in Hong Kong, China.

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    Wong, Chit-Ming; Ou, Chun-Quan; Chan, King-Pan; Chau, Yuen-Kwan; Thach, Thuan-Quoc; Yang, Lin; Chung, Roger Yat-Nork; Thomas, Graham Neil; Peiris, Joseph Sriyal Malik; Wong, Tze-Wai; Hedley, Anthony Johnson; Lam, Tai-Hing

    2008-09-01

    Poverty is a major determinant of population health, but little is known about its role in modifying air pollution effects. We set out to examine whether people residing in socially deprived communities are at higher mortality risk from ambient air pollution. This study included 209 tertiary planning units (TPUs), the smallest units for town planning in the Special Administrative Region of Hong Kong, China. The socioeconomic status of each TPU was measured by a social deprivation index (SDI) derived from the proportions of the population with a) unemployment, b) monthly household income air pollution and daily number of deaths in each SDI group for the period from January 1996 to December 2002. We evaluated the differences in pollution effects between different SDI groups using a case-only approach with logistic regression. We found significant associations of nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter areas of middle or high SDI (p areas were more strongly associated with SO(2) and NO(2) compared with those in middle or low SDI areas. Neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation increases mortality risks associated with air pollution.

  13. Effects of living near an urban motorway on the wellbeing of local residents in deprived areas: Natural experimental study.

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    Louise Foley

    Full Text Available Health and wellbeing are partly shaped by the neighbourhood environment. In 2011, an eight kilometre (five mile extension to the M74 motorway was opened in Glasgow, Scotland, constructed through a predominantly urban, deprived area. We evaluated the effects of the new motorway on wellbeing in local residents.This natural experimental study involved a longitudinal cohort (n = 365 and two cross-sectional samples (baseline n = 980; follow-up n = 978 recruited in 2005 and 2013. Adults from one of three study areas-surrounding the new motorway, another existing motorway, or no motorway-completed a postal survey. Within areas, individual measures of motorway proximity were calculated. Wellbeing was assessed with the mental (MCS-8 and physical (PCS-8 components of the SF-8 scale at both time points, and the short Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (SWEMWBS at follow-up only.In multivariable linear regression analyses, cohort participants living nearer to the new M74 motorway experienced significantly reduced mental wellbeing over time (MCS-8: -3.6, 95% CI -6.6 to -0.7 compared to those living further away. In cross-sectional and repeat cross-sectional analyses, an interaction was found whereby participants with a chronic condition living nearer to the established M8 motorway experienced reduced (MCS-8: -3.7, 95% CI -8.3 to 0.9 or poorer (SWEMWBS: -1.1, 95% CI -2.0 to -0.3 mental wellbeing compared to those living further away.We found some evidence that living near to a new motorway worsened local residents' wellbeing. In an area with an existing motorway, negative impacts appeared to be concentrated in those with chronic conditions, which may exacerbate existing health inequalities and contribute to poorer health outcomes. Health impacts of this type of urban regeneration intervention should be more fully taken into account in future policy and planning.

  14. Effects of living near an urban motorway on the wellbeing of local residents in deprived areas: Natural experimental study.

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    Foley, Louise; Prins, Richard; Crawford, Fiona; Humphreys, David; Mitchell, Richard; Sahlqvist, Shannon; Thomson, Hilary; Ogilvie, David

    2017-01-01

    Health and wellbeing are partly shaped by the neighbourhood environment. In 2011, an eight kilometre (five mile) extension to the M74 motorway was opened in Glasgow, Scotland, constructed through a predominantly urban, deprived area. We evaluated the effects of the new motorway on wellbeing in local residents. This natural experimental study involved a longitudinal cohort (n = 365) and two cross-sectional samples (baseline n = 980; follow-up n = 978) recruited in 2005 and 2013. Adults from one of three study areas-surrounding the new motorway, another existing motorway, or no motorway-completed a postal survey. Within areas, individual measures of motorway proximity were calculated. Wellbeing was assessed with the mental (MCS-8) and physical (PCS-8) components of the SF-8 scale at both time points, and the short Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (SWEMWBS) at follow-up only. In multivariable linear regression analyses, cohort participants living nearer to the new M74 motorway experienced significantly reduced mental wellbeing over time (MCS-8: -3.6, 95% CI -6.6 to -0.7) compared to those living further away. In cross-sectional and repeat cross-sectional analyses, an interaction was found whereby participants with a chronic condition living nearer to the established M8 motorway experienced reduced (MCS-8: -3.7, 95% CI -8.3 to 0.9) or poorer (SWEMWBS: -1.1, 95% CI -2.0 to -0.3) mental wellbeing compared to those living further away. We found some evidence that living near to a new motorway worsened local residents' wellbeing. In an area with an existing motorway, negative impacts appeared to be concentrated in those with chronic conditions, which may exacerbate existing health inequalities and contribute to poorer health outcomes. Health impacts of this type of urban regeneration intervention should be more fully taken into account in future policy and planning.

  15. Characteristics of small areas with high rates of hospital-treated self-harm: deprived, fragmented and urban or just close to hospital? A national registry study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Farrell, I B

    2014-10-15

    Previous research has shown an inconsistent relationship between the spatial distribution of hospital treated self-harm and area-level factors such as deprivation and social fragmentation. However, many of these studies have been confined to urban centres, with few focusing on rural settings and even fewer studies carried out at a national level. Furthermore, no previous research has investigated if travel time to hospital services can explain the area-level variation in the incidence of hospital treated self-harm.

  16. Urban density, deprivation and road safety: A small area study in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Following a general paucity of small area research on road traffic injuries (RTIs), this study examined small area variations in RTIs for the eThekwini Metropolitan Area (comprising predominantly the City of Durban) in South Africa. Population density was used as an organising framework to examine variations in RTI ...

  17. Source segregation and food waste prevention activities in high-density households in a deprived urban area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rispo, A.; Williams, I.D., E-mail: idw@soton.ac.uk; Shaw, P.J.

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Study of waste management in economically and socially deprived high-density housing. • Food waste segregation, prevention and recycling activities investigated. • Study involved a waste audit and household survey of 1034 households. • Populations in such areas are “hard-to-reach”. • Exceptional efforts and additional resources are required to improve performance. - Abstract: A waste audit and a household questionnaire survey were conducted in high-density housing estates in one of the most economically and socially deprived areas of England (Haringey, London). Such areas are under-represented in published research. The study examined source segregation, potential participation in a food waste segregation scheme, and food waste prevention activities in five estates (1034 households). The results showed that: contamination of recyclables containers was low; ca. 28% of the mixed residual waste’s weight was recyclable; food waste comprised a small proportion of the waste from these residents, probably because of their relatively disadvantaged economic circumstances; and the recycling profile reflected an intermittent pattern of behaviour. Although the majority of respondents reported that they would participate in a food waste separation scheme, the response rate was low and many responses of “don’t know” were recorded. Municipalities committed to foster improved diversion from landfill need to recognise that there is no “quick and easy fix”, regardless of local or national aspirations. Lasting and sustained behaviour change requires time and the quality of service provision and associated infrastructure play a fundamental role in facilitating residents to participate effectively in waste management activities that maximise capture of source-segregated materials. Populations in deprived areas that reside in high-rise, high-density dwellings are “hard-to-reach” in terms of participation in recycling schemes and exceptional

  18. Source segregation and food waste prevention activities in high-density households in a deprived urban area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rispo, A.; Williams, I.D.; Shaw, P.J.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Study of waste management in economically and socially deprived high-density housing. • Food waste segregation, prevention and recycling activities investigated. • Study involved a waste audit and household survey of 1034 households. • Populations in such areas are “hard-to-reach”. • Exceptional efforts and additional resources are required to improve performance. - Abstract: A waste audit and a household questionnaire survey were conducted in high-density housing estates in one of the most economically and socially deprived areas of England (Haringey, London). Such areas are under-represented in published research. The study examined source segregation, potential participation in a food waste segregation scheme, and food waste prevention activities in five estates (1034 households). The results showed that: contamination of recyclables containers was low; ca. 28% of the mixed residual waste’s weight was recyclable; food waste comprised a small proportion of the waste from these residents, probably because of their relatively disadvantaged economic circumstances; and the recycling profile reflected an intermittent pattern of behaviour. Although the majority of respondents reported that they would participate in a food waste separation scheme, the response rate was low and many responses of “don’t know” were recorded. Municipalities committed to foster improved diversion from landfill need to recognise that there is no “quick and easy fix”, regardless of local or national aspirations. Lasting and sustained behaviour change requires time and the quality of service provision and associated infrastructure play a fundamental role in facilitating residents to participate effectively in waste management activities that maximise capture of source-segregated materials. Populations in deprived areas that reside in high-rise, high-density dwellings are “hard-to-reach” in terms of participation in recycling schemes and exceptional

  19. Early childhood development in deprived urban settlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, M K C; Radhakrishnan, S Rekha

    2004-03-01

    Poverty, the root cause of the existence of slums or settlement colonies in urban areas has a great impact on almost all aspects of life of the urban poor, especially the all-round development of children. Examples from countries, across the globe provide evidence of improved early child development, made possible through integrated slum improvement programs, are few in numbers. The observed 2.5% prevalence of developmental delay in the less than 2 year olds of deprived urban settlements, the presence of risk factors for developmental delay like low birth weight, birth asphyxia, coupled with poor environment of home and alternate child care services, highlights the need for simple cost effective community model for promoting early child development. This review on early child development focuses on the developmental status of children in the deprived urban settlements, who are yet to be on the priority list of Governments and international agencies working for the welfare of children, the contributory nature-nurture factors and replicable working models like infant stimulation, early detection of developmental delay in infancy itself, developmental screening of toddlers, skill assessment for preschool children, school readiness programs, identification of mental sub-normality and primary education enhancement program for primary school children. Further, the review probes feasible intervention strategies through community owned early child care and development facilities, utilizing existing programs like ICDS, Urban Basic Services and by initiating services like Development Friendly Well Baby Clinics, Community Extension services, Child Development Referral Units at district hospitals and involving trained manpower like anganwadi/creche workers, public health nurses and developmental therapists. With the decentralization process the local self-government at municipalities and city corporations are financially equipped to be the prime movers to initiate, monitor and

  20. Shifts in ecosystem services in deprived urban areas : Understanding people’s responses and consequences for well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derkzen, Marthe L.; Nagendra, Harini; Van Teeffelen, Astrid J.A.; Purushotham, Anusha; Verburg, Peter H.

    2017-01-01

    Urban commons are under pressure. City development has led to the encroachment and ecological degradation of urban open space. Although there is growing insight that urban ecosystems need to be protected, there is hardly any attention for the consequences (of both pressures and protection efforts)

  1. Improvement of Working Memory in Preschoolers and Its Impact on Early Literacy Skills: A Study in Deprived Communities of Rural and Urban Areas

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    Rojas-Barahona, Cristian A.; Förster, Carla E.; Moreno-Ríos, Sergio; McClelland, Megan M.

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: The present study evaluated the impact of a working memory (WM) stimulation program on the development of WM and early literacy skills (ELS) in preschoolers from socioeconomically deprived rural and urban schools in Chile. The sample consisted of 268 children, 144 in the intervention group and 124 in the comparison group. The…

  2. Types of social capital and mental disorder in deprived urban areas: a multilevel study of 40 disadvantaged London neighbourhoods.

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    Marcello Bertotti

    individual and ecological levels in disadvantaged urban areas. Thus, policy should support interventions that create and sustain social networks. One of these is explored in this article.Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN68175121 http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN68175121.

  3. Shifts in ecosystem services in deprived urban areas: understanding people's responses and consequences for well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marthe L. Derkzen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Urban commons are under pressure. City development has led to the encroachment and ecological degradation of urban open space. Although there is growing insight that urban ecosystems need to be protected, there is hardly any attention for the consequences (of both pressures and protection efforts for vulnerable human population groups. We aim to understand how urban development affects the well-being of the urban poor, through shifts in ecosystem services (ES and people's responses to these shifts. We performed household interviews and group mapping sessions in seven urban lake communities in Bangalore, India. Changes at Bangalore's lakes can be summarized by three trends: privatization followed by conversion, pollution followed by degradation, and restoration followed by gentrification. Over time, this resulted in a shift in the types of ES supplied and demanded, the nature of use, and de facto governance: from provisioning, communal and public; to cultural, individual, and private. Lake dwellers responded by finding (other sources of income, accepting lower quality or less accessible ES, and/or completely stopping the use of certain ES. The consequences of ecosystem change for people's well-being differ depending on a household's ability to adapt and on individual circumstances, land tenure and financial capital in particular. To guarantee a future for Bangalore's lakes, restoration seems the only viable option. Although beautiful lake parks may be a solution for the well-off and not-too-poor, leaving the very poor without options to adapt to the new circumstances puts them at risk of becoming even more marginalized. We show that ecosystem degradation and restoration alike can impact the well-being of the urban poor. People's experiences allowed us to couple ecosystem change to well-being through ES and adaptation strategies. Hence, we revealed multiple cause-effect relations. Understanding these relations contributes to sustainable urban

  4. The effects of deprivation and relative deprivation on self-reported morbidity in England: an area-level ecological study.

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    Zhang, Xin; Cook, Penny A; Lisboa, Paulo J; Jarman, Ian H; Bellis, Mark A

    2013-01-29

    Socioeconomic status gradients in health outcomes are well recognised and may operate in part through the psychological effect of observing disparities in affluence. At an area-level, we explored whether the deprivation differential between neighbouring areas influenced self-reported morbidity over and above the known effect of the deprivation of the area itself. Deprivation differentials between small areas (population size approximately 1,500) and their immediate neighbours were derived (from the Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD)) for Lower Super Output Area (LSOA) in the whole of England (n=32482). Outcome variables were self-reported from the 2001 UK Census: the proportion of the population suffering Limiting Long-Term Illness (LLTI) and 'not good health'. Linear regression was used to identify the effect of the deprivation differential on morbidity in different segments of the population, controlling for the absolute deprivation. The population was segmented using IMD tertiles and P2 People and Places geodemographic classification. P2 is a commercial market segmentation tool, which classifies small areas according to the characteristics of the population. The classifications range in deprivation, with the most affluent type being 'Mature Oaks' and the least being 'Urban Challenge'. Areas that were deprived compared to their immediate neighbours suffered higher rates of 'not good health' (β=0.312, psegments (e.g., for 'not good health', P2 segments 'Mature Oaks'-β=0.638; 'Rooted Households'-β=0.555). Living in an area that is surrounded by areas of greater affluence has a negative impact on health in England. A possible explanation for this phenomenon is that negative social comparisons between areas cause ill-health. This 'psychosocial effect' is greater still in least deprived segments of the population, supporting the notion that psychosocial effects become more important when material (absolute) deprivation is less relevant.

  5. The effects of deprivation and relative deprivation on self-reported morbidity in England: an area-level ecological study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Socioeconomic status gradients in health outcomes are well recognised and may operate in part through the psychological effect of observing disparities in affluence. At an area-level, we explored whether the deprivation differential between neighbouring areas influenced self-reported morbidity over and above the known effect of the deprivation of the area itself. Methods Deprivation differentials between small areas (population size approximately 1,500) and their immediate neighbours were derived (from the Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD)) for Lower Super Output Area (LSOA) in the whole of England (n=32482). Outcome variables were self-reported from the 2001 UK Census: the proportion of the population suffering Limiting Long-Term Illness (LLTI) and ‘not good health’. Linear regression was used to identify the effect of the deprivation differential on morbidity in different segments of the population, controlling for the absolute deprivation. The population was segmented using IMD tertiles and P2 People and Places geodemographic classification. P2 is a commercial market segmentation tool, which classifies small areas according to the characteristics of the population. The classifications range in deprivation, with the most affluent type being ‘Mature Oaks’ and the least being ‘Urban Challenge’. Results Areas that were deprived compared to their immediate neighbours suffered higher rates of ‘not good health’ (β=0.312, p<0.001) and LLTI (β=0.278, p<0.001), after controlling for the deprivation of the area itself (‘not good health’—ß=0.655, p<0.001; LLTI—ß=0.548, p<0.001). The effect of the deprivation differential relative to the effect of deprivation was strongest in least deprived segments (e.g., for ‘not good health’, P2 segments ‘Mature Oaks’—β=0.638; ‘Rooted Households’—β=0.555). Conclusions Living in an area that is surrounded by areas of greater affluence has a negative impact on health in England. A

  6. Area deprivation, individual socioeconomic position and smoking among women in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun-Ja; Kim, Ho; Kawachi, Ichiro; Kim, Il-Ho; Cho, Sung-Il

    2010-10-01

    The objective of this study was to examine how area deprivation and individual socioeconomic position affect smoking among women using national survey data. Smoking and individual sociodemographic characteristics were gathered from the Third Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005. The Carstairs index was derived for each area using the 2005 census data. The data were analysed using multilevel logistic regression models. After adjusting for age and marital status, low education and manual jobs were significantly associated with a higher likelihood of smoking. In addition, the effect of manual jobs on smoking was modified by area deprivation. When individual occupation and area deprivation were examined together, results indicated that women with manual occupation had much greater odds of smoking when they lived in the least-deprived areas (OR, 4.03; CI, 2.00 to 8.14) than did women with manual job who lived in the middle- or most-deprived areas (OR, 2.19; CI, 1.15 to 4.16), compared to the reference group (housewives in the middle- or most-deprived areas). The results of the present study show that among Korean women, manual work is associated with smoking, and the association is strongest among those living in the least-deprived areas. This interaction between manual work and area deprivation resulted in a higher smoking prevalence among women in affluent urban areas.

  7. A Spatial-Statistical Analysis of Urban Deprivation in Durban, South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Examining urban deprivation, 18 socio-demographic variables were used to identify deprivation dimensions with principal component analysis and general deprivation index. Seven deprivation types were mapped with Geographic Information System to determine the spatial distribution of deprivation by census sub-places ...

  8. The impact of area deprivation on parenting stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijkers, Willem; Jansen, Danielle E. M. C.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Area deprivation negatively affects health and lifestyles, among which child behaviours. The latter may aggravate the effects of area deprivation on parental health due to higher rates of parenting stress. However, evidence on the influence of the living environment on parenting stress

  9. Rural Area Deprivation and Hospitalizations Among Children for Ambulatory Care Sensitive Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Nathan; Probst, Janice; Robertson, Ashley

    2016-06-01

    This study examined the intersection of rurality and community area deprivation using a nine-state sample of inpatient hospitalizations among children (US census regions with substantial rural representation and varying degrees of community vulnerability was selected. An area deprivation index was constructed and used in conjunction with rurality to examine differences in the rate of ACSC hospitalizations among children in the sample states. A mixed model with both fixed and random effects was used to test influence of rurality and area deprivation on the odds of a pediatric hospitalization due to an ACSC within the sample. Of primary interest was the interaction of rurality and area deprivation. The study found rural counties are disproportionality represented among the most deprived. Within the least deprived counties, the likelihood of an ACSC hospitalization was significantly lower in rural than among their urban counterparts. However, this rural advantage declines as the level of deprivation increases, suggesting the effect of rurality becomes more important as social and economic advantage deteriorates. We also found ACSC hospitalization to be much higher among racial/ethnic minority children and those with Medicaid or self-pay as an anticipated source of payment. These findings further contribute to the existing body of evidence documenting racial/ethnic disparities in important health related outcomes.

  10. Urban density, deprivation and road safety

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kirstam

    forms such as “compact cities” and “new urbanism” that argues for medium to high built densities for cities, and at the level of the local neighbourhood, would be useful to consider for addressing some of the shortfalls of historical urban planning (UN-HABITAT, 2009). STRENGTHS, LIMITATIONS AND FUTURE RESEARCH.

  11. Neighbourhood and dwelling characteristics associated with the self-reported adverse health effects of heat in most deprived urban areas: a cross-sectional study in 9 cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bélanger, Diane; Gosselin, Pierre; Valois, Pierre; Abdous, Belkacem

    2015-03-01

    Dwelling and neighbourhood characteristics associated with the prevalence of self-reported heat-induced adverse health effects are not well known. We interviewed 3485 people in the most disadvantaged neighbourhoods of the nine largest cities in Québec, Canada. The prevalence of heat-induced adverse health effects was 46%, out of which one fourth led to medical consultation. Multivariate analyses showed that dissatisfaction with the summer dwelling temperature, which refers to home heat exposure, and perception that the neighbourhood is polluted due to traffic, were determinant, even after adjusting for current health status. These risk indicators can be used to identify subgroups at high risk and as priority-setting criteria for urban renewal programs for the hotter climate to come. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Subclinical coronary atherosclerosis and neighbourhood deprivation in an urban region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragano, Nico; Hoffmann, Barbara; Stang, Andreas; Moebus, Susanne; Verde, Pablo E.; Weyers, Simone; Moehlenkamp, Stefan; Schmermund, Axel; Mann, Klaus; Joeckel, Karl-Heinz; Erbel, Raimund; Siegrist, Johannes

    2009-01-01

    Inhabitants of deprived neighbourhoods are at higher risk of coronary heart disease. In this study we investigate the hypothesis that social inequalities at neighbourhood level become already manifest in subclinical coronary atherosclerosis, as defined by electron-beam computed tomography derived measures. Coronary artery calcification was assessed as a marker of atherosclerosis in a population based sample of 4301 men and women (45-75 years) without a history of coronary heart disease. Participants lived in three adjacent cities in Germany and were examined between 2000 and 2003 as part of the Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study. Individual level data was combined with neighbourhood level information about unemployment, welfare and living space per inhabitant. This dataset was analysed with descriptive and multilevel regression methods. An association between neighbourhood deprivation and subclinical coronary calcification was observed. After adjustment for age and individual socioeconomic status male inhabitants of high unemployment neighbourhoods had an odds ratio of 1.45 (1.11, 1.96) of exhibiting a high calcification score (>75th percentile) compared to men living in low unemployment areas. The respective odds for women was 1.29 (0.97, 1.70). Additional explorative analyses suggest that clustering of unhealthy lifestyles in deprived neighbourhoods contributes to the observed association. In conclusion, findings suggest that certain neighbourhood characteristics promote the emergence of coronary atherosclerosis. This might point to a pathway from neighbourhood deprivation to manifest coronary heart disease

  13. Cervical Ectopic Pregnancy in Resource Deprived Areas: A Rare ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ectopic pregnancy is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in women of reproductive age especially in resource deprived areas worldwide. Cervical ectopic pregnancy is a rare, life threatening form of ectopic pregnancy which needs a high index of suspicion for diagnosis, thus adding a complex twist to the dilemma ...

  14. Sleep Duration and Area-Level Deprivation in Twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Nathaniel F; Horn, Erin; Duncan, Glen E; Buchwald, Dedra; Vitiello, Michael V; Turkheimer, Eric

    2016-01-01

    We used quantitative genetic models to assess whether area-level deprivation as indicated by the Singh Index predicts shorter sleep duration and modifies its underlying genetic and environmental contributions. Participants were 4,218 adult twin pairs (2,377 monozygotic and 1,841 dizygotic) from the University of Washington Twin Registry. Participants self-reported habitual sleep duration. The Singh Index was determined by linking geocoding addresses to 17 indicators at the census-tract level using data from Census of Washington State and Census Tract Cartographic Boundary Files from 2000 and 2010. Data were analyzed using univariate and bivariate genetic decomposition and quantitative genetic interaction models that assessed A (additive genetics), C (common environment), and E (unique environment) main effects of the Singh Index on sleep duration and allowed the magnitude of residual ACE variance components in sleep duration to vary with the Index. The sample had a mean age of 38.2 y (standard deviation [SD] = 18), and was predominantly female (62%) and Caucasian (91%). Mean sleep duration was 7.38 h (SD = 1.20) and the mean Singh Index score was 0.00 (SD = 0.89). The heritability of sleep duration was 39% and the Singh Index was 12%. The uncontrolled phenotypic regression of sleep duration on the Singh Index showed a significant negative relationship between area-level deprivation and sleep length (b = -0.080, P sleep duration. For the quasi-causal bivariate model, there was a significant main effect of E (b(0E) = -0.063; standard error [SE] = 0.30; P sleep duration were significant for both A (b(0Au) = 0.734; SE = 0.020; P deprivation has a quasi-causal association with sleep duration, with greater deprivation being related to shorter sleep. As area-level deprivation increases, unique genetic and nonshared environmental residual variance in sleep duration increases. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  15. Nonpoint Source: Urban Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanization increases the variety and amount of pollutants carried into our nation's waters. Pavement and compacted landscapes do not allow rain and snow melt to soak into the ground. List of typical pollutants from Urban runoff.

  16. Sleep Duration and Area-Level Deprivation in Twins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Nathaniel F.; Horn, Erin; Duncan, Glen E.; Buchwald, Dedra; Vitiello, Michael V.; Turkheimer, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: We used quantitative genetic models to assess whether area-level deprivation as indicated by the Singh Index predicts shorter sleep duration and modifies its underlying genetic and environmental contributions. Methods: Participants were 4,218 adult twin pairs (2,377 monozygotic and 1,841 dizygotic) from the University of Washington Twin Registry. Participants self-reported habitual sleep duration. The Singh Index was determined by linking geocoding addresses to 17 indicators at the census-tract level using data from Census of Washington State and Census Tract Cartographic Boundary Files from 2000 and 2010. Data were analyzed using univariate and bivariate genetic decomposition and quantitative genetic interaction models that assessed A (additive genetics), C (common environment), and E (unique environment) main effects of the Singh Index on sleep duration and allowed the magnitude of residual ACE variance components in sleep duration to vary with the Index. Results: The sample had a mean age of 38.2 y (standard deviation [SD] = 18), and was predominantly female (62%) and Caucasian (91%). Mean sleep duration was 7.38 h (SD = 1.20) and the mean Singh Index score was 0.00 (SD = 0.89). The heritability of sleep duration was 39% and the Singh Index was 12%. The uncontrolled phenotypic regression of sleep duration on the Singh Index showed a significant negative relationship between area-level deprivation and sleep length (b = −0.080, P sleep duration. For the quasi-causal bivariate model, there was a significant main effect of E (b0E = −0.063; standard error [SE] = 0.30; P sleep duration were significant for both A (b0Au = 0.734; SE = 0.020; P sleep duration, with greater deprivation being related to shorter sleep. As area-level deprivation increases, unique genetic and nonshared environmental residual variance in sleep duration increases. Citation: Watson NF, Horn E, Duncan GE, Buchwald D, Vitiello MV, Turkheimer E. Sleep duration and area

  17. Fractal cartography of urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Encarnação, Sara; Gaudiano, Marcos; Santos, Francisco C; Tenedório, José A; Pacheco, Jorge M

    2012-01-01

    In a world in which the pace of cities is increasing, prompt access to relevant information is crucial to the understanding and regulation of land use and its evolution in time. In spite of this, characterization and regulation of urban areas remains a complex process, requiring expert human intervention, analysis and judgment. Here we carry out a spatio-temporal fractal analysis of a metropolitan area, based on which we develop a model which generates a cartographic representation and classification of built-up areas, identifying (and even predicting) those areas requiring the most proximate planning and regulation. Furthermore, we show how different types of urban areas identified by the model co-evolve with the city, requiring policy regulation to be flexible and adaptive, acting just in time. The algorithmic implementation of the model is applicable to any built-up area and simple enough to pave the way for the automatic classification of urban areas worldwide.

  18. Sustainable development in urban areas

    OpenAIRE

    Górecki, Jarosław; Czaplewska, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    Like in other EU countries, in Poland can be observed many ecological activities that play an important role in a balanced development of the society. Bicycle-sharing systems get more and more popular. In urban areas, tramway lines are being constructed. Local governments promote healthier and faster means of public transport. However, there are many problems waiting to be solved. This article describes a complexity of problems related to the sustainable development in urban areas. This ki...

  19. Bicycle traffic in urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelković Zorica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cycling is a term describing the use of bicycles, but also any mean of transport driven solely by human power. Development of bicycle traffic in urban areas involves construction of cycling infrastructure, adapting streets and other traffic infrastructure to a form suitable for cycling and other means of transport (individual motorized traffic, public transport, walking, ensuring the adequate budget and systematic planning and development of sustainable transport in cities. The paper presents basic settings and conditions as input elements to plan bicycle traffic in urban areas, as well as program- design conditions which lead the activities of planners and designers of urban roads in connection with cyclists.

  20. Sediment problems in urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, Harold P.

    1970-01-01

    A recognition of and solution to sediment problems in urban areas is necessary if society is to have an acceptable living environment. Soil erosion and sediment deposition in urban areas are as much an environmental blight as badly paved and littered streets, dilapidated buildings, billboard clutter, inept land use, and air, water, and noise pollution. In addition, sediment has many direct and indirect effects on streams that may be either part of or very remote from the urban environment. Sediment, for example, is widely recognized as a pollutant of streams and other water bodies.

  1. Benzene exposures in urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valerio, F.; Pala, M.; Cipolla, M.; Stella, A.

    2001-01-01

    Benzene exposures in urban areas were reviewed. Available data confirm that both in USA and Europe, benzene concentrations measured by fixed outdoor monitoring stations underestimate personal exposures of urban residents. Indoor sources, passive smoke and the high exposures during commuting time may explain this difference. Measures in European towns confirm that very frequently mean daily personal exposures to benzene exceed 10 μg/m 3 , current European air quality guideline for this carcinogenic compound [it

  2. Suburban areas and urban life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melgaard, Bente

    Danish suburbs are facing major challenges trying to coping with demographic changes, with structural changes in retail businesses and especially with sustainability-related challenges that have to do with cutting back on energy consumption for heating and transportation. Also climate changes...... and counteracting the segregation of the suburbs into sharply socially-separated residential areas are major challenges. Therefore, in these years the post-war era’s suburban areas are being revitalized and the suburb urban life and urban qualities are concepts, which are often brought up in this context....... In this paper I will explore the concepts “suburb” and “urban life”. More than half of the Danish population live in suburban areas, and the majority of suburbs were built in a short and hectic period in the years from 1960 to 1975 and in conformity with the functionalist ideals that gave rise to a number...

  3. Effects of area and family deprivation on risk factors for teenage pregnancy among 13-15-year-old girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Debbie M; Elander, James

    2006-11-01

    Information is needed about how the effects of socio-economic deprivation on teenage pregnancy are mediated by proximal risk factors, in order to target area-wide and family interventions more effectively. Using a 2x2 factorial design, we tested the separate and interacting effects of area deprivation and family deprivation on six specific proximal risk factors for teenage pregnancy: early sexual activity, life expectations, knowledge and beliefs about contraceptives, attitude to abortion, beliefs about love, and use of local sexual health services. Data were collected from 201 13-15-year-old girls in deprived and non-deprived families living in deprived and more affluent areas of the United Kingdom. Area deprivation significantly increased early sexual activity, and both area and family deprivation significantly reduced life expectations. Significant interactions between area and family deprivation showed that the impact of living in a deprived area depends to some extent on family circumstances, with implications for targeting different types of intervention. Living in a deprived area increased early sexual activity much more markedly among girls in deprived families, so interventions to reduce early sexual activity could target individually deprived girls living in deprived areas. Living in a more affluent area increased life expectations, but only among girls in non-deprived families, so both area-wide and individually targeted interventions would be needed to raise life expectations among girls most at risk of teenage pregnancy.

  4. Matching deprivation mapping to urban governance in three Indian mega-cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baud, I.S.A.; Pfeffer, K.; Sridharan, N.; Nainan, N.

    2009-01-01

    Recent discussions of poverty recognize its multi-dimensional character, focusing on multiple sources of deprivation that poor households experience. However, for urban planners and politicians to implement intervention programs effectively in mega-cities, knowledge on sources and spatial patterns

  5. Reclamation of urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roed, J.

    1986-02-01

    A literature study was conducted in order to compare the effectiveness and cost of different reclamation procedures that may be employed after an accident on a nuclear facility takes place in which radioactive material is released to the atmosphere. A substantial amount of work has been done on reclaming soil and snow-covered surfaces. Using scrapers or other soil-moving equipment decontamination factors are 10-100. (The decontamination factor is the ratio of the contamination before to that after the decontamination procedure). However, information on decontamination of paved areas by simple methods such as firehosing and vacuum sweeping are poorly documented. Therefore, only a very uncertain figure in the range 2-10 can be given for the decontamination factor here. It is recommended that a major effort be made in the future to investigate the efficiency of these simple methods, because of their relatively low cost. Also, more expensive methods for reducing the dose such as vacuuming, road planing and deep plowing are treated because of their feasibility under certain circumstances. Using these methods dose reduction factors in the 2-100 range can be obtained. Very expensive techniques, such as sandblasting, water cannon, flame spalling, etc. are justifiable usable only in special situations and are therefore considered very briefly here. The methods vary widely in cost. A simple method like vacuum sweeping costs $0.004 per square meter of surface; whereas one like road planing can reach $4 per square meter. A more sophisticated technique like flame spalling costs as much as $100 per square meter. (author)

  6. Smokers living in deprived areas are less likely to quit: A longitudinal follow-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Giskes (Katrina); F.J. van Lenthe (Frank); G. Turrell; J. Brug (Hans); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To follow up smokers to examine whether the likelihood of quitting smoking varied by area deprivation, and whether smoking history, health status, personality characteristics, social support and stressful situations contributed to differences in area deprivation in quit rates.

  7. Social deprivation and population density are not associated with small area risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooney, James P K; Tobin, Katy; Crampsie, Arlene; Vajda, Alice; Heverin, Mark; McLaughlin, Russell; Staines, Anthony; Hardiman, Orla

    2015-10-01

    Evidence of an association between areal ALS risk and population density has been previously reported. We aim to examine ALS spatial incidence in Ireland using small areas, to compare this analysis with our previous analysis of larger areas and to examine the associations between population density, social deprivation and ALS incidence. Residential area social deprivation has not been previously investigated as a risk factor for ALS. Using the Irish ALS register, we included all cases of ALS diagnosed in Ireland from 1995-2013. 2006 census data was used to calculate age and sex standardised expected cases per small area. Social deprivation was assessed using the pobalHP deprivation index. Bayesian smoothing was used to calculate small area relative risk for ALS, whilst cluster analysis was performed using SaTScan. The effects of population density and social deprivation were tested in two ways: (1) as covariates in the Bayesian spatial model; (2) via post-Bayesian regression. 1701 cases were included. Bayesian smoothed maps of relative risk at small area resolution matched closely to our previous analysis at a larger area resolution. Cluster analysis identified two areas of significant low risk. These areas did not correlate with population density or social deprivation indices. Two areas showing low frequency of ALS have been identified in the Republic of Ireland. These areas do not correlate with population density or residential area social deprivation, indicating that other reasons, such as genetic admixture may account for the observed findings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Geodiversity assessment in urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilic, Marina; Stojković, Sanja; Rundić, Ljupko; Ćalić, Jelena; Sandić, Dejan

    2017-04-01

    Conflict over natural resources figured prominently in the urban areas. On the one hand there is a constant need for space for the construction of new buildings for housing, agriculture and industrial production, and on the other hand the resources need protection because of the threat of degradation or even complete destruction. Considering the fact that urbanization is one of the most serious threats to geodiversity, it is important that this issue is taken into account in spatial development plans and georesource management strategies in urban areas. The geodiversity, as well as natural resource, must be managed in a sustainable manner in which it is very important its protection. The mapping of specific categories of geodiversity (geological, geomorphological, hydrological and soil) on the basis of quantitative assessment with the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) can allow spatial planners and managers to take further steps that would reduce threats and protect the natural values. This work presents the application of geodiversity evaluation method by using the geodiversity index (Gd), based on the quantity of abiotic elements and relief roughness within a spatial unit in the case of the City of Belgrade, Serbia. The acquired results are analyzed in the context of sustainable use of georesources and the threats to which geodiversity is exposed due to the development of the city.

  9. A socioeconomic deprivation index for small areas in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meijer, Mathias; Engholm, Gerda; Grittner, Ulrike

    2013-01-01

    -level register data comprising the entire Danish population in 2005. A principal component analysis was conducted to reduce the number of factors and to apply weights. An ecological analysis investigated the association between the Danish Deprivation Index (DANDEX) and standardised mortality ratios in Danish...

  10. Butt lengths differ by area deprivation level: a field study to explore intensive smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, George; Wilson, Nick; Bushell, Lisa; Al Matar, Waseem; Ball, Bridget; Chiu, Jessie; Culliford, Nicola; Gately, Callum; Gibson, Kirsty; Hudson, Jennifer; Hunt, Paul; Rangamuwa, Kanishka; Tapp, Dylan; Wickramaratne, Hasith; Young, Vanessa

    2008-05-01

    We collected cigarette butts in a range of residential areas, to assess differences in the length of unburnt tobacco in the butts, and in proportions of roll-your-own (RYO) cigarettes. Two high, two medium, and two low deprivation areas, as classified by deciles of the New Zealand Deprivation Index, were selected for the Wellington region. Collected butts were systematically classified and measured. A mixed model of analysis, treating location clusters nested within deprivation level areas as a random effect, was used to assess differences in mean length of unburnt tobacco in the butts. A total of 6,262 cigarette butts and separate filters were collected, of which 3,509 (56.0%) were measurable manufactured cigarette butts, 1,069 were unmeasurable manufactured butts, 1,450 were RYO butts, and 236 were RYO filters. The RYO butts were not measured because of the extent of their degradation. The unburnt tobacco lengths in manufactured cigarette butts were significantly shorter in the most deprived areas, relative to the least deprived areas (p = .035). Deformed manufactured cigarette butts (i.e., that potentially were stubbed out) showed the same pattern (p = .011 between the most and least deprived areas). We found no significant difference between deprivation areas in the proportion of RYO material found. The shorter mean unburnt tobacco length in the most deprived areas is consistent with more intensive smoking among smokers in those areas. This finding is consistent with other evidence of increased price sensitivity among poorer smokers, and with basic economic theory. Further evidence on observed smoking behavior in the field is necessary to better interpret these preliminary findings.

  11. Water transfer from peri-urban to urban areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prakash, Anjal; Singh, Sreoshi; Brouwer, Lieuwe

    2015-01-01

    This article documents the conflict between peri-urban and urban water users in Mallampet, a peri-urban village adjacent to Hyderabad City. In Mallampet and adjoining villages, 15–20 tanker companies are operating, most of which are owned by the local residents of the area. The number of tanker

  12. Differentiated property tax and urban sprawl in Italian urbanized areas

    OpenAIRE

    Ermini, Barbara; Santolini, Raffaella

    2015-01-01

    City’s core and suburbans tax differentials can affect sprawl within an urban area. We empirically address this issue by analyzing the pattern of growth of 72 Italian urbanized areas. As a novelty, we investigate the causes of the emerging land development pattern. Our results show that density of urban area declines in response to an increase in the city’s core property tax rate. We find that this effect is due to changes in dwelling size. By contrast, density of urban area significantly ris...

  13. Caffeine and REM sleep deprivation: Effect on basal levels of signaling molecules in area CA1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkadhi, Karim A; Alhaider, Ibrahim A

    2016-03-01

    We have investigated the neuroprotective effect of chronic caffeine treatment on basal levels of memory-related signaling molecules in area CA1 of sleep-deprived rats. Animals in the caffeine groups were treated with caffeine in drinking water (0.3g/l) for four weeks before they were REM sleep-deprived for 24h in the Modified Multiple Platforms paradigm. Western blot analysis of basal protein levels of plasticity- and memory-related signaling molecules in hippocampal area CA1 showed significant down regulation of the basal levels of phosphorylated- and total-CaMKII, phosphorylated- and total-CREB as well as those of BDNF and CaMKIV in sleep deprived rats. All these changes were completely prevented in rats that chronically consumed caffeine. The present findings suggest an important neuroprotective property of caffeine in sleep deprivation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The food retail environment and area deprivation in Glasgow City, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macintyre Sally

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract It has previously been suggested that deprived neighbourhoods within modern cities have poor access to general amenities, for example, fewer food retail outlets. Here we examine the distribution of food retailers by deprivation in the City of Glasgow, UK. We obtained a list of 934 food retailers in Glasgow, UK, in 2007, and mapped these at address level. We categorised small areas (data zones into quintiles of area deprivation using the 2006 Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation Income sub-domain score. We computed mean number of retailers per 1000 residents per data zone, and mean network distance to nearest outlet from data zone centroid, for all retailers combined and for each of seven categories of retailer separately (i.e. bakers, butchers, fruit and vegetable sellers, fishmongers, convenience stores, supermarkets and delicatessens. The most deprived quintile (of areas had the greatest mean number of total food retailers per 1000 residents while quintile 1 (least deprived had the least, and this difference was statistically significant (Chi-square p

  15. Neighbourhood Renewal, Participation and Social Capital in Deprived Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hindhede, Anette Lykke

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses the use of the concept of social capital in neighbourhood renewal programmes which aim to influence social and health-related processes. Based on a social network analysis of 17 groups comprising 133 members, qualitative interviews were conducted with 22 participants...... to consider the kinds of patterns and connections that build up in a neighbourhood renewal project in a small, deprived neighbourhood of a provincial town in Denmark. Results show that outcomes of community participation depend on the kind of social capital generated and on who is excluded from...... these resources or capital. Problems hindering inclusive participatory processes include self-exclusion and exclusionary dynamics in the neighbourhood. These dynamics centre on power struggles that lead the least powerful to opt out. Thus, the Danish ‘Ghetto Strategy’, which aims to increase local community...

  16. AIR POLLUTION OF URBAN AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAKAROVA V. N.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Raising of problem. Any manufacturing processes related to the generation of waste. Year after year, a growing mass of waste is one of the main factors reducing the quality of the environment and destruction of natural landscapes. Industrial development inevitably enhances human impacts on the environment and disrupts the ecological balance [3]. Atmospher air is a vital element of the environment. The development of industry, the growth of cities, increasing the number of transport, active exploration of near-Earth space lead to a change in the gas composition of the atmosphere and disruption of its natural balance. Air quality affects the health of the population [5]. Without water or food a person can do for a while, but without air he can not live a few minutes, therefore saving air breathable is an urgent problem. Purpose. The results of geological studies clearly indicate that the contamination of the surface layer of the atmosphere is the most powerful permanent factor of influence on the human food chain and the environment. This problem was reflected in the scientific literature [2; 3; 6], and the second significant indicator of ecological well-being of the region is the number of generation and accumulation of waste. According to this indicator, Dnipropetrovsk region is in the lead, as relates to the industrialized regions. The idea of the article is to consider the air pollution of the urban environment in terms of the accumulation of waste in the territory of enterprises, in particular slag dumps metallurgical production. Conclusion. Slag dumps located on the premises are a significant source of air pollution urbanized areas due to the permanent nature of the spread of contamination. Slag dump of PAT "Nikopol Ferroalloy Plant" is a source of manganese, zinc, nickel emissions. As a conclusion about the magnitude of pollution of the atmospheric boundary layer can say the following: on the border of the sanitary protection zone (SPZ, in

  17. The Employment Advantages of Skilled Urban Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Diaz Escobar, Ana Maria

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores whether the agglomeration of human capital leads to social employment advantages in urban labor markets of a developing country: Colombia. I estimate the social effects of human capital agglomeration by comparing employment opportunities of individuals located in urban areas in which the level of education differs. Results show that employment opportunities are higher on average in skilled urban areas. Three explanations have been offered: human capital externalities, prod...

  18. A multilevel analysis to explain self-reported adverse health effects and adaptation to urban heat: a cross-sectional survey in the deprived areas of 9 Canadian cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bélanger, Diane; Abdous, Belkacem; Valois, Pierre; Gosselin, Pierre; Sidi, Elhadji A Laouan

    2016-02-12

    This study identifies the characteristics and perceptions related to the individual, the dwelling and the neighbourhood of residence associated with the prevalence of self-reported adverse health impacts and an adaptation index when it is very hot and humid in summer in the most disadvantaged sectors of the nine most populous cities of Québec, Canada, in 2011. The study uses a cross-sectional design and a stratified representative sample; 3485 people (individual-level) were interviewed in their residence. They lived in 1647 buildings (building-level) in 87 most materially and socially disadvantaged census dissemination areas (DA-level). Multilevel analysis was used to perform 3-level models nested one in the other to examine individual impacts as well as the adaptation index. For the prevalence of impacts, which is 46 %, the logistic model includes 13 individual-level indicators (including air conditioning and the adaptation index) and 1 building-level indicator. For the adaptation index, with values ranging from -3 to +3, the linear model has 10 individual-level indicators, 1 building-level indicator and 2 DA-level indicators. Of all these indicators, 9 were associated to the prevalence of impacts only and 8 to the adaptation index only. This 3-level analysis shows the differential importance of the characteristics of residents, buildings and their surroundings on self-reported adverse health impacts and on adaptation (other than air conditioning) under hot and humid summer conditions. It also identifies indicators specific to impacts or adaptation. People with negative health impacts from heat rely more on adaptation strategies while low physical activity and good dwelling/building insulation lead to lower adaptation. Better neighbourhood walkability favors adaptations other than air conditioning. Thus, adaptation to heat in these neighbourhoods seems reactive rather than preventive. These first multi-level insights pave the way for the development of a

  19. A multilevel analysis to explain self-reported adverse health effects and adaptation to urban heat: a cross-sectional survey in the deprived areas of 9 Canadian cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Bélanger

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study identifies the characteristics and perceptions related to the individual, the dwelling and the neighbourhood of residence associated with the prevalence of self-reported adverse health impacts and an adaptation index when it is very hot and humid in summer in the most disadvantaged sectors of the nine most populous cities of Québec, Canada, in 2011. Methods The study uses a cross-sectional design and a stratified representative sample; 3485 people (individual-level were interviewed in their residence. They lived in 1647 buildings (building-level in 87 most materially and socially disadvantaged census dissemination areas (DA-level. Multilevel analysis was used to perform 3-level models nested one in the other to examine individual impacts as well as the adaptation index. Results For the prevalence of impacts, which is 46 %, the logistic model includes 13 individual-level indicators (including air conditioning and the adaptation index and 1 building-level indicator. For the adaptation index, with values ranging from -3 to +3, the linear model has 10 individual-level indicators, 1 building-level indicator and 2 DA-level indicators. Of all these indicators, 9 were associated to the prevalence of impacts only and 8 to the adaptation index only. Conclusion This 3-level analysis shows the differential importance of the characteristics of residents, buildings and their surroundings on self-reported adverse health impacts and on adaptation (other than air conditioning under hot and humid summer conditions. It also identifies indicators specific to impacts or adaptation. People with negative health impacts from heat rely more on adaptation strategies while low physical activity and good dwelling/building insulation lead to lower adaptation. Better neighbourhood walkability favors adaptations other than air conditioning. Thus, adaptation to heat in these neighbourhoods seems reactive rather than preventive. These first multi

  20. Common mental disorders, neighbourhood income inequality and income deprivation: small-area multilevel analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fone, David; Greene, Giles; Farewell, Daniel; White, James; Kelly, Mark; Dunstan, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Background Common mental disorders are more prevalent in areas of high neighbourhood socioeconomic deprivation but whether the prevalence varies with neighbourhood income inequality is not known. Aims To investigate the hypothesis that the interaction between small-area income deprivation and income inequality was associated with individual mental health. Method Multilevel analysis of population data from the Welsh Health Survey, 2003/04–2010. A total of 88 623 respondents aged 18–74 years were nested within 50 587 households within 1887 lower super output areas (neighbourhoods) and 22 unitary authorities (regions), linked to the Gini coefficient (income inequality) and the per cent of households living in poverty (income deprivation). Mental health was measured using the Mental Health Inventory MHI-5 as a discrete variable and as a ‘case’ of common mental disorder. Results High neighbourhood income inequality was associated with better mental health in low-deprivation neighbourhoods after adjusting for individual and household risk factors (parameter estimate +0.70 (s.e. = 0.33), P = 0.036; odds ratio (OR) for common mental disorder case 0.92, 95% CI 0.88–0.97). Income inequality at regional level was significantly associated with poorer mental health (parameter estimate -1.35 (s.e. = 0.54), P = 0.012; OR = 1.13, 95% CI 1.04–1.22). Conclusions The associations between common mental disorders, income inequality and income deprivation are complex. Income inequality at neighbourhood level is less important than income deprivation as a risk factor for common mental disorders. The adverse effect of income inequality starts to operate at the larger regional level. PMID:23470284

  1. Reacting to Poverty: A Comparative Analysis of Schools in Brazilian Deprived Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarabini, Aina; Bonal, Xavier; Valiente, Oscar

    2014-01-01

    Schools in the most deprived areas in Brazil are marked by extreme poverty, a situation that has obvious consequences for the everyday life in schools and for efforts to develop a supportive culture of schooling. Nevertheless, schools' responses to poverty are far from uniform. Although the context of poverty generally determines what is possible…

  2. Caries experience in a child population in a deprived area of Brazil, using ICDAS II.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amorim, R.G. de; Figueiredo, M.J.; Leal, S.C.; Mulder, J.; Frencken, J.E.F.M.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the caries experience of children aged 6 to 7 years old in a socially deprived suburban area of Brazil's Federal District, using the ICDAS II system and to investigate determinants of dental caries. The survey was carried out in six public schools by three

  3. Reacting to poverty: A comparative analysis of schools in Brazilian deprived areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tarabini, A.; Bonal, X.; Valiente, O.

    2014-01-01

    Schools in the most deprived areas in Brazil are marked by extreme poverty, a situation that has obvious consequences for the everyday life in schools and for efforts to develop a supportive culture of schooling. Nevertheless, schools’ responses to poverty are far from uniform. Although the context

  4. Sleep deprivation causes memory deficits by negatively impacting neuronal connectivity in hippocampal area CA1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havekes, Robbert; Park, Alan J; Tudor, Jennifer C; Luczak, Vincent G; Hansen, Rolf T; Ferri, Sarah L; Bruinenberg, Vibeke M; Poplawski, Shane G; Day, Jonathan P; Aton, Sara J; Radwańska, Kasia; Meerlo, Peter; Houslay, Miles D; Baillie, George S; Abel, Ted

    2016-01-01

    Brief periods of sleep loss have long-lasting consequences such as impaired memory consolidation. Structural changes in synaptic connectivity have been proposed as a substrate of memory storage. Here, we examine the impact of brief periods of sleep deprivation on dendritic structure. In mice, we find that five hours of sleep deprivation decreases dendritic spine numbers selectively in hippocampal area CA1 and increased activity of the filamentous actin severing protein cofilin. Recovery sleep normalizes these structural alterations. Suppression of cofilin function prevents spine loss, deficits in hippocampal synaptic plasticity, and impairments in long-term memory caused by sleep deprivation. The elevated cofilin activity is caused by cAMP-degrading phosphodiesterase-4A5 (PDE4A5), which hampers cAMP-PKA-LIMK signaling. Attenuating PDE4A5 function prevents changes in cAMP-PKA-LIMK-cofilin signaling and cognitive deficits associated with sleep deprivation. Our work demonstrates the necessity of an intact cAMP-PDE4-PKA-LIMK-cofilin activation-signaling pathway for sleep deprivation-induced memory disruption and reduction in hippocampal spine density. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13424.001 PMID:27549340

  5. Sleep deprivation causes memory deficits by negatively impacting neuronal connectivity in hippocampal area CA1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havekes, Robbert; Park, Alan J; Tudor, Jennifer C; Luczak, Vincent G; Hansen, Rolf T; Ferri, Sarah L; Bruinenberg, Vibeke M; Poplawski, Shane G; Day, Jonathan P; Aton, Sara J; Radwańska, Kasia; Meerlo, Peter; Houslay, Miles D; Baillie, George S; Abel, Ted

    2016-08-23

    Brief periods of sleep loss have long-lasting consequences such as impaired memory consolidation. Structural changes in synaptic connectivity have been proposed as a substrate of memory storage. Here, we examine the impact of brief periods of sleep deprivation on dendritic structure. In mice, we find that five hours of sleep deprivation decreases dendritic spine numbers selectively in hippocampal area CA1 and increased activity of the filamentous actin severing protein cofilin. Recovery sleep normalizes these structural alterations. Suppression of cofilin function prevents spine loss, deficits in hippocampal synaptic plasticity, and impairments in long-term memory caused by sleep deprivation. The elevated cofilin activity is caused by cAMP-degrading phosphodiesterase-4A5 (PDE4A5), which hampers cAMP-PKA-LIMK signaling. Attenuating PDE4A5 function prevents changes in cAMP-PKA-LIMK-cofilin signaling and cognitive deficits associated with sleep deprivation. Our work demonstrates the necessity of an intact cAMP-PDE4-PKA-LIMK-cofilin activation-signaling pathway for sleep deprivation-induced memory disruption and reduction in hippocampal spine density.

  6. Ways of Increasing Property Values in Degraded Urban Areas: Projects Implemented in Pécs, Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éva Szabó

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Property prices are extremely low in extensive degraded urban areas. Enhancing property values in these areas is a foremost concern for both property owners and for the town as a whole. The aim is to transform isolated, disadvantaged urban areas; to increase property prices so that they reach the level of average property prices in the town, thus giving way to the development and revitalization of these deprived neighborhoods. The paper will describe the urban areas in question (housing estates, industrial areas, underused urban areas and the methods used by the local government. They include strategically located important public buildings, renewing public spaces and parks, regenerating derelict industrial sites. Most of these projects have been implemented within the Pécs 2010 European Capital of Culture programs.

  7. Rural areas under urban pressure in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overbeek, M.M.M.

    2009-01-01

    In this Introduction paper, I will describe the motivation behind this special issue on the role of rural-urban relationships in preserving the rural landscape in Europe. Based on the RURBAN project 'Building new relationships in rural areas under urban pressure', the special issue aims to identify

  8. Geospatial intelligence about urban areas using SAR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, A.C. van den; Dekker, R.J.

    2007-01-01

    Radar satellites are important for geospatial intelligence about urban areas and urban situational awareness, since these satellites can collect data at day and night and independently of weather conditions ensuring that the information can be obtained at regular intervals and in time. For this

  9. Association of proximity to polluting industries, deprivation and mortality in small areas of the Basque Country (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambra, Koldo; Martínez-Rueda, Teresa; Alonso-Fustel, Eva; Cirarda, Francisco B; Audicana, Covadonga; Esnaola, Santiago; Ibáñez, Berta

    2013-02-01

    The study is aimed at assessing social inequities in the location of polluting industries in the Basque Country, and at exploring if the effect on mortality of living near air polluting industries is modified by economic deprivation. This is a cross-sectional ecological study that uses the census sections as analysis units. Mortality from all causes, lung cancer, respiratory diseases and ischaemic heart disease were studied. Ordinal logistic regression models were fitted to assess if proximity of census sections to polluting industries is associated with deprivation. Bayesian Poisson regression models were used to explore if the association between proximity to polluting industries and mortality is modified by socio-economic deprivation. Proximity to a polluting industry and deprivation are positively associated, showing a clear gradient across deprivation quintiles. In women, the risk associated with proximity to metal-processing industries grows as the deprivation of the area increases in the case of total and lung cancer mortality. In men, the interaction terms between proximity and deprivation are positive for total, ischaemic heart disease mortality, with a credibility level approaching 90%. High levels of deprivation are associated with greater risk of mortality, excepting lung cancer in women. There is a higher proportion of more deprived census sections around polluting industries in the Basque Country. Risks of mortality associated with proximity to polluting industries tend to be higher in more deprived areas.

  10. Urban Agriculture: Search for Agricultural Practice in Urbanized Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celile Özçiçek Dölekoğlu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Rapid urbanization in developing countries involves unplanned migration, unemployment and poverty. The steady shrinking of rural areas and the use of agricultural land for other purposes are progressively increasing the pressure on natural resources. This development on the one hand increases the risk to food security, and on the other triggers climate change. The rural population who migrate to the cities or who are absorbed into urban areas continue their agricultural activities in the urban in order to provide themselves with an income or to maintain their food security. In the big cities of the developed world, contact with nature is kept by means of hobby gardens, recreational areas and urban and suburban plant and animal farming, and creative ideas such as roof gardens can be found. This development, known as urban agriculture, is practiced by 800 million people in the world. Urban agriculture has many economic, social and environmental benefits, but it may also have risks and adverse effects. In this study, the developments in this area in Turkey and the world are presented, and all aspects of its effects and outcomes are discussed.

  11. The longitudinal effects of neighbourhood social and material deprivation change on psychological distress in urban, community-dwelling Canadian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, A; Gariépy, G; Schmitz, N

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess how longitudinal changes in neighbourhood material and social deprivation affect distress outcomes in adult Canadians. This study used a prospective cohort approach. We paired data from 2745 urban participants of Canada's National Population Health Survey-who completed the Kessler 6-Item psychological distress screening tool at baseline and follow-up-with neighbourhood social and material deprivation data from the census-based Pampalon Deprivation Index. Data were paired using participants' postal code. We conducted multiple linear regression models, which were stratified by baseline deprivation level and controlled for key confounders. Most participants lived in neighbourhoods that did not change drastically in social or material deprivation level during the six years between baseline and follow-up. We found that a worsening of material settings was significantly associated with worsening distress scores at follow-up. This finding is discussed in the context of existing literature, and made relevant for urban health research and policy. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Entrepreneurship within Urban and Rural Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freire-Gibb, L. Carlos; Nielsen, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    , utilizing responses from 1,108 entrepreneurs and 420 non-entrepreneurs. Creativity is only found to be relevant for start-up in urban areas, but it does not influence survival in any of the two areas. The social network matters, in particular in rural areas. By combining the person and the environment......The entrepreneurial dynamics of urban and rural areas are different, and this paper explores creativity and social networks factors in both places. The probabilities of becoming an entrepreneur and of surviving are analyzed. The results are based on longitudinal data combined with a questionnaire......, common entrepreneurship beliefs can be questioned and entrepreneurship theory benefited....

  13. Out-of-home food outlets and area deprivation: case study in Glasgow, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cummins Steven

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a popular belief that out-of-home eating outlets, which typically serve energy dense food, may be more commonly found in more deprived areas and that this may contribute to higher rates of obesity and related diseases in such areas. Methods We obtained a list of all 1301 out-of-home eating outlets in Glasgow, UK, in 2003 and mapped these at unit postcode level. We categorised them into quintiles of area deprivation using the 2004 Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation and computed mean density of types of outlet (restaurants, fast food restaurants, cafes and takeaways, and all types combined, per 1000 population. We also estimated odds ratios for the presence of any outlets in small areas within the quintiles. Results The density of outlets, and the likelihood of having any outlets, was highest in the second most affluent quintile (Q2 and lowest in the second most deprived quintile (Q4. Mean outlets per 1,000 were 4.02 in Q2, 1.20 in Q4 and 2.03 in Q5. With Q2 as the reference, Odds Ratios for having any outlets were 0.52 (CI 0.32–0.84 in Q1, 0.50 (CI 0.31 – 0.80 in Q4 and 0.61 (CI 0.38 – 0.98 in Q5. Outlets were located in the City Centre, West End, and along arterial roads. Conclusion In Glasgow those living in poorer areas are not more likely to be exposed to out-of-home eating outlets in their neighbourhoods. Health improvement policies need to be based on empirical evidence about the location of fast food outlets in specific national and local contexts, rather than on popular 'factoids'.

  14. Are area-based initiatives able to improve area safety in deprived areas? A quasi-experimental evaluation of the Dutch District Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, Daniëlle; Jongeneel-Grimen, Birthe; Stronks, Karien; Droomers, Mariël; Kunst, Anton E.

    2015-01-01

    Numerous area-based initiatives have been implemented in deprived areas across Western-Europe with the aim to improve the socio-economic and environmental conditions in these areas. Only few of these initiatives have been scientifically evaluated for their impact on key social determinants of

  15. Can Geographic Bridging Social Capital Improve the Health of People Who Live in Deprived Urban Neighborhoods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang-O; Cho, Byong-Hee

    2016-10-01

    The growing number of people living in deprived urban neighborhoods, which often have unhealthy environments, is of growing concern to inequality researchers. Social capital could be a resource to help such communities get ahead. In this study, we examined the differential effects of bonding and bridging social capital on self-rated health using two operational definitions, which we call personal and geographic social capital. Bonding and bridging social capital were operationally distinguished as respondents' perceived similarity to other members of a group with respect to personal characteristics (personal social capital) or as structural similarity with respect to geographical location (geographic social capital). The results showed that although both bonding and bridging social capital as defined by person-based criteria were associated with increased odds of self-rated health compared to those who reported zero participation, when defined by place-based criteria, only bridging social capital was associated with increased odds of self-rated health; no clear association was found between health and belonging to groups within the neighborhood, so-called geographic bonding social capital. The present study suggests that geographic bridging social capital can function as linking social capital that enables an upward approach depending on the political and economic contexts of urbanization. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Radioactive waste management of urban area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Z.; Gu, S.X.

    1993-01-01

    The several years experience of radioactive waste management in Shanghai of China shows that the centralized management is quite successful and effective. Rad waste generated in urban area would be treated with further concern in the respect of radiation and environmental protection. In this respect, there is a need for a professional organisation to undertake the necessary regulation, and demonstrate that high standards of design, planning, management and operation could be met. The experience in China is suitable to manage and dispose rad waste generated from the civil applications in urban area, and valuable to the developing country and area in particular. It is concluded that the centralized management of intermediate level and low level radioactive waste is an optimum choice for urban area

  17. Improving the environment in urban areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamkus, V.V.

    1994-12-31

    The author discusses the need for improvements to the environment in urban areas, and efforts being made under the direction of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to address these problems. The impact the new Clean Air Act can have on emissions from gasoline powered autos, diesel burning trucks, fixed emission sources ranging from utilities to chemical plants, and consumer products like hair sprays and charcoal starters, will all work together to improve air quality in urban areas. The author also discusses Brownfields Economic Redevelopment Plan efforts being supported by the EPA in a coordinated plan to get municipalities involved in cleaning up areas with pollution, to remove the blight on the urban areas, provide new land for development, and promote additional jobs.

  18. Harmful organisms in urban green areas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hanousková, Irena; Boháč, Jaroslav; Sedláček, František; Šerá, Božena; Lepšová, A.; Zacharda, Miloslav

    -, č. 23 (2004), s. 58-68 ISSN 1335-342X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) OC C11.001 Grant - others:ÚEK AV ČR(CZ) OC C11.001 Program:OC Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6087904 Keywords : urban green areas, harmful organisms, management, * planning Subject RIV: AP - Urban, Regional and Transport Planning

  19. Understanding Relationships between Health, Ethnicity, Place and the Role of Urban Green Space in Deprived Urban Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, Jenny; Aspinall, Peter A.; Ward Thompson, Catharine

    2016-01-01

    Very little is known about how differences in use and perceptions of urban green space impact on the general health of black and minority ethnic (BME) groups. BME groups in the UK suffer from poorer health and a wide range of environmental inequalities that include poorer access to urban green space and poorer quality of green space provision. This study used a household questionnaire (n = 523) to explore the relationship between general health and a range of individual, social and physical environmental predictors in deprived white British and BME groups living in ethnically diverse cities in England. Results from Chi-Squared Automatic Interaction Detection (CHAID) segmentation analyses identified three distinct general health segments in our sample ranging from “very good” health (people of Indian origin), to ”good” health (white British), and ”poor” health (people of African-Caribbean, Bangladeshi, Pakistani origin and other BME groups), labelled ”Mixed BME” in the analyses. Correlated Component Regression analyses explored predictors of general health for each group. Common predictors of general health across all groups were age, disability, and levels of physical activity. However, social and environmental predictors of general health-including use and perceptions of urban green space-varied among the three groups. For white British people, social characteristics of place (i.e., place belonging, levels of neighbourhood trust, loneliness) ranked most highly as predictors of general health, whilst the quality of, access to and the use of urban green space was a significant predictor of general health for the poorest health group only, i.e., in ”Mixed BME”. Results are discussed from the perspective of differences in use and perceptions of urban green space amongst ethnic groups. We conclude that health and recreation policy in the UK needs to give greater attention to the provision of local green space amongst poor BME communities since this

  20. "So, is that your 'relative' or mine?" A political-ecological critique of census-based area deprivation indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Mengzhu; Exeter, Daniel J; Anderson, Anneka

    2015-10-01

    Census-based deprivation indices have been widely used in Aotearoa/New Zealand, Canada and UK to measure area-based socio-economic inequalities. This paper examines the indicators used in census-based area deprivation indices using a political ecology approach. We question whether the current indicators of deprivation derived from census data are meaningful for the all age groups and minority groups in the population, with a particular focus on deprivation indicators used in New Zealand, Canada and the United Kingdom. We comparatively reviewed methodological papers and reports that describe the indicators of deprivation in Aotearoa/New Zealand, Canada and the UK from 1975 to 2014. We consider the relationship between the notion of standards of living and measurements of deprivation and explore how hegemonic cultural constructs are implicit in measures of deprivation that privilege a Eurocentric, ageist and gender normative construction of statistics. We argue for more political ecological analyses to studying the relationship between social inequalities, geographies, health inequities and political economy to transform structures of oppression and inequality. This requires turning the analytical gaze on the wealthy and privileged instead of defaulting into deficit models to account for inequality. Studies of deprivation and inequality would benefit from understanding the processes and operations of power in the (re)production of socio-economic and health inequities to inform holistic strategies for social justice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Ischaemic manifestations in giant cell arteritis are associated with area level socio-economic deprivation, but not cardiovascular risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackie, Sarah L; Dasgupta, Bhaskar; Hordon, Lesley; Gough, Andrew; Green, Michael; Hollywood, Jane; Dutta, Shouma; Bejarano, Victoria; Jarrett, Stephen; Morgan, Ann W; Pease, Colin T

    2011-11-01

    To determine whether ischaemic manifestations of GCA are associated with pre-existing hypertension, atherosclerosis or area-level socio-economic deprivation. We conducted an observational study of rheumatologist/ophthalmologist-diagnosed GCA in eight UK centres. The main outcome measure was ischaemic manifestations observed during active GCA: visual loss/blurring, aura, diplopia, jaw/tongue/limb claudication, cerebral/myocardial ischaemia or scalp necrosis. Out of 271 patients, 222 had ischaemic manifestations. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for the influence of hypertension and atherosclerosis were 1.6 (95% CI 0.8, 3.1) and 1.5 (0.6, 3.5). The most striking finding was an association of ischaemic manifestations with increasing Index of Deprivation 2007 score: OR 4.2 (95% CI 1.3, 13.6) for the most-deprived quartile compared with the least-deprived quartile. Similar effect sizes were seen within each recruitment centre. Deprivation was associated with smoking and negatively associated with previous polymyalgia. However, neither of these variables, nor hypertension or atherosclerosis, appeared responsible for mediating the effect of deprivation on ischaemic complications. Smoking was not associated with ischaemic manifestations. Median symptom duration before treatment was 30 days; after adjusting for symptom duration, the OR for ischaemic complications was 3.2 (95% CI 1.0, 10.8) for the most-deprived quartile compared with the least-deprived quartile. In GCA, area-level socio-economic deprivation was associated with ischaemic manifestations: this was not mediated by traditional cardiovascular risk factors. These findings are novel and require replication. Delay between first symptoms and treatment may play a role. Public awareness campaigns about GCA should aim especially to engage individuals living in more deprived areas to encourage early presentation and prompt treatment.

  2. Improving aerosol retrieval over urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picón, A. J.; Wu, Y.; Gross, B.; Moshary, F.; Ahmed, S. A.

    2010-12-01

    Aerosol retrieval over urban areas is complicated since surface models in the operational algorithms are based on vegetation models such as the case of MODIS. To improve satellite retrieval of aerosols in urban areas, we use simultaneous AERONET radiometer and MODIS measurements in combination to refine surface albedo models. Refined surface models have been implemented for NYC and Mexico City demonstrating significant improvement in AOD in terms of accuracy and spatial resolution. Based on these direct retrievals of the surface reflection for the MODIS Land Aerosol Bands, we were able to show that current parameterizations of the surface as a function of the Modified Vegetation Index are not in good agreement either quantitatively or qualitatively. Further comparisons in other urban areas (eg. Beijing) show that for cases with surface reflectance ratios sufficiently high at the AERONET site, similar over biases can be observed. On the other hand, other cities such as Kanpur, Buenos Aires and Rome do not show any significant bias which can be traced to the fact that these sites are located in regions with less urban surface correlations. Further comparisons in these urban centers are also made with other satellites aerosol retrievals such as POLDER, MISR and OMI.

  3. Assessing the impact of area-based initiatives in deprived neighborhoods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alves, Sonia

    2017-01-01

    households and those who remain in these areas. By presenting the results of an empirical in-depth case study on the effects of an area based initiative targeted at one of the most deprived neighborhoods in Porto, this paper raises several epistemological concerns related to the goals, ideological...... assumptions, and social and spatial effects of these initiatives. Among other inter-related issues, the paper discusses the impact of conflicting ideologies upon processes of radical strategy shift and of social and territorial marginalization, and appeals to the need for more pluralistic approaches...

  4. Surface moisture estimation in urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yitong

    Surface moisture is an important parameter because it modifies urban microclimate and surface layer meteorology. The primary objectives of this paper are: 1) to analyze the impact of surface roughness from buildings on surface moisture in urban areas; and 2) to quantify the impact of surface roughness resulting from urban trees on surface moisture. To achieve the objectives, two hypotheses were tested: 1) the distribution of surface moisture is associated with the structural complexity of buildings in urban areas; and 2) The distribution and change of surface moisture is associated with the distribution and vigor of urban trees. The study area is Indianapolis, Indiana, USA. In the part of the morphology of urban trees, Warren Township was selected due to the limitation of tree inventory data. To test the hypotheses, the research design was made to extract the aerodynamic parameters, such as frontal areas, roughness length and displacement height of buildings and trees from Terrestrial and Airborne LiDAR data, then to input the aerodynamic parameters into the urban surface energy balance model. The methodology was developed for comparing the impact of aerodynamic parameters from LiDAR data with the parameters that were derived empirically from land use and land cover data. The analytical procedures are discussed below: 1) to capture the spatial and temporal variation of surface moisture, daily and hourly Land Surface Temperature (LST) were downscaled from 4 km to 1 km, and 960 m to 30 m, respectively, by regression between LST and various components that impact LST; 2) to estimate surface moisture, namely soil moisture and evapotranspiration (ET), land surfaces were classified into soil, vegetation, and impervious surfaces, using Linear Spectral Mixture Analysis (LSMA); 3) aerodynamic parameters of buildings and trees were extracted from Airborne and Terrestrial LiDAR data; 4) the Temperature-Vegetation-Index (TVX) method, and the Two-Source-Energy-Balance (TSEB

  5. Mining Mineral Aggregates in Urban Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Robert D.

    This study can be used in a geographic research methods course to show how nearest-neighbor analysis and regression analysis can be used to study various aspects of land use. An analysis of the sand, gravel, and crushed stone industry in three urban areas of Pennsylvania, Massachusetts, and Florida illustrates the locational problems faced by…

  6. Assessing emergency situations and their aftermath in urban areas: The EMRAS II Urban Areas Working Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thiessen, K.M.; Andersson, Kasper Grann; Berkovskyy, V.

    2011-01-01

    The Urban Areas Working Group is part of the International Atomic Energy Agency’s EMRAS II (Environmental Modelling for Radiation Safety) Programme. The goal of this Working Group is to test and improve the capabilities of models used in assessment of radioactive contamination in urban settings, ...

  7. Area deprivation and its association with health in a cross-sectional study: are the results biased by recent migration?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piro Fredrik

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The association between area deprivation and health has mostly been examined in cross-sectional studies or prospective studies with short follow-up. These studies have rarely taken migration into account. This is a possible source of misclassification of exposure, i.e. an unknown number of study participants are attributed an exposure of area deprivation that they may have experienced too short for it to have any influence. The aim of this article was to examine to what extent associations between area deprivation and health outcomes were biased by recent migration. Methods Based on data from the Oslo Health Study, a cross-sectional study conducted in 2000 in Oslo, Norway, we used six health outcomes (self rated health, mental health, coronary heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, smoking and exercise and considered migration nine years prior to the study conduct. Migration into Oslo, between the areas of Oslo, and the changes in area deprivation during the period were taken into account. Associations were investigated by multilevel logistic regression analyses. Results After adjustment for individual socio-demographic variables we found significant associations between area deprivation and all health outcomes. Accounting for migration into Oslo and between areas of Oslo did not change these associations much. However, the people who migrated into Oslo were younger and had lower prevalences of unfavourable health outcomes than those who were already living in Oslo. But since they were evenly distributed across the area deprivation quintiles, they had little influence on the associations between area deprivation and health. Evidence of selective migration within Oslo was weak, as both moving up and down in the deprivation hierarchy was associated with significantly worse health than not moving. Conclusion We have documented significant associations between area deprivation and health outcomes in Oslo after

  8. Radioecological studies in Goiania urban area: review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rio, Monica Pires do; Amaral, Eliana

    1997-01-01

    Studies on the behaviour and transport of 137 Cs in urban areas, including, resuspension and deposition experiments, 137 Cs uptake by leafy vegetables and small domestic animals that accidentally ingested contaminated soil, were performed in a house located at 57 t h Street near the main focus of contamination. The resuspension of surface soil did not contribute much to the spreading of the radionuclide in Goiania, but can lead to the local contamination of vegetables, equipment, structures and other environmental surfaces. The mechanism also presented a seasonal effect. The soil is an important medium for the uptake of 137 Cs by small domestic animals. The street dust sampling is a suitable method to assess the dispersion of 137 Cs in urban areas. After 10 years, the radionuclide activity concentration is restricted only to the initially impacted area an it is decreasing with time. (author)

  9. Management of Traffic Congestion in Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilibald Premzl

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of road vehicles is increasing, the benefits they affordhave been progressively diminished by external costs.Whereas traffic increases as we approach the centre, the roadand open space decreases. The greater specialisation allows thecity growth in size and in traffic attraction. In this way urbangrowth feeds itself !mer-urban transp011 facilities also becomemore extensive. Growth in size of the city generates greateramounts of traffic and can eventually give rise to agglomerationdiseconomies. Higher transport costs, offices and shops, attractedby the accessibility of central locations, gradually replaceresidential uses, people being forced to seek housing inthe suburbs. As the urban area expands and offices in the citycentre are built denser and highe1; traffic congestion increases.This may result in the fall in centra/land values, since accessibilitydiminishes with the saturation of transport network. Increasedpollution takes various forms as noise, smoke andovercrowded housing in the centre, urban decay in the transitionalzone as commercial development is anticipated.

  10. Census 2000 Urbanized Areas (CEN00UA02_2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — For Census 2000, the Census Bureau classifies as 'urban' all territory, population, and housing units located within an urbanized area (UA) or an urban cluster (UC)....

  11. Census 2000 Urbanized Areas (CEN00UA02_2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — For Census 2000, the Census Bureau classifies as 'urban' all territory, population, and housing units located within an urbanized area (UA) or an urban cluster (UC)....

  12. Post-Harbour Areas - New Urban Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowacka-Rejzner, Urszula

    2015-12-01

    In the article on selected examples one illustrated the different solutions for shaping post-harbour areas. One highlighted the complexity and longevity of activities conducted in these areas, which include both: the modernization of building structures, shaping of new functional and spatial interactions, reproduction of natural resources, protection and sharing of preserved buildings and complexes of cultural heritage, but also well balanced management of transformed area. The basis for conducted deliberations constitute studies and field studies concerning the development of urban structures, conducted for many years by the author.

  13. Phytoremediative urban design: transforming a derelict and polluted harbour area into a green and productive neighbourhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilschut, M; Theuws, P A W; Duchhart, I

    2013-12-01

    Many urban areas are polluted by industrial activities and waste disposal in landfills. Since conventional soil remediation techniques are costly and unsustainable, phytoremediation might offer an alternative. In this article, we explore how phytoremediation can be integrated into the transformation of urban post-industrial areas, while improving public space. Buiksloterham, a polluted and deprived industrial area in Amsterdam, serves as case study. Buiksloterham is polluted with heavy metals, with Zinc (Zn) concentrations being the highest. A regression-model for Alpine Pennycress (Thlaspi caerulescens) is used to estimate the time needed to remediate the site. This reveals a conflict in time between remediation and urban development. A research by design experiment shows how to overcome this conflict by dealing with polluted soil innovatively while emphasizing spatial and aesthetic qualities of the phytoremediation plant species. The resulting landscape framework integrates phytoremediation with biomass production and gives new ecological, economic and social value to Buiksloterham. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The impact of area-based initiatives on physical activity trends in deprived areas; a quasi-experimental evaluation of the Dutch District Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Daniëlle; Droomers, Mariël; Jongeneel-Grimen, Birthe; Wingen, Marleen; Stronks, Karien; Kunst, Anton E

    2014-03-11

    Numerous area-based initiatives (ABIs) have been implemented in deprived neighbourhoods across Europe. These large-scale initiatives aim to tackle the socio-economic and environmental problems in these areas that might influence physical activity (PA). There is little robust evidence of their impact on PA. This study aimed to assess the impact of a Dutch ABI called the District Approach on trends in leisure-time PA in deprived districts. Repeated cross-sectional data on 48401 adults across the Netherlands were obtained from the Integrated Survey on Household Living Conditions (POLS) 2004-2011. 1517 of these adults resided in deprived target districts and 46884 adults resided elsewhere in the Netherlands. In a quasi-experimental interrupted time-series design, multilevel logistic regression analyses were performed to assess trends in leisure-time walking, cycling, and sports before and during the intervention. Trends in deprived target districts were compared with trends in various control groups. The role of the intensity of environmental interventions was also assessed. Deprived target districts showed a significantly positive change in walking trend between the pre-intervention and intervention period. The trend change in the deprived target districts was significantly larger compared to the rest of the Netherlands, but not compared to other deprived districts. For cycling and sports, neither deprived districts nor control districts showed a significant trend change. For all leisure-time PA outcomes, trend changes were not related to the intensity of environmental interventions in the deprived target districts. Some evidence was found to suggest that ABIs like the District Approach have a positive impact on leisure-time PA in deprived districts, regardless of the intensity of environmental interventions.

  15. Elderly from lower socioeconomic groups are more vulnerable to mental health problems, but area deprivation does not contribute: A comparison between Slovak and Dutch cities

    OpenAIRE

    Behanova, Martina; Katreniakova, Zuzana; Nagyova, Iveta; van Ameijden, Erik J. C.; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about factors associated with mental health problems (MHP) of the elderly in socioeconomically deprived neighbourhoods, and comparisons between Central European and Western European countries on this topic are lacking. We examined whether MHP occurred more frequently in deprived neighbourhoods and among deprived people. Next, we examined whether the association of MHP with area deprivation differed by country and whether this could be explained by the socioeconomic...

  16. Are area-based initiatives able to improve area safety in deprived areas? A quasi-experimental evaluation of the Dutch District Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Daniëlle; Jongeneel-Grimen, Birthe; Stronks, Karien; Droomers, Mariël; Kunst, Anton E

    2015-07-28

    Numerous area-based initiatives have been implemented in deprived areas across Western-Europe with the aim to improve the socio-economic and environmental conditions in these areas. Only few of these initiatives have been scientifically evaluated for their impact on key social determinants of health, like perceived area safety. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the impact of a Dutch area-based initiative called the District Approach on trends in perceived area safety and underlying problems in deprived target districts. A quasi-experimental design was used. Repeated cross-sectional data on perceived area safety and underlying problems were obtained from the National Safety Monitor (2005-2008) and its successor the Integrated Safety Monitor (2008-2011). Study population consisted of 133,522 Dutch adults, including 3,595 adults from target districts. Multilevel logistic regression analyses were performed to assess trends in self-reported general safety, physical order, social order, and non-victimization before and after the start of the District Approach mid-2008. Trends in target districts were compared with trends in various control groups. Residents of target districts felt less safe, perceived less physical and social order, and were victimized more often than adults elsewhere in the Netherlands. For non-victimization, target districts showed a somewhat more positive change in trend after the start of the District Approach than the rest of the Netherlands or other deprived districts. Differences were only statistically significant in women, older adults, and lower educated adults. For general safety, physical order, and social order, there were no differences in trend change between target districts and control groups. Results suggest that the District Approach has been unable to improve perceptions of area safety and disorder in deprived areas, but that it did result in declining victimization rates.

  17. Environmental conflicts in urban regeneration areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aunsborg, Christian; Sørensen, Michael Tophøj

    2006-01-01

    Older industrial- and harbor areas are undergoing dramatic transformations these years due to several alterations in some basic structures in society; e.g. globalization resulting in movingout of manpower intensive production to low pay regions, changes in the structure of transports resulting...... and at the same time protect the existing firms and their economy. The problem can pose a decisive barrier to the redevelopment of partly abandoned and worn-down urban areas – putting off an urgent revitalization to an indefinite future. The paper analyzes the problem through several cases. Furthermore...

  18. Relative importance of urbanicity, ethnicity and socioeconomic factors regarding area mortality differences.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijneveld, S.A.; Verheij, R.A.; Bakker, D.H. de

    1999-01-01

    A higher mortality rate in areas with increased socioeconomic deprivation has been found in many studies. Results are difficult to compare, however, because different indicators of area deprivation have been used. USA-based studies mostly use income to measure area deprivation, whereas UK-based

  19. Assessing emergency situations and their aftermath in urban areas: The EMRAS II Urban Areas Working Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thiessen, K.M.; Andersson, Kasper Grann; Berkovskyy, V.

    2011-01-01

    The Urban Areas Working Group is part of the International Atomic Energy Agency’s EMRAS II (Environmental Modelling for Radiation Safety) Programme. The goal of this Working Group is to test and improve the capabilities of models used in assessment of radioactive contamination in urban settings......, models, and parameter values used by different assessors. Preliminary conclusions emphasize the value of explaining individual approaches and the importance of understanding the effects of different assumptions and parameter values on the modeling results....

  20. Mitigating Stress and Supporting Health in Deprived Urban Communities: The Importance of Green Space and the Social Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward Thompson, Catharine; Aspinall, Peter; Roe, Jenny; Robertson, Lynette; Miller, David

    2016-04-22

    Environment-health research has shown significant relationships between the quantity of green space in deprived urban neighbourhoods and people's stress levels. The focus of this paper is the nature of access to green space (i.e., its quantity or use) necessary before any health benefit is found. It draws on a cross-sectional survey of 406 adults in four communities of high urban deprivation in Scotland, United Kingdom. Self-reported measures of stress and general health were primary outcomes; physical activity and social wellbeing were also measured. A comprehensive, objective measure of green space quantity around each participant's home was also used, alongside self-report measures of use of local green space. Correlated Component Regression identified the optimal predictors for primary outcome variables in the different communities surveyed. Social isolation and place belonging were the strongest predictors of stress in three out of four communities sampled, and of poor general health in the fourth, least healthy, community. The amount of green space in the neighbourhood, and in particular access to a garden or allotment, were significant predictors of stress. Physical activity, frequency of visits to green space in winter months, and views from the home were predictors of general health. The findings have implications for public health and for planning of green infrastructure, gardens and public open space in urban environments.

  1. Mitigating Stress and Supporting Health in Deprived Urban Communities: The Importance of Green Space and the Social Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward Thompson, Catharine; Aspinall, Peter; Roe, Jenny; Robertson, Lynette; Miller, David

    2016-01-01

    Environment-health research has shown significant relationships between the quantity of green space in deprived urban neighbourhoods and people’s stress levels. The focus of this paper is the nature of access to green space (i.e., its quantity or use) necessary before any health benefit is found. It draws on a cross-sectional survey of 406 adults in four communities of high urban deprivation in Scotland, United Kingdom. Self-reported measures of stress and general health were primary outcomes; physical activity and social wellbeing were also measured. A comprehensive, objective measure of green space quantity around each participant’s home was also used, alongside self-report measures of use of local green space. Correlated Component Regression identified the optimal predictors for primary outcome variables in the different communities surveyed. Social isolation and place belonging were the strongest predictors of stress in three out of four communities sampled, and of poor general health in the fourth, least healthy, community. The amount of green space in the neighbourhood, and in particular access to a garden or allotment, were significant predictors of stress. Physical activity, frequency of visits to green space in winter months, and views from the home were predictors of general health. The findings have implications for public health and for planning of green infrastructure, gardens and public open space in urban environments. PMID:27110803

  2. PM levels in urban area of Bejaia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benaissa, Fatima; Maesano, Cara Nichole; Alkama, Rezak; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella

    2017-04-01

    Air pollution is not routinely measured in Bejaia City, Algeria, an urban area of around 200,000 inhabitants. We present first time measurements of particulate matter (PM) mass concentrations for this city (PM10, PM7, PM4, PM2.5 and PM1) over the course of one week, from July 8 to July 14, 2015. This study covered eight urban sampling sites and 169 measurements were obtained to determine mass concentration levels. Air pollution is not routinely measured in Bejaia City, Algeria, an urban area of around 200,000 inhabitants. We present first time measurements of particulate matter (PM) mass concentrations for this city (PM10, PM7, PM4, PM2.5 and PM1) over the course of one week, from July 8 to July 14, 2015. This study covered eight urban sampling sites and 169 measurements were obtained to determine mass concentration levels. The average city-wide PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations measured during this sampling were 87.8 ± 33.9 and 28.7 ± 10.6 µg/m3 respectively. These results show that particulate matter levels are high and exceed Algerian ambient air quality standards (maximum 80 µg/m3, without specifying the particle size). Further, PM10 and PM2.5 averages were well above the prescribed 24-hour average World Health Organization Air Quality Guidelines (WHO AQG) (50 µg/m3 for PM10 and 25 µg/m3 for PM2.5). The PM1, PM2,5, PM4 and PM7 fractions accounted for 15%, 32 %, 56% and 78% respectively of the PM10 measurements. Our analysis reveals that PM concentration variations in the study region were influenced primarily by traffic. In fact, lower PM10 concentrations (21.7 and 33.1 µg/m3) were recorded in residential sites while higher values (53.1, and 45.2 µg/m3) were registered in city centers. Keywords: Particulate matter, Urban area, vehicle fleet, Bejaia.

  3. Racial Prejudice and Locational Equilibrium in an Urban Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yinger, John

    Racial prejudice is said to influence strongly the locational decisions of households in urban areas. This paper introduces racial prejudice into a model of an urban area and derives several results about residential location. A previously developed long-run model of an urban area adds a locational dimension to a model of the housing market under…

  4. Are health inequalities between differently deprived areas evident at different ages? A longitudinal study of census records in England and Wales, 1991-2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Paul; Boyle, Paul

    2014-03-01

    The notion that mortality inequalities between differently deprived areas vary by age is logical since not all causes of death increase in risk with age and not all causes of death are related to the gradient of deprivation. In addition to the cause-age and cause-deprivation relationships, population migration may redistribute the population such that the health-deprivation relationship varies by age. We calculate cross-sectional all cause mortality and self-reported limiting long-term illness (LLTI) rate ratios of most to least deprived areas to demonstrate inequalities at different ages. We use longitudinal data to investigate whether there are changes in the distribution of cohorts between differently deprived areas over time and whether gradients of LLTI with deprivation also change. We find similar deprivation inequalities by age for all cause mortality and self-reported health with less inequality for young adults and the elderly but the greatest inequalities during mid life. Over time there are systematic movements of cohorts between differently deprived areas and associated increases and decreases in the gradient of LLTI across deprivation. It seems likely that population migration does influence inequalities by age. Further work should investigate whether the situation exists for other morbidities and, to better inform public health policy, whether restricting summary measures of area health to ages between 30 and 60 when inequalities are greatest will highlight between area differences. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Urban Expansion and Loss of Agricultural Land in Uyo Urban Area ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Urban expansion in Uyo Urban Area was analyzed using aerial photographs taken from 1969 – 2001 which use was complemented with the Quick bird satellite imagery for 2004. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the urban expansion that had taken place in Uyo Urban Area over the periods of the study and to ...

  6. An Assessment of the Relationship between Urban Air Quality and Environmental Urban Factors in Urban Regeneration Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakup Egercioglu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Urban air pollution has been increasing due to ever increasing population, rapid urbanization, industrialization, energy usage, traffic density. The purpose of the study is to examine the relation between urban air quality and urban environmental factors in urban regeneration areas. Two common air polluters (SO2 and PM10 are considered in the study. The data are collected for Cigli district, including the level of air pollutants, the local natural gas service lines and planning decisions for the years between 2007 and 2011. According to the examinations, urban environmental factors and planning decisions affect the urban air quality in urban regeneration areas.

  7. The Educational and Employment Aspirations of Adolescents from Areas of High Deprivation in London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frostick, Caroline; Phillips, Gemma; Renton, Adrian; Moore, Derek

    2016-06-01

    Adolescents from areas of high deprivation are often assumed to have low aspirations for the future. However, recent research has suggested otherwise and there have been calls for more substantial investigation into the relationship between poverty and aspiration. This article reports levels and variation in aspiration from 1214 adolescents (49.5 % male; 50.5 % female) living in areas of high deprivation across 20 London boroughs. A strength of this study is our large and diverse population of low socio-economic status (SES) adolescents, comprising of white British (22 %), black African (21 %), black Caribbean (9 %), Indian/Pakistani/Bangladeshi/Other Asian (24 %), mixed ethnicity (9 %), and 15 % defining themselves as Other. Our measures indicated a high group level of reported aspiration with notable variations. Females reported higher educational (but not occupational) aspirations than males; white British students reported lower educational and occupational aspirations than other ethnic groups; and black African children reported the highest educational aspirations. Perceived parental support for education had the largest positive association with aspirations. In contrast to previous findings from studies carried out in the United States, aspirations were found to be negatively associated with perceptions of school and school peer environment. These measures explored feelings of safety, happiness and belonging within the school environment and school peer group. We discuss possible explanations for this unexpected finding within our population of adolescents from UK state schools and how it might affect future policy interventions. This study makes an important contribution to the literature on adolescent aspirations because of the unique nature of the data sample and the multiple domains of functioning and aspiration measured.

  8. Understanding the impact of area-based interventions on area safety in deprived areas: realist evaluation of a neighbour nuisance intervention in Arnhem, the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Daniëlle; Harting, Janneke; Kunst, Anton E

    2016-03-31

    Area-based health inequalities may partly be explained by higher levels of area disorder in deprived areas. Area disorder may cause safety concerns and hence impair health. This study assessed how, for whom and in what conditions the intervention Meeting for Care and Nuisance (MCN) had an impact on neighbour nuisance and area safety in four deprived districts in Arnhem, the Netherlands. Realist evaluation methodology was applied to uncover how, for whom, and under what conditions MCN was expected to and actually produced change. Expected change was based on action plans and scientific theories. Actual change was based on progress reports, media articles, interviews with district managers, and quantitative surveys. Three levels of impact were distinguished. At the organisational level, partly as expected, MCN's coordinated partnership strategy enabled role alignment, communication, and leadership. This resulted in a more efficient approach of nuisance households. At the level of nuisance households, as expected, MCN's joint assistance and enforcement strategy removed many of the underlying reasons for nuisance. This resulted in less neighbour nuisance. At the district level, perceptions of social control and area safety improved only in one district. Key conditions for change included a wider safety approach, dense population, and central location of the district within the city. This realist evaluation provided insight into the mechanisms by which a complex area-based intervention was able to reduce neighbour nuisance in deprived areas. Depending on wider conditions, such a reduction in neighbour nuisance may or may not lead to improved perceptions of area safety at the district level.

  9. Homeowner interactions with residential trees in urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana Dilley; Kathleen L. Wolf

    2013-01-01

    Urban forests are a critical element in sustainable urban areas because of the many environmental, economic, and social benefits that city trees provide. In order to increase canopy cover in urban areas, residential homeowners, who collectively own the majority of the land in most cities, need to engage in planting and retaining trees on their properties. This...

  10. Impact of planted areas on urban environmental quality: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givoni, B.

    The paper discusses the impact of urban planted areas: public parks and private planting around individual buildings, on various aspects of the quality of the urban environment. Specific issues discussed are: functions and impacts of urban planted areas; effect of plants on the climatic characteristics of an area; climatic impacts of private planted areas around buildings; experimental studies on the thermal effect of plants; public parks and the urban climate; range of the effect of urban parks; impact of green spaces on air pollution; planted areas as noise; social functions of urban parks; parks as social interaction areas between neighborhoods; and summary: Climatic guidelines for parks design: Parks in hot, dry regions; Parks in hot, humid regions; and Parks in cold regions. Comment: This paper is based on a book by the author, published by the World Meteorological Organization (Givoni, 1989, Urban Design for Different Climates, WMO).

  11. Exploring interspace: open space opportunities in dense urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul H. Gobster; Kathleen E. Dickhut

    1995-01-01

    Using ideas from landscape ecology, this paper explores how small open spaces can aid urban forestry efforts in dense urban areas. A case study in Chicago illustrates the physical and social lessons learned in dealing with these spaces.

  12. Airborne silica levels in an urban area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Berardis, B. [Dipartimento di Tecnologie e Salute, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Viale Regina Elena, 299, 00161 Rome (Italy)]. E-mail: barbara.deberardis@iss.it; Incocciati, E. [CONTARP Consulenza Tecnica Accertamento Rischi e Prevenzione, INAIL Direzione Generale, 00143 Rome (Italy); Massera, S. [CONTARP Consulenza Tecnica Accertamento Rischi e Prevenzione, INAIL Direzione Generale, 00143 Rome (Italy); Gargaro, G. [CONTARP Consulenza Tecnica Accertamento Rischi e Prevenzione, INAIL Direzione Generale, 00143 Rome (Italy); Paoletti, L. [Dipartimento di Tecnologie e Salute, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Viale Regina Elena, 299, 00161 Rome (Italy)

    2007-09-01

    In order to evaluate the exposure levels of the general population we studied the concentrations of silica particles in the inhalable particulate fraction (PM10) in different meteorological-climate periods in an urban area of Rome. In order to determine the concentration and the granulometric spectrum of silica particles, PM10 sampled by a cascade impactor was analysed by X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and by scanning electron microscopy equipped with a thin-window system for X-ray microanalysis (SEM/EDX). Over the period September 2004-October 2005 the abundance of silica particles as evaluated by SEM/EDX ranged from 1.6 to 10.4% of the total PM10 particulate, with a weight concentration of free crystalline silica, evaluated by XRD, in the range 0.25-2.87 {mu}g/m{sup 3}. The mean diameter of silica particles ranged from 0.3 to 10.5 {mu}m, with more than 87% of particles having a diameter of less than 2.5 {mu}m. The correlations between SEM/EDX and XRD data seem to suggest that the airborne silica particles in the urban location studied were mainly in the form crystalline silica. A strong relationship was found between the meteorological-climate conditions and the concentration level of free crystalline silica. This result suggests that the Southern winds from the Sahara desert carry an important amount of silica particles into Mediterranean Europe.

  13. The impact of area deprivation on differences in health: does the choice of the geographical classification matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijneveld, S.A.; Verheij, R.A.; Bakker, D.H. de

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Many studies show the average health status in deprived areas to be poorer and the use of health care to be higher, but there is hardly any information on the impact of the geographical classification on the size of these differences. This study examines the impact of the geographical

  14. Area deprivation and child psychosocial problems. A national cross-sectional study among school-aged children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijneveld, S.A.; Brugman, E.; Verhulst, F.C.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.

    2005-01-01

    Background. We examined the association of area deprivation with the occurrence of psychosocial problems among children aged 4-16 in a representative national sample of children based on standardised measures of parent-reported problems and diagnoses made by doctors and nurses working in child

  15. The impact of area deprivation on differences in health: Does the choice of the geographical classification matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijneveld, S.A.; Verheij, R.A.; Bakker, D.H.de

    2000-01-01

    Objective - Many studies show the average health status in deprived areas to be poorer and the use of health care to be higher, but there is hardly any information on the impact of the geographical classification on the size of these differences. This study examines the impact of the geographical

  16. Area deprivation and child psychosocial problems - A national cross-sectional study among school-aged children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijneveld, SA; Brugman, E; Verhulst, FC; Verloove-Vanhorick, SP

    Background We examined the association of area deprivation with the occurrence of psychosocial problems among children aged 4-16 in a representative national sample of children based on standardised measures of parent-reported problems and diagnoses made by doctors and nurses working in child

  17. The impact of area-based initiatives on physical activity trends in deprived areas; a quasi-experimental evaluation of the Dutch District Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, Daniëlle; Droomers, Mariël; Jongeneel-Grimen, Birthe; Wingen, Marleen; Stronks, Karien; Kunst, Anton E.

    2014-01-01

    Numerous area-based initiatives (ABIs) have been implemented in deprived neighbourhoods across Europe. These large-scale initiatives aim to tackle the socio-economic and environmental problems in these areas that might influence physical activity (PA). There is little robust evidence of their impact

  18. Trip generation data collection in urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    There is currently limited data on urban, multimodal trip generation at the individual site level. This lack of : data limits the ability of transportation agencies to assess development impacts on the transportation system : in urban and multimodal ...

  19. Stormwater quality characteristics in (Dutch) urban areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nick van de Giesen; Frans van de Ven; ir. Floris Boogaard; Jeroen G. Langeveld

    2014-01-01

    Stormwaters, flowing into storm sewers, are known to significantly increase the annual pollutant loads entering urban receiving waters and this results in significant degradation of the receiving water quality. Knowledge of the characteristics of stormwater pollution enables urban planners to

  20. Phytoremediative urban design: Transforming a derelict and polluted harbour area into a green and productive neighbourhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilschut, M.; Theuws, P.A.W.; Duchhart, I.

    2013-01-01

    Many urban areas are polluted by industrial activities and waste disposal in landfills. Since conventional soil remediation techniques are costly and unsustainable, phytoremediation might offer an alternative. In this article, we explore how phytoremediation can be integrated into the transformation of urban post-industrial areas, while improving public space. Buiksloterham, a polluted and deprived industrial area in Amsterdam, serves as case study. Buiksloterham is polluted with heavy metals, with Zinc (Zn) concentrations being the highest. A regression-model for Alpine Pennycress (Thlaspi caerulescens) is used to estimate the time needed to remediate the site. This reveals a conflict in time between remediation and urban development. A research by design experiment shows how to overcome this conflict by dealing with polluted soil innovatively while emphasizing spatial and aesthetic qualities of the phytoremediation plant species. The resulting landscape framework integrates phytoremediation with biomass production and gives new ecological, economic and social value to Buiksloterham. -- Highlights: ► Design can provide a link between the field of science and the field of practice. ► Design translates scientific knowledge into a specific aesthetic spatial composition. ► A landscape framework makes phytoremediation feasible in an urban context. ► Estimated time for phytoremediation conflicts with urban developments. ► Phytoremediation combined with biomass production is a feasible temporal land-use. -- A research by design method can translate scientific knowledge on phytoremediation into an aesthetic spatial composition for a specific site, thereby linking science and practice

  1. 76 FR 53029 - Urban Area Criteria for the 2010 Census

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-24

    ...This notice announces the Bureau of the Census' (hereafter, Census Bureau's) final criteria for defining urban areas based on the results of the 2010 Decennial Census (the term ``urban area'' as used throughout this notice refers generically to urbanized areas of 50,000 or more population and urban clusters of at least 2,500 and less than 50,000 population). This notice also provides a summary of comments received in response to proposed criteria published in the August 24, 2010, Federal Register (75 FR 52174), as well as the Census Bureau's response to those comments. The Census Bureau's urban-rural classification is fundamentally a delineation of geographic areas, identifying both individual urban areas and the rural areas of the nation. The Census Bureau's urban areas represent densely developed territory, and encompass residential, commercial, and other nonresidential urban land uses. The Census Bureau delineates urban areas after each decennial census by applying specified criteria to decennial census and other data. Since the 1950 Census, the Census Bureau has reviewed and revised these criteria, as necessary, for each decennial census. The revisions over the years reflect the Census Bureau's desire to improve the classification of urban and rural territory to take advantage of newly available data, as well as advancements in geographic information processing technology.

  2. Carbonaceous aerosols in Norwegian urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. E. Yttri

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Little is known regarding levels and source strength of carbonaceous aerosols in Scandinavia. In the present study, ambient aerosol (PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations of elemental carbon (EC, organic carbon (OC, water-insoluble organic carbon (WINSOC, and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC are reported for a curbside site, an urban background site, and a suburban site in Norway in order to investigate their spatial and seasonal variations. Aerosol filter samples were collected using tandem filter sampling to correct for the positive sampling artefact introduced by volatile and semivolatile OC. Analyses were performed using the thermal optical transmission (TOT instrument from Sunset Lab Inc., which corrects for charring during analysis. Finally, we estimated the relative contribution of OC from wood burning based on the samples content of levoglucosan.

    Levels of EC varied by more than one order of magnitude between sites, likely due to the higher impact of vehicular traffic at the curbside and the urban background sites. In winter, the level of particulate organic carbon (OCp at the suburban site was equal to (for PM10 or even higher (for PM2.5 than the levels observed at the curbside and the urban background sites. This finding was attributed to the impact of residential wood burning at the suburban site in winter, which was confirmed by a high mean concentration of levoglucosan (407 ng m−3. This finding indicates that exposure to primary combustion derived OCp could be equally high in residential areas as in a city center. It is demonstrated that OCp from wood burning (OCwood accounted for almost all OCp at the suburban site in winter, allowing a new estimate of the ratio TCp/levoglucosan for both PM10 and PM2.5. Particulate carbonaceous material (PCM

  3. Influence of social and material individual and area deprivation on suicide mortality among 2.7 million Canadians: A prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auger Nathalie

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have investigated how area-level deprivation influences the relationship between individual disadvantage and suicide mortality. The aim of this study was to examine individual measures of material and social disadvantage in relation to suicide mortality in Canada and to determine whether these relationships were modified by area deprivation. Methods Using the 1991-2001 Canadian Census Mortality Follow-up Study cohort (N = 2,685,400, measures of individual social (civil status, family structure, living alone and material (education, income, employment disadvantage were entered into Cox proportional hazard models to calculate hazard ratios (HR and 95% confidence intervals (CI for male and female suicide mortality. Two indices of area deprivation were computed - one capturing social, and the other material, dimensions - and models were run separately for high versus low deprivation. Results After accounting for individual and area characteristics, individual social and material disadvantage were associated with higher suicide mortality, especially for individuals not employed, not married, with low education and low income. Associations between social and material area deprivation and suicide mortality largely disappeared upon adjustment for individual-level disadvantage. In stratified analyses, suicide risk was greater for low income females in socially deprived areas and males living alone in materially deprived areas, and there was no evidence of other modifying effects of area deprivation. Conclusions Individual disadvantage was associated with suicide mortality, particularly for males. With some exceptions, there was little evidence that area deprivation modified the influence of individual disadvantage on suicide risk. Prevention strategies should primarily focus on individuals who are unemployed or out of the labour force, and have low education or income. Individuals with low income or who are living alone in

  4. Urbanization Challenges in Poor Slum Areas of Nairobi and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Urbanization Challenges in Poor Slum Areas of Nairobi and the Role of Sustainability Science in Seeking Practical Solutions. ... Further, natural population increase and rise in cost of living for wage earners in the central business areas of the city have equally pushed families to slum, peri-urban or near-slum areas.

  5. DO POST-SOCIALIST URBAN AREAS MAINTAIN THEIR SUSTAINABLE COMPACT FORM? ROMANIAN URBAN AREAS AS CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Raluca GRĂDINARU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The compact city is regarded as an important concept in promoting sustainable development, especially within the European Union. The socialist urban planning system maintained a high compactness of the urban areas through almost exclusive predominance of the public sector in housing provision, and ideological nature of the planning strategies. After the 1990’s, the administrative decentralization allowed local authorities to adopt particular urban development strategies. However, development was directly influenced by the importance of the urban administrative centre. The aim of the paper is to determine if post-socialist urban areas maintained their compact urban form or they encountered different evolution trajectories. We determined the type of changes by calculating urban form indicators at two time moments: 1990 and 2006. Furthermore, the two-way repeated-measurement ANOVA was used to identify significant changes, and to assess the effect of the development level of the urban area on the variance of form indicators. The results show that Romanian post-socialist urban areas either shifted from the compact form, "inherited" after the collapse of socialism, to more dispersed patterns, either expanded in a compact manner. Moreover, as development level got higher, urban areas were more likely to be affected by suburbanization and periurbanization. In order to respond to these challenges, new instruments such as setting of metropolitan areas or spatial framework plans could be used. Furthermore, planning should be adapted to local circumstances and to the different development trajectories of big and mid-sized urban areas.

  6. Distribution of radionuclides in urban areas and their removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roed, J.; Andersson, K.G.; Garger, E.; Sobotovitch, E.; Matveenko, I.I.

    1996-01-01

    The major contamination processes in the urban environment are wet and dry deposition with the former leading to much greater deposition per unit of time. Typical deposition patterns for radiocesium in urban areas have been identified for these processes and recent in situ measurements have been used to verify these relations and to investigate the urban weathering effect over long periods. The results of a recent series of field trials of decontamination methods in urban or suburban Russian areas are reported, and this experience has been incorporated in an example of formation of strategies for clean-up in an urban contamination scenario

  7. ANTHROPOGENIC LOAD ON RIVERS OF URBAN AREAS

    OpenAIRE

    Kurochkina Valentina Aleksandrovna; Bogomolova Tat’yana Gennad’evna; Kirov Borislav Lyubomirov

    2016-01-01

    The increasing speed of urbanization and population growth lead to the increasing anthropogenic load on water bodies. The urbanization processes in Russia are more intensive than in other countries. The dense population and great industrial potential lead to the fact that the urbanized territories become the main sources of water pollution. That’s why the environmental control of the state of water objects is needed. In the article the authors study the problem of anthropogenic load impact on...

  8. Prevalence of epilepsy in children from a Brazilian area of high deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Letícia P B; Caboclo, Luis Otávio S F; Kuramoto, Karina; Reche, Angela; Yacubian, Elza Márcia T; Manreza, Maria Luiza G

    2010-02-01

    This study assessed the prevalence rate of epilepsy and its causes in children and adolescents in one area of high deprivation in São Paulo, São Paulo, in Southeast Brazil. Between July 2005 and June 2006, 4947 families from a population of 22,013 inhabitants (including 10,405 children and adolescents between the ages of 0 and 16 years) living in the shantytown of Paraisópolis, were interviewed. In the first phase, a validated questionnaire was administered, to identify the occurrence of seizures. In the second phase, clinical history, neurologic examination, electroencephalography, and structural neuroimaging were performed. The diagnosis of epilepsy, including etiology, seizure types, and epileptic syndrome classification, was according to criteria of the International League Against Epilepsy. The screening phase identified 353 presumptive cases. In the second phase, 101 of these cases (33.8%) received the diagnosis of epilepsy. Crude prevalence of epilepsy was 9.7/1000 and prevalence of active epilepsy was 8.7/1000. Partial seizures were the most frequent seizure type (62/101). Symptomatic focal epilepsy was the most common form, and hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy the most common etiology, reflecting the socioeconomic conditions of this specific population. Adequate public policies regarding perinatal assistance could help reduce the prevalence of epilepsy.

  9. Wash-off effects in urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueck, K.; Steger, F.

    1991-01-01

    The reduction of the activity distributed in urban areas in three Austrian cities after a radioactive fall-out, by run-off and wash-off effects from stabilised surfaces and the resulting dose reduction to the population were investigated four years after the Chernobyl fall-out to predict the long term external exposure of the population. The measurements were performed in cities with different fractions of dry and wet deposition after the Chernobyl accident in order to determine whether any differences in radionuclide removal with regard to wet and dry fall-out was observable. High resolution in situ gamma spectroscopy was employed to measure the gamma flux from 137 Cs and 134 Cs at points over stabilised surfaces, which was then compared with undisturbed grass surfaces. The average reduction of the place activity on stabilised surfaces amounted to a factor of 10±5 compared to the original deposition after the fall-out. Asphalt showed the highest reduction factor (11.4), concrete less (8.1), stone slabs and cobblestone only about 4.5 and gravel virtually no reduction (1.1). Only very little variation of this reduction with dry or wet deposition was observed. (author)

  10. Material deprivation and unemployment affect coercive sex among young people in the urban slums of Blantyre, Malawi: A multi-level approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamndaya, Mphatso; Kazembe, Lawrence N; Vearey, Jo; Kabiru, Caroline W; Thomas, Liz

    2015-05-01

    We explore relations among material deprivation (measured by insufficient housing, food insecurity and poor healthcare access), socio-economic status (employment, income and education) and coercive sex. A binary logistic multi-level model is used in the estimation of data from a survey of 1071 young people aged 18-23 years, undertaken between June and July 2013, in the urban slums of Blantyre, Malawi. For young men, unemployment was associated with coercive sex (odds ratio [OR]=1.77, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.09-3.21) while material deprivation (OR=1.34, 95% CI: 0.75-2.39) was not. Young women in materially deprived households were more likely to report coercive sex (OR=1.37, 95% CI: 1.07-2.22) than in non-materially deprived households. Analysis of local indicators of deprivation is critical to inform the development of effective strategies to reduce coercive sex in urban slums in Malawi. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Different Pathways for Achieving Cleaner Urban Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schippl, J.; Gudmundsson, Henrik; Sørensen, Claus Hedegaard

    2016-01-01

    . Achieve essentially CO2-free city logistics in major urban centres by 2030.'' With this paper we present and discuss a roadmap that deals with the question who needs to do what by when in order to reach the White Paper goal for urban transport. The ''stakeholder-driven'' roadmap was developed in the FP7...

  12. Prioritizing conservation areas for coastal plant diversity under increasing urbanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doxa, Aggeliki; Albert, Cécile Hélène; Leriche, Agathe; Saatkamp, Arne

    2017-10-01

    Coastal urban expansion will continue to drive further biodiversity losses, if conservation targets for coastal ecosystems are not defined and met. Prioritizing areas for future protected area networks is thus an urgent task in such urbanization-threatened ecosystems. Our aim is to quantify past and future losses of coastal vegetation priority areas due to urbanization and assess the effectiveness of the existing protected area network for conservation. We conduct a prioritization analysis, based on 82 coastal plants, including common and IUCN red list species, in a highly-urbanized but biotically diverse region, in South-Eastern France. We evaluate the role of protected areas, by taking into account both strict and multi-use areas. We assess the impact of past and future urbanization on high priority areas, by combining prioritization analyses and urbanization models. We show that half of the highly diverse areas have already been lost due to urbanization. Remaining top priority areas are also among the most exposed to future urban expansion. The effectiveness of the existing protected area (PA) network is only partial. While strict PAs coincide well with top priority areas, they only represent less than one third of priority areas. The effectiveness of multi-use PAs, such as the Natura 2000 network, also remains limited. Our approach highlights the impact of urbanization on plant conservation targets. By modelling urbanization, we manage to identify those areas where protection could be more efficient to limit further losses. We suggest to use our approach in the future to expand the PA network in order to achieve the 2020 Aichi biodiversity targets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Urban Area Monitoring using MODIS Time Series Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devadiga, S.; Sarkar, S.; Mauoka, E.

    2015-12-01

    Growing urban sprawl and its impact on global climate due to urban heat island effects has been an active area of research over the recent years. This is especially significant in light of rapid urbanization that is happening in some of the first developing nations across the globe. But so far study of urban area growth has been largely restricted to local and regional scales, using high to medium resolution satellite observations, taken at distinct time periods. In this presentation we propose a new approach to detect and monitor urban area expansion using long time series of MODIS data. This work characterizes data points using a vector of several annual metrics computed from the MODIS 8-day and 16-day composite L3 data products, at 250M resolution and over several years and then uses a vector angle mapping classifier to detect and segment the urban area. The classifier is trained using a set of training points obtained from a reference vector point and polygon pre-filtered using the MODIS VI product. This work gains additional significance, given that, despite unprecedented urban growth since 2000, the area covered by the urban class in the MODIS Global Land Cover (MCD12Q1, MCDLCHKM and MCDLC1KM) product hasn't changed since the launch of Terra and Aqua. The proposed approach was applied to delineate the urban area around several cities in Asia known to have maximum growth in the last 15 years. Results were verified using high resolution Landsat data.

  14. Concentration of Heavy Metals in Drinking Water from Urban Areas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    ABSTRACT. The study was undertaken to assess the status of drinking water quality in the urban areas of the. Tigray region, northern Ethiopia. A total of 106 drinking water samples were collected from 16 densely populated urban areas of the region, viz.: Alamata, Korem, Maichew, Adigudom, Abyi-. Adi, Hagereselam ...

  15. Selection of City Distribution Locations in Urbanized Areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bu, L.; Van Duin, J.H.R.; Wiegmans, B.; Luo, Z.; Yin, C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to apply a preference method for selecting optimal city distribution reloading locations in urbanized areas. The focus in the optimization is on trucks entering the urbanized area where the truck can choose between at least two locations with similar distances determined by a

  16. Consumer Empowerment Profile in Rural and Urban Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megawati Simanjuntak

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to analyze the profile of consumer empowerment and the influence of demographic characteristics, socio-economic status and cosmopoliteness on consumer empowerment in rural and urban area. The research finding indicated a low consumer empowerment in urban and rural area. In general, most respondents who were not categorized as empowered consumer were aged >37 years old, working in rural areas, included in income category ranged IDR 397,874.57/capita/month both in rural and urban areas, family size of ≤ 4 persons in rural areas,length of education ≤9 years in rural areas and not cosmopolite in rural areas. Higher level of education and the more cosmopolite the respondents would increase consumer empowerment both in ruraland urban area. One of the attempts in empowering consumers is by intensifying consumer education involving government, NGOs, and private sector.

  17. Urban expansion in Tokyo metropolitan area between 1972 and 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagan, H.; Yamagata, Y.

    2010-12-01

    According to World Bank Report, more than half of the world’s population is now living in cities and over two-thirds of greenhouse gas emissions come from cities worldwide. The Kanto Plain is the largest plain in Japan, which experienced the greatest urban expansion in the 20th century. Satellite images collected over a span of years can be used to identify and characterize both natural and anthropogenic changes over large areas of land. Landsat satellite images are ideal for this purpose; imagery recorded over nearly four decades provides a unique resource for temporal analysis of urban area land cover change. The purpose of this study was to investigate spatial and temporal urban area changes in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area (include the neighboring regions). and to investigate the possible causes of those changes. To do this, we applied land-cover classification schemes to Multispectral Scanner (MSS), Thematic Mapper (TM), and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) sensor images recorded between 1972 and 2002, which we acquired from the Landsat archive. We used two supervised classification methods, the self-organizing map (SOM) neural network method and the subspace method, to accurately classify land cover on Landsat images recorded in 1972, 1985, and 2002. This allowed us to quantitatively present urban area changes between 1972 and 2002, and allowed us to analyze its relation with multi-time 1 kilometer grid population density census data to further report on the trends of urban expansion. Figure 1 shows the urban area in 1972, and figure 2 shows the urban area in 2002. From the two maps, along with the high economic growth of the Japanese economy, the concentration of the population in Tokyo extremely increased over the period from 1972 to 2002. As a result, these factors lead to urban sprawl in the suburban areas of Tokyo Metropolitan Area. Figure 1. Urban area in 1972. Figure 2. Urban area in 2002.

  18. Time-on-task and sleep deprivation effects are evidenced in overlapping brain areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asplund, Christopher L; Chee, Michael W L

    2013-11-15

    Both sleep deprivation and extended task engagement (time-on-task) have been shown to degrade performance in tasks evaluating sustained attention. Here we used pulsed arterial spin labeling (pASL) to study participants engaged in a demanding selective attention task. The participants were imaged twice, once after a normal night of sleep and once after approximately 24h of total sleep deprivation. We compared task-related changes in BOLD signal alongside ASL-based cerebral blood flow (CBF) changes. We also collected resting baseline CBF data prior to and following task performance. Both BOLD fMRI and ASL identified spatially congruent task activation in ventral visual cortex and fronto-parietal regions. Sleep deprivation and time-on-task caused a decline of both measures in ventral visual cortex. BOLD fMRI also revealed such declines in fronto-parietal cortex. Only early visual cortex showed a significant upward shift in resting baseline CBF following sleep deprivation, suggesting that the neural consequences of both SD and ToT are primarily evident in task-evoked signals. We conclude that BOLD fMRI is preferable to pASL in studies evaluating sleep deprivation given its better signal to noise characteristics and the relative paucity of state differences in baseline CBF. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Universal scaling of the distribution of land in urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riascos, A. P.

    2017-09-01

    In this work, we explore the spatial structure of built zones and green areas in diverse western cities by analyzing the probability distribution of areas and a coefficient that characterize their respective shapes. From the analysis of diverse datasets describing land lots in urban areas, we found that the distribution of built-up areas and natural zones in cities obey inverse power laws with a similar scaling for the cities explored. On the other hand, by studying the distribution of shapes of lots in urban regions, we are able to detect global differences in the spatial structure of the distribution of land. Our findings introduce information about spatial patterns that emerge in the structure of urban settlements; this knowledge is useful for the understanding of urban growth, to improve existing models of cities, in the context of sustainability, in studies about human mobility in urban areas, among other applications.

  20. Determining effective roadway design treatments for transitioning from rural areas to urban areas on state highways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    This report reviews an Oregon research effort to identify ways to calm operating speeds as the vehicles transition into developed suburban/urban areas from rural roads. Drivers of vehicles approaching the urban environment have few visual cues to red...

  1. A temperature and vegetation adjusted NTL urban index for urban area mapping and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiya; Li, Peijun

    2018-01-01

    Accurate and timely information regarding the extent and spatial distribution of urban areas on regional and global scales is crucially important for both scientific and policy-making communities. Stable nighttime light (NTL) data from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Operational Linescan System (OLS) provides a unique proxy of human settlement and activity, which has been used in the mapping and analysis of urban areas and urbanization dynamics. However, blooming and saturation effects of DMSP/OLS NTL data are two unresolved problems in regional urban area mapping and analysis. This study proposed a new urban index termed the Temperature and Vegetation Adjusted NTL Urban Index (TVANUI). It is intended to reduce blooming and saturation effects and to enhance urban features by combining DMSP/OLS NTL data with Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and land surface temperature (LST) data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer onboard the Terra satellite. The proposed index was evaluated in two study areas by comparison with established urban indices. The results demonstrated the proposed TVANUI was effective in enhancing the variation of DMSP/OLS light in urban areas and in reducing blooming and saturation effects, showing better performance than three established urban indices. The TVANUI also significantly outperformed the established urban indices in urban area mapping using both the global-fixed threshold and the local-optimal threshold methods. Thus, the proposed TVANUI provides a useful variable for urban area mapping and analysis on regional scale, as well as for urbanization dynamics using time-series DMSP/OLS and related satellite data.

  2. COORDINATES OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF TOURISM IN URBAN AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen-Maria IORDACHE

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Internationally, urban tourism began to develop gradually from the '80s, nowadays being a distinct form of tourism whose importance is increasing. Thus, there were concerns about specific facilities for different categories of visitors and their harmonization with the demands of caring for the smooth functioning of urban settlements. By adding tourism to the local economy inventory activities of an urban area, it can be considered a catalyst and a reviving factor for strengthening urban cities especially because it represents an important source of income and it is responsible for creating thousands of jobs. Given the need to adapt to the demands of tourists, this paper attempts to clarify some issues related to content, characteristics and influencing factors of urban tourism, but also the adoption of policies for exploitation through tourism of the specific elements of urban space and urban tourism prospects.

  3. Analysis on Residents’ Travel Activity Pattern in Historic Urban Areas: A Case Study of Historic Urban Area of Yangzhou, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao Ye

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Travel behaviors and activity patterns in the historic urban area of a city are expected to be different from the overall situations in the city area. The primary objective of this study is to analyze the residents’ travel activity patterns in historic urban area. Based on survey data conducted in the historic urban area of Yangzhou, the travel activities of local residents in a whole day were classified into five types of patterns. The multinomial logit (MNL model was developed to evaluate the impacts of explanatory variables on the choices of activity patterns. The results showed that the choice of activity pattern was significantly impacted by five contributing factors including the gender, age, occupation, car ownership, and number of electric bikes in household. The other variables, which were the family population, preschoolers, number of conventional bikes in household, motorcycle ownership, and income, were found to be not significantly related to the choice of activities. The results of this study from historic urban area were compared to findings of previous studies from overall urban area. The comparison showed that the impacts of factors on activity pattern in the historic urban area were different from those in the overall area. Findings of this study provide important suggestions for the policy makings to improve the traffic situations in historic urban areas of cities.

  4. Sleep deprivation causes memory deficits by negatively impacting neuronal connectivity in hippocampal area CA1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havekes, Robbert; Park, Alan J; Tudor, Jennifer C; Luczak, Vincent G; Hansen, Rolf T; Ferri, Sarah L; Bruinenberg, Vibeke M; Poplawski, Shane G; Day, Jonathan P; Aton, Sara J; Radwańska, Kasia; Meerlo, Peter; Houslay, Miles D; Baillie, George S; Abel, Ted

    2016-01-01

    Brief periods of sleep loss have long-lasting consequences such as impaired memory consolidation. Structural changes in synaptic connectivity have been proposed as a substrate of memory storage. Here, we examine the impact of brief periods of sleep deprivation on dendritic structure. In mice, we

  5. Variation in antibiotic prescriptions: is area deprivation an explanation? Analysis of 1.2 million children in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koller, D; Hoffmann, F; Maier, W; Tholen, K; Windt, R; Glaeske, G

    2013-02-01

    Inadequate use of antibiotics can lead to problems such as resistance. Overuse is especially a problem for children, since they are more affected by acute (often virus-caused) infections. While the problem has been addressed internationally over the past several years, regional variations in prescriptions are striking. Therefore, the present study aims to analyze regional variations in antibiotic prescription on a district level in Germany and tries to identify reasons for those variations through adding possible influencing factors to the analysis on individual and district levels. We analyzed 1.2 million children insured in a German health insurance fund. Antibiotic prescriptions were quantified in 2010 and reasons for prescriptions were analyzed in multilevel regressions based on the district of residence, regional deprivation, and age and sex of the child. Thirty-six percent of all children aged 0-17 years received an antibiotic prescription in 2010. In the south, prevalences are generally lower, and also to the very north. The highest prevalences are found in the close-to-border districts in the west, as well as in a band throughout the middle of Germany, in rather low population density areas. Regional variation in the prevalence range from 19 to 53 % between districts. Regional deprivation can explain part of this variation. Including area deprivation measures helped identify an influence of especially regional income and occupational deprivation on antibiotic prescriptions for children. Regional analysis such as this can help identify specific regions and groups of persons to address information programs on the risks of preventable antibiotic consumption and alternative treatment methods.

  6. Trends in socioeconomic inequalities in amenable mortality in urban areas of Spanish cities, 1996-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolasco, Andreu; Quesada, José Antonio; Moncho, Joaquín; Melchor, Inmaculada; Pereyra-Zamora, Pamela; Tamayo-Fonseca, Nayara; Martínez-Beneito, Miguel Angel; Zurriaga, Oscar

    2014-04-01

    While research continues into indicators such as preventable and amenable mortality in order to evaluate quality, access, and equity in the healthcare, it is also necessary to continue identifying the areas of greatest risk owing to these causes of death in urban areas of large cities, where a large part of the population is concentrated, in order to carry out specific actions and reduce inequalities in mortality. This study describes inequalities in amenable mortality in relation to socioeconomic status in small urban areas, and analyses their evolution over the course of the periods 1996-99, 2000-2003 and 2004-2007 in three major cities in the Spanish Mediterranean coast (Alicante, Castellón, and Valencia). All deaths attributed to amenable causes were analysed among non-institutionalised residents in the three cities studied over the course of the study periods. Census tracts for the cities were grouped into 3 socioeconomic status levels, from higher to lower levels of deprivation, using 5 indicators obtained from the 2001 Spanish Population Census. For each city, the relative risks of death were estimated between socioeconomic status levels using Poisson's Regression models, adjusted for age and study period, and distinguishing between genders. Amenable mortality contributes significantly to general mortality (around 10%, higher among men), having decreased over time in the three cities studied for men and women. In the three cities studied, with a high degree of consistency, it has been seen that the risks of mortality are greater in areas of higher deprivation, and that these excesses have not significantly modified over time. Although amenable mortality decreases over the time period studied, the socioeconomic inequalities observed are maintained in the three cities. Areas have been identified that display excesses in amenable mortality, potentially attributable to differences in the healthcare system, associated with areas of greater deprivation. Action

  7. Patterns and determinants of malaria risk in urban and peri-urban areas of Blantyre, Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathanga, Don P; Tembo, Atupele Kapito; Mzilahowa, Themba; Bauleni, Andy; Mtimaukenena, Kondwani; Taylor, Terrie E; Valim, Clarissa; Walker, Edward D; Wilson, Mark L

    2016-12-08

    Although malaria disease in urban and peri-urban areas of sub-Saharan Africa is a growing concern, the epidemiologic patterns and drivers of transmission in these settings remain poorly understood. Factors associated with variation in malaria risk in urban and peri-urban areas were evaluated in this study. A health facility-based, age and location-matched, case-control study of children 6-59 months of age was conducted in four urban and two peri-urban health facilities (HF) of Blantyre city, Malawi. Children with fever who sought care from the same HF were tested for malaria parasites by microscopy and PCR. Those testing positive or negative on both were defined as malaria cases or controls, respectively. A total of 187 cases and 286 controls were studied. In univariate analyses, higher level of education, possession of TV, and electricity in the house were negatively associated with malaria illness; these associations were similar in urban and peri-urban zones. Having travelled in the month before testing was strongly associated with clinical malaria, but only for participants living in the urban zones (OR = 5.1; 95% CI = 1.62, 15.8). Use of long-lasting insecticide nets (LLINs) the previous night was not associated with protection from malaria disease in any setting. In multivariate analyses, electricity in the house, travel within the previous month, and a higher level of education were all associated with decreased odds of malaria disease. Only a limited number of Anopheles mosquitoes were found by aspiration inside the households in the peri-urban areas, and none was collected from the urban households. Travel was the main factor influencing the incidence of malaria illness among residents of urban Blantyre compared with peri-urban areas. Identification and understanding of key mobile demographic groups, their behaviours, and the pattern of parasite dispersal is critical to the design of more targeted interventions for the urban setting.

  8. Public acceptance of enforced speed adaptation in the urban area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katteler, H.A.; Heijden, R.E.C.M. van der; Brebbia, C.; Wadhwa, L.

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses a way to drastically cope with speeding in the urban area. Pilots with Intelligent Speed Adaptation (ISA) in Europe applied in passenger cars support the perspective of creating an urban environment with a guaranteed maximum speed level for car drivers. Therefore, the

  9. The impact of individual and area characteristics on urban socioeconomic differences in health and smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijneveld, S.A.

    1998-01-01

    Background. In general, poor health and lifestyles occur more frequently among individuals of low socioeconomic status (SES) and in deprived areas. An explanation for the latter may simply be the on average lower SES of residents of these areas. It is possible, however, that living in a deprived

  10. Climate Change Projections for African Urban Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonis, Ingo; Engelbrecht, Francois; Bucchignani, Edoardo; Mercogliano, Paola; Naidoo, Mogesh

    2013-04-01

    Mainly driven by changes in the orbital characteristics of Earth around the sun, the planet's climate has been continuously changing over periods of tens of thousands of years. However, the warming that has been detected in the Earth's atmosphere over the last century is occurring at a rate that cannot be explained by any known natural cycle. Main-stream science has indeed reached consensus that the 'enhanced green house effect', caused by the interplay of incoming short-wave irradiation, outgoing long-wave radiation and the absorption of energy by enhanced levels of CO2 and water vapour in the troposphere, is the main forcing mechanism responsible for the phenomena of global warming. The enhanced greenhouse effect strengthens the 'natural green house effect' that results from the CO2 and water vapour occurring naturally in the atmosphere. The continuous burning of fossil fuels since the industrial revolution and the simultaneous degradation of large forests, are the main reasons for the increase in CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere. The availability of climate change projection data varies considerably for different areas on Earth. Whereas the data centres storing climate change projections for Europe and North America now store petabytes of data, regionally downscaled projections for Africa are rarely available. In the context of the research project CLUVA, (Assessing vulnerability of urban systems, populations and goods in relation to natural and man-made disasters in Africa, co-funded by the European Commission under grant agreement no: 265137), the Council for Industrial and Scientific Research (CSIR) in South Africa and the Centro Euro-Mediterraneo sui Cambiamenti Climatici (CMCC) in Italy have produced a large set of projections of climate change over Africa, covering the time period 1950 to 2100. Through the collaboration between CMCC and CSIR, a multi-model ensemble of eight high-resolution simulations of climate change over parts of West and East

  11. [Hygienic effect of landscaping in urban areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechkuev, R; Chuchkova, M; Kurchatova, G

    1979-01-01

    The atmospheric environment in two blocks of flats with different degree of gardens and parks lain out and in a town park in Sofia was studied by the basic physical, chemical and physiologic parameters. The results give grounds to admit that laying out gardens and parks in urban zones contributes to the creation of definite, qualitatively and quantitatively different housing environment: a more favourable temperature-and-moisture, radiation - thermal and biologicaly active regime. The physiologic state of residents, looking for recreation in these places, was better in an environment of ample verdure. Laying out gardens and parks should gain wider acceptance in the urbanization of bloks of flats, since it is an effective means of improving the hygienic merits of housing environment.

  12. Lessons Worth Remembering: Combat In Urban Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-10

    training, Combat Training Centers, Centers of Excellence, and how it is equipping its soldiers. Sustaining the Army’s ability to operate and thrive...in the urban environment must elevate in importance for Army leaders moving forward. All other environmental training must become second tier...end of the day, all three companies advanced less than one block.119 On the third day of the battle, February 2, Hotel Company, 2nd Battalion, 5th

  13. ANTHROPOGENIC LOAD ON RIVERS OF URBAN AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurochkina Valentina Aleksandrovna

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The increasing speed of urbanization and population growth lead to the increasing anthropogenic load on water bodies. The urbanization processes in Russia are more intensive than in other countries. The dense population and great industrial potential lead to the fact that the urbanized territories become the main sources of water pollution. That’s why the environmental control of the state of water objects is needed. In the article the authors study the problem of anthropogenic load impact on river hydraulics processes and on the properties of river sediments that determine river channels evolution and general ecological state of water bodies. The interrelation between ecological state of water bodies, the quality of water in it and the level of contamination with sediments was determined. It is established that the conditions of long-term aquatic life as a whole and of water quality in particular depend on the contamination level with sediments. The author proposes a method of estimation of anthropogenic load on rivers. The paper analyses the calculation results of the value of anthropogenic load on different rivers of Russia.

  14. Urbanization and Land Use Changes in Peri-Urban Area using Spatial Analysis Methods (Case Study: Ciawi Urban Areas, Bogor Regency)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahya, D. L.; Martini, E.; Kasikoen, K. M.

    2018-02-01

    Urbanization is shown by the increasing percentage of the population in urban areas. In Indonesia, the percentage of urban population increased dramatically form 17.42% (1971) to 42.15% (2010). This resulted in increased demand for housing. Limited land in the city area push residents looking for an alternative location of his residence to the peri-urban areas. It is accompanied by a process of land conversion from green area into built-up area. Continuous land conversion in peri-urban area is becoming increasingly widespread. Bogor Regency as part of the Jakarta Metropolitan Area is experiencing rapid development. This regency has been experienced land-use change very rapidly from agricultural areas into urban built up areas. Aim of this research is to analyze the effect of urbanization on land use changes in peri-urban areas using spatial analysis methods. This research used case study of Ciawi Urban Area that experiencing rapid development. Method of this research is using descriptive quantitative approach. Data used in this research is primary data (field survey) and secondary data (maps). To analyze land use change is using Geographic Information System (GIS) as spatial analysis methods. The effect of urbanization on land use changes in Ciawi Urban Area from year 2013 to 2015 is significant. The reduction of farm land is around -4.00% and wetland is around - 2.51%. The increasing area for hotel/villa/resort is around 3.10%. Based on this research, local government (Bogor Regency) should be alert to the land use changes that does not comply with the land use plan and also consistently apply the spatial planning.

  15. Essentials for sustainable urban transport in Brazil's large metropolitan areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-08-01

    This paper describes four main pillars for sound development and long-term sustainability of the urban transport sector in large metropolitan areas, and suggests how they can be introduced. These pillars are: a) a Regional Transport Coordination Comm...

  16. Urbanized Areas of the United States Virgin Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — An urbanized area (UA) consists of densely settled territory that contains 50,000 or more people. A UA may contain both place and nonplace territory. The U.S. Census...

  17. Spatial associations between social groups and ozone air pollution exposure in the Beijing urban area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xinyi; Cheng, Hongguang; He, Siyuan; Cui, Xiangfen; Pu, Xiao; Lu, Lu

    2018-02-27

    Few studies have linked social factors to air pollution exposure in China. Unlike the race or minority concepts in western countries, the Hukou system (residential registration system) is a fundamental reason for the existence of social deprivation in China. To assess the differences in ozone (O 3 ) exposure among social groups, especially groups divided by Hukou status, we assigned estimates of O 3 exposure to the latest census data of the Beijing urban area using a kriging interpolation model. We developed simultaneous autoregressive (SAR) models that account for spatial autocorrelation to identify the associations between O 3 exposure and social factors. Principal component regression was used to control the multicollinearity bias as well as explore the spatial structure of the social data. The census tracts (CTs) with higher proportions of persons living alone and migrants with non-local Hukou were characterized by greater exposure to ambient O 3 . The areas with greater proportions of seniors had lower O 3 exposure. The spatial distribution patterns were similar among variables including migrants, agricultural population and household separation (population status with separation between Hukou and actual residences), which fit the demographic characteristics of the majority of migrants. Migrants bore a double burden of social deprivation and O 3 pollution exposure due to city development planning and the Hukou system. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Urban mobility regulation in metropolitan area of Mendoza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lía Martínez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Achieving the paradigm of sustainable urban mobility requires institutional capacities, appropriate policies and a regulatory framework that contains them. This work aims to contribute to the knowledge of the regulation of urban mobility in the metropolitan area of Mendoza. To this end, the current mobility regulations are assessed through indicators that are classified into three key areas: institutional and political organization, urban system and financial setup. The purpose is to account for the existence, or not, of regulatory capacities contained in the paradigm of sustainable mobility. Among the results, the absence of a policy of sustainable urban mobility is noteworthy, as well as the lack of sectorial coordination. Also of note is the absence of coordination between the urban planning system and the public transport provision. Lastly, in the financial sector, the results point to a promotion of sustainable transport modes but without such an explicit purpose.

  19. Urban area disadvantage and under-5 mortality in Nigeria: the effect of rapid urbanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antai, Diddy; Moradi, Tahereh

    2010-06-01

    Living in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas is associated with increased -childhood mortality risks. As city living becomes the predominant social context in low- and middle-income countries, the resulting rapid urbanization together with the poor economic circumstances of these countries greatly increases the risks of mortality for children urban population growth and urban under-5 mortality between 1983 and 2003 in Nigeria. We assessed whether urban area socioeconomic dis-advantage has an impact on under-5 mortality. Urban under-5 mortality rates were directly estimated from the 1990, 1999, and 2003 Nigeria Demographic and Health Surveys. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was performed on data for 2,118 children nested within data for 1,350 mothers, who were in turn nested within data for 165 communities. Urban under-5 mortality increased as urban population steadily increased between 1983 and 2003. Urban area disadvantage was significantly associated with under-5 mortality after adjusting for individual child- and mother-level demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. Significant relative risks of under-5 deaths at both individual and community levels underscore the need for interventions tailored toward community- and individual-level interventions. We stress the need for further studies on community-level determinants of under-5 mortality in disadvantaged urban areas.

  20. Rural EMR adoption rates overtake those in urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitacre, Brian E

    2015-03-01

    To assess rural-urban differences in electronic medical record (EMR) adoption among office-based physician practices in the United States. Survey data on over 270 000 office-based physician sites (representing over 1 280 000 physicians) in the United States from 2012 was used to assess differences in EMR adoption rates among practices in rural and urban areas. Logistic regression tests for differences in the determinants of EMR adoption by geography, and a nonlinear decomposition is used to quantify how much of the rural-urban gap is due to differences in measureable characteristics (such as type of practice or affiliation with a health system). Overall EMR adoption rates were significantly higher for practices in rural areas (56%) vs those in urban areas (49%) in 2012 (P rural and urban areas, with only two states demonstrating higher rates in urban areas. EMR adoption continues to be higher for primary care practices when compared to specialists (51% vs 49%, P rural-urban differences in adoption are more pronounced for specialists. The decomposition technique finds that only 14% of the rural-urban gap can be explained by differences in measurable characteristics between practices. At the national level, rates of EMR adoption are higher for rural practices than for their urban counterparts, reversing earlier trends. This suggests that outreach efforts, namely the Regional Extension Centers created by the Office of the National Coordinator, have been particularly effective in increasing EMR adoption in rural areas. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. The role of material deprivation and consumerism in the decisions to engage in transactional sex among young people in the urban slums of Blantyre, Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamndaya, Mphatso; Vearey, Jo; Thomas, Liz; Kabiru, Caroline W; Kazembe, Lawrence N

    2015-03-05

    Transactional sex has been associated with a high risk of HIV acquisition and unintended pregnancy among young women in urban slums in sub-Saharan Africa. However, few studies have explored the structural drivers of transactional sex from the perspective of both genders in these settings. This paper explores how young men and women understand the factors that lead to transactional sex among their peers, and how deprivation of material resources (housing, food and health care access) and consumerism (a desire for fashionable goods) may instigate transactional sex in the urban slums of Blantyre, Malawi. Data from 5 focus group discussions and 12 in-depth interviews undertaken with a total of 60 young men and women aged 18-23 years old, conducted between December 2012 and May 2013, were analysed using anticipated and grounded codes. Housing and food deprivation influenced decisions to engage in transactional sex for both young men and women. Poor health care access and a desire for fashionable goods (such as the latest hair or clothing styles and cellular phones) influenced the decisions of young women that led to transactional sex. Interventions that engage with deprivations and consumerism are essential to reducing sexual and reproductive health risks in urban slums.

  2. Patient enablement requires physician empathy: a cross-sectional study of general practice consultations in areas of high and low socioeconomic deprivation in Scotland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercer Stewart W

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patient 'enablement' is a term closely aligned with 'empowerment' and its measurement in a general practice consultation has been operationalised in the widely used patient enablement instrument (PEI, a patient-rated measure of consultation outcome. However, there is limited knowledge regarding the factors that influence enablement, particularly the effect of socio-economic deprivation. The aim of the study is to assess the factors influencing patient enablement in GP consultations in areas of high and low deprivation. Methods A questionnaire study was carried out on 3,044 patients attending 26 GPs (16 in areas of high socio-economic deprivation and 10 in low deprivation areas, in the west of Scotland. Patient expectation (confidence that the doctor would be able to help was recorded prior to the consultation. PEI, GP empathy (measured by the CARE Measure, and a range of other measures and variables were recorded after the consultation. Data analysis employed multi-level modelling and multivariate analyses with the PEI as the dependant variable. Results Although numerous variables showed a univariate association with patient enablement, only four factors were independently predictive after multilevel multivariate analysis; patients with multimorbidity of 3 or more long-term conditions (reflecting poor chronic general health, and those consulting about a long-standing problem had reduced enablement scores in both affluent and deprived areas. In deprived areas, emotional distress (GHQ-caseness had an additional negative effect on enablement. Perceived GP empathy had a positive effect on enablement in both affluent and deprived areas. Maximal patient enablement was never found with low empathy. Conclusions Although other factors influence patient enablement, the patients' perceptions of the doctors' empathy is of key importance in patient enablement in general practice consultations in both high and low deprivation settings.

  3. Development of a strategy for decontamination of an urban area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roed, J.; Andersson, K.G.

    2000-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident in 1986 lead to high level contamination in urban areas in different parts of Europe and showed the importance of preparedness in the optimisation of any mitigatory interference. To meet this demand, a method for development of a decontamination strategy for urban areas has been developed based on measurements of radionuclide distribution in the urban environment after the Chernobyl accident, calculations of dose and experimentally obtained data on effectiveness and cost of practicable clean-up procedures. The approach highlights where decontamination would be of greatest benefit in terms of dose reduction and cost. (author)

  4. Planning of Low-rise Urban Housing Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, O.

    In many countries industrialization of house building has led to the building of large, monotonous housing areas with high-rise construction. In Denmark, however, smaller, varied housing areas with low-rise construction and urban features have become predominant. This report contains guidelines f...... for the planning of such housing areas....

  5. Planning of Low-rise Urban Housing Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, O.

    In many countries industrialization of house building has led to the building of large, monotonous housing areas with high-rise construction. In Denmark, however, smaller, varied housing areas with low-rise construction and urban features have become predominant. This report contains guidelines...... for the planning of such housing areas....

  6. Acute pollution of recipients in urban areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rauch, W.; Harremoës, P.

    1997-01-01

    Oxygen and ammonia concentration are key parameters of acute water pollution in urban rivers. These two abiotic parameters are statistically assessed for a historical rain series by means of a simplified deterministic model of the integrated drainage system. Continuous simulation of the system...... performance indicates that acute water pollution is caused by intermittent discharges from both sewer system and wastewater treatment plant. Neglecting one of them in the evaluation of the environmental impact gives a wrong impression of total system behavior. Detention basins and alternative operational...... modes in the treatment plant under wet weather loading have a limited positive effect for minimizing acute water pollution. (C) 1997 IAWQ. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd....

  7. Urban Area Disadvantage and Under-5 Mortality in Nigeria: The Effect of Rapid Urbanization

    OpenAIRE

    Antai, D.; Moradi, T.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Living in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas is associated with increased -childhood mortality risks. As city living becomes the predominant social context in low- and middle-income countries, the resulting rapid urbanization together with the poor economic circumstances of these countries greatly increases the risks of mortality for children < 5 years of age (under-5 mortality). Objective: In this study we examined the trends in urban population growth and urban under-5 mortal...

  8. Water in Urban Areas in a Climate Change Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    planning of adaptation to the anticipated climatic changes and research to identify optimal strategies. In other areas of the world droughts and/or water resource availability in general will also become increasingly important. As such the water cycle in urban areas will be controlled more extensively......Climatic changes will influence the water cycle substantially. This will have an immediate impact on the performance of urban water infrastructure. A case study from Roskilde shows that assuming an increase in design intensities of 40 % over a 100 year horizon will lead to increased cost....... There is a need to forecast all the changes that can be foreseen within the technical lifetime of city infrastructure, notably the water system and the impacts on other aspects of urban liveability. Based on the projects in Partnership Water in Urban Areas (www.vandibyer.dk) these drivers will be discussed...

  9. Isotopic Recorders of Pollution in Heterogeneous Urban Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pataki, D. E.; Cobley, L.; Smith, R. M.; Ehleringer, J. R.; Chritz, K.

    2017-12-01

    A significant difficulty in quantifying urban pollution lies in the extreme spatial and temporal heterogeneity of cities. Dense sources of both point and non-point source pollution as well as the dynamic role of human activities, which vary over very short time scales and small spatial scales, complicate efforts to establish long-term urban monitoring networks that are relevant at neighborhood, municipal, and regional scales. Fortunately, the natural abundance of isotopes of carbon, nitrogen, and other elements provides a wealth of information about the sources and fate of urban atmospheric pollution. In particular, soils and plant material integrate pollution sources and cycling over space and time, and have the potential to provide long-term records of pollution dynamics that extend back before atmospheric monitoring data are available. Similarly, sampling organic material at high spatial resolution can provide "isoscapes" that shed light on the spatial heterogeneity of pollutants in different urban parcels and neighborhoods, along roads of varying traffic density, and across neighborhoods of varying affluence and sociodemographic composition. We have compiled numerous datasets of the isotopic composition of urban organic matter that illustrate the potential for isotopic monitoring of urban areas as a means of understanding hot spots and hot moments in urban atmospheric biogeochemistry. Findings to date already reveal the critical role of affluence, economic activity, demographic change, and land management practices in influencing urban pollution sources and sinks, and suggest an important role of stable isotope and radioisotope measurements in urban atmospheric and biogeochemical monitoring.

  10. Urban Modality : Modelling and evaluating the sustainable mobility of urban areas in the city-region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gil, J.A.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis proposes a framework for evaluating the mobility potential and performance of urban areas in the city region, as an instrument to support urban development that contributes positively to regional sustainable mobility objectives. The research takes a quantitative approach, modelling and

  11. Characterization of particulate air pollution in urban and non-urban areas in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee, van der S.C.; Hoek, G.; Harssema, H.; Brunekreef, B.

    1998-01-01

    During the winters of 1992/1993, 1993/1994 and 1994/1995 a monitoring study was performed in three urban and three non-urban areas in the Netherlands. PM10, black smoke (BS), sulfate, nitrate, ammonium (non-organic secondary aerosols, ''NOSA'') and aerosol acidity were measured on a daily basis in

  12. Scientific research in urban areas air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allegrini, I.

    1998-01-01

    The presence of consistent amounts of polluting agents in the urban atmosphere is a fact widely confirmed which poses serious problems to the people responsible for the environment management. It is well known that the majority of the polluting agents are produced by the intense traffic or vehicles which introduces in the atmosphere a large quantity of compounds. The toxic effect of some of these (primary polluters) is direct; others (secondary polluters) are the result of chemical reactions occurring within the atmosphere. Consequently, the management of the atmospheric environment requires the knowledge of a great number of processes, which begin with the emission of the polluting agents, and continue with their diffusion in the air, their transformation, the way they move, and how they are deposited or removed [it

  13. Defining urban and rural areas: a new approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arellano, Blanca; Roca, Josep

    2017-10-01

    The separation between the countryside and the city, from rural and urban areas, has been one of the central themes of the literature on urban and territorial studies. The seminal work of Kingsley Davis [10] in the 1950s introduced a wide and fruitful debate which, however, has not yet concluded in a rigorous definition that allows for comparative studies at the national and subnational levels of a scientific nature. In particular, the United Nations (UN) definition of urban and rural population is overly linked to political and administrative factors that make it difficult to use data adequately to understand the human settlement structure of different countries. The present paper seeks to define a more rigorous methodology for the identification of rural and urban areas. For this purpose it uses the night lights supplied by the SNPP satellite, and more specifically by the VIIRS sensor for the determination of the urbanization gradient, and by means of the same construct a more realistic indicator than the statistics provided by the UN. The arrival of electrification to nearly every corner of the planet is certainly the first and most meaningful indicator of artificialization of land. In this sense, this paper proposes a new methodology designed to identify highly impacted (urbanized) landscapes worldwide based on the analysis of satellite imagery of night-time lights. The application of this methodology on a global scale identifies the land highly impacted by light, the urbanization process, and allows an index to be drawn up of Land Impacted by Light per capita (LILpc) as an indicator of the level of urbanization. The methodology used in this paper can be summarized in the following steps: a) a logistic regression between US Urban Areas (UA), as a dependent variable, and night-time light intensity, as an explanatory variable, allows us to establish a nightlight intensity level for the determination of Areas Highly Impacted by Light (AHIL); b) the delimitation of

  14. Decentralized Sensor Fusion for Ubiquitous Networking Robotics in Urban Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanfeliu, Alberto; Andrade-Cetto, Juan; Barbosa, Marco; Bowden, Richard; Capitán, Jesús; Corominas, Andreu; Gilbert, Andrew; Illingworth, John; Merino, Luis; Mirats, Josep M.; Moreno, Plínio; Ollero, Aníbal; Sequeira, João; Spaan, Matthijs T.J.

    2010-01-01

    In this article we explain the architecture for the environment and sensors that has been built for the European project URUS (Ubiquitous Networking Robotics in Urban Sites), a project whose objective is to develop an adaptable network robot architecture for cooperation between network robots and human beings and/or the environment in urban areas. The project goal is to deploy a team of robots in an urban area to give a set of services to a user community. This paper addresses the sensor architecture devised for URUS and the type of robots and sensors used, including environment sensors and sensors onboard the robots. Furthermore, we also explain how sensor fusion takes place to achieve urban outdoor execution of robotic services. Finally some results of the project related to the sensor network are highlighted. PMID:22294927

  15. Decentralized Sensor Fusion for Ubiquitous Networking Robotics in Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aníbal Ollero

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article we explain the architecture for the environment and sensors that has been built for the European project URUS (Ubiquitous Networking Robotics in Urban Sites, a project whose objective is to develop an adaptable network robot architecture for cooperation between network robots and human beings and/or the environment in urban areas. The project goal is to deploy a team of robots in an urban area to give a set of services to a user community. This paper addresses the sensor architecture devised for URUS and the type of robots and sensors used, including environment sensors and sensors onboard the robots. Furthermore, we also explain how sensor fusion takes place to achieve urban outdoor execution of robotic services. Finally some results of the project related to the sensor network are highlighted.

  16. Decentralized sensor fusion for Ubiquitous Networking Robotics in Urban Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanfeliu, Alberto; Andrade-Cetto, Juan; Barbosa, Marco; Bowden, Richard; Capitán, Jesús; Corominas, Andreu; Gilbert, Andrew; Illingworth, John; Merino, Luis; Mirats, Josep M; Moreno, Plínio; Ollero, Aníbal; Sequeira, João; Spaan, Matthijs T J

    2010-01-01

    In this article we explain the architecture for the environment and sensors that has been built for the European project URUS (Ubiquitous Networking Robotics in Urban Sites), a project whose objective is to develop an adaptable network robot architecture for cooperation between network robots and human beings and/or the environment in urban areas. The project goal is to deploy a team of robots in an urban area to give a set of services to a user community. This paper addresses the sensor architecture devised for URUS and the type of robots and sensors used, including environment sensors and sensors onboard the robots. Furthermore, we also explain how sensor fusion takes place to achieve urban outdoor execution of robotic services. Finally some results of the project related to the sensor network are highlighted.

  17. Report card on low level ozone in urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onischak, M.

    1994-01-01

    It has been four years since the Clean Air Act was amended in November of 1990. Much work has been done in this time, and the country is beginning to see real air quality benefits. Although these changes have not completely licked the urban ozone problem yet, they have made a lot of progress. All of the urban areas which have been required to reduce their ozone levels have done a good job of lowering their emissions. While the urban areas have not all been able to meet every federal deadline, the areas have all been able to achieve the control milestones before the mandatory Clean Air Act sanctions have taken effect. Some areas are even ready to declare their ozone problems solved

  18. Report card on low level ozone in urban areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onischak, M.

    1994-12-31

    It has been four years since the Clean Air Act was amended in November of 1990. Much work has been done in this time, and the country is beginning to see real air quality benefits. Although these changes have not completely licked the urban ozone problem yet, they have made a lot of progress. All of the urban areas which have been required to reduce their ozone levels have done a good job of lowering their emissions. While the urban areas have not all been able to meet every federal deadline, the areas have all been able to achieve the control milestones before the mandatory Clean Air Act sanctions have taken effect. Some areas are even ready to declare their ozone problems solved.

  19. Deposition and removal of radioactive substances in an urban area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roed, J.

    1990-01-01

    Radiation doses received by the population of a contaminated urban area have been estimated. Possible dose reduction measures and their cost-effectiveness are investigated. Potentially important parameters influencing the doses have also been studied. They include distribution of contamination following both wet and dry deposition, run-off, weathering, shielding, resuspension, indoor deposition, the relative airborne concentrations indoors and outdors, and forced decontamination. It is shown that contamination of the green areas in an urban complex is generally a major contributor to dose. A study of the cost-effectiveness of different clean-up procedures indicates that decontamination of green areas and streets are relatively cost-effective and would rank highly in a list of priorities. Following a contamination due to a reactor accident, the dose rate to an individual will generally be less in an urban area than in a rural environment. (author) 89 refs

  20. HAPPINESS ORIENTATIONS AMONG ADOLESCENTS RAISED IN URBAN AND RURAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisti Anggraeny

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Researcher takes particular interest to discover the respondents’ orientation towards happiness based on where the respondent was raised. The study involves 467 senior high school students with ages ranging from 14-17 years old. The data is analyzed using an adapted society psychological approach. The results shows that adolescents raised in rural areas are consider the family to be a factor that contributes to their happiness. Second, achievement is also a factor that leads to happiness. However for the category, to love and be loved, adolescents growing in urban areas place this as a factor that leads to happiness. Similar with spirituality, friends and leisure time are factors that make adolescents raised in urban areas to become happy. Nevertheless, the results of cross tabulation with Pearson chi square test scoring demonstrates that no correlations exist between adolescent happiness raised from urban or rural areas.

  1. Data Base for the Management of Green Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Parinello

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This research is aimed to studying the reading systems and identify opportunities for the analysis of complex equipment plants that live in urban areas. Analyzing census systems, generally used for the creation of databases and archives on virtual plant health of ornamental species that inhabit urban environments, we propose a system of interaction between the clouds, provided by the laser scanner, and banks virtual data, integrating quantitative understanding of digital archives, with descriptive data, creating useful tools for the management of urban space for the comprehensive interpretation of the various activities of knowledge on the green and the city.

  2. Urban climate in the Tokyo metropolitan area in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Jun; Fujibe, Fumiaki; Takahashi, Hideo

    2017-09-01

    Long-term climate changes related with urbanization in Tokyo, Japan, and recent temperature and heavy rainfall distribution in the Tokyo metropolitan area are reviewed. A relatively high temperature increase in annual mean temperature at the rate of 3.0°C/century was detected in Tokyo for the period 1901-2015. Some observational evidence showed the existence of both thermal and mechanical effects of urbanization on recent heavy rainfall occurrences, and modeling studies also support precipitation enhancement. Urban influences were recognized in other climatological elements, such as number of fog days, relative humidity, and wind circulation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. The moss flora in the central urban area of Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grdović Svetlana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In floristic research on mosses in the central urban area of Belgrade, the presence of 58 species classified into 23 genera and 12 families was verified. The mosses occur in different specific and extreme microhabitats. Diversity of the bryoflora in urban ecosystems can be explained in terms of the large number of different habitats found on large greens, old fortress ruins, and roofs, as well as in gardens in the center of the Old Town.

  4. Outside and inside noise exposure in urban and suburban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwight E. Bishop; Myles A. Simpson

    1977-01-01

    In urban and suburban areas of the United States (away from major airports), the outdoor noise environment usually depends strongly on local vehicular traffic. By relating traffic flow to population density, a model of outdoor noise exposure has been developed for estimating the cumulative 24-hour noise exposure based upon the population density of the area. This noise...

  5. Vertical Pointing Weather Radar for Built-up Urban Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Michael R.; Thorndahl, Søren; Schaarup-Jensen, Kjeld

    2008-01-01

      A cost effective vertical pointing X-band weather radar (VPR) has been tested for measurement of precipitation in urban areas. Stationary tests indicate that the VPR performs well compared to horizontal weather radars, such as the local area weather radars (LAWR). The test illustrated...

  6. Air temperature and energy consumption feedbacks within urbanized areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginzburg, A. S.; Demchenko, P. F.

    2017-09-01

    In the 21st century, the climate of expanding megacities and urbanized areas is increasingly forming and changing under the influence of the growing power consumption of the urban economy. To understand the urban climate dynamic and estimate the energy needs of cities in the 21st century, it is necessary to consider not only global and regional climatic factors, but also the presence of feedback between temperature and energy consumption in urbanized areas. This feedback can be both negative and positive, and their significance depends essentially on the climate and landform of the region, system of electricity and heat supply of a city, and some other factors. This article describes the main factors of formation and development of temperature and energy-consumption feedback within urbanized areas in cold and warm seasons when indoor heating or air conditioning is being used. The role of advection in strengthening and weakening of this feedback is studied. The estimates of the parameter and coefficient of feedback strengthening with the influence of anthropogenic heat fluxes and advection on the urban air temperature are presented.

  7. Global loss of avian evolutionary uniqueness in urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez-Álamo, Juan Diego; Rubio, Enrique; Benedetti, Yanina; Morelli, Federico

    2017-08-01

    Urbanization, one of the most important anthropogenic impacts on Earth, is rapidly expanding worldwide. This expansion of urban land-covered areas is known to significantly reduce different components of biodiversity. However, the global evidence for this effect is mainly focused on a single diversity measure (species richness) with a few local or regional studies also supporting reductions in functional diversity. We have used birds, an important ecological group that has been used as surrogate for other animals, to investigate the hypothesis that urbanization reduces the global taxonomical and/or evolutionary diversity. We have also explored whether there is evidence supporting that urban bird communities are evolutionarily homogenized worldwide in comparison with nonurban ones by means of using evolutionary distinctiveness (how unique are the species) of bird communities. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to quantify the effect of urbanization in more than one single diversity measure as well as the first time to look for associations between urbanization and phylogenetic diversity at a large spatial scale. Our findings show a strong and globally consistent reduction in taxonomic diversity in urban areas, which is also synchronized with the evolutionary homogenization of urban bird communities. Despite our general patterns, we found some regional differences in the intensity of the effect of cities on bird species richness or evolutionary distinctiveness, suggesting that conservation efforts should be adapted locally. Our findings might be useful for conservationists and policymakers to minimize the impact of urban development on Earth's biodiversity and help design more realistic conservation strategies. © 2016 The Authors. Global Change Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Buoyancy and turbulence-driven atmospheric circulation over urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yifan; Hunt, Julian Charles Roland; Li, Yuguo

    2017-09-01

    In the buoyancy and turbulence-driven atmospheric circulations (BTDAC) that occur over urban areas where the approach means wind speeds are very low (less than turbulent fluctuations and typically areas, and the atmosphere above the mixing layer is stably stratified. In this paper, the mechanisms of BTDAC formation are studied through laboratory experiments and modelling, with additional low-level inflow from external rural areas and a divergent outflow in the opposite direction in the upper part of the mixed layer. Strong turbulent plumes in the central region mix the flow between lower and higher levels up to the inversion height. There are shear-driven turbulent eddies and weaker buoyant plumes around the periphery of the urban area. As the approach flow is very weak, the recirculating streamlines within the dome restrict the ventilation, and the dispersion of pollution emitted from sources below the inversion height leading to a rise in the mean concentration. Low-level air entrained from rural areas can, however, improve ventilation and lower this concentration. This trend can also be improved if the recirculating structure of the BTDAC flow pattern over urban areas breaks down as a result of the surface temperature distribution not being symmetrical, or as the approach wind speed increases to a level comparable with the mean velocity of circulation, or (except near the equator) the urban area is large enough that the Coriolis acceleration is significant. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. High-capacity transport, floor area ratio and its relationship with urbanization of metropolitan areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho da Costa, B.L. de; Carvalho da Costa, F.B. de

    2016-07-01

    Most of the world’s population lives in urban areas (54%). Near 42% of the global urban population live in cities with more than 1 million inhabitants, where problems associated with urban sprawl such as informal settlement, social-economic changes, environmental degradation and deficient high-capacity transport (HCT) systems are common. Meanwhile, urbanization and its associated transportation infrastructure define the relationship between city and countryside, between the city’s inner core and the periphery, between the citizen and his right to move. This article discusses and presents an overview about the relationship between the planning and extension of HCT systems and urban planning, (in the figure of the floor-area ratio - FAR- prescribed in regulations). The methodological approach consists of drawing a conceptual framework and studying 33 different cities of metropolitan areas on five continents. It’s noticed that areas in cities with a high construction potential but with an insufficient HCT negatively influence in urban mobility and hence the right to the city. We consider right to the city the various social and fundamental rights that, among others, includes the right to public transportation. Therefore there’s a real need of an integrated approach of community participation, FAR distribution, urban planning and transportation planning and so that urbanization, inevitable these days, takes place in a fair and harmonious way. (Author)

  10. Pre-Processes for Urban Areas Detection in SAR Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altay Açar, S.; Bayır, Ş.

    2017-11-01

    In this study, pre-processes for urban areas detection in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images are examined. These pre-processes are image smoothing, thresholding and white coloured regions determination. Image smoothing is carried out to remove noises then thresholding is applied to obtain binary image. Finally, candidate urban areas are detected by using white coloured regions determination. All pre-processes are applied by utilizing the developed software. Two different SAR images which are acquired by TerraSAR-X are used in experimental study. Obtained results are shown visually.

  11. Urban Groundwater Mapping - Bucharest City Area Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaitanaru, Dragos; Radu Gogu, Constantin; Bica, Ioan; Anghel, Leonard; Amine Boukhemacha, Mohamed; Ionita, Angela

    2013-04-01

    Urban Groundwater Mapping (UGM) is a generic term for a collection of procedures and techniques used to create targeted cartographic representation of the groundwater related aspects in urban areas. The urban environment alters the physical and chemical characteristics of the underneath aquifers. The scale of the pressure is controlled by the urban development in time and space. To have a clear image on the spatial and temporal distribution of different groundwater- urban structures interaction we need a set of thematic maps is needed. In the present study it is described the methodological approach used to obtain a reliable cartographic product for Bucharest City area. The first step in the current study was to identify the groundwater related problems and aspects (changes in the groundwater table, infiltration and seepage from and to the city sewer network, contamination spread to all three aquifers systems located in quaternary sedimentary formations, dewatering impact for large underground structures, management and political drawbacks). The second step was data collection and validation. In urban areas there is a big spectrum of data providers related to groundwater. Due to the fact that data is produced and distributed by different types of organizations (national agencies, private companies, municipal water regulator, etc) the validation and cross check process is mandatory. The data is stored and managed by a geospatial database. The design of the database follows an object-orientated paradigm and is easily extensible. The third step consists of a set of procedures based on a multi criteria assessment that creates the specific setup for the thematic maps. The assessment is based on the following criteria: (1) scale effect , (2) time , (3) vertical distribution and (4) type of the groundwater related problem. The final step is the cartographic representation. In this final step the urban groundwater maps are created. All the methodological steps are doubled

  12. Demographic Data - URBAN_AREAS_TIGER00_IN: Indiana Major Urban Areas (U.S. Census Bureau, 1:100,000, Polygon Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — URBAN_AREAS_TIGER00_IN contains major urban areas in Indiana identified by the US Bureau of the Census. Data is from U.S. Department of Commerce, U.S. Census Bureau,...

  13. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior to identify key beliefs underlying chlamydia testing intentions in a sample of young people living in deprived areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Amy R; Norman, Paul; Harris, Peter R; Goyder, Elizabeth

    2015-09-01

    The Theory of Planned Behavior was used to identify the key behavioural, normative and control beliefs underlying intentions to test regularly for chlamydia among young people living in socially and economically deprived areas - a high-risk group for infection. Participants (N = 278, 53% male; mean age 17 years) were recruited from a vocational college situated in an area in the most deprived national quintile (England). Participants completed measures of behavioural, normative and control beliefs, plus intention to test regularly for chlamydia. The behavioural, normative and control beliefs most strongly correlated with intentions to test regularly for chlamydia were beliefs about stopping the spread of infection, partners' behaviour and the availability of testing. These beliefs represent potential targets for interventions to increase chlamydia testing among young people living in deprived areas. © The Author(s) 2013.

  14. Rationale for the new GP deprivation payment scheme in England: effects of moving from electoral ward to enumeration district underprivileged area scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajekal, M; Alves, B; Jarman, B; Hurwitz, B

    2001-06-01

    The Department of Health introduced a new deprivation payments system for general practitioners (GPs) on 1 April 1999. Following a three-year phasing-in process, registered patients will attract deprivation payments based on the underprivileged area (UPA) score of their enumeration district (ED) of residence, rather than their electoral ward, changing the pattern and distribution of payments throughout England. To assess the rationale behind the changed deprivation payments system for GPs in England and to examine its impact on GP and practice payments. A quantitative study modelling practice-based deprivation payments. A total of 25,450 unrestricted principal GPs in 8919 practices in England. The effect of three new components in the system were examined: changes in the ED score ranges attracting payment, the percentage increase in the size of successive payment bands, and the total budget. The relationship between consultation rates (used as a proxy for workload) and UPA score was examined, together with changes in GP payments calculated nationally and by geographical area. A total of 11.6% of the population of England live in wards with a UPA score of 30 or more, qualifying for deprivation payments, and a similar proportion (11.4%) live in EDs with a UPA score of 20 or more. The larger percentage increases in the size of payments in successive ED UPA bands is supported by the modelled relationship between consultation rate and UPA score. Financially, under the new deprivations payment system, entitlement widens with 88% of practices receiving a payment. Overall, 74% of GPs gain and 13% lose (3% losing more than 1500 Pounds), with 13% receiving no payment. The new ED system maps onto the previous system well. Moreover, it more finely discriminates between smaller areas of different relative deprivation and, thereby, targets payments more accurately.

  15. Rationale for the new GP deprivation payment scheme in England: effects of moving from electoral ward to enumeration district underprivileged area scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajekal, M; Alves, B; Jarman, B; Hurwitz, B

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Department of Health introduced a new deprivation payments system for general practitioners (GPs) on 1 April 1999. Following a three-year phasing-in process, registered patients will attract deprivation payments based on the underprivileged area (UPA) score of their enumeration district (ED) of residence, rather than their electoral ward, changing the pattern and distribution of payments throughout England. AIM: To assess the rationale behind the changed deprivation payments system for GPs in England and to examine its impact on GP and practice payments. DESIGN OF STUDY: A quantitative study modelling practice-based deprivation payments. SETTING: A total of 25,450 unrestricted principal GPs in 8919 practices in England. METHOD: The effect of three new components in the system were examined: changes in the ED score ranges attracting payment, the percentage increase in the size of successive payment bands, and the total budget. The relationship between consultation rates (used as a proxy for workload) and UPA score was examined, together with changes in GP payments calculated nationally and by geographical area. RESULTS: A total of 11.6% of the population of England live in wards with a UPA score of 30 or more, qualifying for deprivation payments, and a similar proportion (11.4%) live in EDs with a UPA score of 20 or more. The larger percentage increases in the size of payments in successive ED UPA bands is supported by the modelled relationship between consultation rate and UPA score. Financially, under the new deprivations payment system, entitlement widens with 88% of practices receiving a payment. Overall, 74% of GPs gain and 13% lose (3% losing more than 1500 Pounds), with 13% receiving no payment. CONCLUSION: The new ED system maps onto the previous system well. Moreover, it more finely discriminates between smaller areas of different relative deprivation and, thereby, targets payments more accurately. PMID:11407049

  16. An HPLC tracing of the enhancer regulation in selected discrete brain areas of food-deprived rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miklya, I; Knoll, B; Knoll, J

    2003-05-09

    The recent discovery of the enhancer regulation in the mammalian brain brought a different perspective to the brain-organized realization of goal-oriented behavior, which is the quintessence of plastic behavioral descriptions such as drive or motivation. According to this new approach, 'drive' means that special endogenous enhancer substances enhance the impulse-propagation-mediated release of transmitters in a proper population of enhancer-sensitive neurons, and keep these neurons in the state of enhanced excitability until the goal is reached. However, to reach any goal needs the participation of the catecholaminergic machinery, the engine of the brain. We developed a method to detect the specific enhancer effect of synthetic enhancer substances [(-)-deprenyl, (-)-PPAP, (-)-BPAP] by measuring the release of transmitters from freshly isolated selected discrete brain areas (striatum, substantia nigra, tuberculum olfactorium, locus coeruleus, raphe) by the aid of HPLC with electrochemical detection. To test the validity of the working hypothesis that in any form of goal-seeking behavior the catecholaminergic and serotonergic neurons work on a higher activity level, we compared the amount of norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin released from selected discrete brain areas isolated from the brain of sated and food-deprived rats. Rats were deprived of food for 48 and 72 hours, respectively, and the state of excitability of their catecholaminergic and serotonergic neurons in comparison to that of sated rats was measured. We tested the orienting-searching reflex activity of the rats in a special open field, isolated thereafter selected discrete brain areas and measured the release of norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin from the proper tissue samples into the organ bath. The orienting-searching reflex activity of the rats increased proportionally to the time elapsed from the last feed and the amount of dopamine released from the striatum, substantia nigra and

  17. Air quality and urban form in U.S. urban areas: evidence from regulatory monitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Lara P; Millet, Dylan B; Marshall, Julian D

    2011-08-15

    The layout of an urban area can impact air pollution via changes in emissions and their spatial distribution. Here, we explore relationships between air quality and urban form based on cross-sectional observations for 111 U.S. urban areas. We employ stepwise linear regression to quantify how long-term population-weighted outdoor concentrations of ozone, fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)), and other criteria pollutants measured by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency depend on urban form, climate, transportation, city size, income, and region. Aspects of urban form evaluated here include city shape, road density, jobs-housing imbalance, population density, and population centrality. We find that population density is associated with higher population-weighted PM(2.5) concentrations (p pollutants, interquartile range changes in urban form variables are associated with 4%-12% changes in population-weighted concentrations-amounts comparable, for example, to changes in climatic factors. Our empirical findings are consistent with prior modeling research and suggest that urban form could potentially play a modest but important role in achieving (or not achieving) long-term air quality goals.

  18. A global synthesis of plant extinction rates in urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahs, Amy K; McDonnell, Mark J; McCarthy, Michael A; Vesk, Peter A; Corlett, Richard T; Norton, Briony A; Clemants, Steven E; Duncan, Richard P; Thompson, Ken; Schwartz, Mark W; Williams, Nicholas S G

    2009-11-01

    Plant extinctions from urban areas are a growing threat to biodiversity worldwide. To minimize this threat, it is critical to understand what factors are influencing plant extinction rates. We compiled plant extinction rate data for 22 cities around the world. Two-thirds of the variation in plant extinction rates was explained by a combination of the city's historical development and the current proportion of native vegetation, with the former explaining the greatest variability. As a single variable, the amount of native vegetation remaining also influenced extinction rates, particularly in cities > 200 years old. Our study demonstrates that the legacies of landscape transformations by agrarian and urban development last for hundreds of years, and modern cities potentially carry a large extinction debt. This finding highlights the importance of preserving native vegetation in urban areas and the need for mitigation to minimize potential plant extinctions in the future.

  19. Assessment of the dynamics of urbanized areas by remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeprintsev, S. A.; Klevtsova, M. A.; Lepeshkina, L. A.; Shekoyan, S. V.; Voronin, A. A.

    2018-01-01

    This research looks at the results of a study of spatial ecological zoning of urban territories using the NDVI-analysis of actual multi-channel satellite images from Landsat-7 and Landsat-8 in the Voronezh region for the period 2001 to 2016. The results obtained in the course of interpretation of space images and processing of statistical information compiled in the GIS environment “Ecology of cities Voronezh region” on the basis of which carried out a comprehensive ecological zoning of the studied urbanized areas. The obtained data on the spatial classification of urban and suburban areas, the peculiarities of the dynamics of weakly and strongly anthropogenically territories, hydrological features and vegetation.

  20. Multi-scale atmospheric environment modelling for urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Baklanov

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Modern supercomputers allow realising multi-scale systems for assessment and forecasting of urban meteorology, air pollution and emergency preparedness and considering nesting with obstacle-resolved models. A multi-scale modelling system with downscaling from regional to city-scale with the Environment – HIgh Resolution Limited Area Model (Enviro-HIRLAM and to micro-scale with the obstacle-resolved Micro-scale Model for Urban Environment (M2UE is suggested and demonstrated. The M2UE validation results versus the Mock Urban Setting Trial (MUST experiment indicate satisfactory quality of the model. Necessary conditions for the choice of nested models, building descriptions, areas and resolutions of nested models are analysed. Two-way nesting (up- and down-scaling, when scale effects both directions (from the meso-scale on the micro-scale and from the micro-scale on the meso-scale, is also discussed.

  1. QUALITY OF PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION SERVICES IN URBAN AREA OF ORADEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silaghi Simona

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Intensification of public transport in urban areas due to increased mobility at regional and national levels, discrepancies among urban areas with same population and lack of statistical data related to performance and quality of public transport services are the main determinants of this paper. A separation line must be drawn between quality of services and performance indicators of public transport system. Service quality is a multi subjective outcome of an array of intangible variables. Service quality can be approached from four directions: consumer, vehicle performance (including the human operator, specialized company in passenger transport, and the Government (local Councils. Availability, comfort and convenience are the two main indicators that must be evaluated by citizens as being with high grades for a good quality of urban transport services. The instrument used to gather data is the preference survey.

  2. Mapping urban climate zones and quantifying climate behaviors - An application on Toulouse urban area (France)

    OpenAIRE

    Houet, Thomas; Pigeon, Grégoire

    2011-01-01

    International audience; Facing the concern of the population to its environment and to climatic change, city planners are now considering the urban climate in their choices of planning. The use of climatic maps, such Urban Climate Zone--UCZ, is adapted for this kind of application. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate that the UCZ classification, integrated in the World Meteorological Organization guidelines, first can be automatically determined for sample areas and second is meanin...

  3. Mapping urban climate zones and quantifying climate behaviors - An application on Toulouse urban area (France)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houet, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.houet@univ-tlse2.fr [GEODE UMR 5602 CNRS, Universite de Toulouse, 5 allee Antonio Machado, 31058 Toulouse Cedex (France); Pigeon, Gregoire [Centre National de Recherches Meteorologiques, Meteo-France/CNRM-GAME, 42 avenue Coriolis, 31057 Toulouse Cedex (France)

    2011-08-15

    Facing the concern of the population to its environment and to climatic change, city planners are now considering the urban climate in their choices of planning. The use of climatic maps, such Urban Climate Zone-UCZ, is adapted for this kind of application. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate that the UCZ classification, integrated in the World Meteorological Organization guidelines, first can be automatically determined for sample areas and second is meaningful according to climatic variables. The analysis presented is applied on Toulouse urban area (France). Results show first that UCZ differentiate according to air and surface temperature. It has been possible to determine the membership of sample areas to an UCZ using landscape descriptors automatically computed with GIS and remote sensed data. It also emphasizes that climate behavior and magnitude of UCZ may vary from winter to summer. Finally we discuss the influence of climate data and scale of observation on UCZ mapping and climate characterization. - Highlights: > We proposed a method to map Urban Climate Zones and quantify their climate behaviors. > UCZ is an expert-based classification and is integrated in the WMO guidelines. > We classified 26 sample areas and quantified climate behaviors in winter/summer. > Results enhance urban heat islands and outskirts are surprisingly hottest in summer. > Influence of scale and climate data on UCZ mapping and climate evaluation is discussed. - This paper presents an automated approach to classify sample areas in a UCZ using landscape descriptors and demonstrate that climate behaviors of UCZ differ.

  4. Industrial pollutions is an environmental issue of Karachi urban area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jokhio, M.H.; Abro, M.I.; Essani, A.

    2005-01-01

    The Industrial pollution is one of the serious Environmental issues of the Karachi urban area, categorized as air pollution and water pollution. The localization more the 6000 industries in Karachi urban area at four different sites of Sindh industrial trading estate, Landhi industrial trading estate, Korangi industrial area west Warf industrials, Port Qasim industrial. Area and Hub industrial are near Karachi city. The major iron and steel industries includes Pakistan steel mills and its allied industries at Bin Qasim more than 100 re-rolling industries are located at site area. Karachi ship yard engineering works, Peoples steel Mill, automobile industries and various manufacturing industries which requires metal and its alloy in manufacturing of product mostly located at Bin Qasim, Korangi, and Shershah site areas. None of the industrial sector contain the waster treatment or recycling plant. The ill planted growth of Karachi and its industries caused the environmental degradation of the city and its coastal areas complete with massive mangrove destruction, air water, fishing, and agriculture possessing a potential threat to the lives of more than 10 million citizens. The environmental issues of the metal related industries include the scrap, waste and pollution. Scrapes am waste of the metal industries can be reused in other manufacturing of engineering materials or recycled to produce the new material. However the pollution is the one of the major environmental issue related with the metal industries which need the considerable research and development work in order to over come the serve environmental issues of the urban areas. This article reviews and identifies the level of industrial pollution emphasized on metal related industries of the Karachi urban areas. (author)

  5. Forestry in urban and urbanizing areas of the United States; connecting people with forest in the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    John F. Dwyer; Gina M. Childs; David J. Nowak

    2000-01-01

    Resource managers worldwide face challenges in responding to expanding urbanization and its effects on forest resources. These challenges can be met head on if managers work toward: (1) comprehensive management of forest resources in urban and urbanizing areas, and (2)connection of urban people with forests and their management. Opportunities exist for...

  6. Addressing the Sanitation Challenge in Poor Urban Areas (East ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Addressing the Sanitation Challenge in Poor Urban Areas (East Africa). The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that the global burden of disease could be reduced by up to 15% by improving water, sanitation and hygiene. Until recently, however, little attention has been paid to sanitation by national governments ...

  7. (Impervious) Surfaces on the Microclimate of Urban Area

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present paper shows the considerable impacts of both vegetated and synthetic surfaces on the microclimate of urban area. Vegetation of a particular place affects the microclimate through reduced solar radiation and lower air temperature due to shading and evapotranspiration. Lower air temperatures are essential ...

  8. Evaluation of parking management strategies for urban areas : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The state of the art of parking management in urban areas in the United States was established using an extensive review of the literature and a nationwide questionnaire survey that was distributed to 458 city officials, 173 of whom responded. Based ...

  9. Morbidity and mortality in Zimbabwe's urban areas: policy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In times of tightening national budgets as a result of structural adjustment requirements, the need to make choices in a country's publicly-funded social protection programme is heightened. A greater understanding of the patterns and causes of morbidity and mortality in Zimbabwe's urban areas forms an important basis for ...

  10. Benefits of restoring ecosystem services in urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. Elmqvist; H. Setala; S.N. Handel; S. van der Ploeg; J. Aronson; J.N. Blignaut; E. Gomez-Baggethun; D.J. Nowak; J. Kronenberg; R. de Groot

    2015-01-01

    Cities are a key nexus of the relationship between people and nature and are huge centers of demand for ecosystem services and also generate extremely large environmental impacts. Current projections of rapid expansion of urban areas present fundamental challenges and also opportunities to design more livable, healthy and resilient cities (e.g. adaptation to climate...

  11. Using phytotechnologies to remediate brownfields, landfills, and other urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.S. Zalesny Jr.; Jill Zalesny

    2010-01-01

    Urban areas requiring remedial work has prompted the use of phytotechnologies to improve water quality, soil health, and biodiversity, as well as to achieve sustainable social and economic goals. Phytotechnologies directly use plants to clean up contaminated groundwater, soil, and sediment.

  12. Mapping end-stage renal disease (ESRD: spatial variations on small area level in northern France, and association with deprivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florent Occelli

    Full Text Available Strong geographic variations in the incidence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD are observed in developed countries. The reasons for these variations are unknown. They may reflect regional inequalities in the population's sociodemographic characteristics, related diseases, or medical practice patterns. In France, at the district level, the highest incidence rates have been found in the Nord-Pas-de-Calais region. This area, with a high population density and homogeneous healthcare provision, represents a geographic situation which is quite suitable for the study, over small areas, of spatial disparities in the incidence of ESRD, together with their correlation with a deprivation index and other risk factors.The Renal Epidemiology and Information Network is a national registry, which lists all ESRD patients in France. All cases included in the Nord-Pas-de-Calais registry between 2005 and 2011 were extracted. Adjusted and smoothed standardized incidence ratio (SIR was calculated for each of the 170 cantons, thanks to a hierarchical Bayesian model. The correlation between ESRD incidence and deprivation was assessed using the quintiles of Townsend index. Relative risk (RR and credible intervals (CI were estimated for each quintile.Significant spatial disparities in ESRD incidence were found within the Nord-Pas-de-Calais region. The sex- and age-adjusted, smoothed SIRs varied from 0.66 to 1.64. Although no correlation is found with diabetic or vascular nephropathy, the smoothed SIRs are correlated with the Townsend index (RR: 1.18, 95% CI [1.00-1.34] for Q2; 1.28, 95% CI [1.11-1.47] for Q3; 1.30, 95% CI [1.14-1.51] for Q4; 1.44, 95% CI [1.32-1.74] for Q5.For the first time at this aggregation level in France, this study reveals significant geographic differences in ESRD incidence. Unlike the time of renal replacement care, deprivation is certainly a determinant in this phenomenon. This association is probably independent of the patients' financial

  13. Public-private partnerships in urban regeneration areas in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Michael Tophøj; Aunsborg, Christian

    2006-01-01

    The paper focuses formal as well as informal public-private partnerships (PPP) in Danish urban regeneration areas. The concept ‘urban regeneration areas’ was introduced in the 2003 Planning Act as old, remaining industrial areas within the city boundaries by now were recognized as an ressource....../neighbour interests, e.g. exceeding what is directly permitted by written law) or supporting (encourage developers to re-develop an area, e.g. by subsidies). The purpose of the paper is to describe the range of possible partnerships between public and private partners, and to investigate their legal background...... into housing while neighbouring noisy industries go on. Beyond this, from a municipal point of view there are several public interests to manage when old, remaining industrial areas face re-development. The motive of the municipal council can either be regulative (safeguarding certain financial or other public...

  14. Inadvertent weather modification urban areas - lessons for global climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changnon, S.A.

    1992-01-01

    Large metropolitan areas in North America, home to 65% of the USA's population, have created major changes in their climates over the past 150 years. The rate and amount of the urban climate change approximate those being predicted globally using climate models. Knowledge of urban weather and climate modification holds lessons for the global climate change issue. First, adjustments to urban climate changes can provide guidance for adjusting to global change. A second lesson relates to the difficulty but underscores the necessity of providing scientifically credible proof of change within the noise of natural climatic variability. The evolution of understanding about how urban conditions influence weather reveals several unexpected outcomes, particularly relating to precipitation changes. These suggest that similar future surprises can be expected in a changed global climate, a third lesson. In-depth studies of how urban climate changes affected the hydrologic cycle, the regional economy, and human activities were difficult because of data problems, lack of impact methodology, and necessity for multidisciplinary investigations. Similar impact studies for global climate change will require diverse scientific talents and funding commitments adequate to measure the complexity of impacts and human adjustments. Understanding the processes whereby urban areas and other human activities have altered the atmosphere and changed clouds and precipitation regionally appears highly relevant to the global climate-change issue. Scientific and governmental policy development needs to recognize an old axiom that became evident in the studies of inadvertent urban and regional climate change and their behavioural implications: Think globally but act locally. Global climate change is an international issue, and the atmosphere must be treated globally. But the impacts and the will to act and adjust will occur regionally

  15. [Climate and ecologic state of urban areas in Eastern Kazakhstan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onaev, S T; Grebeneva, O V; Shadetova, A Zh; Kurmangalieva, D S; Balaeva, E A

    2011-01-01

    Ust-Kamenogorsk territory was demonstrated to have climate peculiarities depending on local relief and unfavorable wind conditions of ventilation, that could promote formation of highly chemically loaded zones. Suggested evaluation methods provide qualitative and quantitative assessment of climate parameters for individual areas of residence. Marking areas according to residence comfort for population, based on analysis of geographic position of the studied territory, in accordance with repetition of meteorologic processes, could specify major factors influencing climate on urban territories of modem Kazakhstan cities.

  16. SOLUTIONS FOR INTEGRATED ADMINISTRATION OF URBAN GREEN AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADINA CLAUDIA NEAMTU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to provide an administrative model for green spaces in any geographical area, especially in urban areas. The organizational proposed model also concerns the possibilities to develop new areas with green spaces for both recreation and leisure. Current structures leave much to be desired and, unfortunately, they do not seek to manage the green spaces on types of activities and these activities are not integrated into a unit structure to ensure coordination of operations for maintenance and expansion of these spaces. In the study, for the administrative plan are proposed those necessary changes to create organizational structures needed to implement a coherent strategy and policy to support the development of green space. Given the necessity of an integrated management for urban space, the model proposes solutions to eliminate functional overlaps of the various decision-making bodies by creating a unit of action, together with arrangements for its effective support. Developing effective solutions to managing green spaces for recreation and leisure becomes an obligation for the next period under conditions of increasing green areas arranged as parks and other types of green spaces and hence an increase for the cost of their administration. On the other hand, the paper addresses the issue of integrated management for both, green areas and recreational and leisure facilities existing within the urban areas, by giving more importance and impact for these spaces within communities. In this framework of integrated administration, it is possible to ensure modern leisure amenities in these urban green areas, and on the other hand it is possible to provide a very important prospect of additional revenues for the general budget of the community and also for future budget of planning for new green areas.

  17. Rainfall-induced landslide vulnerability Assessment in urban area reflecting Urban structure and building characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, C.; Cho, M.; Lee, D.

    2017-12-01

    Landslide vulnerability assessment methodology of urban area is proposed with urban structure and building charateristics which can consider total damage cost of climate impacts. We used probabilistic analysis method for modeling rainfall-induced shallow landslide susceptibility by slope stability analysis and Monte Carlo simulations. And We combined debris flows with considering spatial movements under topographical condition and built environmental condition. Urban vulnerability of landslide is assessed by two categories: physical demages and urban structure aspect. Physical vulnerability is related to buildings, road, other ubran infra. Urban structure vulnerability is considered a function of the socio-economic factors, trigger factor of secondary damage, and preparedness level of the local government. An index-based model is developed to evaluate the life and indirect damage under landslide as well as the resilience ability against disasters. The analysis was performed in a geographic information system (GIS) environment because GIS can deal efficiently with a large volume of spatial data. The results of the landslide susceptibility assessment were compared with the landslide inventory, and the proposed approach demonstrated good predictive performance. The general trend found in this study indicates that the higher population density areas under a weaker fiscal condition that are located at the downstream of mountainous areas are more vulnerable than the areas in opposite conditions.

  18. Deployment and installation of a wireless broadband area network in an urban area

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Bautista, Jaime

    2011-01-01

    This project's purpose is studying and developing a Wi-Fi net in an urban area in order to offer service to all people living in that area. The aim is making a full installation of a wireless Local Area Network. For it, we will study the options we have and decide which one is better for the urban area we will try to give coverage. We will decide that basing on the coverage, the simplicity, the implementation, the ease for the users and of course the environmental protection and the price of ...

  19. Urbanization effects on natural radiation in anomalous areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Affonseca, M.S. de.

    1993-10-01

    The urbanization effects and their possible causes on the environmental gamma radiation levels, in an anomalous area, were studied. The field work was accomplished in Guarapari, located in the seacoast of the Brazilian state of Espirito Santo, which is rich in monazite sands, with thorium and uranium contents. The results show clearly that there was a reduction in the levels of external exposition in the streets and squares of Guarapari. It was ascertained that the reduction was due to the materials used in the urbanization. (L.C.J.A.)

  20. ANALYSIS OF ECONOMIC GAPS BETWEEN URBAN AND RURAL ROMANIAN AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toader Valentin

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors will perform a comparative analysis of the impact that the population residential areas have on the economic and social activity from Romania. Our analysis will be carried out for a time span of 10 years, between 2000 and 2009. The main purposes are to emphasize the economic gaps between the residential areas (urban and rural and to identify the factors that determine these gaps. The economic differences between rural and urban areas and their impact on the peoples standard of living represent an important issue for international institutions like IFRC, UNICEF or OECD. Also, this topic represents a frequent subject in the economic literature from poor and developing countries. Studies conducted by Huong and Booth (2010, Alister, Alana and Ayele (2007, Chao, Zhidong and Mingxing (2008, Mateoc-Srb, Mateoc, Darva?i and Manescu (2008 or Sahn and Stifel (2002 are representative examples. Most of these papers focus on the living standards differences generated by the differences between income and expenditures between urban and rural areas. To achieve our goals, we will use the statistical methods to analyze the data released by the National Institute of Statistics. We will try to find some correlations between the economic indicators household incomes, value and structure of household expenditures, structure of household expenditures the social indicators residential area, education level, age and occupation. The highlight of the gaps between the rural and urban areas will be the main objective during this analysis. We conclude that in Romania there are substantial differences between rural and urban areas. The income differences are determining different consumption patterns between rural and urban persons. In rural areas, the population is spending less in all goods and services aspect that reduce their standard of living. Anyway, the results obtained are the subject of at least two possible limits. The fact that the data

  1. Urban atmospheric boundary layer height in Seoul Metropolitan Area, KOREA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Min-Hyeok; Park, Moon-Soo

    2017-04-01

    Atmospheric boundary-layer height (ABLH) is important parameter in meteorological model for weather forecasting and it's used to model verification. In this study, temporal and spatial variations of ABLH obtained by aerosol lidars and ceilometers deployed at urban commercial area (Gwanghwamun, urban center) and urban residential area (Jungnang, eastern part) of Seoul Metropolitan Area in 2014 are analyzed. The ABLH is determined as the height corresponding to a minimum vertical gradient of backscattered signals observed by an aerosol lidar (532 nm) and a ceilometer (910 nm), respectively. It is found that the ABLH determined by an aerosol lidar shows nearly the same seasonal and diurnal variation as that by a ceilometer. But the ABLH observed at downwind (Jungnang) station is generally higher than that observed at urban center (Gwanghwamun) station. The stable boundary layer (SBL) height in nighttime ranges 10 500 m, and a residual layer is often located over the top of SBL. The unstable boundary layer height grows during the daytime and shows a daily maximum in late afternoon. The daily maximum ABLH has a higher value in spring and a lower value in winter according to surface sensible heat flux, cloud, and precipitation.

  2. Application of Flood Nomograph for Flood Forecasting in Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eui Hoon Lee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Imperviousness has increased due to urbanization, as has the frequency of extreme rainfall events by climate change. Various countermeasures, such as structural and nonstructural measures, are required to prepare for these effects. Flood forecasting is a representative nonstructural measure. Flood forecasting techniques have been developed for the prevention of repetitive flood damage in urban areas. It is difficult to apply some flood forecasting techniques using training processes because training needs to be applied at every usage. The other flood forecasting techniques that use rainfall data predicted by radar are not appropriate for small areas, such as single drainage basins. In this study, a new flood forecasting technique is suggested to reduce flood damage in urban areas. The flood nomograph consists of the first flooding nodes in rainfall runoff simulations with synthetic rainfall data at each duration. When selecting the first flooding node, the initial amount of synthetic rainfall is 1 mm, which increases in 1 mm increments until flooding occurs. The advantage of this flood forecasting technique is its simple application using real-time rainfall data. This technique can be used to prepare a preemptive response in the process of urban flood management.

  3. The role of urban forest to reduce rain acid in urban industrial areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slamet, B.; Agustiarni, Y.; Hidayati; Basyuni, M.

    2018-03-01

    Urban forest has many functions mainly on improving the quality of the urban environment. One of the functions is to increase pH and reduce dangerous chemical content. The aim of the research is to find out the role of vegetation density of urban forest around the industrial area in reducing the acid rain. The condition of land cover was classified into four classes which are dense, medium, sparse and open area. The water of the throughfall and stemflow was taken from each type of land cover except in the open area. Parameters measured in this study are water acidity (pH), anion content (SO4 2- and NO3 -), cation content (Ca2+, Mg2+, and NH4 +) and electrical conductivity (EC). The results indicated that urban forest vegetation was able to increase the pH of rain water from 5.42 which is in an open area without vegetation to be 7.13 and 7.32 in dense and moderate vegetation cover by throughfall mechanism, respectively. Rain water acidity also decreased through stemflow mechanism with a pH ranged from 5.92 - 6.43. Urban forest vegetation decreased sulfate content (SO42-) from 528.67 mg/l in open area to 44 - 118 mg/l by throughfall mechanism and ranged from 90 to 366.67 mg/l through stemflow mechanism. Urban forest vegetation significantly decreased the rainwater nitrate content from 27 mg/l to 0.03 - 0.70 mg/l through the mechanism of throughfall and between 1.53 - 8.82 mg/l through the stemflow mechanism. Urban forest vegetation also increased the concentration of cations (NH4+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+) compared with open areas. Urban forest vegetation showed increased the electrical conductivity (EC) from 208.12 μmhos/cm to 344.67 - 902.17 μmhos/cm through the through fall mechanism and 937.67 - 1058.70 μmhos/cm through the stemflow mechanism. The study suggested that urban forests play a significant role in reducing rainwater acidity and improving the quality of rainwater that reached the soil surface.

  4. Seismic Noise Studies of Urbanized Areas at Puerto Vallarta Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara Huerta, K. C.; Escudero, C. R.; Gomez, A.; Madrigal, L.

    2014-12-01

    The application of seismic noise techniques in urbanized environment becomes a valuable tool to obtain information that is critical in areas exposed to earthquakes. Damage distribution during large earthquakes is frequently conditioned by site effects, in this way we determine site effect using ambient noise measurements in the area of Puerto Vallarta, Mexico. We focus our microtremor measurements to the estimation of a subsoil structure. To perform this we use three different techniques H/V spectral ratios, array measurements of microtremors applying the SPAC and F-k techniques. This work discusses the results that were obtained applying these techniques to the urbanized areas of Puerto Vallarta city. We present a series of maps showing the result as well as analyzed its application to risk assessment.

  5. School Segregation and Disparities in Urban, Suburban, and Rural Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, John R; Burdick-Will, Julia

    2017-11-01

    Much of the literature on racial and ethnic educational inequality focuses on the contrast between Black and Hispanic students in urban areas and white suburban students. This study extends past research on school segregation and racial/ethnic disparities by highlighting the importance of rural areas and regional variation. Although schools in rural America are disproportionately white, they nevertheless are like urban schools, and disadvantaged relative to suburban schools, in terms of poverty and test performance. The group most affected by rural school disadvantage is Native Americans, who are a small share of students nationally but much more prominent and highly disadvantaged in rural areas, particularly in some parts of the country. These figures suggest a strong case for including rural schools in the continuing conversation about how to deal with unfairness in public education.

  6. Urban Seismology in the Taipei Metropolitan Area: Review and Prospective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeen-Hwa Wang

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A strong collision between the Eurasian and Philippine Sea Plates causes high seismicity in the Taiwan region. A substantial number of cities and large towns exist on thick sediments in western Taiwan. Larger-magnitude inland earthquakes, for example the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake, can cause serious damage in urban areas. Consequently, urban seismology is of great interest to the local seismological community. The Taipei Metropolitan Area (TMA is the political, economic, and cultural center of Taiwan. It is situated over a region where the Philippine Sea plate subducts the Eurasian plate. Although seismicity in the TMA is lower than other areas of Taiwan, earthquakes still occur. Seismic risk mitigation is of grave concern in the TMA because of its high population, number of tall buildings, mass rapid transit system, and two nearby nuclear power plants. In this article, procedures for seismic risk mitigation, previous studies, core issues for future research and related topics are described and reviewed.

  7. Definitions of urban areas feasible for examining urban health in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breckenkamp, Jürgen; Patterson, Lesley; Scharlach, Martina; Hellmeier, Wolfgang; Verma, Arpana

    2017-05-01

    As part of the EU-funded project, European Urban Health Indicator System (EURO-URHIS), a definition of urban areas (UAs) and of urban populations was needed to be able to identify comparable UAs in all member states. A literature review on existing definitions, as well as those used by other relevant projects, was performed. A survey of national experts in public health or land planning was also conducted. An algorithm was proposed to find UAs, which were feasible for the focus of EURO-URHIS. No unique general definition of UAs was found. Different fields of research define UAs differently. None of the definitions found were feasible for EURO-URHIS. All of them were found to have critical disadvantages when applied to an urban health project. An ideal definition for this type of project needs to provide a description of the situation without recourse to administrative boundaries yet inform the collection of routine data for urban health monitoring. These requirements were found to contradict each other and were not met in any existing definition. An algorithm was developed for the definition of UAs for the purpose of this study whereby national experts would select regions which are urban as an agglomeration or as a metropolitan area and which are potentially interesting in terms of public health; identify the natural boundaries, where countryside ends and residential or commercial areas of the region begin (e.g. by aerial photos); identify local government boundaries or other official boundaries used for routine data collection purposes which approximate the natural UA as closely as possible and list all administrative areas which are contained in the larger UA. The aggregation of all administrative areas within the original region formed the UA which was used in the project. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  8. Carbon dioxide fluxes from an urban area in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Tao; Wang, Yuesi

    2012-03-01

    A better understanding of urban carbon dioxide (CO 2) emissions is important for quantifying urban contributions to the global carbon budget. From January to December 2008, CO 2 fluxes were measured, by eddy covariance at 47 m above ground on a meteorological tower in a high-density residential area in Beijing. The results showed that the urban surface was a net source of CO 2 in the atmosphere. Diurnal flux patterns were similar to those previously observed in other cities and were largely influenced by traffic volume. Carbon uptake by both urban vegetation during the growing season and the reduction of fuel consumption for domestic heating resulted in less-positive daily fluxes in the summer. The average daily flux measured in the summer was 0.48 mg m - 2 s - 1 , which was 82%, 35% and 36% lower than those in the winter, spring and autumn, respectively. The reduction of vehicles on the road during the 29th Olympic and Paralympic Games had a significant impact on CO 2 flux. The flux of 0.40 mg m - 2 s - 1 for September 2008 was approximately 0.17 mg m - 2 s - 1 lower than the flux for September 2007. Annual CO 2 emissions from the study site were estimated at 20.6 kg CO 2 m - 2 y - 1 , considerably higher than yearly emissions obtained from other urban and suburban landscapes.

  9. INTERFERENCES BETWEEN THE ECOLOGICAL NETWORK AND URBANIZED AREAS IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IWONA ZWIERZCHOWSKA

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents spatial relations between Polish urban areas and valuable habitats and links between them composing the country’s ecological network. The quantitative analysis for 891 towns and cities was conducted using GIS techniques based on cartographic vector data and statistical data. Valuable habitats and links between them, such as national parks, landscape parks, CORINE biotopes sites, wildlife corridors linking NATURA 2000 sites and ECONET areas, can be found in 72% of Polish towns and cities. The proportion of artificial surfaces in those areas is different depending on the size of a town or city and its location. Urban areas with the highest index of presence of valuable habitats and links between them are concentrated in the south of Poland, where settlement network is most dense. However, in the case of those areas the proportion of artificial surfaces interfering with the ecological network is lower than Poland’s average, being 16%. The pressure of anthropogenic land cover extending onto the country’s ecological network is most conspicuous in urban areas with a population of at least several dozen thousand residents where the average developed area is 20.8% of their total area. The danger for the continuity of the nature system is best seen in the north westernPoland, where artificial surfaces interference in towns and cities is largest. The analysis performed identified 82 towns and cities, in which the preservation of the continuity of the ecological networkshould be a priority in spatial management because of a higher than average index of the presence of valuable habitats and links between them and large proportion of artificial surfaces in those areas.

  10. Sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in an urban area of Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agra, Maria Claudia Ribeiro; Costa, Pietra Lemos; Duque, Anderson Enio Silva; Soares, Efraim Naftali Lopes; Alves, Leucio Câmara; Ramos, Rafael Antonio Nascimento; Carvalho, Gílcia Aparecida de

    2016-01-01

    The sandfly fauna is well studied globally. In Brazil, sandfly fauna is very diverse in the Northeast region, especially in states such as Maranhão, Ceará, and Bahia. However, in the State of Pernambuco, the distribution of these insects is still not well known. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify the different species that constitute the sandfly fauna in an urban area in the Northeast region of Brazil, where an outbreak of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) was recently reported. The sandflies were collected from an urban area endemic for VL, at five collection points. The collection of samples was carried out from November 2014 to December 2015, using CDC light traps installed in intradomiciliary and peridomiciliary fashion. The collected sandflies (n = 297) belonged to eight species: Lutzomyia lenti, Lutzomyia longipalpis, Lutzomyia sallesi, Lutzomyia migonei, Lutzomyia walkeri, Lutzomyia capixaba, Lutzomyia carmelinoi, and Lutzomyia whitmani. Most of the specimens collected were peridomiciliary (247/297, 83%). L. lenti (154/297, 52%) was the most frequently sampled species, followed by L. longipalpis (88/297, 29.6%), and L. sallesi (42/297, 14.1%), which together accounted for over 90% of the collected sandfly specimens. The continued presence of L. longipalpis in urban areas, including that in intradomiciliary areas, with a predominance of females, is crucial because of the high possibility of them causing VL outbreaks, since this species is the main vector of Leishmania infantum in Brazil.

  11. [Ecological hygienic assessment of soils quality in urban areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vodyanova, M A; Kriatov, I A; Donerian, L G; Evseeva, I S; Ushakov, D I; Sbitnev, A V

    Assessment of the soil quality is ofprime importance essential for the characterization of the ecological and hygienic condition of the territory, as the soil is the first link of the food chain, the source of secondary air and water pollution, as well as an integral index of ecological well-being of the environment. Herewith the qualitative analysis of soil complicated by the specifics of the soil genesis in the urban environment, in which an important role is played by manmade land bulk and alluvial soils; the inclusion of construction of material debris and household garbage in upper horizons; the growing up of the profile due to the perpetual introduction of different materials and intensive aeolian deposition. It is advisable to consider the currently neglected question of the study of soil vapor containing volatile chemicals. These pollutants penetrate into the building through cracks in the foundation and openings for utilities. Soil evaporation may accumulate in residential areas or in the soil under the building. Because of this, it is necessary to pay attention to the remediation of areas allocated for the built-up area, possessing a large-scale underground parking. Soil contamination is the result of significant anthropogenic impacts on the environment components. In general, about 89.1 million people (62.6% of the population of the country) live in terms of complex chemical load, determined by contamination offood, drinking water, air and soil. The list of microbiological and sanitary-chemical indices of the assessment of soils of urban areas may vary in dependence on the data obtained in pilot studies due to changes and additions to the assigned tasks. Timely forecast for the possibility of the usage of released lands of urban territories for the construction and the creation of new objects for different purposes should become the prevention of chronic non-infectious diseases in the population residing in urban areas.

  12. Neighbourhood Environmental Attributes Associated with Walking in South Australian Adults: Differences between Urban and Rural Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Narelle M; Coffee, Neil T; Nolan, Rebecca; Dollman, James; Sugiyama, Takemi

    2017-08-26

    Although the health benefits of walking are well established, participation is lower in rural areas compared to urban areas. Most studies on walkability and walking have been conducted in urban areas, thus little is known about the relevance of walkability to rural areas. A computer-assisted telephone survey of 2402 adults (aged ≥18 years) was conducted to determine walking behaviour and perceptions of neighbourhood walkability. Data were stratified by urban (n = 1738) and rural (n = 664). A greater proportion of respondents reported no walking in rural (25.8%) compared to urban areas (18.5%). Compared to urban areas, rural areas had lower walkability scores and urban residents reported higher frequency of walking. The association of perceived walkability with walking was significant only in urban areas. These results suggest that environmental factors associated with walking in urban areas may not be relevant in rural areas. Appropriate walkability measures specific to rural areas should be further researched.

  13. The Drumchapel Project: A Study of ICT Usage by School Pupils and Teachers in a Secondary School in a Deprived Area of Glasgow

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLelland, Dorothy; Crawford, John

    2004-01-01

    The Drumchapel Project was a joint exploratory project between Glasgow Caledonian University, a 1992 university, and Drumchapel High School, a secondary school in a deprived area of Glasgow. The initial aim was to explore ICT skill levels among the school pupils but an information literacy agenda emerged in the course of the Project. Focus groups…

  14. Young People's Use and Views of a School-Based Sexual Health Drop-In Service in Areas of High Deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Jenny; Salmon, Debra

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To describe patterns and reasons of attendance and young people's views of the drop-in service. Design: Analysis of a prospective database, questionnaire survey and qualitative interviews and discussions. Setting: Sexual health drop-in clinics in 16 secondary schools (including three pupil-referral units) in deprived areas of a city in…

  15. High resolution modelling of extreme precipitation events in urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemerink, Martijn; Volp, Nicolette; Schuurmans, Wytze; Deckers, Dave

    2015-04-01

    significant soil consolidation and the low-lying areas are prone to urban flooding. The simulation results are compared with measurements in the sewer network. References [1] Guus S. Stelling G.S., 2012. Quadtree flood simulations with subgrid digital elevation models. Water Management 165 (WM1):1329-1354. [2] Vincenzo Cassuli and Guus S. Stelling, 2013. A semi-implicit numerical model for urban drainage systems. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Fluids. Vol. 73:600-614. DOI: 10.1002/fld.3817

  16. Measures of material and social circumstances to adjust for deprivation in small-area studies of environment and health: review and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Pasetto

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The present review describes and critically analyzes the main characteristics of deprivation indices (DIs, meant as measures of material and social circumstances at a population level, used to adjust for deprivation in small-area studies of environment and health. A systematic search strategy in the period 1990-2009 was run on PubMed/Medline and Embase databases, and 41 articles were selected. In most of the reviewed studies DIs appear to be pragmatically applied and information is not adequate to evaluate whether the use of DIs is efficient. Suggestions for the use of DIs are given foreseeing that more data on exposure, outcomes and other predictive factors will be acquired, and information will be growingly available to disentangle the complex interplay between exposure, health and deprivation.

  17. intra-urban traffic and parking demand in uyo urban area

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    The aim of this study is to examine the intra-urban circulation and parking demand against the background of noticeable problems of parking in Uyo metropolis. An empirical design approach was employed in the investigation and vehicular trip generation count at designated activity areas was carried out between the hours ...

  18. Using GIS to Record and Analyse Historical Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Giannopoulou

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A significant part of the cultural heritage of towns and cities worldwide is the built heritage. The historic centre of several European cities has been preserved as an important part of the urban landscape. New analytical tools and concepts are thus required, which would enrich and expand the conventional methods and achieve sustainability of cultural heritage in any urban context, among which are Geographical Information Systems (GIS, digital mapping systems that link spatial and non – spatial data of landscape features, and can contribute substantially in documenting different urban features and furthermore in modelling the urban process and its impact on heritage regions. This paper is part of a wider research still in progress and refers to the creation of a specialised GIS, which includes a great range of geometric and descriptive information that can be used for the interpretation, monitoring, visualisation and evaluation of urban heritage areas. The case study of the paper is the Old Town of Xanthi, one of the most important examples of the 19th century’s urban civilization in Northern Greece. The paper focuses on the elaboration of the data concerning the built environment and more precisely to its systematic retrieval and import to the GIS system; moreover it examines 17 chosen variables using a combination of Multivariable analysis methods (Correspondence and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis. The analysis has shown the existence of four distinctive and very interesting groups which have their own specific characteristics. Ideas for further research include the collaboration with specialised sophisticated software which would facilitate the thorough examination, analysis and correlation of parameters involved, towards the principles of sustainable and smart city development. A significant part of the cultural heritage of towns and cities worldwide is the built heritage. The historic centre of several European cities has been preserved

  19. The role of wildlife in the transmission of parasitic zoonoses in peri-urban and urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ute Mackenstedt

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available During the last 100 years in many countries of the world, there have been dramatic changes in natural/rural landscapes due to urbanization. Since many wildlife species are unable to adapt to these alterations in their environment, urbanization is commonly responsible for a decline of biodiversity in areas of urban development. In contrast, some wild animal species are attracted to peri-urban and urban habitats due to the availability of an abundant food supply and the presence of structures in which to shelter. Urban foxes and/or raccoons are common sights in many peri-urban and urban areas of Europe where they can reach far higher population densities than in their natural habitats. The same is true for foxes and dingoes in some urban areas of Australia. Unfortunately, some of these highly adaptable species are also hosts for a number of parasites of public health and veterinary importance. Due to the complexity of many parasitic life cycles involving several host species, the interactions between wild animals, domestic animals and humans are not fully understood. The role of potential hosts for transmission of a zoonotic disease in urban or peri-urban areas cannot be extrapolated from data obtained in rural areas. Since more than 75% of human diseases are of zoonotic origin, it is important to understand the dynamics between wildlife, domestic animal species and humans in urbanized areas, and to conduct more focused research on transmission of zoonotic parasites including arthropod vectors under such conditions.

  20. Determination effects of impervious areas on urban watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şimşek Uygun, Burcu; Albek, Mine

    2015-02-01

    After the industrial revolution, urban growth has been increasing, especially with technological advances. Urbanization is accelerating environmental pollution and also affects climate significantly because of land use or land cover changes. In this study, the Hydrological Simulation Program-Fortran (HSPF) model developed by the United States Environment Protection Agency (USEPA) is used for modeling the impervious areas of Eskişehir which is located in the Porsuk Stream Watershed in Inner Anatolia, Turkey. Effects of impervious areas of Eskisehir on the Porsuk Stream pollution between 1975 and 2010 have been investigated. Important water quality parameters like nitrate, orthophosphate, sediment, chloride, and total coliform are modeled. Impervious land segments have been found to be affecting all parameter concentrations and also surface flows significantly as determined using the t test with a confidence level of 95 %.

  1. Spectral Analysis of Traffic Functions in Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Nemtanu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on the Fourier transform application in urban traffic analysis and the use of said transform in traffic decomposition. The traffic function is defined as traffic flow generated by different categories of traffic participants. A Fourier analysis was elaborated in terms of identifying the main traffic function components, called traffic sub-functions. This paper presents the results of the method being applied in a real case situation, that is, an intersection in the city of Bucharest where the effect of a bus line was analysed. The analysis was done using different time scales, while three different traffic functions were defined to demonstrate the theoretical effect of the proposed method of analysis. An extension of the method is proposed to be applied in urban areas, especially in the areas covered by predictive traffic control.

  2. Butterfly Community Conservation Through Ecological Landscape Design in Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orsolya Borsai

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Due urbanization and extension of agricultural areas most of the ecosystems are strongly affected. As a result, preservation of biodiversity becomes more and more important aiming to reestablish the lost habitats of different species (mammals, birds, amphibians, insects, etc.. Our research focuses on butterflies which constitute an extremely important group of ‘model’ organisms. We have identified 12 diurnal ‘flying beauties’ specific to Cluj area (threatened and unthreathened species and investigated their ecological requirements that have to be provided for in any landscapes. Furthermore, based on the data colleted we have illustrated the utility of our approach by applying it to a hypothetical urban landscape (private garden following the traditional environmental guidelines in our landscape design.

  3. Probabilistic assessment of seismic risk in urban areas

    OpenAIRE

    Aguilar, Armando; Pujades Beneit, Lluís; Barbat Barbat, Horia Alejandro; Ordaz Schroder, Mario Gustavo

    2008-01-01

    A probabilistic approach to estimate the expected seismic physical damage of existing buildings in urban areas is presented. The main steps of the procedure are seismic hazard, vulnerability and structural response. These three steps are undertaken with a fully probabilistic point of view. Seismic hazard is assessed by means of the annual rate of exceedance of a parameter quantifying the expected seismic action. Buildings may be characterized by a class in a building typology matrix and/or by...

  4. Early measurements in urban areas after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Likhtarev, I.

    2000-01-01

    This paper summarises the experience on the radioactive monitoring of the environment and population dose assessment provided in urban areas, mainly in Kiev, after the Chernobyl accident. It emphasises the need of several radiological teams, of the support from several institutions and of preparedness for a consistent database, dose assessment and criteria for decision making. Main results of measurements of gamma exposure rates, air, grass and food radioactive contamination are presented. (author)

  5. Air pollution in urban area of Foligno (Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peirone, E.; Gubbini, P.; Peppoloni, A.; Pompei, M.; Segoni, M.

    1998-01-01

    This work shows the air pollution levels, based on air's quality laws, detected around the urban area of the city of Foligno (Perugia-Italy)). The preliminary study done, has shown a general result of a good quality of the air, even if there were some excesses of the Attention Levels, during situations not alarming, as these situations occurred in particular conditions, characterized by intense traffic and unfavorable meteorological conditions [it

  6. Simulations of photochemical smog formation in complex urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muilwijk, C.; Schrijvers, P. J. C.; Wuerz, S.; Kenjereš, S.

    2016-12-01

    In the present study we numerically investigated the dispersion of photochemical reactive pollutants in complex urban areas by applying an integrated Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Computational Reaction Dynamics (CRD) approach. To model chemical reactions involved in smog generation, the Generic Reaction Set (GRS) approach is used. The GRS model was selected since it does not require detailed modeling of a large set of reactive components. Smog formation is modeled first in the case of an intensive traffic emission, subjected to low to moderate wind conditions in an idealized two-dimensional street canyon with a building aspect ratio (height/width) of one. It is found that Reactive Organic Components (ROC) play an important role in the chemistry of smog formation. In contrast to the NOx/O3 photochemical steady state model that predicts a depletion of the (ground level) ozone, the GRS model predicts generation of ozone. Secondly, the effect of direct sunlight and shadow within the street canyon on the chemical reaction dynamics is investigated for three characteristic solar angles (morning, midday and afternoon). Large differences of up to one order of magnitude are found in the ozone production for different solar angles. As a proof of concept for real urban areas, the integrated CFD/CRD approach is applied for a real scale (1 × 1 km2) complex urban area (a district of the city of Rotterdam, The Netherlands) with high traffic emissions. The predicted pollutant concentration levels give realistic values that correspond to moderate to heavy smog. It is concluded that the integrated CFD/CRD method with the GRS model of chemical reactions is both accurate and numerically robust, and can be used for modeling of smog formation in complex urban areas.

  7. Mapping urban climate zones and quantifying climate behaviors - An application on Toulouse urban area (France)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houet, Thomas; Pigeon, Gregoire

    2011-01-01

    Facing the concern of the population to its environment and to climatic change, city planners are now considering the urban climate in their choices of planning. The use of climatic maps, such Urban Climate Zone-UCZ, is adapted for this kind of application. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate that the UCZ classification, integrated in the World Meteorological Organization guidelines, first can be automatically determined for sample areas and second is meaningful according to climatic variables. The analysis presented is applied on Toulouse urban area (France). Results show first that UCZ differentiate according to air and surface temperature. It has been possible to determine the membership of sample areas to an UCZ using landscape descriptors automatically computed with GIS and remote sensed data. It also emphasizes that climate behavior and magnitude of UCZ may vary from winter to summer. Finally we discuss the influence of climate data and scale of observation on UCZ mapping and climate characterization. - Highlights: → We proposed a method to map Urban Climate Zones and quantify their climate behaviors. → UCZ is an expert-based classification and is integrated in the WMO guidelines. → We classified 26 sample areas and quantified climate behaviors in winter/summer. → Results enhance urban heat islands and outskirts are surprisingly hottest in summer. → Influence of scale and climate data on UCZ mapping and climate evaluation is discussed. - This paper presents an automated approach to classify sample areas in a UCZ using landscape descriptors and demonstrate that climate behaviors of UCZ differ.

  8. Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Urban Heat Island and Urban Metabolism by Satellite Imagery over the Phoenix Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Q.; Zhan, S.; Kuai, X.; Zhan, Q.

    2015-12-01

    The goal of this research is to combine DMSP-OLS nighttime light data with Landsat imagery and use spatio-temporal analysis methods to evaluate the relationships between urbanization processes and temperature variation in Phoenix metropolitan area. The urbanization process is a combination of both land use change within the existing urban environment as well as urban sprawl that enlarges the urban area through the transformation of rural areas to urban structures. These transformations modify the overall urban climate environment, resulting in higher nighttime temperatures in urban areas compared to the surrounding rural environment. This is a well-known and well-studied phenomenon referred to as the urban heat island effect (UHI). What is unknown is the direct relationship between the urbanization process and the mechanisms of the UHI. To better understand this interaction, this research focuses on using nighttime light satellite imagery to delineate and detect urban extent changes and utilizing existing land use/land cover map or newly classified imagery from Landsat to analyze the internal urban land use variations. These data are combined with summer and winter land surface temperature data extracted from Landsat. We developed a time series of these combined data for Phoenix, AZ from 1992 to 2013 to analyze the relationships among land use change, land surface temperature and urban growth.

  9. MANAGING PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT IN PERI-URBAN AREAS OF KUMASI, GHANA: A CASE OF ABUAKWA

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Amoateng; Patrick B. Cobbinah; Kwasi Owusu-Adade

    2013-01-01

    A remarkable trait of the 21 st century has been the high rate of urbanization which has characterized the growth and development of cities especially in developing countries. This situation has fuelled rapid physical development and expansion of peri-urban areas as urban dwellers relocate to cities’ peripheries. Focusing on Abuakwa a peri-urban area in Kumasi, the second largest city in Ghana, this paper assesses the nature and extent of physical development in peri-urban areas, and identifi...

  10. Building adaptive capacity for flood proofing in urban areas through synergistic interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veerbeek, W.; Ashley, R.M.; Zevenbergen, C.; Rijke, J.S.; Gersonius, B.

    2010-01-01

    Few, if any urban areas are nowadays built in isolation from existing developments. Therefore, urban expansion and making existing urban areas more sustainable is a contemporary goal. There are major opportunities to do this through the ‘normal’ renewal of urban infrastructure and building stocks

  11. Stormwater harvesting: Improving water security in South Africa's urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lloyd Fisher-Jeffes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The drought experienced in South Africa in 2016 one of the worst in decades has left many urbanised parts of the country with limited access to water, and food production has been affected. If a future water crisis is to be averted, the country needs to conserve current water supplies, reduce its reliance on conventional surface water schemes, and seek alternative sources of water supply. Within urban areas, municipalities must find ways to adapt to, and mitigate the threats from, water insecurity resulting from, inter alia, droughts, climate change and increasing water demand driven by population growth and rising standards of living. Stormwater harvesting (SWH is one possible alternative water resource that could supplement traditional urban water supplies, as well as simultaneously offer a range of social and environmental benefits. We set out three position statements relating to how SWH can: improve water security and increase resilience to climate change in urban areas; prevent frequent flooding; and provide additional benefits to society. We also identify priority research areas for the future in order to target and support the appropriate uptake of SWH in South Africa, including testing the viability of SWH through the use of real-time control and managed aquifer recharge.

  12. GROWTH AND DECLINE OF URBAN AREAS IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela ANTONESCU

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The urbanisation process in Romania followed a variable growth trajectory (that intensified, stagnation and, in the last period, a slightly decreasing trend. Thus, the years between the sixties to the nineties were characterised by marked development, concomitantly with population increase in small- and medium-sized towns. After the year 1990, the developments were different from one urban area to another: some succeeded in adjusting quicker to the new conditions; others were overwhelmed by the new town status. Currently, they are facing a series of problems triggered both by internal factors (urban agglomeration, pollution, built-environment deterioration, decrease in living standards quality, etc., and external ones (EU integration, globalisation, financial crisis, etc..Currently, urban areas draw increasingly more attention due to their important potential and to the role played in the current integration and economicand social cohesion process. The present article intends to capture the urbanisation process evolution in Romania and to identify current difficulties and opportunities confronting these areas.

  13. Urban fringe renewal with urban catalysts elements: connections in an unconnected area

    OpenAIRE

    Yanru, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Based on Santa Coloma as a main case,analyzing how can be update there in this crisis situation to do suitable interventions to achieve a great effect. After analyzing the Santa Coloma area,I pay attention to its urban marginality.It has the territorial marginality,the marginality of the relationship with Barcelona,the marginality of the people and life style and so on. Urban fringe is corresponding the city center, the city of mainstream.The socalled "fringe" can be underst...

  14. Up-regulation of Na + expression in the area postrema of total sleep deprived rats by TOF-SIMS analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Fu-Der; Chen, Bo-Jung; Ling, Yong-Chien; Wu, Un-In; Huang, Yi-Lun; Chang, Hung-Ming

    2008-12-01

    Area postrema (AP) is a circumventricular organ plays an important role in sodium homeostasis and cardiovascular regulation. Since sleep deficiency will cause cardiovascular dysfunction, the present study aims to determine whether sodium level would significantly alter in AP following total sleep deprivation (TSD). Sodium level was investigated in vivo by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS). Clinical manifestation of cardiovascular function was demonstrated by mean arterial pressure (MAP) values. Results indicated that in normal rats, TOF-SIMS spectrum revealed a major peak of sodium ion counting as 5.61 × 10 5 at m/ z 23. The sodium ions were homogeneous distributed in AP without specific localization. However, following TSD, the sodium intensity was relatively increased (6.73 × 10 5) and the signal for sodium image was strongly expressed throughout AP with definite spatial distribution. MAP of TSD rats is 138 ± 5 mmHg, which is significantly higher than that of normal ones (121 ± 3 mmHg). Regarding AP is an important area for sodium sensation and development of hypernatremic related sympatho-excitation; up-regulation of sodium expression following TSD suggests that high sodium level might over-activate AP, through complex neuronal networks involving in sympathetic regulation, which could lead to the formation of TSD relevant cardiovascular diseases.

  15. Urban density, deprivation and road safety: A small area study in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Safety Promotion: A Journal of Injury and Violence Prevention. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 12, No 2 (2014) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  16. Regional deprivation is associated with the distribution of vulnerable asylum seekers: a nationwide small area analysis in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozorgmehr, Kayvan; Razum, Oliver; Szecsenyi, Joachim; Maier, Werner; Stock, Christian

    2017-09-01

    Newly arriving asylum seekers in many European Union countries are assigned a place of residence based on administrative quota. This may have important consequences for the exposure to contextual health risks. We assessed the association between regional deprivation and the distribution of asylum seekers in Germany considered as vulnerable (women, children 64 years) because of their increased health needs. Using nationally representative data, we analysed the rates of observed to expected numbers of asylum seekers and vulnerable subgroups in Bayesian spatial models. Regional deprivation was measured by the German Index of Multiple Deprivation. The analyses were performed at the district level (N=402) and adjusted for district population size, effects of federal states as well as spatial effects. Of the 224 993 asylum seekers, 38.7% were women, 13.8% children aged 64 years. The adjusted number of asylum seekers (totals and vulnerable subgroups) was higher in more deprived districts (Q3, Q4 and Q5) relative to districts in the lowest deprivation quintile (Q1). The adjusted rate ratios for districts with highest relative to those with lowest deprivation were 1.26 (1.03-1.53) for women, 1.28 (1.04-1.58) for children aged asylum seekers. The adjusted number of vulnerable asylum seekers was higher in districts with medium and highest deprivation compared with districts with lowest deprivation. The disproportionate distribution was highest for older asylum seekers and children <7 years. Vulnerable subgroups tend to be exposed to more deprived places of residence, which may further increase health risks and healthcare needs. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. How to evaluate network initiatives in urban planning - studying area based initiatives (Kvarterløft) in Denmark"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Annika

    This article presents a theoretical and empirical contribution to the discussions of more inclusive and participatory modes of governing that are taking place in many western countries. It develops a critical evaluation framework for assessing the qualities and outcomes of citizens participating ...... planning process in a urban environment in Denmark that focus on improving deprived urban neighbourhoods by mobilising networks....

  18. Determining effective roadway design treatments for transitioning from rural areas to urban areas on state highways : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    This report reviews an Oregon research effort to identify ways to calm operating speeds as the vehicles transition into developed suburban/urban areas from rural roads. Drivers of vehicles approaching the urban environment have few visual cues to red...

  19. [Social determinants of infant mortality in socioeconomic deprived rural areas in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte-Gómez, María Beatriz; Núñez-Urquiza, Rosa María; Restrepo-Restrepo, José Alonso; Richardson-López-Collada, Vesta Louise

    The aim of this study was to identify determinants of infant mortality in rural areas in Mexico and recommend strategies for its decrease. A study was conducted in a sample of 16 municipalities among those with the lowest index of human development. Infant deaths were identified through official data, records and through interviews with civil authorities, health workers and community leaders. Mothers of children who died were also interviewed. In most cases, deaths were related with intermediate social determinants (living conditions and health services converged). The most important critical factors were the prevention programs and delays in receiving healthcare. Deficiencies in intersectorial policies to guarantee effective access to health services were found. To decrease infant mortality in rural areas of Mexico, geographic access has to be improved as well as investment in resources and training health personnel in intercultural competence and primary health care skills. Copyright © 2015. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A.

  20. Determinants of Household Food Security in Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Ayu Mutiah

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Food security at household level is a very important precondition to foster the national and regional food security. Many people migrate to urban areas in the hope of improving their welfare. Generally people think that in the city there are more opportunities, but the opposite is true. The problem is more complex in the city especially for people who do not have adequate skills and education. This study aims to address whether  age of household head, household size, education level of household head, income, and distribution of subsidized rice policy affect the food security of urban poor households in Purbalingga district. A hundred respondents were selected from four top villages in urban areas of Purbalingga with the highest level of poverty. Using binary logistic regression, this study finds significant positive effect of education of household head and household income and significant negative effect of household size and raskin on household food security, while age of household head has no significant effect on household food security. The results imply the need for increased awareness of family planning, education, improved skills, and increased control of the implementation of subsidized rice for the poor.

  1. Monitoring and Prediction of Traffic Noise in Large Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Zambon

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Dynamap, a co-financed project by the European Commission through the Life+ 2013 program, aims at developing a dynamic approach for noise mapping that is capable of updating environmental noise levels through a direct link with a limited number of noise monitoring terminals. Dynamap is based on the idea of finding a suitable set of roads that display similar traffic noise behavior (temporal noise profile over an entire day so that one can group them together into a single noise map. Each map thus represents a group of road stretches whose traffic noise will be updated periodically, typically every five minutes during daily hours and every hour during night. The information regarding traffic noise will be taken continuously from a small number of monitoring stations (typically 24 appropriately distributed over the urban zone of interest. To achieve this goal, we have performed a detailed analysis of traffic noise data, recorded every second from 93 monitoring stations randomly distributed over the entire urban area of the City of Milan. Our results are presented for a restricted area, the urban Zone 9 of Milan. We have separated the entire set of (about 2000 stretches into six groups, each one represented by a noise map, and gave a prescription for the locations of the future 24 monitoring stations. From our analysis, it is estimated that the mean overall error for each group of stretches (noise map, averaged over the 24 h, is about 2 dB.

  2. Conceptual study of superconducting urban area power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noe, Mathias; Gold-acker, Wilfried; Bach, Robert; Prusseit, Werner; Willen, Dag; Poelchau, Juri; Linke, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Efficient transmission, distribution and usage of electricity are fundamental requirements for providing citizens, societies and economies with essential energy resources. It will be a major future challenge to integrate more sustainable generation resources, to meet growing electricity demand and to renew electricity networks. Research and development on superconducting equipment and components have an important role to play in addressing these challenges. Up to now, most studies on superconducting applications in power systems have been concentrated on the application of specific devices like for example cables and current limiters. In contrast to this, the main focus of our study is to show the consequence of a large scale integration of superconducting power equipment in distribution level urban power systems. Specific objectives are to summarize the state-of-the-art of superconducting power equipment including cooling systems and to compare the superconducting power system with respect to energy and economic efficiency with conventional solutions. Several scenarios were considered starting from the replacement of an existing distribution level sub-grid up to a full superconducting urban area distribution level power system. One major result is that a full superconducting urban area distribution level power system could be cost competitive with existing solutions in the future. In addition to that, superconducting power systems offer higher energy efficiency as well as a number of technical advantages like lower voltage drops and improved stability.

  3. 75 FR 52173 - Proposed Urban Area Criteria for the 2010 Census

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-24

    ... place's boundary and located on the edge of an urban area might not necessarily qualify to be included... tracts, for example on the edge of the urban area or when including noncontiguous territory via hops and... on [[Page 52178

  4. The Social and Ecological Problems of Urbanized Areas in Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter D. Gunin

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of studies on the formation of urbanized territories and metropolitan areas in Mongolia, and the in fl uences of the industrial complex on the pollution level in urban landscapes, as well as on population health. The capital city, Ulaanbaatar, is one of the most highly polluted cities in the Central Asian region. The data on spatial distribution and the contents of toxic elements in the soils, snow cover, plants and human hair are given, according to the main ecological zones of the city. The statistical data on the dynamics of birthrate, rates of sickness and death of the population by the main groups of diseases are analyzed in accordance with the classi fi cation of the World Health Organization.

  5. Migration from rural to urban areas in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, K

    1990-12-01

    During the regime of Mao Zedong the migration of rural population to urban areas was forbidden. In 1982 the people's communes were dissolved creating surplus labor. In 1984 permission was given to peasants to move to towns of 100,000 inhabitants or less. In 1986 the state allocation of jobs and lifetime employment practices were abolished leading to the migration of peasants. Urban population has increased 30-50 million annually since 1985. In 1988-89 urban population consisted of urban registry holders numbering 200 million protected by the government, 100 million new residents unqualified for food rations who had moved into towns of 100,000 population, and the so-called floating population getting no government services numbering about 60-80 million in February 1990. Rural towns grew as a result of promotion of smaller sized cities. In 1983 there were 62,310,000 people in such cities, and by 1984 there were over 134 million mainly in the 15-29 age group. The increasing inflow of population into major cities also occurred in 1984-5 owing to the dissolution of communes. 23 cities with populations over 1 million received 10 million migrants/year, and 50 million migrate to towns and cities every year. In 1988 Shanghai had a mostly male floating population of 2.08 million/year, and Beijing had 1,310,000. This phenomenon led to the emergence of surplus agricultural labor. Village and township enterprises absorbed this surplus: in 1988 there were 18,888,600 such entities employing 95,454,600 people or 23.8% of the labor force. Surplus labor totals 220 million out of 400 million agricultural labor force. The gap between the hinterland and the rich coastal areas with special economic zones is widening, reminiscent of the north-south problem. This phenomenon is the harbinger of the transformation of China into a freer society with higher population mobility.

  6. Renewable Energy in Urban Areas: Worldwide Research Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel-Angel Perea-Moreno

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to highlight the contribution made by different international institutions in the field of urban generation of renewable energy, as a key element to achieve sustainability. This has been possible through the use of the Scopus Elsevier database, and the application of bibliometric techniques through which the articles content published from 1977 to 2017 has been analysed. The results shown by Scopus (e.g., journal articles and conferences proceedings have been taken into account for further analysis by using the following search pattern (TITLE-ABS-KEY ({Renewable energy} AND ({urban} OR ({cit*}. In order to carry out this study, key features of the publications have been taken into consideration, such as type of document, language, thematic area, type of publication, and keywords. As far as keywords are concerned, renewable energy, sustainability, sustainable development, urban areas, city, and energy efficiency, have been the most frequently used. The results found have been broken down both geographically and by institution, showing that China, the United States, the United Kingdom, Italy, Germany and India are the main research countries and Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ministry of Education China and Tsinghua University the major contributing institutes. With regard to the categories, Energy, Environmental Sciences, and Engineering are positioned as the most active categories. The scientific community agrees that the study of the renewable energy generation in cities is of vital importance to achieve more sustainable cities, and for the welfare of a growing urban population. Moreover, this is in line with the energy policies adopted by most of developed countries in order to mitigate climate change effects.

  7. On Financing of Urban Transition viewed from the Oresund Area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haldrup, Karin; Snällfot, David

    2014-01-01

    The “urban transition” agenda is as a conglomerate of ambitions derived from international policy documents and as applied in the Oresund area. Encompassing locally set goals for (i) climate change mitigation; (ii) energy efficiency; and (iii) human wellbeing in the built environment. Its impleme....... The paper concludes by suggesting to revisit current strategies in the Oresund area to reflect market constraints and to promote more coherent ways to achieve the set goals.......The “urban transition” agenda is as a conglomerate of ambitions derived from international policy documents and as applied in the Oresund area. Encompassing locally set goals for (i) climate change mitigation; (ii) energy efficiency; and (iii) human wellbeing in the built environment. Its...... implementation is largely dependent on private sector joining in, since transitioning the building stock is to be financed by the market. This paper explores strategies to meet this agenda in the Oresund area. A particular focus is on the refurbishment of multi-family housing relative to these set goals...

  8. Social inequalities in oral cancer literacy in an adult population in a multicultural deprived area of the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kaabi, Rasha; Gamboa, Ana B O; Williams, David; Marcenes, Wagner

    2016-09-01

    To report the level and correlates of oral cancer literacy in a deprived area of the UK. This study is part of the East London Oral Health Inequality Study, which included a representative sample of adults 16-65 (n = 2343) years old living in Waltham Forest, Redbridge and Barking and Dagenham in 2009-10. This cross-sectional study adopted a multi-stage, stratified, random sampling approach. Data were collected through home visits by trained examiners and interviewers. Hierarchical logistic regression modelling was adopted. Only 26.7% participants were aware that a small lesion in the mouth can develop into oral cancer, and 39.5% were aware that early treatment could prevent a lesion from developing into oral cancer. Adjusted odds ratios confirmed the social gradient in awareness that a small lesion in the mouth can develop into oral cancer, even after adjusting for age, gender and ethnicity. Inequalities in awareness that a small lesion in the mouth can develop into oral cancer were significantly attenuated after forcing education level into the equation. Interestingly, adjusting for education cancelled the difference previously observed between manual/routine and professional/managerial occupations. Oral cancer literacy is poor among adults in Outer North East London, and we have identified particularly vulnerable sub-populations. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. THE LOW BACKSCATTERING TARGETS CLASSIFICATION IN URBAN AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Shi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The Polarimetric and Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (POLINSAR is widely used in urban area nowadays. Because of the physical and geometric sensitivity, the POLINSAR is suitable for the city classification, power-lines detection, building extraction, etc. As the new X-band POLINSAR radar, the china prototype airborne system, XSAR works with high spatial resolution in azimuth (0.1 m and slant range (0.4 m. In land applications, SAR image classification is a useful tool to distinguish the interesting area and obtain the target information. The bare soil, the cement road, the water and the building shadow are common scenes in the urban area. As it always exists low backscattering sign objects (LBO with the similar scattering mechanism (all odd bounce except for shadow in the XSAR images, classes are usually confused in Wishart-H-Alpha and Freeman-Durden methods. It is very hard to distinguish those targets only using the general information. To overcome the shortage, this paper explores an improved algorithm for LBO refined classification based on the Pre-Classification in urban areas. Firstly, the Pre-Classification is applied in the polarimetric datum and the mixture class is marked which contains LBO. Then, the polarimetric covariance matrix C3 is re-estimated on the Pre-Classification results to get more reliable results. Finally, the occurrence space which combining the entropy and the phase-diff standard deviation between HH and VV channel is used to refine the Pre-Classification results. The XSAR airborne experiments show the improved method is potential to distinguish the mixture classes in the low backscattering objects.

  10. Relations and areas of interaction between landowners in a peri-urban area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richardt, Ann-Sofie

    2016-01-01

    While land management can be a subject of conflict in places where the composition of landowners is socially and culturally diverse, it also holds the potential of bringing landowners together across social groups. This chapter uses the case of a peri-urban area near Copenhagen, Denmark, to exami...

  11. The impact of human activities in soils and sediments on urban and peri-urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, Adrienn; Szita, Renáta; Bidló, András; Gribovszki, Zoltán

    2017-04-01

    In this current research we would like to detect the amount of the differences between the natural, the suburb and the urban areas. The aim of the investigation was to determine the impact of human activities on urban and peri-urban soils of Sopron. 72 urban soil samples were collected on 6 sub-catchments for analysing the background pollution of Rák Creek in Sopron. After the analysis of chemical and physical properties of urban soil samples, two element fractions - the total (HNO3+H2O2-extractable) and the available NH4-acetate+EDTA-extractable - were used for element determination. Toxic elements were measured by ICP-OES in the urban soils and the sediments as well. in case of sediment samples from thalweg and dead region. That were collected from the bank of the Rák creek at 6 sampling points to calculate enrichment factors to assess the possible harmful effects of toxic metals. The field and laboratory data were processed using a GIS softver DigiTerraMap. Six elements were selected for analyses Co, Cd, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb, which are prominent in urban soils. Statistical analysis was carried out with Microsoft Office Excel 2003, STATISTICA 11 and R Studio. C2 program was used for the distribution of toxic elements. Based on results e.g. pH, etc., there were definite differences between natural HAZ, BAN, semi-natural HAJNAL and urbanized FASOR, GYORI, TESCO areas and significant differences in toxic element distribution as well. The toxic elements of sediment showed the following tendency: Pb > Zn > Cu > Ni = Co. The Co and the Ni values were lower than the natural background limits. The Cutotal exceeded the first interventional pollution limit > 75 mg.kg-1 and the available Zn and Pb were higher than the suggested interventional pollution limits Znavailable >40 mg.kg-1; Pbavailable >25 mg.kg-1 at GYORI sub-catchment. The EF values were generally higher in dead region than in thalweg except of GYORI point. Lead had the highest EF values between the five metals

  12. Impact of Motor Vehicle Emissions on Air Quality in Urban and Sub Urban Area

    OpenAIRE

    Karim, A. Ikhsan; SUGITO, Sugito

    2014-01-01

    One of the effects of development and growth in urban areas is the increasing number of vehicles from year to year . Improved transportation needs to support the activities of the community , the problems faced by large cities today . Along with these problems , the most crucial in the presence of the number of vehicles is the problem of congestion .Vehicle congestion and concentrated on a spot will cause air pollution . Air pollution comes from motor vehicle exhaust emissions contain toxic s...

  13. Outcomes by area of residence deprivation in a cohort of oral cancer patients: Survival, health-related quality of life, and place of death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rylands, Joseph; Lowe, Derek; Rogers, Simon N

    2016-01-01

    Oral cancer patients from lower socio-economic backgrounds have worse outcomes of survival and health related quality of life. The mechanism of cause is not fully understood. The purpose of the paper is to report treatment selection, survival, health related quality of life, cause and place of death in relation to deprivation status. 553 patients treated for oral cancer between 2008 and 2012 were identified from records at University hospital. Mortality was tracked via the Office of National Statistics (ONS) and health-related quality of life was measured using the University Washington quality of life questionnaire (UW-QoLv4). Postcodes of residence at diagnosis were used to obtain index of multiple deprivation (IMD) 2010 scores. Nearly half of the sample (47%) lived in the 'most deprived' IMD 2010 quartile of residential areas in England and such patients when treated with curative intent using surgery with or without adjuvant radiotherapy had worse survival than patients living elsewhere, p=0.01 after adjusting for pathological staging and age group. There were no notable differences by IMD group in cancer being mentioned anywhere in part 1 or part 2 of the death certificate or in place of death. After adjustment for patient and clinical factors patients residing in more deprived areas had worse quality of life outcomes in regard to social-emotional functioning and overall quality of life but not in regard to physical oral function. Addressing inequalities in health care related to deprivation is a priority for patients with oral cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Mapping urban climate zones and quantifying climate behaviors--an application on Toulouse urban area (France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houet, Thomas; Pigeon, Grégoire

    2011-01-01

    Facing the concern of the population to its environment and to climatic change, city planners are now considering the urban climate in their choices of planning. The use of climatic maps, such Urban Climate Zone‑UCZ, is adapted for this kind of application. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate that the UCZ classification, integrated in the World Meteorological Organization guidelines, first can be automatically determined for sample areas and second is meaningful according to climatic variables. The analysis presented is applied on Toulouse urban area (France). Results show first that UCZ differentiate according to air and surface temperature. It has been possible to determine the membership of sample areas to an UCZ using landscape descriptors automatically computed with GIS and remote sensed data. It also emphasizes that climate behavior and magnitude of UCZ may vary from winter to summer. Finally we discuss the influence of climate data and scale of observation on UCZ mapping and climate characterization. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Postwar Industrial areas as agents for sustainable urban transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boye, Anne Mette

    2017-01-01

    for an interest among planning authorities on how to qualify the transformation, yet the complexity of many owners with divergent interests, and uncertain conditions challenges the planning process. Today, depending on the areas’ geographic and economic context, two overall reactions can be seen: Either the areas...... emphasize and distinguish their different characters and opportunities. Secondly, using five objectives from the theory of landscape urbanism, the paper identifies qualities in the enclaves, to be utilized as agents in a sustainable transformation process. Finally, demonstrated with examples from related...

  16. Urban-rural migration and cultural transformation of rural areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Helle

    Rural areas are presently challenged by various restructuring processes; functionally and economically with changes in employment structure etc. as well as social and cultural transformations due to demographic change, population loss but also due to in-migration. This paper addresses how rural...... communities change due to urban-rural migration by investigating reasons and motivations that influence migration decisions, studying relations between newcomers and local residents and exploring social relations and sense of belonging.  The study applies a biographical approach seeking to demonstrate...

  17. Response of forest soil properties to urbanization gradients in three metropolitan areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard V. Pouyat; Ian D. Yesilonis; Katalin Szlavecz; Csaba Csuzdi; Elizabeth Hornung; Zoltan Kors& #243; s; Jonathan Russell-Anelli; Vincent Giorgio

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the effects of urban environments on the chemical properties of forest soils in the metropolitan areas of Baltimore, New York, and Budapest. We hypothesized that soils in forest patches in each city will exhibit changes in chemistry corresponding to urbanization gradients, but more strongly with various urban metrics than distance to the urban core....

  18. Reconsidering the Relationship between Air Pollution and Deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Nick; Dong, Guanpeng; Minton, Jon; Pryce, Gwilym

    2018-03-29

    This paper critically examines the relationship between air pollution and deprivation. We argue that focusing on a particular economic or social model of urban development might lead one to erroneously expect all cities to converge towards a particular universal norm. A naive market sorting model, for example, would predict that poor households will eventually be sorted into high pollution areas, leading to a positive relationship between air pollution and deprivation. If, however, one considers a wider set of theoretical perspectives, the anticipated relationship between air pollution and deprivation becomes more complex and idiosyncratic. Specifically, we argue the relationship between pollution and deprivation can only be made sense of by considering processes of risk perception, path dependency, gentrification and urbanization. Rather than expecting all areas to eventually converge to some universal norm, we should expect the differences in the relationship between air pollution and deprivation across localities to persist. Mindful of these insights, we propose an approach to modeling which does not impose a geographically fixed relationship. Results for Scotland reveal substantial variations in the observed relationships over space and time, supporting our argument.

  19. Reconsidering the Relationship between Air Pollution and Deprivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Bailey

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper critically examines the relationship between air pollution and deprivation. We argue that focusing on a particular economic or social model of urban development might lead one to erroneously expect all cities to converge towards a particular universal norm. A naive market sorting model, for example, would predict that poor households will eventually be sorted into high pollution areas, leading to a positive relationship between air pollution and deprivation. If, however, one considers a wider set of theoretical perspectives, the anticipated relationship between air pollution and deprivation becomes more complex and idiosyncratic. Specifically, we argue the relationship between pollution and deprivation can only be made sense of by considering processes of risk perception, path dependency, gentrification and urbanization. Rather than expecting all areas to eventually converge to some universal norm, we should expect the differences in the relationship between air pollution and deprivation across localities to persist. Mindful of these insights, we propose an approach to modeling which does not impose a geographically fixed relationship. Results for Scotland reveal substantial variations in the observed relationships over space and time, supporting our argument.

  20. Reconsidering the Relationship between Air Pollution and Deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Nick; Dong, Guanpeng; Minton, Jon; Pryce, Gwilym

    2018-01-01

    This paper critically examines the relationship between air pollution and deprivation. We argue that focusing on a particular economic or social model of urban development might lead one to erroneously expect all cities to converge towards a particular universal norm. A naive market sorting model, for example, would predict that poor households will eventually be sorted into high pollution areas, leading to a positive relationship between air pollution and deprivation. If, however, one considers a wider set of theoretical perspectives, the anticipated relationship between air pollution and deprivation becomes more complex and idiosyncratic. Specifically, we argue the relationship between pollution and deprivation can only be made sense of by considering processes of risk perception, path dependency, gentrification and urbanization. Rather than expecting all areas to eventually converge to some universal norm, we should expect the differences in the relationship between air pollution and deprivation across localities to persist. Mindful of these insights, we propose an approach to modeling which does not impose a geographically fixed relationship. Results for Scotland reveal substantial variations in the observed relationships over space and time, supporting our argument. PMID:29596380

  1. Area-Level Deprivation and Adverse Consequences in People With Substance Use Disorders: Findings From the Psychiatric and Addictive Dual Disorder in Italy (PADDI) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrà, Giuseppe; Crocamo, Cristina; Borrelli, Paola; Tabacchi, Tommaso; Bartoli, Francesco; Popa, Ioana; Montomoli, Cristina; Clerici, Massimo

    2017-03-21

    Environmental factors may operate with individual ones to influence the risk of substance use. Research has focused on severe adverse consequences influenced by contextual variables. However, the literature on community level factors influencing substance use behaviors is relatively limited across Europe so far. We capitalized on data from a National survey, exploring individual and contextual characteristics, to study adverse consequences among people with substance use disorders. The impact of area-level deprivation on nonfatal overdose, hepatitis C or B infections, and major involvement with the criminal justice system, was explored. Logistic regression models with cluster-robust errors, modeling subject-level and area-level effects, were used. Living in deprived and intermediate areas, as compared with affluent ones, was associated with greater likelihood of both nonfatal overdose and jail sentences longer than 6 months, though not of active viral hepatitis. Area-level deprivation may play an important role in determining adverse consequences in people with substance use disorders, also after controlling for individual-level characteristics. More research is needed to understand the aspects of social and physical environments that matter for drug outcomes before effective policy and research interventions can be developed.

  2. Displacement in urban areas: new challenges, new partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisp, Jeff; Morris, Tim; Refstie, Hilde

    2012-07-01

    Rapid urbanisation is a key characteristic of the modern world, interacting with and reinforcing other global mega trends, including armed conflict, climate change, crime, environmental degradation, financial and economic instability, food shortages, underemployment, volatile commodity prices, and weak governance. Displaced people also are affected by and engaged in the process of urbanisation. Increasingly, refugees, returnees, and internally displaced persons (IDPs) are to be found not in camps or among host communities in rural areas, but in the towns and cities of developing and middle-income countries. The arrival and long-term settlement of displaced populations in urban areas needs to be better anticipated, understood, and planned for, with a particular emphasis on the establishment of new partnerships. Humanitarian actors can no longer liaise only with national governments; they must also develop urgently closer working relationships with mayors and municipal authorities, service providers, urban police forces, and, most importantly, the representatives of both displaced and resident communities. This requires linking up with those development actors that have established such partnerships already. © 2012 The Author(s). Journal compilation © Overseas Development Institute, 2012.

  3. Complex Mobile Independent Power Station for Urban Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunik, A. A.; Tolstoy, M. Y.

    2017-11-01

    A new type of a complex mobile independent power station developed in the Department of Engineering Communications and Life-Support Systems of Irkutsk National Research Technical University, is presented in this article. This station contains only solar panel, wind turbine, accumulator, diesel generator and microbial fuel cell for to produce electric energy, heat pump and solar collector to generate heat energy and also wastewater treatment plant and new complex control system. The complex mobile independent power station is intended for full power supply of a different kind of consumers located even in remote areas thus reducing their dependence from centralized energy supply systems, decrease the fossil fuel consumption, improve the environment of urban areas and solve the problems of the purification of industrial and municipal wastewater.

  4. A New Model for Simulating TSS Washoff in Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Crobeddu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the formulation and validation of the conceptual Runoff Quality Simulation Model (RQSM that was developed to simulate the erosion and transport of solid particles in urban areas. The RQSM assumes that solid particle accumulation on pervious and impervious areas is infinite. The RQSM simulates soil erosion using rainfall kinetic energy and solid particle transport with linear system theory. A sensitivity analysis was conducted on the RQSM to show the influence of each parameter on the simulated load. Total suspended solid (TSS loads monitored at the outlet of the borough of Verdun in Canada and at three catchment outlets of the City of Champaign in the United States were used to validate the RQSM. TSS loads simulated by the RQSM were compared to measured loads and to loads simulated by the Rating Curve model and the Exponential model of the SWMM software. The simulation performance of the RQSM was comparable to the Exponential and Rating Curve models.

  5. Comparison of Migrants in Two Rural and an Urban Area of Central Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkening, E. A.

    The goal of this study was to compare the migration and adaptation of settlers in urban areas with settlers in rural areas of Brazil. A sample of 1,255 families, divided into an urban group, a near-urban rural group, and a rural group were interviewed. The migration patterns of the groups were discussed and factors related to migration were…

  6. Identifying forest lands in urban areas in the Central Hardwood Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas W. Birch; Rachel Riemann Hershey; Philip Kern

    1997-01-01

    Forests in urban areas are an important component of urban and suburban environments. They provide places for recreation and environmental education, wildlife habitat for species adapted to living near humans, contribute to general human physical and psychological health. Knowing how much and what type of forest exists in urban areas provides critical baseline data for...

  7. Network Optimization for Induced Seismicity Monitoring in Urban Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, T.; Husen, S.; Wiemer, S.

    2012-12-01

    With the global challenge to satisfy an increasing demand for energy, geological energy technologies receive growing attention and have been initiated in or close to urban areas in the past several years. Some of these technologies involve injecting fluids into the subsurface (e.g., oil and gas development, waste disposal, and geothermal energy development) and have been found or suspected to cause small to moderate sized earthquakes. These earthquakes, which may have gone unnoticed in the past when they occurred in remote sparsely populated areas, are now posing a considerable risk for the public acceptance of these technologies in urban areas. The permanent termination of the EGS project in Basel, Switzerland after a number of induced ML~3 (minor) earthquakes in 2006 is one prominent example. It is therefore essential to the future development and success of these geological energy technologies to develop strategies for managing induced seismicity and keeping the size of induced earthquake at a level that is acceptable to all stakeholders. Most guidelines and recommendations on induced seismicity published since the 1970ies conclude that an indispensable component of such a strategy is the establishment of seismic monitoring in an early stage of a project. This is because an appropriate seismic monitoring is the only way to detect and locate induced microearthquakes with sufficient certainty to develop an understanding of the seismic and geomechanical response of the reservoir to the geotechnical operation. In addition, seismic monitoring lays the foundation for the establishment of advanced traffic light systems and is therefore an important confidence building measure towards the local population and authorities. We have developed an optimization algorithm for seismic monitoring networks in urban areas that allows to design and evaluate seismic network geometries for arbitrary geotechnical operation layouts. The algorithm is based on the D-optimal experimental

  8. Dry deposition of polychlorinated biphenyls in urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holsen, T.M.; Noll, K.E.; Shiping Liu, Wenjhy Lee

    1991-01-01

    The PCB dry deposition flux was measured in Chicago with a greased, Mylar-covered smooth plate with a sharp leading edge pointed into the wind. The dry deposition flux of PCBs in Chicago averaged 3.8 μg/m 2 ·day between May and November 1989 and 6.0 μg/m 2 ·day for May and June 1990. A comparison of the PCB flux measured in Chicago to an estimated nonurban PCB flux shows that the flux of PCBs is up to 3 orders of magnitude higher in urban areas than in nonurban areas, indicating that Chicago and other urban areas near the Great Lakes must be considered as major source terms for deposition of PCBs into the lakes. The distribution of atmospheric PCBs between the gas and particle phase and the size distribution of particle-phase PCBs were also measured. The airborne PCB concentration as measured by the Noll rotary impactor (NRI) A stage (particles with aerodynamic diameters of > 6.5 μm) was higher in Chicago (0.94 ng/m 3 ) than in Los Angeles (0.52 ng/m 3 ), as was the mean particle-phase PCB concentration (47 vs 21 μg/g). PCBs were found to be associated with all sizes of atmospheric particles; however, their particle mass normalized concentration decreased with increasing particle size. PCBs associated with particles, particularly coarse particles, represented a significant fraction of the total PCB dry deposition flux even though PCBs in the ambient air were present primarily in the gas phase

  9. A study on the relationship between carbon budget and ecosystem service in urban areas according to urbanization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. J.; Lee, W. K.

    2017-12-01

    The study on the analysis of carbon storage capacity of urban green spaces with increasing urban forest. Modern cities have experienced rapid economic development since Industrial Revolution in the 18th century. The rapid economic growth caused an exponential concentration of population to the cities and decrease of green spaces due to the conversion of forest and agricultural lands to build-up areas with rapid urbanization. As green areas including forests, grasslands, and wetlands provide diverse economic, environmental, and cultural benefits, the decrease of green areas might be a huge loss. Also, the process of urbanization caused pressure on the urban environment more than its natural capacity, which accelerates global climate change. This study tries to see the relations between carbon budget and ecosystem services according to the urbanization. For calculating carbon dynamics, this study used VISIT(Vegetation Integrated Simulator for trace gases) model. And the value that ecosystem provides is explained with the concept of ecosystem service and calculated by InVEST model. Study sites are urban and peri-urban areas in Northeast Asia. From the result of the study, the effect of the urbanization can be understood in regard to carbon storage and ecosystem services.

  10. Low Elevation Coastal Zone (LECZ) Urban-Rural Population and Land Area Estimates, Version 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Low Elevation Coastal Zone (LECZ) Urban-Rural Population and Land Area Estimates, Version 2 data set consists of country-level estimates of urban population,...

  11. Identifying Areas of Primary Care Shortage in Urban Ohio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Chung Liao

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study considers both spatial and a-spatial variables in examining accessibility to primary healthcare in the three largest urban areas of Ohio (Cleveland, Columbus, and Cincinnati. Spatial access emphasizes the importance of geographic barriers between individuals and primary care physicians, while a-spatial variables include non-geographic barriers or facilitators such as age, sex, race, income, social class, education, living conditions and language skills. Population and socioeconomic data were obtained from the 2000 Census, and primary care physician data for 2008 was provided by the Ohio Medical Board. We first implemented a two-step method based on a floating catchment area using Geographic Information Systems to measure spatial accessibility in terms of 30-minute travel times. We then used principal component analysis to group various socio-demographic variables into three groups: (1 socioeconomic disadvantages, (2 living conditions, and (3 healthcare needs. Finally, spatial and a-spatial variables were integrated to identify areas with poor access to primary care in Cleveland, Columbus, and Cincinnati. KEYWORDS: Geographic information systems, healthcare access, spatial accessibility, primary care shortage areas

  12. A framework for probabilistic pluvial flood nowcasting for urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntegeka, Victor; Murla, Damian; Wang, Lipen; Foresti, Loris; Reyniers, Maarten; Delobbe, Laurent; Van Herk, Kristine; Van Ootegem, Luc; Willems, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    Pluvial flood nowcasting is gaining ground not least because of the advancements in rainfall forecasting schemes. Short-term forecasts and applications have benefited from the availability of such forecasts with high resolution in space (~1km) and time (~5min). In this regard, it is vital to evaluate the potential of nowcasting products for urban inundation applications. One of the most advanced Quantitative Precipitation Forecasting (QPF) techniques is the Short-Term Ensemble Prediction System, which was originally co-developed by the UK Met Office and Australian Bureau of Meteorology. The scheme was further tuned to better estimate extreme and moderate events for the Belgian area (STEPS-BE). Against this backdrop, a probabilistic framework has been developed that consists of: (1) rainfall nowcasts; (2) sewer hydraulic model; (3) flood damage estimation; and (4) urban inundation risk mapping. STEPS-BE forecasts are provided at high resolution (1km/5min) with 20 ensemble members with a lead time of up to 2 hours using a 4 C-band radar composite as input. Forecasts' verification was performed over the cities of Leuven and Ghent and biases were found to be small. The hydraulic model consists of the 1D sewer network and an innovative 'nested' 2D surface model to model 2D urban surface inundations at high resolution. The surface components are categorized into three groups and each group is modelled using triangular meshes at different resolutions; these include streets (3.75 - 15 m2), high flood hazard areas (12.5 - 50 m2) and low flood hazard areas (75 - 300 m2). Functions describing urban flood damage and social consequences were empirically derived based on questionnaires to people in the region that were recently affected by sewer floods. Probabilistic urban flood risk maps were prepared based on spatial interpolation techniques of flood inundation. The method has been implemented and tested for the villages Oostakker and Sint-Amandsberg, which are part of the

  13. Persistent Scatterer InSAR monitoring of Bratislava urban area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakon, Matus; Perissin, Daniele; Papco, Juraj; Lazecky, Milan

    2014-05-01

    The main purpose of this research is to monitor the ground stability of Bratislava urban area by application of the satellite radar interferometry. Bratislava, the capital city of Slovakia, is situated in its south-west on the borders with Austria and Hungary and only 62 kilometers from the border with Czech Republic. With an exclusive location and good infrastructure, the city attracts foreign investors and developers, what has resulted in unprecedented boom in construction in recent years. Another thing is that Danube River in the last five hundred years caused a hundred of devastating floods, so therefore flood occurs every five years, on average. From geological point of view, the Little Carpathians covers the main part of study area and are geologically and tectonically interesting. The current state of relief and spatial distribution of individual geological forms is the result of vertical geodynamic movements of tectonic blocks, e.g., subsiding parts of Vienna Basin and Danubian Basin or uplifting mountains. The Little Carpathians horst and the area of Vienna Basin contains a number of tectonic faults, where ground motions as a result of geodynamic processes are mostly expected. It is assumed that all the phenomena stated above has an impact on the spatial composition of the Earth's surface in Bratislava urban area. As nowadays surface of the Little Carpathians is heavily eroded and morphology smoothed, question of this impact cannot be answered only by interpreting geological tectonic maps. Furthermore, expected changes have never been revealed by any geodetic measurements which would offer advantages of satellite radar interferometry concerning temporal coverage, spatial resolution and accuracy. Thus the generation of ground deformation maps using satellite radar interferometry could gather valuable information. The work aims to perform a series of differential interferograms and PSInSAR (Persistent Scatterer Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar

  14. Surface ozone in the urban area of Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, R. A. F. D.; Costa, P. S.; Silva, C.; Godoi, R. M.; Martin, S. T.; Tota, J.; Barbosa, H. M.; Pauliquevis, T.; Ferreira De Brito, J.; Artaxo, P.; Manzi, A. O.; Wolf, S. A.; Cirino, G. G.

    2014-12-01

    When nitrogen oxides from vehicle and industrial emissions mix with volatile organic compounds from trees and plants with exposure to sunlight, a chemical reaction occurs contributing to ground-level ozone pollution. The preliminary results of the surface ozone study in urban area of Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil, are presented for the first intensive operating period (IOP1) of the GoAmazon experiment (February/March 2014). Photochemical ozone production was found to be a regular process, with an afternoon maximum of the ozone mixing ratio of lower than 20 ppbv for cloudy days or clear sky weather. Typical ozone concentrations at mid-day were low (about 10 ppb). On the other hand, several high-value ozone episodes with surface ozone mixing ratios up to three times larger were registered during the dry season of 2013 (September/October). At the beginning of the wet season, the ozone concentration in Manaus decreased significantly, but diurnal variations can be found during the days with rainfall and other fast changes of meteorological conditions. Possible explanations of the nature of pulsations are discussed. Photochemical ozone production by local urban plumes of Manaus is named as a first possible source of the ozone concentration and biomass burning or power plant emissions are suggested as an alternative or an additional source.

  15. A century of the evolution of the urban area in Shenyang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Miao; Xu, Yanyan; Hu, Yuanman; Li, Chunlin; Sun, Fengyun; Chen, Tan

    2014-01-01

    Analyzing spatiotemporal characteristics of the historical urbanization process is essential in understanding the dynamics of urbanization and scientifically planned urban development. Based on historical urban area maps and remote sensing images, this study examined the urban expansion of Shenyang from 1910 to 2010 using area statistics, typology identification, and landscape metrics approaches. The population and gross domestic product were analyzed as driving factors. The results showed that the urban area of Shenyang increased 43.39-fold during the study period and that the growth rate has accelerated since the 1980s. Three urban growth types were distinguished: infilling, edge-expansion, and spontaneous growth. Edge-expansion was the primary growth type. Infilling growth became the main growth type in the periods 1946-70, 1988-97, and 2004-10. Spontaneous growth was concentrated in the period of 1997 to 2000. The results of landscape metrics indicate that the urban landscape of Shenyang originally was highly aggregated, but has become increasingly fragmented. The urban fringe area was the traditional hot zone of urbanization. Shenyang was mainly located north of the Hun River before 1980; however, the south side of the river has been the hot zone of urbanization since the 1980s. The increase of urban area strongly correlated with the growth of GDP and population. Over a long time scale, the urbanization process has been affected by major historical events.

  16. SOCIODEMOGRAPHIC DOAMINS OF DEPRIVATION AND PRETERM BIRTH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background. Neighborhood-level deprivation has long been associated with adverse outcomes, including preterm birth (PTB), as observed in the authors' previous work using a composite deprivation index. Area disadvantage is multifaceted comprising income, employment, education and...

  17. Expansion of urban area and wastewater irrigated rice area in Hyderabad, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumma, K.M.; van, Rooijen D.; Nelson, A.; Thenkabail, P.S.; Aakuraju, Radha V.; Amerasinghe, P.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate land use changes in urban and peri-urban Hyderabad and their influence on wastewater irrigated rice using Landsat ETM + data and spectral matching techniques. The main source of irrigation water is the Musi River, which collects a large volume of wastewater and stormwater while running through the city. From 1989 to 2002, the wastewater irrigated area along the Musi River increased from 5,213 to 8,939 ha with concurrent expansion of the city boundaries from 22,690 to 42,813 ha and also decreased barren lands and range lands from 86,899 to 66,616 ha. Opportunistic shifts in land use, especially related to wastewater irrigated agriculture, were seen as a response to the demand for fresh vegetables and easy access to markets, exploited mainly by migrant populations. While wastewater irrigated agriculture contributes to income security of marginal groups, it also supplements the food basket of many city dwellers. Landsat ETM + data and advanced methods such as spectral matching techniques are ideal for quantifying urban expansion and associated land use changes, and are useful for urban planners and decision makers alike. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  18. Aerosol properties and air pollutants over an urban area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukai, Sonoyo; Sano, Itaru; Satoh, Mutsumi; Holben, Brent N.

    2006-12-01

    For a better understanding of urban aerosols, sun/sky photometry has been undertaken at the Kinki University campus in Higashi-Osaka as a NASA/AERONET station since 2002. A new instrument, the SPM-613D (Kimoto Electric), has been taking measurements at the same site since March 15, 2004. The relationship between aerosol properties obtained from radiometry with AERONET and the SPM measurements is examined. It is found that there is a linear correlation between SPM concentrations and aerosol properties, which indicates that aerosol characteristics can be estimated from SPM data, and vice versa. It is also shown that the air quality of the Higashi-Osaka site is poor due to not only the anthropogenic particles by local emissions, such as diesel vehicles and chemical industries, but also due to the dust particles coming from continental desert areas by large scale climatic conditions.

  19. The Communication in Public Administration in Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorina Ţicu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to underline the role of communication in the public institutions byidentifying the characteristics and peculiarities of the process of public administration, starting from thecharacteristics of administrative process and from those of organizational behavior in urban areas identifiableat the level of each public institution. The study of the dimensions such as the actors and the stakeholdersinvolved in the administrative process, the goals and the objectives of the administrative evaluation, thecriteria and the techniques of communication and all interpersonal hierarchies established, all of these can beconsidered variables that can offer distinction to the communication process in public administration, whetherwe speak about inter-institutional communication or intra-institution alone or about that one from the publicadministration to citizens. This article aims to underlie the characteristics of the communication process inpublic administration based on a quantitative study which appeals to the variables previously set and that canbecome models or labels for subsequent specialized studies.

  20. Geological characterization of contaminated sites in urban areas (Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Theis Raaschou; Nissen, Randi Warncke; Poulsen, Søren Erbs

    In Denmark, contaminations from industry and farming represent a significant threat to groundwater resources. Hence there is a focus on identifying and locating these contaminated places. Once located, contaminations are mapped and monitored and remediation efforts are undertaken. Remediation...... is often time consuming and expensive. Moreover, as cities expand, many contaminations are now located in urban areas where data compilation and remediation efforts are often challenged by logistics. The general lack of knowledge about theses contaminations introduces significant uncertainties...... geological models of the two sites were constructed. The 3D geological models will serve as a basis for simulating groundwater flow and contaminant transport at the field sites. The study demonstrates how detailed information about the geological setting in conjunction with contaminant transport modelling...

  1. Bacterial contamination of groundwater in urban area of Karachi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubair, A.; Rippey, B.

    1999-01-01

    Well-water samples (in=193) were collected from urban areas of five districts of Karachi during the period 1993 to 1995 to evaluate its bacteriological quality and their impact on city environment and morbidity patterns of inhabitants. Samples were analyzed by the standard method American Public Health Association. The bacteriological contamination level suggest that the groundwater of Chaahi is mainly affected by contamination of wastewater containing high levels of coliform and faecal coliform bacteria. This study points towards serious need to control the seepage from sewerage system and use of contaminated well-water should be discouraged to reduce the incidence of water-borne diseases in order to improve the quality of life and health. (author)

  2. [Heat vulnerability assessment in Jinan city: a comparison between residents living in urban centers and urban-fringe areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Fangjun; Xin, Zheng; Zhou, Lin; Bai, Li; Wang, Yongming; Gu, Shaohua; Liu, Shouqin; Li, Mengmeng; Sang, Shaowei; Zhang, Ji; Liu, Qiyong

    2014-06-01

    To find out the differences in regional characteristics of heat vulnerability between people living in urban centers and urban-fringe areas of Jinan city so as to provide basis for the development of adaptation measures to heat. A cross-sectional survey on heat vulnerability was conducted in urban center and urban-fringe areas of Jinan city, using a self-designed questionnaire among 801 residents at the age of 16 years or older in August 2013. Data of 23 indicators related to heat vulnerability were collected and aggregated to 7 dimensions:health and medical insurance, social networks, heat perception and adaptive behavior, economic status, resources, living environment and working environment. An index score was calculated using a balanced weighted average approach for each dimension, ranging from 0 to 1, with the closer to 1 as greater vulnerability. The scores on heat perception and adaptive behavior, economic status, resources and working environment dimensions for urban-fringe areas were 0.42,0.63,0.55 and 0.62, statistically significantly higher than the urban center area of 0.41,0.51,0.26 and 0.41. Scores of living environment, social networks and health/medical insurance dimensions for urban center area were 0.57,0.49 and 0.31, which were all higher than the urban-fringe areas of 0.50,0.46 and 0.25, with differences statistically significant. Residents living in the urban center might be more vulnerable to heat in terms of living environment, health/medical insurance and social networks while residents living in the urban-fringe areas might more be vulnerable in terms of heat perception and adaptive behavior, economic status, life resources and working environment. These facts indicated that heat vulnerability among residents could be quite different, even at a fine geographic sale. We would thus suggest that intervention strategies on protecting people from heat, should be more targeted.

  3. MANAGING PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT IN PERI-URBAN AREAS OF KUMASI, GHANA: A CASE OF ABUAKWA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Amoateng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A remarkable trait of the 21 st century has been the high rate of urbanization which has characterized the growth and development of cities especially in developing countries. This situation has fuelled rapid physical development and expansion of peri-urban areas as urban dwellers relocate to cities’ peripheries. Focusing on Abuakwa a peri-urban area in Kumasi, the second largest city in Ghana, this paper assesses the nature and extent of physical development in peri-urban areas, and identifies the factors contributing to the rapid development of peri-urban areas. The paper further examines the effects of the increasing physical growth on the development of peri-urban Abuakwa. Using a case study approach, both primary and secondary sources of data were collected from decentralized government institutions of Kumasi Metropolitan Assembly (KMA and Atwima Nwabiagya District Assembly (ANDA, as well as indigenes and relocated urban dwellers in Abuakwa. The paper reveals that the outward drift has manifested itself in an increased scramble for land for residential and commercial purposes in the peri-urban area. The resultant effect has been the fast and spontaneous physical development in the urban periphery which has significantly altered the peri-urban morphology. The paper recommends the establishment of Customary Land Secretariat (CLS to co-ordinate allocation of land, and the application of settlement growth management approaches to ensure the creation of a functional city and liveable peri-urban areas.

  4. MANAGING PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT IN PERI-URBAN AREAS OF KUMASI, GHANA: A CASE OF ABUAKWA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Amoateng

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A remarkable trait of the 21st century has been the high rate of urbanization which has characterized the growth and development of cities especially in developing countries. This situation has fuelled the rapid and unguided development and expansion of peri-urban areas as urban dwellers relocate to cities’ peripheries. Focusing on Abuakwa a peri-urban area in Kumasi, the second largest city in Ghana, this paper assesses the nature and extent of physical development in peri-urban areas, and identifies the factors contributing to the rapid development of peri-urban areas. The paper further examines the effects of the increasing physical growth on the development of peri-urban Abuakwa. Using a case study approach, both primary and secondary sources of data were collected from decentralized government institutions of Kumasi Metropolitan Assembly (KMA and Atwima Nwabiagya District Assembly (ANDA, as well as the indigenous residents and relocated urban dwellers in Abuakwa. The paper reveals that the outward drift has manifested itself in an increased scramble for land for residential and commercial purposes in the peri-urban area. The resultant effect has been the fast and spontaneous physical development in the urban periphery which has significantly altered the peri-urban morphology. The paper recommends the establishment of Customary Land Secretariat (CLS and the application of settlement growth management approaches to ensure the creation of functional city and liveable peri-urban areas.

  5. Particulate matter pollution over a Mediterranean urban area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pateraki, St; Assimakopoulos, V D; Maggos, Th; Fameli, K M; Kotroni, V; Vasilakos, Ch

    2013-10-01

    The main purpose of this study is to investigate the aerosols' (PM10, PM2.5, and PM1) spatial and temporal distribution in different types of environment in a Mediterranean urban region, the Greater Athens Area based on data from a sampling campaign that took place during the cold and warm period of 2008. The influence of the atmospheric circulation patterns, the possible local transport mechanisms, as well as the differentiation of the PM behaviour from that of the inorganic pollutants (NOx, O3), are analysed and discussed. Furthermore, the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with extensions (CAMx) was applied for selected sampling dates and its results were evaluated against measurements in order to interpret qualitatively the configured picture of the air pollution above the GAA. Analysis of the measurement data show that local sources such as traffic and industry dominate over the prevailing PM loads, especially at the 'hot spot' areas. Moreover, the synoptic circulation patterns associated with calm conditions and southerly flows lead to high particulate pollution levels that also affect the urban background stations. Saharan dust outbreaks appeared to increase the particles' diameter as well as the number of E.U. limit value exceedances within the stations of our network. Without any dependence on the characteristics of the investigated atmosphere, PM1 always constituted the greatest part of the PM2.5 mass while PM10, especially during the Saharan dust episodes, was mainly constituted by the coarse fraction. The numerical modelling approach of the geographical distribution of PM10, PM2.5, NOx and O3 justified the design of the sampling campaign, indicating the need for the systematic and parallel monitoring and modelling of the pollutants' dispersion in order to understand the particulate pollution problem in the GAA and to aid to the formulation of pollution control strategies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Satellite remotely-sensed land surface parameters and their climatic effects on urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoran, M.; Savastru, R.; Savastru, D.; Ciobanu, M.; Tautan, M. N.; Miclos, S.

    2009-04-01

    Rapid urbanization transforms the natural landscape to anthropogenic urban land and changes surface biogeophysical characteristics.Urban growth affects the ecology of cities in a number of ways, such as eliminating and fragmenting native habitats, modifying local climate conditions, and generating anthropogenic pollutants.Urbanization has changed many landscapes throughout the world with serious ecological consequences.To understand the ecology of urban systems, it is necessary to quantify the spatial and temporal patterns of urbanization, which often requires dynamic modeling and spatial analysis. Geospatial information provided by satellite remote sensing sensors and biogeophysical field data are very useful for urban landuse-landcover dynamics and impacts analysis. The spatial and spectral variability of urban environments present fundamental challenges to deriving accurate remote sensing information for urban areas. By integrating high-resolution and medium-resolution satellite imagery with other geospatial information, have been investigated several land surface parameters including impervious surfaces and land surface temperatures for Bucharest metropolitan area in Romania. Percent impervious surface was used to quantitatively define the spatial extent and development density of urban land use. Land surface temperatures were retrieved by using a single band algorithm that processes both thermal infrared satellite data and total atmospheric water vapour content. Land surface temperatures have been analysed for different land use and land cover categories both in urban as well as in periurban areas. Because of the removal of vegetative cover and the reduction in evaporation over urban impervious surfaces, the urban heterogeneity of land surface and associated spatial extents influence surface thermal conditions. In situ meteorological data were integrated to assess regional climatic conditions. The spatial structure of surface heating influenced by landscape

  7. Wheels, skills and thrills: a social marketing trial to reduce aggressive driving from young men in deprived areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapp, Alan; Pressley, Ashley; Baugh, Mike; White, Paul

    2013-09-01

    Young men from poorer backgrounds are associated with high road traffic collision levels. However, solving this problem has proven very difficult. Hence this paper summarises the findings of a UK government funded two-year trial of a cross-discipline intervention to reduce aggressive driving amongst this group. The intervention reported on here departed from traditional approaches such as fear appeals, stand-alone educational approaches, or punitive measures. Instead, the discipline of social marketing was used to provide overarching direction and structure for the trial, with a key focus on motivation and engagement. The project rested on a strong education and training platform and included a bespoke coaching programme, incentives, and an in-vehicle measurement and feedback device. The project had three development phases leading to the final trial. First, a literature and case study review identified possible design strategies. Second, these strategies were explored using primary research in the form of a qualitative inquiry. Third, a pre-trial design phase sought to introduce key components of the intervention to the trial cohort, retaining some flexibility before committing to the final design. Young males with a history of challenging behaviour (e.g. criminal records, driving convictions) from an economically deprived area within a UK city were recruited. Of 42 recruits, 23 successfully completed the trial. Behaviour changes were measured pre-, during and post-trial through a combination of driver performance data measured by in-vehicle data recorders (IVDRs), assessments of driving undertaken by trained observers, and self-assessment surveys and interviews with trial participants. Results indicate a significant average improvement in driving skills amongst participants who completed the trial. Given the difficulty in engaging and changing behaviour of this specific group, this is regarded as a significant finding. In summary the study provides an indication

  8. Delineating Urban Fringe Area by Land Cover Information Entropy—An Empirical Study of Guangzhou-Foshan Metropolitan Area, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junyi Huang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Rapid urbanization has caused many environmental problems, such as the heat island effect, intensifying air pollution, pollution from runoff, loss of wildlife habitat, etc. Accurate evaluations of these problems demand an accurate delineation of the spatial extent of the urban fringe. Conceptual and analytical ambiguity of the urban fringe and a general lack of consensus among researchers have made its measurement very difficult. This study reports a compound and reliable method to delineate the urban fringe area using a case study. Based on the 'fringe effect' theory in landscape ecology, the existing land cover information entropy model for defining the urban fringe is renewed by incorporating scale theory, cartography and urban geography theory. Results show that the urban fringe area of Guangzhou and Foshan metropolitan area covers an area of 2031 km2, and it occupies over 31% of the total study area. Result evaluation by industry structure data shows satisfactory correspondence with different land cover types. This paper reports the method and outcome of an attempt to provide an objective, repeatable and generally applicable method for mapping its spatial extent from remote sensing imageries, and could be beneficial to relevant urban studies and urban fringe management projects.

  9. Comparative prevalence of otitis media in children living in urban slums, non-slum urban and rural areas of Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadha, Shelly K; Gulati, Kriti; Garg, Suneela; Agarwal, Arun K

    2014-12-01

    The study aimed to determine the prevalence and profile of otitis media in different parts of a city, i.e. non-slum urban areas, urban slums and rural areas. A door to door survey was conducted in identified areas of Delhi. A total of 3000 children (0-15 years) were randomly selected and examined for presence of otitis media. These children were equally distributed in the three areas under consideration. Data was analyzed to establish the prevalence of different types of otitis media. Chi-square test was then applied to compare disease prevalence among the three areas. 7.1% of the study population was identified with otitis media, which includes CSOM (4.26%), OME (2.5%) and ASOM (0.4%). In the non-slum urban parts of the city, 4.6% children had otitis media. This was significantly lower compared to 7% children in rural parts of Delhi and 9.9% in urban slums of the city. The prevalence of CSOM was considerably higher in slum areas (7.2%) as compared with rural (3%) and non-slum urban areas (2.6%). Ear infections are significantly more common in urban slums as compared to non-slum city areas and rural parts of Delhi. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. STRATEGIC PLANNING OF INNOVATION GOAL-SETTING IN DEVELOPMENT OF URBAN AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Murzin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This research focuses on the development of the goal setting concept in the strategic urban development and the identification of innovative priorities for sustainable development of urban areas, acting as catalysts for reforming of municipalities’ management.The purpose of this research is to establish an effective system of milestones of innovative development of urban areas in the process of strategic urban development.Methodological basis of the research is the complex of abstract and hypothetical and logical tools, as well as the axiomatic analysis of the problems and prospects of innovative development of urban areas.The research results include the study of terminological apparatus of urban innovations, formation of the main directions of innovation policy implementation in the process of urban development of urban areas, the development of a fundamental algorithm of strategic goal setting in the innovative development of urban areas.The scope of application of the research results is a system of planning of social and economic development of municipalities, as well as comprehensive programs of financing and investment support of social projects of the urban environment development.The main conclusion of this research is the statements of need for innovative orientation of plans for social and economic planning of the urban environment, revealing the negative effects of the inertial urban design, characteristic of most Russian cities, inattention to which can lead to a social and economic damage and even to a social, ecological and economic degradation of territories.

  11. URBAN SELF-ORGANISATION IN DEPRIVED NEIGHBORHOODS: POSSIBILITIES AND LIMITS OF AUTONOMOUS COLLECTIVE ARTICULATION IN SALVADOR DA BAHIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Hölldampf

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available From a comparative point of view, the given article is concerned with the possibilities and restrictions of urban self-organization within city’s neighbourhoods. Drawing upon a qualitative comparison between the case studies Alto de Ondina and Alto da Sereia – two disadvantaged urban neighbourhoods in the southern city centre of Salvador da Bahia (Brazil – and considering the conditional framework of daily life there, the idiographic context conditions that foster and alternatively impede self-organization are to be developed on data drawn from empirical surveys. Here, the data-led interpretations reach beyond the local and regional context and offer fundamental insights into auto-centered and autonomous acts of articulation. In Brazil, participative planning processes have been the common sense for urban governance. However, participative strategies tend to stand under the sign of codetermination, whereas the principles of self-determination and auto-centered articulation of collective interests are immantently present during processes of civic self-organization. Due to the fact that self-organized communities do not fall within a defined institutional framework or existing system, they are capable to articulate their needs and interests collectively. The underlying concept of “Agora Governance” in accordance with Korff & Rothfuss (2009 offers the possibility to stimulate urban management processes in a sustainable way, bringing together the civic perspective of the “human city” and the expert perspective of the “infrastructural city” into a consensual but often highly disputed negotiation process.

  12. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in an industrialized urban area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cachada, A.; Pereira, R.; Ferreira da Silva, E.; Duarte, A. C.

    2009-04-01

    Urbanization, agricultural intensification and industrialization are contributing to erosion, local and diffuse contamination and sealing of soil surfaces, resulting in soil quality degradation. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous in urban environments and considered good markers of anthropogenic activities such as traffic, industry, domestic heating and agriculture. Although they are subject to biodegradation and photodegradation, once in the soil, they tend to bind to the soil organic fraction. Estarreja is a small coastal town in the Northwestern Portuguese coast, with a close relation with the lagoon of Aveiro which supports a variety of biotopes (channels, islands with vegetation, mudflats, salt marshes and agricultural fields) of important ecological value. It supports an intensive and diversified agriculture, a variety of heavy and light industries and a population of about half a million people which is dependent on this resource. This is a very industrialized area, due to its five decades of chemical industry. This study aims to assess the impact of the urbanization and of the chemical industry in PAHs distribution. The survey and sampling method were based on pre-interpreted maps, aerial photographs, and directly checked in the field, in order to get an overall characterization of the area. Topsoils were collected from 34 sites, considering different land uses. Five land uses were chosen: ornamental gardens, parks, roadsides, forest and agricultural. Parameters such as soil pH (ISO method 10390:1994), total C, N, H, S percentages (microanalyser LECO, CNHS-932), organic matter (LOI at 430°), particle size distribution (Micromeritics® Sedigraph 5100), cation exchange capacity and exchangeable bases, were determined in order to have a general characterization of soil. Determination of the 16 EPA PAHs in soils was performed by GC/MS after a Soxhlet extraction and an alumina clean-up of extracts. Procedure blanks, duplicates and reference

  13. Hierarchical Spatial Analysis of Extreme Precipitation in Urban Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajulapati, C. R.; Mujumdar, P.

    2015-12-01

    Quantification of extreme precipitation is important for hydrologic designs. Due to lack of availability of extreme precipitation data for sufficiently large number of years, estimating the probability of extreme events is difficult and extrapolating the distributions to locations where observations are not available is challenging. In an urban setting, the spatial variation of precipitation can be high; the precipitation amounts and patterns often vary within short distances of less than 10 km. Therefore it is crucial to study the uncertainties in the spatial variation of precipitation in urban areas. In this work, the extreme precipitation is modeled spatially using the Bayesian hierarchical spatial analysis and the spatial variation of return levels is studied. The analysis is carried out with both the Peak over Threshold (PoT) and the Block Maxima approaches for defining the extreme precipitation. The study area is Bangalore city, India. Daily data for seventeen stations in and around Bangalore city are considered in the study. The threshold exceedences are modeled using a Generalized Pareto (GP) distribution and the block maxima are modeled using Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) distribution. In the hierarchical analysis, the statistical model is specified in three layers. The data layer models the data (either block maxima or the threshold exceedences) at each station. In the process layer, the latent spatial process characterized by geographical and climatological covariates (lat-lon, elevation, mean temperature etc.) which drives the extreme precipitation is modeled and in the prior level, the prior distributions that govern the latent process are modeled. Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm is used to obtain the samples of parameters from the posterior distribution of parameters. The spatial maps of return levels for specified return periods, along with the associated uncertainties, are obtained. The results show that there is significant variation in

  14. SOCIO - DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE OF OLD AGE PEOPLE LIVING IN URBAN & URBAN SLUM AREAS IN MAHARASHTRA, KARAD: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena Rahul Salunkhe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available NTRODUCTION: Aging refers to normal, progressive and irreversible biological changes that occur over an individual’s life span. The advancement of medical science and increased awareness among the people has brought about a sharp decline in mortality and a steady decline in fertility. This has resulted in a worldwide shift in the demographic profile and has led to significant increase in the aged population. About two thirds of all older people are concentrated in the developing world. OBJECTIVES: to study & compare socio - demographic variables of old age people living in Urban & Urban slum areas. MATERIAL & METHODS: all the old age people living in urb a n slum area & rando mly selected one urban area of K arad town were interviewed by using pre structured proforma about socio - demographic variable & compared with each other. OBSERVATIONS: Total 153 from urban & 135 from urban slum were enrolled for the study. Nearly 2/3 rd subjects were above age 65yrs in both areas with more female proportions in slum area than urban area. Significant difference was found with education, occupation & socio - economic status in both areas. CONCLUSION: Ageing is a universal phenomenon, with advanced fertility control, improvement in health and social services life expectancy has increased. Ageing has profound effect on the individual status in the family, the work force, goals and organization of health, social services, policies and practices of the government

  15. Differential Exposure to Hazardous Air Pollution in the United States: A Multilevel Analysis of Urbanization and Neighborhood Socioeconomic Deprivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank C. Curriero

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Population exposure to multiple chemicals in air presents significant challenges for environmental public health. Air quality regulations distinguish criteria air pollutants (CAPs (e.g., ozone, PM2.5 from hazardous air pollutants (HAPs—187 chemicals which include carcinogens and others that are associated with respiratory, cardiovascular, neurological and numerous other non-cancer health effects. Evidence of the public’s cumulative exposure and the health effects of HAPs are quite limited. A multilevel model is used to assess differential exposure to HAP respiratory, neurological, and cancer hazards (2005 related to the Townsend Index of Socioeconomic Deprivation (TSI, after adjustment for regional population size and economic activity, and local population density. We found significant positive associations between tract TSI and respiratory and cancer HAP exposure hazards, and smaller effects for neurological HAPs. Tracts in the top quintile of TSI have between 38%–60% higher HAP exposure than the bottom quintile; increasing population size from the bottom quintile to the top quintile modifies HAP exposure hazard related to TSI, increasing cancer HAP exposure hazard by 6% to 20% and increasing respiratory HAP exposure hazard by 12% to 27%. This study demonstrates the value of social epidemiological methods for analyzing differential exposure and advancing cumulative risk assessment.

  16. Differential exposure to hazardous air pollution in the United States: a multilevel analysis of urbanization and neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Gary S; Fox, Mary A; Trush, Michael; Kanarek, Norma; Glass, Thomas A; Curriero, Frank C

    2012-06-01

    Population exposure to multiple chemicals in air presents significant challenges for environmental public health. Air quality regulations distinguish criteria air pollutants (CAPs) (e.g., ozone, PM2.5) from hazardous air pollutants (HAPs)-187 chemicals which include carcinogens and others that are associated with respiratory, cardiovascular, neurological and numerous other non-cancer health effects. Evidence of the public's cumulative exposure and the health effects of HAPs are quite limited. A multilevel model is used to assess differential exposure to HAP respiratory, neurological, and cancer hazards (2005) related to the Townsend Index of Socioeconomic Deprivation (TSI), after adjustment for regional population size and economic activity, and local population density. We found significant positive associations between tract TSI and respiratory and cancer HAP exposure hazards, and smaller effects for neurological HAPs. Tracts in the top quintile of TSI have between 38%-60% higher HAP exposure than the bottom quintile; increasing population size from the bottom quintile to the top quintile modifies HAP exposure hazard related to TSI, increasing cancer HAP exposure hazard by 6% to 20% and increasing respiratory HAP exposure hazard by 12% to 27%. This study demonstrates the value of social epidemiological methods for analyzing differential exposure and advancing cumulative risk assessment.

  17. ATMOSPHERIC INSTABILITY IN URBAN AREA OF CLUJ-NAPOCA, ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. BLAGA

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric instability in urban area of Cluj-Napoca, Romania. An analysis of the distribution of precipitation amounts in the range of 10-50 mm/24h in 2006-2011 was made, having as result a distribution of precipitation of amounts larger than 20 mm mainly in the summer and a distribution of precipitation with values of less than 20 mm in all seasons. A total of 32 cases of heavy rain with intensity greater than 10 mm/h were identified, these being most common in July. From the analysis of the probability of precipitation not exceeding certain thresholds, it was found that values of 10 mm/h have a probability of non-exceedance 10% for a non-returning period of 1.1 years. In the second part of the paper, a case of pronounced instability - the afternoon of May 20, 2011, in Cluj-Napoca area - that prompted large amounts of water from rain associated with lightning and brief strong wind, which led to flooding on large portions of the city was studied.

  18. Collective human mobility pattern from taxi trips in urban area

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Chengbin

    2012-04-18

    We analyze the passengers\\' traffic pattern for 1.58 million taxi trips of Shanghai, China. By employing the non-negative matrix factorization and optimization methods, we find that, people travel on workdays mainly for three purposes: commuting between home and workplace, traveling from workplace to workplace, and others such as leisure activities. Therefore, traffic flow in one area or between any pair of locations can be approximated by a linear combination of three basis flows, corresponding to the three purposes respectively. We name the coefficients in the linear combination as traffic powers, each of which indicates the strength of each basis flow. The traffic powers on different days are typically different even for the same location, due to the uncertainty of the human motion. Therefore, we provide a probability distribution function for the relative deviation of the traffic power. This distribution function is in terms of a series of functions for normalized binomial distributions. It can be well explained by statistical theories and is verified by empirical data. These findings are applicable in predicting the road traffic, tracing the traffic pattern and diagnosing the traffic related abnormal events. These results can also be used to infer land uses of urban area quite parsimoniously. 2012 Peng et al.

  19. Segmentation of Shadowed Buildings in Dense Urban Areas from Aerial Photographs

    OpenAIRE

    Susaki, Junichi

    2012-01-01

    Segmentation of buildings in urban areas, especially dense urban areas, by using remotely sensed images is highly desirable. However, segmentation results obtained by using existing algorithms are unsatisfactory because of the unclear boundaries between buildings and the shadows cast by neighboring buildings. In this paper, an algorithm is proposed that successfully segments buildings from aerial photographs, including shadowed buildings in dense urban areas. To handle roofs having rough text...

  20. Public health evaluation of waste management plan of urban areas of Florence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corti, Andrea; Lombardi, Lidia; Carpentieri, Matteo; Buiatti, Eva; Bartolacci, Simone; Bianchi, Fabrizio; Linzalone, Nunzia; Minichilli, Fabrizio; Mancuso, Stefano

    2005-01-01

    Public health evaluation impact for solid municipal waste management of Florence urban areas is considered. In this case study the evaluation step of screening show the environmental analysis of pollutants in the urban areas and epidemiologic study of exposed population in the area

  1. Study of vertical wind profiles in an urban area with complex terrain ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    periods, and may lead to severe air quality prob- lems as the valley may prevent horizontal ventila- tion. In an urban area the local slope winds when combined with the urban heat-island circulation may re-circulate the urban air, especially during winter and night-time, when vertical diffusion is small (Atkinson 1981).

  2. Air pollution and decreased semen quality: A comparative study of Chongqing urban and rural areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Niya; Cui, Zhihong; Yang, Sanming; Han, Xue; Chen, Gangcai; Zhou, Ziyuan; Zhai, Chongzhi; Ma, Mingfu; Li, Lianbing; Cai, Min; Li, Yafei; Ao, Lin; Shu, Weiqun; Liu, Jinyi; Cao, Jia

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the association and effects of air pollution level on male semen quality in urban and rural areas, this study examines the outdoor concentrations of particulate matter (PM 10 ), sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrous dioxide (NO 2 ) and semen quality outcomes for 1346 volunteers in both urban and rural areas in Chongqing, China. We found the urban area has a higher pollution level than the rural area, contrasted with better semen quality in the rural residents, especially for sperm morphology and computer assistant semen analysis (CASA) motility parameters. A multivariate linear regression analysis demonstrates that concentrations of PM 10 , SO 2 , and NO 2 significantly and negatively are associated with normal sperm morphology percentage (P  10 , SO 2 , and NO 2 in urban ambient air may account for worse semen quality in urban males. - Highlights: • We investigate the distributions of PM 10 , SO 2 and NO 2 in urban and rural areas in Chongqing, China. • We explore the associations of air pollution and male semen quality. • The concentrations of PM 10 , SO 2 , and NO 2 are significantly higher in urban areas. • Median values of some semen quality parameters in rural male were higher than urban male. • PM 10 , SO 2 , and NO 2 were negatively associated with semen quality parameters. - Air pollution is higher in the urban area while there is better semen quality in rural males. Polluted air may thus account for worse semen quality in urban males

  3. Research into Glaucoma and Ethnicity (ReGAE) 8: is there a relationship between social deprivation and acute primary angle closure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nessim, Maged; Denniston, Alastair Keith; Nolan, Winifred; Holder, Roger; Shah, Peter

    2010-10-01

    Social deprivation as measured by the Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD) and Townsend scores has been shown to be associated with advanced presentation of primary open angle glaucoma. The aim of this study was to investigate the putative association of social deprivation as a risk factor for acute primary angle closure (APAC) in a UK urban population. Case notes of 139 consecutive patients presenting with APAC at the Birmingham and Midland Eye Centre, Birmingham, UK, were examined. Deprivation was scored using the IMD 2004 and Townsend scores. These score were compared with the West Midlands reference population. The level of deprivation in patients with APAC was graded according to the IMD quintiles, in which quintile 1 represents the highest level of deprivation and quintile 5 represents the lowest level of deprivation. Of the patients studied, 66.1% (n=90) were from quintiles 1 or 2 (most deprived) whereas 9% (n=12) came from quintile 5 (least deprived), compared with predicted frequencies of 40% and 20%, respectively. Deprivation levels measured by frequency within each IMD quintile were significantly higher in the APAC group compared with the reference population (χ(2), pAPAC were more likely to come from areas with a high level of social deprivation.

  4. State and Urban Area Homeland Security Strategy v3.0: Evolving Strategic Planning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, Darren

    2006-01-01

    This thesis proposes to overhaul the state and urban area homeland security strategy program by improving the strategic planning process guidance and assistance and strategy review in collaboration...

  5. Determining Surface Roughness in Urban Areas Using Lidar Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Donald

    2009-01-01

    An automated procedure has been developed to derive relevant factors, which can increase the ability to produce objective, repeatable methods for determining aerodynamic surface roughness. Aerodynamic surface roughness is used for many applications, like atmospheric dispersive models and wind-damage models. For this technique, existing lidar data was used that was originally collected for terrain analysis, and demonstrated that surface roughness values can be automatically derived, and then subsequently utilized in disaster-management and homeland security models. The developed lidar-processing algorithm effectively distinguishes buildings from trees and characterizes their size, density, orientation, and spacing (see figure); all of these variables are parameters that are required to calculate the estimated surface roughness for a specified area. By using this algorithm, aerodynamic surface roughness values in urban areas can then be extracted automatically. The user can also adjust the algorithm for local conditions and lidar characteristics, like summer/winter vegetation and dense/sparse lidar point spacing. Additionally, the user can also survey variations in surface roughness that occurs due to wind direction; for example, during a hurricane, when wind direction can change dramatically, this variable can be extremely significant. In its current state, the algorithm calculates an estimated surface roughness for a square kilometer area; techniques using the lidar data to calculate the surface roughness for a point, whereby only roughness elements that are upstream from the point of interest are used and the wind direction is a vital concern, are being investigated. This technological advancement will improve the reliability and accuracy of models that use and incorporate surface roughness.

  6. The use of LANDSAT data to monitor the urban growth of Sao Paulo Metropolitan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Niero, M.; Lombardo, M. A.; Foresti, C.

    1982-01-01

    Urban growth from 1977 to 1979 of the region between Billings and the Guarapiranga reservoir was mapped and the problematic urban areas identified using several LANDSAT products. Visual and automatic interpretation techniques were applied to the data. Computer compatible tapes of LANDSAT multispectral scanner data were analyzed through the maximum likelihood Gaussian algorithm. The feasibility of monitoring fast urban growth by remote sensing techniques for efficient urban planning and control is demonstrated.

  7. Urban form analysis employing land cover and spatial metrics: the case of the Lisbon Metropolitan Area

    OpenAIRE

    Marques da Costa, Eduarda; Rocha, Jorge; Rodrigues, Michael

    2009-01-01

    In order to face the challenges of urban planning, there is an increasing need to monitor and quantify urban occupation. This study, conducted within the research project "FURBS: Sustainable Urban Form - Methodological development for Portugal (PTDC/GEO/69109/2006), seeks to examine the urban form of the Lisbon Metropolitan Area (LMA), and its occupation between 1990 and 2000, using spatial metrics. The LMA congregates nearly 3 million inhabitants, around 26% of the Portuguese total popula...

  8. What policies should be there for employment in urban areas of developing countries?

    OpenAIRE

    Gugushvili, Alexi

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines employment policies in urban areas of developing world. We follow traditional economic analysis and present the urban unemployment problem as an inequality of labour supply and demand on labour markets. The effects of demand-side and supply-side policies on informal urban employment are investigated through econometrical models. One or several variables are employed as crude proxies for every policy option. The dependent variable is informal urban employment as a per cent ...

  9. Increasing impact of urban fine particles (PM2.5) on areas surrounding Chinese cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Lijian; Zhou, Weiqi; Li, Weifeng

    2015-07-29

    The negative impacts of rapid urbanization in developing countries have led to a deterioration in urban air quality, which brings increasing negative impact to its surrounding areas (e.g. in China). However, to date there has been rare quantitative estimation of the urban air pollution to its surrounding areas in China.We thus evaluated the impact of air pollution on the surrounding environment under rapid urbanization in Chinese prefectures during 1999 - 2011. We found that: (1) the urban environment generated increasing negative impact on the surrounding areas, and the PM2.5 concentration difference between urban and rural areas was particularly high in large cities. (2) Nearly half of the Chinese prefectures (156 out of 350) showed increased impact of urban PM2.5 pollution on its surrounding areas. Those prefectures were mainly located along two belts: one from northeast China to Sichuan province, the other from Shanghai to Guangxi province. Our study demonstrates the deterioration in urban air quality and its potential impacts on its surrounding areas in China. We hope that the results presented here will encourage different approaches to urbanization to mitigate the negative impact caused by urban air pollution, both in China and other rapidly developing countries.

  10. Tuberculosis notifications in England: the relative effects of deprivation and immigration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tocque, K; Doherty, M J; Bellis, M A; Spence, D P; Williams, C S; Davies, P D

    1998-03-01

    Metropolitan areas of England, including London boroughs, in 1991. To investigate the relative importance of deprivation, immigration and the elderly in explaining variations in tuberculosis rate. A retrospective study using multiple Poisson regression models to assess the interrelationship between various population parameters. Significant differences ere observed between London and other metropolitan districts in the measures of tuberculosis, immigration and the elderly. In addition, all population parameters were significantly intercorrelated in London: areas with a high proportion of immigrants had high levels of deprivation and low proportions of elderly. In other metropolitan districts, only immigration and the Jarman index were significantly associated, and removing the immigration component from the index removed this statistical significance. Multiple Poisson regression models revealed that the immigrant index had the strongest explanatory power in explaining tuberculosis rates, but there were significant interactions between this and measures of urban deprivation indices. That is, there was a greater effect of increasing deprivation at lower levels of immigration than at higher levels. This phenomenon was more pronounced in London boroughs than other metropolitan districts. The elderly index had no significant influence on tuberculosis rates. Although the association between tuberculosis and deprivation previously reported for the city of Liverpool is confirmed across all urban areas of England, the immigrant proportion of the population has a greater statistical power in explaining variations in rates of urban tuberculosis. However, tuberculosis notifications can be most accurately predicted by combining both measures than by either one alone.

  11. GEOMORPHOSITES AS A VALUABLE RESOURCE FOR TOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN A DEPRIVED AREA. THE CASE STUDY OF ANINA KARSTIC REGION (BANAT MOUNTAINS, ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurențiu ARTUGYAN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Geomorphosites are those landforms that in time, have acquired, a certain value, naming here scientific, cultural, aesthetic, ecological and/or economic. In many papers geomorphosites were associated with natural, relief-related tourist attractions. Those two notions, geomorphosite and natural tourist attraction are not synonymous, because a geomorphosite presents many features that give value to that landform. A geomorphosite is more than just topographic feature and that is the reason for which not all natural attractions are considered geomorphosite. Anina karstic region is synonymous with Anina Mining Area. This area was defined by Vasile Sencu (1977 as the area that is surrounded Anina town and it may be exploited by mining activities. The studied area presents many landforms specific for karst terrains. These features belong to the exokarst (sinkholes, poljies, karrens, gorges, karstic springs, but also to the endokarst (caves, shafts. The area is located in the largest and most compact area of carbonate rocks in Romania, in a typical structural area, Reșiţa-Moldova Nouă Synclinorium. Anina karstic region is an area with many socio-economical problems: poverty, unemployment and depopulation. Many landforms belonging to karst topography may be considered as geomorphosites due to their value (natural, economic, cultural. We believe that if some of these geomorphosites will be included in the touristic objectives, those landforms may generate a social-economic progress in this region, which nowadays is a deprived area. The aim of this paper is to point out that karstic geomorphosites in a deprived are may be a valuable resource.

  12. Developing a universal reading comprehension intervention for mainstream primary schools within areas of social deprivation for children with and without language-learning impairment: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartney, Elspeth; Boyle, James; Ellis, Sue

    2015-01-01

    Some children in areas of social deprivation in Scotland have lower reading attainment than neighbouring children in less deprived areas, and some of these also have lower spoken language comprehension skills than expected by assessment norms. There is a need to develop effective reading comprehension interventions that fit easily into the school curriculum and can benefit all pupils. A feasibility study of reading comprehension strategies with existing evidence of efficacy was undertaken in three mainstream primary schools within an area of social deprivation in west central Scotland, to decide whether further investigation of this intervention was warranted. Aims were to measure comprehension of spoken language and reading via standardised assessments towards the beginning of the school year (T1) in mainstream primary school classrooms within an area of social deprivation; to have teachers introduce previously-validated text comprehension strategies, and to measure change in reading comprehension outcome measures towards the end of the year (T2). A pre- and post-intervention cohort design was used. Reading comprehension strategies were introduced to staff in participating schools and used throughout the school year as part of on-going reading instruction. Spoken language comprehension was measured by TROG-2 at T1, and reading progress by score changes from T1 to T2 on the WIAT-II(UK) -T reading comprehension scale. Forty-seven pupils in five classes in three primary schools took part: 38% had TROG-2 scores below the 10(th) centile. As a group, children made good reading comprehension progress, with a medium effect size of 0.46. Children with TROG-2 scores below the 10(th) centile had lower mean reading scores than others at T1 and T2, although with considerable overlap. However, TROG-2 did not make a unique contribution to reading progress: children below the 10(th) centile made as much progress as other children. The intervention was welcomed by schools, and the

  13. Improving the urban green system and green network through the rehabilitation of railway rust areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hutter Dóra

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Industrial Revolution had a negative impact on both the city and the environment. By the second half of the 19th century, the urban erosion of industrial cities cried for direct intervention and curing. The methods developed either along an urban or an anti-urban philosophy: they resulted in the new models of green belt systems aimed at solving all the main urban problems with restructuring the urban fabric, controlling the urban spread into the rural landscape, the lack of green areas and open spaces for recreation and social life, and the lack of green spaces for ventilation. Nowadays, the major cities and capitals around the globe are competing for titles such as healthier, more liveable or even greener city. Given the unfortunate attributes of the urban structure in the historical cities, the development of new transportation sites or green areas is an extremely difficult issue. On the other hand, in the big cities, the brownfield sites are considered as reserve areas for sustainable urban development. Reusing the brownfields and rust areas is already a land saving urban development approach and in case of a complex and ecological urban rehabilitation it can underlie the development of an efficient urban green system and green network.

  14. Vision-Based Georeferencing of GPR in Urban Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzaghi, Riccardo; Cazzaniga, Noemi Emanuela; Pagliari, Diana; Pinto, Livio

    2016-01-21

    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) surveying is widely used to gather accurate knowledge about the geometry and position of underground utilities. The sensor arrays need to be coupled to an accurate positioning system, like a geodetic-grade Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) device. However, in urban areas this approach is not always feasible because GNSS accuracy can be substantially degraded due to the presence of buildings, trees, tunnels, etc. In this work, a photogrammetric (vision-based) method for GPR georeferencing is presented. The method can be summarized in three main steps: tie point extraction from the images acquired during the survey, computation of approximate camera extrinsic parameters and finally a refinement of the parameter estimation using a rigorous implementation of the collinearity equations. A test under operational conditions is described, where accuracy of a few centimeters has been achieved. The results demonstrate that the solution was robust enough for recovering vehicle trajectories even in critical situations, such as poorly textured framed surfaces, short baselines, and low intersection angles.

  15. Vision-Based Georeferencing of GPR in Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Barzaghi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR surveying is widely used to gather accurate knowledge about the geometry and position of underground utilities. The sensor arrays need to be coupled to an accurate positioning system, like a geodetic-grade Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS device. However, in urban areas this approach is not always feasible because GNSS accuracy can be substantially degraded due to the presence of buildings, trees, tunnels, etc. In this work, a photogrammetric (vision-based method for GPR georeferencing is presented. The method can be summarized in three main steps: tie point extraction from the images acquired during the survey, computation of approximate camera extrinsic parameters and finally a refinement of the parameter estimation using a rigorous implementation of the collinearity equations. A test under operational conditions is described, where accuracy of a few centimeters has been achieved. The results demonstrate that the solution was robust enough for recovering vehicle trajectories even in critical situations, such as poorly textured framed surfaces, short baselines, and low intersection angles.

  16. An urban transport emission model for the Antwerp area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mensink, C.; De Vlieger, I.; Nys, J.

    2000-01-01

    We present a detailed modelling approach which provides hourly emissions of CO, NO x , VOC, PM, SO 2 and Pb for individual streets and road segments in the Antwerp area (20 km x 20 km). The hourly emissions are computed as a function of road type, vehicle type, fuel type, traffic volume, vehicle age, trip length distribution and the actual ambient temperature. The traffic volumes are derived from an urban traffic flow model for the city of Antwerp, which contains a network with almost 2000 road segments. The traffic flow model has been implemented in a GIS environment. The emission factors used in the model are derived from the COPERT-II methodology. Cold start emissions and evaporation losses are included in the model. Results are shown for the hourly hot- and cold start emissions obtained for CO, NO x and VOC. For these pollutants a partial validation of the model results was carried out by comparing the COPERT-II emission factors with on-the-road traffic emission measurements carried out for gasoline passenger cars with a closed-loop controlled three-way catalyst. (author)

  17. The potential for hail and intense rainfall enhancement over urban areas: improving urban extreme weather risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntelekos, A. A.; Smith, J. A.; Krajewski, W. F.; Foote, M.

    2009-04-01

    Urban communities and their infrastructure are particularly vulnerable to the impacts of organized thunderstorm systems. Current models of urban extreme weather risk do not fully represent the complexity of the hydrometeorological processes involved, particularly in relation to intense convective precipitation and severe weather. Hail is a severe thunderstorm hazard that can be extremely damaging to property (especially automobiles, buildings and agriculture) over and in proximity to urban environments. This study identifies some of the mechanisms that future generations of catastrophe models should consider incorporating in their representation of hydrometeorlogical hazards in urban areas. In addition, such information could help to inform planning policy and improve urban resilience to extreme events. Evidence is provided that urban environments, through the existence of high-rise buildings and densely build-up areas, but also through air-pollution (aerosols) can potentially lead to an enhancement of both flooding and hail. Conclusions are drawn from two separate studies over the heavily urbanized corridor of the northeastern United States but could be expanded to apply to other urban areas. Observational and modelling (Weather Research and Forecasting - WRF) analyses of an extreme thunderstorm over the Baltimore, Maryland metropolitan area on 7 July 2004 provided evidence that the urban canopy redistributed heavy rainfall and convergence centres in the vicinity of the urban environment. Modelling analyses suggest that convective rainfall around the urban core was increased by about 30% due to the heterogeneities of land surface processes associated with the city of Baltimore. Chesapeake Bay also played an important role in rainfall distribution by acting as a divergence zone for northerly winds. Cloud-to-ground lightning analyses show that the city of Baltimore and the Chesapeake Bay combined played a role in the distribution of lightning in the periphery of the

  18. Urban Growth Areas, This Layer represents the current Urbanized Area for Atlanta as defined by the U.S. Census Bureau. An Urbanized Area is a concept used by the U.S. Census Bureau to measure the population, land area and population density of a built-up or continuously deve, Published in 2000, 1:100000 (1in=8333ft) scale, Atlanta Regional Commission.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Regional | GIS Inventory — Urban Growth Areas dataset current as of 2000. This Layer represents the current Urbanized Area for Atlanta as defined by the U.S. Census Bureau. An Urbanized Area...

  19. Geo-products of urban areas: Silesian Metropolis, Southern Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chybiorz, Ryszard; Abramowicz, Anna

    2017-04-01

    Silesian Metropolis is located in the Silesian Voivodeship, in the most important industrial region in Poland. It consist of 14 cities with powiat rights, which create the largest urban center in Poland and one of the largest in Central and Eastern Europe. Almost 2 million people live in its territory. A large concentration of the population is associated with industrialization and especially with the development of the mining industry (Upper Silesian Coal Basin) and the processing industry (steelworks, textile industry) at the end of 19th century. One hundred years later, during the creation of the modern sectors of the economy, processes of metallurgy and mining restructuring have been started. Created mechanisms and conditions for development of post-industrial areas were consistent with the principles of sustainable development and had many new features, including cultural and touristic features. The Industrial Monuments Route was opened for the inhabitants and visitors in October 2006. The route joined the European Route of Industrial Heritage (ERIH) in 2010. Its most interesting mining attractions are located in Silesian Metropolis, and the most frequently visited object on the route is the Guido Historical Coal Mine in Zabrze and the Historical Silver Mine in Tarnowskie Góry. The project, which is realized in Zabrze, will provide for tourists a system of underground corridors, which were used for coal transportation in the 19th century. Visitors will be able to actively explore the work of miners, moving by underground boats, railway and suspension railway. Surface mines are also available for geotourists. The Ecological and Geological Education Center GEOsfera was created in a former Triassic quarry in Jaworzno. Although the area of the Silesian Metropolis is characterized by a very large devastation of the environment, the following objects were created (and are still created) on the basis of inanimate nature and they have a touristic value for the region

  20. Modelling atmospheric deposition flux of Cadmium and Lead in urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherin, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    According to WHO, air pollution is responsible for more than 3.7 million premature deaths each year (OMS, 2014). Moreover, among these deaths, more than 70 within urban areas. Consequently, the health and environmental impacts of pollutants within these urban areas are of great concern in air quality studies. The deposition fluxes of air pollutants, which can be significant near sources of pollution, have rarely been modeled within urban areas. Historically, atmospheric deposition studies have focused mostly on remote areas to assess the potential impacts on ecosystems of acid deposition and nitrogen loading. Therefore, current atmospheric deposition models may not be suitable to simulate deposition fluxes in urban areas, which include complex surface geometries and diverse land use types. Atmospheric dry deposition is typically modeled using an average roughness length, which depends on land use. This classical roughness-length approach cannot account for the spatial variability of dry deposition in complex settings such as urban areas. Urban canopy models have been developed to parameterize momentum and heat transfer. We extend this approach here to mass transfer, and a new dry deposition model based on the urban canyon concept is presented. It uses a local mixing-length parameterization of turbulence within the canopy, and a description of the urban canopy via key parameters to provide spatially distributed dry deposition fluxes. This approach provides spatially distributed dry deposition fluxes depending on surfaces (streets, walls, roofs) and flow regimes (recirculation and ventilation) within the urban area. (author) [fr

  1. Pollution of soils in urban areas in Serbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grujic, Gordana; Crnkovic, Dragan; Cerdà, Artemi

    2017-04-01

    Soil pollution is a world-wide problems that affect rural and urban areas of all the continents (Hu et al., 2015; Mao et al., 2016; Trujillo-González et al., 2016; Elkhatib et al., 2016; Roy and McDonad, 2015; Mahmoud and Abd El-Kader, 2015; Adamcová et al., 2016). There is a need to develop a program to achieve the sustainability of the soil system as the soils offers goods, services and resources to the humankind (Keesstra et al., 2012; Brevik et al., 2015; Keesstra et al., 2016). The program of systematic monitoring of soil pollution in Belgrade is aimed at testing the concentration of hazardous and harmful substances in soil at urban areas, interpretation of the results in accordance with current legislation, soil characteristics and geology and terrain, proposal of preventive and remedial measures in the wider territory of Belgrade. The paper gives an overview of the results of systematic monitoring of soil pollution in Belgrade in the period from 2009 to 2013. In accordance with the objectives of the investigation during the period from 2009-2013, while having in mind the purpose and manner of land use, the program of monitoring of soil pollution in the territory of Belgrade is oriented to the following areas: 1 - Land in the zone of the sanitary protection of the Belgrade water supply system, 2- Land in zone nearby the main roads, 3 - Land within the communal areas (public areas and agricultural land in the wider vicinity of Belgrade). On the basis of the conducted soil monitoring in the wider area of Belgrade, a large number of sites is contaminated with higher concentrations of hazardous and harmful substances that are exceeding the maximum allowed prescribed legal norms. The causes of soil contamination are both, anthropogenic and natural. Taking into account the all results, the most common deviation is referred to the increased nickel content in soil. A number of soil samples showed increase in concentrations of pollutants including Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, As

  2. GPR Experiments of the Simulated Cavity Detection in Urban Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Changryol; Kang, Woong; Son, Jeongsul; Jeong, Soocheol

    2017-04-01

    Recent years, the deteriorated underground facilities such as sewage or water supply pipes have increased significantly with growing urban development in Korea. The soils surrounding old damaged pipes were washed away beneath the roadbed, causing underground cavities and eventual ground cave-ins in the urban areas. The detection of the roadbed cavities is, therefore, required to prevent property damage and loss of human lives for precautionary measures. In general, GPR is well known as a suitable geophysical technique for shallow underground cavity detection. 3-D GPR technique was applied to conduct the full-scale experiment for roadbed cavity detection. The physical experiment has employed the testing ground with soil characteristics of silty sand soils. The experimental test ground consists of physically simulated cavities with dome-shaped structure, and of hume concrete and cast-iron pipes to simulate underground facilities. The pipes were installed more than one meter below the land surface and simulated cavities nearby were also installed at regular intervals in spatial distribution. The land surface of the site was not paved with asphalt concrete at the current stage of the experiments. The GPR data was obtained to investigate GPR responses due to different antenna orientations (HH and VV antenna orientations) over the testing ground. The results of the experiment show that the reflection patterns from the simulated cavities are hyperbolic returns typical to the point source in 2-D perspective. The different antenna orientations have shown the different areal extents of the hyperbolic reflections patterns from the cavities, and have shown the different characteristics over the pipes on the data. A closer inspection of 3-D GPR volume data has yielded more clear interpretation than 2-D GPR data regarding where the cavities are situated and what kind of shape the cavities show in space. This study is an ongoing project of KIGAM at a second stage of the physical

  3. Research on Building Urban Sustainability along the Coastal Area in China

    OpenAIRE

    Sun Jiaojiao; Fu Jiayan

    2015-01-01

    At present, in China, the research about the urban sustainability construction is still in the exploratory stage. The ecological problems of the coastal area are more sensitive and complicated. In the background of global warming with serious ecological damage, this paper deeply researches on the main characteristics of urban sustainability and measures how to build urban sustainability. Through combining regional environmental with economic ability along the coastal area...

  4. Assessing the resilience of urban areas to traffic-related air pollution: Application in Greater Paris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cariolet, Jean-Marie; Colombert, Morgane; Vuillet, Marc; Diab, Youssef

    2018-02-15

    Recent studies report that outdoor air pollution will become the main environmental cause of premature death over the next few decades (OECD, 2012; WHO, 2014; World Bank, 2016). Cities are considered hot spots and urban populations are particularly exposed. There is therefore an urgent need to adapt urban systems and urban design to tackle this issue. While most European cities have introduced measures to reduce emissions, action is still required to reduce concentrations and exposure, and a holistic approach to urban design is badly needed. The concept of urban resilience, defined by Holling (1987) as the ability of a city to absorb a disturbance while maintaining its functions and structures, may offer a new paradigm for tackling urban air pollution. We propose to adapt the concept of urban resilience to outdoor air pollution. A method has been developed to assess the resilience of an urban area to outdoor air pollution. Three "resilience capacities" have been identified: the capacity of an urban area to decrease air pollution emissions, the capacity to decrease concentrations and the capacity to decrease exposure. The calculation is based on the analysis of urban design, defined as the pattern of buildings as well as the structural elements that define an urban area (urban morphology; transport network, services and land use). For each resilience capacity, indicators are calculated using a Geographic Information System (GIS) and a grid-based approach. This method has been implemented in the Greater Paris area within a 500m grid-cell system. Greater Paris is one of the densest urban areas in Europe and experiences high air pollution levels. The proposed "quick scan" method helps to localize areas where specific action is needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. URBAN EFFICIENT ENERGY EVALUATION IN HIGH RESOLUTION URBAN AREAS BY USING ADAPTED WRF-UCM AND MICROSYS CFD MODELS

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Jose, R.; Perez, J. L.; Gonzalez, R. M.

    2009-12-01

    Urban metabolism modeling has advanced substantially during the last years due to the increased detail in mesoscale urban parameterization in meteorological mesoscale models and CFD numerical tools. Recently the implementation of the “urban canopy model” (UCM) into the WRF mesoscale meteorological model has produced a substantial advance on the understanding of the urban atmospheric heat flux exchanges in the urban canopy. The need to optimize the use of heat energy in urban environment has produced a substantial increase in the detailed investigation of the urban heat flux exchanges. In this contribution we will show the performance of using a tool called MICROSYS (MICRO scale CFD modelling SYStem) which is an adaptation of the classical urban canopy model but on a high resolution environment by using a classical CFD approach. The energy balance in the urban system can be determined in a micrometeorologicl sense by considering the energy flows in and out of a control volume. For such a control volume reaching from ground to a certain height above buildings, the energy balance equation includes the net radiation, the anthropogenic heat flux, the turbulent sensible heat flux, the turbulent latent heat flux, the net storage change within the control volume, the net advected flux and other sources and sinks. We have applied the MICROSYS model to an area of 5 km x 5 km with 200 m spatial resolution by using the WRF-UCM (adapted and the MICROSYS CFD model. The anthropogenic heat flux has been estimated by using the Flanner M.G. (2009) database and detailed GIS information (50 m resolution) of Madrid city. The Storage energy has been estimated by calculating the energy balance according to the UCM procedure and implementing it into the MICROSYS tool. Results show that MICROSYS can be used as an energy efficient tool to estimate the energy balance of different urban areas and buildings.

  6. Effects of flood on farmers in peri-urban area of Ibadan, Oyo state ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One of the commonest environmental hazards threatening food security now in Nigeria is flood. The study therefore investigated the effects of flood on farmers in peri – urban areas of Ibadan. Using a snow ball research method, 60 farmers were selected from the six local governments in the peri – urban areas of Ibadan and ...

  7. Urban and peri-urban flood impact change: the case of the Metropolitan Area of Barcelona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortès, Maria; Gilabert, Joan; Llasat-Botija, Montserrat; Marcos, Raül; Llasat, Maria del Carmen

    2017-04-01

    Floods are the most important natural hazard in the world. Nowadays, mitigation and adaptation strategies to reduce the impact that climate change will have on them, are a priority in most government agendas. Recent reports from the IPCC (2012, 2014) still show significant uncertainty associated with future projections of precipitation extremes. This uncertainty is higher when referred to floods and even larger when interactions with society and the changes in vulnerability are considered. Consequently, there is now a call to treat floods from a holistic perspective that integrates bottom-up (from impact and vulnerability) and top-down (from hazard) approaches (Hall et al., 2014). The study of flood risk in urban and peri-urban areas is complex and involves multiple factors. This is the case of the Metropolitan Area of Barcelona (AMB), which concentrates 43% of total population of Catalonia in less than 2% of the whole territory. The impervious soil has grown more than 200% from 1956 to 2009 (resulting in higher values of runoff), the population has increased more than 80% in the same period and, simultaneously, an improvement of the drainage system and flood prevention has been developed. As a result, we have seen that the flood risk evolution in the area holds a strong link to these human changes. Actually, floods in this region are usually due to drainage problems, flash floods in ungauged torrential catchments and, only in some occasions, river floods are produced (i.e. the Llobregat River on September 1971). But, in all the cases they are due to heavy precipitations. The main objective of the contribution is assessing the relationship between precipitation in the AMB and the social impacts produced. In order to do it, different impact indicators have been proposed, such as the population affected or the duration of the flood event (Merz et al., 2010). These indicators have been implemented for the different cases analyzed, which affected AMB for the period

  8. City logistics initiatives aimed at improving sustainability by changing the context of urban area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadić Snežana R.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available City logistics is a field that attracts increasing attention of professionals and scientific community and international organizations. Research on problems of urban areas' logistics gives different results and practical solutions. City logistics flows are characterized by partiality, spatial dispersion of generators, diversity in terms of the logistics chains structure, frequency of a large number of smaller shipments, dynamism, stochasticity etc. Problems and the complexity of logistics in urban areas as well as significant decline in the quality of life in modern cities have caused the development of initiatives and concepts of city logistics which should allow the sustainable development of urban areas. The first part of this paper presents the problems of city logistics and impact of logistics activities on urban areas in terms of economic, environmental and social sustainability. The second part presents city logistics initiatives that involve the change of urban area context, in order to improve its sustainability.

  9. Mitigation of urban heat stress – a modelling case study for the area of Stuttgart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fallmann, Joachim

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In 2050 the fraction of urban global population will increase to over 69%, which means that around 6.3 billion people are expected to live in urban areas (UN 2011. Cities are the predominant habitation places for humans to live and are vulnerable to extreme weather events aggravating phenomena like heat stress. Finding mitigation strategies to sustain future development is of great importance, given expected influences on human health. In this study, the mesoscale numerical model WRF is used on a regional scale for the urban area of Stuttgart, to simulate the effect of urban planning strategies on dynamical processes affecting urban climate. After comparing two urban parameterisation schemes, a sensitivity study for different scenarios is performed; it shows that a change of the reflective properties of surfaces has the highest impact on near-surface temperatures compared to an increase of urban green areas or a decrease of building density. The Urban Heat Island (UHI describes the temperature difference between urban and rural temperatures; it characterises regional urban climate and is responsible for urban-rural circulation patterns. Applying urban planning measures may decrease the intensity of the UHI in the study area by up to 2 °C by using heat-reflective roof paints or by 1 °C through replacing impervious surfaces by natural vegetation in the urban vicinity – compared to a value of 2.5 °C for the base case. Because of its topographical location in a valley and the overall high temperatures in this region, the area of Stuttgart suffers from heat stress to a comparatively large extent.

  10. Identification of the potential gap areas for the developing green infrastructure in the Urban area using High resolution satellite Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaparthi, M. B.

    2017-12-01

    In India urban population is growing day by day which is causing air pollution less air quality finally leading to climate change and global warming. To mitigate the effect of the climate change we need to plant more trees in the urban area. The objective of this study is develop a plan to improve the urban Green Infrastructure (GI) to fight against the climate change and global warming. Improving GI is a challenging and difficult task in the urban areas because land unavailability of land, to overcome the problem greenways is a good the solution. Greenway is a linear open space developed along the rivers, canals, roads in the urban areas to form a network of green spaces. Roads are the most common structures in the urban area. The idea is to develop the greenways alongside the road to connecting the different green spaces. Tree crowns will act as culverts to connect the green spaces. This will require the spatial structure of the green space, distribution of trees along the roads and the gap areas along the road where more trees can be planted. This can be achieved with help of high resolution Satellite Imagery and the object extraction techniques. This study was carried in the city Bhimavaram which is located in state Andhra Pradesh. The final outcome of this study is potential gap areas for planting trees in the city.

  11. Hydrogeochemical characterization and Natural Background Levels in urbanized areas: Milan Metropolitan area (Northern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Caro, Mattia; Crosta, Giovanni B.; Frattini, Paolo

    2017-04-01

    Although aquifers in densely populated and industrialized areas are extremely valuable and sensitive to contamination, an estimate of the groundwater quality status relative to baseline conditions is lacking for many of them. This paper provides a hydrogeochemical characterization of the groundwater in the Milan metropolitan area, one of the most densely populated areas in Europe. First, a conceptual model of the study area based on the analysis of the spatial distribution of natural chemical species and indicator contaminants is presented. The hydrochemical facies of the study area depend on the lithology of catchments drained by the main contributing rivers and on the aquifer settings. The anthropogenic influence on the groundwater quality of superficial aquifers is studied by means of probability plots, concentration versus depth plots and spatial-temporal plots for nitrate, sulfate and chloride. These allow differentiation of contaminated superficial aquifers from deep confined aquifers with baseline water quality. Natural Background Levels (NBL) of selected species (Cl, Na, NH4, SO4, NO3, As, Fe, Mn and Zn) are estimated by means of the pre-selection (PS) and the component separation (CS) statistical approaches. The NBLs depend on hydrogeological settings of the study area; sodium, chloride, sulfate and zinc NBL values never exceed the environmental water quality standards. NBL values of ammonium, iron, arsenic and manganese exceed the environmental water quality standards in the anaerobic portion of the aquifers. On the basis of observations, a set of criteria and precautions are suggested for adoption with both PS and CS methods in the aquifer characterization of highly urbanized areas.

  12. GREEN SPACES AND PUBLIC HEALTH IN URBAN AREAS

    OpenAIRE

    Claudiu CICEA; Corina PIRLOGEA

    2011-01-01

    Quality of life in cities depends largely on the availability of attractive and accessible green spaces. It is generally agreed that urban green spaces are essential for the health and well-being of citizens. This paper aims to broach the issue of urban green spaces, emphasizing their importance (embodied in at least three categories of benefits: environmental, economic and social) and focusing on the idea that the existence of green spaces may contribute to obtaining savings or income in a c...

  13. Identifying the Risk Areas and Urban Growth by ArcGIS-Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Hamdy

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abouelreesh is one of the most at risk areas in Aswan, Egypt, which suffers from storms, poor drainage, and flash flooding. These phenomena affect the urban areas and cause a lot of damage to buildings and infrastructure. Moreover, the potential for the further realization of dangerous situations increased when the urban areas of Abouelreesh extended towards the risk areas. In an effort to ameliorate the danger, two key issues for urban growth management were studied, namely: (i estimations regarding the pace of urban sprawl, and (ii the identification of urban areas located in regions that would be affected by flash floods. Analyzing these phenomena require a lot of data in order to obtain good results, but in our case, the official data or field data was limited so we tried to obtain it by accessing two kinds of free sources of satellite data. First, we used Arc GIS tools to analyze (digital elevation model (DEM files in order to study the watershed and better identify the risk area. Second, we studied historical imagery in Google Earth to determine the age of each urban block. The urban growth rate in the risk areas had risen to 63.31% in 2001. Urban growth in the case study area had been influenced by house sizes, because most people were looking to live in bigger houses. The aforementioned problem can be observed by considering the increasing average house sizes from 2001 until 2013, where, especially in risky areas, the average of house sizes had grown from 223 m2 in 2001 to 318 m2 in 2013. The findings from this study would be useful to urban planners and government officials in helping them to make informed decisions on urban development to benefit the community, especially those living in areas at risk from flash flooding from heavy rain events.

  14. Urban-rural fog differences in Belgrade area, Serbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vujović, Dragana; Todorović, Nedeljko

    2018-02-01

    Urban/rural fog appearance during the last 27 years in the Belgrade region is analysed using hourly meteorological records from two meteorological stations: an urban station at Belgrade-Vračar (BV) and a rural station at Belgrade-Airport (BA). The effects of urban development on fog formation are discussed through analysis of fog frequency trends and comparison with a number of meteorological parameters. The mean annual and the mean annual minimum temperatures were greater at the urban BV station than at the rural BA station. The mean monthly relative humidity and the mean monthly water vapour pressure were greater at the rural than urban station. During the period of research (1988-2014), BA experiences 425 more days with fog than BV, which means that BV experiences fog for 62.68% of foggy days at BA. Trends in the number of days with fog were statistically non-significant. We analysed the fog occurrence during different types of weather. Fog in urban BV occurred more frequently during cyclonal circulation (in 52.75% of cases). In rural BA, the trend was the opposite and fog appeared more frequently during anticyclonic circulation (in 53.58% of cases). Fog at BV occurred most frequently in stable anticyclonic weather with light wind, when a temperature inversion existed (21.86% of cases). Most frequently, fog at BA occurred in the morning and only lasted a short time, followed by clearer skies during the anticyclonic warm and dry weather (22.55% of cases).

  15. Tuberculosis in an urban area in China: differences between urban migrants and local residents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Shen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The increase in urban migrants is one of major challenges for tuberculosis control in China. The different characteristics of tuberculosis cases between urban migrants and local residents in China have not been investigated before. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed a retrospective study of all pulmonary tuberculosis patients reported in Songjiang district, Shanghai, to determine the demographic, clinical and microbiological characteristics of tuberculosis cases between urban migrants and local residents. We calculated the odds ratios (OR and performed multivariate logistic regression to identify the characteristics that were independently associated with tuberculosis among urban migrants. A total of 1,348 pulmonary tuberculosis cases were reported during 2006-2008, among whom 440 (32.6% were local residents and 908 (67.4% were urban migrants. Urban migrant (38.9/100,000 population had higher tuberculosis rates than local residents (27.8/100,000 population, and the rates among persons younger than age 35 years were 3 times higher among urban migrants than among local residents. Younger age (adjusted OR per additional year at risk = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.91-0.94, p<0.001, poor treatment outcome (adjusted OR = 4.12, 95% CI: 2.65-5.72, p<0.001, and lower frequency of any comorbidity at diagnosis (adjusted OR = 0.20, 95% CI: 0.13-0.26, p = 0.013 were significantly associated with tuberculosis patients among urban migrants. There were poor treatment outcomes among urban migrants, mainly from transfers to another jurisdiction (19.3% of all tuberculosis patients among urban migrants. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A considerable proportion of tuberculosis cases in Songjiang district, China, during 2006-2008 occurred among urban migrants. Our findings highlight the need to develop and implement specific tuberculosis control strategies for urban migrants, such as more exhaustive case finding, improved case management and follow-up, and use of

  16. Levels of five metals in male hair from urban and rural areas of Chongqing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ming-Jing; Wei, Shi-Qiang; Sun, Yu-Xin; Yang, Ting; Li, Qi; Wang, Deng-Xiang

    2016-11-01

    Heavy metals were measured by flame atomic absorption in male hair from residents in urban and rural areas in Chongqing. The median values of the Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn were 2.90, 23.9, 9.31, 39.3 and 203 μg/g in urban areas and 0.84, 13.4, 5.56, 14.5 and 169 μg/g in rural area, respectively. The levels of Cd, Ni and Pb both in urban and rural areas lie at the high end of the worldwide figures. The differences in heavy metal distribution pattern indicated that there were more sources of Cd and Pb in urban areas. The levels of Cd were increasing along with the growth of age except for the aged people in urban areas, and no significant relationship was observed between the levels of the heavy metal and the age. It is noticed that the hair of smokers exhibited more heavy metal levels than that of non-smokers both in urban and rural areas. In addition, the hair metal levels of the smokers and non-smokers in urban areas were significantly higher than those in rural area, respectively. Significant pairwise correlations (p urban areas, indicating the elements in these two areas might originate from different sources. The elevated levels of Cd, Pb and Ni implied that the residents both in urban and rural areas might be at high risk of toxic metal exposure, especially for the children.

  17. Remote sensing of the urban heat island effect in a highly populated urban agglomeration area in East China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Decheng; Bonafoni, Stefania; Zhang, Liangxia; Wang, Ranghui

    2018-07-01

    Increasingly urban agglomeration, representing a group of cities with a compact spatial organization and close economic links, can rise surface temperature in a continuous area due to decreasing distance between cities. Significant progress has been made in elucidating surface urban heat island intensity (SUHII) of a single city or a few big cities, but the SUHII's patterns remain poorly understood in urban agglomeration regions. Using Aqua/Terra MODIS data over 2010-2015, we examined the SUHII variations and their drivers in Yangtze River Delta Urban Agglomeration (YRDUA) of east China. Instead of using the widely-used suburban/rural areas as references, this study predicted the unaffected reference temperature wall-to-wall from natural forests by a simple planar surface model. Results indicated that urbanization warmed the land surface regardless of urban area size in YRDUA, with the SUHII clearly larger in the day (2.6±0.9°C) than night (0.7±0.4°C). The SUHII varied markedly by cities, yet the largest did not happen in the presumed core cities. Also, the SUHII differed greatly in a seasonal cycle, with summer-winter difference of 4.2±0.9°C and 2.0±0.5°C in the day and night, respectively. Particularly, cooling effects of urban areas were observed in winter for the majority of cities at night. These spatiotemporal patterns depend strongly on the background climate (precipitation and air temperature), vegetation activity, surface albedo, and population density, with contrast mechanisms during the day and night. Further, we showed that ignoring urban agglomeration effect (using suburban/rural areas as the unaffected references) would lead to large biases of SUHII estimates in terms of magnitude and spatial distribution. Our results emphasize the necessity of considering cities altogether when assessing the urbanization effects on climate in an urban agglomeration area. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Impact of energy consumption on urban warming and air pollution in Tokyo metropolitan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saitoh, T.S.; Hoshi, H.

    1995-01-01

    The rapid progress of industrialization and urbanization due to economic growth and concentration of social function in the urban areas in Japan have had an adverse effect on the urban environment. In most cities, it has become evident that the increase in energy consumption is causing environmental problems, including a temperature rise in the urban atmosphere (urban heat island) and air pollution. This paper reports the results of field observations and three dimensional simulations of the urban heat island using a three-dimensional modelling vorticity-velocity vector potential formation, in the Tokyo metropolitan area. According to the simulation for urban warming in the study area for the year 2031, the maximum temperature of a summer evening (18:00) would exceed 43 degrees celsius, indicating that Tokyo would no longer be comfortable for its inhabitants. It is concluded that in the near future, the problem of the urban heat island will become a more important issue than that of global warming because the rate of urban warming is greater. For this reason, the urban heat island could be fatal to humans unless resolved in the near future. (author). 1 tab., 11 figs., 18 refs

  19. Parasitoids of the endangered leafcutter ant Atta robusta Borgmeier in urban and natural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego S. Gomes

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Parasitoids of the endangered leafcutter ant Atta robusta Borgmeier in urban and natural areas. Hosts of parasitoids in urban areas may suffer from a double threat of habitat destruction by urbanization and parasitism pressure. Moreover, the parasitoids themselves might be at risk if they are specialists. Here, we studied whether Atta robusta (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, which is on the red list of Brazilian threatened species, suffers from higher parasitism pressure in an urban area compared to a natural one. In addition, we determined whether their specialist parasitoids, Eibesfeldtphora breviloba and Myrmosicarius exrobusta (Diptera, Phoridae, are in risk and evaluated whether they are influenced by habitat structure, temperature, humidity, ant traffic, and time of the day. The study was carried out in an urban park and in a natural protected area in the city of Rio de Janeiro. In each site we chose an open area and a closed area (forest and sampled nine nests in each area. We found that parasitism pressure was similar in urban and natural areas, with the same two parasitoid species present in both areas. The main difference was related to habitat structure, since M. exrobusta was mainly present in open areas while E. breviloba was almost exclusively found in closed areas. Myrmosicarius exrobusta was not present during the hottest midday times, and its abundance was negatively correlated to vapor pressure deficit. These results suggest that green areas can be an important component in efforts to conserve diversity in urban areas. However, the complexity of the habitats in those areas is a fundamental issue in designing urban parks.

  20. URBAN TREE CROWN PROJECTION AREA MAPPING WITH OBJECT BASED IMAGE ANALYSIS FOR URBAN ECOSYSTEM SERVICE INDICATOR DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TAKÁCS ÁGNES

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The continuous expansion of built-up areas in the urban environment at the expense of green spaces brings up numerous environmental problems, for which accurate and efficient solutions should be found. The assessment of ecosystem services developed within the field of landscape ecology is playing an ever more important role in environmental sciences and thus may offer suitable answers. Such assessments can be carried out by developing indicators. Accordingly, in the case of urban trees, an accurate quantitative characterization of their services (such as e.g. carbon sequestration, pollutant removal and microclimate regulation is also needed. The aim of this study is to establish a generally applicable method based on indicator development, using widely available data. In the case of urban green spaces there are several services for which the development of proper indicators and evaluation methods requires a delineation of tree crowns, or at least the crown projection area. Accordingly, in our work, we map the crown projection area of a large and popular urban park of Szeged, Széchenyi square, using object-based image analysis on UltraCamD digital orthophotos. Following a multiresolution segmentation the classification of the resulting objects was carried out, using the eCognition image analysis software. Besides fulfilling the policy objectives related to the evaluation of urban ecosystem services, the produced crown base can also be used in several other types of urban ecological and urban climatological studies (e.g. urban climate modelling, human-comfort assessment. In this paper the first results are presented.

  1. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF UNDER FIVE (1-5 YEARS CHILDREN IN URBAN-SLUM AREA OF VARANASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavita Baranwal

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: To study some of the ecological factors in relation to the existing nutritional status of under-five (1-5years,. children in urban-slum area of varanasi. This included the following determinants in particular. Objective: To assess the biological, socio-economic, maternal and dietary factors with nutritional status of under fives children among urban- slum population. Study design: A cross-sectional study Study settings: Deptt. Of PSM, I.M.S., B.H. U, Varanasi Study subject:400 children of underfives age group (1-5years ofurbanfieldpractice area (Sunderpur community Study period:July 1999 to July 2000 Study variable : Age, sex, birth order; birth interval, caste of the family, type offamily, literacy status of mother: dietary habit, Colostrum, Exclusive Breast Feeding, Result: A cross-sectional epidemiological study was carried out infield practice area oJthe department of Preventive &Social Medicine, IMS, BHU Among the pre-school children aged 1-5 years the prevalence of PEM as screened out by ‘weight for age’ criteria using “IA P classficcition” was 63.3% . The prevalence was higher in 3rd year age periods as compared to 4th and 5th year During 2nd year of life PEM prevalence was observed to be lowest. Prevalence of PEM in male children was58. 3% as compared to female children (68.6%, the dfference was significant. Among the Socio-econo,nic factors mothers literacy, and caste, were significantly associated with PEM. Children deprived of’ colostrum and exclusive breastfeeding also showed significant dfference in prevalence of PEM.

  2. Air pollution and decreased semen quality: a comparative study of Chongqing urban and rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Niya; Cui, Zhihong; Yang, Sanming; Han, Xue; Chen, Gangcai; Zhou, Ziyuan; Zhai, Chongzhi; Ma, Mingfu; Li, Lianbing; Cai, Min; Li, Yafei; Ao, Lin; Shu, Weiqun; Liu, Jinyi; Cao, Jia

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the association and effects of air pollution level on male semen quality in urban and rural areas, this study examines the outdoor concentrations of particulate matter (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrous dioxide (NO2) and semen quality outcomes for 1346 volunteers in both urban and rural areas in Chongqing, China. We found the urban area has a higher pollution level than the rural area, contrasted with better semen quality in the rural residents, especially for sperm morphology and computer assistant semen analysis (CASA) motility parameters. A multivariate linear regression analysis demonstrates that concentrations of PM10, SO2, and NO2 significantly and negatively are associated with normal sperm morphology percentage (P urban ambient air may account for worse semen quality in urban males. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Carbon storage and sequestration by trees in urban and community areas of the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowak, David J.; Greenfield, Eric J.; Hoehn, Robert E.; Lapoint, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Carbon storage and sequestration by urban trees in the United States was quantified to assess the magnitude and role of urban forests in relation to climate change. Urban tree field data from 28 cities and 6 states were used to determine the average carbon density per unit of tree cover. These data were applied to statewide urban tree cover measurements to determine total urban forest carbon storage and annual sequestration by state and nationally. Urban whole tree carbon storage densities average 7.69 kg C m −2 of tree cover and sequestration densities average 0.28 kg C m −2 of tree cover per year. Total tree carbon storage in U.S. urban areas (c. 2005) is estimated at 643 million tonnes ($50.5 billion value; 95% CI = 597 million and 690 million tonnes) and annual sequestration is estimated at 25.6 million tonnes ($2.0 billion value; 95% CI = 23.7 million to 27.4 million tonnes). -- Highlights: •Total tree carbon storage in U.S. urban areas (c. 2005) is estimated at 643 million tonnes. •Total tree carbon storage in U.S. urban and community areas is estimated at 1.36 billion tonnes. •Net carbon sequestration in U.S. urban areas varies by state and is estimated at 18.9 million tonnes per year. •Overlap between U.S. forest and urban forest carbon estimates is between 247 million and 303 million tonnes. -- Field and tree cover measurements reveal carbon storage and sequestration by trees in U.S. urban and community areas

  4. Urban mobility, socioeconomic and urban transport variables in metropolitan areas in three continents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho da Costa, F.B. de; Nassi, C.D.

    2016-07-01

    Transportation is the soul of urban cities. Find sustainable ways to keep people moving in our cities is more important than ever. Historically, cities have developed in different ways. Each has its own personality and complexity. But in all cases, transport and mobility have played a key role in city life. Due to the relevance of mobility this article tries to establish the relationship between some variables. The method was developed by collecting, analyzing and comparing data on metropolitan regions in North America, South America, Europe and Oceania through a mathematical model. From each selected location the following data were gathered: population, area (km²), demographic density (inhab/km²), socio-economic aspects (annual GDP per capita), transport system (subway extension), number of trips per person per day and modal split (% non-motorized, % public transport and % private transport). In this study we analyze some variables that influence the number of trips per person per day. Understanding the associations between all the variables that influence the number of trips per person per day contributes the planners to determine whether changes are needed to improve in the transport system in the metropolitan region. (Author)

  5. Regular exercise prevents sleep deprivation associated impairment of long-term memory and synaptic plasticity in the CA1 area of the hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagaar, Munder; Dao, An; Levine, Amber; Alhaider, Ibrahim; Alkadhi, Karim

    2013-05-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effects of treadmill exercise on sleep deprivation (S-D)-induced impairment of hippocampal dependent long-term memory, late phase long-term potentiation (L-LTP) and its signaling cascade in the cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) area. Animals were conditioned to run on treadmills for 4 weeks then deprived of sleep for 24 h using the columns-in-water method. We tested the effect of exercise and/or S-D on behavioral performance using a post-learning paradigm in the radial arm water maze (RAWM) and in vivo extracellular recording in the CA1 area. The levels of L-LTP-related molecules in the CA1 area were then assessed both before and after L-LTP induction. After 24 h of S-D, spatial long-term memory impairment in the RAWM and L-LTP suppression was prevented by 4 weeks of regular exercise. Regular exercise also restored the S-D-associated decreases in the basal levels of key signaling molecules such as: calcium/calmodulin kinase IV (CaMKIV), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK/ERK), phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein (P-CREB) and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), in the CA1 area. After L-LTP induction, regular exercise also prevented the S-D-induced down regulation of BDNF and P-CREB protein levels. The results suggest that our exercise protocol may prevent 24-h S-D-induced impairments in long-term memory and LTP by preventing deleterious changes in the basal and post-stimulation levels of P-CREB and BDNF associated with S-D.

  6. Impact of structured programs on breastfeeding initiation rates in preterm neonates in a socioeconomically deprived area in France: A 10-year population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charkaluk, M-L; Bomy, H; Delguste, S; Courdent, M; Rousseau, S; Zaoui-Grattepanche, C; Pierrat, V

    2018-01-01

    Structured programs have a positive impact on breastfeeding (BF) but have rarely been evaluated for preterm neonates, frequently combining prematurity and socioeconomic deprivation as risk factors of a low BF rate. We aimed to assess BF initiation rates in very preterm (preterm (33-36 weeks), and term neonates from 2002 to 2011 in a French administrative district characterized by socioeconomic deprivation. Structured activities to promote and support BF have been implemented in this area since 2002; they all started in neonatal units. This retrospective population-based study analyzed 302,102 first health certificates. Overall, the BF initiation rate significantly increased, from 52.9% [95% CI: (52.3; 53.4)] in 2002 to 61.0% [95% CI: (60.4; 61.6)] in 2011. In 2002, BF initiation rates did not differ between groups, but in 2011, it was higher for very preterm than for term and moderately preterm neonates [74.7% (69.7; 79.6)] vs. 60.9% (60.3; 61.5) and 59.9% (57.6; 62.2), respectively, both Ppreterm children and term-born children (P=0.40). The 2.2% yearly increase observed in very preterm neonates significantly differed from the 0.9% yearly increase in the French general population (Ppreterm neonates, but not in moderately preterm neonates, whose specific needs should be further evaluated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Generating Accurate Urban Area Maps from Nighttime Satellite (DMSP/OLS) Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhoff, Marc; Lawrence, William; Elvidge, Christopher

    2000-01-01

    There has been an increasing interest by the international research community to use the nighttime acquired "city-lights" data sets collected by the US Defense Meteorological Satellite Program's Operational Linescan system to study issues relative to urbanization. Many researchers are interested in using these data to estimate human demographic parameters over large areas and then characterize the interactions between urban development , natural ecosystems, and other aspects of the human enterprise. Many of these attempts rely on an ability to accurately identify urbanized area. However, beyond the simple determination of the loci of human activity, using these data to generate accurate estimates of urbanized area can be problematic. Sensor blooming and registration error can cause large overestimates of urban land based on a simple measure of lit area from the raw data. We discuss these issues, show results of an attempt to do a historical urban growth model in Egypt, and then describe a few basic processing techniques that use geo-spatial analysis to threshold the DMSP data to accurately estimate urbanized areas. Algorithm results are shown for the United States and an application to use the data to estimate the impact of urban sprawl on sustainable agriculture in the US and China is described.

  8. An urban heat island in tropical area investigated by remote sensing: Belo Horizonte City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gastelois, B.C.R.J.; de Assis, E.S.

    1992-01-01

    The inappropriate urbanization process in tropical areas causes local climatic alterations forming heat islands over the cities. In order to guide urban planning in the control of the environmental urban quality, as for the thermal comfort is concerned, it has developed a method to evaluate the thermal behavior of built and urban green areas. Two TM-LANDSAT images from Belo Horizonte City, the study area, were chosen based on summer and winter typical days statistically characterized. Bands 3 and 4 of these images were combined to produce a local vegetation index map. Band 6 was used to observe the warmer and cooler areas in the city. Some heat nucleons were identified through data analysis of remote sensing, meteorological and urban land use. The mean maximum temperature of the principal heat nuclei exceeds, in summer, the limit value of diurnal thermal comfort for the city climate, using Givoni's Bioclimatic Chart. During the day period, the areas with a lower vegetation index, more density and predominating horizontal settlements were the most warmer. The cooling effect of urban green areas was very local. Thus, it should be regularly distributed in the built areas. The limits of occupation density and edification could be fixed, too, considering its impacts on the urban thermal environment

  9. Unsupervised polarimetric SAR urban area classification based on model-based decomposition with cross scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Deliang; Tang, Tao; Ban, Yifang; Su, Yi; Kuang, Gangyao

    2016-06-01

    Since it has been validated that cross-polarized scattering (HV) is caused not only by vegetation but also by rotated dihedrals, in this study, we use rotated dihedral corner reflectors to form a cross scattering matrix and propose an extended four-component model-based decomposition method for PolSAR data over urban areas. Unlike other urban area decomposition techniques which need to discriminate the urban and natural areas before decomposition, this proposed method is applied on PolSAR image directly. The building orientation angle is considered in this scattering matrix, making it flexible and adaptive in the decomposition. Therefore, we can separate cross scattering of urban areas from the overall HV component. Further, the cross and helix scattering components are also compared. Then, using these decomposed scattering powers, the buildings and natural areas can be easily discriminated from each other using a simple unsupervised K-means classifier. Moreover, buildings aligned and not aligned along the radar flight direction can be also distinguished clearly. Spaceborne RADARSAT-2 and airborne AIRSAR full polarimetric SAR data are used to validate the performance of our proposed method. The cross scattering power of oriented buildings is generated, leading to a better decomposition result for urban areas with respect to other state-of-the-art urban decomposition techniques. The decomposed scattering powers significantly improve the classification accuracy for urban areas.

  10. Thermal Comfort Level Assessment in Urban Area of Petrolina-PE County, Brazil

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    Pedro Vieira de Azevedo

    Full Text Available Abstract This study evaluated the thermal conditions of urban areas in Petrolina-PE, from continuous data collected in urban and rural areas for the year of 2012. The results characterized urban heat islands (UHI with varying intensity in urban areas, especially UHI = 5.3 °C (high intensity occurred on April 28, 2012. It was evident that the constituent elements of urban areas contribute to the formation and expansion of UHI bringing thermal discomfort for its inhabitants. An adaptation to Thom’s equation for calculating the Thermal Discomfort Index (DIT, was used to obtain the maximum (DITx and minimum (DITm thermal discomfort. In the urban area, the DITm indicated thermal comfort in 23.0% of the days and partial comfort in 77.0% of days surveyed. Already, the DITx characterized 71.6% of days with partial comfort and 28.4% of days with thermal discomfort. In the rural area, The DITm indicated that 41.5% of days were thermally comfortable and 58.5% of days had partial comfort. However, the DITx pointed 87.7% of the days of this environment with partial thermal comfort and 12.3% of thermally uncomfortable days. Finally, the results showed that afforestation of urban area constitutes to an effective and efficient way to mitigate thermal discomfort.

  11. Quality of life of elderly. Comparison between urban and rural areas

    OpenAIRE

    Darlene Mara dos Santos Tavares; Alisson Fernandes Bolina; Flavia Aparecida Dias; Pollyana Cristina dos Santos Ferreira; Vanderlei José Haas

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Comparing the scores of quality of life according to place of residence (urban and rural areas). Methods. A cross-sectional study involving 2142 elderly in urban area and other 850 in rural area of the municipality of Uberaba (Minas Gerais, Brazil). Instruments used: Olders Americans Resources and Services, World Health Organization Quality of Life - BREF (WHOQOL-BREF) and World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment for Older Adults (WHOQOL-OLD). Results. We found that in ...

  12. Hydropower production from bridges in urban or suburban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucciarelli, Tullio; Sammartano, Vincenzo; Sinagra, Marco; Morreale, Gabriele; Ferreira, Teresa

    2015-04-01

    A new technology for hydropower production from rivers crossing urban or suburban areas is proposed, based on the use of Cross-Flow turbines having its axis horizontal and normal to the flow direction. A large part of the river cross-section could be covered by the turbine cross-section and this would generate a small, but consistent jump between the water levels of the inlet and the outlet sections. The turbine should be anchored to a pre-existing bridge and the total length of its axis should be of the same order of the bridge length. Due to the large axis extension, it should be possible to easily attain a gross power similar to the power produced with a more traditional installation, based on weirs or barrages, if single jumps of few tens of centimeters were added over a large number of bridges. If the bridges were set in urbanized areas, the production of electricity would be located close to its consumption, according to the smart grid requirements, and the hydrological basin at the bridge section (along with the corresponding discharge) would be greater than the basin of traditional plants located in more upstream locations. The maximum water level to be attained in the upstream section of the bridge should be the minimum among the following ones: 1) the level corresponding to the maximum flood allowed by the surrounding infra-structures, 2) the level corresponding to the maximum force allowed by the bridge structures. The resulting upstream water level hydrographs should be compatible with the river suspended and bed load equilibrium and with the requirement of the aquatic living population. The system should include a mechanism able to raise the turbine completely out of the water level, if required, for maintenance or other purposes. The complete lifting of the turbine could be used to: a) reconstruct the natural river bed profile during floods, b) allow the navigation or fish movements during some periods of the year, or even some hours of the day. A

  13. Urbanization and the groundwater budget, metropolitan Seoul area, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoon-Young; Lee, Kang-Kun; Sung, Ig Hwan

    2001-07-01

    The city of Seoul is home to more than 10 million people in an area of 605 km2. Groundwater is ed for public water supply and industrial use, and to drain underground facilities and construction sites. Though most tap water is supplied from the Han River, the quantity and quality of groundwater is of great concern to Seoul's citizens, because the use of groundwater for drinking water is continuously increasing. This study identifies the major factors affecting the urban water budget and quality of groundwater in the Seoul area and estimates the urban water budget. These factors include leakage from the municipal water-supply system and sewer systems, precipitation infiltration, water-level fluctuations of the Han River, the subway pumping system, and domestic pumping. The balance between groundwater recharge and discharge is near equilibrium. However, the quality of groundwater and ability to control contaminant fluxes are impeded by sewage infiltration, abandoned landfills, waste dumps, and abandoned wells. Résumé. La ville de Séoul possède une population de plus de 10 millions d'habitants, pour une superficie de 605 km2. Les eaux souterraines sont pompées pour l'eau potable et pour les usages industriels, ainsi que pour drainer les équipements souterrains et les sites en construction. Bien que l'essentiel de l'eau potable provienne de la rivière Han, la quantité et la qualité de l'eau souterraine présentent un grand intérêt pour les habitants de Séoul, parce qu'on utilise de plus en plus l'eau souterraine pour l'eau potable. Cette étude identifie les facteurs principaux qui affectent la qualité de l'eau souterraine dans la région de Séoul et fait l'estimation du bilan d'eau urbaine. Les principaux facteurs affectant le bilan d'eau urbaine et la qualité de l'eau souterraine sont les fuites du réseau d'adduction et du réseau d'égouts, l'infiltration des eaux de précipitation, les fluctuations du niveau de la rivière Han, le réseau de pompage

  14. Where is the UK's pollinator biodiversity? The importance of urban areas for flower-visiting insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldock, Katherine C R; Goddard, Mark A; Hicks, Damien M; Kunin, William E; Mitschunas, Nadine; Osgathorpe, Lynne M; Potts, Simon G; Robertson, Kirsty M; Scott, Anna V; Stone, Graham N; Vaughan, Ian P; Memmott, Jane

    2015-03-22

    Insect pollinators provide a crucial ecosystem service, but are under threat. Urban areas could be important for pollinators, though their value relative to other habitats is poorly known. We compared pollinator communities using quantified flower-visitation networks in 36 sites (each 1 km(2)) in three landscapes: urban, farmland and nature reserves. Overall, flower-visitor abundance and species richness did not differ significantly between the three landscape types. Bee abundance did not differ between landscapes, but bee species richness was higher in urban areas than farmland. Hoverfly abundance was higher in farmland and nature reserves than urban sites, but species richness did not differ significantly. While urban pollinator assemblages were more homogeneous across space than those in farmland or nature reserves, there was no significant difference in the numbers of rarer species between the three landscapes. Network-level specialization was higher in farmland than urban sites. Relative to other habitats, urban visitors foraged from a greater number of plant species (higher generality) but also visited a lower proportion of available plant species (higher specialization), both possibly driven by higher urban plant richness. Urban areas are growing, and improving their value for pollinators should be part of any national strategy to conserve and restore pollinators.

  15. Citizen Science Program Shows Urban Areas Have Lower Occurrence of Frog Species, but Not Accelerated Declines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westgate, Martin J; Scheele, Ben C; Ikin, Karen; Hoefer, Anke Maria; Beaty, R Matthew; Evans, Murray; Osborne, Will; Hunter, David; Rayner, Laura; Driscoll, Don A

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the influence of landscape change on animal populations is critical to inform biodiversity conservation efforts. A particularly important goal is to understand how urban density affects the persistence of animal populations through time, and how these impacts can be mediated by habitat provision; but data on this question are limited for some taxa. Here, we use data from a citizen science monitoring program to investigate the effect of urbanization on patterns of frog species richness and occurrence over 13 years. Sites surrounded by a high proportion of bare ground (a proxy for urbanization) had consistently lower frog occurrence, but we found no evidence that declines were restricted to urban areas. Instead, several frog species showed declines in rural wetlands with low-quality habitat. Our analysis shows that urban wetlands had low but stable species richness; but also that population trajectories are strongly influenced by vegetation provision in both the riparian zone and the wider landscape. Future increases in the extent of urban environments in our study area are likely to negatively impact populations of several frog species. However, existing urban areas are unlikely to lose further frog species in the medium term. We recommend that landscape planning and management focus on the conservation and restoration of rural wetlands to arrest current declines, and the revegetation of urban wetlands to facilitate the re-expansion of urban-sensitive species.

  16. Citizen Science Program Shows Urban Areas Have Lower Occurrence of Frog Species, but Not Accelerated Declines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin J Westgate

    Full Text Available Understanding the influence of landscape change on animal populations is critical to inform biodiversity conservation efforts. A particularly important goal is to understand how urban density affects the persistence of animal populations through time, and how these impacts can be mediated by habitat provision; but data on this question are limited for some taxa. Here, we use data from a citizen science monitoring program to investigate the effect of urbanization on patterns of frog species richness and occurrence over 13 years. Sites surrounded by a high proportion of bare ground (a proxy for urbanization had consistently lower frog occurrence, but we found no evidence that declines were restricted to urban areas. Instead, several frog species showed declines in rural wetlands with low-quality habitat. Our analysis shows that urban wetlands had low but stable species richness; but also that population trajectories are strongly influenced by vegetation provision in both the riparian zone and the wider landscape. Future increases in the extent of urban environments in our study area are likely to negatively impact populations of several frog species. However, existing urban areas are unlikely to lose further frog species in the medium term. We recommend that landscape planning and management focus on the conservation and restoration of rural wetlands to arrest current declines, and the revegetation of urban wetlands to facilitate the re-expansion of urban-sensitive species.

  17. Urban land use in Natura 2000 surrounding areas in Vilnius Region, Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Paulo; Misiūnė, Ieva; Depellegrin, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Urban development is one of the major causes of land degradation and pressure on protected areas. (Hansen and DeFries, 2007; Salvati and Sabbi, 2011). The urban areas in the fringe of the protected areas are a source of pollutants considered a negative disturbance to the ecosystems services and biodiversity within the protected areas. The distance between urban and protected areas is decreasing and in the future it is estimated that 88% of the world protected areas will be affected by urban growth (McDonald et al., 2008). The surrounding or buffer areas, are lands adjacent to the Natura 2000 territories, which aim to reduce the human influence within the protected areas. Presently there is no common definition of buffer area it is not clear among stakeholders (Van Dasselaar, 2013). The objective of this work is to identify the urban land use in the Natura 2000 areas in Vilnius region, Lithuania. Data from Natura 2000 areas and urban land use (Corine Land Cover 2006) in Vilnius region were collected in the European Environmental Agency website (http://www.eea.europa.eu/). In the surroundings of each Natura 2000 site, we identified the urban land use at the distances of 500, 1000 and 1500 m. The Natura 2000 sites and the urban areas occupied a total of 13.2% and 3.4% of Vilnius region, respectively. However, the urban areas are very dispersed in the territory, especially in the surroundings of Vilnius, which since the end of the XX century is growing (Pereira et al., 2014). This can represent a major threat to Natura 2000 areas ecosystem services quality and biodiversity. Overall, urban areas occupied approximately 50 km2, in the buffer area of 500 m, 95 km2 in buffer area of 1000 m and 131 km2 in the buffer area of 1500 km2. This shows that Natura 2000 surrounding areas in Vilnius region are subjected to a high urban pressure. This is especially evident in the Vilnius city and is a consequence of the uncontrolled urban development. The lack of a clear legislation

  18. Characterizing Urban Household Waste Generation and Metabolism Considering Community Stratification in a Rapid Urbanizing Area of China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lishan Xiao

    Full Text Available The relationship between social stratification and municipal solid waste generation remains uncertain under current rapid urbanization. Based on a multi-object spatial sampling technique, we selected 191 households in a rapidly urbanizing area of Xiamen, China. The selected communities were classified into three types: work-unit, transitional, and commercial communities in the context of housing policy reform in China. Field survey data were used to characterize household waste generation patterns considering community stratification. Our results revealed a disparity in waste generation profiles among different households. The three community types differed with respect to family income, living area, religious affiliation, and homeowner occupation. Income, family structure, and lifestyle caused significant differences in waste generation among work-unit, transitional, and commercial communities, respectively. Urban waste generation patterns are expected to evolve due to accelerating urbanization and associated community transition. A multi-scale integrated analysis of societal and ecosystem metabolism approach was applied to waste metabolism linking it to particular socioeconomic conditions that influence material flows and their evolution. Waste metabolism, both pace and density, was highest for family structure driven patterns, followed by lifestyle and income driven. The results will guide community-specific management policies in rapidly urbanizing areas.

  19. Characterizing Urban Household Waste Generation and Metabolism Considering Community Stratification in a Rapid Urbanizing Area of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Lishan; Lin, Tao; Chen, Shaohua; Zhang, Guoqin; Ye, Zhilong; Yu, Zhaowu

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between social stratification and municipal solid waste generation remains uncertain under current rapid urbanization. Based on a multi-object spatial sampling technique, we selected 191 households in a rapidly urbanizing area of Xiamen, China. The selected communities were classified into three types: work-unit, transitional, and commercial communities in the context of housing policy reform in China. Field survey data were used to characterize household waste generation patterns considering community stratification. Our results revealed a disparity in waste generation profiles among different households. The three community types differed with respect to family income, living area, religious affiliation, and homeowner occupation. Income, family structure, and lifestyle caused significant differences in waste generation among work-unit, transitional, and commercial communities, respectively. Urban waste generation patterns are expected to evolve due to accelerating urbanization and associated community transition. A multi-scale integrated analysis of societal and ecosystem metabolism approach was applied to waste metabolism linking it to particular socioeconomic conditions that influence material flows and their evolution. Waste metabolism, both pace and density, was highest for family structure driven patterns, followed by lifestyle and income driven. The results will guide community-specific management policies in rapidly urbanizing areas.

  20. Sustainability in Urban Areas: how can sustainability become mainstream?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de B.J. (Bauke)

    2009-01-01

    The explicit attention to sustainability and related concepts within the context of housing and urban development dates back to the 70’s of the last century. Since then, a lot of efforts have been done to define the concept and to bring it into practice. This involved efforts from national to

  1. First Flush Effects in an Urban Catchment Area in Aalborg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben; Broch, Kirsten; Andersen, Margit Riis

    1997-01-01

    The paper describes the results of measurements from a 2 year period on a 95 hectare urban catchment in Aalborg, Denmark. The results of the rain/discharge measurements include 160 storm events corresponding to an accumulated rain depth of totally 753 mm. The water quality measurements include 15...

  2. Area-based urban regeneration comparing Denmark and Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harada, Yoko; Jørgensen, Gertrud

    2016-01-01

    and Japan, representing each one approach. The paper aims to clarify results of the two approaches in terms of five aspects of urban regeneration, relevant to the process and results: (1) strategic spatial improvement, (2) influence of the legal system and transparency of the processes, (3) empowerment...

  3. Deforestation in Uyo Urban Area: A GIS and Remote Sensing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Increase in population, per capita income, and land use activities and by extension urban expansion were found to be the major factors causing deforestation in Uyo. The fieldwork revealed that deforestation has caused many environmental problems in Uyo like flooding, gully erosion, scarcity of agricultural land and ...

  4. Design guidelines for raised and traversable medians in urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Major urban and suburban streets must provide a high level of service for through traffic as well as access to abutting properties. To an extent, the provisions of traffic service and the accommodation of access needs are conflicting functions that a...

  5. 40 CFR 125.65 - Urban area pretreatment program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Modifying the Secondary Treatment Requirements Under Section 301(h) of the Clean Water Act § 125.65 Urban....65 Section 125.65 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER... consist of the following: (i) As to a toxic pollutant introduced into the applicant's treatment works by...

  6. Land cover in single-family housing areas and how it correlates with urban form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Boye; Jensen, Marina Bergen

    2015-01-01

    Land cover composition is a valuable indicator of the ecological performance of a city. Single-family housing areas constitute a substantial part of most cities and may as such play an important role for sustainable urban development. From aerial photos we performed detailed GIS-based mapping...... that the urban form of neighbourhoods to some degree predicts the long term land cover composition. We conclude that strategies for maximizing the ecological performance of single-family housing areas can be informed by knowledge on urban form, and that digital mapping of land cover based on aerial photography...... of land cover in three detached single-family housing areas in Denmark of different urban form but comparable housing densities (ranging from 10.0 to 11.3 houses per hectare). The findings were subjected to statistical analysis and landscape metrics. Land cover varied with urban form: A traditional...

  7. Child health inequities in developing countries: differences across urban and rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fotso Jean-Christophe

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To document and compare the magnitude of inequities in child malnutrition across urban and rural areas, and to investigate the extent to which within-urban disparities in child malnutrition are accounted for by the characteristics of communities, households and individuals. Methods The most recent data sets available from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS of 15 countries in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA are used. The selection criteria were set to ensure that the number of countries, their geographical spread across Western/Central and Eastern/Southern Africa, and their socioeconomic diversities, constitute a good yardstick for the region and allow us to draw some generalizations. A household wealth index is constructed in each country and area (urban, rural, and the odds ratio between its uppermost and lowermost category, derived from multilevel logistic models, is used as a measure of socioeconomic inequalities. Control variables include mother's and father's education, community socioeconomic status (SES designed to represent the broad socio-economic ecology of the neighborhoods in which families live, and relevant mother- and child-level covariates. Results Across countries in SSA, though socioeconomic inequalities in stunting do exist in both urban and rural areas, they are significantly larger in urban areas. Intra-urban differences in child malnutrition are larger than overall urban-rural differentials in child malnutrition, and there seem to be no visible relationships between within-urban inequities in child health on the one hand, and urban population growth, urban malnutrition, or overall rural-urban differentials in malnutrition, on the other. Finally, maternal and father's education, community SES and other measurable covariates at the mother and child levels only explain a slight part of the within-urban differences in child malnutrition. Conclusion The urban advantage in health masks enormous disparities

  8. Results of the round table "Impact of natural and man-made hazards on urban areas"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostenaru-Dan, Maria; Olga Gociman, Cristina; Hostiuc, Constantin; Mihaila, Marina; Gheorghe (Popovici), Diana Alexandra; Anghelache, Mirela Adriana; Dutu, Andreea; Tascu-Stavre, Miroslav

    2015-04-01

    On Thursday the 6th of November a round table was organised at the Centre of Architectural and Urban Studies of the "Ion Mincu" University of Architecture and Urban Planning on the topic of this session. It included a review of the previous editions, and an outlook to the edition this year. We shared publications, and a publication is in work from the round table itself. The series of round tables at the Centre of Architectural and Urban Studies is an innitiative of Constantin Hostiuc, the secretary general of the centre. This round table was organised by Maria Bostenaru Dan, and moderated by Cristina Olga Gociman, who currently runs a project on a related topic. From the various ways to approach the effects of hazards, up to the disatrous ones, on urban areas, we consider the most suitable the approach to the impact. From the point of view of natural sciences and of the engineering ones this was approached a number of times, and newly social sciences are included as well. The role of planning and design for a better prevention, and even post-disaster intervention is ignored many times though. The goal of the round table was to bring together multidisciplinary approaches (architecture, urban planning, seismology, geography, structural engineering, ecology, communication sciences, art history) on a problem set from this point of view. Discussed topics were: 1. Assessment and mapping methods of the impact of natural hazards on urban areas (preventive, postdisaster) 2. Visualisation and communication techniques of the assessed impact, including GIS, internet, 3D 3. Strategies for the reduction of the impact of natural hazards on urban areas 4. Suitable methods of urban design for the mitigation of the effects of disasters in multihazard case 5. Partnership models among the involved actors in the decision process for disaster mitigaton 6. Urban planning instruments for risc management strategies (ex. master plan) 7. Lessons learned from the relationship between hazard

  9. Urban-rural differences in the associations between social deprivation and psychiatric service utilization in schizophrenia and all diagnoses: a case-register study in Northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornicroft, G; Bisoffi, G; De Salvia, D; Tansella, M

    1993-05-01

    Service utilization measures from the psychiatric case registers for urban South-Verona and rural Portogruaro in North East Italy for the period 1983-9 were used to identify associations with socio-demographic variables from the 1981 census in schizophrenia and related disorders as well as in all diagnoses. The patterns of service use were broadly similar, except that Portogruaro has significantly more community contacts, and has about twice the treated incidence and prevalence of schizophrenia. The census data showed that unmarried and unemployed people were more likely to live alone in the urban than in the rural area. In South-Verona the most strongly associated predictor variables, both for schizophrenia and all diagnoses, are: living alone, unemployment, percentage of the total population who are dependents and the percentage who are divorced, separated or widowed. In contrast, in Portogruaro there were no consistent associations between census and service use variables. Stepwise multiple regression models using three census predictor variables accounted for over 85% of the variance in South-Verona utilization rates. The results indicate that the strongly predictive associations previously described in England hold in urban South-Verona, but not in rural Portogruaro, and may be related to the effect of cities in clustering seriously disabled psychiatric patients in areas of low-cost housing where they live in relative social isolation.

  10. A prediction of the trend of population development in urban and rural areas in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Y

    1998-01-01

    This study predicts trends in population growth, urbanization, and age structure in China. Data were obtained from the 1990 Census. Population totaled 1.22 billion at the end of 1996. The fertility model predicts future fertility by variant and parity; parameters are provided in a table. High, medium, and low fertility variants, respectively, are based on the total regressive fertility rates (TRFR) of 2.23, 1.9, and 1.6. The medium variant assumes 2 children in rural areas. The low variant is ideal and assumes no third parity in rural areas. Urbanization means an annual average increase of 0.5% after 1996 at pace I and 0.8% at pace II. Urban population will be 57.8% of total population by 2050. Under these three variants, population size in 2000 will be 898 million in rural and 403 million in urban areas, 869 million in rural and 400 million in urban areas, and 856 million in rural and 398 million in urban areas, respectively. Population will peak at 1.7 billion in 2050, at 1.48 billion in 2033, and at 1.38 billion in 2023, respectively. During the period 2000-2020, about 10-14 million rural migrants will move to urban areas; 10 million will move thereafter. The elderly aged over 60 years will reach 7% by 2000 and 20% by 2040. Rural population will age faster than urban population. The working age population will reach 775 million in 2000, peak at 868 million in 2016, and will always be over 60% of total population. School-age population will amount to over 300 million by 2030. Young population will always be more than 25% in rural areas, which is nearly 17 percentage points higher than in urban areas.

  11. Urban streams across the USA: Lessons learned from studies in 9 metropolitan areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, L.R.; Cuffney, T.F.; Coles, J.F.; Fitzpatrick, F.; McMahon, G.; Steuer, J.; Bell, A.H.; May, J.T.

    2009-01-01

    Studies of the effects of urbanization on stream ecosystems have usually focused on single metropolitan areas. Synthesis of the results of such studies have been useful in developing general conceptual models of the effects of urbanization, but the strength of such generalizations is enhanced by applying consistent study designs and methods to multiple metropolitan areas across large geographic scales. We summarized the results from studies of the effects of urbanization on stream ecosystems in 9 metropolitan areas across the US (Boston, Massachusetts; Raleigh, North Carolina; Atlanta, Georgia; Birmingham, Alabama; Milwaukee-Green Bay, Wisconsin; Denver, Colorado; Dallas-Fort Worth, Texas; Salt Lake City, Utah; and Portland, Oregon). These studies were conducted as part of the US Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program and were based on a common study design and used standard sample-collection and processing methods to facilitate comparisons among study areas. All studies included evaluations of hydrology, physical habitat, water quality, and biota (algae, macroinvertebrates, fish). Four major conclusions emerged from the studies. First, responses of hydrologic, physical-habitat, water-quality, and biotic variables to urbanization varied among metropolitan areas, except that insecticide inputs consistently increased with urbanization. Second, prior land use, primarily forest and agriculture, appeared to be the most important determinant of the response of biota to urbanization in the areas we studied. Third, little evidence was found for resistance to the effects of urbanization by macroinvertebrate assemblages, even at low levels of urbanization. Fourth, benthic macroinvertebrates have important advantages for assessing the effects of urbanization on stream ecosystems relative to algae and fishes. Overall, our results demonstrate regional differences in the effects of urbanization on stream biota and suggest additional studies to elucidate

  12. The metropolitan park: searching for a new typology for intermediate green areas in urban fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkhuijsen, M.; Velde, van der R.; Graaf, de E.; Kruit, E.; Lodder, A.

    2011-01-01

    Ongoing urbanization in metropolitan regions creates a wish for large green areas in the urban peripheries for recreational purposes. Agricultural landscapes are being replaced with woods, nature and water to provide citizens with space for outdoor recreation and other activities. Park-like settings

  13. Factors affecting dairy production in peri-urban areas of Kampala

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    detailed study has been carried out to address the factors that affect peri-urban dairy production. A survey was carried out ... was therefore recommended that if milk production in the peri-urban areas of Kampala is to be increased, farmers should be encouraged to rear ..... Master Plan for the DairySector, Vols I,II,III,IV.

  14. Poor nutritional status of schoolchildren in urban and peri-urban areas of Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daboné, Charles; Delisle, Hélène F; Receveur, Olivier

    2011-04-19

    Malnutrition is still highly prevalent in developing countries. Schoolchildren may also be at high nutritional risk, not only under-five children. However, their nutritional status is poorly documented, particularly in urban areas. The paucity of information hinders the development of relevant nutrition programs for schoolchildren. The aim of this study carried out in Ouagadougou was to assess the nutritional status of schoolchildren attending public and private schools. The study was carried out to provide baseline data for the implementation and evaluation of the Nutrition Friendly School Initiative of WHO. Six intervention schools and six matched control schools were selected and a sample of 649 schoolchildren (48% boys) aged 7-14 years old from 8 public and 4 private schools were studied. Anthropometric and haemoglobin measurements, along with thyroid palpation, were performed. Serum retinol was measured in a random sub-sample of children (N = 173). WHO criteria were used to assess nutritional status. Chi square and independent t-test were used for proportions and mean comparisons between groups. Mean age of the children (48% boys) was 11.5 ± 1.2 years. Micronutrient malnutrition was highly prevalent, with 38.7% low serum retinol and 40.4% anaemia. The prevalence of stunting was 8.8% and that of thinness, 13.7%. The prevalence of anaemia (p = 0.001) and vitamin A deficiency (p children in private schools (p = 0.009) and younger children (7-9 y) (p children presented at least two nutritional deficiencies. This study shows that malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies are also widely prevalent in schoolchildren in cities, and it underlines the need for nutrition interventions to target them.

  15. Poor nutritional status of schoolchildren in urban and peri-urban areas of Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delisle Hélène F

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malnutrition is still highly prevalent in developing countries. Schoolchildren may also be at high nutritional risk, not only under-five children. However, their nutritional status is poorly documented, particularly in urban areas. The paucity of information hinders the development of relevant nutrition programs for schoolchildren. The aim of this study carried out in Ouagadougou was to assess the nutritional status of schoolchildren attending public and private schools. Methods The study was carried out to provide baseline data for the implementation and evaluation of the Nutrition Friendly School Initiative of WHO. Six intervention schools and six matched control schools were selected and a sample of 649 schoolchildren (48% boys aged 7-14 years old from 8 public and 4 private schools were studied. Anthropometric and haemoglobin measurements, along with thyroid palpation, were performed. Serum retinol was measured in a random sub-sample of children (N = 173. WHO criteria were used to assess nutritional status. Chi square and independent t-test were used for proportions and mean comparisons between groups. Results Mean age of the children (48% boys was 11.5 ± 1.2 years. Micronutrient malnutrition was highly prevalent, with 38.7% low serum retinol and 40.4% anaemia. The prevalence of stunting was 8.8% and that of thinness, 13.7%. The prevalence of anaemia (p = 0.001 and vitamin A deficiency (p Conclusion This study shows that malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies are also widely prevalent in schoolchildren in cities, and it underlines the need for nutrition interventions to target them.

  16. Effect of Urban Green Spaces and Flooded Area Type on Flooding Probability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyomin Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Countermeasures to urban flooding should consider long-term perspectives, because climate change impacts are unpredictable and complex. Urban green spaces have emerged as a potential option to reduce urban flood risks, and their effectiveness has been highlighted in notable urban water management studies. In this study, flooded areas in Seoul, Korea, were divided into four flooded area types by cluster analysis based on topographic and physical characteristics and verified using discriminant analysis. After division by flooded area type, logistic regression analysis was performed to determine how the flooding probability changes with variations in green space area. Type 1 included regions where flooding occurred in a drainage basin that had a flood risk management infrastructure (FRMI. In Type 2, the slope was steep; the TWI (Topographic Wetness Index was relatively low; and soil drainage was favorable. Type 3 represented the gentlest sloping areas, and these were associated with the highest TWI values. In addition, these areas had the worst soil drainage. Type 4 had moderate slopes, imperfect soil drainage and lower than average TWI values. We found that green spaces exerted a considerable influence on urban flooding probabilities in Seoul, and flooding probabilities could be reduced by over 50% depending on the green space area and the locations where green spaces were introduced. Increasing the area of green spaces was the most effective method of decreasing flooding probability in Type 3 areas. In Type 2 areas, the maximum hourly precipitation affected the flooding probability significantly, and the flooding probability in these areas was high despite the extensive green space area. These findings can contribute towards establishing guidelines for urban spatial planning to respond to urban flooding.

  17. Wild ungulates as disseminators of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in urban areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan B Franklin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In 2008, children playing on a soccer field in Colorado were sickened with a strain of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC O157:H7, which was ultimately linked to feces from wild Rocky Mountain elk. We addressed whether wild cervids were a potential source of STEC infections in humans and whether STEC was ubiquitous throughout wild cervid populations in Colorado. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We collected 483 fecal samples from Rocky Mountain elk and mule deer in urban and non-urban areas. Samples testing positive for STEC were higher in urban (11.0% than non-urban (1.6% areas. Elk fecal samples in urban areas had a much higher probability of containing STEC, which increased in both urban and non-urban areas as maximum daily temperature increased. Of the STEC-positive samples, 25% contained stx1 strains, 34.3% contained stx2, and 13% contained both stx1 and stx2. Additionally, eaeA genes were detected in 54.1% of the positive samples. Serotypes O103, and O146 were found in elk and deer feces, which also have the potential to cause human illness. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The high incidence of stx2 strains combined with eaeA and E-hyl genes that we found in wild cervid feces is associated with severe human disease, such as hemolytic uremic syndrome. This is of concern because there is a very close physical interface between elk and humans in urban areas that we sampled. In addition, we found a strong relationship between ambient temperature and incidence of STEC in elk feces, suggesting a higher incidence of STEC in elk feces in public areas on warmer days, which in turn may increase the likelihood that people will come in contact with infected feces. These concerns also have implications to other urban areas where high densities of coexisting wild cervids and humans interact on a regular basis.

  18. Public Participation in Urban Environmental Management: A Model for Promoting Community-Based Environmental Management in Peri-Urban Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacoob, May; Brantly, Eugene; Whiteford, Linda

    In October 1992, the Water and Sanitation for Health (WASH) Project held a workshop to explore how the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) could incorporate community participation as a core element in projects to improve water supply, sanitation, and other environmental conditions of peri-urban areas in developing countries. The…

  19. Quantifying bushfire penetration into urban areas in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Keping; McAneney, John

    2004-06-01

    The extent and trajectory of bushfire penetration at the bushland-urban interface are quantified using data from major historical fires in Australia. We find that the maximum distance at which homes are destroyed is typically less than 700 m. The probability of home destruction emerges as a simple linear and decreasing function of distance from the bushland-urban boundary but with a variable slope that presumably depends upon fire regime and human intervention. The collective data suggest that the probability of home destruction at the forest edge is around 60%. Spatial patterns of destroyed homes display significant neighbourhood clustering. Our results provide revealing spatial evidence for estimating fire risk to properties and suggest an ember-attack model.

  20. Change of groundwater environment and problems in large urban areas in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Takeshi; Miyakoshi, Akinobu; Yasuhara, Masaya

    Urbanization affects quantitatively and qualitatively groundwater environment in urban area. Especially, groundwater environment in large urban area has been changed more than several decades. However, there are few studies about evaluation of secular change of groundwater environment with developing of urban area. In this study, long term change of groundwater environment in the Kanto plain and the Nobi plain which had the very large urban areas were summarized from the view point of regional groundwater flow. Present groundwater flows in these plains were significantly different from the groundwater flows in the periods when the effects of urbanization were small, even though more than 30 years have passed since groundwater extraction had been regulated. Also, three dimensional distributions of chemical properties of groundwater quality and environmental isotopes have changed. These results show that the effects of human activities were still strongly remained. On the other hand, demands for groundwater for public use and private use have become increasing in recent years because of recovery of hydraulic potentials of confined aquifers that had depleted from the 1950s to 1970s by huge amount of groundwater abstraction. Therefore, it is important to keep monitoring and evaluating the groundwater environment in these urban areas for sustainable management of groundwater resources.

  1. Comparison of Bone Mineral Density between Urban and Rural Areas: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mika Matsuzaki

    Full Text Available Studies from high income countries (HIC have generally shown higher osteoporotic fracture rates in urban areas than rural areas. Low bone mineral density (BMD increases susceptibility to fractures. This review aimed to assess whether urbanicity is consistently associated with lower BMD globally.Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Global Health (-April 2013 were searched for articles investigating differences in bone mineral content (BMC or BMD between urban and rural areas. Ratio of means (RoM of BMD were used to estimate effect sizes in meta-analysis, with an exception for one study that only presented BMC data.Fifteen articles from eleven distinct populations were included in the review; seven populations from four high income countries and four from three low and middle income countries (LMIC. Meta-analysis showed conflicting evidence for urban-rural difference in BMD; studies from high income countries generally showed higher BMD in rural areas while the results were more mixed in studies from low and middle income countries (HIC RoM = 0.05; 95% CI: 0.03 to 0.06; LMIC RoM = -0.04: 95% CI: -0.1 to 0.01.Urban-rural differences of bone mineral density may be context-specific. BMD may be higher in urban areas in some lower income countries. More studies with robust designs and analytical techniques are needed to understand mechanisms underlying the effects of urbanization on bone mass accrual and loss.

  2. Limitations to Wildlife Habitat Connectivity in Urban Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Trask, Melinda

    2007-01-01

    The Oregon Department of Transportation (ODOT) conducted an evaluation of existing wildlife habitat and movement corridors within southeast Portland, where a new section of highway (the Sunrise Corridor) is proposed. The purpose was to develop a comprehensive strategy to preserve and enhance connections for wildlife passage potentially impacted by the Sunrise Corridor project. The evaluation illustrates limitations to urban wildlife protection that are not typically considered. The proposed a...

  3. The protection of urban areas from surface wastewater pollutions

    OpenAIRE

    Vialkova Elena; Zemlyanova Marina; Vorotnikova Anna; Cherkashin Dmitriy; Voronov Andrey; Maksimov Lev

    2017-01-01

    In this paper it considered the problem of collection, treatment and discharge into waters of rain and melted wastewater. To reduce the load on the combined sewer system, there are engineering solutions collect rain and melt water for use in the irrigation of lawns and green spaces. Research carried out at the department “Water supply and sanitation”, (Russia), confirm the high pollution concentrations of meltwater and rainfall in urban arias. Series of measurements of heavy metal in rainwate...

  4. Hourly Water Quality Dynamics in Rivers Downstream of Urban Areas: Quantifying Seasonal Variation and Modelling Impacts of Urban Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, M.; McGrane, S. J.; Miller, J. D.; Hitt, O.; Bowes, M.

    2016-12-01

    Continuous monitoring of water flows and quality is invaluable in improving understanding of the influence of urban areas on river health. When used to inform predictive modelling, insights can be gained as to how urban growth may affect the chemical and biological quality of rivers as they flow downstream into larger waterbodies. Water flow and quality monitoring in two urbanising sub-catchments (urban cover varied across a range of 7-78%. A rural-urban gradient in DO was apparent in the low flow period prior to the storms. Transient low DO (pollutant first flushes was particularly apparent in urban streams but this was followed by a rapid recovery. Chronic effects lasting for three to four weeks were only seen downstream of a sewage treatment works (STW). In this respect temperature- and respiration-driven DO sags in summer were at least if not more severe than those driven by the winter storms. Likewise, although winter storm NH4 concentrations violated EU legislation downstream of the STW, they were lower than summer concentrations in pollutant flushes following dry spells. In contrast the predominant phenomenon affecting water quality in the Cut during the storms was dilution. Here, a river water quality model was calibrated and applied over the course of a year to capture the importance of periphyton photosynthesis and respiration cycles in determining water quality and to predict the influence of hypothetical urban growth on downstream river health. The periods monitored intensively, dry spells followed by prolonged rainfall, represent: (i) marked changes in conditions likely to become more prevalent in future, (ii) situations under which water quality in urban areas is likely to be particularly vulnerable, being influenced for example by first flush effects followed by capacity exceedance at STW. Despite this, whilst being somewhat long lasting in places, impacts on DO were not severe.

  5. Overcoming PV grid issues in the urban areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehara, T.

    2009-10-15

    This report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) made by Task 10 of the Photovoltaic Power Systems (PVPS) programme takes a look at grid issues in urban photovoltaic electricity and how to overcome them. The mission of the Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme is to enhance the international collaboration efforts which accelerate the development and deployment of photovoltaic solar energy as a significant and sustainable renewable energy option. The objective of Task 10 is stated as being to enhance the opportunities for wide-scale, solution-oriented application of photovoltaics in the urban environment. The paper discusses the goal of mainstreaming PV systems in the urban environment. In this report, PV grid interconnection issues and countermeasures based on the latest studies are identified and summarised. Appropriate and understandable information is provided for all possible stakeholders. Possible impacts and benefits of PV grid interconnection are identified, technical measures designed to eliminate negative impacts and enhance possible benefits are presented. The status of research and demonstration projects is introduced and the latest outcomes are summarised. Recommendations and conclusions based on the review process are summarised and presented.

  6. [Object-oriented remote sensing image classification in epidemiological studies of visceral leishmaniasis in urban areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Andréa Sobral de; Werneck, Guilherme Loureiro; Resendes, Ana Paula da Costa

    2014-08-01

    This study explored the use of object-oriented classification of remote sensing imagery in epidemiological studies of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in urban areas. To obtain temperature and environmental information, an object-oriented classification approach was applied to Landsat 5 TM scenes from the city of Teresina, Piauí State, Brazil. For 1993-1996, VL incidence rates correlated positively with census tracts covered by dense vegetation, grass/pasture, and bare soil and negatively with areas covered by water and densely populated areas. In 2001-2006, positive correlations were found with dense vegetation, grass/pasture, bare soil, and densely populated areas and negative correlations with occupied urban areas with some vegetation. Land surface temperature correlated negatively with VL incidence in both periods. Object-oriented classification can be useful to characterize landscape features associated with VL in urban areas and to help identify risk areas in order to prioritize interventions.

  7. Phytoremediative urban design: Transforming a derelict and polluted harbour area into a green and productive neighbourhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilschut, M.; Theuws, P.; Duchhart, I.

    2013-01-01

    Many urban areas are polluted by industrial activities and waste disposal in landfills. Since conventional soil remediation techniques are costly and unsustainable, phytoremediation might offer an alternative. In this article, we explore how phytoremediation can be integrated into the transformation

  8. Evaluation and optimization of durable pervious concrete for use in urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-01

    Although pervious concrete was first used in the nineteenth century, it has only recently begun to increase in popularity. As urban areas expand, the problems associated with runoff management have become more challenging. The focus on the negative e...

  9. Empowerment Zones and Enterprise Districts - MDC_TargetUrbanAreaCorridor

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — A polygon feature class of Miami-Dade County, Targeted Urban Area Corridors. This coverage was created for the Office of Community & Economic Development (OCED)...

  10. State and Urban Area Homeland Security Plans and Exercises: Issues for the 110th Congress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reese, Shawn

    2007-01-01

    ... for both terrorist attacks and natural disasters. Two potential activities that Congress might choose to focus on are the certification of state and urban area homeland security plans and the conduct of exercises to test the plans...

  11. State and Urban Area Homeland Security Plans and Exercises: Issues for the 109th Congress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reese, Shawn

    2006-01-01

    ... for both terrorist attacks and natural disasters. Two potential activities that Congress might choose to focus on are the certification of state and urban area homeland security plans, and the conduct of exercises to test the plans...

  12. Urban warming in Tokyo area and counterplan to improve future environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saitoh, T.S.; Hoshi, H.

    1993-01-01

    The rapid progress in industrialization and concentration of economic and social functions in urban areas has stimulated a consistent increase in population and energy consumption. The sudden urbanization in modern cities has caused environmental problems including alternation of the local climate. This is a phenomenon peculiar to the urban areas, and is characterized by a consistent rise in the temperature of the urban atmosphere, an increase in air pollutants, a decrease in relative humidity, and so on. The phenomenon characterized by a noticeable temperature rise in the urban atmosphere has been called the urban heat island and analyzed by both observational and numerical approaches. The numerical model can be classified into two ways: the mechanical model and energy balance model. Since Howard reported on the urban heat island in London, there have been a number of observational studies and numerical studies based on the two-dimensional modeling. Recently, three-dimensional studies have been reported simultaneously with great the advancement of the supercomputer. The present paper reports the results of the field observation by automobiles in the Tokyo metropolitan area and also the results of the three-dimensional simulation for urban warming in Tokyo at present and in the future around 2030. Further, the authors also present the results of a simulation for the effect of tree planting and vegetation

  13. Multi-factor controls on terrestrial carbon dynamics in urbanized areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C.; Tian, H.; Pan, S.; Lockaby, G.; Chappelka, A.

    2014-12-01

    As urban land expands rapidly across the globe, much concern has been raised that urbanization may alter the terrestrial carbon cycle. Urbanization involves complex changes in land structure and multiple environmental factors. Little is known about the relative contribution of these individual factors and their interactions to the terrestrial carbon dynamics, however, which is essential for assessing the effectiveness of carbon sequestration policies focusing on urban development. This study developed a comprehensive analysis framework for quantifying relative contribution of individual factors (and their interactions) to terrestrial carbon dynamics in urbanized areas. We identified 15 factors belonging to five categories, and we applied a newly developed factorial analysis scheme to the southern United States (SUS), a rapidly urbanizing region. In all, 24 numeric experiments were designed to systematically isolate and quantify the relative contribution of individual factors. We found that the impact of land conversion was far larger than other factors. Urban managements and the overall interactive effects among major factors, however, created a carbon sink that compensated for 42% of the carbon loss in land conversion. Our findings provide valuable information for regional carbon management in the SUS: (1) it is preferable to preserve pre-urban carbon pools than to rely on the carbon sinks in urban ecosystems to compensate for the carbon loss in land conversion. (2) In forested areas, it is recommendable to improve landscape design (e.g., by arranging green spaces close to the city center) to maximize the urbanization-induced environmental change effect on carbon sequestration. Urbanization-induced environmental change will be less effective in shrubland regions. (3) Urban carbon sequestration can be significantly improved through changes in management practices, such as increased irrigation and fertilizer and targeted use of vehicles and machinery with least

  14. Monitoring and assessment of urban growth patterns using spatio-temporal built-up area analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aburas, Maher Milad; Ho, Yuek Ming; Ramli, Mohammad Firuz; Ash'aari, Zulfa Hanan

    2018-02-20

    The identification of spatio-temporal patterns of the urban growth phenomenon has become one of the most significant challenges in monitoring and assessing current and future trends of the urban growth issue. Therefore, spatio-temporal and quantitative techniques should be used hand in hand for a deeper understanding of various aspects of urban growth. The main purpose of this study is to monitor and assess the significant patterns of urban growth in Seremban using a spatio-temporal built-up area analysis. The concentric circles approach was used to measure the compactness and dispersion of built-up area by employing Shannon's Entropy method. The spatial directions approach was also utilised to measure the sustainability and speed of development, while the gradient approach was used to measure urban dynamics by employing landscape matrices. The overall results confirm that urban growth in Seremban is dispersed, unbalanced and unsustainable with a rapid speed of regional development. The main contribution of using existing methods with other methods is to provide several spatial and statistical dimensions that can help researchers, decision makers and local authorities understand the trend of growth and its patterns in order to take the appropriate decisions for future urban planning. For example, Shannon's Entropy findings indicate a high value of dispersion between the years 1990 and 2000 and from 2010 to 2016 with a growth rate of approximately 94 and 14%, respectively. Therefore, these results can help and support decision makers to implement alternative urban forms such as the compactness form to achieve an urban form that is more suitable and sustainable. The results of this study confirm the importance of using spatio-temporal built-up area and quantitative analysis to protect the sustainability of land use, as well as to improve the urban planning system via the effective monitoring and assessment of urban growth trends and patterns.

  15. “Population Invasion” versus Urban Exclusion in the Tibetan Areas of Western China

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Andrew Martín

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis article examines the confluence of local population transitions (demographic transition and urbanization) with non-local in-migration in the Tibetan areas of western China. The objective is to assess the validity of Tibetan perceptions of "population invasion" by Han Chinese and Chinese Muslims. The article argues that migration to Tibet from other regions in China has been concentrated in urban areas and has been counterbalanced by more rapid rates of natural increase in the...

  16. Environmental Modelling of Remediation of Urban Contaminated Areas. Report of the Urban Remediation Working Group of EMRAS Theme 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The Urban Remediation Working Group of the International Atomic Energy Agency's EMRAS (Environmental Modelling for RAdiation Safety) programme was concerned with remediation assessment for urban areas contaminated with dispersed radionuclides. Types of events that could result in dispersal or deposition of radionuclides in an urban situation include both intentional and unintentional events, and releases could range from major events involving a nuclear facility to small events such as a transportation accident. The primary objective of the Urban Remediation Working Group was (1) to test and improve the prediction of dose rates and cumulative doses to humans for urban areas contaminated with dispersed radionuclides, including prediction of changes in radionuclide concentrations or dose rates as a function of location and time; (2) to identify the most important pathways for human exposure; and (3) to predict the reduction in radionuclide concentrations, dose rates, or doses expected to result from various countermeasures or remediation efforts. Specific objectives of the Working Group have included (1) the identification of realistic scenarios for a wide variety of situations, (2) comparison and testing of approaches and models for assessing the significance of a given contamination event and for guiding decisions about countermeasures or remediation measures implemented to reduce doses to humans or to clean up the contaminated area, and (3) improving the understanding of processes and situations that affect the spread of contamination to aid in the development of appropriate models and parameter values for use in assessment of these situations. The major activities of the Working Group have included three areas. The first of these was a review of the available modelling approaches and computer models for use in assessing urban contamination and potential countermeasures or remediation activities. The second area of work was a modelling exercise based on data

  17. THE VULNERABILITY TO WATER HAZARDS OF URBAN AREA TURDA– CÂMPIA TURZII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOANA URCAN

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The vulnerability to water hazards of urban area Turda – Câmpia Turzii. The risk was defined as a social object whose primary component is vulnerability. This paper examines the way in which vulnerability was defined by highlighting its three aspects: physical, technical and social. The vulnerability involves a complex systematic approach especially when cities are analyzed. The economic, social heritage, the environmental elements can all become factors of vulnerability. In this paper the urban areas vulnerable towaterborne hazards, especially floods were mentioned. The means to reduce urban vulnerability were analyzed, highlighting the measures taken by the local communities to mitigate the crisis.

  18. Integration of aerial oblique imagery and terrestrial imagery for optimized 3D modeling in urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bo; Xie, Linfu; Hu, Han; Zhu, Qing; Yau, Eric

    2018-05-01

    Photorealistic three-dimensional (3D) models are fundamental to the spatial data infrastructure of a digital city, and have numerous potential applications in areas such as urban planning, urban management, urban monitoring, and urban environmental studies. Recent developments in aerial oblique photogrammetry based on aircraft or unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) offer promising techniques for 3D modeling. However, 3D models generated from aerial oblique imagery in urban areas with densely distributed high-rise buildings may show geometric defects and blurred textures, especially on building façades, due to problems such as occlusion and large camera tilt angles. Meanwhile, mobile mapping systems (MMSs) can capture terrestrial images of close-range objects from a complementary view on the ground at a high level of detail, but do not offer full coverage. The integration of aerial oblique imagery with terrestrial imagery offers promising opportunities to optimize 3D modeling in urban areas. This paper presents a novel method of integrating these two image types through automatic feature matching and combined bundle adjustment between them, and based on the integrated results to optimize the geometry and texture of the 3D models generated from aerial oblique imagery. Experimental analyses were conducted on two datasets of aerial and terrestrial images collected in Dortmund, Germany and in Hong Kong. The results indicate that the proposed approach effectively integrates images from the two platforms and thereby improves 3D modeling in urban areas.

  19. The Evolution of Urban Green Areas in Romania during 2002-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian Adrian Şorcaru

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The small size of green areas in Romanian urban settlements remains a problem of current urbanization, having a negative impact on the healthy lifestyle of the population. Nowadays, the green areas from most of the Romanian cities are under the WHO standard of 50 m2/inhabitant, under the E.U. standard of 26 m2/inhabitant, and also under the national standard (94 urban settlements-29.4% have less than 10 m2/inhabitant of green area in 2013. Furthermore, the evolution of green areas after 2002, shows that almost a quarter of Romanian urban settlements (24.5% recorded significant declines, some towns having less than one square meter per inhabitant. This study presents a detailed analysis of Romanian urban green areas, their evolution over the period 2002-2013, based on the latest data provided by INS (National Institute of Statistics, identifying in the same time the causes and effects that led to the current situation. Mapping the results and identifying regional disparities, along with proposing measures to increase urban green areas are also objectives achieved in this study.

  20. Temporal variations of surface water quality in urban, suburban and rural areas during rapid urbanization in Shanghai, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Junying; Da Liangjun; Song Kun; Li Bailian

    2008-01-01

    As the economic and financial center of China, Shanghai has experienced an extensive urban expansion since the early 1980s, with an attendant cost in environmental degradation. We use an integrated pollution index to study the temporal variations of surface water quality in urban, suburban and rural areas between 1982 and 2005. Data on monitored cross-sections were collected from the Shanghai Environmental Monitoring Center. The results indicated that the spatial pattern of surface water quality was determined by the level of urbanization. Surface water qualities in urban and suburban areas were improved by strengthening the environmental policies and management, but were worsening in rural areas. The relationship between economic growth and surface water quality in Shanghai showed an inversed-U-shaped curve, which reflected a similar pattern in most developed countries. This research suggests that decision makers and city officials should be more aware of the recent pollution increases in Shanghai. - An integrated pollution index documents the deterioration of water quality in greater Shanghai, recently most serious in rural sections

  1. Summary of the Seattle Urban Area Consequence Management Guidance for a Wide-Area Biological Attack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirvel, R

    2010-09-13

    A terrorist attack involving a release of biological warfare agent in the Seattle urban area would require decision-makers to make a host of important, and sometimes untested, choices concerning how best to respond and recover. This technical supplement supports the Puget Sound Regional Biological Attack Recovery Plan Annex to the Regional Catastrophic Plan, which structures the region’s response and recovery approach, by providing technical details on how to conduct a biological remediation. More specifically, the technical supplement identifies the principal issues that must be addressed following a wide-area release of aerosolized Bacillus anthracis (B. anthracis) spores; explains the resources that are available to address the release; sets forth strategies to reduce the time required for consequence management; and focuses on remediation options, procedures, and tools that can be implemented today should such an incident occur. The content is intended to be used with the Interim Consequence Management Guidance for a Wide-Area Biological Attack (LLNL 2009). A second and related purpose of this technical supplement is to serve as a detailed guide for other geographical regions interested in formulating their own consequence management plans. This technical supplement is funded by, and was developed as part of, the Interagency Biological Restoration Demonstration (IBRD) program—a collaborative effort among Department of Homeland Security, Department of Defense, and numerous other Federal, state, and local agencies—to improve the nation’s ability to respond to and recover from a wide-area biological incident. Content of the technical supplement follows the six-phase diagram for responding to and recovering from a biological contamination incident (see Figure 1 on the next page), which represents a consensus scheme developed after multi-agency review and approval. Whereas the focus of the document is on remediation/cleanup activities, the topics of response

  2. Empirical analysis on impact of FDI on the level of urbanization in costal areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Can-Ming

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: There is a close relationship between FDI and the level of urbanization. the objective of this research is to analyze the relationship between FDI and the level of urbanization in Jiangsu and Guangdong provinces in costal areas.Design/methodology/approach: The author uses the modern econometric methods by panel unit root test, cointegration test, random effects models and fixed effects models, and the data of FDI (2000-2012, urbanization rate, industrial structure and regional GDP of Nanjing, Xuzhou, Suzhou, Wuxi and other 13 cities in Jiangsu Province, Guangzhou, Shenzhen and other 19 cities in Guangdong province, researches the relationship between FDI and urbanization rate.Findings: Models show, FDI was closely correlated with urbanization rate in Jiangsu province and Guangdong province, the highly correlated with industrial structure, while it negatively correlated with the growth of GDP, and the degree of correlation is not high in Jiangsu province, but the high negative correlation in Guangdong province. The results shows the industrial structure and the urbanization rate mainly cause FDI growth.Research limitations/implications: There are many provinces in costal areas of China, this paper just research the relationship between FDI and the level of urbanization in Jiangsu province and Guangdong province, there are some limitations in the study areas and results.Originality/value: The study was the first to successfully apply on random effects model and fixed effects model to study the relationship between FDI and the level of urbanization in coastal areas by competitive analysis. Guangdong and Jiangsu province are the most developed regions, they are the most representative provinces in costal areas of China. Taking these two province as an example, we can analyze the relationship between FDI and the level of urbanization in central and western regions.

  3. Evaluation of Countermeasures Effectiveness in a Radioactively Contaminated Urban Area Using METRO-K : The Implementation of Scenarios Designed by the EMRAS II Urban Areas Working Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Won Tae; Jeong, Hae Sun; Jeong, Hyo Joon; Kim, Eun Han; Han, Moon Hee

    2012-01-01

    The Urban Areas Working Group within the EMRAS-2 (Environmental Modelling for RAdiation Safety, Phase 2), which has been supported by the IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency), has designed some types of accidental scenarios to test and improve the capabilities of models used for evaluation of radioactive contamination in urban areas. For the comparison of the results predicted from the different models, the absorbed doses in air were analyzed as a function of time following the accident with consideration of countermeasures to be taken. Two kinds of considerations were performed to find the dependency of the predicted results. One is the 'accidental season', i.e. summer and winter, in which an event of radioactive contamination takes place in a specified urban area. Likewise, the 'rainfall intensity' on the day of an event was also considered with the option of 1) no rain, 2) light rain, and 3) heavy rain. The results predicted using a domestic model of METRO-K have been submitted to the Urban Areas Working Group for the intercomparison with those of other models. In this study, as a part of these results using METRO-K, the countermeasures effectiveness in terms of dose reduction was analyzed and presented for the ground floor of a 24-story business building in a specified urban area. As a result, it was found that the countermeasures effectiveness is distinctly dependent on the rainfall intensity on the day of an event, and season when an event takes place. It is related to the different deposition amount of the radionuclides to the surfaces and different behavior on the surfaces following a deposition, and different effectiveness from countermeasures. In conclusion, a selection of appropriate countermeasures with consideration of various environmental conditions may be important to minimize and optimize the socio-economic costs as well as radiation-induced health detriments.

  4. Rainfall interception by two arboreal species in urban green area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luzia Ferreira da Silva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Rainfall interception by the two most usual species in forest urban spaces was analysed by measuring of interception (I or interception losses, through fall (Th, stem flow (St and gross precipitation (Pg. The chosen species were Caesalpinia pluviosa DC. (Fabaceae: Caesalpinoideae or sibipiruna, and Tipuana tipu O. Kuntze (Fabaceae: Faboideae or tipuana. The individuals analysed were more than 50 years old, with three separate individuals and three individuals in each studied group of species at the campus of ”Luiz de Queiroz” College of Agriculture (University of Sao Paulo, Piracicaba. The experiments were carried out from January to February 2007. Water was collected using seven-litre pails, in the edges and in the centre of the canopies. A high correlation of Th with Pg was observed on the centre of the crow of tipuana and by the edges of sibipiruna. St and I had low correlation with Pg for both species. The average of rain interception was greater in the edges of the crow of sibipiruna individuals, 60.6%, and in the centre of tipuana crow, 59.40%. Thus, both species intercepted up to 60% of the water rainfall, which indicates a great potential of both species for arborisation in urban environments.

  5. The protection of urban areas from surface wastewater pollutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vialkova Elena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper it considered the problem of collection, treatment and discharge into waters of rain and melted wastewater. To reduce the load on the combined sewer system, there are engineering solutions collect rain and melt water for use in the irrigation of lawns and green spaces. Research carried out at the department “Water supply and sanitation”, (Russia, confirm the high pollution concentrations of meltwater and rainfall in urban arias. Series of measurements of heavy metal in rainwater runoff carried out in Hungary demonstrates clearly the differences in concentrations in the function of distance from the edge of the road. Also differences are introduced between pollution concentrations in runoff water from within and outside urban traffic roads. The quality of snow cover, forming meltwater is observed to be changing in dependence on roadway location. Quality characteristics of surface runoff and its sediments can be effectively improved with super-high frequency radiation (SHF treatment which is presented in this paper.

  6. Focusing on fast food restaurants alone underestimates the relationship between neighborhood deprivation and exposure to fast food in a large rural area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkey, Joseph R; Johnson, Cassandra M; Dean, Wesley R; Horel, Scott A

    2011-01-25

    Individuals and families are relying more on food prepared outside the home as a source for at-home and away-from-home consumption. Restricting the estimation of fast-food access to fast-food restaurants alone may underestimate potential spatial access to fast food. The study used data from the 2006 Brazos Valley Food Environment Project (BVFEP) and the 2000 U.S. Census Summary File 3 for six rural counties in the Texas Brazos Valley region. BVFEP ground-truthed data included identification and geocoding of all fast-food restaurants, convenience stores, supermarkets, and grocery stores in study area and on-site assessment of the availability and variety of fast-food lunch/dinner entrées and side dishes. Network distance was calculated from the population-weighted centroid of each census block group to all retail locations that marketed fast food (n = 205 fast-food opportunities). Spatial access to fast-food opportunities (FFO) was significantly better than to traditional fast-food restaurants (FFR). The median distance to the nearest FFO was 2.7 miles, compared with 4.5 miles to the nearest FFR. Residents of high deprivation neighborhoods had better spatial access to a variety of healthier fast-food entrée and side dish options than residents of low deprivation neighborhoods. Our analyses revealed that identifying fast-food restaurants as the sole source of fast-food entrées and side dishes underestimated neighborhood exposure to fast food, in terms of both neighborhood proximity and coverage. Potential interventions must consider all retail opportunities for fast food, and not just traditional FFR.

  7. Focusing on fast food restaurants alone underestimates the relationship between neighborhood deprivation and exposure to fast food in a large rural area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Individuals and families are relying more on food prepared outside the home as a source for at-home and away-from-home consumption. Restricting the estimation of fast-food access to fast-food restaurants alone may underestimate potential spatial access to fast food. Methods The study used data from the 2006 Brazos Valley Food Environment Project (BVFEP) and the 2000 U.S. Census Summary File 3 for six rural counties in the Texas Brazos Valley region. BVFEP ground-truthed data included identification and geocoding of all fast-food restaurants, convenience stores, supermarkets, and grocery stores in study area and on-site assessment of the availability and variety of fast-food lunch/dinner entrées and side dishes. Network distance was calculated from the population-weighted centroid of each census block group to all retail locations that marketed fast food (n = 205 fast-food opportunities). Results Spatial access to fast-food opportunities (FFO) was significantly better than to traditional fast-food restaurants (FFR). The median distance to the nearest FFO was 2.7 miles, compared with 4.5 miles to the nearest FFR. Residents of high deprivation neighborhoods had better spatial access to a variety of healthier fast-food entrée and side dish options than residents of low deprivation neighborhoods. Conclusions Our analyses revealed that identifying fast-food restaurants as the sole source of fast-food entrées and side dishes underestimated neighborhood exposure to fast food, in terms of both neighborhood proximity and coverage. Potential interventions must consider all retail opportunities for fast food, and not just traditional FFR. PMID:21266055

  8. Focusing on fast food restaurants alone underestimates the relationship between neighborhood deprivation and exposure to fast food in a large rural area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean Wesley R

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Individuals and families are relying more on food prepared outside the home as a source for at-home and away-from-home consumption. Restricting the estimation of fast-food access to fast-food restaurants alone may underestimate potential spatial access to fast food. Methods The study used data from the 2006 Brazos Valley Food Environment Project (BVFEP and the 2000 U.S. Census Summary File 3 for six rural counties in the Texas Brazos Valley region. BVFEP ground-truthed data included identification and geocoding of all fast-food restaurants, convenience stores, supermarkets, and grocery stores in study area and on-site assessment of the availability and variety of fast-food lunch/dinner entrées and side dishes. Network distance was calculated from the population-weighted centroid of each census block group to all retail locations that marketed fast food (n = 205 fast-food opportunities. Results Spatial access to fast-food opportunities (FFO was significantly better than to traditional fast-food restaurants (FFR. The median distance to the nearest FFO was 2.7 miles, compared with 4.5 miles to the nearest FFR. Residents of high deprivation neighborhoods had better spatial access to a variety of healthier fast-food entrée and side dish options than residents of low deprivation neighborhoods. Conclusions Our analyses revealed that identifying fast-food restaurants as the sole source of fast-food entrées and side dishes underestimated neighborhood exposure to fast food, in terms of both neighborhood proximity and coverage. Potential interventions must consider all retail opportunities for fast food, and not just traditional FFR.

  9. Evidences of Significant Nonstationarity in Precipitation Extremes over Urbanizing Areas in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, J.; H, V.; Karmakar, S.; Ghosh, S.

    2014-12-01

    The statistical assumption of stationarity in hydrologic extreme time/event series has been relied heavily in frequency analysis. However, due to the analytically perceivable impacts of climate change, urbanization and concomitant land use pattern, assumption of stationarity in hydrologic time series will draw erroneous results, which inturn effects the policy and decision-making. Past studies provided sufficient evidences on changes in the characteristics of Indian monsoon rainfall extremes and further it has been attributed to climate change and urbanization, which indicates the presence of significant nonstationary in the Indian monsoon extremes. Therefore, a comprehensive nonstationary frequency analysis must be conducted all over India to obtain realistic return periods. The present study aims to conduct a nonstationary frequency analysis of the precipitation extremes over India at 1o resolution for a period of 1901-2004, with the implementation of the Generalized Additive Model for Location, Scale and Shape (GAMLSS) parameters. A cluster of 74 GAMLSS models has been developed by considering nonstationary in different combinations of distribution parameters and regression techniques (families of parametric polynomials and nonparametric/smoothing cubic spline), which overcomes the limitations of the previous studies. Further, for identification of urban, urbanizing and rural grids, an population density data has been utilized. The results showed the significant differences in the stationary and nonstationary return periods for the urbanizing grids, when compared to urbanized and rural grids. The results give implications of presence of nonstationary in the precipitation extremes more prominently in urbanizing areas compare to urbanized and rural areas.

  10. Presence of sandflies infected with Leishmania infantum and Massilia virus in the Marseille urban area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faucher, B; Bichaud, L; Charrel, R; Mary, C; Izri, A; de Lamballerie, X; Piarroux, R

    2014-05-01

    Leishmaniasis is considered a rural disease in Europe. However, circumstantial evidence has indicated urban transmission of leishmaniasis and phleboviruses in the urban area of Marseille, France. To investigate this urban transmission, sandflies were trapped in 33 locations in the urban area (horse farms, public gardens and a residential area). Sandflies were always captured: 87.8% were Phlebotomus perniciosus, a vector of Leishmania infantum and Toscana and Massilia viruses. RT-PCR and cell culture inoculation identified the Massilia virus in 2/99 pools of sandflies, and PCR identified Leishmania in 5/99. No dual infection was observed, but both pathogens were detected in samples from the same trapping site. © 2013 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2013 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  11. A Holistic Research Approach to Measuring Urban Identity: Findings from Kyrenia Area Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derya Oktay

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available As cities are losing place identity under the influence of industrialization, technological advancements and globalisation, a key task for mainstream politicians, urban planners/designers and residents is to understand what makes a city unique and recognizable. As urban identity is formed not only through identifiable and memorable formal attributes, but through the meaning attached by the users of the city, there is a need for a holistic approach integrating objective measures achieved through pre-analysis of the urban environment, and subjective measures achieved through user surveys. This study, based on such a holistic research framework, aims to measure the urban identity in Girne (Kyrenia, using survey data with a sampling of 250 participants, following a pre-analysis of the town. The results of the analysis indicated that although historic landmarks are so powerful in constructing the urban identity, traditional urban pattern and social life have not been found significant in constructing the images of the city unless they are frequented by local residents. On the other hand, the new housing developments lacking locally appropriate architectural and contextual qualities do not influence the urban image at all. Further, as the findings revealed that the perception of urban identity changes in time, there appears an opportunity to regain and/or enhance identity through various strategies. These include urban design strategies that depend so much on the specific context of a particular area, including all environmental dimensions defined in the paper.

  12. SOCIO-ECONOMICAL AND AGRI-ENVIRONMENTAL IMPLICATIONS OF AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES IN THE URBAN AREAS PROXIMITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Dumitrascu

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Sociological investigations regarding urbanization processes show an irreversible tendency: the number of urban residents will double in the next 35 years. Big cities rather than villages and provincial boroughs become our common habitat. Agriculture practiced in the proximity of big urban areas (intra- and peri-urban agriculture is one of the powerful and positive activities that the municipal residents can carry out in their effort to take control of their food security, aberrant social behavior and environment degradation in the urban communities. This paper approaches the central themes of the researches carried out in the field of urban agriculture: magnitude and dynamics of agricultural practices in the proximity of big urban areas, types of agriculture practiced, benefits and hazards associated to these practices, social implications and economical results of agricultural initiatives in urban sites, environmental impact of the mutual influence urban environment – agricultural sites, accessibility, cropping suitability, and ecological conversion of land in the proximity of urban areas. Socio-economical impact is analyzed, referring to the agricultural used land, its legal status, and crop structure in Bucharest municipality, social and economical motivation of agricultural producers, incomes from agricultural activities, identified constraints in the development of agricultural activities and perspectives, information sources, connection degree with the specific institutions and to the demands of ecological agriculture practice. Environment impact assessment was carried out by processing some fertility and contamination/pollution macro-indicators, which refer to the soil and ground water loading and pollution with nitrates, organochlorines, polychlorinated byphenyls (PCB, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH and heavy metals.

  13. Omah displacement and utilization from rural to urban areas, as green design lifestyle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajarwati, Ade Ariyani Sari

    2017-11-01

    Building a house in urban area is very costly and also leaving a bunch amount of construction waste. Many efforts were made to reduce the load of this waste. However, the high demand of residences in metropolitan makes the waste problem needs to be solved together. Based on this problem, author chooses Omah, - a Javanese traditional house, which is built, based on the traditional system of life of Javanese people - displacement from rural to urban area as the alternative solution, as it uses selected materials from nature by considering the sustainability and preservation for future generation. The wooden building is built based on traditional construction system that follows Javanese principles and traditional calculation, based on philosophy and cosmology in the community. This paper will covers utilization of Omah in urban area as an implementation of green design, which refers to the concepts of reuse, reduce, recycle and responsibility. Through expert interviews and field surveys in urban and rural areas, author collected data needed for this paper. Although the functionality of the building is different from rural to urban requirements, the phenomenon of Omah displacement from Javanese habitat to urban living area is well accepted and becomes an interesting trend.

  14. Composition and structure of the flora in intra-urban railway areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzta Wrzesień

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Railway areas are considered as large greenspaces and are recognized important in improving the biodiversity and dynamic of urban flora. In this study, we examined the flora composition and diversity along intra-city railway lines in Lublin, SE Poland and Lviv, W Ukraine. The flora has been analyzed in terms of species composition (multivariate ordination techniques, life span, life form, type of pollination mode, seed dispersal, life strategy sensu Grime, hemerophoby, urbanity degree, and in terms of habitat preferences using ecological indicator values. The multivariate analysis (CCA clearly revealed that abiotic factors (topographical, weather elements (annual precipitation and air temperature, and soil attributes (moisture, trophy, pH, salinity differed between two cities and impacted on the differences in railway flora composition. Plants growing on the intra-urban railway areas are mainly hemicryptophytes/perennials, C, CR, CRS-strategists, insect-, self-, or wind-pollinated, reproducing by seeds and mainly dispersed by wind. Intra-urban railway areas are predominated by native species, however the participation of invasive alien species is higher than their proportion in domestic floras. The share of invasive species is greater in railway areas of Lviv, ca. 12% (45 species compared to 8% in Lublin (36 species. Spontaneous flora in intra-urban railway areas represent distinct adaptations to unique urban-industrial ecosystems with different degree of anthropogenic disturbance.

  15. Responses of benthic macroinvertebrates to urbanization in nine metropolitan areas of the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuffney, T.F.; McMahon, G.; Kashuba, R.; May, J.T.; Waite, I.R.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of urbanization on benthic macroinvertebrates were investigated in nine metropolitan areas (Boston, MA; Raleigh, NC; Atlanta, GA; Birmingham, AL; Milwaukee–Green Bay, WI; Denver, CO; Dallas–Fort Worth, TX; Salt Lake City, UT; and Portland, OR) as a part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Assessment Program. Several invertebrate metrics showed strong, linear responses to urbanization when forest or shrublands were developed. Responses were difficult to discern in areas where urbanization was occurring on agricultural lands because invertebrate assemblages were already severely degraded. There was no evidence that assemblages showed any initial resistance to urbanization. Ordination scores, EPT taxa richness, and the average tolerance of organisms were the best indicators of changes in assemblage condition at a site. Richness metrics were better indicators than abundance metrics, and qualitative samples were as good as quantitative samples. A common set of landscape variables (population density, housing density, developed landcover, impervious surface, and roads) were strongly correlated with urbanization and invertebrate responses in all non-agricultural areas. The instream environmental variables (hydrology, water chemistry, habitat, and temperature) that were strongly correlated with urbanization and invertebrate responses were influenced by environmental setting (e.g., dominant ecoregion) and varied widely among metropolitan areas. Multilevel hierarchical regression models were developed that predicted invertebrate responses using only two landcover variables—basinscale landcover (percentage of basin area in developed land) and regional-scale landcover (antecedent agricultural land).

  16. These lit areas are undeveloped: Delimiting China's urban extents from thresholded nighttime light imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Delahunty, Tina; Zhao, Naizhuo; Cao, Guofeng

    2016-08-01

    Nighttime light imagery is a powerful tool to study urbanization because it can provide a uniform metric, lit area, to delimit urban extents. However, lit area is much larger than actual urban area, so thresholds of digital number (DN) values are usually needed to reduce the lit area. The threshold varies greatly among different regions, but at present it is still not very clear what factors impact the changes of the threshold. In this study, urban extent by province for China is mapped using official statistical data and four intercalibrated and geometrically corrected nighttime light images between 2004 and 2010. Lit area in the imagery for most provinces is at least 94% greater than the official amount of urban area. Regression analyses show a significant correlation between optimal thresholds and GDP per capita, and larger thresholds more commonly indicate higher economic level. Size and environmental condition may explain a province's threshold that is disproportionate to GDP. Findings indicate one threshold DN is not appropriate for multiple (adjacent) province urban extent mapping, and optimal thresholds for one year may be notably different than the next. Province-level derived thresholds are not appropriate for other geographic levels. Brightness of nighttime lights is an advantage over imagery that relies on daylight reflection, and decreases in brightness indicate faster growth in the horizontal direction than the vertical. A province's optimal threshold does not always maintain an increase with population and economic growth. In the economically developed eastern provinces, urban population densities decreased (and this is seen in the brightness data), while urban population increased.

  17. Impacts of urban land-surface forcing on ozone air quality in the Seoul metropolitan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.-H. Ryu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Modified local meteorology owing to heterogeneities in the urban–rural surface can affect urban air quality. In this study, the impacts of urban land-surface forcing on ozone air quality during a high ozone (O3 episode in the Seoul metropolitan area, South Korea, are investigated using a high-resolution chemical transport model (CMAQ. Under fair weather conditions, the temperature excess (urban heat island significantly modifies boundary layer characteristics/structures and local circulations. The modified boundary layer and local circulations result in an increase in O3 levels in the urban area of 16 ppb in the nighttime and 13 ppb in the daytime. Enhanced turbulence in the deep urban boundary layer dilutes pollutants such as NOx, and this contributes to the elevated O3 levels through the reduced O3 destruction by NO in the NOx-rich environment. The advection of O3 precursors over the mountains near Seoul by the prevailing valley-breeze circulation in the mid- to late morning results in the build-up of O3 over the mountains in conjunction with biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC emissions there. As the prevailing local circulation in the afternoon changes to urban-breeze circulation, the O3-rich air masses over the mountains are advected over the urban area. The urban-breeze circulation exerts significant influences on not only the advection of O3 but also the chemical production of O3 under the circumstances in which both anthropogenic and biogenic (natural emissions play important roles in O3 formation. As the air masses that are characterized by low NOx and high BVOC levels and long OH chain length are advected over the urban area from the surroundings, the ozone production efficiency increases in the urban area. The relatively strong vertical mixing in the urban boundary layer embedded in the

  18. Urban

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo José Lisboa Nobre

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Natal is a city with environment singularities. The urban legislation tried to preserve the features of the local landscape delimiting “Areas for Controlling Building High”, destined to protect the scenic value of some parts of the city. In 1979 was created a “NonÆdificandi” area to protect the scenery of Ponta Negra beach, one of the most famous view of the city. Since this time, the real state market, the building constructers and the land owners of this area have exerted constant pressure in sense to abolish or to modify this legal instrument.Nowadays, the public administration presented a new project which try to answer public and private interests.This paper is the result of an inclusion of the University in this polemic issue. Architecture and Urban Planning and Statistic students of two universities of the city (UFRN and UNP, helped the process collecting data and producing information. The proposed of the investigation was to know the users of this area and their opinion about the subject. It was done together with the Public agency, Secretaria Especial de Meio Ambiente e Urbanismo. At the end, the students presented their particular solutions for the problem, inside the disciplines of Landscaping and Urban Planning.

  19. Monitoring urban growth on the European side of the Istanbul metropolitan area: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, S.; Curran, P. J.

    2006-01-01

    Istanbul is the largest city in Turkey with an area of around 5750 km 2 and a population of around 10.8 M (2000). In 1980, the population was only around 4.7 M and so has more than doubled in only 2 decades. In 2000, around 65% of the population were living on the European side of the city with its large industrial/commercial and trade centres. The population is increasing as a result of both births exceeding deaths and mass immigration. Consequently, planned and unplanned housing are increasing while green areas are decreasing in area. Monitoring urban growth will enable the Municipality of Istanbul to better manage this complex urban area. The primary aim of this research was to quantify urban growth on the European side of Istanbul. Six land covers were identified using Landsat 5 TM images for 1987, 1992, 1997 and 2001 and differences in land cover area between these dates were used to determine the rate of change. The accuracy of land cover maps was determined using aerial photographs, topographic maps and field surveys. The overall accuracy of these classifications was between 80 and 86%; urban residential areas increased by around 1000 ha year -1 and forest, semi-natural vegetation, crop and bare soil areas decreased collectively at a similar rate. The paper ends with a discussion of the relationship between urban growth and population growth.

  20. The Effect of Tree Spacing and Size in Urban Areas: Strategies for Mitigating High Temperature in Urban Heat Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, R.; Shandas, V.; Makido, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Many cities are unintentionally designed to be heat sinks, which absorb the sun's short-wave radiation and reemit as long-wave radiation. Long time reorganization of this `urban heat island' (UHI) phenomena has led researchers and city planners into developing strategies for reducing ambient temperatures through urban design. Specifically, greening areas have proven to reduce the temperature in UHI's, including strategies such as green streets, green facades, and green roofs have been implemented. Among the scientific community there is promoted study of how myriad greening strategies can reduce temperature, relatively limited work has focused on the distribution, density, and quantity of tree campaigns. This paper examines how the spacing and size of trees reduce temperatures differently. A major focus of the paper is to understand how to lower the temperature through tree planting, and provide recommendations to cities that are attempting to solve their own urban heat island issues. Because different cities have different room for planting greenery, we examined which strategies are more efficient given an area constraint. Areas that have less available room might not be able to plant a high density of trees. We compared the different experimental groups varying in density and size of trees against the control to see the effect the trees had. Through calibration with local weather stations, we used a micrometeorology program (ENVI-Met) to model and simulate the different experimental models and how they affect the temperature. The results suggest that some urban designs can reduce ambient temperatures by over 7 0C, and the inclusion of large form trees have the greatest contribution, by reducing temperatures over 15 0C. The results suggest that using specific strategies that combine placement of specific tree configurations with alternative distribution of urban development patterns can help to solve the current challenges of UHI's, and thereby support management

  1. Air quality control monitoring at an urban and industrialized area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farinha, M.M.; Freitas, M.C.; Almeida, S.M.

    2004-01-01

    Air particulate matter analysis has been performed since 1999, within a contract for air quality monitoring of an urban waste incinerator. Air collection was made with Gent samplers, which collect size-fractionated aerosol samples in three sampling sites. Samples were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Some INAA results are discussed. PM10 mass concentrations are compared with the limit values for human health protection regulated by the European Council Directive 1999/30/CE. Weekend day and weekday samples are compared concerning As, Co, Fe, K, La, Na, Sb, Sc, Se and Zn mean concentrations collected at Bobadela for 1999. Enrichment factors are also presented. Enrichments were found for As, Sb, Se and Zn for both fractions in the three sampling sites. In order to quantify the evolution for the 1999-2001 period, basic statistics was performed for the enriched elements. (author)

  2. Ecological surveys of certain plant communities around urban areas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was also observed that certain edaphic and human activity, discharge of pollutants with out any pretreatment was found responsible for variation in the nature, structure and composition of vegetation. The plant growth and their continuity was in danger in many disturb areas, especially in some coastal areas where salinity ...

  3. Deprived yet healthy: neighbourhood-level resilience in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Amber L; Pearce, Jamie; Kingham, Simon

    2013-08-01

    Geographical inequalities in health are omnipresent with health and related behaviours typically worse in socioeconomically deprived places. However, this is not always true. Deprived places with unexpectedly good health outcomes, or what might be considered 'resilient' places, have been noted. Few studies have quantitatively examined resilience in neighbourhoods or investigated potential explanations for this resilience. This paper examines the paradox of low mortality despite high social deprivation in New Zealand neighbourhoods and considers possible neighbourhood characteristics that contribute to unanticipated positive health outcomes. Using area-level mortality (2005-2007) and socioeconomic data, we developed the Resilience Index New Zealand to quantify neighbourhood levels of resilience across the country. We then examined relationships between this measure and a suite of built, physical and social characteristics. We found that resilient places tended to be densely populated, urban areas. We observed gradients and increases/decreases in the most resilient groups in access to or levels of physical environment factors (environmental deprivation, safe drinking water, air quality) and unhealthy living infrastructure (alcohol and gambling outlets). Since these factors are amenable to change, these findings are the strongest evidence that such improvements may lower mortality in similarly deprived places. The social environment of resilient areas was characterised by high levels of incoming residents. We also found some surprising associations and observed U-shaped relationships for a number of the neighbourhood factors. Such findings suggest the need to develop a better proxy of community cohesion and a better understanding of the interactions between people and their neighbourhoods, rather than simply the presence of certain factors. We argue that this study has identified amenable neighbourhood characteristics and highlighted the importance of 'place

  4. Effects of urban development on stream ecosystems in nine metropolitan study areas across the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, James F.; McMahon, Gerard; Bell, Amanda H.; Brown, Larry R.; Fitzpatrick, Faith A.; Scudder Eikenberry, Barbara C.; Woodside, Michael D.; Cuffney, Thomas F.; Bryant, Wade L.; Cappiella, Karen; Fraley-McNeal, Lisa; Stack, William P.

    2012-01-01

    Urban development is an important agent of environmental change in the United States. The urban footprint on the American landscape has expanded during a century and a half of almost continuous development. Eighty percent of Americans now live in metropolitan areas, and the advantages and challenges of living in these developed areas—convenience, congestion, employment, pollution—are part of the day-to-day realities of most Americans. Nowhere are the environmental changes associated with urban development more evident than in urban streams. Contaminants, habitat destruction, and increasing streamflow flashiness resulting from urban development have been associated with the disruption of biological communities, particularly the loss of sensitive aquatic species. Every stream is connected downstream to larger water bodies, including rivers, reservoirs, and ultimately coastal waters. Inputs of chemical contaminants or sediments at any point along the stream can cause degradation downstream with adverse effects on biological communities and on economically valuable resources, such as fisheries and tourism.

  5. Impacts of Urban Areas and Their Characteristics on Avian Functional Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Oliveira Hagen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Urban development is rapidly expanding across the globe and is a major driver of environmental change. Despite considerable improvements in our understanding of how species richness responds to urbanization, there is still insufficient knowledge of how other measures of assemblage composition and structure respond to urban development. Functional diversity metrics provide a useful approach for quantifying ecological function. We compare avian functional diversity in 25 urban areas, located across the globe, with paired non-urban assemblages using a database of 27 functional traits that capture variation in resource use (amount and type of resources and how they are acquired across the 529 species occurring across these assemblages. Using three standard functional diversity metrics (FD, MNTD, and convex hull we quantify observed functional diversity and, using standardized effect sizes, how this diverges from that expected under random community assembly null models. We use regression trees to investigate whether human population density, amount of vegetation and city size (spatial extent of urban land, bio-region and use of semi-natural or agricultural assemblages as a baseline modulate the effect of urbanization on functional diversity. Our analyses suggest that observed functional diversity of urban avian assemblages is not consistently different from that of non-urban assemblages. After accounting for species richness avian functional diversity is higher in cities than areas of semi-natural habitat. This creates a paradox as species responses to urban development are determined by their ecological traits, which should generate assemblages clustered within a narrow range of trait space. Greater habitat diversity within cities compared to semi-natural areas dominated by a single habitat may enhance functional diversity in cities and explain this paradox. Regression trees further suggest that smaller urban areas, lower human population densities

  6. Characterization and spatial modeling of urban sprawl in the Wuhan Metropolitan Area, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Chen; Liu, Yaolin; Stein, Alfred; Jiao, Limin

    2015-02-01

    Urban sprawl has led to environmental problems and large losses of arable land in China. In this study, we monitor and model urban sprawl by means of a combination of remote sensing, geographical information system and spatial statistics. We use time-series data to explore the potential socio-economic driving forces behind urban sprawl, and spatial models in different scenarios to explore the spatio-temporal interactions. The methodology is applied to the city of Wuhan, China, for the period from 1990 to 2013. The results reveal that the built-up land has expanded and has dispersed in urban clusters. Population growth, and economic and transportation development are still the main causes of urban sprawl; however, when they have developed to certain levels, the area affected by construction in urban areas (Jian Cheng Qu (JCQ)) and the area of cultivated land (ACL) tend to be stable. Spatial regression models are shown to be superior to the traditional models. The interaction among districts with the same administrative status is stronger than if one of those neighbors is in the city center and the other in the suburban area. The expansion of urban built-up land is driven by the socio-economic development at the same period, and greatly influenced by its spatio-temporal neighbors. We conclude that the integration of remote sensing, a geographical information system, and spatial statistics offers an excellent opportunity to explore the spatio-temporal variation and interactions among the districts in the sprawling metropolitan areas. Relevant regulations to control the urban sprawl process are suggested accordingly.

  7. Characterizing urban areas with good sound quality: development of a research protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kempen, Elise; Devilee, Jeroen; Swart, Wim; van Kamp, Irene

    2014-01-01

    Due to rapid urbanization, the spatial variation between wanted and unwanted sounds will decrease or even disappear. Consequently, the characteristics of (urban) areas where people can temporarily withdraw themselves from urban stressors such as noise may change or become increasingly scarce. Hardly any research has been carried out into the positive health effects of spending time in areas with a good sound quality. One of the problems is that an overview of what aspects determines good sound quality in urban areas and how these are interrelated is lacking. This paper reviews the literature pertaining to the sound quality of urban areas. Aim is to summarize what is known about the influence of social, spatial, and physical aspects other than sounds, on peoples' perception of urban sound qualities. Literature from both conventional sound research and from the so-called soundscape field, published between 2000 and the beginning of 2013 in English or Dutch, was evaluated. Although a general set of validated indicators that can be directly applied, is not available yet, a set of indicators was derived from the literature. These form the basis of a study protocol that will be applied in "Towards a Sustainable acoustic Environment", a project that aims to describe sound qualities at a low-scale level. Key-elements of this study protocol, including a questionnaire and the systematic audit of neighborhoods, were presented in this paper.

  8. The causes of urban sprawl in Spanish urban areas: a spatial approach

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel Gómez-Antonio; Miriam Hortas-Rico; Linna Li

    2014-01-01

    WThis paper explores the role of interjurisdictional competition among local governments in fostering urban sprawl. The structure of local public finance along with housing and land-use policies make land a valuable commodity the supply of which is monopolised by local governments. This situation creates economic incentives for local governments (in terms of higher income and tax revenues) to influence development patterns and even engage in strategic interaction with neighbouring jurisdictio...

  9. Modeling risks: effects of area deprivation, family socio-economic disadvantage and adverse life events on young children's psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini; Mavroveli, Stella; Tzavidis, Nikos

    2010-06-01

    The effects of contextual risk on young children's behavior are not appropriately modeled. To model the effects of area and family contextual risk on young children's psychopathology. The final study sample consisted of 4,618 Millennium Cohort Study (MCS) children, who were 3 years old, clustered in lower layer super output areas in nine strata in the UK. Contextual risk was measured by socio-economic disadvantage (SED) at both area and family level, and by distal and proximal adverse life events at family level. Multivariate response multilevel models that allowed for correlated residuals at both individual and area level, and univariate multilevel models estimated the effect of contextual risk on specific and broad psychopathology measured by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. The area SED/broad psychopathology association remained significant after family SED was controlled, but not after maternal qualifications and family adverse life events were added to the model. Adverse life events predicted psychopathology in all models. Family SED did not predict emotional symptoms or hyperactivity after child characteristics were added to the model with the family-level controls. Area-level SED predicts child psychopathology via family characteristics; family-level SED predicts psychopathology largely by its impact on development; and adverse life events predict psychopathology independently of earlier adversity, SED and child characteristics, as well as maternal psychopathology, parenting and education.

  10. Methods for Sustainable Management of Contamination Sources in Urban Coastal Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Sparrevik, Magnus

    2012-01-01

    Managing contaminated urban coastal areas is an important issue in today’s society. Harbor areas are transformed from industrial sites and shipyards, to housing areas with high environmental requirements. The use of coastal areas for aquaculture and fishing activities increases the need for cleanup of previous contamination sources. High environmental standards when handling dredged material from harbors and industrial activities are also required in our society today. Many countries incl...

  11. Discussion on Sustainable Water Technologies for Peri-Urban Areas of Mexico City: Balancing Urbanization and Environmental Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiemen A. Nanninga

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Often centralized water supply, sanitation and solid waste services struggle to keep up with the rapid expansion of urban areas. The peri-urban areas are at the forefront of this expansion and it is here where decentralized technologies are increasingly being implemented. The introduction of decentralized technologies allows for the development of new opportunities that enable the recovery and reuse of resources in the form of water, nutrients and energy. This resource-oriented management of water, nutrients and energy requires a sustainable system aimed at low resource use and high recovery and reuse rates. Instead of investigating each sector separately, as has been traditionally done, this article proposes and discusses a concept that seeks to combine the in- and outflows of the different sectors, reusing water and other liberated resources where possible. This paper shows and demonstrates examples of different types of sustainable technologies that can be implemented in the peri-urban areas of Mexico City [rainwater harvesting, EcoSan and biofiltros (small constructed wetlands, and (vermi-composting]. An innovative participatory planning method, combining scenario development with a participatory planning workshop with key stakeholders, was applied and resulted in three concept scenarios. Specific technologies were then selected for each concept scenario that the technical feasibility and applicability was assessed. Following this, the resulting resource flows (nutrients, water and energy were determined and analyzed. The results show that decentralized technologies not only have the potential to deliver adequate water supply, sanitation and solid waste services in peri-urban areas and lessen environmental pollution, but also can recover significant amounts of resources thereby saving costs and providing valuable inputs in, for instance, the agricultural sector. Social acceptance of the technologies and institutional cooperation

  12. Discussion on Sustainable Water Technologies for Peri-Urban Areas of Mexico City: Balancing Urbanization and Environmental Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Essl

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Often centralized water supply, sanitation and solid waste services struggle to keep up with the rapid expansion of urban areas. The peri-urban areas are at the forefront of this expansion and it is here where decentralized technologies are increasingly being implemented. The introduction of decentralized technologies allows for the development of new opportunities that enable the recovery and reuse of resources in the form of water, nutrients and energy. This resource-oriented management of water, nutrients and energy requires a sustainable system aimed at low resource use and high recovery and reuse rates. Instead of investigating each sector separately, as has been traditionally done, this article proposes and discusses a concept that seeks to combine the in- and outflows of the different sectors, reusing water and other liberated resources where possible. This paper shows and demonstrates examples of different types of sustainable technologies that can be implemented in the peri-urban areas of Mexico City [rainwater harvesting, EcoSan and biofiltros (small constructed wetlands, and (vermi-composting]. An innovative participatory planning method, combining scenario development with a participatory planning workshop with key stakeholders, was applied and resulted in three concept scenarios. Specific technologies were then selected for each concept scenario that the technical feasibility and applicability was assessed. Following this, the resulting resource flows (nutrients, water and energy were determined and analyzed. The results show that decentralized technologies not only have the potential to deliver adequate water supply, sanitation and solid waste services in peri-urban areas and lessen environmental pollution, but also can recover significant amounts of resources thereby saving costs and providing valuable inputs in, for instance, the agricultural sector. Social acceptance of the technologies and institutional cooperation, however, is

  13. Plant Biodiversity in Urbanized Areas Plant Functional Traits in Space and Time, Plant Rarity and Phylogenetic Diversity

    CERN Document Server

    Knapp, Sonja

    2010-01-01

    Urbanization is one of the main drivers of global change. It often takes place in areas with high biodiversity, threatening species worldwide. To protect biodiversity not only outside but also right within urban areas, knowledge about the effects of urban land use on species assemblages is essential. Sonja Knapp compares several aspects of plant biodiversity between urban and rural areas in Germany. Using extensive databases and modern statistical methods, she goes beyond species richness: Urban areas are rich in species but plant species in urban areas are closer related to each other than plant species in rural areas, respectively. The urban environment, characterized by high temperatures and frequent disturbances, changes the functional composition of the flora. It promotes e.g. short-lived species with leaves adapted to drought but threatens insect-pollinated or wind-dispersed species. The author claims that the protection of biodiversity should not only focus on species richness but also on functional an...

  14. Oral health status of children and adults in urban and rural areas of Burkina Faso, Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varenne, Benoît; Petersen, Poul Erik; Ouattara, Seydou

    2004-01-01

    %), 12 years (57%), 18 years (58%), 35-44 years (49%). In addition, 10% of 35-44-year-olds had CPI score 4. Rural participants had more severe periodontal scores than did urban individuals. CONCLUSIONS: Health authorities should strengthen the implementation of community-based oral disease prevention......OBJECTIVES: To analyse the oral health status of children and adults in rural and urban areas of Burkina Faso; to provide epidemiological data for planning and evaluation of oral health care programmes. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey including different ethnic and socio-economic groups. SAMPLE......). Clinical oral health data collected according to WHO methodology and criteria. RESULTS: At age 6, 38% of children had caries, with prevalence higher in urban than rural areas. At age 12, the mean DMFT was 0.7 with prevalence significantly higher among urban than rural children. Mean DMFT was 1.9 in 18-year...

  15. Nitrogen and carbon export from urban areas through removal and export of litterfall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Templer, Pamela H.; Toll, Jonathan W.; Hutyra, Lucy R.; Raciti, Steve M.

    2015-01-01

    We found that up to 52 ± 17% of residential litterfall carbon (C) and nitrogen (N; 390.6 kg C and 6.5 kg N ha −1  yr −1 ) is exported through yard waste removed from the City of Boston, which is equivalent to more than half of annual N outputs as gas loss (i.e. denitrification) or leaching. Our results show that removing yard waste results in a substantial decrease in N inputs to urban areas, which may offset excess N inputs from atmospheric deposition, fertilizer application and pet waste. However, export of C and N via yard waste removal may create nutrient limitation for some vegetation due to diminished recycling of nutrients. Removal of leaf litter from residential areas disrupts nutrient cycling and residential yard management practices are an important modification to urban biogeochemical cycling, which could contribute to spatial heterogeneity of ecosystems that are either N limited or saturated within urban ecosystems. - Highlights: • We monitored yard waste bags for one complete fall yard waste collection season. • 52% of residential litterfall C and N is exported annually from the City of Boston. • Litterfall export may create nutrient limitation hotspots in urban ecosystems. • C and N export through litterfall collection modifies urban biogeochemical cycling. - Litterfall removal leads to C and N export from urban ecosystems and disrupts nutrient cycling, showing that this activity is an important modification to urban biogeochemical cycling

  16. Modelling the long-term consequences of a hypothetical dispersal of radioactivity in an urban area including remediation alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thiessen, K.M.; Andersson, Kasper Grann; Batandjieva, B.

    2009-01-01

    The Urban Remediation Working Group of the International Atomic Energy Agency's EMRAS (Environmental Modelling for Radiation Safety) program was organized to address issues of remediation assessment modelling for urban areas contaminated with dispersed radionuclides. The present paper describes t...

  17. Effective delineation of urban flooded areas based on aerial ortho-photo imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Guindon, Bert; Raymond, Don; Hong, Gang

    2016-10-01

    The combination of rapid global urban growth and climate change has resulted in increased occurrence of major urban flood events across the globe. The distribution of flooded area is one of the key information layers for applications of emergency planning and response management. While SAR systems and technologies have been widely used for flood area delineation, radar images suffer from range ambiguities arising from corner reflection effects and shadowing in dense urban settings. A new mapping framework is proposed for the extraction and quantification of flood extent based on aerial optical multi-spectral imagery and ancillary data. This involves first mapping of flood areas directly visible to the sensor. Subsequently, the complete area of submergence is estimated from this initial mapping and inference techniques based on baseline data such as land cover and GIS information such as available digital elevation models. The methodology has been tested and proven effective using aerial photography for the case of the 2013 flood in Calgary, Canada.

  18. Eating Habits and Food Preferences of Elementary School Students in Urban and Suburban Areas of Daejeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun-Suk; Lee, Je-Hyuk; Kim, Myung-Hee

    2015-07-01

    This study investigated the dietary habits and food preferences of elementary school students. The survey was conducted by means of a questionnaire distributed to 4th and 5th grade elementary school students (400 boys and 400 girls) in urban and suburban areas of Daejeon. The results of this study were as follows: male students in urban areas ate breakfast, unbalanced diets, and dairy products more frequently than male students in suburban areas (p foods. Overall, there were distinct differences in the eating habits and food preferences of elementary school students according to the place of residence.

  19. Eating Habits and Food Preferences of Elementary School Students in Urban and Suburban Areas of Daejeon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun-Suk; Lee, Je-Hyuk

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the dietary habits and food preferences of elementary school students. The survey was conducted by means of a questionnaire distributed to 4th and 5th grade elementary school students (400 boys and 400 girls) in urban and suburban areas of Daejeon. The results of this study were as follows: male students in urban areas ate breakfast, unbalanced diets, and dairy products more frequently than male students in suburban areas (p eating habits and food preferences of elementary school students according to the place of residence. PMID:26251838

  20. [Children enteroparasitosis in north east Argentine urban area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milano, Alicia M F; Oscherov, Elena B; Palladino, Alberto C; Bar, Anibal R

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the importance of enteroparasitosis in a young urban population. The relationship between enteroparasitosis in this population and biological and environmental conditions was established for 113 infants between 0 and 14 years. Serial stool samples were analyzed and Graham tests were performed in each infant. The degree of nutrition of each infant was also assessed. Environmental data were collected via semi-structured surveys. Soil samples were tested to determine the degree of soil contamination. The following species were identified: Blastocystis hominis, Enterobius vermicularis, coccidios, Giardia intestinalis, hookworms, Strongyloides stercoralis, Trichuris trichura, Ascaris lumbricoides, Entamoeba coli, Endolimax nana and Taenia sp. Children infection prevalence was 73.5%. The frequency of enteroparasitosis was largest in the population from 3 to 8 years. The homes of the children analyzed were brick houses with tin roof and access to tap water. A 79.5% of these houses had bathrooms. The remaining used outdoors latrines. In 95.5% of these houses, the residents lived with one or more dogs and cats. The soil collected from nine houses was contaminated with infectious forms of Toxocara canis and ancilostomideos. The relationship between parasitosis and latrines and overcrowding was verified. Five cases of malnutrition were detected (4.4%). The relevance of physical and cultural factors in relation to enteric parasitosis suggests that the pharmacological treatment should be accompanied with preventive measures regarding hygiene and proper elimination of human and pet faeces.

  1. Storm water runoff concentration matrix for urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göbel, P.; Dierkes, C.; Coldewey, W. G.

    2007-04-01

    The infrastructure (roads, sidewalk, commercial and residential structures) added during the land development and urbanisation process is designed to collect precipitation and convey it out of the watershed, typically in existing surface water channels, such as streams and rivers. The quality of surface water, seepage water and ground water is influenced by pollutants that collect on impervious surfaces and that are carried by urban storm water runoff. Heavy metals, e.g. lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), mineral oil hydrocarbons (MOH) and readily soluble salts in runoff, contribute to the degradation of water. An intensive literature search on the distribution and concentration of the surface-dependent runoff water has been compiled. Concentration variations of several pollutants derived from different surfaces have been averaged. More than 300 references providing about 1300 data for different pollutants culminate in a representative concentration matrix consisting of medians and extreme values. This matrix can be applied to long-term valuations and numerical modelling of storm water treatment facilities.

  2. Detecting Traffic Anomalies in Urban Areas Using Taxi GPS Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiming Kuang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale GPS data contain hidden information and provide us with the opportunity to discover knowledge that may be useful for transportation systems using advanced data mining techniques. In major metropolitan cities, many taxicabs are equipped with GPS devices. Because taxies operate continuously for nearly 24 hours per day, they can be used as reliable sensors for the perceived traffic state. In this paper, the entire city was divided into subregions by roads, and taxi GPS data were transformed into traffic flow data to build a traffic flow matrix. In addition, a highly efficient anomaly detection method was proposed based on wavelet transform and PCA (principal component analysis for detecting anomalous traffic events in urban regions. The traffic anomaly is considered to occur in a subregion when the values of the corresponding indicators deviate significantly from the expected values. This method was evaluated using a GPS dataset that was generated by more than 15,000 taxies over a period of half a year in Harbin, China. The results show that this detection method is effective and efficient.

  3. Atmospheric Chemistry of Neonicotinoids Used in Urban Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlayson-Pitts, B. J.; Aregahegn, K.; Shemesh, D.; Gerber, R. B.

    2016-12-01

    Neonicotinoid (NN) pesticides are used extensively in both urban and agricultural settings to control sucking pests such as aphids, as well as for flea control for domestic pets. As a result, they are commonly found on surfaces that are exposed to the atmosphere. Imidacloprid (IMD) is one of the major NNs in pest control formulations. While there have been a number of studies of IMD reactions in solution, there are relatively few surface reactions that are relevant to atmospheric exposures. We report here laboratory studies of the photochemistry of IMD on surfaces in which quantum yields are measured and combined with absorption cross sections to estimate tropospheric lifetimes with respect to photolysis. Products identified using a combination of ATR-FTIR, DART-MS and ESI-MS include the desnitro and urea derivatives in the solid, and N2O in the gas phase. Quantum chemical calculations suggest a mechanism for the photolysis and production of these products. The implications for altering toxicity through atmospheric reactions will be discussed.

  4. MULTI-TEMPORAL ANALYSIS OF LANDSCAPES AND URBAN AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Nocerino

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a 4D modelling approach that employs multi-temporal and historical aerial images to derive spatio-temporal information for scenes and landscapes. Such imagery represent a unique data source, which combined with photo interpretation and reality-based 3D reconstruction techniques, can offer a more complete modelling procedure because it adds the fourth dimension of time to 3D geometrical representation and thus, allows urban planners, historians, and others to identify, describe, and analyse changes in individual scenes and buildings as well as across landscapes. Particularly important to this approach are historical aerial photos, which provide data about the past that can be collected, processed, and then integrated as a database. The proposed methodology employs both historical (1945 and more recent (1973 and 2000s aerial images from the Trentino region in North-eastern Italy in order to create a multi-temporal database of information to assist researchers in many disciplines such as topographic mapping, geology, geography, architecture, and archaeology as they work to reconstruct building phases and to understand landscape transformations (Fig. 1.

  5. Smart system for safe and optimal soil investigation in urban areas

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Alqadad; Isam Shahrour; Abdulrahim Sukik

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses the challenges and difficulties experienced during soil investigation in urban areas using drilling machines and soil sampling. The focus is on the consequences of a lack of data on the subsoil profile and presence of utilities, which could cause major accidents with severe economic and social losses, resulting in constriction activities being delayed and urban services being disrupted. This paper describes certain accidents related to soil investigation in Qatar and thei...

  6. Tourist Activity of Senior Citizens (60+ Residing in Urban and Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omelan Aneta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the influence of place of permanent residence (urban or rural on the tourist activity of senior citizens (60+ of different socioeconomic statuses. The study involved 380 senior citizens (305 female and 75 male aged 60 years and older who were permanent residents of the region of Warmia and Mazury, Poland. In this group, 244 subjects resided in urban areas and 136 participants were rural dwellers. The respondents were asked to complete a questionnaire regarding their socioeconomic status (place of permanent residence, age, gender, educational attainment, financial status, membership in senior organizations, marital status, and professional activity and tourist activity. A significance test of two structure coefficients (α=0.05 was applied. Factors such as gender, professional activity, and marital status were not related with the travel propensity of seniors from different groups (urban and rural, but were significant when rural residents were compared with urban dwellers. Seniors residing in urban areas of Warmia and Mazury, Poland, were significantly more likely to travel for leisure than those residing in rural areas. The tourist activity of seniors decreased significantly (p<0.05 with the age (60-74 years and financial status of rural residents. The travel propensity of elderly people increased significantly (p<0.05 with educational attainment and membership in senior organizations. The study revealed considerable differences in the socioeconomic status and social characteristics of seniors residing in rural and urban areas, and those variations significantly influenced their propensity for travel: urban residents traveled more frequently than rural residents. It can be concluded that place of residence was a crucial factor determining the tourist behavior of senior citizens, and urban dwellers were more likely to travel.

  7. Urban regeneration through the (remodeling of mobility, in Carol Park Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Hermina Negulescu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The study outlines a concept of urban regeneration for an area with a valuable urban and architectural heritage, based on an integrated policy of reshaping mobility aiming at harmonization of accessibility and quality of living objectives, rehabilitation of public spaces - streets and squares, stimulation of building use conversions which, at their turn, generate financial resources for the renovation of the historic buildings.

  8. Autonomous docking based on infrared system for electric vehicle charging in urban areas

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Rastelli, Joshué; Nashashibi, Fawzi; Lefaudeux, Benjamin; Resende, Paulo; Pollard, Evangeline

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Electric vehicles are progressively introduced in urban areas because of their ability to reduce air pollution, fuel consumption and noise nuisance. Nowadays, some big cities are launching first electric car-sharing projects to clear traffic jams and enhance urban mobility, as an alternative of the classic public transportation systems. However, there are still some problems to be solved related to energy storage, electric charging and autonomy. In this paper, we prese...

  9. The Satisfaction Analysis for the Performance of Public Transport Urban Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Jinca, Muhammad Yamin

    2014-01-01

    The development of urban areas cause a variety of problems and challenges as a direct impact of the development conditions of the region, including in terms of planning adequate transportation system, which is able to meet the needs of urban population movements, not only in terms of the amount of means of transport, but also should pay attention to and improve performance of public transport services, strategies to improve the performance of public transport in satisfaction of pu...

  10. Public parks and wellbeing in urban areas of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln R. Larson; Viniece Jennings; Scott A. Cloutier

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable development efforts in urban areas often focus on understanding and managing factors that influence all aspects of health and wellbeing. Research has shown that public parks and green space provide a variety of physical, psychological, and social benefits to urban residents, but few studies have examined the influence of parks on comprehensive measures of...

  11. Urban areas as refuges from predators and flight distance of prey

    OpenAIRE

    Anders Pape Møller

    2012-01-01

    Large animals have longer flight distances when approached by a potential predator than small animals, and predators therefore have longer flight distances than their prey. The ubiquitous presence of humans in urban areas selects for differential invasion by animals with short flight distances, and adaptation to urban environments results in further reductions in flight distance. Because prey are better able to cope with the proximity of humans than predators due to differences in flight dist...

  12. Development of a smart flood warning system in urban areas: A case study of Huwei area in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sheng-Chi; Hsu, Hao-Ming; Kao, Hong-Ming

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we developed a smart flood warning system to clearly understand flood propagations in urban areas. The science and technology park of Huwei, located in the southwest of Taiwan, was selected as a study area. It was designated to be an important urban area of optoelectronics and biotechnology. The region has an area about 1 km2 with approximately 1 km in both length and width. The discrepancy between the highest and lowest elevations is 6.3 m and its elevation decreases along the northeast to the southwest. It is an isolated urban drainage area due to its urban construction plan. The storm sewer system in this region includes three major networks that collect the runoff and drain to the detention pond where is located in the southwest corner of the region. The proposed smart flood warning system combines three important parts, i.e. the physical world, the cyber-physical interface, and the cyber space, to identify how the flood affects urban areas from now until the next three hours. In the physical world, when a rainfall event occurs, monitoring sensors (e.g. rainfall gauges and water level gauges built in the sewer system and ground surface), which are established in several essential locations of the study area, collect in situ hydrological data and then these data being transported to the cyber-physical interface. The cyber-physical interface is a data preprocess space that includes data analysis, quality control and assurance, and data integration and standardization to produce the validated data. In the cyber space, it has missions to receive the validated data from the cyber-physical interface and to run the time machine that has flood analyses of data mining, inundation scenarios simulation, risk and economic assessments, and so on, based on the validated data. After running the time machine, it offers the analyzed results related to flooding planning, mitigation, response, and recovery. According to the analyzed results, the decision supporting

  13. On the improved point-to-point calculations for noise mapping in shielded urban areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hornikx, M.; Forssen, J.; Ogren, M.; Botteldooren, D.; Renterghem, T. van; Wei, W.; Salomons, E.

    2012-01-01

    Noise mapping of urban areas according to standardized engineering calculation methods systematically results in an underestimation of noise levels at areas shielded from direct exposure to noise, such as inner yards. In these methods, road traffic lanes are represented by point sources and noise

  14. Oral health status of children and adults in urban and rural areas of Burkina Faso, Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varenne, Benoît; Petersen, Poul Erik; Ouattara, Seydou

    2004-01-01

    AND METHODS: Multistage cluster sampling of households in urban areas and random samples of participants selected based on the recent population census in rural areas. The final study population covered four age groups: 6 years (n = 424), 12 years (n = 505), 18 years (n = 492) and 35-44 years (n = 493...

  15. Summer atmospheric polybrominated diphenyl ethers in urban and rural areas of northern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chen; Li Wei; Chen Jiwei; Wang Hongqijie; Li Tongchao; Shen Guofeng; Shen Huizhong; Huang Ye; Wang Rong; Wang Bin; Zhang Yanyan; Tang Jianhui; Liu Wenxin; Wang Xilong; Tao Shu

    2012-01-01

    High levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been extensively reported in urban areas and at e-waste recycling sites in coastal China. However, data are scarce in northern China and are not available in rural areas at all. In addition, it is often believed that air concentrations in rural areas are lower than those in urban areas without distinguishing rural residential areas and open fields. In this study, air samples were collected at 17 sites covering urban and rural (residential and open field) areas in northern China using active samplers. With BDE-209 dominated in all congeners, the average concentrations of BDE-209 (41 ± 72 pg/m 3 ) and other 13 PBDEs (16 ± 12 pg/m 3 ) were significantly lower than those found in south China, such as in Guangzhou or Hong Kong. On average, the total PBDE concentrations at the urban sites were 2.2 and 2.9 times of those at the rural residential and field sites, respectively. - Graphical abstract: Concentration of PBDEs at each site of the studied area. Highlights: ► High levels of PBDEs with BDE-209 domination were detected in air in northern China. ► PBDE concentrations in rural residential areas were significantly higher than those in rural open fields. ► Proportions of BDE-209 in urban areas were higher than those in rural areas. ► PBDE concentrations were correlated to local population density and Gross Domestic Production. - In northern China, PBDEs in air in rural residential areas were significantly higher than those in open fields.

  16. Novel psychoactive substances: use and knowledge among adolescents and young adults in urban and rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinotti, Giovanni; Lupi, Matteo; Carlucci, Leonardo; Cinosi, Eduardo; Santacroce, Rita; Acciavatti, Tiziano; Chillemi, Eleonora; Bonifaci, Ludovica; Janiri, Luigi; Di Giannantonio, Massimo

    2015-07-01

    Novel psychoactive substances (NPS) are new psychotropic drugs, not scheduled under the International Conventions on Psychotropic Substances, but which may pose a relevant public health threat. In this study, we investigated knowledge and use of NPS in a sample of Italian youth in urban and rural areas. Between December 2012 and October 2013, we administered a questionnaire to a sample of 3011 healthy subjects (44.7% men; 55.3% women), aged between 16 and 24 years and recruited in urban, intermediate and rural areas of Italy. Of the global sample, 53.3% declared to have some knowledge on NPS, with a higher knowledge in urban areas. Mephedrone (26%), desomorphine (22.6%) and methamphetamine (21.7%) were the most commonly known drugs. NPS use was reported by 4.7% of the sample, without significant differences between urban and rural areas; mephedrone (3.3%), synthetic cannabinoids (1.2%) and Salvia divinorum (0.3%) consumption has been identified. NPS use was also predictive of binge-drinking behaviours (χ(2) (4) = 929.58, p < .001). Urban areas may represent a focal point for preventive strategies, given the presence of higher levels of NPS knowledge. Moreover, the association between binge-drinking habits and NPS use was really strong. This issue should not be underestimated because of its medical, psychopathological and social consequences. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Air Quality Deterioration of Urban Areas Caused by Wildfires in a Natural Reservoir Forest of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noel Carbajal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Many regions of the world suffer loss of vegetation and reduced air quality due to wildfires. Studies on aerosol emissions by wildfires often discuss the negative effects of atmospheric contaminants from a regional or mesoscale perspective. The occurrence of wildfires reveals that a high percentage takes place close to large urban areas. Very high concentration of pollutants and PM10 particulate matter reach urban zones and millions of inhabitants. These events of high pollutant concentrations are seasonally recurrent. There are many large urban areas in the world that often undergo severe air deterioration due to wildfires smoke. We document the extreme impact of wildfire that occurs in the Protected Area of Flora and Fauna La Primavera located in neighborhood of Guadalajara, a large urban zone in Mexico. The simultaneous emissions of aerosols by 60 wildfires were simulated and compared with observed data. The plume generated by the wildfires reached large areas of the central part of Mexico. The principal characteristics of smog emissions (CO, NO2, and PM10 over the urban area were acceptably reproduced. Observed and modeled CO, PM10, and NO2 data indicated that aerosol plumes generated by the wildfires increased notably the concentrations over the metropolitan zone of Guadalajara.

  18. URBAN GREEN AREAS – ISSUES AND ANSWERS FOR SUISTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT (CASE STUDY IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIVIU NEAMŢU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The current situation of urban areas from Romania shows a natural environment with increased risk for health of residents due to the low level of green growth resulted from lack of integrated management of green spaces in relation to the other components of sustainable development. Urban evolution in the last 40 years has been characterized by an extensive industrial development and intensive residential development paving the way for an unstructured extension and poor urban landscaping. On this poorly planned urban development was felt a progressive green space crisis and landscaped recreational areas. Regarding the management of the green areas in this general context, the urban areas will have to suggest for the future a series of ample projects in order to increase the surfaces, but also the quality of the green spaces, having an effect on the environmental quality but also projects of accomplishing certain areas of pleasure and leisure in frame of certain efficient environment strategies, all of these having a positive role on the health status of the population.

  19. Hydrologic data for urban storm runoff from nine sites in the Denver metropolitan area, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Johnnie W.

    1981-01-01

    Urban storm-runoff data were collected April through September 1980, from nine urbanrunoff sites in the Denver metropolitan area, and are presented in this report. The sites consist of two single-family residential areas, two multi-family residential areas, one commercial area (shopping center), one mixed commercial and multi-family residential area, one native area (open space), and two detention ponds. Precipitation, rainfall-runoff, water-quality (common constituents, nutrients, coliform bacteria, solids, and trace elements) and basin-area data are necessary to use the U.S. Geological Survey 's Distributed Routing Rainfall-Runoff Model, Version II. The urban storm-runoff data may be used to characterize runoff pollution loading for various land-use types in Denver and other semi-arid regions. (USGS)

  20. Conserving Biodiversity in Urbanizing Areas: Nontraditional Views from a Bird’s Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda D. Rodewald

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We review common population and community-level responses of wildlife to urbanization, and discuss how: (1 the amount and configuration of land cover and land use, and (2 the alteration of resources (e.g., type of vegetation, presence of food and water and processes (e.g., natural disturbance regimes, species interactions, intensity of human recreation within built environments influence animals, with special emphasis on birds. Although each landscape presents unique opportunities and constraints, we suggest that all urban areas have the potential to contribute to the conservation of biodiversity. The ecological value of urban areas may be promoted if planners, managers, and homeowners consider ways to (1 encourage retention and protection of natural habitats within urbanizing landscapes, (2 plan explicitly for open spaces and natural habitats within new subdivisions, (3 use a variety of arrangements of built and open space within developments, (4 enhance and restore habitat within open spaces, (5 improve quality of developed lands (i.e., the urban matrix rather than directing management efforts only towards parks, reserves, and open areas, and (6 celebrate urban biological diversity to foster connections between people and their natural heritage.

  1. Do features of public open spaces vary between urban and rural areas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veitch, Jenny; Salmon, Jo; Ball, Kylie; Crawford, David; Timperio, Anna

    2013-02-01

    Parks are an important setting for physical activity and specific park features have been shown to be associated with park visitation and physical activity. Most park-based research has been conducted in urban settings with few studies examining rural parks. This study examined differences in features of parks in urban compared with rural areas. In 2009/10 a tool was developed to audit 433 urban and 195 rural parks located in disadvantaged areas of Victoria, Australia. Features assessed included: access; lighting/safety; aesthetics; amenities; paths; outdoor courts/ovals; informal play spaces; and playgrounds (number, diversity, age appropriateness and safety of play equipment). Rural parks scored higher for aesthetics compared with urban parks (5.08 vs 4.44). Urban parks scored higher for access (4.64 vs 3.89), lighting/safety (2.01 vs 1.76), and diversity of play equipment (7.37 vs 6.24), and were more likely to have paths suitable for walking/cycling (58.8% vs 40.9%) and play equipment for older children (68.2% vs 17.1%). Although the findings cannot be generalized to all urban and rural parks, the results may be used to inform advocacy for park development in rural areas to create parks that are more supportive of physical activity for children and adults. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Neighborhood deprivation, vehicle ownership, and potential spatial access to a variety of fruits and vegetables in a large rural area in Texas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horel Scott

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective There has been limited study of all types of food stores, such as traditional (supercenters, supermarkets, and grocery stores, convenience stores, and non-traditional (dollar stores, mass merchandisers, and pharmacies as potential opportunities for purchase of fresh and processed (canned and frozen fruits and vegetables, especially in small-town or rural areas. Methods Data from the Brazos Valley Food Environment Project (BVFEP are combined with 2000 U.S. Census data for 101 Census block groups (CBG to examine neighborhood access to fruits and vegetables. BVFEP data included identification and geocoding of all food stores (n = 185 in six rural counties in Texas, using ground-truthed methods and on-site assessment of the availability and variety of fresh and processed fruits and vegetables in all food stores. Access from the population-weighted centroid of each CBG was measured using proximity (minimum network distance and coverage (number of shopping opportunities for a good selection of fresh and processed fruits and vegetables. Neighborhood inequalities (deprivation and vehicle ownership and spatial access for fruits and vegetables were examined using Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank test and multivariate regression models. Results The variety of fruits or vegetables was greater at supermarkets compared with grocery stores. Among non-traditional and convenience food stores, the largest variety was found at dollar stores. On average, rural neighborhoods were 9.9 miles to the nearest supermarket, 6.7 miles and 7.4 miles to the nearest food store with a good variety of fresh fruits and vegetables, respectively, and 4.7 miles and 4.5 miles to a good variety of fresh and processed fruits or vegetables. High deprivation or low vehicle ownership neighborhoods had better spatial access to a good variety of fruits and vegetables, both in the distance to the nearest source and in the number of shopping opportunities. Conclusion

  3. Concentration of Heavy Metals in Drinking Water from Urban Areas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    Adwa, Axum, Firewoini,Edagahamus, Inda-Selassie, Korem, Alamata, Maychew, Wukro,. Quiha, and Zalambessa,. The region has six administrative zones namely; Western,North west,Eastern, Central, South Estern and Southern. With an estimated area of 50,078.64 square kilometers, this region has an estimated density ...

  4. Towards Regenerated and Productive Vacant Areas through Urban Horticulture: Lessons from Bologna, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Gasperi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, urban agriculture has been asserting its relevance as part of a vibrant and diverse food system due to its small scale, its focus on nutrition, its contribution to food security, its employment opportunities, and its role in community building and social mobility. Urban agriculture may also be a tool to re-appropriate a range of abandoned or unused irregular spaces within the city, including flowerbeds, roundabouts, terraces, balconies and rooftops. Consistently, all spaces that present a lack of identity may be converted to urban agriculture areas and, more specifically, to urban horticulture as a way to strengthen resilience and sustainability. The goal of this paper is to analyse current practices in the requalification of vacant areas as urban gardens with the aim of building communities and improving landscapes and life quality. To do so, the city of Bologna (Italy was used as a case study. Four types of vacant areas were identified as places for implementing urban gardens: flowerbeds along streets and squares, balconies and rooftops, abandoned buildings and abandoned neighbourhoods. Six case studies representing this variety of vacant areas were identified and evaluated by collecting primary data (i.e., field work, participant observations and interviews and performing a SWOT analysis. For most cases, urban horticulture improved the image and quality of the areas as well as bringing numerous social benefits in terms of life quality, food access and social interaction among participants. Strong differences in some aspects were found between top-down and bottom-up initiatives, being the later preferable for the engagement of citizens. Policy-making might focus on participatory and transparent planning, long-term actions, food safety and economic development.

  5. Wetland change in the rapidly urbanizing area: take Nanjing as an example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lianyi; Jiang, Nan; Zhao, Mo; Wang, Shen; Liu, Xin

    2007-06-01

    The degradation and loss of the regional wetland of urbanization is a more and more concerned question in the whole world. This paper takes Nanjing as an example, adopting five Nanjing area Landsat MSS and TM data: 1979, 1986, 1996, 2000, 2004, combining historical data, land use and field observation, adopting decision tree method to extract Nanjing wetland. We analyze time and space changed characteristic of Nanjing wetland. The result shows: in 1979-2004, the wetlands of Nanjing changed obviously on the time and space. The total amount drops to 363.66 km2 from 397.91 km2, reduce 34.25km2 together. The delta wetland has little change, but it is the largest in proportion of all kinds of Nanjing wetland by 2004. The river wetland in the rural is the greatest one that has changed in every wetland type. In suburban areas, lake and river wetland change frequently because of urban spawl. The wetland area of lake has little change in the urban, but more suburban wetland transferred to urban wetland so the amount of increase in 2000-2004 are greater than 1979-2000. Every stage, there are some Nanjing wetland (except the delta) to transfer to urban construction land and so loss. In the space change characteristic, the rural wetland is continuously substituted by the suburban and urban wetland. It is usually the main area where wetlands are interfered with around new urban area and communication lines. The wetlands are usually interfered by noise, rubbish, and pollution. We should include the development of population and traffic system in the wetland change predicting in future planning. So can we meet wetland management's demands more effectively.

  6. Increasing Area Deprivation and Socioeconomic Inequalities in Heart Disease, Stroke, and Cardiovascular Disease Mortality Among Working Age Populations, United States, 1969-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal K. Singh, PhD

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: We examined the extent to which area- and individual-level socioeconomic inequalities in cardiovascular-disease (CVD, heart disease, and stroke mortality among United States men and women aged 25-64 years changed between 1969 and 2011. Methods: National vital statistics data and the National Longitudinal Mortality Study were used to estimate area- and individual-level socioeconomic gradients in mortality over time. Rate ratios and log-linear and Cox regression were used to model mortality trends and differentials. Results: Area socioeconomic gradients in mortality from CVD, heart disease, and stroke increased substantially during the study period. Compared to those in the most affluent group, individuals in the most deprived area group had, respectively 35%, 29%, and 73% higher CVD, heart disease, and stroke mortality in 1969, but 120-121% higher mortality in 2007-2011. Gradients were steeper for women than for men. Education, income, and occupation were inversely associated with CVD, heart disease, and stroke mortality, with individual-level socioeconomic gradients being steeper during 1990-2002 than in 1979-1989. Individuals with low education and incomes had 2.7 to 3.7 times higher CVD, heart disease, and stroke mortality risks than their counterparts with high education and income levels. Conclusions and Global Health Implications: Although mortality declined for all US groups during 1969-2011, socioeconomic disparities in mortality from CVD, heart disease and stroke remained marked and increased over time because of faster declines in mortality among higher socioeconomic groups. Widening disparities in mortality may reflect increasing temporal areal inequalities in living conditions, behavioral risk factors such as smoking, obesity and physical inactivity, and access to and use of health services. With social inequalities and prevalence of smoking, obesity, and physical inactivity on the rise, most segments of the working

  7. Increasing Area Deprivation and Socioeconomic Inequalities in Heart Disease, Stroke, and Cardiovascular Disease Mortality Among Working Age Populations, United States, 1969-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gopal K; Siahpush, Mohammad; Azuine, Romuladus E; Williams, Shanita D

    2015-01-01

    We examined the extent to which area- and individual-level socioeconomic inequalities in cardiovascular-disease (CVD), heart disease, and stroke mortality among United States men and women aged 25-64 years changed between 1969 and 2011. National vital statistics data and the National Longitudinal Mortality Study were used to estimate area- and individual-level socioeconomic gradients in mortality over time. Rate ratios and log-linear and Cox regression were used to model mortality trends and differentials. Area socioeconomic gradients in mortality from CVD, heart disease, and stroke increased substantially during the study period. Compared to those in the most affluent group, individuals in the most deprived area group had, respectively 35%, 29%, and 73% higher CVD, heart disease, and stroke mortality in 1969, but 120-121% higher mortality in 2007-2011. Gradients were steeper for women than for men. Education, income, and occupation were inversely associated with CVD, heart disease, and stroke mortality, with individual-level socioeconomic gradients being steeper during 1990-2002 than in 1979-1989. Individuals with low education and incomes had 2.7 to 3.7 times higher CVD, heart disease, and stroke mortality risks than their counterparts with high education and income levels. Although mortality declined for all US groups during 1969-2011, socioeconomic disparities in mortality from CVD, heart disease and stroke remained marked and increased over time because of faster declines in mortality among higher socioeconomic groups. Widening disparities in mortality may reflect increasing temporal areal inequalities in living conditions, behavioral risk factors such as smoking, obesity and physical inactivity, and access to and use of health services. With social inequalities and prevalence of smoking, obesity, and physical inactivity on the rise, most segments of the working-age population in low- and middle-income countries will likely experience increased cardiovascular

  8. Energy performance of areas for urban development (Arkhangelsk is given as example)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Olga; Glebova, Yulia

    2017-01-01

    The present research provides an overview and analysis of the legal framework and the technology to increase energy save and energy efficiency. The challenges of the mentioned activities implementation in urban areas are revealed in the paper. A comparison was made of the principal methods of increasing energy efficiency that is based on payback period. The basic shortcomings of the methods used are found. The way of capital reproducing assets acquisition is proposed with consideration of the rate of wear and tear and upgrading of urban residential development. The present research aims at characterizing energy sustainability of urban areas for forming the information basis that identifies capital construction projects together within the urban area. A new concept - area energy sustainability is introduced in the study to use system-structural approach to energy saving and energy efficiency. Energy sustainability of the area as an integral indicator of the static characteristics of the territory is considered as a complex involving the following terms: energy security, energy intensity and energy efficiency dynamic indicators of all the components of the power system of the area. Dimensions and parameters of energy sustainability of the area are determined. Arkhangelsk is given as example.

  9. The Importance of Green Spaces in Minimizing Urban Heat in The Istanbul Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çağdaş KUŞÇU ŞİMŞEK

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Increasing environmental and atmospheric pollution due to urbanization, industrialization and global warming is increasing with every passing day. Life in water, air and on land is threatened by environmental problems and disasters caused by this pollution. In addition to global climate change, changes also occur in urban microclimate and regional heat islands are occurring in urban areas. This dual effect and resulting vicious circle increasingly affect human health and natural life negatively. In this context, urban climate studies have come into question in recent years. Results have showed that increasing numbers of built-up areas are linked toincreases in urban temperature and conversely larger areas of vegetation improve the city’s ventilation and climatic comfort. The Istanbul Metropolitan Area is in a period of regeneration as it attempts to prepare for the expected earthquake and as a result of global dynamics. The resulting massive building campaigns and rapid destruction of green areas have a potential to trigger climatic threats. The effects of vegetation on the urban surface temperature in the Istanbul Metropolitan Area have contributed to the improved health construction strategies. Surface Heat Islands (SHI and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI values were determined from remote sensing techniques. The dependent variable is temperature and independent variable is NDVI values and the regression analysis was carried out. Then the heat model for NDVI was established with decision tree. The results of regression analysis were R=0.452; R2= 20%; sig.=0.00 and so the analysis was significant in 95%. As a result of the analysis of the residential area of İstanbul, the difference between the expected temperature of the minimum and maximum vegetation clusters was calculated as 4.24.

  10. Are recreational areas a risk factor for tick paralysis in urban environments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasimova, Maria; Kelman, Mark; Ward, Michael P

    2018-04-30

    In Australia, tick paralysis in dogs (caused by a toxin in the saliva of Ixodes species during feeding) is a serious, distressing condition, and untreated it is often fatal. The aim of this study was to quantify the association between parkland (recreational or natural) in an urban area and the occurrence of canine tick paralysis. Brisbane, as a large urban centre located within the zone of paralysis tick habitat along the east coast of Australia, was selected as the study area. Postcodes selected for inclusion were those defined as being of an urban character (Australian Bureau of Statistics). The number of natural and recreational parkland polygons and total land area per postcode were derived. Tick paralysis case data for the selected postcodes were extracted from a national companion animal disease surveillance database. Between October 2010 and January 2017, 1650 cases of tick paralysis in dogs were reported and included in this study. Significant correlations were found between the number of reported cases per postcode and parklands: natural counts, 0.584 (P edges of the study area - either coastal or on the urban fringe; no clusters were identified within the core urban zone of the study area. Of the disease cases included in this study, strong seasonality was evidence: 68% of all cases were identified in spring. Within urban environments, areas of natural vegetation in particular appear to pose a risk for tick paralysis in dogs. This evidence can be used by veterinarians and dog owners to reduce the impact of tick paralysis by raising awareness of risk areas so as to enhance prevention via chemoprophylaxis and targeted searches of pet dogs for attached ticks. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Assessment of lead pollution in topsoils of a southern Italy area: Analysis of urban and peri-urban environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guagliardi, Ilaria; Cicchella, Domenico; De Rosa, Rosanna; Buttafuoco, Gabriele

    2015-07-01

    Exposure to lead (Pb) may affect adversely human health. Mapping soil Pb contents is essential to obtain a quantitative estimate of potential risk of Pb contamination. The main aim of this paper was to determine the soil Pb concentrations in the urban and peri-urban area of Cosenza-Rende to map their spatial distribution and assess the probability that soil Pb concentration exceeds a critical threshold that might cause concern for human health. Samples were collected at 149 locations from residual and non-residual topsoil in gardens, parks, flower-beds, and agricultural fields. Fine earth fraction of soil samples was analyzed by X-ray Fluorescence spectrometry. Stochastic images generated by the sequential Gaussian simulation were jointly combined to calculate the probability of exceeding the critical threshold that could be used to delineate the potentially risky areas. Results showed areas in which Pb concentration values were higher to the Italian regulatory values. These polluted areas were quite large and likely, they could create a significant health risk for human beings and vegetation in the near future. The results demonstrated that the proposed approach can be used to study soil contamination to produce geochemical maps, and identify hot-spot areas for soil Pb concentration. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Is Entrepreneurship a Route Out of Deprivation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankish, Julian S.; Roberts, Richard G.; Coad, Alexander Jean-Luc

    2014-01-01

    Frankish J. S., Roberts R. G., Coad A. and Storey D. J. Is entrepreneurship a route out of deprivation?, Regional Studies. This paper investigates whether entrepreneurship constitutes a route out of deprivation for those living in deprived areas. The measure of income/wealth used is based...... on an analysis of improvements in an individual's residential address. The data consist of information on over 800 000 individuals, and come from the customer records of a major UK bank. Comparing business owners with non-owners, the results suggest that the benefits of business ownership are found across...... the wealth distribution. Hence, entrepreneurship can be a route out of deprivation....

  13. A New Automatic Method of Urban Areas Mapping in East Asia from LANDSAT Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    XU, R.; Jia, G.

    2012-12-01

    Cities, as places where human activities are concentrated, account for a small percent of global land cover but are frequently cited as the chief causes of, and solutions to, climate, biogeochemistry, and hydrology processes at local, regional, and global scales. Accompanying with uncontrolled economic growth, urban sprawl has been attributed to the accelerating integration of East Asia into the world economy and involved dramatic changes in its urban form and land use. To understand the impact of urban extent on biogeophysical processes, reliable mapping of built-up areas is particularly essential in eastern cities as a result of their characteristics of smaller patches, more fragile, and a lower fraction of the urban landscape which does not have natural than in the West. Segmentation of urban land from other land-cover types using remote sensing imagery can be done by standard classification processes as well as a logic rule calculation based on spectral indices and their derivations. Efforts to establish such a logic rule with no threshold for automatically mapping are highly worthwhile. Existing automatic methods are reviewed, and then a proposed approach is introduced including the calculation of the new index and the improved logic rule. Following this, existing automatic methods as well as the proposed approach are compared in a common context. Afterwards, the proposed approach is tested separately in cities of large, medium, and small scale in East Asia selected from different LANDSAT images. The results are promising as the approach can efficiently segment urban areas, even in the presence of more complex eastern cities. Key words: Urban extraction; Automatic Method; Logic Rule; LANDSAT images; East AisaThe Proposed Approach of Extraction of Urban Built-up Areas in Guangzhou, China

  14. Study on the Delimitation of the Urban Development Boundary in a Special Economic Zone: A Case Study of the Central Urban Area of Doumen in Zhuhai, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biao Zheng

    2018-03-01