WorldWideScience

Sample records for deprivation spatial accessibility

  1. Neighborhood deprivation, vehicle ownership, and potential spatial access to a variety of fruits and vegetables in a large rural area in Texas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horel Scott

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective There has been limited study of all types of food stores, such as traditional (supercenters, supermarkets, and grocery stores, convenience stores, and non-traditional (dollar stores, mass merchandisers, and pharmacies as potential opportunities for purchase of fresh and processed (canned and frozen fruits and vegetables, especially in small-town or rural areas. Methods Data from the Brazos Valley Food Environment Project (BVFEP are combined with 2000 U.S. Census data for 101 Census block groups (CBG to examine neighborhood access to fruits and vegetables. BVFEP data included identification and geocoding of all food stores (n = 185 in six rural counties in Texas, using ground-truthed methods and on-site assessment of the availability and variety of fresh and processed fruits and vegetables in all food stores. Access from the population-weighted centroid of each CBG was measured using proximity (minimum network distance and coverage (number of shopping opportunities for a good selection of fresh and processed fruits and vegetables. Neighborhood inequalities (deprivation and vehicle ownership and spatial access for fruits and vegetables were examined using Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank test and multivariate regression models. Results The variety of fruits or vegetables was greater at supermarkets compared with grocery stores. Among non-traditional and convenience food stores, the largest variety was found at dollar stores. On average, rural neighborhoods were 9.9 miles to the nearest supermarket, 6.7 miles and 7.4 miles to the nearest food store with a good variety of fresh fruits and vegetables, respectively, and 4.7 miles and 4.5 miles to a good variety of fresh and processed fruits or vegetables. High deprivation or low vehicle ownership neighborhoods had better spatial access to a good variety of fruits and vegetables, both in the distance to the nearest source and in the number of shopping opportunities. Conclusion

  2. Deprivation and food access and balance in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushon, J; Creighton, T; Kershaw, T; Marko, J; Markham, T

    2013-06-01

    We explored food access and balance in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada in relation to material and social deprivation. We mapped the location of all large supermarkets and fast food retailers in Saskatoon. Supermarket accessibility index scores and food balance scores were compared to material and social deprivation indexes to determine significant associations. Our results indicate that the poorest access to supermarkets occurred in areas west of the South Saskatchewan River and also in suburban areas around the perimeter of the city. Areas west of the river are some of the most deprived areas in the city. Saskatoon's mean food balance ratio of 2.3 indicates that access favours fast food. However, we did not find a clear pattern or clear socio-economic gradient for most measures. This study highlights the importance of contextual studies of food access. This study also highlighted a number of other issues that should be explored in the Saskatoon context such as individual-level food consumption patterns, mobility, temporal dimensions of food access and economic access as well as interventions that could improve food access in the city.

  3. Using Indicators of Multiple Deprivation to Demonstrate the Spatial Legacy of Apartheid in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Michael; Wright, Gemma

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a spatial analysis of multiple deprivation in South Africa and demonstrates that the most deprived areas in the country are located in the rural former homeland areas. The analysis is undertaken using the datazone level South African Index of Multiple Deprivation which was constructed from the 2001 Census. Datazones are a new…

  4. Access all areas? An area-level analysis of accessibility to general practice and community pharmacy services in England by urbanity and social deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Adam; Copeland, Alison; Husband, Andy; Kasim, Adetayo; Bambra, Clare

    2015-05-08

    (1) To determine the percentage of the population in England that has access to a general practitioner (GP) premises within a 20 min walk (the accessibility); (2) explore the relationship between the walking distance to a GP premises and urbanity and social deprivation and (3) compare accessibility of a GP premises to that of a community pharmacy--and how this may vary by urbanity and social deprivation. This area-level analysis spatial study used postcodes for all GP premises and community pharmacies in England. Each postcode was assigned to a population lookup table and Lower Super Output Area (LSOA). The LSOA was then matched to urbanity (urban, town and fringe, or village, hamlet and isolated dwellings) and deprivation decile (using the Index of Multiple Deprivation score 2010). Living within a 20 min walk of a GP premises. Overall, 84.8% of the population is estimated to live within a 20 min walk of a GP premises: 81.2% in the most affluent areas, 98.2% in the most deprived areas, 94.2% in urban and 19.4% in rural areas. This is consistently lower when compared with the population living within a 20 min walk of a community pharmacy. Our study shows that the vast majority of the population live within a 20 min walk of a GP premises, with higher proportions in the most deprived areas--a positive primary care law. However, more people live within a 20 min walk of a community pharmacy compared with a GP premises, and this potentially has implications for the commissioning of future services from these healthcare providers in England. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. The Impact of Early Visual Deprivation on Spatial Hearing: A Comparison between Totally and Partially Visually Deprived Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappagli, Giulia; Finocchietti, Sara; Cocchi, Elena; Gori, Monica

    2017-01-01

    The specific role of early visual deprivation on spatial hearing is still unclear, mainly due to the difficulty of comparing similar spatial skills at different ages and to the difficulty in recruiting young blind children from birth. In this study, the effects of early visual deprivation on the development of auditory spatial localization have been assessed in a group of seven 3–5 years old children with congenital blindness (n = 2; light perception or no perception of light) or low vision (n = 5; visual acuity range 1.1–1.7 LogMAR), with the main aim to understand if visual experience is fundamental to the development of specific spatial skills. Our study led to three main findings: firstly, totally blind children performed overall more poorly compared sighted and low vision children in all the spatial tasks performed; secondly, low vision children performed equally or better than sighted children in the same auditory spatial tasks; thirdly, higher residual levels of visual acuity are positively correlated with better spatial performance in the dynamic condition of the auditory localization task indicating that the more residual vision the better spatial performance. These results suggest that early visual experience has an important role in the development of spatial cognition, even when the visual input during the critical period of visual calibration is partially degraded like in the case of low vision children. Overall these results shed light on the importance of early assessment of spatial impairments in visually impaired children and early intervention to prevent the risk of isolation and social exclusion. PMID:28443040

  6. Neighborhood deprivation and access to fast-food retailing: a national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Jamie; Blakely, Tony; Witten, Karen; Bartie, Phil

    2007-05-01

    Obesogenic environments may be an important contextual explanation for the growing obesity epidemic, including its unequal social distribution. The objective of this study was to determine whether geographic access to fast-food outlets varied by neighborhood deprivation and school socioeconomic ranking, and whether any such associations differed to those for access to healthier food outlets. Data were collected on the location of fast-food outlets, supermarkets, and convenience stores across New Zealand. The data were geocoded and geographic information systems used to calculate travel distances from each census meshblock (i.e., neighborhood), and each school, to the closest fast-food outlet. Median travel distances are reported by a census-based index of socioeconomic deprivation for each neighborhood, and by a Ministry of Education measure of socioeconomic circumstances for each school. Analyses were repeated for outlets selling healthy food to allow comparisons. At the national level, statistically significant negative associations were found between neighborhood access to the nearest fast-food outlet and neighborhood deprivation (p<0.001) for both multinational fast-food outlets and locally operated outlets. The travel distances to both types of fast food outlet were at least twice as far in the least socially deprived neighborhoods compared to the most deprived neighborhoods. A similar pattern was found for outlets selling healthy food such as supermarkets and smaller food outlets (p<0.001). These relationships were broadly linear with travel distances tending to be shorter in more-deprived neighborhoods. There is a strong association between neighborhood deprivation and geographic access to fast food outlets in New Zealand, which may contribute to the understanding of environmental causes of obesity. However, outlets potentially selling healthy food (e.g., supermarkets) are patterned by deprivation in a similar way. These findings highlight the importance of

  7. Short-term visual deprivation does not enhance passive tactile spatial acuity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Wong

    Full Text Available An important unresolved question in sensory neuroscience is whether, and if so with what time course, tactile perception is enhanced by visual deprivation. In three experiments involving 158 normally sighted human participants, we assessed whether tactile spatial acuity improves with short-term visual deprivation over periods ranging from under 10 to over 110 minutes. We used an automated, precisely controlled two-interval forced-choice grating orientation task to assess each participant's ability to discern the orientation of square-wave gratings pressed against the stationary index finger pad of the dominant hand. A two-down one-up staircase (Experiment 1 or a Bayesian adaptive procedure (Experiments 2 and 3 was used to determine the groove width of the grating whose orientation each participant could reliably discriminate. The experiments consistently showed that tactile grating orientation discrimination does not improve with short-term visual deprivation. In fact, we found that tactile performance degraded slightly but significantly upon a brief period of visual deprivation (Experiment 1 and did not improve over periods of up to 110 minutes of deprivation (Experiments 2 and 3. The results additionally showed that grating orientation discrimination tends to improve upon repeated testing, and confirmed that women significantly outperform men on the grating orientation task. We conclude that, contrary to two recent reports but consistent with an earlier literature, passive tactile spatial acuity is not enhanced by short-term visual deprivation. Our findings have important theoretical and practical implications. On the theoretical side, the findings set limits on the time course over which neural mechanisms such as crossmodal plasticity may operate to drive sensory changes; on the practical side, the findings suggest that researchers who compare tactile acuity of blind and sighted participants should not blindfold the sighted participants.

  8. Addiction treatment in deprived urban areas in EU countries: Accessibility of care for people from socially marginalized groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welbel, Marta; Matanov, Aleksandra; Moskalewicz, Jacek; Barros, Henrique; Canavan, Reamonn; Gabor, Edina; Gaddini, Andrea; Greacen, Tim; Kluge, Ulrike; Lorant, Vincent; Esteban Pena, Mercedes; Schene, Aart H.; Soares, Joaquim J. F.; Strassmayr, Christa; Vondrackova, Petra; Priebe, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Aim: This study examines the accessibility of addiction treatment within services providing mental health care and support for people from socially marginalized groups in deprived urban areas across EU countries. Methods: Services providing mental health care and support in deprived areas of 14 EU

  9. Where Are Socioeconomically Deprived Immigrants Located in Chile? A Spatial Analysis of Census Data Using an Index of Multiple Deprivation from the Last Three Decades (1992-2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Introduction and Purpose of the Study Immigrants in Chile have diverse characteristics and include socioeconomically deprived populations. The location of socioeconomically deprived immigrants is important for the development of public policy intelligence at the local and national levels but their areas of residence have not been mapped in Chile. This study explored the spatial distribution of socioeconomic deprivation among immigrants in Chile, 1992–2012, and compared it to the total population. Material and Methods Areas with socioeconomically deprived populations were identified with a deprivation index which we developed modelled upon the Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD) for England. Our IMD was based upon the indicators of unemployment, low educational level (primary) and disability from Census data at county level for the three decades 1992, 2002 and 2012, for 332, 339 and 343 counties respectively. We developed two versions of the IMD one based on disadvantage among the total population and another focused upon the circumstances of immigrants only. We generated a spatial representation of the IMD using GIS, for the overall IMD score and for each dimension of the index, separately. We also compared the immigrants´ IMD to the total population´s IMD using Pearson´s correlation test. Results Results showed that socioeconomically deprived immigrants tended to be concentrated in counties in the northern and central area of Chile, in particular within the Metropolitan Region of Santiago. These were the same counties where there was the greatest concentration of socioeconomic deprivation for the total population during the same time periods. Since 1992 there have been significant change in the location of the socioeconomically deprived populations within the Metropolitan Region of Santiago with the highest IMD scores for both the total population and immigrants becoming increasingly concentrated in the central and eastern counties of the Region. Conclusion

  10. Where Are Socioeconomically Deprived Immigrants Located in Chile? A Spatial Analysis of Census Data Using an Index of Multiple Deprivation from the Last Three Decades (1992-2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Vasquez

    Full Text Available Immigrants in Chile have diverse characteristics and include socioeconomically deprived populations. The location of socioeconomically deprived immigrants is important for the development of public policy intelligence at the local and national levels but their areas of residence have not been mapped in Chile. This study explored the spatial distribution of socioeconomic deprivation among immigrants in Chile, 1992-2012, and compared it to the total population.Areas with socioeconomically deprived populations were identified with a deprivation index which we developed modelled upon the Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD for England. Our IMD was based upon the indicators of unemployment, low educational level (primary and disability from Census data at county level for the three decades 1992, 2002 and 2012, for 332, 339 and 343 counties respectively. We developed two versions of the IMD one based on disadvantage among the total population and another focused upon the circumstances of immigrants only. We generated a spatial representation of the IMD using GIS, for the overall IMD score and for each dimension of the index, separately. We also compared the immigrants´ IMD to the total population´s IMD using Pearson´s correlation test.Results showed that socioeconomically deprived immigrants tended to be concentrated in counties in the northern and central area of Chile, in particular within the Metropolitan Region of Santiago. These were the same counties where there was the greatest concentration of socioeconomic deprivation for the total population during the same time periods. Since 1992 there have been significant change in the location of the socioeconomically deprived populations within the Metropolitan Region of Santiago with the highest IMD scores for both the total population and immigrants becoming increasingly concentrated in the central and eastern counties of the Region.This is the first study analysing the spatial distribution of

  11. Where Are Socioeconomically Deprived Immigrants Located in Chile? A Spatial Analysis of Census Data Using an Index of Multiple Deprivation from the Last Three Decades (1992-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Andrea; Cabieses, Baltica; Tunstall, Helena

    2016-01-01

    Immigrants in Chile have diverse characteristics and include socioeconomically deprived populations. The location of socioeconomically deprived immigrants is important for the development of public policy intelligence at the local and national levels but their areas of residence have not been mapped in Chile. This study explored the spatial distribution of socioeconomic deprivation among immigrants in Chile, 1992-2012, and compared it to the total population. Areas with socioeconomically deprived populations were identified with a deprivation index which we developed modelled upon the Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD) for England. Our IMD was based upon the indicators of unemployment, low educational level (primary) and disability from Census data at county level for the three decades 1992, 2002 and 2012, for 332, 339 and 343 counties respectively. We developed two versions of the IMD one based on disadvantage among the total population and another focused upon the circumstances of immigrants only. We generated a spatial representation of the IMD using GIS, for the overall IMD score and for each dimension of the index, separately. We also compared the immigrants´ IMD to the total population´s IMD using Pearson´s correlation test. Results showed that socioeconomically deprived immigrants tended to be concentrated in counties in the northern and central area of Chile, in particular within the Metropolitan Region of Santiago. These were the same counties where there was the greatest concentration of socioeconomic deprivation for the total population during the same time periods. Since 1992 there have been significant change in the location of the socioeconomically deprived populations within the Metropolitan Region of Santiago with the highest IMD scores for both the total population and immigrants becoming increasingly concentrated in the central and eastern counties of the Region. This is the first study analysing the spatial distribution of socioeconomic

  12. Investigating the Spatial Dimension of Food Access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackie Yenerall

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to investigate the sensitivity of food access models to a dataset’s spatial distribution and the empirical definition of food access, which contributes to understanding the mixed findings of previous studies. Data was collected in the Dan River Region in the United States using a telephone survey for individual-level variables (n = 784 and a store audit for the location of food retailers and grocery store quality. Spatial scanning statistics assessed the spatial distribution of obesity and detected a cluster of grocery stores overlapping with a cluster of obesity centered on a grocery store suggesting that living closer to a grocery store increased the likelihood of obesity. Logistic regression further examined this relationship while controlling for demographic and other food environment variables. Similar to the cluster analysis results, increased distance to a grocery store significantly decreased the likelihood of obesity in the urban subsample (average marginal effects, AME = −0.09, p-value = 0.02. However, controlling for grocery store quality nullified these results (AME = −0.12, p-value = 0.354. Our findings suggest that measuring grocery store accessibility as the distance to the nearest grocery store captures variability in the spatial distribution of the health outcome of interest that may not reflect a causal relationship between the food environment and health.

  13. Impact of health-care accessibility and social deprivation on diabetes related foot disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leese, G P; Feng, Z; Leese, R M; Dibben, C; Emslie-Smith, A

    2013-04-01

    To determine whether geography and/or social deprivation influences the occurrence of foot ulcers or amputations in patients with diabetes. A population-based cohort of people with diabetes (n = 15 983) were identified between 2004 and 2006. Community and hospital data on diabetes care, podiatry care and onset of ulceration and amputation was linked using a unique patient identifier, which is used for all patient contacts with health-care professionals. Postcode was used to calculate social deprivation and distances to general practice and hospital care. Over 3 years' follow-up 670 patients with diabetes developed new foot ulcers (42 per 1000) and 99 proceeded to amputation (6 per 1000). The most deprived quintile had a 1.7-fold (95% CI 1.2-2.3) increased risk of developing a foot ulcer. Distance from general practitioner or hospital clinic and lack of attendance at community retinal screening did not predict foot ulceration or amputation. Previous ulcer (OR 15.1, 95% CI 11.6-19.6), insulin use (OR 2.7, 95% CI 2.1-3.5), absent foot pulses (5.9: 4.7-7.5) and impaired monofilament sensation (OR 6.5, 95% CI 5.0-8.4) all predicted foot ulceration. Previous foot ulcer, absent pulses and impaired monofilaments also predicted amputation. Social deprivation is an important factor, especially for the development of foot ulcers. Geographical aspects such as accessibility to the general practitioner or hospital clinic are not associated with foot ulceration or amputation in this large UK cohort study. © 2013 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2013 Diabetes UK.

  14. Spatial Accessibility of Primary Care in England: A Cross-Sectional Study Using a Floating Catchment Area Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Jan; Müller, Ruth; Brüggmann, Dörthe; Groneberg, David A

    2017-07-07

    To analyze the general practitioners (GPs) with regard to the degree of urbanization, social deprivation, general health, and disability. Small area population data and GP practice data in England. We used a floating catchment area method to measure spatial GP accessibility with regard to the degree of urbanization, social deprivation, general health, and disability. Data were collected from the Office for National Statistics and the general practice census and analyzed using a geographic information system. In all, 25.8 percent of the population in England lived in areas with a significant low GP accessibility (mean z-score: -4.2); 27.6 percent lived in areas with a significant high GP accessibility (mean z-score: 7.7); 97.8 percent of high GP accessibility areas represented urban areas, and 31.1 percent of low GP accessibility areas represented rural areas (correlation of accessibility and urbanity: r = 0.59; psocial deprivation was present (r = -0.19; paccessibility throughout England. However, socially deprived areas did not have poorer spatial access to GPs. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  15. Mapping end-stage renal disease (ESRD: spatial variations on small area level in northern France, and association with deprivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florent Occelli

    Full Text Available Strong geographic variations in the incidence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD are observed in developed countries. The reasons for these variations are unknown. They may reflect regional inequalities in the population's sociodemographic characteristics, related diseases, or medical practice patterns. In France, at the district level, the highest incidence rates have been found in the Nord-Pas-de-Calais region. This area, with a high population density and homogeneous healthcare provision, represents a geographic situation which is quite suitable for the study, over small areas, of spatial disparities in the incidence of ESRD, together with their correlation with a deprivation index and other risk factors.The Renal Epidemiology and Information Network is a national registry, which lists all ESRD patients in France. All cases included in the Nord-Pas-de-Calais registry between 2005 and 2011 were extracted. Adjusted and smoothed standardized incidence ratio (SIR was calculated for each of the 170 cantons, thanks to a hierarchical Bayesian model. The correlation between ESRD incidence and deprivation was assessed using the quintiles of Townsend index. Relative risk (RR and credible intervals (CI were estimated for each quintile.Significant spatial disparities in ESRD incidence were found within the Nord-Pas-de-Calais region. The sex- and age-adjusted, smoothed SIRs varied from 0.66 to 1.64. Although no correlation is found with diabetic or vascular nephropathy, the smoothed SIRs are correlated with the Townsend index (RR: 1.18, 95% CI [1.00-1.34] for Q2; 1.28, 95% CI [1.11-1.47] for Q3; 1.30, 95% CI [1.14-1.51] for Q4; 1.44, 95% CI [1.32-1.74] for Q5.For the first time at this aggregation level in France, this study reveals significant geographic differences in ESRD incidence. Unlike the time of renal replacement care, deprivation is certainly a determinant in this phenomenon. This association is probably independent of the patients' financial

  16. Deprivation and suicide mortality across 424 neighborhoods in Seoul, South Korea: a Bayesian spatial analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Tae-Ho; Noh, Maengseok; Han, Junhee; Jung-Choi, Kyunghee; Khang, Young-Ho

    2015-12-01

    A neighborhood-level analysis of mortality from suicide would be informative in developing targeted approaches to reducing suicide. This study aims to examine the association of community characteristics with suicide in the 424 neighborhoods of Seoul, South Korea. Neighborhood-level mortality and population data (2005-2011) were obtained to calculate age-standardized suicide rates. Eight community characteristics and their associated deprivation index were employed as determinants of suicide rates. The Bayesian hierarchical model with mixed effects for neighborhoods was used to fit age-standardized suicide rates and other covariates with consideration of spatial correlations. Suicide rates for 424 neighborhoods were between 7.32 and 71.09 per 100,000. Ninety-nine percent of 424 neighborhoods recorded greater suicide rates than the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development member countries' average. A stepwise relationship between area deprivation and suicide was found. Neighborhood-level indicators for lack of social support (residents living alone and the divorced or separated) and socioeconomic disadvantages (low educational attainment) were positively associated with suicide mortality after controlling for other covariates. Finding from this study could be used to identify priority areas and to develop community-based programs for preventing suicide in Seoul, South Korea.

  17. Spatial and Reversal Learning in the Morris Water Maze Are Largely Resistant to Six Hours of REM Sleep Deprivation Following Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Christine M.; Booth, Victoria; Poe, Gina R.

    2011-01-01

    This first test of the role of REM (rapid eye movement) sleep in reversal spatial learning is also the first attempt to replicate a much cited pair of papers reporting that REM sleep deprivation impairs the consolidation of initial spatial learning in the Morris water maze. We hypothesized that REM sleep deprivation following training would impair…

  18. Sleep deprivation impairs spatial retrieval but not spatial learning in the non-human primate grey mouse lemur.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisur Rahman

    Full Text Available A bulk of studies in rodents and humans suggest that sleep facilitates different phases of learning and memory process, while sleep deprivation (SD impairs these processes. Here we tested the hypothesis that SD could alter spatial learning and memory processing in a non-human primate, the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus, which is an interesting model of aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD. Two sets of experiments were performed. In a first set of experiments, we investigated the effects of SD on spatial learning and memory retrieval after one day of training in a circular platform task. Eleven male mouse lemurs aged between 2 to 3 years were tested in three different conditions: without SD as a baseline reference, 8 h of SD before the training and 8 h of SD before the testing. The SD was confirmed by electroencephalographic recordings. Results showed no effect of SD on learning when SD was applied before the training. When the SD was applied before the testing, it induced an increase of the amount of errors and of the latency prior to reach the target. In a second set of experiments, we tested the effect of 8 h of SD on spatial memory retrieval after 3 days of training. Twenty male mouse lemurs aged between 2 to 3 years were tested in this set of experiments. In this condition, the SD did not affect memory retrieval. This is the first study that documents the disruptive effects of the SD on spatial memory retrieval in this primate which may serve as a new validated challenge to investigate the effects of new compounds along physiological and pathological aging.

  19. Race, deprivation, and immigrant isolation: The spatial demography of air-toxic clusters in the continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liévanos, Raoul S

    2015-11-01

    This article contributes to environmental inequality outcomes research on the spatial and demographic factors associated with cumulative air-toxic health risks at multiple geographic scales across the United States. It employs a rigorous spatial cluster analysis of census tract-level 2005 estimated lifetime cancer risk (LCR) of ambient air-toxic emissions from stationary (e.g., facility) and mobile (e.g., vehicular) sources to locate spatial clusters of air-toxic LCR risk in the continental United States. It then tests intersectional environmental inequality hypotheses on the predictors of tract presence in air-toxic LCR clusters with tract-level principal component factor measures of economic deprivation by race and immigrant status. Logistic regression analyses show that net of controls, isolated Latino immigrant-economic deprivation is the strongest positive demographic predictor of tract presence in air-toxic LCR clusters, followed by black-economic deprivation and isolated Asian/Pacific Islander immigrant-economic deprivation. Findings suggest scholarly and practical implications for future research, advocacy, and policy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Effect of Exercise on Learning and Spatial Memory Following Stress-Induced Sleep Deprivation (Sleep REM in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darkhah

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Stress induced by sleep deprivation can cause degradation of learning in the acquisition phase, and low-intensity exercise can prevent the negative effects of stress. Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the moderating role of aerobic exercise on spatial memory and learning following stress-induced insomnia (sleep REM in animal models. Materials and Methods This experimental study was conducted on adult male Wistar rats that were randomly divided into two groups. Both groups were exposed to sleep deprivation induced stress, following which the experimental group was exposed to exercise training (experimental, n = 8; control, n = 8. The stress intervention was undertaken through 24 hours of sleep deprivation using a modified sleep deprivation platform (MMD. The exercise protocol included mild aerobic exercise on a treadmill (30 minutes a day, seven days, and Morris Water Maze (MWM protocols were applied to assess spatial memory and learning. Data were analyzed by an independent t-test and dependent t-test. Results The results showed that, after seven days of aerobic exercise on a treadmill, the experimental group showed better performance escape latency (P < 0.05 and distance traveled (P < 0.05 than the control group in the MWM, while there was no difference between these two groups in the pre-test. Conclusions The role of exercise is greater in the retention than the acquisition phase for recalling past experiences.

  1. Evidence of social deprivation on the spatial patterns of excess winter mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almendra, Ricardo; Santana, Paula; Vasconcelos, João

    2017-11-01

    The aims of this study are to identify the patterns of excess winter mortality (due to diseases of the circulatory system) and to analyse the association between the excess winter deaths (EWD) and socio-economic deprivation in Portugal. The number of EWD in 2002-2011 was estimated by comparing the number of deaths in winter months with the average number in non-winter months. The EWD ratio of each municipality was calculated by following the indirect standardization method and then compared with two deprivation indexes (socio-material and housing deprivation index) through ecological regression models. This study found that: (1) the EWD ratio showed considerable asymmetry in its geography; (2) there are significant positive associations between the EWD ratio and both deprivation indexes; and (3) at the higher level of deprivation, housing conditions have a stronger association with EWD than socio-material conditions. The significant association between two deprivation dimensions (socio-material and housing deprivation) and EWDs suggests that EWD geographical pattern is influenced by deprivation.

  2. Exploring the relationship between food access and foodborne illness by using spatial analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbold, Bruce; Watson, Susannah; Mackay, Kevin; Isaacs, Sandy

    2013-09-01

    There is some evidence that neighborhood deprivation increases residents' risk of foodborne illnesses. Because urban areas with the least available access to adequate amounts of nutritious or affordable food options (or "food deserts") also tend to be the most deprived areas within a city, it is hypothesized that food access and foodborne illness risk are linked. However, the complexity of tracking numbers and sources of gastrointestinal (GI) illnesses often leads researchers to speculate about reasons for disproportionate rates of pathogen outbreaks among demographic groups. This study explores the suitability of existing data to examine associations between food deserts and the spatial distribution of GI illnesses in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. A spatial analysis by using GIS software methodology was used to identify and map food retail outlets and accessibility, as well as GI illness outbreaks and sales of antidiarrhea, antinausea, and rehydration products (used as a proxy for GI cases) within the city, based on available data. Statistical analysis of the maps shows no statistical relationship between location, access to food outlets, and rates of GI illness. The analysis points to shortfalls and gaps in the existing data, which leaves us unable to draw conclusions either supporting or refuting our hypothesis. This article includes recommendations to improve the current system of illness reporting and to continue to refine the definition and process of mapping food access issues. A more comprehensive set of data would enable municipalities to more easily identify groups most at risk, depending on exposures and the type of pathogen, and reduce the occurrence of foodborne disease.

  3. Spatial Distribution and Accessibility of Health Facilities in Akwa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper therefore analyzed the spatial patterns of healthcare facilities in Akwa ... Data on six health indicator variables were obtained and analyzed to assess ... of healthcare facilities and thus hinders good access to high quality healthcare ...

  4. From spatial to social accessibility: How socio-economic factors can affect accessibility?

    OpenAIRE

    Mercier , Aurélie

    2016-01-01

    The concept of accessibility cannot only focus on " spatial accessibility " measurement but has to integer a " social accessibility " level to take into account individual inequalities and socioeconomic disparities to access to urban opportunities. In this context, this contribution focuses on socioeconomic disparities integration on accessibility measurement, considering the Lyon case study. The paper is divided into three parts The first part aims to present a method for integrating the soc...

  5. Association between neighborhood need and spatial access to food stores and fast food restaurants in neighborhoods of colonias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkey, Joseph R; Horel, Scott; Han, Daikwon; Huber, John C

    2009-02-16

    To determine the extent to which neighborhood needs (socioeconomic deprivation and vehicle availability) are associated with two criteria of food environment access: 1) distance to the nearest food store and fast food restaurant and 2) coverage (number) of food stores and fast food restaurants within a specified network distance of neighborhood areas of colonias, using ground-truthed methods. Data included locational points for 315 food stores and 204 fast food restaurants, and neighborhood characteristics from the 2000 U.S. Census for the 197 census block group (CBG) study area. Neighborhood deprivation and vehicle availability were calculated for each CBG. Minimum distance was determined by calculating network distance from the population-weighted center of each CBG to the nearest supercenter, supermarket, grocery, convenience store, dollar store, mass merchandiser, and fast food restaurant. Coverage was determined by calculating the number of each type of food store and fast food restaurant within a network distance of 1, 3, and 5 miles of each population-weighted CBG center. Neighborhood need and access were examined using Spearman ranked correlations, spatial autocorrelation, and multivariate regression models that adjusted for population density. Overall, neighborhoods had best access to convenience stores, fast food restaurants, and dollar stores. After adjusting for population density, residents in neighborhoods with increased deprivation had to travel a significantly greater distance to the nearest supercenter or supermarket, grocery store, mass merchandiser, dollar store, and pharmacy for food items. The results were quite different for association of need with the number of stores within 1 mile. Deprivation was only associated with fast food restaurants; greater deprivation was associated with fewer fast food restaurants within 1 mile. CBG with greater lack of vehicle availability had slightly better access to more supercenters or supermarkets, grocery

  6. Association between neighborhood need and spatial access to food stores and fast food restaurants in neighborhoods of Colonias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Daikwon

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To determine the extent to which neighborhood needs (socioeconomic deprivation and vehicle availability are associated with two criteria of food environment access: 1 distance to the nearest food store and fast food restaurant and 2 coverage (number of food stores and fast food restaurants within a specified network distance of neighborhood areas of colonias, using ground-truthed methods. Methods Data included locational points for 315 food stores and 204 fast food restaurants, and neighborhood characteristics from the 2000 U.S. Census for the 197 census block group (CBG study area. Neighborhood deprivation and vehicle availability were calculated for each CBG. Minimum distance was determined by calculating network distance from the population-weighted center of each CBG to the nearest supercenter, supermarket, grocery, convenience store, dollar store, mass merchandiser, and fast food restaurant. Coverage was determined by calculating the number of each type of food store and fast food restaurant within a network distance of 1, 3, and 5 miles of each population-weighted CBG center. Neighborhood need and access were examined using Spearman ranked correlations, spatial autocorrelation, and multivariate regression models that adjusted for population density. Results Overall, neighborhoods had best access to convenience stores, fast food restaurants, and dollar stores. After adjusting for population density, residents in neighborhoods with increased deprivation had to travel a significantly greater distance to the nearest supercenter or supermarket, grocery store, mass merchandiser, dollar store, and pharmacy for food items. The results were quite different for association of need with the number of stores within 1 mile. Deprivation was only associated with fast food restaurants; greater deprivation was associated with fewer fast food restaurants within 1 mile. CBG with greater lack of vehicle availability had slightly better

  7. Sleep deprivation impairs spatial working memory and reduces hippocampal AMPA receptor phosphorylation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagewoud, Roelina; Havekes, Robbert; Novati, Arianna; Keijser, Jan N.; van der Zee, Eddy A.; Meerlo, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Sleep is important for brain function and cognitive performance. Sleep deprivation (SD) may affect subsequent learning capacity and ability to form new memories, particularly in the case of hippocampus-dependent tasks. In the present study we examined whether SD for 6 or 12 h during the normal

  8. SMEs, banks and the spatial differentiation of access to finance

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, T.; Jones-Evans, D.

    2016-01-01

    By utilizing the SME Finance Monitor and a unique dataset on the geographical location of all bank branches in 11 UK economic regions, this paper examines the relevance of spatial differentiation on SMEs’ access to bank finance during the period of economic weakness following the 2007 financial crisis. We find evidence suggesting the presence of a regional-specific effect on SMEs’ access to bank finance. Our findings show that greater functional distance between bank headquarters and branches...

  9. IMPROVING NEAREST NEIGHBOUR SEARCH IN 3D SPATIAL ACCESS METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Suhaibaha

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Nearest Neighbour (NN is one of the important queries and analyses for spatial application. In normal practice, spatial access method structure is used during the Nearest Neighbour query execution to retrieve information from the database. However, most of the spatial access method structures are still facing with unresolved issues such as overlapping among nodes and repetitive data entry. This situation will perform an excessive Input/Output (IO operation which is inefficient for data retrieval. The situation will become more crucial while dealing with 3D data. The size of 3D data is usually large due to its detail geometry and other attached information. In this research, a clustered 3D hierarchical structure is introduced as a 3D spatial access method structure. The structure is expected to improve the retrieval of Nearest Neighbour information for 3D objects. Several tests are performed in answering Single Nearest Neighbour search and k Nearest Neighbour (kNN search. The tests indicate that clustered hierarchical structure is efficient in handling Nearest Neighbour query compared to its competitor. From the results, clustered hierarchical structure reduced the repetitive data entry and the accessed page. The proposed structure also produced minimal Input/Output operation. The query response time is also outperformed compared to the other competitor. For future outlook of this research several possible applications are discussed and summarized.

  10. Access to safe and legal abortion for teenage women from deprived backgrounds in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Suet Lin

    2010-11-01

    This paper reports on a qualitative study in 2007-08 on the abortion experiences of teenage women from deprived backgrounds in Hong Kong. Twenty-nine young women aged 13-24 who had undergone one or more induced abortions in their teen years were interviewed and participated in group empowerment sessions. Ten were unemployed, four were students, the rest were employed on low pay in unskilled occupations. Abortion services are legal and available in public and private services, but they charge fees ranging from HK$310 to $10,000, and do abortions only up to 24 weeks of pregnancy. Many young women resort to poor quality illegal clinics and clinics in mainland China because the cost is lower, they do not wish to tell their parents, who would be asked for consent, and/or they want to protect their sex partners, who may be reported and prosecuted if the girl is under-age. There is a need to strengthen services for teenage women in Hong Kong, especially those who are pregnant and from deprived backgrounds. There is also a need for professionals who deliver adolescent health and social welfare services, and for society to rethink and re-examine its views and attitudes towards teenage pregnancy, sexuality and abortion. Copyright © 2010 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Adenosine A1 receptor antagonist mitigates deleterious effects of sleep deprivation on adult neurogenesis and spatial reference memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, G; Ray, K; Sahu, S; Roy, K; Jain, V; Wadhwa, M; Panjwani, U; Kishore, K; Singh, S B

    2016-11-19

    Sleep deprivation (SD) upsurges intracellular levels of adenosine, impairs adult neuronal cell proliferation (NCP) and cognition while caffeine, a non-selective adenosine A1 receptor (A1R) antagonist improves cognition and adult NCP during SD. We examined the selective antagonistic effects of adenosine A1R using 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dimethylxanthine (8-CPT) on impairment of spatial reference memory and adult NCP during 48h SD. Adult male Sprague Dawley rats were sleep deprived for 48h, using an automatic cage vibrating stimulus based on animal activity. Spatial reference memory was tested as a measure of cognitive performance employing Morris Water Maze. Rats were given 8-CPT dissolved in 50% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), twice daily (10mg/kg, i.p.) along with 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) (50mg/kg/day, i.p.). The rats treated with 8-CPT showed significantly short mean latency and path-length to reach the platform compared to the SD rats. Consistent with these findings, 8-CPT-treated group was found to have significantly increased the number of BrdU, Ki-67 and doublecortin (DCX) positive cells. However, no significant difference was seen in NeuN expression in the Dentate Gyrus (DG). Brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) expression in the DG and CA1 region was observed to decrease significantly after SD and be rescued by 8-CPT treatment. Furthermore, latency to reach platform showed a negative correlation with number of BrdU, DCX type-1 cells and BDNF expression in DG. Thus, it may be concluded that treatment with 8-CPT, an adenosine A1R antagonist during SD mitigates SD induced decline in spatial reference memory and adult NCP possibly via up regulation of BDNF levels in DG and CA1 regions. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Spatial and reversal learning in the Morris water maze are largely resistant to six hours of REM sleep deprivation following training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Christine M.; Booth, Victoria; Poe, Gina R.

    2011-01-01

    This first test of the role of REM (rapid eye movement) sleep in reversal spatial learning is also the first attempt to replicate a much cited pair of papers reporting that REM sleep deprivation impairs the consolidation of initial spatial learning in the Morris water maze. We hypothesized that REM sleep deprivation following training would impair both hippocampus-dependent spatial learning and learning a new target location within a familiar environment: reversal learning. A 6-d protocol was divided into the initial spatial learning phase (3.5 d) immediately followed by the reversal phase (2.5 d). During the 6 h following four or 12 training trials/day of initial or reversal learning phases, REM sleep was eliminated and non-REM sleep left intact using the multiple inverted flowerpot method. Contrary to our hypotheses, REM sleep deprivation during four or 12 trials/day of initial spatial or reversal learning did not affect training performance. However, some probe trial measures indicated REM sleep-deprivation–associated impairment in initial spatial learning with four trials/day and enhancement of subsequent reversal learning. In naive animals, REM sleep deprivation during normal initial spatial learning was followed by a lack of preference for the subsequent reversal platform location during the probe. Our findings contradict reports that REM sleep is essential for spatial learning in the Morris water maze and newly reveal that short periods of REM sleep deprivation do not impair concurrent reversal learning. Effects on subsequent reversal learning are consistent with the idea that REM sleep serves the consolidation of incompletely learned items. PMID:21677190

  13. Understanding differences in access to water fountains and sugar-sweetened beverages in children׳s environments: a pilot study in high and low deprivation neighbourhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Amber L; de Latour, Phillip; Kemp, Gabrielle; Findlay, Nohoana; Halim, Angela; Atkinson, Nicola; Chong, Mark; Cameron, Rose; Brown, Courtney; Kim, Grace; Campbell, Paul; Hills, Toby; Jayawant, Aditya; Chae, Matthew; Bhagavan, Chiranth; French, Claire; Jenkin, Gabrielle; Smith, Moira; Signal, Louise

    2014-11-01

    Access to water fountains and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) in children׳s environments may impact on child obesity and may vary with neighbourhood deprivation. Our pilot analyses of access to water fountains and SSBs in Wellington, New Zealand revealed that water fountain access was high in school environments and low in recreational environments. There were also differences in water fountain and SSB access points by neighbourhood deprivation. The methods piloted in this study could be translated in a larger study, more capable of detecting significant differences in access and allowing for more sophisticated analyses. Such future studies may provide important evidence for the improvement of children׳s health and well-being. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Exploring the small-scale spatial distribution of hypertension and its association to area deprivation based on health insurance claims in Northeastern Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauhl, B; Maier, W; Schweikart, J; Keste, A; Moskwyn, M

    2018-01-10

    Hypertension is one of the most frequently diagnosed chronic conditions in Germany. Targeted prevention strategies and allocation of general practitioners where they are needed most are necessary to prevent severe complications arising from high blood pressure. However, data on chronic diseases in Germany are mostly available through survey data, which do not only underestimate the actual prevalence but are also only available on coarse spatial scales. The discussion of including area deprivation for planning of healthcare is still relatively young in Germany, although previous studies have shown that area deprivation is associated with adverse health outcomes, irrespective of individual characteristics. The aim of this study is therefore to analyze the spatial distribution of hypertension at very fine geographic scales and to assess location-specific associations between hypertension, socio-demographic population characteristics and area deprivation based on health insurance claims of the AOK Nordost. To visualize the spatial distribution of hypertension prevalence at very fine geographic scales, we used the conditional autoregressive Besag-York-Mollié (BYM) model. Geographically weighted regression modelling (GWR) was applied to analyze the location-specific association of hypertension to area deprivation and further socio-demographic population characteristics. The sex- and age-adjusted prevalence of hypertension was 33.1% in 2012 and varied widely across northeastern Germany. The main risk factors for hypertension were proportions of insurants aged 45-64, 65 and older, area deprivation and proportion of persons commuting to work outside their residential municipality. The GWR model revealed important regional variations in the strength of the examined associations. Area deprivation has only a significant and therefore direct influence in large parts of Mecklenburg-West Pomerania. However, the spatially varying strength of the association between demographic

  15. Corneal Transplantation in Auckland, New Zealand, 1999-2009: Indications, Patient Characteristics, Ethnicity, Social Deprivation, and Access to Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Alexandra Z; McKelvie, James; Craig, Jennifer P; McGhee, Charles N J; Patel, Dipika V

    2017-05-01

    To analyze characteristics and indications for corneal transplantation in patients undergoing penetrating, lamellar, and endothelial keratoplasty in Auckland, New Zealand (NZ). Corneal transplantation data from the NZ National Eye Bank and hospital records of corneal transplant recipients in the Auckland region from January 1, 2000, to December 31, 2009, were collated. Patient demographics, preoperative diagnosis, indication, ocular and medical history, visual acuity, deprivation index, and access to transplantation surgery were analyzed. A total of 941 corneal transplants involving 770 patients were included for analysis. Mean age was 46 years. Age and ethnicity varied according to the transplant indication. A male preponderance and disproportionally high rates of Māori and Pacific ethnicity with a mean age of 30 years were observed in transplants for keratoconus. A total of 67.2% of corneal transplants were completed in the public health system and were associated with higher levels of deprivation than those completed in private facilities. Preoperative visual acuity varied according to the transplant type and indication. The most common clinical indication for corneal transplantation was keratoconus (41.3%), followed by repeat transplantation (21.0%). There was no significant change in the relative proportion of transplant indications in any year over the duration of this study (P = 0.41). A contralateral corneal transplant was present in 24.4% and glaucoma in 12.8% of penetrating keratoplasty recipients. Keratoconus is the leading indication for corneal transplantation in Auckland, NZ, and involves a disproportionately high rate of Māori and Pacific transplant recipients with a male preponderance and comparatively low mean age at the time of surgery.

  16. Parents' Perceived Barriers to Accessing Sports and Recreation Facilities in Ontario, Canada: Exploring the Relationships between Income, Neighbourhood Deprivation, and Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Daniel W; Jarvis, Jocelyn W; Manson, Heather

    2017-10-23

    Sports and recreation facilities provide places where children can be physically active. Previous research has shown that availability is often worse in lower-socioeconomic status (SES) areas, yet others have found inverse relationships, no relationships, or mixed findings. Since children's health behaviours are influenced by their parents, it is important to understand parents' perceived barriers to accessing sports and recreation facilities. Data from computer assisted telephone interviews with parents living in Ontario, Canada were merged via postal codes with neighbourhood deprivation data. Multivariable logistic regression modeling was used to estimate the likelihood that parents reported barriers to accessing local sports and recreation facilities. Parents with lower household incomes were more likely to report barriers to access. For each unit increase in deprivation score (i.e., more deprived), the likelihood of reporting a barrier increased 16% (95% CI: 1.04, 1.28). For parents, the relationships between household income, neighbourhood-level deprivation, and barriers are complex. Understanding these relationships is important for research, policy and planning, as parental barriers to opportunities for physical activity have implications for child health behaviours, and ultimately childhood overweight and obesity.

  17. Parents’ Perceived Barriers to Accessing Sports and Recreation Facilities in Ontario, Canada: Exploring the Relationships between Income, Neighbourhood Deprivation, and Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel W. Harrington

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Sports and recreation facilities provide places where children can be physically active. Previous research has shown that availability is often worse in lower-socioeconomic status (SES areas, yet others have found inverse relationships, no relationships, or mixed findings. Since children’s health behaviours are influenced by their parents, it is important to understand parents’ perceived barriers to accessing sports and recreation facilities. Data from computer assisted telephone interviews with parents living in Ontario, Canada were merged via postal codes with neighbourhood deprivation data. Multivariable logistic regression modeling was used to estimate the likelihood that parents reported barriers to accessing local sports and recreation facilities. Parents with lower household incomes were more likely to report barriers to access. For each unit increase in deprivation score (i.e., more deprived, the likelihood of reporting a barrier increased 16% (95% CI: 1.04, 1.28. For parents, the relationships between household income, neighbourhood-level deprivation, and barriers are complex. Understanding these relationships is important for research, policy and planning, as parental barriers to opportunities for physical activity have implications for child health behaviours, and ultimately childhood overweight and obesity.

  18. Multisensory Rehabilitation Training Improves Spatial Perception in Totally but Not Partially Visually Deprived Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Cappagli

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Since it has been shown that spatial development can be delayed in blind children, focused sensorimotor trainings that associate auditory and motor information might be used to prevent the risk of spatial-related developmental delays or impairments from an early age. With this aim, we proposed a new technological device based on the implicit link between action and perception: ABBI (Audio Bracelet for Blind Interaction is an audio bracelet that produces a sound when a movement occurs by allowing the substitution of the visuo-motor association with a new audio-motor association. In this study, we assessed the effects of an extensive but entertaining sensorimotor training with ABBI on the development of spatial hearing in a group of seven 3–5 years old children with congenital blindness (n = 2; light perception or no perception of light or low vision (n = 5; visual acuity range 1.1–1.7 LogMAR. The training required the participants to play several spatial games individually and/or together with the psychomotor therapist 1 h per week for 3 months: the spatial games consisted of exercises meant to train their ability to associate visual and motor-related signals from their body, in order to foster the development of multisensory processes. We measured spatial performance by asking participants to indicate the position of one single fixed (static condition or moving (dynamic condition sound source on a vertical sensorized surface. We found that spatial performance of congenitally blind but not low vision children is improved after the training, indicating that early interventions with the use of science-driven devices based on multisensory capabilities can provide consistent advancements in therapeutic interventions, improving the quality of life of children with visual disability.

  19. U.S. Geological Survey spatial data access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faundeen, John L.; Kanengieter, Ronald L.; Buswell, Michael D.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has done a progress review on improving access to its spatial data holdings over the Web. The USGS EROS Data Center has created three major Web-based interfaces to deliver spatial data to the general public; they are Earth Explorer, the Seamless Data Distribution System (SDDS), and the USGS Web Mapping Portal. Lessons were learned in developing these systems, and various resources were needed for their implementation. The USGS serves as a fact-finding agency in the U.S. Government that collects, monitors, analyzes, and provides scientific information about natural resource conditions and issues. To carry out its mission, the USGS has created and managed spatial data since its inception. Originally relying on paper maps, the USGS now uses advanced technology to produce digital representations of the Earth’s features. The spatial products of the USGS include both source and derivative data. Derivative datasets include Digital Orthophoto Quadrangles (DOQ), Digital Elevation Models, Digital Line Graphs, land-cover Digital Raster Graphics, and the seamless National Elevation Dataset. These products, created with automated processes, use aerial photographs, satellite images, or other cartographic information such as scanned paper maps as source data. With Earth Explorer, users can search multiple inventories through metadata queries and can browse satellite and DOQ imagery. They can place orders and make payment through secure credit card transactions. Some USGS spatial data can be accessed with SDDS. The SDDS uses an ArcIMS map service interface to identify the user’s areas of interest and determine the output format; it allows the user to either download the actual spatial data directly for small areas or place orders for larger areas to be delivered on media. The USGS Web Mapping Portal provides views of national and international datasets through an ArcIMS map service interface. In addition, the map portal posts news about new

  20. Evaluating Michigan's community hospital access: spatial methods for decision support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varnakovida Pariwate

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Community hospital placement is dictated by a diverse set of geographical factors and historical contingency. In the summer of 2004, a multi-organizational committee headed by the State of Michigan's Department of Community Health approached the authors of this paper with questions about how spatial analyses might be employed to develop a revised community hospital approval procedure. Three objectives were set. First, the committee needed visualizations of both the spatial pattern of Michigan's population and its 139 community hospitals. Second, the committee required a clear, defensible assessment methodology to quantify access to existing hospitals statewide, taking into account factors such as distance to nearest hospital and road network density to estimate travel time. Third, the committee wanted to contrast the spatial distribution of existing community hospitals with a theoretical configuration that best met statewide demand. This paper presents our efforts to first describe the distribution of Michigan's current community hospital pattern and its people, and second, develop two models, access-based and demand-based, to identify areas with inadequate access to existing hospitals. Results Using the product from the access-based model and contiguity and population criteria, two areas were identified as being "under-served." The lower area, located north/northeast of Detroit, contained the greater total land area and population of the two areas. The upper area was centered north of Grand Rapids. A demand-based model was applied to evaluate the existing facility arrangement by allocating daily bed demand in each ZIP code to the closest facility. We found 1,887 beds per day were demanded by ZIP centroids more than 16.1 kilometers from the nearest existing hospital. This represented 12.7% of the average statewide daily bed demand. If a 32.3 kilometer radius was employed, unmet demand dropped to 160 beds per day (1

  1. Short-term sleep deprivation impairs spatial working memory and modulates expression levels of ionotropic glutamate receptor subunits in hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Meilan; Yan, Jie; He, Chao; Yang, Li; Tan, Gang; Li, Chao; Hu, Zhian; Wang, Jiali

    2015-06-01

    Hippocampus-dependent learning memory is sensitive to sleep deprivation (SD). Although the ionotropic glutamate receptors play a vital role in synaptic plasticity and learning and memory, however, whether the expression of these receptor subunits is modulated by sleep loss remains unclear. In the present study, western blotting was performed by probing with specific antibodies against the ionotropic α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor subunits GluA1, GluA2, GluA3, and against the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptor subunits GluN1, GluN2A, GluN2B. In hippocampus, down regulation of surface GluA1 and GluN2A surface expression were observed in both SD groups. However, surface expression level of GluA2, GluA3, GluN1 and GluN2B was significantly up-regulated in 8h-SD rats when compared to the 4h-SD rats. In parallel with the complex changes in AMPA and NMDA receptor subunit expressions, we found the 8h-SD impaired rat spatial working memory in 30-s-delay T-maze task, whereas no impairment of spatial learning was observed in 4h-SD rats. These results indicate that sleep loss alters the relative expression levels of the AMPA and NMDA receptors, thus affects the synaptic strength and capacity for plasticity and partially contributes to spatial memory impairment. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Do poorer people have poorer access to local resources and facilities? The distribution of local resources by area deprivation in Glasgow, Scotland☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macintyre, Sally; Macdonald, Laura; Ellaway, Anne

    2008-01-01

    It has commonly been suggested that in modern cities individual or household deprivation (for example, low income or education) is amplified by area level deprivation (for example, lack of jobs or good schools), in ways which damage the health of the poorest and increase health inequalities. The aim of this study was to determine the location of a range of resources and exposures by deprivation in a UK city. We examined the location of 42 resources in Glasgow City, Scotland, in 2005–2006, by quintile of small area deprivation. Measures included number per 1000 population, network distance to nearest resource, and percentage of data zones containing at least one of each type of resource. Twelve resources had higher density in, and/or were closer to or more common in, more deprived neighbourhoods: public nurseries, public primary schools, police stations, pharmacies, credit unions, post offices, bus stops, bingo halls, public swimming pools, public sports centres, outdoor play areas, and vacant and derelict land/buildings. Sixteen had higher density in, and/or were closer to, or more common in, more affluent neighbourhoods: public secondary schools, private schools, banks, building societies, museums/art galleries, railway stations, subway stations, tennis courts, bowling greens, private health clubs, private swimming pools, colleges, A & E hospitals, parks, waste disposal sites, and tourist attractions. Private nurseries, Universities, fire stations, general, dental and ophthalmic practices, pawn brokers, ATMs, supermarkets, fast food chains, cafes, public libraries, golf courses, and cinemas showed no clear pattern by deprivation. Thus it appears that in the early 21st century access to resources does not always disadvantage poorer neighbourhoods in the UK. We conclude that we need to ensure that theories and policies are based on up-to-date and context-specific empirical evidence on the distribution of neighbourhood resources, and to engage in further research

  3. Do poorer people have poorer access to local resources and facilities? The distribution of local resources by area deprivation in Glasgow, Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macintyre, Sally; Macdonald, Laura; Ellaway, Anne

    2008-09-01

    It has commonly been suggested that in modern cities individual or household deprivation (for example, low income or education) is amplified by area level deprivation (for example, lack of jobs or good schools), in ways which damage the health of the poorest and increase health inequalities. The aim of this study was to determine the location of a range of resources and exposures by deprivation in a UK city. We examined the location of 42 resources in Glasgow City, Scotland, in 2005-2006, by quintile of small area deprivation. Measures included number per 1000 population, network distance to nearest resource, and percentage of data zones containing at least one of each type of resource. Twelve resources had higher density in, and/or were closer to or more common in, more deprived neighbourhoods: public nurseries, public primary schools, police stations, pharmacies, credit unions, post offices, bus stops, bingo halls, public swimming pools, public sports centres, outdoor play areas, and vacant and derelict land/buildings. Sixteen had higher density in, and/or were closer to, or more common in, more affluent neighbourhoods: public secondary schools, private schools, banks, building societies, museums/art galleries, railway stations, subway stations, tennis courts, bowling greens, private health clubs, private swimming pools, colleges, A & E hospitals, parks, waste disposal sites, and tourist attractions. Private nurseries, Universities, fire stations, general, dental and ophthalmic practices, pawn brokers, ATMs, supermarkets, fast food chains, cafes, public libraries, golf courses, and cinemas showed no clear pattern by deprivation. Thus it appears that in the early 21st century access to resources does not always disadvantage poorer neighbourhoods in the UK. We conclude that we need to ensure that theories and policies are based on up-to-date and context-specific empirical evidence on the distribution of neighbourhood resources, and to engage in further research on

  4. Toward Accessing Spatial Structure from Building Information Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, C.; Bhatt, M.

    2011-08-01

    Data about building designs and layouts is becoming increasingly more readily available. In the near future, service personal (such as maintenance staff or emergency rescue workers) arriving at a building site will have immediate real-time access to enormous amounts of data relating to structural properties, utilities, materials, temperature, and so on. The critical problem for users is the taxing and error prone task of interpreting such a large body of facts in order to extract salient information. This is necessary for comprehending a situation and deciding on a plan of action, and is a particularly serious issue in time-critical and safety-critical activities such as firefighting. Current unifying building models such as the Industry Foundation Classes (IFC), while being comprehensive, do not directly provide data structures that focus on spatial reasoning and spatial modalities that are required for high-level analytical tasks. The aim of the research presented in this paper is to provide computational tools for higher level querying and reasoning that shift the cognitive burden of dealing with enormous amounts of data away from the user. The user can then spend more energy and time in planning and decision making in order to accomplish the tasks at hand. We present an overview of our framework that provides users with an enhanced model of "built-up space". In order to test our approach using realistic design data (in terms of both scale and the nature of the building models) we describe how our system interfaces with IFC, and we conduct timing experiments to determine the practicality of our approach. We discuss general computational approaches for deriving higher-level spatial modalities by focusing on the example of route graphs. Finally, we present a firefighting scenario with alternative route graphs to motivate the application of our framework.

  5. Widening access to medicine may improve general practitioner recruitment in deprived and rural communities: survey of GP origins and current place of work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowell, J; Norbury, M; Steven, K; Guthrie, B

    2015-10-01

    Widening access to medicine in the UK is a recalcitrant problem of increasing political importance, with associated strong social justice arguments but without clear evidence of impact on service delivery. Evidence from the United States suggests that widening access may enhance care to underserved communities. Additionally, rural origin has been demonstrated to be the factor most strongly associated with rural practice. However the evidence regarding socio-economic and rural background and subsequent practice locations in the UK has not been explored. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between general practitioners' (GPs) socio-economic and rural background at application to medical school and demographic characteristics of their current practice. The study design was a cross-sectional email survey of general practitioners practising in Scotland. Socio-economic status of GPs at application to medical school was assessed using the self-coded National Statistics Socio-Economic Classification. UK postcode at application was used to define urban-rural location. Current practice deprivation and remoteness was measured using NHS Scotland defined measures based on registered patients' postcodes. A survey was sent to 2050 Scottish GPs with a valid accessible email address, with 801 (41.5 %) responding. GPs whose parents had semi-routine or routine occupations had 4.3 times the odds of working in a deprived practice compared to those with parents from managerial and professional occupations (95 % CI 1.8-10.2, p = 0.001). GPs from remote and rural Scottish backgrounds were more likely to work in remote Scottish practices, as were GPs originating from other UK countries. This study showed that childhood background is associated with the population GPs subsequently serve, implying that widening access may positively affect service delivery in addition to any social justice rationale. Longitudinal research is needed to explore this association and the

  6. Spatial analysis of elderly access to primary care services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lozano-Gracia Nancy

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Admissions for Ambulatory Care Sensitive Conditions (ACSCs are considered preventable admissions, because they are unlikely to occur when good preventive health care is received. Thus, high rates of admissions for ACSCs among the elderly (persons aged 65 or above who qualify for Medicare health insurance are signals of poor preventive care utilization. The relevant geographic market to use in studying these admission rates is the primary care physician market. Our conceptual model assumes that local market conditions serving as interventions along the pathways to preventive care services utilization can impact ACSC admission rates. Results We examine the relationships between market-level supply and demand factors on market-level rates of ACSC admissions among the elderly residing in the U.S. in the late 1990s. Using 6,475 natural markets in the mainland U.S. defined by The Health Resources and Services Administration's Primary Care Service Area Project, spatial regression is used to estimate the model, controlling for disease severity using detailed information from Medicare claims files. Our evidence suggests that elderly living in impoverished rural areas or in sprawling suburban places are about equally more likely to be admitted for ACSCs. Greater availability of physicians does not seem to matter, but greater prevalence of non-physician clinicians and international medical graduates, relative to U.S. medical graduates, does seem to reduce ACSC admissions, especially in poor rural areas. Conclusion The relative importance of non-physician clinicians and international medical graduates in providing primary care to the elderly in geographic areas of greatest need can inform the ongoing debate regarding whether there is an impending shortage of physicians in the United States. These findings support other authors who claim that the existing supply of physicians is perhaps adequate, however the distribution of them across

  7. Framework development for providing accessibility to qualitative spatial calculi

    OpenAIRE

    Jan, Sahib

    2011-01-01

    Dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Geospatial Technologies. Qualitative spatial reasoning deals with knowledge about an infinite spatial domain using a finite set of qualitative relations without using numerical computation. Qualitative knowledge is relative knowledge where we obtain the knowledge on the basis of comparison of features with in the object domain rather then using some external scales. Reasoning is an inte...

  8. Spatial accessibility to physical activity facilities and to food outlets and overweight in French youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, R; Chaix, B; Weber, C; Schweitzer, B; Charreire, H; Salze, P; Badariotti, D; Banos, A; Oppert, J-M; Simon, C

    2012-07-01

    Some characteristics of the built environment have been associated with obesity in youth. Our aim was to determine whether individual and environmental socio-economic characteristics modulate the relation between youth overweight and spatial accessibility to physical activity (PA) facilities and to food outlets. Cross-sectional study. 3293 students, aged 12 ± 0.6 years, randomly selected from eastern France middle schools. Using geographical information systems (GIS), spatial accessibility to PA facilities (urban and nature) was assessed using the distance to PA facilities at the municipality level; spatial accessibility to food outlets (general food outlets, bakeries and fast-food outlets) was calculated at individual level using the student home address and the food outlets addresses. Relations of weight status with spatial accessibility to PA facilities and to food outlets were analysed using mixed logistic models, testing potential direct and interaction effects of individual and environmental socio-economic characteristics. Individual socio-economic status modulated the relation between spatial accessibility to PA facilities and to general food outlets and overweight. The likelihood of being overweight was higher when spatial accessibility to urban PA facilities and to general food outlets was low, but in children of blue-collar-workers only. The odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval) for being overweight of blue-collar-workers children compared with non-blue-collar-workers children was 1.76 (1.25-2.49) when spatial accessibility to urban PA facilities was low. This OR was 1.86 (1.20-2.86) when spatial accessibility to general food outlets was low. There was no significant relationship of overweight with either nature PA facilities or other food outlets (bakeries and fast-food outlets). These results indicate that disparities in spatial accessibility to PA facilities and to general food outlets may amplify the risk of overweight in socio

  9. Accessing High Spatial Resolution in Astronomy Using Interference Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonel, Cyril; Grasset, Sébastien; Maysonnave, Jean

    2018-01-01

    In astronomy, methods such as direct imaging or interferometry-based techniques (Michelson stellar interferometry for example) are used for observations. A particular advantage of interferometry is that it permits greater spatial resolution compared to direct imaging with a single telescope, which is limited by diffraction owing to the aperture of…

  10. A spatial analysis of variations in health access: linking geography, socio-economic status and access perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background This paper analyses the relationship between public perceptions of access to general practitioners (GPs) surgeries and hospitals against health status, car ownership and geographic distance. In so doing it explores the different dimensions associated with facility access and accessibility. Methods Data on difficulties experienced in accessing health services, respondent health status and car ownership were collected through an attitudes survey. Road distances to the nearest service were calculated for each respondent using a GIS. Difficulty was related to geographic distance, health status and car ownership using logistic generalized linear models. A Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) was used to explore the spatial non-stationarity in the results. Results Respondent long term illness, reported bad health and non-car ownership were found to be significant predictors of difficulty in accessing GPs and hospitals. Geographic distance was not a significant predictor of difficulty in accessing hospitals but was for GPs. GWR identified the spatial (local) variation in these global relationships indicating locations where the predictive strength of the independent variables was higher or lower than the global trend. The impacts of bad health and non-car ownership on the difficulties experienced in accessing health services varied spatially across the study area, whilst the impacts of geographic distance did not. Conclusions Difficulty in accessing different health facilities was found to be significantly related to health status and car ownership, whilst the impact of geographic distance depends on the service in question. GWR showed how these relationships were varied across the study area. This study demonstrates that the notion of access is a multi-dimensional concept, whose composition varies with location, according to the facility being considered and the health and socio-economic status of the individual concerned. PMID:21787394

  11. Imbalance in Spatial Accessibility to Primary and Secondary Schools in China: Guidance for Education Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Gao

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Compulsory education is an important aspect of the societal development. Meanwhile, education equality safeguards the effectiveness of education systems and is an important part of social equality. This study analyzes the inequality of compulsory education from the perspective of imbalanced spatial distribution. Unlike previous studies that have measured the spatial distribution of education simply based on the spatial position of primary and secondary schools, we explore spatial accessibility based on the shortest travel distance from residents to schools, and then analyze the inequality of compulsory education through the distribution of spatial accessibility. We use 2873 Chinese counties as statistical units, and perform a statistical and graphical analysis of their spatial accessibility using the Theil index and spatial autocorrelation analyses. To analyze the differences in the spatial accessibility distribution on the national and regional levels, we use three partitioned modes: the terrain partitioned mode, the economic development partitioned mode, and the province-level partitioned mode. We then analyze the spatial agglomeration characteristics and distribution patterns of compulsory education accessibility through global autocorrelation, local autocorrelation, and hot-spot and cold-spot analysis. The results demonstrate an obvious imbalance in the distribution of spatial accessibility to compulsory education at the national level. Accessibility and equality in eastern and central regions are significantly better than those in the western region; both are significantly better in coastal regions than in inland regions; and equality alone is better in the municipalities, such as Shanghai, Tianjin, and Chongqing, than in other provinces and autonomous regions. The spatial pattern analysis shows significant global autocorrelation and obvious clusters. Counties in cold-spot areas (clusters of good spatial accessibility are large in number

  12. Spatial accessibility to specific sport facilities and corresponding sport practice: the RECORD Study

    OpenAIRE

    Karusisi, No?lla; Thomas, Fr?d?rique; M?line, Julie; Chaix, Basile

    2013-01-01

    International audience; BACKGROUND: Physical activity is considered as a major component of a healthy lifestyle. However, few studies have examined the relationships between the spatial accessibility to sport facilities and sport practice with a sufficient degree of specificity. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between the spatial accessibility to specific types of sports facilities and the practice of the corresponding sports after carefully controlling for various i...

  13. Making Spatial Statistics Service Accessible On Cloud Platform

    OpenAIRE

    Mu, X.; Wu, J.; Li, T; Zhong, Y.; Gao, X.

    2014-01-01

    Web service can bring together applications running on diverse platforms, users can access and share various data, information and models more effectively and conveniently from certain web service platform. Cloud computing emerges as a paradigm of Internet computing in which dynamical, scalable and often virtualized resources are provided as services. With the rampant growth of massive data and restriction of net, traditional web services platforms have some prominent problems existi...

  14. Spatial accessibility to basic public health services in South Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter M. Macharia

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available At independence in 2011, South Sudan’s health sector was almost non-existent. The first national health strategic plan aimed to achieve an integrated health facility network that would mean that 70% of the population were within 5 km of a health service provider. Publically available data on functioning and closed health facilities, population distribution, road networks, land use and elevation were used to compute the fraction of the population within 1 hour walking distance of the nearest public health facility offering curative services. This metric was summarised for each of the 78 counties in South Sudan and compared with simpler metrics of the proportion of the population within 5 km of a health facility. In 2016, it is estimated that there were 1747 public health facilities, out of which 294 were non-functional in part due to the on-going civil conflict. Access to a service provider was poor with only 25.7% of the population living within one-hour walking time to a facility and 28.6% of the population within 5 km. These metrics, when applied sub-nationally, identified the same high priority, most vulnerable counties. Simple metrics based upon population distribution and location of facilities might be as valuable as more complex models of health access, where attribute data on travel routes are imperfect or incomplete and sparse. Disparities exist in South Sudan among counties and those with the poorest health access should be targeted for priority expansion of clinical services.

  15. Interactive Installations for Spatial Access to Artistic Sketchbooks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning; Laursen, Bjørn

    2017-01-01

    A book is a book – or is it? With present-day, aordable technology, we can scale a book to become a spatial object, or even a space in itself, of almost arbitrary size. We describe our design of and experiences with a generic interactive installation, called Viskbook, that provides a convincing...... illusion of oversize books, allowing the spectator to turn over the pages using natural and intuitive gestures. It provides a new media for exhibiting books in museums and elsewhere. It can be used for vulnerable and irreplaceable unique books, that otherwise would remain in the safe-box, and for books...

  16. Spatial accessibility to specific sport facilities and corresponding sport practice: the RECORD Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karusisi, Noëlla; Thomas, Frédérique; Méline, Julie; Chaix, Basile

    2013-04-20

    Physical activity is considered as a major component of a healthy lifestyle. However, few studies have examined the relationships between the spatial accessibility to sport facilities and sport practice with a sufficient degree of specificity. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between the spatial accessibility to specific types of sports facilities and the practice of the corresponding sports after carefully controlling for various individual socio-demographic characteristics and neighborhood socioeconomic variables. Data from the RECORD Study involving 7290 participants recruited in 2007-2008, aged 30-79 years, and residing in the Paris metropolitan area were analyzed. Four categories of sports were studied: team sports, racket sports, swimming and related activities, and fitness. Spatial accessibility to sport facilities was measured with two complementary approaches that both take into account the street network (distance to the nearest facility and count of facilities around the dwelling). Associations between the spatial accessibility to sport facilities and the practice of the corresponding sports were assessed using multilevel logistic regression after adjusting for individual and contextual characteristics. High individual education and high household income were associated with the practice of racket sports, swimming or related activities, and fitness over the previous 7 days. The spatial accessibility to swimming pools was associated with swimming and related sports, even after adjustment for individual/contextual factors. The spatial accessibility to facilities was not related to the practice of other sports. High neighborhood income was associated with the practice of a racket sport and fitness. Accessibility is a multi-dimensional concept that integrates educational, financial, and geographical aspects. Our work supports the evidence that strategies to increase participation in sport activities should improve the spatial and

  17. Improving Nearest Neighbour Search in 3D Spatial Access Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhaibah, A.; Rahman, A. A.; Uznir, U.

    2016-01-01

    are still facing with unresolved issues such as overlapping among nodes and repetitive data entry. This situation will perform an excessive Input/Output (IO) operation which is inefficient for data retrieval. The situation will become more crucial while dealing with 3D data. The size of 3D data is usually...... and the accessed page. The proposed structure also produced minimal Input/Output operation. The query response time is also outperformed compared to the other competitor. For future outlook of this research several possible applications are discussed and summarized....

  18. Social inequalities and cancer: can the European deprivation index predict patients' difficulties in health care access? a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriceau, Guillaume; Bourmaud, Aurélie; Tinquaut, Fabien; Oriol, Mathieu; Jacquin, Jean-Philippe; Fournel, Pierre; Magné, Nicolas; Chauvin, Franck

    2016-01-01

    Context The European Deprivation Index (EDI), is a new ecological estimate for Socio-Economic Status (SES). This study postulates that Time-To-Treatment could be used as a cancer quality-of -care surrogate in order to identify the association between cancer patient's SES and quality of care in a French comprehensive cancer center. Methods retrospective mono-centered cohort study. All consecutive incoming adult patients diagnosed for breast cancer(BC), prostate cancer(PC), colorectal cancer (CRC), lung cancer(LC) or sarcoma(S) were included between January 2013 and December 2013. The association of EDI and Time-To-Diagnosis(TTD), as well as Time-To-Treatment(TTT) was analyzed using a cox regression, and a strata analysis per tumor site was performed. Results 969 patients were included. Primitive tumor site was 505 BC(52%), 169 PC(17%), 145 LC(15%), 116 CRC(12%), and 34 S(4%). Median TTD was 1.41 months (Q1-Q3 0.5 to 3.5 months). Median TTT was 0.9 months (0.4 - 1.4). In a multivariate analysis, we identified the tumor site as a predictive factor to influence TTD, shorter for BC (0.75months, [0.30- 1.9]) than PC (4.69 months [1.6-29.7]), HR 0.27 95%CI= [0.22-0.34], p < 0.001. TTT was also shorter for BC (0.75months [0.4-1.1]) than PC (2.02 [0.9-3.2]), HR 0.32 95%CI= [0.27-0.39], p < 0.001. EDI quintiles were not found associated with either TTT or TTD. Conclusions Deprivation estimated by the EDI does not appear to be related to an extension of the Time-to-Diagnosis or Time-to-Treatment in our real-life population. Further research should be done to identify other frailty-sensitive factors that could be responsible for delays in care. PMID:26540571

  19. Rapid Eye Movement Sleep deprivation produces long-term detrimental effects in spatial memory and modifies the cellular composition of the subgranular zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia eSoto-Rodriguez

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Sleep deprivation (SD affects spatial memory and proliferation in the dentate gyrus. It is unknown whether these deleterious effects persist in the long run. The aim of this study was to evaluate the proliferation, differentiation and maturation of neural progenitors as well as spatial memory 21 days after suffering sleep deprivation. Sixty-day old male Balb/C mice were exposed to 72-h REM-SD. Spatial memory, cell fate, apoptosis and expression levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R were evaluated in the hippocampus at 0, 14 and 21 days after SD or control conditions. After 21-d recovery period, memory performance was assessed with the Barnes maze, we found a significant memory impairment in SD mice vs. control (94.0 ± 10.2s vs. 25.2 ± 4.5s; p < 0.001. The number of BrdU+ cells was significantly decreased in the SD groups at day 14 (controls = 1.6 ± 0.1 vs. SD mice = 1.2 ± 0.1 cells/field; p=0.001 and at day 21 (controls = 0.2 ± 0.03 vs. SD mice = 0.1 ± 0.02 cells/field; p < 0.001. A statistically significant decrease was observed in neuronal differentiation (1.4 ± 0.1 cells/field vs. 0.9 ± 0.1 cells/field, p = 0.003. Apoptosis was significantly increased at day 14 after SD (0.53 ± 0.06 TUNEL+ cells/field compared to controls (0.19 ± 0.03 TUNEL+ cells/field p<0.001 and at 21-d after SD (SD mice 0.53±0.15 TUNEL+ cells/field; p = 0.035. At day 0, IGF-1R expression showed a statistically significant reduction in SD animals (64.6 ± 12.2 units when compared to the control group (102.0 ± 9.8 units; p = 0.043. However, no statistically significant differences were found at day 14 and 21 after SD. In conclusion, a single exposition to SD for 72-h can induce deleterious effects that persist for at least three weeks. These changes are characterized by spatial memory impairment, reduction in the number of hippocampal BrdU+ cells and persistent apoptosis rate. In contrast, changes IGF-1R expression appears to be a transient

  20. Accessing High Spatial Resolution in Astronomy Using Interference Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonel, Cyril; Grasset, Sébastien; Maysonnave, Jean

    2018-04-01

    In astronomy, methods such as direct imaging or interferometry-based techniques (Michelson stellar interferometry for example) are used for observations. A particular advantage of interferometry is that it permits greater spatial resolution compared to direct imaging with a single telescope, which is limited by diffraction owing to the aperture of the instrument as shown by Rueckner et al. in a lecture demonstration. The focus of this paper, addressed to teachers and/or students in high schools and universities, is to easily underline both an application of interferometry in astronomy and stress its interest for resolution. To this end very simple optical experiments are presented to explain all the concepts. We show how an interference pattern resulting from the combined signals of two telescopes allows us to measure the distance between two stars with a resolution beyond the diffraction limit. Finally this work emphasizes the breathtaking resolution obtained in state-of-the-art instruments such as the VLTi (Very Large Telescope interferometer).

  1. Ontogenetic changes and developmental adjustments in lactate dehydrogenase isozymes of an obligate air-breathing fish Channa punctatus during deprivation of air access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Riaz; Hasnain, Absar-Ul

    2005-02-01

    In air-breathing snakehead Channa punctatus, Ldh-B is expressed at all ontogenetic and developmental stages, while Ldh-A is expressed temporally in pre-hatchlings 12-13 days ahead of bimodal respiration marked by air-breathing. Remarkable differences are observed in the LDH isozyme expression among various ontogenetic and developmental stages upon denying air access. When denied air access, water-breathing larvae show two distinct characteristics: (i) they survive longer than transitory air-breathers due to independence from air-breathing and (ii) there is more transient induction of Ldh-B than Ldh-A. Transition to bimodal breathing, which occurred post-hatching in 15-day old larvae, is coincidental with inducibility of Ldh-A and concomitant down-regulation of Ldh-B. Heart tissue from air-breathing adults denied air access shows a preferential expression of LDH-A subunit and slight down-regulation of LDH-B. Heterotetramers of A and B subunits participate in adjusting LDH levels among those stages which either precede air-breathing switchover, or are subsequent to this transition. The contribution of heterotetramers depends on the stage-specific levels of LDH homotetramers A(4) or B(4). Scaling of muscle mass during growth, tolerance to extended deprivation of air access and induction of Ldh-A are correlated. Response to restoring air contact indicated that advanced air-breathing stages of C. punctatus possess an inherent capacity to sense surface air. In kinetic properties, LDH isozymes of C. punctatus are teleost-like but species specificity is displayed in oxidative potential by cardiac muscle and in L-lactate reduction by skeletal muscle.

  2. Transcranial magnetic stimulation and aging: Effects on spatial learning and memory after sleep deprivation in Octodon degus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, C; Fernández-Gómez, F J; López, D; Gonzalez-Cuello, A; Tunez, I; Toledo, F; Blin, O; Bordet, R; Richardson, J C; Fernandez-Villalba, E; Herrero, M T

    2015-11-01

    The benefits of neuromodulatory procedures as a possible therapeutic application for cognitive rehabilitation have increased with the progress made in non-invasive modes of brain stimulation in aged-related disorders. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive method used to examine multiple facets of the human brain and to ameliorate the impairment in cognition caused by Alzheimer's disease (AD). The present study was designed to evaluate how a chronic TMS treatment could improve learning and memory functions after sleep deprivation (SD) in old Octodon degus. SD was executed by gently handling to keep the animals awake throughout the night. Thirty young and twenty-four old O. degus females were divided in six groups (control, acute and chronic TMS treatment). Behavioral tests included; Radial Arm Maze (RAM), Barnes Maze (BM) and Novel Object Recognition (NOR). Although learning and memory functions improved in young animals with only one session of TMS treatment, a significant improvement in cognitive performance was seen in old animals after 4 and 7days of TMS, depending on the task that was performed. No side effects were observed following, which showed therapeutic potential for improving age-related cognitive performance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. What versus where: Investigating how autobiographical memory retrieval differs when accessed with thematic versus spatial information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Signy; Chu, Sonja

    2017-09-01

    Autobiographical memory research has investigated how cueing distinct aspects of a past event can trigger different recollective experiences. This research has stimulated theories about how autobiographical knowledge is accessed and organized. Here, we test the idea that thematic information organizes multiple autobiographical events whereas spatial information organizes individual past episodes by investigating how retrieval guided by these two forms of information differs. We used a novel autobiographical fluency task in which participants accessed multiple memory exemplars to event theme and spatial (location) cues followed by a narrative description task in which they described the memories generated to these cues. Participants recalled significantly more memory exemplars to event theme than to spatial cues; however, spatial cues prompted faster access to past memories. Results from the narrative description task revealed that memories retrieved via event theme cues compared to spatial cues had a higher number of overall details, but those recalled to the spatial cues were recollected with a greater concentration on episodic details than those retrieved via event theme cues. These results provide evidence that thematic information organizes and integrates multiple memories whereas spatial information prompts the retrieval of specific episodic content from a past event.

  4. The Impact of Varying Statutory Arrangements on Spatial Data Sharing and Access in Regional NRM Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudyal, D. R.; McDougall, K.; Apan, A.

    2014-12-01

    Spatial information plays an important role in many social, environmental and economic decisions and increasingly acknowledged as a national resource essential for wider societal and environmental benefits. Natural Resource Management is one area where spatial information can be used for improved planning and decision making processes. In Australia, state government organisations are the custodians of spatial information necessary for natural resource management and regional NRM bodies are responsible to regional delivery of NRM activities. The access and sharing of spatial information between government agencies and regional NRM bodies is therefore as an important issue for improving natural resource management outcomes. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the current status of spatial information access, sharing and use with varying statutory arrangements and its impacts on spatial data infrastructure (SDI) development in catchment management sector in Australia. Further, it critically examined whether any trends and significant variations exist due to different institutional arrangements (statutory versus non-statutory) or not. A survey method was used to collect primary data from 56 regional natural resource management (NRM) bodies responsible for catchment management in Australia. Descriptive statistics method was used to show the similarities and differences between statutory and non-statutory arrangements. The key factors which influence sharing and access to spatial information are also explored. The results show the current statutory and administrative arrangements and regional focus for natural resource management is reasonable from a spatial information management perspective and provides an opportunity for building SDI at the catchment scale. However, effective institutional arrangements should align catchment SDI development activities with sub-national and national SDI development activities to address catchment management issues. We found minor

  5. Spatial access priority mapping (SAPM) with fishers: a quantitative GIS method for participatory planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Katherine L; Schoeman, David S

    2013-01-01

    Spatial management tools, such as marine spatial planning and marine protected areas, are playing an increasingly important role in attempts to improve marine management and accommodate conflicting needs. Robust data are needed to inform decisions among different planning options, and early inclusion of stakeholder involvement is widely regarded as vital for success. One of the biggest stakeholder groups, and the most likely to be adversely impacted by spatial restrictions, is the fishing community. In order to take their priorities into account, planners need to understand spatial variation in their perceived value of the sea. Here a readily accessible, novel method for quantitatively mapping fishers' spatial access priorities is presented. Spatial access priority mapping, or SAPM, uses only basic functions of standard spreadsheet and GIS software. Unlike the use of remote-sensing data, SAPM actively engages fishers in participatory mapping, documenting rather than inferring their priorities. By so doing, SAPM also facilitates the gathering of other useful data, such as local ecological knowledge. The method was tested and validated in Northern Ireland, where over 100 fishers participated in a semi-structured questionnaire and mapping exercise. The response rate was excellent, 97%, demonstrating fishers' willingness to be involved. The resultant maps are easily accessible and instantly informative, providing a very clear visual indication of which areas are most important for the fishers. The maps also provide quantitative data, which can be used to analyse the relative impact of different management options on the fishing industry and can be incorporated into planning software, such as MARXAN, to ensure that conservation goals can be met at minimum negative impact to the industry. This research shows how spatial access priority mapping can facilitate the early engagement of fishers and the ready incorporation of their priorities into the decision-making process

  6. The positive pharmacy care law: an area-level analysis of the relationship between community pharmacy distribution, urbanity and social deprivation in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Adam; Copeland, Alison; Husband, Andy; Kasim, Adetayo; Bambra, Clare

    2014-08-12

    To: (1) determine the percentage of the population in England that have access to a community pharmacy within 20 min walk; (2) explore any relationship between the walking distance and urbanity; (3) explore any relationship between the walking distance and social deprivation; and (4) explore any interactions between urbanity, social deprivation and community pharmacy access. This area level analysis spatial study used postcodes for all community pharmacies in England. Each postcode was assigned to a population lookup table and lower super output area (LSOA). The LSOA was then matched to urbanity (urban, town and fringe or village, hamlet and isolated dwellings) and deprivation decile (using the Index of Multiple Deprivation score). Access to a community pharmacy within 20 min walk. Overall, 89.2% of the population is estimated to have access to a community pharmacy within 20 min walk. For urban areas, that is 98.3% of the population, for town and fringe, 79.9% of the population, while for rural areas, 18.9% of the population. For areas of lowest deprivation (deprivation decile 1) 90.2% of the population have access to a community pharmacy within 20 min walk, compared to 99.8% in areas of highest deprivation (deprivation decile 10), a percentage difference of 9.6% (8.2, 10.9). Our study shows that the majority of the population can access a community pharmacy within 20 min walk and crucially, access is greater in areas of highest deprivation--a positive pharmacy care law. More research is needed to explore the perceptions and experiences of people--from various levels of deprivation--around the accessibility of community pharmacy services. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. Increasing Wage Gap, Spatial Structure and Market Access: Evidence from Swedish Micro Data

    OpenAIRE

    Nabavi, Pardis

    2015-01-01

    The new economic geography predicts that the wage gap will increase with accessibility to markets but does not consider the impact of spatial proximity. In contrast, urban economic theory explains wage differences by density without accounting for accessibility. Using a rich Swedish micro-panel, we empirically examine the two rival theories for males and females separately, controlling for individual, firm and regional characteristics. The regression results indicate that wage dispersion is c...

  8. Spatial Accessibility to Health Care Services: Identifying under-Serviced Neighbourhoods in Canadian Urban Areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayyab Ikram Shah

    Full Text Available Urban environments can influence many aspects of health and well-being and access to health care is one of them. Access to primary health care (PHC in urban settings is a pressing research and policy issue in Canada. Most research on access to healthcare is focused on national and provincial levels in Canada; there is a need to advance current understanding to local scales such as neighbourhoods.This study examines spatial accessibility to family physicians using the Three-Step Floating Catchment Area (3SFCA method to identify neighbourhoods with poor geographical access to PHC services and their spatial patterning across 14 Canadian urban settings. An index of spatial access to PHC services, representing an accessibility score (physicians-per-1000 population, was calculated for neighborhoods using a 3km road network distance. Information about primary health care providers (this definition does not include mobile services such as health buses or nurse practitioners or less distributed services such as emergency rooms used in this research was gathered from publicly available and routinely updated sources (i.e. provincial colleges of physicians and surgeons. An integrated geocoding approach was used to establish PHC locations.The results found that the three methods, Simple Ratio, Neighbourhood Simple Ratio, and 3SFCA that produce City level access scores are positively correlated with each other. Comparative analyses were performed both within and across urban settings to examine disparities in distributions of PHC services. It is found that neighbourhoods with poor accessibility scores in the main urban settings across Canada have further disadvantages in relation to population high health care needs.The results of this study show substantial variations in geographical accessibility to PHC services both within and among urban areas. This research enhances our understanding of spatial accessibility to health care services at the neighbourhood

  9. Unequal access to higher education in the Czech Republic: the role of spatial distribution of universities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Franta, Michal; Guzi, Martin

    -, č. 350 (2008), s. 1-56 ISSN 1211-3298 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : access to tertiary education * human capital * spatial distribution Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp350.pdf

  10. Association between neighborhood need and spatial access to food stores and fast food restaurants in neighborhoods of Colonias

    OpenAIRE

    Sharkey, Joseph R; Horel, Scott; Han, Daikwon; Huber, John C

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine the extent to which neighborhood needs (socioeconomic deprivation and vehicle availability) are associated with two criteria of food environment access: 1) distance to the nearest food store and fast food restaurant and 2) coverage (number) of food stores and fast food restaurants within a specified network distance of neighborhood areas of colonias, using ground-truthed methods. Methods Data included locational points for 315 food stores and 204 fast food rest...

  11. Does the edge effect impact on the measure of spatial accessibility to healthcare providers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fei; Kihal, Wahida; Le Meur, Nolwenn; Souris, Marc; Deguen, Séverine

    2017-12-11

    Spatial accessibility indices are increasingly applied when investigating inequalities in health. Although most studies are making mentions of potential errors caused by the edge effect, many acknowledge having neglected to consider this concern by establishing spatial analyses within a finite region, settling for hypothesizing that accessibility to facilities will be under-reported. Our study seeks to assess the effect of edge on the accuracy of defining healthcare provider access by comparing healthcare provider accessibility accounting or not for the edge effect, in a real-world application. This study was carried out in the department of Nord, France. The statistical unit we use is the French census block known as 'IRIS' (Ilot Regroupé pour l'Information Statistique), defined by the National Institute of Statistics and Economic Studies. The geographical accessibility indicator used is the "Index of Spatial Accessibility" (ISA), based on the E2SFCA algorithm. We calculated ISA for the pregnant women population by selecting three types of healthcare providers: general practitioners, gynecologists and midwives. We compared ISA variation when accounting or not edge effect in urban and rural zones. The GIS method was then employed to determine global and local autocorrelation. Lastly, we compared the relationship between socioeconomic distress index and ISA, when accounting or not for the edge effect, to fully evaluate its impact. The results revealed that on average ISA when offer and demand beyond the boundary were included is slightly below ISA when not accounting for the edge effect, and we found that the IRIS value was more likely to deteriorate than improve. Moreover, edge effect impact can vary widely by health provider type. There is greater variability within the rural IRIS group than within the urban IRIS group. We found a positive correlation between socioeconomic distress variables and composite ISA. Spatial analysis results (such as Moran's spatial

  12. Social exclusion, deprivation and child health: a spatial analysis of ambulatory care sensitive conditions in children aged 0-4 years in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Danielle C; Thurecht, Linc; Brown, Laurie; Konings, Paul

    2013-10-01

    Recent Australian policy initiatives regarding primary health care focus on planning services around community needs and delivering these at the local area. As in many other countries, there has also been a growing concern over social inequities in health outcomes. The aims of the analysis presented here were firstly to describe small area variations in hospital admissions for ambulatory care sensitive conditions (ACSC) among children aged 0-4 years between 2003 and 2009 in the state of Victoria, Australia, and secondly to explore the relationship of ACSC hospitalisations with socio-economic disadvantage using a comparative analysis of the Child Social Exclusion (CSE) index and the Composite Score of Deprivation (CSD). This is a cross sectional secondary data analysis, with data sourced from 2003 to 2009 ACSC data from the Victorian State Government Department of Health; the Australian Standard Geographical Classification of remoteness; the Australian 2006 Census of Population and Housing; and AMPCo General Practitioner data from 2010. The relationship between the indexes and child health outcomes was examined through bivariate analysis and visually through a series of maps. The results show there is significant variation in the geographical distribution of the relationship between ACSCs and socio-economic disadvantage, with both indexes capturing important social gradients in child health conditions. However, measures of access, such as geographical accessibility and workforce supply, detect additional small area variation in child health outcomes. This research has important implications for future primary health care policy and planning of services, as these findings confirm that not all areas are the same in terms of health outcomes, and there may be benefit in tailoring mechanisms for identifying areas of need depending on the outcome intended to be affected. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Spatial Impact of the Road Infrastructure Development in Romania. An Accessibility Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TITUS MAN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares the spatial structure of accessibility in Romania before and after the implementation of some major national and/or European road infrastructure projects. This study suggests a new index for accessibility measurement by combining gravity-based models with Place Rank and adapting it to the Romanian system of settlements. Based on the GIS estimation of travel time, this index evaluates not only the geographical position of a specific community relative to the road network, but also the level of accessibility of rural and urban communities to the social services located in central places. The GIS-based maps indicate the existing disparities (between well-connected and isolated regions in terms of accessibility to the central places and the impact of new infrastructure projects on these disparities. The resulting maps can be used as efficient tools for transport planning and development at different scales (international, national, regional and local.

  14. Accessibility versus accuracy in retrieving spatial memory: evidence for suboptimal assumed headings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerramsetti, Ashok; Marchette, Steven A; Shelton, Amy L

    2013-07-01

    Orientation dependence in spatial memory has often been interpreted in terms of accessibility: Object locations are encoded relative to a reference orientation that affords the most accurate access to spatial memory. An open question, however, is whether people naturally use this "preferred" orientation whenever recalling the space. We tested this question by asking participants to locate buildings on a familiar campus from various imagined locations, without specifying the heading to be assumed. We then used these pointing judgments to infer the approximate heading participants assumed at each location. Surprisingly, each location showed a unique assumed heading that was consistent across participants and seemed to reflect episodic or visual properties of the space. This result suggests that although locations are encoded relative to a reference orientation, other factors may influence how people choose to access the stored information and whether they appeal to long-term spatial memory or other more sensory-based stores. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. The challenges of marine spatial planning in the Arctic: Results from the ACCESS programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Rosemary; Evans, Alan

    2017-12-01

    Marine spatial planning is increasingly used to manage the demands on marine areas, both spatially and temporally, where several different users may compete for resources or space, to ensure that development is as sustainable as possible. Diminishing sea-ice coverage in the Arctic will allow for potential increases in economic exploitation, and failure to plan for cross-sectoral management could have negative economic and environmental results. During the ACCESS programme, a marine spatial planning tool was developed for the Arctic, enabling the integrated study of human activities related to hydrocarbon exploitation, shipping and fisheries, and the possible environmental impacts, within the context of the next 30 years of climate change. In addition to areas under national jurisdiction, the Arctic Ocean contains a large area of high seas. Resources and ecosystems extend across political boundaries. We use three examples to highlight the need for transboundary planning and governance to be developed at a regional level.

  16. High-Resolution Spatial Distribution and Estimation of Access to Improved Sanitation in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Peng; Anderson, John D; Leitner, Michael; Rheingans, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Access to sanitation facilities is imperative in reducing the risk of multiple adverse health outcomes. A distinct disparity in sanitation exists among different wealth levels in many low-income countries, which may hinder the progress across each of the Millennium Development Goals. The surveyed households in 397 clusters from 2008-2009 Kenya Demographic and Health Surveys were divided into five wealth quintiles based on their national asset scores. A series of spatial analysis methods including excess risk, local spatial autocorrelation, and spatial interpolation were applied to observe disparities in coverage of improved sanitation among different wealth categories. The total number of the population with improved sanitation was estimated by interpolating, time-adjusting, and multiplying the surveyed coverage rates by high-resolution population grids. A comparison was then made with the annual estimates from United Nations Population Division and World Health Organization /United Nations Children's Fund Joint Monitoring Program for Water Supply and Sanitation. The Empirical Bayesian Kriging interpolation produced minimal root mean squared error for all clusters and five quintiles while predicting the raw and spatial coverage rates of improved sanitation. The coverage in southern regions was generally higher than in the north and east, and the coverage in the south decreased from Nairobi in all directions, while Nyanza and North Eastern Province had relatively poor coverage. The general clustering trend of high and low sanitation improvement among surveyed clusters was confirmed after spatial smoothing. There exists an apparent disparity in sanitation among different wealth categories across Kenya and spatially smoothed coverage rates resulted in a closer estimation of the available statistics than raw coverage rates. Future intervention activities need to be tailored for both different wealth categories and nationally where there are areas of greater needs when

  17. High-Resolution Spatial Distribution and Estimation of Access to Improved Sanitation in Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Jia

    Full Text Available Access to sanitation facilities is imperative in reducing the risk of multiple adverse health outcomes. A distinct disparity in sanitation exists among different wealth levels in many low-income countries, which may hinder the progress across each of the Millennium Development Goals.The surveyed households in 397 clusters from 2008-2009 Kenya Demographic and Health Surveys were divided into five wealth quintiles based on their national asset scores. A series of spatial analysis methods including excess risk, local spatial autocorrelation, and spatial interpolation were applied to observe disparities in coverage of improved sanitation among different wealth categories. The total number of the population with improved sanitation was estimated by interpolating, time-adjusting, and multiplying the surveyed coverage rates by high-resolution population grids. A comparison was then made with the annual estimates from United Nations Population Division and World Health Organization /United Nations Children's Fund Joint Monitoring Program for Water Supply and Sanitation.The Empirical Bayesian Kriging interpolation produced minimal root mean squared error for all clusters and five quintiles while predicting the raw and spatial coverage rates of improved sanitation. The coverage in southern regions was generally higher than in the north and east, and the coverage in the south decreased from Nairobi in all directions, while Nyanza and North Eastern Province had relatively poor coverage. The general clustering trend of high and low sanitation improvement among surveyed clusters was confirmed after spatial smoothing.There exists an apparent disparity in sanitation among different wealth categories across Kenya and spatially smoothed coverage rates resulted in a closer estimation of the available statistics than raw coverage rates. Future intervention activities need to be tailored for both different wealth categories and nationally where there are areas of

  18. Allocation of spectral and spatial modes in multidimensional metro-access optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wenbo; Cvijetic, Milorad

    2018-04-01

    Introduction of spatial division multiplexing (SDM) has added a new dimension in an effort to increase optical fiber channel capacity. At the same time, it can also be explored as an advanced optical networking tool. In this paper, we have investigated the resource allocation to end-users in multidimensional networking structure with plurality of spectral and spatial modes actively deployed in different networking segments. This presents a more comprehensive method as compared to the common practice where the segments of optical network are analyzed independently since the interaction between network hierarchies is included into consideration. We explored the possible transparency from the metro/core network to the optical access network, analyzed the potential bottlenecks from the network architecture perspective, and identified an optimized network structure. In our considerations, the viability of optical grooming through the entire hierarchical all-optical network is investigated by evaluating the effective utilization and spectral efficiency of the network architecture.

  19. A cross-sectional ecological study of spatial scale and geographic inequality in access to drinking-water and sanitation

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Weiyu; Bain, Robert ES; Mansour, Shawky; Wright, Jim A

    2014-01-01

    IntroductionMeasuring inequality in access to safe drinking-water and sanitation is proposed as a component of international monitoring following the expiry of the Millennium Development Goals. This study aims to evaluate the utility of census data in measuring geographic inequality in access to drinking-water and sanitation.MethodsSpatially referenced census data were acquired for Colombia, South Africa, Egypt, and Uganda, whilst non-spatially referenced census data were acquired for Kenya. ...

  20. Small-Area Estimation of Spatial Access to Care and Its Implications for Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentili, Monica; Isett, Kim; Serban, Nicoleta; Swann, Julie

    2015-10-01

    Local or small-area estimates to capture emerging trends across large geographic regions are critical in identifying and addressing community-level health interventions. However, they are often unavailable due to lack of analytic capabilities in compiling and integrating extensive datasets and complementing them with the knowledge about variations in state-level health policies. This study introduces a modeling approach for small-area estimation of spatial access to pediatric primary care that is data "rich" and mathematically rigorous, integrating data and health policy in a systematic way. We illustrate the sensitivity of the model to policy decision making across large geographic regions by performing a systematic comparison of the estimates at the census tract and county levels for Georgia and California. Our results show the proposed approach is able to overcome limitations of other existing models by capturing patient and provider preferences and by incorporating possible changes in health policies. The primary finding is systematic underestimation of spatial access, and inaccurate estimates of disparities across population and across geography at the county level with respect to those at the census tract level with implications on where to focus and which type of interventions to consider.

  1. Identifying and Measuring Dimensions of Urban Deprivation in Montreal: An Analysis of the 1996 Census Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, Andre; Kitchen, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Used 1996 Canadian census data to examine the spatial structure and intensity of urban deprivation in Montreal. Analysis of 20 indicators of urban deprivation identified 6 main types of deprivation in the city and found that they were most visible on the Island of Montreal. Urban deprivation was not confined to the inner city. (SM)

  2. Institutions in transitioning peri-urban communities: spatial differences in groundwater access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Sharlene L.; Hermans, Leon M.

    2016-05-01

    Urbanization creates challenges for water management in an evolving socio-economic context. This is particularly relevant in transitioning peri-urban areas like Khulna, Bangladesh where competing demands have put pressure on local groundwater resources. Users are unable to sufficiently meet their needs through existing institutions. These institutions provide the rules for service provision and act as guidelines for actors to resolve their water related issues. However, the evolving peri-urban context can produce fragmented institutional arrangements. For example in Khulna, water supply is based on urban and rural boundaries that has created water access issues for peri-urban communities. This has motivated local actors to manage their groundwater needs in various ways. General institutional theories are well developed in literature, yet little is known about institutions in transitioning peri-urban areas. Institutions that fail to adapt to changing dynamics run the risk of becoming obsolete or counter-productive, hence the need for investigating institutional change mechanisms in this context. This paper examines peri-urban case studies from Khulna using the Institutional Analysis and Development framework to demonstrate how institutions have contributed to spatial differences in groundwater access with local actors investing in formal and informal institutional change as a means of accessing groundwater.

  3. The comparison of spatial accessibility measures between non-obstacle and obstacle oriented based on gravity model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhi-Gang; Cui, Cai-Hui

    2009-10-01

    Spatial accessibility denotes the ease with which activities may be reached from a given location using a particular transportation system. There are a number of accessibility measures methods and models, such as time of access to city centre, mean travel costs and opportunity accessibility. But these methods or models ignore the existence of obstacles. In fact, there are many kinds of obstacles in the world, such as rivers, railways, etc. The paper reviews the progress of accessibility measures, and introduces the obstacle to the accessibility measures. Meanwhile, through the analysis of A* algorithm, the advantage of A* algorithm that could avoid obstacles is put forward. Based on the above mentioned, the obstacle oriented accessibility measures based on simple gravity model is discussed in details. Finally, a case study is fulfilled by comparison between the obstacle oriented and non-obstacle accessibility measures.

  4. Two-Step Optimization for Spatial Accessibility Improvement: A Case Study of Health Care Planning in Rural China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Luo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A recent advancement in location-allocation modeling formulates a two-step approach to a new problem of minimizing disparity of spatial accessibility. Our field work in a health care planning project in a rural county in China indicated that residents valued distance or travel time from the nearest hospital foremost and then considered quality of care including less waiting time as a secondary desirability. Based on the case study, this paper further clarifies the sequential decision-making approach, termed “two-step optimization for spatial accessibility improvement (2SO4SAI.” The first step is to find the best locations to site new facilities by emphasizing accessibility as proximity to the nearest facilities with several alternative objectives under consideration. The second step adjusts the capacities of facilities for minimal inequality in accessibility, where the measure of accessibility accounts for the match ratio of supply and demand and complex spatial interaction between them. The case study illustrates how the two-step optimization method improves both aspects of spatial accessibility for health care access in rural China.

  5. Spatial analysis of cattle and shoat population in Ethiopia: growth trend, distribution and market access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leta, Samson; Mesele, Frehiwot

    2014-01-01

    The livestock subsector has an enormous contribution to Ethiopia's national economy and livelihoods of many Ethiopians. The subsector contributes about 16.5% of the national Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and 35.6% of the agricultural GDP. It also contributes 15% of export earnings and 30% of agricultural employment. The livestock subsector currently support and sustain livelihoods for 80% of all rural population. The GDP of livestock related activities valued at 59 billion birr. Ethiopian livestock population trends, distribution and marketing vary considerably across space and time due to a variety of reasons. This study was aimed to assess cattle and shoat population growth trend, distribution and their access to market. Regression analysis was used to assess the cattle and shoat population growth trend and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) techniques were used to determine the spatial distribution of cattle and shoats, and their relative access to market. The data sets used are agricultural census (2001/02) and annual CSA agricultural sample survey (1995/96 to 2012/13). In the past eighteen years, the livestock population namely cattle, sheep and goat grew from 54.5 million to over 103.5 million with average annual increment of 3.4 million. The current average national cattle, sheep and goat population per km(2) are estimated to be 71, 33 and 29 respectively (excluding Addis Ababa, Afar and Somali regions). From the total livestock population the country owns about 46% cattle, 43% sheep and 40% goats are reared within 10 km radius from major livestock market centres and all-weather roads. On the other hand, three fourth of the country's land mass which comprises 15% of the cattle, 20% of the sheep and 21% of goat population is not accessible to market (greater than 30 km from major livestock market centres). It is found that the central highland regions account for the largest share of livestock population and also more accessible to market. Defining the

  6. Spatial Release From Masking in Simulated Cochlear Implant Users With and Without Access to Low-Frequency Acoustic Hearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Williges

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available For normal-hearing listeners, speech intelligibility improves if speech and noise are spatially separated. While this spatial release from masking has already been quantified in normal-hearing listeners in many studies, it is less clear how spatial release from masking changes in cochlear implant listeners with and without access to low-frequency acoustic hearing. Spatial release from masking depends on differences in access to speech cues due to hearing status and hearing device. To investigate the influence of these factors on speech intelligibility, the present study measured speech reception thresholds in spatially separated speech and noise for 10 different listener types. A vocoder was used to simulate cochlear implant processing and low-frequency filtering was used to simulate residual low-frequency hearing. These forms of processing were combined to simulate cochlear implant listening, listening based on low-frequency residual hearing, and combinations thereof. Simulated cochlear implant users with additional low-frequency acoustic hearing showed better speech intelligibility in noise than simulated cochlear implant users without acoustic hearing and had access to more spatial speech cues (e.g., higher binaural squelch. Cochlear implant listener types showed higher spatial release from masking with bilateral access to low-frequency acoustic hearing than without. A binaural speech intelligibility model with normal binaural processing showed overall good agreement with measured speech reception thresholds, spatial release from masking, and spatial speech cues. This indicates that differences in speech cues available to listener types are sufficient to explain the changes of spatial release from masking across these simulated listener types.

  7. Estimating spatial accessibility to facilities on the regional scale: an extended commuting-based interaction potential model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charreire Hélène

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is growing interest in the study of the relationships between individual health-related behaviours (e.g. food intake and physical activity and measurements of spatial accessibility to the associated facilities (e.g. food outlets and sport facilities. The aim of this study is to propose measurements of spatial accessibility to facilities on the regional scale, using aggregated data. We first used a potential accessibility model that partly makes it possible to overcome the limitations of the most frequently used indices such as the count of opportunities within a given neighbourhood. We then propose an extended model in order to take into account both home and work-based accessibility for a commuting population. Results Potential accessibility estimation provides a very different picture of the accessibility levels experienced by the population than the more classical "number of opportunities per census tract" index. The extended model for commuters increases the overall accessibility levels but this increase differs according to the urbanisation level. Strongest increases are observed in some rural municipalities with initial low accessibility levels. Distance to major urban poles seems to play an essential role. Conclusions Accessibility is a multi-dimensional concept that should integrate some aspects of travel behaviour. Our work supports the evidence that the choice of appropriate accessibility indices including both residential and non-residential environmental features is necessary. Such models have potential implications for providing relevant information to policy-makers in the field of public health.

  8. Filter multiplexing by use of spatial Code Division Multiple Access approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Jonathan; Zalevsky, Zeev; Mendlovic, David; Monreal, Javier Garcia

    2003-02-10

    The increasing popularity of optical communication has also brought a demand for a broader bandwidth. The trend, naturally, was to implement methods from traditional electronic communication. One of the most effective traditional methods is Code Division Multiple Access. In this research, we suggest the use of this approach for spatial coding applied to images. The approach is to multiplex several filters into one plane while keeping their mutual orthogonality. It is shown that if the filters are limited by their bandwidth, the output of all the filters can be sampled in the original image resolution and fully recovered through an all-optical setup. The theoretical analysis of such a setup is verified in an experimental demonstration.

  9. Augmented Reality as a Countermeasure for Sleep Deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumeister, James; Dorrlan, Jillian; Banks, Siobhan; Chatburn, Alex; Smith, Ross T; Carskadon, Mary A; Lushington, Kurt; Thomas, Bruce H

    2016-04-01

    Sleep deprivation is known to have serious deleterious effects on executive functioning and job performance. Augmented reality has an ability to place pertinent information at the fore, guiding visual focus and reducing instructional complexity. This paper presents a study to explore how spatial augmented reality instructions impact procedural task performance on sleep deprived users. The user study was conducted to examine performance on a procedural task at six time points over the course of a night of total sleep deprivation. Tasks were provided either by spatial augmented reality-based projections or on an adjacent monitor. The results indicate that participant errors significantly increased with the monitor condition when sleep deprived. The augmented reality condition exhibited a positive influence with participant errors and completion time having no significant increase when sleep deprived. The results of our study show that spatial augmented reality is an effective sleep deprivation countermeasure under laboratory conditions.

  10. Clinic access and teenage birth rates: Racial/ethnic and spatial disparities in Houston, TX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisniewski, Megan M; O'Connell, Heather A

    2018-03-01

    Teenage motherhood is a pressing issue in the United States, and one that is disproportionately affecting racial/ethnic minorities. In this research, we examine the relationship between the distance to the nearest reproductive health clinic and teenage birth rates across all zip codes in Houston, Texas. Our primary data come from the Texas Department of State Health Services. We use spatial regression analysis techniques to examine the link between clinic proximity and local teenage birth rates for all females aged 15 to 19, and separately by maternal race/ethnicity. We find, overall, limited support for a connection between clinic distance and local teenage birth rates. However, clinics seem to matter most for explaining non-Hispanic white teenage birth rates, particularly in high-poverty zip codes. The racial/ethnic and economic variation in the importance of clinic distance suggests tailoring clinic outreach to more effectively serve a wider range of teenage populations. We argue social accessibility should be considered in addition to geographic accessibility in order for clinics to help prevent teenage pregnancy. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. The effect of spatial barriers on realised accessibility to heath services after a natural disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacRae, Jayden; Kingham, Simon; Griffin, Ed

    2015-09-01

    The closure of the Manawatu Gorge in New Zealand in August 2011 caused a change in the travel time for patients living in the east of the MidCentral Health District to their health services located in Palmerston North. This presented an opportunity to study the effect a change in spatial access had on a population before and after such an event. We used a retrospective cohort design with routinely collected data from general practice and hospital services. Realised accessibility was calculated for 101,456 patients over 3.5 years. General practice utilization appeared to be the only service affected negatively during the gorge closure (rate ratio 1.106). Outpatient attendances had an increase in use by those with increased travel time (rate ratio 0.922). There was evidence of other unidentified factors that impacted the use of services across both intervention and control groups between the gorge open and closed periods. These results were more conservative than those produced by a traditional uncontrolled travel time category analysis which suggested a correlation in non-urgent ED attendance and general practice and boundary effects in all ED attendances and hospital admissions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Spatial Access to Emergency Services in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A GIS-Based Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin Tansley

    Full Text Available Injury is a leading cause of the global disease burden, accounting for 10 percent of all deaths worldwide. Despite 90 percent of these deaths occurring in low and middle-income countries (LMICs, the majority of trauma research and infrastructure development has taken place in high-income settings. Furthermore, although accessible services are of central importance to a mature trauma system, there remains a paucity of literature describing the spatial accessibility of emergency services in LMICs. Using data from the Service Provision Assessment component of the Demographic and Health Surveys of Namibia and Haiti we defined the capabilities of healthcare facilities in each country in terms of their preparedness to provide emergency services. A Geographic Information System-based network analysis method was used to define 5- 10- and 50-kilometer catchment areas for all facilities capable of providing 24-hour care, higher-level resuscitative services or tertiary care. The proportion of a country's population with access to each level of service was obtained by amalgamating the catchment areas with a population layer. A significant proportion of the population of both countries had poor spatial access to lower level services with 25% of the population of Haiti and 51% of the population of Namibia living further than 50 kilometers from a facility capable of providing 24-hour care. Spatial access to tertiary care was considerably lower with 51% of Haitians and 72% of Namibians having no access to these higher-level services within 50 kilometers. These results demonstrate a significant disparity in potential spatial access to emergency services in two LMICs compared to analogous estimates from high-income settings, and suggest that strengthening the capabilities of existing facilities may improve the equity of emergency services in these countries. Routine collection of georeferenced patient and facility data in LMICs will be important to understanding

  13. Evidence for Community Transmission of Community-Associated but Not Health-Care-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Strains Linked to Social and Material Deprivation: Spatial Analysis of Cross-sectional Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Tosas Auguet

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Identifying and tackling the social determinants of infectious diseases has become a public health priority following the recognition that individuals with lower socioeconomic status are disproportionately affected by infectious diseases. In many parts of the world, epidemiologically and genotypically defined community-associated (CA methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA strains have emerged to become frequent causes of hospital infection. The aim of this study was to use spatial models with adjustment for area-level hospital attendance to determine the transmission niche of genotypically defined CA- and health-care-associated (HA-MRSA strains across a diverse region of South East London and to explore a potential link between MRSA carriage and markers of social and material deprivation.This study involved spatial analysis of cross-sectional data linked with all MRSA isolates identified by three National Health Service (NHS microbiology laboratories between 1 November 2011 and 29 February 2012. The cohort of hospital-based NHS microbiology diagnostic services serves 867,254 usual residents in the Lambeth, Southwark, and Lewisham boroughs in South East London, United Kingdom (UK. Isolates were classified as HA- or CA-MRSA based on whole genome sequencing. All MRSA cases identified over 4 mo within the three-borough catchment area (n = 471 were mapped to small geographies and linked to area-level aggregated socioeconomic and demographic data. Disease mapping and ecological regression models were used to infer the most likely transmission niches for each MRSA genetic classification and to describe the spatial epidemiology of MRSA in relation to social determinants. Specifically, we aimed to identify demographic and socioeconomic population traits that explain cross-area extra variation in HA- and CA-MRSA relative risks following adjustment for hospital attendance data. We explored the potential for associations with the English Indices

  14. Evidence for Community Transmission of Community-Associated but Not Health-Care-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Strains Linked to Social and Material Deprivation: Spatial Analysis of Cross-sectional Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosas Auguet, Olga; Betley, Jason R; Stabler, Richard A; Patel, Amita; Ioannou, Avgousta; Marbach, Helene; Hearn, Pasco; Aryee, Anna; Goldenberg, Simon D; Otter, Jonathan A; Desai, Nergish; Karadag, Tacim; Grundy, Chris; Gaunt, Michael W; Cooper, Ben S; Edgeworth, Jonathan D; Kypraios, Theodore

    2016-01-01

    Identifying and tackling the social determinants of infectious diseases has become a public health priority following the recognition that individuals with lower socioeconomic status are disproportionately affected by infectious diseases. In many parts of the world, epidemiologically and genotypically defined community-associated (CA) methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains have emerged to become frequent causes of hospital infection. The aim of this study was to use spatial models with adjustment for area-level hospital attendance to determine the transmission niche of genotypically defined CA- and health-care-associated (HA)-MRSA strains across a diverse region of South East London and to explore a potential link between MRSA carriage and markers of social and material deprivation. This study involved spatial analysis of cross-sectional data linked with all MRSA isolates identified by three National Health Service (NHS) microbiology laboratories between 1 November 2011 and 29 February 2012. The cohort of hospital-based NHS microbiology diagnostic services serves 867,254 usual residents in the Lambeth, Southwark, and Lewisham boroughs in South East London, United Kingdom (UK). Isolates were classified as HA- or CA-MRSA based on whole genome sequencing. All MRSA cases identified over 4 mo within the three-borough catchment area (n = 471) were mapped to small geographies and linked to area-level aggregated socioeconomic and demographic data. Disease mapping and ecological regression models were used to infer the most likely transmission niches for each MRSA genetic classification and to describe the spatial epidemiology of MRSA in relation to social determinants. Specifically, we aimed to identify demographic and socioeconomic population traits that explain cross-area extra variation in HA- and CA-MRSA relative risks following adjustment for hospital attendance data. We explored the potential for associations with the English Indices of

  15. Lunar archive panoramas: modern image processing and access to the historic data based on spatial context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlova, Natalia; Kokhanov, Alexander; Oberst, Jürgen; Zubarev, Anatoliy; Nadezhdina, Irina; Patraty, Vyacheslav; Karachevtseva, Irina; Garov, Andrey; Matveev, Evgeniy

    The objectives of our work are to fully exploit the historic Soviet Lunokhod data and use the results for scientific and public purposes. Unfortunately, many of the relevant operational parameters of the Lunokhods missions are lost. Modern photogrammetry is a key to solving these issues, providing analysis techniques, not available at the time of the early lunar missions. For this purpose we use special developed software, GIS tools and high-resolution LRO data [1]. Results of new image processing of historic data are part of PRoViDE project (Planetary Robotics Vision Data Exploitation) which aims to assemble a major portion of the imaging data gathered from different vehicles and probes on planetary surfaces into a unique database, bringing them into a spatial context and providing access to a complete set of 3D vision products (http://www.provide-space.eu/). Our technology of archive panorama processing allows us to recover lost information of Soviet lunar missions and study lunar landing site imagery by state-of-the-art photogrammetric techniques. Our main task is to perform lunar panoramas in measurement form based on photogrammetry and geoanalyses methods, and then involve them in more detailed morphometric analyses [2] and 3D-modeling of lunar surface based on LROC NAC image processing [3]. The results of our work are various types of new products: panoramas in different projections, updated metadata with recovering parameters, and ortho-panoramas, which can be used for quantitative geomorphology assessment based on spatial tools [4]. All data products obtained as a result of the study are to be placed into Planetary data storage which is developing as Geodesy and Cartography Node [5]. Access to archive lunar data will be organized via Geo-portal (http://cartsrv.mexlab.ru/geoportal/) using authorization service, which provided data security and user control. Planetary spatial information system can integrate various types of data for planets and their

  16. Daily Access to Sucrose Impairs Aspects of Spatial Memory Tasks Reliant on Pattern Separation and Neural Proliferation in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichelt, Amy C.; Morris, Margaret J.; Westbrook, Reginald Frederick

    2016-01-01

    High sugar diets reduce hippocampal neurogenesis, which is required for minimizing interference between memories, a process that involves "pattern separation." We provided rats with 2 h daily access to a sucrose solution for 28 d and assessed their performance on a spatial memory task. Sucrose consuming rats discriminated between objects…

  17. Effects of acute administration of donepezil or memantine on sleep-deprivation-induced spatial memory deficit in young and aged non-human primate grey mouse lemurs (Microcebus murinus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisur Rahman

    Full Text Available The development of novel therapeutics to prevent cognitive decline of Alzheimer's disease (AD is facing paramount difficulties since the translational efficacy of rodent models did not resulted in better clinical results. Currently approved treatments, including the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor donepezil (DON and the N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist memantine (MEM provide marginal therapeutic benefits to AD patients. There is an urgent need to develop a predictive animal model that is phylogenetically proximal to humans to achieve better translation. The non-human primate grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus is increasingly used in aging research, but there is no published results related to the impact of known pharmacological treatments on age-related cognitive impairment observed in this primate. In the present study we investigated the effects of DON and MEM on sleep-deprivation (SD-induced memory impairment in young and aged male mouse lemurs. In particular, spatial memory impairment was evaluated using a circular platform task after 8 h of total SD. Acute single doses of DON or MEM (0.1 and 1mg/kg or vehicle were administered intraperitoneally 3 h before the cognitive task during the SD procedure. Results indicated that both doses of DON were able to prevent the SD-induced deficits in retrieval of spatial memory as compared to vehicle-treated animals, both in young and aged animals Likewise, MEM show a similar profile at 1 mg/kg but not at 0.1mg/kg. Taken together, these results indicate that two widely used drugs for mitigating cognitive deficits in AD were partially effective in sleep deprived mouse lemurs, which further support the translational potential of this animal model. Our findings demonstrate the utility of this primate model for further testing cognitive enhancing drugs in development for AD or other neuropsychiatric conditions.

  18. ViSA: a neurodynamic model for visuo-spatial working memory, attentional blink, and conscious access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simione, Luca; Raffone, Antonino; Wolters, Gezinus; Salmas, Paola; Nakatani, Chie; Belardinelli, Marta Olivetti; van Leeuwen, Cees

    2012-10-01

    Two separate lines of study have clarified the role of selectivity in conscious access to visual information. Both involve presenting multiple targets and distracters: one simultaneously in a spatially distributed fashion, the other sequentially at a single location. To understand their findings in a unified framework, we propose a neurodynamic model for Visual Selection and Awareness (ViSA). ViSA supports the view that neural representations for conscious access and visuo-spatial working memory are globally distributed and are based on recurrent interactions between perceptual and access control processors. Its flexible global workspace mechanisms enable a unitary account of a broad range of effects: It accounts for the limited storage capacity of visuo-spatial working memory, attentional cueing, and efficient selection with multi-object displays, as well as for the attentional blink and associated sparing and masking effects. In particular, the speed of consolidation for storage in visuo-spatial working memory in ViSA is not fixed but depends adaptively on the input and recurrent signaling. Slowing down of consolidation due to weak bottom-up and recurrent input as a result of brief presentation and masking leads to the attentional blink. Thus, ViSA goes beyond earlier 2-stage and neuronal global workspace accounts of conscious processing limitations. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. A cross-sectional ecological study of spatial scale and geographic inequality in access to drinking-water and sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Weiyu; Bain, Robert E S; Mansour, Shawky; Wright, Jim A

    2014-11-26

    Measuring inequality in access to safe drinking-water and sanitation is proposed as a component of international monitoring following the expiry of the Millennium Development Goals. This study aims to evaluate the utility of census data in measuring geographic inequality in access to drinking-water and sanitation. Spatially referenced census data were acquired for Colombia, South Africa, Egypt, and Uganda, whilst non-spatially referenced census data were acquired for Kenya. Four variants of the dissimilarity index were used to estimate geographic inequality in access to both services using large and small area units in each country through a cross-sectional, ecological study. Inequality was greatest for piped water in South Africa in 2001 (based on 53 areas (N) with a median population (MP) of 657,015; D = 0.5599) and lowest for access to an improved water source in Uganda in 2008 (N = 56; MP = 419,399; D = 0.2801). For sanitation, inequality was greatest for those lacking any facility in Kenya in 2009 (N = 158; MP = 216,992; D = 0.6981), and lowest for access to an improved facility in Uganda in 2002 (N = 56; MP = 341,954; D = 0.3403). Although dissimilarity index values were greater for smaller areal units, when study countries were ranked in terms of inequality, these ranks remained unaffected by the choice of large or small areal units. International comparability was limited due to definitional and temporal differences between censuses. This five-country study suggests that patterns of inequality for broad regional units do often reflect inequality in service access at a more local scale. This implies household surveys designed to estimate province-level service coverage can provide valuable insights into geographic inequality at lower levels. In comparison with household surveys, censuses facilitate inequality assessment at different spatial scales, but pose challenges in harmonising water and sanitation typologies across countries.

  20. Parents’ Perceived Barriers to Accessing Sports and Recreation Facilities in Ontario, Canada: Exploring the Relationships between Income, Neighbourhood Deprivation, and Community

    OpenAIRE

    Harrington, Daniel W.; Jarvis, Jocelyn W.; Manson, Heather

    2017-01-01

    Sports and recreation facilities provide places where children can be physically active. Previous research has shown that availability is often worse in lower-socioeconomic status (SES) areas, yet others have found inverse relationships, no relationships, or mixed findings. Since children’s health behaviours are influenced by their parents, it is important to understand parents’ perceived barriers to accessing sports and recreation facilities. Data from computer assisted telephone interviews ...

  1. Local consequences of national policies - a spatial analysis of preferences for forest access reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Sofie Elberg; Lundhede, Thomas; Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl

    2016-01-01

    Stated preference studies eliciting welfare economic consequence of national policies, are often not considering the spatial variation in supply and demand. This spatial variation may however cause large distributional heterogeneity of policy changes. In this study, we use a choice experiment to ...

  2. Job access and the spatial mobility trajectories of higher education graduates in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middeldorp, Marten; Edzes, Arend; van Dijk, Jouke; Ritschard, Gilbert; Studer, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    The successfulness of the transition from education into working life is closely related to further career success. Graduates with good access to jobs earn higher wages and have lower chances of being unemployed. Access to jobs at the start of the career is therefore an important determinant of

  3. Was cultural deprivation in fact sensory deprivation? Deprivation, retardation and intervention in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raz, Mical

    2011-01-01

    In the 1950s, the term "deprivation" entered American psychiatric discourse. This article examines how the concept of deprivation permeated the field of mental retardation, and became an accepted theory of etiology. It focuses on sensory deprivation and cultural deprivation, and analyzes the interventions developed, based on these theories. It argues that the controversial theory of cultural deprivation derived its scientific legitimization from the theory of sensory deprivation, and was a highly politicized concept that took part in the nature-nurture debate.

  4. Geographical accessibility and spatial coverage modeling of the primary health care network in the Western Province of Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huerta Munoz Ulises

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary health care is essential in improving and maintaining the health of populations. It has the potential to accelerate achievement of the Millennium Development Goals and fulfill the “Health for All” doctrine of the Alma-Ata Declaration. Understanding the performance of the health system from a geographic perspective is important for improved health planning and evidence-based policy development. The aims of this study were to measure geographical accessibility, model spatial coverage of the existing primary health facility network, estimate the number of primary health facilities working under capacity and the population underserved in the Western Province of Rwanda. Methods This study uses health facility, population and ancillary data for the Western Province of Rwanda. Three different travel scenarios utilized by the population to attend the nearest primary health facility were defined with a maximum travelling time of 60 minutes: Scenario 1 – walking; Scenario 2 – walking and cycling; and Scenario 3 – walking and public transportation. Considering these scenarios, a raster surface of travel time between primary health facilities and population was developed. To model spatial coverage and estimate the number of primary health facilities working under capacity, the catchment area of each facility was calculated by taking into account population coverage capacity, the population distribution, the terrain topography and the travelling modes through the different land categories. Results Scenario 2 (walking and cycling has the highest degree of geographical accessibility followed by Scenario 3 (walking and public transportation. The lowest level of accessibility can be observed in Scenario 1 (walking. The total population covered differs depending on the type of travel scenario. The existing primary health facility network covers only 26.6% of the population in Scenario 1. In Scenario 2, the use of a bicycle

  5. Accessibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brooks, Anthony Lewis

    2017-01-01

    This contribution is timely as it addresses accessibility in regards system hardware and software aligned with introduction of the Twenty-First Century Communications and Video Accessibility Act (CVAA) and adjoined game industry waiver that comes into force January 2017. This is an act created...... by the USA Federal Communications Commission (FCC) to increase the access of persons with disabilities to modern communications, and for other purposes. The act impacts advanced communications services and products including text messaging; e-mail; instant messaging; video communications; browsers; game...... platforms; and games software. However, the CVAA has no legal status in the EU. This text succinctly introduces and questions implications, impact, and wider adoption. By presenting the full CVAA and game industry waiver the text targets to motivate discussions and further publications on the subject...

  6. The NASA Regional Planetary Image Facility (RPIF) Network: A Key Resource for Accessing and Using Planetary Spatial Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagerty, J. J.

    2017-12-01

    The role of the NASA Regional Planetary Image Facility (RPIF) Network is evolving as new science-ready spatial data products continue to be created and as key historical planetary data sets are digitized. Specifically, the RPIF Network is poised to serve specialized knowledge and services in a user-friendly manner that removes most barriers to locating, accessing, and exploiting planetary spatial data, thus providing a critical data access role within a spatial data infrastructure. The goal of the Network is to provide support and training to a broad audience of planetary spatial data users. In an effort to meet the planetary science community's evolving needs, we are focusing on the following objectives: Maintain and improve the delivery of historical data accumulated over the past four decades so as not to lose critical, historical information. This is being achieved by systematically digitizing fragile materials, allowing increased access and preserving them at the same time. Help users locate, access, visualize, and exploit planetary science data. Many of the facilities have begun to establish Guest User Facilities that allow researchers to use and/or be trained on GIS equipment and other specialized tools like Socet Set/GXP photogrammetry workstations for generating digital elevation maps. Improve the connection between the Network nodes while also leveraging the unique resources of each node. To achieve this goal, each facility is developing and sharing searchable databases of their collections, including robust metadata in a standards compliant way. Communicate more effectively and regularly with the planetary science community in an effort to make potential users aware of resources and services provided by the Network, while also engaging community members in discussions about community needs. Provide a regional resource for the science community, colleges, universities, museums, media, and the public to access planetary data. Introduce new strategies for

  7. Accessing the mental space-Spatial working memory processes for language and vision overlap in precuneus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallentin, Mikkel; Weed, Ethan; Østergaard, Leif; Mouridsen, Kim; Roepstorff, Andreas

    2008-05-01

    The "overlapping systems" theory of language function argues that linguistic meaning construction crucially relies on contextual information provided by "nonlinguistic" cognitive systems, such as perception and memory. This study examines whether linguistic processing of spatial relations established by reading sentences call on the same posterior parietal neural system involved in processing spatial relations set up through visual input. Subjects read simple sentences, which presented two agents in relation to each other, and were subsequently asked to evaluate spatial (e.g., "Was he turned towards her?") and equally concrete nonspatial content (e.g., "Was he older than her?"). We found that recall of the spatial content relative to the nonspatial content resulted in higher BOLD response in a dorsoposterior network of brain regions, most significantly in precuneus, strikingly overlapping a network previously shown to be involved in recall of spatial aspects of images depicting similar scenarios. This supports a neurocognitive model of language function, where sentences establish meaning by interacting with the perceptual and working memory networks of the brain. (Copyright) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Accessing the mental space - Spatial working memory processes for language and vision overlap in precuneus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallentin, Mikkel; Weed, Ethan; Østergaard, Leif

    2008-01-01

    , strikingly overlapping a network previously shown to be involved in recall of spatial aspects of images depicting similar scenarios. This supports a neurocognitive model of language function, where sentences establish meaning by interacting with the perceptual and working memory networks of the brain.......Abstract: The ‘‘overlapping systems'' theory of language function argues that linguistic meaning construction crucially relies on contextual information provided by ‘‘nonlinguistic'' cognitive systems, such as perception and memory. This study examines whether linguistic processing of spatial.......g., ‘‘Was he turned towards her?'') and equally concrete nonspatial content (e.g., ‘‘Was he older than her?''). We found that recall of the spatial content relative to the nonspatial content resulted in higher BOLD response in a dorsoposterior network of brain regions, most significantly in precuneus...

  9. Spatial-phase code-division multiple-access system with multiplexed Fourier holography switching for reconfigurable optical interconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takasago, Kazuya; Takekawa, Makoto; Shirakawa, Atsushi; Kannari, Fumihiko

    2000-05-01

    A new, to our knowledge, space-variant optical interconnection system based on a spatial-phase code-division multiple-access technique with multiplexed Fourier holography is described. In this technique a signal beam is spread over wide spatial frequencies by an M -sequence pseudorandom phase code. At a receiver side a selected signal beam is properly decoded, and at the same time its spatial pattern is shaped with a Fourier hologram, which is recorded by light that is encoded with the same M -sequence phase mask as the desired signal beam and by light whose spatial beam pattern is shaped to a signal routing pattern. Using the multiplexed holography, we can simultaneously route multisignal flows into individually specified receiver elements. The routing pattern can also be varied by means of switching the encoding phase code or replacing the hologram. We demonstrated a proof-of-principle experiment with a doubly multiplexed hologram that enables simultaneous routing of two signal beams. Using a numerical model, we showed that the proposed scheme can manage more than 250 routing patterns for one signal flow with one multiplexed hologram at a signal-to-noise ratio of 5.

  10. Chronic kidney disease in Nigeria: an evaluation of the spatial accessibility to healthcare for diagnosed cases in Edo State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osaretin Oviasu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD is a growing problem in Nigeria, presenting challenges to the nation’s health and economy. This study evaluates the accessibility to healthcare in Edo State of CKD patients diagnosed between 2006 and 2009. Using cost analysis techniques within a geographical information system, an estimated travel time to the hospital was used to examine the spatial accessibility of diagnosed patients to available CKD healthcare in the state. The results from the study indicated that although there was an annual rise in the number of diagnosed cases, there were no significant changes in the proportion of patients that were diagnosed at the last stage of CKD. However, there were indications that the travel time to the hospital for CKD treatment might be a contributing factor to the number of diagnosed CKD cases. This implies that the current structure for CKD management within the state might not be adequate.

  11. POVERTY AND CALORIE DEPRIVATION ACROSS SOCIO-ECONOMIC GROUPS IN RURAL INDIA: A DISAGGREGATED ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Abha; Mishra, Deepak K.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the linkages between calorie deprivation and poverty in rural India at a disaggregated level. It aims to explore the trends and pattern in levels of nutrient intake across social and economic groups. A spatial analysis at the state and NSS-region level unravels the spatial distribution of calorie deprivation in rural India. The gap between incidence of poverty and calorie deprivation has also been investigated. The paper also estimates the factors influencing calorie depri...

  12. Accessibility and spatial distribution of general practice services in an Australian city by levels of social disadvantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyndman, J C; Holman, C D

    2001-12-01

    The accessibility and spatial distribution of health services provided by the main source of primary medical care in Australia--the general practice surgery--was investigated by level of social disadvantage of local catchment areas. All 459 general practice surgeries in Perth, an Australian city of 1.2 million residents, were surveyed with a 94% response. Amount of service provision was measured using weekly doctor-hours, available from consulting rooms during opening hours, and associated nurse-hours of service. Access factors were defined as the distance to the nearest surgery, provision of Sunday and evening services, ease of making a same day appointment, bulk-billing, and whether the surgery offered a choice of gender of doctor. There were relatively more surgeries in disadvantaged areas and doctor-hours of service provision were also greater (41.0 h/1,000 most disadvantaged vs. 37.9 h/1000 least disadvantaged). Bulk-billing care, at no direct cost to the patient, was more likely to be provided in most disadvantaged areas compared with least disadvantaged areas (61 vs. 38%). However, populations living in the most disadvantaged areas were less likely to be able to see the local GP at short notice (91 vs. 95%), to have access to a local female GP (56 vs. 62%) or a local service in the evenings (42 vs. 51%). While the overall picture of accessibility was favourable, there was considerable variation in the type of services provided to different socioeconomic groups. Health care planners should investigate the reasons for these differences and advise Government to ensure that access factors affecting publicly funded services are equitably distributed.

  13. Spatial Variation of Temperature and Precipitation in Bhutan and Links to Vegetation and Land Coveropen access

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorji, Ugyen; Olesen, Jørgen Eivind; Bøcher, Peder Klith

    2016-01-01

    Bhutan, located in the Himalayas in the South Asian monsoon region, has extremely high variation in elevation, climatic conditions, and land cover despite its small geographical area, as well as great biodiversity. This paper provides the first comprehensive description of climatic conditions....... The spatial distribution of precipitation was mainly controlled by latitude, having a quadratic relationship, with the highest rates in the southern foothills of the Himalayan range and the lowest at midlatitudes. The land cover is affected by topography and local climate, with variations in temperature being...... a main deciding factor for vegetation types; most human settlements and associated land uses are concentrated at lower elevations....

  14. Lowering the barriers for accessing distributed geospatial big data to advance spatial data science: the PolarHub solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W.

    2017-12-01

    Data is the crux of science. The widespread availability of big data today is of particular importance for fostering new forms of geospatial innovation. This paper reports a state-of-the-art solution that addresses a key cyberinfrastructure research problem—providing ready access to big, distributed geospatial data resources on the Web. We first formulate this data-access problem and introduce its indispensable elements, including identifying the cyber-location, space and time coverage, theme, and quality of the dataset. We then propose strategies to tackle each data-access issue and make the data more discoverable and usable for geospatial data users and decision makers. Among these strategies is large-scale web crawling as a key technique to support automatic collection of online geospatial data that are highly distributed, intrinsically heterogeneous, and known to be dynamic. To better understand the content and scientific meanings of the data, methods including space-time filtering, ontology-based thematic classification, and service quality evaluation are incorporated. To serve a broad scientific user community, these techniques are integrated into an operational data crawling system, PolarHub, which is also an important cyberinfrastructure building block to support effective data discovery. A series of experiments were conducted to demonstrate the outstanding performance of the PolarHub system. We expect this work to contribute significantly in building the theoretical and methodological foundation for data-driven geography and the emerging spatial data science.

  15. Surface Accessibility with Spatial Analysis During Fire Extinguishing Procedures: Example on the Island of Vis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kruno Lepoglavec

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: The existing public and forest transport infrastructure (truck forest roads are permanent objects used when passing through forests. They also serve as a firefighter belt and provide direct access to firefighting vehicles, or are used as the starting point where firefighting teams extinguish fires or move toward remote fires. The paper identifies the existing fire road network (including public roads, forest roads, non-classified roads and fire roads for access of firefighting vehicles during fire extinguishing interventions. Material and Methods: An analysis of the intervention rate was conducted on a dispersive sample (35 positions from two volunteer fire associations (VFA on the island of Vis. Also, an analysis of the surface availability to fire vehicles concerning the time of departure from the fire station was conducted, as well as the comparison with the Standard time of intervention defined by the regulations on fire department organization in the Republic of Croatia. Results: For each simulated fire location for intervention of two existing volunteer fire associations: VFA Komiža and VFA Vis, results show that for a few fire locations, despite a smaller distance from the VFA Komiža, a quicker intervention is possible from the VFA Vis (locations 4, 5 and 14, and vice versa (locations 21, 22 and 25. With the use of a New Service Area, tool intervention times regarding different areas were calculated. Intervention times were divided into intervals: 25 min. The last two categories of area are beyond reach for firefighters within the Standard time of intervention (15 min and together they comprise to 27.88% of the total research area. Conclusions: The results of Closest Facility tool indicate that for the simulated fire position the best/fastest route is not always the shortest one, because of a significant effect of the structural elements of each road, the state of the road and the longitudinal slope of the road

  16. Interspecific interference competition at the resource patch scale: do large herbivores spatially avoid elephants while accessing water?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferry, Nicolas; Dray, Stéphane; Fritz, Hervé; Valeix, Marion

    2016-11-01

    Animals may anticipate and try to avoid, at some costs, physical encounters with other competitors. This may ultimately impact their foraging distribution and intake rates. Such cryptic interference competition is difficult to measure in the field, and extremely little is known at the interspecific level. We tested the hypothesis that smaller species avoid larger ones because of potential costs of interference competition and hence expected them to segregate from larger competitors at the scale of a resource patch. We assessed fine-scale spatial segregation patterns between three African herbivore species (zebra Equus quagga, kudu Tragelaphus strepsiceros and giraffe Giraffa camelopardalis) and a megaherbivore, the African elephant Loxodonta africana, at the scale of water resource patches in the semi-arid ecosystem of Hwange National Park, Zimbabwe. Nine waterholes were monitored every two weeks during the dry season of a drought year, and observational scans of the spatial distribution of all herbivores were performed every 15 min. We developed a methodological approach to analyse such fine-scale spatial data. Elephants increasingly used waterholes as the dry season progressed, as did the probability of co-occurrence and agonistic interaction with elephants for the three study species. All three species segregated from elephants at the beginning of the dry season, suggesting a spatial avoidance of elephants and the existence of costs of being close to them. However, contrarily to our expectations, herbivores did not segregate from elephants the rest of the dry season but tended to increasingly aggregate with elephants as the dry season progressed. We discuss these surprising results and the existence of a trade-off between avoidance of interspecific interference competition and other potential factors such as access to quality water, which may have relative associated costs that change with the time of the year. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology

  17. Louisiana coastal GIS network: Graphical user interface for access to spatial data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiland, Matteson; McBride, Randolph A.; Davis, Donald; Braud, Dewitt; Streiffer, Henry; Jones, Farrell; Lewis, Anthony; Williams, S.

    1991-01-01

    Louisiana's coastal wetlands support a large percentage of the nation's seafood and fur industries, vast deposits of oil and natural gas, habitat for thousands of species of plants and animals, winter nesting grounds and migratory paths for numerous waterfowl, and many recreational resources enjoyed by residents and tourists. Louisiana's wetlands also have the highest rates of coastal erosion and wetland loss in the nation. While numerous studies across many disciplines have been conducted on both local and regional scales, no complete inventory exists for this information. The Louisiana Coastal Geographic Information System Network (LCGISN) is currently being developed to facilitate access to existing data for coastal zone planners, managers, and researchers. The Louisiana Geological Survey (LGS), in cooperation with the LSU Department of Geography and Anthropology, the Computer Aided Design and Geographic Information Systems Research Laboratory (CADGIS), and others, is pursuing this project under the terms of a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Geological Survey. LCGISN is an automated system for searching and retrieving geographic, cartographic, and bibliographic data. By linking original programming with an existing GIS software package and an industry standard relational database management system, LCGISN will provide the capability for users to search for data references by interactively defining the area of interest on a displayed map/image reference background. Several agencies will be networked to provide easy access to a wide variety of information. LCGISN, with its headquarters at LGS, will serve as the central node on the network, providing data format conversions, projection and datum transformations, and storage of several of the most commonly used data sets. Thematic mapper data, USGS 7.5-minute quadrangle map boundaries, political and legal boundaries, major transportation routes, and other digital data will provide a base map to aid the user in

  18. Relative deprivation and intergroup prejudice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pettigrew, T.F.; Christ, O.; Wagner, U.; Meertens, R.W.; van Dick, R.; Zick, A.

    2008-01-01

    Using three diverse European surveys, we test the relationship between relative deprivation (RD) and anti-immigrant prejudice. We find that both group relative deprivation (GRD) and individual relative deprivation (IRD) are found primarily among working-class respondents who are politically

  19. Are You Sleep Deprived?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Sleep Disorders Are You Sleep Deprived? Past Issues / Summer 2015 Table of Contents ... even if you think you've had enough sleep? You might have a sleep disorder. There are ...

  20. Sleep deprivation and depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsenga, Simon

    1992-01-01

    The association between depression and sleep disturbances is perhaps as old as makind. In view of the longstanding experience with this association it is amazing that only some 20 years ago, a few depressed patients attracted attention to the fact that Total Sleep Deprivation (TSD) had

  1. MExLab Planetary Geoportal: 3D-access to planetary images and results of spatial data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karachevtseva, I.; Garov, A.

    2015-10-01

    MExLab Planetary Geoportal was developed as Geodesy and Cartography Node which provide access to results of study of celestial bodies such as DEM and orthoimages, as well as basemaps, crater catalogues and derivative products: slope, roughness, crater density (http://cartsrv.mexlab.ru/geoportal). The main feature of designed Geoportal is the ability of spatial queries and access to the contents selecting from the list of available data set (Phobos, Mercury, Moon, including Lunokhod's archive data). Prior version of Geoportal has been developed using Flash technology. Now we are developing new version which will use 3D-API (OpenGL, WebGL) based on shaders not only for standard 3D-functionality, but for 2D-mapping as well. Users can obtain quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the objects in graphical, tabular and 3D-forms. It will bring the advantages of unification of code and speed of processing and provide a number of functional advantages based on GIS-tools such as: - possibility of dynamic raster transform for needed map projection; - effective implementation of the co-registration of planetary images by combining spatial data geometries; - presentation in 3D-form different types of data, including planetary atmospheric measurements, subsurface radar data, ect. The system will be created with a new software architecture, which has a potential for development and flexibility in reconfiguration based on cross platform solution: - an application for the three types of platforms: desktop (Windows, Linux, OSX), web platform (any HTML5 browser), and mobile application (Android, iOS); - a single codebase shared between platforms (using cross compilation for Web); - a new telecommunication solution to connect between modules and external system like PROVIDE WebGIS (http://www.provide-space.eu/progis/). The research leading to these result was partly supported by the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement n

  2. A hybrid 3D spatial access method based on quadtrees and R-trees for globe data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jun; Ke, Shengnan; Li, Xiaomin; Qi, Shuhua

    2009-10-01

    3D spatial access method for globe data is very crucial technique for virtual earth. This paper presents a brand-new maintenance method to index 3d objects distributed on the whole surface of the earth, which integrates the 1:1,000,000- scale topographic map tiles, Quad-tree and R-tree. Furthermore, when traditional methods are extended into 3d space, the performance of spatial index deteriorates badly, for example 3D R-tree. In order to effectively solve this difficult problem, a new algorithm of dynamic R-tree is put forward, which includes two sub-procedures, namely node-choosing and node-split. In the node-choosing algorithm, a new strategy is adopted, not like the traditional mode which is from top to bottom, but firstly from bottom to top then from top to bottom. This strategy can effectively solve the negative influence of node overlap. In the node-split algorithm, 2-to-3 split mode substitutes the traditional 1-to-2 mode, which can better concern the shape and size of nodes. Because of the rational tree shape, this R-tree method can easily integrate the concept of LOD. Therefore, it will be later implemented in commercial DBMS and adopted in time-crucial 3d GIS system.

  3. Rats do not eat alone in public: Food-deprived rats socialize rather than competing for baits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omri Weiss

    Full Text Available Limited resources result in competition among social animals. Nevertheless, social animals also have innate preferences for cooperative behavior. In the present study, 12 dyads of food-deprived rats were tested in four successive trials, and then re-tested as eight triads of food-deprived rats that were unfamiliar to each other. We found that the food-deprived dyads or triads of rats did not compete for the food available to them at regular spatially-marked locations that they had previously learnt. Rather, these rats traveled together to collect the baits. One rat, or two rats in some triads, lead (ran ahead to collect most of the baits, but "leaders" differed across trials so that, on average, each rat ultimately collected similar amounts of baits. Regardless of which rat collected the baits, the rats traveled together with no substantial difference among them in terms of their total activity. We suggest that rats, which are a social species that has been found to display reciprocity, have evolved to travel and forage together and to share limited resources. Consequently, they displayed a sort of 'peace economy' that on average resulted in equal access to the baits across trials. For social animals, this type of dynamics is more relaxed, tolerant, and effective in the management of conflicts. Rather than competing for the limited available food, the food-deprived rats socialized and coexisted peacefully.

  4. Improving spatial prediction of Schistosoma haematobium prevalence in southern Ghana through new remote sensors and local water access profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulinkina, Alexandra V; Walz, Yvonne; Koch, Magaly; Biritwum, Nana-Kwadwo; Utzinger, Jürg; Naumova, Elena N

    2018-06-04

    Schistosomiasis is a water-related neglected tropical disease. In many endemic low- and middle-income countries, insufficient surveillance and reporting lead to poor characterization of the demographic and geographic distribution of schistosomiasis cases. Hence, modeling is relied upon to predict areas of high transmission and to inform control strategies. We hypothesized that utilizing remotely sensed (RS) environmental data in combination with water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) variables could improve on the current predictive modeling approaches. Schistosoma haematobium prevalence data, collected from 73 rural Ghanaian schools, were used in a random forest model to investigate the predictive capacity of 15 environmental variables derived from RS data (Landsat 8, Sentinel-2, and Global Digital Elevation Model) with fine spatial resolution (10-30 m). Five methods of variable extraction were tested to determine the spatial linkage between school-based prevalence and the environmental conditions of potential transmission sites, including applying the models to known human water contact locations. Lastly, measures of local water access and groundwater quality were incorporated into RS-based models to assess the relative importance of environmental and WASH variables. Predictive models based on environmental characterization of specific locations where people contact surface water bodies offered some improvement as compared to the traditional approach based on environmental characterization of locations where prevalence is measured. A water index (MNDWI) and topographic variables (elevation and slope) were important environmental risk factors, while overall, groundwater iron concentration predominated in the combined model that included WASH variables. The study helps to understand localized drivers of schistosomiasis transmission. Specifically, unsatisfactory water quality in boreholes perpetuates reliance of surface water bodies, indirectly increasing

  5. GSR-TDMA: A Geometric Spatial Reuse-Time Division Multiple Access MAC Protocol for Multihop Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changho Yun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The nonnegligible propagation delay of acoustic signals causes spatiotemporal uncertainty that occasionally enables simultaneous, collision-free packet transmission among underwater nodes (UNs. These transmissions can be handled by efficiently managing the channel access of the UNs in the data-link layer. To this end, Geometric Spatial Reuse-TDMA (GSR-TDMA, a new TDMA-based MAC protocol, is designed for use in centralized, multihop underwater acoustic sensor networks (UASNs, and in this case all UNs are periodically scheduled after determining a geometric map according to the information on their location. The scheduling strategy increases the number of UNs that send packets coincidentally via two subscheduling configurations (i.e., interhop and intrahop scheduling. Extensive simulations are used to investigate the reception success rate (RSR and the multihop delay (MHD of GSR-TDMA, and the results are compared to those of previous approaches, including C-MAC and HSR-TDMA. GSR-TDMA outperforms C-MAC; the RSR of GSR-TDMA is 15% higher than that of C-MAC, and the MHD of GSR-TDMA is 30% lower than that of C-MAC at the most. In addition, GSR-TDMA provides even better performance improvements over HSR-TDMA; the RSR of GSR-TDMA is 50% higher than that of HSR-TDMA, and the MHD of GSR-TDMA is an order of 102 lower than that of HSR-TDMA at the most.

  6. A new two dimensional spectral/spatial multi-diagonal code for noncoherent optical code division multiple access (OCDMA) systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadhim, Rasim Azeez; Fadhil, Hilal Adnan; Aljunid, S. A.; Razalli, Mohamad Shahrazel

    2014-10-01

    A new two dimensional codes family, namely two dimensional multi-diagonal (2D-MD) codes, is proposed for spectral/spatial non-coherent OCDMA systems based on the one dimensional MD code. Since the MD code has the property of zero cross correlation, the proposed 2D-MD code also has this property. So that, the multi-access interference (MAI) is fully eliminated and the phase induced intensity noise (PIIN) is suppressed with the proposed code. Code performance is analyzed in terms of bit error rate (BER) while considering the effect of shot noise, PIIN, and thermal noise. The performance of the proposed code is compared with the related MD, modified quadratic congruence (MQC), two dimensional perfect difference (2D-PD) and two dimensional diluted perfect difference (2D-DPD) codes. The analytical and the simulation results reveal that the proposed 2D-MD code outperforms the other codes. Moreover, a large number of simultaneous users can be accommodated at low BER and high data rate.

  7. Assessing spatial access to public and private hospitals in Sichuan, China: The influence of the private sector on the healthcare geography in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jay; Zhao, Hanqing; Wang, Xiuli; Shi, Xun

    2016-12-01

    In 2009, the Chinese government launched a new round of healthcare reform, which encourages development of private hospitals. Meanwhile, many public hospitals in China also became increasingly profit-oriented. These trends have led to concerns about social justice and regional disparity. However, there is a lack of empirical scientific analysis to support the debate. We started to fill this gap by conducting a regional-level analysis of spatial variation in spatial access to hospitals in the Sichuan Province. Such variation is an important indication of (in) equity in healthcare resource allocation. Using data of 2012, we intended to provide a snapshot of the situation that was a few years later since the new policies had set out. We employed two methods to quantify the spatial access: the nearest-neighbor method and the enhanced two-step floating catchment area (E2SFCA) method. We recognized two sub-regions of Sichuan: the rural West Sichuan and the well-developed East Sichuan. We classified the hospitals using both ownership and level. We applied the analysis to the resulting groups of hospitals and their combinations in the two sub-regions. The two sub-regions have a high contrast in the spatial access to hospitals, in terms of both quantity and spatial pattern. Public hospitals still dominated the service in the province, especially in the West Sichuan, which had been solely relying on public hospitals. Private hospitals only occurred in the East Sichuan, and at the primary level, they had surpassed public hospitals in terms of spatial accessibility. However, the governmental health expenditures seemed to be disconnected with the actual situation of the spatial access to hospitals. The government should continue carrying on its responsibility in allocating healthcare resources, be cautious about marketizing public hospitals, and encourage private hospitals to expand into rural areas. Methodologically, the results from the two methods are concurring but not

  8. Is there an association between spatial access to parks/green space and childhood overweight/obesity in Calgary, Canada?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potestio Melissa L

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The recent increase in childhood obesity is expected to add significantly to the prevalence of chronic diseases. We used multivariate multilevel analysis to examine associations between parks/green space and childhood overweight/obesity across communities in Calgary, Canada, a city characterized by intensified urban sprawl and high car use. Methods Body Mass Index was calculated from measured height and weight data obtained from 6,772 children (mean age = 4.95 years attending public health clinics for pre-school vaccinations. Each child's home postal code was geocoded using ESRI ArcGIS 9.2. We examined four measures of spatial access to parks/green space (based on Geographic Information Systems: 1 the number of parks/green spaces per 10,000 residents, 2 the area of parks/green space as a proportion of the total area within a community, 3 average distance to a park/green space, and 4 the proportion of parks/green space service area as a proportion of the total area within a community. Analyses were adjusted for dissemination area median family income (as a proxy for an individual child's family income community-level education, and community-level proportion of visible minorities. Results In general, parks/green space at the community level was not associated with overweight/obesity in Calgary, with the exception of a marginally significant effect whereby a moderate number of parks/green spaces per 10,000 residents was associated with lower odds of overweight/obesity. This effect was non-significant in adjusted analyses. Conclusion Our null findings may reflect the popularity of car travel in Calgary, Canada and suggest that the role built environment characteristics play in explaining health outcomes may differ depending on the type of urban environment being studied.

  9. Is Entrepreneurship a Route Out of Deprivation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankish, Julian S.; Roberts, Richard G.; Coad, Alexander Jean-Luc

    2014-01-01

    Frankish J. S., Roberts R. G., Coad A. and Storey D. J. Is entrepreneurship a route out of deprivation?, Regional Studies. This paper investigates whether entrepreneurship constitutes a route out of deprivation for those living in deprived areas. The measure of income/wealth used is based...... the wealth distribution. Hence, entrepreneurship can be a route out of deprivation....

  10. Walkability around primary schools and area deprivation across Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Laura; McCrorie, Paul; Nicholls, Natalie; Ellaway, Anne

    2016-04-14

    A number of studies based in the US, Canada, and Australia, have found evidence of associations between the built environment (BE) and mode of transport to school, and links between active travel and deprivation. Limited research in the UK compares potential BE supports for walking to school by area deprivation. Within this study, we gathered data on BE attributes previously linked to active travel, i.e., street/path connectivity, and dwelling density, created a composite 'walkability score' (WS) for areas around primary schools across urban Scotland, and explored whether poorer areas exhibit lower scores than more affluent areas, or vice versa. We consider this to be a novel approach as few studies have compared BE features by deprivation across a whole country. Address and road/path maps were obtained and primary schools (N = 937) across mainland Scotland were mapped. Schools were attributed income deprivation scores (scores divided into quintiles (Q1: least deprived, Q5: most deprived)). Catchment area (CA) boundaries, i.e., the geographic area representing eligibility for local school attendance, were drawn around schools, and WS calculated for each CA. We compared mean WS by income quintile (ANOVA), for all local authorities (LAs) combined (N = 29), and separately for the four LAs with the greatest number of schools included in the analysis. For all LAs combined, the least deprived quintile (Q1) showed a significantly lower WS (-0.61), than quintiles 3, 4 and 5 (Q2: -0.04 (non-sig), Q3: 0.38, Q4: 0.09, Q5: 0.18); while for Glasgow the second least deprived quintile (Q2) showed significantly higher WS (Q1: 1.35, Q2: 1.73), than middling (Q3: 0.18) and most deprived quintiles (Q4: 0.06, Q5: -0.10). WS differ by deprivation with patterns varying depending on the spatial scale of the analysis. It is essential that less walkable areas are provided with the resources to improve opportunities to engage in active travel.

  11. Spatial access method for urban geospatial database management: An efficient approach of 3D vector data clustering technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azri, Suhaibah; Ujang, Uznir; Rahman, Alias Abdul

    2014-01-01

    In the last few years, 3D urban data and its information are rapidly increased due to the growth of urban area and urbanization phenomenon. These datasets are then maintain and manage in 3D spatial database system. However, performance deterioration is likely to happen due to the massiveness of 3D...... datasets. As a solution, 3D spatial index structure is used as a booster to increase the performance of data retrieval. In commercial database, commonly and widely used index structure for 3D spatial database is 3D R-Tree. This is due to its simplicity and promising method in handling spatial data. However......D geospatial data clustering to be used in the construction of 3D R-Tree and respectively could reduce the overlapping among nodes. The proposed method is tested on 3D urban dataset for the application of urban infill development. By using several cases of data updating operations such as building...

  12. Impact of Acute Sleep Deprivation on Sarcasm Detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaétane Deliens

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence that sleep plays a pivotal role on health, cognition and emotional regulation. However, the interplay between sleep and social cognition remains an uncharted research area. In particular, little is known about the impact of sleep deprivation on sarcasm detection, an ability which, once altered, may hamper everyday social interactions. The aim of this study is to determine whether sleep-deprived participants are as able as sleep-rested participants to adopt another perspective in gauging sarcastic statements. At 9am, after a whole night of sleep (n = 15 or a sleep deprivation night (n = 15, participants had to read the description of an event happening to a group of friends. An ambiguous voicemail message left by one of the friends on another's phone was then presented, and participants had to decide whether the recipient would perceive the message as sincere or as sarcastic. Messages were uttered with a neutral intonation and were either: (1 sarcastic from both the participant's and the addressee's perspectives (i.e. both had access to the relevant background knowledge to gauge the message as sarcastic, (2 sarcastic from the participant's but not from the addressee's perspective (i.e. the addressee lacked context knowledge to detect sarcasm or (3 sincere. A fourth category consisted in messages sarcastic from both the participant's and from the addressee's perspective, uttered with a sarcastic tone. Although sleep-deprived participants were as accurate as sleep-rested participants in interpreting the voice message, they were also slower. Blunted reaction time was not fully explained by generalized cognitive slowing after sleep deprivation; rather, it could reflect a compensatory mechanism supporting normative accuracy level in sarcasm understanding. Introducing prosodic cues compensated for increased processing difficulties in sarcasm detection after sleep deprivation. Our findings support the hypothesis that sleep

  13. Impact of Acute Sleep Deprivation on Sarcasm Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deliens, Gaétane; Stercq, Fanny; Mary, Alison; Slama, Hichem; Cleeremans, Axel; Peigneux, Philippe; Kissine, Mikhail

    2015-01-01

    There is growing evidence that sleep plays a pivotal role on health, cognition and emotional regulation. However, the interplay between sleep and social cognition remains an uncharted research area. In particular, little is known about the impact of sleep deprivation on sarcasm detection, an ability which, once altered, may hamper everyday social interactions. The aim of this study is to determine whether sleep-deprived participants are as able as sleep-rested participants to adopt another perspective in gauging sarcastic statements. At 9am, after a whole night of sleep (n = 15) or a sleep deprivation night (n = 15), participants had to read the description of an event happening to a group of friends. An ambiguous voicemail message left by one of the friends on another's phone was then presented, and participants had to decide whether the recipient would perceive the message as sincere or as sarcastic. Messages were uttered with a neutral intonation and were either: (1) sarcastic from both the participant's and the addressee's perspectives (i.e. both had access to the relevant background knowledge to gauge the message as sarcastic), (2) sarcastic from the participant's but not from the addressee's perspective (i.e. the addressee lacked context knowledge to detect sarcasm) or (3) sincere. A fourth category consisted in messages sarcastic from both the participant's and from the addressee's perspective, uttered with a sarcastic tone. Although sleep-deprived participants were as accurate as sleep-rested participants in interpreting the voice message, they were also slower. Blunted reaction time was not fully explained by generalized cognitive slowing after sleep deprivation; rather, it could reflect a compensatory mechanism supporting normative accuracy level in sarcasm understanding. Introducing prosodic cues compensated for increased processing difficulties in sarcasm detection after sleep deprivation. Our findings support the hypothesis that sleep deprivation might

  14. Landscape-scale accessibility of livestock to tigers: implications of spatial grain for modeling predation risk to mitigate human-carnivore conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jennifer R B; Jhala, Yadvendradev V; Jena, Jyotirmay; Schmitz, Oswald J

    2015-03-01

    Innovative conservation tools are greatly needed to reduce livelihood losses and wildlife declines resulting from human-carnivore conflict. Spatial risk modeling is an emerging method for assessing the spatial patterns of predator-prey interactions, with applications for mitigating carnivore attacks on livestock. Large carnivores that ambush prey attack and kill over small areas, requiring models at fine spatial grains to predict livestock depredation hot spots. To detect the best resolution for predicting where carnivores access livestock, we examined the spatial attributes associated with livestock killed by tigers in Kanha Tiger Reserve, India, using risk models generated at 20, 100, and 200-m spatial grains. We analyzed land-use, human presence, and vegetation structure variables at 138 kill sites and 439 random sites to identify key landscape attributes where livestock were vulnerable to tigers. Land-use and human presence variables contributed strongly to predation risk models, with most variables showing high relative importance (≥0.85) at all spatial grains. The risk of a tiger killing livestock increased near dense forests and near the boundary of the park core zone where human presence is restricted. Risk was nonlinearly related to human infrastructure and open vegetation, with the greatest risk occurring 1.2 km from roads, 1.1 km from villages, and 8.0 km from scrubland. Kill sites were characterized by denser, patchier, and more complex vegetation with lower visibility than random sites. Risk maps revealed high-risk hot spots inside of the core zone boundary and in several patches in the human-dominated buffer zone. Validation against known kills revealed predictive accuracy for only the 20 m model, the resolution best representing the kill stage of hunting for large carnivores that ambush prey, like the tiger. Results demonstrate that risk models developed at fine spatial grains can offer accurate guidance on landscape attributes livestock should

  15. Social deprivation and exposure to health promotion. A study of the distribution of health promotion resources to schools in England

    OpenAIRE

    Chivu, CM; Reidpath, DD

    2010-01-01

    This article has been made available through the Brunel Open Access Publishing Fund and is available from the specified link - Copyright @ 2010 Chivu and Reidpath BACKGROUND: Area deprivation is a known determinant of health. It is also known that area deprivation is associated with lower impact health promotion. It is less well known, however, whether deprived areas are less responsive to health promotion, or whether they are less exposed. Using data from a national, school-based campaign...

  16. Do increasing prices affect food deprivation in the European Union?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sol García-Germán

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The rise of prices of agricultural commodities in global markets during 2007-2012 was followed by increased consumer food prices around the world. More expensive food may have an impact on consumer food access and thus on their welfare, not only in developing countries but also amongst the most vulnerable in developed countries. Using a longitudinal database from the Statistics on Income and Living Conditions and population-averaged models, we tested whether increasing food prices had an impact on household food deprivation in 26 European Union (EU member states. Results revealed a significant relationship between food deprivation and the consumer food price index and disposable income. Households in the lowest income quintile in the member states recently acceded to the EU were the most vulnerable to food deprivation. Results also showed that low-income households in densely populated areas were more vulnerable to food deprivation. This should be taken into account when evaluating food assistance programmes that focus on the segments of the population most at risk of food deprivation.

  17. Do increasing prices affect food deprivation in the European Union?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Germán, S.; Bardají, I.; Garrido, A.

    2018-01-01

    The rise of prices of agricultural commodities in global markets during 2007-2012 was followed by increased consumer food prices around the world. More expensive food may have an impact on consumer food access and thus on their welfare, not only in developing countries but also amongst the most vulnerable in developed countries. Using a longitudinal database from the Statistics on Income and Living Conditions and population-averaged models, we tested whether increasing food prices had an impact on household food deprivation in 26 European Union (EU) member states. Results revealed a significant relationship between food deprivation and the consumer food price index and disposable income. Households in the lowest income quintile in the member states recently acceded to the EU were the most vulnerable to food deprivation. Results also showed that low-income households in densely populated areas were more vulnerable to food deprivation. This should be taken into account when evaluating food assistance programmes that focus on the segments of the population most at risk of food deprivation.

  18. Prazosin Prevents Increased Anxiety Behavior That Occurs in Response to Stress During Alcohol Deprivations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Dennis D; Kincaid, Carrie L; Froehlich, Janice C

    2017-01-01

    Stress-induced anxiety is a risk factor for relapse to alcohol drinking. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the central nervous system (CNS)-active α 1 -adrenergic receptor antagonist, prazosin, would block the stress-induced increase in anxiety that occurs during alcohol deprivations. Selectively bred male alcohol-preferring (P) rats were given three cycles of 5 days of ad libitum voluntary alcohol drinking interrupted by 2 days of alcohol deprivation, with or without 1 h of restraint stress 4 h after the start of each of the first two alcohol deprivation cycles. Prazosin (1.0 or 1.5 mg/kg, IP) or vehicle was administered before each restraint stress. Anxiety-like behavior during alcohol deprivation following the third 5-day cycle of alcohol drinking (7 days after the most recent restraint stress ± prazosin treatment) was measured by performance in an elevated plus-maze and in social approach/avoidance testing. Rats that received constant alcohol access, or alcohol access and deprivations without stress or prazosin treatments in the first two alcohol deprivations did not exhibit augmented anxiety-like behavior during the third deprivation. In contrast, rats that had been stressed during the first two alcohol deprivations exhibited increased anxiety-like behavior (compared with control rats) in both anxiety tests during the third deprivation. Prazosin given before stresses in the first two cycles of alcohol withdrawal prevented increased anxiety-like behavior during the third alcohol deprivation. Prazosin treatment before stresses experienced during alcohol deprivations may prevent the increased anxiety during subsequent deprivation/abstinence that is a risk factor for relapse to alcohol drinking. Administration of prazosin before stresses during repetitive alcohol deprivations in male alcohol-preferring (P) rats prevents increased anxiety during a subsequent deprivation without further prazosin treatment. Prazosin treatment during repeated

  19. Differences in Food Environment Perceptions and Spatial Attributes of Food Shopping between Residents of Low and High Food Access Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohi, Inderbir; Bell, Bethany A.; Liu, Jihong; Battersby, Sarah E.; Liese, Angela D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore potential differences in food shopping behaviors and healthy food availability perceptions between residents living in areas with low and high food access. Design A cross-sectional telephone survey to assess food shopping behaviors and perceptions. Data from an eight-county food environment field census used to define the CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) healthier food retail tract and USDA ERS (United States Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service) food desert measure. Participants 968 residents in eight South Carolina counties. Main Outcome Measures Residents’ food shopping behaviors and healthy food availability perceptions. Analysis Linear and logistic regression. Results Compared to residents in high food access areas, residents in low food access areas traveled further to their primary food store (USDA ERS: 8.8 vs. 7.1 miles, p=0.03; CDC: 9.2 vs. 6.1 miles, pshopping miles per week; CDC 28.0 vs. 15.4 miles, pshopping access (p<0.001). Conclusions and Implications These findings lend support to ongoing community and policy interventions aimed at reducing food access disparities. PMID:24560861

  20. [Validation of Hungarian Smartphone Deprivation Inventory (HSDI) with school children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csibi, Sándor; Demetrovics, Zsolt; Szabo, Attila

    2017-01-01

    The widespread use of smartphones generates new habits and behaviors among the users, including schoolchildren. Advance technology-based applications, capturing interest and attention, influence cognitive focus and time spent with the device. Examination of these factors points toward the risk of addiction, as well as the deprivations sensations associated with the latter, that call for scholastic attention. The aim of this study was to validate a Hungarian Smartphone Deprivation Inventory (HSDI), to gauge the deprivation feelings and their severity in schoolchildren when they cannot access their device. A 9-item, 7-point, agree-disagree inventory was developed on the basis of an earlier exercise deprivation scale (Robbins and Joseph, 1985). The inventory was completed by 258 Hungarian schoolchildren (mean age=12.4 ± SD = 1.71 years). The participants also completed the Hungarian version of the Brief Addiction to Smartphone Scale (BASS). An exploratory factor analysis of the HSDI yielded a single factor that accounted for 55.84 % of the variance. The internal consistency of the inventory was excellent (Cronbach's α = 0.90). Content validity of the HSDI was checked by comparing the scores of those scoring above and below the median on the BASS that yielded statistically significant differences (p smartphone access in schoolchildren.

  1. Using Geographic Information Systems and Spatial Analysis Methods to Assess Household Water Access and Sanitation Coverage in the SHINE Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntozini, Robert; Marks, Sara J; Mangwadu, Goldberg; Mbuya, Mduduzi N N; Gerema, Grace; Mutasa, Batsirai; Julian, Timothy R; Schwab, Kellogg J; Humphrey, Jean H; Zungu, Lindiwe I

    2015-12-15

    Access to water and sanitation are important determinants of behavioral responses to hygiene and sanitation interventions. We estimated cluster-specific water access and sanitation coverage to inform a constrained randomization technique in the SHINE trial. Technicians and engineers inspected all public access water sources to ascertain seasonality, function, and geospatial coordinates. Households and water sources were mapped using open-source geospatial software. The distance from each household to the nearest perennial, functional, protected water source was calculated, and for each cluster, the median distance and the proportion of households within 1500 m of such a water source. Cluster-specific sanitation coverage was ascertained using a random sample of 13 households per cluster. These parameters were included as covariates in randomization to optimize balance in water and sanitation access across treatment arms at the start of the trial. The observed high variability between clusters in both parameters suggests that constraining on these factors was needed to reduce risk of bias. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  2. Differences in food environment perceptions and spatial attributes of food shopping between residents of low and high food access areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohi, Inderbir; Bell, Bethany A; Liu, Jihong; Battersby, Sarah E; Liese, Angela D

    2014-01-01

    To explore potential differences in food shopping behaviors and healthy food availability perceptions between residents living in areas with low and high food access. A cross-sectional telephone survey to assess food shopping behaviors and perceptions. Data from an 8-county food environment field census used to define the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) healthier food retail tract and US Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service food desert measure. A total of 968 residents in 8 South Carolina counties. Residents' food shopping behaviors and healthy food availability perceptions. Linear and logistic regression. Compared with residents in high food access areas, residents in low food access areas traveled farther to their primary food store (US Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service: 8.8 vs 7.1 miles, P = .03; CDC: 9.2 vs 6.1 miles, P shopping miles per week (CDC: 28.0 vs 15.4 miles; P shopping access (P Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Management of Men with Prostate-specific Antigen Failure After Prostate Radiotherapy: The Case Against Early Androgen Deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Douglas; Parker, Chris

    2018-04-01

    In men with prostate-specific antigen failure after radical radiotherapy, androgen deprivation therapy should be delayed until the site of recurrence is known to allow consideration of curative treatment options, to delay androgen deprivation therapy-related morbidity, and to enable earlier access to abiraterone and docetaxel. Copyright © 2017 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Mapping Patterns and Trends in the Spatial Availability of Alcohol Using Low-Level Geographic Data: A Case Study in England 2003-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angus, Colin; Holmes, John; Maheswaran, Ravi; Green, Mark A; Meier, Petra; Brennan, Alan

    2017-04-12

    Much literature examines the relationship between the spatial availability of alcohol and alcohol-related harm. This study aims to address an important gap in this evidence by using detailed outlet data to examine recent temporal trends in the sociodemographic distribution of spatial availability for different types of alcohol outlet in England. Descriptive analysis of measures of alcohol outlet density and proximity using extremely high resolution market research data stratified by outlet type and quintiles of area-level deprivation from 2003, 2007, 2010 and 2013 was undertaken and hierarchical linear growth models fitted to explore the significance of socioeconomic differences. We find that overall availability of alcohol changed very little from 2003 to 2013 (density +1.6%), but this conceals conflicting trends by outlet type and area-level deprivation. Mean on-trade density has decreased substantially (-2.2 outlets within 1 km (Inter-Quartile Range (IQR) -3-0), although access to restaurants has increased (+1.0 outlets (IQR 0-1)), while off-trade access has risen substantially (+2.4 outlets (IQR 0-3)). Availability is highest in the most deprived areas ( p trends in the spatial availability of alcohol. There are significant variations in these trends by outlet type and deprivation level which may have important implications for health inequalities and public health policy.

  5. Spatial Consequences of Biogas Production and Agricultural Changes in the Czech Republic after EU Accession: Mutual Symbiosis, Coexistence or Parasitism?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Martinát, Stanislav; Dvořák, Petr; Frantál, Bohumil; Klusáček, Petr; Kunc, Josef; Kulla, M.; Mintálová, T.; Navrátil, J.; Van der Horst, D.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 2 (2013), s. 1-18 ISSN 1212-2157 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0025 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : anaerobic digestion plants * agriculture * Czech Republic * spatial differentiation Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography http://geography.upol.cz/soubory/vyzkum/aupo/Acta-44-2/Martinat_et_al_PRAC.pdf

  6. Social deprivation and population density are not associated with small area risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooney, James P K; Tobin, Katy; Crampsie, Arlene; Vajda, Alice; Heverin, Mark; McLaughlin, Russell; Staines, Anthony; Hardiman, Orla

    2015-10-01

    Evidence of an association between areal ALS risk and population density has been previously reported. We aim to examine ALS spatial incidence in Ireland using small areas, to compare this analysis with our previous analysis of larger areas and to examine the associations between population density, social deprivation and ALS incidence. Residential area social deprivation has not been previously investigated as a risk factor for ALS. Using the Irish ALS register, we included all cases of ALS diagnosed in Ireland from 1995-2013. 2006 census data was used to calculate age and sex standardised expected cases per small area. Social deprivation was assessed using the pobalHP deprivation index. Bayesian smoothing was used to calculate small area relative risk for ALS, whilst cluster analysis was performed using SaTScan. The effects of population density and social deprivation were tested in two ways: (1) as covariates in the Bayesian spatial model; (2) via post-Bayesian regression. 1701 cases were included. Bayesian smoothed maps of relative risk at small area resolution matched closely to our previous analysis at a larger area resolution. Cluster analysis identified two areas of significant low risk. These areas did not correlate with population density or social deprivation indices. Two areas showing low frequency of ALS have been identified in the Republic of Ireland. These areas do not correlate with population density or residential area social deprivation, indicating that other reasons, such as genetic admixture may account for the observed findings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Availability, spatial accessibility, utilisation and the role of telehealth for multi-disciplinary paediatric cerebral palsy services in Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edirippulige, Sisira; Reyno, John; Armfield, Nigel R; Bambling, Matthew; Lloyd, Owen; McNevin, Elizabeth

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the methods of current delivery of health care services to cerebral palsy (CP) patients in Queensland, Australia. The study also examines the current use of telehealth by clinicians and their perceptions about telehealth use. Patient records during July 2013-July 2014 were accessed from the Queensland Paediatric Rehabilitation Service (QPRS) to collect information relating to the service delivery for CP patients. Analysis was carried out to examine the patient locations and travel distances using ArcMap geoprocessing software. In addition, 13 face-to-face semi structured interviews were conducted with clinicians from the QPRS and the Cerebral Palsy Health Service (CPHS) to understand the perceptions of clinicians relating to the current level of health care delivery. We also examined the clinicians' current use of telehealth and their opinions about this method. Records of 329 paediatric CP patients were accessed and reviewed. The majority of patients (96%, n = 307) who attended the clinics at the Royal Children's Hospital (RCH), Brisbane, were from remote, rural or regional areas of Queensland. Only 4% of patients (n = 13) were from major cities. During 12 months, patients had attended nine outreach programmes that were conducted by the QPRS and CPHS. The study found that non-local patients were required to travel an average distance of 836 km to access QPRS and CPHS services in Brisbane. The average distance for receiving a consultation at an outreach clinic was 173 km. Clinicians perceived that access to health care services to CP patients in Queensland is inadequate. Nearly all clinicians interviewed had some experience in using telehealth. They had high satisfaction levels with the method. Traditional methods of delivering services to CP patients do not meet their needs. Clinicians have found telehealth is a feasible and satisfactory delivery method. However, the use of telehealth is still limited. © The

  8. Social deprivation and prognosis in Scottish patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellino, Katherine; Kerridge, Simon; Church, Colin; Peacock, Andrew J; Crowe, Timothy; Jayasekera, Geeshath; Johnson, Martin K; MacKenzie, Alison M

    2018-02-01

    Several demographic and clinical factors have prognostic significance in idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH). Studies in China and the USA have suggested an association between low socioeconomic status and reduced survival. The impact of social deprivation on IPAH survival in the UK is not known.280 patients with IPAH and hereditary PAH (HPAH) attending the Scottish Pulmonary Vascular Unit (Glasgow, UK) were assigned to social deprivation quintiles using the Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation database. The association between survival and social deprivation quintile was assessed using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis.The distribution of IPAH/HPAH patients was more socially deprived than would be expected based on Scottish citizenry as a whole (Chi-squared 16.16, p=0.003), suggesting referral and access to care is not impeded by socioeconomic status. Univariate analysis demonstrated no significant association between social deprivation and survival (p=0.81), and this association failed to reach significance with inclusion of time, sex and age as covariates in the model (p=0.23). There were no statistically significant correlations between social deprivation and baseline clinical variables of prognostic importance except for age, sex and quality of life.Social deprivation is not a significant referral barrier or prognostic factor for IPAH and HPAH in Scotland. Copyright ©ERS 2018.

  9. Patterns of Subjective Deprivation in Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortner, Rayman, W.; Hultsch, David F.

    1974-01-01

    Investigated the number and characteristics of adults experiencing different types of subjective deprivation, and evaluated Cantril's assertion that some of these types of deprivation are ontogenetic in nature. (DP)

  10. On the accessibility of phonological, orthographic, and semantic aspects of second language vocabulary learning and their relationship with spatial and linguistic intelligences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Ali Zarei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was an attempt to investigate the differences in the accessibility of phonological, semantic, and orthographic aspects of words in L2 vocabulary learning. For this purpose, a sample of 119 Iranian intermediate level EFL students in a private language institute in Karaj was selected. All of the participants received the same instructional treatment. At the end of the experimental period, three tests were administered based on the previously-taught words. A subset of Gardner’s’ (1983 Multiple Intelligences questionnaire was also used for data collection. A repeated measures one-way ANOVA procedure was used to analyze the obtained data. The results showed significant differences in the accessibility of phonological, semantic, and orthographic aspects of words in second language vocabulary learning. Moreover, to investigate the relationships between spatial and linguistic intelligences and the afore-mentioned aspects of lexical knowledge, a correlational analysis was used. No significant relationships were found between spatial and linguistic intelligences and the three aspects of lexical knowledge. These findings may have theoretical and pedagogical implications for researchers, teachers, and learners.

  11. The food retail environment and area deprivation in Glasgow City, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Laura; Ellaway, Anne; Macintyre, Sally

    2009-08-06

    It has previously been suggested that deprived neighbourhoods within modern cities have poor access to general amenities, for example, fewer food retail outlets. Here we examine the distribution of food retailers by deprivation in the City of Glasgow, UK.We obtained a list of 934 food retailers in Glasgow, UK, in 2007, and mapped these at address level. We categorised small areas (data zones) into quintiles of area deprivation using the 2006 Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation Income sub-domain score. We computed mean number of retailers per 1000 residents per data zone, and mean network distance to nearest outlet from data zone centroid, for all retailers combined and for each of seven categories of retailer separately (i.e. bakers, butchers, fruit and vegetable sellers, fishmongers, convenience stores, supermarkets and delicatessens).The most deprived quintile (of areas) had the greatest mean number of total food retailers per 1000 residents while quintile 1 (least deprived) had the least, and this difference was statistically significant (Chi-square p retailer was within quintile 3 while the furthest distance was within quintile 1, and this was also statistically significant (Chi-square p types of food retailers, and access to amenities depended upon the type of food retailer studied and whether proximity or density was measured. Overall the findings suggested that deprived neighbourhoods within the City of Glasgow did not necessarily have fewer food retail outlets.

  12. Unidades habitacionais hoteleiras na Ilha de Santa Catarina: um estudo sobre acessibilidade espacial Habitational units in hotels of the Island of Santa Catarina: a study about Spatial accessibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Helena Moro Bins Ely

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo trata da avaliação das condições de acessibilidade espacial em unidades habitacionais (UHs, ditas acessíveis, de hotéis residenciais na ilha de Santa Catarina. Para tanto, visitas exploratórias permitiram o levantamento arquitetônico das UHs escolhidas e a análise de sua adequação aos parâmetros técnicos estabelecidos pela NBR 9050/2004. Entrevistas com diferentes usuários complementam o estudo na medida em que apontam as reais dificuldades enfrentadas por eles, devido às inadequadas soluções de acessibilidade presentes nos ambientes da rede hoteleira. Os métodos utilizados permitiram classificar os problemas de acessibilidade espacial segundo quatro componentes - orientação espacial, deslocamento, uso e comunicação - e relacioná-los às deficiências e habilidades dos diversos usuários. Encontrou-se maior prevalência de problemas ligados ao uso de mobiliários e equipamentos, os quais afetam a realização de atividades com conforto e independência. Verifica-se, também, que a NBR 9050/2004 ainda direciona seus parâmetros técnicos para atender principalmente deficientes físico-motores.This paper deals with the evaluation of the conditions of spatial accessibility in habitation units (UHs considered accessible in residential hotels on the Island of Santa Catarina. For this purpose, exploratory visits allowed an architectonic survey of the chosen UHs and an analysis of their adjustment to the technical parameters established by NBR 9050/2004. Interviews with different users completed the study which highlighted the real difficulties faced by them due to inadequate solutions of accessibility present in the hotel network environments. The methods facilitated a classification of the problems of spatial accessibility according to four components - spatial orientation, displacement, use and communication - and related them to the abilities and disabilities of the various users. A higher prevalence of problems

  13. Distribution of maternity units and spatial access to specialised care for women delivering before 32 weeks of gestation in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilkington, Hugo; Blondel, Béatrice; Papiernik, Emile

    2009-01-01

    Survival and quality of life are improved for very preterm babies when delivery occurs in a maternity unit with on-site neonatal intensive care (level III unit). We investigated the impact of distance on the probability of delivering in such a unit for births before 32 weeks of gestation from 9...... European regions with diverse perinatal health systems (the MOSAIC cohort). We analysed distances between women's homes, and the nearest level III in population quartiles, adjusting for maternal and pregnancy characteristics. Living farther away from a level III reduced access to specialised care...

  14. Infantile nystagmus and visual deprivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fledelius, Hans C; Jensen, Hanne

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate whether effects of early foveal motor instability due to infantile nystagmus might compare to those of experimental visual deprivation on refraction in a childhood series. METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of data from the Danish Register for Blind and Weaksighted Ch...

  15. Health Effects of Sleep Deprivation,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-01

    of an inordinate sleep loss (as hunger and thirst prevent us from going too long without food and water). Because of this, it takes great personal...drug-refractory depression. Neuropsychology 13:111-116, 1985. 82. Dowd PJ: Sleep deprivation effects on the vestibular habituation process. J Apply

  16. [Effect of acupuncture on pattern-visual evoked potential in rats with monocular visual deprivation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xing-Ke; Dong, Li-Li; Liu, An-Guo; Wang, Jun-Yan; Ma, Chong-Bing; Zhu, Tian-Tian

    2013-08-01

    To explore electrophysiology mechanism of acupuncture for treatment and prevention of visual deprivation effect. Eighteen healthy 15-day Evans rats were randomly divided into a normal group, a model group and an acupuncture group, 6 rats in each one. Deprivation amblyopia model was established by monocular eyelid suture in the model group and acupuncture group. Acupuncture was applied at "Jingming" (BL 1), "Chengqi" (ST 1), "Qiuhou" (EX-HN 7) and "Cuanzhu" (BL 2) in the acupuncture group. The bilateral acupoints were selected alternately, one side for a day, and totally 14 days were required. The effect of acupuncture on visual evoked potential in different spatial frequencies was observed. Under three different kinds of spatial frequencies of 2 X 2, 4 X 4 and 8 X 8, compared with normal group, there was obvious visual deprivation effect in the model group where P1 peak latency was delayed (P0.05). Under spatial frequency of 4 X 4, N1-P1 amplitude value was maximum in the normal group and acupuncture group. With this spatial frequency the rat's eye had best resolving ability, indicating it could be the best spatial frequency for rat visual system. The visual system has obvious electrophysiology plasticity in sensitive period. Acupuncture treatment could adjust visual deprivation-induced suppression and slow of visual response in order to antagonism deprivation effect.

  17. Caffeine/sleep-deprivation interaction in mice produces complex memory effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onaolapo, Olakunle J; Onaolapo, Adejoke Y; Akanmu, Moses A; Olayiwola, Gbola

    2015-07-01

    Sleep deprivation negatively impacts memory, causing deficits in memory processes. Of interest is any agent that can offset such deficits. Mice were given varying doses of caffeine for 14 days and then deprived of sleep for 6 hours by the 'gentle handling' method. Memory was assessed using the Novel Object Recognition Test and Y maze alternation. The study was designed to ascertain the impact of varying doses of caffeine combined with total sleep-deprivation on spatial and non spatial memory in mice. Adult Swiss Webster mice of both sexes were assigned to six groups viz., vehicle (distilled water), or one of five selected doses of caffeine (10, 20, 40, 80 and 120 mg/kg) for 14 days via the oral route. Open field novel object recognition test and Y maze spatial working memory tests were carried out on day 14. Results were analysed using multi-factorial ANOVA followed by Tukey HSD test and expressed as mean ± S.E.M, with p values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Novel object recognition tests (NOR) revealed that pre-training and pre-test sleep deprivation and caffeine combination impaired non spatial and spatial memory in male and female mice. The study shows the complex interactions with memory that may arise when total sleep deprivation is superimposed on caffeine administration.

  18. Monetary Poverty, Material Deprivation and Consistent Poverty in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Farinha Rodrigues; Isabel Andrade

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we use the Portuguese component of the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions {EU-SILC) to develop a measure of consistent poverty in Portugal. It is widely agreed that being poor does not simply mean not having enough monetary resources. It also reflects a lack of access to the resources required to enjoy a minimum standard of living and participation in the society one belor]gs to. The coexistence of material deprivation and monetary poverty leads ...

  19. Geospatial cryptography: enabling researchers to access private, spatially referenced, human subjects data for cancer control and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquez, Geoffrey M; Essex, Aleksander; Curtis, Andrew; Kohler, Betsy; Sherman, Recinda; Emam, Khaled El; Shi, Chen; Kaufmann, Andy; Beale, Linda; Cusick, Thomas; Goldberg, Daniel; Goovaerts, Pierre

    2017-07-01

    As the volume, accuracy and precision of digital geographic information have increased, concerns regarding individual privacy and confidentiality have come to the forefront. Not only do these challenge a basic tenet underlying the advancement of science by posing substantial obstacles to the sharing of data to validate research results, but they are obstacles to conducting certain research projects in the first place. Geospatial cryptography involves the specification, design, implementation and application of cryptographic techniques to address privacy, confidentiality and security concerns for geographically referenced data. This article defines geospatial cryptography and demonstrates its application in cancer control and surveillance. Four use cases are considered: (1) national-level de-duplication among state or province-based cancer registries; (2) sharing of confidential data across cancer registries to support case aggregation across administrative geographies; (3) secure data linkage; and (4) cancer cluster investigation and surveillance. A secure multi-party system for geospatial cryptography is developed. Solutions under geospatial cryptography are presented and computation time is calculated. As services provided by cancer registries to the research community, de-duplication, case aggregation across administrative geographies and secure data linkage are often time-consuming and in some instances precluded by confidentiality and security concerns. Geospatial cryptography provides secure solutions that hold significant promise for addressing these concerns and for accelerating the pace of research with human subjects data residing in our nation's cancer registries. Pursuit of the research directions posed herein conceivably would lead to a geospatially encrypted geographic information system (GEGIS) designed specifically to promote the sharing and spatial analysis of confidential data. Geospatial cryptography holds substantial promise for accelerating the

  20. Materialistic Cues Boosts Personal Relative Deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Wen

    2016-01-01

    Three studies investigated whether exposure to materialistic cues would increase perceptions of personal relative deprivation and related emotional reactions. In Study 1, individuals who were surveyed in front of a luxury store reported higher levels of personal relative deprivation than those surveyed in front of an ordinary building. In Study 2, participants who viewed pictures of luxurious goods experienced greater personal relative deprivation than those viewed pictures of neutral scenes. Study 3 replicated the results from Study 2, with a larger sample size and a more refined assessment of relative deprivation. Implications of these findings for future studies on relative deprivation and materialism are discussed.

  1. Materialistic Cues Boosts Personal Relative Deprivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zhang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Three studies investigated whether exposure to materialistic cues would increase perceptions of personal relative deprivation and related emotional reactions. In Study 1, individuals who were surveyed in front of a luxury store reported higher levels of personal relative deprivation than those surveyed in front of an ordinary building. In Study 2, participants who viewed pictures of luxurious goods experienced greater personal relative deprivation than those viewed pictures of neutral scenes. Study 3 replicated the results from Study 2, with a larger sample size and a more refined assessment of relative deprivation. Implications of these findings for future studies on relative deprivation and materialism are discussed.

  2. Focusing on fast food restaurants alone underestimates the relationship between neighborhood deprivation and exposure to fast food in a large rural area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean Wesley R

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Individuals and families are relying more on food prepared outside the home as a source for at-home and away-from-home consumption. Restricting the estimation of fast-food access to fast-food restaurants alone may underestimate potential spatial access to fast food. Methods The study used data from the 2006 Brazos Valley Food Environment Project (BVFEP and the 2000 U.S. Census Summary File 3 for six rural counties in the Texas Brazos Valley region. BVFEP ground-truthed data included identification and geocoding of all fast-food restaurants, convenience stores, supermarkets, and grocery stores in study area and on-site assessment of the availability and variety of fast-food lunch/dinner entrées and side dishes. Network distance was calculated from the population-weighted centroid of each census block group to all retail locations that marketed fast food (n = 205 fast-food opportunities. Results Spatial access to fast-food opportunities (FFO was significantly better than to traditional fast-food restaurants (FFR. The median distance to the nearest FFO was 2.7 miles, compared with 4.5 miles to the nearest FFR. Residents of high deprivation neighborhoods had better spatial access to a variety of healthier fast-food entrée and side dish options than residents of low deprivation neighborhoods. Conclusions Our analyses revealed that identifying fast-food restaurants as the sole source of fast-food entrées and side dishes underestimated neighborhood exposure to fast food, in terms of both neighborhood proximity and coverage. Potential interventions must consider all retail opportunities for fast food, and not just traditional FFR.

  3. Focusing on fast food restaurants alone underestimates the relationship between neighborhood deprivation and exposure to fast food in a large rural area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkey, Joseph R; Johnson, Cassandra M; Dean, Wesley R; Horel, Scott A

    2011-01-25

    Individuals and families are relying more on food prepared outside the home as a source for at-home and away-from-home consumption. Restricting the estimation of fast-food access to fast-food restaurants alone may underestimate potential spatial access to fast food. The study used data from the 2006 Brazos Valley Food Environment Project (BVFEP) and the 2000 U.S. Census Summary File 3 for six rural counties in the Texas Brazos Valley region. BVFEP ground-truthed data included identification and geocoding of all fast-food restaurants, convenience stores, supermarkets, and grocery stores in study area and on-site assessment of the availability and variety of fast-food lunch/dinner entrées and side dishes. Network distance was calculated from the population-weighted centroid of each census block group to all retail locations that marketed fast food (n = 205 fast-food opportunities). Spatial access to fast-food opportunities (FFO) was significantly better than to traditional fast-food restaurants (FFR). The median distance to the nearest FFO was 2.7 miles, compared with 4.5 miles to the nearest FFR. Residents of high deprivation neighborhoods had better spatial access to a variety of healthier fast-food entrée and side dish options than residents of low deprivation neighborhoods. Our analyses revealed that identifying fast-food restaurants as the sole source of fast-food entrées and side dishes underestimated neighborhood exposure to fast food, in terms of both neighborhood proximity and coverage. Potential interventions must consider all retail opportunities for fast food, and not just traditional FFR.

  4. Wheel-running reinforcement in free-feeding and food-deprived rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belke, Terry W; Pierce, W David

    2016-03-01

    Rats experiencing sessions of 30min free access to wheel running were assigned to ad-lib and food-deprived groups, and given additional sessions of free wheel activity. Subsequently, both ad-lib and deprived rats lever pressed for 60s of wheel running on fixed ratio (FR) 1, variable ratio (VR) 3, VR 5, and VR 10 schedules, and on a response-initiated variable interval (VI) 30s schedule. Finally, the ad-lib rats were switched to food deprivation and the food-deprived rats were switched to free food, as rats continued responding on the response-initiated VI 30-s schedule. Wheel running functioned as reinforcement for both ad-lib and food-deprived rats. Food-deprived rats, however, ran faster and had higher overall lever-pressing rates than free-feeding rats. On the VR schedules, wheel-running rates positively correlated with local and overall lever pressing rates for deprived, but not ad-lib rats. On the response-initiated VI 30s schedule, wheel-running rates and lever-pressing rates changed for ad-lib rats switched to food deprivation, but not for food-deprived rats switched to free-feeding. The overall pattern of results suggested different sources of control for wheel running: intrinsic motivation, contingencies of automatic reinforcement, and food-restricted wheel running. An implication is that generalizations about operant responding for wheel running in food-deprived rats may not extend to wheel running and operant responding of free-feeding animals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Socioeconomic deprivation does not influence the severity of Crohn's disease: Results of a prospective multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahon, Stéphane; Lahmek, Pierre; Macaigne, Gilles; Faurel, Jean-Pierre; Sass, Catherine; Howaizi, Mehran; Fleury, Antoine; Baju, A; Locher, Christophe; Barjonet, Georges; Saillant, GillesGatineau; Moulin, Jean-Jacques; Poupardin, Cécile

    2009-04-01

    Socioeconomic deprivation is associated with poor health. The aims of this study were to evaluate the influence of deprivation in the characteristics and comparisons of deprived and nondeprived Crohn's disease (CD) patients. CD patients were prospectively recruited from September 2006 to June 2007 in 6 hospitals in the Paris area. To assess the level of deprivation we used the EPICES score (Evaluation of Precarity and Inequalities in Health Examination Centers; http://www.cetaf.asso.fr), a validated individual index of deprivation developed in France, a score >30 defining deprivation. We defined CD as severe when at least 1 of the conventionally predefined criteria of clinical severity was present. In all, 207 patients (128 women and 79 men, mean age 40 years) were included and had a median score of deprivation of 20.7 (0-100). Seventy-three (35%) were deprived. There were no statistical differences between deprived and nondeprived patients for the following parameters: 1) mean age: 39 +/- 14.6 versus 40.6 +/- 13.5, P = 0.4; 2) sex ratio (female/male): 87/47 (65%) versus 41/32 (56%), P = 0.2; 3) duration of disease (years) 9 +/- 8.8 versus 8.5 +/- 7.2, P = 0.7; 4) delay from onset of symptoms to diagnosis >1 year: 22/115 (19%) versus 13/63 (21%), P = 0.8; and 5) severity of disease 71% versus 70% (P = 0.9). Nondeprived patients had a lower rate of hospitalization (40 versus 56%, P = 0,04) and a higher rate of surgery (44 versus 22%, P = 0,004); the rate of surgery was only identified by logistic regression. In this study deprivation does not seem to influence the severity of CD. This can be explained by easy access to healthcare in France.

  6. Deprival value: information utility analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Pereira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This article contributes to the perception that the users’ learning process plays a key role in order to apply an accounting concept and this involves a presentation that fits its informative potential, free of previous accounting fixations. Deprival value is a useful measure for managerial and corporate purposes, it may be applied to the current Conceptual Framework of the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB. This study analyzes its utility, taking into account cognitive aspects. Also known as value to the business, deprival value is a measurement system that followed a path where it was misunderstood, confused with another one, it faced resistance to be implemented and fell into disuse; everything that a standardized measurement method tries to avoid. In contrast, deprival value has found support in the academy and in specific applications, such as those related to the public service regulation. The accounting area has been impacted by sophistication of the measurement methods that increasingly require the ability to analyze accounting facts on an economic basis, at the risk of loss of their information content. This development becomes possible only when the potential of a measurement system is known and it is feasible to be achieved. This study consists in a theoretical essay based on literature review to discuss its origin, presentation, and application. Considering the concept’s cognitive difficulties, deprival value was analyzed, as well as its corresponding heteronym, value to the business, in order to explain some of these changes. The concept’s utility was also explored through cross-analysis with impairment and the scheme developed was applied to actual economic situations faced by a company listed on stock exchange.

  7. Sleep Deprivation and the Epigenome

    OpenAIRE

    Marie E. Gaine; Snehajyoti Chatterjee; Ted Abel

    2018-01-01

    Sleep deprivation disrupts the lives of millions of people every day and has a profound impact on the molecular biology of the brain. These effects begin as changes within a neuron, at the DNA and RNA level, and result in alterations in neuronal plasticity and dysregulation of many cognitive functions including learning and memory. The epigenome plays a critical role in regulating gene expression in the context of memory storage. In this review article, we begin by describing the effects of e...

  8. Deprival value: information utility analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Marco Antonio; Pinto, Alexandre Evaristo; Barbosa Neto, João Estevão; Martins, Eliseu

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT This article contributes to the perception that the users’ learning process plays a key role in order to apply an accounting concept and this involves a presentation that fits its informative potential, free of previous accounting fixations. Deprival value is a useful measure for managerial and corporate purposes, it may be applied to the current Conceptual Framework of the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB). This study analyzes its utility, taking into account cognitive...

  9. Social deprivation and prevalence of chronic kidney disease in the UK: workload implications for primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, M P; Palmer, D; Goyder, E; El Nahas, A M

    2012-02-01

    The 'inverse care law' suggests that populations with the poorest health outcomes also tend to have poorer access to high-quality care. The new general practitioner (GP) contract in the UK aimed to reduce variations in care between areas by collecting information on processes and outcomes of chronic disease management. This study investigated whether, despite reductions in inequalities, primary care in deprived areas is still at a disadvantage due to the higher prevalence of chronic diseases, using chronic kidney disease (CKD) as an example. Initially, data from a hospital-based cohort of CKD patients were analysed to investigate the clustering of CKD patients across area-level deprivation using a geographical information system that employed kernel density estimation. Data from the Quality and Outcomes Framework were then analysed to explore the burden of CKD and associated non-communicable chronic diseases (NCD) and assess the potential impact on GPs' workload by area-level deprivation. There was a significant clustering of CKD patients referred to the hospital in the most deprived areas. Both the prevalence of CKD and associated conditions and caseload per GP were significantly higher in deprived areas. In the most deprived areas, there is an increased burden of major chronic disease and a higher caseload for clinicians. These reflect significant differences in workload for practices in deprived areas, which needs to be addressed.

  10. Access to emergency hospital care provided by the public sector in sub-Saharan Africa in 2015: a geocoded inventory and spatial analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouma, Paul O; Maina, Joseph; Thuranira, Pamela N; Macharia, Peter M; Alegana, Victor A; English, Mike; Okiro, Emelda A; Snow, Robert W

    2018-03-01

    Timely access to emergency care can substantially reduce mortality. International benchmarks for access to emergency hospital care have been established to guide ambitions for universal health care by 2030. However, no Pan-African database of where hospitals are located exists; therefore, we aimed to complete a geocoded inventory of hospital services in Africa in relation to how populations might access these services in 2015, with focus on women of child bearing age. We assembled a geocoded inventory of public hospitals across 48 countries and islands of sub-Saharan Africa, including Zanzibar, using data from various sources. We only included public hospitals with emergency services that were managed by governments at national or local levels and faith-based or non-governmental organisations. For hospital listings without geographical coordinates, we geocoded each facility using Microsoft Encarta (version 2009), Google Earth (version 7.3), Geonames, Fallingrain, OpenStreetMap, and other national digital gazetteers. We obtained estimates for total population and women of child bearing age (15-49 years) at a 1 km 2 spatial resolution from the WorldPop database for 2015. Additionally, we assembled road network data from Google Map Maker Project and OpenStreetMap using ArcMap (version 10.5). We then combined the road network and the population locations to form a travel impedance surface. Subsequently, we formulated a cost distance algorithm based on the location of public hospitals and the travel impedance surface in AccessMod (version 5) to compute the proportion of populations living within a combined walking and motorised travel time of 2 h to emergency hospital services. We consulted 100 databases from 48 sub-Saharan countries and islands, including Zanzibar, and identified 4908 public hospitals. 2701 hospitals had either full or partial information about their geographical coordinates. We estimated that 287 282 013 (29·0%) people and 64 495 526 (28·2

  11. Are HPV vaccination services accessible to high-risk communities? A spatial analysis of HPV-associated cancer and Chlamydia rates and safety-net clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Jennifer; Rodriguez, Hector P; Gee, Gilbert C; Escobedo, Loraine A; Kominski, Gerald F; Bastani, Roshan

    2013-12-01

    While HPV vaccines can greatly benefit adolescents and young women from high-risk areas, little is known about whether safety-net immunization services are geographically accessible to communities at greatest risk for HPV-associated diseases. We explore the spatial relationship between areas with high HPV risk and proximity to safety-net clinics from an ecologic perspective. We used cancer registry data and Chlamydia surveillance data to identify neighborhoods within Los Angeles County with high risk for HPV-associated cancers. We examined proximity to safety-net clinics among neighborhoods with the highest risk. Proximity was measured as the shortest distance between each neighborhood center and the nearest clinic and having a clinic within 3 miles of each neighborhood center. The average 5-year non-age-adjusted rates were 1,940 cases per 100,000 for Chlamydia and 60 per 100,000 for HPV-associated cancers. A large majority, 349 of 386 neighborhoods with high HPV-associated cancer rates and 532 of 537 neighborhoods with high Chlamydia rates, had a clinic within 3 miles of the neighborhood center. Clinics were more likely to be located within close proximity to high-risk neighborhoods in the inner city. High-risk neighborhoods outside of this urban core area were less likely to be near accessible clinics. The majority of high-risk neighborhoods were geographically near safety-net clinics with HPV vaccination services. Due to low rates of vaccination, these findings suggest that while services are geographically accessible, additional efforts are needed to improve uptake. Programs aimed to increase awareness about the vaccine and to link underserved groups to vaccination services are warranted.

  12. The Effects of Sleep Deprivation on Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Kundermann

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic pain syndromes are associated with alterations in sleep continuity and sleep architecture. One perspective of this relationship, which has not received much attention to date, is that disturbances of sleep affect pain. To fathom this direction of cause, experimental human and animal studies on the effects of sleep deprivation on pain processing were reviewed. According to the majority of the studies, sleep deprivation produces hyperalgesic changes. Furthermore, sleep deprivation can counteract analgesic effects of pharmacological treatments involving opioidergic and serotoninergic mechanisms of action. The heterogeneity of the human data and the exclusive interest in rapid eye movement sleep deprivation in animals so far do not allow us to draw firm conclusions as to whether the hyperalgesic effects are due to the deprivation of specific sleep stages or whether they result from a generalized disruption of sleep continuity. The significance of opioidergic and serotoninergic processes as mediating mechanisms of the hyperalgesic changes produced by sleep deprivation are discussed.

  13. Access to emergency hospital care provided by the public sector in sub-Saharan Africa in 2015: a geocoded inventory and spatial analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul O Ouma, MSc

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Background: Timely access to emergency care can substantially reduce mortality. International benchmarks for access to emergency hospital care have been established to guide ambitions for universal health care by 2030. However, no Pan-African database of where hospitals are located exists; therefore, we aimed to complete a geocoded inventory of hospital services in Africa in relation to how populations might access these services in 2015, with focus on women of child bearing age. Methods: We assembled a geocoded inventory of public hospitals across 48 countries and islands of sub-Saharan Africa, including Zanzibar, using data from various sources. We only included public hospitals with emergency services that were managed by governments at national or local levels and faith-based or non-governmental organisations. For hospital listings without geographical coordinates, we geocoded each facility using Microsoft Encarta (version 2009, Google Earth (version 7.3, Geonames, Fallingrain, OpenStreetMap, and other national digital gazetteers. We obtained estimates for total population and women of child bearing age (15–49 years at a 1 km2 spatial resolution from the WorldPop database for 2015. Additionally, we assembled road network data from Google Map Maker Project and OpenStreetMap using ArcMap (version 10.5. We then combined the road network and the population locations to form a travel impedance surface. Subsequently, we formulated a cost distance algorithm based on the location of public hospitals and the travel impedance surface in AccessMod (version 5 to compute the proportion of populations living within a combined walking and motorised travel time of 2 h to emergency hospital services. Findings: We consulted 100 databases from 48 sub-Saharan countries and islands, including Zanzibar, and identified 4908 public hospitals. 2701 hospitals had either full or partial information about their geographical coordinates. We estimated that 287

  14. The case of Montréal's missing food deserts: Evaluation of accessibility to food supermarkets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cloutier Marie-Soleil

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Access to varied, healthy and inexpensive foods is an important public health concern that has been widely documented. Consequently, there is an increasing interest in identifying food deserts, that is, socially deprived areas within cities that have poor access to food retailers. In this paper we propose a methodology based on three measures of accessibility to supermarkets calculated using geographic information systems (GIS, and on exploratory multivariate statistical analysis (hierarchical cluster analysis, which we use to identify food deserts in Montréal. Results First, the use of three measures of accessibility to supermarkets is very helpful in identifying food deserts according to several dimensions: proximity (distance to the nearest supermarket, diversity (number of supermarkets within a distance of less than 1000 metres and variety in terms of food and prices (average distance to the three closest different chain-name supermarkets. Next, the cluster analysis applied to the three measures of accessibility to supermarkets and to a social deprivation index demonstrates that there are very few problematic food deserts in Montréal. In fact, census tracts classified as socially deprived and with low accessibility to supermarkets are, on average, 816 metres away from the nearest supermarket and within 1.34 kilometres of three different chain-name supermarkets. Conclusion We conclude that food deserts do not represent a major problem in Montréal. Since geographic accessibility to healthy food is not a major issue in Montréal, prevention efforts should be directed toward the understanding of other mechanisms leading to an unhealthy diet, rather than attempting to promote an even spatial distribution of supermarkets.

  15. Recovery of neurofilament following early monocular deprivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy P O'Leary

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A brief period of monocular deprivation in early postnatal life can alter the structure of neurons within deprived-eye-receiving layers of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus. The modification of structure is accompanied by a marked reduction in labeling for neurofilament, a protein that composes the stable cytoskeleton and that supports neuron structure. This study examined the extent of neurofilament recovery in monocularly deprived cats that either had their deprived eye opened (binocular recovery, or had the deprivation reversed to the fellow eye (reverse occlusion. The degree to which recovery was dependent on visually-driven activity was examined by placing monocularly deprived animals in complete darkness (dark rearing. The loss of neurofilament and the reduction of soma size caused by monocular deprivation were both ameliorated equally following either binocular recovery or reverse occlusion for 8 days. Though monocularly deprived animals placed in complete darkness showed recovery of soma size, there was a generalized loss of neurofilament labeling that extended to originally non-deprived layers. Overall, these results indicate that recovery of soma size is achieved by removal of the competitive disadvantage of the deprived eye, and occurred even in the absence of visually-driven activity. Recovery of neurofilament occurred when the competitive disadvantage of the deprived eye was removed, but unlike the recovery of soma size, was dependent upon visually-driven activity. The role of neurofilament in providing stable neural structure raises the intriguing possibility that dark rearing, which reduced overall neurofilament levels, could be used to reset the deprived visual system so as to make it more ameliorable with treatment by experiential manipulations.

  16. The Effects of Sleep Deprivation on Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Kundermann, Bernd; Krieg, Jürgen-Christian; Schreiber, Wolfgang; Lautenbacher, Stefan

    2004-01-01

    Chronic pain syndromes are associated with alterations in sleep continuity and sleep architecture. One perspective of this relationship, which has not received much attention to date, is that disturbances of sleep affect pain. To fathom this direction of cause, experimental human and animal studies on the effects of sleep deprivation on pain processing were reviewed. According to the majority of the studies, sleep deprivation produces hyperalgesic changes. Furthermore, sleep deprivation can c...

  17. Relative deprivation and political protest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Kliuchnyk

    2017-03-01

    Examples of anti-system political parties and movements have been given. Many of them have changed the political disposition in Europe. Lega Nord (Italy, PEGIDA (Germany, Movimento 5 Stelle (Italy, Front National (France, Ataka (Bulgaria, etc are between them. These parties and movements influence increasingly on the European political process. Nativism and populism are marked as main peculiarities of such right parties. According to the author, Anti-Trump protests in the USA are the examples of the relative deprivation of numerous groups of people that feel their rights and freedoms being threatened.

  18. Effect of monocular deprivation on rabbit neural retinal cell densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Maseghe Mwachaka

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: In this rabbit model, monocular deprivation resulted in activity-dependent changes in cell densities of the neural retina in favour of the non-deprived eye along with reduced cell densities in the deprived eye.

  19. Sleep Deprivation and the Epigenome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie E. Gaine

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Sleep deprivation disrupts the lives of millions of people every day and has a profound impact on the molecular biology of the brain. These effects begin as changes within a neuron, at the DNA and RNA level, and result in alterations in neuronal plasticity and dysregulation of many cognitive functions including learning and memory. The epigenome plays a critical role in regulating gene expression in the context of memory storage. In this review article, we begin by describing the effects of epigenetic alterations on the regulation of gene expression, focusing on the most common epigenetic mechanisms: (i DNA methylation; (ii histone modifications; and (iii non-coding RNAs. We then discuss evidence suggesting that sleep loss impacts the epigenome and that these epigenetic alterations might mediate the changes in cognition seen following disruption of sleep. The link between sleep and the epigenome is only beginning to be elucidated, but clear evidence exists that epigenetic alterations occur following sleep deprivation. In the future, these changes to the epigenome could be utilized as biomarkers of sleep loss or as therapeutic targets for sleep-related disorders.

  20. Sleep Deprivation and the Epigenome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaine, Marie E; Chatterjee, Snehajyoti; Abel, Ted

    2018-01-01

    Sleep deprivation disrupts the lives of millions of people every day and has a profound impact on the molecular biology of the brain. These effects begin as changes within a neuron, at the DNA and RNA level, and result in alterations in neuronal plasticity and dysregulation of many cognitive functions including learning and memory. The epigenome plays a critical role in regulating gene expression in the context of memory storage. In this review article, we begin by describing the effects of epigenetic alterations on the regulation of gene expression, focusing on the most common epigenetic mechanisms: (i) DNA methylation; (ii) histone modifications; and (iii) non-coding RNAs. We then discuss evidence suggesting that sleep loss impacts the epigenome and that these epigenetic alterations might mediate the changes in cognition seen following disruption of sleep. The link between sleep and the epigenome is only beginning to be elucidated, but clear evidence exists that epigenetic alterations occur following sleep deprivation. In the future, these changes to the epigenome could be utilized as biomarkers of sleep loss or as therapeutic targets for sleep-related disorders.

  1. L-carnitine prevents memory impairment induced by chronic REM-sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzoubi, Karem H; Rababa'h, Abeer M; Owaisi, Amani; Khabour, Omar F

    2017-05-01

    Sleep deprivation (SD) negatively impacts memory, which was related to oxidative stress induced damage. L-carnitine is a naturally occurring compound, synthesized endogenously in mammalian species and known to possess antioxidant properties. In this study, the effect of L-carnitine on learning and memory impairment induced by rapid eye movement sleep (REM-sleep) deprivation was investigated. REM-sleep deprivation was induced using modified multiple platform model (8h/day, for 6 weeks). Simultaneously, L-carnitine was administered (300mg/kg/day) intraperitoneally for 6 weeks. Thereafter, the radial arm water maze (RAWM) was used to assess spatial learning and memory. Additionally, the hippocampus levels of antioxidant biomarkers/enzymes: reduced glutathione (GSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), GSH/GSSG ratio, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) were assessed. The results showed that chronic REM-sleep deprivation impaired both short- and long-term memory (Psleep deprivation induced reduction in the hippocampus ratio of GSH/GSSG, activity of catalase, GPx, and SOD. No change was observed in TBARS among tested groups (P>0.05). In conclusion, chronic REM-sleep deprivation induced memory impairment, and treatment with L-carnitine prevented this impairment through normalizing antioxidant mechanisms in the hippocampus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Deprivation Index for Small Areas in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Cantalejo, Carmen; Ocana-Riola, Ricardo; Fernandez-Ajuria, Alberto

    2008-01-01

    The term deprivation is often used to refer to economic or social shortages in a given geographical area. This concept of deprivation has been identified for years using simple indicators such as income level, education and social class. One of the advantages of using simple indicators is the availability of data, since they come directly from…

  3. Health-risk behaviour in deprived neighbourhoods compared with non-deprived neighbourhoods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Algren, Maria Holst; Bak, Carsten Kronborg; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    in deprived neighbourhoods compared with those who live in non-deprived neighbourhoods and to summarise what kind of operationalisations of neighbourhood deprivation that were used in the studies. METHODS: PRISMA guidelines for systematic reviews were followed. Systematic searches were performed in Pub......Med, Embase, Web of Science and Sociological Abstracts using relevant search terms, Boolean operators, and truncation, and reference lists were scanned. Quantitative observational studies that examined health-risk behaviour in deprived neighbourhoods compared with non-deprived neighbourhoods were eligible...... for inclusion. RESULTS: The inclusion criteria were met by 22 studies. The available literature showed a positive association between smoking and physical inactivity and living in deprived neighbourhoods compared with non-deprived neighbourhoods. In regard to low fruit and vegetable consumption and alcohol...

  4. Sleep deprivation suppresses aggression in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayser, Matthew S; Mainwaring, Benjamin; Yue, Zhifeng; Sehgal, Amita

    2015-01-01

    Sleep disturbances negatively impact numerous functions and have been linked to aggression and violence. However, a clear effect of sleep deprivation on aggressive behaviors remains unclear. We find that acute sleep deprivation profoundly suppresses aggressive behaviors in the fruit fly, while other social behaviors are unaffected. This suppression is recovered following post-deprivation sleep rebound, and occurs regardless of the approach to achieve sleep loss. Genetic and pharmacologic approaches suggest octopamine signaling transmits changes in aggression upon sleep deprivation, and reduced aggression places sleep-deprived flies at a competitive disadvantage for obtaining a reproductive partner. These findings demonstrate an interaction between two phylogenetically conserved behaviors, and suggest that previous sleep experiences strongly modulate aggression with consequences for reproductive fitness. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07643.001 PMID:26216041

  5. The food retail environment and area deprivation in Glasgow City, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macintyre Sally

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract It has previously been suggested that deprived neighbourhoods within modern cities have poor access to general amenities, for example, fewer food retail outlets. Here we examine the distribution of food retailers by deprivation in the City of Glasgow, UK. We obtained a list of 934 food retailers in Glasgow, UK, in 2007, and mapped these at address level. We categorised small areas (data zones into quintiles of area deprivation using the 2006 Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation Income sub-domain score. We computed mean number of retailers per 1000 residents per data zone, and mean network distance to nearest outlet from data zone centroid, for all retailers combined and for each of seven categories of retailer separately (i.e. bakers, butchers, fruit and vegetable sellers, fishmongers, convenience stores, supermarkets and delicatessens. The most deprived quintile (of areas had the greatest mean number of total food retailers per 1000 residents while quintile 1 (least deprived had the least, and this difference was statistically significant (Chi-square p

  6. Sleep deprivation as an experimental model system for psychosis: Effects on smooth pursuit, prosaccades, and antisaccades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyhöfer, Inga; Kumari, Veena; Hill, Antje; Petrovsky, Nadine; Ettinger, Ulrich

    2017-04-01

    Current antipsychotic medications fail to satisfactorily reduce negative and cognitive symptoms and produce many unwanted side effects, necessitating the development of new compounds. Cross-species, experimental behavioural model systems can be valuable to inform the development of such drugs. The aim of the current study was to further test the hypothesis that controlled sleep deprivation is a safe and effective model system for psychosis when combined with oculomotor biomarkers of schizophrenia. Using a randomized counterbalanced within-subjects design, we investigated the effects of 1 night of total sleep deprivation in 32 healthy participants on smooth pursuit eye movements (SPEM), prosaccades (PS), antisaccades (AS), and self-ratings of psychosis-like states. Compared with a normal sleep control night, sleep deprivation was associated with reduced SPEM velocity gain, higher saccadic frequency at 0.2 Hz, elevated PS spatial error, and an increase in AS direction errors. Sleep deprivation also increased intra-individual variability of SPEM, PS, and AS measures. In addition, sleep deprivation induced psychosis-like experiences mimicking hallucinations, cognitive disorganization, and negative symptoms, which in turn had moderate associations with AS direction errors. Taken together, sleep deprivation resulted in psychosis-like impairments in SPEM and AS performance. However, diverging somewhat from the schizophrenia literature, sleep deprivation additionally disrupted PS control. Sleep deprivation thus represents a promising but possibly unspecific experimental model that may be helpful to further improve our understanding of the underlying mechanisms in the pathophysiology of psychosis and aid the development of antipsychotic and pro-cognitive drugs.

  7. Lifestyle intervention program in deprived obese adult patients and their non-deprived counterparts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celine Loddo

    Full Text Available Although it is known that the prevalence of obesity is high in deprived patients, the link between deprivation and obesity, and the impact of deprivation on compliance and efficacy of a lifestyle intervention program are not known.Deprivation was assessed in 40 patients (23 Females, mean±SD age: 49±17 years from the diabetology department and 140 patients (101 Females, age: 50±15 years from the nutrition department of Bordeaux University hospital. Eighty-seven patients suffering from obesity were evaluated before and after a tailored, multidisciplinary lifestyle intervention. Deprivation was assessed using EPICES scores. Deprivation was defined with an EPICES score > 30.Deprived patients suffering from obesity had significantly higher current (43.8 ±8.4 versus 40.9 ± 5.5 kg/m2, p = 0,02 and maximal BMI (46.1± 8.6 versus 42.3± 5.2 kg/m2, p = 0.002 compared to non-deprived obese. Percentage of body weight loss was not different according to deprivation (4.74 ± 0.75 versus 4.65 ± 1.04%, p = 0.9. EPICES scores were not different according to adherence to lifestyle intervention program (20.5 ± 8.5 versus 29.9 ± 3.9 versus 29.0 ±2.5, no follow up versus partial follow up versus total follow up, p = 0,58.Deprived patients suffering from obesity have a more serious disease than non-deprived patients. However, neither compliance to the lifestyle intervention program nor body weight loss differed between deprived patients with obesity and non-deprived ones. Deprivation should not be a limitation when enrolling patients with obesity in lifestyle intervention programs.

  8. Lifestyle intervention program in deprived obese adult patients and their non-deprived counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loddo, Celine; Pupier, Emilie; Amour, Rémy; Monsaingeon-Henry, Maud; Mohammedi, Kamel; Gatta-Cherifi, Blandine

    2017-01-01

    Although it is known that the prevalence of obesity is high in deprived patients, the link between deprivation and obesity, and the impact of deprivation on compliance and efficacy of a lifestyle intervention program are not known. Deprivation was assessed in 40 patients (23 Females, mean±SD age: 49±17 years) from the diabetology department and 140 patients (101 Females, age: 50±15 years) from the nutrition department of Bordeaux University hospital. Eighty-seven patients suffering from obesity were evaluated before and after a tailored, multidisciplinary lifestyle intervention. Deprivation was assessed using EPICES scores. Deprivation was defined with an EPICES score > 30. Deprived patients suffering from obesity had significantly higher current (43.8 ±8.4 versus 40.9 ± 5.5 kg/m2, p = 0,02) and maximal BMI (46.1± 8.6 versus 42.3± 5.2 kg/m2, p = 0.002) compared to non-deprived obese. Percentage of body weight loss was not different according to deprivation (4.74 ± 0.75 versus 4.65 ± 1.04%, p = 0.9). EPICES scores were not different according to adherence to lifestyle intervention program (20.5 ± 8.5 versus 29.9 ± 3.9 versus 29.0 ±2.5, no follow up versus partial follow up versus total follow up, p = 0,58). Deprived patients suffering from obesity have a more serious disease than non-deprived patients. However, neither compliance to the lifestyle intervention program nor body weight loss differed between deprived patients with obesity and non-deprived ones. Deprivation should not be a limitation when enrolling patients with obesity in lifestyle intervention programs.

  9. Sleep deprivation: consequences for students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marhefka, Julie King

    2011-09-01

    During the adolescent years, a delayed pattern of the sleep-wake cycle occurs. Many parents and health care providers are not aware that once established, these poor sleep habits can continue into adulthood. Early school hours start a pattern of sleep loss that begins a cycle of daytime sleepiness, which may affect mood, behavior, and increase risk for accidents or injury. These sleep-deprived habits established in adolescence can often lead to problems during college years. Sleep hygiene can be initiated to help break the cycle, along with education and implementation of a strict regimen. Monitoring all adolescents and college-aged students for sleep insufficiency is imperative to improve both academic and emotional well-being. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  10. The effects of oviposition-site deprivation on Anopheles gambiae reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter Kathryne L

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The African malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, depends on availability of suitable surface water for oviposition. Short and long dry spells occur throughout the year in many parts of its range that limit its access to oviposition sites. Although not well understood, oviposition-site deprivation has been found to rapidly reduce egg batch size and hatch rate of several mosquito species. We conducted laboratory experiments to assess these effects of oviposition-site deprivation on An. gambiae and to evaluate the role of nutrition and sperm viability as mediators of these effects. Methods Anopheles gambiae adults (1–2 d old from the G3 laboratory colony were assigned to the following treatment groups: oviposition-deprived (fed once and then deprived of oviposition site for 7 or 14 d, multiple-fed control (fed regularly once a week and allowed to lay eggs without delay, and age matched blood-deprived control (fed once, three days before water for oviposition was provided. Egg batch size and hatch rate were measured. In the second experiment two additional treatment groups were included: oviposition-deprived females that received either a second (supplemental blood meal or virgin males (supplemental mating 4 days prior to receiving water for oviposition. Results An. gambiae was highly sensitive to oviposition-site deprivation. Egg batch size dropped sharply to 0–3.5 egg/female within 14 days, due to reduced oviposition rate rather than a reduced number of eggs/batch. Egg hatch rate also fell dramatically to 0-2% within 7 days. The frequency of brown eggs that fail to tan was elevated. A supplemental blood meal, but not ‘supplemental insemination,’ recovered the oviposition rate of females subjected to oviposition-site deprivation. Similarly, a supplemental blood meal, but not ‘supplemental insemination,’ partly recovered hatch rate, but this increase was marginally significant (P  Conclusions Even a short dry spell

  11. Comparison of small-area deprivation measures as predictors of chronic disease burden in a low-income population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lòpez-De Fede, Ana; Stewart, John E; Hardin, James W; Mayfield-Smith, Kathy

    2016-06-10

    Measures of small-area deprivation may be valuable in geographically targeting limited resources to prevent, diagnose, and effectively manage chronic conditions in vulnerable populations. We developed a census-based small-area socioeconomic deprivation index specifically to predict chronic disease burden among publically insured Medicaid recipients in South Carolina, a relatively poor state in the southern United States. We compared the predictive ability of the new index with that of four other small-area deprivation indicators. To derive the ZIP Code Tabulation Area-Level Palmetto Small-Area Deprivation Index (Palmetto SADI), we evaluated ten census variables across five socioeconomic deprivation domains, identifying the combination of census indicators most highly correlated with a set of five chronic disease conditions among South Carolina Medicaid enrollees. In separate validation studies, we used both logistic and spatial regression methods to assess the ability of Palmetto SADI to predict chronic disease burden among state Medicaid recipients relative to four alternative small-area socioeconomic deprivation measures: the Townsend index of material deprivation; a single-variable poverty indicator; and two small-area designations of health care resource deprivation, Primary Care Health Professional Shortage Area and Medically Underserved Area/Medically Underserved Population. Palmetto SADI was the best predictor of chronic disease burden (presence of at least one condition and presence of two or more conditions) among state Medicaid recipients compared to all alternative deprivation measures tested. A low-cost, regionally optimized socioeconomic deprivation index, Palmetto SADI can be used to identify areas in South Carolina at high risk for chronic disease burden among Medicaid recipients and other low-income Medicaid-eligible populations for targeted prevention, screening, diagnosis, disease self-management, and care coordination activities.

  12. Sleep deprivation affects reactivity to positive but not negative stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilcher, June J; Callan, Christina; Posey, J Laura

    2015-12-01

    The current study examined the effects of partial and total sleep deprivation on emotional reactivity. Twenty-eight partially sleep-deprived participants and 31 totally sleep-deprived participants rated their valence and arousal responses to positive and negative pictures across four testing sessions during the day following partial sleep deprivation or during the night under total sleep deprivation. The results suggest that valence and arousal ratings decreased under both sleep deprivation conditions. In addition, partial and total sleep deprivation had a greater negative effect on positive events than negative events. These results suggest that sleep-deprived persons are more likely to respond less to positive events than negative events. One explanation for the current findings is that negative events could elicit more attentive behavior and thus stable responding under sleep deprivation conditions. As such, sleep deprivation could impact reactivity to emotional stimuli through automated attentional and self-regulatory processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Urban density, deprivation and road safety

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kirstam

    The findings on deprivation provide new insights to rural-urban variations in ... 2000 and 2030 (World Health Organization, WHO & United Nations HABITAT, UN- ... The authors used negative binomial count models to control for a range of.

  14. Bearding the Capability Deprivation Machine: The Pedagogical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bearding the Capability Deprivation Machine: The Pedagogical Deal for ... Africa are managing the task of higher education in an environment marked by poverty. ... are valuable in the full range of social spaces young South Africans inhabit.

  15. Relative deprivation and disordered gambling in youths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgar, Frank J; Canale, Natale; Wohl, Michael J A; Lenzi, Michela; Vieno, Alessio

    2018-03-07

    Previous research has found that area-level income inequality and individual-level relative deprivation both contribute to disordered gambling in adults. However, the socioeconomic factors that contribute to disordered gambling in youths and protective factors in their social environment have not been fully explored. This study examined the association between relative deprivation and youth disordered gambling and the potential moderating role of social support in this association. We used data on family material assets and self-reported symptoms of disordered gambling symptoms in 19 321 participants of the 2013/2014 Italian Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study. Relative deprivation was measured using the Yitzhaki index and classmates as a social reference group. Its association with disordered gambling was tested using multilevel negative binomial regression analyses. We also tested moderated effects of relative deprivation on disordered gambling by four sources of social support: families, peers, teachers and classmates. Relative deprivation related to a fourfold increase in the rate of disordered gambling symptoms (incidence rate ratio=4.18) after differences in absolute family wealth and other variables were statistically controlled. Symptoms were also more prevalent in males, first-generation immigrants and less supported youth. Peer support moderated the association between relative deprivation and symptoms, suggesting that high deprivation and low peer support have interactive links to disordered gambling. Relative deprivation among classmates relate to youth symptoms of disordered gambling. Youth who live in economically unequal settings and perceive a lack of social support may be at greatest risk. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  16. Sensory deprivation leading to late onset psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapnajeet Sahoo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensory deprivation is understood as diminution or absence of perceptual experiences to the usual external stimuli. Sensory deprivation in elderly is reported to be associated with depression, anxiety, psychosis, dementia, etc. In this report, we present the case of an 84-year- elderly man who developed auditory hallucination and after 1 year of onset of hearing difficulties. He was managed with quetiapine, with which he showed significant improvement.

  17. The New Zealand Indices of Multiple Deprivation (IMD): A new suite of indicators for social and health research in Aotearoa, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exeter, Daniel John; Zhao, Jinfeng; Crengle, Sue; Lee, Arier; Browne, Michael

    2017-01-01

    For the past 20 years, the New Zealand Deprivation Index (NZDep) has been the universal measure of area-based social circumstances for New Zealand (NZ) and often the key social determinant used in population health and social research. This paper presents the first theoretical and methodological shift in the measurement of area deprivation in New Zealand since the 1990s and describes the development of the New Zealand Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD). We briefly describe the development of Data Zones, an intermediary geographical scale, before outlining the development of the New Zealand Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD), which uses routine datasets and methods comparable to current international deprivation indices. We identified 28 indicators of deprivation from national health, social development, taxation, education, police databases, geospatial data providers and the 2013 Census, all of which represented seven Domains of deprivation: Employment; Income; Crime; Housing; Health; Education; and Geographical Access. The IMD is the combination of these seven Domains. The Domains may be used individually or in combination, to explore the geography of deprivation and its association with a given health or social outcome. Geographic variations in the distribution of the IMD and its Domains were found among the District Health Boards in NZ, suggesting that factors underpinning overall deprivation are inconsistent across the country. With the exception of the Access Domain, the IMD and its Domains were statistically and moderately-to-strongly associated with both smoking rates and household poverty. The IMD provides a more nuanced view of area deprivation circumstances in Aotearoa NZ. Our vision is for the IMD and the Data Zones to be widely used to inform research, policy and resource allocation projects, providing a better measurement of area deprivation in NZ, improved outcomes for Māori, and a more consistent approach to reporting and monitoring the social

  18. Public sector employment, relative deprivation and happiness in adult urban Chinese employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Anning

    2013-09-01

    The decline in perceived happiness within economic prosperity in Chinese society calls for further examination. In this research, we investigate the effect of employment in public sector work units on perceived happiness through the mediation of economic and social status relative deprivations. In the reform era of China, work unit is still an important mechanism maintaining social inequality, and those working in government/Communist Party agencies and public institutions have advantages of getting access to high wage, comprehensive welfare and the manipulation of administrative public power. Such economic and social status advantages are expected to reduce their relative deprivation and further promote their perceived happiness. Using a nationwide survey data conducted in 2006, we find working in public sector can significantly reduce the odds of experiencing economic relative deprivation, which is further contributive to the improvement of subjective wellbeing.

  19. Sleep deprivation alters functioning within the neural network underlying the covert orienting of attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mander, Bryce A; Reid, Kathryn J; Davuluri, Vijay K; Small, Dana M; Parrish, Todd B; Mesulam, M-Marsel; Zee, Phyllis C; Gitelman, Darren R

    2008-06-27

    One function of spatial attention is to enable goal-directed interactions with the environment through the allocation of neural resources to motivationally relevant parts of space. Studies have shown that responses are enhanced when spatial attention is predictively biased towards locations where significant events are expected to occur. Previous studies suggest that the ability to bias attention predictively is related to posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) activation [Small, D.M., et al., 2003. The posterior cingulate and medial prefrontal cortex mediate the anticipatory allocation of spatial attention. Neuroimage 18, 633-41]. Sleep deprivation (SD) impairs selective attention and reduces PCC activity [Thomas, M., et al., 2000. Neural basis of alertness and cognitive performance impairments during sleepiness. I. Effects of 24 h of sleep deprivation on waking human regional brain activity. J. Sleep Res. 9, 335-352]. Based on these findings, we hypothesized that SD would affect PCC function and alter the ability to predictively allocate spatial attention. Seven healthy, young adults underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) following normal rest and 34-36 h of SD while performing a task in which attention was shifted in response to peripheral targets preceded by spatially informative (valid), misleading (invalid), or uninformative (neutral) cues. When rested, but not when sleep-deprived, subjects responded more quickly to targets that followed valid cues than those after neutral or invalid cues. Brain activity during validly cued trials with a reaction time benefit was compared to activity in trials with no benefit. PCC activation was greater during trials with a reaction time benefit following normal rest. In contrast, following SD, reaction time benefits were associated with activation in the left intraparietal sulcus, a region associated with receptivity to stimuli at unexpected locations. These changes may render sleep-deprived individuals less able

  20. Interocular suppression in children with deprivation amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, Lisa; Chen, Zidong; Li, Jinrong; Black, Joanna; Dai, Shuan; Yuan, Junpeng; Yu, Minbin; Thompson, Benjamin

    2017-04-01

    In patients with anisometropic or strabismic amblyopia, interocular suppression can be minimized by presenting high contrast stimulus elements to the amblyopic eye and lower contrast elements to the fellow eye. This suggests a structurally intact binocular visual system that is functionally suppressed. We investigated whether suppression can also be overcome by contrast balancing in children with deprivation amblyopia due to childhood cataracts. To quantify interocular contrast balance, contrast interference thresholds were measured using an established dichoptic global motion technique for 21 children with deprivation amblyopia, 14 with anisometropic or mixed strabismic/anisometropic amblyopia and 10 visually normal children (mean age mean=9.9years, range 5-16years). We found that interocular suppression could be overcome by contrast balancing in most children with deprivation amblyopia, at least intermittently, and all children with anisometropic or mixed anisometropic/strabismic amblyopia. However, children with deprivation amblyopia due to early unilateral or bilateral cataracts could tolerate only very low contrast levels to the stronger eye indicating strong suppression. Our results suggest that treatment options reliant on contrast balanced dichoptic presentation could be attempted in a subset of children with deprivation amblyopia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Deprivation amblyopia and congenital hereditary cataract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, Behzad; Stacy, Rebecca C; Kruger, Joshua; Cestari, Dean M

    2013-01-01

    Amblyopia is a neurodevelopmental disorder of vision associated with decreased visual acuity, poor or absent stereopsis, and suppression of information from one eye.(1,2) Amblyopia may be caused by strabismus (strabismic amblyopia), refractive error (anisometropic amblyopia), or deprivation from obstructed vision (deprivation amblyopia). 1 In the developed world, amblyopia is the most common cause of childhood visual impairment, 3 which reduces quality of life 4 and also almost doubles the lifetime risk of legal blindness.(5, 6) Successful treatment of amblyopia greatly depends on early detection and treatment of predisposing disorders such as congenital cataract, which is the most common cause of deprivational amblyopia. Understanding the genetic causes of congenital cataract leads to more effective screening tests, early detection and treatment of infants and children who are at high risk for hereditary congenital cataract.

  2. Recurrent 3-day cycles of water deprivation for over a month depress mating behaviour but not semen characteristics of adult rams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khnissi, S; Lassoued, N; Rekik, M; Ben Salem, H

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of water deprivation (WD) on reproductive traits of rams. Ten mature rams were used and allocated to two groups balanced for body weight. Control (C) rams had free access to drinking water, while water-restricted rams (WD) were deprived from water for 3 consecutive days and early on the morning of day 4, they had ad libitum access to water for 24 h, similar to C animals. The experiment lasted 32 days, that is eight 4-day cycles of water deprivation and subsequent watering. Feed and water intake were significantly affected by water deprivation; in comparison with C rams, WD rams reduced their feed intake by 18%. During the watering day of the deprivation cycle, WD rams consumed more water than C rams on the same day (11.8 (SD = 3.37) and 8.4 (SD = 1.92) l respectively; p water deprivation. However, testosterone levels were lowered as a result of water deprivation and average values were 10.9 and 6.2 (SEM 1.23) ng/ml for C and WD rams respectively (p cycles 5 and 8 of water deprivation. Several mating behaviour traits were modified as a result of water deprivation. When compared to controls, WD rams had a more prolonged time to first mount attempt (p Water deprivation may have practical implications reducing the libido and therefore the serving capacity of rams under field conditions. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Progressive paradoxical sleep deprivation impairs partial memory following learning tasks in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunmin Zhu; Xiangrong Yao; Weisheng Zhang; Yanfeng Song; Yiping Hou

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Complex learning tasks result in a greater number of paradoxical sleep phases, which can improve memory. The effect of paradoxical sleep deprivation, induced by "flower pot" technique, on spatial reference memory and working memory require further research. OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of progressive paradoxical sleep deprivation in rats, subsequent to learning, on memory using the Morris Water Maze. DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: Controlled observation experiment. The experiment was performed at the Laboratory of Neurobiology, Department of Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Lanzhou University from December 2006 to October 2007. MATERIALS: Twenty-eight, male, Wistar rats, 3-4 months old, were provided by the Experimental Animal Center of Lanzhou University. The Morris Water Maze and behavioral analyses system was purchased from Genheart Company, Beijing, China. METHODS: All animals, according to a random digits table, were randomly divided into paradoxical sleep deprivation, tank control, and home cage control groups. Paradoxical sleep deprivation was induced by the "flower pot" technique for 72 hours, housing the rats on small platforms over water. Rats in the "tank control" and "home cage control" groups were housed either in a tank with large platforms over the water or in normal cages without paradoxical sleep deprivation. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Morris Water Maze was employed for task learning and spatial memory testing. Rats in all groups were placed at six random starting points each day for four consecutive days. Each placement was repeated for two trials; the first trial represented reference memory and the second working memory. Rats in the first trial were allowed to locate the submerged platform within 120 seconds. Data, including swimming distance, escape latency, swimming velocity, percentage of time in correct quarter, and memory scores were recorded and analyzed automatically by behavioral analyses

  4. Does the effect of gender modify the relationship between deprivation and mortality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salcedo Natalia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this study we propose improvements to the method of elaborating deprivation indexes. First, in the selection of the variables, we incorporated a wider range of both objective and subjective measures. Second, in the statistical methodology, we used a distance indicator instead of the standard aggregating method principal component analysis. Third, we propose another methodological improvement, which consists in the use of a more robust statistical method to assess the relationship between deprivation and health responses in ecological regressions. Methods We conducted an ecological small-area analysis based on the residents of the Metropolitan region of Barcelona in the period 1994–2007. Standardized mortality rates, stratified by sex, were studied for four mortality causes: tumor of the bronquial, lung and trachea, diabetes mellitus type II, breast cancer, and prostate cancer. Socioeconomic conditions were summarized using a deprivation index. Sixteen socio-demographic variables available in the Spanish Census of Population and Housing were included. The deprivation index was constructed by aggregating the above-mentioned variables using the distance indicator, DP2. For the estimation of the ecological regression we used hierarchical Bayesian models with some improvements. Results At greater deprivation, there is an increased risk of dying from diabetes for both sexes and of dying from lung cancer for men. On the other hand, at greater deprivation, there is a decreased risk of dying from breast cancer and lung cancer for women. We did not find a clear relationship in the case of prostate cancer (presenting an increased risk but only in the second quintile of deprivation. Conclusions We believe our results were obtained using a more robust methodology. First off, we have built a better index that allows us to directly collect the variability of contextual variables without having to use arbitrary weights. Secondly, we

  5. Early visual deprivation prompts the use of body-centered frames of reference for auditory localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercillo, Tiziana; Tonelli, Alessia; Gori, Monica

    2018-01-01

    The effects of early visual deprivation on auditory spatial processing are controversial. Results from recent psychophysical studies show that people who were born blind have a spatial impairment in localizing sound sources within specific auditory settings, while previous psychophysical studies revealed enhanced auditory spatial abilities in early blind compared to sighted individuals. An explanation of why an auditory spatial deficit is sometimes observed within blind populations and its task-dependency remains to be clarified. We investigated auditory spatial perception in early blind adults and demonstrated that the deficit derives from blind individual's reduced ability to remap sound locations using an external frame of reference. We found that performance in blind population was severely impaired when they were required to localize brief auditory stimuli with respect to external acoustic landmarks (external reference frame) or when they had to reproduce the spatial distance between two sounds. However, they performed similarly to sighted controls when had to localize sounds with respect to their own hand (body-centered reference frame), or to judge the distances of sounds from their finger. These results suggest that early visual deprivation and the lack of visual contextual cues during the critical period induce a preference for body-centered over external spatial auditory representations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Deprivation of Dignity in Nursing Home Residents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høy, Bente

    2016-01-01

    deepened knowledge in how to maintain and promote dignity in nursing home residents. The purpose of this paper is to present results concerning the question: How is nursing home residents’ dignity maintained or deprived from the perspective of close family caregivers? In this presentation we only focus...... on deprivation of dignity. Methodology: The overall design of this study is modified clinical application research. The study took place at six different nursing home residences in Sweden, Denmark and Norway. Data collection methods were individual research interviews. All together the sample consisted of 28...

  7. Sleep deprivation: cardiovascular effects for anesthesiologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Dabbagh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sleep and anesthesia have some common or "overlapping" neural pathways. Both involve wakefulness; while they are not the same; anesthesia is an iatrogenic, reversible, pharmacologic-based coma; which could affect the CNS neural pathways at many levels. In the current era of modern anesthesiology, the practice and science of anesthesia is composed of 4 basic elements; (1: 1. hypnosis (i.e. iatrogenic pharmacologicinduced coma 2. amnesia (not to remember the events of the operation 3. analgesia (being painless 4. akinesia (lack of movements to stimuli The first two ingredients of anesthesia could have common points with sleep. Thalamic nuclei are involved both in sleep and anesthesia (2, 3; though, they are not the same phenomena (4. However, could there be any clinical concern if some of our patients have abnormalities in sleep? In fact, the effects of sleep deprivation have long been studied in patients undergoing anesthesia for surgical operations (4, 5. Sleep deprivation causes altered neurohumoral activity, neuroendocrine dysregulations, abnormalities in the immune system and impairments in cardiac autonomic function (6, 7. Sleep deprivation may affect the clinical effects of the anesthetics or it may create unpredicted changes in the clinical response to a determined dose of anesthetic drugs (8. In this volume of the Journal, Choopani et al have published their results regarding sleep deprivation; they have demonstrated that in rats, if sleep deprivation is induced prior to an ischemia/reperfusion event, it can increase the chance for ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation; also, they have shown that this untoward effect could be eliminated using chemical sympathectomy (9. In clinical practice, the main message from this study could be that when anesthesiologists perform anesthesia for their patients, they should be aware of effects of acute or chronic sleep deprivation. Undoubtedly, sleep deprivation could occur during the

  8. The impact of regional and neighbourhood deprivation on physical health in Germany: a multilevel study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razum Oliver

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing evidence that individual health is at least partly determined by neighbourhood and regional factors. Mechanisms, however, remain poorly understood, and evidence from Germany is scant. This study explores whether regional as well as neighbourhood deprivation are associated with physical health and to what extent this association can be explained by specific neighbourhood exposures. Methods Using 2004 data from the German Socio-Economic Panel Study (SOEP merged with regional and neighbourhood characteristics, we fitted multilevel linear regression models with subjective physical health, as measured by the SF-12, as the dependent variable. The models include regional and neighbourhood proxies of deprivation (i.e. regional unemployment quota, average purchasing power of the street section as well as specific neighbourhood exposures (i.e. perceived air pollution. Individual characteristics including socioeconomic status and health behaviour have been controlled for. Results This study finds a significant association between area deprivation and physical health which is independent of compositional factors and consistent across different spatial scales. Furthermore the association between neighbourhood deprivation and physical health can be partly explained by specific features of the neighbourhood environment. Among these perceived air pollution shows the strongest association with physical health (-2.4 points for very strong and -1.5 points for strong disturbance by air pollution, standard error (SE = 0.8 and 0.4, respectively. Beta coefficients for perceived air pollution, perceived noise and the perceived distance to recreational resources do not diminish when including individual health behaviour in the models. Conclusions This study highlights the difference regional and in particular neighbourhood deprivation make to the physical health of individuals in Germany. The results support the argument that

  9. [Is the socioeconomic deprivation EPICES score useful in obstetrics?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convers, M; Langeron, A; Sass, C; Moulin, J-J; Augier, A; Varlet, M-N; Seffert, P; Chêne, G

    2012-04-01

    To describe a validated and multifactorial deprivation score to study the relationship between socioeconomic deprivation and perinatal risks. The index of deprivation EPICES (Evaluation of Precarity and Inequalities in Health Examination Centers) was used to characterize the deprivation status of 234 women in post-partum in comparison with perinatal morbidity. The cutoff value of 30.7 was the threshold to define deprivation. Two hundred and eight patients were included in this retrospective study from whom 48 (23%) had a score of deprivation higher than 30.7. Maternofetal morbidity was more severe in deprived patients. The current results show that the EPICES score could be a useful obstetrical tool for the identification of deprived women during pregnancy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Neighbourhood level social deprivation and the risk of psychotic disorders: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donoghue, Brian; Roche, Eric; Lane, Abbie

    2016-07-01

    The incidence of psychotic disorders varies according to the geographical area, and it has been investigated whether neighbourhood level factors may be associated with this variation. The aim of this systematic review is to collate and appraise the literature on the association between social deprivation and the incidence or risk for psychotic disorders. A systematic review was conducted, and studies were included if they were in English, provided a measure of social deprivation for more than one geographically defined area and examined either the correlation, rate ratio or risk of psychotic disorder. A defined search strategy was undertaken with Medline, CINAHL Plus and PsychInfo databases. A total of 409 studies were identified in the search, of which 28 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Of these, four examined the association between social deprivation at the time of birth, three examined the putative prodrome of psychosis or those at ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis, and 23 examined the time at presentation with a first episode of psychosis (FEP) (one study examined two time points and one study included both UHR and FEP). Three of the studies that examined the level of social deprivation at birth found an association with a higher risk for psychotic disorders and increased social deprivation. Seventeen of the 23 studies found that there was a higher risk or rate of psychotic disorders in more deprived neighbourhoods at the time of presentation; however, adjusting for individual factors tended to weaken this association. Limited research has been conducted in the putative prodromal stage and has resulted in conflicting findings. Research conducted to date has not definitively identified whether the association is a result of social causation or social drift; however, the findings do have significant implications for service provision, such as the location and access of services.

  11. Occlusion for stimulus deprivation amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonio-Santos, Aileen; Vedula, Satyanarayana S; Hatt, Sarah R; Powell, Christine

    2014-02-06

    Stimulus deprivation amblyopia (SDA) develops due to an obstruction to the passage of light secondary to a condition such as cataract. The obstruction prevents formation of a clear image on the retina. SDA can be resistant to treatment, leading to poor visual prognosis. SDA probably constitutes less than 3% of all amblyopia cases, although precise estimates of prevalence are unknown. In developed countries, most patients present under the age of one year; in less developed parts of the world patients are likely to be older at the time of presentation. The mainstay of treatment is removal of the cataract and then occlusion of the better-seeing eye, but regimens vary, can be difficult to execute, and traditionally are believed to lead to disappointing results. Our objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of occlusion therapy for SDA in an attempt to establish realistic treatment outcomes. Where data were available, we also planned to examine evidence of any dose response effect and to assess the effect of the duration, severity, and causative factor on the size and direction of the treatment effect. We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library 2013, Issue 9), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to October 2013), EMBASE (January 1980 to October 2013), the Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS) (January 1982 to October 2013), PubMed (January 1946 to October 2013), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com ), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 28 October 2013. We planned to include randomized and quasi-randomized controlled

  12. Social deprivation and burden of influenza: Testing hypotheses and gaining insights from a simulation model for the spread of influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayaz Hyder

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Factors associated with the burden of influenza among vulnerable populations have mainly been identified using statistical methodologies. Complex simulation models provide mechanistic explanations, in terms of spatial heterogeneity and contact rates, while controlling other factors and may be used to better understand statistical patterns and, ultimately, design optimal population-level interventions. We extended a sophisticated simulation model, which was applied to forecast epidemics and validated for predictive ability, to identify mechanisms for the empirical relationship between social deprivation and the burden of influenza. Our modeled scenarios and associated epidemic metrics systematically assessed whether neighborhood composition and/or spatial arrangement could qualitatively replicate this empirical relationship. We further used the model to determine consequences of local-scale heterogeneities on larger scale disease spread. Our findings indicated that both neighborhood composition and spatial arrangement were critical to qualitatively match the empirical relationship of interest. Also, when social deprivation was fully included in the model, we observed lower age-based attack rates and greater delay in epidemic peak week in the most socially deprived neighborhoods. Insights from simulation models complement current understandings from statistical-based association studies. Additional insights from our study are: (1 heterogeneous spatial arrangement of neighborhoods is a necessary condition for simulating observed disparities in the burden of influenza and (2 unmeasured factors may lead to a better quantitative match between simulated and observed rate ratio in the burden of influenza between the most and least socially deprived populations.

  13. Sleep deprivation impairs cAMP signalling in the hippocampus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vecsey, Christopher G; Baillie, George S; Jaganath, Devan; Havekes, Robbert; Daniels, Andrew; Wimmer, Mathieu; Huang, Ted; Brown, Kim M; Li, Xiang-Yao; Descalzi, Giannina; Kim, Susan S; Chen, Tao; Shang, Yu-Ze; Zhuo, Min; Houslay, Miles D; Abel, Ted

    2009-01-01

    Millions of people regularly obtain insufficient sleep. Given the effect of sleep deprivation on our lives, understanding the cellular and molecular pathways affected by sleep deprivation is clearly of social and clinical importance. One of the major effects of sleep deprivation on the brain is to

  14. Temporal and Spatial Explicit Modelling of Renewable Energy Systems : Modelling variable renewable energy systems to address climate change mitigation and universal electricity access

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeyringer, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    Two major global challenges climate change mitigation and universal electricity access, can be addressed by large scale deployment of renewable energy sources (Alstone et al., 2015). Around 60% of greenhouse gas emissions originate from energy generation and 90% of CO2 emissions are caused by fossil

  15. Relative Deprivation and the Gender Wage Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Linda A.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses how gender differences in the value of pay, based on relative deprivation theory, explain women's paradoxical contentment with lower wages. Presents a model of pay satisfaction to integrate value-based and comparative-referent explanations of the relationship between gender and pay satisfaction. Discusses economic approaches to the…

  16. Deprivation, HIV and AIDS in Northern Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-09-28

    physical aggression, deprivation, hunger and family separation, among others, for over twenty years. ... by various types of sexual crimes of rape (including marital rape), defilement and child .... insecurity and civil strife raged in northern Uganda mainly between the government ...... The Daily Monitor of September 28, 2007.

  17. Sleep deprivation impairs object recognition in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palchykova, S; Winsky-Sommerer, R; Meerlo, P; Durr, R; Tobler, Irene

    2006-01-01

    Many studies in animals and humans suggest that sleep facilitates learning, memory consolidation, and retrieval. Moreover, sleep deprivation (SD) incurred after learning, impaired memory in humans, mice, rats, and hamsters. We investigated the importance of sleep and its timing in in object

  18. Socioeconomic deprivation and accident and emergency attendances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scantlebury, Rachel; Rowlands, Gillian; Durbaba, Stevo

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Demand for England's accident and emergency (A&E) services is increasing and is particularly concentrated in areas of high deprivation. The extent to which primary care services, relative to population characteristics, can impact on A&E is not fully understood. AIM: To conduct...

  19. The influence of deprivation on suicide mortality in urban and rural Queensland: an ecological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Chi-kin; Snider, Anne-Marie; De Leo, Diego

    2014-12-01

    A trend of higher suicide rates in rural and remote areas as well as areas with low socioeconomic status has been shown in previous research. Little is known whether the influence of social deprivation on suicide differs between urban and rural areas. This investigation aims to examine how social deprivation influences suicide mortality and to identify which related factors of deprivation have a higher potential to reduce suicide risk in urban and rural Queensland, Australia. Suicide data from 2004 to 2008 were obtained from the Queensland Suicide Register. Age-standardized suicide rates (15+ years) and rate ratios, with a 95% confidence interval, for 38 Statistical Subdivisions (SSDs) in Queensland were calculated. The influence of deprivation-related variables on suicide and their rural-urban difference were modelled by log-linear regression analyses through backward elimination. Among the 38 SSDs in Queensland, eight had a higher suicide risk while eleven had a lower rate. Working-age males (15-59 years) had the most pronounced geographic variation in suicide rate. In urban areas, suicide rates were positively associated with tenant households in public housing, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, the unemployment rate and median individual income, but inversely correlated with younger age and households with no internet access. In rural areas, only tenant households in public housing and households with no internet access heightened the risk of suicide, while a negative association was found for younger and older persons, low-skilled workers or labourers, and families with low income and no cars. The extent to which social deprivation contributes to suicide mortality varies considerably between rural and urban areas.

  20. Pasture size effects on the ability of off-stream water or restricted stream access to alter the spatial/temporal distribution of grazing beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisinger, J J; Russell, J R; Morrical, D G; Isenhart, T M

    2014-08-01

    For 2 grazing seasons, effects of pasture size, stream access, and off-stream water on cow distribution relative to a stream were evaluated in six 12.1-ha cool-season grass pastures. Two pasture sizes (small [4.0 ha] and large [12.1 ha]) with 3 management treatments (unrestricted stream access without off-stream water [U], unrestricted stream access with off-stream water [UW], and stream access restricted to a stabilized stream crossing [R]) were alternated between pasture sizes every 2 wk for 5 consecutive 4-wk intervals in each grazing season. Small and large pastures were stocked with 5 and 15 August-calving cows from mid May through mid October. At 10-min intervals, cow location was determined with Global Positioning System collars fitted on 2 to 3 cows in each pasture and identified when observed in the stream (0-10 m from the stream) or riparian (0-33 m from the stream) zones and ambient temperature was recorded with on-site weather stations. Over all intervals, cows were observed more (P ≤ 0.01) frequently in the stream and riparian zones of small than large pastures regardless of management treatment. Cows in R pastures had 24 and 8% less (P cows in or near pasture streams regardless of pasture size. In 2011, the probability of cow presence in the stream and riparian zones increased at greater (P cow presence in the stream and riparian zones increased at greater (P cow presence in the stream and riparian zone increased less (P cow presence in shade (within 10 m of tree drip lines) in the total pasture with increasing temperatures did not differ between treatments. However, probability of cow presence in riparian shade increased at greater (P cows in or near pasture streams with unrestricted access.

  1. Effects of sleep deprivation on cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killgore, William D S

    2010-01-01

    Sleep deprivation is commonplace in modern society, but its far-reaching effects on cognitive performance are only beginning to be understood from a scientific perspective. While there is broad consensus that insufficient sleep leads to a general slowing of response speed and increased variability in performance, particularly for simple measures of alertness, attention and vigilance, there is much less agreement about the effects of sleep deprivation on many higher level cognitive capacities, including perception, memory and executive functions. Central to this debate has been the question of whether sleep deprivation affects nearly all cognitive capacities in a global manner through degraded alertness and attention, or whether sleep loss specifically impairs some aspects of cognition more than others. Neuroimaging evidence has implicated the prefrontal cortex as a brain region that may be particularly susceptible to the effects of sleep loss, but perplexingly, executive function tasks that putatively measure prefrontal functioning have yielded inconsistent findings within the context of sleep deprivation. Whereas many convergent and rule-based reasoning, decision making and planning tasks are relatively unaffected by sleep loss, more creative, divergent and innovative aspects of cognition do appear to be degraded by lack of sleep. Emerging evidence suggests that some aspects of higher level cognitive capacities remain degraded by sleep deprivation despite restoration of alertness and vigilance with stimulant countermeasures, suggesting that sleep loss may affect specific cognitive systems above and beyond the effects produced by global cognitive declines or impaired attentional processes. Finally, the role of emotion as a critical facet of cognition has received increasing attention in recent years and mounting evidence suggests that sleep deprivation may particularly affect cognitive systems that rely on emotional data. Thus, the extent to which sleep deprivation

  2. The impact of cigarette deprivation and cigarette availability on cue-reactivity in smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Steffani R; Goedeker, Katherine C; Tiffany, Stephen T

    2010-02-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the impact of cigarette deprivation and cigarette availability on reactivity measures to cigarette cues. Smokers were recruited who were 18 years of age or older, not attempting to quit or cut down on their smoking, smoked at least 20 cigarettes daily, had been smoking regularly for past year and had an expired carbon monoxide level of at least 10 parts per million. Smokers were assigned randomly to abstain from smoking for 24 hours (n = 51) or continue smoking their regular amount (n = 50). Twenty-four hours later, they were exposed to trials of either a lit cigarette or a glass of water with a 0, 50 or 100% probability of being able to sample the cue on each trial. Craving, mood, heart rate, skin conductance, puff topography and latency to access door to sample the cue were measured. Both exposure to cigarette cues and increasing availability of those cues produced higher levels of craving to smoke. Deprivation produced a generalized increase in craving. There was no consistent evidence, however, that even under conditions of high cigarette availability, deprived smokers were sensitized selectively to presentations of cigarette cues. The data suggest that, even under conditions of immediate cigarette availability, deprivation and cue presentations have independent, additive effects on self-reported craving levels in smokers.

  3. Understanding interactions with the food environment: an exploration of supermarket food shopping routines in deprived neighbourhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Claire; Cummins, Steven; Brown, Tim; Kyle, Rosemary

    2013-01-01

    Despite a sustained academic interest in the environmental determinants of diet, relatively little is known about the ways in which individuals interact with their neighbourhood food environment and the use of its most important element, the supermarket. This qualitative study explores how residents of deprived neighbourhoods shop for food and how the supermarket environment influences their choices. Go-along interviews were conducted with 26 residents of Sandwell, a uniformly deprived metropolitan borough in the West Midlands, UK. Routine approaches to food shopping are characterised in terms of planning and reliance on the supermarket environment. Four distinct routines are identified: chaotic and reactive; working around the store; item-by-item; and restricted and budgeted. This suggests that residents of deprived neighbourhoods do not have uniform responses to food environments. Responses to supermarket environments appear to be mediated by levels of individual autonomy. A better understanding of how residents of deprived neighbourhoods interact with their food environment may help optimise environmental interventions aimed at improving physical access to food in these places. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Availability and accessibility of subsidized mammogram screening program in peninsular Malaysia: A preliminary study using travel impedance approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, Aidalina; Aljunid, Syed Mohamed

    2018-01-01

    Access to healthcare is essential in the pursuit of universal health coverage. Components of access are availability, accessibility (spatial and non-spatial), affordability and acceptability. Measuring spatial accessibility is common approach to evaluating access to health care. This study aimed to determine the availability and spatial accessibility of subsidised mammogram screening in Peninsular Malaysia. Availability was determined from the number and distribution of facilities. Spatial accessibility was determined using the travel impedance approach to represent the revealed access as opposed to potential access measured by other spatial measurement methods. The driving distance of return trips from the respondent's residence to the facilities was determined using a mapping application. The travel expenditure was estimated by multiplying the total travel distance by a standardised travel allowance rate, plus parking fees. Respondents in this study were 344 breast cancer patients who received treatment at 4 referral hospitals between 2015 and 2016. In terms of availability, there were at least 6 major entities which provided subsidised mammogram programs. Facilities with mammogram involved with these programs were located more densely in the central and west coast region of the Peninsula. The ratio of mammogram facility to the target population of women aged 40-74 years ranged between 1: 10,000 and 1:80,000. In terms of accessibility, of the 3.6% of the respondents had undergone mammogram screening, their mean travel distance was 53.4 km (SD = 34.5, range 8-112 km) and the mean travel expenditure was RM 38.97 (SD = 24.00, range RM7.60-78.40). Among those who did not go for mammogram screening, the estimated travel distance and expenditure had a skewed distribution with median travel distance of 22.0 km (IQR 12.0, 42.0, range 2.0-340.0) and the median travel cost of RM 17.40 (IQR 10.40, 30.00, range 3.40-240.00). Higher travel impedance was noted among those who

  5. Deprivation and non-institutional political participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejrnæs, Anders

    2017-01-01

    This article examines how the relationship between perceived economic deprivation (PED) and non-institutional forms of political activity interacted with institutional trust during the economic crisis in 24 European countries. Using multi-level regression analysis, two broad questions are addressed......: (1) does PED have an impact on the level of non-institutional political participation among European citizens? And (2) does the level of institutional trust within countries have an impact on the relationship between PED and political activity among European citizens? The empirical analyses are based...... the opposite correlation on an individual level within the countries. Second, the analysis provides evidence that the institutional context shapes the connection between PED and political participation on the individual level. In countries with a high level of institutional trust, economically deprived...

  6. Human reproductive cloning and reasons for deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, D A

    2008-08-01

    Human reproductive cloning provides the possibility of genetically related children for persons for whom present technologies are ineffective. I argue that the desire for genetically related children is not, by itself, a sufficient reason to engage in human reproductive cloning. I show this by arguing that the value underlying the desire for genetically related children implies a tension between the parent and the future child. This tension stems from an instance of a deprivation and violates a general principle of reasons for deprivation. Alternative considerations, such as a right to procreative autonomy, do not appear helpful in making the case for human reproductive cloning merely on the basis of the desire for genetically related children.

  7. Deprivation as un-experienced harm?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keerus, Külli; Gjerris, Mickey; Röcklinsberg, Helena

    2017-01-01

    Tom Regan encapsulated his principle of harm as a prima facie direct duty not to harm experiencing subjects of a life. However, his consideration of harm as deprivation, one example of which is loss of freedom, can easily be interpreted as a harm, which may not be experienced by its subject....... This creates a gap between Regan’s criterion for moral status and his account of what our duties are. However, in comparison with three basic paradigms of welfare known in nonhuman animal welfare science, Regan’s understanding coheres with a modified version of a feelings-based paradigm: not only the immediate...... feelings of satisfaction, but also future opportunities to have such feelings, must be taken into account. Such an interpretation is compatible with Regan’s understanding of harm as deprivation. The potential source of confusion, however, lies in Regan’s own possible argumentative mistakes....

  8. Occupational deprivation in an asylum centre:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morville, Anne-Le; Erlandsson, Lena-Karin

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a study of three asylum-seeking men from Iran and Afghanistan. It aimed to explore how and if they experienced occupations as occupations in a Danish asylum centre and how their life experience shaped their choice and value of current occupations. In-depth narrative interviews...... explored the participants’ occupational history and its influence on their occupations in the asylum centre. A thematic analysis showed that the participants had been subjected to occupational disruption and deprivation by politically oppressive systems even before their flight. Their occupations...... in Denmark were to a certain extent influenced by their earlier occupations and the current occupational deprivation they all experienced was due to limited possibilities in the centre. Although they tried their best to fill their days and create structure, there was a loss of valued occupations...

  9. Molecular adaptations to phosphorus deprivation and comparison with nitrogen deprivation responses in the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alipanah, Leila; Winge, Per; Rohloff, Jens; Najafi, Javad; Brembu, Tore; Bones, Atle M

    2018-01-01

    Phosphorus, an essential element for all living organisms, is a limiting nutrient in many regions of the ocean due to its fast recycling. Changes in phosphate (Pi) availability in aquatic systems affect diatom growth and productivity. We investigated the early adaptive mechanisms in the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum to P deprivation using a combination of transcriptomics, metabolomics, physiological and biochemical experiments. Our analysis revealed strong induction of gene expression for proteins involved in phosphate acquisition and scavenging, and down-regulation of processes such as photosynthesis, nitrogen assimilation and nucleic acid and ribosome biosynthesis. P deprivation resulted in alterations of carbon allocation through the induction of the pentose phosphate pathway and cytosolic gluconeogenesis, along with repression of the Calvin cycle. Reorganization of cellular lipids was indicated by coordinated induced expression of phospholipases, sulfolipid biosynthesis enzymes and a putative betaine lipid biosynthesis enzyme. A comparative analysis of nitrogen- and phosphorus-deprived P. tricornutum revealed both common and distinct regulation patterns in response to phosphate and nitrate stress. Regulation of central carbon metabolism and amino acid metabolism was similar, whereas unique responses were found in nitrogen assimilation and phosphorus scavenging in nitrogen-deprived and phosphorus-deprived cells, respectively.

  10. Relative Deprivation and Sickness Absence in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Helgertz

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: A high prevalence of sickness absence in many countries, at a substantial societal cost, underlines the importance to understand its determining mechanisms. This study focuses on the link between relative deprivation and the probability of sickness absence. Methods: 184,000 men and women in Sweden were followed between 1982 and 2001. The sample consists of working individuals between the ages of 19 and 65. The outcome is defined as experiencing more than 14 days of sickness absence during a year. Based on the complete Swedish population, an individual’s degree of relative deprivation is measured through income compared to individuals of the same age, sex, educational level and type. In accounting for the possibility that sickness absence and socioeconomic status are determined by common factors, discrete-time duration models were estimated, accounting for unobserved heterogeneity through random effects. Results: The results confirm that the failure to account for the dynamics of the individual’s career biases the influence from socioeconomic characteristics. Results consistently suggest a major influence from relative deprivation, with a consistently lower risk of sickness absence among the highly educated. Conclusions: Altering individual’s health behavior through education appears more efficient in reducing the reliance on sickness absence, rather than redistributive policies.

  11. Relative deprivation and sickness absence in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgertz, Jonas; Hess, Wolfgang; Scott, Kirk

    2013-08-29

    A high prevalence of sickness absence in many countries, at a substantial societal cost, underlines the importance to understand its determining mechanisms. This study focuses on the link between relative deprivation and the probability of sickness absence. 184,000 men and women in Sweden were followed between 1982 and 2001. The sample consists of working individuals between the ages of 19 and 65. The outcome is defined as experiencing more than 14 days of sickness absence during a year. Based on the complete Swedish population, an individual's degree of relative deprivation is measured through income compared to individuals of the same age, sex, educational level and type. In accounting for the possibility that sickness absence and socioeconomic status are determined by common factors, discrete-time duration models were estimated, accounting for unobserved heterogeneity through random effects. The results confirm that the failure to account for the dynamics of the individual's career biases the influence from socioeconomic characteristics. Results consistently suggest a major influence from relative deprivation, with a consistently lower risk of sickness absence among the highly educated. Altering individual's health behavior through education appears more efficient in reducing the reliance on sickness absence, rather than redistributive policies.

  12. Sleep deprivation increases formation of false memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, June C; Chong, Pearlynne L H; Ganesan, Shankari; Leong, Ruth L F; Chee, Michael W L

    2016-12-01

    Retrieving false information can have serious consequences. Sleep is important for memory, but voluntary sleep curtailment is becoming more rampant. Here, the misinformation paradigm was used to investigate false memory formation after 1 night of total sleep deprivation in healthy young adults (N = 58, mean age ± SD = 22.10 ± 1.60 years; 29 males), and 7 nights of partial sleep deprivation (5 h sleep opportunity) in these young adults and healthy adolescents (N = 54, mean age ± SD = 16.67 ± 1.03 years; 25 males). In both age groups, sleep-deprived individuals were more likely than well-rested persons to incorporate misleading post-event information into their responses during memory retrieval (P memory during sleep curtailment, and suggest the need to assess eyewitnesses' sleep history after encountering misleading information. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Sleep Research published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Sleep Research Society.

  13. Caffeine deprivation affects vigilance performance and mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, J D; Phillips-Bute, B G

    1998-08-01

    The effects of brief caffeine deprivation on vigilance performance, mood, and symptoms of caffeine withdrawal were studied in habitual coffee drinkers. Thirty male and female coffee drinkers were tested twice at midday (1130 to 1330 hours) after mornings in which they either consumed caffeinated beverages ad lib or abstained. Vigilance performance was tested with a 30-min computerized visual monitoring task. Mood and withdrawal symptom reports were collected by questionnaires. Caffeine deprivation was associated with impaired vigilance performance characterized by a reduction in the percentage of targets detected and an increase in response time, and by subjective reports of decreased vigor and increased fatigue and symptoms characterized by sleepiness, headache, and reduced ability to work. Even short periods of caffeine deprivation, equivalent in length to skipping regular morning coffee, can produce deficits in sustained attention and noticeable unpleasant caffeine-withdrawal symptoms in habitual coffee drinkers. Such symptoms may be a common side-effect of habitual caffeine consumption that contributes to the maintenance of this behavior.

  14. Cues of fatigue: effects of sleep deprivation on facial appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundelin, Tina; Lekander, Mats; Kecklund, Göran; Van Someren, Eus J W; Olsson, Andreas; Axelsson, John

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the facial cues by which one recognizes that someone is sleep deprived versus not sleep deprived. Experimental laboratory study. Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. Forty observers (20 women, mean age 25 ± 5 y) rated 20 facial photographs with respect to fatigue, 10 facial cues, and sadness. The stimulus material consisted of 10 individuals (five women) photographed at 14:30 after normal sleep and after 31 h of sleep deprivation following a night with 5 h of sleep. Ratings of fatigue, fatigue-related cues, and sadness in facial photographs. The faces of sleep deprived individuals were perceived as having more hanging eyelids, redder eyes, more swollen eyes, darker circles under the eyes, paler skin, more wrinkles/fine lines, and more droopy corners of the mouth (effects ranging from b = +3 ± 1 to b = +15 ± 1 mm on 100-mm visual analog scales, P sleep deprivation (P sleep deprivation, nor associated with judgements of fatigue. In addition, sleep-deprived individuals looked sadder than after normal sleep, and sadness was related to looking fatigued (P sleep deprivation affects features relating to the eyes, mouth, and skin, and that these features function as cues of sleep loss to other people. Because these facial regions are important in the communication between humans, facial cues of sleep deprivation and fatigue may carry social consequences for the sleep deprived individual in everyday life.

  15. Association between neighborhood-level deprivation and disability in a community sample of people with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Norbert; Nitka, Danit; Gariepy, Genevieve; Malla, Ashok; Wang, JianLi; Boyer, Richard; Messier, Lyne; Strychar, Irene; Lesage, Alain

    2009-11-01

    The objective of the present study was to analyze the association between neighborhood deprivation and self-reported disability in a community sample of people with type 2 diabetes. Random digit dialing was used to select a sample of adults with self-reported diabetes aged 18-80 years in Quebec, Canada. Health status was assessed by the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II. Material and social deprivation was measured using the Pampalon index, which is based on the Canadian Census. Potential risk factors for disability included sociodemographic characteristics, socioeconomic status, social support, lifestyle-related factors (smoking, physical activity, and BMI), health care-related problems, duration of diabetes, insulin use, and diabetes-specific complications. There was a strong association between disability and material and social deprivation in our sample (n = 1,439): participants living in advantaged neighborhoods had lower levels of disability than participants living in disadvantaged neighborhoods. The means +/- SD disability scores for men were 7.8 +/- 11.8, 12.0 +/- 11.8, and 18.1 +/- 19.4 for low, medium, and high deprivation areas, respectively (P disability scores for women were 13.4 +/- 12.4, 14.8 +/- 15.9, and 18.9 +/- 16.2 for low, medium, and high deprivation areas, respectively (P disability even after controlling for education, household income, sociodemographic characteristics, race, lifestyle-related behaviors, social support, diabetes-related variables, and health care access problems. The inclusion of neighborhood characteristics might be an important step in the identification and interpretation of risk factors for disability in diabetes.

  16. Oxytocin is implicated in social memory deficits induced by early sensory deprivation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin-Bao; Chen, Ling; Lv, Zhu-Man; Niu, Xue-Yuan; Shao, Can-Can; Zhang, Chan; Pruski, Michal; Huang, Ying; Qi, Cong-Cong; Song, Ning-Ning; Lang, Bing; Ding, Yu-Qiang

    2016-12-13

    Early-life sensory input plays a crucial role in brain development. Although deprivation of orofacial sensory input at perinatal stages disrupts the establishment of the barrel cortex and relevant callosal connections, its long-term effect on adult behavior remains elusive. In this study, we investigated the behavioral phenotypes in adult mice with unilateral transection of the infraorbital nerve (ION) at postnatal day 3 (P3). Although ION-transected mice had normal locomotor activity, motor coordination, olfaction, anxiety-like behaviors, novel object memory, preference for social novelty and sociability, they presented deficits in social memory and spatial memory compared with control mice. In addition, the social memory deficit was associated with reduced oxytocin (OXT) levels in the hypothalamus and could be partially restored by intranasal administration of OXT. Thus, early sensory deprivation does result in behavioral alterations in mice, some of which may be associated with the disruption of oxytocin signaling.

  17. Flurbiprofen ameliorates glucose deprivation-induced leptin resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toru Hosoi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Leptin resistance is one of the mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of obesity. The present study showed that glucose deprivation inhibited leptin-induced phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3 and signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5 in neuronal cells. Flurbiprofen reversed glucose deprivation-mediated attenuation of STAT3, but not STAT5 activation, in leptin-treated cells. Glucose deprivation increased C/EBP-homologous protein (CHOP and glucose regulated protein 78 (GRP78 induction, indicating the activation of unfolded protein responses (UPR. Flurbiprofen did not affect the glucose deprivation-induced activation of UPR, but did attenuate the glucose deprivation-mediated induction of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK phosphorylation. Flurbiprofen may ameliorate glucose deprivation-induced leptin resistance in neuronal cells.

  18. Caffeine withdrawal symptoms and self-administration following caffeine deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, S H; de Wit, H; Zacny, J P

    1995-08-01

    This study examined the effects of complete or partial caffeine deprivation on withdrawal symptomatology and self-administration of coffee in caffeine-dependent coffee drinkers. Nine habitual coffee drinkers abstained from dietary sources of caffeine for 33.5 h. Caffeine deprivation was manipulated by administering capsules containing 0%, 50%, or 100% of each subject's daily caffeine intake (complete, partial, and no deprivation conditions). Caffeine withdrawal symptomatology was measured using self-report questionnaires. Caffeine self-administration was measured using: i) the amount of coffee subjects earned on a series of concurrent random-ratio schedules that yielded coffee and money reinforcers; ii) the amount of earned coffee they consumed. Saliva samples revealed that subjects complied with the caffeine abstinence instructions. Caffeine withdrawal symptoms occurred reliably following complete caffeine deprivation, though not in the partial deprivation condition. Caffeine self-administration was not related to deprivation condition. We conclude that caffeine withdrawal symptomatology is not necessarily associated with increased caffeine consumption.

  19. Evaluating the cascading impacts of sea level rise and coastal flooding on emergency response spatial accessibility in Lower Manhattan, New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jie; Yu, Dapeng; Lin, Ning; Wilby, Robert L.

    2017-12-01

    This paper describes a scenario-based approach for evaluating the cascading impacts of sea level rise (SLR) and coastal flooding on emergency responses. The analysis is applied to Lower Manhattan, New York City, considering FEMA's 100- and 500-year flood scenarios and New York City Panel on Climate Change (NPCC2)'s high-end SLR projections for the 2050s and 2080s, using the current situation as the baseline scenario. Service areas for different response timeframes (3-, 5- and 8-min) and various traffic conditions are simulated for three major emergency responders (i.e. New York Police Department (NYPD), Fire Department, New York (FDNY) and Emergency Medical Service (EMS)) under normal and flood scenarios. The modelling suggests that coastal flooding together with SLR could result in proportionate but non-linear impacts on emergency services at the city scale, and the performance of operational responses is largely determined by the positioning of emergency facilities and the functioning of traffic networks. Overall, emergency service accessibility to the city is primarily determined by traffic flow speed. However, the situation is expected to be further aggravated during coastal flooding, with is set to increase in frequency and magnitude due to SLR.

  20. A Study of Children's Geographic Access to Health Services (Health Care Centers and Clinical Laboratories in Kermanshah City, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohyla Reshadat

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Given that the protection of children's health is of special importance due to their special age and physical conditions, the present study aimed to investigate the condition of children's Geographic access to health services (Health Centers and Clinical Laboratories in Kermanshah city, Iran. Materials and Methods: In this applied study, the research approach was descriptive-analytic using quantitative models in Geographic information system (GIS environment. The statistical population was the whole population of young girls aged 0-14 years old in Kermanshah, Iran. Moreover, to evaluate the spatial deployment pattern of health services and the correct and true access of this groupto such services, all data and information were collected through the Iranian Statistics Center and evaluated using the Arc-GIS Software. The latest published population statistics on the Population and Housing Census in 2011 were considered the basis for the analyses. Results: The results of the present study demonstrated that more than 40% and 60% of the young girls aged 0-14 years old in Kermanshah were deprived of proper access to health centers and clinical laboratories, respectively. In terms of the status of children’s access in the Second Scenario (access to health services by vehicles and during 5, 10, and 15 minutes, about 5.53%, 93.1% and 15.1% lacked access to health centers, respectively. In addition, in terms of the status of children’s access to clinical laboratories during 5, 10, and 15 minutes, 17.26%, 65.4% and 51% lacked access to clinical laboratories, respectively. Conclusion: The access of young girls aged 0-14 years old to health services in Kermanshah was undesirable in the access to health services through walking. Additionally, the access of this groupto health services in the access to health services by vehicles was far better than the first one.

  1. Sleep deprivation and spike-wave discharges in epileptic rats

    OpenAIRE

    Drinkenburg, W.H.I.M.; Coenen, A.M.L.; Vossen, J.M.H.; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van

    1995-01-01

    The effects of sleep deprivation were studied on the occurrence of spike-wave discharges in the electroencephalogram of rats of the epileptic WAG/Rij strain, a model for absence epilepsy. This was done before, during and after a period of 12 hours of near total sleep deprivation. A substantial increase in the number of spike-wave discharges was found during the first 4 hours of the deprivation period, whereas in the following deprivation hours epileptic activity returned to baseline values. I...

  2. Total sleep deprivation does not significantly degrade semantic encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honn, K A; Grant, D A; Hinson, J M; Whitney, P; Van Dongen, Hpa

    2018-01-17

    Sleep deprivation impairs performance on cognitive tasks, but it is unclear which cognitive processes it degrades. We administered a semantic matching task with variable stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) and both speeded and self-paced trial blocks. The task was administered at the baseline and 24 hours later after 30.8 hours of total sleep deprivation (TSD) or matching well-rested control. After sleep deprivation, the 20% slowest response times (RTs) were significantly increased. However, the semantic encoding time component of the RTs remained at baseline level. Thus, the performance impairment induced by sleep deprivation on this task occurred in cognitive processes downstream of semantic encoding.

  3. Crime: social disorganization and relative deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawachi, I; Kennedy, B P; Wilkinson, R G

    1999-03-01

    Crime is seldom considered as an outcome in public health research. Yet major theoretical and empirical developments in the field of criminology during the past 50 years suggest that the same social environmental factors which predict geographic variation in crime rates may also be relevant for explaining community variations in health and wellbeing. Understanding the causes of variability in crime across countries and across regions within a country will help us to solve one of the enduring puzzles in public health, viz. why some communities are healthier than others. The purpose of this paper is to present a conceptual framework for investigating the influence of the social context on community health, using crime as the indicator of collective wellbeing. We argue that two sets of societal characteristics influence the level of crime: the degree of relative deprivation in society (for instance, measured by the extent of income inequality), and the degree of cohesiveness in social relations among citizens (measured, for instance, by indicators of 'social capital' and 'collective efficacy'). We provided a test of our conceptual framework using state-level ecologic data on violent crimes and property crimes within the USA. Violent crimes (homicide, assault, robbery) were consistently associated with relative deprivation (income inequality) and indicators of low social capital. Among property crimes, burglary was also associated with deprivation and low social capital. Areas with high crime rates tend also to exhibit higher mortality rates from all causes, suggesting that crime and population health share the same social origins. Crime is thus a mirror of the quality of the social environment.

  4. Early Adolescent Outcomes for Institutionally-Deprived and Non-Deprived Adoptees. I: Disinhibited Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutter, Michael; Colvert, Emma; Kreppner, Jana; Beckett, Celia; Castle, Jenny; Groothues, Christine; Hawkins, Amanda; O'Connor, Thomas G.; Stevens, Suzanne E.; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J. S.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Disinhibited attachment is an important sequel of an institutional rearing, but questions remain regarding its measurement, its persistence, the specificity of the association with institutional rearing and on whether or not it constitutes a meaningful disorder. Method: Children initially reared in profoundly depriving institutions in…

  5. Embodied masculinity and androgen deprivation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliffe, John

    2006-05-01

    This paper describes the findings from an ethnographic study of 16 Anglo-Australian men treated with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for advanced prostate cancer. Utilising a social constructionist gendered analysis, participants' experiences, particularly in relation to embodied masculinity, are described in the context of reduced testosterone that accompany ADT. The findings indicated that participants reformulated many ideals of hegemonic masculinity in response to functional body changes. However, hegemonic masculinity strongly influenced participants' philosophical resolve to "fight" prostate cancer. The findings are considered in broader ongoing debates about essentialist sex and the social construction of gender.

  6. Water deprivation test in children with polyuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Lap Ming; Man, Sze Shun

    2012-01-01

    Polyuria is an uncommon clinical presentation in paediatric practice. When diabetes mellitus has been excluded by history taking and preliminary investigations and impaired renal concentrating ability is confirmed, water deprivation test (WDT) is necessary to differentiate among central diabetes insipidus (CDI), nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, or primary polydipsia. Traditionally, responsiveness to desmopressin injection is defined as urine osmolality >750 mOsm/kg. However, that level could not be reached in the review of our patients. We discuss how to arrive at the diagnosis of CDI in WDT. An approach to polyuria and WDT will also be discussed.

  7. Individual Income, Area Deprivation, and Health: Do Income-Related Health Inequalities Vary by Small Area Deprivation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Martin; Mielck, Andreas; Maier, Werner

    2015-11-01

    This paper aims to explore potential associations between health inequalities related to socioeconomic deprivation at the individual and the small area level. We use German cross-sectional survey data for the years 2002 and 2006, and measure small area deprivation via the German Index of Multiple Deprivation. We test the differences between concentration indices of income-related and small area deprivation related inequalities in obesity, hypertension, and diabetes. Our results suggest that small area deprivation and individual income both yield inequalities in health favoring the better-off, where individual income-related inequalities are significantly more pronounced than those related to small area deprivation. We then apply a semiparametric extension of Wagstaff's corrected concentration index to explore how individual-level health inequalities vary with the degree of regional deprivation. We find that the concentration of obesity, hypertension, and diabetes among lower income groups also exists at the small area level. The degree of deprivation-specific income-related inequalities in the three health outcomes exhibits only little variations across different levels of multiple deprivation for both sexes. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. The politics of relative deprivation: A transdisciplinary social justice perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Mengzhu; Exeter, Daniel J; Anderson, Anneka

    2015-05-01

    Relative deprivation was defined by Townsend (1987, p. 125) as "a state of observable and demonstrable disadvantage, relative to the local community or the wider society or nation to which an individual, family or group belongs". This definition is widely used within social and health sciences to identify, measure, and explain forms of inequality in human societies based on material and social conditions. From a multi-disciplinary social science perspective, we conducted a systematic literature review of published material in English through online database searches and books since 1966. We review the concept and measurement of relative 'deprivation' focussing on area-based deprivation in relation to inequities in health and social outcomes. This paper presents a perspective based in Aotearoa/New Zealand where colonisation has shaped the contours of racialised health inequities and current applications and understandings of 'deprivation'. We provide a critique of Townsend's concept of deprivation and area-based deprivation through a critical, structural analysis and suggest alternatives to give social justice a better chance. Deprivation measures used without critical reflection can lead to deficit framing of populations and maintain current inequities in health and social outcomes. We contend therefore that the lack of consideration of (bio)power, privilege, epistemology and (bio)politics is a central concern in studies of deprivation. Our review highlights the need for the academy to balance the asymmetry between qualitative and quantitative studies of deprivation through trans-disciplinary approaches to understanding deprivation, and subsequently, social and health inequities. We recommend that deprivation research needs be critically applied through a decolonising lens to avoid deficit framing and suggest that there is space for a tool that focuses on measuring the unequal distribution of power and privilege in populations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All

  9. Poverty as Accumulating of Social Disadvantages: Sociological Analysis of Deprivation in Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    Natalia Kharchenko

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to create an index of socio-economic deprivation, to find main determinants of deprivation and to investigate the differences and similarities in the attitudes and expectations of groups with different deprivation's level.

  10. Social comparison, personal relative deprivation, and materialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunji; Callan, Mitchell J; Gheorghiu, Ana I; Matthews, William J

    2017-06-01

    Across five studies, we found consistent evidence for the idea that personal relative deprivation (PRD), which refers to resentment stemming from the belief that one is deprived of deserved outcomes compared to others, uniquely contributes to materialism. In Study 1, self-reports of PRD positively predicted materialistic values over and above socioeconomic status, personal power, self-esteem, and emotional uncertainty. The experience of PRD starts with social comparison, and Studies 2 and 3 found that PRD mediated the positive relation between a tendency to make social comparisons of abilities and materialism. In Study 4, participants who learned that they had less (vs. similar) discretionary income than people like them reported a stronger desire for more money relative to donating more to charity. In Study 5, during a windfall-spending task, participants higher in PRD spent more on things they wanted relative to other spending categories (e.g., paying off debts). © 2016 The Authors. British Journal of Social Psychology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Psychological Society.

  11. BDNF in sleep, insomnia, and sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Karen; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Eckert, Anne

    2016-01-01

    The protein brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a member of the neurotrophin family of growth factors involved in plasticity of neurons in several brain regions. There are numerous evidence that BDNF expression is decreased by experiencing psychological stress and that, accordingly, a lack of neurotrophic support causes major depression. Furthermore, disruption in sleep homeostatic processes results in higher stress vulnerability and is often associated with stress-related mental disorders. Recently, we reported, for the first time, a relationship between BDNF and insomnia and sleep deprivation (SD). Using a biphasic stress model as explanation approach, we discuss here the hypothesis that chronic stress might induce a deregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal system. In the long-term it leads to sleep disturbance and depression as well as decreased BDNF levels, whereas acute stress like SD can be used as therapeutic intervention in some insomniac or depressed patients as compensatory process to normalize BDNF levels. Indeed, partial SD (PSD) induced a fast increase in BDNF serum levels within hours after PSD which is similar to effects seen after ketamine infusion, another fast-acting antidepressant intervention, while traditional antidepressants are characterized by a major delay until treatment response as well as delayed BDNF level increase. Key messages Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a key role in the pathophysiology of stress-related mood disorders. The interplay of stress and sleep impacts on BDNF level. Partial sleep deprivation (PSD) shows a fast action on BDNF level increase.

  12. Broadband Access

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Broadband Access. Worldwide market for broadband access $30 Billion! Over 200 million broadband subscribers worldwide! Various Competing Broadband access. Digital Subscriber line; Wireless; Optical Fiber.

  13. Gyroscopic stimulation of the semicircular canals during sensory deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsom, B. D.; Brady, J. F.; Stumm, J. E.

    1971-01-01

    A static object revolving at a constant velocity is stationary with respect to that environment. When the object is rotated outside the plane of spin, a gyroscopic or cross-coupled acceleration is produced orthogonal to the two planes of rotation. In this situation, a man feels himself moving in a direction other than that which his visual or proprioceptive sensors perceive. The conflict in spatial orientation is the cross-coupled acceleration imposed on the semicircular canals. This perceptual conflict and the thresholds involved were studied by partial isolation of the physiological stimuli through sensory deprivation. Subjects weighted to neutral buoyancy were submerged in 94 F water in the dark. The subjects were then rotated while being revolved about a displaced axis. Thresholds for detection of angular acceleration were higher than those reported in the literature for detection of acceleration of a single plane. This discrepancy may be attributable to the length of time the stimuli are imposed to each of the canals and the cupular response periods.

  14. Cues of fatigue: effects of sleep deprivation on facial appearance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sundelin, T.; Lekander, M.; Kecklund, G.; van Someren, E.J.W.; Olsson, A.; Axelsson, J.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objective: To investigate the facial cues by which one recognizes that someone is sleep deprived versus not sleep deprived. Design: Experimental laboratory study. Setting: Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. Participants: Forty observers (20 women, mean age 25 ± 5 y) rated 20 facial

  15. Small Area Indices of Multiple Deprivation in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Michael; Barnes, Helen; Wright, Gemma; Roberts, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the Provincial Indices of Multiple Deprivation that were constructed by the authors at ward level using 2001 Census data for each of South Africa's nine provinces. The principles adopted in conceptualising the indices are described and multiple deprivation is defined as a weighted combination of discrete dimensions of…

  16. Deprivation, HIV and AIDS in Northern Uganda | Atekyereza ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Significantly, with resettlement after the war, most people are still deprived of basic source of livelihood, which still continues as a factor in the spread of HIV infection. Key Words: HIV & AIDS, Deprivation, Susceptibility, Vulnerability, Deaths, IDP camps, Northern Uganda, Paimol, Pader. Résumé. Cette étude se concentre ...

  17. The impact of area deprivation on parenting stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijkers, Willem; Jansen, Danielle E. M. C.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Area deprivation negatively affects health and lifestyles, among which child behaviours. The latter may aggravate the effects of area deprivation on parental health due to higher rates of parenting stress. However, evidence on the influence of the living environment on parenting stress

  18. Sleep deprivation and spike-wave discharges in epileptic rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drinkenburg, W.H.I.M.; Coenen, A.M.L.; Vossen, J.M.H.; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van

    1995-01-01

    The effects of sleep deprivation were studied on the occurrence of spike-wave discharges in the electroencephalogram of rats of the epileptic WAG/Rij strain, a model for absence epilepsy. This was done before, during and after a period of 12 hours of near total sleep deprivation. A substantial

  19. Effects of sleep deprivation on neural functioning: an integrative review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonstra, T.W.; Stins, J.F.; Daffertshofer, A.; Beek, P.J.

    2007-01-01

    Sleep deprivation has a broad variety of effects on human performance and neural functioning that manifest themselves at different levels of description. On a macroscopic level, sleep deprivation mainly affects executive functions, especially in novel tasks. Macroscopic and mesoscopic effects of

  20. Vitamin C Prevents Sleep Deprivation-induced Elevation in Cortisol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, we examined the potential protective effects of administration of vitamin C on acute and chronic sleep deprivation-induced metabolic derangement. In addition, possible processes involved in vitamin C effects on acute and chronic sleep deprivation-induced metabolic derangement were determined. Thirty-five ...

  1. A new model to study sleep deprivation-induced seizure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucey, Brendan P; Leahy, Averi; Rosas, Regine; Shaw, Paul J

    2015-05-01

    A relationship between sleep and seizures is well-described in both humans and rodent animal models; however, the mechanism underlying this relationship is unknown. Using Drosophila melanogaster mutants with seizure phenotypes, we demonstrate that seizure activity can be modified by sleep deprivation. Seizure activity was evaluated in an adult bang-sensitive seizure mutant, stress sensitive B (sesB(9ed4)), and in an adult temperature sensitive seizure mutant seizure (sei(ts1)) under baseline and following 12 h of sleep deprivation. The long-term effect of sleep deprivation on young, immature sesB(9ed4) flies was also assessed. Laboratory. Drosophila melanogaster. Sleep deprivation. Sleep deprivation increased seizure susceptibility in adult sesB(9ed4)/+ and sei(ts1) mutant flies. Sleep deprivation also increased seizure susceptibility when sesB was disrupted using RNAi. The effect of sleep deprivation on seizure activity was reduced when sesB(9ed4)/+ flies were given the anti-seizure drug, valproic acid. In contrast to adult flies, sleep deprivation during early fly development resulted in chronic seizure susceptibility when sesB(9ed4)/+ became adults. These findings show that Drosophila is a model organism for investigating the relationship between sleep and seizure activity. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  2. Sleep Deprivation, Allergy Symptoms, and Negatively Reinforced Problem Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Craig H.; Meyer, Kim A.

    1996-01-01

    A study of the relationship between presence or absence of sleep deprivation, allergy symptoms, and the rate and function of problem behavior in three adolescents with moderate to profound mental retardation found that problem behavior was negatively reinforced by escape from instruction, and both allergy symptoms and sleep deprivation influenced…

  3. Effect of Monocular Deprivation on Rabbit Neural Retinal Cell Densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwachaka, Philip Maseghe; Saidi, Hassan; Odula, Paul Ochieng; Mandela, Pamela Idenya

    2015-01-01

    To describe the effect of monocular deprivation on densities of neural retinal cells in rabbits. Thirty rabbits, comprised of 18 subject and 12 control animals, were included and monocular deprivation was achieved through unilateral lid suturing in all subject animals. The rabbits were observed for three weeks. At the end of each week, 6 experimental and 3 control animals were euthanized, their retinas was harvested and processed for light microscopy. Photomicrographs of the retina were taken and imported into FIJI software for analysis. Neural retinal cell densities of deprived eyes were reduced along with increasing period of deprivation. The percentage of reductions were 60.9% (P < 0.001), 41.6% (P = 0.003), and 18.9% (P = 0.326) for ganglion, inner nuclear, and outer nuclear cells, respectively. In non-deprived eyes, cell densities in contrast were increased by 116% (P < 0.001), 52% (P < 0.001) and 59.6% (P < 0.001) in ganglion, inner nuclear, and outer nuclear cells, respectively. In this rabbit model, monocular deprivation resulted in activity-dependent changes in cell densities of the neural retina in favour of the non-deprived eye along with reduced cell densities in the deprived eye.

  4. Behavioral and physiological changes during heat stress in Corriedale ewes exposed to water deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghassemi Nejad, Jalil; Sung, Kyung-Il

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the behavioral and physiological changes of heat stressed Corriedale ewes exposed to water deprivation. Nine Corriedale ewes (average BW = 45 ± 3.7 kg) were individually fed diets based on maintenance requirements in metabolic crates. Ewes were assigned into three groups (9 sheep per treatment) according to a 3 × 3 Latin square design for 3 periods with 21-d duration for each period. The control (CON) group was given free access to water, 2 h water deprivation (2hWD), and 3 h water deprivation (3hWD) following feeding. No differences were found in fecal excretion frequency, standing frequency (number/d), and sitting frequency among the groups ( p  > 0.05). Measurements of standing duration (min/d) and urine excretion frequency (number/d) showed a significant decrease whereas sitting duration (min/d) showed a significant increase in the 2hWD and 3hWD groups when compared with the CON group ( p   0.05). However, respiratory rate (number/min) and panting score were found to be significantly higher in the 2hWD and 3hWD groups than in the CON group ( p  ewes. Daily adaptation to the extreme environmental conditions may occur actively in ewes.

  5. Neighborhood Deprivation and Self-Rated Health in Lagos State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasheed Kola Ojikutu

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the effect of neighborhood deprivation on the perception of the individuals about their own health in Lagos State, Nigeria. Respondents were required to rate their own health as "excellent, very good, good, fair, poor and very poor". The questionnaire contained questions on various aspect of the respondents neighborhood and their perception about them. It was found that most neighborhoods in Lagos State are deprived of basic essentials of life such as electricity, water, good roads and security. Over 43% of the respondents claimed to have visited a hospital two or more times and 43.7% had lost at least two neighbors in the past one year. Over half (57.8% of the respondents rated their own health as good, 36.6% ranked their own health as fair while only 5.6% claimed to have poor health. A fitted regression model ( r2 = 0.644 showed that variables such as number of dependants, income, occupation, type of residential accommodation, ownership of house, number of rooms occupied, mode and convenience of transportation, accessibility to water, electricity and good roads and security jointly determine the perception of an individual about his own health status.Key Words: Neighborhood, Deprivation, Self Rated Health, Security, ResidenceDOI = 10.3126/dsaj.v2i0.1364Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology Vol.2 pp.193-210

  6. The prospective association between sleep deprivation and depression among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Robert E; Duong, Hao T

    2014-02-01

    To examine the prospective, reciprocal association between sleep deprivation and depression among adolescents. A community-based two-wave cohort study. A metropolitan area with a population of over 4 million. 4,175 youths 11-17 at baseline, and 3,134 of these followed up a year later. Depression is measured using both symptoms of depression and DSM-IV major depression. Sleep deprivation is defined as ≤ 6 h of sleep per night. Sleep deprivation at baseline predicted both measures of depression at follow-up, controlling for depression at baseline. Examining the reciprocal association, major depression at baseline, but not symptoms predicted sleep deprivation at follow-up. These results are the first to document reciprocal effects for major depression and sleep deprivation among adolescents using prospective data. The data suggest reduced quantity of sleep increases risk for major depression, which in turn increases risk for decreased sleep.

  7. Widespread changes in white matter microstructure after a day of waking and sleep deprivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torbjørn Elvsåshagen

    Full Text Available Elucidating the neurobiological effects of sleep and waking remains an important goal of the neurosciences. Recently, animal studies indicated that sleep is important for cell membrane and myelin maintenance in the brain and that these structures are particularly susceptible to insufficient sleep. Here, we tested the hypothesis that a day of waking and sleep deprivation would be associated with changes in diffusion tensor imaging (DTI indices of white matter microstructure sensitive to axonal membrane and myelin alterations.Twenty-one healthy adult males underwent DTI in the morning [7:30AM; time point (TP1], after 14 hours of waking (TP2, and then after another 9 hours of waking (TP3. Whole brain voxel-wise analysis was performed with tract based spatial statistics.A day of waking was associated with widespread increases in white matter fractional anisotropy, which were mainly driven by radial diffusivity reductions, and sleep deprivation was associated with widespread fractional anisotropy decreases, which were mainly explained by reductions in axial diffusivity. In addition, larger decreases in axial diffusivity after sleep deprivation were associated with greater sleepiness. All DTI changes remained significant after adjusting for hydration measures.This is the first DTI study of sleep deprivation in humans. Although previous studies have observed localized changes in DTI indices of cerebral microstructure over the course of a few hours, further studies are needed to confirm widespread DTI changes within hours of waking and to clarify whether such changes in white matter microstructure serve as neurobiological substrates of sleepiness.

  8. Short-term total sleep deprivation alters delay-conditioned memory in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Shweta; Jha, Sushil K

    2016-06-01

    Short-term sleep deprivation soon after training may impair memory consolidation. Also, a particular sleep stage or its components increase after learning some tasks, such as negative and positive reinforcement tasks, avoidance tasks, and spatial learning tasks, and so forth. It suggests that discrete memory types may require specific sleep stage or its components for their optimal processing. The classical conditioning paradigms are widely used to study learning and memory but the role of sleep in a complex conditioned learning is unclear. Here, we have investigated the effects of short-term sleep deprivation on the consolidation of delay-conditioned memory and the changes in sleep architecture after conditioning. Rats were trained for the delay-conditioned task (for conditioning, house-light [conditioned stimulus] was paired with fruit juice [unconditioned stimulus]). Animals were divided into 3 groups: (a) sleep deprived (SD); (b) nonsleep deprived (NSD); and (c) stress control (SC) groups. Two-way ANOVA revealed a significant interaction between groups and days (training and testing) during the conditioned stimulus-unconditioned stimulus presentation. Further, Tukey post hoc comparison revealed that the NSD and SC animals exhibited significant increase in performances during testing. The SD animals, however, performed significantly less during testing. Further, we observed that wakefulness and NREM sleep did not change after training and testing. Interestingly, REM sleep increased significantly on both days compared to baseline more specifically during the initial 4-hr time window after conditioning. Our results suggest that the consolidation of delay-conditioned memory is sleep-dependent and requires augmented REM sleep during an explicit time window soon after training. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Structural inequalities drive late HIV diagnosis: The role of black racial concentration, income inequality, socioeconomic deprivation, and HIV testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransome, Yusuf; Kawachi, Ichiro; Braunstein, Sarah; Nash, Denis

    2016-11-01

    In the United States, research is limited on the mechanisms that link socioeconomic and structural factors to HIV diagnosis outcomes. We tested whether neighborhood income inequality, socioeconomic deprivation, and black racial concentration were associated with gender-specific rates of HIV in the advanced stages of AIDS (i.e., late HIV diagnosis). We then examined whether HIV testing prevalence and accessibility mediated any of the associations above. Neighborhoods with highest (relative to lowest) black racial concentration had higher relative risk of late HIV diagnosis among men (RR=1.86; 95%CI=1.15, 3.00) and women (RR=5.37; 95%CI=3.16, 10.43) independent of income inequality and socioeconomic deprivation. HIV testing prevalence and accessibility did not significantly mediate the associations above. Research should focus on mechanisms that link black racial concentration to HIV diagnosis outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Structural inequalities drive late HIV diagnosis: The role of black racial concentration, income inequality, socioeconomic deprivation, and HIV testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransome, Yusuf; Kawachi, Ichiro; Braunstein, Sarah; Nash, Denis

    2017-01-01

    In the United States, research is limited on the mechanisms that link socioeconomic and structural factors to HIV diagnosis outcomes. We tested whether neighborhood income inequality, socioeconomic deprivation, and black racial concentration were associated with gender-specific rates of HIV in the advanced stages of AIDS (i.e., late HIV diagnosis). We then examined whether HIV testing prevalence and accessibility mediated any of the associations above. Neighborhoods with highest (relative to lowest) black racial concentration had higher relative risk of late HIV diagnosis among men (RR=1.86; 95%CI=1.15, 3.00) and women (RR=5.37; 95% CI=3.16, 10.43) independent of income inequality and socioeconomic deprivation. HIV testing prevalence and accessibility did not significantly mediate the associations above. Research should focus on mechanisms that link black racial concentration to HIV diagnosis outcomes. PMID:27770671

  11. Burden of orofacial pain in a socially deprived and culturally diverse area of the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joury, Easter; Bernabe, Eduardo; Gallagher, Jennifer E; Marcenes, Wagner

    2018-07-01

    Little is known about the burden and impact of orofacial pain in deprived areas, and whether it mediates the relationship between socioeconomic position and impacts on daily life. We analysed data from a representative sample of 2168 adults, aged 16 to 65 years, from the East London Oral Health Inequality study. Participants completed a validated questionnaire on demographics, socioeconomic position (area deprivation), orofacial pain (by anatomical site) in the past month, and impacts related to oral conditions on daily life. Negative binomial regression models with robust variance estimator were fitted. The prevalence of orofacial pain was high (30.2%). The most common subset of orofacial pain was intraoral pain (27.5%). The prevalence of pain related to temporomandibular disorders was 6.8%. The most common subsets of intraoral pain were tooth (20.4%) and gingival (11.4%) pain. Orofacial pain, its subsets (intraoral and temporomandibular disorder-related pain), and intraoral pain subsets (tooth and gingival pain) consistently showed associations with all dimensions of impacts on daily life that were highly statistically significant: functional limitation, psychological discomfort, disabilities, and handicap. Socioeconomic inequalities were present in orofacial pain and some dimensions of impacts on daily life. Orofacial pain did not mediate the relationship between area deprivation and impacts on daily life. Our study demonstrated a substantial burden and impact of orofacial pain in a socially deprived and culturally diverse area of the United Kingdom. To address this burden, interventions that lie within the remit of health services are needed to improve access to dental care for adults with orofacial pain.

  12. Sleep deprived and sweating it out: the effects of total sleep deprivation on skin conductance reactivity to psychosocial stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jean C J; Verhulst, Silvan; Massar, Stijn A A; Chee, Michael W L

    2015-01-01

    We examined how sleep deprivation alters physiological responses to psychosocial stress by evaluating changes in skin conductance. Between-subjects design with one group allocated to 24 h of total sleep deprivation and the other to rested wakefulness. The study took place in a research laboratory. Participants were 40 healthy young adults recruited from a university. Sleep deprivation and feedback. Electrodermal activity was monitored while participants completed a difficult perceptual task with false feedback. All participants showed increased skin conductance levels following stress. However, compared to well-rested participants, sleep deprived participants showed higher skin conductance reactivity with increasing stress levels. Our results suggest that sleep deprivation augments allostatic responses to increasing psychosocial stress. Consequentially, we propose sleep loss as a risk factor that can influence the pathogenic effects of stress. © 2014 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  13. Oculomotor impairment during chronic partial sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, M; Thomas, M; Thorne, D; Sing, H; Redmond, D; Rowland, L; Johnson, D; Hall, S; Krichmar, J; Balkin, T

    2003-04-01

    The effects of chronic partial sleep (sleep deprivation) and extended sleep (sleep augmentation) followed by recovery sleep on oculomotor function were evaluated in normal subjects to explore the usefulness of oculomotor assessment for alertness monitoring in fitness-for-duty testing. Sixty-six commercial drivers (24-62 years, 50m/16f) participated in a 15 day study composed of 3 training days with 8h time in bed per night, 7 experimental days with subjects randomly assigned to either 3, 5, 7, or 9h time in bed, and 3 recovery nights with 8h time in bed. Data from 57 subjects were used. Saccadic velocity (SV), initial pupil diameter (IPD), latency to pupil constriction (CL), and amplitude of pupil constriction (CA) were assessed and correlated with the sleep latency test (SLT), the Stanford sleepiness scale (SSS), and simulated driving performance. Regression analyses showed that SV slowed significantly in the 3 and 5h groups, IPD decreased significantly in the 9h group, and CL increased significantly in the 3h group. SLT and SSS significantly correlated with SV, IPD, CL, and driving accidents for the 3h group, and with CL for the 5h group. Analyses also showed a significant negative correlation between decreasing SV and increasing driving accidents in the 3h group and a significant negative correlation between IPD and driving accidents for the 7h group. The results demonstrate a sensitivity primarily of SV to sleepiness, and a correlation of SV and IPD to impaired simulated driving performance, providing evidence for the potential utility of oculomotor indicators in the detection of excessive sleepiness and deterioration of complex motor performance with chronic partial sleep restriction. This paper shows a relationship between sleep deprivation and oculomotor measures, and suggests a potential utility for oculometrics in assessing operational performance readiness under sleep restricted conditions.

  14. Chronic air pollution and social deprivation as modifiers of the association between high temperature and daily mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benmarhnia, Tarik; Oulhote, Youssef; Petit, Claire; Lapostolle, Annabelle; Chauvin, Pierre; Zmirou-Navier, Denis; Deguen, Séverine

    2014-06-18

    Heat and air pollution are both associated with increases in mortality. However, the interactive effect of temperature and air pollution on mortality remains unsettled. Similarly, the relationship between air pollution, air temperature, and social deprivation has never been explored. We used daily mortality data from 2004 to 2009, daily mean temperature variables and relative humidity, for Paris, France. Estimates of chronic exposure to air pollution and social deprivation at a small spatial scale were calculated and split into three strata. We developed a stratified Poisson regression models to assess daily temperature and mortality associations, and tested the heterogeneity of the regression coefficients of the different strata. Deaths due to ambient temperature were calculated from attributable fractions and mortality rates were estimated. We found that chronic air pollution exposure and social deprivation are effect modifiers of the association between daily temperature and mortality. We found a potential interactive effect between social deprivation and chronic exposure with regards to air pollution in the mortality-temperature relationship. Our results may have implications in considering chronically polluted areas as vulnerable in heat action plans and in the long-term measures to reduce the burden of heat stress especially in the context of climate change.

  15. Perceived deprivation in active duty military nurse anesthetists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Julie A; Fallacaro, Michael D; Pellegrini, Joseph E

    2009-02-01

    There is a shortage of military Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetists (CRNAs). Relative deprivation is a perception of unfairness due to discrepancies between what one has and what one could or should have that is dependent on feelings (subjective data) and facts (objective data). Feelings of relative deprivation could contribute to the military CRNA shortage. The purposes of this study were to measure relative deprivation in active-duty military CRNAs and explore variables that correlate with relative deprivation. The descriptive, correlational study was conducted using a self-administered survey sent to 435 active-duty Army, Navy, and Air Force CRNAs. Surveys were distributed to subjects by mail and could be answered by mail or by secured website. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Analysis of the data revealed a calculated response rate of 57.7%. There was no significant correlation (P pay, promotion opportunity, or scope of practice/autonomy and relative deprivation. Correlations of the psychological factors "wanting" and "deserving" with relative deprivation were significant (P < .001). Further research is indicated to identify definitive factors that can be modified to improve feelings of deprivation as they relate to retention and recruitment of military CRNAs.

  16. The effects of sleep deprivation on dissociable prototype learning systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddox, W Todd; Glass, Brian D; Zeithamova, Dagmar; Savarie, Zachary R; Bowen, Christopher; Matthews, Michael D; Schnyer, David M

    2011-03-01

    The cognitive neural underpinnings of prototype learning are becoming clear. Evidence points to 2 different neural systems, depending on the learning parameters. A/not-A (AN) prototype learning is mediated by posterior brain regions that are involved in early perceptual learning, whereas A/B (AB) is mediated by frontal and medial temporal lobe regions. To investigate the effects of sleep deprivation on AN and AB prototype learning and to use established prototype models to provide insights into the cognitive-processing locus of sleep-deprivation deficits. Participants performed an AN and an AB prototype learning task twice, separated by a 24-hour period, with or without sleep between testing sessions. Eighteen West Point cadets participated in the sleep-deprivation group, and 17 West Point cadets participated in a control group. Sleep deprivation led to an AN, but not an AB, performance deficit. Prototype model analyses indicated that the AN deficit was due to changes in attentional focus and a decrease in confidence that is reflected in an increased bias to respond non-A. The findings suggest that AN, but not AB, prototype learning is affected by sleep deprivation. Prototype model analyses support the notion that the effect of sleep deprivation on AN is consistent with lapses in attentional focus that are more detrimental to AN than to AB. This finding adds to a growing body of work that suggests that different performance changes associated with sleep deprivation can be attributed to a common mechanism of changes in simple attention and vigilance.

  17. Vascular compliance limits during sleep deprivation and recovery sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Derrick J; Schei, Jennifer L; Rector, David M

    2013-10-01

    Our previous studies showed that evoked hemodynamic responses are smaller during wake compared to sleep; suggesting neural activity is associated with vascular expansion and decreased compliance. We explored whether prolonged activity during sleep deprivation may exacerbate vascular expansion and blunt hemodynamic responses. Evoked auditory responses were generated with periodic 65 dB speaker clicks over a 72-h period and measured with cortical electrodes. Evoked hemodynamic responses were measured simultaneously with optical techniques using three light-emitting diodes, and a photodiode. Animals were housed in separate 30×30×80 cm enclosures, tethered to a commutator system and maintained on a 12-h light/dark cycle. Food and water were available ad libitum. Seven adult female Sprague-Dawley rats. Following a 24-h baseline recording, sleep deprivation was initiated for 0 to 10 h by gentle handling, followed by a 24-h recovery sleep recording. Evoked electrical and hemodynamic responses were measured before, during, and after sleep deprivation. Following deprivation, evoked hemodynamic amplitudes were blunted. Steady-state oxyhemoglobin concentration increased during deprivation and remained high during the initial recovery period before returning to baseline levels after approximately 9-h. Sleep deprivation resulted in blood vessel expansion and decreased compliance while lower basal neural activity during recovery sleep may allow blood vessel compliance to recover. Chronic sleep restriction or sleep deprivation could push the vasculature to critical levels, limiting blood delivery, and leading to metabolic deficits with the potential for neural trauma.

  18. Sleep Deprivation and Time-Based Prospective Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Maria José; Occhionero, Miranda; Cicogna, PierCarla

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate the effect of sleep deprivation on time-based prospective memory performance, that is, realizing delayed intentions at an appropriate time in the future (e.g., to take a medicine in 30 minutes). Between-subjects experimental design. The experimental group underwent 24 h of total sleep deprivation, and the control group had a regular sleep-wake cycle. Participants were tested at 08:00. Laboratory. Fifty healthy young adults (mean age 22 ± 2.1, 31 female). 24 h of total sleep deprivation. Participants were monitored by wrist actigraphy for 3 days before the experimental session. The following cognitive tasks were administered: one time-based prospective memory task and 3 reasoning tasks as ongoing activity. Objective and subjective vigilance was assessed by the psychomotor vigilance task and a visual analog scale, respectively. To measure the time-based prospective memory task we assessed compliance and clock checking behavior (time monitoring). Sleep deprivation negatively affected time-based prospective memory compliance (P sleep deprivation on human behavior, particularly the ability to perform an intended action after a few minutes. Sleep deprivation strongly compromises time-based prospective memory compliance but does not affect time check frequency. Sleep deprivation may impair the mechanism that allows the integration of information related to time monitoring with the prospective intention. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  19. A radially accessible tubular in situ X-ray cell for spatially resolved operando scattering and spectroscopic studies of electrochemical energy storage devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hao; Allan, Phoebe K.; Borkiewicz, Olaf J.; Kurtz, Charles; Grey, Clare P.; Chapman, Karena W.; Chupas, Peter J.

    2016-09-16

    A tubularoperandoelectrochemical cell has been developed to allow spatially resolved X-ray scattering and spectroscopic measurements of individual cell components, or regions thereof, during device operation. These measurements are enabled by the tubular cell geometry, wherein the X-ray-transparent tube walls allow radial access for the incident and scattered/transmitted X-ray beam; by probing different depths within the electrode stack, the transformation of different components or regions can be resolved. The cell is compatible with a variety of synchrotron-based scattering, absorption and imaging methodologies. The reliability of the electrochemical cell and the quality of the resulting X-ray scattering and spectroscopic data are demonstrated for two types of energy storage: the evolution of the distribution of the state of charge of an Li-ion battery electrode during cycling is documented using X-ray powder diffraction, and the redistribution of ions between two porous carbon electrodes in an electrochemical double-layer capacitor is documented using X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy.

  20. The Munchausen paradigm for deprived neighbourhoods: pulling yourself out of the swamp of deprivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeannette Nijkamp

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Munchausen paradigm for deprived neighbourhoods: pulling yourself out of the swamp of deprivation Since the 1980s, many initiatives have attempted to tackle the deprivation currently experienced in South Rotterdam. Efforts have been made to attract creative workers and, in a counter-reaction, other initiatives have aimed to encourage the creative talents of poorer residents to strengthen their economic position. One example of this is Freehouse, which has established projects in the Afrikaanderwijk, including a neighbourhood cooperative. Our article addresses two questions: 1 What are the effects of the Freehouse projects on the economic position of residents of the Afrikaanderwijk? and 2 Which insights do our results provide into the possible effects of local government policies that rely on citizens playing an active role? Although the economic effects of the projects were limited, our study reveals that citizens’ initiatives, such as the Afrikaander Cooperative, can help residents gain employment. In order to succeed, these initiatives should not be hindered by obstructive regulations, and they should include input from the residents who function as staff. However, in deprived neighbourhoods, many residents require support to be able to contribute to citizens’ initiatives, and cannot be expected to act like Baron Münchausen and pull themselves out of the swamp of deprivation by their own hair. Het Münchausen paradigma voor achterstandswijken: jezelf uit het moeras van achterstand trekken Sinds de jaren 80 hebben veel initiatieven geprobeerd het achterstandsniveau in Rotterdam Zuid te verminderen. Verschillende initiatieven waren gericht op het aantrekken van creatieve professionals. Als tegenreactie stimuleerden andere initiatieven de creatieve talenten van arme wijkbewoners teneinde hun economische positie te versterken. Een voorbeeld hiervan is Freehouse, dat projecten in de Afrikaanderwijk startte, waaronder de oprichting van

  1. The choice behaviour of pigs in a Y maze: effects of deprivation of feed, social contact and bedding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemsworth, Paul H; Smith, Kenneth; Karlen, Marcus G; Arnold, Naomi A; Moeller, Steven J; Barnett, John L

    2011-06-01

    We examined effects of deprivation of feed, social contact and bedding on the choice behaviour in Y maze tests. Eighty pigs were used to study two main effects: feed (estimated voluntary feed intake (VFI) vs. 70% VFI) and bedding (presence vs. absence), experiment 1; social contact (full vs. restricted) and bedding (presence vs. absence), experiment 2; and feed (as in experiment 1) and social contact (as in experiment 2), experiment 3. Overall pigs consistently chose feed and social contact over bedding. While social contact was more preferred than feed in experiment 3, there was substantial variation between pigs in their choice behaviour. The overall choice behaviour in experiment 3 contradicts previous research, but differences such as the preference methodology as well as the level of deprivation, level of reward and cost involved in accessing reward, may be responsible. Average daily weight gain (ADG) was affected in experiment 3: both feed and social restriction reduced ADG. While the feed effect is expected, one interpretation of the social effect is that social deprivation, through stress, may have reduced ADG. These results provide limited support for the notion that deprivation of a highly preferred resource may disrupt biological function. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Air quality and social deprivation in four French metropolitan areas – A localized spatiotemporal environmental inequality analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Cindy M; Kihal-Talantikite, Wahida; Vieira, Verónica. M; Rosselo, Philippe; LeNir, Geraldine; Zmirou-Navier, Denis; Deguen, Severine

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have documented that more deprived populations tend to live in areas characterized by higher levels of environmental pollution. Yet, time trends and geographic patterns of this disproportionate distribution of environmental burden remain poorly assessed, especially in Europe. We investigated the spatial and temporal relationship between ambient air nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations and socioeconomic and demographic data in four French Metropolitan Areas (Lille in the north, Lyon in the center, Marseille in the south, and Paris) during two different time periods. The geographical unit used was the census block. The dependent variable was the NO2 annual average concentration (µg/m3) per census block, and the explanatory variables were a neighborhood deprivation index and socioeconomic and demographic data derived from the national census. Generalized additive models were used to account for spatial autocorrelation. We found that the strength and direction of the association between deprivation and NO2 estimates varied between cities. In Paris, census blocks with the higher social categories are exposed to higher mean concentrations of NO2. However, in Lille and Marseille, the most deprived census blocks are the most exposed to NO2. In Lyon, the census blocks in the middle social categories were more likely to have higher concentrations than in the lower social categories. Despite a general reduction in NO2 concentrations over the study period in the four metropolitan areas, we found contrasting results in the temporal trend of environmental inequalities. There is clear evidence of city-specific spatial and temporal environmental inequalities that relate to the historical socioeconomic make-up of the cities and its evolution. Hence, general statements about environmental and social inequalities may not properly characterize situations where people of higher social status find the benefits of living in a specific city outweigh the detriment of

  3. The problems of enforcement of decisions on the deprivation of the driver's license

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Beketov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available УДК 342.9The subject of research is legal regulation and practice the enforcement of punishment on deprivation of the license permitting to drive a variety of vehicles.The purpose of this article to show that even for such well-established for many years, narrow and specific law enforcement procedure as the execution of administrative punishment in the form of deprivation of the license there is is very typical whitespace in legal regulation leading to conflicts and risks of enforcement. Methodology. The analysis of administrative-legal actions of officials of State Traffic Safety Inspectorate and State Technical Supervision Authority, as well as legislation on the enforcement of their decisions on cases of administrative offences.Results. It is possible to identify the main causes of the problem of law enforcement, placing them in order of importance:1. The lack of the necessary normative legal acts, regulating the procedure of interaction of the bodies of Rostekhnadzor with the traffic police authorities, courts (judges, and the rules of procedure of the issuance of the certificate of the tractor operator-the machinist after the end of the period of deprivation, the absence of an approved format (sample medical certificate, etc., i.e. a very significant omissions of administrative-legal regulation.2. The failure of judges to the provisions of part 2 of article 32.5 of the administrative code of submitting to the authorities of state technical control of decisions on deprivation of the right of management by a tractor, self-propelled machine or other types of equipment for execution.3. Insufficient level of interaction of police with the Gostekhnadzor for the execution of administrative punishment in the field of traffic.4. The lack of access of authorities of state technical control for Federal information system, integrated into the necessary parts of the information system of internal Affairs bodies and the State information system on

  4. Classifying neighbourhoods by level of access to stores selling fresh fruit and vegetables and groceries: identifying problematic areas in the city of Gatineau, Quebec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Adrian C; Apparicio, Philippe; Cloutier, Marie-Soleil

    2012-11-06

    Physical access to stores selling groceries, fresh fruit and vegetables (FV) is essential for urban dwellers. In Canadian cities where low-density development practices are common, social and material deprivation may be compounded by poor geographic access to healthy food. This case study examines access to food stores selling fresh FV in Gatineau, Quebec, to identify areas where poor access is coincident with high deprivation. Food retailers were identified using two secondary sources and each store was visited to establish the total surface area devoted to the sale of fresh FV. Four population-weighted accessibility measures were then calculated for each dissemination area (DA) using road network distances. A deprivation index was created using variables from the 2006 Statistics Canada census, also at the scale of the DA. Finally, six classes of accessibility to a healthy diet were constructed using a k-means classification procedure. These were mapped and superimposed over high deprivation areas. Overall, deprivation is positively correlated with better accessibility. However, more than 18,000 residents (7.5% of the population) live in high deprivation areas characterized by large distances to the nearest retail food store (means of 1.4 km or greater) and virtually no access to fresh FV within walking distance (radius of 1 km). In this research, we identified areas where poor geographic access may introduce an additional constraint for residents already dealing with the challenges of limited financial and social resources. Our results may help guide local food security policies and initiatives.

  5. Wireless Access

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Wireless Access. Wireless connect to the Base station. Easy and Convenient access. Costlier as compared to the wired technology. Reliability challenges. We see it as a complementary technology to the DSL.

  6. Open access

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valkenburg, P.M.

    2015-01-01

    Open access week Van 19 tot en met 25 oktober 2015 vond wereldwijd de Open Access Week plaats. Tijdens deze week werden er over de hele wereld evenementen georganiseerd waar open access een rol speelt. Ook in Nederland zijn er diverse symposia, workshops en debatten georganiseerd zoals het debat in

  7. Monocular Visual Deprivation Suppresses Excitability in Adult Human Visual Cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lou, Astrid Rosenstand; Madsen, Kristoffer Hougaard; Paulson, Olaf Bjarne

    2011-01-01

    The adult visual cortex maintains a substantial potential for plasticity in response to a change in visual input. For instance, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies have shown that binocular deprivation (BD) increases the cortical excitability for inducing phosphenes with TMS. Here, we...... of visual deprivation has a substantial impact on experience-dependent plasticity of the human visual cortex.......The adult visual cortex maintains a substantial potential for plasticity in response to a change in visual input. For instance, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies have shown that binocular deprivation (BD) increases the cortical excitability for inducing phosphenes with TMS. Here, we...... employed TMS to trace plastic changes in adult visual cortex before, during, and after 48 h of monocular deprivation (MD) of the right dominant eye. In healthy adult volunteers, MD-induced changes in visual cortex excitability were probed with paired-pulse TMS applied to the left and right occipital cortex...

  8. Vitamin C Prevents Sleep Deprivation-induced Elevation in Cortisol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    Plasma glucose was significantly (p<0.05) reduced in all the sleep deprived groups compared ... of 12hr light-dark cycle after which they were subjected to Paradoxical .... Wakefulness involves high neuronal metabolism to maintain neuronal ...

  9. Vitamin C Prevents Sleep Deprivation-induced Elevation in Cortisol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    person can be aroused by sensory or other stimuli. (Hall, 2015), is an ... 2007). This can be acute (a single period of extended ... short-term (acute) Sleep Deprivation, such studies for .... induced memory impairment: the role of oxidative stress.

  10. Stress, social support and psychosomatic symptoms in a deprived neighbourhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bancila, Delia; Andersen, Pernille Tanggaard; Kronborg Bak, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    From a transactional perspective on stress, the study aimed to examine if the relationships of social support with perceived stress and psychosomatic symptoms are equivalent in deprived and wealthier neighbourhoods. Cross-sectional data were randomly collected from 2906 inhabitants in a deprived...... neighbourhood (851) and wealthier communities (2055), in Esbjerg, Denmark. A model that included psychosomatic symptoms as outcome, and daily worries, economic deprivation, perceived stress and social support as predictors was tested with structural equation modelling in two-group analyses. The findings showed...... significant differences (D2 (6)¼16.66, p.¼0.011) between neighbourhoods, and the fit statistics (CFI¼0.930, RMSEA¼0.034, R2¼0.48) showed good fit. Under an increased perceived stress’ effect, the social support’s impact on psychosomatic symptoms decreased in the deprived neighbourhood compared with the other...

  11. Cervical Ectopic Pregnancy in Resource Deprived Areas: A Rare ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-06-02

    Jun 2, 2016 ... Cervical ectopic pregnancy is a rare, life threatening form of ectopic pregnancy ... cervical, resource deprived areas, difficult diagnosis, management ... drome, prior instrumentation or therapeutic abortion .... CONCLUSION.

  12. Sleep Deprivation: A Cause of High Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it true that sleep deprivation can cause high blood pressure? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. Possibly. It's thought that ... hours a night could be linked to increased blood pressure. People who sleep five hours or less a ...

  13. Is maternal deprivation the root of all evil?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Cross

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we seriously entertain the question, “Is maternal deprivation the root of all evil?” Our consideration of this question is broken down into three parts. In the fi rst part, we discuss the nature of evil, focusing in particular on the legal concept of depravity. In the second part, we discuss the nurture of evil, focusing in particular on the common developmental trajectory seen in those who are depraved. In the third part, we discuss the roots of evil, focusing in particular on the animal and human research regarding maternal deprivation. Our conclusion is that maternal deprivation may actually be the root of all evil, but only because depraved individuals have been deprived of normative maternal care, which is the cradle of our humanity.

  14. Sleep and Nutritional Deprivation and Performance of House Officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Michael R.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    A study to compare cognitive functioning in acutely and chronically sleep-deprived house officers is described. A multivariate analysis of variance revealed significant deficits in primary mental tasks involving basic rote memory, language, and numeric skills. (Author/MLW)

  15. The effects of total sleep deprivation on Bayesian updating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L. Dickinson

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Subjects performed a decision task (Grether, 1980 in both a well-rested and experimentally sleep-deprived state. We found two main results: 1 final choice accuracy was unaffected by sleep deprivation, and yet 2 the estimated decision model differed significantly following sleep-deprivation. Following sleep deprivation, subjects placed significantly less weight on new information in forming their beliefs. Because the altered decision process still maintains decision accuracy, it may suggest that increased accident and error rates attributed to reduced sleep in modern society stem from reduced auxiliary function performance (e.g., slowed reaction time, reduced motor skills or other components of decision making, rather than the inability to integrate multiple pieces of information.

  16. Arbitrary Deprivation of an Unregistered Credit Provider's Right to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arbitrary Deprivation of an Unregistered Credit Provider's Right to Claim Restitution of Performance Rendered Opperman v Boonzaaier (24887/2010) 2012 ZAWCHC 27 (17 April 2012) and National Credit Regulator v Opperman 2013 2 SA 1 (CC)

  17. Sleep Deprivation in Humans, Immunodepression and Glutamine Supplementation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Castell, Linda M; Gough, Elizabeth; Cardenas, Rebecca; Miller, James C

    2005-01-01

    This report results from a contract tasking University of Oxford as follows: The Grantee will investigate the immunological response of subjects to one night of sleep deprivation with respect to the following areas...

  18. Sleep Deprivation in Humans, Immunodepression and Glutamine Supplementation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Castell, Linda M; Gough, Elizabeth; Cardenas, Rebecca; Miller, James C

    2005-01-01

    ... (I) Are the cytokines linked with eosinophils neutrophils and lymphocytes cell types which are known to be affected by sleep deprivation changed in terms of intracellular cytokine production? (2...

  19. Effect of Monocular Deprivation on Rabbit Neural Retinal Cell Densities

    OpenAIRE

    Mwachaka, Philip Maseghe; Saidi, Hassan; Odula, Paul Ochieng; Mandela, Pamela Idenya

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the effect of monocular deprivation on densities of neural retinal cells in rabbits. Methods: Thirty rabbits, comprised of 18 subject and 12 control animals, were included and monocular deprivation was achieved through unilateral lid suturing in all subject animals. The rabbits were observed for three weeks. At the end of each week, 6 experimental and 3 control animals were euthanized, their retinas was harvested and processed for light microscopy. Photomicrographs of ...

  20. Impact of Acute Sleep Deprivation on Sarcasm Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Deliens, Ga?tane; Stercq, Fanny; Mary, Alison; Slama, Hichem; Cleeremans, Axel; Peigneux, Philippe; Kissine, Mikhail

    2015-01-01

    There is growing evidence that sleep plays a pivotal role on health, cognition and emotional regulation. However, the interplay between sleep and social cognition remains an uncharted research area. In particular, little is known about the impact of sleep deprivation on sarcasm detection, an ability which, once altered, may hamper everyday social interactions. The aim of this study is to determine whether sleep-deprived participants are as able as sleep-rested participants to adopt another pe...

  1. Effects of sleep deprivation on central auditory processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liberalesso Paulo Breno

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sleep deprivation is extremely common in contemporary society, and is considered to be a frequent cause of behavioral disorders, mood, alertness, and cognitive performance. Although the impacts of sleep deprivation have been studied extensively in various experimental paradigms, very few studies have addressed the impact of sleep deprivation on central auditory processing (CAP. Therefore, we examined the impact of sleep deprivation on CAP, for which there is sparse information. In the present study, thirty healthy adult volunteers (17 females and 13 males, aged 30.75 ± 7.14 years were subjected to a pure tone audiometry test, a speech recognition threshold test, a speech recognition task, the Staggered Spondaic Word Test (SSWT, and the Random Gap Detection Test (RGDT. Baseline (BSL performance was compared to performance after 24 hours of being sleep deprived (24hSD using the Student’s t test. Results Mean RGDT score was elevated in the 24hSD condition (8.0 ± 2.9 ms relative to the BSL condition for the whole cohort (6.4 ± 2.8 ms; p = 0.0005, for males (p = 0.0066, and for females (p = 0.0208. Sleep deprivation reduced SSWT scores for the whole cohort in both ears [(right: BSL, 98.4 % ± 1.8 % vs. SD, 94.2 % ± 6.3 %. p = 0.0005(left: BSL, 96.7 % ± 3.1 % vs. SD, 92.1 % ± 6.1 %, p  Conclusion Sleep deprivation impairs RGDT and SSWT performance. These findings confirm that sleep deprivation has central effects that may impair performance in other areas of life.

  2. Is fuel poverty in Ireland a distinct type of deprivation?

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, Dorothy; Maitre, Bertrand

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we draw on the Central Statistics Office SILC data for Ireland to ask whether fuel poverty is a distinctive type of deprivation that warrants a fundamentally different policy response than poverty in general. We examine the overlap between fuel poverty (based on three self-report items) and poverty in general – with a particular emphasis on the national indicator of basic deprivation which is used in the measurement of poverty for policy purposes in Ireland. We examine changes ...

  3. Income Distribution and Consumption Deprivation: An Analytical Link

    OpenAIRE

    Sushanta K. Mallick

    2008-01-01

    This article conceives poverty in terms of the consumption of essential food, makes use of a new deprivation (or poverty) function, and examines the effects of changes in the mean and the variance of the income distribution on poverty, assuming a log-normal income distribution. The presence of a saturation level of consumption can be treated as a poverty-line threshold as opposed to an exogenous income-based poverty line. Within such a consumption deprivation approach, the article proves anal...

  4. Effects of brief daily periods of unrestricted vision during early monocular form deprivation on development of visual area 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Tao, Xiaofeng; Wensveen, Janice M; Harwerth, Ronald S; Smith, Earl L; Chino, Yuzo M

    2011-09-14

    Providing brief daily periods of unrestricted vision during early monocular form deprivation reduces the depth of amblyopia. To gain insights into the neural basis of the beneficial effects of this treatment, the binocular and monocular response properties of neurons were quantitatively analyzed in visual area 2 (V2) of form-deprived macaque monkeys. Beginning at 3 weeks of age, infant monkeys were deprived of clear vision in one eye for 12 hours every day until 21 weeks of age. They received daily periods of unrestricted vision for 0, 1, 2, or 4 hours during the form-deprivation period. After behavioral testing to measure the depth of the resulting amblyopia, microelectrode-recording experiments were conducted in V2. The ocular dominance imbalance away from the affected eye was reduced in the experimental monkeys and was generally proportional to the reduction in the depth of amblyopia in individual monkeys. There were no interocular differences in the spatial properties of V2 neurons in any subject group. However, the binocular disparity sensitivity of V2 neurons was significantly higher and binocular suppression was lower in monkeys that had unrestricted vision. The decrease in ocular dominance imbalance in V2 was the neuronal change most closely associated with the observed reduction in the depth of amblyopia. The results suggest that the degree to which extrastriate neurons can maintain functional connections with the deprived eye (i.e., reducing undersampling for the affected eye) is the most significant factor associated with the beneficial effects of brief periods of unrestricted vision.

  5. Circadian Rhythms, Sleep Deprivation, and Human Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Namni; Basner, Mathias; Rao, Hengyi; Dinges, David F.

    2014-01-01

    Much of the current science on, and mathematical modeling of, dynamic changes in human performance within and between days is dominated by the two-process model of sleep–wake regulation, which posits a neurobiological drive for sleep that varies homeostatically (increasing as a saturating exponential during wakefulness and decreasing in a like manner during sleep), and a circadian process that neurobiologically modulates both the homeostatic drive for sleep and waking alertness and performance. Endogenous circadian rhythms in neurobehavioral functions, including physiological alertness and cognitive performance, have been demonstrated using special laboratory protocols that reveal the interaction of the biological clock with the sleep homeostatic drive. Individual differences in circadian rhythms and genetic and other components underlying such differences also influence waking neurobehavioral functions. Both acute total sleep deprivation and chronic sleep restriction increase homeostatic sleep drive and degrade waking neurobehavioral functions as reflected in sleepiness, attention, cognitive speed, and memory. Recent evidence indicating a high degree of stability in neurobehavioral responses to sleep loss suggests that these trait-like individual differences are phenotypic and likely involve genetic components, including circadian genes. Recent experiments have revealed both sleep homeostatic and circadian effects on brain metabolism and neural activation. Investigation of the neural and genetic mechanisms underlying the dynamically complex interaction between sleep homeostasis and circadian systems is beginning. A key goal of this work is to identify biomarkers that accurately predict human performance in situations in which the circadian and sleep homeostatic systems are perturbed. PMID:23899598

  6. Predicting Psychotic-Like Experiences during Sensory Deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Christina; Mason, Oliver J.

    2015-01-01

    Aims. This study aimed to establish the contribution of hallucination proneness, anxiety, suggestibility, and fantasy proneness to psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) reported during brief sensory deprivation. Method. Twenty-four high and 22 low hallucination-prone participants reported on PLEs occurring during brief sensory deprivation and at baseline. State/trait anxiety, suggestibility, and fantasy proneness were also measured. Results. Both groups experienced a significant increase in PLEs in sensory deprivation. The high hallucination prone group reported more PLEs both at baseline and in sensory deprivation. They also scored significantly higher on measures of state/trait anxiety, suggestibility, and fantasy proneness, though these did not explain the effects of group or condition. Regression analysis found hallucination proneness to be the best predictor of the increase in PLEs, with state anxiety also being a significant predictor. Fantasy proneness and suggestibility were not significant predictors. Conclusion. This study suggests the increase in PLEs reported during sensory deprivation reflects a genuine aberration in perceptual experience, as opposed to increased tendency to make false reports due to suggestibility of fantasy proneness. The study provides further support for the use of sensory deprivation as a safe and effective nonpharmacological model of psychosis. PMID:25811027

  7. Predicting Psychotic-Like Experiences during Sensory Deprivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. This study aimed to establish the contribution of hallucination proneness, anxiety, suggestibility, and fantasy proneness to psychotic-like experiences (PLEs reported during brief sensory deprivation. Method. Twenty-four high and 22 low hallucination-prone participants reported on PLEs occurring during brief sensory deprivation and at baseline. State/trait anxiety, suggestibility, and fantasy proneness were also measured. Results. Both groups experienced a significant increase in PLEs in sensory deprivation. The high hallucination prone group reported more PLEs both at baseline and in sensory deprivation. They also scored significantly higher on measures of state/trait anxiety, suggestibility, and fantasy proneness, though these did not explain the effects of group or condition. Regression analysis found hallucination proneness to be the best predictor of the increase in PLEs, with state anxiety also being a significant predictor. Fantasy proneness and suggestibility were not significant predictors. Conclusion. This study suggests the increase in PLEs reported during sensory deprivation reflects a genuine aberration in perceptual experience, as opposed to increased tendency to make false reports due to suggestibility of fantasy proneness. The study provides further support for the use of sensory deprivation as a safe and effective nonpharmacological model of psychosis.

  8. Distribution of optometric practices relative to deprivation index in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legge, Robin; Strang, Niall C; Loffler, Gunter

    2017-07-19

    The UK National Health Service aims to provide universal availability of healthcare, and eye-care availability was a primary driver in the development of the Scottish General Ophthalmic Services (GOS) model. Accordingly, a relatively equal distribution of optometry practices across socio-economic areas is required. We examined practice distribution relative to deprivation. 672 practices were sampled from nine Health Boards within Scotland. Practices were assigned a deprivation ranking by referencing their postcode with the Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation (SIMD) tool (Scottish Executive National Statistics: General Report. 2016). Averaged across Health Boards, the share of practices for the five deprivation quintiles was 25, 33, 18, 14 and 11% from most to least deprived area, respectively. Although there was some variation of relative practice distribution in individual Health Boards, 17 of the 45 regions (nine Health Boards, five quintiles) had a close balance between population and share of practices. There was no clear pattern of practice distribution as a function of deprivation rank. Analysis revealed good correlation between practice and population share for each Health Board, and for the combined data (R2 = 0.898, P Distribution of optometry practices is relatively balanced across socio-economic areas, suggesting that differences in eye-examination uptake across social strata are unrelated to service availability. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health.

  9. Selective REM Sleep Deprivation Improves Expectation-Related Placebo Analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouchou, Florian; Chauny, Jean-Marc; Rainville, Pierre; Lavigne, Gilles J

    2015-01-01

    The placebo effect is a neurobiological and psychophysiological process known to influence perceived pain relief. Optimization of placebo analgesia may contribute to the clinical efficacy and effectiveness of medication for acute and chronic pain management. We know that the placebo effect operates through two main mechanisms, expectations and learning, which is also influenced by sleep. Moreover, a recent study suggested that rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is associated with modulation of expectation-mediated placebo analgesia. We examined placebo analgesia following pharmacological REM sleep deprivation and we tested the hypothesis that relief expectations and placebo analgesia would be improved by experimental REM sleep deprivation in healthy volunteers. Following an adaptive night in a sleep laboratory, 26 healthy volunteers underwent classical experimental placebo analgesic conditioning in the evening combined with pharmacological REM sleep deprivation (clonidine: 13 volunteers or inert control pill: 13 volunteers). Medication was administered in a double-blind manner at bedtime, and placebo analgesia was tested in the morning. Results revealed that 1) placebo analgesia improved with REM sleep deprivation; 2) pain relief expectations did not differ between REM sleep deprivation and control groups; and 3) REM sleep moderated the relationship between pain relief expectations and placebo analgesia. These results support the putative role of REM sleep in modulating placebo analgesia. The mechanisms involved in these improvements in placebo analgesia and pain relief following selective REM sleep deprivation should be further investigated.

  10. The Impact of Sleep Deprivation on the Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trošt Bobić, Tatjana; Šečić, Ana; Zavoreo, Iris; Matijević, Valentina; Filipović, Branimir; Kolak, Željka; Bašić Kes, Vanja; Ciliga, Dubravka; Sajković, Dubravka

    2016-09-01

    Each sleep phase is characterized by specific chemical, cellular and anatomic events of vital importance for normal neural functioning. Different forms of sleep deprivation may lead to a decline of cognitive functions in individuals. Studies in this field make a distinction between total sleep deprivation, chronic sleep restriction, and the situation of sleep disruption. Investigations covering the acute effects of sleep deprivation on the brain show that the discovered behavioral deficits in most cases regenerate after two nights of complete sleep. However, some studies done on mice emphasize the possible chronic effects of long-term sleep deprivation or chronic restriction on the occurrence of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease and dementia. In order to better understand the acute and chronic effects of sleep loss, the mechanisms of neural adaptation in the situations of insufficient sleep need to be further investigated. Future integrative research on the impact of sleep deprivation on neural functioning measured through the macro level of cognitive functions and the micro molecular and cell level could contribute to more accurate conclusions about the basic cellular mechanisms responsible for the detected behavioral deficits occurring due to sleep deprivation.

  11. Autoshaping of chlordiazepoxide drinking in non-deprived rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomie, Arthur; Wong, Lauren E; Pohorecky, Larissa A

    2005-02-28

    Effects of autoshaping procedures (Paired versus Random) and sipper fluid [chlordiazepoxide (CDP) versus water] on sipper-directed drinking were evaluated in 32 male Long-Evans rats maintained with free access to food and water. For the Paired/CDP group (n = 16), autoshaping procedures consisted of the presentation of the CDP sipper conditioned stimulus (CS) followed by the response-independent presentation of the food unconditioned stimulus (US). The concentration of CDP in the sipper CS (0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20, and 0.25 mg/ml CDP) was increased across sessions. The Paired/Water group (n = 8) received only water in the sipper CS. The Random/CDP group (n = 8) received the CDP sipper CS and food US randomly with respect to one another. The Paired/CDP group drank significantly more of the 0.20 mg/ml and 0.25 mg/ml CDP solutions than the Random/CDP control, and more fluid than the Paired/Water control group when the sipper CS for the Paired/CDP group contained the three highest concentrations of CDP. CS-Only extinction procedures reliably reduced sipper CS-directed drinking in the Paired/CDP and the Paired/Water groups, but not in the Random/CDP group. Data are consistent with the hypothesis that Pavlovian autoshaping procedures induce sipper CS-directed drinking of CDP in rats deprived of neither food nor fluid. Implications for the autoshaping model of drug abuse are discussed.

  12. Waking and sleeping following water deprivation in the rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Martelli

    Full Text Available Wake-sleep (W-S states are affected by thermoregulation. In particular, REM sleep (REMS is reduced in homeotherms under a thermal load, due to an impairment of hypothalamic regulation of body temperature. The aim of this work was to assess whether osmoregulation, which is regulated at a hypothalamic level, but, unlike thermoregulation, is maintained across the different W-S states, could influence W-S occurrence. Sprague-Dawley rats, kept at an ambient temperature of 24°C and under a 12 h∶12 h light-dark cycle, were exposed to a prolonged osmotic challenge of three days of water deprivation (WD and two days of recovery in which free access to water was restored. Two sets of parameters were determined in order to assess: i the maintenance of osmotic homeostasis (water and food consumption; changes in body weight and fluid composition; ii the effects of the osmotic challenge on behavioral states (hypothalamic temperature (Thy, motor activity, and W-S states. The first set of parameters changed in WD as expected and control levels were restored on the second day of recovery, with the exception of urinary Ca(++ that almost disappeared in WD, and increased to a high level in recovery. As far as the second set is concerned, WD was characterized by the maintenance of the daily oscillation of Thy and by a decrease in activity during the dark periods. Changes in W-S states were small and mainly confined to the dark period: i REMS slightly decreased at the end of WD and increased in recovery; ii non-REM sleep (NREMS increased in both WD and recovery, but EEG delta power, a sign of NREMS intensity, decreased in WD and increased in recovery. Our data suggest that osmoregulation interferes with the regulation of W-S states to a much lesser extent than thermoregulation.

  13. Bearding the Capability Deprivation Machine: The Pedagogical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Critical Studies in Teaching and Learning. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 1, No 1 (2013) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  14. Deprivation among unemployed South African youth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to measure poverty. Results show that ... state intervention to alleviate youth poverty be emphasised. ONTNEMING .... some success, none was able to deliver the capacity that ..... Intellectual problems ..... can access a disability grant. These.

  15. “They're doing people a service”—qualitative study of smoking, smuggling, and social deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltshire, Susan; Bancroft, Angus; Amos, Amanda; Parry, Odette

    2001-01-01

    how they access themWhat this study addsIn such areas the easy availability of cheap tobacco products through contraband networks works against many smokers' desire to quitGiven the perceived lack of support to help them to stop smoking, this smuggling network is viewed positively by low income smokers as a way of dealing with the increasing cost of cigarettesSmokers in areas of deprivation may thus show little support for tackling smuggling until more action is taken to address the material and personal factors that make it difficult for them to quit PMID:11473911

  16. Contrast-balanced binocular treatment in children with deprivation amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, Lisa M; Chen, Zidong; Li, Jinrong; Dai, Shuan; Black, Joanna; Yuan, Junpeng; Yu, Minbin; Thompson, Benjamin

    2017-11-28

    Children with deprivation amblyopia due to childhood cataract have been excluded from much of the emerging research into amblyopia treatment. An investigation was conducted to determine whether contrast-balanced binocular treatment - a strategy currently being explored for children with anisometropic and strabismic amblyopia - may be effective in children with deprivation amblyopia. An unmasked, case-series design intended to assess proof of principle was employed. Eighteen children with deprivation amblyopia due to childhood cataracts (early bilateral n = 7, early unilateral n = 7, developmental n = 4), as well as 10 children with anisometropic (n = 8) or mixed anisometropic and strabismic amblyopia (n = 2) were prescribed one hour a day of treatment over a six-week period. Supervised treatment was available. Visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, global motion perception and interocular suppression were measured pre- and post-treatment. Visual acuity improvements occurred in the anisometropic/strabismic group (0.15 ± 0.05 logMAR, p = 0.014), but contrast sensitivity did not change. As a group, children with deprivation amblyopia had a smaller but statistically significant improvement in weaker eye visual acuity (0.09 ± 0.03 logMAR, p = 0.004), as well a significant improvement in weaker eye contrast sensitivity (p = 0.004). Subgroup analysis suggested that the children with early bilateral deprivation had the largest improvements, while children with early unilateral cataract did not improve. Interestingly, binocular contrast sensitivity also improved in children with early bilateral deprivation. Global motion perception improved for both subgroups with early visual deprivation, as well as children with anisometropic or mixed anisometropic/strabismic amblyopia. Interocular suppression improved for all subgroups except children with early unilateral deprivation. These data suggest that supervised contrast-balanced binocular

  17. Neighborhood Deprivation and Childhood Asthma Outcomes, Accounting for Insurance Coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkoy, Flory L; Stone, Bryan L; Knighton, Andrew J; Fassl, Bernhard A; Johnson, Joseph M; Maloney, Christopher G; Savitz, Lucy A

    2018-01-09

    Collecting social determinants data is challenging. We assigned patients a neighborhood-level social determinant measure, the area of deprivation index (ADI), by using census data. We then assessed the association between neighborhood deprivation and asthma hospitalization outcomes and tested the influence of insurance coverage. A retrospective cohort study of children 2 to 17 years old admitted for asthma at 8 hospitals. An administrative database was used to collect patient data, including hospitalization outcomes and neighborhood deprivation status (ADI scores), which were grouped into quintiles (ADI 1, the least deprived neighborhoods; ADI 5, the most deprived neighborhoods). We used multivariable models, adjusting for covariates, to assess the associations and added a neighborhood deprivation status and insurance coverage interaction term. A total of 2270 children (median age 5 years; 40.6% girls) were admitted for asthma. We noted that higher ADI quintiles were associated with greater length of stay, higher cost, and more asthma readmissions ( P < .05 for most quintiles). Having public insurance was independently associated with greater length of stay (β: 1.171; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.117-1.228; P < .001), higher cost (β: 1.147; 95% CI: 1.093-1.203; P < .001), and higher readmission odds (odds ratio: 1.81; 95% CI: 1.46-2.24; P < .001). There was a significant deprivation-insurance effect modification, with public insurance associated with worse outcomes and private insurance with better outcomes across ADI quintiles ( P < .05 for most combinations). Neighborhood-level ADI measure is associated with asthma hospitalization outcomes. However, insurance coverage modifies this relationship and needs to be considered when using the ADI to identify and address health care disparities. Copyright © 2018 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  18. Impact of partial sleep deprivation on immune markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder-Smith, A; Mustafa, F B; Earnest, A; Gen, L; Macary, P A

    2013-10-01

    Sleep quality is considered to be an important predictor of immunity. Lack of sleep therefore may reduce immunity, thereby increasing the susceptibility to respiratory pathogens. A previous study showed that reduced sleep duration was associated with an increased likelihood of the common cold. It is important to understand the role of sleep in altering immune responses to understand how sleep deprivation leads to an increased susceptibility to the common cold or other respiratory infections. We sought to examine the impact of partial sleep deprivation on various immune markers. Fifty-two healthy volunteers were partially sleep deprived for one night. We took blood samples before the sleep deprivation, immediately after, and 4 and 7 days after sleep deprivation. We measured various immune markers and used a generalized estimating equation (GEE) to examine the differences in the repeated measures. CD4, CD8, CD14, and CD16 all showed significant time-dependent changes, but CD3 did not. The most striking time-dependent change was observed for the mitogen proliferation assay and for HLA-DR. There was a significant decrease in the mitogen proliferation values and HLA-DR immediately after the sleep deprivation experiment, which started to rise again on day 4 and normalized by day 7. The transiently impaired mitogen proliferation, the decreased HLA-DR, the upregulated CD14, and the variations in CD4 and CD8 that we observed in temporal relationship with partial sleep deprivation could be one possible explanation for the increased susceptibility to respiratory infections reported after reduced sleep duration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Varenicline Reduces Alcohol Intake During Repeated Cycles of Alcohol Reaccess Following Deprivation in Alcohol-Preferring (P) Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froehlich, Janice C; Nicholson, Emily R; Dilley, Julian E; Filosa, Nick J; Rademacher, Logan C; Smith, Teal N

    2017-08-01

    Most alcoholics experience periods of voluntary alcohol abstinence or imposed alcohol deprivation followed by a return to alcohol drinking. This study examined whether varenicline (VAR) reduces alcohol intake during a return to drinking after periods of alcohol deprivation in rats selectively bred for high alcohol drinking (the alcohol preferring or "P" rats). Alcohol-experienced P rats were given 24-hour access to food and water and scheduled access to alcohol (15% and 30% v/v) for 2 h/d. After 4 weeks, rats were deprived of alcohol for 2 weeks, followed by reaccess to alcohol for 2 weeks, and this pattern was repeated for a total of 3 cycles. Rats were fed either vehicle (VEH) or VAR, in doses of 0.5, 1.0, or 2.0 mg/kg BW, at 1 hour prior to onset of the daily alcohol reaccess period for the first 5 days of each of the 3 alcohol reaccess cycles. Low-dose VAR (0.5 mg/kg BW) reduced alcohol intake during the 5 days of drug treatment in alcohol reaccess cycles 1 and 2. Higher doses of VAR (1.0 mg/kg BW and 2.0 mg/kg BW) reduced alcohol intake during the 5 days of treatment in all 3 alcohol reaccess cycles. The decrease in alcohol intake disappeared with termination of VAR treatment in all alcohol reaccess cycles. The results demonstrate that VAR decreases alcohol intake during multiple cycles of alcohol reaccess following alcohol deprivation in rats and suggests that it may prevent a return to heavy alcohol drinking during a lapse from alcohol abstinence in humans with alcohol use disorder. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  20. A temporal analysis of the spatial clustering of food outlets around schools in Christchurch, New Zealand, 1966 to 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Peter L; Pearce, Jamie R; Pearson, Amber L

    2015-01-01

    To explore changes in urban food environments near schools, as potential contributors to the rising prevalence of overweight and obesity among children. Addresses of food premises and schools in 1966, 1976, 1986, 1996 and 2006 were geo-coded. For each year, the number and proportion of outlets by category (supermarket/grocery; convenience; fast-food outlet) within 800 m of schools were calculated. The degree of spatial clustering of outlets was assessed using a bivariate K-function analysis. Food outlet categories, school level and school social deprivation quintiles were compared. Christchurch, New Zealand. All schools and food outlets at 10-year snapshots from 1966 to 2006. Between 1966 and 2006, the median number of supermarkets/grocery stores within 800 m of schools decreased from 5 to 1, convenience stores decreased from 2 to 1, and fast-food outlets increased from 1 to 4. The ratio of fast-food outlets to total outlets increased from 0·10 to 0·67. The clustering of fast-food outlets was greatest within 800 m of schools and around the most socially deprived schools. Over the 40-year study period, school food environments in Christchurch can be characterized by increased densities of fast-food outlets within walking distance of schools, especially around the most deprived schools. Since the 1960s, there have been substantial changes to the food environments around schools which may increasingly facilitate away-from-home food consumption for children and provide easily accessible, cheap energy-dense foods, a recognized contributor to the rise in prevalence of overweight and obesity among young people.

  1. The effectiveness of problem solving therapy in deprived South African communities: results from a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marks Isaac

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The majority of South Africans with a DSM-IV diagnosis receive no treatment for their mental health problems. There is a move to simplify treatment for common mental disorders (CMDs in order to ease access. Brief problem solving therapy (PST might fill the treatment gap for CMD's in deprived communities in South Africa. This pilot study evaluates the feasibility, acceptability and effectiveness of this PST program for CMD's in deprived communities around Cape Town. Methods A Dutch problem solving program was adapted and translated into English, Xhosa and Afrikaans and thereafter implemented in townships around Cape Town. An initial attempt to recruit participants for online PST proved difficult, and so the program was adapted to a booklet format. Volunteers experiencing psychological distress were invited to participate in the either individually or group delivered 5-week during self-help program. To evaluate the effectiveness, psychological distress was administered through self-report questionnaires. After completion of the intervention participants also rated the program on various acceptability aspects. Results Of 103 participants, 73 completed 5 weeks of brief PST in a booklet/workshop format. There were significantly more dropouts in those who used the booklet individually than in the group. Psychological distress measured on the K-10 and SRQ fell significantly and the program was evaluated positively. Conclusions The results suggest that brief problem solving in a booklet/workshop format may be an effective, feasible and acceptable short-term treatment for people with CMD's in deprived communities. In this setting, group delivery of PST had lower drop-out rates than individual delivery, and was more feasible and acceptable. Randomized controlled trials are needed to evaluate the effect of brief self-help PST more rigorously.

  2. Open Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suber, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The Internet lets us share perfect copies of our work with a worldwide audience at virtually no cost. We take advantage of this revolutionary opportunity when we make our work "open access": digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. Open access is made possible by the Internet and copyright-holder…

  3. Open access

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Dennis Ocholla

    The argument that access to information is an instrumental and individual as well as ... and Dean School of Information Studies, University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, USA. ... to scholarly publications and can be in any digital format, including text, movies and ... language barriers, censorship, lack of access to the Internet and ...

  4. Short-Term Monocular Deprivation Enhances Physiological Pupillary Oscillations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Binda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Short-term monocular deprivation alters visual perception in adult humans, increasing the dominance of the deprived eye, for example, as measured with binocular rivalry. This form of plasticity may depend upon the inhibition/excitation balance in the visual cortex. Recent work suggests that cortical excitability is reliably tracked by dilations and constrictions of the pupils of the eyes. Here, we ask whether monocular deprivation produces a systematic change of pupil behavior, as measured at rest, that is independent of the change of visual perception. During periods of minimal sensory stimulation (in the dark and task requirements (minimizing body and gaze movements, slow pupil oscillations, “hippus,” spontaneously appear. We find that hippus amplitude increases after monocular deprivation, with larger hippus changes in participants showing larger ocular dominance changes (measured by binocular rivalry. This tight correlation suggests that a single latent variable explains both the change of ocular dominance and hippus. We speculate that the neurotransmitter norepinephrine may be implicated in this phenomenon, given its important role in both plasticity and pupil control. On the practical side, our results indicate that measuring the pupil hippus (a simple and short procedure provides a sensitive index of the change of ocular dominance induced by short-term monocular deprivation, hence a proxy for plasticity.

  5. Mortality of persons deprived of liberty in the penal system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanić Goran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this research is to determine the scope, dynamics, and structure of deaths of persons deprived of their liberty who resided in the penal system due to custody, security measures, serving a prison sentence or an alternative sanction, with regard to their demographic, criminological, penal, and psychological characteristics. Article 111, paragraph b of the United Nations Rules for the Protection of Juveniles Deprived of their Liberty (1990 determines that deprivation of liberty refers to any kind of detention, imprisonment, i.e. placement in a public or private institution which the imprisoned person cannot leave, by order of judicial, administrative or other public authority. The data used included information on persons deprived of their liberty who died in the territory of the Republic of Serbia in the period from 2008 to 2012. The data was obtained from The Directorate for Execution of Criminal Sanctions of the Ministry of Justice of the Republic of Serbia. In the past, researches mainly focused on violence in prisons, death penalty, prison riots, auto-aggressive behavior, i.e. certain forms of mortality such as a suicide. This paper aims to point out the characteristics of deaths which occur while persons deprived of their liberty are under the authority of judicial institutions, both before and after passing a criminal sanction.

  6. Residential mobility, neighbourhood deprivation and children's behaviour in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini; Mavroveli, Stella; Midouhas, Emily

    2013-03-01

    Using data from the first two waves (in 2001/02 and 2004) of the UK's Millennium Cohort Study (MCS), we attempted to separate the effect of residential mobility from the effect of neighbourhood deprivation on children's emotional and behavioural problems. Our sample was 23,162 children (aged 3-16 years) clustered in 12,692 families. We measured neighbourhood deprivation with the Index of Multiple Deprivation, a measure of neighbourhood-level socio-economic disadvantage, and residential mobility as household move between waves. Being in a lower deprivation neighbourhood at Wave 1 was related to lower scores of both emotional and behavioural problems 2 years later, even after adjustment for child's age and sex, family adversity, family structure and maternal psychological distress. However, children whose families subsequently moved-even within or between lower deprivation neighbourhoods-were at higher risk of emotional and behavioural problems. Adjusting for family socio-economic disadvantage at Wave 1 explained the association of residential mobility with emotional but not with behavioural problems, which remained significant even after accounting for change in family's socio-economic disadvantage between waves. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Cellular consequences of sleep deprivation in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirelli, Chiara

    2006-10-01

    Several recent studies have used transcriptomics approaches to characterize the molecular correlates of sleep, waking, and sleep deprivation. This analysis may help in understanding the benefits that sleep brings to the brain at the cellular level. The studies are still limited in number and focus on a few brain regions, but some consistent findings are emerging. Sleep, spontaneous wakefulness, short-term, and long-term sleep deprivation are each associated with the upregulation of hundreds of genes in the cerebral cortex and other brain areas. In fruit flies as well as in mammals, three categories of genes are consistently upregulated during waking and short-term sleep deprivation relative to sleep. They include genes involved in energy metabolism, synaptic potentiation, and the response to cellular stress. In the rat cerebral cortex, transcriptional changes associated with prolonged sleep loss differ significantly from those observed during short-term sleep deprivation. However, it is too early to draw firm conclusions relative to the molecular consequences of sleep deprivation, and more extensive studies using DNA and protein arrays are needed in different species and in different brain regions.

  8. Reconsidering the Relationship between Air Pollution and Deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Nick; Dong, Guanpeng; Minton, Jon; Pryce, Gwilym

    2018-01-01

    This paper critically examines the relationship between air pollution and deprivation. We argue that focusing on a particular economic or social model of urban development might lead one to erroneously expect all cities to converge towards a particular universal norm. A naive market sorting model, for example, would predict that poor households will eventually be sorted into high pollution areas, leading to a positive relationship between air pollution and deprivation. If, however, one considers a wider set of theoretical perspectives, the anticipated relationship between air pollution and deprivation becomes more complex and idiosyncratic. Specifically, we argue the relationship between pollution and deprivation can only be made sense of by considering processes of risk perception, path dependency, gentrification and urbanization. Rather than expecting all areas to eventually converge to some universal norm, we should expect the differences in the relationship between air pollution and deprivation across localities to persist. Mindful of these insights, we propose an approach to modeling which does not impose a geographically fixed relationship. Results for Scotland reveal substantial variations in the observed relationships over space and time, supporting our argument. PMID:29596380

  9. Reconsidering the Relationship between Air Pollution and Deprivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Bailey

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper critically examines the relationship between air pollution and deprivation. We argue that focusing on a particular economic or social model of urban development might lead one to erroneously expect all cities to converge towards a particular universal norm. A naive market sorting model, for example, would predict that poor households will eventually be sorted into high pollution areas, leading to a positive relationship between air pollution and deprivation. If, however, one considers a wider set of theoretical perspectives, the anticipated relationship between air pollution and deprivation becomes more complex and idiosyncratic. Specifically, we argue the relationship between pollution and deprivation can only be made sense of by considering processes of risk perception, path dependency, gentrification and urbanization. Rather than expecting all areas to eventually converge to some universal norm, we should expect the differences in the relationship between air pollution and deprivation across localities to persist. Mindful of these insights, we propose an approach to modeling which does not impose a geographically fixed relationship. Results for Scotland reveal substantial variations in the observed relationships over space and time, supporting our argument.

  10. Reconsidering the Relationship between Air Pollution and Deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Nick; Dong, Guanpeng; Minton, Jon; Pryce, Gwilym

    2018-03-29

    This paper critically examines the relationship between air pollution and deprivation. We argue that focusing on a particular economic or social model of urban development might lead one to erroneously expect all cities to converge towards a particular universal norm. A naive market sorting model, for example, would predict that poor households will eventually be sorted into high pollution areas, leading to a positive relationship between air pollution and deprivation. If, however, one considers a wider set of theoretical perspectives, the anticipated relationship between air pollution and deprivation becomes more complex and idiosyncratic. Specifically, we argue the relationship between pollution and deprivation can only be made sense of by considering processes of risk perception, path dependency, gentrification and urbanization. Rather than expecting all areas to eventually converge to some universal norm, we should expect the differences in the relationship between air pollution and deprivation across localities to persist. Mindful of these insights, we propose an approach to modeling which does not impose a geographically fixed relationship. Results for Scotland reveal substantial variations in the observed relationships over space and time, supporting our argument.

  11. Prefrontal glucose deficits in murderers lacking psychosocial deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raine, A; Phil, D; Stoddard, J; Bihrle, S; Buchsbaum, M

    1998-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that links between autonomic nervous system functioning and violence are strongest in those who come from benign home backgrounds, but there appears to be no similar research using brain-imaging measures of central nervous system functioning. It was hypothesized that murderers who had no early psychosocial deprivation (e.g., no childhood abuse, family neglect) would demonstrate lower prefrontal glucose metabolism than murderers with early psychosocial deprivation and a group of normal controls. Murderers from a previous study, which showed prefrontal deficits in murderers, were assessed for psychosocial deprivation and divided into those with and without deprivation. Murderers without any clear psychosocial deficits were significantly lower on prefrontal glucose metabolism than murderers with psychosocial deficits and controls. These results suggest that murderers lacking psychosocial deficits are characterized by prefrontal deficits. It is argued that among violent offenders without deprived home backgrounds, the "social push" to violence is minimized, and consequently, brain abnormalities provide a relatively stronger predisposition to violence in this group.

  12. Can sleep deprivation studies explain why human adults sleep?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lee K

    2012-11-01

    This review will concentrate on the consequences of sleep deprivation in adult humans. These findings form a paradigm that serves to demonstrate many of the critical functions of the sleep states. The drive to obtain food, water, and sleep constitutes important vegetative appetites throughout the animal kingdom. Unlike nutrition and hydration, the reasons for sleep have largely remained speculative. When adult humans are nonspecifically sleep-deprived, systemic effects may include defects in cognition, vigilance, emotional stability, risk-taking, and, possibly, moral reasoning. Appetite (for foodstuffs) increases and glucose intolerance may ensue. Procedural, declarative, and emotional memory are affected. Widespread alterations of immune function and inflammatory regulators can be observed, and functional MRI reveals profound changes in regional cerebral activity related to attention and memory. Selective deprivation of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, on the contrary, appears to be more activating and to have lesser effects on immunity and inflammation. The findings support a critical need for sleep due to the widespread effects on the adult human that result from nonselective sleep deprivation. The effects of selective REM deprivation appear to be different and possibly less profound, and the functions of this sleep state remain enigmatic.

  13. Deconstructing and Reconstructing Cognitive Performance in Sleep Deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Melinda L.; Gunzelmann, Glenn; Whitney, Paul; Hinson, John M.; Belenky, Gregory; Rabat, Arnaud; Van Dongen, Hans P. A.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Mitigation of cognitive impairment due to sleep deprivation in operational settings is critical for safety and productivity. Achievements in this area are hampered by limited knowledge about the effects of sleep loss on actual job tasks. Sleep deprivation has different effects on different cognitive performance tasks, but the mechanisms behind this task-specificity are poorly understood. In this context it is important to recognize that cognitive performance is not a unitary process, but involves a number of component processes. There is emerging evidence that these component processes are differentially affected by sleep loss. Experiments have been conducted to decompose sleep-deprived performance into underlying cognitive processes using cognitive-behavioral, neuroimaging and cognitive modeling techniques. Furthermore, computational modeling in cognitive architectures has been employed to simulate sleep-deprived cognitive performance on the basis of the constituent cognitive processes. These efforts are beginning to enable quantitative prediction of the effects of sleep deprivation across different task contexts. This paper reviews a rapidly evolving area of research, and outlines a theoretical framework in which the effects of sleep loss on cognition may be understood from the deficits in the underlying neurobiology to the applied consequences in real-world job tasks. PMID:22884948

  14. Melatonin modulates adiponectin expression on murine colitis with sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Kyun; Park, Young Sook; Baik, Haing-Woon; Jun, Jin Hyun; Kim, Eun Kyung; Sull, Jae Woong; Sung, Ho Joong; Choi, Jin Woo; Chung, Sook Hee; Gye, Myung Chan; Lim, Ju Yeon; Kim, Jun Bong; Kim, Seong Hwan

    2016-09-07

    To determine adiponectin expression in colonic tissue of murine colitis and systemic cytokine expression after melatonin treatments and sleep deprivation. The following five groups of C57BL/6 mice were used in this study: (1) group I, control; (2) group II, 2% DSS induced colitis for 7 d; (3) group III, 2% DSS induced colitis and melatonin treatment; (4) group IV, 2% DSS induced colitis with sleep deprivation (SD) using specially designed and modified multiple platform water baths; and (5) group V, 2% DSS induced colitis with SD and melatonin treatment. Melatonin (10 mg/kg) or saline was intraperitoneally injected daily to mice for 4 d. The body weight was monitored daily. The degree of colitis was evaluated histologically after sacrificing the mice. Immunohistochemical staining and Western blot analysis was performed using anti-adiponectin antibody. After sampling by intracardiac punctures, levels of serum cytokines were measured by ELISA. Sleep deprivation in water bath exacerbated DSS induced colitis and worsened weight loss. Melatonin injection not only alleviated the severity of mucosal injury, but also helped survival during stressful condition. The expression level of adiponectin in mucosa was decreased in colitis, with the lowest level observed in colitis combined with sleep deprivation. Melatonin injection significantly (P sleep deprivation.

  15. Sleep Deprivation Influences Circadian Gene Expression in the Lateral Habenula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Beilin; Gao, Yanxia; Li, Yang; Yang, Jing; Zhao, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Sleep is governed by homeostasis and the circadian clock. Clock genes play an important role in the generation and maintenance of circadian rhythms but are also involved in regulating sleep homeostasis. The lateral habenular nucleus (LHb) has been implicated in sleep-wake regulation, since LHb gene expression demonstrates circadian oscillation characteristics. This study focuses on the participation of LHb clock genes in regulating sleep homeostasis, as the nature of their involvement is unclear. In this study, we observed changes in sleep pattern following sleep deprivation in LHb-lesioned rats using EEG recording techniques. And then the changes of clock gene expression (Per1, Per2, and Bmal1) in the LHb after 6 hours of sleep deprivation were detected by using real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). We found that sleep deprivation increased the length of Non-Rapid Eye Movement Sleep (NREMS) and decreased wakefulness. LHb-lesioning decreased the amplitude of reduced wake time and increased NREMS following sleep deprivation in rats. qPCR results demonstrated that Per2 expression was elevated after sleep deprivation, while the other two genes were unaffected. Following sleep recovery, Per2 expression was comparable to the control group. This study provides the basis for further research on the role of LHb Per2 gene in the regulation of sleep homeostasis.

  16. Nutrient Deprivation Induces Property Variations in Spider Gluey Silk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blamires, Sean J.; Sahni, Vasav; Dhinojwala, Ali; Blackledge, Todd A.; Tso, I-Min

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms facilitating property variability in biological adhesives may promote biomimetic innovations. Spider gluey silks such as the spiral threads in orb webs and the gumfoot threads in cobwebs, both of which comprise of an axial thread coated by glue, are biological adhesives that have variable physical and chemical properties. Studies show that the physical and chemical properties of orb web gluey threads change when spiders are deprived of food. It is, however, unknown whether gumfoot threads undergo similar property variations when under nutritional stress. Here we tested whether protein deprivation induces similar variations in spiral and gumfoot thread morphology and stickiness. We manipulated protein intake for the orb web spider Nephila clavipes and the cobweb spider Latrodectus hesperus and measured the diameter, glue droplet volume, number of droplets per mm, axial thread width, thread stickiness and adhesive energy of their gluey silks. We found that the gluey silks of both species were stickier when the spiders were deprived of protein than when the spiders were fed protein. In N. clavipes a concomitant increase in glue droplet volume was found. Load-extension curves showed that protein deprivation induced glue property variations independent of the axial thread extensions in both species. We predicted that changes in salt composition of the glues were primarily responsible for the changes in stickiness of the silks, although changes in axial thread properties might also contribute. We, additionally, showed that N. clavipes' glue changes color under protein deprivation, probably as a consequence of changes to its biochemical composition. PMID:24523902

  17. Using GIS-based methods of multicriteria analysis to construct socio-economic deprivation indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayes Michael V

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the past several decades researchers have produced substantial evidence of a social gradient in a variety of health outcomes, rising from systematic differences in income, education, employment conditions, and family dynamics within the population. Social gradients in health are measured using deprivation indices, which are typically constructed from aggregated socio-economic data taken from the national census – a technique which dates back at least until the early 1970's. The primary method of index construction over the last decade has been a Principal Component Analysis. Seldom are the indices constructed from survey-based data sources due to the inherent difficulty in validating the subjectivity of the response scores. We argue that this very subjectivity can uncover spatial distributions of local health outcomes. Moreover, indication of neighbourhood socio-economic status may go underrepresented when weighted without expert opinion. In this paper we propose the use of geographic information science (GIS for constructing the index. We employ a GIS-based Order Weighted Average (OWA Multicriteria Analysis (MCA as a technique to validate deprivation indices that are constructed using more qualitative data sources. Both OWA and traditional MCA are well known and used methodologies in spatial analysis but have had little application in social epidemiology. Results A survey of British Columbia's Medical Health Officers (MHOs was used to populate the MCA-based index. Seven variables were selected and weighted based on the survey results. OWA variable weights assign both local and global weights to the index variables using a sliding scale, producing a range of variable scenarios. The local weights also provide leverage for controlling the level of uncertainty in the MHO response scores. This is distinct from traditional deprivation indices in that the weighting is simultaneously dictated by the original respondent scores

  18. Spatially Resolved Artificial Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fellermann, Harold

    2009-01-01

    Although spatial structures can play a crucial role in chemical systems and can drastically alter the outcome of reactions, the traditional framework of artificial chemistry is a well-stirred tank reactor with no spatial representation in mind. Advanced method development in physical chemistry has...... made a class of models accessible to the realms of artificial chemistry that represent reacting molecules in a coarse-grained fashion in continuous space. This chapter introduces the mathematical models of Brownian dynamics (BD) and dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) for molecular motion and reaction...

  19. Spatially Resolved Artificial Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fellermann, Harold

    2009-01-01

    made a class of models accessible to the realms of artificial chemistry that represent reacting molecules in a coarse-grained fashion in continuous space. This chapter introduces the mathematical models of Brownian dynamics (BD) and dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) for molecular motion and reaction......Although spatial structures can play a crucial role in chemical systems and can drastically alter the outcome of reactions, the traditional framework of artificial chemistry is a well-stirred tank reactor with no spatial representation in mind. Advanced method development in physical chemistry has...

  20. Mapping Deprivation in Rural Areas from Transylvania: Reflections on a Methodological Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raţ Cristina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present paper is to present and critically discuss the potentialities and limits of using official data (collected and reported by state-institutions in order to shed light on consequences of uneven development and measure area deprivation in present-day Romania. Our argumentation is based on a quantitative inquiry at the level of rural communes and small-towns from three counties located in the historical region of Transylvania. It presents the reasons for choosing certain statistical indicators, the construction of composite indexes and the profiles of localities according to their values. We explore the statistical correlations between our indexes and the poverty rates measured for 2002 (CASPIS, 2004, as well as the Local Human Development Index proposed by Sandu (2011 and revised by the World Bank (2014. Unlike other poverty-mapping inquiries, our goal was not to identify compact, segregated and severely impoverished settlements, but to measure the extent of material deprivation at the level of the entire administrative unit. In this way, we refrained from seeing poverty as the problem of a socially (and sometimes spatially marginalized settlement, and instead defined poverty as a problem of the entire local community, that should be addressed by the local community as a whole. Our data reveals that, after controlling for poverty and local resources, the share of the Roma ethnic minority is a strong statistical predictor of registered unemployment, however, it does not correlate with the frequency of granting social assistance benefits.

  1. The effect of video game training on the vision of adults with bilateral deprivation amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Seong Taek; Maurer, Daphne; Lewis, Terri L

    2012-01-01

    Amblyopia is a condition involving reduced acuity caused by abnormal visual input during a critical period beginning shortly after birth. Amblyopia is typically considered to be irreversible during adulthood. Here we provide the first demonstration that video game training can improve at least some aspects of the vision of adults with bilateral deprivation amblyopia caused by a history of bilateral congenital cataracts. Specifically, after 40 h of training over one month with an action video game, most patients showed improvement in one or both eyes on a wide variety of tasks including acuity, spatial contrast sensitivity, and sensitivity to global motion. As well, there was evidence of improvement in at least some patients for temporal contrast sensitivity, single letter acuity, crowding, and feature spacing in faces, but not for useful field of view. The results indicate that, long after the end of the critical period for damage, there is enough residual plasticity in the adult visual system to effect improvements, even in cases of deep amblyopia caused by early bilateral deprivation.

  2. Autophagy sustains the survival of human pancreatic cancer PANC-1 cells under extreme nutrient deprivation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Eun; Park, Hye-Jin; Jeong, Hye Kyoung; Kim, Mi-Jung; Kim, Minyeong; Bae, Ok-Nam; Baek, Seung-Hoon

    2015-07-31

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas are an extremely aggressive and devastating type of cancer with high mortality. Given the dense stroma and poor vascularization, accessibility to nutrients is limited in the tumor microenvironment. Here, we aimed to elucidate the role of autophagy in promoting the survival of human pancreatic cancer PANC-1 cells exposed to nutrient-deprived media (NDM) lacking glucose, amino acids, and serum. NDM inhibited Akt activity and phosphorylation of p70 S6K, and induced AMPK activation and mitochondrial depolarization. NDM also time-dependently increased LC3-II accumulation, number of GFP-LC3 puncta, and colocalization between GFP-LC3 and lysosomes. These results suggested that autophagy was progressively activated through Akt- and AMPK-mTOR pathway in nutrient-deficient PANC-1 cells. Autophagy inhibitors (chloroquine and wortmannin) or silencing of Atg5 augmented PANC-1 cell death in NDM. In cells exposed to NDM, chloroquine and wortmannin induced apoptosis and Z-VAD-fmk inhibited cytotoxicity of these inhibitors. These data demonstrate that autophagy is anti-apoptotic and sustains the survival of PANC-1 cells following extreme nutrient deprivation. Autophagy modulation may be a viable therapeutic option for cancer cells located in the core of solid tumors with a nutrient-deficient microenvironment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Dental Care Utilization for Examination and Regional Deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Cheol-Sin; Han, Sun-Young; Lee, Seung Eun; Kang, Jeong-Hee; Kim, Chul-Woung

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Receiving proper dental care plays a significant role in maintaining good oral health. We investigated the relationship between regional deprivation and dental care utilization. Methods: Multilevel logistic regression was used to identify the relationship between the regional deprivation level and dental care utilization purpose, adjusting for individual-level variables, in adults aged 19+ in the 2008 Korean Community Health Survey (n=220 258). Results: Among Korean adults, 12.8% used dental care to undergo examination and 21.0% visited a dentist for other reasons. In the final model, regional deprivation level was associated with significant variations in dental care utilization for examination (pdental care utilization for other reasons in the final model. Conclusions: This study’s findings suggest that policy interventions should be considered to reduce regional variations in rates of dental care utilization for examination. PMID:26265665

  4. The behavioral and health consequences of sleep deprivation among U.S. high school students: relative deprivation matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meldrum, Ryan Charles; Restivo, Emily

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate whether the strength of the association between sleep deprivation and negative behavioral and health outcomes varies according to the relative amount of sleep deprivation experienced by adolescents. 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Survey data of high school students (N=15,364) were analyzed. Associations were examined on weighted data using logistic regression. Twelve outcomes were examined, ranging from weapon carrying to obesity. The primary independent variable was a self-reported measure of average number of hours slept on school nights. Participants who reported deprivations in sleep were at an increased risk of a number of negative outcomes. However, this varied considerably across different degrees of sleep deprivation. For each of the outcomes considered, those who slept less than 5h were more likely to report negative outcomes (adjusted odds ratios ranging from 1.38 to 2.72; psleeping 8 or more hours. However, less extreme forms of sleep deprivation were, in many instances, unrelated to the outcomes considered. Among U.S. high school students, deficits in sleep are significantly and substantively associated with a variety of negative outcomes, and this association is particularly pronounced for students achieving fewer than 5h of sleep at night. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of Acute Sleep Deprivation Resulting from Night Shift Work on Young Doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanches, Inês; Teixeira, Fátima; dos Santos, José Moutinho; Ferreira, António Jorge

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate sleep deprivation and its effects on young physicians in relation to concentration capacity and psychomotor performance. Eighteen physicians aged 26 - 33 years were divided into 2 groups: non-sleep deprived group (with no night work) and sleep deprived group (minimum 12 hour of night work/week). We applied Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index to screen the presence of sleep pathology and Epworth Sleepiness Scale to evaluate subjective daytime sleepiness; we used actigraphy and sleep diary to assess sleep hygiene and standard sleep-wake cycles. To demonstrate the effects of sleep deprivation, we applied Toulouse-Piéron's test (concentration test) and a battery of three reaction time tasks after the night duty. Sleep deprived group had higher daytime sleepiness on Epworth Sleepiness Scale (p sleep deprivation was higher (p sleep during the period of night duty was 184.2 minutes to sleep deprived group and 397.7 minutes to non-sleep deprived group (p sleep deprived group had more omissions (p Sleep deprived group; in reaction to instruction test the sleep deprived group showed worse perfection index (p sleep deprivation resulting from nocturnal work in medical professions is associated with a reduction in attention and concentration and delayed response to stimuli. This may compromise patient care as well as the physician's health and quality of life. It is essential to study the effects of acute sleep deprivation on the cognitive abilities and performance of health professionals.

  6. Flurbiprofen in rapid eye movement sleep deprivation induced hyperalgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürel, Elif Ezgi; Ural, Keremcan; Öztürk, Gülnur; Öztürk, Levent

    2014-04-10

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep deprivation induces hyperalgesia in healthy rats. Here, we evaluated the effects of flurbiprofen, an anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective agent, on the increased thermal responses observed in REM sleep deprived rats. Forty female rats were divided into four groups following 96-hour REM sleep deprivation: intraperitoneal injections of placebo, and flurbiprofen 5 mg/kg, 15 mg/kg and 40 mg/kg were made in CONT (n=10), FBP5, FBP15 and FBP40 groups respectively. Pain threshold measurements were performed three times at baseline (0.hour), at the end of REM sleep deprivation (96.hour) and at 1 h after injections (97.hour) by hot plate and tail-flick tests. REM sleep deprivation induced a significant decrease in pain thresholds of all rats (hotplate: 0.hour vs 96.hour, 9.75±2.85 vs 5.10±2.02, pFlurbiprofen in 15 mg/kg and 40 mg/kg doses significantly improved pain tolerance measured by tail flick test (tail flick in FBP15 and FBP40 groups: 96.hour vs 97.hour, 7.01±4.97 vs 8.34±3.61 and 5.06±1.57 vs 7.04±2.49, pFlurbiprofen was used for the first time in a rat model of REM sleep deprivation, and it provided anti-nociceptive effects in 15 mg/kg and 40 mg/kg doses. Flurbiprofen may have the potential for treatment of painful syndromes accompanying insomnia or sleep loss. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Access Contested

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Transforming Global Information and Communication Markets: The Political Economy of ... 8 Control and Resistance: Attacks on Burmese Opposition Media 153 ...... “Reluctant Gatekeepers: Corporate Ethics on a Filtered Internet,” in Access ...

  8. Accessing memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Doe Hyun; Muralimanohar, Naveen; Chang, Jichuan; Ranganthan, Parthasarathy

    2017-09-26

    A disclosed example method involves performing simultaneous data accesses on at least first and second independently selectable logical sub-ranks to access first data via a wide internal data bus in a memory device. The memory device includes a translation buffer chip, memory chips in independently selectable logical sub-ranks, a narrow external data bus to connect the translation buffer chip to a memory controller, and the wide internal data bus between the translation buffer chip and the memory chips. A data access is performed on only the first independently selectable logical sub-rank to access second data via the wide internal data bus. The example method also involves locating a first portion of the first data, a second portion of the first data, and the second data on the narrow external data bus during separate data transfers.

  9. Forbidden Access

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Colloca TS/FM

    2004-01-01

    TS/FM group informs you that, for the replacement of the door of the main entrance at bldg. 500, the access will be closed to the public between 19 and 30 July 2004. Access to the Main Building complex will be assured at any time through both of the side doors and from bldg. 64. For more information, please contact 73273. C. Colloca TS/FM

  10. Assessing the impact of area-based initiatives in deprived neighborhoods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alves, Sonia

    2017-01-01

    assumptions, and social and spatial effects of these initiatives. Among other inter-related issues, the paper discusses the impact of conflicting ideologies upon processes of radical strategy shift and of social and territorial marginalization, and appeals to the need for more pluralistic approaches......Whilst there have been many area-based initiatives to regenerate rundown areas in numerous cities around the world, many of them involving the demolition of stigmatized housing estates, far fewer attempts have been made to assess the effects of these initiatives upon the fortunes of displaced...... households and those who remain in these areas. By presenting the results of an empirical in-depth case study on the effects of an area based initiative targeted at one of the most deprived neighborhoods in Porto, this paper raises several epistemological concerns related to the goals, ideological...

  11. Opportunities for making ends meet and upward mobility: differences in organizational deprivation across urban and suburban poor neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Alexandra K; Wallace, Danielle

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. Given the recent rise of poverty in U.S. suburbs, this study asks: What poor neighborhoods are most disadvantageous, those in the city or those in the suburbs? Building on recent urban sociological work demonstrating the importance of neighborhood organizations for the poor, we are concerned with one aspect of disadvantage—the lack of availability of organizational resources oriented toward the poor. By breaking down organizations into those that promote mobility versus those that help individuals meet their daily subsistence needs, we seek to explore potential variations in the type of disadvantage that may exist.Methods. We test whether poor urban or suburban neighborhoods are more likely to be organizationally deprived by breaking down organizations into three types: hardship organizations, educational organizations, and employment organizations. We use data from the 2000 U.S. County Business Patterns and the 2000 U.S. Census and test neighborhood deprivation using logistic regression models.Results. We find that suburban poor neighborhoods are more likely to be organizationally deprived than are urban poor neighborhoods, especially with respect to organizations that promote upward mobility. Interesting racial and ethnic composition factors shape this more general finding.Conclusion. Our findings suggest that if a poor individual is to live in a poor neighborhood, with respect to access to organizational resources, he or she would be better off living in the central city. Suburban residence engenders isolation from organizations that will help meet one's daily needs and even more so from those offering opportunities for mobility.

  12. Improvement in spatial imagery following sight onset late in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Tapan K; Ganesh, Suma; Sinha, Pawan

    2014-03-01

    The factors contributing to the development of spatial imagery skills are not well understood. Here, we consider whether visual experience shapes these skills. Although differences in spatial imagery between sighted and blind individuals have been reported, it is unclear whether these differences are truly due to visual deprivation or instead are due to extraneous factors, such as reduced opportunities for the blind to interact with their environment. A direct way of assessing vision's contribution to the development of spatial imagery is to determine whether spatial imagery skills change soon after the onset of sight in congenitally blind individuals. We tested 10 children who gained sight after several years of congenital blindness and found significant improvements in their spatial imagery skills following sight-restoring surgeries. These results provide evidence of vision's contribution to spatial imagery and also have implications for the nature of internal spatial representations.

  13. Examining the relationship between neighbourhood deprivation and mental health service use of immigrants in Ontario, Canada: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durbin, Anna; Moineddin, Rahim; Lin, Elizabeth; Steele, Leah S; Glazier, Richard H

    2015-01-01

    Objective While newcomers are often disproportionately concentrated in disadvantaged areas, little attention is given to the effects of immigrants’ postimmigration context on their mental health and care use. Intersectionality theory suggests that understanding the full impact of disadvantage requires considering the effects of interacting factors. This study assessed the inter-relationship between recent immigration status, living in deprived areas and service use for non-psychotic mental health disorders. Study design Matched population-based cross-sectional study. Setting Ontario, Canada, where healthcare use data for 1999–2012 were linked to immigration data and area-based material deprivation scores. Participants Immigrants in urban Ontario, and their age-matched and sex-matched long-term residents (a group of Canadian-born or long-term immigrants, n=501 417 pairs). Primary and secondary outcome measures For immigrants and matched long-term residents, contact with primary care, psychiatric care and hospital care (emergency department visits or inpatient admissions) for non-psychotic mental health disorders was followed for 5 years and examined using conditional logistic regression models. Intersectionality was investigated by including a material deprivation quintile by immigrant status (immigrant vs long-term resident) interaction. Results Recent immigrants in urban Ontario were more likely than long-term residents to live in most deprived quintiles (immigrants—males: 22.8%, females: 22.3%; long-term residents—both sexes: 13.1%, pimmigrants than for long-term residents. Immigrants used less mental health services than long-term residents. Conclusions This study adds to existing research by suggesting that immigrant status and deprivation have a combined effect on recent immigrants’ care use for non-psychotic mental health disorders. In settings where immigrants are over-represented in deprived areas, policymakers focused on increasing

  14. Freedom deprivation punishment in Serbia during 1804-1860

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirković Zoran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This text is on freedom deprivation punishment in Serbia during the first half of 19th century, i.e. since the beginning of the First Serbian uprising in 1804 and till passing the Criminal law in 1860. Author first emphasises that the freedom deprivation punishment doesn't have long tradition, although in medieval Serbia and under Turkish rule existed imprisonment in dungeon, but it was foremost some form of custody before a trial, and subsequently as keeping a prisoner after the verdict until its effectuation. It wasn't a freedom deprivation punishment in modern sense. During 1804 - 1813 there was so called 'haps' i.e. apprehension, though Uprising authorities built also 'real' prisons for punishment purpose. Imprisonment of culprits was a condition for compulsory labour, which could be very useful utilized under given circumstances. Since the beginning 1820-ties when first Serbian courts were established, beside 'haps' appears also imprisonment in heavy shackles. However there was no substantial difference between apprehension and imprisonment. In this time the sentence to imprisonment was combined with the punishment with beating (or sometimes with the flogging at the end of imprisonment. The Regulation of County courts from January 26th 1840 mentions several forms of freedom deprivation punishment, but in praxis freedom deprivation was reduced on either 'eternal' imprisonment or time-sentenced imprisonment. Since the beginning of 1840-ties freedom deprivation was more frequently used as punishment and its implementation was continually spreading. For heaviest crimes was instead death penalty and running gauntlet sentenced freedom deprivation, either from courts or from supreme authority in the amnesty process. Imprisonment was effectuated either at police reformatories (for shorter penalties or at the penitentiary institutions (for longer imprisonment. By the end of 1830-ties an issue of imprisonment of female perpetrators emerged, together

  15. Characteristics of small areas with high rates of hospital-treated self-harm: deprived, fragmented and urban or just close to hospital? A national registry study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Farrell, I B

    2014-10-15

    Previous research has shown an inconsistent relationship between the spatial distribution of hospital treated self-harm and area-level factors such as deprivation and social fragmentation. However, many of these studies have been confined to urban centres, with few focusing on rural settings and even fewer studies carried out at a national level. Furthermore, no previous research has investigated if travel time to hospital services can explain the area-level variation in the incidence of hospital treated self-harm.

  16. Spatial Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anda VELICANU

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains a brief description of the most important operations that can be performed on spatial data such as spatial queries, create, update, insert, delete operations, conversions, operations on the map or analysis on grid cells. Each operation has a graphical example and some of them have code examples in Oracle and PostgreSQL.

  17. Spatializing Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Bodil Marie Stavning

    2011-01-01

    The article analyses some of artist Søren Lose's photographic installations in which time, history and narration is reflected in the creation of allegoric, spatial relations.......The article analyses some of artist Søren Lose's photographic installations in which time, history and narration is reflected in the creation of allegoric, spatial relations....

  18. Spatial Computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-12-01

    Computation and today’s microprocessors with the approach to operating system architecture, and the controversy between microkernels and monolithic kernels...Both Spatial Computation and microkernels break away a relatively monolithic architecture into in- dividual lightweight pieces, well specialized...for their particular functionality. Spatial Computation removes global signals and control, in the same way microkernels remove the global address

  19. Mangrove study examining seasonal and spatial variation in fish taxonomic composition and diversity in North Atlantic Ocean from 1998-08-17 to 2016-08-20 (NCEI Accession 0159580)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data contains seasonal and spatial variation in fish taxonomic composition and diversity as well as variation in the frequency of occurrence, density and size...

  20. The Effects of Two Types of Sleep Deprivation on Visual Working Memory Capacity and Filtering Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Drummond, Sean P. A.; Anderson, Dane E.; Straus, Laura D.; Vogel, Edward K.; Perez, Veronica B.

    2012-01-01

    Sleep deprivation has adverse consequences for a variety of cognitive functions. The exact effects of sleep deprivation, though, are dependent upon the cognitive process examined. Within working memory, for example, some component processes are more vulnerable to sleep deprivation than others. Additionally, the differential impacts on cognition of different types of sleep deprivation have not been well studied. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of one night of total sleep depri...

  1. Accessible Knowledge - Knowledge on Accessibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Inge Mette

    2015-01-01

    Although serious efforts are made internationally and nationally, it is a slow process to make our physical environment accessible. In the actual design process, architects play a major role. But what kinds of knowledge, including research-based knowledge, do practicing architects make use of when...... designing accessible environments? The answer to the question is crucially important since it affects how knowledge is distributed and how accessibility can be ensured. In order to get first-hand knowledge about the design process and the sources from which they gain knowledge, 11 qualitative interviews...... were conducted with architects with experience of designing for accessibility. The analysis draws on two theoretical distinctions. The first is research-based knowledge versus knowledge used by architects. The second is context-independent knowledge versus context-dependent knowledge. The practitioners...

  2. Seasonal variation and food deprivation in common vampire bats (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Freitas

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of seasonal variation and fasting on fat reserves of the common vampire bat Desmodus rotundus. Plasma free fatty acids (FFA, along with lipid content of the liver and muscles, and fatty acids from the carcass were obtained from bats fed bovine blood and from whom food was subsequently withheld for 24 and 48 h. Animals were caught during both dry and rainy seasons. In general, fat tissue stores were not significantly influenced by seasonal variation. Lipid content of liver, muscles, and carcass decreased during some food deprivation periods, although the concomitant increase expected in plasma FFA was not observed. Lipid metabolism is hypothesized as being continued by the tissues themselves. In addition, free access to food sources (e.g., domestic livestock throughout the year is believed to contribute to the low seasonal variations in fat reserves observed in the common vampire bat.

  3. Mass Incarceration, Parental Imprisonment, and the Great Recession: Intergenerational Sources of Severe Deprivation in America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Hagan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available What were the socioeconomic consequences for American youth of having a parent incarcerated during the 2008 Great Recession? We analyze a nationally representative panel study of adolescents who, when interviewed during this recession, were transitioning to and through early adulthood. Young adult children who have had a father or mother imprisoned are at increased risk of experiencing socioeconomic deprivation, including inadequate access to food. We build in this article on recent research showing that postsecondary education has become especially important in determining adult outcomes, and we demonstrate that higher educational attainment reduces intergenerational effects of parental imprisonment. The salient policy implication of this article may be the important protective role of education in reducing unprecedented risks and vulnerabilities imposed by mass parental incarceration.

  4. Open access

    CERN Document Server

    Suber, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The Internet lets us share perfect copies of our work with a worldwide audience at virtually no cost. We take advantage of this revolutionary opportunity when we make our work "open access": digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. Open access is made possible by the Internet and copyright-holder consent, and many authors, musicians, filmmakers, and other creators who depend on royalties are understandably unwilling to give their consent. But for 350 years, scholars have written peer-reviewed journal articles for impact, not for money, and are free to consent to open access without losing revenue. In this concise introduction, Peter Suber tells us what open access is and isn't, how it benefits authors and readers of research, how we pay for it, how it avoids copyright problems, how it has moved from the periphery to the mainstream, and what its future may hold. Distilling a decade of Suber's influential writing and thinking about open access, this is the indispe...

  5. The impact of health claims and food deprivation levels on health risk perceptions of fast-food restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadario, Romain

    2016-01-01

    We examined the effect of health claims and food deprivation levels on the health risk perceptions of fast-food restaurants. Consistent with previous research, we used a within-subjects experimental design to manipulate the health claims of fast-food restaurants using real brands: Subway, expressing strong health claims vs. McDonald's, expressing weak health claims. Participants who did not have access to nutrition information were asked to estimate the health risk associated with food items that were slightly more caloric for Subway than McDonald's (640 kcal vs. 600 kcal). We collected data through a web survey with a sample consisting of 414 American adults. Based on the USDA Food Insufficiency Indicator, participants were classified into two categorical food deprivation levels: food sufficiency and food insufficiency. We find that risk perceptions for obesity, diabetes and cardiac illnesses are lower (higher) for the restaurant with stronger (lower) health claims, i.e., Subway (McDonald's). Moreover, we also find that food deprivation levels moderate this effect, such that health risk underestimation is aggravated for individuals who suffer from food insufficiency. More precisely, we find that food insufficient individuals are more responsive to health claims, such that they perceive less health risk than food sufficient individuals for the restaurant with stronger health claims (Subway). Exploring the underlying mechanism of the latter effect, we found that dietary involvement mediates the relationship between food deprivation levels and health risk perceptions for the restaurant with stronger health claims (Subway). These results provide an interdisciplinary contribution in consumer psychology and public health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. REM sleep deprivation induces endothelial dysfunction and hypertension in middle-aged rats: Roles of the eNOS/NO/cGMP pathway and supplementation with L-arginine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jiaye; Gan, Zhongyuan; Li, Yuan; Zhao, Wenqi; Li, Hanqing; Zheng, Jian-Pu; Ke, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Sleep loss can induce or aggravate the development of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this phenomenon is poorly understood. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of REM sleep deprivation on blood pressure in rats and the underlying mechanisms of these effects. After Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to REM sleep deprivation for 5 days, their blood pressures and endothelial function were measured. In addition, one group of rats was given continuous access to L-arginine supplementation (2% in distilled water) for the 5 days before and the 5 days of REM sleep deprivation to reverse sleep deprivation-induced pathological changes. The results showed that REM sleep deprivation decreased body weight, increased blood pressure, and impaired endothelial function of the aortas in middle-aged rats but not young rats. Moreover, nitric oxide (NO) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) concentrations as well as endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) phosphorylation in the aorta were decreased by REM sleep deprivation. Supplementation with L-arginine could protect against REM sleep deprivation-induced hypertension, endothelial dysfunction, and damage to the eNOS/NO/cGMP signaling pathway. The results of the present study suggested that REM sleep deprivation caused endothelial dysfunction and hypertension in middle-aged rats via the eNOS/NO/cGMP pathway and that these pathological changes could be inhibited via L-arginine supplementation. The present study provides a new strategy to inhibit the signaling pathways involved in insomnia-induced or insomnia-enhanced cardiovascular diseases.

  7. Double Trouble? The Effects of Sleep Deprivation and Chronotype on Adolescent Affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagys, Natasha; McGlinchey, Eleanor L.; Talbot, Lisa S.; Kaplan, Katherine A.; Dahl, Ronald E.; Harvey, Allison G.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Two understudied risk factors that have been linked to emotional difficulties in adolescence are chronotype and sleep deprivation. This study extended past research by using an experimental design to investigate the role of sleep deprivation and chronotype on emotion in adolescents. It was hypothesized that sleep deprivation and an…

  8. Remote sensing-based measurement of Living Environment Deprivation: Improving classical approaches with machine learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Arribas-Bel

    Full Text Available This paper provides evidence on the usefulness of very high spatial resolution (VHR imagery in gathering socioeconomic information in urban settlements. We use land cover, spectral, structure and texture features extracted from a Google Earth image of Liverpool (UK to evaluate their potential to predict Living Environment Deprivation at a small statistical area level. We also contribute to the methodological literature on the estimation of socioeconomic indices with remote-sensing data by introducing elements from modern machine learning. In addition to classical approaches such as Ordinary Least Squares (OLS regression and a spatial lag model, we explore the potential of the Gradient Boost Regressor and Random Forests to improve predictive performance and accuracy. In addition to novel predicting methods, we also introduce tools for model interpretation and evaluation such as feature importance and partial dependence plots, or cross-validation. Our results show that Random Forest proved to be the best model with an R2 of around 0.54, followed by Gradient Boost Regressor with 0.5. Both the spatial lag model and the OLS fall behind with significantly lower performances of 0.43 and 0.3, respectively.

  9. The Effects of Sleep Deprivation on Soccer Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallesen, Ståle; Gundersen, Hilde Stokvold; Kristoffersen, Morten; Bjorvatn, Bjørn; Thun, Eirunn; Harris, Anette

    2017-08-01

    Many athletes sleep poorly due to stress, travel, and competition anxiety. In the present study, we investigated the effects of sleep deprivation on soccer skills (juggling, dribbling, ball control, continuous kicking, 20 and 40 m sprint, and 30 m sprint with changes of direction). In all, 19 male junior soccer players (14-19 years old) were recruited and participated in a cross-balanced experimental study comprising two conditions; habitual sleep and 24 hours sleep deprivation. In both conditions, testing took place between 8 a.m. and 10 a.m. Order of tests was counterbalanced. Each test was conducted once or twice in a sequence repeated three times. The results revealed a negative effect of sleep deprivation on the continuous kicking test. On one test, 30 meter sprint with directional changes, a significant condition × test repetition interaction was found, indicating a steeper learning curve in the sleep deprived condition from Test 1 to Test 2 and a steeper learning curve in the rested condition from Test 2 to Test 3. The results are discussed in terms of limitations and strengths, and recommendations for future studies are outlined.

  10. Subclinical coronary atherosclerosis and neighbourhood deprivation in an urban region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragano, Nico; Hoffmann, Barbara; Stang, Andreas; Moebus, Susanne; Verde, Pablo E.; Weyers, Simone; Moehlenkamp, Stefan; Schmermund, Axel; Mann, Klaus; Joeckel, Karl-Heinz; Erbel, Raimund; Siegrist, Johannes

    2009-01-01

    Inhabitants of deprived neighbourhoods are at higher risk of coronary heart disease. In this study we investigate the hypothesis that social inequalities at neighbourhood level become already manifest in subclinical coronary atherosclerosis, as defined by electron-beam computed tomography derived measures. Coronary artery calcification was assessed as a marker of atherosclerosis in a population based sample of 4301 men and women (45-75 years) without a history of coronary heart disease. Participants lived in three adjacent cities in Germany and were examined between 2000 and 2003 as part of the Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study. Individual level data was combined with neighbourhood level information about unemployment, welfare and living space per inhabitant. This dataset was analysed with descriptive and multilevel regression methods. An association between neighbourhood deprivation and subclinical coronary calcification was observed. After adjustment for age and individual socioeconomic status male inhabitants of high unemployment neighbourhoods had an odds ratio of 1.45 (1.11, 1.96) of exhibiting a high calcification score (>75th percentile) compared to men living in low unemployment areas. The respective odds for women was 1.29 (0.97, 1.70). Additional explorative analyses suggest that clustering of unhealthy lifestyles in deprived neighbourhoods contributes to the observed association. In conclusion, findings suggest that certain neighbourhood characteristics promote the emergence of coronary atherosclerosis. This might point to a pathway from neighbourhood deprivation to manifest coronary heart disease

  11. Aging worsens the effects of sleep deprivation on postural control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robillard, Rébecca; Prince, François; Filipini, Daniel; Carrier, Julie

    2011-01-01

    Falls increase with age and cause significant injuries in the elderly. This study aimed to determine whether age modulates the interactions between sleep deprivation and postural control and to evaluate how attention influences these interactions in the elderly. Fifteen young (24±2.7 y.o.) and 15 older adults (64±3.2 y.o.) stood still on a force plate after a night of sleep and after total sleep deprivation. Center of pressure range and velocity were measured with eyes open and with eyes closed while participants performed an interference task, a control task, and no cognitive task. Sleep deprivation increased the antero-posterior range of center of pressure in both age groups and center of pressure speed in older participants only. In elderly participants, the destabilizing effects of sleep deprivation were more pronounced with eyes closed. The interference task did not alter postural control beyond the destabilization induced by sleep loss in older subjects. It was concluded that sleep loss has greater destabilizing effects on postural control in older than in younger participants, and may therefore increase the risk of falls in the elderly.

  12. Zinc deprivation of methanol fed anaerobic granular sludge bioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fermoso, F.G.; Collins, G.; Bartacek, J.; Lens, P.N.L.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of omitting zinc from the influent of mesophilic (30 degrees C) methanol fed upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactors, and latter zinc supplementation to the influent to counteract the deprivation, was investigated by coupling the UASB reactor performance to the microbial ecology of

  13. Effects of total sleep deprivation on divided attention performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Eric Chern-Pin; Fang, Eric; Gooley, Joshua J

    2017-01-01

    Dividing attention across two tasks performed simultaneously usually results in impaired performance on one or both tasks. Most studies have found no difference in the dual-task cost of dividing attention in rested and sleep-deprived states. We hypothesized that, for a divided attention task that is highly cognitively-demanding, performance would show greater impairment during exposure to sleep deprivation. A group of 30 healthy males aged 21-30 years was exposed to 40 h of continuous wakefulness in a laboratory setting. Every 2 h, subjects completed a divided attention task comprising 3 blocks in which an auditory Go/No-Go task was 1) performed alone (single task); 2) performed simultaneously with a visual Go/No-Go task (dual task); and 3) performed simultaneously with both a visual Go/No-Go task and a visually-guided motor tracking task (triple task). Performance on all tasks showed substantial deterioration during exposure to sleep deprivation. A significant interaction was observed between task load and time since wake on auditory Go/No-Go task performance, with greater impairment in response times and accuracy during extended wakefulness. Our results suggest that the ability to divide attention between multiple tasks is impaired during exposure to sleep deprivation. These findings have potential implications for occupations that require multi-tasking combined with long work hours and exposure to sleep loss.

  14. Psychological wellbeing of Dutch incarcerated women: importation or deprivation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slotboom, A.; Kruttschnitt, C.; Bijleveld, C.C.J.H.; Menting, B.

    2011-01-01

    In light of the dramatic increase over the past decade in the number of women incarcerated in the Netherlands, we examined 251 female inmates' psychological reactions to imprisonment with a survey that taps importation and deprivation factors and related life experiences. While depressive

  15. A socioeconomic deprivation index for small areas in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meijer, Mathias; Engholm, Gerda; Grittner, Ulrike

    2013-01-01

    Aims: To describe the development of a deprivation index for Danish parishes and to investigate its association with all-cause mortality compared with the Townsend index and individual-level factors. Methods: Nine socioeconomic factors were aggregated to the parish level from individual-level reg...... to the geographic areas where they are most needed....

  16. Deprivation, Social Exclusion and Subjective Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellani, Luna; D'Ambrosio, Conchita

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims at investigating empirically the relationship between self-declared satisfaction with life and an individual's well-being as measured by the indices of deprivation and social exclusion proposed in the income distribution literature. Results on European countries show that life satisfaction decreases with an increase in deprivation…

  17. Aging Worsens the Effects of Sleep Deprivation on Postural Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robillard, Rébecca; Prince, François; Filipini, Daniel; Carrier, Julie

    2011-01-01

    Falls increase with age and cause significant injuries in the elderly. This study aimed to determine whether age modulates the interactions between sleep deprivation and postural control and to evaluate how attention influences these interactions in the elderly. Fifteen young (24±2.7 y.o.) and 15 older adults (64±3.2 y.o.) stood still on a force plate after a night of sleep and after total sleep deprivation. Center of pressure range and velocity were measured with eyes open and with eyes closed while participants performed an interference task, a control task, and no cognitive task. Sleep deprivation increased the antero-posterior range of center of pressure in both age groups and center of pressure speed in older participants only. In elderly participants, the destabilizing effects of sleep deprivation were more pronounced with eyes closed. The interference task did not alter postural control beyond the destabilization induced by sleep loss in older subjects. It was concluded that sleep loss has greater destabilizing effects on postural control in older than in younger participants, and may therefore increase the risk of falls in the elderly. PMID:22163330

  18. Effects of total sleep deprivation on divided attention performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Chern-Pin Chua

    Full Text Available Dividing attention across two tasks performed simultaneously usually results in impaired performance on one or both tasks. Most studies have found no difference in the dual-task cost of dividing attention in rested and sleep-deprived states. We hypothesized that, for a divided attention task that is highly cognitively-demanding, performance would show greater impairment during exposure to sleep deprivation. A group of 30 healthy males aged 21-30 years was exposed to 40 h of continuous wakefulness in a laboratory setting. Every 2 h, subjects completed a divided attention task comprising 3 blocks in which an auditory Go/No-Go task was 1 performed alone (single task; 2 performed simultaneously with a visual Go/No-Go task (dual task; and 3 performed simultaneously with both a visual Go/No-Go task and a visually-guided motor tracking task (triple task. Performance on all tasks showed substantial deterioration during exposure to sleep deprivation. A significant interaction was observed between task load and time since wake on auditory Go/No-Go task performance, with greater impairment in response times and accuracy during extended wakefulness. Our results suggest that the ability to divide attention between multiple tasks is impaired during exposure to sleep deprivation. These findings have potential implications for occupations that require multi-tasking combined with long work hours and exposure to sleep loss.

  19. Responses of Tswana goats to various lengths of water deprivation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    are no published reports on the effects of water deprivation in Tswana goats. This study ... prevent evaporation and to maintain acidity at pH 3. .... Rectal temperature and respiratory rate did not differ (p > 0.05) between seasons, and indicates ...

  20. Auditory, Tactile, and Audiotactile Information Processing Following Visual Deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occelli, Valeria; Spence, Charles; Zampini, Massimiliano

    2013-01-01

    We highlight the results of those studies that have investigated the plastic reorganization processes that occur within the human brain as a consequence of visual deprivation, as well as how these processes give rise to behaviorally observable changes in the perceptual processing of auditory and tactile information. We review the evidence showing…

  1. Material Deprivation in Tanure Ojaide's the Eagles' Vision | Badaki ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The idea of material deprivation, in the third instance, is developed by memorable illustrations of pennilessness, exploitation, insolvency, low income and burdensome responsibility. The paper captures Tanure Ojaide as a poet whose thematic scope covers various conditions of poverty; despite his themes on social activism ...

  2. Reindeer & Wolves: Exploring Sensory Deprivation in Multiplayer Digital Bodily Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnegan, Daniel; Velloso, Eduardo; Mitchell, Robb

    2014-01-01

    Games designed around digital bodily play involve bodily movement and expression to create engaging gameplay experiences. Most feedback in these games takes the form of visual stimuli. To explore the gameplay mechanics afforded by depriving players from these visual cues, we designed Reindeer...

  3. Auditory Deprivation and Early Conductive Hearing Loss from Otitis Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarson, Adele D.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    This article reviews auditory deprivation effects on anatomy, physiology, and behavior in animals and discusses the sequelae of otitis media with effusion (OME) in children. Focused on are central auditory processing disorders associated with early fluctuating hearing loss from OME. (DB)

  4. Glutamine deprivation induces interleukin-8 expression in ataxia telangiectasia fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Hyun; Kim, Aryung; Yu, Ji Hoon; Lim, Joo Weon; Kim, Hyeyoung

    2014-05-01

    To investigate whether glutamine deprivation induces expression of inflammatory cytokine interleukin-8 (IL-8) by determining NF-κB activity and levels of oxidative indices (ROS, reactive oxygen species; hydrogen peroxide; GSH, glutathione) in fibroblasts isolated from patients with ataxia telangiectasia (A-T). We used A-T fibroblasts stably transfected with empty vector (Mock) or with human full-length ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) cDNA (YZ5) and mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) transiently transfected with ATM small interfering RNA (siRNA) or with non-specific control siRNA. The cells were cultured with or without glutamine or GSH. ROS levels were determined using a fluorescence reader and confocal microscopy. IL-8 or murine IL-8 homolog, keratinocyte chemoattractant (KC), and hydrogen peroxide levels in the medium were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and colorimetric assay. GSH level was assessed by enzymatic assay, while IL-8 (KC) mRNA level was measured by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and/or quantitative real-time PCR. NF-κB DNA-binding activity was determined by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Catalase activity and ATM protein levels were determined by O2 generation and Western blotting. While glutamine deprivation induced IL-8 expression and increased NF-κB DNA-binding activity in Mock cells, both processes were decreased by treatment of cells with glutamine or GSH or both glutamine and GSH. Glutamine deprivation had no effect on IL-8 expression or NF-κB DNA-binding activity in YZ5 cells. Glutamine-deprived Mock cells had higher oxidative stress indices (increases in ROS and hydrogen peroxide, reduction in GSH) than glutamine-deprived YZ5 cells. In Mock cells, glutamine deprivation-induced oxidative stress indices were suppressed by treatment with glutamine or GSH or both glutamine and GSH. GSH levels and catalase activity were lower in Mock cells than YZ5 cells. MEFs transfected with ATM siRNA and

  5. Gastric emptying of liquids in rats dehydrated by water deprivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baracat E.C.E.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The gastric emptying of liquids was investigated in male Wistar rats (8 to 10 weeks old, 210-300 g dehydrated by water deprivation. In this model of dehydration, weight loss, hematocrit and plasma density were significantly higher in the dehydrated animals than in the control groups after 48 and 72 h of water deprivation (P<0.05. Three test meals (saline (N = 10, water (N = 10 and a WHO rehydrating solution containing in one liter 90 mEq sodium, 20 mEq potassium, 80 mEq chloride and 30 mEq citrate (N = 10 were used to study gastric emptying following water deprivation for 24, 48 and 72 h. After 72 h, gastric emptying of the water (39.4% retention and rehydrating solution (49.2% retention test meals was significantly retarded compared to the corresponding control groups (P<0.05, Mann-Whitney test. The 72-h period of deprivation was used to study the recovery from dehydration, and water was supplied for 60 or 120 min after 67 h of deprivation. Body weight loss, hematocrit and plasma density tended to return to normal when water was offered for 120 min. In the animals supplied with water for 60 min, there was a recovery in the gastric emptying of water while the gastric emptying of the rehydrating solution was still retarded (53.1% retention; P<0.02, Kruskal-Wallis test. In the group supplied with water for 120 min, the gastric emptying of the rehydrating (51.7% retention and gluco-saline (46.0% retention solutions tended to be retarded (P = 0.04, Kruskal-Wallis test. In this model of dehydration caused by water deprivation, with little alteration in the body electrolyte content, gastric emptying of the rehydrating solution was retarded after rehydration with water. We conclude that the mechanisms whereby receptors in the duodenal mucosa can modify gastric motility are altered during dehydration caused by water deprivation

  6. Wnt signaling in form deprivation myopia of the mice retina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingming Ma

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The canonical Wnt signaling pathway plays important roles in cellular proliferation and differentiation, axonal outgrowth, cellular maintenance in retinas. Here we test the hypothesis that elements of the Wnt signaling pathway are involved in the regulation of eye growth and prevention of myopia, in the mouse form-deprivation myopia model. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: (1 One hundred twenty-five C57BL/6 mice were randomly distributed into form-deprivation myopia and control groups. Form-deprivation myopia (FDM was induced by suturing the right eyelid, while the control group received no treatment. After 1, 2, and 4 weeks of treatment, eyes were assessed in vivo by cycloplegic retinoscopic refraction and axial length measurement by photography or A-scan ultrasonography. Levels of retinal Wnt2b, Fzd5 and β-catenin mRNA and protein were evaluated using RT-PCR and western blotting, respectively. (2 Another 96 mice were divided into three groups: control, drugs-only, and drugs+FDM (by diffuser. Experimentally treated eyes in the last two groups received intravitreal injections of vehicle or the proteins, DKK-1 (Wnt-pathway antagonist or Norrin (Wnt-pathway agonist, once every three days, for 4 injections total. Axial length and retinoscopic refraction were measured on the 14th day of form deprivation. Following form-deprivation for 1, 2, and 4 weeks, FDM eyes had a relatively myopic refractive error, compared with contralateral eyes. There were no significant differences in refractive error between right and left eye in control group. The amounts of Wnt2b, Fzd5 and β-catenin mRNA and protein were significantly greater in form-deprived myopia eyes than in control eyes.DKK-1 (antagonist reduced the myopic shift in refractive error and increase in axial elongation, whereas Norrin had the opposite effect in FDM eyes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our studies provide the first evidence that the Wnt2b signaling pathway may play a role in the

  7. Access French

    CERN Document Server

    Grosz, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    Access is the major new language series designed with the needs of today's generation of students firmly in mind. Whether learning for leisure or business purposes or working towards a curriculum qualification, Access French is specially designed for adults of all ages and gives students a thorough grounding in all the skills required to understand, speak, read and write contemporary French from scratch. The coursebook consists of 10 units covering different topic areas, each of which includes Language Focus panels explaining the structures covered and a comprehensive glossary. Learning tips

  8. Cardiovascular reactivity to acute psychological stress following sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzen, Peter L; Gianaros, Peter J; Marsland, Anna L; Hall, Martica H; Siegle, Greg J; Dahl, Ronald E; Buysse, Daniel J

    2011-10-01

    Psychological stress and sleep disturbances are highly prevalent and are both implicated in the etiology of cardiovascular diseases. Given the common co-occurrence of psychological distress and sleep disturbances including short sleep duration, this study examined the combined effects of these two factors on blood pressure reactivity to immediate mental challenge tasks after well-rested and sleep-deprived experimental conditions. Participants (n = 20) were healthy young adults free from current or past sleep, psychiatric, or major medical disorders. Using a within-subjects crossover design, we examined acute stress reactivity under two experimental conditions: after a night of normal sleep in the laboratory and after a night of total sleep deprivation. Two standardized psychological stress tasks were administered, a Stroop color-word naming interference task and a speech task, which were preceded by a prestress baseline period and followed by a poststress recovery period. Each period was 10 minutes in duration, and blood pressure recordings were collected every 2.5 minutes throughout each period. Mean blood pressure responses during stress and recovery periods were examined with a mixed-effects analysis of covariance, controlling for baseline blood pressure. There was a significant interaction between sleep deprivation and stress on systolic blood pressure (F(2,82.7) = 4.05, p = .02). Systolic blood pressure was higher in the sleep deprivation condition compared with the normal sleep condition during the speech task and during the two baseline periods. Sleep deprivation amplified systolic blood pressure increases to psychological stress. Sleep loss may increase cardiovascular risk by dysregulating stress physiology.

  9. Sleep Duration and Area-Level Deprivation in Twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Nathaniel F; Horn, Erin; Duncan, Glen E; Buchwald, Dedra; Vitiello, Michael V; Turkheimer, Eric

    2016-01-01

    We used quantitative genetic models to assess whether area-level deprivation as indicated by the Singh Index predicts shorter sleep duration and modifies its underlying genetic and environmental contributions. Participants were 4,218 adult twin pairs (2,377 monozygotic and 1,841 dizygotic) from the University of Washington Twin Registry. Participants self-reported habitual sleep duration. The Singh Index was determined by linking geocoding addresses to 17 indicators at the census-tract level using data from Census of Washington State and Census Tract Cartographic Boundary Files from 2000 and 2010. Data were analyzed using univariate and bivariate genetic decomposition and quantitative genetic interaction models that assessed A (additive genetics), C (common environment), and E (unique environment) main effects of the Singh Index on sleep duration and allowed the magnitude of residual ACE variance components in sleep duration to vary with the Index. The sample had a mean age of 38.2 y (standard deviation [SD] = 18), and was predominantly female (62%) and Caucasian (91%). Mean sleep duration was 7.38 h (SD = 1.20) and the mean Singh Index score was 0.00 (SD = 0.89). The heritability of sleep duration was 39% and the Singh Index was 12%. The uncontrolled phenotypic regression of sleep duration on the Singh Index showed a significant negative relationship between area-level deprivation and sleep length (b = -0.080, P sleep duration. For the quasi-causal bivariate model, there was a significant main effect of E (b(0E) = -0.063; standard error [SE] = 0.30; P sleep duration were significant for both A (b(0Au) = 0.734; SE = 0.020; P deprivation has a quasi-causal association with sleep duration, with greater deprivation being related to shorter sleep. As area-level deprivation increases, unique genetic and nonshared environmental residual variance in sleep duration increases. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  10. Selective neuronal lapses precede human cognitive lapses following sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nir, Yuval; Andrillon, Thomas; Marmelshtein, Amit; Suthana, Nanthia; Cirelli, Chiara; Tononi, Giulio; Fried, Itzhak

    2017-12-01

    Sleep deprivation is a major source of morbidity with widespread health effects, including increased risk of hypertension, diabetes, obesity, heart attack, and stroke. Moreover, sleep deprivation brings about vehicle accidents and medical errors and is therefore an urgent topic of investigation. During sleep deprivation, homeostatic and circadian processes interact to build up sleep pressure, which results in slow behavioral performance (cognitive lapses) typically attributed to attentional thalamic and frontoparietal circuits, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Recently, through study of electroencephalograms (EEGs) in humans and local field potentials (LFPs) in nonhuman primates and rodents it was found that, during sleep deprivation, regional 'sleep-like' slow and theta (slow/theta) waves co-occur with impaired behavioral performance during wakefulness. Here we used intracranial electrodes to record single-neuron activities and LFPs in human neurosurgical patients performing a face/nonface categorization psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) over multiple experimental sessions, including a session after full-night sleep deprivation. We find that, just before cognitive lapses, the selective spiking responses of individual neurons in the medial temporal lobe (MTL) are attenuated, delayed, and lengthened. These 'neuronal lapses' are evident on a trial-by-trial basis when comparing the slowest behavioral PVT reaction times to the fastest. Furthermore, during cognitive lapses, LFPs exhibit a relative local increase in slow/theta activity that is correlated with degraded single-neuron responses and with baseline theta activity. Our results show that cognitive lapses involve local state-dependent changes in neuronal activity already present in the MTL.

  11. Increased Automaticity and Altered Temporal Preparation Following Sleep Deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Danyang; Asplund, Christopher L; Ling, Aiqing; Chee, Michael W L

    2015-08-01

    Temporal expectation enables us to focus limited processing resources, thereby optimizing perceptual and motor processing for critical upcoming events. We investigated the effects of total sleep deprivation (TSD) on temporal expectation by evaluating the foreperiod and sequential effects during a psychomotor vigilance task (PVT). We also examined how these two measures were modulated by vulnerability to TSD. Three 10-min visual PVT sessions using uniformly distributed foreperiods were conducted in the wake-maintenance zone the evening before sleep deprivation (ESD) and three more in the morning following approximately 22 h of TSD. TSD vulnerable and nonvulnerable groups were determined by a tertile split of participants based on the change in the number of behavioral lapses recorded during ESD and TSD. A subset of participants performed six additional 10-min modified auditory PVTs with exponentially distributed foreperiods during rested wakefulness (RW) and TSD to test the effect of temporal distribution on foreperiod and sequential effects. Sleep laboratory. There were 172 young healthy participants (90 males) with regular sleep patterns. Nineteen of these participants performed the modified auditory PVT. Despite behavioral lapses and slower response times, sleep deprived participants could still perceive the conditional probability of temporal events and modify their level of preparation accordingly. Both foreperiod and sequential effects were magnified following sleep deprivation in vulnerable individuals. Only the foreperiod effect increased in nonvulnerable individuals. The preservation of foreperiod and sequential effects suggests that implicit time perception and temporal preparedness are intact during total sleep deprivation. Individuals appear to reallocate their depleted preparatory resources to more probable event timings in ongoing trials, whereas vulnerable participants also rely more on automatic processes. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep

  12. Gaining Access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wand, Sean; Thermos, Adam C.

    1998-01-01

    Explains the issues to consider before a college decides to purchase a card-access system. The benefits of automation, questions involving implementation, the criteria for technology selection, what typical card technology involves, privacy concerns, and the placement of card readers are discussed. (GR)

  13. The relationship between tiredness prior to sleep deprivation and the antidepressant response to sleep deprivation in depression.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Burg, W.; Bouhuys, A.L; van den Hoofdakker, R.H

    1995-01-01

    Recently it was hypothesized that the antidepressant response to total sleep deprivation (SD) results from a disinhibition process induced by the increase of tiredness in the course of SD. In the present study, the role of tiredness in the antidepressant response to SD is further investigated,

  14. Repeated Sleep Restriction in Adolescent Rats Altered Sleep Patterns and Impaired Spatial Learning/Memory Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Su-Rong; Sun, Hui; Huang, Zhi-Li; Yao, Ming-Hui; Qu, Wei-Min

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate possible differences in the effect of repeated sleep restriction (RSR) during adolescence and adulthood on sleep homeostasis and spatial learning and memory ability. Design: The authors examined electroencephalograms of rats as they were subjected to 4-h daily sleep deprivation that continued for 7 consecutive days and assessed the spatial learning and memory by Morris water maze test (WMT). Participants: Adolescent and adult rats. Measurements and Results: Adolescent rats exhibited a similar amount of rapid eye movement (REM) and nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep with higher slow wave activity (SWA, 0.5-4 Hz) and fewer episodes and conversions with prolonged durations, indicating they have better sleep quality than adult rats. After RSR, adult rats showed strong rebound of REM sleep by 31% on sleep deprivation day 1; this value was 37% on sleep deprivation day 7 in adolescents compared with 20-h baseline level. On sleep deprivation day 7, SWA in adult and adolescent rats increased by 47% and 33%, and such elevation lasted for 5 h and 7 h, respectively. Furthermore, the authors investigated the effects of 4-h daily sleep deprivation immediately after the water maze training sessions on spatial cognitive performance. Adolescent rats sleep-restricted for 7 days traveled a longer distance to find the hidden platform during the acquisition training and had fewer numbers of platform crossings in the probe trial than those in the control group, something that did not occur in the sleep-deprived adult rats. Conclusions: Repeated sleep restriction (RSR) altered sleep profiles and mildly impaired spatial learning and memory capability in adolescent rats. Citation: Yang SR; Sun H; Huang ZL; Yao MH; Qu WM. Repeated sleep restriction in adolescent rats altered sleep patterns and impaired spatial learning/memory ability. SLEEP 2012;35(6):849-859. PMID:22654204

  15. Spatial Theography

    OpenAIRE

    van Noppen, Jean Pierre

    1995-01-01

    Descriptive theology («theography») frequently resorts to metaphorical modes of meaning. Among these metaphors, the spatial language of localization and orientation plays an important role to delineate tentative insights into the relationship between the human and the divine. These spatial metaphors are presumably based on the universal human experience of interaction between the body and its environment. It is dangerous, however, to postulate universal agreement on meanings associated with s...

  16. Monocular deprivation of Fourier phase information boosts the deprived eye's dominance during interocular competition but not interocular phase combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Jianying; Dong, Xue; He, Sheng; Bao, Min

    2017-06-03

    Ocular dominance has been extensively studied, often with the goal to understand neuroplasticity, which is a key characteristic within the critical period. Recent work on monocular deprivation, however, demonstrates residual neuroplasticity in the adult visual cortex. After deprivation of patterned inputs by monocular patching, the patched eye becomes more dominant. Since patching blocks both the Fourier amplitude and phase information of the input image, it remains unclear whether deprivation of the Fourier phase information alone is able to reshape eye dominance. Here, for the first time, we show that removing of the phase regularity without changing the amplitude spectra of the input image induced a shift of eye dominance toward the deprived eye, but only if the eye dominance was measured with a binocular rivalry task rather than an interocular phase combination task. These different results indicate that the two measurements are supported by different mechanisms. Phase integration requires the fusion of monocular images. The fused percept highly relies on the weights of the phase-sensitive monocular neurons that respond to the two monocular images. However, binocular rivalry reflects the result of direct interocular competition that strongly weights the contour information transmitted along each monocular pathway. Monocular phase deprivation may not change the weights in the integration (fusion) mechanism much, but alters the balance in the rivalry (competition) mechanism. Our work suggests that ocular dominance plasticity may occur at different stages of visual processing, and that homeostatic compensation also occurs for the lack of phase regularity in natural scenes. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Sex-dependent effects of sleep deprivation on myocardial sensitivity to ischemic injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoladz, Phillip R; Krivenko, Anna; Eisenmann, Eric D; Bui, Albert D; Seeley, Sarah L; Fry, Megan E; Johnson, Brandon L; Rorabaugh, Boyd R

    2016-01-01

    Sleep deprivation is associated with increased risk of myocardial infarction. However, it is unknown whether the effects of sleep deprivation are limited to increasing the likelihood of experiencing a myocardial infarction or if sleep deprivation also increases the extent of myocardial injury. In this study, rats were deprived of paradoxical sleep for 96 h using the platform-over-water method. Control rats were subjected to the same condition except the control platform was large enough for the rats to sleep. Hearts from sleep deprived and control rats were subjected to 20 min ischemia on a Langendorff isolated heart system. Infarct size and post ischemic recovery of contractile function were unaffected by sleep deprivation in male hearts. In contrast, hearts from sleep-deprived females exhibited significantly larger infarcts than hearts from control females. Post ischemic recovery of rate pressure product and + dP/dT were significantly attenuated by sleep deprivation in female hearts, and post ischemic recovery of end diastolic pressure was significantly elevated in hearts from sleep deprived females compared to control females, indicating that post ischemic recovery of both systolic and diastolic function were worsened by sleep deprivation. These data provide evidence that sleep deprivation increases the extent of ischemia-induced injury in a sex-dependent manner.

  18. Accessibility, location, and employment center growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the relationship between accessibility and the : growth of employment centers in order to improve our understanding of how transportation : investments influence the spatial organization of metropolitan area...

  19. Internet-accessible real-time weather information system

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desai, R.G.P.; Joseph, A.; Desa, E.; Mehra, P.; Desa, E.; Gouveia, A.D.

    An internet-accessible real-time weather information system has been developed. This system provides real-time accessibility to weather information from a multitude of spatially distributed weather stations. The Internet connectivity also offers...

  20. GIS-facilitated spatial narratives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller-Jensen, Lasse; Jeppesen, Henrik; Kofie, Richard Y.

    2008-01-01

    on the thematically and narrative linking of a set of locations within an area. A spatial narrative that describes the - largely unsuccessful - history of Danish plantations on the Gold Coast (1788-1850) is implemented through the Google Earth client. This client is seen both as a type of media in itself for ‘home......-based' exploration of sites related to the narrative and as a tool that facilitates the design of spatial narratives before implementation within portable GIS devices. The Google Earth-based visualization of the spatial narrative is created by a Python script that outputs a web-accessible KML format file. The KML...

  1. Mitigating Stress and Supporting Health in Deprived Urban Communities: The Importance of Green Space and the Social Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward Thompson, Catharine; Aspinall, Peter; Roe, Jenny; Robertson, Lynette; Miller, David

    2016-04-22

    Environment-health research has shown significant relationships between the quantity of green space in deprived urban neighbourhoods and people's stress levels. The focus of this paper is the nature of access to green space (i.e., its quantity or use) necessary before any health benefit is found. It draws on a cross-sectional survey of 406 adults in four communities of high urban deprivation in Scotland, United Kingdom. Self-reported measures of stress and general health were primary outcomes; physical activity and social wellbeing were also measured. A comprehensive, objective measure of green space quantity around each participant's home was also used, alongside self-report measures of use of local green space. Correlated Component Regression identified the optimal predictors for primary outcome variables in the different communities surveyed. Social isolation and place belonging were the strongest predictors of stress in three out of four communities sampled, and of poor general health in the fourth, least healthy, community. The amount of green space in the neighbourhood, and in particular access to a garden or allotment, were significant predictors of stress. Physical activity, frequency of visits to green space in winter months, and views from the home were predictors of general health. The findings have implications for public health and for planning of green infrastructure, gardens and public open space in urban environments.

  2. Mitigating Stress and Supporting Health in Deprived Urban Communities: The Importance of Green Space and the Social Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catharine Ward Thompson

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Environment-health research has shown significant relationships between the quantity of green space in deprived urban neighbourhoods and people’s stress levels. The focus of this paper is the nature of access to green space (i.e., its quantity or use necessary before any health benefit is found. It draws on a cross-sectional survey of 406 adults in four communities of high urban deprivation in Scotland, United Kingdom. Self-reported measures of stress and general health were primary outcomes; physical activity and social wellbeing were also measured. A comprehensive, objective measure of green space quantity around each participant’s home was also used, alongside self-report measures of use of local green space. Correlated Component Regression identified the optimal predictors for primary outcome variables in the different communities surveyed. Social isolation and place belonging were the strongest predictors of stress in three out of four communities sampled, and of poor general health in the fourth, least healthy, community. The amount of green space in the neighbourhood, and in particular access to a garden or allotment, were significant predictors of stress. Physical activity, frequency of visits to green space in winter months, and views from the home were predictors of general health. The findings have implications for public health and for planning of green infrastructure, gardens and public open space in urban environments.

  3. Mitigating Stress and Supporting Health in Deprived Urban Communities: The Importance of Green Space and the Social Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward Thompson, Catharine; Aspinall, Peter; Roe, Jenny; Robertson, Lynette; Miller, David

    2016-01-01

    Environment-health research has shown significant relationships between the quantity of green space in deprived urban neighbourhoods and people’s stress levels. The focus of this paper is the nature of access to green space (i.e., its quantity or use) necessary before any health benefit is found. It draws on a cross-sectional survey of 406 adults in four communities of high urban deprivation in Scotland, United Kingdom. Self-reported measures of stress and general health were primary outcomes; physical activity and social wellbeing were also measured. A comprehensive, objective measure of green space quantity around each participant’s home was also used, alongside self-report measures of use of local green space. Correlated Component Regression identified the optimal predictors for primary outcome variables in the different communities surveyed. Social isolation and place belonging were the strongest predictors of stress in three out of four communities sampled, and of poor general health in the fourth, least healthy, community. The amount of green space in the neighbourhood, and in particular access to a garden or allotment, were significant predictors of stress. Physical activity, frequency of visits to green space in winter months, and views from the home were predictors of general health. The findings have implications for public health and for planning of green infrastructure, gardens and public open space in urban environments. PMID:27110803

  4. Partnerships and communities in English drug policy: the challenge of deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macgregor, Susanne; Thickett, Anthony

    2011-11-01

    From the mid-1990s, UK governments developed partnerships to tackle drugs nationally and locally. Over time, increased resources focused on communities and localities in greatest need. This reflected growing awareness of the concentration of problems in deprived areas, with social and spatial segregation being a feature of post-industrial urban areas. A review of English drug policy since the 1990s, drawing on:- analysis of documents; a review of sociological studies; an illustrative case-study of one northern town; interviews with local policy players; statistical analysis of key indicators with some of these data presented using Geographical Information System (GIS) mapping. In-depth sociological studies demonstrate interconnections between historical patterns, socio-economic change, cultural complexity, deprivation, limited opportunities and illicit drugs. At local level, there are links between concentrated multiple deprivation, poor health, acquisitive crime and problematic drug use. Partnership policies, encouraged by the provision of ring-fenced funds, have been effective in containing problems. Underlying issues of inequality are however neglected in political debates. The article argues that post-industrial towns and cities are characterised by an increase in problems related to poverty and drugs. Both the real shape and perceptions of what is the problem change over time. In England, the profile of the problem drug user was described in a number of sociological studies conducted from the 1980s onwards. Key features were the concentration of problems in certain social groups (such as the poorly educated or unemployed) and in certain areas (inner cities or outer estates). Responding to rising public concern, national drug strategies developed and the New Labour Government after 1997 prioritised the issue of drugs, directing increased resources to drug treatment with tight control over the use of these new monies through target setting and measurement of

  5. Deprivation selectively modulates brain potentials to food pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockburger, Jessica; Weike, Almut I; Hamm, Alfons O; Schupp, Harald T

    2008-08-01

    Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were used to examine whether the processing of food pictures is selectively modulated by changes in the motivational state of the observer. Sixteen healthy male volunteers were tested twice 1 week apart, either after 24 hr of food deprivation or after normal food intake. ERPs were measured while participants viewed appetitive food pictures as well as standard emotional and neutral control pictures. Results show that the ERPs to food pictures in a hungry, rather than satiated, state were associated with enlarged positive potentials over posterior sensor sites in a time window of 170-310 ms poststimulus. Minimum-norm analysis suggests the enhanced processing of food cues primarily in occipito-temporo-parietal regions. In contrast, processing of standard emotional and neutral pictures was not modulated by food deprivation. Considered from the perspective of motivated attention, the selective change of food cue processing may reflect a state-dependent change in stimulus salience.

  6. Effects of Extreme Sleep Deprivation on Human Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuan Tran; Kimberly R. Raddatz; Elizabeth T. Cady; Bradford Amstutz; Pete D. Elgin; Christopher Vowels; Gerald Deehan

    2007-04-01

    Sleep is a fundamental recuperative process for the nervous system. Disruption of this homeostatic drive can lead to severe impairments of the operator’s ability to perceive, recognize, and respond to emergencies and/or unanticipated events, putting the operator at risk. Therefore, establishing a comprehensive understanding of how sleep deprivation influences human performance is essential in order to counter fatigue or to develop mitigation strategies. The goal of the present study was to examine the psychological effects of prolonged sleep deprivation (approx. 75 hrs) over a four-day span on a general aviation pilot flying a fixed-based flight simulator. During the study, a series of tasks were employed every four hours in order to examine the pilot’s perceptual and higher level cognitive abilities. Overall, results suggest that the majority of cognitive and perceptual degradation occurs between 30-40 hours into the flight. Limitations and future research directions are also discussed.

  7. Sleep deprivation, pain and prematurity: a review study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Cristina Santos de Carvalho Bonan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to describe current reports in the scientific literature on sleep in the intensive care environment and sleep deprivation associated with painful experiences in premature infant. A systematic search was conducted for studies on sleep, pain, premature birth and care of the newborn. Web of Knowledge, MEDLINE, LILACS, Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, VHL and SciELO databases were consulted. The association between sleep deprivation and pain generates effects that are observed in the brain and the behavioral and physiological activity of preterm infants. Polysomnography in intensive care units and pain management in neonates allow comparison with the first year of life and term infants. We have found few references and evidence that neonatal care programs can influence sleep development and reduce the negative impact of the environment. This evidence is discussed from the perspective of how hospital intervention can improve the development of premature infants.

  8. Impact of Temporary Nitrogen Deprivation on Tomato Leaf Phenolics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Gautier

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Reducing the use of pesticides represents a major challenge of modern agriculture. Plants synthesize secondary metabolites such as polyphenols that participate in the resistance to parasites. The aim of this study was to test: (1 the impact of nitrogen deficiency on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum leaf composition and more particularly on two phenolic molecules (chlorogenic acid and rutin as well as on the general plant biomass; and (2 whether this effect continued after a return to normal nitrogen nutrition. Our results showed that plants deprived of nitrogen for 10 or 19 days contained higher levels of chlorogenic acid and rutin than control plants. In addition, this difference persisted when the plants were once again cultivated on a nitrogen-rich medium. These findings offer interesting perspectives on the use of a short period of deprivation to modulate the levels of compounds of interest in a plant.

  9. Octopamine connects nutrient cues to lipid metabolism upon nutrient deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Jun; Ma, Yi-Cheng; Yang, Zhong-Shan; Zou, Cheng-Gang; Zhang, Ke-Qin

    2016-05-01

    Starvation is probably the most common stressful situation in nature. In vertebrates, elevation of the biogenic amine norepinephrine levels is common during starvation. However, the precise role of norepinephrine in nutrient deprivation remains largely unknown. We report that in the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, up-regulation of the biosynthesis of octopamine, the invertebrate counterpart of norepinephrine, serves as a mechanism to adapt to starvation. During nutrient deprivation, the nuclear receptor DAF-12, known to sense nutritional cues, up-regulates the expression of tbh-1 that encodes tyramine β-hydroxylase, a key enzyme for octopamine biosynthesis, in the RIC neurons. Octopamine induces the expression of the lipase gene lips-6 via its receptor SER-3 in the intestine. LIPS-6, in turn, elicits lipid mobilization. Our findings reveal that octopamine acts as an endocrine regulator linking nutrient cues to lipolysis to maintain energy homeostasis, and suggest that such a mechanism may be evolutionally conserved in diverse organisms.

  10. Disaster, Deprivation and Death: Large but delayed infant mortality in the wake of Filipino tropical cyclones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anttila-Hughes, J. K.; Hsiang, S. M.

    2011-12-01

    Tropical cyclones are some of the most disastrous and damaging of climate events, and estimates of their destructive potential abound in the natural and social sciences. Nonetheless, there have been few systematic estimates of cyclones' impact on children's health. This is concerning because cyclones leave in their wake a swath of asset losses and economic deprivation, both known to be strong drivers of poor health outcomes among children. In this paper we provide a household-level estimate of the effect of tropical cyclones on infant mortality in the Philippines, a country with one of the most active cyclone climatologies in the world. We reconstruct historical cyclones with detailed spatial and temporal resolution, allowing us to estimate the multi-year effects of cyclones on individuals living in specific locations. We combine the cyclone reconstruction with woman-level fertility and mortality data from four waves of the Filipino Demographic and Health Survey, providing birth histories for over 55,000 women. In multiple regressions that control for year and region fixed effects as well as intra-annual climate variation, we find that there is a pronounced and robust increase in female infant mortality among poor families in the 12-24 months after storms hit. The estimated mortality rate among this demographic subgroup is much larger than official mortality rates reported by the Filipino government immediately after storms, implying that much of a cyclone's human cost arrives well after the storm has passed. We find that high infant mortality rates are associated with declines in poor families' income and expenditures, including consumption of food and medical services, suggesting that the mechanism by which these deaths are effected may be economic deprivation. These results indicate that a major health and welfare impact of storms has been thus far overlooked, but may be easily prevented through appropriately targeted income support policies.

  11. Sleep Deprivation Attack Detection in Wireless Sensor Network

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattasali, Tapalina; Chaki, Rituparna; Sanyal, Sugata

    2012-01-01

    Deployment of sensor network in hostile environment makes it mainly vulnerable to battery drainage attacks because it is impossible to recharge or replace the battery power of sensor nodes. Among different types of security threats, low power sensor nodes are immensely affected by the attacks which cause random drainage of the energy level of sensors, leading to death of the nodes. The most dangerous type of attack in this category is sleep deprivation, where target of the intruder is to maxi...

  12. Loneliness, Social Relations and Health and Wellbeing in Deprived Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Ade; Whitley, Elise; Tannahill, Carol; Ellaway, Anne

    2015-01-01

    There is growing policy concern about the extent of loneliness in advanced societies, and its prevalence among various social groups. This study looks at loneliness among people living in deprived communities, where there may be additional barriers to social engagement including low incomes, fear of crime, poor services and transient populations. The aim was to examine the prevalence of loneliness, and also its associations with different types of social contacts and forms of social support, and its links to self-reported health and wellbeing in the population group. The method involved a cross-sectional survey of 4,302 adults across 15 communities, with the data analysed using multinomial logistic regression controlling for sociodemographics, then for all other predictors within each domain of interest. Frequent feelings of loneliness were more common among those who: had contact with family monthly or less; had contact with neighbours weekly or less; rarely talked to people in the neighbourhood; and who had no available sources of practical or emotional support. Feelings of loneliness were most strongly associated with poor mental health, but were also associated with long-term problems of stress, anxiety and depression, and with low mental wellbeing, though to a lesser degree. The findings are consistent with a view that situational loneliness may be the product of residential structures and resources in deprived areas. The findings also show that neighbourly behaviours of different kinds are important for protecting against loneliness in deprived communities. Familiarity within the neighbourhood, as active acquaintance rather than merely recognition, is also important. The findings are indicative of several mechanisms that may link loneliness to health and wellbeing in our study group: loneliness itself as a stressor; lonely people not responding well to the many other stressors in deprived areas; and loneliness as the product of weak social buffering to

  13. State dependent valuation: the effect of deprivation on risk preferences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dino J Levy

    Full Text Available The internal state of an organism affects its choices. Previous studies in various non-human animals have demonstrated a complex, and in some cases non-monotonic, interaction between internal state and risk preferences. Our aim was to examine the systematic effects of deprivation on human decision-making across various reward types. Using both a non-parametric approach and a classical economic analysis, we asked whether the risk attitudes of human subjects towards money, food and water rewards would change as a function of their internal metabolic state. Our findings replicate some previous work suggesting that, on average, humans become more risk tolerant in their monetary decisions, as they get hungry. However, our specific approach allowed us to make two novel observations about the complex interaction between internal state and risk preferences. First, we found that the change in risk attitude induced by food deprivation is a general phenomenon, affecting attitudes towards both monetary and consumable rewards. But much more importantly, our data indicate that rather than each subject becoming more risk tolerant as previously hypothesized based on averaging across subjects, we found that as a population of human subjects becomes food deprived the heterogeneity of their risk attitudes collapses towards a fixed point. Thus subjects who show high-risk aversion while satiated shift towards moderate risk aversion when deprived but subjects who are risk tolerant become more risk averse. These findings demonstrate a more complicated interaction between internal state and risk preferences and raise some interesting implications for both day-to-day decisions and financial market structures.

  14. Deprivation selectively modulates brain potentials to food pictures

    OpenAIRE

    Stockburger, Jessica; Weike, Almut I.; Hamm, Alfons O.; Schupp, Harald Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were used to examine whether the processing of food pictures is selectively modulated by changes in the motivational state of the observer. Sixteen healthy male volunteers were tested twice 1 week apart, either after 24 hr of food deprivation or after normal food intake. ERPs were measured while participants viewed appetitive food pictures as well as standard emotional and neutral control pictures. Results show that the ERPs to food pictures in a hungry, ...

  15. The effects of sleep deprivation on emotional empathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guadagni, Veronica; Burles, Ford; Ferrara, Michele; Iaria, Giuseppe

    2014-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that sleep loss has a detrimental effect on the ability of the individuals to process emotional information. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that this negative effect extends to the ability of experiencing emotions while observing other individuals, i.e. emotional empathy. To test this hypothesis, we assessed emotional empathy in 37 healthy volunteers who were assigned randomly to one of three experimental groups: one group was tested before and after a night of total sleep deprivation (sleep deprivation group), a second group was tested before and after a usual night of sleep spent at home (sleep group) and the third group was tested twice during the same day (day group). Emotional empathy was assessed by using two parallel versions of a computerized test measuring direct (i.e. explicit evaluation of empathic concern) and indirect (i.e. the observer's reported physiological arousal) emotional empathy. The results revealed that the post measurements of both direct and indirect emotional empathy of participants in the sleep deprivation group were significantly lower than those of the sleep and day groups; post measurement scores of participants in the day and sleep groups did not differ significantly for either direct or indirect emotional empathy. These data are consistent with previous studies showing the negative effect of sleep deprivation on the processing of emotional information, and extend these effects to emotional empathy. The findings reported in our study are relevant to healthy individuals with poor sleep habits, as well as clinical populations suffering from sleep disturbances. © 2014 European Sleep Research Society.

  16. HEALTH EFFECTS OF SLEEP DEPRIVATION ON NURSES WORKING SHIFTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanojevic, Cedomirka; Simic, Svetlana; Milutinovic, Dragana

    2016-10-01

    Atypical work schedules cause reduced sleep, leading to drowsiness, fatigue, decline of cognitive performance and health problems among the members of the nursing staff. The study was aimed at reviewing current knowledge and attitudes concerning the impact of sleep disorders on health and cognitive functions among the members of the nursing staff. Sleep and Interpersonal Relations in Modern Society. The modern 24-hour society involves more and more employees (health services, police departments, public transport) in non-standard forms of work. In European Union countries, over 50% of the nursing staff work night shifts, while in the United States of America 55% of nursing staff work more than 40 hours a week, and 30-70% of nurses sleep less than six hours before their shift. Cognitive Effects of Sleep Deprivation. Sleep deprivation impairs the performance of tasks that require intensive and prolonged attention which increases the number of errors in patients care, and nurses are subject to incre- ased risk of traffic accidents. Sleep Deprivation and Health Disorders. Sleep deprived members of the nursing staff are at risk of obesity, diabetes, gastrointestinal disorders and cardiovascular disease. The risk factors for breast cancer are increased by 1.79 times. and there is a significantly higher risk for colorectal carcinoma. Too long or repeated shifts reduce the opportunity for sleep, shorten recovery time in nurses, thus endangering their safety and health as well as the quality of care and patients' safety. Bearing in mind the significance of the problerm it is necessary to conduct the surveys of sleep quality and health of nurses in the Republic of Serbia as well in order to tackle this issue which is insufficiently recognized.

  17. Muscle Dysfunction in Androgen Deprivation: Role of Ryanodine Receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    reversible pharmacological treatment is a key therapeutic goal in prostate cancer patients. This life prolonging treatment is accompanied by the adverse... reversible pharmacological treatment, is a key therapeutic goal of androgen deprivation therapies (ADT) used in patients with androgen-dependent...gel improves sexual function, mood, muscle strength, and body composition parameters in hypogonadal men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. Aug 2000;85(8):2839

  18. Astrocytic mitochondrial membrane hyperpolarization following extended oxygen and glucose deprivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Korenić

    Full Text Available Astrocytes can tolerate longer periods of oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD as compared to neurons. The reasons for this reduced vulnerability are not well understood. Particularly, changes in mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψ(m in astrocytes, an indicator of the cellular redox state, have not been investigated during reperfusion after extended OGD exposure. Here, we subjected primary mouse astrocytes to glucose deprivation (GD, OGD and combinations of both conditions varying in duration and sequence. Changes in Δψ(m, visualized by change in the fluorescence of JC-1, were investigated within one hour after reconstitution of oxygen and glucose supply, intended to model in vivo reperfusion. In all experiments, astrocytes showed resilience to extended periods of OGD, which had little effect on Δψ(m during reperfusion, whereas GD caused a robust Δψ(m negativation. In case no Δψ(m negativation was observed after OGD, subsequent chemical oxygen deprivation (OD induced by sodium azide caused depolarization, which, however, was significantly delayed as compared to normoxic group. When GD preceded OD for 12 h, Δψ(m hyperpolarization was induced by both GD and subsequent OD, but significant interaction between these conditions was not detected. However, when GD was extended to 48 h preceding OGD, hyperpolarization enhanced during reperfusion. This implicates synergistic effects of both conditions in that sequence. These findings provide novel information regarding the role of the two main substrates of electron transport chain (glucose and oxygen and their hyperpolarizing effect on Δψ(m during substrate deprivation, thus shedding new light on mechanisms of astrocyte resilience to prolonged ischemic injury.

  19. State dependent valuation: the effect of deprivation on risk preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Dino J; Thavikulwat, Amalie C; Glimcher, Paul W

    2013-01-01

    The internal state of an organism affects its choices. Previous studies in various non-human animals have demonstrated a complex, and in some cases non-monotonic, interaction between internal state and risk preferences. Our aim was to examine the systematic effects of deprivation on human decision-making across various reward types. Using both a non-parametric approach and a classical economic analysis, we asked whether the risk attitudes of human subjects towards money, food and water rewards would change as a function of their internal metabolic state. Our findings replicate some previous work suggesting that, on average, humans become more risk tolerant in their monetary decisions, as they get hungry. However, our specific approach allowed us to make two novel observations about the complex interaction between internal state and risk preferences. First, we found that the change in risk attitude induced by food deprivation is a general phenomenon, affecting attitudes towards both monetary and consumable rewards. But much more importantly, our data indicate that rather than each subject becoming more risk tolerant as previously hypothesized based on averaging across subjects, we found that as a population of human subjects becomes food deprived the heterogeneity of their risk attitudes collapses towards a fixed point. Thus subjects who show high-risk aversion while satiated shift towards moderate risk aversion when deprived but subjects who are risk tolerant become more risk averse. These findings demonstrate a more complicated interaction between internal state and risk preferences and raise some interesting implications for both day-to-day decisions and financial market structures.

  20. Changes in Plasma Lipids during Exposure to Total Sleep Deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Eric Chern-Pin; Shui, Guanghou; Cazenave-Gassiot, Amaury; Wenk, Markus R; Gooley, Joshua J

    2015-11-01

    The effects of sleep loss on plasma lipids, which play an important role in energy homeostasis and signaling, have not been systematically examined. Our aim was to identify lipid species in plasma that increase or decrease reliably during exposure to total sleep deprivation. Twenty individuals underwent sleep deprivation in a laboratory setting. Blood was drawn every 4 h and mass spectrometry techniques were used to analyze concentrations of 263 lipid species in plasma, including glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, and sterols. Chronobiology and Sleep Laboratory, Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School. Healthy ethnic-Chinese males aged 21-28 y (n = 20). Subjects were kept awake for 40 consecutive hours. Each metabolite time series was modeled as a sum of sinusoidal (circadian) and linear components, and we assessed whether the slope of the linear component differed from zero. More than a third of all individually analyzed lipid profiles exhibited a circadian rhythm and/or a linear change in concentration during sleep deprivation. Twenty-five lipid species showed a linear and predominantly unidirectional trend in concentration levels that was consistent across participants. Choline plasmalogen levels decreased, whereas several phosphatidylcholine (PC) species and triacylglycerides (TAG) carrying polyunsaturated fatty acids increased. The decrease in choline plasmalogen levels during sleep deprivation is consistent with prior work demonstrating that these lipids are susceptible to degradation by oxidative stress. The increase in phosphatidylcholines and triacylglycerides suggests that sleep loss might modulate lipid metabolism, which has potential implications for metabolic health in individuals who do not achieve adequate sleep. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  1. Synergistic Interactions of Neuroprotective and Neurotrophic Factors Against Sleep Deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-30

    signals to cerebral cortex , regulation of consciousness, alertness, and sleep Brainstem Nerve connections of motor and sensory systems, maintaining...thalamus functions include sensory and motor signals to the cerebral cortex . In addition, the thalamus is also involved in regulation of...sleep deprivation in cerebral cortex of rats (19). However, in this published study, the authors used only two animals (n=2) in each experimental

  2. Tracking Poverty Reduction in Bhutan: Income Deprivation Alongside Deprivation in Other Sources of Happiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Maria Emma

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses poverty reduction in Bhutan between two points in time--2003 and 2007--from a multidimensional perspective. The measures estimated include consumption expenditure as well as other indicators which are directly (when possible) or indirectly associated to valuable functionings, namely, health, education, access to electricity,…

  3. Integrating diet and exercise into care of prostate cancer patients on androgen deprivation therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moyad MA

    2016-08-01

    provide effective, accessible, and relatively inexpensive strategies for mitigating ADT-associated toxicities without introducing additional adverse effects. Keywords: androgen deprivation therapy, ADT, diet, exercise, nutrition, prostate cancer, dietary supplements

  4. Cognitive Impairment After Sleep Deprivation Rescued by Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Application in Octodon degus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, C; López, D; Conesa, A; Fernández-Gómez, F J; Gonzalez-Cuello, A; Toledo, F; Tunez, I; Blin, O; Bordet, R; Richardson, J C; Fernandez-Villalba, E; Herrero, M T

    2015-11-01

    Sleep is indispensable for maintaining regular daily life activities and is of fundamental physiological importance for cognitive performance. Sleep deprivation (SD) may affect learning capacity and the ability to form new memories, particularly with regard to hippocampus-dependent tasks. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive procedure of electromagnetic induction that generates electric currents, activating nearby nerve cells in the stimulated cortical area. Several studies have looked into the potential therapeutic use of TMS. The present study was designed to evaluate how TMS could improve learning and memory functions following SD in Octodon degus. Thirty juvenile (18 months old) females were divided into three groups (control, acute, and chronic TMS treatment-with and without SD). TMS-treated groups were placed in plastic cylindrical cages designed to keep them immobile, while receiving head magnetic stimulation. SD was achieved by gently handling the animals to keep them awake during the night. Behavioral tests included radial arm maze (RAM), Barnes maze (BM), and novel object recognition. When TMS treatment was applied over several days, there was significant improvement of cognitive performance after SD, with no side effects. A single TMS session reduced the number of errors for the RAM test and improved latency and reduced errors for the BM test, which both evaluate spatial memory. Moreover, chronic TMS treatment brings about a significant improvement in both spatial and working memories.

  5. Lipidomic Analysis of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii under Nitrogen and Sulfur Deprivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawei Yang

    Full Text Available Chlamydomonas reinhardtii accumulates lipids under complete nutrient starvation conditions while overall growth in biomass stops. In order to better understand biochemical changes under nutrient deprivation that maintain production of algal biomass, we used a lipidomic assay for analyzing the temporal regulation of the composition of complex lipids in C. reinhardtii in response to nitrogen and sulfur deprivation. Using a chip-based nanoelectrospray direct infusion into an ion trap mass spectrometer, we measured a diversity of lipid species reported for C. reinhardtii, including PG phosphatidylglycerols, PI Phosphatidylinositols, MGDG monogalactosyldiacylglycerols, DGDG digalactosyldiacylglycerols, SQDG sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerols, DGTS homoserine ether lipids and TAG triacylglycerols. Individual lipid species were annotated by matching mass precursors and MS/MS fragmentations to the in-house LipidBlast mass spectral database and MS2Analyzer. Multivariate statistics showed a clear impact on overall lipidomic phenotypes on both the temporal and the nutrition stress level. Homoserine-lipids were found up-regulated at late growth time points and higher cell density, while triacyclglycerols showed opposite regulation of unsaturated and saturated fatty acyl chains under nutritional deprivation.

  6. Functional imaging correlates of impaired distractor suppression following sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Danyang; Soon, Chun Siong; Chee, Michael W L

    2012-05-15

    Sleep deprivation (SD) has been shown to affect selective attention but it is not known how two of its component processes: target enhancement and distractor suppression, are affected. To investigate, young volunteers either attended to houses or were obliged to ignore them (when attending to faces) while viewing superimposed face-house pictures. MR signal enhancement and suppression in the parahippocampal place area (PPA) were determined relative to a passive viewing control condition. Sleep deprivation was associated with lower PPA activation across conditions. Critically SD specifically impaired distractor suppression in selective attention, leaving target enhancement relatively preserved. These findings parallel some observations in cognitive aging. Additionally, following SD, attended houses were not significantly better recognized than ignored houses in a post-experiment test of recognition memory contrasting with the finding of superior recognition of attended houses in the well-rested state. These results provide evidence for co-encoding of distracting information with targets into memory when one is sleep deprived. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Acute sleep deprivation increases food purchasing in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Colin D; Nilsson, Emil K; Nilsson, Victor C; Cedernaes, Jonathan; Rångtell, Frida H; Vogel, Heike; Dickson, Suzanne L; Broman, Jan-Erik; Hogenkamp, Pleunie S; Schiöth, Helgi B; Benedict, Christian

    2013-12-01

    To investigate if acute sleep deprivation affects food purchasing choices in a mock supermarket. On the morning after one night of total sleep deprivation (TSD) or after one night of sleep, 14 normal-weight men were given a fixed budget (300 SEK-approximately 50 USD). They were instructed to purchase as much as they could out of a possible 40 items, including 20 high-caloric foods (>2 kcal/g) and 20 low-caloric foods (foods were then varied (75%, 100% (reference price), and 125%) to determine if TSD affects the flexibility of food purchasing. Before the task, participants received a standardized breakfast, thereby minimizing the potential confound produced by hunger. In addition, morning plasma concentrations of the orexigenic hormone ghrelin were measured under fasting conditions. Independent of both type of food offered and price condition, sleep-deprived men purchased significantly more calories (+9%) and grams (+18%) of food than they did after one night of sleep (both P food purchasing. This experiment demonstrates that acute sleep loss alters food purchasing behavior in men. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  8. Monocular Perceptual Deprivation from Interocular Suppression Temporarily Imbalances Ocular Dominance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Woong; Kim, Chai-Youn; Blake, Randolph

    2017-03-20

    Early visual experience sculpts neural mechanisms that regulate the balance of influence exerted by the two eyes on cortical mechanisms underlying binocular vision [1, 2], and experience's impact on this neural balancing act continues into adulthood [3-5]. One recently described, compelling example of adult neural plasticity is the effect of patching one eye for a relatively short period of time: contrary to intuition, monocular visual deprivation actually improves the deprived eye's competitive advantage during a subsequent period of binocular rivalry [6-8], the robust form of visual competition prompted by dissimilar stimulation of the two eyes [9, 10]. Neural concomitants of this improvement in monocular dominance are reflected in measurements of brain responsiveness following eye patching [11, 12]. Here we report that patching an eye is unnecessary for producing this paradoxical deprivation effect: interocular suppression of an ordinarily visible stimulus being viewed by one eye is sufficient to produce shifts in subsequent predominance of that eye to an extent comparable to that produced by patching the eye. Moreover, this imbalance in eye dominance can also be induced by prior, extended viewing of two monocular images differing only in contrast. Regardless of how shifts in eye dominance are induced, the effect decays once the two eyes view stimuli equal in strength. These novel findings implicate the operation of interocular neural gain control that dynamically adjusts the relative balance of activity between the two eyes [13, 14]. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Mitochondrial respiratory control is lost during growth factor deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Eyal; Armour, Sean M; Thompson, Craig B

    2002-10-01

    The ability of cells to maintain a bioenergetically favorable ATP/ADP ratio confers a tight balance between cellular events that consume ATP and the rate of ATP production. However, after growth factor withdrawal, the cellular ATP/ADP ratio declines. To investigate these changes, mitochondria from growth factor-deprived cells isolated before the onset of apoptosis were characterized in vitro. Mitochondria from growth factor-deprived cells have lost their ability to undergo matrix condensation in response to ADP, which is accompanied by a failure to perform ADP-coupled respiration. At the time of analysis, mitochondria from growth factor-deprived cells were not depleted of cytochrome c and cytochrome c-dependent respiration was unaffected, demonstrating that the inhibition of the respiratory rate is not due to loss of cytochrome c. Agents that disrupt the mitochondrial outer membrane, such as digitonin, or maintain outer membrane exchange of adenine nucleotide, such as Bcl-x(L), restored ADP-dependent control of mitochondrial respiration. Together, these data suggest that the regulation of mitochondrial outer membrane permeability contributes to respiratory control.

  10. Neighborhood Socioeconomic Deprivation and Allostatic Load: A Scoping Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Isabel Ribeiro

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Residing in socioeconomically deprived neighborhoods may pose substantial physiological stress, which can then lead to higher allostatic load (AL, a marker of biological wear and tear that precedes disease. The aim of the present study was to map the current evidence about the relationship between neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation and AL. A scoping review approach was chosen to provide an overview of the type, quantity, and extent of research available. The review was conducted using three bibliographic databases (PubMed, SCOPUS, and Web of Science and a standardized protocol. Fourteen studies were identified. Studies were predominantly from the USA, cross-sectional, focused on adults, and involved different races and ethnic groups. A wide range of measures of AL were identified: the mode of the number of biomarkers per study was eight but with large variability (range: 6–24. Most studies (n = 12 reported a significant association between neighborhood deprivation and AL. Behaviors and environmental stressors seem to mediate this relationship and associations appear more pronounced among Blacks, men, and individuals with poor social support. Such conclusions have important public health implications as they enforce the idea that neighborhood environment should be improved to prevent physiological dysregulation and consequent chronic diseases.

  11. Neighborhood Economic Deprivation and Social Fragmentation: Associations With Children's Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, Erika J; Fuller-Rowell, Thomas E; Saini, Ekjyot K; Philbrook, Lauren E; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2016-12-09

    A growing body of work indicates that experiences of neighborhood disadvantage place children at risk for poor sleep. This study aimed to examine how both neighborhood economic deprivation (a measure of poverty) and social fragmentation (an index of instability) are associated with objective measures of the length and quality of children's sleep. Participants were 210 children (54.3% boys) living predominantly in small towns and semirural communities in Alabama. On average children were 11.3 years old (SD = .63); 66.7% of the children were European American and 33.3% were African American. The sample was socioeconomically diverse with 67.9% of the participants living at or below the poverty line and 32.1% from lower-middle-class or middle-class families. Indicators of neighborhood characteristics were derived from the 2012 American Community Survey and composited to create two variables representing neighborhood economic deprivation and social fragmentation. Child sleep period, actual sleep minutes, and efficiency were examined using actigraphy. Higher levels of neighborhood economic deprivation were associated with fewer sleep minutes and poorer sleep efficiency. More neighborhood social fragmentation was also linked with poorer sleep efficiency. Analyses controlled for demographic characteristics, child health, and family socioeconomic status. Findings indicate that living in economically and socially disadvantaged neighborhoods predicts risk for shorter and lower-quality sleep in children. Examination of community context in addition to family and individual characteristics may provide a more comprehensive understanding of the factors shaping child sleep.

  12. Iron Deprivation Affects Drug Susceptibilities of Mycobacteria Targeting Membrane Integrity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Pal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Multidrug resistance (MDR acquired by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB through continuous deployment of antitubercular drugs warrants immediate search for novel targets and mechanisms. The ability of MTB to sense and become accustomed to changes in the host is essential for survival and confers the basis of infection. A crucial condition that MTB must surmount is iron limitation, during the establishment of infection, since iron is required by both bacteria and humans. This study focuses on how iron deprivation affects drug susceptibilities of known anti-TB drugs in Mycobacterium smegmatis, a “surrogate of MTB.” We showed that iron deprivation leads to enhanced potency of most commonly used first line anti-TB drugs that could be reverted upon iron supplementation. We explored that membrane homeostasis is disrupted upon iron deprivation as revealed by enhanced membrane permeability and hypersensitivity to membrane perturbing agent leading to increased passive diffusion of drug and TEM images showing detectable differences in cell envelope thickness. Furthermore, iron seems to be indispensable to sustain genotoxic stress suggesting its possible role in DNA repair machinery. Taken together, we for the first time established a link between cellular iron and drug susceptibility of mycobacteria suggesting iron as novel determinant to combat MDR.

  13. Sleep Deprivation Attack Detection in Wireless Sensor Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattasali, Tapalina; Chaki, Rituparna; Sanyal, Sugata

    2012-02-01

    Deployment of sensor network in hostile environment makes it mainly vulnerable to battery drainage attacks because it is impossible to recharge or replace the battery power of sensor nodes. Among different types of security threats, low power sensor nodes are immensely affected by the attacks which cause random drainage of the energy level of sensors, leading to death of the nodes. The most dangerous type of attack in this category is sleep deprivation, where target of the intruder is to maximize the power consumption of sensor nodes, so that their lifetime is minimized. Most of the existing works on sleep deprivation attack detection involve a lot of overhead, leading to poor throughput. The need of the day is to design a model for detecting intrusions accurately in an energy efficient manner. This paper proposes a hierarchical framework based on distributed collaborative mechanism for detecting sleep deprivation torture in wireless sensor network efficiently. Proposed model uses anomaly detection technique in two steps to reduce the probability of false intrusion.

  14. How much of the difference in life expectancy between Scottish cities does deprivation explain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaman, R; Mitchell, R; Dundas, R; Leyland, A H; Popham, F

    2015-10-16

    Glasgow's low life expectancy and high levels of deprivation are well documented. Studies comparing Glasgow to similarly deprived cities in England suggest an excess of deaths in Glasgow that cannot be accounted for by deprivation. Within Scotland comparisons are more equivocal suggesting deprivation could explain Glasgow's excess mortality. Few studies have used life expectancy, an intuitive measure that quantifies the between-city difference in years. This study aimed to use the most up-to-date data to compare Glasgow to other Scottish cities and to (i) evaluate whether deprivation could account for lower life expectancy in Glasgow and (ii) explore whether the age distribution of mortality in Glasgow could explain its lower life expectancy. Sex specific life expectancy was calculated for 2007-2011 for the population in Glasgow and the combined population of Aberdeen, Dundee and Edinburgh. Life expectancy was calculated for deciles of income deprivation, based on the national ranking of datazones, using the Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation. Life expectancy in Glasgow overall, and by deprivation decile, was compared to that in Aberdeen, Dundee and Edinburgh combined, and the life expectancy difference decomposed by age using Arriaga's discrete method. Life expectancy for the whole Glasgow population was lower than the population of Aberdeen, Dundee and Edinburgh combined. When life expectancy was compared by national income deprivation decile, Glasgow's life expectancy was not systematically lower, and deprivation accounted for over 90 % of the difference. This was reduced to 70 % of the difference when carrying out sensitivity analysis using city-specific income deprivation deciles. In both analyses life expectancy was not systematically lower in Glasgow when stratified by deprivation. Decomposing the differences in life expectancy also showed that the age distribution of mortality was not systematically different in Glasgow after accounting for deprivation

  15. Effect of 24 Hours of Sleep Deprivation on Auditory and Linguistic Perception: A Comparison among Young Controls, Sleep-Deprived Participants, Dyslexic Readers, and Aging Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fostick, Leah; Babkoff, Harvey; Zukerman, Gil

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To test the effects of 24 hr of sleep deprivation on auditory and linguistic perception and to assess the magnitude of this effect by comparing such performance with that of aging adults on speech perception and with that of dyslexic readers on phonological awareness. Method: Fifty-five sleep-deprived young adults were compared with 29…

  16. Spatial networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthélemy, Marc

    2011-02-01

    Complex systems are very often organized under the form of networks where nodes and edges are embedded in space. Transportation and mobility networks, Internet, mobile phone networks, power grids, social and contact networks, and neural networks, are all examples where space is relevant and where topology alone does not contain all the information. Characterizing and understanding the structure and the evolution of spatial networks is thus crucial for many different fields, ranging from urbanism to epidemiology. An important consequence of space on networks is that there is a cost associated with the length of edges which in turn has dramatic effects on the topological structure of these networks. We will thoroughly explain the current state of our understanding of how the spatial constraints affect the structure and properties of these networks. We will review the most recent empirical observations and the most important models of spatial networks. We will also discuss various processes which take place on these spatial networks, such as phase transitions, random walks, synchronization, navigation, resilience, and disease spread.

  17. Spatial interpolation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stein, A.

    1991-01-01

    The theory and practical application of techniques of statistical interpolation are studied in this thesis, and new developments in multivariate spatial interpolation and the design of sampling plans are discussed. Several applications to studies in soil science are

  18. Acute Sleep Deprivation Blocks Short- and Long-Term Operant Memory in Aplysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Harini C; Gandour, Catherine E; Ramos, Joshua L; Wrinkle, Mariah C; Sanchez-Pacheco, Joseph J; Lyons, Lisa C

    2016-12-01

    Insufficient sleep in individuals appears increasingly common due to the demands of modern work schedules and technology use. Consequently, there is a growing need to understand the interactions between sleep deprivation and memory. The current study determined the effects of acute sleep deprivation on short and long-term associative memory using the marine mollusk Aplysia californica , a relatively simple model system well known for studies of learning and memory. Aplysia were sleep deprived for 9 hours using context changes and tactile stimulation either prior to or after training for the operant learning paradigm, learning that food is inedible (LFI). The effects of sleep deprivation on short-term (STM) and long-term memory (LTM) were assessed. Acute sleep deprivation prior to LFI training impaired the induction of STM and LTM with persistent effects lasting at least 24 h. Sleep deprivation immediately after training blocked the consolidation of LTM. However, sleep deprivation following the period of molecular consolidation did not affect memory recall. Memory impairments were independent of handling-induced stress, as daytime handled control animals demonstrated no memory deficits. Additional training immediately after sleep deprivation failed to rescue the induction of memory, but additional training alleviated the persistent impairment in memory induction when training occurred 24 h following sleep deprivation. Acute sleep deprivation inhibited the induction and consolidation, but not the recall of memory. These behavioral studies establish Aplysia as an effective model system for studying the interactions between sleep and memory formation. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  19. The effect of REM sleep deprivation on motivation for food reward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanlon, Erin C; Andrzejewski, Matthew E; Harder, Bridgette K; Kelley, Ann E; Benca, Ruth M

    2005-08-30

    Prolonged sleep deprivation in rats produces a characteristic syndrome consisting of an increase in food intake yet a decrease in weight. Moreover, the increase in food intake generally precedes the weight loss, suggesting that sleep deprivation may affect appetitive behaviors. Using the multiple platform method to produce rapid eye movement (REM) sleep deprivation, we investigated the effect of REM sleep deprivation (REMSD) on motivation for food reward utilizing food-reinforced operant tasks. In acquisition or maintenance of an operant task, REM sleep-deprived rats, with or without simultaneous food restriction, decreased responding for sucrose pellet reward in comparison to controls, despite the fact that all REM sleep-deprived rats lost weight. Furthermore, the overall response deficit of the REM sleep-deprived rats was due to a within-session decline in responding. REM sleep-deprived rats showed evidence of understanding the contingency of the task comparable to controls throughout deprivation period, suggesting that the decrements in responding were not primarily related to deficits in learning or memory. Rather, REM sleep deprivation appears to alter systems involved in motivational processes, reward, and/or attention.

  20. Regional Deprivation Index and Socioeconomic Inequalities Related to Infant Deaths in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Jae-Won; Kim, Young-Ju; Son, Mia

    2016-04-01

    Deprivation indices have been widely used to evaluate neighborhood socioeconomic status and therefore examine individuals within their regional context. Although some studies on the development of deprivation indices were conducted in Korea, additional research is needed to construct a more valid and reliable deprivation index. Therefore, a new deprivation index, named the K index, was constructed using principal component analysis. This index was compared with the Carstairs, Townsend and Choi indices. A possible association between infant death and deprivation was explored using the K index. The K index had a higher correlation with the infant mortality rate than did the other three indices. The regional deprivation quintiles were unequally distributed throughout the country. Despite the overall trend of gradually decreasing infant mortality rates, inequalities in infant deaths according to the deprivation quintiles persisted and widened. Despite its significance, the regional deprivation variable had a smaller effect on infant deaths than did individual variables. The K index functions as a deprivation index, and we may use this index to estimate the regional socioeconomic status in Korea. We found that inequalities in infant deaths according to the time trend persisted. To reduce the health inequalities among infants in Korea, regional deprivation should be considered.

  1. Grooming analysis algorithm: use in the relationship between sleep deprivation and anxiety-like behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Gabriel N; Tufik, Sergio; Andersen, Monica L

    2013-03-05

    Increased anxiety is a classic effect of sleep deprivation. However, results regarding sleep deprivation-induced anxiety-like behavior are contradictory in rodent models. The grooming analysis algorithm is a method developed to examine anxiety-like behavior and stress in rodents, based on grooming characteristics and microstructure. This study evaluated the applicability of the grooming analysis algorithm to distinguish sleep-deprived and control rats in comparison to traditional grooming analysis. Forty-six animals were distributed into three groups: control (n=22), paradoxical sleep-deprived (96 h, n=10) and total sleep deprived (6 h, n=14). Immediately after the sleep deprivation protocol, grooming was evaluated using both the grooming analysis algorithm and traditional measures (grooming latency, frequency and duration). Results showed that both paradoxical sleep-deprived and total sleep-deprived groups displayed grooming in a fragmented framework when compared to control animals. Variables from the grooming analysis algorithm were successful in distinguishing sleep-deprived and normal sleep animals regarding anxiety-like behavior. The grooming analysis algorithm and traditional measures were strongly correlated. In conclusion, the grooming analysis algorithm is a reliable method to assess the relationship between anxiety-like behavior and sleep deprivation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Relative contributions of visual and auditory spatial representations to tactile localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, Jean-Paul; Wallace, Mark

    2016-02-01

    Spatial localization of touch is critically dependent upon coordinate transformation between different reference frames, which must ultimately allow for alignment between somatotopic and external representations of space. Although prior work has shown an important role for cues such as body posture in influencing the spatial localization of touch, the relative contributions of the different sensory systems to this process are unknown. In the current study, we had participants perform a tactile temporal order judgment (TOJ) under different body postures and conditions of sensory deprivation. Specifically, participants performed non-speeded judgments about the order of two tactile stimuli presented in rapid succession on their ankles during conditions in which their legs were either uncrossed or crossed (and thus bringing somatotopic and external reference frames into conflict). These judgments were made in the absence of 1) visual, 2) auditory, or 3) combined audio-visual spatial information by blindfolding and/or placing participants in an anechoic chamber. As expected, results revealed that tactile temporal acuity was poorer under crossed than uncrossed leg postures. Intriguingly, results also revealed that auditory and audio-visual deprivation exacerbated the difference in tactile temporal acuity between uncrossed to crossed leg postures, an effect not seen for visual-only deprivation. Furthermore, the effects under combined audio-visual deprivation were greater than those seen for auditory deprivation. Collectively, these results indicate that mechanisms governing the alignment between somatotopic and external reference frames extend beyond those imposed by body posture to include spatial features conveyed by the auditory and visual modalities - with a heavier weighting of auditory than visual spatial information. Thus, sensory modalities conveying exteroceptive spatial information contribute to judgments regarding the localization of touch. Copyright © 2016

  3. The effects of two types of sleep deprivation on visual working memory capacity and filtering efficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean P A Drummond

    Full Text Available Sleep deprivation has adverse consequences for a variety of cognitive functions. The exact effects of sleep deprivation, though, are dependent upon the cognitive process examined. Within working memory, for example, some component processes are more vulnerable to sleep deprivation than others. Additionally, the differential impacts on cognition of different types of sleep deprivation have not been well studied. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of one night of total sleep deprivation and 4 nights of partial sleep deprivation (4 hours in bed/night on two components of visual working memory: capacity and filtering efficiency. Forty-four healthy young adults were randomly assigned to one of the two sleep deprivation conditions. All participants were studied: 1 in a well-rested condition (following 6 nights of 9 hours in bed/night; and 2 following sleep deprivation, in a counter-balanced order. Visual working memory testing consisted of two related tasks. The first measured visual working memory capacity and the second measured the ability to ignore distractor stimuli in a visual scene (filtering efficiency. Results showed neither type of sleep deprivation reduced visual working memory capacity. Partial sleep deprivation also generally did not change filtering efficiency. Total sleep deprivation, on the other hand, did impair performance in the filtering task. These results suggest components of visual working memory are differentially vulnerable to the effects of sleep deprivation, and different types of sleep deprivation impact visual working memory to different degrees. Such findings have implications for operational settings where individuals may need to perform with inadequate sleep and whose jobs involve receiving an array of visual information and discriminating the relevant from the irrelevant prior to making decisions or taking actions (e.g., baggage screeners, air traffic controllers, military personnel, health care

  4. The effects of two types of sleep deprivation on visual working memory capacity and filtering efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Sean P A; Anderson, Dane E; Straus, Laura D; Vogel, Edward K; Perez, Veronica B

    2012-01-01

    Sleep deprivation has adverse consequences for a variety of cognitive functions. The exact effects of sleep deprivation, though, are dependent upon the cognitive process examined. Within working memory, for example, some component processes are more vulnerable to sleep deprivation than others. Additionally, the differential impacts on cognition of different types of sleep deprivation have not been well studied. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of one night of total sleep deprivation and 4 nights of partial sleep deprivation (4 hours in bed/night) on two components of visual working memory: capacity and filtering efficiency. Forty-four healthy young adults were randomly assigned to one of the two sleep deprivation conditions. All participants were studied: 1) in a well-rested condition (following 6 nights of 9 hours in bed/night); and 2) following sleep deprivation, in a counter-balanced order. Visual working memory testing consisted of two related tasks. The first measured visual working memory capacity and the second measured the ability to ignore distractor stimuli in a visual scene (filtering efficiency). Results showed neither type of sleep deprivation reduced visual working memory capacity. Partial sleep deprivation also generally did not change filtering efficiency. Total sleep deprivation, on the other hand, did impair performance in the filtering task. These results suggest components of visual working memory are differentially vulnerable to the effects of sleep deprivation, and different types of sleep deprivation impact visual working memory to different degrees. Such findings have implications for operational settings where individuals may need to perform with inadequate sleep and whose jobs involve receiving an array of visual information and discriminating the relevant from the irrelevant prior to making decisions or taking actions (e.g., baggage screeners, air traffic controllers, military personnel, health care providers).

  5. The role of material deprivation and consumerism in the decisions to engage in transactional sex among young people in the urban slums of Blantyre, Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamndaya, Mphatso; Vearey, Jo; Thomas, Liz; Kabiru, Caroline W; Kazembe, Lawrence N

    2015-03-05

    Transactional sex has been associated with a high risk of HIV acquisition and unintended pregnancy among young women in urban slums in sub-Saharan Africa. However, few studies have explored the structural drivers of transactional sex from the perspective of both genders in these settings. This paper explores how young men and women understand the factors that lead to transactional sex among their peers, and how deprivation of material resources (housing, food and health care access) and consumerism (a desire for fashionable goods) may instigate transactional sex in the urban slums of Blantyre, Malawi. Data from 5 focus group discussions and 12 in-depth interviews undertaken with a total of 60 young men and women aged 18-23 years old, conducted between December 2012 and May 2013, were analysed using anticipated and grounded codes. Housing and food deprivation influenced decisions to engage in transactional sex for both young men and women. Poor health care access and a desire for fashionable goods (such as the latest hair or clothing styles and cellular phones) influenced the decisions of young women that led to transactional sex. Interventions that engage with deprivations and consumerism are essential to reducing sexual and reproductive health risks in urban slums.

  6. Sleep Duration and Area-Level Deprivation in Twins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Nathaniel F.; Horn, Erin; Duncan, Glen E.; Buchwald, Dedra; Vitiello, Michael V.; Turkheimer, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: We used quantitative genetic models to assess whether area-level deprivation as indicated by the Singh Index predicts shorter sleep duration and modifies its underlying genetic and environmental contributions. Methods: Participants were 4,218 adult twin pairs (2,377 monozygotic and 1,841 dizygotic) from the University of Washington Twin Registry. Participants self-reported habitual sleep duration. The Singh Index was determined by linking geocoding addresses to 17 indicators at the census-tract level using data from Census of Washington State and Census Tract Cartographic Boundary Files from 2000 and 2010. Data were analyzed using univariate and bivariate genetic decomposition and quantitative genetic interaction models that assessed A (additive genetics), C (common environment), and E (unique environment) main effects of the Singh Index on sleep duration and allowed the magnitude of residual ACE variance components in sleep duration to vary with the Index. Results: The sample had a mean age of 38.2 y (standard deviation [SD] = 18), and was predominantly female (62%) and Caucasian (91%). Mean sleep duration was 7.38 h (SD = 1.20) and the mean Singh Index score was 0.00 (SD = 0.89). The heritability of sleep duration was 39% and the Singh Index was 12%. The uncontrolled phenotypic regression of sleep duration on the Singh Index showed a significant negative relationship between area-level deprivation and sleep length (b = −0.080, P sleep duration. For the quasi-causal bivariate model, there was a significant main effect of E (b0E = −0.063; standard error [SE] = 0.30; P sleep duration were significant for both A (b0Au = 0.734; SE = 0.020; P sleep duration, with greater deprivation being related to shorter sleep. As area-level deprivation increases, unique genetic and nonshared environmental residual variance in sleep duration increases. Citation: Watson NF, Horn E, Duncan GE, Buchwald D, Vitiello MV, Turkheimer E. Sleep duration and area

  7. Cross-sectional associations between high-deprivation home and neighbourhood environments, and health-related variables among Liverpool children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noonan, Robert J; Boddy, Lynne M; Knowles, Zoe R; Fairclough, Stuart J

    2016-01-01

    Objectives (1) To investigate differences in health-related, home and neighbourhood environmental variables between Liverpool children living in areas of high deprivation (HD) and medium-to-high deprivation (MD) and (2) to assess associations between these perceived home and neighbourhood environments and health-related variables stratified by deprivation group. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting 10 Liverpool primary schools in 2014. Participants 194 children aged 9–10 years. Main outcome measures Health-related variables (self-reported physical activity (PA) (Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children, PAQ-C), cardiorespiratory fitness, body mass index (BMI) z-scores, waist circumference), home environment variables: (garden/backyard access, independent mobility, screen-based media restrictions, bedroom media) and neighbourhood walkability (Neighbourhood Environment Walkability Scale for Youth, NEWS-Y). Explanatory measures Area deprivation. Results There were significant differences between HD and MD children's BMI z-scores (p<0.01), waist circumference (p<0.001) and cardiorespiratory fitness (p<0.01). HD children had significantly higher bedroom media availability (p<0.05) and independent mobility scores than MD children (p<0.05). MD children had significantly higher residential density and neighbourhood aesthetics scores, and lower crime safety, pedestrian and road traffic safety scores than HD children, all of which indicated higher walkability (p<0.01). HD children's BMI z-scores (β=−0.29, p<0.01) and waist circumferences (β=−0.27, p<0.01) were inversely associated with neighbourhood aesthetics. HD children's PA was negatively associated with bedroom media (β=−0.24, p<0.01), and MD children's PA was positively associated with independent mobility (β=0.25, p<0.01). MD children's independent mobility was inversely associated with crime safety (β=−0.28, p<0.01) and neighbourhood aesthetics (β=−0.24, p<0.05). Conclusions Children

  8. Traveling Companions Add Complexity and Hinder Performance in the Spatial Behavior of Rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorfman, Alex; Nielbo, Kristoffer Laigaard; Eilam, David

    2016-01-01

    -mate. It was found that the presence of another rat substantially altered the rats' spatial behavior. Lone rats collected the food items faster while traveling a shorter distance, reflecting a higher efficiency of task completion. When accompanied by a partner, however, the rats traveled together, visiting the same......We sought to uncover the impact of the social environment on the spatial behavior of rats. Food-deprived rats were trained in a spatial task of collecting food items from 16 equispaced objects. Following training, they were tested, first alone and then with a similarly-trained cage...... of rats’ natural behavior. Revisiting an object following food depletion implies that searching for food was not the main driving force in the rats' spatial behavior. Specifically, despite food deprivation, rats were more attentive to one another than to the food. This could be adaptive, since foraging...

  9. Spatial distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borregaard, Michael Krabbe; Hendrichsen, Ditte Katrine; Nachman, Gøsta Støger

    2008-01-01

    , depending on the nature of intraspecific interactions between them: while the individuals of some species repel each other and partition the available area, others form groups of varying size, determined by the fitness of each group member. The spatial distribution pattern of individuals again strongly......Living organisms are distributed over the entire surface of the planet. The distribution of the individuals of each species is not random; on the contrary, they are strongly dependent on the biology and ecology of the species, and vary over different spatial scale. The structure of whole...... populations reflects the location and fragmentation pattern of the habitat types preferred by the species, and the complex dynamics of migration, colonization, and population growth taking place over the landscape. Within these, individuals are distributed among each other in regular or clumped patterns...

  10. Spatial Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reeh, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Spatial Culture – A Humanities Perspective Abstract of introductory essay by Henrik Reeh Secured by alliances between socio-political development and cultural practices, a new field of humanistic studies in spatial culture has developed since the 1990s. To focus on links between urban culture...... and modern society is, however, an intellectual practice which has a much longer history. Already in the 1980s, the debate on the modern and the postmodern cited Paris and Los Angeles as spatio-cultural illustrations of these major philosophical concepts. Earlier, in the history of critical studies, the work...... Foucault considered a constitutive feature of 20th-century thinking and one that continues to occupy intellectual and cultural debates in the third millennium. A conceptual framework is, nevertheless, necessary, if the humanities are to adequa-tely address city and space – themes that have long been...

  11. Effects of sleep deprivation on serum cortisol level and mental health in servicemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hong-Tao; Sun, Xin-Yang; Yang, Ting-Shu; Zhang, Li-Yi; Yang, Jia-Lin; Bai, Jing

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of sleep deprivation on serum cortisol level and mental health and explore the correlations between them in servicemen. A total of 149 out of the 207 Chinese servicemen were randomly selected to go through 24hour sleep deprivation, leaving the rest (58) as the control group, before and after which their blood samples were drawn for cortisol measurement. Following the procedure, all the participants were administered the Military Personnel Mental Disorder Prediction Scale, taking the military norm as baseline. The results revealed that the post-deprivation serum cortisol level was positively correlated with the factor score of mania in the sleep deprivation group (rSp=0.415, pSleep deprivation could significantly increase serum cortisol level and may affect mental health in servicemen. The increase of serum cortisol level is significantly related to mania disorder during sleep deprivation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Relative state, social comparison reactions, and the behavioral constellation of deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novakowski, Dallas; Mishra, Sandeep

    2017-01-01

    Pepper & Nettle compellingly synthesize evidence indicating that temporal discounting is a functional, adaptive response to deprivation. In this commentary, we underscore the importance of the psychology of relative state, which is an index of relative competitive (dis)advantage. We then highlight two proximate emotional social comparison reactions linked with relative state - personal relative deprivation and envy - that may play an important role in the deprivation-discounting link.

  13. Meta-Analysis of the Antidepressant Effects of Acute Sleep Deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, Elaine M; Rao, Hengyi; Dinges, David F; Smith, Rachel V; Goel, Namni; Detre, John A; Basner, Mathias; Sheline, Yvette I; Thase, Michael E; Gehrman, Philip R

    To provide a quantitative meta-analysis of the antidepressant effects of sleep deprivation to complement qualitative reviews addressing response rates. English-language studies from 1974 to 2016 using the keywords sleep deprivation and depression searched through PubMed and PsycINFO databases. A total of 66 independent studies met criteria for inclusion: conducted experimental sleep deprivation, reported the percentage of the sample that responded to sleep deprivation, provided a priori definition of antidepressant response, and did not seamlessly combine sleep deprivation with other therapies (eg, chronotherapeutics, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation). Data extracted included percentage of responders, type of sample (eg, bipolar, unipolar), type of sleep deprivation (eg, total, partial), demographics, medication use, type of outcome measure used, and definition of response (eg, 30% reduction in depression ratings). Data were analyzed with meta-analysis of proportions and a Poisson mixed-effects regression model. The overall response rate to sleep deprivation was 45% among studies that utilized a randomized control group and 50% among studies that did not. The response to sleep deprivation was not affected significantly by the type of sleep deprivation performed, the nature of the clinical sample, medication status, the definition of response used, or age and gender of the sample. These findings support a significant effect of sleep deprivation and suggest the need for future studies on the phenotypic nature of the antidepressant response to sleep deprivation, on the neurobiological mechanisms of action, and on moderators of the sleep deprivation treatment response in depression. © Copyright 2017 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  14. Role of Sleep Deprivation in Fear Conditioning and Extinction: Implications for Treatment of PTSD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    1 Award Number: W81XWH-11-2-0001 TITLE: Role of Sleep Deprivation in Fear Conditioning and Extinction: Implications for Treatment of PTSD...REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 1 Oct 2010 – 30 Sep 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Role of Sleep Deprivation in Fear Conditioning and...especially adequate REM during exposure therapy may enhance efficacy and reduce remission after treatment. 15. SUBJECT TERMS PTSD, sleep deprivation , fear

  15. Social deprivation, inequality, and the neighborhood-level incidence of psychotic syndromes in East London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkbride, James B; Jones, Peter B; Ullrich, Simone; Coid, Jeremy W

    2014-01-01

    Although urban birth, upbringing, and living are associated with increased risk of nonaffective psychotic disorders, few studies have used appropriate multilevel techniques accounting for spatial dependency in risk to investigate social, economic, or physical determinants of psychosis incidence. We adopted Bayesian hierarchical modeling to investigate the sociospatial distribution of psychosis risk in East London for DSM-IV nonaffective and affective psychotic disorders, ascertained over a 2-year period in the East London first-episode psychosis study. We included individual and environmental data on 427 subjects experiencing first-episode psychosis to estimate the incidence of disorder across 56 neighborhoods, having standardized for age, sex, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. A Bayesian model that included spatially structured neighborhood-level random effects identified substantial unexplained variation in nonaffective psychosis risk after controlling for individual-level factors. This variation was independently associated with greater levels of neighborhood income inequality (SD increase in inequality: Bayesian relative risks [RR]: 1.25; 95% CI: 1.04-1.49), absolute deprivation (RR: 1.28; 95% CI: 1.08-1.51) and population density (RR: 1.18; 95% CI: 1.00-1.41). Neighborhood ethnic composition effects were associated with incidence of nonaffective psychosis for people of black Caribbean and black African origin. No variation in the spatial distribution of the affective psychoses was identified, consistent with the possibility of differing etiological origins of affective and nonaffective psychoses. Our data suggest that both absolute and relative measures of neighborhood social composition are associated with the incidence of nonaffective psychosis. We suggest these associations are consistent with a role for social stressors in psychosis risk, particularly when people live in more unequal communities.

  16. Variations in fresh fruit and vegetable quality by store type, urban-rural setting and neighbourhood deprivation in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Steven; Smith, Dianna M; Taylor, Mathew; Dawson, John; Marshall, David; Sparks, Leigh; Anderson, Annie S

    2009-11-01

    Neighbourhood differences in access to fresh fruit and vegetables may explain social inequalities in diet. Investigations have focused on variations in cost and availability as barriers to the purchase and consumption of fresh produce; investigations of quality have been neglected. Here we investigate whether produce quality systematically varies by food store type, rural-urban location and neighbourhood deprivation in a selection of communities across Scotland. Cross-sectional survey of twelve fresh fruit and vegetable items in 288 food stores in ten communities across Scotland. Communities were selected to reflect a range of urban-rural settings and a food retail census was conducted in each location. The quality of twelve fruit and vegetable items within each food store was evaluated. Data from the Scottish Executive were used to characterise each small area by deprivation and urban-rural classification. Scotland. Quality of fruit and vegetables within the surveyed stores was high. Medium-sized stores, stores in small town and rural areas, and stores in more affluent areas tended to have the highest-quality fresh fruit and vegetables. Stores where food is secondary, stores in urban settings and stores in more deprived areas tended have the lowest-quality fresh produce. Although differences in quality were not always statistically significant, patterns were consistent for the majority of fruit and vegetable items. The study provides evidence that variations in food quality may plausibly be a micro-environmental mediating variable in food purchase and consumption and help partially explain neighbourhood differences in food consumption patterns.

  17. Status Concern and Relative Deprivation in China: Measures, Empirical Evidence and Economic and Policy Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, CHEN

    2017-01-01

    Status concern and feelings of relative deprivation affect individual behaviour and well-being. Traditional norms and the alarming inequality in China have made relative deprivation increasingly intense for the Chinese population. This article reviews empirical literature on China that attempts to test the relative deprivation hypothesis, and also reviews the origins and pathways of relative deprivation, compares its economic measures in the literature and summarises the scientific findings. Drawing from solid empirical evidence, the author discusses the important policy implications on redistribution, official regulations and grassroots sanctions, and relative poverty alleviation. PMID:29033479

  18. Poverty, deprivation, and depressive symptoms among older adults in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Kelvin Chi Kin; Chou, Kee-Lee

    2017-10-31

    Examine the association of income poverty and material deprivation with depression in old age. Our data contains a survey of 1,959 older Chinese adults in Hong Kong. We used the Geriatric Depression Scale - Short Form to assess their depressive symptoms. Income poverty was defined as having household income below half the median household income (adjusted by household size); material deprivation was measured by a validated 28-item material deprivation. In addition to income poverty and material deprivation, we also assessed the effect of socio-demographic variables, financial strain, health indicators, and social and community resources on depressive symptoms. Those who experienced material deprivation reported a significantly more severe depressive symptoms, even after income poverty and all other covariates were controlled for; the bivariate association between income poverty and depressive symptoms disappeared once material deprivation was controlled for. Further, we found a significant interaction effect between income poverty and material deprivation on depressive symptoms; and both engagement in cultural activities and neighborhood collective efficacy moderated the impact of being materially deprived on depressive symptoms. Our results have important policy implications for the measurement of poverty and for the development of anti-poverty measures for materially deprived older adults.

  19. Circadian modulation of consolidated memory retrieval following sleep deprivation in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Glou, Eric; Seugnet, Laurent; Shaw, Paul J; Preat, Thomas; Goguel, Valérie

    2012-10-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate that sleep plays a critical role in learning and memory. The aim of this study was to evaluate anesthesia resistant memory following sleep deprivation in Drosophila. Four to 16 h after aversive olfactory training, flies were sleep deprived for 4 h. Memory was assessed 24 h after training. Training, sleep deprivation, and memory tests were performed at different times during the day to evaluate the importance of the time of day for memory formation. The role of circadian rhythms was further evaluated using circadian clock mutants. Memory was disrupted when flies were exposed to 4 h of sleep deprivation during the consolidation phase. Interestingly, normal memory was observed following sleep deprivation when the memory test was performed during the 2 h preceding lights-off, a period characterized by maximum wake in flies. We also show that anesthesia resistant memory was less sensitive to sleep deprivation in flies with disrupted circadian rhythms. Our results indicate that anesthesia resistant memory, a consolidated memory less costly than long-term memory, is sensitive to sleep deprivation. In addition, we provide evidence that circadian factors influence memory vulnerability to sleep deprivation and memory retrieval. Taken together, the data show that memories weakened by sleep deprivation can be retrieved if the animals are tested at the optimal circadian time.

  20. Sleep deprivation affects inflammatory marker expression in adipose tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Ronaldo VT

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sleep deprivation has been shown to increase inflammatory markers in rat sera and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Inflammation is a condition associated with pathologies such as obesity, cancer, and cardiovascular diseases. We investigated changes in the pro and anti-inflammatory cytokines and adipokines in different depots of white adipose tissue in rats. We also assessed lipid profiles and serum levels of corticosterone, leptin, and adiponectin after 96 hours of sleep deprivation. Methods The study consisted of two groups: a control (C group and a paradoxical sleep deprivation by 96 h (PSD group. Ten rats were randomly assigned to either the control group (C or the PSD. Mesenteric (MEAT and retroperitoneal (RPAT adipose tissue, liver and serum were collected following completion of the PSD protocol. Levels of interleukin (IL-6, interleukin (IL-10 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF-α were analysed in MEAT and RPAT, and leptin, adiponectin, glucose, corticosterone and lipid profile levels were analysed in serum. Results IL-6 levels were elevated in RPAT but remained unchanged in MEAT after PSD. IL-10 protein concentration was not altered in either depot, and TNF-α levels decreased in MEAT. Glucose, triglycerides (TG, VLDL and leptin decreased in serum after 96 hours of PSD; adiponectin was not altered and corticosterone was increased. Conclusion PSD decreased fat mass and may modulate the cytokine content in different depots of adipose tissue. The inflammatory response was diminished in both depots of adipose tissue, with increased IL-6 levels in RPAT and decreased TNF-α protein concentrations in MEAT and increased levels of corticosterone in serum.

  1. Impaired NaCl taste thresholds in Zn deprived rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brosvic, G.M.; Slotnick, B.M.; Nelson, N.; Henkin, R.I.

    1986-01-01

    Zn deficiency is a relatively common cause of loss of taste acuity in humans. In some patients replacement with exogenous Zn results in rapid reversal of the loss whereas in others prolonged treatment is needed to restore normal taste function. To study this 300 gm outbred Sprague Dawley rats were given Zn deficient diet (< 1 ppm Zn) supplemented with Zn in drinking water (0.1 gm Zn/100 gm body weight). Rats were trained in an automated operant conditions procedure and NaCl taste thresholds determined. During an initial training period and over two replications mean thresholds were 0.006% and mean plasma Zn was 90 +/- 2 μg/dl (M +/- SEM) determined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Rats were then divided into two groups; in one (3 rats) Zn supplement was removed, in the other (4 rats), pair-fed with the former group, Zn supplement was continued. In 10 days NaCl thresholds in Zn deprived rats increased significantly (0.07%, p < 0.01) and in 17 days increased 13 fold (0.08%) but thresholds for pair fed, supplemented rats remained constant (0.006%). There was no overlap in response between any rat in the two groups. Plasma Zn at 17 days in Zn-deprived rats was significantly below pair-fed rats (52 +/- 13 vs 89 +/- 6 μg/dl, respectively, P < 0.01). At this time Zn-deprived rats were supplemented with Zn for 27 days without any reduction in taste thresholds. These preliminary results are consistent with previous observations in Zn deficient patients

  2. The neighbourhood effects of geographical access to tobacco retailers on individual smoking behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, J; Hiscock, R; Moon, G; Barnett, R

    2009-01-01

    To investigate whether neighbourhood measures of geographical accessibility to outlets selling tobacco (supermarkets, convenience stores and petrol stations) are associated with individual smoking behaviour in New Zealand. Using geographical information systems, travel times from the population-weighted centroid of each neighbourhood to the closest outlet selling tobacco were calculated for all 38,350 neighbourhoods across New Zealand. These measures were appended to the 2002/03 New Zealand Health Survey, a national survey of 12, 529 adults. Two-level logistic regression models were fitted to examine the effects of neighbourhood locational access upon individual smoking behaviour after controlling for potential individual- and neighbourhood-level confounding factors, including deprivation and urban/rural status. After controlling for individual-level demographic and socioeconomic variables, individuals living in the quartiles of neighbourhoods with the best access to supermarkets (OR 1.23, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.42) and convenience stores (OR 1.19, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.38) had a higher odds of smoking compared with individuals in the worst access quartiles. However, the association between neighbourhood accessibility to supermarkets and convenience stores was not apparent once other neighbourhood-level variables (deprivation and rurality) were included. At the national level, there is little evidence to suggest that, after adjustment for neighbourhood deprivation, better locational access to tobacco retail provision in New Zealand is associated with individual-level smoking behaviour.

  3. Sleep deprivation attenuates experimental stroke severity in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moldovan, Mihai; Constantinescu, Alexandra Oana; Balseanu, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    Indirect epidemiological and experimental evidence suggest that the severity of injury during stroke is influenced by prior sleep history. The aim of our study was to test the effect of acute sleep deprivation on early outcome following experimental stroke. Young male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=20...... after stroke was monitored using a battery of behavioral tests investigating the asymmetry of sensorimotor deficit (tape removal test and cylinder test), bilateral sensorimotor coordination (rotor-rod and Inclined plane) and memory (T-maze and radial maze). Following MCAO, control rats had impaired...

  4. Sleep deprivation and the organization of the behavioral states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dement, W. C.

    1972-01-01

    Questions concerning the significance of sleep in the developing organism are investigated, together with the mechanisms that underlie the unique distribution of behavioral states at any particular age and during any particular experimental manipulation. It is attempted to define the states of sleep and wakefulness in terms of a temporal confluence of a number of more or less independent processes, taking also into account the functional consequences of these attributes. The results of a selective deprivation of rapid eye movement sleep are explored, giving attention to effects on sleep, behavioral changes, brain excitability, pharmacological changes, and biochemical changes.

  5. Sleep Deficiency and Deprivation Leading to Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Kohansieh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sleep plays a vital role in an individual’s mental, emotional, and physiological well-being. Not only does sleep deficiency lead to neurological and psychological disorders, but also the literature has explored the adverse effects of sleep deficiency on the cardiovascular system. Decreased quantity and quality of sleep have been linked to cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors, such as hypertension, obesity, diabetes, and dyslipidemia. We explore the literature correlating primary sleep deficiency and deprivation as a cause for cardiovascular disease and cite endothelial dysfunction as a common underlying mechanism.

  6. Accessibility Long Term Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kay Axhausen

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Improved accessibility and its correlate lower generalized cost of contact, travel and transport have been sought by dynamic human societies for their economic and social benefits through- out recorded history. The paper will reflect about this process at a number of different spatial and temporal scales based on a conceptual model. Looking back at European history, it will trace the interaction between Christaller's logic of local market areas and the idea of (low contact cost network cities. Focusing on Switzerland since 1950 it will show how network investment changed the relative distribution of population and employment and how this interacted with changes in the preferences of the travelers. Using a recent snapshot of how a substantial sample of Swiss maintain their social networks over often very large areas, it will try to answer the question of what will happen in the future, if the current trend of ever lower costs of contact will persist.

  7. The influence of sleep deprivation and oscillating motion on sleepiness, motion sickness, and cognitive and motor performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Janna; Ventura, Joel; Bakshi, Avijit; Pierobon, Alberto; Lackner, James R; DiZio, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Our goal was to determine how sleep deprivation, nauseogenic motion, and a combination of motion and sleep deprivation affect cognitive vigilance, visual-spatial perception, motor learning and retention, and balance. We exposed four groups of subjects to different combinations of normal 8h sleep or 4h sleep for two nights combined with testing under stationary conditions or during 0.28Hz horizontal linear oscillation. On the two days following controlled sleep, all subjects underwent four test sessions per day that included evaluations of fatigue, motion sickness, vigilance, perceptual discrimination, perceptual learning, motor performance and learning, and balance. Sleep loss and exposure to linear oscillation had additive or multiplicative relationships to sleepiness, motion sickness severity, decreases in vigilance and in perceptual discrimination and learning. Sleep loss also decelerated the rate of adaptation to motion sickness over repeated sessions. Sleep loss degraded the capacity to compensate for novel robotically induced perturbations of reaching movements but did not adversely affect adaptive recovery of accurate reaching. Overall, tasks requiring substantial attention to cognitive and motor demands were degraded more than tasks that were more automatic. Our findings indicate that predicting performance needs to take into account in addition to sleep loss, the attentional demands and novelty of tasks, the motion environment in which individuals will be performing and their prior susceptibility to motion sickness during exposure to provocative motion stimulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Rural women's access to health care in Bangladesh: swimming against the tide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossen, Md Abul; Westhues, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Large segments of the population in developing countries are deprived of a fundamental right: access to basic health care. The problem of access to health care is particularly acute in Bangladesh. One crucial determinant of health seeking among rural women is the accessibility of medical care and barriers to care that may develop because of location, financial requirements, bureaucratic responses to the patient, social distance between client and provider, and the sex of providers. This article argues that to increase accessibility fundamental changes are required not only in resource allocation but also in the very structure of health services delivery.

  9. Spatial filtring and thermocouple spatial filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Bing; Tong Yunxian

    1989-12-01

    The design and study on thermocouple spatial filter have been conducted for the flow measurement of integrated reactor coolant. The fundamental principle of spatial filtring, mathematical descriptions and analyses of thermocouple spatial filter are given

  10. Identifying aspects of neighbourhood deprivation associated with increased incidence of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhavsar, Vishal; Boydell, Jane; Murray, Robin; Power, Paddy

    2014-06-01

    Several studies have found an association between area deprivation and incidence of schizophrenia. However, not all studies have concurred and definitions of deprivation have varied between studies. Relative deprivation and inequality seem to be particularly important, but which aspects of deprivation or how this effect might operate is not known. The Lambeth Early Onset case register is a database of all cases of first episode psychosis aged 16 to 35years from the London Borough of Lambeth, a highly urban area. We identified 405 people with first onset schizophrenia who presented between 2000 and 2007. We calculated the overall incidence of first onset schizophrenia and tested for an association with area-level deprivation, using a multi-domain index of deprivation (IMD 2004). Specific analyses into associations with individual sub-domains of deprivation were then undertaken. Incidence rates, directly standardized for age and gender, were calculated for Lambeth at two geographical levels (small and large neighbourhood level). The Poisson regression model predicting incidence rate ratios for schizophrenia using overall deprivation score was statistically significant at both levels after adjusting for ethnicity, ethnic density, population density and population turnover. The incidence rate ratio for electoral ward deprivation was 1.03 (95% CI=1.004-1.04) and for the super output area deprivation was 1.04 (95% CI=1.02-1.06). The individual domains of crime, employment deprivation and educational deprivation were statistically significant predictors of incidence but, after adjusting for the other domains as well as age, gender, ethnicity and population density, only crime and educational deprivation, remained statistically significant. Low income, poor housing and deprived living environment did not predict incidence. In a highly urban area, an association was found between area-level deprivation and incidence of schizophrenia, after controlling for age, gender

  11. Quantifying the impact of deprivation on preterm births: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor-Robinson, David; Agarwal, Umber; Diggle, Peter J; Platt, Mary Jane; Yoxall, Bill; Alfirevic, Zarko

    2011-01-01

    Social deprivation is associated with higher rates of preterm birth and subsequent infant mortality. Our objective was to identify risk factors for preterm birth in the UK's largest maternity unit, with a particular focus on social deprivation, and related factors. Retrospective cohort study of 39,873 women in Liverpool, UK, from 2002-2008. Singleton pregnancies were stratified into uncomplicated low risk pregnancies and a high risk group complicated by medical problems. Multiple logistic regression, and generalized additive models were used to explore the effect of covariates including area deprivation, smoking status, BMI, parity and ethnicity on the risk of preterm birth (34⁺⁰ weeks). In the low risk group, preterm birth rates increased with deprivation, reaching 1.6% (CI₉₅ 1.4 to 1.8) in the most deprived quintile; the unadjusted odds ratio comparing an individual in the most deprived quintile, to one in the least deprived quintile was 1.5 (CI₉₅ 1.2 to 1.9). Being underweight and smoking were both independently associated with preterm birth in the low risk group, and adjusting for these factors explained the association between deprivation and preterm birth. Preterm birth was five times more likely in the high risk group (RR 4.8 CI₉₅ 4.3 to 5.4), and there was no significant relationship with deprivation. Deprivation has significant impact on preterm birth rates in low risk women. The relationship between low socio-economic status and preterm births appears to be related to low maternal weight and smoking in more deprived groups.

  12. Quantifying the impact of deprivation on preterm births: a retrospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Taylor-Robinson

    Full Text Available Social deprivation is associated with higher rates of preterm birth and subsequent infant mortality. Our objective was to identify risk factors for preterm birth in the UK's largest maternity unit, with a particular focus on social deprivation, and related factors.Retrospective cohort study of 39,873 women in Liverpool, UK, from 2002-2008. Singleton pregnancies were stratified into uncomplicated low risk pregnancies and a high risk group complicated by medical problems. Multiple logistic regression, and generalized additive models were used to explore the effect of covariates including area deprivation, smoking status, BMI, parity and ethnicity on the risk of preterm birth (34⁺⁰ weeks. In the low risk group, preterm birth rates increased with deprivation, reaching 1.6% (CI₉₅ 1.4 to 1.8 in the most deprived quintile; the unadjusted odds ratio comparing an individual in the most deprived quintile, to one in the least deprived quintile was 1.5 (CI₉₅ 1.2 to 1.9. Being underweight and smoking were both independently associated with preterm birth in the low risk group, and adjusting for these factors explained the association between deprivation and preterm birth. Preterm birth was five times more likely in the high risk group (RR 4.8 CI₉₅ 4.3 to 5.4, and there was no significant relationship with deprivation.Deprivation has significant impact on preterm birth rates in low risk women. The relationship between low socio-economic status and preterm births appears to be related to low maternal weight and smoking in more deprived groups.

  13. Effect of socioeconomic deprivation on waiting time for cardiac surgery: retrospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pell, Jill P; Pell, Alastair C H; Norrie, John; Ford, Ian; Cobbe, Stuart M

    2000-01-01

    Objective To determine whether the priority given to patients referred for cardiac surgery is associated with socioeconomic status. Design Retrospective study with multivariate logistic regression analysis of the association between deprivation and classification of urgency with allowance for age, sex, and type of operation. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to determine association between deprivation and waiting time within each category of urgency, with allowance for age, sex, and type of operation. Setting NHS waiting lists in Scotland. Participants 26 642 patients waiting for cardiac surgery, 1 January 1986 to 31 December 1997. Main outcome measures Deprivation as measured by Carstairs deprivation category. Time spent on NHS waiting list. Results Patients who were most deprived tended to be younger and were more likely to be female. Patients in deprivation categories 6 and 7 (most deprived) waited about three weeks longer for surgery than those in category 1 (mean difference 24 days, 95% confidence interval 15 to 32). Deprived patients had an odds ratio of 0.5 (0.46 to 0.61) for having their operations classified as urgent compared with the least deprived, after allowance for age, sex, and type of operation. When urgent and routine cases were considered separately, there was no significant difference in waiting times between the most and least deprived categories. Conclusions Socioeconomically deprived patients are thought to be more likely to develop coronary heart disease but are less likely to be investigated and offered surgery once it has developed. Such patients may be further disadvantaged by having to wait longer for surgery because of being given lower priority. PMID:10617517

  14. DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF AN OPEN ACCESS GEOPORTAL

    OpenAIRE

    SARI, Fatih

    2018-01-01

    GeoPortal Systems are being considered one of the most important object in interoperability concept for Spatial data Management. With the developing technology of the information age, the need for accessing to spatial data is caused to effort for establishing national, regional and local information systems by institutes and organizations. Sharing and accessing of spatial datasets between institutes and organizations are being more important within interoperability concept.In this study, Open...

  15. The emergence of spatial cyberinfrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Dawn J; Wang, Shaowen

    2011-04-05

    Cyberinfrastructure integrates advanced computer, information, and communication technologies to empower computation-based and data-driven scientific practice and improve the synthesis and analysis of scientific data in a collaborative and shared fashion. As such, it now represents a paradigm shift in scientific research that has facilitated easy access to computational utilities and streamlined collaboration across distance and disciplines, thereby enabling scientific breakthroughs to be reached more quickly and efficiently. Spatial cyberinfrastructure seeks to resolve longstanding complex problems of handling and analyzing massive and heterogeneous spatial datasets as well as the necessity and benefits of sharing spatial data flexibly and securely. This article provides an overview and potential future directions of spatial cyberinfrastructure. The remaining four articles of the special feature are introduced and situated in the context of providing empirical examples of how spatial cyberinfrastructure is extending and enhancing scientific practice for improved synthesis and analysis of both physical and social science data. The primary focus of the articles is spatial analyses using distributed and high-performance computing, sensor networks, and other advanced information technology capabilities to transform massive spatial datasets into insights and knowledge.

  16. Sleep modulates the neural substrates of both spatial and contextual memory consolidation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Géraldine Rauchs

    Full Text Available It is known that sleep reshapes the neural representations that subtend the memories acquired while navigating in a virtual environment. However, navigation is not process-pure, as manifold learning components contribute to performance, notably the spatial and contextual memory constituents. In this context, it remains unclear whether post-training sleep globally promotes consolidation of all of the memory components embedded in virtual navigation, or rather favors the development of specific representations. Here, we investigated the effect of post-training sleep on the neural substrates of the consolidation of spatial and contextual memories acquired while navigating in a complex 3D, naturalistic virtual town. Using fMRI, we mapped regional cerebral activity during various tasks designed to tap either the spatial or the contextual memory component, or both, 72 h after encoding with or without sleep deprivation during the first post-training night. Behavioral performance was not dependent upon post-training sleep deprivation, neither in a natural setting that engages both spatial and contextual memory processes nor when looking more specifically at each of these memory representations. At the neuronal level however, analyses that focused on contextual memory revealed distinct correlations between performance and neuronal activity in frontal areas associated with recollection processes after post-training sleep, and in the parahippocampal gyrus associated with familiarity processes in sleep-deprived participants. Likewise, efficient spatial memory was associated with posterior cortical activity after sleep whereas it correlated with parahippocampal/medial temporal activity after sleep deprivation. Finally, variations in place-finding efficiency in a natural setting encompassing spatial and contextual elements were associated with caudate activity after post-training sleep, suggesting the automation of navigation. These data indicate that post

  17. Experimental effects of chocolate deprivation on cravings, mood, and consumption in high and low chocolate-cravers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Dominguez, Silvia; Rodríguez-Ruiz, Sonia; Martín, María; Warren, Cortney S

    2012-02-01

    This study examined how deprivation of chocolate affects state-level chocolate cravings, mood, and chocolate consumption in high and low trait-level chocolate-cravers. After identifying high and low chocolate cravers (N=58), half of the participants were instructed not to eat any chocolate for 2weeks. This created four experimental groups: deprived high-cravers (n=14), deprived low-cravers (n=14), non-deprived high-cravers (n=15), and non-deprived low-cravers (n=15). Following 2-week deprivation, state-level food cravings, mood, and chocolate intake were measured in a laboratory setting and compared across groups. Analyses revealed that anxiety increased over time for high-cravers (both deprived and non-deprived); state-level chocolate- and food-craving increased over time for both deprived groups and non-deprived high-cravers; non-deprived high-cravers ate the most chocolate; and, high-cravers were more joyful and guilty than low-cravers after eating chocolate in the laboratory. Theoretically, these results suggest that chocolate consumption may be better explained by trait-level of chocolate craving than by deprivation and highlighted significant differences in mood, state-level cravings, and chocolate intake between cravers and non-cravers following deprivation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Spatial Politics of Spatial Representation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Kristian; Richardson, Tim

    2011-01-01

    spatial planning in Denmark reveals how fuzzy spatial representations and relational spatial concepts are being used to depoliticise strategic spatial planning processes and to camouflage spatial politics. The paper concludes that, while relational geography might play an important role in building......This paper explores the interplay between the spatial politics of new governance landscapes and innovations in the use of spatial representations in planning. The central premise is that planning experiments with new relational approaches become enmeshed in spatial politics. The case of strategic...

  19. Chronic sleep deprivation markedly reduces coagulation factor VII expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinotti, Mirko; Bertolucci, Cristiano; Frigato, Elena; Branchini, Alessio; Cavallari, Nicola; Baba, Kenkichi; Contreras-Alcantara, Susana; Ehlen, J. Christopher; Bernardi, Francesco; Paul, Ketema N.; Tosini, Gianluca

    2010-01-01

    Chronic sleep loss, a common feature of human life in industrialized countries, is associated to cardiovascular disorders. Variations in functional parameters of coagulation might contribute to explain this relationship. By exploiting the mouse model and a specifically designed protocol, we demonstrated that seven days of partial sleep deprivation significantly decreases (−30.5%) the thrombin generation potential in plasma evaluated upon extrinsic (TF/FVIIa pathway) but not intrinsic activation of coagulation. This variation was consistent with a decrease (−49.8%) in the plasma activity levels of factor VII (FVII), the crucial physiologicalal trigger of coagulation, which was even more pronounced at the liver mRNA level (−85.7%). The recovery in normal sleep conditions for three days completely restored thrombin generation and FVII activity in plasma. For the first time, we demonstrate that chronic sleep deprivation on its own reduces, in a reversible manner, the FVII expression levels, thus influencing the TF/FVIIa activation pathway efficiency. PMID:20418241

  20. Iron in intracellular infection: to provide or to deprive?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro eSilva-Gomes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to their chemical versatility, transition metals were incorporated as cofactors for several basic metabolic pathways in living organisms. This same characteristic makes them potentially harmful, since they can be engaged in deleterious reactions like Fenton chemistry. As such, organisms have evolved highly specialized mechanisms to supply their own metal needs while keeping their toxic potential in check.This dual character comes into play in host-pathogen interactions, given that the host can either deprive the pathogen of these key nutrients or exploit them to induce toxicity towards the invading agent. Iron stands as the prototypic example of how a metal can be used to limit the growth of pathogens by nutrient deprivation, a mechanism widely studied in Mycobacterium infections. However, the host can also take advantage of iron-induced toxicity to control pathogen proliferation, as observed in infections caused by Leishmania. Whether we may harness either of the two pathways for therapeutical purposes is still ill-defined.In this review, we discuss how modulation of the host iron availability impacts the course of infections, focusing on those caused by two relevant intracellular pathogens, Mycobacterium and Leishmania.

  1. Modulation of financial deprivation on deception and its neural correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Peng; Ling, Xiaoli; Zheng, Li; Chen, Jia; Li, Lin; Liu, Zhiyuan; Cheng, Xuemei; Guo, Xiuyan

    2017-11-01

    Deception is a universal phenomenon in human society and plays an important role in everyday life. Previous studies have revealed that people might have an internalized moral norm of keeping honest and the deceptive behavior was reliably correlated with activation in executive brain regions of prefrontal cortices to over-ride intuitive honest responses. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, this study sought to investigate how financial position modulated the neural responses during deceptive decision. Twenty-one participants were scanned when they played a series of adapted Dictator Game with different partners after a ball-guess game. Specifically, participants gained or lost money in the ball-guess game, and had opportunities to get more financial gains through cheating in the following adapted Dictator Game. Behavioral results indicated that participants did not cheat to the full extent; instead they were more likely to lie after losing money compared with gaining money. At the neural level, weaker activities in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortices were observed when participants lied after losing money than gaining money. Together, our data indicated that, people really had an internalized norm of keeping honest, but it would be lenient when people feel financial deprivation. And suppressing the truthful response originating from moral norm of keeping honest was associated with increased level of activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortices, but this association became weaker when people were under financial deprivation.

  2. Reduction of globotriaosylceramide in Fabry disease mice by substrate deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, A; Gregory, S; Lee, L; Killen, P D; Brady, R O; Kulkarni, A; Shayman, J A

    2000-06-01

    We used a potent inhibitor of glucosylceramide synthase to test whether substrate deprivation could lower globotriaosylceramide levels in alpha-galactosidase A (alpha-gal A) knockout mice, a model of Fabry disease. C57BL/6 mice treated twice daily for 3 days with D-threo-1-ethylendioxyphenyl-2-palmitoylamino-3-pyrrolidi no-propanol (D-t-EtDO-P4) showed a concentration-dependent decrement in glucosylceramide levels in kidney, liver, and spleen. A single intraperitoneal injection of D-t-EtDO-P4 resulted in a 55% reduction in renal glucosylceramide, consistent with rapid renal glucosylceramide metabolism. A concentration-dependent decrement in renal and hepatic globotriaosylceramide levels was observed in alpha-Gal A(-) males treated for 4 weeks with D-t-EtDO-P4. When 8-week-old alpha-Gal A(-) males were treated for 8 weeks with 10 mg/kg twice daily, renal globotriaosylceramide fell to below starting levels, consistent with an alpha-galactosidase A-independent salvage pathway for globotriaosylceramide degradation. Complications observed with another glucosylceramide synthase inhibitor, N-butyldeoxynojirimycin, including weight loss and acellularity of lymphatic organs, were not observed with D-t-EtDO-P4. These data suggest that Fabry disease may be amenable to substrate deprivation therapy.

  3. Pupillographic assessment of sleepiness in sleep-deprived healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, B; Wilhelm, H; Lüdtke, H; Streicher, P; Adler, M

    1998-05-01

    Spontaneous pupillary-behavior in darkness provides information about a subject's level of sleepiness. In the present work, pupil measurements in complete darkness and quiet have been recorded continuously over 11-minute period with infrared video pupillography at 25 Hz. The data have been analyzed to yield three parameters describing pupil behavior; the power of diameter variation at frequencies below 0.8 Hz (slow changes in pupil size), the pupillary unrest index, and the average pupil size. To investigate the changes of these parameters in sleep deprivation, spontaneous pupillary behavior in darkness was recorded every 2 hours in 13 healthy subjects from 19:00 to 07:00 during forced wakefulness. On each occasion, comparative subjective sleepiness was assessed with a self-rating scale (Stanford Sleepiness Scale, SSS). The power of slow pupillary oscillations (< or = 0.8 Hz) increased significantly and so did the values of SSS, while basic pupil diameter decreased significantly. Slow pupillary oscillations and SSS did not correlate well in general but high values of pupil parameters were always associated with high values in subjective rating. Our results demonstrate a strong relationship between ongoing sleep deprivation and typical changes in the frequency profiles of spontaneous pupillary oscillations and the tendency to instability in pupil size in normals. These findings suggest that the results of pupil data analysis permit an objective measurement of sleepiness.

  4. Contracture of Slow Striated Muscle during Calcium Deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Richard L.; Hein, Manfred M.

    1963-01-01

    When deprived of calcium the slow striated muscle fibers of the frog develop reversible contractures in either hypertonic or isotonic solutions. While calcium deprivation continues because of a flowing calcium-free solution the muscles relax slowly and completely. Restoration of calcium during contracture relaxes the muscle promptly to initial tension. When relaxed during calcium lack the return of calcium does not change tension and the muscle stays relaxed. When contractures are induced by solutions containing small amounts of calcium relaxation does not occur or requires several hours. The rate of tension development depends upon the rate at which calcium moves outward since the contractures develop slower in low concentrations of calcium and are absent or greatly slowed in a stagnant calcium-free solution. Withdrawal of calcium prevents the contractile responses to ACh, KCl, or electrical stimulation through the nerve. Muscles return to their original excitability after calcium is restored. Origin of the contractures is unrelated to nerve activity since they are maximal during transmission failure from calcium lack, occur in denervated muscles, and are not blocked by high concentrations of d-tubocurarine, procaine, or atropine. The experiments also indicate that the contractures do not originate from repetitive activity of muscle membranes. The findings are most simply explained by relating the outward movement of calcium as a link for initiating contraction in slow type striated muscle. PMID:14065284

  5. Spatial implications of covariate adjustment on patterns of risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabel, Clive Eric; Wilson, Jeff Gaines; Kingham, Simon

    2007-01-01

    Epidemiological studies that examine the relationship between environmental exposures and health often address other determinants of health that may influence the relationship being studied by adjusting for these factors as covariates. While disease surveillance methods routinely control...... for covariates such as deprivation, there has been limited investigative work on the spatial movement of risk at the intraurban scale due to the adjustment. It is important that the nature of any spatial relocation be well understood as a relocation to areas of increased risk may also introduce additional...... localised factors that influence the exposure-response relationship. This paper examines the spatial patterns of relative risk and clusters of hospitalisations based on an illustrative small-area example from Christchurch, New Zealand. A four-stage test of the spatial relocation effects of covariate...

  6. Sociospatial distribution of access to facilities for moderate and vigorous intensity physical activity in Scotland by different modes of transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamb Karen E

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People living in neighbourhoods of lower socioeconomic status have been shown to have higher rates of obesity and a lower likelihood of meeting physical activity recommendations than their more affluent counterparts. This study examines the sociospatial distribution of access to facilities for moderate or vigorous intensity physical activity in Scotland and whether such access differs by the mode of transport available and by Urban Rural Classification. Methods A database of all fixed physical activity facilities was obtained from the national agency for sport in Scotland. Facilities were categorised into light, moderate and vigorous intensity activity groupings before being mapped. Transport networks were created to assess the number of each type of facility accessible from the population weighted centroid of each small area in Scotland on foot, by bicycle, by car and by bus. Multilevel modelling was used to investigate the distribution of the number of accessible facilities by small area deprivation within urban, small town and rural areas separately, adjusting for population size and local authority. Results Prior to adjustment for Urban Rural Classification and local authority, the median number of accessible facilities for moderate or vigorous intensity activity increased with increasing deprivation from the most affluent or second most affluent quintile to the most deprived for all modes of transport. However, after adjustment, the modelling results suggest that those in more affluent areas have significantly higher access to moderate and vigorous intensity facilities by car than those living in more deprived areas. Conclusions The sociospatial distributions of access to facilities for both moderate intensity and vigorous intensity physical activity were similar. However, the results suggest that those living in the most affluent neighbourhoods have poorer access to facilities of either type that can be reached on foot

  7. Decrease in monocular sleep after sleep deprivation in the domestic chicken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerema, AS; Riedstra, B; Strijkstra, AM

    2003-01-01

    We investigated the trade-off between sleep need and alertness, by challenging chickens to modify their monocular sleep. We sleep deprived domestic chickens (Gallus domesticus) to increase their sleep need. We found that in response to sleep deprivation the fraction of monocular sleep within sleep

  8. The Effects of Sleep Deprivation on Item and Associative Recognition Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratcliff, Roger; Van Dongen, Hans P. A.

    2018-01-01

    Sleep deprivation adversely affects the ability to perform cognitive tasks, but theories range from predicting an overall decline in cognitive functioning because of reduced stability in attentional networks to specific deficits in various cognitive domains or processes. We measured the effects of sleep deprivation on two memory tasks, item…

  9. What Factors Are Important in Smoking Cessation Amongst Deprived Communities?: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Hazel J.; Memon, Anjum; Lawson, Kate; Jacobs, Barbara; Koutsogeorgou, Eleni

    2011-01-01

    Objective: There is limited evidence regarding effective smoking cessation interventions in deprived communities. This study explored what factors are considered most important in smoking cessation, from the perspective of a group of NHS Stop Smoking Service users from a deprived community. Design: A qualitative study. Setting: A deprived…

  10. Academic Difficulties and Early Literacy Deprivation: The Case of Ethiopians in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkon, Elisheva; Avinor, Eleanor

    1995-01-01

    Investigates a possible link between academic difficulties and early literacy deprivation among the immigrant Ethiopian population in Israel. Findings suggest that such deprivation can affect the person after he becomes literate and multilingual and that literacy exposure in early childhood and first-language maintenance is important. (11…

  11. 'Come and live here and you'll experience it': : Youths talk about their deprived neighbourhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Kirsten; Bolt, Gideon; van Kempen, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    This study examined youths' lived experiences of a deprived neighbourhood in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Previous studies assume that deprived neighbourhoods pose serious risks for youths. What is largely missing from these studies, however, are the experiences of young people themselves. Do they

  12. McDonald's restaurants and neighborhood deprivation in Scotland and England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Steven C J; McKay, Laura; MacIntyre, Sally

    2005-11-01

    Features of the local fast food environment have been hypothesized to contribute to the greater prevalence of obesity in deprived neighborhoods. However, few studies have investigated whether fast food outlets are more likely to be found in poorer areas, and those that have are local case studies. In this paper, using national-level data, we examine the association between neighborhood deprivation and the density of McDonald's restaurants in small census areas (neighborhoods) in Scotland and England. Data on population, deprivation, and the location of McDonald's Restaurants were obtained for 38,987 small areas in Scotland and England (6505 "data zones" in Scotland, and 32,482 "super output areas" in England) in January 2005. Measures of McDonald's restaurants per 1000 people for each area were calculated, and areas were divided into quintiles of deprivation. Associations between neighborhood deprivation and outlet density were examined during February 2005, using one-way analysis of variance in Scotland, England, and both countries combined. Statistically significant positive associations were found between neighborhood deprivation and the mean number of McDonald's outlets per 1000 people for Scotland (p<0.001), England (p<0.001), and both countries combined (p<0.001). These associations were broadly linear with greater mean numbers of outlets per 1000 people occurring as deprivation levels increased. Observed associations between presence or absence of fast food outlets and neighborhood deprivation may provide support for environmental explanations for the higher prevalence of obesity in poor neighborhoods.

  13. The effect of early visual deprivation on the neural bases of multisensory processing

    OpenAIRE

    Guerreiro, Maria J. S.; Putzar, Lisa; Röder, Brigitte

    2015-01-01

    Animal studies have shown that congenital visual deprivation reduces the ability of neurons to integrate cross-modal inputs. Guerreiro et al. reveal that human patients who suffer transient congenital visual deprivation because of cataracts lack multisensory integration in auditory and multisensory areas as adults, and suppress visual processing during audio-visual stimulation.

  14. Bone Densitometry of the Femoral Midshaft the Protein-Deprived Rat*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rats, has shown a significant loss of total bone density in the protein-deprived group. This reduction is no greater than can be accounted for by the loss of cortical bone surface area, suggesting that while bone mass is reduced as a result of protein deprivation, the mineral composition of the residual bone is likely to be ...

  15. Coping with the effects of deprivation : Development and upbringing of Romanian adoptees in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijk, C.H.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes the effects of early life deprivation on Romanian adopted children in the Netherlands. These children have been exposed to (severe) deprivation in the period they have spend in Romanian children’s homes or hospitals. For a group of 72 families, who had adopted 80 Romanian

  16. Tailoring Gut Microbiota for Enhanced Resilience and Performance Under Sleep-Deprived Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    psychological disorders, we have developed a hypothesis that sleep deprivation initially degrades the functional and structural integrity of the...metabolically active members and the collective metabolic profiles of the microbiota community. An integrated approach to examine the metabolic...obesity. Interestingly, perturbation of gut microbiota presents a pattern of metabolic abnormalities mirroring those induced by sleep deprivation. In

  17. Examining public open spaces by neighborhood-level walkability and deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badland, Hannah M; Keam, Rosanna; Witten, Karen; Kearns, Robin

    2010-11-01

    Public open spaces (POS) are recognized as important to promote physical activity engagement. However, it is unclear how POS attributes, such as activities available, environmental quality, amenities present, and safety, are associated with neighborhood-level walkability and deprivation. Twelve neighborhoods were selected within 1 constituent city of Auckland, New Zealand based on higher (n = 6) or lower (n = 6) walkability characteristics. Neighborhoods were dichotomized as more (n = 7) or less (n = 5) socioeconomically deprived. POS (n = 69) were identified within these neighborhoods and audited using the New Zealand-Public Open Space Tool. Unpaired 1-way analysis of variance tests were applied to compare differences in attributes and overall score of POS by neighborhood walkability and deprivation. POS located in more walkable neighborhoods have significantly higher overall scores when compared with less walkable neighborhoods. Deprivation comparisons identified POS located in less deprived communities have better quality environments, but fewer activities and safety features present when compared with more deprived neighborhoods. A positive relationship existed between presence of POS attributes and neighborhood walkability, but the relationship between POS and neighborhood-level deprivation was less clear. Variation in neighborhood POS quality alone is unlikely to explain poorer health outcomes for residents in more deprived areas.

  18. Income mobility and deprivation dynamics among the elderly in Belgium and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirven, H.J.; Fouarge, D.J.A.G.

    1996-01-01

    This paper analyzes the dynamics of income and deprivation among the elderly in Belgium and the Netherlands between 1985 and 1988. It appears that, in 1985, the average level of deprivation in Belgium and the Netherlands was about the same. However, Belgium saw an increase between 1985 and 1988,

  19. Using Non-Monetary Deprivation Indicators to Analyze Poverty and Social Exclusion: Lessons from Europe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Brian; Whelan, Christopher T.

    2010-01-01

    Non-monetary indicators of deprivation are now widely used in studying poverty in Europe. While measuring financial resources remains central, having reliable information about material deprivation adds to the ability to capture poverty and social exclusion. Non-monetary indicators can help improve the identification of those experiencing poverty…