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Sample records for depression separation anxiety

  1. [Separation anxiety. Theoretical considerations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blandin, N; Parquet, P J; Bailly, D

    1994-01-01

    The interest in separation anxiety is nowadays increasing: this disorder appearing during childhood may predispose to the occurrence of anxiety disorders (such as panic disorder and agoraphobia) and major depression into adulthood. Psychoanalytic theories differ on the nature of separation anxiety and its place in child development. For some authors, separation anxiety must be understood as resulting from the unconscious internal conflicts inherent in the individuation process and gradual attainment of autonomy. From this point of view, the fear of loss of mother by separation is not regarded as resulting from a real danger. However, Freud considers the primary experience of separation from protecting mother as the prototype situation of anxiety and compares the situations generating fear to separation experiences. For him, anxiety originates from two factors: the physiological fact is initiated at the time of birth but the primary traumatic situation is the separation from mother. This point of view may be compared with behavioral theories. Behavioral theories suggest that separation anxiety may be conditioned or learned from innate fears. In Freud's theory, the primary situation of anxiety resulting from the separation from mother plays a role comparable to innate fears. Grappling with the problem of separation anxiety, Bowlby emphasizes then the importance of the child's attachment to one person (mother or primary caregiver) and the fact that this attachment is instinctive. This point of view, based on the watch of infants, is akin to ethological theories on behaviour of non human primates. Bowlby especially shows that the reactions of infant separated from mother evolve on three stages: the phase of protestation which may constitute the prototype of adulthood anxiety, the phase of desperation which may be the prototype of depression, and the phase of detachment. He emphasizes so the role of early separations in the development of vulnerability to depression

  2. Separation Anxiety (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids to Be Smart About Social Media Separation Anxiety KidsHealth > For Parents > Separation Anxiety Print A A ... both of you get through it. About Separation Anxiety Babies adapt pretty well to other caregivers. Parents ...

  3. Separation Anxiety (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Separation Anxiety KidsHealth > For Parents > Separation Anxiety A A A ... both of you get through it. About Separation Anxiety Babies adapt pretty well to other caregivers. Parents ...

  4. Adult separation anxiety in patients with complicated grief versus healthy control subjects: relationships with lifetime depressive and hypomanic symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dell'Osso Liliana

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Around 9% to 20% of bereaved individuals experience symptoms of complicated grief (CG that are associated with significant distress and impairment. A major issue is whether CG represents a distinctive nosographic entity, independent from other mental disorders, particularly major depression (MD, and the role of symptoms of adult separation anxiety. The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical features of patients with CG versus a sample of healthy control subjects, with particular focus on adult separation anxiety and lifetime mood spectrum symptoms. Methods A total of 53 patients with CG and 50 healthy control subjects were consecutively recruited and assessed by means of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis-I disorders (SCID-I/P, Inventory of Complicated Grief (ICG, Adult Separation Anxiety Questionnaire (ASA-27, Work and Social Adjustment Scale (WSAS and Mood Spectrum-Self Report (MOODS-SR lifetime version. Results Patients with CG reported significantly higher scores on the MOODS-SR, ASA-27, and WSAS with respect to healthy control subjects. The scores on the ASA-27 were significantly associated with the MOODS-SR depressive and manic components amongst both patients and healthy control subjects, with a stronger association in the latter. Conclusions A major limitation of the present study is the small sample size that may reduce the generalizability of the results. Moreover, lifetime MOODS-SR does not provide information about the temporal sequence of the manic or depressive symptoms and the loss. The frequent comorbidity with MD and the association with both depressive and manic lifetime symptoms do not support the independence of CG from mood disorders. In our patients, CG is associated with high levels of separation anxiety in adulthood. However, the presence of lifetime mood instability, as measured by the frequent presence of depressive and hypomanic lifetime symptoms, suggests that cyclothymia

  5. Separation anxiety in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001542.htm Separation anxiety in children To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Separation anxiety in children is a developmental stage in which ...

  6. [Separation anxiety in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purper-Ouakil, Diane; Franc, Nathalie

    2010-06-20

    Separation anxiety disorder can be differentiated from developmental anxiety because of its intensity, persistence and negative impact on adaptive functioning. This disorder is closely linked to other anxiety and mood disorders and can also be associated with externalizing psychopathology in children and adolescents. Severe separation anxiety can result in school refusal and intra-familial violence. Cognitive behavioral therapies have the best evidence-based support for the treatment of separation anxiety disorder in children and adolescents. In addition, it is important to detect factors associated with persistence of anxiety such as systematic avoidance of separation and parental overprotection. The role of pediatricians and general practitioners in recognizing clinical separation anxiety and encouraging appropriate care and positive parental attitudes is essential, as separation anxiety is often associated with a variety of somatic symptoms.

  7. Intolerance of uncertainty and adult separation anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boelen, Paul A; Reijntjes, Albert; Carleton, R Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Intolerance of uncertainty (IU)-the tendency to react negatively to situations that are uncertain-is involved in different anxiety disorders and depression. No studies have yet examined the association between IU and symptoms of adult separation anxiety disorder. However, it is possible that greater difficulties tolerating uncertainties that can occur in relationships with attachment figures inflate fears and worries about the consequences of being separated from these attachment figures. The current study examined the possible role of IU in symptoms of adult separation anxiety disorder, relative to its role in symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), social anxiety, and depression, using self-reported data from 215 undergraduates (92% women) with elevated separation anxiety. Findings showed that IU was significantly associated with symptom levels of separation anxiety disorder, GAD, OCD, social anxiety, and depression (rs > .30). IU continued to explain variance in OCD, social anxiety, and depression (but not GAD and separation anxiety) when controlling for the association of neuroticism, attachment anxiety, and attachment avoidance with these symptoms. Additional findings indicated that IU is more strongly associated with symptoms of GAD, OCD, and social anxiety than symptoms of adult separation anxiety disorder and depression.

  8. Depression, anxiety, hostility and hysterectomy.

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    Ewalds-Kvist, S Béatrice M; Hirvonen, Toivo; Kvist, Mårten; Lertola, Kaarlo; Niemelä, Pirkko

    2005-09-01

    Sixty-five women (aged 32 - 54 yrs) were assessed at 2 months before to 8 months after total abdominal hysterectomy on four separate occasions. Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI), Taylor's Manifest Anxiety Scale (TMAS), the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory (BDHI), Measurement of Masculinity-Femininity (MF), Likert scales and semantic differentials for psychological, somatic and sexual factors varied as assessment tools. High-dysphoric and low-dysphoric women were compared with regard to hysterectomy outcomes. Married nulliparae suffered from enhanced depression post-surgery. Pre-surgery anxiety, back pain and lack of dyspareunia contributed to post-surgery anxiety. Pre-surgery anxiety was related to life crises. Pre- and post-surgery hostility occurred in conjunction with poor sexual gratification. Post-hysterectomy health improved, but quality of sexual relationship was impaired. Partner support and knowledge counteracted hysterectomy aftermath. Post-hysterectomy symptoms constituted a continuum to pre-surgery signs of depression, anxiety or hostility.

  9. Separation anxiety disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, M.H.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.; Sturmey, P.; Hersen, M.

    2012-01-01

    Separation anxiety disorder (SAD) is the only anxiety disorder that is specific to childhood; however, SAD has hardly ever been addressed as a separate disorder in clinical trials investigating treatment outcome. So far, only parent training has been developed specifically for SAD. This particular t

  10. Doxepin (Depression, Anxiety)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doxepin is used to treat depression and anxiety. Doxepin is in a class of medications called tricyclic antidepressants. It works by increasing the amounts of certain natural substances in the brain ...

  11. Anxiety, depression, and insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larzelere, Michele M; Wiseman, Pamela

    2002-06-01

    Evidence for alternative treatments for depression, anxiety, and insomnia are reviewed in this article. Treatment of depression with St. John's wort, L-tryptophan, 5-hydroxytryptophan, S-adenosylmethionine, dehydroepiandosterone, folate, exercise, acupuncture, and meditation are examined. Evidence for the efficacy of kava kava, exercise, relaxation therapies, and acupuncture in treatment anxiety is reviewed. The use of valerian, melatonin, chamomile, passionflower, exercise, acupuncture, and behavioral therapies (i.e., sleep restriction, stimulus control, relaxation, and sleep hygiene) for insomnia is discussed.

  12. Intolerance of Uncertainty and Adult Separation Anxiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelen, Paul A.; Reijntjes, Albert; Carleton, R. Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Intolerance of uncertainty (IU)—the tendency to react negatively to situations that are uncertain—is involved in different anxiety disorders and depression. No studies have yet examined the association between IU and symptoms of adult separation anxiety disorder. However, it is possible that greater

  13. Intolerance of Uncertainty and Adult Separation Anxiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelen, Paul A.; Reijntjes, Albert; Carleton, R. Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Intolerance of uncertainty (IU)—the tendency to react negatively to situations that are uncertain—is involved in different anxiety disorders and depression. No studies have yet examined the association between IU and symptoms of adult separation anxiety disorder. However, it is possible that greater

  14. Gender, Anxiety, and Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplin, Tara M.; Gillham, Jane E.; Seligman, Martin E. P.

    2009-01-01

    Does anxiety lead to depression more for girls than for boys? This study prospectively examines gender differences in the relationship between anxiety and depressive symptoms in early adolescence. One hundred thirteen 11- to 14-year-old middle school students complete questionnaires assessing depressive symptoms and three dimensions of anxiety (worry and oversensitivity, social concerns and concentration, and physiological anxiety) as well as total anxiety symptoms at an initial assessment and 1 year later. Total anxiety and worry and oversensitivity symptoms are found to predict later depressive symptoms more strongly for girls than for boys. There is a similar pattern of results for social concerns and concentration symptoms, although this does not reach statistical significance. Physiological anxiety predicts later depressive symptoms for both boys and girls. These findings highlight the importance of anxiety for the development of depression in adolescence, particularly worry and oversensitivity among girls. PMID:19756209

  15. Children's separation anxiety scale (CSAS): psychometric properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, Xavier; Espada, José P; Orgilés, Mireia; Llavona, Luis M; García-Fernández, José M

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the psychometric properties of the Children's Separation Anxiety Scale (CSAS), which assesses separation anxiety symptoms in childhood. Participants in Study 1 were 1,908 schoolchildren aged between 8 and 11. Exploratory factor analysis identified four factors: worry about separation, distress from separation, opposition to separation, and calm at separation, which explained 46.91% of the variance. In Study 2, 6,016 children aged 8-11 participated. The factor model in Study 1 was validated by confirmatory factor analysis. The internal consistency (α = 0.82) and temporal stability (r = 0.83) of the instrument were good. The convergent and discriminant validity were evaluated by means of correlations with other measures of separation anxiety, childhood anxiety, depression and anger. Sensitivity of the scale was 85% and its specificity, 95%. The results support the reliability and validity of the CSAS.

  16. Children's separation anxiety scale (CSAS: psychometric properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Méndez

    Full Text Available This study describes the psychometric properties of the Children's Separation Anxiety Scale (CSAS, which assesses separation anxiety symptoms in childhood. Participants in Study 1 were 1,908 schoolchildren aged between 8 and 11. Exploratory factor analysis identified four factors: worry about separation, distress from separation, opposition to separation, and calm at separation, which explained 46.91% of the variance. In Study 2, 6,016 children aged 8-11 participated. The factor model in Study 1 was validated by confirmatory factor analysis. The internal consistency (α = 0.82 and temporal stability (r = 0.83 of the instrument were good. The convergent and discriminant validity were evaluated by means of correlations with other measures of separation anxiety, childhood anxiety, depression and anger. Sensitivity of the scale was 85% and its specificity, 95%. The results support the reliability and validity of the CSAS.

  17. Stress, anxiety, depression and migraine.

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    Wacogne, C; Lacoste, J P; Guillibert, E; Hugues, F C; Le Jeunne, C

    2003-07-01

    This study investigated the intensity of stress, anxiety and depression in a sample of 141 migraineurs compared with a control group of 109 non-migraine workers matched for age and sex. Stress was measured using the Perceived Stress Questionnaire, and anxiety and depression using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Results indicated that stress and anxiety were higher in the migraine group than in the control group and above the clinical level. Depression scores remained low in both groups, under clinical relevance. Stress is a primordial factor in the triggering and perpetuation of migraine attacks. The high score of the items 'morning fatigue', 'intrusive thoughts about work', 'feeling under pressure', 'impatience', and 'irritability' of the stress questionnaire in the migraineurs is particularly significant in the intensive stress response. It seems necessary to manage stress to improve the daily life of migraineurs and to study the link between stress, anxiety and migraine.

  18. The separation of adult separation anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, David S; Gordon, Robert; Abelli, Marianna; Pini, Stefano

    2016-08-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) categorization of mental disorders places "separation anxiety disorder" within the broad group of anxiety disorders, and its diagnosis no longer rests on establishing an onset during childhood or adolescence. In previous editions of DSM, it was included within the disorders usually first diagnosed in infancy, childhood, or adolescence, with the requirement for an onset of symptoms before the age of 18 years: symptomatic adults could only receive a retrospective diagnosis, based on establishing this early onset. The new position of separation anxiety disorder is based upon the findings of epidemiological studies that revealed the unexpectedly high prevalence of the condition in adults, often in individuals with an onset of symptoms after the teenage years; its prominent place within the DSM-5 group of anxiety disorders should encourage further research into its epidemiology, etiology, and treatment. This review examines the clinical features and boundaries of the condition, and offers guidance on how it can be distinguished from other anxiety disorders and other mental disorders in which "separation anxiety" may be apparent.

  19. Long-term postpartum anxiety and depression-like behavior in mother rats subjected to maternal separation are ameliorated by palatable high fat diet.

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    Maniam, Jayanthi; Morris, Margaret J

    2010-03-17

    While the effects of maternal separation on pups are well studied, the impact on dams has attracted little attention. The consumption of palatable food is known to dampen stress responses in animals, and emotions influence food choice in humans. Here we examined the early- and long-term impacts of maternal separation on behavioral profile of the dams, and the effects of palatable cafeteria high-fat diet (HFD). After littering, Sprague-Dawley female rats were subjected to prolonged separation, S180 (180 min) or brief separation, S15 (15 min/day) from postnatal days (PND) 2-14. At 4 weeks postpartum, half the dams were assigned to HFD. Anxiety and depression-like behaviors were assessed pre- and post-diet. Compared to S15 dams, S180 dams consuming chow demonstrated increased anxiety and depression-like behaviors assessed by elevated plus maze (EPM) and forced swim (FST) tests, respectively. These behavioral deficits were observed at 4 weeks, and persisted until 17 weeks postpartum. The S180 dams also had increased plasma corticosterone concentration compared to S15 dams, which coincided with increased hypothalamic CRH mRNA and reduced hippocampal GR mRNA expression, suggesting possible dysregulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity. Interestingly, continuous provision of HFD improved the behavioral deficits observed in S180 dams with significant reduction of hypothalamic CRH mRNA expression. These data are the first to describe long-term detrimental behavioral impacts of separation in dams, suggesting this may provide a model of postpartum depression. Moreover, they support the notion of long-term beneficial effects of 'comfort food' on stress responses.

  20. Depression, Anxiety, and Arterial Stiffness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seldenrijk, Adrie; van Hout, Hein P. J.; van Marwijk, Harm W. J.; de Groot, Eric; Gort, Johan; Rustemeijer, Cees; Diamant, Michaela; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Arterial stiffness gains attention as a potential mechanism underlying the frequently found association between depression or anxiety and cardiovascular disease. However, observations regarding stiffness and psychopathology were often based on small samples. The current study aimed to

  1. Anxiety and Depression Symptomatology in Migraine: Retrospective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anxiety and Depression Symptomatology in Migraine: Retrospective Review of 257 ... Nigerian Journal of Psychiatry ... Objectives: To determine the prevalence of depressive and anxiety symptoms/disorders among patients with migraine ...

  2. The prevalence and correlates of adult separation anxiety disorder in an anxiety clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Renate

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adult separation anxiety disorder (ASAD has been identified recently, but there is a paucity of data about its prevalence and associated characteristics amongst anxiety patients. This study assessed the prevalence and risk factor profile associated with ASAD in an anxiety clinic. Methods Clinical psychologists assigned 520 consecutive patients to DSM-IV adult anxiety subcategories using the SCID. We also measured demographic factors and reports of early separation anxiety (the Separation Anxiety Symptom Inventory and a retrospective diagnosis of childhood separation anxiety disorder. Other self-report measures included the Adult Separation Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire (ASA-27, the Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scales (DASS-21, personality traits measured by the NEO PI-R and the Work and Social Adjustment Scale. These measures were included in three models examining for overall differences and then by gender: Model 1 compared the conventional SCID anxiety subtypes (excluding PTSD and OCD because of insufficient numbers; Model 2 divided the sample into those with and without ASAD; Model 3 compared those with ASAD with the individual anxiety subtypes in the residual group. Results Patients with ASAD had elevated early separation anxiety scores but this association was unique in females only. Except for social phobia in relation to some comparisons, those with ASAD recorded more severe symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress, higher neuroticism scores, and greater levels of disability. Conclusions Patients with ASAD attending an anxiety clinic are highly symptomatic and disabled. The findings have implications for the classification, clinical identification and treatment of adult anxiety disorders.

  3. Separate and combined effects of anxiety, depression and problem drinking on subjective health among black, hispanic and non-hispanic white men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Assari

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Although separate effects of anxiety and problem drinking were similar among race and ethnic groups, race and ethnicity seemed to modify the combined effects of different mental health problems. These results warrant further exploration of these complex links.

  4. The relationship between interpersonal sensitivity, anxiety disorders and major depression.

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    Wilhelm, Kay; Boyce, Philip; Brownhill, Suzanne

    2004-04-01

    While interpersonal sensitivity, as rated by the Interpersonal Sensitivity Measure (IPSM) has previously been found to be an efficient predictor of depression, there has been less interest in the relationship between the IPSM and anxiety disorders. This study examines the performance of the IPSM in discriminating between cases and non-cases of the various anxiety disorders. The contribution of depression and the perception of parental environment, to any relationships found, are also examined. A cohort of 156 men and women has been assessed at 5-yearly intervals since baseline in 1978, in their last year of teacher training. In this fourth wave of follow-up, subjects completed a series of self-report questionnaires, including the IPSM, and scales measuring neuroticism and trait depression. Perceived parental environment, measured at baseline, was also included. DSM-III-R major depression and anxiety disorders were generated using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. The IPSM subscales were moderately stable over time. 'Timidity' was associated with agoraphobia and simple phobia, and 'separation anxiety' with agoraphobia, panic disorder and generalised anxiety disorder. 'Separation anxiety' and 'timidity' showed differential gender effects for simple phobia. 'Fragile inner self' and 'separation anxiety' were associated with subjects with a history of repeated episodes of major depression, and the former, with perception of poor parental care. The IPSM was not available for inclusion prior to the 1988 wave. While the IPSM subscales were consistently correlated with neuroticism, they displayed differential associations with specific anxiety disorders, episodes of major depression and early parental environment. These findings offer greater understanding of mechanisms concerning the relationship of vulnerability to anxiety disorders and depression.

  5. Depression Begets Depression: Comparing the Predictive Utility of Depression and Anxiety Symptoms to Later Depression

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    Keenan, Kate; Feng, Xin; Hipwell, Alison; Klostermann, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Background: The high comorbidity between depressive and anxiety disorders, especially among females, has called into question the independence of these two symptom groups. It is possible that childhood anxiety typically precedes depression in girls. Comparing of the predictive utility of symptoms of anxiety with the predictive utility of symptoms…

  6. Anxiety and Depression in Adolescents With Epilepsy.

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    Kwong, Karen Ling; Lam, David; Tsui, Sarah; Ngan, Mary; Tsang, Brian; Lai, Tai Sum; Lam, Siu Man

    2016-02-01

    The present study examined anxiety and depression in adolescents with epilepsy and the association of these disorders with seizure-related and sociodemographic variables. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was administered to 140 children with epilepsy and 50 children with asthma aged 10 to 18 years attending mainstream schools. Adolescents with epilepsy had significantly higher scores on the depression subscale than those with asthma (5.2 ± 3.3 vs 4.2 ± 3.2, P = .032). Anxiety subscale scores and the frequency of anxiety and depression in both the epilepsy and asthma groups were not statistically significant. In the epilepsy group, 32.8% had anxiety and 22.1% had depression. Factors associated with anxiety were older age at the time of the study and polytherapy (2 or more antiepileptic drugs). Adolescents who had been seizure-free for 12 months or more at time of the study were less likely to experience anxiety. Factors associated with depression were medical comorbidities, female gender, frequent seizures, and younger age of seizure onset. A common risk factor for both anxiety and depression was the duration of epilepsy. Anxiety and depression were also highly associated with each other. Affective disorders are common in epilepsy and screening for psychiatric symptoms is required.

  7. Separation anxiety in families with emerging adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kins, Evie; Soenens, Bart; Beyers, Wim

    2013-06-01

    In several developmental theories, separation anxiety has been identified as an important feature of close interpersonal relationships. Most often, separation anxiety has been examined in the context of mother-child dyads in infancy. Increasingly, however, it is recognized that separation anxiety is also relevant in other relationships (e.g., the father-child relationship) and in later developmental periods (e.g., adolescence and emerging adulthood). The present study aimed to investigate separation anxiety at the family level in families with emerging adults. By using the Social Relations Model, we aimed to determine the extent to which the actor, the partner, their specific relationships, and the family contribute to separation anxiety in dyadic family relationships. A total of 119 Belgian two-parent families with an emerging adult participated in a round-robin design, in which family members reported on their feelings of separation anxiety toward each other. Findings showed that separation anxiety can be represented as a personal characteristic (i.e., an actor effect) and as a specific feature of the mother-child dyad. Further, findings indicate that separation anxiety is also characteristic of the father-mother marital relationship and of the family climate as a whole. Implications for the meaning of separation anxiety and clinical practice are discussed.

  8. Anxiety Disorders and Depression in Older Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Hek (Karin)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractAnxiety disorders and depression are common and complex disorders. Despite decades of research, their etiology is largely unknown. Study of the occurrence and determinants, i.e. the epidemiology of anxiety disorders and depression, helps unravel their etiology. This thesis examines the e

  9. Anxiety Disorders and Depression in Older Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Hek (Karin)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractAnxiety disorders and depression are common and complex disorders. Despite decades of research, their etiology is largely unknown. Study of the occurrence and determinants, i.e. the epidemiology of anxiety disorders and depression, helps unravel their etiology. This thesis examines the e

  10. ANXIETY AND DEPRESSION IN INTERNAL MEDICINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Fedotova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of anxiety and depression in internal medicine is discussed. Diagnosis of these disorders in general practitioner every day practice is surveyed. Possibilities of anxiety and depression treatment are highlight. Modern psychopharmacotherapy is focused, especially antidepressants usage.

  11. Anxiety Disorders and Depression in Older Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Hek (Karin)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractAnxiety disorders and depression are common and complex disorders. Despite decades of research, their etiology is largely unknown. Study of the occurrence and determinants, i.e. the epidemiology of anxiety disorders and depression, helps unravel their etiology. This thesis examines the

  12. Validity of the Revised Children's Anxiety and Depression Scale for youth with autism spectrum disorders.

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    Sterling, Lindsey; Renno, Patricia; Storch, Eric A; Ehrenreich-May, Jill; Lewin, Adam B; Arnold, Elysse; Lin, Enjey; Wood, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    High rates of anxiety and depression are reported among youth with autism spectrum disorders. These conditions are generally assessed using measures validated for typically developing youth. Few studies have investigated their validity for autism spectrum disorders, which is crucial for accurate assessment and the provision of proper treatment. The Revised Children's Anxiety and Depression Scale was evaluated with 67 youth with autism spectrum disorders to examine its utility in measuring anxiety and depression in this population. Parents and children (aged 11-15 years) referred to a multisite intervention study completed the Pediatric Anxiety Rating Scale, Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children, Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule, Child Behavior Checklist, and Revised Children's Anxiety and Depression Scale. Results suggest acceptable internal consistency of the Revised Children's Anxiety and Depression Scale. Modest convergent validity was found among the Revised Children's Anxiety and Depression Scale and other standardized measures of anxiety and depression. There were stronger correlations between Revised Children's Anxiety and Depression Scale Total scores and subscales of measures expected to correlate significantly than those not expected to correlate. One exception was a significant association between the Revised Children's Anxiety and Depression Scale and Child Behavior Checklist Attention subscale, calling into question the divergent validity in separating anxiety from attention problems. Overall, results suggest preliminary support for the Revised Children's Anxiety and Depression Scale in youth with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders.

  13. Comorbidity of Anxiety and Depression in Children and Adolescents: 20 Years After

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    Cummings, Colleen M.; Caporino, Nicole E.; Kendall, Philip C.

    2014-01-01

    Brady and Kendall (1992) concluded that although anxiety and depression in youth are meaningfully linked, there are important distinctions, and additional research was needed. Since then, studies of anxiety-depression comorbidity in youth have increased exponentially. Following a discussion of comorbidity, we review existing conceptual models and propose a multiple pathways model to anxiety-depression comorbidity. Pathway 1 describes youth with a diathesis for anxiety, with subsequent comorbid depression resulting from anxiety-related impairment. Pathway 2 refers to youth with a shared diathesis for anxiety and depression, who may experience both disorders simultaneously. Pathway 3 describes youth with a diathesis for depression, with subsequent comorbid anxiety resulting from depression-related impairment. Additionally, shared and stratified risk factors contribute to the development of the comorbid disorder, either by interacting with disorder-related impairment or by predicting the simultaneous development of the disorders. Our review addresses descriptive and developmental factors, gender differences, suicidality, assessments, and treatment-outcome research as they relate to comorbid anxiety and depression, and to our proposed pathways. Research since 1992 indicates that comorbidity varies depending on the specific anxiety disorder, with Pathway 1 describing youth with either social phobia or separation anxiety disorder and subsequent depression, Pathway 2 applying to youth with co-primary generalized anxiety disorder and depression, and Pathway 3 including depressed youth with subsequent social phobia. The need to test the proposed multiple pathways model and to examine (a) developmental change and (b) specific anxiety disorders is highlighted. PMID:24219155

  14. Are Anxiety and Depression the Same Disorder?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carey, Stephen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The issue of co-morbidity in Anxiety and Depression as disorders leads to questions about the integrity of their present taxonomies in mental health diagnostics. At face value the two appear to have discrete differences, yet nonetheless demonstrate a high co-morbidity rate and shared symptoms implying pathological similarities rather than that of chance. Reviewing evidence from behavioural, neural, and biological sources that elaborate on the aspects of these two constructs, helps to illustrate the nature of these apparent differences and similarities. Integrating evidence from the anxiety and depression literature with the pathological process best illustrated by the burnout theory, alongside with support from the neurobiology of anxiety and stress, presents a proposition of a basic and natural anxiety pathology that when excessive, may result in the symptoms psychology has come to know as representative of anxiety and depressive disorders.

  15. Uncontrollable and unpredictable stress interacts with subclinical depression and anxiety scores in determining anxiety response.

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    Havranek, Michael M; Bolliger, Bianca; Roos, Sophie; Pryce, Christopher R; Quednow, Boris B; Seifritz, Erich

    2016-01-01

    According to learned helplessness theory, uncontrollable stress is assumed to be a critical etiological factor in the pathogenesis of depression. In contrast, unpredictability of stressors is assumed to facilitate the development of sustained anxiety. Despite the frequent co-morbidity of depression and anxiety disorders, these two factors have rarely been studied simultaneously in humans. Therefore, we investigated whether there are interaction effects of uncontrollability and unpredictability on anxiety response in healthy participants. Seventy-nine healthy participants performed a visual dot probe task with emotional faces, while receiving mild electrical shocks in four different conditions (2 × 2 factorial design). In (un)controllable conditions, participants were (not) able to attenuate shock intensity. In (un)predictable conditions, participants were (not) able to anticipate shock occurrence. Before the experiment, participants' subclinical depression and anxiety scores were measured using the Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories (BDI/BAI). During the experiment, continuous skin conductance and self-reported state anxiety were assessed and attentional biases towards angry faces were calculated. As expected, participants showed greater anxiety in uncontrollable compared to controllable and in unpredictable compared to predictable conditions. Additionally, anxiety decreased within the test sessions in participants with low BDI/BAI scores but not in participants with higher BDI/BAI scores. Most importantly, controllability and predictability interacted with each other and with BDI/BAI scores with regard to anxiety. Our results provide evidence that uncontrollability and unpredictability of stressors not only have separate but also interaction effects on several anxiety measures in susceptible individuals and may provide insights into the psychological mechanisms underlying a depressive/anxiety co-morbidity.

  16. Perseverative Thinking in Depression and Anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Sonja eSorg; Claus eVögele; Nadine eFurka; Andrea Hans Meyer

    2012-01-01

    The current study investigated the impact of worry and brooding as moderators of the tripartite model of depression and anxiety (TMDA). We hypothesized that both types of perseverative thinking would moderate the association between negative affectivity (NA) and both anxiety and depression. Complete data sets for this questionnaire survey were obtained from 537 students. Participants’ age ranged from 16 to 49 years with a mean age of 21.1 years (SD = 3.6). Overall, results from path analyses ...

  17. A Psychometric Analysis of the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scales--Parent Version in a School Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebesutani, Chad; Chorpita, Bruce F.; Higa-McMillan, Charmaine K.; Nakamura, Brad J.; Regan, Jennifer; Lynch, Roxanna E.

    2011-01-01

    The Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale--Parent Version (RCADS-P) is a parent-report questionnaire of youth anxiety and depression with scales corresponding to the "DSM" diagnoses of separation anxiety disorder, social phobia, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and major depressive…

  18. A Psychometric Analysis of the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scales--Parent Version in a School Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebesutani, Chad; Chorpita, Bruce F.; Higa-McMillan, Charmaine K.; Nakamura, Brad J.; Regan, Jennifer; Lynch, Roxanna E.

    2011-01-01

    The Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale--Parent Version (RCADS-P) is a parent-report questionnaire of youth anxiety and depression with scales corresponding to the "DSM" diagnoses of separation anxiety disorder, social phobia, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and major depressive…

  19. Depression and Anxiety in University Music Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wristen, Brenda G.

    2013-01-01

    Performance anxiety among musicians and music students has been widely addressed, but far less attention has been given to examining the rates and characteristics of broader mental distress in this population. This study examined depression and anxiety in music students at one university. A considerable number of students reported symptoms…

  20. Perfectionism in pediatric anxiety and depressive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affrunti, Nicholas W; Woodruff-Borden, Janet

    2014-09-01

    Although perfectionism has been identified as a factor in many psychiatric disorders across the life span, it is relatively understudied in pediatric anxiety and depressive disorders. Furthermore, there exists little cohesion among previous research, restricting the conclusions that can be made across studies. In this review, research associating perfectionism with pediatric anxiety and depression is examined and a framework is presented synthesizing research to date. We focus on detailing the current understanding of how perfectionism develops and interacts with other developmental features characteristic of anxiety and depression in children and potential pathways that result in anxiety and depressive disorders. This includes: how perfectionism is measured in children, comparisons with relevant adult literature, the development of perfectionism in children and adolescents, mediators and moderators of the link between perfectionism and anxiety and depression, and the role of perfectionism in treatment and prevention of these disorders. We also present research detailing perfectionism across cultures. Findings from these studies are beginning to implicate perfectionism as an underlying process that may contribute broadly to the development of anxiety and depression in a pediatric population. Throughout the review, difficulties, limitations, and gaps in the current understanding are presented while offering suggestions for future research.

  1. Depression and Anxiety in Obese Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demet Gulec Oyekcin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Epidemiologic data suggests an association between obesity and depression. However, a limited number of studies have investigated the prevalence of psychiatric symptoms among obese patients without a psychiatric diagnosis. The objective of this study was to determine psychiatric diagnosis in patients with obesity who applied to the endocrinology department and to determine the pattern of the depression and anxiety symptom levels in obese patients without a psychiatric diagnosis.Materials and Methods: 62 patients with obesity (obesity group and 27 control subjects (control group attending the endocrinology outpatient clinic were included in the study. Body mass index was calculated and diagnostic psychiatric assessment carried out for all patients. All participants were evaluated using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale [HAM-D] and Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale [HAM-A].Results: Total scores obtained both from HAM-D and HAM-A were significantly greater in the obesity group than in the control group. The most common psychiatric diagnose among obese patients was depression. Nearly more than half of the obese patients without any psychiatric diagnosis marked one of the HAM-D items which describes depressed mood, guilt feeling, somatic anxiety, work and activity loss and general somatic symptoms as well as the items within the HAM-A scale which describes anxious mood, tension, cognitive difficulties, insomnia, depressed mood, somatic anxiety, cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal and autonomic symptoms.Conclusion: Most common psychiatric diagnosis in patients with obesity was major depressive disorder. Obese patients who have not been diagnosed with any psychiatric disorder also show certain anxiety and depressive symptoms. The presence of anxiety and depressive symptoms in patients having any psychiatric disorder may be due to the psychosocial effects of obesity and these symptoms should be followed up in obese patients so that

  2. Anxiety and depression after spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Paul Graham; Wilson, J T Lindsay; Dunn, Laurence

    2004-01-01

    Relatively little attention has been paid to emotional outcome after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). This study assessed levels of anxiety and depression among SAH survivors and related these to clinical indices. Seventy SAH patients from a consecutive series of neurosurgical admissions participated in semistructured assessments of functional outcome; 52 of the patients also returned standardized measures of emotional outcome. These data were compared with clinical indices collected during the initial hospital admission. Moderate to severe levels of anxiety were present in approximately 40% of patients 16 months after hemorrhage, with approximately 20% experiencing moderate to severe levels of depression. Although anxiety was more likely to be reported at interview by those with an SAH of Fisher Grade 4, the standardized measures of anxiety and depression were not associated with severity of hemorrhage or any other clinical variables. Both anxiety and depression were significantly associated with outcome indices such as return to work and engagement in social activities. Anxiety is a significant and lasting problem for approximately 40% of survivors of SAH. It is suggested that measures taken to prevent or treat such anxiety among survivors of SAH may serve to significantly improve functional outcome.

  3. Seasonality in depressive and anxiety symptoms among primary care patients and in patients with depressive and anxiety disorders; results from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Winthorst Wim H; Post Wendy J; Meesters Ybe; Penninx Brenda WHJ; Nolen Willem A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Little is known about seasonality of specific depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms in different patient populations. This study aims to assess seasonal variation of depressive and anxiety symptoms in a primary care population and across participants who were classified in diagnostic groups 1) healthy controls 2) patients with a major depressive disorder, 3) patients with any anxiety disorder and 4) patients with a major depression and any anxiety disorder. Methods Data...

  4. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DEPRESSION AND ANXIETY - CONSTRUCTION OF A PROTOTYPICAL ANXIETY AND DEPRESSION SCALE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KOETER, MWJ; VANDENBRINK, W

    1992-01-01

    The question of the relationship between anxiety and depression remains to be solved. The fact that clinical pictures show substantial overlap makes it difficult, using conventional instruments, to distinguish between the co-occurrence of anxiety and depression and overlap in definitions and measure

  5. The association of depression and anxiety with pain: a study from NESDA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric W de Heer

    Full Text Available Chronic pain is commonly co-morbid with a depressive or anxiety disorder. Objective of this study is to examine the influence of depression, along with anxiety, on pain-related disability, pain intensity, and pain location in a large sample of adults with and without a depressive and/or anxiety disorder. The study population consisted of 2981 participants with a depressive, anxiety, co-morbid depressive and anxiety disorder, remitted disorder or no current disorder (controls. Severity of depressive and anxiety symptoms was also assessed. In separate multinomial regression analyses, the association of presence of depressive or anxiety disorders and symptom severity with the Chronic Pain Grade and location of pain was explored. Presence of a depressive (OR = 6.67; P<.001, anxiety (OR = 4.84; P<.001, or co-morbid depressive and anxiety disorder (OR = 30.26; P<.001 was associated with the Chronic Pain Grade. Moreover, symptom severity was associated with more disabling and severely limiting pain. Also, a remitted depressive or anxiety disorder showed more disabling and severely limiting pain (OR = 3.53; P<.001 as compared to controls. A current anxiety disorder (OR = 2.96; p<.001 and a co-morbid depressive and anxiety disorder (OR = 5.15; P<.001 were more strongly associated with cardio-respiratory pain, than gastro-intestinal or musculoskeletal pain. These findings remain after adjustment for chronic cardio respiratory illness. Patients with a current and remitted depressive and/or anxiety disorder and those with more severe symptoms have more disabling pain and pain of cardio-respiratory nature, than persons without a depressive or anxiety disorder. This warrants further research.

  6. Depression, anxiety and 6-year risk of cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seldenrijk, Adrie; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Batelaan, Neeltje M.; Wieman, Iris; van Schaik, Digna J. F.; Penninx, Brenda J. W. H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Depression and anxiety are considered etiological factors in cardiovascular disease (ND), though their relative contribution and differentiation by clinical characteristics have not been studied intensively. We examined 6-year associations between depressive and anxiety disorders, clinica

  7. Controlled study of anxiety and depression in mothers of children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Controlled study of anxiety and depression in mothers of children with learning disability in Lagos, Nigeria. ... Nigerian Journal of Medicine ... or a variety of neurotic symptoms and other psychiatric conditions including anxiety and depression.

  8. Depression, anxiety and stress in dental students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binanzan, Najla; Alhassan, Aseel

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To measure the occurrence and levels of depression, anxiety and stress in undergraduate dental students using the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21). Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in November and December of 2014. A total of 289 dental students were invited to participate, and 277 responded, resulting in a response rate of 96%. The final sample included 247 participants. Eligible participants were surveyed via a self-reported questionnaire that included the validated DASS-21 scale as the assessment tool and questions about demographic characteristics and methods for managing stress.  Results Abnormal levels of depression, anxiety and stress were identified in 55.9%, 66.8% and 54.7% of the study participants, respectively. A multiple linear regression analysis revealed multiple predictors: gender (for anxiety b=-3.589, p=.016 and stress b=-4.099, p=.008), satisfaction with faculty relationships (for depression b=-2.318, p=.007; anxiety b=-2.213, p=.004; and stress b=-2.854, pstress b=-2.854, pstress b=-2.648, p=.045). The standardized coefficients demonstrated the relationship and strength of the predictors for each subscale. To cope with stress, students engaged in various activities such as reading, watching television and seeking emotional support from others. Conclusions The high occurrence of depression, anxiety and stress among dental students highlights the importance of providing support programs and implementing preventive measures to help students, particularly those who are most susceptible to higher levels of these psychological conditions. PMID:28553831

  9. Beliefs regarding child anxiety and parenting competence in parents of children with separation anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herren, Chantal; In-Albon, Tina; Schneider, Silvia

    2013-03-01

    Despite the fact that numerous developmental models have highlighted the role of parental cognitive processes in connection with anxiety disorders in children and adolescents, the role of parents' beliefs about their children and parenting remains largely unexplored. This study investigated the specific association between parental beliefs and child separation anxiety. Parents of children with a diagnosis of Separation Anxiety Disorder (SAD) reported on beliefs and expectations related to their child's fears and own parenting competence. To study the potential specificity of relationships, a clinical control group of mothers of children with social phobia (SoP) and a group of mothers of children without a mental disorder (healthy controls, HC) were included. Results indicated that parents of anxious children had significantly higher levels of dysfunctional beliefs than the parents in the HC group. Mothers of children with SAD showed lower levels of parenting self-efficacy than mothers of children with SoP. They also demonstrated lower parenting self-efficacy and satisfaction compared to mothers of healthy children. Parental dysfunctional beliefs about child anxiety and paternal parenting self-efficacy were significantly positively associated with child anxiety. The effects remained significant after controlling for parental anxiety and depression. Due to the cross-sectional design of the study, causality of the found effects cannot be inferred. Data suggest that children's anxiety and parents' beliefs about their child's anxiety, coping skills and parenting are strongly associated. Further research is needed to investigate whether addressing parental cognitions in addition to parents' anxiety may improve prevention and intervention of child anxiety. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Role of Comorbid Depression and Co-Occurring Depressive Symptoms in Outcomes for Anxiety-Disordered Youth Treated with Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Kelly A.; Kendall, Philip C.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the role of comorbid depressive disorders (major depressive disorder or dysthymic disorder) and co-occurring depressive symptoms in treatment outcome and maintenance for youth (N = 72, aged 7-14) treated with cognitive-behavioral therapy for a principal anxiety disorder (generalized anxiety disorder, separation anxiety…

  11. Role of Comorbid Depression and Co-Occurring Depressive Symptoms in Outcomes for Anxiety-Disordered Youth Treated with Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Kelly A.; Kendall, Philip C.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the role of comorbid depressive disorders (major depressive disorder or dysthymic disorder) and co-occurring depressive symptoms in treatment outcome and maintenance for youth (N = 72, aged 7-14) treated with cognitive-behavioral therapy for a principal anxiety disorder (generalized anxiety disorder, separation anxiety…

  12. Somatisation as a risk factor for incident depression and anxiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra-Kersten, Sandra M. A.; Sitnikova, Kate; van Marwijk, Harm W. J.; Gerrits, Marloes M. J. G.; van der Wouden, Johannes C.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; van der Horst, Henrieette E.; Leone, Stephanie S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: In this study, we aimed to examine somatisation as a risk factor for the onset of depressive and anxiety disorders. Methods: 4-year follow-up data from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA), a multisite cohort study of the course of depression and anxiety, was analysed.

  13. Somatisation as a risk factor for incident depression and anxiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra-Kersten, Sandra M. A.; Sitnikova, Kate; van Marwijk, Harm W. J.; Gerrits, Marloes M. J. G.; van der Wouden, Johannes C.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; van der Horst, Henrieette E.; Leone, Stephanie S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: In this study, we aimed to examine somatisation as a risk factor for the onset of depressive and anxiety disorders. Methods: 4-year follow-up data from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA), a multisite cohort study of the course of depression and anxiety, was analysed.

  14. Perseverative thinking in depression and anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja eSorg

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The current study investigated the impact of worry and brooding as moderators of the tripartite model of depression and anxiety (TMDA. We hypothesized that both types of perseverative thinking would moderate the association between negative affectivity (NA and both anxiety and depression. Complete data sets for this questionnaire survey were obtained from 537 students. Participants’ age ranged from 16 to 49 years with a mean age of 21.1 years (SD = 3.6. Overall, results from path analyses supported the assumptions of the TMDA, in that negative affectivity was a non-specific predictor for both depression and anxiety whilst lack of positive affectivity was related to depression only. Unexpectedly, perseverative thinking had an effect on the dependency of negative and positive affectivity. Worry was a significant moderator for the path NA – anxiety. All other hypothesized associations were only marginally significant. Alternative pathways as well as methodological implications regarding similarities and differences of the two types of perseverative thinking are discussed.

  15. Paraprofessionals for anxiety and depressive disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Boer, PCAM; Wiersma, D; Russo, S; van den Bosch, RJ

    2005-01-01

    Background The established mental health care system does not have the resources to meet the extensive need for care of those with anxiety and depressive disorders. Paraprofessionals partially replacing professionals may be cost-effective. Objectives To investigate the effectiveness of any kind of p

  16. Rumination, anxiety, depressive symptoms and subsequent depression in adolescents at risk for psychopathology: a longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Paul O; Croudace, Tim J; Goodyer, Ian M

    2013-10-08

    A ruminative style of responding to low mood is associated with subsequent high depressive symptoms and depressive disorder in children, adolescents and adults. Scores on self-report rumination scales correlate strongly with scores on anxiety and depression symptom scales. This may confound any associations between rumination and subsequent depression. Our sample comprised 658 healthy adolescents at elevated risk for psychopathology. This study applied ordinal item (non-linear) factor analysis to pooled items from three self-report questionnaires to explore whether there were separate, but correlated, constructs of rumination, depression and anxiety. It then tested whether rumination independently predicted depressive disorder and depressive symptoms over the subsequent 12 months, after adjusting for confounding variables. We identified a single rumination factor, which was correlated with factors representing cognitive symptoms of depression, somatic symptoms of depression and anxiety symptoms; and one factor representing adaptive responses to low mood. Elevated rumination scores predicted onset of depressive disorders over the subsequent year (p = 0.035), and levels of depressive symptoms 12 months later (p depressive and anxiety symptoms. High rumination predicts onset of depressive disorder in healthy adolescents. Therapy that reduces rumination and increases distraction/problem-solving may reduce onset and relapse rates of depression.

  17. The effects of anxiety and depression on weekly pain in women with arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Bruce W; Zautra, Alex J

    2008-08-31

    This study examined the effects of anxiety and depression on pain in women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA; n=82) or osteoarthritis (OA; n=88). Anxiety and depression symptoms were assessed at the beginning of the study. Arthritis pain, interpersonal stress, negative affect, and positive affect were assessed weekly for 11 consecutive weeks. Multilevel analyses were conducted to investigate direct, indirect, and interactive effects of anxiety and depression on weekly changes in pain. When entered separately into the prediction equations, anxiety and depression were both related to elevations in current and next week pain, although the effects were nearly twice as large for anxiety. In addition, both anxiety and depression were indirectly related to current pain through negative and positive affect and depression interacted with stress to predict current pain in the RA group. When entered together into the prediction equations, anxiety alone was still related to elevations in current and next week pain. In addition, anxiety alone was indirectly related to current pain through negative affect and depression alone was indirectly related to current pain through positive affect. These results highlight the need for careful study of the differential effects of anxiety and depression and treatments that target their unique mechanisms.

  18. The Association of Depression and Anxiety with Pain: A Study from NESDA

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Heer, Eric W.; Gerrits, Marloes M. J. G.; Beekman, Aartjan T. F.; Dekker, Jack; van Marwijk, Harm W. J.; de Waal, Margot W. M.; Spinhoven, Philip; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; van der Feltz-Cornelis, Christina M.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic pain is commonly co-morbid with a depressive or anxiety disorder. Objective of this study is to examine the influence of depression, along with anxiety, on pain-related disability, pain intensity, and pain location in a large sample of adults with and without a depressive and/or anxiety disorder. The study population consisted of 2981 participants with a depressive, anxiety, co-morbid depressive and anxiety disorder, remitted disorder or no current disorder (controls). Severity of depressive and anxiety symptoms was also assessed. In separate multinomial regression analyses, the association of presence of depressive or anxiety disorders and symptom severity with the Chronic Pain Grade and location of pain was explored. Presence of a depressive (OR = 6.67; Panxiety (OR = 4.84; Panxiety disorder (OR = 30.26; Panxiety disorder showed more disabling and severely limiting pain (OR = 3.53; Panxiety disorder (OR = 2.96; panxiety disorder (OR = 5.15; Panxiety disorder and those with more severe symptoms have more disabling pain and pain of cardio-respiratory nature, than persons without a depressive or anxiety disorder. This warrants further research. PMID:25330004

  19. Depression and anxiety related subtypes in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Richard G; Landau, Sabine; Hindle, John V; Playfer, Jeremy; Samuel, Michael; Wilson, Kenneth C; Hurt, Catherine S; Anderson, Rachel J; Carnell, Joanna; Dickinson, Lucy; Gibson, Grant; van Schaick, Rachel; Sellwood, Katie; Thomas, Bonnita A; Burn, David J

    2011-07-01

    Depression and anxiety are common in Parkinson's disease (PD) and although clinically important remain poorly understood and managed. To date, research has tended to treat depression and anxiety as distinct phenomena. There is growing evidence for heterogeneity in PD in the motor and cognitive domains, with implications for pathophysiology and outcome. Similar heterogeneity may exist in the domain of depression and anxiety. To identify the main anxiety and depression related subtype(s) in PD and their associated demographic and clinical features. A sample of 513 patients with PD received a detailed assessment of depression and anxiety related symptomatology. Latent Class Analysis (LCA) was used to identify putative depression and anxiety related subtypes. Results LCA identified four classes, two interpretable as 'anxiety related': one anxiety alone (22.0%) and the other anxiety coexisting with prominent depressive symptoms (8.6%). A third subtype (9%) showed a prominent depressive profile only without significant anxiety. The final class (60.4%) showed a low probability of prominent affective symptoms. The validity of the four classes was supported by distinct patterns of association with important demographic and clinical variables. Depression in PD may manifest in two clinical phenotypes, one 'anxious-depressed' and the other 'depressed'. However, a further large proportion of patients can have relatively isolated anxiety. Further study of these putative phenotypes may identify important differences in pathophysiology and other aetiologically important factors and focus research on developing more targeted and effective treatment.

  20. Seasonality in depressive and anxiety symptoms among primary care patients and in patients with depressive and anxiety disorders; results from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winthorst Wim H

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about seasonality of specific depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms in different patient populations. This study aims to assess seasonal variation of depressive and anxiety symptoms in a primary care population and across participants who were classified in diagnostic groups 1 healthy controls 2 patients with a major depressive disorder, 3 patients with any anxiety disorder and 4 patients with a major depression and any anxiety disorder. Methods Data were used from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA. First, in 5549 patients from the NESDA primary care recruitment population the Kessler-10 screening questionnaire was used and data were analyzed across season in a multilevel linear model. Second, in 1090 subjects classified into four groups according to psychiatric status according to the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, overall depressive symptoms and atypical versus melancholic features were assessed with the Inventory of Depressive Symptoms. Anxiety and fear were assessed with the Beck Anxiety Inventory and the Fear questionnaire. Symptom levels across season were analyzed in a linear regression model. Results In the primary care population the severity of depressive and anxiety symptoms did not show a seasonal pattern. In the diagnostic groups healthy controls and patients with any anxiety disorder, but not patients with a major depressive disorder, showed a small rise in depressive symptoms in winter. Atypical and melancholic symptoms were both elevated in winter. No seasonal pattern for anxiety symptoms was found. There was a small gender related seasonal effect for fear symptoms. Conclusions Seasonal differences in severity or type of depressive and anxiety symptoms, as measured with a general screening instrument and symptom questionnaires, were absent or small in effect size in a primary care population and in patient populations with a major depressive disorder and

  1. Seasonality in depressive and anxiety symptoms among primary care patients and in patients with depressive and anxiety disorders; results from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winthorst, Wim H; Post, Wendy J; Meesters, Ybe; Penninx, Brenda W H J; Nolen, Willem A

    2011-12-19

    Little is known about seasonality of specific depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms in different patient populations. This study aims to assess seasonal variation of depressive and anxiety symptoms in a primary care population and across participants who were classified in diagnostic groups 1) healthy controls 2) patients with a major depressive disorder, 3) patients with any anxiety disorder and 4) patients with a major depression and any anxiety disorder. Data were used from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA). First, in 5549 patients from the NESDA primary care recruitment population the Kessler-10 screening questionnaire was used and data were analyzed across season in a multilevel linear model. Second, in 1090 subjects classified into four groups according to psychiatric status according to the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, overall depressive symptoms and atypical versus melancholic features were assessed with the Inventory of Depressive Symptoms. Anxiety and fear were assessed with the Beck Anxiety Inventory and the Fear questionnaire. Symptom levels across season were analyzed in a linear regression model. In the primary care population the severity of depressive and anxiety symptoms did not show a seasonal pattern. In the diagnostic groups healthy controls and patients with any anxiety disorder, but not patients with a major depressive disorder, showed a small rise in depressive symptoms in winter. Atypical and melancholic symptoms were both elevated in winter. No seasonal pattern for anxiety symptoms was found. There was a small gender related seasonal effect for fear symptoms. Seasonal differences in severity or type of depressive and anxiety symptoms, as measured with a general screening instrument and symptom questionnaires, were absent or small in effect size in a primary care population and in patient populations with a major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders.

  2. Pathophysiological relationships between heart failure and depression and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapa, Deborah W; Akintade, Bimbola; Son, Heesook; Woltz, Patricia; Hunt, Dennis; Friedmann, Erika; Hartung, Mary Kay; Thomas, Sue Ann

    2014-04-01

    Depression and anxiety are common comorbid conditions in patients with heart failure. Patients with heart failure and depression have increased mortality. The association of anxiety with increased mortality in patients with heart failure is not established. The purpose of this article is to illustrate the similarities of the underlying pathophysiology of heart failure, depression, and anxiety by using the Biopsychosocial Holistic Model of Cardiovascular Health. Depression and anxiety affect biological processes of cardiovascular function in patients with heart failure by altering neurohormonal function via activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, autonomic dysregulation, and activation of cytokine cascades and platelets. Patients with heart failure and depression or anxiety may exhibit a continued cycle of heart failure progression, increased depression, and increased anxiety. Understanding the underlying pathophysiological relationships in patients with heart failure who experience comorbid depression and/or anxiety is critical in order to implement appropriate treatments, educate patients and caregivers, and educate other health professionals.

  3. Generalized Anxiety and Major Depressive syndrome ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: Environmental exposure to manganese (Mn) may cause generalized anxiety (GA) and major depression (MD) in residents living in Mn-exposed areas. Marietta and East Liverpool are two Ohio towns identified as having elevated levels of Mn. The objective was to determine if levels of Mn exposure were associated with levels of GA and MD.Participants and methods: 186 participants (Mean age: 55.0 ± 10.80) were examined. Levels of air-Mn were assessed over a period of ten years using U.S. EPA’s AERMOD dispersion model. Average air-Mn exposure was 0.53 μg/m3 in the two towns. The GA syndrome was comprised of anxiety, obsessive-compulsive, and phobic scales from the Symptom Checklist (SCL-90-R). The MD syndrome was comprised of depression, anxiety, and psychoticism scales also from the SCL-90-R. Linear regression models were used to determine the relationship between Mn and GA, MD and the specific components of each.Results: Elevated air-Mn was associated with GA (β= 0.240, p=0.002), and MD (β= 0.202, p=0.011). Air-Mn was associated with specific components of GA anxiety (β= 0.255, p=0.001), phobic anxiety (β= 0.159, p=0.046), and obsessive-compulsive (β= 0.197, p=0.013). Similarly, components of MD syndrome suggested an association as well: depression (β= 0.180, p=0.023), anxiety (β= 0.255, p=0.001), and psychoticism (β= 0.188, p=0.018). Conclusions: The results suggest that residents with elevated exposure to environmental Mn have elevated levels of

  4. Changes in affect during treatment for depression and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kring, Ann M; Persons, Jacqueline B; Thomas, Cannon

    2007-08-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the tripartite model [Clark, L. A., & Watson, D. (1991). Tripartite model of anxiety and depression: Psychometric evidence and psychometric implications. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 100, 316-336] can be extended to account for change during treatment for anxiety and depression. Forty-one patients treated naturalistically in private practice with cognitive behavior therapy completed weekly measures of depression, anxiety, negative affect (NA), positive affect (PA), and anxious arousal (AA). Consistent with the model, NA was associated with anxiety and depression during treatment, PA was more strongly related to depression than to anxiety, and AA was more strongly related to anxiety than to depression. As predicted, symptoms of depression and anxiety and NA all decreased during treatment. As predicted, AA also decreased, particularly for patients with panic disorder. PA increased during treatment, but only for patients who showed a significant decline in depression and only over an extended period of treatment. Nearly two-thirds of the variance in anxiety change was accounted for by changes in depression and NA, and just over three-fourths of the variance in depression change was accounted for by changes in anxiety and NA, indicating that much of the change in anxiety and depression across the course of treatment is shared in common.

  5. Specificity of dysfunctional thinking in children with symptoms of social anxiety, separation anxiety and generalised anxiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M. Bogels; N. Snieder; M. Kindt

    2003-01-01

    The present study investigated whether children with high symptom levels of either social phobia (SP), separation anxiety disorder (SAD), or generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) are characterised by a specific set of dysfunctional interpretations that are consistent with the cognitive model of their s

  6. Cardiac morbidity risk and depression and anxiety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tully, Phillip J; Pedersen, Susanne S.; Winefield, Helen R

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine depression and anxiety disorders and their characteristic symptoms (anhedonia/low positive affect and anxious arousal, respectively), along with measures of state negative affect (NA) and Type D personality, in relation to cardiac surgery related morbidity....... Patients awaiting elective coronary artery bypass graft surgery (n=158; 20.9% female; 11.4% concomitant valve surgery; age M=64.7, SD=10.6) underwent the structured MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview to determine current affective disorders. Patients also completed the Mood and Anxiety Symptom...... analysis of personality traits revealed the NA component of Type D personality was associated with cardiac morbidity (OR=1.07, 95% CI 1.01-1.14, p=0.03). The Mood and Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire subscales were not associated with increased morbidity risk. Affective disorders, affective phenotypes...

  7. Herbal Medicine for Anxiety, Depression and Insomnia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Liu, Changhong; Wang, Yicun; Wang, Pu; Li, Yuxin; Li, Bingjin

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence and comorbidity of psychiatric disorders such as depression, anxiety and insomnia are very common. These well-known forms of psychiatric disorders have been affecting many people from all around the world. Herb alone, as well as herbal formula, is commonly prescribed for the therapies of mental illnesses. Since various adverse events of western medication exist, the number of people who use herbs to benefit their health is increasing. Over the past decades, the exploration in the area of herbal psychopharmacology has received much attention. Literatures showed a variety of herbal mechanisms of action used for the therapy of depression, anxiety and insomnia, involving re-uptake of monoamines, affecting neuroreceptor binding and channel transporter activity, modulating neuronal communication or hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis (HPA) etc. Nonetheless, a systematic review on herbal pharmacology in depression, anxiety and insomnia is still lacking. This review has been performed to further identify modes of action of different herbal medicine, and thus provides useful information for the application of herbal medicine. PMID:26412068

  8. Clinical relevance of comorbidity in anxiety disorders : A report from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmeijer-Sevink, Mieke Klein; Batelaan, Neeltje M.; van Megen, Harold J. G. M.; Penninx, Brenda W.; Cath, Danielle C.; van den Hout, Marcel A.; van Balkom, Anton J. L. M.

    Background: To study the clinical relevance of type of comorbidity and number of comorbid disorders in anxiety disorders. Four groups were compared according to sociodemographic-, vulnerability- and clinical factors: single anxiety disorder, anxiety-anxiety comorbidity, anxiety-depressive

  9. Clinical relevance of comorbidity in anxiety disorders : A report from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmeijer-Sevink, Mieke Klein; Batelaan, Neeltje M.; van Megen, Harold J. G. M.; Penninx, Brenda W.; Cath, Danielle C.; van den Hout, Marcel A.; van Balkom, Anton J. L. M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: To study the clinical relevance of type of comorbidity and number of comorbid disorders in anxiety disorders. Four groups were compared according to sociodemographic-, vulnerability- and clinical factors: single anxiety disorder, anxiety-anxiety comorbidity, anxiety-depressive comorbidit

  10. Clinical relevance of comorbidity in anxiety disorders : A report from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmeijer-Sevink, Mieke Klein; Batelaan, Neeltje M.; van Megen, Harold J. G. M.; Penninx, Brenda W.; Cath, Danielle C.; van den Hout, Marcel A.; van Balkom, Anton J. L. M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: To study the clinical relevance of type of comorbidity and number of comorbid disorders in anxiety disorders. Four groups were compared according to sociodemographic-, vulnerability- and clinical factors: single anxiety disorder, anxiety-anxiety comorbidity, anxiety-depressive comorbidit

  11. Seasonality in depressive and anxiety symptoms among primary care patients and in patients with depressive and anxiety disorders; results from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winthorst, Wim H.; Post, Wendy J.; Meesters, Ybe; Penninx, Brenda W. H. J.; Nolen, Willem A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Little is known about seasonality of specific depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms in different patient populations. This study aims to assess seasonal variation of depressive and anxiety symptoms in a primary care population and across participants who were classified in diagnostic

  12. Examining the Factor Structure of Anxiety and Depression Symptom Items Among Adolescents in Santiago, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bares, Cristina B; Andrade, Fernando; Delva, Jorge; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    The co-occurrence of emotional disorders among adolescents has received considerable empirical attention. This study aims to contribute to the understanding of co-occurring anxiety and depression by examining the factor structure of the Youth Self-Report used with a sample of low-income adolescents from Santiago, Chile. Data from two independent, randomly selected subsamples were analyzed using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Results indicate the best fit for the data is a two-factor model of anxiety and depression symptoms, which factors anxiety and depression into separate latent constructs. Because the findings show that anxiety and depression are not measured by the same factor in this international sample, the results imply that a valid and useful distinction exists between these constructs. That these constructs are found to be separate factors suggests that anxiety and depression may have separate etiologies and consequences, which might be best addressed by separate intervention components. These findings are consistent with the viewpoint that anxiety and depression constructs have similar emotional features and, despite sharing a common underlying internalizing disorder, distinct items capture aspects of each construct.

  13. Mapping mindfulness facets onto dimensions of anxiety and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desrosiers, Alethea; Klemanski, David H; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan

    2013-09-01

    Mindfulness has been associated with anxiety and depression, but the ways in which specific facets of mindfulness relate to symptoms of anxiety and depression remains unclear. The purpose of the current study was to investigate associations between specific facets of mindfulness (e.g., observing, describing, nonjudging, acting with awareness, and nonreactivity) and dimensions of anxiety and depression symptoms (e.g., anxious arousal, general distress-anxiety, general distress-depression, and anhedonic depression) while controlling for shared variance among variables. Participants were 187 treatment-seeking adults. Mindfulness was measured using the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire and symptoms of depression and anxiety were measured using the Mood and Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire. Bivariate correlations showed that all facets of mindfulness were significantly related to all dimensions of anxiety and depression, with two exceptions: describing was unrelated to general distress-anxiety, and observing was unrelated to all symptom clusters. Path analysis was used to simultaneously examine associations between mindfulness facets and depression and anxiety symptoms. Significant and marginally significant pathways were retained to construct a more parsimonious model and model fit indices were examined. The parsimonious model indicated that nonreactivity was significantly inversely associated with general distress anxiety symptoms. Describing was significantly inversely associated with anxious arousal, while observing was significantly positively associated with it. Nonjudging and nonreactivity were significantly inversely related to general distress-depression and anhedonic depression symptomatology. Acting with awareness was not significantly associated with any dimensions of anxiety or depression. Findings support associations between specific facets of mindfulness and dimensions of anxiety and depression and highlight the potential utility of targeting these

  14. Anxiety and depression in polycystic ovary syndrome: a comprehensive investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeks, Amanda A; Gibson-Helm, Melanie E; Teede, Helena J

    2010-05-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with high levels of depression, which impact quality of life and limit self-efficacy, yet less is known about prevalence of anxiety. This cross-sectional, observational study of community-based women with PCOS comprehensively examined mood and found that anxiety existed at higher levels than depression, anxiety was underdiagnosed, and more women with PCOS who reported infertility were depressed.

  15. Relationships between tinnitus and the prevalence of anxiety and depression.

    OpenAIRE

    Bhatt, JM; Bhattacharyya, N; Lin, HW

    2017-01-01

    Quantify the relationships between tinnitus, and anxiety and depression among adults.Cross-sectional analysis of a national health survey.Adult respondents in the 2007 Integrated Health Interview Series tinnitus module were analyzed. Data for tinnitus symptoms and severity and reported anxiety and depression symptoms were extracted. Associations between tinnitus problems and anxiety, depression, lost workdays, days of alcohol consumption, and mean hours of sleep were assessed.Among 21.4 ± 0.6...

  16. Evaluation of Anxiety and Depressive Levels in Tinnitus Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Chang Gun; Chi, Jun Hyuk; Song, Jae-Jun; Lee, Eun Kyeong; Kim, Bo Hae

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives The aims of this study were to evaluate the relationship between tinnitus and the level of anxiety and depression experienced by subjective tinnitus patients, and to determine the effect of the level of anxiety and depression to the results of tinnitus treatment. Subjects and Methods A total of 104 patients were included in this study. All the patients conducted Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), State Trait Anxiety Inventory 1, 2 (ST...

  17. The relationship between acculturation strategies and depressive and anxiety disorders in Turkish migrants in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ünlü Ince, Burçin; Fassaert, Thijs; de Wit, Matty A S; Cuijpers, Pim; Smit, Jan; Ruwaard, Jeroen; Riper, Heleen

    2014-09-05

    Turkish migrants in the Netherlands have a high prevalence of depressive and/or anxiety disorders. Acculturation has been shown to be related to higher levels of psychological distress, although it is not clear whether this also holds for depressive and anxiety disorders in Turkish migrants. This study aims to clarify the relationship between acculturation strategies (integration, assimilation, separation and marginalization) and the prevalence of depressive and anxiety disorders as well as utilisation of GP care among Turkish migrants. Existing data from an epidemiological study conducted among Dutch, Turkish and Moroccan inhabitants of Amsterdam were re-examined. Four scales of acculturation strategies were created in combination with the bi-dimensional approach of acculturation by factor analysis. The Lowlands Acculturation Scale and the Composite International Diagnostic Interview were used to assess acculturation and mood and anxiety disorders. Socio-demographic variables, depressive, anxiety and co-morbidity of both disorders and the use of health care services were associated with the four acculturation strategies by means of Chi-Squared and Likelihood tests. Three two-step logistic regression analyses were performed to control for possible, confounding variables. The sample consisted of 210 Turkish migrants. Significant associations were found between the acculturation strategies and age (p acculturation strategies and depressive disorders (p = .049): integration was associated with a lower risk of depression, separation with a higher risk. Using the axis separately, participation in Dutch society showed a significant relationship with a decreased risk of depressive, anxiety and co-morbidity of both disorders (OR = .15; 95% CI: .024 - .98). Non-participation showed no significant association. No association was found between the acculturation strategies and uptake of GP care. Turkish migrants who integrate may have a lower risk of developing a

  18. The trajectories of adolescent anxiety and depressive symptoms over the course of a transdiagnostic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queen, Alexander H; Barlow, David H; Ehrenreich-May, Jill

    2014-08-01

    Anxiety and depressive disorders commonly co-occur during adolescence, share multiple vulnerability factors, and respond to similar psychosocial and pharmacological interventions. However, anxiety and depression may also be considered distinct constructs and differ on some underlying properties. Prior research efforts on evidence-based treatments for youth have been unable to examine the concurrent trajectories of primary anxiety and depressive concerns across the course of treatment. The advent of transdiagnostic approaches for these emotional disorders in youth allows for such examination. The present study examined the separate trajectories of adolescent anxiety and depressive symptoms over the course of a transdiagnostic intervention, the Unified Protocol for the Treatment of Emotional Disorders in Adolescence (UP-A; Ehrenreich et al., 2008), as well as up to six months following treatment. The sample included 59 adolescents ages 12-17 years old (M=15.42, SD=1.71) who completed at least eight sessions of the UP-A as part of an open trial or randomized, controlled trial across two treatment sites. Piecewise latent growth curve analyses found adolescent self-rated anxiety and depressive symptoms showed similar rates of improvement during treatment, but while anxiety symptoms continued to improve during follow-up, depressive symptoms showed non-significant improvement after treatment. Parent-rated symptoms also showed similar rates of improvement for anxiety and depression during the UP-A to those observed for adolescent self-report, but little improvement after treatment across either anxiety or depressive symptoms. To a certain degree, the results mirror those observed among other evidence-based treatments for youth with anxiety and depression, though results hold implications for future iterations of transdiagnostic treatments regarding optimization of outcomes for adolescents with depressive symptoms.

  19. Anxiety and depression among patients with different types of vestibular peripheral vertigo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Qing; Yu, Lisheng; Shi, Dongmei; Ke, Xingxing; Zhang, Hua

    2015-02-01

    Numerous studies have been published on comorbid anxiety and depression in patients with vertigo. However, very few studies have separately described and analyzed anxiety or depression in patients with different types of vestibular peripheral vertigo. The present study investigated anxiety and depression among patients with 4 different types of peripheral vertigo. A total of 129 patients with 4 types of peripheral vertigo, namely, benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV, n = 49), migrainous vertigo (MV, n = 37), Menière disease (MD, n = 28), and vestibular neuritis (VN, n = 15), were included in the present study. Otological and neurootological examinations were carefully performed, and self-rating anxiety scale and self-rating depression scale were used to evaluate anxiety and depression. Patients were divided into 2 groups, according to the vestibular function: normal and abnormal vestibular function. There was no significant difference in the risk of anxiety/depression between these 2 groups. However, for patients with the 4 different vertigo types, the prevalence of anxiety (MV = 45.9%, MD = 50%) and depression (MV = 27%, MD = 28.6%) was significantly higher in the patients with MV or MD than those with BPPV or VN (P vertigo, as well as differences in the prevention and self-control of the patients against the vertigo.

  20. Anxiety and Depression Among Patients With Different Types of Vestibular Peripheral Vertigo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Qing; Yu, Lisheng; Shi, Dongmei; Ke, Xingxing; Zhang, Hua

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Numerous studies have been published on comorbid anxiety and depression in patients with vertigo. However, very few studies have separately described and analyzed anxiety or depression in patients with different types of vestibular peripheral vertigo. The present study investigated anxiety and depression among patients with 4 different types of peripheral vertigo. A total of 129 patients with 4 types of peripheral vertigo, namely, benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV, n = 49), migrainous vertigo (MV, n = 37), Menière disease (MD, n = 28), and vestibular neuritis (VN, n = 15), were included in the present study. Otological and neurootological examinations were carefully performed, and self-rating anxiety scale and self-rating depression scale were used to evaluate anxiety and depression. Patients were divided into 2 groups, according to the vestibular function: normal and abnormal vestibular function. There was no significant difference in the risk of anxiety/depression between these 2 groups. However, for patients with the 4 different vertigo types, the prevalence of anxiety (MV = 45.9%, MD = 50%) and depression (MV = 27%, MD = 28.6%) was significantly higher in the patients with MV or MD than those with BPPV or VN (P BPPV or VN. This may be due to the different mechanisms involved in these 4 types of vertigo, as well as differences in the prevention and self-control of the patients against the vertigo. PMID:25654382

  1. Social anxiety and insomnia: the mediating role of depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, Julia D; Bernert, Rebecca A; Cromer, Kiara R; Joiner, Thomas E; Schmidt, Norman B

    2008-01-01

    Anxiety is commonly associated with insomnia. Given that social anxiety disorder is one of the most prevalent anxiety disorders, socially anxious individuals may be particularly vulnerable to insomnia. However, there is currently very little empirical work on this relationship. This study used bivariate correlations to examine whether social anxiety was related to insomnia in an undergraduate sample (n=176) using the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale and the Insomnia Severity Index. Further, we utilized responses from the Beck Depression Inventory to investigate the role of depressive symptoms in the association between social anxiety and insomnia. Hierarchical linear regressions were used to examine the moderational and mediational role of depressive symptoms in the link between social anxiety and insomnia. To increase generalizability to clinical samples, analyses were repeated on a subset of the sample with clinically significant social anxiety symptoms (n=23) compared to a matched control group (n=23). Consistent with expectation, social anxiety was associated with increased insomnia symptoms. Specifically, social anxiety was correlated with sleep dissatisfaction, sleep-related functional impairment, perception of a sleep problem to others, and distress about sleep problems. Importantly, depressive symptoms mediated the relationship between social anxiety and insomnia, thereby at least partially accounting for insomnia among socially anxious individuals. Our data support the contention that social anxiety is associated with insomnia and suggest that depression may play a vital role in this co-occurrence.

  2. Anxiety and depression symptoms in recurrent painful renal lithiasis colic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, D H M P; Blay, S L; Schor, N

    2007-07-01

    Several studies have reported that symptoms of anxiety and depression are significantly associated with diseases characterized by painful crises. However, there is little information about the psychological aspects of recurrent painful episodes of renal stone disease. Our objective was to evaluate the association of symptoms of anxiety, depression and recurrent painful renal colic in a case-control study involving 64 subjects (32 cases/32 controls) matched for age and sex. Cases were outpatients with a confirmed diagnosis of nephrolithiasis as per their case history, physical examination, image examination and other laboratory exams. Patients had a history of at least two episodes within a 3-year period, and were currently in an intercrisis interval. The control group consisted of subjects seen at the Ophthalmology Outpatient Clinic of this University Hospital with only eye refraction symptoms, and no other associated disease. Symptoms of anxiety were evaluated by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and symptoms of depression by the Beck Depression Inventory. Statistically significant differences were observed between patients with nephrolithiasis and controls for anxiety state (P = 0.001), anxiety trait (P = 0.005) and symptoms of depression (odds ratio = 3.74; 95%CI = 1.31-10.62). The Beck Depression Inventory showed 34.5% of respondents with moderate and 6% with severe levels of depression. There was a significant linear correlation between symptoms of anxiety (P = 0.002) and depression (P renal colic and symptoms of both anxiety and depression.

  3. Meditative Movement for Depression and Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter ePayne

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on Meditative Movement (MM and its effects on anxiety, depression and other affective states. MM is a term identifying forms of exercise that use movement in conjunction with meditative attention to body sensations, including proprioception, interoception and kinesthesis. MM includes the traditional Chinese methods of Qigong (Chi Kung and Taijiquan (Tai Chi, some forms of Yoga and other Asian practices, as well as Western Somatic practices; however this review focuses primarily on Qigong and Taijiquan. We clarify the differences between MM and conventional exercise, present descriptions of several of the key methodologies of MM, and suggest how research into these practices may be approached in a systematic way. We also present evidence for possible mechanisms of the effects of MM on affective states, including the roles of posture, rhythm, coherent breathing, and the involvement of specific cortical and subcortical structures. We survey research outcomes summarized in reviews published since 2007. Results suggest that MM may be at least as effective as conventional exercise or other interventions in ameliorating anxiety and depression; however, study quality is generally poor and there are many confounding factors. This makes it difficult to draw definitive conclusions at this time. We suggest, however, that more research is warranted, and we offer specific suggestions for ensuring high-quality and productive future studies.

  4. Overlap between autistic and schizotypal personality traits is not accounted for by anxiety and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mealey, Alex; Abbott, Gavin; Byrne, Linda K; McGillivray, Jane

    2014-10-30

    Autism spectrum and schizophrenia spectrum disorders are classified separately in the DSM-5, yet research indicates that these two disorders share overlapping features. The aim of the present study was to examine the overlap between autistic and schizotypal personality traits and whether anxiety and depression act as confounding variables in this relationship within a non-clinical population. One hundred and forty-four adults completed the Autism Spectrum Quotient and the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21. A number of associations were seen between autistic and schizotypal personality traits. However, negative traits were the only schizotypal feature to uniquely predict global autistic traits, thus highlighting the importance of interpersonal qualities in the overlap of autistic and schizotypal characteristics. The inclusion of anxiety and depression did not alter relationships between autistic and schizotypal traits, indicating that anxiety and depression are not confounders of this relationship. These findings have important implications for the conceptualisation of both disorders.

  5. EXAMINING PARENTS' ROMANTIC ATTACHMENT STYLES AND DEPRESSIVE AND ANXIETY SYMPTOMS AS PREDICTORS OF CAREGIVING EXPERIENCES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    River, Laura M; Borelli, Jessica L; Nelson-Coffey, S Katherine

    2016-09-01

    Evidence has suggested that parental romantic attachment style and depressive and anxiety symptoms are related to experiences of caregiving (Creswell, Apetroaia, Murray, & Cooper, 2013; Jones, Cassidy, & Shaver, 2014; Lovejoy, Graczyk, O'Hare, & Neuman, 2000), but more research is necessary to clarify the nature of these relations, particularly in the context of attachment-salient events such as reunions. In a cross-sectional study of 150 parents of children ages 1 to 3 years, we assessed participants' attachment styles (self-reported anxiety and avoidance) and depressive and anxiety symptoms. Participants generated a narrative describing their most recent reunion with their child, which we coded for caregiving outcomes of negative emotion and secure base script content. Attachment style and depressive and anxiety symptoms separately predicted each caregiving outcome. Depressive and anxiety symptoms mediated the associations between attachment style and caregiving outcomes. These results suggest that parental attachment insecurity and depressive and anxiety symptoms contribute to negative emotion and reduced secure base script content. Further, depressive and anxiety symptomatology partially accounts for the relation between attachment insecurity and caregiving outcomes, suggesting that parental mental health is a critical point for intervention.

  6. Metabolic risk factors in depressive and anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reedt Dortland, Arianne Klaartje Beraldine van

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to clarify which aspects of depression and anxiety are related to an increased metabolic risk, and which factors contribute to these associations. Taken together, our findings indicate that people with more severe symptoms of depression and anxiety are at particular risk

  7. Metabolic risk factors in depressive and anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reedt Dortland, Arianne Klaartje Beraldine van

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to clarify which aspects of depression and anxiety are related to an increased metabolic risk, and which factors contribute to these associations. Taken together, our findings indicate that people with more severe symptoms of depression and anxiety are at particular risk o

  8. Metabolic risk factors in depressive and anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reedt Dortland, Arianne Klaartje Beraldine van

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to clarify which aspects of depression and anxiety are related to an increased metabolic risk, and which factors contribute to these associations. Taken together, our findings indicate that people with more severe symptoms of depression and anxiety are at particular risk o

  9. The effect of anxiety and depression scores of couples who ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of anxiety and depression scores of couples who underwent assisted ... using a semi-structured questionnaire and the Turkish version of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and Beck .... tics (age, education, marriage history and infertility) of couples ..... however, for both groups, the mean trait anxiety scores.

  10. Comorbid depression and anxiety effects on pregnancy and neonatal outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Figueiredo, Bárbara; Deeds, Osvelia; Ascencio, Angela; Schanberg, Saul; Kuhn, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    The effects of comorbid depression and anxiety were compared to the effects of depression alone and anxiety alone on pregnancy mood states and biochemistry and on neonatal outcomes in a large multi-ethnic sample. At the prenatal period the comorbid and depressed groups had higher scores than the other groups on the depression measure. But, the comorbid group had higher anxiety, anger and daily hassles scores than the other groups, and they had lower dopamine levels. As compared to the non-dep...

  11. Anxiety and depressive symptoms and medical illness among adults with anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niles, Andrea N; Dour, Halina J; Stanton, Annette L; Roy-Byrne, Peter P; Stein, Murray B; Sullivan, Greer; Sherbourne, Cathy D; Rose, Raphael D; Craske, Michelle G

    2015-02-01

    Anxiety is linked to a number of medical conditions, yet few studies have examined how symptom severity relates to medical comorbidity. The current study assessed associations between severity of anxiety and depression and the presence of medical conditions in adults diagnosed with anxiety disorders. Nine-hundred eighty-nine patients diagnosed with panic, generalized anxiety, social anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorders reported on the severity of anxiety and depressive symptoms and on diagnoses of 11 medical conditions. Severity of anxiety and depressive symptoms was strongly associated with having more medical conditions over and above control variables, and the association was as strong as that between BMI and disease. Odds of having asthma, heart disease, back problems, ulcer, migraine headache and eyesight difficulties also increased as anxiety and depressive symptom severity increased. Anxiety symptoms were independently associated with ulcer, whereas depressive symptoms were independently associated with heart disease, migraine, and eyesight difficulties. These findings add to a growing body of research linking anxiety disorders with physical health problems and indicate that anxiety and depressive symptoms deserve greater attention in their association with disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Adult separation anxiety disorder in the DSM-5

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bögels, S.M.; Knappe, S.; Clark, L.A.

    2013-01-01

    Unlike other DSM-IV anxiety disorders, separation anxiety disorder (SAD) has been considered a disorder that typically begins in childhood, and could be diagnosed only in adults "if onset is before 18." Moreover, SAD is the only DSM-IV anxiety disorder placed under "Disorders Usually First Diagnosed

  13. Adult separation anxiety disorder in the DSM-5

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bögels, S.M.; Knappe, S.; Clark, L.A.

    2013-01-01

    Unlike other DSM-IV anxiety disorders, separation anxiety disorder (SAD) has been considered a disorder that typically begins in childhood, and could be diagnosed only in adults "if onset is before 18." Moreover, SAD is the only DSM-IV anxiety disorder placed under "Disorders Usually First Diagnosed

  14. Separation Anxiety Disorder in Children: Disorder-Specific Responses to Experimental Separation from the Mother

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossowsky, Joe; Wilhelm, Frank H.; Roth, Walton T.; Schneider, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    Background: Separation anxiety disorder (SAD) is one of the most common anxiety disorders in childhood and is predictive of adult anxiety disorders, especially panic disorder. However, the disorder has seldom been studied and the attempt to distinguish SAD from other anxiety disorders with regard to psychophysiology has not been made. We expected…

  15. Separation Anxiety Disorder in Children: Disorder-Specific Responses to Experimental Separation from the Mother

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossowsky, Joe; Wilhelm, Frank H.; Roth, Walton T.; Schneider, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    Background: Separation anxiety disorder (SAD) is one of the most common anxiety disorders in childhood and is predictive of adult anxiety disorders, especially panic disorder. However, the disorder has seldom been studied and the attempt to distinguish SAD from other anxiety disorders with regard to psychophysiology has not been made. We expected…

  16. Mathematics anxiety: separating the math from the anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Ian M; Beilock, Sian L

    2012-09-01

    Anxiety about math is tied to low math grades and standardized test scores, yet not all math-anxious individuals perform equally poorly in math. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to separate neural activity during the anticipation of doing math from activity during math performance itself. For higher (but not lower) math-anxious individuals, increased activity in frontoparietal regions when simply anticipating doing math mitigated math-specific performance deficits. This network included bilateral inferior frontal junction, a region involved in cognitive control and reappraisal of negative emotional responses. Furthermore, the relation between frontoparietal anticipatory activity and highly math-anxious individuals' math deficits was fully mediated (or accounted for) by activity in caudate, nucleus accumbens, and hippocampus during math performance. These subcortical regions are important for coordinating task demands and motivational factors during skill execution. Individual differences in how math-anxious individuals recruit cognitive control resources prior to doing math and motivational resources during math performance predict the extent of their math deficits. This work suggests that educational interventions emphasizing control of negative emotional responses to math stimuli (rather than merely additional math training) will be most effective in revealing a population of mathematically competent individuals, who might otherwise go undiscovered.

  17. Psychodynamic Treatment for Separation Anxiety in a Treatment Nonresponder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Fredric N; Milrod, Barbara L

    2015-10-01

    Separation anxiety, long an area of interest for psychoanalysts, has been included in DSM-5 among general "anxiety disorders" that span across age groups. The syndrome of separation anxiety has been shown to correlate with nonresponse to treatments for anxiety and mood disorders (Milrod et al. 2014). It is therefore of public health importance to develop targeted treatments for this syndrome. Some psychoanalysts have suggested that brief psychoanalytic interventions may be of particular value in addressing separation anxiety. Our clinical work with patients with anxiety disorders with high levels of separation anxiety indicates that they have such intense anger and ambivalence in fraught intimate relationships that they feel stuck and helpless, almost eliminating more positive feelings. This ambivalence and associated unconscious conflicts inevitably emerge in the therapeutic relationship and can threaten to disrupt treatment efforts. We propose a set of focused psychodynamic psychotherapeutic interventions to address separation anxiety, developed as part of Panic-Focused Psychodynamic Psychotherapy-eXtended Range (PFPP-XR; Busch et al. 2012). We present a case from our research study of treatment nonresponders with anxiety disorders and separation anxiety. The patient was successfully treated with PFPP-XR in a 21-session treatment.

  18. Generalized anxiety modulates frontal and limbic activation in major depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schlund Michael W

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anxiety is relatively common in depression and capable of modifying the severity and course of depression. Yet our understanding of how anxiety modulates frontal and limbic activation in depression is limited. Methods We used functional magnetic resonance imaging and two emotional information processing tasks to examine frontal and limbic activation in ten patients with major depression and comorbid with preceding generalized anxiety (MDD/GAD and ten non-depressed controls. Results Consistent with prior studies on depression, MDD/GAD patients showed hypoactivation in medial and middle frontal regions, as well as in the anterior cingulate, cingulate and insula. However, heightened anxiety in MDD/GAD patients was associated with increased activation in middle frontal regions and the insula and the effects varied with the type of emotional information presented. Conclusions Our findings highlight frontal and limbic hypoactivation in patients with depression and comorbid anxiety and indicate that anxiety level may modulate frontal and limbic activation depending upon the emotional context. One implication of this finding is that divergent findings reported in the imaging literature on depression could reflect modulation of activation by anxiety level in response to different types of emotional information.

  19. Anxiety and depression symptoms in recurrent painful renal lithiasis colic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.H.M.P. Diniz

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have reported that symptoms of anxiety and depression are significantly associated with diseases characterized by painful crises. However, there is little information about the psychological aspects of recurrent painful episodes of renal stone disease. Our objective was to evaluate the association of symptoms of anxiety, depression and recurrent painful renal colic in a case-control study involving 64 subjects (32 cases/32 controls matched for age and sex. Cases were outpatients with a confirmed diagnosis of nephrolithiasis as per their case history, physical examination, image examination and other laboratory exams. Patients had a history of at least two episodes within a 3-year period, and were currently in an intercrisis interval. The control group consisted of subjects seen at the Ophthalmology Outpatient Clinic of this University Hospital with only eye refraction symptoms, and no other associated disease. Symptoms of anxiety were evaluated by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and symptoms of depression by the Beck Depression Inventory. Statistically significant differences were observed between patients with nephrolithiasis and controls for anxiety state (P = 0.001, anxiety trait (P = 0.005 and symptoms of depression (odds ratio = 3.74; 95%CI = 1.31-10.62. The Beck Depression Inventory showed 34.5% of respondents with moderate and 6% with severe levels of depression. There was a significant linear correlation between symptoms of anxiety (P = 0.002 and depression (P < 0.001 and the number of recurrent colic episodes (anxiety-state: P = 0.016 and anxiety-trait: P < 0.001. These data suggest an association between recurrent renal colic and symptoms of both anxiety and depression.

  20. Influence study of nursing intervention toward social support and anxiety and depression of primipara separated from high-risk born infant%护理干预对高危儿母婴分离初产妇社会支持、焦虑和抑郁的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄连欣; 班亮阶; 陆青梅; 农瑞珍; 林娜

    2013-01-01

    Objective To research the influence of nursing intervention toward social support and anxiety and depression of primipara separated from high-risk born infant. Methods 88 cases of primipara separated from high-risk born infant were asked to filled in the social support rating scale (SSRS) and anxiety self-assessment scale (SAS) and depression self rating scale (SDS), carried out nursing intervention based on the survey result, compared the degree of social support and anxiety and depression of the primiparas before and after the nursing intervention. Results Before the nursing intervention, there were 57 cases of moderate anxiety (64.77%) and 31 cases of severe anxiety (35.23%); there were 21 cases of mild depression (23.86%), 66 cases of moderate depression (75.00%) and 1 case of severe depression (1.14%). After the nursing intervention, there were 12 cases of moderate anxiety (13.64%), 42 cases of mild anxiety (47.73%) and 27 cases of mild depression (30.68%). The difference of social support, anxiety and depression of primiparas before and after the nursing intervention had statistical significance (P < 0.01). Conclusion Primipara separated from high-risk born infant can get good social support, but have high level of anxiety and depression. Medical workers should perform relevant nursing intervention measure to improve the primipara's social support, lower their anxiety and depression, make them feel good and improve their quality of life.%目的 探讨护理干预对高危儿母婴分离初产妇社会支持、焦虑和抑郁的影响.方法对88例高危儿母婴分离初产妇发放社会支持评定量表(SSRS)、焦虑自评量表(SAS)、抑郁自评量表(SDS).根据调查结果实施护理干预,比较实施护理干预前后其社会支持、焦虑和抑郁有无差异.结果实施护理干预前,中度焦虑57例(64.77%),重度焦虑31例(35.23%);轻度抑郁21例(23.86%),中度抑郁66例(75.00%),重度抑郁1例(1.14%).实施护理干预

  1. Predictive Model for Anxiety and Depression in Spanish Patients with Stable Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Gutiérrez, María Victoria; Guerrero Velázquez, José; Morales García, Concepción; Casas Maldonado, Francisco; Gómez Jiménez, Francisco Javier; González Vargas, Francisco

    2016-03-01

    The association between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and anxiety and depression is not yet completely characterized, and differences between countries may exist. We used a predictive model to assess this association in a Spanish population. Prospective transversal descriptive study of 204 patients with stable COPD. Concomitant anxiety or depression were diagnosed by psychiatric assessment, using the diagnostic criteria of the 10th revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10). Sociodemographic, clinical and lung function parameters were analyzed. In total, 36% of stable COPD patients had psychiatric comorbidities, but 76% were unaware of their diagnosis. Nineteen percent had a pure anxiety disorder, 9.8% had isolated depression, and 7.3% had a mixed anxiety-depression disorder. Predictive variables in the multivariate analysis were younger age, higher educational level, lack of home support, higher BODE index, and greater number of exacerbations. The ROC curve of the model had an AUC of 0.765 (P<0.001). In COPD, concomitant psychiatric disorders are significantly associated with sociodemographic factors. Anxiety disorders are more common than depression. Patients with more severe COPD, according to BODE, younger patients and those with a higher educational level have a greater risk of being diagnosed with anxiety or depression in a structured psychiatric interview. In our population, most patients with psychiatric comorbidities remain unidentified. Copyright © 2015 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Evidence of Higher Oxidative Status in Depression and Anxiety

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    G. Grases

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We use a simple method for evaluating antioxidative status, by measuring the redox potential of urine, and correlate the findings with measures of anxiety and depression. We include 63 individuals (28 males and 35 females aged between 20 and 65 years. The validated anxiety State-Trait Anxiety Inventory questionnaire and the validated BDI (Beck Depression Inventory questionnaire were used to evaluate anxiety and depression. Antioxidative status was determined by measuring the redox potential of urine collected in standard conditions. Correlation of the antioxidant capacity of urines evaluated using the ferric ion/specific dye method or through redox potential using the platinum electrode demonstrated the suitability of this last procedure. We found that normal anxiety state values corresponded to low urine redox potentials, whereas higher anxiety states were associated with high urinary redox potential. We also found that individuals with normal BDI values had significantly lower urine redox potentials than individuals with higher BDI values.

  3. Separation Anxiety Disorder in Childhood as a Risk Factor for Future Mental Illness

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    Lewinsohn, Peter M.; Holm-Denoma, Jill M.; Small, Jason W.; Seeley, John R.; Joiner, Thomas E.

    2008-01-01

    A study to examine the association between childhood separation anxiety disorder (SAD) and the risk of the development of psychopathology during young adulthood was conducted. Results showed that SAD contributed to the risk for the development of internalizing disorders, which are panic and depression, but decreased the risk for externalizing…

  4. Depression and anxiety in labor migrants and refugees--a systematic review and meta-analysis.

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    Lindert, Jutta; Ehrenstein, Ondine S von; Priebe, Stefan; Mielck, Andreas; Brähler, Elmar

    2009-07-01

    Prevalence rates of depression and anxiety among migrants (i.e. refugees, labor migrants) vary among studies and it's been found that prevalence rates of depression and anxiety may be linked to financial strain in the country of immigration. Our aim is to review studies on prevalence rates of depression and/or anxiety (acknowledging that Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is within that class of disorders), and to evaluate associations between the Gross National Product (GNP) of the immigration country as a moderating factor for depression, anxiety and PTSD among migrants. We carried out a systematic literature review in the databases MEDLINE and EMBASE for population based studies published from 1990 to 2007 reporting prevalence rates of depression and/or anxiety and or PTSD according to DSM- or ICD- criteria in adults, and a calculation of combined estimates for proportions using the DerSimonian-Laird estimation. A total of 348 records were retrieved with 37 publications on 35 populations meeting our inclusion criteria. 35 studies were included in the final evaluation. Our meta-analysis shows that the combined prevalence rates for depression were 20 percent among labor migrants vs. 44 percent among refugees; for anxiety the combined estimates were 21 percent among labor migrants vs. 40 percent among (n=24,051) refugees. Higher GNP in the country of immigration was related to lower symptom prevalence of depression and/or anxiety in labor migrants but not in refugees. We conclude that depression and/or anxiety in labor migrants and refugees require separate consideration, and that better economic conditions in the host country reflected by a higher GNP appear to be related to better mental health in labor migrants but not in refugees.

  5. Default mode network dissociation in depressive and anxiety states.

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    Coutinho, Joana Fernandes; Fernandesl, Sara Veiga; Soares, José Miguel; Maia, Liliana; Gonçalves, Óscar Filipe; Sampaio, Adriana

    2016-03-01

    The resting state brain networks, particularly the Default Mode Network (DMN), have been found to be altered in several psychopathological conditions such as depression and anxiety. In this study we hypothesized that cortical areas of the DMN, particularly the anterior regions--medial prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex--would show an increased functional connectivity associated with both anxiety and depression. Twenty-four healthy participants were assessed using Hamilton Depression and Anxiety Rating Scales and completed a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scan. Multiple regression was performed in order to identify which areas of the DMN were associated with anxiety and depression scores. We found that the functional connectivity of the anterior portions of DMN, involved in self-referential and emotional processes, was positively correlated with anxiety and depression scores, whereas posterior areas of the DMN, involved in episodic memory and perceptual processing were negatively correlated with anxiety and depression scores. The dissociation between anterior and posterior cortical midline regions, raises the possibility of a functional specialization within the DMN in terms of self-referential tasks and contributes to the understanding of the cognitive and affective alterations in depressive and anxiety states.

  6. Anxiety and depression in Slovak patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soósová, Mária Sováriová; Macejová, Želmíra; Zamboriová, Mária; Dimunová, Lucia

    2017-02-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is significantly associated with psychiatric morbidity. Mental health conditions are often unrecognized and untreated in primary care. To assess prevalence of anxiety and depression and their impact on arthritis pain and functional disability in Slovak patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Anxiety was assessed by the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), depression by the Zung self-rating depression scale (SDS), pain by the visual analog scale (VAS) and functional disability by the health assessment questionnaire - disability index (HAQ-DI) in 142 patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Spearman's rho was calculated to assess relations between variables. Stepwise linear regression analysis was used to assess impact of anxiety and depression on arthritis pain and functional disability. High prevalence of anxiety and depression was observed in arthritis patients. Anxiety and depression were significant predictors of arthritis pain and functional disability. Sex, education, marital status, disease duration and comorbidity had no impact on arthritis pain and functional disability. These findings support the notions that psychological negative affect can influence subjective perception of arthritis pain and disability. The regular screening of anxiety and depression and the psychological approaches can be useful for managing arthritis patients.

  7. Depression and Anxiety: Exercise Eases Symptoms

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    ... living-with-anxiety/managing-anxiety/exercise-stress-and-anxiety. Accessed Sept. 7, 2017. Zschucke E, et al. Exercise and physical activity in mental disorders: Clinical and experimental evidence. Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health. 2013;46: ...

  8. In Systemic Sclerosis, Anxiety and Depression Assessed by Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale Are Independently Associated with Disability and Psychological Factors

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    Angela Del Rosso

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Anxious and depressive symptoms are frequent in Systemic Sclerosis (SSc. Our objective is to assess their prevalence and association with district and global disability and psychological variables. Methods. 119 SSc patients were assessed by Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS. Clinical depression and anxiety were defined for HADS score cutoff ≥8. Patients were assessed for psychological symptoms (RSES, COPE-NIV, hand (HAMIS, CHFDS, fist closure, and hand opening and face disability (MHISS, mouth opening, global disability, and fatigue (HAQ, FACIT. Results. Both depression and anxiety in SSc are 36%. Depressive patients with comorbid anxiety have higher HADS-D score than patients with depression only (. HADS-A and -D are positively correlated with global disability, hands and mouth disability, fatigue, self-esteem and avoidance coping strategy, and, only HADS-A, also with social support (. By multiple regression, HADS-D is independently associated with FACIT-F (, RSES (, and MHISS total score (, together explaining 50% of variance. HADS-A is independently associated with RSES (, COPE-NIV SA (, COPE-NIV SS (, FACIT-F (, and MHISS mouth opening (, explaining 41% of variance. Conclusions. In SSc depression and anxiety correlate to local and global disabilities and psychological characteristics. Depressive patients with comorbid anxiety have higher level of depressive symptoms.

  9. Childhood separation anxiety and the pathogenesis and treatment of adult anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milrod, Barbara; Markowitz, John C; Gerber, Andrew J; Cyranowski, Jill; Altemus, Margaret; Shapiro, Theodore; Hofer, Myron; Glatt, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Clinically significant separation anxiety disorder in childhood leads to adult panic disorder and other anxiety disorders. The prevailing pathophysiological model of anxiety disorders, which emphasizes extinction deficits of fear-conditioned responses, does not fully consider the role of separation anxiety. Pathological early childhood attachments have far-reaching consequences for the later adult ability to experience and internalize positive relationships in order to develop mental capacities for self-soothing, anxiety tolerance, affect modulation, and individuation. Initially identified in attachment research, the phenomenon of separation anxiety is supported by animal model, neuroimaging, and genetic studies. A role of oxytocin is postulated. Adults, inured to their anxiety, often do not identify separation anxiety as problematic, but those who develop anxiety and mood disorders respond more poorly to both pharmacological and psychotherapeutic interventions. This poorer response may reflect patients' difficulty in forming and maintaining attachments, including therapeutic relationships. Psychotherapies that focus on relationships and separation anxiety may benefit patients with separation anxiety by using the dyadic therapist-patient relationship to recapture and better understand important elements of earlier pathological parent-child relationships.

  10. Anxiety, emotional processing and depression in people with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Marie-Claire; Bungener, Catherine; Thomas, Sarah; Vrignaud, Pierre; Thomas, Peter W; Baker, Roger; Montel, Sébastien; Heinzlef, Olivier; Papeix, Caroline; Assouad, Rana; Montreuil, Michèle

    2017-02-23

    Despite the high comorbidity of anxiety and depression in people with multiple sclerosis (MS), little is known about their inter-relationships. Both involve emotional perturbations and the way in which emotions are processed is likely central to both. The aim of the current study was to explore relationships between the domains of mood, emotional processing and coping and to analyse how anxiety affects coping, emotional processing, emotional balance and depression in people with MS. A cross-sectional questionnaire study involving 189 people with MS with a confirmed diagnosis of MS recruited from three French hospitals. Study participants completed a battery of questionnaires encompassing the following domains: i. anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS)); ii. emotional processing (Emotional Processing Scale (EPS-25)); iii. positive and negative emotions (Positive and Negative Emotionality Scale (EPN-31)); iv. alexithymia (Bermond-Vorst Alexithymia Questionnaire) and v. coping (Coping with Health Injuries and Problems-Neuro (CHIP-Neuro) questionnaire. Relationships between these domains were explored using path analysis. Anxiety was a strong predictor of depression, in both a direct and indirect way, and our model explained 48% of the variance of depression. Gender and functional status (measured by the Expanded Disability Status Scale) played a modest role. Non-depressed people with MS reported high levels of negative emotions and low levels of positive emotions. Anxiety also had an indirect impact on depression via one of the subscales of the Emotional Processing Scale ("Unregulated Emotion") and via negative emotions (EPN-31). This research confirms that anxiety is a vulnerability factor for depression via both direct and indirect pathways. Anxiety symptoms should therefore be assessed systematically and treated in order to lessen the likelihood of depression symptoms.

  11. Pathogenic involvement of neuropeptides in anxiety and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alldredge, Brett

    2010-06-01

    Anxiety and depression are highly prevalent disorders of mood posing significant challenges to individuals and society. Current evidence indicates no single neurobiological determinant underpins these conditions and an integrated approach in both research and treatment is expedient. Basic, behavioral, and clinical science indicates various stress-responsive neuropeptides in the neuroendocrine, autonomic, and behavioral pathophysiology of stress-related disorders including anxiety and depression. This review draws on recent research to capture the consensus and implications of neuropeptide research concerning the pathogenesis of anxiety and depression.

  12. Tackling anxiety and depression in older people in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bland, Phillip

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that anxiety and depression are less common in older than younger adults. One in ten people aged > or = 65 fulfils the diagnostic criteria for at least one common mental disorder. Older depressed patients have an increased risk of both cardiac and all-cause mortality. Both anxiety and depression in older patients are often unrecognised and untreated, and have a poor prognosis. There is a progressive decline in the prevalence of common mental disorders above the age of 55. Anxiety and depression often occur together, and share many risk factors. However, anxiety tends to follow threats or traumatic events, whereas depression follows loss events. Chronic diseases, cognitive impairment, pain and functional disability are risk factors for the onset of depression, but not anxiety. Depression is between two and three times more common among those with a chronic physical health problem. Even patients with major depression often remain unrecognised and untreated. Generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) is by far the most common anxiety disorder in older people but most GAD patients are not recognised in primary care and only a third of them receive any form of treatment. Older patients often deny feeling anxious or depressed and are more likely to present with insomnia, irritability, agitation and multiple somatic complaints. GPs may erroneously believe that depression is a normal reaction to the losses of old age, and may be reluctant to initiate treatment. A good case can be made for replacing the PHQ-9 with the 15-item version of the Geriatric Depression Scale which almost entirely avoids somatic questions. This is a screening not a diagnostic tool and does not evaluate symptom severity.

  13. Processing bias in children with separation anxiety disorder, social phobia and generalised anxiety disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kindt, M.; Bögels, S.M.; Morren, M.

    2003-01-01

    The present study examined processing bias in children suffering from anxiety disorders. Processing bias was assessed using of the emotional Stroop task in clinically referred children with separation anxiety disorder (SAD), social phobia (SP), and/or generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) and normal co

  14. Comorbidity of Anxiety-Depression among Australian University Students: Implications for Student Counsellors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitsika, Vicki; Sharpley, Christopher F.

    2012-01-01

    The incidence, factor structure and scale item differences in anxiety-depression comorbidity were investigated in a sample of Australian university students defined according to the presence of anxiety and/or depression. The incidence of anxiety-depression comorbidity was over 32%, about four times that for anxiety or depression alone.…

  15. Spanish "fine tuning" of language to describe depression and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguera, Antonio; Centeno, Carlos; Carvajal, Ana; Tejedor, María Angustias Portela; Urdiroz, Juliana; Martínez, Marina

    2009-08-01

    On screening tools for emotional distress, the terms "depression" and "anxiety" are commonly used for patients with advanced cancer. However, these terms could have negative connotations in Spanish such that cultural and unexpected differences in perception may invalidate or skew the results of the screening if the best terms are not chosen. The goal of this study was to determine the best expression that can be used to explore anxiety and depression in Spanish. A prospective study of 100 Spanish-speaking patients was performed. Spanish patients with cancer completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and six Verbal Numerical Scales (VNS) exploring the level of anxiety using the terms ansioso (anxious), nervioso (nervous), or intranquilo (uneasy/disquiet), and the level of depression using the terms deprimido (depressed), desanimado (discouraged), or triste (sad). The correlation, sensitivity, and specificity for all the VNS and HADS (8 and 11 cutoff points) were analyzed. The correlation (Spearman rho) between HADS and the anxiety VNS was r = 0.557 using "anxious"; r = 0.603 using "nervous"; and r = 0.594 using "uneasy." The correlation for the depression VNS was r = 0.662 using "depression"; r = 0.759 using "discouraged" and r = 0.596 using "sad"; alpha anxiety achieved the best levels for sensitivity (0.80) and specificity (0.70). The term "discouraged" with a cutoff point of 4 of 10 shows a sensitivity of 0.89, a specificity of 0.84, as well as a predictive positive value of 0.77 and a negative value of 0.93. In Spanish, the term desanimado seems to be more suitable in screening for depression. Alternate terms could be used to explore anxiety in Spanish. Exploring depression with simple questions in Spanish achieves greater accuracy than the same approach to exploring anxiety.

  16. Presence of anxiety and depression in patients with bronchiectasis unrelated to cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girón Moreno, Rosa María; Fernandes Vasconcelos, Gilda; Cisneros, Carolina; Gómez-Punter, Rosa Mar; Segrelles Calvo, Gonzalo; Ancochea, Julio

    2013-10-01

    Patients with chronic bronchiectasis (BQ) may suffer from psychological disorders. The objective of this study was to assess the presence of anxiety and depression in patients from a specialised BQ Unit, using validated questionnaires. We included patients consecutively diagnosed with BQ (unrelated to cystic fibrosis) by high resolution computed tomography in the study. Patients were clinically stable in the previous three weeks and voluntarily completed the Beck Depression Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire, after signing the informed consent. They were classified according to their scores on the psychological screening questionnaires, and their results were compared with the clinical, radiological and functional parameters and Quality of Life. Seventy patients were included, 48 women and 22 men, with a mean age of 64.19years. Thirty-four percent (34%) of patients showed symptoms of depression, and around 55% had scores above the 50th percentile in trait and state anxiety. The amount of sputum was associated with trait anxiety. Bacterial colonization was related to anxiety (trait and state), especially Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonization. Female patients showed a higher risk of depression. There was no relationship between the Quality of Life scores and the established classifications of anxiety and depression. A high percentage of patients with BQ presented anxiety (trait and state) and depression. The daily sputum production and bacterial colonization (especially with P. aeruginosa) were the variables most related to anxiety; depression was more common in women. We believe that the presence of psychological disorders should be evaluated, especially in patients with this profile. Copyright © 2012 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Relations between parental and child separation anxiety: The role of dependency-oriented psychological control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stone, L.L.; Otten, R.; Soenens, B.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Janssens, J.M.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Although separation anxiety is prevalent in young children, it remains unclear whether and how maternal separation anxiety is related to separation anxiety in children. This study examined associations between maternal separation anxiety and separation anxiety in children, and the potential effect p

  18. Prevalence of depressive and anxiety disorders in Chinese gastroenterological outpatients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Jing; He, Yan-Ling; Ma, Hong; Liu, Zhe-Ning; Jia, Fu-Jun; Zhang, Ling; Zhang, Lan

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the prevalence and physicians’ detection rate of depressive and anxiety disorders in gastrointestinal (GI) outpatients across China. METHODS: A hospital-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in the GI outpatient departments of 13 general hospitals. A total of 1995 GI outpatients were recruited and screened with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). The physicians of the GI departments performed routine clinical diagnosis and management without knowing the HADS score results. Subjects with HADS scores ≥ 8 were subsequently interviewed by psychiatrists using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) to make further diagnoses. RESULTS: There were 1059 patients with HADS score ≥ 8 and 674 (63.64%) of them undertook the MINI interview by psychiatrists. Based on the criteria of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edition), the adjusted current prevalence for depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, and comorbidity of both disorders in the GI outpatients was 14.39%, 9.42% and 4.66%, respectively. Prevalence of depressive disorders with suicidal problems [suicide attempt or suicide-related ideation prior or current; module C (suicide) of MINI score ≥ 1] was 5.84% in women and 1.64% in men. The GI physicians’ detection rate of depressive and anxiety disorders accounted for 4.14%. CONCLUSION: While the prevalence of depressive and anxiety disorders is high in Chinese GI outpatients, the detection rate of depressive and anxiety disorders by physicians is low. PMID:22654455

  19. Factors related to depression and anxiety in adults with bronchiectasis

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    Özgün Niksarlioglu EY

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Elif Yelda Özgün Niksarlioglu,1 Gülcihan Özkan,2 Gülşah Günlüoğlu,1 Mehmet Atilla Uysal,1 Sule Gül,1 Lütfiye Kilic,1 Ayse Yeter,1 Güngör Çamsarı1 1Department of Chest Disease, Yedikule Chest Disease and Thoracic Surgery Training and Research Hospital, 2Department of Chest Disease, Yeniyüzyıl University Gaziosmanpasa Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey Introduction and background: Patients with chronic lung diseases frequently have depressive and anxiety symptoms, but there are very few studies looking at this in patients with bronchiectasis. Aim: This study aimed to investigate depression and anxiety and related factors among patients with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis.Patients and methods: This was a prospective study of 133 patients with bronchiectasis. Patients with confirmed diagnosis of bronchiectasis with high-resolution computed tomography were enrolled in the study. Patients that were clinically stable in the previous 4 weeks were evaluated with the Hospital Depression and Anxiety scale. Symptoms, pulmonary function tests, and medical treatments were recorded.Results: The mean age of patients was 49.5±14.5 years (range, 18–77 years, and 81 (60.9% patients were females. Twenty-eight (21.1% patients had depression, and 53 (39.8% had anxiety. Depression score was related to family situation (living with a partner, previous depression history and admission to an emergency department within the last year. Anxiety score was related to female gender, the family situation (living with a partner, previous depression history, and admission to an emergency department within the last year (P<0.05. Depression was positively correlated with hemoptysis, admission to an emergency department within the last year and living with a partner. Anxiety was positively correlated with education level, previous depression history, admission to an emergency department within the last year, and living with a partner.Conclusion: Patients with non

  20. Relationships among depression, anxiety, anxiety sensitivity, and perceived social support in adolescents with conversion disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Savaş; Bilgiç, Ayhan; Akça, Ömer Faruk; Türkoğlu, Serhat; Hergüner, Sabri

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the relationships of depression, anxiety, anxiety sensitivity, and perceived social support with conversion symptoms in adolescents with conversion disorder (CD). Fifty outpatients, aged 8-18 years, who had been diagnosed with CD and members of a control group were assessed using the psychological questionnaires. Compared with controls, adolescents with CD scored higher on the Child Depression Inventory (CDI), Screen for Child Anxiety-related Emotional Disorders (SCARED), Childhood Anxiety Sensitivity Index (CASI) total, CASI physical and cognitive subscales, and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support family subscale. Multiple regression analysis showed that CDI, CASI total, and CASI cognitive scores predicted the Somatoform Dissociation Questionnaire (SDQ) scores and that CDI and CASI total scores predicted the Children's Somatization Inventory (CSI) scores of subjects. This study suggest that adolescents with CD had poor psychosocial well-being, and depression, global anxiety sensitivity and anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns are related to conversion symptoms.

  1. Anxiety and depression among elderly in the community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mpiskini I.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety and depression disorders are a serious problem among elders and its frequency is often underestimated. The aim of this study was to record the frequency of anxiety and depression in a sample of elderly people, such as those who visit the KAPI community centers in the provincial town of Lamia. 165 elders were initially enrolled in the study, 20 women, 121 men , while 20 persons refused to state their gender and age. 4 persons refused participation at all.The questionnaire of Bedford & Foulds was administered. The mean age of the respondents was 75.59+/-6.29 yrs. High frequency of anxiety and depression symptoms was found, statistically higher in comparison to the general population. Women slightly surpassed men in scoring on both scales, however not statistically significant. There is a great necessity of interventions towards the treatment of anxiety and depression in community –dwelling elderly .

  2. Anxiety and depression levels among multidisciplinary health residents

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    Daniela Salvagni Rotta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to assess symptoms of anxiety and depression of professionals of Multidisciplinary Health Residence Programs. Methods: this is a cross-sectional study, performed with fifty professionals, using three instruments: one for socioeconomic and demographic data, and the Beck’s Anxiety and Depression Scale. Results: predominance of females (92.0%, average age 26 years old, single (88.0%, family income from two to five salaries (56.0% satisfied with the work (82.0% and thought about quitting the program (56.0% showed anxiety (50.0% and depression (28.0%. Conclusion: there was an association between anxiety and depression in multidisciplinary residents, which points to the need for rethinking strategies for identifying these symptoms and control of stress factors for the promotion of mental health.

  3. Anxiety and depression in adolescents with hostile behaviour

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    Carla Cruz

    2014-11-01

    Conclusions: We may conclude that only depression has a relationship with hostile behaviours. It is higher in adolescents with these behaviours. The presence or absence of anxiety is not related to the hostile behaviour in adolescents.

  4. Antidepressant use and salivary cortisol in depressive and anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manthey, Leonie; Leeds, Caroline; Giltay, Erik J.; van Veen, Tineke; Vreeburg, Sophie A.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Zitman, Frans G.

    Antidepressants are an effective treatment for depressive and anxiety disorders. Those disorders are frequently accompanied by heightened cortisol levels. Antidepressants may affect hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis functioning, the alteration of which could be partially responsible for treatment

  5. Assessment of anxiety and depression in hospitalized cardiac ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cardiac patients of Faisalabad Institute of Cardiology,. Pakistan. Shujaat Ali ... Keywords: Hypertension, Anxiety, Depression, Gender, Cardiac patients. Tropical Journal of ..... health status and cardiovascular prognosis. Am. J. Psych 2006; 163: ...

  6. Factors Influencing Depression and Anxiety among Black Sexual Minority Men

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    Louis F. Graham

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary aim of this study was to examine the relationships between depression and anxiety, and ethnic and sexual identity development, and discrimination and harassment (DH among Black sexual minority men. Additional aims were to determine whether an interaction effect existed between ethnic and sexual identity and whether coping skills level moderated these relationships. Using an observational cross-sectional design, 54 participants recruited through snowball sampling completed self-administered online surveys. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was used. Sixty-four percent of the variance in depression scores and 53% of the variance in anxiety scores were explained by DH and internalized homonegativity together. Thirty percent of the sample had scale scores indicating likelihood of depression and anxiety. Experience of DH and internalized homonegativity explained a large portion of the variability in depression and anxiety among Black sexual minority men. The study showed high prevalence of mental distress among this sample.

  7. Antidepressant use and salivary cortisol in depressive and anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manthey, Leonie; Leeds, Caroline; Giltay, Erik J.; van Veen, Tineke; Vreeburg, Sophie A.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Zitman, Frans G.

    2011-01-01

    Antidepressants are an effective treatment for depressive and anxiety disorders. Those disorders are frequently accompanied by heightened cortisol levels. Antidepressants may affect hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis functioning, the alteration of which could be partially responsible for treatment

  8. Depression, anxiety, stress and substance use in medical students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ing causes mental health problems in medical students. Students themselves perceive ... possible consequence of high levels of depression, anxiety and stress in this population group. .... antidepressants progressing from semesters 3 to 5,.

  9. Prevalence and correlates of anxiety and depression among family ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-09-03

    Sep 3, 2017 ... iety and depression among family carers of cancer patients in a cancer care and treatment facility in Uganda. Methods: ..... sion, anxiety, and quality of life in patients with epithelial ... Family caregivers of elderly patients with.

  10. Prevalence of anxiety and depression among medical and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Motaz B. Ibrahim

    2014-07-28

    Jul 28, 2014 ... Objective: In this study, the prevalence of anxiety and depression was measured among medical ... munication, diminished quality of care and medical errors have been found to be associated ..... and lead a healthier life. 6.

  11. Depression, anxiety, distress and somatization in asthmatic patients

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    Hala Mohamed Shalaby Samaha

    2015-04-01

    Conclusions: Asthmatic patients are at high risk of psychiatric problems, particularly depression, anxiety and somatization. Asthmatic patients need psychotherapy besides their medication of asthma to obtain better asthma out come and management.

  12. Prevalence and associated factors of stress, anxiety and depression ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence and associated factors of stress, anxiety and depression among ... Alexandria Journal of Medicine ... Objectives: The objectives of this study was to study the prevalence of psychological mood disorders and its association with ...

  13. Depression, Anxiety and Symptoms of Stress among Hong Kong Nurses: A Cross-sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teris Cheung

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent epidemiological data suggests 13.3% of Hong Kong residents suffered from Common Mental Disorders, most frequently mixed anxiety and depressive disorder. This study examines the weighted prevalence and associated risk factors of depression, anxiety and stress among Hong Kong nurses. A total of 850 nurses were invited to participate in this cross-sectional study. Participants completed the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale 21 and multiple logistic regression was used to determine significant relationships between variables. Chronic past-year illness and poor self-perceived mental health were significant correlates of past-week depression, anxiety and stress. It confirmed further positive correlations between depression and divorce, widowhood and separation, job dissatisfaction, disturbance with colleagues, low physical activity levels and sleep problems. Marital status; general medicine; sleep problems, and a lack of leisure significantly correlated with anxiety. Stress was significantly associated with younger age, clinical inexperience, past-year disturbance with colleagues, low physical activity, no leisure and drinking alcohol. Nurses were more depressed, anxious and stressed than the local general population, with over one-third of our respondents classified as subject to these disorders.

  14. A prospective examination of depression, anxiety and stress throughout pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rallis, Sofia; Skouteris, Helen; McCabe, Marita; Milgrom, Jeannette

    2014-12-01

    Perinatal distress has largely been conceptualised as the experience of depression and/or anxiety. Recent research has shown that the affective state of stress is also present during the perinatal period and thus may add to a broader understanding of perinatal distress. The aims of the present study were to investigate the changes in depression, anxiety and stress symptoms across pregnancy, and to explore the prospective relationships between these symptoms. Two-hundred and fourteen pregnant women were recruited when they were less than 16 weeks gestation. Women completed depression, anxiety and stress measures on a monthly basis, from 16 weeks gestation through to 36 weeks gestation. The covariate measures of sleep quality and social support were assessed bi-monthly at 16, 24 and 32 weeks gestation. Levels of depression, anxiety and stress symptoms were all shown to change over time, with women experiencing fewer symptoms during the middle of their pregnancy. Higher symptoms early in pregnancy predicted higher symptom levels throughout the rest of pregnancy. Higher depression scores early in pregnancy were also shown to predict higher anxiety and higher stress scores in late pregnancy. Increased stress scores during mid pregnancy also predicted higher anxiety scores in late pregnancy. Current findings indicate that symptom levels of depression, anxiety and stress vary over the course of pregnancy. Increased depression in early pregnancy seemed to be particularly pertinent as it not only predicted later depression symptoms, but also increased anxiety and stress in late pregnancy. Collectively, these results further highlight the importance of emotional health screening early in pregnancy. Copyright © 2014 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Spanish "fine tuning" of language to describe depression and anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Noguera, A. (Antonio); Centeno-Cortes, C. (Carlos); Carvajal,A; Portela, M.A. (María Angustias); Urdiroz, J. (Julia); M. Martínez

    2009-01-01

    On screening tools for emotional distress, the terms "depression" and "anxiety" are commonly used for patients with advanced cancer. However, these terms could have negative connotations in Spanish such that cultural and unexpected differences in perception may invalidate or skew the results of the screening if the best terms are not chosen. The goal of this study was to determine the best expression that can be used to explore anxiety and depression in Spanish. A prospective study of 100 Spa...

  16. Objective Sleep in Pediatric Anxiety Disorders and Major Depressive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Erika E.; Bertocci, Michele A.; Gregory, Alice M.; Ryan, Neal D.; Axelson, David A.; Birmaher, Boris; Dahl, Ronald E.

    2008-01-01

    A study to examine sleep problems encountered in anxiety and depressive disorders among children and adolescents is conducted. Results indicated subjective and objective sleep problems in children and adolescents with anxiety disorders and need to be kept in mind when treating young anxious people.

  17. On Clark-Watson's tripartite model of anxiety and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedford, A

    1997-02-01

    Clark and Watson's tripartite model of anxiety and depression symptoms is reinterpreted using their data. It is suggested that a parsimonious view of the factor loadings is a three-factor structure of "general psychological distress," "high positive affect," and "somatic anxiety."

  18. Objective Sleep in Pediatric Anxiety Disorders and Major Depressive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Erika E.; Bertocci, Michele A.; Gregory, Alice M.; Ryan, Neal D.; Axelson, David A.; Birmaher, Boris; Dahl, Ronald E.

    2008-01-01

    A study to examine sleep problems encountered in anxiety and depressive disorders among children and adolescents is conducted. Results indicated subjective and objective sleep problems in children and adolescents with anxiety disorders and need to be kept in mind when treating young anxious people.

  19. Depression and anxiety in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate symptoms of depression and anxiety in the patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). METHODS: 76 patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma participated in this program. All patients were rated with the self-rating anxiety scale (SAS) and the self-rating depression scale (SDS). The mean scores of SAS and SDS were compared to those scores of the Norm of Chinese people. In addition, the different treatment results of the patients with different levels of anxiety and depression were studied. Further, the number of patients of SAS, SDS with more than 50 score were compared between primary cancer patients and recurrent cancer patients. RESULTS: The scores of SAS, SDS and the number of patients with more than 50 score in the patients group were obviously higher than those in Chinese Norm (P<0.01).The levels of anxiety and depression in 32 patients with recurrent cancer were more severe than those of 44 patients with primary cancer. The patients with anxiety and/or depression showed poor prognosis. CONCLUSION: Anxiety and depression are common symptoms in patients with OSCC and have negative effects on the prognosis, thus the psychological intervention for the patients must be carried out.

  20. Ethnic inequality in diagnosis with depression and anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Carol Hj; Duck, Isabelle M; Sibley, Chris G

    2017-04-28

    This study explored ethnic disparities in self-reported diagnosis of depression or an anxiety disorder by a doctor, relative to scores on the screening measure for these same forms of mental illness in a probability sample of New Zealand adults. 15,822 participants responded to the 2014/15 New Zealand Attitudes and Values Study (NZAVS) longitudinal panel. Participants completed the Kessler-6 scale (a screening measure of non-specific psychological distress over the last month) and reported whether a doctor had diagnosed them with depression or an anxiety disorder any time in the last five years. Māori, Pacific and Asian New Zealanders were more likely to score in the 'at risk' range of the Kessler-6 scale, indicating an increased likelihood of depression or anxiety, relative to European New Zealanders. However, European New Zealanders reported the highest rate of actual diagnosis with depression or anxiety in the previous five-year period. There is an ethnic inequality in diagnosis received in the last five years relative to population-level screening risk for depression and anxiety disorders over the last month. Māori, Pacific and Asian New Zealanders are more likely to be under-diagnosed with depression and anxiety disorders relative to European New Zealanders. This inequality may reflect ethnic group differences in access to, expectations from and style of communication with, medical professionals.

  1. The Interrelationship of Social Anxiety with Anxiety, Depression, Locus of Control, Ways of Coping and Ego Strength amongst University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Robin-Marie; Edelman, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    This is the first study to investigate the interrelationship of social anxiety with the variables anxiety, depression, locus of control, ego strength and ways of coping in a sample of university students. There were high scores of social anxiety which were related to high scores on measures of anxiety and depression, low ego strength, external…

  2. Effectiveness of Group Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy on Anxiety, Depression and Glycemic Control in Children with Type 1 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somaye Ahmadi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The present study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of group cognitive behavioral therapy in reducing anxiety and depression and glycemic control in children with type I diabetes. Methods and Matherials: The study was quasi- experimental with a pre-test, post-test design with control group. For this purpose, 30 children with diabetes were selected from Imam Reza Hospital in Mashhad. The children were randomly assigned into two experimental group (15 and control group (15. The experimental group was undergone eight 2-hour sessions of cognitive-behavioral training. Before and after the intervention, the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children, which included four components of social anxiety, physical symptoms, harm avoidance, and separation anxiety, and Children Depression Inventory was administrated in both groups. Results: The findings from the covariance analysis test revealed that depression and anxiety and glycemic control in experimental group was controlled at post-test and depression score in experimental group compared to the control group at post-test was decreased. The findings from the multivariate covariance analysis test between components of, physical symptoms, harm avoidance, separation anxiety, and social anxiety revealed meaningful differences between the two groups in social anxiety post-test score. Conclusions: According to the article, cognitive behavior therapy can be effective for depression, anxiety, and blood sugar control in children.

  3. Effectiveness of Group Cognitive Bbehavioral Therapy on Anxiety, Depression and Glycemic Control in Children with Type 1 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Ahmadi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of group cognitive behavioral therapy in reducing anxiety and depression and glycemic control in children with type I diabetes. The study was quasi- experimental with a pre-test, post-test design with control group. For this purpose, 30 children with diabetes were selected from Imam Reza Hospital in Mashhad. The children were randomly assigned into two experimental group (15 and control group (15. The experimental group was undergone eight 2-hour sessions of cognitive-behavioral training. Before and after the intervention, the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children, which included four components of social anxiety, physical symptoms, harm avoidance, and separation anxiety, and Children Depression Inventory was administrated in both groups. The findings from the covariance analysis test revealed that depression and anxiety and glycemic control in experimental group was controlled at post-test and depression score in experimental group compared to the control group at post-test was decreased. The findings from the multivariate covariance analysis test between components of, physical symptoms, harm avoidance, separation anxiety, and social anxiety revealed meaningful differences between the two groups in social anxiety post-test score. Thus, cognitive behavior therapy can be effective for depression, anxiety, and blood sugar control in children.

  4. Depressive and anxiety disorders and risk of subclinical atherosclerosis Findings from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seldenrijk, Adrie; Vogelzangs, Nicole; van Hout, Hein P. J.; van Marwijk, Harm W. J.; Diamant, Michaela; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Current evidence regarding the association between psychopathology and subclinical atherosclerosis show inconsistent results. The present study examined whether subclinical atherosclerosis was more prevalent in a large cohort of persons with depressive or anxiety disorders as compared to

  5. [Anxiety and depression of cancer patients hospitalized and at home].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellone, Ercole; Sinapi, Nadia; Piria, Paola; Bernardi, Francesca M; Dario, Lucia; Brunetti, Annarita

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the anxiety and depression of cancer patients hospitalized and at home. Using a descriptive, correlational and comparative design and the Roy Adaptation Model, a sample of 80 oncologic patients was studied. Several instruments were used to measure anxiety and depression (HADS), quality of life and symptoms (RSCL), sociodemographic factors, variables connected to the hospitalization, quality of the relationship with health practitioners, family members and friends and the degree of satisfaction for the received information and support. The examined variables were measured on the same patients at hospital and at home. About the 30% of the patients were anxious and depressed. Statistical analysis showed that while anxiety did not change from the hospital to home, depression increased soon after the discharge and decreased over time and after the increasing of the number of hospital access. Anxiety and depression were positively correlated to boredom during the hospitalization, physical symptoms, number of the patients children, and previous anxious and depressive problems. Anxiety and depression were negatively correlated to the ward comfort, the support of health practitioners, family members and friends and the satisfaction for the received information. Differences between this study and the international literature are discussed. Recommendations for the future research and nursing practice are given.

  6. Cardiovascular disease in persons with depressive and anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogelzangs, Nicole; Seldenrijk, Adrie; Beekman, Aartjan T. F.; van Hout, Hein P. J.; de Jonge, Peter; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Associations between depression, and possibly anxiety, with cardiovascular disease have been established in the general population and among heart patients. This study examined whether cardiovascular disease was more prevalent among a large cohort of depressed and/or anxious persons. In

  7. Sensitivity to depression or anxiety and subclinical cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seldenrijk, Adrie; van Hout, Hein P. J.; van Marwijk, Harm W. J.; de Groot, Eric; Gort, Johan; Rustemeijer, Cees; Diamant, Michaela; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Depressive and anxiety disorders are highly overlapping, heterogeneous conditions that both have been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Cognitive vulnerability traits for these disorders could help to specify what exactly drives CVD risk in depressed and

  8. Cardiovascular disease in persons with depressive and anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogelzangs, Nicole; Seldenrijk, Adrie; Beekman, Aartjan T. F.; van Hout, Hein P. J.; de Jonge, Peter; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    Background: Associations between depression, and possibly anxiety, with cardiovascular disease have been established in the general population and among heart patients. This study examined whether cardiovascular disease was more prevalent among a large cohort of depressed and/or anxious persons. In

  9. Short environmental enrichment in adulthood reverses anxiety and basolateral amygdala hypertrophy induced by maternal separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koe, A S; Ashokan, A; Mitra, R

    2016-02-02

    Maternal separation during early childhood results in greater sensitivity to stressors later in adult life. This is reflected as greater propensity to develop stress-related disorders in humans and animal models, including anxiety and depression. Environmental enrichment (EE) reverses some of the damaging effects of maternal separation in rodent models when provided during peripubescent life, temporally proximal to the separation. It is presently unknown if EE provided outside this critical window can still rescue separation-induced anxiety and neural plasticity. In this report we use a rat model to demonstrate that a single short episode of EE in adulthood reduced anxiety-like behaviour in maternally separated rats. We further show that maternal separation resulted in hypertrophy of dendrites and increase in spine density of basolateral amygdala neurons in adulthood, long after initial stress treatment. This is congruent with prior observations showing centrality of basolateral amygdala hypertrophy in anxiety induced by stress during adulthood. In line with the ability of the adult enrichment to rescue stress-induced anxiety, we show that enrichment renormalized stress-induced structural expansion of the amygdala neurons. These observations argue that behavioural plasticity induced by early adversity can be rescued by environmental interventions much later in life, likely mediated by ameliorating effects of enrichment on basolateral amygdala plasticity.

  10. Separation anxiety, attachment and inter-personal representations: disentangling the role of oxytocin in the perinatal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eapen, Valsamma; Dadds, Mark; Barnett, Bryanne; Kohlhoff, Jane; Khan, Feroza; Radom, Naomi; Silove, Derrick M

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we aimed to assess cross-sectionally and longitudinally associations between disturbances in maternal early attachment experiences, symptoms of separation anxiety and depression and oxytocin plasma levels. We examined a mediational model that tested the hypothesis that anxious attachment style arising from the mothers' early bonding experiences with her own parents was associated with high levels of separation anxiety which, via its impact on depression, was associated with reduced levels of oxytocin in the postnatal period. Data is reported on a structured sample of 127 women recruited during pregnancy from a general hospital antenatal clinic and an initial follow up cohort of 57 women who were re-assessed at 3-months post-partum. We found an association between lower oxytocin level in the post partum period and symptoms of separation anxiety and depression during pregnancy, as well as maternal negative interpersonal representations, upbringing attributes and anxious attachment style. Further meditational analysis revealed that the unique association between anxious attachment and depression is mediated by separation anxiety and that depressed mood mediated the relationship between separation anxiety and oxytocin. In conjunction with evidence from the literature suggesting that lower oxytocin level is associated with bonding difficulties, our findings have significant implications for understanding the biological processes underpinning adverse attachment experiences, negative affect state, and mother-to-infant bonding difficulties.

  11. Separation anxiety, attachment and inter-personal representations: disentangling the role of oxytocin in the perinatal period.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valsamma Eapen

    Full Text Available In this paper, we aimed to assess cross-sectionally and longitudinally associations between disturbances in maternal early attachment experiences, symptoms of separation anxiety and depression and oxytocin plasma levels. We examined a mediational model that tested the hypothesis that anxious attachment style arising from the mothers' early bonding experiences with her own parents was associated with high levels of separation anxiety which, via its impact on depression, was associated with reduced levels of oxytocin in the postnatal period. Data is reported on a structured sample of 127 women recruited during pregnancy from a general hospital antenatal clinic and an initial follow up cohort of 57 women who were re-assessed at 3-months post-partum. We found an association between lower oxytocin level in the post partum period and symptoms of separation anxiety and depression during pregnancy, as well as maternal negative interpersonal representations, upbringing attributes and anxious attachment style. Further meditational analysis revealed that the unique association between anxious attachment and depression is mediated by separation anxiety and that depressed mood mediated the relationship between separation anxiety and oxytocin. In conjunction with evidence from the literature suggesting that lower oxytocin level is associated with bonding difficulties, our findings have significant implications for understanding the biological processes underpinning adverse attachment experiences, negative affect state, and mother-to-infant bonding difficulties.

  12. Sleep quality during pregnancy: associations with depressive and anxiety symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polo-Kantola, Päivi; Aukia, Linda; Karlsson, Hasse; Karlsson, Linnea; Paavonen, E Juulia

    2017-02-01

    Sleep disturbances are common during pregnancy, yet underdiagnosed and under-investigated. We evaluated sleep quality during pregnancy and assessed associated factors, especially depressive and anxiety symptoms. A total of 78 healthy pregnant women from the FinnBrain Birth Cohort Study were studied twice prospectively during pregnancy (in mid-pregnancy and late pregnancy). Sleep quality was evaluated by the Basic Nordic Sleep Questionnaire, depressive symptoms by the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, and anxiety symptoms by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Poor general sleep quality, difficulty falling asleep, the number of nocturnal awakenings per night, and too-early morning awakenings increased in late pregnancy compared with mid-pregnancy (all p-values anxiety symptoms were cross-sectionally related to sleep disturbances, but depressive or anxiety symptoms in mid-pregnancy were not associated with sleep disturbances in late pregnancy. We found deterioration in sleep quality across pregnancy. However, no increase in negative daytime consequences was found, presumably indicating a compensatory capacity against sleep impairment. Additionally, depressive and anxiety symptoms and sleep disturbances were only cross-sectionally associated. Our study calls for further research on the factors that influence sleep disturbances during pregnancy. © 2016 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  13. Depression and anxiety are not related to nummular headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; Peñacoba-Puente, Cecilia; López-López, Almudena; Valle, Begoña; Cuadrado, María Luz; Barriga, Francisco J; Pareja, Juan A

    2009-12-01

    Nummular headache (NH) is a clinical picture characterized by head pain that is exclusively felt in a round, elliptical, or oval area of the head. Although there is evidence supporting an organic origin for NH, some authors question this origin, hypothesizing a potential role for psychological factors. Our aims were to investigate the differences in anxiety and depression between NH patients and healthy controls, and to analyse if these conditions were related to pain parameters in NH patients. The Beck depression inventory (BDI-II) and the trait anxiety scale from state-trait anxiety inventory (STAI) were administered to 26 patients with NH and 34 comparable matched controls. No significant interactions between group (NH patients, controls) in either depression (U = 391; p = 0.443) or anxiety levels (U = 336; p = 0.113) were found. Both groups showed similar scores in the BDI-II (patients: 3.9 +/- 2.9; controls: 3.46 +/- 3.15) and STAI (patients: 17.23 +/- 10.3; controls: 13.5 +/- 7.9). Moreover, neither depression nor anxiety showed association with mean pain intensity, pain intensity in exacerbations, size of pain area, or pain frequency. Our study demonstrated that self-reported depression and anxiety were not related to the presence of NH. Further, longitudinal studies are still needed to elucidate the role of mood state in the course of NH.

  14. General and specific components of depression and anxiety in an adolescent population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brodbeck Jeannette

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depressive and anxiety symptoms often co-occur resulting in a debate about common and distinct features of depression and anxiety. Methods An exploratory factor analysis (EFA and a bifactor modelling approach were used to separate a general distress continuum from more specific sub-domains of depression and anxiety in an adolescent community sample (n = 1159, age 14. The Mood and Feelings Questionnaire and the Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale were used. Results A three-factor confirmatory factor analysis is reported which identified a mood and social-cognitive symptoms of depression, b worrying symptoms, and c somatic and information-processing symptoms as distinct yet closely related constructs. Subsequent bifactor modelling supported a general distress factor which accounted for the communality of the depression and anxiety items. Specific factors for hopelessness-suicidal thoughts and restlessness-fatigue indicated distinct psychopathological constructs which account for unique information over and above the general distress factor. The general distress factor and the hopelessness-suicidal factor were more severe in females but the restlessness-fatigue factor worse in males. Measurement precision of the general distress factor was higher and spanned a wider range of the population than any of the three first-order factors. Conclusions The general distress factor provides the most reliable target for epidemiological analysis but specific factors may help to refine valid phenotype dimensions for aetiological research and assist in prognostic modelling of future psychiatric episodes.

  15. Exercise, yoga, and meditation for depressive and anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Sy Atezaz; Antonacci, Diana J; Bloch, Richard M

    2010-04-15

    Anxiety and depression are among the most common conditions cited by those seeking treatment with complementary and alternative therapies, such as exercise, meditation, tai chi, qigong, and yoga. The use of these therapies is increasing. Several studies of exercise and yoga have demonstrated therapeutic effectiveness superior to no-activity controls and comparable with established depression and anxiety treatments (e.g., cognitive behavior therapy, sertraline, imipramine). High-energy exercise (i.e., weekly expenditure of at least 17.5 kcal per kg) and frequent aerobic exercise (i.e., at least three to five times per week) reduce symptoms of depression more than less frequent or lower-energy exercise. Mindful meditation and exercise have positive effects as adjunctive treatments for depressive disorders, although some studies show multiple methodological weaknesses. For anxiety disorders, exercise and yoga have also shown positive effects, but there are far less data on the effects of exercise on anxiety than for exercise on depression. Tai chi, qigong, and meditation have not shown effectiveness as alternative treatments for depression and anxiety.

  16. Exercise for the treatment of depression and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carek, Peter J; Laibstain, Sarah E; Carek, Stephen M

    2011-01-01

    Depression and anxiety are the most common psychiatric conditions seen in the general medical setting, affecting millions of individuals in the United States. The treatments for depression and anxiety are multiple and have varying degrees of effectiveness. Physical activity has been shown to be associated with decreased symptoms of depression and anxiety. Physical activity has been consistently shown to be associated with improved physical health, life satisfaction, cognitive functioning, and psychological well-being. Conversely, physical inactivity appears to be associated with the development of psychological disorders. Specific studies support the use of exercise as a treatment for depression. Exercise compares favorably to antidepressant medications as a first-line treatment for mild to moderate depression and has also been shown to improve depressive symptoms when used as an adjunct to medications. While not as extensively studied, exercise has been shown to be an effective and cost-efficient treatment alternative for a variety of anxiety disorders. While effective, exercise has not been shown to reduce anxiety to the level achieved by psychopharmaceuticals.

  17. Prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms among patients with hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Bathla

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The association between depression and thyroid function is well known. Both conditions express many similar symptoms, thus making the diagnosis and treatment difficult. Aims: To find the prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms among patients with hypothyroid. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional study. Materials and Methodology: A total of 100 patients diagnosed as hypothyroidism were evaluated using Hamilton depression rating scale (HDRS and Hamilton scale for anxiety (HAM-A. Statistical Analysis Used: The data were analyzed using the SPSS for Windows version 17.0 software. The quantitative data were expressed in number and percentage. The results obtained were compared using the Chi-square test. Results: Females constituted 70% of the sample. A total of 60% reported some degree of depression based on HDRS (males – 56.63% and females – 64.29% whereas about 63% out of the total patients screened showed some degree of anxiety (males –56.66% and females – 65.72% based on HAM-A. The most common depressive symptom among the males was depressed mood (73.33% and among females was gastrointestinal somatic symptoms (68.54%. The most common anxiety symptom among the males was depressed mood (70.0% and among females was anxious mood (92.85%. Conclusions: Psychiatric symptoms/disorders are common in patients with thyroid dysfunction.

  18. Depression, anxiety and pain in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margetić, Branimir; Aukst-Margetić, Branka; Bilić, Ernest; Jelusić, Marija; Tambić Bukovac, Lana

    2005-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess relations among depression, anxiety and pain in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Pain was measured with the visual analogue scale (VAS), and depression and anxiety with depression and anxiety subscales from the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children (TSC-C). Pain perception was significantly correlated with depression scores.

  19. Anxiety and Depression Symptoms in Children with Asperger Syndrome Compared with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Depressive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Subin; Park, Min-Hyeon; Kim, Hyo Jin; Yoo, Hee Jeong

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine (a) anxiety and depression symptoms in children with Asperger syndrome (AS) compared to children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and children with depressive disorder; (b) parental anxiety and depressive symptoms in the three groups; and (c) the association between the anxiety and…

  20. Anxiety and Depression Symptoms in Children with Asperger Syndrome Compared with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Depressive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Subin; Park, Min-Hyeon; Kim, Hyo Jin; Yoo, Hee Jeong

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine (a) anxiety and depression symptoms in children with Asperger syndrome (AS) compared to children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and children with depressive disorder; (b) parental anxiety and depressive symptoms in the three groups; and (c) the association between the anxiety and…

  1. Evaluation of Depression and Anxiety in patients with tinnitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A.A. Hosseininasab, M.D

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground and Purpose: Tinnitus is a troublesome disease that may cause several problems, including the following: insomnia decreased concentration and diminished quality of life. This study was designed in order to evaluate depression and anxiety in patients with tinnitus.Materials and Methods: This study was an experimental survey and carried out with case – control method. There were 50 persons in case and control groups, case group included patients with non-organic tinnitus. The patients in case and control group completed Beck and Spiel Berger questionnaire, in order to evaluate their level of depression and anxiety.Results: Age, sex, marital status and smoking of case and control groups were similar. Case groups included 50 patients in which 20 of those were smokers and their level of depression and anxiety were higher than non smokers and this difference was significant (P=0.03. Level of depression in patients with tinnitus was higher than control group (p=0.03, patients with tinnitus experienced more anxiety than control group.Conclusion: The patients with tinnitus suffered more depression and anxiety in comparison to patients without tinnitus.

  2. Prevalence of depressive and anxiety disorders in Chinese gastroenterological outpatients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Jing Li; Yan-Ling He; Hong Ma; Zhe-Ning Liu; Fu-Jun Jia; Ling Zhang; Lan Zhang

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the prevalence and physicians'detection rate of depressive and anxiety disorders in gastrointestinal (GI) outpatients across China.METHODS:A hospital-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in the GI outpatient departments of 13general hospitals.A total of 1995 GI outpatients were recruited and screened with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS).The physicians of the GI departments performed routine clinical diagnosis and management without knowing the HADS score results.SubJects with HADS scores ≥ 8 were subsequently interviewed by psychiatrists using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) to make further diagnoses.RESULTS:There were 1059 patients with HADS score ≥ 8 and 674 (63.64%) of them undertook the MINI interview by psychiatrists.Based on the criteria of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edition),the adjusted current prevalence for depressive disorders,anxiety disorders,and comorbidity of both disorders in the GI outpatients was 14.39%,9.42% and 4.66%,respectively.Prevalence of depressive disorders with suicidal problems [suicide attempt or suicide-related ideation prior or current; module C (suicide) of MINI score ≥ 1] was 5.84% in women and 1.64% in men.The GI physicians' detection rate of depressive and anxiety disorders accounted for 4.14%.CONCLUSION:While the prevalence of depressive and anxiety disorders is high in Chinese GI outpatients,the detection rate of depressive and anxiety disorders by physicians is low.

  3. Depression, anxiety and 6-year risk of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seldenrijk, Adrie; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Batelaan, Neeltje M; Wieman, Iris; van Schaik, Digna J F; Penninx, Brenda J W H

    2015-02-01

    Depression and anxiety are considered etiological factors in cardiovascular disease (CVD), though their relative contribution and differentiation by clinical characteristics have not been studied intensively. We examined 6-year associations between depressive and anxiety disorders, clinical characteristics and newly-developed CVD. DSM-IV diagnoses were established in 2510 CVD-free participants of the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety. Data on subtype, severity, and psychoactive medication were collected. The 6-year incidence of CVD was assessed using Cox regression analyses adjusted for sociodemographic, health and lifestyle factors. One-hundred-six subjects (4.2%) developed CVD. Having both current depressive and anxiety disorders (HR=2.86, 95%CI 1.49-5.49) or current depression only (HR=2.30; 95%CI 1.10-4.80) was significantly associated with increased CVD incidence, whereas current anxiety only (HR=1.48; 95%CI 0.74-2.96) and remitted disorders (HR=1.48; 95%CI 0.80-2.75) were not associated. Symptom severity was associated with increased CVD onset (e.g., Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology per SD increase: HR=1.51; 95%CI 1.25-1.83). Benzodiazepine use was associated with additional CVD risk (HR=1.95; 95%CI 1.16-3.31). Current depressive (but not anxiety) disorder independently contributed to CVD in our sample of initially CVD-free participants. CVD incidence over 6years of follow-up was particularly increased in subjects with more symptoms, and in those using benzodiazepines. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Anxiety: the importunate companion. Psychoanalytic theory of castration and separation anxieties and implications for clinical technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Rosemary

    2012-10-01

    In this article I consider the implications of our differing psychoanalytic theories of anxiety on clinical technique. Drawing on differentiations between the focus on separation or castration anxiety and the relative neglect of the latter in contemporary writing, I look in detail at two clinical examples of psychoanalysis in borderline young adults to exemplify the issue.(1).

  5. A Longitudinal Investigation of Anxiety and Depressive Symptomatology and Exercise Behaviour Among Adults With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Elena; Burns, Rachel J; Deschênes, Sonya S; Knäuper, Bärbel; Schmitz, Norbert

    2017-02-01

    Evidence suggests that symptoms of depression and anxiety predict lower exercise behaviour and, inversely, that less exercise predicts higher symptomatology. The present longitudinal study examined this reciprocal association in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. We predicted that symptoms of anxiety or depression would intensify over time as a consequence of lower exercise frequency and, similarly, that exercise frequency would decrease as a consequence of greater symptoms of anxiety or depression. We studied 1691 adults with type 2 diabetes who provided baseline measures in 2011 and 2 subsequent annual assessments (Follow-up 1 and Follow-up 2). Symptoms of depression and anxiety were measured using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 and the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7, respectively. A single item assessed exercise frequency in the past month (in days). Separate 3-wave cross-lagged path models for symptoms of anxiety and depression tested the reciprocal associations. Contrary to our hypotheses, the reciprocal associations were not supported and, by extension, the predicted secondary associations were not tested. In sum, only depressive symptoms negatively predicted subsequent exercise frequency (Follow-up 1 and Follow-up 2). Symptoms of depression were prospectively associated with lower exercise frequency, which is consistent with evidence from population-based studies that identify depressive symptoms as a barrier to exercise participation. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Child Anxiety Treatment: Outcomes in Adolescence and Impact on Substance Use and Depression at 7.4-Year Follow-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Philip C.; Safford, Scott; Flannery-Schroeder, Ellen; Webb, Alicia

    2004-01-01

    Research suggests that the sequelae of childhood anxiety disorders, if left untreated, can include chronic anxiety, depression, and substance abuse. The current study evaluated the maintenance of outcomes of children who received a 16-week cognitive-behavioral treatment for primary anxiety disorders (generalized, separation, and social anxiety…

  7. Anxiety and Depression Symptoms Among Farmers: The HUNT Study, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torske, Magnhild Oust; Hilt, Bjørn; Glasscock, David; Lundqvist, Peter; Krokstad, Steinar

    2016-01-01

    Agriculture has undergone profound changes, and farmers face a wide variety of stressors. Our aim was to study the levels of anxiety and depression symptoms among Norwegian farmers compared with other occupational groups. Working participants in the HUNT3 Survey (The Nord-Trøndelag Health Study, 2006-2008), aged 19-66.9 years, were included in this cross-sectional study. We compared farmers (women, n = 317; men, n = 1,100) with HUNT3 participants working in other occupational groups (women, n = 13,429; men, n = 10,026), classified according to socioeconomic status. We used the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) to measure anxiety and depression symptoms. Both male and female farmers had higher levels of depression symptoms than the general working population, but the levels of anxiety symptoms did not differ. The differences in depression symptom levels between farmers and the general working population increased with age. In an age-adjusted logistic regression analysis, the odds ratio (OR) for depression caseness (HADS-D ≥8) when compared with the general working population was 1.49 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.22-1.83) in men and 1.29 (95% CI: 0.85-1.95) in women. Male farmers had a higher OR of depression caseness than any other occupational group (OR = 1.94, 95% CI: 1.52-2.49, using higher-grade professionals as reference). Female farmers had an OR similar to men (2.00, 95% CI: 1.26-3.17), but lower than other manual occupations. We found that farmers had high levels of depression symptoms and average levels of anxiety symptoms compared with other occupational groups.

  8. Impact of exercise on patients with depression and anxiety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oeland, Anne-Marie; Læssøe, Uffe; Olesen, Anne Vingaard

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Persons with common mental disorders are at risk of lowered physical activity. AIMS: To investigate if patients with depressive and/or anxiety disorders can achieve a level of physical activity meeting public health recommendations, increase their physical fitness and quality of life...... was maintained after a 12-week follow-up period. Findings should be conservatively interpreted because of high attrition rate. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with anxiety and/or depressive disorders who participated in a structured, supervised exercise programme achieved in accordance with public health recommendations...... a higher level of physical activity and VO(2)max. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: The clinical implications of the study may be a suggestion of offering physical exercise to milder and moderate severe cases of depression and anxiety....

  9. ANXIETY AND DEPRESSION: ADVANCES IN MANAGEMENT OF DISORDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aakruti Kaikini*, Swati Dhande, Kalpana Patil and Vilasrao Kadam

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety and depression is basically a disorder of the present modern world and its prevalence is seen increasing day by day. According to WHO, anxiety and depression will be the second largest cause of disability worldwide by year 2020. The major problem associated with this disorder is that common masses are unaware about this disorder and hence less than 25% of those affected have access to appropriate treatments. The medications currently used for treatment of this disorder are based on the earlier theories of anxiety and depression. These medications have many side effects as well as are associated with tolerance and dependence on prolonged usage. This article mainly focuses on the new theory involved in neurobiology of this disorder and drugs which can be developed on basis of the same.

  10. Does Music Therapy Improve Anxiety and Depression in Alzheimer's Patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Rubia Ortí, José Enrique; García-Pardo, María Pilar; Cabañés Iranzo, Carmen; Cerón Madrigal, José Joaquin; Castillo, Sandra Sancho; Julián Rochina, Mariano; Prado Gascó, Vicente Javier

    2017-07-17

    To evaluate the effectiveness of the implementation of a short protocol of music therapy as a tool to reduce stress and improve the emotional state in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease. A sample of 25 patients with mild Alzheimer's received therapy based on the application of a music therapy session lasting 60 min. Before and after the therapy, patient saliva was collected to quantify the level of salivary cortisol using the Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay (ELISA) immunoassay technique and a questionnaire was completed to measure anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale). The results show that the application of this therapy lowers the level of stress and decreases significantly depression and anxiety, establishing a linear correlation between the variation of these variables and the variation of cortisol. A short protocol of music therapy can be an alternative medicine to improve emotional variables in Alzheimer patients.

  11. [Separation anxiety disorder in a sample of children of divorce].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orgilés Amorós, Mireia; Espada Sánchez, José Pedro; Méndez Carrillo, Xavier

    2008-08-01

    Anxiety in children through separation from parents is one of the most frequent psychological problems in the infantile population. Children of divorce are more vulnerable to suffer this disorder due to the abrupt separation from one of the parents after the break-up, which they may experience as a traumatic event that predisposes them to react anxiously in daily separations. The purpose of this study is to examine the presence of symptoms of separation anxiety and general anxiety in a Spanish sample of 95 students of ages between 8 and 12 years. They were compared to a group of children of similar ages and sex whose parents are not divorced. The results show that children of divorce present higher levels of separation anxiety than the children whose parents remain together. Moreover, they show significant levels of generalized anxiety, but similar to that of the other group of children (undivorced parents). The clinical implications of these findings are discussed, emphasizing the importance of cooperation and frequent contact of the children with both parents to promote their security and autonomy.

  12. Social Networking Sites, Depression, and Anxiety: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Margaret L; Rickard, Nikki S

    2016-01-01

    Background Social networking sites (SNSs) have become a pervasive part of modern culture, which may also affect mental health. Objective The aim of this systematic review was to identify and summarize research examining depression and anxiety in the context of SNSs. It also aimed to identify studies that complement the assessment of mental illness with measures of well-being and examine moderators and mediators that add to the complexity of this environment. Methods A multidatabase search was performed. Papers published between January 2005 and June 2016 relevant to mental illness (depression and anxiety only) were extracted and reviewed. Results Positive interactions, social support, and social connectedness on SNSs were consistently related to lower levels of depression and anxiety, whereas negative interaction and social comparisons on SNSs were related to higher levels of depression and anxiety. SNS use related to less loneliness and greater self-esteem and life satisfaction. Findings were mixed for frequency of SNS use and number of SNS friends. Different patterns in the way individuals with depression and individuals with social anxiety engage with SNSs are beginning to emerge. Conclusions The systematic review revealed many mixed findings between depression, anxiety, and SNS use. Methodology has predominantly focused on self-report cross-sectional approaches; future research will benefit from leveraging real-time SNS data over time. The evidence suggests that SNS use correlates with mental illness and well-being; however, whether this effect is beneficial or detrimental depends at least partly on the quality of social factors in the SNS environment. Understanding these relationships will lead to better utilization of SNSs in their potential to positively influence mental health. PMID:27881357

  13. Correlates of depression, anxiety and stress among Malaysian university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsuddin, Khadijah; Fadzil, Fariza; Ismail, Wan Salwina Wan; Shah, Shamsul Azhar; Omar, Khairani; Muhammad, Noor Azimah; Jaffar, Aida; Ismail, Aniza; Mahadevan, Raynuha

    2013-08-01

    University students face not only challenges related with independent living, but also academic challenges. This predisposes them to depression, anxiety and stress, which are fairly common. The aim was to assess the prevalence of depression, anxiety and stress, and identify their correlates among university students. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 506 students between the ages of 18 and 24 years from four public universities in the Klang Valley, Malaysia. Through an anonymous, self administered questionnaire, they were assessed by the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21). Data on socio-demographic, family characteristics and living arrangement were also obtained. Student's t-test and one-way ANOVA were used to explore association between these aspects. Analysis showed among all students, 27.5% had moderate, and 9.7% had severe or extremely severe depression; 34% had moderate, and 29% had severe or extremely severe anxiety; and 18.6% had moderate and 5.1% had severe or extremely severe stress scores based on the DASS-21 inventory. Both depression and anxiety scores were significantly higher among older students (20 and above) and those born in rural areas. Whereas, higher stress scores were significantly higher among older students (20 and above), females, Malays and those whose family had either low or high incomes compared to those with middle incomes. The prevalence of anxiety is much higher than either depression or stress, with some differences in their correlates except for age. These differences need to be further explored for development of better intervention programs and appropriate support services targeting this group. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The status of depression and anxiety in infertile Turkish couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mert Kazandi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infertility is a major psychosocial crisis as well as being a medical problem. The factors that predict psychosocial consequences of infertility may vary in different gender and different infertile populations.Objective: The primary purpose of this study was to investigate whether Turkish infertile couples had higher levels of depression and anxiety when compared to non-infertile couples. Our secondary aim was to evaluate the relationship between sociodemographic characteristics and levels of depression and anxiety in Turkish infertile couples.Materials and Methods: We designed a descriptive cross sectional study of 248 infertile women and 96 infertile men with no psychiatric disturbance and 51 women and 40 men who have children to evaluate the depression and anxiety levels between infertile couples and fertile couples. A gynecologist evaluated participants for demographic data and then they were visited by a psychologist to perform questionnaire scales which were The Beck Depression Inventory and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for the evaluation of the degree of psychopathology. The data were statistically analyzed, with p<0.05 as the level of statistical significance.Results: We observed significant differences between the infertile couples and fertile couples with respect to state and trait anxiety (p<0.0001 while no difference was regarding with depression, both of women and men. Anxiety and depression were observed as independent from gender when infertile women and men were compared (p=0.213.Conclusion: We believed that the psychological management at infertile couples must be individualized with cultural, religious, and class related aspects.

  15. A population-based study of anxiety as a precursor for depression in childhood and adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van den Bree Marianne BM

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Anxiety and depression co-occur in children and adolescents with anxiety commonly preceding depression. Although there is some evidence to suggest that the association between early anxiety and later depression is explained by a shared genetic aetiology, the contribution of environmental factors is less well examined and it is unknown whether anxiety itself is a phenotypic risk factor for later depression. These explanations of the association between early anxiety and later depression were evaluated. Methods Anxiety and depressive symptoms were assessed longitudinally in a U.K. population-based sample of 676 twins aged 5–17 at baseline. At baseline, anxiety and depression were assessed by parental questionnaire. Depression was assessed three years later by parental and adolescent questionnaire. Results Shared genetic effects between early anxiety and later depression were found. A model of a phenotypic risk effect from early anxiety on later depression provided a poor fit to the data. However, there were significant genetic effects specific to later depression, showing that early anxiety and later depression do not index entirely the same genetic risk. Conclusions Anxiety and depression are associated over time because they share a partly common genetic aetiology rather than because the anxiety phenotype leads to later depression.

  16. Anxiety and Depression Association of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... people. This app is wildly popular with the millennial set, and as February 2017, there are 158 ... Understand the Facts Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Panic Disorder & Agoraphobia Posttraumatic Stress Disorder ( ...

  17. The Impact of a Mindfulness Based Program on Perceived Stress, Anxiety, Depression and Sleep of Incarcerated Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ginette G. Ferszt

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Incarcerated women enter the prison setting with remarkable histories of trauma, mental health and substance abuse issues. Given the stress of incarceration and separation from their children, families, and significant others, it is not surprising that many women experience increased anxiety, depression, and problems with sleep. Due to these negative outcomes, it is imperative to find efficient non-pharmacological interventions. This pilot study examined the impact of a 12-week mindfulness based program on the stress, anxiety, depression and sleep of women with a total of 33 completing the study. In one group, women’s perceived stress, anxiety and depression were all significantly lower following the intervention compared to prior to the intervention. Challenges with implementing the pilot study are addressed. Despite challenges and limitations, the low-cost non-pharmacological intervention has potential for a reducing the symptoms of anxiety and depression.

  18. Depression and Anxiety in Iranian Mothers of Children with Epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    How to Cite this Article: Soltanifar A, Ashrafzadeh F, Mohareri F, Mokhber N. Depression and Anxiety in Iranian Mothers ofChildren with Epilepsy. Iranian Journal of Child Neurology 2012;6(1):29-34. ObjectiveEpilepsy is a common neurological disorder in children. Parents with epileptic children have many psychosocial care needs. So the main goal of this study was to evaluate depression and anxiety in Iranian mothers with epileptic children.Materials & MethodsWe identified 30 mothers of chi...

  19. Essential elements in depression and anxiety. Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Młyniec, Katarzyna; Davies, Claire Linzi; de Agüero Sánchez, Irene Gómez; Pytka, Karolina; Budziszewska, Bogusława; Nowak, Gabriel

    2014-08-01

    Essential elements are very important for the proper functioning of the human body. They are required for fundamental life processes such as cell division and differentiation and protein synthesis. Thus a deficiency of these essential elements is associated with an enormous health risk that can ultimately lead to death. In recent years, studies have provided valuable information on the involvement of essential elements in psychiatric disorders, in particular depression and anxiety. There is strong evidence indicating that deficiency of essential elements can lead to the development of depressive and/or anxiogenic behaviour and supplementation can enhance therapeutic effect of antidepressants and anxiolytics. This review presents the most important results from preclinical and clinical studies showing involvement of essential elements such as zinc, magnesium, lithium, iron, calcium and chromium in depression and anxiety. From these studies it is evident that different types of depression and anxiety respond to treatment at different receptors indicating that the underlying mechanisms are slightly different. Furthermore, administration of low dose antidepressants supplemented with an element is effective and can reduce unwanted side effects in different types of depression/anxiety. Copyright © 2014 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  20. Clarifying the associations between anxiety, depression and fatigue following stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galligan, Niall G; Hevey, David; Coen, Robert F; Harbison, Joseph A

    2016-12-01

    Both psychological distress and fatigue are common post stroke. Although there is recognition that the phenomena are related, the nature of the relationship is unclear.Cross-sectional study of 98 independently functioning participants within 2 years of stroke. Significant relationships were observed between fatigue and general anxiety, health-related anxiety and stroke-specific anxiety (r range from .31 to .37). In the final regression model, depression, pain and stroke-specific anxiety were significant, accounting for 32 per cent of the variance in fatigue scores (p importance of anxiety-related factors post stroke, their relevance to our understanding of post-stroke fatigue and their implications for post-stroke intervention. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Parents’ perceptions on offspring risk and prevention of anxiety and depression: a qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Festen, Helma; Schipper, Karen; Vries, Sybolt O; Reichart, Catrien G.; Abma, Tineke A.; Nauta, Maaike H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Offspring of patients with anxiety or depression are at high risk for developing anxiety or depression. Despite the positive findings regarding effectiveness of prevention programs, recruitment for prevention activities and trials is notoriously difficult. Our randomized controlled

  2. Parents’ perceptions on offspring risk and prevention of anxiety and depression: a qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Festen, Helma; Schipper, Karen; Vries, Sybolt O; Reichart, Catrien G.; Abma, Tineke A.; Nauta, Maaike H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Offspring of patients with anxiety or depression are at high risk for developing anxiety or depression. Despite the positive findings regarding effectiveness of prevention programs, recruitment for prevention activities and trials is notoriously difficult. Our randomized controlled preven

  3. Longitudinal Relationship of Depressive and Anxiety Symptoms With Dyslipidemia and Abdominal Obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dortland, Arianne K. B. van Reedt; Giltay, Erik J.; van Veen, Tineke; Zitman, Frans G.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Previous research indicates that patients with severe symptoms of depression or anxiety are prone toward the development of dyslipidemia and abdominal obesity. We sought to study these associations longitudinally. Methods: Among 2126 Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety participant

  4. Ambiguity in the Manifestation of Adult Separation Anxiety Disorder Occurring in Complex Anxiety Presentations: Two Clinical Case Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudaee-Faass, Sigal; Marnane, Claire; Wagner, Renate

    2009-01-01

    Two case reports are described in which patients presented for the treatment of multiple comorbid anxiety disorders, all of which appeared to derive from prolonged separation anxiety disorder. In particular, these adults had effectively altered their lifestyles to avoid separation, thereby displaying only ambiguous separation anxiety symptoms that…

  5. Ambiguity in the Manifestation of Adult Separation Anxiety Disorder Occurring in Complex Anxiety Presentations: Two Clinical Case Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudaee-Faass, Sigal; Marnane, Claire; Wagner, Renate

    2009-01-01

    Two case reports are described in which patients presented for the treatment of multiple comorbid anxiety disorders, all of which appeared to derive from prolonged separation anxiety disorder. In particular, these adults had effectively altered their lifestyles to avoid separation, thereby displaying only ambiguous separation anxiety symptoms that…

  6. The phenotypic and genetic structure of depression and anxiety disorder symptoms in childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waszczuk, Monika A; Zavos, Helena M S; Gregory, Alice M; Eley, Thalia C

    2014-08-01

    The DSM-5 classifies mood and anxiety disorders as separate conditions. However, some studies in adults find a unidimensional internalizing factor that underpins anxiety and depression, while others support a bidimensional model where symptoms segregate into distress (depression and generalized anxiety) and fear factors (phobia subscales). However, little is known about the phenotypic and genetic structure of internalizing psychopathology in children and adolescents. To investigate the phenotypic associations between depression and anxiety disorder symptom subscales and to test the genetic structures underlying these symptoms (DSM-5-related, unidimensional and bidimensional) across 3 developmental stages: childhood, adolescence, and early adulthood. Two population-based prospective longitudinal twin/sibling studies conducted in the United Kingdom. The child sample included 578 twins (mean age, approximately 8 and 10 years at waves 1 and 2, respectively). The adolescent and early adulthood sample included 2619 twins/siblings at 3 waves (mean age, 15, 17, and 20 years at each wave). Self-report symptoms of depression and anxiety disorders. Phenotypically, when controlling for other anxiety subscales, depression symptoms were only associated with generalized anxiety disorder symptoms in childhood (r = 0.20-0.21); this association broadened to panic and social phobia symptoms in adolescence (r = 0.17-0.24 and r = 0.14-0.16, respectively) and all anxiety subscales in young adulthood (r = 0.06-0.19). The genetic associations were in line with phenotypic results. In childhood, anxiety subscales were influenced by a single genetic factor that did not contribute to genetic variance in depression symptoms, suggesting largely independent genetic influences on anxiety and depression. In adolescence, genetic influences were significantly shared between depression and all anxiety subscales in agreement with DSM-5 conceptualization. In young adulthood, a genetic

  7. Does the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale (RCADS) measure anxiety symptoms consistently across adolescence? The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathyssek, Christina M.; Olino, Thomas M.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C.; Van Oort, Floor V. A.

    We assessed if the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale (RCADS) measures anxiety symptoms similarly across age groups within adolescence. This is crucial for valid comparison of anxiety levels between different age groups. Anxiety symptoms were assessed biennially in a representative

  8. Does the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale (RCADS) measure anxiety symptoms consistently across adolescence? The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathyssek, Christina M.; Olino, Thomas M.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C.; Van Oort, Floor V. A.

    2013-01-01

    We assessed if the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale (RCADS) measures anxiety symptoms similarly across age groups within adolescence. This is crucial for valid comparison of anxiety levels between different age groups. Anxiety symptoms were assessed biennially in a representative populatio

  9. Does the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale (RCADS) measure anxiety symptoms consistently across adolescence? The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M. Mathyssek (Christina); T.M. Olino (Thomas); C.A. Hartman; J. Ormel (Johan Hans); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); F.V.A. van Oort (Floor)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractWe assessed if the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale (RCADS) measures anxiety symptoms similarly across age groups within adolescence. This is crucial for valid comparison of anxiety levels between different age groups. Anxiety symptoms were assessed biennially in a representati

  10. Are Worry and Rumination Specific Pathways Linking Neuroticism and Symptoms of Anxiety and Depression in Patients with Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Major Depressive Disorder and Mixed Anxiety-Depressive Disorder?

    OpenAIRE

    Hipólito Merino; Carmen Senra; Fátima Ferreiro

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the relationships between neuroticism (higher-order vulnerability factor), the cognitive styles of worry, brooding and reflection (second-order vulnerability factors) and symptoms of anxiety and depression in three groups of patients: patients with Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD), with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and with Mixed Anxiety-Depressive Disorder (MADD). One hundred and thirty four patients completed a battery of questionnaires including measures of neuroti...

  11. The Effects of Music Therapy on Anxiety and Depression of Cancer Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Jasemi, Madineh; Aazami, Sanaz; Zabihi, Roghaieh Esmaili

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Cancer patients often suffer from anxiety and depression. Various methods are used to alleviate anxiety and depression, but most of them have side effects. Music therapy can be used as a noninvasive method to reduce anxiety and depression. This study aimed to examine the effect of music therapy on anxiety and depression in patients with cancer. Materials and Methods: This quasi-experimental study was conducted attaching hospitals in Urmia city. A total number of sixty ...

  12. No association between anxiety and depression and adverse clinical outcome among patients with cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornerup, Henriette; Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe Olsen; Prescott, Eva

    2011-01-01

    Anxiety and depression have been linked to adverse prognostic outcome in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) with mixed results. The timing of anxiety and depression measurement has received little attention so far.......Anxiety and depression have been linked to adverse prognostic outcome in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) with mixed results. The timing of anxiety and depression measurement has received little attention so far....

  13. Separation anxiety: stress, tension and cytokinesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Krithika; Iglesias, Pablo A; Robinson, Douglas N

    2012-07-15

    Cytokinesis, the physical separation of a mother cell into two daughter cells, progresses through a series of well-defined changes in morphology. These changes involve distinct biochemical and mechanical processes. Here, we review the mechanical features of cells during cytokinesis, discussing both the material properties as well as sources of stresses, both active and passive, which lead to the observed changes in morphology. We also describe a mechanosensory feedback control system that regulates protein localization and shape progression during cytokinesis.

  14. The association of depression and anxiety with pain : A study from NESDA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Heer, E.W.; Gerrits, M.M.; Beekman, A.T.; Dekker, J.; van Marwijk, H.W.J.; de Waal, M.W.; Spinhoven, P.; Penninx, B.W.; van der Feltz-Cornelis, C.M.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic pain is commonly co-morbid with a depressive or anxiety disorder. Objective of this study is to examine the influence of depression, along with anxiety, on pain-related disability, pain intensity, and pain location in a large sample of adults with and without a depressive and/or anxiety diso

  15. The relationship between generalized anxiety disorder, depression and mortality in old age.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holwerda, T.J.; Schoevers, R.A.; Dekker, J.J.M.; Deeg, D.J.H.; Jonker, C.; Beekman, A.T.F.

    2007-01-01

    after adjustment for the different variables. Conclusions In elderly persons depression increases the risk of death in men. Neither generalized anxiety nor mixed anxiety-depression are associated with excess mortality. Generalized anxiety disorder may even predict less mortality in depressive elderl

  16. Depression and Anxiety Symptoms in Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders without Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strang, John F.; Kenworthy, Lauren; Daniolos, Peter; Case, Laura; Wills, Meagan C.; Martin, Alex; Wallace, Gregory L.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that rates of depression and anxiety symptoms are elevated among individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) of various ages and IQs and that depression/anxiety symptoms are associated with higher IQ and fewer ASD symptoms. In this study which examined correlates of depression and anxiety symptoms in the full…

  17. Depression and Anxiety Symptoms in Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders without Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strang, John F.; Kenworthy, Lauren; Daniolos, Peter; Case, Laura; Wills, Meagan C.; Martin, Alex; Wallace, Gregory L.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that rates of depression and anxiety symptoms are elevated among individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) of various ages and IQs and that depression/anxiety symptoms are associated with higher IQ and fewer ASD symptoms. In this study which examined correlates of depression and anxiety symptoms in the full…

  18. Physical function as predictor for the persistence of depressive and anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Milligen, Bianca A.; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Smit, Johannes H.; Penninx, Brenda

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Depressive and anxiety disorders often involve a chronic course. This study examined whether objective physical function is a predictor for the persistence of depressive and anxiety disorders. Method: The study sample consisted of 1206 persons with depressive and anxiety disorders at b

  19. Longitudinal associations of multiple physical symptoms with recurrence of depressive and anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra-Kersten, Sandra M. A.; Sitnikova, Kate; Terluin, Berend; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Twisk, Jos W. R.; van Marwijk, Harm W. J.; van der Horst, Henriette E.; van der Wouden, Johannes C.

    Objective: To examine longitudinal associations of multiple physical symptoms with recurrence of depressive and anxiety disorders. Methods: Follow-up data of 584 participants with remitted depressive or anxiety disorders were used from the Netherlands Study of Depressive and Anxiety disorders.

  20. Physical function as predictor for the persistence of depressive and anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Milligen, Bianca A.; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Smit, Johannes H.; Penninx, Brenda

    Introduction: Depressive and anxiety disorders often involve a chronic course. This study examined whether objective physical function is a predictor for the persistence of depressive and anxiety disorders. Method: The study sample consisted of 1206 persons with depressive and anxiety disorders at

  1. The Adolescent Mattering Experience: Gender Variations in Perceived Mattering, Anxiety, and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Andrea L.; Scheidegger, Corey; McWhirter, J. Jeffries

    2009-01-01

    Individuals who perceive that they matter to others are likely to experience lower anxiety and depression levels. The effects of young adolescents' perceived mattering on their anxiety and depression levels were examined. Results indicated that female adolescents reported lower anxiety levels but greater depression levels than did male…

  2. A test of the cognitive content specificity hypothesis in depression and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberton, Anna; Oei, Tian P S

    2008-03-01

    The present study tested the cognitive content specificity hypothesis (CCSH) to assess whether anxiety and depression can be differentiated on the basis of cognitive disturbance. One hundred and thirty five depressed participants were administered the Beck depression inventory (BDI), the Beck anxiety inventory (BAI), the automatic thoughts questionnaire (ATQ) and the anxious self-statements questionnaire (ASSQ). It was hypothesised that depressive cognitions would be specifically related to, and predictive of, depressive (but not anxiety) symptoms in a depressed sample. Conversely, it was predicted that anxiety cognitions would be specifically related to, and predictive of, anxiety (but not depressive) symptoms in a depressed sample. Results revealed that the ATQ was the sole predictor of the BDI and similarly, the ASSQ was the sole predictor of the BAI. These findings support the CCSH in depression and provide an integrative framework for a greater understanding of the relationship between anxiety and depression.

  3. Levels of depression and anxiety among parents of autistic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunay Firat

    2016-09-01

    Results: Participants in the study were parents of 26 male (65% and 14 female (35% autistic children. The average age of the children was 62.9+/-16.6 months. .Mothers had higher levels of depression and anxiety scores. Mothers of autistic children who participated in the study received higher scores on depression, state anxiety and trait anxiety compared to fathers. Among mothers, a significant relationship was found between level of education and level of state anxiety. Conclusion: The findings of this study show that mothers have higher levels of depression and anxiety compared to fathers. This finding might be explained with reference to customs and traditions of the Turkish society in which the study was conducted, which require women to take more responsiblity for family matters. It is recommended that special education and rehabilitation centers provide counseling to parents about the effects of having an autistic children on their lives, and advise them on seeking psychological help if necessary. [Cukurova Med J 2016; 41(3.000: 539-547

  4. Are parents' anxiety and depression related to child fussy eating?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barse, Lisanne M; Cano, Sebastian Cardona; Jansen, Pauline W

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between parental anxiety and depression with child fussy eating-that is, consistent rejection of particular food items. Design This study was embedded in Generation R, a prospective cohort from fetal life onwards in the Netherlands. Setting Population-based. P......Objective To examine the association between parental anxiety and depression with child fussy eating-that is, consistent rejection of particular food items. Design This study was embedded in Generation R, a prospective cohort from fetal life onwards in the Netherlands. Setting Population......-based. Participants 4746 4-year-old children and their parents. Exposure Parental internalising problems (ie, symptoms of anxiety and depression) were assessed with the Brief Symptoms Inventory during pregnancy and the preschool period (child age 3 years). Main outcome measure The food fussiness scale of the Children......'s Eating Behaviour Questionnaire. Results Maternal anxiety during pregnancy and during the child's preschool period was related to higher food fussiness sum-scores in children. For instance, per point on the anxiety scale in pregnancy, children had on average a 1.02 higher sum-score (95% CI 0.59 to 1...

  5. Canine separation anxiety: strategies for treatment and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sargisson RJ

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Rebecca J Sargisson School of Psychology, University of Waikato, Tauranga, New ZealandAbstract: Dogs with separation-related behavior problems engage in unwanted behavior such as destruction of property and excessive vocalization when left alone, causing distress for both the dog and the owner, and often leading to the dog being relinquished or euthanized. I review research on factors likely to predispose dogs to developing separation anxiety and on the treatments available. Although research is equivocal, dogs seem to develop separation-related behavior problems if they are male, sourced from shelters or found, and separated from the litter before they are 60 days old. Protective factors include ensuring a wide range of experiences outside the home and with other people between the ages of 5–10 months, stable household routines and absences from the dog, and the avoidance of punishment. The most successful treatment for canine separation-related problems may be behavior modification that focuses on systematic desensitization and counterconditioning, which can be supplemented with medication in the initial stages. Where individual therapy from an animal behavior expert is not possible, advice to dog owners should be clear, simple, and contain five or fewer instructions to improve adherence. Advice is given for people seeking to adopt a dog, for new dog owners, and for existing dog owners who wish to treat their dog’s separation anxiety.Keywords: systematic desensitization, counterconditioning, medication, separation anxiety

  6. The Efficacy of Metacognitive Therapy for Anxiety and Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Normann, Nicoline; van Emmerik, Arnold A.P.; Morina, Nexhmedin

    2014-01-01

    effective than both waitlist control groups (between-group Hedges’ g = 1.81) as well as cognitive behavior therapy (CBT; between-group Hedges’ g = 0.97). Conclusions: Results suggest that MCT is effective in treating disorders of anxiety and depression and is supe- rior compared to waitlist control groups...

  7. Cranial electrotherapy stimulation for treatment of anxiety, depression, and insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Daniel L; Nichols, Francine

    2013-03-01

    Cranial electrotherapy stimulation is a prescriptive medical device that delivers a mild form of electrical stimulation to the brain for the treatment of anxiety, depression, and insomnia. It is supported by more than 40 years of research demonstrating its effectiveness in several mechanistic studies and greater than 100 clinical studies. Adverse effects are rare (electrotherapy stimulation may also be used as an adjunctive therapy.

  8. Pain and the onset of depressive and anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerrits, Marloes M. J. G.; van Oppen, Patricia; van Marwijk, Harm W. J.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; van der Horst, Henritte E.

    2014-01-01

    Patients with pain may be at increased risk of developing a first episode of depressive or anxiety disorder. Insight into possible associations between specific pain characteristics and such a development could help clinicians to improve prevention and treatment strategies. The objectives of this st

  9. Selective Attention, Anxiety, Depressive Symptomatology and Academic Performance in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Castillo, Antonio; Gutierrez-Rojas, Maria Esperanza

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: In this cross-sectional, descriptive research we studied the relation between three psychological variables (anxiety, depression and attention) in order to analyze their possible association with and predictive power for academic achievement (as expressed in school grades) in a sample of secondary students. Method: For this purpose…

  10. Social Support Seeking and Early Adolescent Depression and Anxiety Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vélez, Clorinda E.; Krause, Elizabeth D.; McKinnon, Allison; Brunwasser, Steven M.; Freres, Derek R.; Abenavoli, Rachel M.; Gillham, Jane E.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined how social support seeking and rumination interacted to predict depression and anxiety symptoms 6 months later in early adolescents (N = 118; 11-14 years at baseline). We expected social support seeking would be more helpful for adolescents engaging in low rather than high levels of rumination. Adolescents self-reported on all…

  11. Efficacy of cognitive bias modification interventions in anxiety and depression:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cristea, Ioana A; Kok, Robin N; Cuijpers, Pim

    2015-01-01

    controlled trials (RCTs) of CBM interventions that reported clinically relevant outcomes assessed with standardised instruments. RESULTS: We identified 49 trials and grouped outcomes into anxiety and depression. Effect sizes were small considering all the samples, and mostly non-significant for patient...

  12. Association between anxiety and depression with chronic periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajeev Shrestha

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: It is thought that chronic stress negatively affects immune response efficacy which in turn cause an imbalance between host and parasite leading to periodontal breakdown. The study aims to investigate the association between anxiety and depression with chronic periodontitis.Materials & Methods: This was a cross sectional study comprising of 350 individuals of both sexes, above 25 years of age. The study population was divided into two groups. Group 2 consisted of those subjects with clinical attachment loss of ≥ 3 mm in at least 30% of site examined, and the samples that did not satisfy the above criteria were categorized into Group 1. Group 1 included 184 individuals while group 2 had 166 subjects. Clinical examinations were performed by a single examiner. Psychological instrument used was Hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS. Chi square and student t test were performed to compare between the two groups.Results: The mean depression scores in Group 1 and Group 2 were 6.64 ± 2.58 and 7.90 ± 2.86, respectively while the mean anxiety scores of Group 1 and Group 2 were 7.76 ± 3.12 and 9.07 ± 3.08, respectively (p<001.Conclusion: Within the limits of this study it is possible to conclude that there was significant association between periodontitis and anxiety, and depression 

  13. Social Support Seeking and Early Adolescent Depression and Anxiety Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vélez, Clorinda E.; Krause, Elizabeth D.; McKinnon, Allison; Brunwasser, Steven M.; Freres, Derek R.; Abenavoli, Rachel M.; Gillham, Jane E.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined how social support seeking and rumination interacted to predict depression and anxiety symptoms 6 months later in early adolescents (N = 118; 11-14 years at baseline). We expected social support seeking would be more helpful for adolescents engaging in low rather than high levels of rumination. Adolescents self-reported on all…

  14. Factors Predicting Rural Chinese Adolescents' Anxieties, Fears and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huijun; Zhang, Ying

    2008-01-01

    This study examined age, gender, birth order and self-perceived level of achievement and popularity, as predictors of anxieties, fears and depression in Chinese adolescents. A sample of 398 rural Chinese adolescents participated in this study. Gender, academic performance and popularity have been found to make the greatest contributions to the…

  15. Treatment of Anxiety and Depression in the Preschool Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luby, Joan L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Empirical studies have established that clinical anxiety and depressive disorders may arise in preschool children as young as 3.0 years. Because empirical studies validating and characterizing these disorders in preschoolers are relatively recent, less work has been done on the development and testing of age-appropriate treatments.…

  16. Treatment of Anxiety and Depression in the Preschool Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luby, Joan L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Empirical studies have established that clinical anxiety and depressive disorders may arise in preschool children as young as 3.0 years. Because empirical studies validating and characterizing these disorders in preschoolers are relatively recent, less work has been done on the development and testing of age-appropriate treatments.…

  17. Serum cytokines and anxiety in adolescent depression patients: Gender effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallavi, Pooja; Sagar, Rajesh; Mehta, Manju; Sharma, Subhadra; Subramanium, Arulselvi; Shamshi, Farah; Sengupta, Utpal; Pandey, Ravindra M; Mukhopadhyay, Asok K

    2015-09-30

    The present study compares the serum cytokine levels between adolescent depression patients and healthy controls and assesses correlation between depression, anxiety scores and serum levels of eight cytokines. Study also checked the variation in serum levels with medication status (medication free/naïve vs. patients on medication). Following clinical and psychometric assessment of 77 adolescent (aged 13-18 years) depression patients (49 males and 28 females; 56 medication free/naïve) and 54 healthy controls (25 males, 29 females), eight cytokines (IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, IFN-γ, TGF-β1 and IL-17A {denoted IL-17 throughout}) were measured in serum using ELISA. Depressed adolescents had significantly high levels of IL-2 (pcytokine (IL-6) in patients. Anxiety scores showed positive correlation (only in female patients) with IL-1β, IL-10 and negative correlation with TGF-β1 and IL-17. The gender effect in relationship between anxiety and cytokines was not straightforward. On comparing study groups on the medication/naïve status, IL-2 and TGF-β1 showed significant difference between the groups (pcytokines with a gender bias for females. Anxiety scores correlated negatively with TGF-β1 and IL-17.

  18. Psychoeducation for depression, anxiety and stress: a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donker, T.; Griffiths, K.M.; Cuijpers, P.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Given the high prevalence and burden associated with depression and anxiety disorders and the existence of treatment barriers, there is a clear need for brief, inexpensive and effective interventions such as passive psychoeducational interventions. There are no published meta-ana

  19. Psychoeducation for depression, anxiety and stres: a meta-analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donker, T.; Griffiths, K.M.; Cuijpers, P.; Christensen, H.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Given the high prevalence and burden associated with depression and anxiety disorders and the existence of treatment barriers, there is a clear need for brief, inexpensive and effective interventions such as passive psychoeducational interventions. There are no published meta-ana

  20. Separation Anxiety Over for Deep Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This image of Deep Impact's impactor probe was taken by the mission's mother ship, or flyby spacecraft, after the two separated at 11:07 p.m. Pacific time, July 2 (2:07 a.m. Eastern time, July 3). The impactor is scheduled to collide with comet Tempel 1 at 10:52 p.m. Pacific time, July 3 (1:52 a.m. Eastern time, July 4). The impactor can be seen at the center of the image.

  1. Validation of the depression anxiety stress scales (DASS 21 as a screening instrument for depression and anxiety in a rural community-based cohort of northern Vietnamese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Thach Duc

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depression and anxiety are recognised increasingly as serious public health problems among women in low- and lower-middle income countries. The aim of this study was to validate the 21-item Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS21 for use in screening for these common mental disorders among rural women with young children in the North of Vietnam. Methods The DASS-21 was translated from English to Vietnamese, culturally verified, back-translated and administered to women who also completed, separately, a psychiatrist-administered Structured Clinical Interview for DSM IV Axis 1 diagnoses of depressive and anxiety disorders. The sample was a community-based representative cohort of adult women with young children living in Ha Nam Province in northern Viet Nam. Cronbach’s alpha, Exploratory Factor Analyses (EFA and Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC analyses were performed to identify the psychometric properties of the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress subscales and the overall scale. Results Complete data were available for 221 women. The internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha of each sub-scale and the overall scale were high, ranging from 0.70 for the Stress subscale to 0.88 for the overall scale, but EFA indicated that the 21 items all loaded on one factor. Scores on each of the three sub-scales, and the combinations of two or three of them were able to detect the common mental disorders of depression and anxiety in women with a sensitivity of 79.1% and a specificity of 77.0% at the optimal cut off of >33. However, they did not distinguish between those experiencing only depression or only anxiety. Conclusions The total score of the 21 items of the DASS21-Vietnamese validation appears to be comprehensible and sensitive to detecting common mental disorders in women with young children in primary health care in rural northern Vietnam and therefore might also be useful to screen for these conditions in other resource

  2. An examination of the tripartite model of anxiety and depression in an outpatient sample of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dia, David A; Harrington, Donna; Silverman, Wendy K

    2010-07-01

    Anxiety and depressive disorders are the most common mental health problems for adolescents; understanding their etiology and course is necessary for developing effective prevention and treatment programs. The tripartite model of anxiety and depression was evaluated in a random, clinical sample of 185 adolescents, with an average age of 15.09 years (SD = 1.9), with 58.4% males (n = 108). Survey packets were mailed to participants (61% response rate). Two models were evaluated: (a) Model one fit adequately, however, modification indices and prior research and theory suggested adding paths between anxiety and depression. (b) Model two tested paths between anxiety and depression; this revised model fit the data well, suggesting a relationship from anxiety to depression. Further, physiological hyperarousal may be a distinct component for anxiety and negative affectivity may be a general risk factor for anxiety and depression in adolescents. The findings that different factors contribute to the cause of anxiety and depression have implications for practice.

  3. Precision psychiatry: a neural circuit taxonomy for depression and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Leanne M

    2016-05-01

    Although there have been tremendous advances in the understanding of human dysfunctions in the brain circuitry for self-reflection, emotion, and cognitive control, a brain-based taxonomy for mental disease is still lacking. As a result, these advances have not been translated into actionable clinical tools, and the language of brain circuits has not been incorporated into training programmes. To address this gap, I present this synthesis of published work, with a focus on functional imaging of circuit dysfunctions across the spectrum of mood and anxiety disorders. This synthesis provides the foundation for a taxonomy of putative types of dysfunction, which cuts across traditional diagnostic boundaries for depression and anxiety and includes instead distinct types of neural circuit dysfunction that together reflect the heterogeneity of depression and anxiety. This taxonomy is suited to specifying symptoms in terms of underlying neural dysfunction at the individual level and is intended as the foundation for building mechanistic research and ultimately guiding clinical practice.

  4. Maternal Daily Diary Report in the Assessment of Childhood Separation Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jennifer L.; Blatter-Meunier, Judith; Ursprung, Antonia; Schneider, Silvia

    2010-01-01

    The current study evaluated the feasibility and validity of a parent-report measure of separation anxiety, the Separation Anxiety Daily Diary (SADD). Mother and child participants consisted of three groups: 96 children (aged 4-15 years) with separation anxiety disorder, 49 children with "other" anxiety disorders, and 43 healthy controls. The SADD…

  5. Do attachment representations predict depression and anxiety in psychiatrically hospitalized prepubertal children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Geoff; Stroh, Martha; Valdez, Adina

    2012-01-01

    Thirty-six prepubertal inpatients were videotaped completing five stories thematically related to attachment experiences and classified by their attachment representations. Children also completed the Children's Depression Inventory and Diagnostic Interview for Children and Adolescents-Revised. Mothers completed demographic questionnaires. Percentage of secure (B) attachment was only about one tenth of the normative percentage, anxious-ambivalent (C) attachment was between two and three times the normative percentage, and disorganized (D) attachment was almost twice the normative percentage. Both D attachment and the total number of disorganized story responses were associated with negative self-esteem and clinical-range depression. Anxious-avoidant (A) attachment decreased the likelihood, while C and D attachment increased the likelihood, of separation anxiety disorder. Clinical intervention needs to focus on the meaning of parental relationships represented in the child's mind, specifically the negative self-esteem and separation anxiety associated with the lack of felt security provided by the parents.

  6. [Relationship of Anxiety and Depression in the Development of Mixed Anxiety/Depression Disorder. An Experimental Study of Comorbidity Mechanisms (Review)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galyamina, A G; Kovalenko, I L; Smagin, D A; Kudryavtseva, N N

    2016-01-01

    As clinical practice and experimental studies show, symptoms of depression and anxiety often accompany each other. It is well known that combination of anxiety and depression in patients is treated more slowly, requires large doses of drugs, increases the likelihood of suicide and often leads to relapse. Furthermore, antidepressants and anxiolytics exert its therapeutic effect in limited cases even in monopolar anxiety or depression state. In this review of literature and our own data the relationship of anxiety and depression is analyzed. It has been shown with using the model of mixed anxiety/depression disorder caused by chronic social defeat stress, that the anxiety and depression are changed under the influence of psychotropic drugs independently.

  7. Canine separation anxiety: strategies for treatment and management

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Rebecca J Sargisson School of Psychology, University of Waikato, Tauranga, New ZealandAbstract: Dogs with separation-related behavior problems engage in unwanted behavior such as destruction of property and excessive vocalization when left alone, causing distress for both the dog and the owner, and often leading to the dog being relinquished or euthanized. I review research on factors likely to predispose dogs to developing separation anxiety and on the treatments available. Although research...

  8. Yoga and social support reduce prenatal depression, anxiety and cortisol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Delgado, Jeannette; Medina, Lissette

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of yoga (physical activity) versus social support (verbal activity) on prenatal and postpartum depression. Ninety-two prenatally depressed women were randomly assigned to a yoga or a social support control group at 22 weeks gestation. The yoga group participated in a 20-min group session (only physical poses) once per week for 12 weeks. The social support group (a leaderless discussion group) met on the same schedule. At the end of the first and last sessions the yoga group reported less depression, anxiety, anger, back and leg pain as compared to the social support group. At the end of the last session the yoga group and the support group did not differ. They both had lower depression (CES-D), anxiety (STAI), and anger (STAXI) scores and improved relationship scores. In addition, cortisol levels decreased for both groups following each session. Estriol and progesterone levels decreased after the last session. At the postpartum follow-up assessment depression and anxiety levels were lower for both groups.

  9. Association of Physical Exercise on Anxiety and Depression Amongst Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanzada, Faizan Jameel; Soomro, Nabila; Khan, Shahidda Zakir

    2015-07-01

    This study was done to determine the frequency of anxiety, depression among those who exercise regularly and those who do not. Across-sectional study was conducted at different gymnasiums of Karachi in July-August 2013. A total 269 individual's ages were 18 - 45 years completed a self-administered questionnaire to assess the data using simple descriptive statistics. One hundred and thirty four individuals were those who did not perform exercise which included females (55.0%) being more frequently anxious than male (46.4%). Females (39.9%) were more frequently depressed as compared to males (26.4%) less depressed. Chi-square test showed association between anxiety levels and exercise was significantly increased in non-exercisers compared to regular exercisers found to be significant (p=0.015). Individuals who performed regular exercise had a lower frequency of depression (28.9%) than non-exercisers (41.8%). Physical exercise was significantly associated with lower anxiety and depression frequency amongst the studied adult population.

  10. Anxiety, fainting and gagging in dentistry: Separate or overlapping constructs?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtem, C.M.H.H. van

    2016-01-01

    This thesis aimed to increase the knowledge about severe forms of anxiety, gagging and fainting in dentistry and to investigate whether these phenomena are overlapping or separate constructs. In Chapter 2 a literature review of twin studies showed that the estimated heritability of specific phobias

  11. Separation anxiety: Stress, tension and cytokinesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohan, Krithika [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The Johns Hopkins University, 3400 N. Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Iglesias, Pablo A., E-mail: pi@jhu.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The Johns Hopkins University, 3400 N. Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Robinson, Douglas N., E-mail: dnr@jhmi.edu [Department of Cell Biology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 725 N. Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Cytokinesis, the physical separation of a mother cell into two daughter cells, progresses through a series of well-defined changes in morphology. These changes involve distinct biochemical and mechanical processes. Here, we review the mechanical features of cells during cytokinesis, discussing both the material properties as well as sources of stresses, both active and passive, which lead to the observed changes in morphology. We also describe a mechanosensory feedback control system that regulates protein localization and shape progression during cytokinesis. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cytokinesis progresses through three distinct mechanical phases. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cortical tension initially resists deformation of mother cell. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Late in cytokinesis, cortical tension provides stress, enabling furrow ingression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A mechanosensory feedback control system regulates cytokinesis.

  12. Canine anxieties and phobias: an update on separation anxiety and noise aversions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Barbara L; Mills, Daniel S

    2008-09-01

    Companion dogs commonly experience states of anxiety, fears, and phobias. Separation anxiety and noise aversions, as discussed in this article, are especially prevalent. Veterinarians are encouraged to recognize and treat such conditions on first presentation to address welfare issues and optimize successful management. New data suggest new treatment modalities, including behavioral management, pharmacotherapy, and species-specific pheromone use. Failure to treat can result in disruption of the human-animal bond and subsequent abandonment, relinquishment, or even euthanasia of the affected dog.

  13. Factors accounting for the association between anxiety and depression, and eczema: the Hordaland health study (HUSK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gotestam Karl

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The association between anxiety and depression, and eczema is well known in the literature, but factors underlying this association remain unclear. Low levels of omega-3 fatty acids and female gender have been found to be associated with both depression and eczema. Somatization and health anxiety are known to be associated with anxiety and depression, further, somatization symptoms and health anxiety have also been found in several dermatological conditions. Accordingly, omega-3 fatty acid supplement, female gender, somatization and health anxiety are possible contributing factors in the association between anxiety and depression, and eczema. The aim of the study is to examine the relevance of proposed contributing factors for the association between anxiety and depression, and eczema, including, omega-3 fatty acid supplement, female gender, health anxiety and somatization. Methods Anxiety and depression was measured in the general population (n = 15715 employing the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS. Information on eczema, female gender, omega-3 fatty acid supplement, health anxiety and somatization was obtained by self-report. Results Somatization and health anxiety accounted for more than half of the association between anxiety/depression, and eczema, while the other factors examined were of minor relevance for the association of interest. Conclusions We found no support for female gender and omega-3 fatty acid supplement as contributing factors in the association between anxiety/depression, and eczema. Somatization and health anxiety accounted for about half of the association between anxiety/depression, and eczema, somatization contributed most. The association between anxiety/depression, and eczema was insignificant after adjustment for somatization and health anxiety. Biological mechanisms underlying the mediating effect of somatization are yet to be revealed.

  14. Neuroticism, depression and anxiety in takotsubo cardiomyopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Emil; Bang, Lia E; Holmvang, Lene

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Takotsubo cardiomypathy (TTC) causes acute reversible heart failure. Prior studies have indicated that the syndrome is associated with traits such as social inhibition, chronic psychological stress, and anxio-depressive disorders. The objective of this study was to further characterize...

  15. The differential relationship between trait anxiety, depression, and resting frontal α-asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolph, Dirk; Margraf, Jürgen

    2017-03-01

    Relatively larger resting right frontal cortical brain activation has been labeled as a risk factor for emotion-related disorders. In light of this framework, the present studies' aim was twofold. First, we wanted to determine whether a relationship between symptoms of anxiety and depression and frontal asymmetry does already manifest in a sample of so far healthy individuals showing a large symptom range. This could be expected if frontal asymmetry constitutes a risk factor for depression and anxiety. Second, we aimed to investigate whether symptoms of depression and anxiety are independently related to frontal asymmetry, or whether either anxiety or depression is superior in predicting the relationship with frontal asymmetry. To address these questions, trait-like resting frontal α-asymmetry by means of EEG, as well as trait anxiety and depressive symptoms by questionnaire were measured from 43 healthy students (28 female). Results indicate that higher symptom severity of depression and anxiety were both significantly correlated with relatively larger right frontal cortical activation. However, in a regression analysis, frontal asymmetry was predicted by anxiety only. Controlling for depression and mood, anxiety explained 13% of variance, while controlling for mood and anxiety, depression did explain asymmetry. In conclusion, although both anxiety and depression add to the relationship, relatively larger right frontal cortical activity might be influenced more strongly by symptoms of anxiety. Moreover, as this effect is present already in healthy individuals, the findings might further support the notion that right frontal cortical asymmetry constitutes a risk factor for anxiety or depression.

  16. Psychological distress, anxiety and depression among nursing students in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sapountzi-Krepia D.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available It is usually observed that nursing students undergo tremendous stress during various stages oftheir course but the knowledge about the stress process and depressive symptoms in this population is limited. TheAim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of psychological distress, anxiety and depression amongnursing students in Greece. For that purpose 170 nursing students (34 males, 136 females of the Department of Nursingof the Technological Educational Institute of Thessaloniki completed 3 self-report questionnaires, the General HealthQuestionnaire (GHQ, the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI. The mean agewas 21.5 years. No difference in stress and depression on the basis of gender was observed. Our results showed that thescores on the GHQ, BDI and STAI tend to increase in the year 2 and 3. The majority of students reported relatively highscores on the GHQ suggesting increased psychiatric morbidity. 52.4% of students experienced depressive symptoms(34.7% mild, 12.9% moderate and 4.7% severe. The scores on the state scale were higher in the years 2 and 3, whilethe majority of students who had no or mild stress was observed in the first and the last year. Low stress personalitytraits were also observed in the first and the last year. However, no significant differences between the four years wereobserved. Our results suggest that nursing students experience different levels of stress and depression and that thesefactors are positively correlated.

  17. Differences in prescribing patterns for anxiety and depression between General Internal Medicine and Family Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brieler, Jay A; Scherrer, Jeffrey F; Salas, Joanne

    2015-02-01

    Depression and anxiety are routinely managed by physicians in Family Medicine (FM) or General Internal Medicine (GIM). Because FM requires more behavioral health training than GIM, we sought to determine if prescribing patterns for patients with anxiety, depression, or both differed between FM vs. GIM providers. In a cross-sectional design, patient data and provider type were obtained from 2008 to 2013 electronic medical record patient data registry (n=27,225 (FM=10,994, GIM=16,231)) Prescription orders were modeled for specific benzodiazepines and antidepressants and by drug class. Covariates included gender, age, race, marital status and comorbidity index. Separate logistic regression models were computed, before and after adjusting for covariates, to estimate the odds of FM vs. GIM providers prescribing benzodiazepine or antidepressant medication to patients with anxiety, depression, and both disorders. After adjusting for covariates, patients with anxiety alone, depression alone, and both had significantly greater odds of receiving an antidepressant (OR=2.08;95%CI:1.46-2.96, OR=2.13;95%CI:1.48-3.06, and OR=2.26;95%CI:1.09-4.66, respectively) if treated by FM vs. GIM. Benzodiazepine prescription did not differ by physician type. It is not known if results will generalize to other regions of the United States. Patients with anxiety, depression, and both seen by FM providers, as compared to GIM providers, are more likely to receive antidepressant medications. Further investigation into the determinants of these differences is warranted. Under-treatment in GIM may result in less advantageous outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Anxiety, depression and autonomic nervous system dysfunction in hypertension.

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    Bajkó, Zoltán; Szekeres, Csilla-Cecília; Kovács, Katalin Réka; Csapó, Krisztina; Molnár, Sándor; Soltész, Pál; Nyitrai, Erika; Magyar, Mária Tünde; Oláh, László; Bereczki, Dániel; Csiba, László

    2012-06-15

    This study examined the relationship between autonomic nervous system dysfunction, anxiety and depression in untreated hypertension. 86 newly diagnosed hypertensive patients and 98 healthy volunteers were included in the study. The psychological parameters were assessed with Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and Beck Depression Inventory by a skilled psychologist. Autonomic parameters were examined during tilt table examination (10min lying position, 10min passive tilt). Heart rate variability (HRV) was calculated by autoregressive methods. Baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) was calculated by non-invasive sequence method from the recorded beat to beat blood pressure values and RR intervals. Significantly higher state (42.6±9.3 vs. 39.6±10.7 p=0.05) and trait (40.1±8.9 vs. 35.1±8.6, p<0.0001) anxiety scores were found in the hypertension group. There was no statistically significant difference in the depression level. LF-RRI (Low Frequency-RR interval) of HRV in passive tilt (377.3±430.6 vs. 494.1±547, p=0.049) and mean BRS slope (11.4±5.5 vs. 13.2±6.4, p=0.07) in lying position were lower in hypertensives. Trait anxiety score correlates significantly with sympatho/vagal balance (LF/HF-RRI) in passive tilt position (Spearman R=-0.286, p=0.01). Anxiety could play a more important role than depression in the development of hypertension. Altered autonomic control of the heart could be one of the pathophysiological links between hypertension and psychological factors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Anger, anxiety and depression in females with diffuse alopecia

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    Seçil Aldemir

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Present study aims to compare control group patients and patients with diffuse alopecia in order to understand the nature of the relationship between symptoms and level of anger and to see whether patient group has higher number of symptoms than control group. Methods: 43 female patients who were diagnosed diffuse alopecia in dermatology clinic and 52 age-and-gender-matched control participants were included in the study. 20% of patients (n=19 with androgenetic alopecia, 10.5% of patients (n=10 with diffuse alopecia areata and 14.7% of patients (n=14 with telogen effluvium participated in study. Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS and The Trait Anger and Anger Expression Scale (TAAES were filled by the participants. Also patients were followed up by a standard hospital form recording alopecia. Results: It was found that patients with alopecia revealed significantly more depression (p<0,001 and anxiety (p<0,001 scores than control group. Also trait anger (β = 0,216, Wald Z = 3,697, Exp(B= 1,241, p<0,05 and anxiety (β = -0.466, Wald Z = 5,008, Exp(B= 0.628, p<0,05 scores significantly predicted alopecia group. Additionally total time period for alopecia significantly and positively correlated with depression (r= 0,402, p<0.01 and anxiety (r=0,393, p<0,01 scores. Comparing patient groups with each other, trait anger and expressed anger were significantly different across groups. Conclusion: Patient group reported more anxiety and depressive symptoms than control group. In treatment of patients with alopecia, bidirectional relationship between alopecia and psychological symptoms should be in consideration. Collaboration with psychiatry is suggested in order to improve treatment efficacy and patients’ life satisfaction. In addition anger management seems essential in treatment of patients with diffuse alopecia.

  20. Association of temporomandibular disorder symptoms with anxiety and depression in Portuguese college students.

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    Minghelli, Beatriz; Morgado, Marcos; Caro, Tatiana

    2014-06-01

    We investigated the prevalence of temporomandibular disorder (TMD) and its association with anxiety and depression among 1,493 Portuguese college students (age 17-69 years) at Piaget Institute. The assessment instruments were the Fonseca Anamnestic Questionnaire and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. TMD was present in 633 (42.4%) students, and anxiety or depression was present in 456 (30.5%) students. Regarding the association of TMD with anxiety and depression, 280 of the 633 students (61.4%) with TMD symptoms also had signs of anxiety or depression (P students without signs of anxiety or depression, students with such signs had an odds ratio of 3.1 (95% confidence interval: 2.42-3.84; P College students from various fields of study and regions of Portugal had a high prevalence of TMD, which was significantly associated with anxiety and depression.

  1. Cognitive bias in the chick anxiety-depression model.

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    Salmeto, Amy L; Hymel, Kristen A; Carpenter, Erika C; Brilot, Ben O; Bateson, Melissa; Sufka, Kenneth J

    2011-02-10

    Cognitive bias is a phenomenon that presents in clinical populations where anxious individuals tend to adopt a more pessimistic-like interpretation of ambiguous aversive stimuli whereas depressed individuals tend to adopt a less optimistic-like interpretation of ambiguous appetitive stimuli. To further validate the chick anxiety-depression model as a neuropsychiatric simulation we sought to quantify this cognitive endophenotype. Chicks exposed to an isolation stressor of 5m to induce an anxiety-like or 60 m to induce a depressive-like state were then tested in a straight alley maze to a series of morphed ambiguous appetitive (chick silhouette) to aversive (owl silhouette) cues. In non-isolated controls, runway start and goal latencies generally increased as a function of greater amounts of aversive characteristics in the cues. In chicks in the anxiety-like state, runway latencies were increased to aversive ambiguous cues, reflecting more pessimistic-like behavior. In chicks in the depression-like state, runway latencies were increased to both aversive and appetitive ambiguous cues, reflecting more pessimistic-like and less optimistic-like behavior, respectively.

  2. The experience of depression, anxiety, and mania among perinatal women.

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    Kim, J Jo; Silver, Richard K; Elue, Rita; Adams, Marci G; La Porte, Laura M; Cai, Li; Kim, Jong Bae; Gibbons, Robert D

    2016-10-01

    We assessed differential item functioning (DIF) based on computerized adaptive testing (CAT) to examine how perinatal mood disorders differ from adult psychiatric disorders. The CAT-Mental Health (CAT-MH) was administered to 1614 adult psychiatric outpatients and 419 perinatal women with IRB approval. We examined individual item-level differences using logistic regression and overall score differences by scoring the perinatal data using the original bifactor model calibration based on the psychiatric sample data and a new bifactor model calibration based on the perinatal data and computing their correlation. To examine convergent validity, we computed correlations of the CAT-MH with contemporaneously administered Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scales (EPDS). The rate of major depression in the perinatal sample was 13 %. Rates of anxiety, mania, and suicide risk were 5, 6, and 0.4 %, respectively. One of 66 depression items, one of 69 anxiety items, and 15 of 53 mania items exhibited DIF (i.e., failure to discriminate between high and low levels of the disorder) in the perinatal sample based on the psychiatric sample calibration. Removal of these items resulted in correlations of the original and perinatal calibrations of r = 0.983 for depression, r = 0.986 for anxiety, and r = 0.932 for mania. The 91.3 % of cases were concordantly categorized as either "at-risk" or "low-risk" between the EPDS and the perinatal calibration of the CAT-MH. There was little evidence of DIF for depression and anxiety symptoms in perinatal women. This was not true for mania. Now calibrated for perinatal women, the CAT-MH can be evaluated for longitudinal symptom monitoring.

  3. Anxiety and Depression in Children of Depressed Parents: Dynamics of Change in a Preventive Intervention.

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    Bettis, Alexandra H; Forehand, Rex; Sterba, Sonya K; Preacher, Kristopher J; Compas, Bruce E

    2016-10-21

    The current study examined effects of a preventive intervention on patterns of change in symptoms of anxiety and depression in a sample of children of depressed parents. Parents with a history of depression (N = 180) and their children (N = 242; 50% female; Mage = 11.38; 74% Euro-American) enrolled in an intervention to prevent psychopathology in youth. Families were randomized to a family group cognitive behavioral intervention (FGCB) or a written information (WI) control condition. Parents and youth completed the Child Behavior Checklist and Youth Self Report at baseline, 6-, 12-, 18-, and 24-month follow up. Youth in the FGCB intervention reported significantly greater declines in symptoms of both anxiety and depression at 6, 12, and 18 months compared to youth in the WI condition. Youth with higher baseline levels of each symptom (e.g., anxiety) reported greater declines in the other symptom (e.g., depression) from 0 to 6 months in the FGCB intervention only. Changes in anxiety symptoms from 0 to 6 months predicted different patterns of subsequent changes in depressive symptoms from 6 to 12 months for the two conditions, such that declines in anxiety preceded and predicted greater declines in depression for FGCB youth but lesser increases in depression for WI youth. Findings inform transdiagnostic approaches to preventive interventions for at-risk youth, suggesting that both initial symptom levels and initial magnitude of change in symptoms are important to understand subsequent patterns of change in response to intervention.

  4. Generalized anxiety and mixed anxiety-depression: association with disability and health care utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy-Byrne, P P

    1996-01-01

    Generalized anxiety and mixed anxiety-depression have received less attention than the major mood and anxiety disorders ith respect to their possible effects in increasing disability and health care utilization. A review of recent studies, however, indicates that these conditions are prevalent in primary care medical settings and are associated with significant social and occupational disability. Generalized anxiety disorder is also one of the most common diagnoses seen in patients presenting with medically unexplained somatic complaints such as chest pain, irritable bowel symptoms, and hyperventilation and in patients prone to overutilize health care services in general. It is poorly recognized by primary care physicians, possibly due to its chronicity, which may limit the ability of symptoms to "stand out" and be easily detected. However, it is disproportionately present in "high utilizer" samples found to be particularly "frustrating" to their physicians and is accompanied by a high rate of personality disorders, suggesting that maladaptive personality traits and styles of interaction in such patients may also contribute to underrecognition of symptoms by primary care physicians. These preliminary associations between generalized anxiety disorder/mixed anxiety-depression and both disability and increased health care utilization need to be confirmed with carefully designed and controlled studies.

  5. Prevalence of anxiety and depression among outpatients with type 2 diabetes in the Mexican population.

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    Carlos Tovilla-Zárate

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Depression and anxiety are common in diabetic patients; however, in recent years the frequency of these symptoms has markedly increased worldwide. Therefore, it is necessary to establish the frequency and factors associated with depression and anxiety, since they can be responsible for premature morbidity, mortality, risk of developing comorbidities, complications, suffering of patients, as well as escalation of costs. We studied the frequency of depression and anxiety in Mexican outpatients with type 2 diabetes and identified the risk factors for depression and anxiety. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We performed a study in 820 patients with type 2 diabetes. The prevalence of depression and anxiety was estimated using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, respectively. We calculated the proportions for depression and anxiety and, after adjusting for confounding variables, we performed multivariate analysis using multiple logistic regressions to evaluate the combined effect of the various factors associated with anxiety and depression among persons with type 2 diabetes. The rates for depression and anxiety were 48.27% (95% CI: 44.48-52.06 and 55.10% (95% CI: 51.44-58.93, respectively. Occupation and complications in diabetes were the factors associated with anxiety, whereas glucose level and complications in diabetes were associated with depression. Complications in diabetes was a factor common to depression and anxiety (p<0.0001; OR 1.79, 95% CI 1.29-2.4. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate that a large proportion of diabetic patients present depression and/or anxiety. We also identified a significant association between complications in diabetes with depression and anxiety. Interventions are necessary to hinder the appearance of complications in diabetes and in consequence prevent depression and anxiety.

  6. Reduced anxiety and depression-like behaviours in the circadian period mutant mouse afterhours.

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    Robert Keers

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Disruption of the circadian rhythm is a key feature of bipolar disorder. Variation in genes encoding components of the molecular circadian clock has been associated with increased risk of the disorder in clinical populations. Similarly in animal models, disruption of the circadian clock can result in altered mood and anxiety which resemble features of human mania; including hyperactivity, reduced anxiety and reduced depression-like behaviour. One such mutant, after hours (Afh, an ENU-derived mutant with a mutation in a recently identified circadian clock gene Fbxl3, results in a disturbed (long circadian rhythm of approximately 27 hours. METHODOLOGY: Anxiety, exploratory and depression-like behaviours were evaluated in Afh mice using the open-field, elevated plus maze, light-dark box, holeboard and forced swim test. To further validate findings for human mania, polymorphisms in the human homologue of FBXL3, genotyped by three genome wide case control studies, were tested for association with bipolar disorder. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Afh mice showed reduced anxiety- and depression-like behaviour in all of the behavioural tests employed, and some evidence of increased locomotor activity in some tests. An analysis of three separate human data sets revealed a gene wide association between variation in FBXL3 and bipolar disorder (P = 0.009. CONCLUSIONS: Our results are consistent with previous studies of mutants with extended circadian periods and suggest that disruption of FBXL3 is associated with mania-like behaviours in both mice and humans.

  7. A Korean validation study of the Clinically Useful Anxiety Outcome Scale: Comorbidity and differentiation of anxiety and depressive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Sang Won; Han, Changsu; Ko, Young-Hoon; Yoon, Seoyoung; Pae, Chi-Un; Choi, Joonho; Kim, Jae-Min; Yoon, Ho-Kyoung; Lee, Hoseon; Patkar, Ashwin A; Zimmerman, Mark

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Korean version of the Clinically Useful Anxiety Outcome Scale (CUXOS) and to examine the current diagnostic comorbidity and differential severity of anxiety symptoms between major depressive disorder (MDD) and anxiety disorders. In total, 838 psychiatric outpatients were analyzed at their intake appointment. Diagnostic characteristics were examined using the structured clinical interview from the DSM-IV because the DSM5 was not available at the start of the study. The CUXOS score was measured and compared with that of 3 clinician rating scales and 4 self-report scales. The CUXOS showed excellent results for internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.90), test-retest reliability (r = 0.74), and discriminant and convergent validity. The CUXOS significantly discriminated between different levels of anxiety severity, and the measure was sensitive to change after treatment. Approximately 45% of patients with MDD were additionally diagnosed with anxiety disorders while 55% of patients with anxiety disorders additionally reported an MDD. There was a significant difference in CUXOS scores between diagnostic categories (MDD only, anxiety only, both disorders, and no MDD or anxiety disorder). The CUXOS scores differed significantly between all categories of depression (major, minor, and non-depression) except for the comparison between minor depression and non-depression groups. The Korean version of the CUXOS is a reliable and valid measure of the severity of anxiety symptoms. The use of the CUXOS could broaden the understanding of coexisting and differentiating characteristics of anxiety and depression.

  8. Depression and Anxiety Screens as Simultaneous Predictors of 10-Year Incidence of Diabetes Mellitus in Older Adults in Primary Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khambaty, Tasneem; Callahan, Christopher M; Perkins, Anthony J; Stewart, Jesse C

    2017-02-01

    To examine depression and anxiety screens and their individual items as simultaneous predictors of incident diabetes mellitus. Ten-year follow-up study of individuals screened for the Improving Mood-Promoting Access to Collaborative Treatment (IMPACT) trial. Two large urban primary care clinics in Indianapolis, Indiana. Diverse sample (53% African American, 80% of lower socioeconomic status) of 2,156 older adults initially free of diabetes mellitus. Depression and anxiety screens were completed during routine primary care visits between 1999 and 2001. Incident diabetes mellitus data were obtained from an electronic medical record system and the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services analytical files though 2009. Over the 10-year period, 558 (25.9%) participants had diabetes mellitus onset. Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for demographic and diabetes mellitus risk factors revealed that a positive screen for anxiety, but not for depression, predicted incident diabetes mellitus when entered into separate models (anxiety: hazard ratio (HR) = 1.36, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.15-1.61, P anxiety: HR = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.12-1.61, P anxiety is a risk factor for diabetes mellitus in older adults independent of depression and traditional diabetes mellitus risk factors. Anxiety requires greater consideration and awareness in the context of diabetes mellitus risk assessment and primary prevention. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  9. Relations of the factors of the tripartite model of anxiety and depression to types of social anxiety.

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    Hughes, Alicia A; Heimberg, Richard G; Coles, Meredith E; Gibb, Brandon E; Liebowitz, Michael R; Schneier, Franklin R

    2006-11-01

    Our primary goal was to examine the relations of the specific components of the tripartite model of anxiety and depression [Clark, L. A., Watson, D. (1991). Tripartite model of anxiety and depression: Psychometric evidence and taxonomic implications. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 100, 316-336] to two types of social anxiety (social interaction anxiety and performance anxiety) in 148 individuals with social phobia. In line with previous research, overall social anxiety was more closely related to the anhedonic depression (AD) or low positive affect factor of the tripartite model than to the physiological hyerarousal factor, controlling for general distress. However, as hypothesized, performance anxiety was more closely associated with the physiological hyerarousal factor, whereas social interaction anxiety was more closely associated with the AD or low positive affect factor. We also examined the convergent and discriminant validity of the Mood and Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire (MASQ; [Watson, D., Clark, L. A. (1991). The mood and anxiety symptom questionnaire. Unpublished manuscript, University of Iowa City]). Intercorrelations of the MASQ subscales were as expected, but correlations with measures of social anxiety, nonsocial anxiety, and depression provided only modest support for convergent and discriminant validity. Findings from this study provide a more detailed account of the specific components of the tripartite model that characterize the diversity of symptoms subsumed by social phobia.

  10. Escitalopram for the treatment of major depression and anxiety disorders.

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    Höschl, Cyril; Svestka, Jaromír

    2008-04-01

    Escitalopram is the S-enantiomer of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) citalopram, which contains equal amounts of the S- and R-forms in a racemic mixture. Escitalopram is the most selective SSRI, with almost no significant affinity to other tested receptors. It has been demonstrated that it is escitalopram that carries the therapeutic potential of citalopram, and has statistically superior and clinically relevant properties compared with citalopram. Escitalopram is at least as effective in the treatment of depression and anxiety as other SSRIs, as well as venlafaxine, bupropion and duloxetine. Owing to multiple metabolic degrading pathways, the clinically relevant interactions of escitalopram with other drugs are minimal. Compared with other antidepressants, escitalopram is generally better tolerated, its onset of action is relatively fast, and its use may have cost-effectiveness and cost-utility advantages. Escitalopram is an effective first-line option in the management of patients with major depression, including severe forms, and various anxiety disorders.

  11. Separating mood disturbance from mild cognitive impairment in geriatric depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffens, David C

    2008-08-01

    Disentangling depression from dementia remains one of the most difficult clinical challenges for psychiatrists caring for older adults. The relationship between geriatric depression and dementia is complex for several reasons. First, cognitive impairment is often a prominent feature of depression in the elderly. Cognition may improve with successful treatment of depression but it may not normalize. Indeed, marked memory impairment in older depressed individuals may indicate a prodromal state of dementia. This review will examine issues related to depression and cognitive disorder in the elderly. The author will provide an evidence-based approach to separate mood disorder from cognitive disorder among older adults.

  12. Burnout, anxiety, depression, and social skills in medical residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira-Lima, K; Loureiro, S R

    2015-01-01

    The medical residency is recognized as a risk period for the development of burnout and mental health problems, such as anxiety and depression, which have impact on the physician and clientele alike. There is a need for studies that address conditions of risk and protection for the development of such problems. This study aimed to verify the rates of burnout, anxiety, and depression presented by resident physicians, as well as the associations of these problems with social skills, as potential protective factors. The hypothesis was defined that the problems (burnout, anxiety, and depression) would be negatively associated with social skills. A total of 305 medical residents, of both genders, of different specialties, from clinical and surgical areas of a Brazilian university hospital were evaluated using the following standardized self-report instruments: Burnout Syndrome Inventory, Social Skills Inventory, and the Patient Health Questionnaire-4. High rates of burnout and mental health problems were verified and social skills were negatively associated with burnout dimensions such as emotional exhaustion, emotional detachment, and dehumanization, but positively associated with personal accomplishment. Furthermore, residents with indicators of problems presented significantly lower social skills means than those of residents without indicators of burnout, anxiety, or depression. More studies are needed, which include other types of instruments in addition to self-report ones and evaluate not only social skills but also social competence in the professional practice. These should adopt intervention and longitudinal designs that allow the continuity or overcoming of the problems to be verified. Since social skills can be learned, the results of the study highlight the importance of developing the interpersonal skills of the professionals during the training of resident physicians in order to improve their practice.

  13. Course of symptom change during anxiety treatment: Reductions in anxiety and depression in patients completing the Coordinated Anxiety Learning and Management program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomyea, Jessica; Lang, Ariel; Craske, Michelle G; Chavira, Denise A; Sherbourne, Cathy D; Rose, Raphael D; Golinelli, Daniela; Campbell-Sills, Laura; Welch, Stacy S; Sullivan, Greer; Bystritsky, Alexander; Roy-Byrne, Peter; Stein, Murray B

    2015-09-30

    When treating anxious patients with co-occurring depression, research demonstrates that both types of symptoms independently improve. The current analyses examined how reductions in anxiety and depression may be interrelated both during treatment, as well as over time following treatment. Participants were 503 individuals with one or more DSM-IV anxiety disorders who completed a collaborative care anxiety management program. Anxiety and depression were assessed at each treatment session (i.e., session by session data) and also at 6, 12, and 18-month post-baseline assessments (i.e., long-term outcomes data). Mediation analyses examined changes in symptoms in session by session data and long-term outcomes data. Anxiety and depression changed reciprocally in session by session data; change in anxiety mediated change in depression to a greater extent than vice versa. In the long-term outcomes data, change in anxiety mediated change in depression. However, the reverse mediation model of the long-term outcomes period revealed that accounting for changes in depression altered the effect of time on anxiety. Thus, temporal change during active treatment may share similarities with those related to maintaining gains after treatment, although differences arose in the reverse mediation models. Limitations of the methodology and implications of anxiety treatment for depression outcomes are discussed.

  14. Zinc poisoning associated with separation anxiety in an Argentinean bulldog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goicoa, A; Fidalgo, L E; Suárez, M L; Espino, L; Pérez-López, M; Santamarina, G

    2002-02-01

    Separation anxiety in dogs is a complex behavioral syndrome produced by many causes. A hunter 4y-old male Argentinean Bulldog had dental disturbances and gastrointestinal and cutaneous symptoms due to high plasma zinc and low copper and calcium plasma concentration. His behavior made him bite galvanized wire fences in his cage and bunk that contained his food, both of a Zn-containing material. Specific treatment resulted in complete recovery.

  15. Depression and anxiety in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: prevalence rates based on a comparison of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS and the hospital, Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS

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    Covic Tanya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While it is recognised that depression is prevalent in Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA, recent studies have also highlighted significant levels of anxiety in RA patients. This study compared two commonly used scales, the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, in relation to their measurement range and cut points to consider the relative prevalence of both constructs, and if prevalence rates may be due to scale-specific case definition. Methods Patients meeting the criteria for RA were recruited in Leeds, UK and Sydney, Australia and asked to complete a survey that included both scales. The data was analysed using the Rasch measurement model. Results A total of 169 RA patients were assessed, with a repeat subsample, resulting in 323 cases for analysis. Both scales met Rasch model expectations. Using the 'possible+probable' cut point from the HADS, 58.3% had neither anxiety nor depression; 13.5% had anxiety only; 6.4% depression only and 21.8% had both 'possible+probable' anxiety and depression. Cut points for depression were comparable across the two scales while a lower cut point for anxiety in the DASS was required to equate prevalence. Conclusions This study provides further support for high prevalence of depression and anxiety in RA. It also shows that while these two scales provide a good indication of possible depression and anxiety, the estimates of prevalence so derived could vary, particularly for anxiety. These findings are discussed in terms of comparisons across studies and selection of scales for clinical use.

  16. Differential association of somatic and cognitive symptoms of depression and anxiety with inflammation : Findings from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duivis, Hester E.; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Kupper, Nina; de Jonge, Peter; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Depression and anxiety have been suggested to be associated with systemic inflammation upregulation. However, results are not always consistent, which may be due to symptom heterogeneity of depression and anxiety. There are some indications that associations with inflammation are mainly d

  17. Caffeine consumption and anxiety and depressive symptomatology among medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mino, Y; Yasuda, N; Fujimura, T; Ohara, H

    1990-12-01

    Caffeine is one of the most widely consumed psychoactive substances in the world and is ingested in a variety of favorites, such as coffee, tea, cola and so on. Although it has been suggested that high dose caffeine users have more anxiety and depressive symptoms than low users, this relationship is not clear in Japan, where caffeine consumption is considered to be less than in Western countries. A questionnaire survey was conducted among medical students and 291 out of 423 initial subjects completed it. Among males, caffeine consumption was significantly and positively correlated with anxiety symptoms, when alcohol use and smoking habit were adjusted. However, there was no relationship between caffeine consumption and depressive symptoms. Among females, although there was no association between caffeine consumption and anxiety symptoms, high dose caffeine users showed less depressive symptoms than moderate and low users, when alcohol use was adjusted. It is suggested that caffeine use is one of the important factors, in researching psychological health among the general population. We need further epidemiological studies to determine whether there is a causal relationship between caffeine and psychological ill health or not.

  18. Treatment of anxiety and depression: medicinal plants in retrospect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajemiroye, James O; da Silva, Dayane M; de Oliveira, Danillo R; Costa, Elson A

    2016-06-01

    Anxiety and depression are complex heterogeneous psychiatric disorders and leading causes of disability worldwide. This review summarizes reports on the fundamentals, prevalence, diagnosis, neurobiology, advancement in treatment of these diseases and preclinical assessment of botanicals. This review was conducted through bibliographic investigation of scientific journals, books, electronic sources, unpublished theses and electronic medium such as ScienceDirect and PubMed. A number of the first-line drugs (benzodiazepine, azapirone, antidepressant tricyclics, monoamine oxidase inhibitors, serotonin selective reuptake inhibitors, noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors, serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors, etc.) for the treatment of these psychiatric disorders are products of serendipitous discoveries. Inspite of the numerous classes of drugs that are available for the treatment of anxiety and depression, full remission has remained elusive. The emerging clinical cases have shown increasing interests among health practitioners and patients in phytomedicine. The development of anxiolytic and antidepressant drugs of plant origin takes advantage of multidisciplinary approach including but not limited to ethnopharmacological survey (careful investigation of folkloric application of medicinal plant), phytochemical and pharmacological studies. The selection of a suitable plant for a pharmacological study is a basic and very important step. Relevant clues to achieving this step include traditional use, chemical composition, toxicity, randomized selection or a combination of several criteria. Medicinal plants have been and continue to be a rich source of biomolecule with therapeutic values for the treatment of anxiety and depression. © 2016 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  19. Plasticity-augmented psychotherapy for refractory depressive and anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kwang-Yeon; Kim, Yong-Ku

    2016-10-03

    Psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy have been the mainstays of treatment for depression and anxiety disorders during the last century. However, treatment response has not improved in the last few decades, with only half of all patients responding satisfactorily to typical antidepressants. To fulfill the needs of the remaining patients, new treatments with better efficacy are in demand. The addition of psychotherapy to antidepressant treatment has been shown to be superior to pharmacotherapy alone. However, the time costs of psychotherapy limit its use for clinicians and patients. Advancements in neuroscience have contributed to an improved understanding of the pathogenesis of depressive and anxiety disorders. In particular, recent advances in the field of fear conditioning have provided valuable insight into the treatment of refractory depressive and anxiety disorders. In this review, we studied the reconsolidation-updating paradigm and the concept of epigenetic modification, which has been shown to permanently attenuate remote fear memory. This has implications for drug-augmented, e.g. antidepressant and valproic acid, psychotherapy. Future research on more sophisticated psychotherapy techniques will increase the desirability of this treatment modality for both clinicians and patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of anxiety and depression on periodontal diseases: review article

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    Mahvash Mousavi jazi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available   Background and Aims: Periodontitis does not affect on all patients by the same way. There are some risk factors in some people that make them more sensitive to progress of periodontitis. Smoking, uncontrolled diabetes, and special pathogens increase the risk of periodontitis. Other factors such as stress, depression and anxiety, are not crucial risk factors for periodontitis yet. Biologic explanation of this relation is that mental conditions and exposure to stressful situations can alter immune response. The aim of this study was to review the psychological factors of anxiety and depression associated with periodontitis.   Materials and Methods: For this review article, we have searched through internet by the following keywords; periodontal disease, anxiety, depression. We have tried to cover almost all dental– related sites and journals as well as Pubmed from 1990-2010.   Conclusion: Most published studies support a positive relationship between periodontitis and several psycho-social factors. Life style, stressful conditions, hormonal changes, nonchalance in oral hygiene, habits such as smoking are predisposing factors in periodontal diseases.

  1. VALIDITY OF THE GHQ AND SCL ANXIETY AND DEPRESSION SCALES - A COMPARATIVE-STUDY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KOETER, MWJ

    1992-01-01

    This article presents the results of a comparison between the validity of the SCL anxiety, phobic anxiety and depression scales and the GHQ-28 anxiety-/insomnia and severe depression scales in a psychiatric outpatient population. Validity was studied at a categorical level with DSM-III diagnosis, an

  2. Efficacy of vilazodone on anxiety symptoms in patients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thase, Michael E; Chen, Dalei; Edwards, John; Ruth, Adam

    2014-11-01

    Anxiety symptoms are prevalent in patients with major depressive disorder. A post-hoc analysis of two phase III trials was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of vilazodone on depression-related anxiety. Using the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD17) Anxiety/Somatization subscale, patients were classified as anxious or nonanxious. Improvements in depressive symptoms were based on least squares mean changes in HAMD17 and Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale total scores. Anxiety symptoms in the anxious subgroup were evaluated using Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAMA) total and subscale (Psychic Anxiety, Somatic Anxiety) scores, HAMD17 Anxiety/Somatization subscale and item (Psychic Anxiety, Somatic Anxiety) scores, and the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale Inner Tension item score. Most of the pooled study population [82.0% (708/863)] was classified with anxious depression. After 8 weeks of treatment, least squares mean differences between vilazodone and placebo for changes in HAMA total and HAMD17 Anxiety/Somatization subscale scores were -1.82 (95% confidence interval -2.81 to -0.83; Pmajor depressive disorder who exhibit somatic and/or psychic symptoms of anxiety.

  3. Comorbid Depressive Disorders in Anxiety-Disordered Youth: Demographic, Clinical, and Family Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Kelly A.; Podell, Jennifer L.; Benjamin, Courtney L.; Kendall, Philip C.

    2010-01-01

    Research indicates that depression and anxiety are highly comorbid in youth. Little is known, however, about the clinical and family characteristics of youth with principal anxiety disorders and comorbid depressive diagnoses. The present study examined the demographic, clinical, and family characteristics of 200 anxiety-disordered children and…

  4. THE VALIDITY OF CLINICAL DIFFERENTIATION BETWEEN ANXIETY AND DEPRESSIVE NEUROSES BY FACTOR ANALYSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurmeet; Sharma, Ravinder Kumar

    1986-01-01

    SUMMARY Ninety subjects consisting of 30 patients of generalized anxiety disorder, 30 of dysthymic disorder (depressive neurosis) according to D. S. M. III criteria and 30 patients of mixed anxiety-depressive disorder were given a detailed psychiatric examination, in addition, they were administered the Humilton rating scales for anxiety and depression, and also the Taylor manifest anxiety scale and Amritsar depressive inventory. All the symptoms elicited were then subjected to factor analysis, five factors were isolated-two of them co-relating with the depressive rating scales and three with the anxiety rating scales. However there was considerable overlap with anxious mood having highest loading on the depressive factor. Thus anxiety and depression could not be isolated as distinct entities factorially. PMID:21927176

  5. Depression and anxiety following psychosis: associations with mindfulness and psychological flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Ross G; Gumley, Andrew I; McTaggart, Jacqueline; Rattrie, Lucy; McConville, Deirdre; Cleare, Seonaid; Mitchell, Gordon

    2013-01-01

    Individuals experiencing psychosis can present with elevated levels of depression and anxiety. Research suggests that aspects of depression and anxiety may serve an avoidant function by limiting the processing of more distressing material. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy suggests that avoidance of aversive mental experiences contributes to psychological inflexibility. Depression and anxiety occurring in the context of psychosis have a limiting effect on quality of life. No research to date has investigated how levels of psychological flexibility and mindfulness are associated with depression and anxiety occurring following psychosis. This study investigated associations psychological flexibility and mindfulness had with depression and anxiety following psychosis. Thirty participants with psychosis were recruited by consecutive referral on the basis that they were experiencing emotional dysfunction following psychosis. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Acceptance and Action Questionnaire (AAQ-II) and the Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills (KIMS) were used. A cross-sectional correlational design was used. The depression and anxiety subscales of the HADS both had significant correlations with psychological flexibility (as assessed by the AAQ-II) and aspects of mindfulness (as assessed by the KIMS). Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that psychological flexibility, but not mindfulness, contributed significantly to models predicting 46% of variance in both depression and anxiety scores. Although aspects of mindfulness are associated with depression and anxiety following an episode of psychosis, psychological flexibility appears to account for a larger proportion of variance in depression and anxiety scores in this population.

  6. The Effects of Music Therapy on Anxiety and Depression of Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasemi, Madineh; Aazami, Sanaz; Zabihi, Roghaieh Esmaili

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Cancer patients often suffer from anxiety and depression. Various methods are used to alleviate anxiety and depression, but most of them have side effects. Music therapy can be used as a noninvasive method to reduce anxiety and depression. This study aimed to examine the effect of music therapy on anxiety and depression in patients with cancer. Materials and Methods: This quasi-experimental study was conducted attaching hospitals in Urmia city. A total number of sixty patients with depression and anxiety were recruited using random sampling method and divided into two groups of control and intervention. Patients in intervention group listened to light music at least 20 min per day for 3 days. The degree of patients’ anxiety and depression was assessed by Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale at baseline and 3 days after music therapy. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 13 using t-test, Pearson, and ANOVA tests. Results: The results showed no significant differences between demographic variable of intervention and control groups. Our findings indicated a significant decrease in the level of depression and anxiety among intervention group. There were significant relationships between anxiety, depression, and sex (P music therapy on decreasing level of depression and anxiety in patients with cancer. Therefore, it is recommended to include music therapy in the nursing care. PMID:27803568

  7. Alexithymia, depression, anxiety and binge eating in obese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Źak-Gołąb

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Alexithymia is a personality trait that may affect the development and course of obesity and effectiveness of treatment. The aim of the study is to assess the prevalence of alexithymia in obese women beginning a weight reduction program and determine the relationships between alexithymia and anxiety, depression, and binge eating. Methods: Obese women (n = 100; age 45 ± 13 yr completed the following self-report inventories: Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS 26, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, and Binge Eating Scale (BES. Results: Alexithymia was found in 46 patients and was more frequent among women who had attained only primary and vocational education than in those with a higher education level (39.1% vs. 10.9%; p = 0.002 and in those >45 years old than in younger women (30.4% vs. 69.6%; p = 0.03. The frequency of severe depression symptoms was higher in alexithymic women than in non-alexithymic women (19.6% vs. 5.6%; p = 0.03; however, the anxiety state was equally prevalent in both subgroups. The prevalence of alexithymia (52.6% vs. 44.4% and its level (73.2 ± 8.9 vs. 71.2 ± 11.3 points were similar in women with and without binge eating disorder. Multivariate mixed linear regression analysis revealed that higher body mass index was associated with primary and vocational education (odds ratio [OR] = 16.69 and severe depression symptoms (OR = 52.45, but not alexithymia. Conclusions: In addition to severe depression and low education level, obesity may predispose for the development of alexithymia. However, alexithymia does not affect the severity of obesity in women.

  8. Neural responses to maternal praise and criticism: Relationship to depression and anxiety symptoms in high-risk adolescent girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin L. Aupperle

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Results support a relationship between anxiety and depressive symptoms and prefrontal-amygdala responses to maternal feedback. The lateralization of amygdala findings suggests separate neural targets for interventions reducing reactivity to negative feedback or increasing salience of positive feedback. Exploratory analyses suggest that parents' OXTR genetic profile influences parent-child interactions and related adolescent brain responses.

  9. Positive and negative relationship between anxiety and depression of patients in pain: a bifactor model analysis.

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    Jingdan Xie

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The relationship between anxiety and depression in pain patients has not been clarified comprehensively. Previous research has identified a common factor in anxiety and depression, which may explain why depression and anxiety are strongly correlated. However, the specific clinical features of anxiety and depression seem to pull in opposite directions. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to develop a statistical model of depression and anxiety, based on data from pain patients using Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS. This model should account for the positive correlation between depression and anxiety in terms of a general factor and also demonstrate a latent negative correlation between the specific factors underlying depression and anxiety. METHODS: The anxiety and depression symptoms of pain patients were evaluated using the HADS and the severity of their pain was assessed with the visual analogue scale (VAS. We developed a hierarchical model of the data using an IRT method called bifactor analysis. In addition, we tested this hierarchical model with model fit comparisons with unidimensional, bidimensional, and tridimensional models. The correlations among anxiety, depression, and pain severity were compared, based on both the bidimensional model and our hierarchical model. RESULTS: The bidimensional model analysis found that there was a large positive correlation between anxiety and depression (r = 0.638, and both scores were significantly positively correlated with pain severity. After extracting general factor of distress using bifactor analysis, the specific factors underlying anxiety and depression were weakly but significantly negatively correlated (r = -0.245 and only the general factor was significantly correlated with pain severity. Compared with the three first-order models, the bifactor hierarchical model had the best model fit. CONCLUSION: Our results support the hypothesis that apart from distress

  10. Separation anxiety and panic disorder in clinically referred youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerfler, Leonard A; Toscano, Peter F; Connor, Daniel F

    2008-05-01

    This study examined whether youngsters with separation anxiety disorder (SAD) and panic disorder (PD) had experienced more separation-related events than youngsters with SAD (without comorbid PD). We also examined whether age of onset of SAD and comorbidity with other psychological disorders was related to the occurrence of PD. We compared youngsters who were diagnosed with SAD and PD (N=31) with youngsters who were diagnosed with SAD without comorbid PD (N=63) for the number of separation-related events, severity of psychopathology, and parent and child CBCL ratings, age of onset of SAD, and the number of comorbid diagnoses. The findings indicate that youngsters with SAD and PD had a later age of onset of SAD and more extensive psychopathology and functional impairment than youngsters with SAD (without comorbid PD). Contrary to hypothesis, there were no differences between the groups in the occurrence or number of separation-related events.

  11. Are Depression and Anxiety Common in Hemodialyzed Patients?

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    Pop-Jordanova Nada

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Researchers confirmed that depression and anxiety are two common comorbid disorders in chronic kidney patients. The aim of our study was to screen the level of depression and anxiety in a group of end-stage kidney diseases treated with hemodialysis. The evaluated sample comprised 230 participants; 110 females (mean age 55.5±13.5 years, and 120 males (mean age 54.5±14.3 years. The mean duration of maintenance dialysis was 8.3±5.8 years (from 0.5 to 24 years. Patients were selected randomly from three dialysis centers in R. Macedonia. As psychometric instruments Beck Depression Inventory (BDI and scores from Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-201 were used. Our study confirmed that majority of evaluated dialyzed patients are depressed and anxious in different level, but unfortunately the mental problems are frequently unrecognized. We suggested some response measures for management of these conditions in order to avoid risks for complications as well of suicide.

  12. DEPRESSIVE AND ANXIETY DISORDERS AND THE ASSOCIATION WITH OBESITY, PHYSICAL, AND SOCIAL ACTIVITIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, Leonore M.; Fokkema, Marjolein; van Straten, Annemieke; Lamers, Femke; Cuijpers, Pim; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: There is evidence of more obesity among persons with depressive and depressive and anxiety disorders. However, the nature and the underlying mechanisms of the association are still unclear. This study examines the association between depressive and anxiety disorders and obesity, physical

  13. Gender, Anxiety, and Depressive Symptoms: A Longitudinal Study of Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplin, Tara M.; Gillham, Jane E.; Seligman, Martin E. P.

    2009-01-01

    Does anxiety lead to depression more for girls than for boys? This study prospectively examines gender differences in the relationship between anxiety and depressive symptoms in early adolescence. One hundred thirteen 11- to 14-year-old middle school students complete questionnaires assessing depressive symptoms and three dimensions of anxiety…

  14. DEPRESSIVE AND ANXIETY DISORDERS AND THE ASSOCIATION WITH OBESITY, PHYSICAL, AND SOCIAL ACTIVITIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, Leonore M.; Fokkema, Marjolein; van Straten, Annemieke; Lamers, Femke; Cuijpers, Pim; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: There is evidence of more obesity among persons with depressive and depressive and anxiety disorders. However, the nature and the underlying mechanisms of the association are still unclear. This study examines the association between depressive and anxiety disorders and obesity, physical

  15. Gender, Anxiety, and Depressive Symptoms: A Longitudinal Study of Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplin, Tara M.; Gillham, Jane E.; Seligman, Martin E. P.

    2009-01-01

    Does anxiety lead to depression more for girls than for boys? This study prospectively examines gender differences in the relationship between anxiety and depressive symptoms in early adolescence. One hundred thirteen 11- to 14-year-old middle school students complete questionnaires assessing depressive symptoms and three dimensions of anxiety…

  16. Parenting and Early Adolescent Internalizing: The Importance of Teasing Apart Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lesley E.; Greenberg, Mark T.

    2013-01-01

    This community-based study examined differences in parenting quality and parent symptoms for youth in four categories: anxious (elevated anxiety symptoms), depressed (elevated depressive symptoms), comorbid (elevated anxiety and depressive symptoms), and nonelevated (elevations of neither type). Respondents were 976 young adolescents (mean age =…

  17. Carotid atherosclerosis in depression and anxiety : Associations for age of depression onset

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seldenrijk, Adrie; Van Hout, Hein P. J.; van Marwijk, Harm W. J.; de Groot, Eric; Gort, Johan; Rustemeijer, Cees; Diamant, Michaela; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective. Mental health and cardiovascular disease have been associated, whereas the temporal course and underlying mechanisms are still incompletely understood. Our aims were to examine the presence of subclinical atherosclerosis in subjects with depressive or anxiety disorder, also taking into ac

  18. Depression and Anxiety in Iranian Mothers of Children with Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atefeh SOLTANIFAR

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available bjectiveEpilepsy is a common neurological disorder in children. Parents with epileptic children have many psychosocial care needs. So the main goal of this study was to evaluate depression and anxiety in Iranian mothers with epileptic children.Materials & MethodsWe identified 30 mothers of children with epilepsy and 30 mothers of children without epilepsy with children aged between 8 and 12 years who met the study criteria. In all children with epilepsy, the mothers were the main caregivers and all these children lived in two-parent families. Children in the control group were in the same age. Ninety-eight percent of children in the control group lived in two-parent families with the mother as the main caregiver. All mothers fulfilled the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI and Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory.ResultsAccording to these data, BDI scores were significantly higher in the mothers of epileptic children (mean of Beck score=16.5 compared to the control group (mean of Beck score=9.8. The total, Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory scores for mothers of children with epilepsy were 100.3, 51.7 and 48.6. However, these scores in the control group were 86.9, 45.1 and 41.8. These differences were statistically significant.In a second analysis, using the demographic data, we did not find any statistically significant relation between anxiety or depression and the mothers’ job, children’s medication and other demographic variables.ConclusionNeurologists and psychiatrists need to develop better programs for adequate management of psychiatric disorders in mothers with epileptic children.

  19. Childhood Anxiety/Withdrawal, Adolescent Parent-Child Attachment and Later Risk of Depression and Anxiety Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, I. S.; Horwood, L. J.; Fergusson, D. M.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has shown that children with high levels of early anxiety/withdrawal are at increased risk of later anxiety and depression. It has also been found that positive parent-child attachment reduces the risk of these disorders. The aim of this paper was to examine the extent to which...... positive parent-child attachment acted to mitigate the risk of later internalising disorders amongst children with high levels of early anxiety/withdrawal using data from a 30 years longitudinal study of a New Zealand birth cohort. The findings of this study showed that: (a) increasing rates of early...... anxiety/withdrawal were associated with an increased risk of later anxiety and depression; (b) positive parent-child attachment in adolescence was associated with a decline in the risk of later anxiety and depression; and (c) these associations persisted even after controlling for confounding factors...

  20. Long-term work disability and absenteeism in anxiety and depressive disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, S.M.; Spijker, J.; Licht, C.M.; Hardeveld, F.; Graaf, R. de; Batelaan, N.M.; Penninx, B.W.; Beekman, A.T.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This longitudinal study aims to compare long-term work disability and absenteeism between anxiety and depressive disorders focusing on the effects of different course trajectories (remission, recurrence and chronic course) and specific symptom dimensions (anxiety arousal, avoidance behav

  1. Depression, Anxiety, and Anger in Patients with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    BALIKCI, Adem; ERDEM, Murat; KESKIN, Uğur; BOZKURT ZINCIR, Selma; GÜLSÜN, Murat; ÖZÇELIK, Fatih; AKGÜL, Emin Özgür; AKARSU, Süleyman; ÖZTOSUN, Muzaffer; ERGÜN, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is a syndrome of heterogeneous nature, affecting multiple systems, particularly the endocrine system. We propose to investigate the possible relationships among hormonal changes, levels of anxiety, depression, and anger in patients with PCOS. Method Forty-four female patients with PCOS and 44 body mass index (BMI )-matched healthy women participated in this study. We measured the sociodemographic features, some serum hormonal levels (insulin, gonadotropins, prolactin, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), 17 OH-progesterone, and total and free testosterone), and some other biochemical parameters of the participants. Also, all participants completed the Trait Anger-Anger Expression Scale (STAS), Beck Depression, and Beck Anxiety Inventories. We evaluated the psychiatric scale scores obtained from PCOS patients and control subjects. We used the independent-samples t-test for parametric data to evaluate normal distribution, and Mann-Whitney U-test was used for both abnormally distributed and nonparametric data. We used Pearson correlation analysis to evaluate the potential connection between the two groups’ data. Results The mean ages of the patients with PCOS and control subjects who participated in this study were 27.3±5.6 and 27.4±6.1 years, respectively. The measures of BMI, insulin, luteinizing hormone (LH), DHEAS, and total testosterone serum levels in the patient group were significantly higher than in the control group (pdepression scores (Pdepression with DHEAS serum levels via the autonomic nervous system, considering the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-antagonistic effect of DHEAS. Obesity, hirsutism, and infertility may reduce self-confidence and create depressive symptoms in patients with PCOS. In addition, changes in hormonal levels may lead to anxiety directly. Possibly, depressive symptoms are a secondary reflection of these

  2. Socially Desirable Responding and College Students with Dyslexia: Implications for the Assessment of Anxiety and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jason M; Liebel, Spencer W

    2017-07-26

    We investigated self-reported depressive and anxiety-related symptoms among college students with dyslexia, with emphasis on the role of socially desirable responding (SDR) in understanding these reports. Analyses included examination of differences in self-reported depressive symptoms, anxiety-related symptoms, and SDR. We also examined the relationships among SDR, depressive symptoms, anxiety-related symptoms, and reading skills. Participants with dyslexia demonstrated significantly higher SDR than did participants without dyslexia, and higher SDR was significantly associated with lower self-reported depressive and anxiety-related symptoms. Moreover, higher SDR was significantly associated with lower reading skills. There was no group difference on anxiety-related symptoms, but participants with dyslexia had higher depressive symptoms than did participants without dyslexia when SDR was controlled. Implications for the assessment of anxiety and depression among college students with dyslexia are discussed. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. The association between perceived maternal and paternal psychopathology and depression and anxiety symptoms in adolescent girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasing, Sanne P. A.; Creemers, Daan H. M.; Janssens, Jan M. A. M.; Scholte, Ron H. J.

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to parental depression and anxiety is known to heighten the risk of internalizing symptoms and disorders in children and adolescents. Ample research has focused on the influence of maternal depression and anxiety, but the contribution of psychopathology in fathers remains unclear. We studied the relationships of perceived maternal and paternal psychopathology with adolescents’ depression and anxiety symptoms in a general population sample of 862 adolescent girls (age M = 12.39, SD = 0.79). Assessments included adolescents’ self-reports of their own depression and anxiety as well as their reports of maternal and paternal psychopathology. We found that perceived maternal and paternal psychopathology were both related to depression and anxiety symptoms in adolescent girls. A combination of higher maternal and paternal psychopathology was related to even higher levels of depression and anxiety in adolescent girls. Our findings showed that adolescents’ perceptions of their parents’ psychopathology are significantly related to their own emotional problems. PMID:26257664

  4. Disease management for co-morbid depression and anxiety in diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoop, Corinne H; Spek, Viola R M; Pop, Victor J M

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Depression and anxiety are common co-morbid health problems in patients with type 2 diabetes. Both depression and anxiety are associated with poor glycaemic control and increased risk of poor vascular outcomes and higher mortality rates. Results of previous studies have shown...... that in clinical practice, treatment of depression and anxiety is far from optimal as these symptoms are frequently overlooked and undertreated. METHODS/DESIGN: This randomised controlled trial will examine the effectiveness of a disease management programme treating symptoms of depression and anxiety in primary......). DISCUSSION: The disease management model for co-morbid depression and anxiety in primary care patients with diabetes is expected to result in reduced symptoms of depression and anxiety, improved quality of life, reduced diabetes specific distress and improved glyceamic control, compared to care as usual...

  5. Adult Separation Anxiety and TCI-R Personality Dimensions in Patients with Anxiety, Alcohol Use, and Gambling: A Preliminary Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gino Pozzi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Nowadays, adult separation anxiety disorder (ASAD is an established diagnostic category but is little investigated in subjects with addictive behaviours. Objective. To assess the presence of ASAD among patients with addictive disorders in comparison with anxiety patients and measure the personality correlates in all these groups. Methods. 103 outpatients, meeting DSM-IV-TR criteria for anxiety disorders (38 patients, alcohol dependence (30 patients, or pathological gambling (35 patients, were assessed by the Structured Clinical Interview for Separation Anxiety Symptoms (SCI-SAS and the Adult Separation Anxiety Checklist (ASA-27 for separation anxiety and by the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised (TCI-R for personality characteristics. Results. ASAD is detected in 34.2% of anxiety patients, 13.3% of alcoholics, and 11.4% of gamblers. Separation anxiety scores correlate positively with harm avoidance and negatively with self-directedness in all groups; further correlations are seen among addictive patients only, that is, self-transcendence for gamblers and cooperativeness for both alcoholics and gamblers. Conclusions. The prevalence of ASAD is lower among addictive patients than in those with anxiety disorders; correlations are found between separation anxiety and specific TCI-R dimensions, with some matching across the three diagnostic groups.

  6. Pain-related anxiety in relation to anxiety and depression among persons living with HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Charles P; Zvolensky, Michael J; Daumas, Stephanie D; Grover, Kristin W; Gonzalez, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) experience clinically significant pain as a result of HIV and such pain is often related to increased levels of anxiety/depression. Pain-related anxiety has been identified as a mechanism in the onset and progression of pain experience and associated affective distress. However, there has not been empirical study of pain-related anxiety in relation to affective processes among PLHA. To address this gap, hierarchical multiple regressions were conducted using SPSS v.21 to examine pain-related anxiety (as measured using the Pain Anxiety Symptoms Scale) in relation to anxiety and depressive symptoms (as measured using the Mood and Anxiety Symptoms Questionnaire) among 93 PLHA (10.8% female; Mean age = 49.63, SD = 8.89). Pain-related anxiety was significantly related to anxious arousal symptoms (β = .43) and anhedonic depressive symptoms (β = .25); effects were evident beyond the variance accounted for by CD4 count, race, sex, income level, and current level of bodily pain. The present results suggest that pain-related anxiety may play a role in the experience of anxiety and depressive symptoms among PLHA.

  7. Depression and Anxiety in Iranian Mothers of Children with Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atefeh SOLTANIFAR

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite this Article: Soltanifar A, Ashrafzadeh F, Mohareri F, Mokhber N. Depression and Anxiety in Iranian Mothers ofChildren with Epilepsy. Iranian Journal of Child Neurology 2012;6(1:29-34. ObjectiveEpilepsy is a common neurological disorder in children. Parents with epileptic children have many psychosocial care needs. So the main goal of this study was to evaluate depression and anxiety in Iranian mothers with epileptic children.Materials & MethodsWe identified 30 mothers of children with epilepsy and 30 mothers of children without epilepsy with children aged between 8 and 12 years who met the study criteria. In all children with epilepsy, the mothers were the main caregivers and all these children lived in two-parent families. Children in the control group were in the same age. Ninety-eight percent of children in the control group lived in two-parent families with the mother as the main caregiver. All mothers fulfilled the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI and Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory.ResultsAccording to these data, BDI scores were significantly higher in the mothers of epileptic children (mean of Beck score=16.5 compared to the control group (mean of Beck score=9.8. The total, Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory scores for mothers of children with epilepsy were 100.3, 51.7 and 48.6. However, these scores in the control group were 86.9, 45.1 and 41.8. These differences were statistically significant.In a second analysis, using the demographic data, we did not find any statistically significant relation between anxiety or depression and the mothers’ job, children’s medication and other demographic variables.ConclusionNeurologists and psychiatrists need to develop better programs for adequate management of psychiatric disorders in mothers with epileptic children. References 1. Cowan LD. The epidemiology of the epilepsies inchildren. Ment Retard Dev Disabil Res Rev 2002;8:171-81.2. Schiariti V, Farrell K, Hoube

  8. Caffeine consumption and self-assessed stress, anxiety, and depression in secondary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Gareth; Smith, Andrew

    2015-12-01

    Previous research suggests that effects of caffeine on behaviour are positive unless one is investigating sensitive groups or ingestion of large amounts. Children are a potentially sensitive subgroup, and especially so considering the high levels of caffeine currently found in energy drinks. The present study used data from the Cornish Academies Project to investigate associations between caffeine (both its total consumption, and that derived separately from energy drinks, cola, tea, and coffee) and single-item measures of stress, anxiety, and depression, in a large cohort of secondary school children from the South West of England. After adjusting for additional dietary, demographic, and lifestyle covariates, positive associations between total weekly caffeine intake and anxiety and depression remained significant, and the effects differed between males and females. Initially, effects were also observed in relation to caffeine consumed specifically from coffee. However, coffee was found to be the major contributor to high overall caffeine intake, providing explanation as to why effects relating to this source were also apparent. Findings from the current study increase our knowledge regarding associations between caffeine intake and stress, anxiety, and depression in secondary school children, though the cross-sectional nature of the research made it impossible to infer causality. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Comorbidity and mixed anxiety-depressive disorders: is there epidemiologic evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittchen, H U; Essau, C A

    1993-01-01

    Recent epidemiologic studies (i.e., studies conducted since 1980) have consistently demonstrated, on the basis of standardized diagnostic assessments, that there is a substantial overlap between different types of anxiety and depressive disorders. The current literature, however, discusses this issue primarily within the concept of comorbidity and there are some controversies about the existence of a separate disorder of mixed anxiety-depression (MAD). MAD can be defined by the presence of mixed symptoms of depression and anxiety that are below the diagnostic threshold for either one of these diagnoses. Since MAD has not been included in any of the current official classification systems, its prevalence, risk factors, course, and outcome have not been studied specifically in any of the recent epidemiologic studies even though MAD is thought to be very important, especially in primary care settings. This paper reviews recent epidemiologic studies and presents data from the Munich Follow-Up Study, which has found a prevalence of about 1% for MAD as defined by the ICD-10. Despite the lack of clear diagnostic criteria for MAD, there are some indications that: (1) this disorder might be frequent in primary care settings, and (2) patients with MAD frequently demonstrate subjective suffering, show impairment in personal and occupational functioning, and have high health service utilization rates. Current empirical evidence is still insufficient for deciding a suitable classificatory solution for this problem.

  10. Caffeine consumption and self-assessed stress, anxiety, and depression in secondary school children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Gareth; Smith, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Previous research suggests that effects of caffeine on behaviour are positive unless one is investigating sensitive groups or ingestion of large amounts. Children are a potentially sensitive subgroup, and especially so considering the high levels of caffeine currently found in energy drinks. The present study used data from the Cornish Academies Project to investigate associations between caffeine (both its total consumption, and that derived separately from energy drinks, cola, tea, and coffee) and single-item measures of stress, anxiety, and depression, in a large cohort of secondary school children from the South West of England. After adjusting for additional dietary, demographic, and lifestyle covariates, positive associations between total weekly caffeine intake and anxiety and depression remained significant, and the effects differed between males and females. Initially, effects were also observed in relation to caffeine consumed specifically from coffee. However, coffee was found to be the major contributor to high overall caffeine intake, providing explanation as to why effects relating to this source were also apparent. Findings from the current study increase our knowledge regarding associations between caffeine intake and stress, anxiety, and depression in secondary school children, though the cross-sectional nature of the research made it impossible to infer causality. PMID:26508718

  11. PTSD, depression and anxiety among former abductees in Northern Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elbert Thomas

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The population in Northern Uganda has been exposed to extreme levels of traumatic stress and thousands abducted forcibly became rebel combatants. Methods Using structured interviews, the prevalence and severity of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, depression and anxiety was assessed in 72 former abducted adults, 62 of them being former child soldiers. Results As retrospective reports of exposure to traumatic stress increased, anxiety and PTSD occurrence increased (r = .45. 49% of respondents were diagnosed with PTSD, 70% presented with symptoms of depression, and 59% with those of anxiety. In a multiple linear regression analysis four factors could best explain the development of PTSD symptoms: male respondents (sex living in an IDP-Camp (location with a kinship murdered in the war (family members killed in the war and having experienced a high number of traumatic events (number of traumatic events were more likely to develop symptoms of PTSD than others. In disagreement to a simple dose-response-effect though, we also observed a negative correlation between the time spent with the rebels and the PTSD symptom level. Conclusions Former abductees continue to suffer from severe mental ill-health. Adaptation to the living condition of rebels, however, may lower trauma-related mental suffering.

  12. Co-occurrence of anxiety and depression amongst older adults in low- and middle-income countries: findings from the 10/66 study

    OpenAIRE

    Prina, Matthew; C.P. Ferri; Guerra, M.; Brayne, C.; M Prince

    2011-01-01

    Background: There is relative little information about the prevalence and risk factors of co-morbid anxiety and depression in later life. These disorders are often associated with worse response to treatment than either condition alone, and researching their epidemiology in diverse settings is vital to policy makers. We therefore investigated the co-occurrence of anxiety and depressive syndromes amongst older adults living in developing countries and measured the separate and joint effect of ...

  13. Confirmatory factor analysis of the portuguese Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21

    OpenAIRE

    Apóstolo,João Luís Alves; Tanner,Barry Allen; Arfken,Cynthia Lee

    2012-01-01

    To determine which of three published models best characterizes the factor structure of the Portuguese version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21 and to assess its validity and reliability. Confirmatory factor analysis of Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 for 1,297 adult, primary care outpatients (66.7% female, Mage = 48.57 years) comparing 3 models. The relationship between the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21 and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule was analyzed. The co...

  14. Autonomic nervous system activity and anxiety and depressive symptoms in mothers up to 2 years postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Mie; Manabe, Emiko; Uematsu, Sayo; Watanabe, Ayako; Moritani, Toshio

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the association between autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity and symptoms of anxiety and depression for the first 2 years postpartum. A total of 108 participants within 2 years postpartum underwent physiological measurements of ANS activity using the heart rate variability (HRV) power spectrum and self-reported questionnaires (14-item Hospital Anxiety and Depression Score). The cutoff points for anxiety and depressive symptom scores in this questionnaire were as follows: 7 or less, non-cases; 8-10, doubtful cases; 11 or more, definite cases. This study was conducted from 2012 to 2014 at University Hospital in Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine and a nearby obstetrics and gynecology department clinic in Japan. Anxiety and depression non-cases accounted for 67.6% (n = 73) of subjects, anxiety non-cases and depression doubtful and definite cases 7.4% (n = 8), anxiety doubtful and definite cases and depression non-cases 8.3% (n = 9), and anxiety and depression doubtful and definite cases 16.7% (n = 18). Findings were similar for women with anxiety or depression, with total power (TP), low-frequency (LF) and high-frequency (HF) components of HRV among doubtful and definite cases significantly lower than among non-cases for both anxiety (p = 0.006, 0.034, 0.029, respectively) and depression (p = 0.001, 0.004, 0.007). Significant correlations were observed between TP, LF and HF and anxiety and depression scores (respective values for anxiety: rs = -0.331, p <0.001; rs = -0.286, p = 0.003; rs = -0.269, p = 0.005; and depression: rs = -0.389, rs = -0.353, rs = -0.337, all p <0.001). The present study demonstrated that mothers with anxiety or depressive symptoms had significantly lower HRV (HF, LF and TP) than those without.

  15. Prevalence of depression and anxiety in patients requesting physicians’ aid in dying: cross sectional survey

    OpenAIRE

    Ganzini, Linda; Goy, Elizabeth R; Dobscha, Steven K.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence of depression and anxiety in terminally ill patients pursuing aid in dying from physicians. Design Cross sectional survey. Setting State of Oregon, USA. Participants 58 Oregonians, most terminally ill with cancer or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, who had either requested aid in dying from a physician or contacted an aid in dying advocacy organisation. Main outcome measures Diagnosis of depression or anxiety according to the hospital anxiety and depression...

  16. Depression, anxiety and quality of life in caregiver spouses of veterans with chronic spinal cord injury

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Hosein Ebrahimzadeh; Bibi Soheyla Shojaee; Farideh Golhasani-Keshtan; Fatemeh Moharari; Amir Reza Kachooei; Asieh Sadat Fattahi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We were curious about the degree of anxiety and depression and their effect on the quality of life of the caregivers of veterans with spinal cord injury (SCI). Methods: A convenience sample of 72 out of 120 caregiver spouses of veterans with spinal cord injury participated in our study. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) were considered as a measure of depression and anxiety. The World Health Organization Quality of Life BREF questionnaire (WHOQOL-BREF) was considered...

  17. Are Worry and Rumination Specific Pathways Linking Neuroticism and Symptoms of Anxiety and Depression in Patients with Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Major Depressive Disorder and Mixed Anxiety-Depressive Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, Hipólito; Senra, Carmen; Ferreiro, Fátima

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the relationships between neuroticism (higher-order vulnerability factor), the cognitive styles of worry, brooding and reflection (second-order vulnerability factors) and symptoms of anxiety and depression in three groups of patients: patients with Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD), with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and with Mixed Anxiety-Depressive Disorder (MADD). One hundred and thirty four patients completed a battery of questionnaires including measures of neuroticism, worry, rumination (brooding and reflection), anxiety and depression. Multiple mediation analyses indicate that worry may act as a mediating mechanism linking neuroticism and anxiety symptoms in the three diagnostic groups, whereas brooding-rumination may play a mediating role between neuroticism and depressive symptoms in patients with MDD and MADD and, with less certainty, in patients with GAD. Overall, our findings suggest that neuroticism may increase the risk of anxious and depressive symptoms via specific links involving either worry or brooding, respectively, and that both worry and brooding may operate in the three groups examined, irrespectively of whether anxiety or depression are the main emotions or whether they coexist without any clear predominance; consequently, we hypothesize the existence of "specific transdiagnostic" mechanisms.

  18. Are Worry and Rumination Specific Pathways Linking Neuroticism and Symptoms of Anxiety and Depression in Patients with Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Major Depressive Disorder and Mixed Anxiety-Depressive Disorder?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hipólito Merino

    Full Text Available This study examines the relationships between neuroticism (higher-order vulnerability factor, the cognitive styles of worry, brooding and reflection (second-order vulnerability factors and symptoms of anxiety and depression in three groups of patients: patients with Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD, with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD and with Mixed Anxiety-Depressive Disorder (MADD. One hundred and thirty four patients completed a battery of questionnaires including measures of neuroticism, worry, rumination (brooding and reflection, anxiety and depression. Multiple mediation analyses indicate that worry may act as a mediating mechanism linking neuroticism and anxiety symptoms in the three diagnostic groups, whereas brooding-rumination may play a mediating role between neuroticism and depressive symptoms in patients with MDD and MADD and, with less certainty, in patients with GAD. Overall, our findings suggest that neuroticism may increase the risk of anxious and depressive symptoms via specific links involving either worry or brooding, respectively, and that both worry and brooding may operate in the three groups examined, irrespectively of whether anxiety or depression are the main emotions or whether they coexist without any clear predominance; consequently, we hypothesize the existence of "specific transdiagnostic" mechanisms.

  19. Are Worry and Rumination Specific Pathways Linking Neuroticism and Symptoms of Anxiety and Depression in Patients with Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Major Depressive Disorder and Mixed Anxiety-Depressive Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, Hipólito; Ferreiro, Fátima

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the relationships between neuroticism (higher-order vulnerability factor), the cognitive styles of worry, brooding and reflection (second-order vulnerability factors) and symptoms of anxiety and depression in three groups of patients: patients with Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD), with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and with Mixed Anxiety-Depressive Disorder (MADD). One hundred and thirty four patients completed a battery of questionnaires including measures of neuroticism, worry, rumination (brooding and reflection), anxiety and depression. Multiple mediation analyses indicate that worry may act as a mediating mechanism linking neuroticism and anxiety symptoms in the three diagnostic groups, whereas brooding-rumination may play a mediating role between neuroticism and depressive symptoms in patients with MDD and MADD and, with less certainty, in patients with GAD. Overall, our findings suggest that neuroticism may increase the risk of anxious and depressive symptoms via specific links involving either worry or brooding, respectively, and that both worry and brooding may operate in the three groups examined, irrespectively of whether anxiety or depression are the main emotions or whether they coexist without any clear predominance; consequently, we hypothesize the existence of "specific transdiagnostic" mechanisms. PMID:27243462

  20. The Correlation of the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory with Depression and Anxiety in Veterans with Tinnitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinwei Hu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The mechanisms of tinnitus are known to alter neuronal circuits in the brainstem and cortex, which are common to several comorbid conditions. This study examines the relationship between tinnitus and anxiety/depression. Subjects and Methods. Ninety-one male veterans with subjective tinnitus were enrolled in a Veterans Affairs Tinnitus Clinic. The Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI was used to assess tinnitus severity. ICD-9 codes for anxiety/depression were used to determine their prevalence. Pure tone averages (PTA were used to assess hearing status. Results. Descriptive analyses revealed that 79.1% of the 91 tinnitus sufferers had a diagnosis of anxiety, 59.3% had depression, and 58.2% suffered from both anxiety/depression. Patients with anxiety had elevated total THI scores as compared to patients without anxiety (p<0.05. Patients with anxiety or depression had significantly increased Functional and Emotional THI scores, but not Catastrophic THI score. Significant positive correlations were illustrated between the degree of tinnitus and anxiety/depression (p<0.05. There were no differences in PTA among groups. Conclusions. A majority of patients with tinnitus exhibited anxiety and depression. These patients suffered more severe tinnitus than did patients without anxiety and depression. The data support the need for multidisciplinary intervention of veterans with tinnitus.

  1. Separation anxiety: at the neurobiological crossroads of adaptation and illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, Marco

    2015-09-01

    Physiological and adaptive separation anxiety (SA) is intimately connected with the evolutionary emergence of new brain structures specific of paleomammalians, the growth of neomammalian--and later hominid--brain and skull size, and the appearance of bipedalism. All these evolutionary milestones have contributed to expanding the behavioral repertoire and plasticity of prehuman and human beings, at the cost of more prolonged dependency of the infant and of the child on parental care. Separation anxiety disorder (SAD) can be seen as an exaggerated/inappropriate manifestation of SA that constitutes a gateway to poorer mental and physical health. By blending epidemiological, genetic-epidemiological, endophenotypic, and animal laboratory approaches, it is possible to delineate some of the mechanisms that link childhood-adolescence SA and SAD to health problems later in life. Causal mechanisms include gene-environment interplays and likely differential regulation of genes and functional net-works that simultaneously affect multiple behavioral and physical phenotypes after exposure to early-life adversity, including parental separation/loss.

  2. Anxiety and depression in adult patients with celiac disease on a gluten-free diet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Winfried; Huser; Karl-Heinz; Janke; Bodo; Klump; Michael; Gregor; Andreas; Hinz

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To compare anxiety and depression levels in adult patients with celiac disease (CD) on a gluten-free diet (GFD) with controls.METHODS: The levels of anxiety, depression and of a probable anxiety or depressive disorder were assessed by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale in 441 adult patients with CD recruited by the German Celiac Society, in 235 age-and sex-matched patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in remission or with slight disease activity, and in 441 adult persons of a representa...

  3. Breastfeeding cessation and symptoms of anxiety and depression: a longitudinal cohort study

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    Ystrom Eivind

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neonatal anxiety and depression and breastfeeding cessation are significant public health problems. There is an association between maternal symptoms of anxiety and depression and early breastfeeding cessation. In earlier studies, the causality of this association was interpreted both ways; symptoms of anxiety and depression prepartum significantly impacts breastfeeding, and breastfeeding cessation significantly impacts symptoms of anxiety and depression. First, we aimed to investigate whether breastfeeding cessation is related to an increase in symptoms of anxiety and depression from pregnancy to six months postpartum. Second, we also investigated whether the proposed symptom increase after breastfeeding cessation was disproportionately high for those women already suffering from high levels of anxiety and depression during pregnancy. Methods To answer these objectives, we examined data from 42 225 women in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa. Subjects were recruited in relation to a routine ultra-sound examination, and all pregnant women in Norway were eligible. We used data from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway and questionnaires both pre and post partum. Symptoms of anxiety and depression at six months postpartum were predicted in a linear regression analysis by WHO-categories of breastfeeding, symptoms of anxiety and depression prepartum (standardized score, and interaction terms between breastfeeding categories and prepartum symptoms of anxiety and depression. The results were adjusted for cesarean sections, primiparity, plural births, preterm births, and maternal smoking. Results First, prepartum levels of anxiety and depression were related to breastfeeding cessation (β 0.24; 95% CI 0.21-0.28, and breastfeeding cessation was predictive of an increase in postpartum anxiety and depression ( β 0.11; 95%CI 0.09-0.14. Second, prepartum anxiety and depression interacted with the relation between

  4. Anxiety and Depression in Cancer Patients: The Association with Religiosity and Religious Coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Guan Chong; Mohamed, Salina; Sulaiman, Ahmad Hatim; Zainal, Nor Zuraida

    2017-04-01

    There is a lack of studies looking into religiosity and religious coping in cancer patient. In this cross-sectional study, we examined the religiosity using Duke University Religion Index, religious coping using Brief Religious Coping Scale, anxiety and depression based on Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale among 200 cancer patients. The association between religiosity and religious coping with anxiety and depression was studied. The findings showed that subjects with anxiety or depression used more negative religious coping and had lower non-organization religiosity. Hence, measurements in reducing negative religious coping and encouraging religious activities could help to reduce psychological distress in cancer patients.

  5. Dimensionality of the hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS) in cardiac patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emons, Wilco H M; Sijtsma, Klaas; Pedersen, Susanne S.

    2012-01-01

    The hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS) measures anxiety and depressive symptoms and is widely used in clinical and nonclinical populations. However, there is some debate about the number of dimensions represented by the HADS. In a sample of 534 Dutch cardiac patients, this study examined...... items each were found to be structurally sound and reliable. These scales covered the two key attributes of anxiety and (anhedonic) depression. The findings suggest that the HADS may be reduced to a 10-item questionnaire comprising two 5-item scales measuring anxiety and depressive symptoms....

  6. Lower-leg symptoms in peripheral arterial disease are associated with anxiety, depression, and anhedonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smolderen, Kim G; Hoeks, Sanne E; Pedersen, Susanne S.

    2009-01-01

    were associated with mood states such as anxiety, depressive symptoms, and anhedonia (i.e. lack of positive affect). A cohort of consecutive PAD patients (n = 628) from the Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the San Diego...... Claudication questionnaire. The ankle-brachial index and clinical factors were assessed in all patients at baseline. Anxiety was present in 29%, depressive symptoms in 30%, and anhedonia in 28% of patients. Pain at rest was independently associated with anxiety, depressive symptoms, and anhedonia (ORs between...

  7. Palatable cafeteria diet ameliorates anxiety and depression-like symptoms following an adverse early environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniam, Jayanthi; Morris, Margaret J

    2010-06-01

    Early trauma contributes to psychosocial disorders later in life. An adverse early environment induced by maternal separation (MS) is known to alter behavioural and stress responses in rats. Palatable food dampens stress responses. We investigated the influence of palatable cafeteria high-fat diet (HFD) on behavioural responses following MS or non-handling (NH), versus 15min brief separation. After littering, Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to short separation, S15 (15min), prolonged separation, S180 (180min) daily from postnatal days 2 to 14 or were non-handled. Pups were assigned to HFD or chow at weaning. We assessed depression and anxiety-like behaviour with sucrose preference test (SPT) and elevated plus maze (EPM) respectively, and measured hypothalamic CRH and hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression. S180 rats showed increased anxiety-and depression-like behaviours, with increased plasma corticosterone, hypothalamic CRH, and reduced hippocampal GR expression versus S15 rats. Similar effects were observed across gender. These were normalized by provision of HFD, with greater beneficial effects in males. S15 showed no benefit of HFD. NH female rats had less adverse impacts; HFD had beneficial impact on behaviour in NH males. Thus behavioural deficits and gene expression changes induced by early life stress were ameliorated by HFD. These results highlight the important place of palatable food in reducing central stress responses supporting the therapeutic value of 'comfort food'.

  8. Automaticity in Anxiety Disorders and Major Depressive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teachman, Bethany A.; Joormann, Jutta; Steinman, Shari; Gotlib, Ian H.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we examine the nature of automatic cognitive processing in anxiety disorders and Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). Rather than viewing automaticity as a unitary construct, we follow a social cognition perspective (Bargh, 1994) that argues for four theoretically independent features of automaticity: unconscious (processing of emotional stimuli occurs outside awareness), efficient (processing emotional meaning uses minimal attentional resources), unintentional (no goal is needed to engage in processing emotional meaning), and uncontrollable (limited ability to avoid, alter or terminate processing emotional stimuli). Our review of the literature suggests that most anxiety disorders are characterized by uncontrollable, and likely also unconscious and unintentional, biased processing of threat-relevant information. In contrast, MDD is most clearly typified by uncontrollable, but not unconscious or unintentional, processing of negative information. For the anxiety disorders and for MDD, there is not sufficient evidence to draw firm conclusions about efficiency of processing, though early indications are that neither anxiety disorders nor MDD are characterized by this feature. Clinical and theoretical implications of these findings are discussed and directions for future research are offered. In particular, it is clear that paradigms that more directly delineate the different features of automaticity are required to gain a more comprehensive and systematic understanding of the importance of automatic processing in emotion dysregulation. PMID:22858684

  9. Depression in relation to anxiety, obsessionality and phobia among neurosurgical patients with a primary brain tumor: a 1-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainio, Arja; Hakko, Helinä; Niemelä, Asko; Koivukangas, John; Räsänen, Pirkko

    2011-10-01

    Depression is found to be present in up to 44% of brain tumor patients during their illness process. Anxiety as a comorbid psychiatric disorder with depression has formerly been studied, but phobia or obsessive-compulsive symptoms among brain tumor patients have not yet been noticed. By using a clinical prospective database of primary brain tumor patients (n=77) we studied the level of depression, anxiety, obsessionality (traits and symptoms) and phobic anxiety symptoms. Psychiatric symptoms were assessed before tumor operation as well as at three months and at one year after operation. The presence of comorbid anxiety, obsessionality and phobic anxiety symptoms was assessed before operation and at follow-ups in depressed and non-depressed patients, separately. Before tumor operation 16% of the patients had depression according to Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), while 10% had depression at three months and 15% at one year after operation. The depressed patients had statistically significantly higher anxiety scores and phobic scores at all three measurement points compared to corresponding scores among non-depressed brain tumor patients. The mean obsessionality scores among depressed brain tumor patients were significantly higher when measured before operation and at one year after the operation compared to non-depressed patients. To our knowledge, this is the first study so far in which comorbidity of psychiatric symptoms has been shown among depressive brain tumor patients. Concurrent comorbid conditions have been shown to be associated with increased severity, morbidity and chronicity of depression. It is recommended that treatment of depressive patients complicated with comorbid psychiatric disorders be planned by psychiatric units.

  10. Prevalence of stress, anxiety and depression in with Alzheimer caregivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Vito Elisabetta

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alzheimer's disease presents a social and public health problem affecting millions of Italians. Those affected receive home care from caregivers, subjected to risk of stress. The present investigation focuses on stress, anxiety and depression in caregivers. Methods Data on 200 caregivers and their patients were collected using a specific form to assess cognitive, behavioural, functional patient (MMSE, and ADL-IAD and caregiver stress (CBI. The relationship between stress, depression and disease has been assessed by means of a linear regression, logistic analysis which reveals the relationship between anxiety, stress and depression and cognitive problems, age, the patient's income. Results The caregivers are usually female (64%, mean age of 56.1 years, daughters (70.5%, pensioners and housewives (30%, who care for the sick at home (79%. Of these, 53% had little time for themselves, 55% observed worsening of health, 56% are tired, 51% are not getting enough sleep. Overall, 55% have problems with the patient's family and/or their own family, 57% at work. Furthermore, 29% feel they are failing to cope with the situation as they wish to move away from home. The increase in the degree of anxiety and depression is directly proportional to the severity of the illness, affecting the patient (r = 0.3 stress and depression r = 0.4 related to CBI score. The memory disorders (OR = 8.4, engine problems (OR = 2.6, perception disorders (OR = 1.9 sick of the patient with Alzheimer's disease are predictive of caregiver stress, depression is associated with the presence of other disorders, mainly behavioural (OR = 5.2, low income (OR = 3.4, patients Conclusion The quality of life of caregivers is correlated with the severity of behavioural disorders and duration of the Alzheimer's disease. The severity of the disease plays an important role in reorganization of the family environment in families caring for patients not institutionalised. It is

  11. Testing the Temporal Relationship Between Maternal and Adolescent Depressive and Anxiety Symptoms in a Community Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ruth C.; Clark, Shaunna L.; Dahne, Jennifer; Stratton, Kelcey J.; MacPherson, Laura; Lejuez, C. W.; Amstadter, Ananda B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Transactional models have been used to explain the relationship between maternal depression and child behavioral problems; however, few studies have examined transactional models for maternal depression and adolescent depression and anxiety. Method Using an autoregressive cross-lagged analysis, we examined the longitudinal association between maternal and adolescent depression to determine the extent to which maternal depression influences adolescent depression and anxiety, and vice versa, over the course of a four-year period. Participants were a community sample of 277 mother-adolescent dyads with offspring aged 10–14 at the first year used in the analyses (43.7% female; 35% African American, 2.9% Hispanic/Latino). Depressive symptoms were assessed using maternal self-report (Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale [CESD]; Radloff, 1977), and adolescent depression and anxiety were assessed by self-report (Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale [RCADS]; Chorpita, Yim, Moffitt, Umemoto, & Francis, 2000). Results The final model, χ2 (14) = 23.74, p= .05; TLI= .97; CFI= .98; RMSEA= .05, indicated that maternal depression was significantly associated with adolescent depression two years later. Interestingly, adolescent depression did not significantly predict maternal depression, and the association between maternal and adolescent depression was not moderated by gender, age, or ethnicity. The association between maternal depression and adolescent anxiety was weaker than that observed for adolescent depression. Conclusions Results suggest that the transaction model of maternal depression may not extend to adolescent depression and anxiety. Furthermore, maternal depression can have an enduring effect on adolescent depression and continued research and clinical monitoring over extended periods of time is warranted. PMID:24702257

  12. Using Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) on patients with epilepsy: Confirmatory factor analysis and Rasch models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chung-Ying; Pakpour, Amir H

    2017-02-01

    The problems of mood disorders are critical in people with epilepsy. Therefore, there is a need to validate a useful tool for the population. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) has been used on the population, and showed that it is a satisfactory screening tool. However, more evidence on its construct validity is needed. A total of 1041 people with epilepsy were recruited in this study, and each completed the HADS. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and Rasch analysis were used to understand the construct validity of the HADS. In addition, internal consistency was tested using Cronbachs' α, person separation reliability, and item separation reliability. Ordering of the response descriptors and the differential item functioning (DIF) were examined using the Rasch models. The HADS showed that 55.3% of our participants had anxiety; 56.0% had depression based on its cutoffs. CFA and Rasch analyses both showed the satisfactory construct validity of the HADS; the internal consistency was also acceptable (α=0.82 in anxiety and 0.79 in depression; person separation reliability=0.82 in anxiety and 0.73 in depression; item separation reliability=0.98 in anxiety and 0.91 in depression). The difficulties of the four-point Likert scale used in the HADS were monotonically increased, which indicates no disordering response categories. No DIF items across male and female patients and across types of epilepsy were displayed in the HADS. The HADS has promising psychometric properties on construct validity in people with epilepsy. Moreover, the additive item score is supported for calculating the cutoff. Copyright © 2016 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Depression, anxiety and influencing factors in patients with acute pulmonary embolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Chun-ping; LI Xiao-mei; CHEN Hang-wei; CUI Jun-yu; NIU Li-li; HE Yu-bin; TIAN Xin-li

    2011-01-01

    Background Psychological distress has been widely studied in many cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases, but the condition in acute pulmonary embolism (APE) is unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate levels of depression and anxiety and their influencing factors in APE patients.Methods Sixty consecutive patients with APE were subjected to investigation of depression and anxiety by the Beck Depression Inventory and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and 60 community-based subjects were enrolled as controls.APE patients were stratified as high-risk, intermediate-risk and low-risk according to the disease severity. Scores of depression and anxiety were compared by statistical analysis using paired t tests between APE patients and controls,and by analysis of variance within the APE patients with the three risk stratification. Factors influencing depression and anxiety were evaluated.Results The mean age of the patients (38 males and 22 females) was (52+12) years. APE patients displayed higher scores of depression (P=0.04) and anxiety (P=0.001) compared with controls. Patients in the high-risk group displayed higher scores of depression (P=0.004) and anxiety (P=0.001) compared with those in the intermediate- and low-risk groups. Depression scores were highly correlated with anxiety scores (r=0.60, P <0.001). Both depression and anxiety inversely related to risk stratification (P <0.01), age (P <0.05), and arterial blood oxygen pressure (PaO2) (P <0.05).Linear regression analysis showed that PaO2 was independently inversely related to both depression (P <0.01) and anxiety (P <0.05); risk stratification and age were independently inversely related to anxiety (P <0.05).Conclusions Patients of APE suffered high levels of depression and anxiety, which were negatively influenced by PaO2,risk stratification and age.

  14. Anxiety sensitivity and subjective social status in relation to anxiety and depressive symptoms and disorders among Latinos in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvolensky, Michael J; Bakhshaie, Jafar; Garza, Monica; Valdivieso, Jeanette; Ortiz, Mayra; Bogiaizian, Daniel; Robles, Zuzuky; Vujanovic, Anka

    2015-05-01

    The present investigation examined the interactive effects of anxiety sensitivity and subjective social status in relation to anxiety and depressive symptoms and psychopathology among 143 Latinos (85.7% female; Mage=39.0, SD=10.9; 97.2% used Spanish as their first language) who attended a community-based primary healthcare clinic. Results indicated that the interaction between anxiety sensitivity and subjective social status was significantly associated with number of mood and anxiety disorders, panic, social anxiety, and depressive symptoms. The form of the significant interactions indicated that individuals reporting co-occurring higher levels of anxiety sensitivity and lower levels of subjective social status evidenced the greatest levels of psychopathology and panic, social anxiety, and depressive symptoms. The present findings suggest that there is merit in focusing further scientific attention on the interplay between anxiety sensitivity and subjective social status in regard to understanding, and thus, better intervening to reduce anxiety/depressive vulnerability among Latinos in primary care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Cardiac vagal control and theoretical models of co-occurring depression and anxiety: A cross-sectional psychophysiological study of community elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Hsi-Chung

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to elucidate the complex relationship between co-occurring depression and anxiety with cardiac autonomic function in the elderly, this study examined the correlation between cardiac vagal control (CVC and pre-defined, theoretical factors from the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS. Methods Three hundred fifty-four randomly selected Chinese male subjects aged ≥65 years and living in the community were enrolled. CVC was measured using a frequency-domain index of heart rate variability. Results Confirmatory factor analysis showed that the flat tripartite model of HADS provided a modest advantage in model fit when compared with other theoretical factor solutions. In the flat tripartite model, there was a significant negative association between anhedonic depression and CVC. In contrast, autonomic anxiety showed a significant positive correlation with CVC. In the hierarchical tripartite model, negative affectivity was not directly associated with CVC; instead, it had positive and negative indirect effects on CVC via autonomic anxiety and anhedonic depression, respectively. As scores for negative affectivity increased, these specific indirect effects diminished. Conclusions Among competing models of co-occurring depression and anxiety, constructs from tripartite models demonstrate fair conformity with the data but unique and distinct correlations with CVC. Negative affectivity may determine the relationship of anhedonic depression and autonomic anxiety with CVC. Separating affective symptoms under the constructs of the tripartite models helps disentangle complex associations between co-occurring depression and anxiety with CVC.

  16. An Integrated, Acceptance-Based Behavioral Approach for Depression With Social Anxiety: Preliminary Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalrymple, Kristy L; Morgan, Theresa A; Lipschitz, Jessica M; Martinez, Jennifer H; Tepe, Elizabeth; Zimmerman, Mark

    2014-07-01

    Depression and social anxiety disorder (SAD) are highly comorbid, resulting in greater severity and functional impairment compared with each disorder alone. Although recently transdiagnostic treatments have been developed, no known treatments have addressed this comorbidity pattern specifically. Preliminary support exists for acceptance-based approaches for depression and SAD separately, and they may be more efficacious for comorbid depression and anxiety compared with traditional cognitive-behavioral approaches. The aim of the current study was to develop and pilot test an integrated acceptance-based behavioral treatment for depression and comorbid SAD. Participants included 38 patients seeking pharmacotherapy at an outpatient psychiatry practice, who received 16 individual sessions of the therapy. Results showed significant improvement in symptoms, functioning, and processes from pre- to post-treatment, as well as high satisfaction with the treatment. These results support the preliminary acceptability, feasibility, and effectiveness of this treatment in a typical outpatient psychiatry practice, and suggest that further research on this treatment in larger randomized trials is warranted. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. The Separation Anxiety Daily Diary: Child Version--Feasibility and Psychometric Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jennifer L.; Blatter-Meunier, Judith; Ursprung, Antonia; Schneider, Silvia

    2010-01-01

    This report describes the feasibility and psychometric properties of the child version of the Separation Anxiety Daily Diary (SADD-C) in 125 children (ages 7-14 years) from German-speaking areas of Switzerland. Children with separation anxiety disorder (SAD; n = 58), "other" anxiety disorders (n = 36), and healthy controls (n = 31) recorded the…

  18. The Temporal Sequence of Social Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms following Interpersonal Stressors during Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Jessica L.; Potter, Carrie M.; Olino, Thomas M.; Abramson, Lyn Y.; Heimberg, Richard G.; Alloy, Lauren B.

    2015-01-01

    Social anxiety and depressive symptoms dramatically increase and frequently co-occur during adolescence. Although research indicates that general interpersonal stressors, peer victimization, and familial emotional maltreatment predict symptoms of social anxiety and depression, it remains unclear how these stressors contribute to the sequential development of these internalizing symptoms. Thus, the present study examined the sequential development of social anxiety and depressive symptoms following the occurrence of interpersonal stressors, peer victimization, and familial emotional maltreatment. Participants included 410 early adolescents (53% female; 51% African American; Mean age =12.84 years) who completed measures of social anxiety and depressive symptoms at three time points (Times 1–3), as well as measures of general interpersonal stressors, peer victimization, and emotional maltreatment at Time 2. Path analyses revealed that interpersonal stressors, peer victimization, and emotional maltreatment predicted both depressive and social anxiety symptoms concurrently. However, depressive symptoms significantly mediated the pathway from interpersonal stressors, peer victimization, and familial emotional maltreatment to subsequent levels of social anxiety symptoms. In contrast, social anxiety did not mediate the relationship between these stressors and subsequent depressive symptoms. There was no evidence of sex or racial differences in these mediational pathways. Findings suggest that interpersonal stressors, including the particularly detrimental stressors of peer victimization and familial emotional maltreatment, may predict both depressive and social anxiety symptoms; however, adolescents who have more immediate depressogenic reactions may be at greater risk for later development of symptoms of social anxiety. PMID:26142495

  19. The Temporal Sequence of Social Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms Following Interpersonal Stressors During Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Jessica L; Potter, Carrie M; Olino, Thomas M; Abramson, Lyn Y; Heimberg, Richard G; Alloy, Lauren B

    2016-04-01

    Social anxiety and depressive symptoms dramatically increase and frequently co-occur during adolescence. Although research indicates that general interpersonal stressors, peer victimization, and familial emotional maltreatment predict symptoms of social anxiety and depression, it remains unclear how these stressors contribute to the sequential development of these internalizing symptoms. Thus, the present study examined the sequential development of social anxiety and depressive symptoms following the occurrence of interpersonal stressors, peer victimization, and familial emotional maltreatment. Participants included 410 early adolescents (53% female; 51% African American; Mean age =12.84 years) who completed measures of social anxiety and depressive symptoms at three time points (Times 1-3), as well as measures of general interpersonal stressors, peer victimization, and emotional maltreatment at Time 2. Path analyses revealed that interpersonal stressors, peer victimization, and emotional maltreatment predicted both depressive and social anxiety symptoms concurrently. However, depressive symptoms significantly mediated the pathway from interpersonal stressors, peer victimization, and familial emotional maltreatment to subsequent levels of social anxiety symptoms. In contrast, social anxiety did not mediate the relationship between these stressors and subsequent depressive symptoms. There was no evidence of sex or racial differences in these mediational pathways. Findings suggest that interpersonal stressors, including the particularly detrimental stressors of peer victimization and familial emotional maltreatment, may predict both depressive and social anxiety symptoms; however, adolescents who have more immediate depressogenic reactions may be at greater risk for later development of symptoms of social anxiety.

  20. The prevalence of anxiety and depression in patients with or without hyperhidrosis (HH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahar, Rayeheh; Zhou, Pingyu; Liu, Yudan; Huang, Yuanshen; Phillips, Arlie; Lee, Tim K; Su, Mingwan; Yang, Sen; Kalia, Sunil; Zhang, Xuejun; Zhou, Youwen

    2016-12-01

    There are conflicting data about the correlation between hyperhidrosis (HH) and anxiety and depression. We sought to determine the prevalence of anxiety and depression in patients with or without HH. We examined 2017 consecutive dermatology outpatients from Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, and Shanghai, China, using Patient Health Questionnaire-9 and Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 scales for anxiety and depression assessments. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate if the impact of HH on anxiety and depression is dependent on demographic factors and diagnoses of the patients' presenting skin conditions. The prevalence of anxiety and depression was 21.3% and 27.2% in patients with HH, respectively, and 7.5% and 9.7% in patients without HH, respectively (P value anxiety and depression. Multivariable analysis showed that HH-associated increase in anxiety and depression prevalence is independent of demographic factors and presenting skin conditions. The data from the questionnaires relied on the accuracy of patients' self-reports. Both single variant and multivariable analyses showed a significant association between HH and the prevalence of anxiety and depression in a HH severity-dependent manner. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Tripartite model of anxiety and depression: psychometric evidence and taxonomic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, L A; Watson, D

    1991-08-01

    We review psychometric and other evidence relevant to mixed anxiety-depression. Properties of anxiety and depression measures, including the convergent and discriminant validity of self- and clinical ratings, and interrater reliability, are examined in patient and normal samples. Results suggest that anxiety and depression can be reliably and validly assessed; moreover, although these disorders share a substantial component of general affective distress, they can be differentiated on the basis of factors specific to each syndrome. We also review evidence for these specific factors, examining the influence of context and scale content on ratings, factor analytic studies, and the role of low positive affect in depression. With these data, we argue for a tripartite structure consisting of general distress, physiological hyperarousal (specific anxiety), and anhedonia (specific depression), and we propose a diagnosis of mixed anxiety-depression.

  2. Exposure to maternal pre- and postnatal depression and anxiety symptoms: risk for major depression, anxiety disorders, and conduct disorder in adolescent offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasheen, Cristie; Richardson, Gale A; Kim, Kevin H; Larkby, Cynthia A; Swartz, Holly A; Day, Nancy L

    2013-11-01

    This study evaluated whether exposure to maternal pre- or postnatal depression or anxiety symptoms predicted psychopathology in adolescent offspring. Growth mixture modeling was used to identify trajectories of pre- and postnatal depression and anxiety symptoms in 577 women of low socioeconomic status selected from a prenatal clinic. Logistic regression models indicated that maternal pre- and postnatal depression trajectory exposure was not associated with offspring major depression, anxiety, or conduct disorder, but exposure to the high depression trajectory was associated with lower anxiety symptoms in males. Exposure to medium and high pre- and postnatal anxiety was associated with the risk of conduct disorder among offspring. Male offspring exposed to medium and high pre- and postnatal anxiety had higher odds of conduct disorder than did males with low exposure levels. Females exposed to medium or high pre- and postnatal anxiety were less likely to meet conduct disorder criteria than were females with lower exposure. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to examine the effect of pre- and postnatal anxiety trajectories on the risk of conduct disorder in offspring. These results suggest new directions for investigating the etiology of conduct disorder with a novel target for intervention.

  3. Reductions in cannabis use are associated with improvements in anxiety, depression, and sleep quality, but not quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hser, Yih-Ing; Mooney, Larissa J; Huang, David; Zhu, Yuhui; Tomko, Rachel L; McClure, Erin; Chou, Chih-Ping; Gray, Kevin M

    2017-10-01

    This study examined the longitudinal association between reductions in cannabis use and changes in anxiety, depression, sleep quality, and quality of life. Secondary analyses were conducted based on data from a cannabis use disorder medication trial in 302 adults (ages 18-50). Changes in symptoms of anxiety and depression, sleep quality, and quality of life were assessed in relation to changes in cannabis use during the 12-week trial of treatment. Based on the slope of individual cannabis use trajectory, the sample was classified into two groups (Cannabis Use Reduction, n=152 vs. Cannabis Use Increase, n=150) which was included as a binary covariate in subsequent modeling. Controlling for demographics (age, gender, race/ethnicity), treatment condition, and time-varying tobacco and alcohol use, separate latent growth curve models showed a significant association between the Cannabis Use Reduction group and improvement (i.e., lower values in slope) in anxiety (β=-0.09, SE=0.04; pdepression (β=-0.11, SE=0.04; pcannabis use and improvements in anxiety, depression, and sleep quality. Clinicians treating patients with co-occurring cannabis use and problems with anxiety, depression, or sleep quality should attend to cannabis use reduction as a component of treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Hemoglobin levels in persons with depressive and/or anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lever-van Milligen, Bianca A; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Smit, Johannes H; Penninx, Brenda W J H

    2014-04-01

    Both low and high hemoglobin levels lead to more physical diseases, and both are linked to mortality. Low hemoglobin, often classified as anemia, has also been linked to more depressive symptoms, but whether both hemoglobin extremes are associated with depressive disorder and potentially also with anxiety disorder has not been examined before. This study examines to which extent hemoglobin levels are associated with depression and anxiety disorders in a large cohort. The study sample consisted of 2920 persons from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety. Hemoglobin levels were determined after venipuncture. Depressive and anxiety disorders were determined according to a DSM-IV-based psychiatric interview. Clinical psychiatric characteristics included the severity of depression and anxiety, the duration of symptoms, the age of onset and the antidepressant use. Higher hemoglobin levels were found in those with current depressive and/or anxiety disorders after sociodemographic adjustment and both higher, and lower hemoglobin levels were found in persons with higher depression and anxiety severity. However, after full adjustment for sociodemographics, disease indicators and lifestyle, associations were no longer significant. This cohort study showed that there is no independent association between depressive and/or anxiety disorders and hemoglobin levels or anemia status. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Depressive and Anxiety Disorders in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Patients without Major Neuropsychiatric Manifestations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yueyin; Cheng, Yuqi; Li, Shu; Lai, Aiyun; Xie, Zhongqi; Xu, Xinyu; Lu, Zhaoping

    2016-01-01

    Depressive and anxiety disorders are frequently observed in patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE). However, the underlying mechanisms are still unknown. We conducted this survey to understand the prevalence of depression and anxiety in SLE patients without major neuropsychiatric manifestations (non-NPSLE) and to explore the relationship between emotional disorders, symptoms, autoantibodies, disease activity, and treatments in SLE. 176 SLE patients were included, and SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD), and Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAMA) were recorded to evaluate their disease activity and emotional status. We found that depressive and anxiety disorders were common among SLE patients: 121 (68.8%) patients were in depression status while 14 (8.0%) patients could be diagnosed with depression. Accordingly, 101 (57.4%) were in anxiety status and 21 (11.9%) could be diagnosed with anxiety. Depression was associated with disease activity, and anxiety was associated with anti-P0 antibody, while both of them were associated with proteinuria. HAMA and HAMD scores were in strong positive correlation and they were independent risk factors of each other. We concluded that the high prevalence of depression and anxiety and the association between depression and SLE disease activity might reveal the covert damage of central nervous system in SLE. The role of anti-P0 antibody in SLE patients with emotional disorders warrants more researches. PMID:27747246

  6. Overlap between Headache, Depression, and Anxiety in General Neurological Clinics: A Cross-sectional Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cui-Bai Wei; Jian-Ping Jia; Fen Wang; Ai-Hong Zhou; Xiu-Mei Zuo; Chang-Biao Chu

    2016-01-01

    Background:Many studies have reported that depression and anxiety have bidirectional relationship with headache.However,few researches investigated the roles of depression or anxiety in patients with headache.We surveyed the prevalence of depression and anxiety as a complication or cause of headache among outpatients with a chief complaint of headache at neurology clinics in general hospitals.Additional risk factors for depression and anxiety were also analyzed.Methods:A cross-sectional study was conducted at 11 general neurological clinics.All consecutive patients with a chief complaint of headache were enrolled.Diagnoses of depression and anxiety were made using the Chinese version of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview,and those for headache were made according to the International Classification of Headache Disorders,2nd Edition.The headache impact test and an 11-point verbal rating scale were applied to assess headache severity and intensity.Logistic regression was used to analyze risk factors of patients with headache for depression or anxiety.Results:A total of 749 outpatients with headache were included.Among them,148 (19.7%) were diagnosed with depression and 103 (13.7%) with anxiety.Further analysis showed that 114 (15.2%) patients complaining headache due to somatic symptoms of psychiatric disorders and 82 (10.9%) had a depression or anxiety comorbidity with headache.Most patients with depression or anxiety manifested mild to moderate headaches.Poor sleep and severe headache-related disabilities were predictors for either depression or anxiety.Conclusion:Clinicians must identify the etiology of headache and recognize the effects of depression or anxiety on headache to develop specific treatments.

  7. Investigating Environmental Links between Parent Depression and Child Depressive/Anxiety Symptoms Using an Assisted Conception Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Gemma; Rice, Frances; Harold, Gordon T.; Collishaw, Stephan; Thapar, Anita

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Links between maternal and offspring depression symptoms could arise from inherited factors, direct environmental exposure, or shared adversity. A novel genetically sensitive design was used to test the extent of environmental links between maternal depression symptoms and child depression/anxiety symptoms, accounting for inherited…

  8. Subgroup Analysis in Burnout: Relations Between Fatigue, Anxiety, and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dam, Arno

    2016-01-01

    Several authors have suggested that burned out patients do not form a homogeneous group and that subgroups should be considered. The identification of these subgroups may contribute to a better understanding of the burnout construct and lead to more specific therapeutic interventions. Subgroup analysis may also help clarify whether burnout is a distinct entity and whether subgroups of burnout overlap with other disorders such as depression and chronic fatigue syndrome. In a group of 113 clinically diagnosed burned out patients, levels of fatigue, depression, and anxiety were assessed. In order to identify possible subgroups, we performed a two-step cluster analysis. The analysis revealed two clusters that differed from one another in terms of symptom severity on the three aforementioned measures. Depression appeared to be the strongest predictor of group membership. These results are considered in the light of the scientific debate on whether burnout can be distinguished from depression and whether burnout subtyping is useful. Finally, implications for clinical practice and future research are discussed. PMID:26869983

  9. Subgroup analysis in burnout: relations between fatigue, anxiety and depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arno eVan Dam

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Several authors have suggested that burned out patients do not form a homogeneous group and that subgroups should be considered. The identification of these subgroups may contribute to a better understanding of the burnout construct and lead to more specific therapeutic interventions. Subgroup analysis may also help clarify whether burnout is a distinct entity and whether subgroups of burnout overlap with other disorders such as depression and chronic fatigue syndrome. In a group of 113 clinically-diagnosed burned out patients, levels of fatigue, depression and anxiety were assessed. In order to identify possible subgroups, we performed a two-step cluster analysis. The analysis revealed two clusters that differed from one another in terms of symptom severity on the three aforementioned measures. Depression appeared to be the strongest predictor of group membership. These results are considered in the light of the scientific debate on whether burnout can be distinguished from depression and whether burnout subtyping is useful. Finally, implications for clinical practice and future research are discussed.

  10. Parental contributions and separation anxiety on adolescents' cannabis use: a preliminary study based on French high school students.

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    Laguerre, Claire-Emmanuelle; Vavassori, David; Fernandez, Lydia

    2015-01-01

    Separation anxiety (SA) among adolescents remains a very rare diagnosis. According to some authors, behavioral disorders may arise from SA disorders. This study evaluated the relationship between cannabis use and family functioning among adolescent cannabis users. Adolescents (n = 336) completed questionnaires about the frequency of their cannabis use, SA symptoms in adult populations, dysfunctional separation-individuation processes in early adolescence, parental types as perceived by the children, and depression symptoms. Adolescent users of cannabis obtained significantly higher scores than adolescent nonusers of cannabis on the Anxiety Separation Adulthood scale (p separation-individuation allows autonomy, the results indicate that cannabis use hides individuation problems. The use of this substance allows adolescents to express their personality and differentiate themselves from others through marginal behavior.

  11. Childhood Anxiety/Withdrawal, Adolescent Parent-Child Attachment and Later Risk of Depression and Anxiety Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, Ida Skytte; Horwood, L. John; Fergusson, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has shown that children with high levels of early anxiety/withdrawal are at increased risk of later anxiety and depression. It has also been found that positive parent-child attachment reduces the risk of these disorders. The aim of this paper was to examine the extent to which positive parent-child attachment acted to mitigate…

  12. Perfectionism, Anxiety, and Depressive Distress: Evidence for the Mediating Role of Negative Automatic Thoughts and Anxiety Sensitivity

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    Pirbaglou, Meysam; Cribbie, Robert; Irvine, Jane; Radhu, Natasha; Vora, Khushboo; Ritvo, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study assessed a mediational model in which negative automatic thoughts and anxiety sensitivity were hypothesized to mediate the relationship between perfectionism cognitions and depressive and anxiety symptoms. Participants: Participants were undergraduate students from an urban Canadian university. The data were collected from…

  13. Childhood Anxiety/Withdrawal, Adolescent Parent-Child Attachment and Later Risk of Depression and Anxiety Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, Ida Skytte; Horwood, L. John; Fergusson, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has shown that children with high levels of early anxiety/withdrawal are at increased risk of later anxiety and depression. It has also been found that positive parent-child attachment reduces the risk of these disorders. The aim of this paper was to examine the extent to which positive parent-child attachment acted to mitigate…

  14. Salivary oxytocin in clinically anxious youth: Associations with separation anxiety and family accommodation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebowitz, Eli R; Leckman, James F; Feldman, Ruth; Zagoory-Sharon, Orna; McDonald, Nicole; Silverman, Wendy K

    2016-03-01

    Clinical anxiety disorders in youth are common and associated with interpersonal behaviors including reliance on parents for family accommodation, or changes that parents make to their own behaviors to help the youth avoid anxiety related distress. The neuropeptide oxytocin is associated with the regulation of anxiety and of close interpersonal behavior leading to the hypothesis that oxytocinergic functioning plays a role in youth anxiety and its disorders, and the resulting family accommodation. To test this hypothesis salivary OT from 50 youth with primary DSM-5 anxiety disorders was assayed. A multi-source/multi-method anxiety assessment including semistructured interviews with youth and mothers, rating scales, and behavioral observations was used to assess anxiety disorders and symptoms, and family accommodation. Youth with separation anxiety disorder had significantly lower salivary OT levels than clinically anxious youth not diagnosed with separation anxiety disorder. Salivary OT levels were significantly negatively correlated with separation anxiety symptoms based on both youth- and mother-ratings. Anxious behavior displayed by youth during interactions with their mothers was associated with lower salivary OT levels in youth. Maternal ratings of family accommodation were negatively associated with salivary OT levels in youth. Results support the role of the oxytocinergic system in youth anxiety and its disorders and in parental involvement in youth anxiety through family accommodation. OT may be particularly important for diagnoses and symptoms of separation anxiety, which is inherently interpersonal in nature. Findings have potentially important implications for assessment and treatment of anxiety in youth.

  15. Core dimensions of anxiety and depression change independently during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Christopher C; Zinbarg, Richard E; Mineka, Susan; Craske, Michelle G

    2017-02-01

    The developmental trajectories of emotional disorder symptoms during adolescence remain elusive, owing in part to a shortage of intensive longitudinal data. In the present study, we charted the temporal course of the tripartite model of anxiety and depression-which posits an overarching negative affect dimension and specific anhedonia and anxious arousal dimensions-over adolescence and emerging adulthood to construct a developmental map of the core dimensions of emotional disorders. We recruited 604 high school juniors, overselecting those at high risk for emotional disorders, and assessed the tripartite symptom domains 5 times annually. Latent curve modeling revealed that negative affect and anxious arousal declined over follow up, whereas anhedonia did not. Moreover, the correlation in rate of change varied across pairs of symptom domains. Change in negative affect was moderately correlated with change in anxious arousal, but change in anhedonia was not significantly related to change in any other domain. Symptom trajectories, and the pattern of covariation among trajectories, were equivalent across gender and comorbidity status. We discuss implications of these findings for developmental models of anxiety and depression, as well as transdiagnostic frameworks for emotional disorders. (PsycINFO Database Record

  16. The effects of an anxiety sensitivity intervention on anxiety, depression, and worry: mediation through affect tolerances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norr, Aaron M; Allan, Nicholas P; Macatee, Richard J; Keough, Meghan E; Schmidt, Norman B

    2014-08-01

    Recently there has been increased interest in emotional and physical tolerance risk factors for mood and anxiety disorders. Three tolerance risk factors that have been shown to be related are anxiety sensitivity (AS), distress tolerance (DT), and discomfort intolerance (DI). Although previous research has demonstrated these constructs are malleable, no research has investigated the effects of an AS intervention on DT or DI. Further, no studies have investigated whether changes in DT or DI play a role in mood and anxiety symptom amelioration due to an AS intervention. Participants (N = 104), who were selected for elevated levels of AS, completed a single-session computer-assisted AS intervention or a control intervention and follow-up assessments at 1-week and 1-month post intervention. Results revealed that the intervention reduced AS and increased DT, but did not affect DI at the 1-week follow-up. Mediation analyses revealed that changes in AS and DT both mediated changes in symptoms (depression, anxiety, worry) due to the intervention at 1-month follow-up, however, when AS and DT were considered in the same model only the effect via AS remained significant. These results have important implications for the nature of the relationships between AS, DT, and DI as well as the specific mechanistic pathways through which an AS intervention ameliorates symptoms.

  17. DEPRESSION, ANXIETY AND QUALITY OF LIFE OF CANCER SURVIVORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koijam Shantibala

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Cancer of any type is a serious and life-threatening illness, not uncommon in the general population. Cancer survivor can mean any person diagnosed with cancer from the time of initial diagnosis until his or her death. It includes people who are dying from untreatable cancer. Cancer survivor also includes those patients who are receiving or have received treatment with no active disease process and those who are not in the terminal stage of the illness. Cancer survivors tend to develop anxiety, depression and change in their quality of life as they have to make adjustment to many psychological and physical changes as well as financial constraint. MATERIALS AND METHODS Fifty (50 cancer survival patients visiting Department of Radiotherapy, Regional Institute of Medical Sciences (RIMS, Imphal, during February 2015 to December 2015 were enrolled in this study. The study forms including the questions regarding the patient’s demographic characteristics, Becks Depression Inventory (BDI, State and Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI and WHOQOL BREF were completed during face-to-face interviews for the determination of the psychological status of the patients. And the data were analysed using SPSS version 20.0. RESULTS All the dimensions of the Quality of Life (QoL except D3= Domain 3 (Social Relationship are negatively correlated with both the sub-types of STAI (State and Trait Anxiety. The state anxiety score is negatively correlated with D1=Domain 1 (Physical health; p=.001, D2= Domain 2 (Psychological; p=.001, D4= Domain 4 (Environment; p=.000. Also, the trait anxiety scores of the patients are negatively correlated with D1=Domain 1 (Physical health; p=.001, D2= Domain 2 (Psychological; p=.000, D4= Domain 4 (Environment; p=.000. However, there is no significant difference in terms of D3= Domain 3 (Social Relationship; state anxiety p=.142 and trait anxiety p=.220 and STAI scores. On the other hand, there is positive correlation between Becks

  18. Anxiety, depression and autonomy-connectedness: The mediating role of alexithymia and assertiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutten, Elisabeth A P; Bachrach, Nathan; van Balkom, Anton J L M; Braeken, Johan; Ouwens, Machteld A; Bekker, Marrie H J

    2016-12-01

    Autonomy-connectedness (self-awareness, sensitivity to others, and capacity for managing new situations) reflects the capacity for self-governance, including in social relationships. Evidence showed that autonomy-connectedness is related to anxiety and depression. Little is known about the underlying mechanisms. We hypothesized that alexithymia and assertiveness would mediate the relationships between autonomy-connectedness and anxiety and depression. Relationships among the variables were investigated in 100 patients with a mean age of 42.2 suffering from anxiety and/or depression using a cross-sectional design. The relationship between self-awareness and both anxiety and depression was mediated by alexithymia. For anxiety, there was also a direct effect of sensitivity to others that was not explained by either alexithymia or assertiveness. Assertiveness did not have any mediational effect. The results indicate that particularly alexithymia explains the association of autonomy-connectedness with anxiety and depression. The study confirmed the relevance of autonomy-connectedness in anxiety and depression. In treating symptoms of anxiety, it is advisable to give attention to normalizing the patient's sensitivity to others. Treatment of patients with symptoms of anxiety and depression should include assessment of emotional awareness and, in the case of impaired emotional awareness, should be tailored as to promote increased awareness. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  19. Stress, depression, and anxiety among undergraduate nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernomas, Wanda M; Shapiro, Carla

    2013-11-07

    Admission to a professional program marks the beginning of fulfilling a career goal. However, the rigors of professional education can be demanding. Stress, depression, and anxiety (SDA) can interfere with learning, affect academic performance, and impair clinical practice performance. Studies report a general increase in the severity of and extent of mental health problems among college/university students. The literature regarding nursing students' mental health distress identifies academic and personal sources of stress and coping efforts, with emphasis on the stress and anxiety associated with clinical practice. This cross-sectional descriptive exploratory study investigated levels of SDA among nursing students in 3 years of a university-based program. The association between quality of life indicators including known stressors, such as financial concerns and balance between school and personal life, and SDA was also investigated. Through an online survey, 437 participants from one mid-western Canadian undergraduate nursing program completed the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales and provided data on quality of life indicators and demographic information. Participants also were invited to provide narrative data about their experiences with SDA. This article will present significant findings including: levels of SDA; comparisons between our sample and a normative sample on the dimensions of SDA; and the results of multiple regression analysis identifying significant predictors of each dimension. Themes from the qualitative comments from 251 of the participants were identified and added depth and clarity to the quantitative findings. The predominant themes represented were: perceptions of clinical practice, coping, personal issues, and balancing school, work, and personal life. Implications and recommendations for curriculum design, ensuring students understand program expectations prior to admission, and enhancing accessibility to mental health/support services

  20. Third trimester of pregnancy: Carpal tunnel syndrome, anxiety and depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tupković Emir

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study measured the frequency of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS and the levels of anxiety and depression in the third trimester of healthy pregnant women having regular prenatal visits. The study was performed at the Department of Neurophysiology Health Centre Tuzla in the period of January through April 2006. The group consisted of 40 pregnant women in the third trimester of pregnancy, age range of 25.6 ± 4.9 years. The control group consisted of healthy women, ages 31.1 ± 4.4 years. The electrophysiological parameters n. medians, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI were measured. The diagnosis of CTS is neurophysiologically confirmed in 12 pregnant women (30% and 75% showed clinical signs and symptoms of disease. Pain was measured by subjective pain scale ranked from 0 (absence of pain to 10 (severe pain. The mean value of BAI in control group was 8.6 ± 6.5, while in the group of pregnant women was 12.9 ± 6.9, which was significantly higher (p = 0.011. The mean value of BDI in control group was 4.2 ±4.4 and in the group of pregnant women was 8.7 ±5.9. which was significantly higher (p = 0.0008, The mean value of BAI in the group of women with CTS was 12.25 ± 6.7 which was not significantly higher than the compared to the control group (p = 0.113. The mean value of BDI in the group of pregnant women with CTS was 7.9 ± 6.4,which was significantly higher when compared to the control group (p = 0.037. The subjective assessment of pain in the group of women with CTS was 2.4 ±2.1. There was a slight correlation between pain intensity and degree of BAI (r = 0.289 and a negative correlation with the level of depression (r = - 0.297. The conclusion is that pregnant women with normal risk should make an extra effort in the treatment of unpleasant conditions such as CTS, anxiety and depression, which may impair the quality of life and have physical and psychological side effects on the future mother.

  1. The association of Internet addiction symptoms with anxiety, depression and self-esteem among adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Cheng-Fang; Chou, Wen-Jiun; Liu, Tai-Ling; Yang, Pinchen; Hu, Huei-Fan

    2014-10-01

    The aims of this study were to examine the associations of the severity of Internet addiction symptoms with various dimensions of anxiety (physical anxiety symptoms, harm avoidance, social anxiety, and separation/panic) and depression symptoms (depressed affect, somatic symptoms, interpersonal problems, and positive affect) and self-esteem among adolescents diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in Taiwan. A total of 287 adolescents aged between 11 and 18 years who had been diagnosed with ADHD participated in this study. Their severity of Internet addiction symptoms was assessed using the Chen Internet Addiction Scale. Anxiety and depression symptoms and self-esteem were assessed using the Taiwanese version of the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC-T), the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), respectively. The association between the severity of Internet addiction symptoms and anxiety and depression symptoms and self-esteem were examined using multiple regression analyses. The results indicated that higher physical symptoms and lower harm avoidance scores on the MASC-T, higher somatic discomfort/retarded activity scores on the CES-D, and lower self-esteem scores on the RSES were significantly associated with more severe Internet addiction symptoms. Prevention and intervention programs for Internet addiction in adolescents with ADHD should take anxiety, depression, and self-esteem into consideration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA): rationale, objectives and methods.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Smit, J.H.; Zitman, F.G.; Nolen, W.A.; Spinhoven, P.; Cuijpers, P.; Jong, P.J. de; Marwijk, H.W.J. van; Assendelft, W.J.J.; Meer, K. van der; Verhaak, P.; Wensing, M.; Graaf, R. de; Hoogendijk, W.J.; Ormel, J.; Dyck, R. van

    2008-01-01

    The Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA) is a multi-site naturalistic cohort study to: (1) describe the long-term course and consequences of depressive and anxiety disorders, and (2) to integrate biological and psychosocial research paradigms within an epidemiological approach in orde

  3. The Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA) : rationale, objectives and methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Smit, J.H.; Zitman, F.G.; Nolen, W.A.; Spinhoven, P.; Cuijpers, P.; de Jong, P.J.; Van Marwijk, H.W.J.; Assendelft, W.J.J.; van der Meer, K.; Verhaak, P.; Wensing, M.; de Graaf, R.; Hoogendijk, W.J.; Ormel, J.; Van Dyck, R.

    2008-01-01

    The Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA) is a multi-site naturalistic cohort study to: (1) describe the long-term course and consequences of depressive and anxiety disorders, and (2) to integrate biological and psychosocial research paradigms within an epidemiological approach in orde

  4. Sleep Duration, but Not Insomnia, Predicts the 2-Year Course of Depressive and Anxiety Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Mill, Josine G.; Vogelzangs, Nicole; van Someren, Eus J. W.; Hoogendijk, Witte J. G.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine the predictive role of insomnia and sleep duration on the 2-year course of depressive and anxiety disorders. Method: This study is a secondary data analysis based on data from the baseline (2004-2007) and 2-year assessment of the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety. Par

  5. Differential associations of specific depressive and anxiety disorders with somatic symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekhuis, Ella; Boschloo, Lynn; Rosmalen, Judith G M; Schoevers, Robert A

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have shown that depressive and anxiety disorders are strongly related to somatic symptoms, but much is unclear about the specificity of this association. This study examines the associations of specific depressive and anxiety disorders with somatic symptoms, and whether t

  6. Objective physical functioning in patients with depressive and/or anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Milligen, Bianca A.; Lamers, Femke; de Hoop, Guus T.; Smit, Johannes H.; Penninx, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    Background: Poorer physical function in patients with depressive or anxiety disorders has been reported, but is often measured by self-reports which may be biased by mood. This study examined the association between depression and anxiety and physical function using objective measures in a large coh

  7. Developmental Profile of Infants Born to Mothers with Postpartum Depression and Anxiety: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalita, Kamal Narayan

    2010-01-01

    Background: Postpartum period is associated with higher rates for depression, blues and psychosis. Anxiety is also significant. These disorders may have serious implications in the cognitive development of the infant. There is relative lack of data in this area. So we tried to estimate postpartum anxiety and depression in a group of women and…

  8. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy: Innovations for Cardiopulmonary Patients with Depression and Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cully, Jeffrey A.; Paukert, Amber; Falco, Jessica; Stanley, Melinda

    2009-01-01

    Medically ill patients face unique physical and emotional challenges that place them at increased risk for symptoms of depression and anxiety. Despite high prevalence and significant impact, depression and anxiety are infrequently treated in the medically ill because of a variety of patient, provider, and system factors. The current article…

  9. Emotional Maltreatment, Peer Victimization, and Depressive versus Anxiety Symptoms during Adolescence: Hopelessness as a Mediator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Jessica L.; Shapero, Benjamin G.; Stange, Jonathan P.; Hamlat, Elissa J.; Abramson, Lyn Y.; Alloy, Lauren B.

    2013-01-01

    Extensive comorbidity between depression and anxiety has driven research to identify unique and shared risk factors. This study prospectively examined the specificity of three interpersonal stressors (emotional abuse, emotional neglect, and relationally oriented peer victimization) as predictors of depressive versus anxiety symptoms in a racially…

  10. Adolescent Subthreshold-Depression and Anxiety: Psychopathology, Functional Impairment and Increased Suicide Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balazs, Judit; Miklosi, Monika; Kereszteny, Agnes; Hoven, Christina W.; Carli, Vladimir; Wasserman, Camilla; Apter, Alan; Bobes, Julio; Brunner, Romuald; Cosman, Doina; Cotter, Padraig; Haring, Christian; Iosue, Miriam; Kaess, Michael; Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Keeley, Helen; Marusic, Dragan; Postuvan, Vita; Resch, Franz; Saiz, Pilar A.; Sisask, Merike; Snir, Avigal; Tubiana, Alexandra; Varnik, Airi; Sarchiapone, Marco; Wasserman, Danuta

    2013-01-01

    Background: Subthreshold-depression and anxiety have been associated with significant impairments in adults. This study investigates the characteristics of adolescent subthreshold-depression and anxiety with a focus on suicidality, using both categorical and dimensional diagnostic models. Methods: Data were drawn from the Saving and Empowering…

  11. Treatment of Depression and Anxiety in Parkinson's Disease: A Pilot Study Using Group Cognitive Behavioural Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeney, Farah; Egan, Sarah; Gasson, Natalie

    2005-01-01

    Depression and anxiety affect up to 50% of people with Parkinson's Disease (PD) (Marsh, 2000; Murray, 1996), however, few studies have examined the effectiveness of psychological treatment. This study examined the effectiveness of group cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) in treating depression and anxiety in PD. Four participants, aged between 56…

  12. Comorbid anxiety disorders in late-life depression : results of a cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veen, D.C.; van Zelst, W. H.; Schoevers, R. A.; Comijs, H. C.; Oude Voshaar, Richard

    Background: Comorbid anxiety disorders are common in late-life depression and negatively impact treatment outcome. This study aimed to examine personality characteristics as well as early and recent life-events as possible determinants of comorbid anxiety disorders in late-life depression, taking

  13. Comorbid anxiety disorders in late-life depression: results of a cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, D.C. van der; Zelst, W.H. van; Schoevers, R.A.; Comijs, H.C.; Oude Voshaar, R.C.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Comorbid anxiety disorders are common in late-life depression and negatively impact treatment outcome. This study aimed to examine personality characteristics as well as early and recent life-events as possible determinants of comorbid anxiety disorders in late-life depression, taking

  14. The association between supportive relatives and lower occurrence of anxiety and depression in heart patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Camilla; Zinckernagel, Line; Schneekloth, Nanna

    2017-01-01

    fibrillation, heart failure, or heart valve disease. Presence of supportive relatives was measured as the degree to which the patients felt that they had relatives they could count on, while symptoms of anxiety and depression were measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Multiple logistic...

  15. The role of the harm avoidance personality in depression and anxiety during the medical internship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ching-Yen; Lin, Sheng-Hsuan; Li, Peng; Huang, Wei-Lieh; Lin, Yu-Hsuan

    2015-01-01

    To determine whether physicians with harm avoidance (HA) personality traits were more prone to developing increased anxiety and depression during the medical internship. A prospective longitudinal study of 74 medical interns was carried out using repeated measures of symptoms of anxiety and depression with the Beck Anxiety and Depression Inventories (BAI and BDI) before, at the 3rd, 6th, and 12th months during the internship, and 2 weeks after the internship was completed. Baseline personality was assessed by the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire with 3 dimensions: novelty-seeking, HA, and reward dependence (RD). Levels of both depression and anxiety increased (6.4 and 3.4 on scores for BDI and BAI, respectively) during the internship and returned to baseline 2 weeks after it ended. HA scores were significantly correlated with depression and anxiety (0.3 scores on both the BDI and the BAI) and the scores for RD were significantly correlated with anxiety but not with depression. The interaction of HA and point in internship showed no significant differences. Internship plays a major role in the increase in depression and anxiety. A HA personality was also associated with the development of both depression and anxiety.

  16. The Dresden Predictor Study of anxiety and depression: objectives, design, and methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trumpf, J.; Vriends, N.; Meyer, A.H.; Becker, E.S.; Neumer, S.P.; Margraf, J.

    2010-01-01

    The present report describes the objectives, design, and methods of the Dresden Predictor Study (DPS) of anxiety and depression, a prospective epidemiological study investigating anxiety disorders and depression in 3,065 young German women (18-25 years of age). The DPS consists of a baseline and one

  17. Anxiety and Depression in Breast Cancer Survivors of Different Sexual Orientations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehmer, Ulrike; Glickman, Mark; Winter, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Objective: We conducted a study comparing anxiety and depression by sexual orientation in long-term breast cancer survivors, testing the hypothesis that sexual minority women (e.g., lesbian and bisexual women) have greater levels of anxiety and depression. Method: From a state cancer registry, we recruited 257 heterosexual and 69 sexual minority…

  18. The incidence of anxiety and depression among employees - the role of psychosocial work characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andrea, Helene; Bultmann, Ute; van Amelsvoort, Ludovic G. P. M.; Kant, Ymert

    2009-01-01

    Background: Anxiety and depression are prevalent among employees and are associated with functional disability and work impairment. To date, little is known about the incidence and possible risk factors for developing anxiety and depression in the working population. Study aims were to (a) determine

  19. Impact of childhood life events and trauma on the course of depressive and anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovens, J. G. F. M.; Giltay, E. J.; Wiersma, J. E.; Spinhoven, P.; Penninx, B. W. J. H.; Zitman, F. G.

    2012-01-01

    Hovens JGFM, Giltay EJ, Wiersma JE, Spinhoven P, Penninx BWJH, Zitman FG. Impact of childhood life events and trauma on the course of depressive and anxiety disorders. Objective: Data on the impact of childhood life events and childhood trauma on the clinical course of depressive and anxiety disorde

  20. Family-Level Factors, Depression, and Anxiety among African American Children: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Tyreasa; Rose, Theda; Coard, Stephanie Irby; Patton, Desmond Upton; Young, Shelton; Giles, Sasha; Nolen, Marlon

    2017-01-01

    Background: The reported prevalence of depression and anxiety among African American children and adolescents and their negative sequalae suggest a need to further explore factors that may be protective of depression and anxiety among this population. Objective: The aim of this review was to examine empirical studies that focus on the association…

  1. An Open Trial Investigation of a Transdiagnostic Group Treatment for Children with Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilek, Emily L.; Ehrenreich-May, Jill

    2012-01-01

    The current study investigates the feasibility and preliminary outcomes associated with a transdiagnostic emotion-focused group protocol for the treatment of anxiety disorders and depressive symptoms in youth. Twenty-two children (ages 7 to 12; M = 9.79) with a principal anxiety disorder and varying levels of comorbid depressive symptoms were…

  2. Repetitive negative thinking predicts depression and anxiety symptom improvement during brief cognitive behavioral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kertz, Sarah J; Koran, Jennifer; Stevens, Kimberly T; Björgvinsson, Thröstur

    2015-05-01

    Repetitive negative thinking (RNT) is a common symptom across depression and anxiety disorders and preliminary evidence suggests that decreases in rumination and worry are related to improvement in depression and anxiety symptoms. However, despite its prevalence, relatively little is known about transdiagnostic RNT and its temporal associations with symptom improvement during treatment. The current study was designed to examine the influence of RNT on subsequent depression and anxiety symptoms during treatment. Participants (n = 131; 52% female; 93% White; M = 34.76 years) were patients presenting for treatment in a brief, cognitive behavior therapy based, partial hospitalization program. Participants completed multiple assessments of depression (Center for the Epidemiological Studies of Depression-10 scale), anxiety (the 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale), and repetitive negative thinking (Perseverative Thinking Questionnaire) over the course of treatment. Results indicated statistically significant between and within person effects of RNT on depression and anxiety, even after controlling for the effect of time, previous symptom levels, referral source, and treatment length. RNT explained 22% of the unexplained variability in depression scores and 15% of the unexplained variability in anxiety scores beyond that explained by the control variables. RNT may be an important transdiagnostic treatment target for anxiety and depression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Do depression and anxiety converge or diverge in their association with suicidality?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eikelenboom, Merijn; Smit, Johannes H.; Beekman, Aartjan T. F.; Penninx, Brenda

    2012-01-01

    Depressive disorders have been strongly linked to suicidality, but the association with anxiety disorders is less well established. This exploratory study aims to examine whether anxiety and depressive disorders are both independent risk factors for suicidal ideation and attempted suicide, and addit

  4. College Students' Preferences for Psychotherapy across Depression, Anxiety, Relationship, and Academic Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Aaron W.; Ross, Michael J.; Vander Wal, Jillon S.; Austin, Chammie C.

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined differences in college students' preferences for processes of change across four kinds of problems: academic, relationship, depression, and anxiety. Two hundred eighteen undergraduates were randomly assigned to complete either an academic problems, relationship problems, depression, or anxiety Processes of Change…

  5. Family-Level Factors, Depression, and Anxiety among African American Children: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Tyreasa; Rose, Theda; Coard, Stephanie Irby; Patton, Desmond Upton; Young, Shelton; Giles, Sasha; Nolen, Marlon

    2017-01-01

    Background: The reported prevalence of depression and anxiety among African American children and adolescents and their negative sequalae suggest a need to further explore factors that may be protective of depression and anxiety among this population. Objective: The aim of this review was to examine empirical studies that focus on the association…

  6. Sleep disturbances and reduced work functioning in depressive or anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Mill, Josine G.; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Hoogendijk, Witte J. G.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: We aimed to examine the associations between sleep disturbances and work functioning in an epidemiologic cohort study in subjects with or without depressive or anxiety disorders. Methods: There were 707 subjects included in our analyses with depressive or anxiety disorders and 728

  7. Objective physical functioning in patients with depressive and/or anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Milligen, Bianca A.; Lamers, Femke; de Hoop, Guus T.; Smit, Johannes H.; Penninx, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    Background: Poorer physical function in patients with depressive or anxiety disorders has been reported, but is often measured by self-reports which may be biased by mood. This study examined the association between depression and anxiety and physical function using objective measures in a large coh

  8. Suicide in late-life depression with and without comorbid anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Voshaar, Richard; Veen, D. C. van der; Hunt, I.; Kapur, N.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Comorbid anxiety in depression increases the risk of suicidal ideation and behavior, although data on death by suicide are scarce. We compared characteristics of depressed elderly patients with and without anxiety disorders who died by suicide. METHODS: From a 16-year clinical survey of a

  9. Working and Non-Working University Students: Anxiety, Depression, and Grade Point Average

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mounsey, Rebecca; Vandehey, Michael A.; Diekhoff, George M.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the differences between 110 working and non-working students in terms of mental health, academic achievement, and perceptions about student employment. Anxiety and depression were measured by the Beck Anxiety Inventory and the Beck Depression Inventory-II. Academic achievement was measured by grade point average. Perceptions of…

  10. COURSE AND RISK FACTORS OF FUNCTIONAL IMPAIRMENT IN SUBTHRESHOLD DEPRESSION AND ANXIETY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karsten, Julie; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Verboom, Charlotte E.; Nolen, Willem A.; Hartman, Catharina A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Although persons with subthreshold depression or anxiety are known to be at risk for full-syndromal disorders, little is known about their functioning over time. In this study, we investigate the functional impairment of persons with subthreshold depression or anxiety over time, compared

  11. Working and Non-Working University Students: Anxiety, Depression, and Grade Point Average

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mounsey, Rebecca; Vandehey, Michael A.; Diekhoff, George M.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the differences between 110 working and non-working students in terms of mental health, academic achievement, and perceptions about student employment. Anxiety and depression were measured by the Beck Anxiety Inventory and the Beck Depression Inventory-II. Academic achievement was measured by grade point average. Perceptions of…

  12. The impact of stress systems and lifestyle on dyslipidemia and obesity in anxiety and depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dortland, Arianne K. B. van Reedt; Vreeburg, Sophie A.; Giltay, Erik J.; Licht, Carmilla M. M.; Vogelzangs, Nicole; van Veen, Tineke; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Zitman, Frans G.

    Background: Dyslipidemia and obesity have been observed in persons with severe anxiety or depression, and in tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) users. This likely contributes to the higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in anxiety and depressive disorders. We aimed to elucidate whether biological

  13. Sleep disturbances and reduced work functioning in depressive or anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Mill, Josine G.; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Hoogendijk, Witte J. G.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: We aimed to examine the associations between sleep disturbances and work functioning in an epidemiologic cohort study in subjects with or without depressive or anxiety disorders. Methods: There were 707 subjects included in our analyses with depressive or anxiety disorders and 728 subjec

  14. Depression and Social Anxiety in Children: Differential Links with Coping Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Mark; Banerjee, Robin; Hoek, Willemijn; Rieffe, Carolien; Novin, Sheida

    2010-01-01

    Strategies that children use for coping with stressors are known to be related to emotional adjustment, but not enough is understood about specific links with social anxiety and depression. The present investigation tested differentiated associations of social anxiety and depression with specific types of coping strategies, and evaluated the…

  15. Depression and Anxiety as Possible Mediators of the Association between Smoking and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunau, Gilat L.; Ratner, Pamela A.; Hossain, Shahadut; Johnson, Joy L.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the association between depression and anxiety and adolescents' smoking status, and to determine whether depression or anxiety mediate the association between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and smoking. A cross-sectional survey of tobacco use was conducted in regional school districts…

  16. Sleep duration, but not insomnia, predicts the 2-year course of depressive and anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Mill, Josine G; Vogelzangs, Nicole; van Someren, Eus J W; Hoogendijk, Witte J G; Penninx, Brenda W J H

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the predictive role of insomnia and sleep duration on the 2-year course of depressive and anxiety disorders. METHOD: This study is a secondary data analysis based on data from the baseline (2004-2007) and 2-year assessment of the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety. Par

  17. Differential associations of specific depressive and anxiety disorders with somatic symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekhuis, Ella; Boschloo, Lynn; Rosmalen, Judith G M; Schoevers, Robert A

    OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have shown that depressive and anxiety disorders are strongly related to somatic symptoms, but much is unclear about the specificity of this association. This study examines the associations of specific depressive and anxiety disorders with somatic symptoms, and whether

  18. Work functioning in persons with depressive and anxiety disorders : The role of specific psychopathological characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plaisier, I.; Beekman, A.T.F.; de Graaf, R.; Smit, J. H.; van Dyck, R.; Penninx, Brenda

    Background: Depressive and anxiety disorders affect work functioning and cause high labour costs. Aims: To examine and compare psychopathological characteristics of depressive and anxiety disorders in their effect on work functioning. Method: In 1876 working participants of the Netherlands Study of

  19. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy: Innovations for Cardiopulmonary Patients with Depression and Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cully, Jeffrey A.; Paukert, Amber; Falco, Jessica; Stanley, Melinda

    2009-01-01

    Medically ill patients face unique physical and emotional challenges that place them at increased risk for symptoms of depression and anxiety. Despite high prevalence and significant impact, depression and anxiety are infrequently treated in the medically ill because of a variety of patient, provider, and system factors. The current article…

  20. Comorbid anxiety disorders in late-life depression : results of a cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veen, D.C.; van Zelst, W. H.; Schoevers, R. A.; Comijs, H. C.; Oude Voshaar, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Background: Comorbid anxiety disorders are common in late-life depression and negatively impact treatment outcome. This study aimed to examine personality characteristics as well as early and recent life-events as possible determinants of comorbid anxiety disorders in late-life depression, taking pr

  1. Alcohol use disorders and the course of depressive and anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschloo, Lynn; Vogelzangs, Nicole; van den Brink, Wim; Smit, Johannes H.; Veltman, Dick J.; Beekman, Aartjan T. F.; Penninx, Brenda

    2012-01-01

    Background Inconsistent findings have been reported on the role of comorbid alcohol use disorders as risk factors for a persistent course of depressive and anxiety disorders. Aims To determine whether the course of depressive and/or anxiety disorders is conditional on the type (abuse or dependence)

  2. Do depression and anxiety converge or diverge in their association with suicidality?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eikelenboom, Merijn; Smit, Johannes H.; Beekman, Aartjan T. F.; Penninx, Brenda

    2012-01-01

    Depressive disorders have been strongly linked to suicidality, but the association with anxiety disorders is less well established. This exploratory study aims to examine whether anxiety and depressive disorders are both independent risk factors for suicidal ideation and attempted suicide, and addit

  3. The impact of stress systems and lifestyle on dyslipidemia and obesity in anxiety and depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dortland, Arianne K. B. van Reedt; Vreeburg, Sophie A.; Giltay, Erik J.; Licht, Carmilla M. M.; Vogelzangs, Nicole; van Veen, Tineke; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Zitman, Frans G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Dyslipidemia and obesity have been observed in persons with severe anxiety or depression, and in tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) users. This likely contributes to the higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in anxiety and depressive disorders. We aimed to elucidate whether biological

  4. Work functioning in persons with depressive and anxiety disorders : The role of specific psychopathological characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plaisier, I.; Beekman, A.T.F.; de Graaf, R.; Smit, J. H.; van Dyck, R.; Penninx, Brenda

    2010-01-01

    Background: Depressive and anxiety disorders affect work functioning and cause high labour costs. Aims: To examine and compare psychopathological characteristics of depressive and anxiety disorders in their effect on work functioning. Method: In 1876 working participants of the Netherlands Study of

  5. Validation of the depression anxiety stress scales (DASS) 21 as a screening instrument for depression and anxiety in a rural community-based cohort of northern Vietnamese women

    OpenAIRE

    Tran Thach Duc; Tran Tuan; Fisher Jane

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Depression and anxiety are recognised increasingly as serious public health problems among women in low- and lower-middle income countries. The aim of this study was to validate the 21-item Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS21) for use in screening for these common mental disorders among rural women with young children in the North of Vietnam. Methods The DASS-21 was translated from English to Vietnamese, culturally verified, back-translated and administered to wome...

  6. 'Depression is not an illness. It's up to you to make yourself happy': Perceptions of Chinese health professionals and community workers about older Chinese immigrants' experiences of depression and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haralambous, Betty; Dow, Briony; Goh, Anita; Pachana, Nancy A; Bryant, Christina; LoGiudice, Dina; Lin, Xiaoping

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to improve our understanding of depression and anxiety among older immigrant Chinese Australians. The study was based on the National Ageing Research Institute's Cultural Exchange Model, an iterative process of exchange between researchers and stakeholders. The project involved a range of components including consultations with health professionals and community workers about perceptions of depression and anxiety within the Chinese community. This paper reports on these consultation findings. Thematic analysis generated five main categories to explain participants' perceptions of depression and anxiety within the Chinese community. Themes included: lack of knowledge; personal weakness rather than illness; stigma; somatisation; and experience of migration in later life. Responses to questions about education and information dissemination were collated separately and reported. Views of depression and anxiety among older Chinese people suggest that educating the community may be an important way to improve mental health literacy and help-seeking behaviour. © 2016 AJA Inc.

  7. The effect of schema therapy on reducing symptoms of anxiety and depression in nursing and midwifery students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Maleki

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: schema therapy is an effective method to reduce symptoms of anxiety and depression in nursing and midwifery students. Counselors and therapist can use schema therapy to reduce symptoms of anxiety and depression disorder.

  8. Headache and anxiety-depressive disorder comorbidity: the HADAS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beghi, E; Allais, G; Cortelli, P; D'Amico, D; De Simone, R; d'Onofrio, F; Genco, S; Manzoni, G C; Moschiano, F; Tonini, M C; Torelli, P; Quartaroli, M; Roncolato, M; Salvi, S; Bussone, G

    2007-05-01

    Psychiatric comorbidity (prevalence and types) was tested in a naturalistic sample of adult patients with pure migraine without aura, and in two control groups of patients, one experiencing pure tension-type headache and the other combined migraine and tension-type headaches. The study population included 374 patients (158, 110 and 106) from nine Italian secondary and tertiary centres. Psychiatric comorbidity was recorded through structured interview and also screened with the Mini International Neuropsychiatry Interview (MINI). Only anxiety and depression were investigated. Psychiatric disorders were reported by 49 patients (14.6%; 10.9% of patients with migraine, 12.8% of those with tension-type headache and 21.4% of those with combined migraine and tension-type headaches). The MINI interview detected a depressive episode in 59.9% of patients with migraine, 68.3% of patients with tension-type headache and 69.6% of patients with combined migraine and tension-type headaches. Depression subtypes were significantly different across groups (p=0.03). Anxiety (mostly generalised) was reported by 18.4% of patients with migraine, 19.3% of patients with tension-type headache, and 18.4% of patients with combined migraine and tension-type headaches. The values for panic disturbance were 12.7, 5.5 and 14.2, and those for obsessive-compulsive disorders were 2.3, 1.1 and 9.4% (p=0.009). Based on these results, psychopathology of primary headache can be a reflection of the burden of the disease rather than a hallmark of a specific headache category.

  9. Sleep cognitions associated with anxiety and depression in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leblanc MF

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Marie-France Leblanc,1 Sophie Desjardins,1 Alain Desgagné2 1Department of Psychology, Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières, Trois-Rivières, QC, Canada; 2Department of Mathematics, Université du Québec à Montréal, Montréal, QC, Canada Purpose: The objective of this study was to identify the maladaptive sleep-related cognitions most often maintained by the elderly, according to the presence or absence of anxiety and mood disorders. The presence of dysfunctional sleep-related beliefs and attitudes at bedtime in asymptomatic, depressive, and anxious seniors was thus compared. The second objective was to verify the relationships between various dysfunctional cognitions and mental disorders. Method: The sample in this study consisted of 2,759 participants aged 65 years and over, with a mean age of 73.8 years. They were recruited through a method of random generation of telephone numbers according to a sampling strategy based on geographic location. After the goal of the study was explained to them, the participants agreed to have health professionals visit their home and to answer questions in a 1.5-hour-long structured interview (after signing a consent form. Results: Depressive and anxious seniors adopt dysfunctional sleep-related cognitions in higher proportions than asymptomatic older persons. Once we had controlled for the other factors, we were able to specifically link two sleep-related beliefs and all the sleep-related attitudes studied to the probability of being anxious or depressive. Conclusion: The clarifications obtained will make it possible to improve detection, assessment, and intervention processes regarding anxiety or mood disorders, by pinpointing the most direct link between each of the dysfunctional cognitions and the two types of mental disorders, and not just the link to sleep problems. Keywords: beliefs, worries, attitudes, thoughts, insomnia, mental health 

  10. Quality of life impairment in depression and anxiety disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Pande

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Most common mental disorders (CMDs such as anxiety disorders and depressive disorders run a persistent and long course. This results in significant impairment of quality of life (QOL of patients and their families. Evidence-based psychosocial interventions using findings in our own socio-cultural context would help clinicians in holistic management. Objectives: To document illness profile, treatment satisfaction, and QOL in various domains of life in study population and normal controls. Study Design: Cross-sectional analytical study of patients group and their normal family members as a comparison group. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 consecutive patients of depressive disorders and anxiety disorders (ICD-10 clinical diagnosis attending outpatient clinic of the medical college hospital and their age- and gender-matched relatives as the control group were recruited. Socio-demographic profile was documented along with illness parameters: Severity of illness, treatment satisfaction, and QOL was measured using semi- structured interview, HAM, Beck′s depression Inventory, and WHO-QOL scale. Results: The study group measured significantly low on QOL than the comparison group. The two groups differed significantly on the paired " t" test of significance and the variation had a genuine assignable cause. Notwithstanding some variables having a confounding effect and the limitations of a cross-sectional study, the study was conclusive in demonstrating statistically significant impairment of QOL of patients with CMDs, making a strong case for clinicians to pay attention to holistic management of patients. The study has generated QOL data on a small but significant normative population which may serve purpose in future QOL studies.

  11. Fear conditioning and extinction in anxiety- and depression-prone persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibbets, Pauline; van den Broek, Anne; Evers, Elisabeth A T

    2015-01-01

    Anxiety and depression frequently co-occur and may share similar deficits in the processing of emotional stimuli. High anxiety is associated with a failure in the acquisition and extinction of fear conditioning. Despite the supposed common deficits, no research has been conducted on fear acquisition and extinction in depression. The main aim of the present study was to investigate and compare fear acquisition and extinction in anxiety- and depression-prone participants. Non-clinical anxious, depressive, anxious-depressive and control participants performed a fear discrimination task. During acquisition, the CS+ predicted an aversive event (unconditioned stimulus, US) and the CS- safety (no US). During extinction, the CS+ was no longer followed by the US, rendering it (temporarily) into a safety signal. On each CS participants rated their US expectancy; skin conductance responses (SCRs) were measured throughout. The expectancy scores indicated that high anxiety resulted in less safety learning during acquisition and extinction; no effect of depression was observed. SCRs showed that high-anxiety persons displayed less discrimination learning (CS+ minus CS-) during acquisition than low-anxiety persons. During extinction, high-depression persons demonstrated more discriminative SCR than low-depression persons. The observed discrepancies in response patterns of high-anxiety and -depression persons seem to indicate distinctive information processing of emotional stimuli.

  12. An examination of the tripartite model of anxiety and depression and its application to youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, J; Ettelson, R

    2001-09-01

    The ability to differentiate anxiety and depression has been a topic of discussion in the adult and youth literatures for several decades. The tripartite model of anxiety and depression proposed by L. A. Clark and D. Watson (1991) has helped focus the discussion. In the tripartite model, anxiety is characterized by elevated levels of physiological hyperarousal (PH), depression is characterized by low levels of positive affect (PA), and negative affect (NA) or generalized emotional distress is common to both. The advent of the model led to the development of measures of tripartite constructs and subsequent validity studies. The tripartite model and resultant activity concerning the model was largely devoted to adult samples. However. those interested in anxiety and depression among youth are now incorporating the tripartite model in their work. This paper examines the current influence of the tripartite model in the youth literature, especially with regard to measuring anxiety and depression.

  13. Associations between delayed completion of high school and educational attainment and symptom levels of anxiety and depression in adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melkevik, Ole; Hauge, Lars Johan; Bendtsen, Pernille

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is a higher prevalence of anxiety and depression among adults with lower educational attainment. Delayed completion of high school (HS) is common and represents a potentially complicating factor in the relationship between educational attainment and anxiety and depression...... depression and anxiety and interacts with later educational attainment in predicting symptom levels of anxiety. Individuals with a combination of delayed HS completion and lower educational attainment had particularly high symptom levels of anxiety....

  14. ANXIETY AND DEPRESSIVE NEUROSIS - THEIR RESPONSE TO ANXIOLYTIC AND ANTIDEPRESSANT TREATMENT

    OpenAIRE

    1987-01-01

    SUMMARY A total of 90 patients including 30 patients of generalized anxiety disorder and 30 of dysthymic disorder according to DSM III criteria plus 30 patients of mixed anxiety-depressive disorder were given a detailed psychiatric evaluation and four rating scales were made for measuring the level of anxiety and depression at intake and to record their improvement with treatment. Half the subjects in each group were randomly selected for treatment with imipramine and the other half with diaz...

  15. Anxiety and depressive disorders in people with epilepsy: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Amelia J; Sharpe, Louise; Hunt, Caroline; Gandy, Milena

    2017-06-01

    Comorbid anxiety and depressive disorders in people with epilepsy (PWE) are highly prevalent and associated with various adverse outcomes. However, the prevalence of anxiety disorders in PWE across studies is highly variable. Our aim was to estimate the prevalence and moderating factors of anxiety and depressive disorders in PWE. Following prospective registration (PROSPERO; CRD42015027101), electronic databases were searched for studies that reported the prevalence of both anxiety and depressive disorders in samples of PWE up until July 2016. Data extracted included the prevalence of anxiety and depressive disorders, and moderators of interest (e.g., method of diagnosis, prevalence of drug-resistant epilepsy). Meta-analysis of the overall pooled prevalence of anxiety and depressive disorders was conducted. The search yielded 8,636 unique articles, with 27 studies meeting final inclusion criteria (3,221 PWE). The pooled prevalence of anxiety and depressive disorders was 20.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] 15.3-26.0%) and 22.9% (95% CI 18.2-28.4%), respectively. Method of diagnosis significantly moderated anxiety disorder prevalence (Q statistic with one degree of freedom [Q1 ] = 36.29, p < 0.0001); the prevalence of anxiety disorders based on unstructured clinician assessment was 8.1% (95% CI 5.7-11.4%), compared to a prevalence of 27.3% (95% CI 22.1-33.3%) based on a structured clinical interview. There were no significant moderators of depressive disorder diagnosis. Findings suggest the prevalence of anxiety and depressive disorders in PWE are equivalent, and variability in prevalence of anxiety disorders across studies can be attributed partly to the method of diagnosis. These findings also challenge widely held assumptions that psychiatric comorbidity is more common in people with drug-resistant epilepsy. Future research should aim to improve the detection and management of these comorbidities in PWE, particularly anxiety disorders, which have remained

  16. Evaluation of anxiety, depression and suicidal intent in undergraduate dental students: A cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Manish Bathla; Manpreet Singh; Paramanand Kulhara; Shalu Chandna; Jitender Aneja

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is an increasing amount of stress in undergraduate dental students leading to anxiety, depression, and suicidal attempts/suicide. Aims: This study aims to evaluate anxiety, depression and suicidal intent in undergraduate dental students and to find out the various areas of stress. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using a semi-structured questionnaire (to assess academic and nonacademic areas of stress) and three scales-Hamilton scale for anxiety (...

  17. Association Between Anxiety and Depression With Dialysis Adequacy in Patients on Maintenance Hemodialysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi, Afshan; Keihani, Sorena; Bagheri, Nazila; Ghanbari Jolfaei, Atefeh; Mazaheri Meybodi, Azadeh

    2016-01-01

    Background Depression and anxiety are common among hemodialysis patients and affect their treatment outcomes. Dialysis adequacy also affects the hemodialysis patients’ survival rates. Objectives This study aimed to evaluate the correlation between anxiety and depression with dialysis adequacy. Patients and Methods In this cross-sectional study, 127 hemodialysis patients (73 males, 57.5%) with the mean age of 55.7 ± 17.5 were enrolled. Demographic and recent laboratory data were collected using self-administered questionnaires and by reviewing medical records. Dialysis adequacy measures including the Kt/V and urea reduction rate (URR) were calculated using standard formulas. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was used to diagnose depression and anxiety. Independent sample t-test and Chi-square test were used to compare the values in different groups. Pearson correlations and linear regression were used to analyze the data using SPSS version 21. Results The prevalence rates of depression and anxiety (HADS score ≥ 8) were 31.5% and 41.7%, respectively. The prevalence of both conditions was significantly higher in women than in men (P < 0.05). The mean values of Kt/V and URR were not different in patients with and without depression or anxiety. The anxiety scores were correlated with age (P = 0.007, r = -0.24) and parathyroid hormone (P = 0.04, r = -0.19). Younger age and lower parathyroid hormone were the only factors that predicted higher scores of anxiety in linear regression. The Kt/V or URR were not significantly correlated with depression and anxiety scores. Conclusions Depression and anxiety are common among hemodialysis patients. There are no statistically significant correlation between depression and anxiety and dialysis adequacy.

  18. 哮喘患者的情绪障碍调查%Anxiety and Depression in Patients with Asthma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张岚; 徐大华

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the depression and anxiety in patients with asthma. Methods: With SAS and SDS,100 asthmatic patients were assessed. Results: The mean scores of SAS and SDS were 54.12±6.47, 44.8±7.28 respectively. 68% of sample had anxiety and 78% had depression. Conclusion: Most of patients with asthma have anxiety and depression. It suggests the treament of depression and anxiety for asthmatic patients are needed besides the conventional treatment.

  19. Medical students' experience of and reaction to stress: the role of depression and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, Coumaravelou; Wilks, Ray

    2014-01-01

    Medical school is recognized as a stressful environment that often has a negative effect on students' academic performance, physical health, and psychosocial well-being. Previous studies have not identified differences between depressed and nondepressed and anxious and nonanxious medical students' experiences of stress or their reactions to stressors. The present study aimed to identify the prevalence of depression and anxiety among a sample of 358 medical students attending a private university in Malaysia and to examine differences according to participants' gender, year of study, and stage of training (preclinical and clinical). Additionally, this study examined the extent to which stress predicts depression and anxiety, differences between depressed and nondepressed medical students' experiences of and reactions to stressors, and differences between anxious and nonanxious medical students' experiences of and reactions to stressors. The Student Life Stress Inventory was used to measure stress and reaction to stressors and the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale was used to measure depression and anxiety. The results showed that 44% (n = 158) of the students were anxious and 34.9% (n = 125) were depressed. More female students exhibited anxiety compared to male students. Stress is a predictor for depression and anxiety. A significant difference was found between depressed and nondepressed and anxious and nonanxious students' experience of stressors due to frustration, change, and their emotional reaction to stressors. Overall, depressed and anxious students were found to experience more stress and react differently to stressors compared to nondepressed and nonanxious students.

  20. Medical Students’ Experience of and Reaction to Stress: The Role of Depression and Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coumaravelou Saravanan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Medical school is recognized as a stressful environment that often has a negative effect on students’ academic performance, physical health, and psychosocial well-being. Previous studies have not identified differences between depressed and nondepressed and anxious and nonanxious medical students’ experiences of stress or their reactions to stressors. The present study aimed to identify the prevalence of depression and anxiety among a sample of 358 medical students attending a private university in Malaysia and to examine differences according to participants’ gender, year of study, and stage of training (preclinical and clinical. Additionally, this study examined the extent to which stress predicts depression and anxiety, differences between depressed and nondepressed medical students’ experiences of and reactions to stressors, and differences between anxious and nonanxious medical students’ experiences of and reactions to stressors. Methods. The Student Life Stress Inventory was used to measure stress and reaction to stressors and the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale was used to measure depression and anxiety. Results. The results showed that 44% (n=158 of the students were anxious and 34.9% (n=125 were depressed. More female students exhibited anxiety compared to male students. Stress is a predictor for depression and anxiety. A significant difference was found between depressed and nondepressed and anxious and nonanxious students’ experience of stressors due to frustration, change, and their emotional reaction to stressors. Conclusion. Overall, depressed and anxious students were found to experience more stress and react differently to stressors compared to nondepressed and nonanxious students.

  1. Correlations between Academic Achievement and Anxiety and Depression in Medical Students Experiencing Integrated Curriculum Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chun Yeh

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the correlations between academic achievement and levels of anxiety and depression in medical students who were experiencing curriculum reform. The differences in academic achievement and the directions of correlations between academic achievement and anxiety and depression among the medical students with different levels of anxiety and depression were also examined. Grade 1 students from graduate-entry program and grade 3 students from undergraduate-entry program in their first semester of the new curriculum were recruited to complete the Zung's Anxiety and Depression Scale twice to examine their levels of anxiety and depression. Their academic achievement ratings in the four blocks of the first semester of the new curriculum were collected. The results indicated that no significant correlation was found between academic achievement and global anxiety and depression. However, by dividing the medical students into low, moderate and high level anxiety or depression groups, those who had poorer academic achievement in the first learning block were more likely to have higher levels of depression in the first psychologic assessment. Among the medical students who were in the high anxiety level group in the first psychologic assessment, those who had more severe anxiety had poorer academic achievement in the fourth learning block. Among the medical students who were in the low anxiety level group in the second psychologic assessment, those who had more severe anxiety had better academic achievement in the fourth learning block. Among the medical students who were in the moderate anxiety level group in the second psychologic assessment, those who had more severe anxiety had poorer academic achievement in the second learning block. Among the medical students who were in the high depression level group in the second psychologic assessment, those who had more severe depression had poorer academic achievement in the fourth

  2. Meta-analysis on anxiety and depression in adult celiac disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, D F; Gerdes, Ulrik

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We used meta-analysis to test hypotheses concerning whether adult celiac disease is reliably linked with anxiety and/or depression. METHOD: We examined published reports on anxiety and depression in adult celiac disease. RESULTS: Eighteen studies on depression and eleven studies...... on anxiety in adult celiac disease met selection criteria. They show that depression is reliably more common and/or more severe in adults with celiac disease than in healthy adults (overall meta-analysis effect size: 0.97). The fail-safe margin of unpublished reports that would be required to negate...... the finding exceeds 8000. Adults with celiac disease do not, however, differ reliably in terms of depression from adults with other physical illnesses, nor do they differ reliably from healthy adults or adults with other physical illnesses in terms of anxiety. CONCLUSION: Depression is common in adult celiac...

  3. Cyber victimization by peers: Prospective associations with adolescent social anxiety and depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landoll, Ryan R; La Greca, Annette M; Lai, Betty S; Chan, Sherilynn F; Herge, Whitney M

    2015-07-01

    Peer victimization that occurs via electronic media, also termed cybervictimization, is a growing area of concern for adolescents. The current study evaluated the short-term prospective relationship between cybervictimization and adolescents' symptoms of social anxiety and depression over a six-week period. Participants were 839 high-school aged adolescents (14-18 years; 58% female; 73% Hispanic White), who completed measures of traditional peer victimization, cybervictimization, depression, and social anxiety at two time points. Findings supported the distinctiveness of cybervictimization as a unique form of peer victimization. Furthermore, only cybervictimization was associated with increased levels of depressive symptoms over time, and only relational victimization was associated with increased social anxiety over time, after controlling for the comorbidity of social anxiety and depression among youth. Cybervictimization appears to be a unique form of victimization that contributes to adolescents' depressive symptoms and may be important to target in clinical and preventive interventions for adolescent depression.

  4. Dental coping strategies, general anxiety, and depression among adult patients with dental anxiety but with different dental-attendance patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernson, Jenny M; Elfström, Magnus L; Hakeberg, Magnus

    2013-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate dental coping strategies, general anxiety, and depression in relation to regularity of dental treatment among persons with either regular dental care or phobic avoidance, whilst controlling for sociodemographic factors. Psychometric questionnaires on dental anxiety, dental coping strategies, general anxiety, and depression were delivered to 263 adult patients with dental phobic avoidance behavior who were seeking help from a specialized dental fear clinic and to 141 adult patients with dental anxiety who were receiving regular dental care from various public dental clinics. The results showed that the levels of dental and general anxiety and of depression were significantly higher among irregular attendees compared with regular attendees. Irregular attendees admitted fewer adaptive coping strategies. Predictive of irregular dental care were gender, dental anxiety, general anxiety, and the nonuse of the coping strategy 'optimism'. This study further confirms earlier preliminary results that the use of optimistic thinking is predictive for regular dental attendance habits and that male gender is a risk factor for irregular attendance. Moreover, this study adds that a high level of general anxiety indicates a higher risk for irregular dental care.

  5. Depression and Anxiety among Parents of Children with Blood Disease in Ahvaz, South West of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadis Ashrafizadeh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Existence the children with blood diseases in family could cause lots of stress and anxiety for parents, this stress among parents would negative effects on children's disease process and his response to treatment. Materials and Methods This is a descriptive-analytical study which carried out on 480 parents with children affected to blood disease referring to Shafa hospital of Ahvaz, Iran.  The parents’ level of anxiety was evaluated using the Hospital Scale for Anxiety and Depression. In this study Sample size by using statistical formulas was selected 480 persons by available sampling. Data were analyzed using SPSS-16 software. Results Results showed that in 20.4% (98 cases of parents level of anxiety was intense, in 50.7% (243 cases level of anxiety was middle, in 15.6% (75 cases level of anxiety was low and 13.3% (64 cases of parents were lack of anxiety. Additionally the results of level depression study showed that 8.6% (41cases of parents had severe depression, 35.7% (171 cases moderate depression, 15.7% (76 cases low depression and 40% (192 cases no depression. According to the results of this study, there was a significant difference between level of anxiety and depression of parents and the duration of child's hospitalization (P

  6. A review of the tripartite model for understanding the link between anxiety and depression in youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Emily R; Hope, Debra A

    2008-02-01

    Although research from numerous investigations indicates that there is substantial overlap in anxiety and depressive symptoms and comorbid diagnoses in youth, these constructs can be adequately differentiated. Clark and Watson [Clark, L. A. & Watson, D., (1991). Tripartite model of anxiety and depression: Psychometric evidence and taxonomic implications. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 100, 316-336] proposed a tripartite model to account for the symptom overlap and diagnostic comorbidity between anxiety and depression. This tripartite model posits that anxiety and depression share a common component of negative affect, but can be differentiated by low positive affect associated with depression and high physiological hyperarousal associated with anxiety. The present article reviews initial research which has supported the utility of the tripartite model for explaining the association between anxiety and depression in adult and youth samples. Following that review, more recent investigations which have called into question the applicability of the tripartite constructs for youth are presented. Finally, the paper reviews evidence suggesting that the tripartite factors may not function similarly across all anxiety and depressive disorders. This article concludes by suggesting that more research is necessary with children and adolescents in order to determine the functioning of tripartite constructs across anxiety disorders in youth.

  7. Prevalence of depression and anxiety in Multiple Sclerosis: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeschoten, Rosa E; Braamse, Annemarie M J; Beekman, Aartjan T F; Cuijpers, Pim; van Oppen, Patricia; Dekker, Joost; Uitdehaag, Bernard M J

    2017-01-15

    Prevalence rates of depression and anxiety in patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS) vary widely across studies. Aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to a) estimate the prevalence of depression and anxiety in MS, and specifically b) explore sources of heterogeneity (assessment method, prevalence period, study quality, recruitment resource, region) by extensive analyses. A computerized search in PubMed, EMBASE, and PsycINFO for studies on depression and anxiety in MS was performed up to December 2014. Fifty-eight articles with a total sample size of 87,756 MS patients were selected. Pooled mean prevalence was 30.5% (95% CI=26.3%-35.1%) for depression, and 22.1% (95% CI=15.2%-31.0%) for anxiety. Prevalence of clinically significant depressive or anxiety symptoms was higher (35% and 34%) compared with disorders (21%; p=0.001 and 10%; pAnxiety disorder was more prevalent in community-based samples. Sources of high heterogeneity were not revealed. Data of a large number of patients indicate increased prevalence of depression and anxiety in MS. Further research is needed to identify sources of heterogeneity. Issues to consider are the definition of depression and anxiety, patient recruitment, and patient characteristics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Locus of Control Fails to Mediate between Stress and Anxiety and Depression in Parents of Children with a Developmental Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlyn-Wright, Sarah; Draghi-Lorenz, Riccardo; Ellis, Jason

    2007-01-01

    Stress, anxiety and depression are raised amongst parents of children with a developmental disorder. However, the processes by which stress leads to depression and anxiety are poorly understood. In a cross-sectional survey, levels of parental stress, depression and anxiety were compared between parents of children with an autistic disorder,…

  9. Childhood life events and childhood trauma in adult patients with depressive, anxiety and comorbid disorders vs. controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovens, J. G. F. M.; Wiersma, J. E.; Giltay, E. J.; van Oppen, P.; Spinhoven, P.; Penninx, B. W. J. H.; Zitman, F. G.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the association between childhood life events, childhood trauma and the presence of anxiety, depressive or comorbid anxiety and depressive disorders in adulthood. Method: Data are from 1931 adult participants in the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA). Child

  10. "Why do they have to grow up so fast?" Parental separation anxiety and emerging adults' pathology of separation-individuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kins, Evie; Soenens, Bart; Beyers, Wim

    2011-07-01

    This study examined associations between parental separation anxiety, controlling parenting, and difficulties in the separation-individuation process, as manifested in separation-individuation pathology. In a sample of emerging adults involved in the process of home leaving (N = 232) and their parents, it was found that parental separation anxiety is positively related to separation-individuation pathology in emerging adults. Dependency-oriented controlling parenting served as an intervening variable in the relationship between parents' feelings of separation anxiety and pathology of the separation-individuation process in emerging adults. These associations were not moderated by emerging adults' residential status (i.e., living with parents or (semi-)independently), suggesting that parental characteristics and behaviors remain important antecedents of separation-individuation pathology even when one no longer lives in the parental household. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Risk factors for depression and anxiety among pregnant women in Hospital Tuanku Bainun, Ipoh, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadzil, Ariff; Balakrishnan, Kartini; Razali, Rosdinom; Sidi, Hatta; Malapan, Thinakaran; Japaraj, Robert Peter; Midin, Marhani; Nik Jaafar, Nik Ruzyanei; Das, Srijit; Manaf, Mohd Rizal Abdul

    2013-04-01

    Anxiety and depression are prevalent during pregnancy. Estimates of the prevalence of anxiety and depression during pregnancy vary according to the criteria used, variable methodologies and population characteristics. A cross-sectional survey design was used. A total of 175 antenatal mothers participated. Their socio-demographic and obstetric histories were recorded. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.) were used. The prevalence of anxiety and depression disorders among antenatal mothers using diagnostic clinical interview were 9.1% and 8.6%, respectively. Factors associated with antenatal anxiety were marital status (being unmarried), positive history of mental illness, gestational age (<20 weeks), unplanned pregnancy and depressive comorbidity. However, only gestational age of less than 20 weeks and depressive disorder remained significant factors in the multivariate analysis. The prevalence rate of antenatal depression detected by HADS screening was comparable to the rate from diagnostic interview, but there was a slight overestimation for antenatal anxiety. Nonetheless, HADS as a screening tool offers a practical solution for detecting these two conditions in a busy antenatal clinic or a large epidemiological survey. In view of the deleterious effects of antenatal anxiety and depression on mothers and children, these two conditions should be screened and managed appropriately. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  12. Anxiety and disruptive behavior mediate pathways from attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder to depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Arunima; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Verhulst, Frank C; Ormel, Johan; Hartman, Catharina A

    2014-02-01

    The progression to depression in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is not clearly understood. To clarify this relationship, we tested the following hypotheses in a population-based study: (1) children with ADHD have a higher risk of developing depression than children without ADHD; (2) the pathway from ADHD to depression is mediated (partly) through anxiety and disruptive behavior disorders; and (3) mediation through anxiety is more prevalent in girls, and mediation through disruptive behavior disorders is more prevalent in boys. From October 2008 to September 2010, the Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used to assess ADHD, major depressive episodes, anxiety disorders, and disruptive behavior disorders in 1,584 participants from the TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS) cohort. Cox regression was used to model the effects of ADHD, anxiety, and disruptive behaviors on depression. Risk of and pathways to depression were studied in both children with ADHD and children with subthreshold ADHD. Comorbid depression was present in 36% of children with a diagnosis of ADHD, 24% of children with subthreshold ADHD, and 14% of children with no ADHD. Anxiety and disruptive behaviors mediated 32% of depression in ADHD. Pathways through anxiety and disruptive behavior disorders were independent of gender. Disruptive behavior disorder was a stronger mediator than anxiety for both genders (all P disruptive behavior disorders are present in a child with ADHD. © Copyright 2014 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  13. Comorbidity of PTSD in anxiety and depressive disorders: prevalence and shared risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinhoven, Philip; Penninx, Brenda W; van Hemert, Albert M; de Rooij, Mark; Elzinga, Bernet M

    2014-08-01

    The present study aims to assess comorbidity of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in anxiety and depressive disorders and to determine whether childhood trauma types and other putative independent risk factors for comorbid PTSD are unique to PTSD or shared with anxiety and depressive disorders. The sample of 2402 adults aged 18-65 included healthy controls, persons with a prior history of affective disorders, and persons with a current affective disorder. These individuals were assessed at baseline (T0) and 2 (T2) and 4 years (T4) later. At each wave, DSM-IV-TR based anxiety and depressive disorder, neuroticism, extraversion, and symptom severity were assessed. Childhood trauma was measured at T0 with an interview and at T4 with a questionnaire, and PTSD was measured with a standardized interview at T4. Prevalence of 5-year recency PTSD among anxiety and depressive disorders was 9.2%, and comorbidity, in particular with major depression, was high (84.4%). Comorbidity was associated with female gender, all types of childhood trauma, neuroticism, (low) extraversion, and symptom severity. Multivariable significant risk factors (i.e., female gender and child sexual and physical abuse) were shared among anxiety and depressive disorders. Our results support a shared vulnerability model for comorbidity of anxiety and depressive disorders with PTSD. Routine assessment of PTSD in patients with anxiety and depressive disorders seems warranted.

  14. Acupoints Stimulation for Anxiety and Depression in Cancer Patients: A Quantitative Synthesis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This study aims at concluding the current evidence on the therapeutic effects of acupoints stimulation for cancer patients with anxiety and depression. Randomized controlled trials using acupoints stimulation for relieving anxiety and/or depression in cancer patients were searched, and 11 studies were finally included, of which eight trials compared acupoints stimulation with standard methods of treatment/care, and acupoints stimulation showed significantly better effects in improving depress...

  15. Correlates of anxiety and depression among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Yatan Pal Singh Balhara; Rajesh Sagar

    2011-01-01

    Context: Research has established the relation between diabetes and depression. Both diabetes and anxiety/depression are independently associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Aims: The present study aims at assessing the prevalence of anxiety/depression among outpatients receiving treatment for type 2 diabetes. Settings and Design: The study was conducted in the endocrinology outpatient department of an urban tertiary care center. Materials and Methods: The instruments used include...

  16. Disorder-specific cognitive profiles in major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Hendriks, S.M.; Licht, C.M.M.; Spijker, J; Beekman, A T F; Hardeveld, F.; de Graaf, R.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: This investigation examines differences in cognitive profiles in subjects with major depressive disorder (MDD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Methods: Data were used from subjects with current MDD (n = 655), GAD (n = 107) and comorbid MDD/GAD (n = 266) diagnosis from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA). The Composite Interview Diagnostic Instrument was used to diagnose MDD and GAD. Cognitive profiles were measured using the Leiden Index of Depression S...

  17. Comorbidity and risk indicators for alcohol use disorders among persons with anxiety and/or depressive disorders: findings from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Boschloo; N. Vogelzangs; J.H. Smit; W. van den Brink; D.J. Veltman; A.T.F. Beekman; B.W.J.H. Penninx

    2011-01-01

    This study examines comorbidity of alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence as well as its risk indicators among anxious and/or depressed persons, also considering temporal sequencing of disorders. Baseline data from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA) were used, including 2329 perso

  18. The Association of Satisfaction and Perceived Burden With Anxiety and Depression in Primary Caregivers of Dependent Elderly Relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del-Pino-Casado, Rafael; Palomino-Moral, Pedro A; Frías-Osuna, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    Some researchers have viewed caregiver burden and satisfaction as two ends of the same continuum rather than as independent aspects of the caregiving experience. We conducted a cross-sectional study of primary caregivers of dependent elderly relatives in Spain (N = 200; probabilistic sample), to determine whether satisfaction and perceived burden coexisted in caregivers, and whether these variables, considered separately and in combination, were associated with anxiety and depression, while controlling for objective aspects of care recipients' needs. Data on satisfaction with care, perceived burden, objective burden, anxiety, and depression were gathered in 2013 by interviews in caregivers' homes. Descriptive, bivariate, and multivariate analyses were performed. Of the 200 primary caregivers, 12.5% reported both high satisfaction with care and high perceived burden. Anxiety and depression levels were lower in caregivers with high satisfaction and low perceived burden than in those with low satisfaction and high burden or with high satisfaction and high burden. Our findings support the following conclusions: (1) Satisfaction may be experienced despite the presence of stressful factors; (2) the combination of high satisfaction and low burden might have protective effects on anxiety and depression in caregivers.

  19. GABAergic control of critical developmental periods for anxiety- and depression-related behavior in mice.

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    Qiuying Shen

    Full Text Available Vulnerability for anxiety and depressive disorders is thought to have origins in early life and is increasingly recognized to involve deficits in GABAergic neurotransmission. Mice that were rendered heterozygous for the γ2 subunit gene of GABA(A receptors (GABA(ARs show behavioral, cognitive, neuroendocrine and pharmacologic features expected of a mouse model of melancholic anxious depression, including reduced survival of adult-born hippocampal neurons. Here we embarked on elucidating the developmental substrate underlying this phenotype, focusing on the Elevated Plus Maze and Forced Swim Test as relevant behavioral paradigms. In a first series of experiments using hemizygous tamoxifen-induced genetic inactivation of a floxed γ2 genomic locus we show that reducing the gene dosage at postnatal days (P13/14 but not P27/28 results in altered behavior in both of these tests in adulthood, reminiscent of the anxious-depressive phenotype previously described for global heterozygous mice. However, in contrast to global heterozygous mice, the behavioral changes induced by γ2 subunit knockdown at P13/14 occurred without changes in adult hippocampal neurogenesis, indicating that altered neurogenesis is not an absolute prerequisite for anxiety- and depression-related behavior in this model. In a separate series of experiments using a pharmacological approach, acute but transient potentiation of GABA(ARs with diazepam uncovered distinct developmental vulnerabilities for altered behavior in the Elevated Plus Maze and Forced Swim Test, respectively. Specifically, diazepam given during P10-16 but not during later weeks resulted in increased anxiety-like behavior in adulthood, while diazepam administered during P29-35 but not earlier nor later resulted in increased immobility behavior in adulthood. We conclude that anxiety-like behavior in the Elevated Plus Maze and behavioral despair-like immobility in the Forced Swim Test are controlled by separate

  20. The role of the mother-child relationship for anxiety disorders and depression: results from a prospective-longitudinal study in adolescents and their mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asselmann, Eva; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Lieb, Roselind; Beesdo-Baum, Katja

    2015-04-01

    This study aims to examine whether (a) low child valence (emotional connectedness) within the mother-child relationship increases the risk for offspring depression, (b) low child potency (individual autonomy) increases the risk for offspring anxiety, and (c) maternal psychopathology pronounces these associations. We used data from a prospective-longitudinal study of adolescents (aged 14-17 at baseline) and their mothers (N = 1,015 mother-child dyads). Anxiety disorders and depression were assessed repeatedly over 10 years in adolescents (T0, T1, T2, T3) and their mothers (T1, T3) using the DSM-IV/M-CIDI. Valence and potency were assessed in mothers (T1) with the Subjective Family Image Questionnaire. Odds ratios (OR) from logistic regression were used to estimate associations between low child valence/potency and offspring psychopathology (cumulated lifetime incidences; adjusted for sex and age). In separate models (low valence or low potency as predictor), low child valence predicted offspring depression only (OR = 1.26 per SD), while low child potency predicted offspring anxiety (OR = 1.24) and depression (OR = 1.24). In multiple models (low valence and low potency as predictors), low child valence predicted offspring depression only (OR = 1.19), while low child potency predicted offspring anxiety only (OR = 1.22). Low child potency interacted with maternal anxiety on predicting offspring depression (OR = 1.49), i.e. low child potency predicted offspring depression only in the presence of maternal anxiety (OR = 1.33). These findings suggest that low child valence increases the risk for offspring depression, while low child potency increases the risk for offspring anxiety and depression and interacts with maternal psychopathology on predicting offspring depression.

  1. Depression and anxiety among middle-aged women: A community-based study

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    Priya Bansal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anxiety and depressive disorders constitute a substantial proportion of the global burden of disease and are projected to form the second most common cause of disability by 2020. Objective: To assess the level of depression and anxiety among middle age women and the possible factors behind it. Materials and Methods: A total of 180 women aged 40-60 years were selected by proportionate sampling technique. Age, education, marital status, socioeconomic status, age at marriage, age at menopause, weight and height were noted. Zung-self-rating scales were used for calculating levels of depression and anxiety in these women. The data were analyzed by using statistical software SPSS. Results: The level of syndromal depression and anxiety was found to be 86.7% and 88.9%, respectively. Most of the subjects had the moderate type of depression (49.5% followed by mild (29.4% and severe depression (7.8%. While in case of anxiety, most of the subjects (69.4% had a mild form of anxiety and 17.8% had moderate anxiety level. A significant difference was observed in the level of depression with respect to marital status (P = 0.009 and in the level of anxiety with respect to age (P = 0.021 in the study subjects. On applying logistic regression, none of the factors studied were found to be significant variables for anxiety or depression in the study population. Conclusion: Depression and anxiety are prevalent among the middle-aged women in rural Punjab. Provision of mental health services in this group is essential.

  2. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD) as a screening instrument in tinnitus evaluation.

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    Zöger, Sigyn; Svedlund, Jan; Holgers, Kajsa-Mia

    2004-09-01

    The identification of anxiety and depressive disorders in tinnitus patients is important from a therapeutic point of view. We have addressed this question by investigating the screening performance of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD) in a consecutive series of tinnitus patients (n = 82) without severe socially disabling hearing loss referred to an audiological clinic. The structured clinical interview for DSM-III criteria was used as the gold standard. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to compare the screening abilities of the HAD subscales for anxiety and depression and the total HAD Scale. The ROC analysis showed that the HAD Scale was better at detecting depression than anxiety disorders in tinnitus patients. The optimal cut-off score for the subscales was > or = 5 when we were screening for any anxiety or depressive disorder as well as for major depression. The performance of the HAD depression subscale was superior, especially when we were screening for major depression only (sensitivity 1.00; specificity 0.75). The findings of the study suggest that the HAD Scale is more useful for screening for depression than for anxiety disorders in tinnitus patients

  3. Associations of depression, anxiety and antidepressants with histological severity of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Nagy A; Abdelmalek, Manal F; Binks, Martin; Guy, Cynthia D; Omenetti, Alessia; Smith, Alastair D; Diehl, Anna Mae E; Suzuki, Ayako

    2013-08-01

    Depression and anxiety are common in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, their associations with histological severity of NAFLD are unknown. This study examined the association(s) of depression, anxiety and antidepressant pharmacotherapy with severity of histological features in patients with NAFLD. We analysed 567 patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD enrolled in the Duke NAFLD Clinical Database. Depressive and anxiety symptoms were assessed using the Hospital Anxiety & Depression Scale (HADS). The associations of depression and anxiety with severity of histological features of NAFLD were analysed using multiple logistic (or ordinal logistic) regression models with and without adjusting for confounding factors. Subclinical and clinical depression was noted in 53% and 14% of patients respectively. Subclinical and clinical anxiety was noted in 45% and 25% of patients respectively. After adjusting for confounders, depression was significantly associated with more severe hepatocyte ballooning in a dose-dependent manner (likelihood ratio test, P = 0.0201); adjusted cumulative odds ratio (COR) of subclinical and clinical depression for having a higher grade of hepatocyte ballooning were 2.1 [95% CI, 1.0, 4.4] and 3.6 [95% CI, 1.4, 8.8]. In patients with NAFLD, depression was associated with more severe hepatocyte ballooning. Further investigation exploring pathobiological mechanisms underlying the observed associations and potential effects of antidepressant pharmacotherapy on NAFLD liver histology is warranted. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Anxiety and depression associated with caregiver burden in caregivers of stroke survivors with spasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denno, Melissa S; Gillard, Patrick J; Graham, Glenn D; DiBonaventura, Marco D; Goren, Amir; Varon, Sepi F; Zorowitz, Richard

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the relationship between anxiety/depression and caregiver burden in informal caregivers of stroke survivors with spasticity. Data were collected via online surveys from informal caregivers 18 years or older who cared for stroke survivors. Internet-based survey. 2007 through 2009 U.S. National Health and Wellness Survey database or Lightspeed Research general panel respondents (N=153). Not applicable. Anxiety and depression were self-reported by the caregiver as a physician diagnosis. Depression severity was measured by the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). Caregiver burden was measured by the Oberst Caregiving Burden Scale (OCBS) and the Bakas Caregiving Outcomes Scale (BCOS). Logistic regression analyses were conducted with anxiety, depression, and the PHQ-9 depression severity categories as a result of each caregiver burden scale. Data were analyzed for 153 informal caregivers; they were mostly women (70.6%) and white (78.4%), with a mean age of 51.6 years. For every 1-point increase in the OCBS Difficulty Scale, the odds of anxiety or depression were 2.57 times as great (Pcaregiver burden increases, caregivers are more likely to have anxiety and depression. Depression severity also increases. Providing treatment to stroke survivors with spasticity that lessens the time and more importantly, the difficulty of caregiving may lead to a reduction in caregiver anxiety and depression. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Anxiety and depression in association with morbid obesity: changes with improved physical health after duodenal switch

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    Sletteskog Nils

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Patients with morbid obesity have an increased risk for anxiety and depression. The "duodenal switch" is perhaps the most effective obesity surgery procedure for inducing weight loss. However, to our knowledge, data on symptoms of anxiety and depression after the duodenal switch are lacking. Furthermore, it has been hypothesized that self-reported physical health is the major predictor of symptoms of depression in patients with morbid obesity. We therefore investigated the symptoms of anxiety and depression before and after the duodenal switch procedure and whether post-operative changes in self-reported physical health were predictive of changes in these symptoms. Methods Data were assessed before surgery (n = 50, and one (n = 47 and two (n = 44 years afterwards. Symptoms of anxiety and depression were assessed by the "Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale", and self-reported physical health was assessed by the "Short-Form 36" questionnaire. Linear mixed effect models were used to investigate changes in the symptoms of anxiety and depression. Correlation and linear multiple regression analyses were used to study whether changes in self-reported physical health were predictive of post-operative changes in the symptoms of anxiety and depression. Results The symptom burden of anxiety and depression were high before surgery but were normalized one and two years afterwards (P Conclusions The novelty of this study is the large and sustained reductions in the symptoms of anxiety and depression after the duodenal switch procedure, and that these changes were closely associated with improvements in self-reported physical health.

  6. Headache, anxiety and depressive disorders: the HADAS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beghi, Ettore; Bussone, Gennaro; D'Amico, Domenico; Cortelli, Pietro; Cevoli, Sabina; Manzoni, Gian Camillo; Torelli, Paola; Tonini, Maria Clara; Allais, Giovanni; De Simone, Roberto; D'Onofrio, Florindo; Genco, Sergio; Moschiano, Franca; Beghi, Massimiliano; Salvi, Sara

    2010-04-01

    The objective of this paper was to assess prevalence and characteristics of anxiety and depression in migraine without aura and tension-type headache, either isolated or in combination. Although the association between headache and psychiatric disorders is undisputed, patients with migraine and/or tension-type headache have been frequently investigated in different settings and using different tests, which prevents meaningful comparisons. Psychiatric comorbidity was tested through structured interview and the MINI inventory in 158 adults with migraine without aura and in 216 persons with tension-type headache or migraine plus tension-type headache. 49 patients reported psychiatric disorders: migraine 10.9%, tension-type headache 12.8%, and migraine plus tension-type headache 21.4%. The MINI detected a depressive episode in 59.9, 67.0, and 69.6% of cases. Values were 18.4, 19.3, and 18.4% for anxiety, 12.7, 5.5, and 14.2%, for panic disorder and 2.3, 1.1 and 9.4% (p = 0.009) for obsessive-compulsive disorder. Multivariate analysis showed panic disorder prevailing in migraine compared with the other groups (OR 2.9; 95% CI 1.2-7.0). The association was higher (OR 6.3; 95% CI 1.4-28.5) when migraine (with or without tension-type headache) was compared to pure tension-type headache. This also applied to obsessive-compulsive disorder (OR 4.8; 95% CI 1.1-20.9) in migraine plus tension-type headache. Psychopathology of primary headache can reflect shared risk factors, pathophysiologic mechanisms, and disease burden.

  7. DEPRESSION AND ANXIETY IN PATIENT WITH ACUTE CORONARY SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadek Dwi Krisnayanti

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE Depression and anxiety are two conditions that common happened in patient with acute coronary syndrome which can cause negative cardiovascular outcomes. Although the prevalencies of these two conditions are slightly high, most of them had not been treated well. The mechanisms that underly the association between depression and anxiety with the negative cardiovascular outcome are possibly correlates with their effect on inflammatory process, cathecolamine release, heart rate variability, endothelial function and also their effect on health promoting behavior. Fortunately, the standard therapies that available for these conditions are safe, effective, and can be tolerated well in most patients. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  8. The lonely mouse: verification of a separation-induced model of depression in female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Alison L; Brown, Richard E

    2010-02-11

    Animal models of depression seldom test females, even though women are twice as likely as men to suffer from major depressive disorder. Since female mice are sensitive to social isolation, we tested a separation-based model of depression in three experiments. In experiment 1 female C57BL/6J mice were housed in three conditions: isolated (housed individually from 8 weeks of age), separated (housed in groups and then separated and housed individually at 23 weeks of age) and grouped (housed in groups from 8 weeks of age). At 24 weeks of age, there was a significant increase in weight and in immobility in individually housed mice in the forced swim test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST), a reduction in transitions in the L/D box, a reduced startle response and reduced prepulse inhibition, but no differences in cued or context fear conditioning. Experiment 2 showed that fluoxetine treatment administered via drinking water attenuated depressive-like behaviour in the FST and TST in individually housed female C57BL/6J mice, but had no effect on anxiety-like behaviour. Experiment 3 found that group-housed females had higher baseline corticosterone (CORT) levels than isolated females and fluoxetine had no effect on CORT levels. Thus, separation from group housing is a reliable and valid method for inducing depression-like behaviour in female mice. This procedure is both versatile, allowing for the study of genetic and environmental interactions, and accessible, making it useful for studying depression and testing new drugs for its treatment.

  9. Effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor on treating tinnitus in patients stratified for presence of depression or anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Naoki; Kanzaki, Sho; Shinden, Seiichi; Saito, Hideyuki; Inoue, Yasuhiro; Ogawa, Kaoru

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, paroxetine, on treating tinnitus.Tinnitus patients stratified for the presence of depression and anxiety were studied retrospectively. Fifty-six patients were observed for more than 6 months. They were initially treated with paroxetine only at a dose of 10 mg/day for 2-4 weeks; thereafter, the dose was increased to 20 mg/day. Tinnitus distress was evaluated with the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI) and with visual analog scales (VASs) for tinnitus loudness and annoyance. Depression and anxiety were measured with the Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) and the trait section of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). The patients were grouped according to their SDS and STAI scores, and each variable was compared at baseline and the 6-month follow-up. Changes among these variables were also examined to determine whether reduced tinnitus distress was related to the improvement of depression or anxiety. Patients with both depression and anxiety showed better results (decrease in THI, VASs, SDS and STAI scores) than patients with anxiety alone, or patients without depression and anxiety. In patients with depression and anxiety, changes in tinnitus variables and changes in depression and anxiety scores were strongly correlated. In other patients, however, changes in tinnitus variables and changes in depression and anxiety scores were not correlated. These results suggest that paroxetine is effective in treating distressed tinnitus patients with depression and anxiety by reducing their tinnitus severity as well as their depression and anxiety.

  10. Anxiety and depression symptoms as risk factors for non-adherence to antiretroviral therapy in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Lorenza Nogueira; Guimarães, Mark Drew Crosland; Remien, Robert H

    2010-04-01

    Depression and anxiety are common among HIV-infected people and rank among the strongest predictors of non-adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART). This longitudinal study aimed to assess whether symptoms of anxiety and depression are predictors of non-adherence among patients initiating ART at two public referral centers (n = 293) in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Prevalence of severe anxiety and depression symptoms before starting ART was 12.6% and 5.8%, respectively. Severe anxiety was a predictor of non-adherence to ART during follow-up period (RH = 1.87; 95% CI = 1.14-3.06) adjusted for low education, unemployment, alcohol use in the last month and symptoms of AIDS; while a history of injection drug use had borderline statistical significance with non-adherence. These findings suggest that using a brief screening procedure to assess anxiety and depression symptoms before initiating ART help identify individuals for interventions to improve adherence and quality of life.

  11. Factor analysis of the hospital anxiety and depression scale among a Huntington's disease population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dale, Maria; Maltby, John; Martucci, Rossana

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Depression and anxiety are common in Huntington's disease, a genetic neurodegenerative disorder. There is a need for measurement tools of mood to be validated within a Huntington's disease population. The current study aimed to analyze the factor structure of the Hospital Anxiety......, with two group factors, comprising four depression and four anxiety items, provided the best fit of the data. The salience of loadings on the bifactor model suggested that loadings were high on the general factor (accounting for 64% of the variance) and low on the group factors (21% for anxiety and 15......% for depression). CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that eight items from the scale perform well among the sample. Consistent with recent developments in modeling the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, a bifactor interpretation for an eight-item version outperformed other extant models. Our findings provide...

  12. Preventing Adolescent Social Anxiety and Depression and Reducing Peer Victimization: Intervention Development and Open Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Greca, Annette M.; Ehrenreich-May, Jill; Mufson, Laura; Chan, Sherilynn

    2016-01-01

    Background: Social anxiety disorder (SAD) and depression are common among adolescents, frequently comorbid, and resistant to change. Prevention programs for adolescent SAD are scant, and depression prevention programs do not fully address peer-risk factors. One critical peer-risk factor for SAD and depression is peer victimization. We describe the…

  13. Response of patients in mixed state of anxiety and depression to low dose sulpiride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, K

    1993-02-01

    Two cases with mixed symptoms of anxiety and depression are described. In both cases, a low dose of sulpiride was effective, improving patients anxious and depressive symptoms without severe side effects. These findings suggest that a low dose sulpiride treatment can be useful in the treatment of anxious and depressive patients.

  14. Prenatal listening to songs composed for pregnancy and symptoms of anxiety and depression: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwebube, Chineze; Glover, Vivette; Stewart, Lauren

    2017-05-08

    Prenatal anxiety and depression are distressing for the expectant mother and can have adverse effects on her fetus and subsequently, her child. This study aimed to determine whether listening to specially composed songs would be an effective intervention for reducing symptoms of prenatal anxiety and depression. Pregnant women were recruited online and randomly assigned to one of two groups: the music group (daily listening to specially composed songs) or control group (daily relaxation) for 12 weeks each. Self-report questionnaires were used to assess symptoms of State and Trait anxiety (Spielberger) and depression (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS)). Trait anxiety was measured as the primary outcome, while State anxiety and depression were the secondary outcomes. 111 participants were randomised to each group. 20 participants in the intervention group and 16 participants in the active control group completed the study. The music group demonstrated lower Trait Anxiety (p = .0001) (effect size 0.80), State Anxiety (p = .02) (effect size 0.64), and EPDS (p = .002) (effect size 0.92) scores at week 12 compared to baseline, by paired t test. There were no such changes in the control group. Though this pilot study had high levels of attrition, the results do suggest that regular listening to relaxing music should be explored further as an effective non-pharmacological means for reducing prenatal anxiety and depression. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02776293 LV-001. Registered 17 May 2016. Retrospectively registered.

  15. Depression Subscale of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale applied preoperatively in spinal surgery

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    Asdrubal Falavigna

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the accuracy of the Depression Subscale of Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-D in spine surgery, comparing it to Beck Depression Inventory (BDI. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, the HADS-D and the BDI were applied to patients undergoing spine surgery for lumbar (n=139 or cervical spondylosis (n=17. Spearman correlation tests for HADS-D and BDI were applied. The internal consistency of HADS-D was estimated by Cronbach's alpha coefficient. RESULTS: According to the BDI, the prevalence of depression was of 28.8% (n=45. The Spearman r coefficient between HADS-D and BDI was 0.714 (p10, there was a sensitivity of 71.1%, specificity of 95.4%, and positive likelihood-ratio of 15.78. CONCLUSIONS: HADS-D showed a strong correlation with BDI and good reliability. HADS-D is a good alternative for screening depression and assessing its severity.

  16. The relationship of maternal separation anxiety and differentiation of self to children's separation anxiety and adjustment to kindergarten: a study in Druze families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg, Ora; Halaby, Einaya; Whaby, Ehlas

    2006-01-01

    The study explores relationships between preschoolers' separation anxiety and adjustment to kindergarten and their mothers' separation anxiety and levels of differentiation. It also examines the universality of several theoretical and clinical notions in Bowen's [Bowen, M. (1978). Family therapy in clinical practice. Aronson: New York] Family Systems Theory, by testing them in the Eastern-collectivist Israeli-Druze society. The main findings were positive correlations between mothers' and children's separation anxiety, as well as negative correlations between children's separation anxiety and maternal differentiation (for total DSI score and for emotional cutoff), so that lower differentiation and higher cutoff were associated with higher levels of anxiety. Another interesting finding was that teachers perceived the children of Druze working mothers as having more problematic behaviors than non-working mothers, pointing to poorer adjustment to kindergarten. Results suggest that a crucial balance of separation and closeness provides an optimal context for meeting the needs and promoting the healthy development of both mother and child. The present study is the first to indicate relations between mothers' differentiation and preschoolers' separation anxiety among Druze participants, partially supporting the universality of Bowen's theory "in all families and in all cultures" [Kerr, M., & Bowen, M. (1988). Family evaluation. New York: Norton, p. 202].

  17. Factors of academic procrastination: The role of perfectionism, anxiety and depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Kranjec

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated dimensions of perfectionism, anxiety, and depression as factors of academic procrastination. Our main research interest was to examine the role of specific dimensions of perfectionism as moderators in the relationship between anxiety and depression and academic procrastination. Four scales were administered on the sample of 403 students: perfectionism scale FMPS, academic procrastination scale APS-SI, depression scale CESD and anxiety scale STAI-X2. The results showed significant positive relationships between maladaptive dimensions of perfectionism, anxiety, depression, and academic procrastination. In addition, results showed significant negative associations between adaptive dimensions of perfectionism and academic procrastination. Certain dimensions of perfectionism, anxiety, and depression proved to be significant predictors of academic procrastination. The dimensions of perfectionism and academic procrastination were also significantly related to anxiety and depression, which both predicted academic procrastination. The relationship between anxiety levels and academic procrastination was moderated by personal standards (as adaptive dimension of perfectionism, while the relationship between depression levels and academic procrastination was moderated by the maladaptive dimension of parents’ expectations.

  18. Proinflammatory Cytokines Correlate with Depression and Anxiety in Colorectal Cancer Patients

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    Diego Oliveira Miranda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate whether serum cytokine levels correlate with depression and anxiety in colorectal cancer (CRC patients. Twenty patients hospitalized for surgical resection of CRC were included in the study group and twenty healthy volunteers comprised the control group. Depression and anxiety were analyzed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, and serum levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, TNF-α, and TGF-β were measured by Cytometric Bead Array. We found that more than half of CRC patients presented clinically significant levels of anxiety or depression, and 65% of them manifested a combination of severe anxiety and depression. CRC patients had increased serum levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α but lower IL-10 concentrations. Correlation analysis between HADS score and cytokine levels revealed a positive association of anxiety and/or depression with IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α and a negative correlation with IL-10. These results indicate that circulating proinflammatory cytokines are involved in the pathophysiology of anxiety and depression in CRC patients. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in these psychological disorders will allow the design of therapeutic interventions that lead to an improved quality of life and overall survival of CRC patients.

  19. The influence of alexithymia on mobile phone addiction: The role of depression, anxiety and stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Tingting; Li, Jiaomeng; Zhang, Han; Gao, Jinglei; Kong, Yixi; Hu, Yueyang; Mei, Songli

    2017-09-01

    Alexithymia is an important predictor of mobile phone addiction. Enhancing and improving college students' mental health can reduce the rate of mobile phone addiction. However, it is not clear about the role of depression, anxiety and stress in the relationship between college students' alexithymia and mobile phone addiction. A total of 1105 college students were tested with the Toronto Alexithymia Scale, the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale and the Mobile Phone Addiction Index. An individual's level of alexithymia was significantly correlated with depression, anxiety, stress and mobile phone addiction. Alexithymia had a significantly positive prediction effect on mobile phone addiction, and depression, anxiety, and stress on mobile phone are positive predictors. Depression, anxiety or stress had partially mediating effects between alexithymia and mobile phone addiction. Alexithymia not only directly had a positively impact on mobile phone addiction, but both also had an indirect effect on mobile phone addiction through depression, anxiety or stress. Limitations included sampling method and modest sample size, self-report measures, and unmeasured potential confounders. Alexithymia is an important correlate of mobile phone addiction, and depression, anxiety or stress is an important mediator in this relationship. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Systematic review of factors associated with depression and anxiety disorders among older adults with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagna, Atami; Gallo, Joseph J; Pontone, Gregory M

    2014-07-01

    Depression and anxiety disorders have a substantial impact on the quality of life, the functioning and mortality of older adults with Parkinson's disease (PD). The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the factors associated with the prevalence of depression and anxiety disorders among individuals with PD aged 60 years and older. Following a literature search in PubMed, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and EMBASE, 5 articles met the inclusion criteria (adults aged 60 years and older, individuals with PD, and with depression and anxiety disorders, and English-language peer reviewed articles) and were included in this review. These studies were conducted in the U.S (n = 3), in Italy (n = 1) and the U.K (n = 1). Findings indicated that autonomic symptoms, motor fluctuations, severity and frequency of symptoms, staging of the disease, and PD onset and duration were associated with the prevalence of depression and anxiety disorders among older adults suffering from PD. Despite the limited number of studies included in the review, depression and anxiety disorders are often unrecognized and untreated and the comorbidity greatly exacerbates PD symptoms. The identification of factors associated with the development of depression and anxiety disorders could help in designing preventive interventions that would decrease the risk and burden of depression and anxiety disorders among older adults with PD.

  1. The relationship among young adult college students' depression, anxiety, stress, demographics, life satisfaction, and coping styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Jihan Saber Raja; Staten, Ruth; Hall, Lynne A; Lennie, Terry A

    2012-03-01

    Recent research indicates that young adult college students experience increased levels of depression, anxiety, and stress. It is less clear what strategies college health care providers might use to assist students in decreasing these mental health concerns. In this paper, we examine the relative importance of coping style, life satisfaction, and selected demographics in predicting undergraduates' depression, anxiety, and stress. A total of 508 full-time undergraduate students aged 18-24 years completed the study measures and a short demographics information questionnaire. Coping strategies and life satisfaction were assessed using the Brief COPE Inventory and an adapted version of the Brief Students' Multidimensional Life Satisfaction Scale. Depression, anxiety, and stress were measured using the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21). Multiple regression analyses were used to examine the relative influence of each of the independent variables on depression, anxiety, and stress. Maladaptive coping was the main predictor of depression, anxiety, and stress. Adaptive coping was not a significant predictor of any of the three outcome variables. Reducing maladaptive coping behaviors may have the most positive impact on reducing depression, anxiety, and stress in this population.

  2. Efficacy of behavioral intervention in reducing anxiety and depression among medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Velayudhan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Now a days, college students frequently have more complex problems than they used to have over a decade ago - greater difficulties in relationships; and more severe problems, such as depression, anxiety and thoughts of suicide. Counseling helps students to understand themselves and the world around them, and to adjust themselves more efficiently and appropriately to other fellow beings. Aim: To determine as to what extent the medical students were able to cope up with their anxiety and depression with the help of counseling. Materials and Methods: In the experimental design ′Before-and -after with control design′, Beck Anxiety Inventory and Beck Depression Inventory were administered to 120 medical students who were randomly selected from a private medical college, comprising of 30 males and 30 females in each of the two groups, viz., the experimental group and the control group. Statistical analysis: Means, standard deviations, t test and one-way ANOVA were used to analyze the data. Results: Anxiety and depression among the students were found to be reduced after counseling. Male and female students in the experimental group showed decrease in the levels of anxiety and depression; whereas the control group, which did not get the benefit of counseling, continued to have the same levels of anxiety and depression. Conclusion: Counseling is helpful in building self-confidence and the capacity to adjust, by reducing anxiety and depression among medical college students.

  3. Relationship of smartphone use severity with sleep quality, depression, and anxiety in university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Kadir; Akgönül, Mehmet; Akpinar, Abdullah

    2015-06-01

    The usage of smartphones has increased rapidly in recent years, and this has brought about addiction. The aim of the current study was to investigate the relationship between smartphone use severity and sleep quality, depression, and anxiety in university students. In total, 319 university students (203 females and 116 males; mean age = 20.5 ± 2.45) were included in the study. Participants were divided into the following three groups: a smartphone non-user group (n = 71, 22.3%), a low smartphone use group (n = 121, 37.9%), and a high smartphone use group (n = 127, 39.8%). All participants were evaluated using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Anxiety Inventory; moreover, participants other than those in the smartphone non-user group were also assessed with the Smartphone Addiction Scale. The findings revealed that the Smartphone Addiction Scale scores of females were significantly higher than those of males. Depression, anxiety, and daytime dysfunction scores were higher in the high smartphone use group than in the low smartphone use group. Positive correlations were found between the Smartphone Addiction Scale scores and depression levels, anxiety levels, and some sleep quality scores. The results indicate that depression, anxiety, and sleep quality may be associated with smartphone overuse. Such overuse may lead to depression and/or anxiety, which can in turn result in sleep problems. University students with high depression and anxiety scores should be carefully monitored for smartphone addiction.

  4. Emotion Regulation Strategies in Depressive and Anxiety Symptoms in Youth: A Meta-Analytic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Johanna Özlem; Naumann, Eva; Holmes, Emily Alexandra; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna; Samson, Andrea Christiane

    2017-02-01

    The role of emotion regulation in subclinical symptoms of mental disorders in adolescence is not yet well understood. This meta-analytic review examines the relationship between the habitual use of prominent adaptive emotion regulation strategies (cognitive reappraisal, problem solving, and acceptance) and maladaptive emotion regulation strategies (avoidance, suppression, and rumination) with depressive and anxiety symptoms in adolescence. Analyzing 68 effect sizes from 35 studies, we calculated overall outcomes across depressive and anxiety symptoms as well as psychopathology-specific outcomes. Age was examined as a continuous moderator via meta-regression models. The results from random effects analyses revealed that the habitual use of all emotion regulation strategies was significantly related to depressive and anxiety symptoms overall, with the adaptive emotion regulation strategies showing negative associations (i.e., less symptoms) with depressive and anxiety symptoms whereas the maladaptive emotion regulation strategies showed positive associations (i.e., more symptoms). A less frequent use of adaptive and a more frequent use of maladaptive emotion regulation strategies were associated with depressive and anxiety symptoms comparably in the respective directions. Regarding the psychopathology-specific outcomes, depressive and anxiety symptoms displayed similar patterns across emotion regulation strategies showing the strongest negative associations with acceptance, and strongest positive associations with avoidance and rumination. The findings underscore the relevance of adaptive and also maladaptive emotion regulation strategies in depressive and anxiety symptoms in youth, and highlight the need to further investigate the patterns of emotion regulation as a potential transdiagnostic factor.

  5. Anxiety- and depression-like phenotype of hph-1 mice deficient in tetrahydrobiopterin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nasser, Arafat; Møller, Lisbeth B; Olesen, Jess H;

    2014-01-01

    Decreased tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) biosynthesis has been implicated in the pathophysiology of anxiety and depression. The aim of this study was therefore to characterise the phenotype of homozygous hph-1 (hph) mice, a model of BH4 deficiency, in behavioural tests of anxiety and depression as well...... as determine hippocampal monoamine and plasma nitric oxide levels. In the elevated zero maze test, hph mice displayed increased anxiety-like responses compared to wild-type mice, while the marble burying test revealed decreased anxiety-like behaviour. This was particularly observed in male mice. In the tail...... suspension test, hph mice of both sexes displayed increased depression-like behaviours compared to wild-type counterparts, whereas the forced swim test showed a trend towards increased depression-like behaviours in male hph mice, but significant decrease in depression-like behaviours in female mice...

  6. Anxiety, depression and timing of insulin treatment among people with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, M M; Nefs, Giesje; Tell, Grethe S

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Depression and anxiety have been found to be predictors of poor health outcomes in diabetes, but mechanisms are still unclear. AIMS: To examine whether symptoms of anxiety and depression were associated with timing of initiating insulin therapy. METHODS: A cohort study of insulin......-naive particpants with type 2 dabetes completed the Hospital Anxiey and Depression Scale, HADS-A (n = 731) and/or the HADS-D (n = 768) in the communy-based Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (1995-1997). Information on insulin initiation was retrieved from the Norwegian Prescription Database from January 1, 2004...... to November 21, 2012. Cox regression analyses were used to estimate the association between symptoms of anxiety, depression and time to insulin initiation. RESULTS: At baseline, 19% reported anxiety symptoms (score≥8) and 18% depressive symptoms (score≥8). After a mean follow-up of 4.4 (SD 3.6) years, 337 (40...

  7. Neural temporal dynamics of stress in comorbid major depressive disorder and social anxiety disorder

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    Waugh Christian E

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite advances in neurobiological research on Major Depressive Disorder and Social Anxiety Disorder, little is known about the neural functioning of individuals with comorbid depression/social anxiety. We examined the timing of neural responses to social stress in individuals with major depression and/or social anxiety. We hypothesized that having social anxiety would be associated with earlier responses to stress, having major depression would be associated with sustained responses to stress, and that comorbid participants would exhibit both of these response patterns. Methods Participants were females diagnosed with pure depression (n = 12, pure social anxiety (n = 16, comorbid depression/social anxiety (n = 17, or as never having had any Axis-I disorder (control; n = 17. Blood oxygenation-level dependent activity (BOLD was assessed with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. To induce social stress, participants prepared a speech that was ostensibly to be evaluated by a third party. Results Whereas being diagnosed with depression was associated with a resurgence of activation in the medial frontal cortex late in the stressor, having social anxiety was associated with a vigilance-avoidance activation pattern in the occipital cortex and insula. Comorbid participants exhibited activation patterns that generally overlapped with the non-comorbid groups, with the exception of an intermediate level of activation, between the level of activation of the pure depression and social anxiety groups, in the middle and posterior cingulate cortex. Conclusions These findings advance our understanding of the neural underpinnings of major depression and social anxiety, and of their comorbidity. Future research should elucidate more precisely the behavioral correlates of these patterns of brain activation.

  8. ASSOCIATION OF PSYCHOSOCIAL FACTORS WITH ANXIETY AND DEPRESSION IN PATIENTS FOLLOWING ACUTE MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION

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    Sejal Bheda

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anxiety and depression are proven independent predictors of mortality, disability, and reduced health related quality of life (HRQoL. Hence, this study was undertaken with aim to find the prevalence of anxiety and depression in patients following acute myocardial infarction (AMI and to find out its association with various psychosocial factors. Methods: Stable patients admitted during 3 month period in Cardiology Intensive care unit of tertiary care Hospital with the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction were included in this cross sectional study. Data was collected using a Semi- structured questionnaire. Anxiety and depression were assessed using Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS .Scores were analyzed using SPSS version 16. Results: A total of 75 patients (73.3% men and 26.7% women with mean age 54.86 ± 9.91 years were included. Mean scores of anxiety and depression were 4.49 and 4.0 out of 21, respectively. Probable cases of anxiety and depression as per HADS were 29.33% and 21.33% respectively. There was a statistically significant association of Anxiety and depression with gender (P= 0.004(A, P= 0.002(D; education [P=0.018(A, P= 0.002 (D]; and pre-existing known stressor [P=<0.001 (A and P=0.002(D]. The association of anxiety and depression with age, addiction, presence of co-morbidies and previous history of AMI / stroke was not statistically significant. Conclusion: Anxiety and depression are common after AMI. It was seen more in females, low literacy and those with pre-existing known cause of stress (stressor. Hence, psychological screening should be incorporated in routine assessment in patients with AMI during hospitalization to plan early intervention that could potentially improve recovery pattern.

  9. Depression, anxiety and stress among higher secondary school students of Imphal, Manipur

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    K Sathish Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Adolescence is a stressful period due to physical, psychological, sexual changes, and the presence of psychiatric disorders such as depression, anxiety, and stress at this stage of life is a matter of concern. Objectives: The objectives of the study were to determine the prevalences of depression, anxiety, and stress among higher secondary school students of Imphal and to determine the association between depression, anxiety, and stress and selected variables such as gender, standard, and religion. Materials and methods: From September 2014 to October 2014, a cross-sectional study was conducted among higher secondary school students of Imphal. The sample size was calculated to be 750. Seven schools were randomly selected, and all the students in that school were enrolled in the study. The study tool used was a questionnaire containing DASS (Depression Anxiety Stress Scale and sociodemographic characteristics. Results: The prevalences of depression, anxiety, and stress among 830 valid respondents were 19.5%, 24.4%, and 21.1%, respectively. In total, 81.6% of the respondents had at least one of the studied disorders and 34.7% of the respondents had all the three negative states. The prevalences of depression, anxiety, and stress were high among females and were significant for anxiety (P = 0.00 and stress (P = 0.04. The prevalences of depression and stress were significantly higher among 12th standard students with P-values of 0.00 and 0.02. Conclusion: The prevalences of depression, anxiety, and stress were high with anxiety and stress significantly higher among females, whereas prevalences of depression and stress were significantly higher among 12th standard students. More studies are recommended to determine the factors leading to these mental disorders.

  10. Cannabis use, depression and anxiety: A 3-year prospective population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielsson, Anna-Karin; Lundin, Andreas; Agardh, Emilie; Allebeck, Peter; Forsell, Yvonne

    2016-03-15

    Whether or not cannabis use may increase the risk for depression and/or anxiety is not clear. For one thing, it has not been possible to draw a definitive conclusion regarding the direction of causality, i.e. whether cannabis use increases the risk for depression/anxiety or vice versa. This study aimed at examining possible associations between cannabis use, depression and anxiety, using all three measures as both exposure and outcome. Data were obtained from a longitudinal cohort study comprising 8598 Swedish men and women, aged 20-64, with a three-year-follow-up. Adjusted for sex and age, cannabis use at baseline was associated with an increased relative risk (RR) for depression and anxiety at follow-up, with RR=1.22 [1.06-1.42 Cl 95%] for depression and RR=1.38 [1.26-1.50 Cl 95%] for anxiety. Adjusted for all confounders (alcohol and illicit drug use, education, family tension, place of upbringing), the associations were no longer statistically significant; RR=0.99 [0.82-1.17 Cl 95%] for depression and RR=1.09 [0.98-1.20 Cl 95%] for anxiety. Age-adjusted, reporting depression or anxiety at baseline increased the risk of cannabis onset at follow-up three years later; RR=1.62 [1.28-2.03 CI 95%] and RR=1.63 [1.28-2.08 CI 95%] respectively. However, adjusted for other illicit drug use the associations were no longer statistically significant. Lack of information on frequency of cannabis use and of age of initiation of use. We found no longitudinal associations between cannabis use and incidence of depression/anxiety, or between depression/anxiety and later cannabis use onset. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Anxiety, depression, resilience and self-esteem in individuals with cardiovascular diseases

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    Isabela Gonzales Carvalho

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objectives: to analyze the relationship between anxiety and depression symptoms, resilience and self-esteem with sociodemographic and clinical characteristics; correlate resilience and self-esteem with age and duration of the disease; check associations between anxiety and depression with measures of resilience and self-esteem among individuals with cardiovascular diseases. Method: correlational study conducted in a large university hospital in the interior of the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The population was composed of adult inpatients with cardiovascular diseases. A non-probabilistic consecutive sample was composed of 120 patients. Variables of interest were assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Resilience Scale, and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Results: anxiety and depression symptoms were present in 32.5% and 17.5% of the patients, respectively, and were associated with the female sex (p = 0.002; p = 0.022. Manifestations of depression were associated with the presence of comorbidities (p = 0.020. More resilient patients did not present depression symptoms (p < 0.001 and anxious women were more resilient (p = 0.042. The highest scores regarding self-esteem were present in patients with anxiety and depression. Men presented higher resilience and lower self-esteem compared to women. Conclusion: patients with anxiety and depression were less resilient but presented higher self-esteem.

  12. Flotation separation of marmatite from pyrrhotite using DMPS as depressant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Wei; LIU Run-qing; CAO Xue-feng; HU Yue-hua

    2006-01-01

    Mercapto organic compound DMPS was used as the depressant for separation of copper activated marmatite from pyrrhotite in the presence of butyl xanthate. The flotation tests of single mineral show that DMPS has strong depressing effect on pyrrhotite in the absence and presence of copper ion, but has activated effect on marmatite in the presence of copper ion. The floatability of marmatite is improved in the pH range of 2-12. The flotation test of mixture mineral shows that copper-activated marmatite can be separated efficiently from pyrrhotite using DMPS as depressant. Infrared adsorption spectra demonstrate that there are a number of function groups such as -SH and -SO3 in the molecular structure ofDMPS. Xanthate and DMPS compete in their adsorption on sulfide minerals.

  13. Is Separation Anxiety in Adolescents and Parents Related to Parental Differentiation of Self?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg, Ora; Miller, Paul; Yitzhak, Meital

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined the relationship between separation anxiety in adolescents after their transition to middle school, on the one hand, and differentiation of self and separation anxiety in their parents, on the other hand. The sample included 88 adolescents from northern Israel, together with their biological parents. Adolescents'…

  14. Reliability and preliminary evidence of validity of a Farsi version of the depression anxiety stress scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayani, Ali Asghar

    2010-08-01

    The internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and construct validity of the Farsi version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales were examined, with a sample of 306 undergraduate students (123 men, 183 women) ranging from 18 to 51 years of age (M age = 25.4, SD = 6.1). Participants completed the Satisfaction with Life Scale, Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale, and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales. The findings confirmed the preliminary reliabilities and preliminary construct validity of the Farsi translation of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales.

  15. Clinging to any bit of joy: urban, ethnically diverse, impoverished women's descriptions of anxiety and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doornbos, Mary Molewyk; Zandee, Gail Landheer; Degroot, Joleen

    2012-12-01

    Depression and anxiety are mental health issues that disproportionately affect women. This study sought to capture perceptions of anxiety and depression in 3 urban, ethnically diverse, underserved, and impoverished neighborhoods. Using community-based participatory research, in the context of long-term partnerships between a department of nursing and these neighborhoods, the researchers recruited 61 women aged 18 to 69 years. Data were collected via 6 homogeneous focus groups composed of Black, Hispanic, and White women, respectively. The women identified themes pertaining to the manifestations and effects of anxiety and depression as well as unique coping strategies.

  16. The effects of maternal depression, anxiety, and perceived stress during pregnancy on preterm birth: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staneva, Aleksandra; Bogossian, Fiona; Pritchard, Margo; Wittkowski, Anja

    2015-09-01

    Experiencing psychological distress such as depression, anxiety, and/or perceived stress during pregnancy may increase the risk for adverse birth outcomes, including preterm birth. Clarifying the association between exposure and outcome may improve the understanding of risk factors for prematurity and guide future clinical and research practices. The aims of the present review were to outline the evidence on the risk of preterm associated with antenatal depression, anxiety, and stress. Four electronic database searches were conducted to identify quantitative population-based, multi-centre, cohort studies and randomised-controlled trial studies focusing on the association between antenatal depression, anxiety, and stress, and preterm birth published in English between 1980 and 2013. Of 1469 electronically retrieved articles, 39 peer-reviewed studies met the final selection criteria and were included in this review following the PRISMA and MOOSE review guidelines. Information was extracted on study characteristics; depression, anxiety and perceived stress were examined as separate and combined exposures. There is strong evidence that antenatal distress during the pregnancy increases the likelihood of preterm birth. Complex paths of significant interactions between depression, anxiety and stress, risk factors and preterm birth were indicated in both direct and indirect ways. The effects of pregnancy distress were associated with spontaneous but not with medically indicated preterm birth. Health practitioners engaged in providing perinatal care to women, such as obstetricians, midwives, nurses, and mental health specialists need to provide appropriate support to women experiencing psychological distress in order to improve outcomes for both mothers and infants. Copyright © 2015 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Neural correlates of psychotherapy in anxiety and depression: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Messina

    Full Text Available Several studies have used neuroimaging methods to identify neural change in brain networks associated to emotion regulation after psychotherapy of depression and anxiety. In the present work we adopted a meta-analytic technique specific to neuroimaging data to evaluate the consistence of empirical findings and assess models of therapy that have been proposed in the literature. Meta-analyses were conducted with the Activation Likelihood Estimation technique, which evaluates the overlap between foci of activation across studies. The analysis included 16 studies found in Pubmed (200 foci of activation and 193 patients. Separate meta-analyses were conducted on studies of 1 depression, post-traumatic stress disorder and panic disorder investigated with rest state metabolism (6 studies, 70 patients; 2 depression, post-traumatic stress disorder and panic disorder investigated with task-related activation studies (5 studies, 65 patients; 3 the previous studies considered jointly; and 4 phobias investigated with studies on exposure-related activation (5 studies, 57 patients. Studies on anxiety and depression gave partially consistent results for changes in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex and in the posterior cingulated gyrus/precuneus. Several areas of change in the temporal lobes were also observed. Studies on the therapy of phobia were consistent with a reduction of activity in medial temporal areas. The cluster of change in the prefrontal cortex may refer to increased recruitment of control processes, as hypothesized by influential models of emotion regulation changes due to psychotherapy. However, not all areas associated with controlled emotion regulation were detected in the meta-analysis, while involvement of midline structures suggested changes in self-related information processing. Changes in phobia were consistent with reduced reactivity to phobic stimuli.

  18. Prevalence of depression and anxiety in systemic lupus erythematosus: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lijuan; Fu, Ting; Yin, Rulan; Zhang, Qiuxiang; Shen, Biyu

    2017-02-14

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients are at high risk for depression and anxiety. However, the estimated prevalence of these disorders varies substantially between studies. This systematic review aimed to establish pooled prevalence levels of depression and anxiety among adult SLE patients. We systematically reviewed databases including PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane database library from their inception to August 2016. Studies presenting data on depression and/or anxiety in adult SLE patients and having a sample size of at least 60 patients were included. A random-effect meta-analysis was conducted on all eligible data. A total of 59 identified studies matched the inclusion criteria, reporting on a total of 10828 adult SLE patients. Thirty five and thirteen methods of defining depression and anxiety were reported, respectively. Meta-analyses revealed that the prevalence of major depression and anxiety were 24% (95% CI, 16%-31%, I(2) = 95.2%) and 37% (95% CI, 12%-63%, I(2) = 98.3%) according to clinical interviews. Prevalence estimates of depression were 30% (95% CI, 22%-38%, I(2) = 91.6%) for the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale with thresholds of 8 and 39% (95% CI, 29%-49%, I(2) = 88.2%) for the 21-Item Beck Depression Inventory with thresholds of 14, respectively. The main influence on depression prevalence was the publication years of the studies. In addition, the corresponding pooled prevalence was 40% (95% CI, 30%-49%, I(2) = 93.0%) for anxiety according to the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale with a cutoff of 8 or more. The prevalence of depression and anxiety was high in adult SLE patients. It indicated that rheumatologists should screen for depression and anxiety in their patients, and referred them to mental health providers in order to identify effective strategies for preventing and treating depression and anxiety among adult SLE patients. Current Meta-analysis PROSPERO Registration Number: CRD

  19. Common mental disorders associated with 2-year diabetes incidence: the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlantis, Evan; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Cashman, Kara; Penninx, Brenda J W H

    2012-10-01

    Few prospective cohort studies describe the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus associated with depression or anxiety. The aim of this study was to determine the 2-year diabetes incidence and pattern of explanatory factors associated with depressive and/or anxiety disorders. A prospective cohort of 2981 participants (aged 18-65 years, 66% women) recruited in the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA) from community, primary care and outpatient psychiatric clinics were followed-up for two years. Complete data were analyzed from 2460 participants without baseline diabetes. Lifetime or current (past 6-month) depressive and/or anxiety disorders at baseline were assessed using the Composite Interview Diagnostic Instrument (CIDI) and classified by the DSM-IV. Diabetes was classified by either self-report, medications, or fasting plasma glucose ≥ 7.0 mmol/L. Baseline covariates included age, gender, lifestyle factors, and medical conditions. Odds ratios (OR [95% confidence intervals]) for diabetes were determined using exact logistic regression. The unadjusted 2-year diabetes incidence was 0.2% (1/571), 1.1% (6/548), and 1.8% (24/1340) for no, remitted, and current depressive and/or anxiety disorders, respectively. In comparison to those without psychopathology, current depressive and/or anxiety disorders was associated with diabetes incidence in unadjusted (OR 10.4 [1.7, 429.0]) and age-adjusted (OR 11.9 (1.9, 423.0]) analyses. The strength of this association (beta coefficient) was slightly changed after further adjustments for impaired fasting glucose (11.4%), high triglycerides (-7.8%), and lifestyle cumulative risk score (-5.0%), in contrast to other covariates when assessed in separate models. The low incidence of diabetes resulted in considerable uncertainty for the odds ratios and low statistical power that limited covariate adjustments. The relative odds of developing diabetes within two years was increased for persons with current depressive and

  20. Depressive symptoms and perceived chronic stress predict test anxiety in nursing students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Augner

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to identify predictors of test anxiety in nursing students. Design: Cross sectional pilot study. Methods: A questionnaire was administered to 112 students of an Austrian nursing school (mean age = 21.42, SD = 5.21. Test anxiety (measured by the standardized PAF Test Anxiety Questionnaire, perceived chronic stress, depressive symptoms, pathological eating and further psychological and health parameters were measured. Results: We found highly significant correlations between test anxiety and working hours (0.25, depression score (0.52, emotional stability (-0.31, and perceived chronic stress (0.65 (p < 0.01, for all. Regression analysis revealed chronic stress and emotional instability as best predictors for test anxiety. Furthermore, path analysis revealed that past negative academic performance outcomes contribute to test anxiety via depressive symptoms and perceived chronic stress. Conclusion: Depressive symptoms and perceived chronic stress are strongly related to test anxiety. Therefore therapy and training methods that address depressive symptoms and perceived chronic stress, and thereby aim to modify appraisal of potential stressful situations, may be successful in addressing test anxiety.

  1. Maternal anxiety versus depressive disorders: specific relations to infants' crying, feeding and sleeping problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzoldt, J; Wittchen, H-U; Einsle, F; Martini, J

    2016-03-01

    Maternal depression has been associated with excessive infant crying, feeding and sleeping problems, but the specificity of maternal depression, as compared with maternal anxiety remains unclear and manifest disorders prior to pregnancy have been widely neglected. In this prospective longitudinal study, the specific associations of maternal anxiety and depressive disorders prior to, during and after pregnancy and infants' crying, feeding and sleeping problems were investigated in the context of maternal parity. In the Maternal Anxiety in Relation to Infant Development (MARI) Study, n = 306 primiparous and multiparous women were repeatedly interviewed from early pregnancy until 16 months post partum with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview for Women (CIDI-V) to assess DSM-IV anxiety and depressive disorders. Information on excessive infant crying, feeding and sleeping problems was obtained from n = 286 mothers during postpartum period via questionnaire and interview (Baby-DIPS). Findings from this study revealed syndrome-specific risk constellations for maternal anxiety and depressive disorders as early as prior to pregnancy: Excessive infant crying (10.1%) was specifically associated with maternal anxiety disorders, especially in infants of younger and lower educated first-time mothers. Feeding problems (36.4%) were predicted by maternal anxiety (and comorbid depressive) disorders in primiparous mothers and infants with lower birth weight. Infant sleeping problems (12.2%) were related to maternal depressive (and comorbid anxiety) disorders irrespective of maternal parity. Primiparous mothers with anxiety disorders may be more prone to anxious misinterpretations of crying and feeding situations leading to an escalation of mother-infant interactions. The relation between maternal depressive and infant sleeping problems may be better explained by a transmission of unsettled maternal sleep to the fetus during pregnancy or a lack of daily

  2. The incidence of anxiety, depression, and quality of life in patients with dermatological diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Solgajová

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study aim was to establish the differences in the levels of anxiety, depression, and quality of life in patients with acne and atopic dermatitis, to examine differences related to gender, and to examine the relationship of levels of anxiety, depression, and quality of life to age and personality traits. Design: A cross-sectional study. Methods: The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, and the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI were used for data collection, and the Mini International Personality Item Pool (IPIP was used for identification of five personality factors. Results: No statistically significant differences were found between patients with acne and patients with atopic dermatitis regarding levels of anxiety, depression, and quality of life. In terms of age, a difference was found only in the incidence of anxiety in the group of patients with acne; higher anxiety was found in women. There were no statistically significant differences in anxiety, depression, and quality of life related to age in patients with acne and atopic dermatitis. Significant relationships of the variables to personality traits were found in both groups. Conclusion: Knowing the factors influencing the incidence of mental health problems in patients with acne and atopic dermatitis helps in early nursing diagnosis of such problems, which can eliminate the negative impact of mental health problems on patients' quality of life.

  3. Alexithymia and personality dimensions in relation to depression and anxiety in male alcohol-dependent inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evren, Cuneyt; Evren, Bilge; Dalbudak, Ercan

    2009-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship of alexithymia and temperament and character model of personality with depression and anxiety symptoms in detoxified male alcohol-dependent inpatients. Method. The subjects consisted of 176 male alcohol-dependent inpatients according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition. Patients were investigated with the Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Anxiety Inventory, State and Trait Anxiety Inventory, Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST), Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) and Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Results. MAST score and scores of all three factors of the TAS-20 significantly predicted depression scale and anxiety scales. Difficulty in identifying feelings and difficulty in describing feelings factors were particularly effective, relative to the externally orientated thinking factor of the TAS-20 for prediction depression and anxiety. The TCI dimensions emerged as distinct and conceptually meaningful predictors for the depression scale and anxiety scales. Conclusion. Depression and anxiety symptoms among detoxified male alcohol dependents are associated with alexithymia, a broad range of personality dimensions and higher severity of alcohol-related problems, which make these related factors highly relevant for clinical practice.

  4. Impaired attribution of emotion to facial expressions in anxiety and major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demenescu, Liliana R; Kortekaas, Rudie; den Boer, Johan A; Aleman, André

    2010-12-01

    Recognition of others' emotions is an important aspect of interpersonal communication. In major depression, a significant emotion recognition impairment has been reported. It remains unclear whether the ability to recognize emotion from facial expressions is also impaired in anxiety disorders. There is a need to review and integrate the published literature on emotional expression recognition in anxiety disorders and major depression. A detailed literature search was used to identify studies on explicit emotion recognition in patients with anxiety disorders and major depression compared to healthy participants. Eighteen studies provided sufficient information to be included. The differences on emotion recognition impairment between patients and controls (Cohen's d) with corresponding confidence intervals were computed for each study. Over all studies, adults with anxiety disorders had a significant impairment in emotion recognition (d = -0.35). In children with anxiety disorders no significant impairment of emotion recognition was found (d = -0.03). Major depression was associated with an even larger impairment in recognition of facial expressions of emotion (d = -0.58). Results from the current analysis support the hypothesis that adults with anxiety disorders or major depression both have a deficit in recognizing facial expression of emotions, and that this deficit is more pronounced in major depression than in anxiety.

  5. Risk factors of anxiety and depressive symptoms in female patients experiencing intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakuła Juchnowicz, Hanna; Łukasik, Paulina; Morylowska-Topolska, Justyna; Krukow, Paweł

    2017-02-26

    The aim of the study was to find factors associated with higher severity of anxiety and depressive symptoms in female patients experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV). The study was conducted in six randomly selected primary healthcare centers in Lublin province. The HADS (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale) and a structured questionnaire designed by the authors were administered to a total of 350 consecutive female patients visiting a GP. Fully completed questionnaire forms were obtained from 200 women. 102 (51%) participants who confirmed experiencing IPV ultimately made up the study cohort. Sequential models were created using backward stepwise multiple regression to investigate the potential risk and the protective factors associated with higher severity of anxiety and depressive symptoms in the study group. 68% and 56% of the participants respectively had positive scores on the HADS anxiety and depression subscales. Living in a small town or in the countryside was associated with higher scores on the anxiety subscale (b = -1.18, p = 0.003), but not on the depression subscale. Chronic physical illness (b = 2.42, p = 0.013; b = 2.86, p = 0.015), being unemployed (b = 0.58, p = 0.024; b = 0.69, p = 0.008), and exposure to economic violence (b = 3.97, p anxiety subscale. The type of violence and socioeconomic characteristics were more strongly associated with anxiety and depressive symptoms in women experiencing IPV than demographic variables.

  6. Anxiety and Depressed Mood Decline Following Smoking Abstinence in Adult Smokers with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covey, Lirio S; Hu, Mei-Chen; Winhusen, Theresa; Lima, Jennifer; Berlin, Ivan; Nunes, Edward

    2015-12-01

    A preponderance of relevant research has indicated reduction in anxiety and depressive symptoms following smoking abstinence. This secondary analysis investigated whether the phenomenon extends to smokers with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The study setting was an 11-Week double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial of osmotic release oral system methylphenidate (OROS-MPH) as a cessation aid when added to nicotine patch and counseling. Participants were 255 adult smokers with ADHD. The study outcomes are: anxiety (Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI)) and depressed mood (Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI)) measured one Week and six Weeks after a target quit day (TQD). The main predictor is point-prevalence abstinence measured at Weeks 1 and 6 after TQD. Covariates are treatment (OROS-MPH vs placebo), past major depression, past anxiety disorder, number of cigarettes smoked daily, demographics (age, gender, education, marital status) and baseline scores on the BAI, BDI, and the DSM-IV ADHD Rating Scale. Abstinence was significantly associated with lower anxiety ratings throughout the post-quit period (panxiety (pAnxiety and depression ratings at baseline predicted increased ratings of corresponding measures during the post-quit period. Stopping smoking yielded reductions in anxiety and depressed mood in smokers with ADHD treated with nicotine patch and counseling. Treatment with OROS-MPH yielded mood reductions in delayed manner. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of Antenatal Maternal Depression and Anxiety on Children's Early Cognitive Development: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladys Ibanez

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that depression or anxiety occur in 10-20% of pregnant women. These disorders are often undertreated and may affect mothers and children's health. This study investigates the relation between antenatal maternal depression, anxiety and children's early cognitive development among 1380 two-year-old children and 1227 three-year-old children.In the French EDEN Mother-Child Cohort Study, language ability was assessed with the Communicative Development Inventory at 2 years of age and overall development with the Ages and Stages Questionnaire at 3 years of age. Multiple regressions and structural equation modeling were used to examine links between depression, anxiety during pregnancy and child cognitive development.We found strong significant associations between maternal antenatal anxiety and poorer children's cognitive development at 2 and 3 years. Antenatal maternal depression was not associated with child development, except when antenatal maternal anxiety was also present. Both postnatal maternal depression and parental stimulation appeared to play mediating roles in the relation between antenatal maternal anxiety and children's cognitive development. At 3 years, parental stimulation mediated 13.2% of the effect of antenatal maternal anxiety while postnatal maternal depression mediated 26.5%.The partial nature of these effects suggests that other mediators may play a role. Implications for theory and research on child development are discussed.

  8. Impaired attribution of emotion to facial expressions in anxiety and major depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana R Demenescu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recognition of others' emotions is an important aspect of interpersonal communication. In major depression, a significant emotion recognition impairment has been reported. It remains unclear whether the ability to recognize emotion from facial expressions is also impaired in anxiety disorders. There is a need to review and integrate the published literature on emotional expression recognition in anxiety disorders and major depression. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A detailed literature search was used to identify studies on explicit emotion recognition in patients with anxiety disorders and major depression compared to healthy participants. Eighteen studies provided sufficient information to be included. The differences on emotion recognition impairment between patients and controls (Cohen's d with corresponding confidence intervals were computed for each study. Over all studies, adults with anxiety disorders had a significant impairment in emotion recognition (d = -0.35. In children with anxiety disorders no significant impairment of emotion recognition was found (d = -0.03. Major depression was associated with an even larger impairment in recognition of facial expressions of emotion (d = -0.58. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Results from the current analysis support the hypothesis that adults with anxiety disorders or major depression both have a deficit in recognizing facial expression of emotions, and that this deficit is more pronounced in major depression than in anxiety.

  9. Nonclinical Depression and Anxiety as Predictor of Academic Stress in Medical Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsheen Masood

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available To measure the role of anxiety and non-clinical depression as predictors of academic stress. In this study, supplementary objective had been gauging the prevalence of anxiety and depression among medical students of first year and final year, sought from six major medical colleges of Punjab. Almost all health professionals, no matter to which part of the world they belong to, face anxiety, depression and stress due to the nature of services they have to extend in medical profession such as time-pressures, workload, multiple roles and emotional issues. Quantitative research designed was employed; and cross sectional research design was used to lay out the research. The data was collected from first year and final year medical students. The duration of data collection was from Sep, 2014 to Sep, 2015. In Faculty of Medicine of five leading medical colleges, with total number of 650 students, the prevalence of anxiety and depression was found to be 83.9% and 67.9%, from first year to fourth year respectively, based on the cut-off points of both questionnaires. There was significant association among anxiety, depression and academic stress as computed through Pearson Product Moment Correlation. The regression analyses revealed that depression was significant predictor of academic stress but this was not the same for anxiety. Females were more anxiety and depression prone and reported greater academic stress than males. The study revealed significant distress among medical students, in terms of both anxiety and depression. It was inferred that the depression acts as pertinent predictor of academic stress. Furthermore, it was noticed that the prevalence of symptoms was higher among females. The findings carry significant implications for highlighting the addressing the need for psychological wellbeing of medical students in order to establish conducive environment of learning for medical professionals.

  10. Anxiety and depression in care homes in Malta and Australia: Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldacchino, Donia R; Bonello, Lilian

    This cross-sectional comparative study, conducted in two phases, assessed the levels of and factors contributing towards anxiety and depression in older people in residential homes in Malta and Australia. A mixed-method approach was adopted and the cognitive theory of stress and coping (Lazarus and Folkman, 1984) guided the study. Maltese residents were recruited from four church-run homes in Malta and Australia and two state residences in Malta. Response rates were high, with phase 1 at 94.48% (n = 137; mean age = 72.8 years) and phase 2 at 89.4%, (n = 42, mean age = 71.9 years). All the residents were mobile, were Roman Catholics and had lived in the homes for at least 6 months. In phase 1, quantitative data was collected using a demographic questionnaire and the hospital anxiety and depression scale. Normal ranges of anxiety and depression were found (anxiety: mean = 3.53-4.35; depression: mean = 2.67-4.72). No significant differences were found in anxiety and depression between countries, demographic characteristics and some other variables. The only significant difference lay in depression by mobility (F = 5.263; P = 0.006; df = 2), with wheelchair users scoring the highest mean (mean = 6.77; SD = 5.847; P = 0.007). Mobility was linked to functional abilities, which appeared to control anxiety and depression. Recommendations are made for rehabilitation and cross-cultural longitudinal research to investigate other influencing variables such as spirituality and caring relationships.

  11. NEURAL REACTIVITY TO REWARD AS A PREDICTOR OF COGNITIVE BEHAVIORAL THERAPY RESPONSE IN ANXIETY AND DEPRESSION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhouse, Katie L; Kujawa, Autumn; Kennedy, Amy E; Shankman, Stewart A; Langenecker, Scott A; Phan, K Luan; Klumpp, Heide

    2016-04-01

    Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is a well-established treatment for anxiety and depression; however, response to CBT is heterogeneous across patients and many remain symptomatic after therapy, raising the need to identify prospective predictors for treatment planning. Altered neural processing of reward has been implicated in both depression and anxiety, and improving hedonic capacity is a goal of CBT. However, little is known about how neural response to reward relates to CBT outcomes in depression and anxiety. The current study used the reward positivity (RewP) event-related potential (ERP) component to examine whether neural reactivity to reward would predict CBT response in a sample of patients with anxiety without depression (n = 30) and comorbid anxiety and depression (CAD, n = 22). Participants completed a guessing reward ERP paradigm before completing 12 weeks of standard CBT. The majority of the sample (68%; 35 out of 52 patients) responded to treatment, and those with a reduced RewP at baseline were more likely to respond to treatment. A reduced RewP was also associated with a greater pre-to-post CBT reduction in depressive symptoms among individuals with CAD, but not among individuals with pure anxiety. CBT may be most beneficial in reducing depressive symptoms for individuals who demonstrate decreased reward reactivity prior to treatment. CBT may target reward brain function, leading to greater improvement in symptoms. These effects may be strongest, and therefore most meaningful, for individuals with reward-processing deficits prior to treatment. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Effects of exercise on anxiety and depression disorders: review of meta- analyses and neurobiological mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, Mirko; Helmich, Ingo; Machado, Sergio; Nardi, Antonio E; Arias-Carrion, Oscar; Budde, Henning

    2014-01-01

    Anxiety and depression are the most frequently diagnosed psychological diseases showing a high co-morbidity. They have a severe impact on the lives of the persons concerned. Many meta-analytical studies suggested a positive anxiolytic and depression-reducing effect of exercise programs. The aim of the present article is to synthesize metaanalyses on the effects of exercise on anxiety and depression and to describe average effect sizes. For this purpose 37 meta-analyses were included reporting 50 effect sizes for anxiety scores of 42,264 participants and depression scores of 48,207 persons. The average documented anxiolytic effect of exercise in these reviews was small, 0.34. In contrast, the effect of exercise on depression was significantly higher and at a moderate level, 0.56. Data of randomized controlled trials suggest higher sizes for the effect of exercise on anxiety and depression leading to increases up to moderate and large effects, respectively. Additionally, exercise seems to be more beneficial for patients compared to participants within a non-clinical, normal range of psychological disease. Especially for the effect of exercise on anxiety, more high quality meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials are needed. Finally, possible neurobiological explanations are suggested for the positive effect of exercise on psychological disorders like anxiety and depression.

  13. [Effects of diazepam on mixed anxiety/depression state in male mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galiamina, A G; Smagin, D A; Kovalenko, I L; Bondar', N P; Kudriavtseva, N N

    2013-11-01

    Chronic social defeat stress in daily agonistic interactions leads to the development of mixed anxiety/depression state in male mice. This paper aimed to study the effects of chronic diazepam treatment on the psychoemotional state of these animals. Diazepam (0.5 mg/kg, i/p, Polfa Tarchomin S. A.) or saline was chronically injected into male mice for two weeks on the background of continuing agonistic interactions (preventive treatment) or into male mice with mixed anxiety/depression state after stopping of social confrontations (therapeutic treatment). Then, the animals were studied in the partition, plus-maze and Porsolt' tests, estimating the levels of communicativeness, anxiety and depressiveness, respectively. Preventive diazepam treatment had a weak protective anxiolytic and pro-depressive effect. The therapeutic diazepam treatment didn't influence on the anxiety and depression-like state. Chronic diazepam was ineffective for the treatment of the mixed anxiety/depression state in male mice. Different effects ofdiazepam on anxiety and depression-like states under preventive treatment confirmed our conclusion shown earlier about the independent development of these pathologies at least in our experimental paradigm.

  14. Age and sex dependencies of anxiety and depression in cardiologic patients compared with the general population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinz, Andreas; Kittel, Jörg; Karoff, Marthin; Schwarz, Reinhold

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to test age and sex effects on anxiety and depression using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale HADS. Method: Sample 1 consisted of 2037 subjects of the German general population, and sample 2 comprised 2696 cardiologic patients. Results: In the group of the general population we observed a linear increase of depression and (to a lower extent) of anxiety with age. In contrast to that, the patients reached their anxiety and depression maxima in the range of 50 to 60 years, with decreasing mean values for older patients. This effect was observed in both sexes and was proved by an ANOVA interaction between age category and population (P<0.001). In the age range over 70 years the mean depression scores of the patients were even lower than those of the general population. Especially high anxiety and depression scores were found for retired males under 60 years of age. Conclusion: Premature retirement is associated with anxiety and depression in cardiologic patients which partly accounts for the different age effects of the samples. Longitudinal studies are needed to explain the underlying mechanisms of the age effects in more detail. PMID:19742054

  15. The relationship between depression and generalized anxiety during intensive psychological and pharmacological treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aderka, Idan M; Beard, Courtney; Lee, Josephine; Weiss, Rachel B; Björgvinsson, Thröstur

    2015-09-15

    In the present study we examined the relationship between depressive symptoms and generalized anxiety symptoms during intensive cognitive-behavioral and pharmacological treatment. Individuals (n = 157) with major depressive disorder (MDD; n = 83), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD; n = 29) and their combination (n = 45) who attended an intensive partial hospital treatment program, completed daily self-report measures of depression and generalized anxiety. Treatment included empirically-based cognitive-behavioral interventions in both individual and group format, as well as pharmacotherapy. Multilevel linear modeling indicated that for all diagnostic groups, changes in depressive symptoms led to changes in generalized anxiety symptoms to a greater extent than vice versa during treatment. Moreover, changes in depressive symptoms fully mediated changes in generalized anxiety symptoms, whereas changes in generalized anxiety symptoms only partially mediated the changes in depressive symptoms. Partial hospital setting. Our results suggest that depressive symptoms may play a prominent role in the process of change in both MDD and GAD. This has implications for the classification of GAD as well as for choosing early treatment targets for individuals with comorbid MDD and GAD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Anxiety- and depression-like phenotype of hph-1 mice deficient in tetrahydrobiopterin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasser, Arafat; Møller, Lisbeth B; Olesen, Jess H; Konradsen Refsgaard, Louise; Konradsen, Louise S; Andreasen, Jesper T

    2014-12-01

    Decreased tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) biosynthesis has been implicated in the pathophysiology of anxiety and depression. The aim of this study was therefore to characterise the phenotype of homozygous hph-1 (hph) mice, a model of BH4 deficiency, in behavioural tests of anxiety and depression as well as determine hippocampal monoamine and plasma nitric oxide levels. In the elevated zero maze test, hph mice displayed increased anxiety-like responses compared to wild-type mice, while the marble burying test revealed decreased anxiety-like behaviour. This was particularly observed in male mice. In the tail suspension test, hph mice of both sexes displayed increased depression-like behaviours compared to wild-type counterparts, whereas the forced swim test showed a trend towards increased depression-like behaviours in male hph mice, but significant decrease in depression-like behaviours in female mice. This study provides the first evidence that congenital BH4 deficiency regulates anxiety- and depression-like behaviours. The altered responses observed possibly reflect decreased hippocampal serotonin and dopamine found in hph mice compared to wild-type mice, but also reduced nitric oxide formation. We propose that the hph-1 mouse may be a novel tool to investigate the role of BH4 deficiency in anxiety and depression.

  17. Childbirth and symptoms of postpartum depression and anxiety: a prospective birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, A F; Carter, C S; Davis, J M; Golding, J; Adejumo, O; Pyra, M; Connelly, J J; Rubin, L H

    2016-04-01

    We investigated associations between aspects of childbirth and elevated postpartum symptoms of depression and anxiety. We employed secondary analysis of perinatal data (N = 4657-4946) from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) birth cohort. Multivariable logistic regression models (adjusted for covariates) examined predictors of elevated symptoms of postpartum depression and anxiety. Predictors included the following: type of delivery (normal physiological vs. interventive non-physiological), immediate postpartum complications, and maternal perception of the recent birth experience. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale assessed elevated symptoms of depression (score ≥ 13), and the Crown-Crisp Experiential Index assessed elevated symptoms of anxiety (score ≥ 9) at 2 and 8 months after delivery. A more negative perception of the recent birth experience was associated with elevated symptoms of anxiety at 2 months [odds ratio (OR) 1.52, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.25-1.85] and 8 months (OR 1.30, 95 % CI 1.06-1.60) postpartum but was not associated with elevated symptoms of depression at either time point. Type of delivery (physiological vs. non-physiological) and immediate postpartum complications were not associated with elevated symptoms of depression or anxiety. Our findings suggest that improving women's childbirth experience may decrease the likelihood of postpartum anxiety, but not postpartum depression.

  18. Overview of the prevalence, impact, and management of depression and anxiety in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagioti M

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Maria Panagioti,1 Charlotte Scott,1 Amy Blakemore,1,2 Peter A Coventry31National Institute for Health Research School for Primary Care Research, Centre for Primary Care, Institute of Population Health, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, University of Manchester, 2Department of Psychiatry, Manchester Mental Health and Social Care Trust, Manchester Royal Infirmary, 3National Institute for Health Research Collaboration for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care – Greater Manchester and Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, University of Manchester, Manchester, UKAbstract: More than one third of individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD experience comorbid symptoms of depression and anxiety. This review aims to provide an overview of the burden of depression and anxiety in those with COPD and to outline the contemporary advances and challenges in the management of depression and anxiety in COPD. Symptoms of depression and anxiety in COPD lead to worse health outcomes, including impaired health-related quality of life and increased mortality risk. Depression and anxiety also increase health care utilization rates and costs. Although the quality of the data varies considerably, the cumulative evidence shows that complex interventions consisting of pulmonary rehabilitation interventions with or without psychological components improve symptoms of depression and anxiety in COPD. Cognitive behavioral therapy is also an effective intervention for managing depression in COPD, but treatment effects are small. Cognitive behavioral therapy could potentially lead to greater benefits in depression and anxiety in people with COPD if embedded in multidisciplinary collaborative care frameworks, but this hypothesis has not yet been empirically assessed. Mindfulness-based treatments are an alternative option for the management of depression and anxiety in people with long-term conditions, but their efficacy is unproven in

  19. Effectiveness of Compassionate Mind Training on Depression, Anxiety, and Self-Criticism in a Group of Iranian Depressed Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Noorbala

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective:The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of compassionate mind training (CMT on symptoms of depression and anxiety in Iranian depressed sufferers .Method:Nineteen depressed patients aged 20 to 40 (Beck Depression Inventory value≥20 were randomly assigned into two groups. The experimental group participated in 12 sessions of group therapy based on Paul Gilbert’s manual of CMT. The control group was given no intervention. The participants were assessed by Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II, Anxiety Scale (AS, and Levels of Self-Criticism (LSCS questionnaires at the beginning and immediately after the intervention. To follow-up the therapeutic effect of CMT, the three questionnaires were answered again by participants two months after the end of the intervention. Data were analyzed by independent samples ttest. Results:The results revealed that CMT significantly decreases depression (P<0.05 and anxiety score (P<0.05 in the follow-up study, but not immediately after the intervention. Although CMT decreased selfcriticism, this effect was marginally insignificant.Conclusion:The findings indicated that CMT could alleviatedepression and anxiety in a group of Iranian depressed patients.

  20. Voices of fear and anxiety and sadness and depression: the effects of speech rate and loudness on fear and anxiety and sadness and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegman, A W; Boyle, S

    1993-08-01

    Two studies investigated the role of expressive vocal behavior (specifically, speech rate and loudness) in fear and anxiety and in sadness and depression. In the first study, participants spoke about personally experienced fear and anxiety-arousing and neutral events using 3 different voice styles: fast and loud, normal, and slow and soft. In the second study, participants spoke about personally experienced sad or depressing and neutral events using the same 3 voice styles. In both studies, the participants' highest levels of subjective affective and cardiovascular (CV) arousal occurred when they spoke about the emotional events in a mood-congruent voice style: fast and loud in the case of fear and anxiety, and slow and soft in the case of sadness or depression. Mood-incongruent voice styles canceled the heightened levels of CV arousal normally associated with these negative emotions. The voice-style manipulation had no significant effect on the participants' levels of CV arousal during the neutral discussions.

  1. Are you gonna leave me? Separation anxiety is associated with increased amygdala responsiveness and volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redlich, Ronny; Grotegerd, Dominik; Opel, Nils; Kaufmann, Carolin; Zwitserlood, Pienie; Kugel, Harald; Heindel, Walter; Donges, Uta-Susan; Suslow, Thomas; Arolt, Volker; Dannlowski, Udo

    2015-02-01

    The core feature of separation anxiety is excessive distress when faced with actual or perceived separation from people to whom the individual has a strong emotional attachment. So far little is known about the neurobiological underpinnings of separation anxiety. Therefore, we investigated functional (amygdala responsiveness and functional connectivity during threat-related emotion processing) and structural (grey matter volume) imaging markers associated with separation anxiety as measured with the Relationship Scale Questionnaire in a large sample of healthy adults from the Münster Neuroimaging Cohort (N = 320). We used a robust emotional face-matching task and acquired high-resolution structural images for morphometric analyses using voxel-based morphometry. The main results were positive associations of separation anxiety scores with amygdala reactivity to emotional faces as well as increased amygdala grey matter volumes. A functional connectivity analysis revealed positive associations between separation anxiety and functional coupling of the amygdala with areas involved in visual processes and attention, including several occipital and somatosensory areas. Taken together, the results suggest a higher emotional involvement in subjects with separation anxiety while watching negative facial expressions, and potentially secondary neuro-structural adaptive processes. These results could help to understand and treat (adult) separation anxiety.

  2. SINGLE-CASE INVESTIGATION OF AN EMOTION-FOCUSED THERAPY GROUP FOR ANXIETY AND DEPRESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adèle Lafrance Robinson

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Emotion-focused therapy (EFT is an evidence-based treatment for depression and trauma and has shown promise for other presentations including anxiety. Minimal research exists investigating the outcomes of emotion-focused therapy in a group setting. The current research presents a mixed-method single-case study of one client’s experiences and outcomes following a nine-week EFT group for depression and anxiety. Weekly measures of session-feelings evaluations were collected. Follow-up measures, including a qualitative interview, were administered one year post-treatment. Pre-, post-, and follow-up measures assessed depression, anxiety, and emotional regulation. Results showed clinically significant improvements in anxiety, depression, and emotional regulation over time. Indirect and direct evidence of client change were detected. Five super-ordinate themes with sub-themes emerged from the qualitative analysis.

  3. Peripartum depression and anxiety as an integrative cross domain target for psychiatric preventative measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babb, Jessica A; Deligiannidis, Kristina M; Murgatroyd, Christopher A; Nephew, Benjamin C

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to high levels of early life stress has been identified as a potent risk factor for neurodevelopmental delays in infants, behavioral problems and autism in children, but also for several psychiatric illnesses in adulthood, such as depression, anxiety, autism, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Despite having robust adverse effects on both mother and infant, the pathophysiology of peripartum depression and anxiety are poorly understood. The objective of this review is to highlight the advantages of using an integrated approach addressing several behavioral domains in both animal and clinical studies of peripartum depression and anxiety. It is postulated that a greater focus on integrated cross domain studies will lead to advances in treatments and preventative measures for several disorders associated with peripartum depression and anxiety.

  4. Hey Mr. Sandman: dyadic effects of anxiety, depressive symptoms and sleep among married couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revenson, Tracey A; Marín-Chollom, Amanda M; Rundle, Andrew G; Wisnivesky, Juan; Neugut, Alfred I

    2016-04-01

    This study examined associations among anxiety, depressive symptoms, and sleep duration in a sample of middle-aged couples using the actor-partner interaction model with dyadic data. Self-report measures were completed independently by both partners as part of the health histories obtained during their annual preventive medical examinations in 2011 and 2012. Results showed that husbands' anxiety and depressive symptoms had a stronger effect on their wives' anxiety and depression than the other way around, but this was not moderated by one's own sleep duration. For both wives and husbands, higher levels of depressive symptoms and anxiety predicted shorter sleep duration for their partner 1 year later, although the effect of husbands' mental health on their wives' was again stronger. The findings suggest that sleep problems might better be treated as a couple-level phenomenon than an individual one, particularly for women.

  5. Trajectories of distress, anxiety, and depression among women with breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bidstrup, Pernille Envold; Christensen, Jane; Mertz, Birgitte Goldschmidt

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Little is known about the development of psychological wellbeing over time among women who have been treated for breast cancer. The aim of this study was to identify distinct patterns of distress, anxiety, and depression in such women. METHODS: We invited 426 consecutive women with newly...... of distress, anxiety, and depressive symptoms assessed the week before surgery and four and eight months later. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the characteristics of women in the distinct groups. RESULTS: Although no sub-group of women with chronic severe anxiety or depressive symptoms......: By looking beyond the mean, we found that 8% of the women experienced chronic severe distress; no sub-groups with chronic severe anxiety or depression were identified. Several socio-demographic and treatment factors characterized the women whose distress level remained severe eight months after diagnosis...

  6. Relationship between Temperament, Depression, Anxiety, and Hopelessness in Adolescents: A Structural Equation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Iliceto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to test the validity of affective temperaments for predicting psychiatric morbidity and suicide risk, using a two-factor model to explain the relationships between temperament, anxiety, depression, and hopelessness. We investigated 210 high school students, 103 males and 107 females, 18-19 years old, who were administered self-report questionnaires to assess temperament (TEMPS-A, depression (BDI-II, anxiety (STAI and hopelessness (BHS. The final structural model had a good fit with the data, with two factors significantly correlated, the first labeled unstable cyclothymic temperament including Dysthymic/Cyclothymic/Anxious temperament, Irritable temperament and Depression, and the second labeled Demoralization including Anxiety (State/Trait and Hopelessness. Depression, anxiety and hopelessness are in a complex relationship partly mediated by temperament.

  7. The impact of perfectionism and anxiety traits on action monitoring in major depressive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrijvers, D.L.; Bruijn, E.R.A. de; Destoop, M.; Hulstijn, W.; Sabbe, B.G.C.C.

    2010-01-01

    Perfectionism and anxiety features are involved in the clinical presentation and neurobiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). In MDD, cognitive control mechanisms such as action monitoring can adequately be investigated applying electrophysiological registrations of the error-related negativity

  8. Impaired Attribution of Emotion to Facial Expressions in Anxiety and Major Depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demenescu, Liliana R.; Kortekaas, Rudie; den Boer, Johan A.; Aleman, Andre

    2010-01-01

    Background: Recognition of others' emotions is an important aspect of interpersonal communication. In major depression, a significant emotion recognition impairment has been reported. It remains unclear whether the ability to recognize emotion from facial expressions is also impaired in anxiety

  9. Depressive and anxiety disorders : Associated with losing or gaining weight over 2 years?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, Leonore M.; van Straten, Annemieke; Lamers, Femke; Cuijpers, Pim; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study examines to what extent different depressive and anxiety disorders and clinical characteristics are associated with subsequent weight change, while controlling for baseline weight, sociodemographics, health status, psychotropic medication use and (un)healthy lifestyle factors

  10. Effects of postpartum anxiety disorders and depression on maternal self-confidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reck, Corinna; Noe, Daniela; Gerstenlauer, Jakob; Stehle, Eva

    2012-04-01

    Low maternal self-confidence may damage the early mother-infant relationship and negatively influence infant development. The goal of this study was to test whether a current and previous history of DSM-IV anxiety and depressive disorders is associated with maternal self-confidence two weeks after delivery. Postpartum anxiety disorder and depression was diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria in a community sample of 798 women. The data showed a significant link between current postpartum anxiety and depressive disorders and maternal self-confidence. Furthermore, women with a depression or anxiety disorder in their previous psychiatric history scored lower in maternal self-confidence. There is a need for appropriate preventive programmes to promote maternal self-confidence. With such programmes it is possible to prevent infant developmental disorders which might result from reduced feelings of maternal self-confidence and associated maternal interaction behaviour.

  11. Vitamin D deficiency is associated with anxiety and depression in fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, D J; Meenagh, G K; Bickle, I; Lee, A S H; Curran, E-S; Finch, M B

    2007-04-01

    Fibromyalgia is a complex problem in which symptoms of anxiety and depression feature prominently. Low levels of vitamin D have been frequently reported in fibromyalgia, but no relationship was demonstrated with anxiety and depression. Seventy-five Caucasian patients who fulfilled the ACR criteria for fibromyalgia had serum vitamin D levels measured and completed the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Score (HADS). Deficient levels of vitamin D was found in 13.3% of the patients, while 56.0% had insufficient levels and 30.7% had normal levels. Patients with vitamin D deficiency (Vitamin D deficiency is common in fibromyalgia and occurs more frequently in patients with anxiety and depression. The nature and direction of the causal relationship remains unclear, but there are definite implications for long-term bone health.

  12. Anxiety and depression in patients with advanced macular degeneration: current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimarolli, Verena R; Casten, Robin J; Rovner, Barry W; Heyl, Vera; Sörensen, Silvia; Horowitz, Amy

    2016-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) - despite advances in prevention and medical treatment options - remains prevalent among older adults, often resulting in functional losses that negatively affect the mental health of older adults. In particular, the prevalence of both anxiety and depression in patients with AMD is high. Along with medical treatment options, low vision rehabilitation and AMD-specific behavioral and self-management programs have been developed and have demonstrated effectiveness in improving the mental health of AMD patients. This article reviews the prevalence of anxiety and depression in patients with advanced AMD, discusses potential mechanisms accounting for the development of depression and anxiety in AMD patients, presents the state-of the-art of available interventions for addressing anxiety and depression in AMD patients, and delineates recommendations for eye care professionals regarding how to screen for these two prevalent mental health problems and how to facilitate appropriate treatment for patients with AMD.

  13. Relation Between Early Maladaptive Schemes and Anxiety and Depression Features in University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Lucía Sánchez-Ortíz***

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety and depression are important health problems, because of the high prevalence rates in normal population and in clinical population. This non-experimental study intends to identify the cognitive profile, through the early maladaptive schemes in students from the Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana Bucaramanga, related with depression and anxiety scores. Thegoal is to contribute to the identification of cognitive characteristics that could help in the prevention of these disorders. 259 psychology students of the first seven semesters were evaluated by means from the following questionnaires: BDI, ST/DEP, STAI and YSQ-L2. The results don’t show the presence of specific schemes as a function of the presence of State/ Trait depression or State/Trait anxiety, which might suggest, through the dimensional paradigm, the presence of a cognitive pattern for an anxiety and depression mix disorder. It is suggested that further research should be carried out with other samples, including clinical population.

  14. The Attentional Blink Paradigm in Individuals with High and Low Levels of Depression and Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Kathleen Skinner

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The attentional biases of individuals with high and low levels of depression and anxiety were tested using the Attentional Blink paradigm. A rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP task was used to detect biases in identification of emotionally valenced target images. The independent variables were depression, anxiety, lag of target stimulus, and emotional valence of target images. The dependent variables were accuracy, reaction times, and pupil dilation. As predicted, attentional biases were found for symptoms of both depression and anxiety, independently and co-morbidly, for dependent variables. The data suggest that there are both differences and similarities in the effects of symptoms of anxiety and depression on attentional biases around emotional stimuli.

  15. Depression and Anxiety Following Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Are Associated With Higher Six-Month Unemployment Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Yassin, Altaib; Ouyang, Bichun; Temes, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Although survival has dramatically improved following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH), the reasons for persistent high rates of unemployment in this population remain unknown. Retrospective review for medical records of patients with aSAH admitted to Rush University Medical Center was undertaken. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to test the association of either depression or anxiety with the 6-month employment status. Among the 29 patients who developed depression or anxiety, 86.2% were unemployed at 6 months following their aSAH. After controlling for confounding factors, anxiety and depression were significantly associated with higher 6-month unemployment rates (odds ratio [OR]=0.08, 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.02-0.3, p=0.0002). Depression and anxiety are common following aSAH and are associated with increased unemployment rates 6 months post aSAH.

  16. Mindfulness-based stress reduction for comorbid anxiety and depression: case report and clinical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazlett-Stevens, Holly

    2012-11-01

    Growing research literature has documented the effectiveness of mindfulness-based interventions for anxiety and depressive disorders. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) teaches a series of mindfulness meditation and yoga practices, delivered in a group format during eight weekly sessions plus one full-day session. This case report demonstrates how MBSR was associated with dramatic clinical improvement of an individual with symptoms of panic, generalized anxiety, and depression. Scores on clinical assessment measures suggested clinically severe levels of anxious arousal, generalized anxiety, worry, fear of negative evaluation, and depression at the beginning of the intervention. The scores on all these measures fell well within normal limits 7 weeks later at the end of the intervention, and no remaining symptoms were reported afterward. Increased life satisfaction and quality of life were documented as well. This case illustrates the potential benefit of MBSR as an alternative or adjunctive treatment for comorbid anxiety and depressive disorder symptoms.

  17. The impact of perfectionism and anxiety traits on action monitoring in major depressive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrijvers, D.L.; Bruijn, E.R.A. de; Destoop, M.; Hulstijn, W.; Sabbe, B.G.C.C.

    2010-01-01

    Perfectionism and anxiety features are involved in the clinical presentation and neurobiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). In MDD, cognitive control mechanisms such as action monitoring can adequately be investigated applying electrophysiological registrations of the error-related negativity

  18. Mokken scaling analysis of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale in individuals with cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosco, Theodore D; Doyle, Frank; Watson, Roger; Ward, Mark; McGee, Hannah

    2012-01-01

    The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) is a prolifically used scale of anxiety and depression. The original bidimensional anxiety-depression latent structure of the HADS has come under significant scrutiny, with previous studies revealing one-, two-, three- and four-dimensional structures. The current study examines the latent structure of the HADS using a non-parametric item response theory method. Using data conglomerated from four independent studies of cardiovascular disease employing the HADS (n=893), Mokken scaling procedure was conducted to assess the latent structure of the HADS. A single scale consisting of 12 of 14 HADS items was revealed, indicating a unidimensional latent HADS structure. The HADS was initially intended to measure mutually exclusive levels of anxiety and depression; however, the current study indicates that a single dimension of general psychological distress is captured. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A systematic review of interventions for anxiety, depression, and PTSD in adult offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh-Hunt, Nicholas; Perry, Amanda

    2015-06-01

    There is a high prevalence of anxiety and depression in offender populations but with no recent systematic review of interventions to identify what is effective. This systematic review was undertaken to identify randomised controlled trials of pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions in adult offenders in prison or community settings. A search of five databases identified 14 studies meeting inclusion criteria, which considered the impact of psychological interventions, pharmacological agents, or exercise on levels of depression and anxiety. A narrative synthesis was undertaken and Hedges g effect sizes calculated to allow comparison between studies. Effect sizes for depression interventions ranged from 0.17 to 1.41, for anxiety 0.61 to 0.71 and for posttraumatic stress disorder 0 to 1.41. Cognitive behavioural therapy interventions for the reduction of depression and anxiety in adult offenders appear effective in the short term, though a large-scale trial of sufficient duration is needed to confirm this finding.

  20. Anxiety and depression among adult patients with facial injury in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    International Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Research. Volume 3 Issue 1 January – April 2014 www.ijmbr.com. © Michael ... trauma anxiety and depression disturbance among patients in the maxillofacial unit of the University of Uyo ...