WorldWideScience

Sample records for depression obsessive-compulsive disorder

  1. Perfectionism in depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder and eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassaroli, Sandra; Lauro, Leonor J Romero; Ruggiero, Giovanni Maria; Mauri, Massimo C; Vinai, Piergiuseppe; Frost, Randy

    2008-06-01

    High levels of perfectionism have been observed in major depression, anxiety disorders and eating disorders. Though few studies have compared levels of perfectionism across these disorders, there is reason to believe that different dimensions of perfectionism may be involved in eating disorders than in depression or anxiety [Bardone-Cone, A. M. et al. (2007). Perfectionism and eating disorders: Current status and future directions. Clinical Psychology Review, 27, 84-405]. The present study compared patients with major depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and eating disorders on dimensions of perfectionism. Concern over Mistakes was elevated in each of the patient groups while Pure Personal Standards was only elevated in the eating disorder sample. Doubts about Actions was elevated in both patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder and eating disorders, but not in depressed patients. Analyses of covariance indicated that Concern over Mistakes accounted for most of the variance in the relationship of perfectionism to these forms of psychopathology.

  2. Screening for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disorder Specific Phobias Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Depression Bipolar Disorder Suicide and Prevention Stress Related Illnesses Myth-Conceptions Find ...

  3. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... OCD What Is Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder? Everyone feels anxiety, fear, uncertainty, or worry at some time. These normal ... OCD. What Should I Do? Anxiety: Rachel's Story Anxiety Disorders ADHD Fears and Phobias Going to a Therapist Finding Low- ...

  4. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatments and Therapies Join a Study Learn More Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Definition Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a common, ... page for more information. Share Science News About Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) CBT Boosts SSRI for OCD NIMH Hosts ...

  5. Obsessive compulsive disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Obsessions or compulsions that cause personal distress or social dysfunction affect about 1% of adult men and 1.5% of adult women. About half of adults with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) have an episodic course, whereas the other half have continuous problems. Prevalence in children and adolescents is 2.7%. The disorder persists in about 40% of children and adolescents at mean follow-up of 5.7 years. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of initial treatments for obsessive compulsive disorder in adults? What are the effects of initial treatments for obsessive compulsive disorder in children and adolescents? What are the effects of maintenance treatment for obsessive compulsive disorder in adults? What are the effects of maintenance treatment for obsessive compulsive disorder in children and adolescents? What are the effects of treatments for obsessive compulsive disorder in adults who have not responded to initial treatment with serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs)? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to April 2011 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 43 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: addition of antipsychotics to serotonin reuptake inhibitors, behavioural therapy alone or with serotonin reuptake inhibitors, cognitive therapy or cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) (alone or

  6. Clinical and Cognitive Correlates of Depressive Symptoms among Youth with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peris, Tara S.; Bergman, R. Lindsey; Asarnow, Joan R.; Langley, Audra; McCracken, James T.; Piacentini, John

    2010-01-01

    Depression is the most common comorbidity among adults with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), yet little is known about depressive symptoms in childhood OCD. This study examined clinical and cognitive variables associated with depressive symptomatology in 71 youths (62% male, M age = 12.7 years) with primary OCD. Youths presented with a range…

  7. Clinical and Cognitive Correlates of Depressive Symptoms among Youth with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peris, Tara S.; Bergman, R. Lindsey; Asarnow, Joan R.; Langley, Audra; McCracken, James T.; Piacentini, John

    2010-01-01

    Depression is the most common comorbidity among adults with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), yet little is known about depressive symptoms in childhood OCD. This study examined clinical and cognitive variables associated with depressive symptomatology in 71 youths (62% male, M age = 12.7 years) with primary OCD. Youths presented with a range…

  8. [Obsessive compulsive disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-07-01

    Obsessive compulsive disorders (OCD) are a nosographic entity. Their biological rating in serotonergic pathways and the efficacy of serotonergic antidepressants allows for developing a clinical and biological models of OCD. J. Guyotat, one of the first in 1959 to observe the favorable effects of antidepressants on OCD, presents their history. Epidemiological surveys conducted since 1980 have shown that the prevalence of OCD was underestimated until then. The prevalence is 2 to 3% in the adult population, with more women affected. The disorder develops early in childhood and adolescence. Loss of time is an important criteria for OCD but, according to M. Bourgeois, who reviewed the symptoms precisely, this does not warrant identifying a separate "primary obsessive slowness" syndrome. According to M. Bouvard, the prognosis of the disorder, in contrast to that for rituals observed in children between 3 and 5 years of age, is poor, with a risk of chronicity and social disturbances. The prevalence of OCD in children and adolescents is 0.8% and remains stable. The comorbidity, in particular with tics, is discussed. The favorable effects of fluoxetine are reported. J.M. Chignon reviews the concept of comorbidity, developed in internal medicine, and explains that it could be rigorously applied to psychiatry only starting with the DSM III-R. The comorbidity of OCD with other psychiatric diseases is highly variable: it is reviewed for personality disorders (0 to 55%), schizophrenia (4%), substance abuse (10%) and especially depression: one third of patients with OCD will develop a major depressive episode. Based on a clinical case report, M. Faruch leads us from symptoms to behavior therapy. The symptom must be considered for itself, whether it is part or not of the obsessive neurosis. It is legitimate to use antidepressants in combination with behavior therapy.

  9. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. [Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strock, Margaret

    This booklet provides an overview of the causes, symptoms, and incidence of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and addresses the key features of OCD, including obsessions, compulsions, realizations of senselessness, resistance, and shame and secrecy. Research findings into the causes of OCD are reviewed which indicate that the brains of…

  10. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder among Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Among U.S. Adults Any Disorder Among Children Any Anxiety Disorder Among Adults Any Anxiety Disorder Among Children Agoraphobia Among Adults Agoraphobia Among Children Generalized Anxiety Disorder Among Adults Generalized Anxiety Disorder Among Children Obsessive Compulsive Disorder ...

  11. Dysregulation in pediatric obsessive compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Joseph F; Small, Brent J; Lewin, Adam B; Murphy, Tanya K; De Nadai, Alessandro S; Phares, Vicky; Geffken, Gary; Storch, Eric A

    2013-10-30

    Although obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and common co-occurring conditions share deficits in self-regulatory abilities, there has been minimal examination of impaired self-regulation (dysregulation) in youth with OCD. This study examined the association of dysregulation with symptom severity, impairment, and treatment outcome in pediatric OCD. Clinicians assessed obsessive-compulsive severity, family accommodation and global severity in 144 youth with OCD. Youth completed self-report severity ratings of anxiety and depressive symptoms. Parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), and both children and parents completed parallel ratings of obsessive-compulsive impairment. Ninety-seven youth received cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and were re-assessed after treatment. Dysregulation was assessed using the CBCL-Dysregulation Profile. Before treatment, dysregulated youth exhibited greater obsessive-compulsive symptom severity, depressive mood, family accommodation, and impairment than non-dysregulated youth. The magnitude of dysregulation directly predicted child-rated impairment, parent-rated impairment, and family accommodation, beyond obsessive-compulsive severity. The magnitude of pretreatment dysregulation predicted treatment discontinuation but not treatment response. Obsessive-compulsive symptom severity and dysregulation level significantly decreased after CBT. Dysregulated youth with OCD presented as more clinically severe than their non-dysregulated counterparts, and may require more individualized interventions to reduce dysregulated behavior to prevent CBT attrition. For treatment completers, CBT was associated with a decrease in dysregulation level.

  12. Anger attacks in obsessive compulsive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitesh Prakash Painuly

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Research on anger attacks has been mostly limited to depression, and only a few studies have focused on anger attacks in obsessive compulsive disorder. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study all new obsessive compulsive disorder patients aged 20-60 years attending an outpatient clinic were assessed using the anger attack questionnaire, irritability, depression and anxiety scale (for the direction of the aggressive behavior and quality of life (QOL. Results: The sample consisted of 42 consecutive subjects with obsessive compulsive disorder, out of which 21 (50% had anger attacks. The obsessive compulsive disorder subjects with and without anger attacks did not show significant differences in terms of sociodemographic variables, duration of illness, treatment, and family history. However, subjects with anger attacks had significantly higher prevalence of panic attacks and comorbid depression. Significantly more subjects with anger attacks exhibited aggressive acts toward spouse, parents, children, and other relatives in the form of yelling and threatening to hurt, trying to hurt, and threatening to leave. However, the two groups did not differ significantly in terms of QOL, except for the psychological domain being worse in the subjects with anger attacks. Conclusion: Anger attacks are present in half of the patients with obsessive compulsive disorder, and they correlate with the presence of comorbid depression.

  13. Screening for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Partners Executive Director's Corner Resources Public Screening for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) If you suspect that you might suffer from obsessive-compulsive disorder, also known as OCD, answer the questions below, ...

  14. [Obsessive-compulsive disorders in adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, R G; Rapoport, J L

    1990-01-01

    The research recently conducted and ongoing in adolescent obsessive-compulsive disorder indicates that the clinical signs and symptoms are indistinguishable from those seen in adults. Comorbidity appears to follow the same trends in adolescents and adults, with anxiety and affective symptomatology predominating. Contrary to expectation, Gilles de la Tourette disorder does not appear either as a concurrent syndrome, or as an eventual outcome in obsessive-compulsive adolescents. Males are greatly over-represented among adolescents with an early childhood onset. The neurological and neuropsychological findings are the only ones that appear to distinguish the adolescent and adult obsessive-compulsive patients. The findings point to frequent neurological abnormalities in adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder. The natural history over the short-term seems to be negatively affected by severity. The clinical efficacy of clomipramine and the failure of another tricyclic antidepressant parallels the therapeutic experience reported in adult patients. The presence of depression is unrelated to the efficacy of clomipramine. The neuropsychological and neurological abnormalities, together with the data from the longitudinal and treatment studies, strongly suggest that obsessive-compulsive disorder in adolescents is not a variant of the overall group of anxiety disorders.

  15. CATATONIA IN OBSESSIVE COMPULSIVE DISORDER

    OpenAIRE

    Jagadheesan, K.; Nizamie, Haque S.; Thakur, Anupam

    2002-01-01

    Catatonia occurs in a wide range of neuropsychiatric conditions. Among the psychiatric disorders, occurrence of catatonia has rarely been documented in obsessive-complsive disorder. Given the paucity of reports, we report two cases of obsessive compulsive disorder that presented as catatonia.

  16. Childhood-Onset Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Erdem

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Childhood-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder affects 1%-2% of children and adolescents. While symptoms reported by children and behavioral therapies and pharmacological interventions administered to children are similar to those seen among individuals who develop obsessive compulsive disorder in adulthood, there are several differences with regards to sex ratios, comorbidity patterns, neuroimaging findings. Family and twin studies support the role of genetics in some forms of obsessive compulsive disorder. Prefrontal cortex, cingulate cortex, thalamus, nucleus caudatus, putamen and globus pallidus are the main brain areas affected in children with obsessive compulsive disorder. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI are the treatment of choice for pharmacotherapy of obsessive compulsive disorder and exposure and response prevention are the most commonly applied behavioral therapy methods in obsessive compulsive disorder. Despite advances in the treatment of the disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder is still considered as a debilitating chronic disorder.

  17. Teaching Students with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leininger, Melissa; Dyches, Tina Taylor; Prater, Mary Anne; Heath, Melissa Allen

    2010-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a neurobiological condition affecting 1 of every 200 school-age children. OCD greatly affects students' academic, behavioral, and social functioning, and it can lead to additional problem such as depression. To effectively collaborate with other individuals providing appropriate support to students with OCD,…

  18. Teaching Students with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leininger, Melissa; Dyches, Tina Taylor; Prater, Mary Anne; Heath, Melissa Allen

    2010-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a neurobiological condition affecting 1 of every 200 school-age children. OCD greatly affects students' academic, behavioral, and social functioning, and it can lead to additional problem such as depression. To effectively collaborate with other individuals providing appropriate support to students with OCD,…

  19. Associations in the Longitudinal Course of Body Dysmorphic Disorder with Major Depression, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, and Social Phobia

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, Katharine A.; Stout, Robert L.

    2005-01-01

    Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is an impairing and relatively common disorder that has high comorbidity with certain Axis I disorders. However, the longitudinal associations between BDD and comorbid disorders have not previously been examined. Such information may shed light on the nature of BDD’s relationship to putative “near-neighbor” disorders, such as major depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and social phobia. This study examined time-varying associations between BDD and th...

  20. Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Traits in Youth with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jennifer M; Storch, Eric A; Pinto, Anthony; Lewin, Adam B

    2016-04-01

    While interest in the relationship between obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and obsessive compulsive personality disorder has increased, there are currently no studies that have examined the presence of obsessive compulsive personality traits (OCPTs) in youth. The current study sought to determine the latent factors and psychometric properties of a modified version of the Childhood Retrospective Perfectionism Questionnaire (CHIRP) and examine the correlates of specific OCPTs (e.g., rigidity, perfectionism) in youth with OCD. Participants included 96 treatment-seeking youth diagnosed with primary OCD (and a parent). Parents and youth completed measures of OCPTs, OCD severity, depression, and disability. A confirmatory factor analysis of the modified CHIRP resulted in a two-factor model: perfectionism and preoccupation with details. The CHIRP and its subscales demonstrated acceptable internal consistency and preliminary evidence for convergent and divergent validity. Obsessive compulsive traits in youth were also found to be associated with the checking, symmetry and contamination symptom dimensions.

  1. Temper Outbursts in Paediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Their Association with Depressed Mood and Treatment Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Georgina; Bolhuis, Koen; Heyman, Isobel; Mataix-Cols, David; Turner, Cynthia; Stringaris, Argyris

    2013-01-01

    Background: Temper outbursts in youth with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are a common source of concern, but remain poorly understood. This study examined a set of hypotheses related to: (a) the prevalence of temper outbursts in paediatric OCD, (b) the associations of temper outbursts with OCD severity and depressive symptoms; and (c) the…

  2. The overlap between anxiety, depression, and obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Guy M

    2015-09-01

    The anxiety disorders include generalized anxiety disorder, specific phobia, social phobia, agoraphobia, and panic disorder. In addition to the specific symptoms of these disorders, there may be a common experience of anxiety and even dysphoria across the conditions, and of course recourse to the same drug or choice of drugs for treatment. This overlap probably occurs because of universal dimensions of distress or negative affectivity, a shared genetic predisposition, and a common neurobiology Evidence of shared genes is still based mainly on twin studies, but the shared neurobiology can be investigated directly by the investigation of emotional or cognitive bias either behaviorally or using functional brain imaging. This intermediate phenotype can then provide a substrate for understanding and developing medicines and psychological treatments.

  3. Paediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Depressive Symptoms: Clinical Correlates and CBT Treatment Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, H M; Lester, K J; Jassi, A; Heyman, I; Krebs, G

    2015-07-01

    Depression frequently co-occurs with paediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), yet the clinical correlates and impact of depression on CBT outcomes remain unclear. The prevalence and clinical correlates of depression were examined in a paediatric specialist OCD-clinic sample (N = 295; Mean = 15 [7 - 18] years, 42 % female), using both dimensional (Beck Depression Inventory-youth; n = 261) and diagnostic (Development and Wellbeing Assessment; n = 127) measures of depression. The impact of depressive symptoms and suspected disorders on post-treatment OCD severity was examined in a sub-sample who received CBT, with or without SSRI medication (N = 100). Fifty-one per-cent of patients reported moderately or extremely elevated depressive symptoms and 26 % (95 % CI: 18 - 34) met criteria for a suspected depressive disorder. Depressive symptoms and depressive disorders were associated with worse OCD symptom severity and global functioning prior to CBT. Individuals with depression were more likely to be female, have had a psychiatric inpatient admission and less likely to be attending school (ps CBT. Depressive symptoms and depressive disorders predicted worse post-treatment OCD severity (βs = 0.19 and 0.26, ps CBT for OCD and is not independently associated with worse outcomes, supporting the recommendation for treatment as usual in the presence of depressive symptoms.

  4. Anxiety and Shame as Risk Factors for Depression, Suicidality, and Functional Impairment in Body Dysmorphic Disorder and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingarden, Hilary; Renshaw, Keith D; Wilhelm, Sabine; Tangney, June P; DiMauro, Jennifer

    2016-11-01

    Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) are associated with elevated depression, suicidality, functional impairment, and days housebound, yet little research has identified risk factors for these outcomes. Using path analysis, the present study examined anxiety and shame as risk factors for these outcomes across Internet-recruited self-report groups (BDD [n = 114], OCD [n = 114], and healthy control [HC; n = 133]). Paths from anxiety and shame to outcomes were similar and mostly significant across BDD and OCD, compared to non-significant paths for HCs, with one exception: the path from shame to depression was significant in the BDD group (b = 0.32) but non-significant in the OCD group (b = 0.07). Findings underscore similarities in BDD and OCD, supporting their reclassification into the same Obsessive Compulsive Related Disorders category. Results emphasize the importance of targeting shame, in addition to anxiety, in treatments for BDD and OCD.

  5. Bipolar Disorder and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Comorbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Necla Keskin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The comorbidity of bipolar disorder and anxiety disorders is a well known concept. Obsessive-compulsive disorder is the most commonly seen comorbid anxiety disorder in bipolar patients. Some genetic variants, neurotransmitters especially serotonergic systems and second-messenger systems are thought to be responsible for its etiology. Bipolar disorder alters the clinical aspects of obsessive compulsive disorder and is associated with poorer outcome. The determination of comorbidity between bipolar disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder is quite important for appropriate clinical management and treatment. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(4.000: 429-437

  6. Perfectionism in obsessive-compulsive and eating disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Maia,Berta Rodrigues; Soares,Maria João; Gomes, Ana; Marques,Mariana; Pereira,Ana Telma; Cabral, Ana; Valente,José; Bos,Sandra Carvalho; Pato, Michele; Pocinho, Fernando; Azevedo, Maria Helena; Macedo,António

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The main aims of this article are twofold. First, to assess perfectionism dimensions in obsessive-compulsive disorder and eating disorders in comparison with psychiatric control (depression/anxiety) and non-clinical control groups. Second, to examine if perfectionism is specifically related to these different clinical conditions. METHOD: Thirty-nine outpatients with obsessive-compulsive disorder, 24 outpatients with eating disorders, 65 outpatients with a diagnosis of depression an...

  7. The Effect of Group Cognitive Therapy on Reducing Depression in the Female Patients with Severe Obsessive-compulsive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vida Mohammadi Heris

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The high prevalence of mental health problems among psychiatric patients with severe obsessivecompulsive disorder is depression that is one of the methods of non-pharmacological treatment of group cognitive therapy. In this study, the effect of cognitive therapy in reducing depression of female patients suffering from severe obsessive-compulsive disorder examined. Methods: In this study, patients were randomly divided into control and experimental groups and both groups were tested by Beck Depression Inventory before the intervention (second revision. The experimental group participated in ten sessions of cognitive therapy while the control group received no intervention. At the end of the intervention, both groups were evaluated by the test. Results: The data obtained using dependent and independent T test were evaluated. A positive impact in the cognitive therapy group showed decreased depression. Conclusion: The method of group cognitive therapy is effective in reducing depression in patients with severe obsessive-compulsive.

  8. Obsessive compulsive personality disorder and Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Nicoletti

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the frequency of personality disorders in Parkinson's disease (PD patients and in a group of healthy controls. METHODS: Patients affected by PD diagnosed according to the United Kingdom Parkinson's disease Society Brain Bank diagnostic criteria and a group of healthy controls were enrolled in the study. PD patients with cognitive impairment were excluded from the study. Structured Clinical Interview for Personality Disorders-II (SCID-II has been performed to evaluate the presence of personality disorders. Presence of personality disorders, diagnosed according to the DSM-IV, was confirmed by a psychiatric interview. Clinical and pharmacological data were also recorded using a standardized questionnaire. RESULTS: 100 PD patients (57 men; mean age 59.0 ± 10.2 years and 100 healthy subjects (52 men; mean age 58.1 ± 11.4 years were enrolled in the study. The most common personality disorder was the obsessive-compulsive personality disorder diagnosed in 40 PD patients and in 10 controls subjects (p-value<0.0001 followed by the depressive personality disorder recorded in 14 PD patients and 4 control subjects (p-value 0.02. Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder was also found in 8 out of 16 de novo PD patients with a short disease duration. CONCLUSION: PD patients presented a high frequency of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder that does not seem to be related with both disease duration and dopaminergic therapy.

  9. Psilocybin and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, James Allen

    2014-01-01

    Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a psychiatric disorder with considerable morbidity and mortality. This condition disables many individuals and is often refractory to treatment. Research suggests that serotonin plays a role in OCD symptom reduction. We present a case of an individual who successfully used psilocybin, a serotonergic agent, to reduce the core symptoms of OCD for several years. Although not endorsing this form of treatment, we feel that the successful use of this agent highlights the role of serotonergic factors in OCD and the need for further, legitimate research into the value of psilocybin in the treatment of anxiety disorders.

  10. Investigation of attentional bias in obsessive compulsive disorder with and without depression in visual search.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Morein-Zamir

    Full Text Available Whether Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD is associated with an increased attentional bias to emotive stimuli remains controversial. Additionally, it is unclear whether comorbid depression modulates abnormal emotional processing in OCD. This study examined attentional bias to OC-relevant scenes using a visual search task. Controls, non-depressed and depressed OCD patients searched for their personally selected positive images amongst their negative distractors, and vice versa. Whilst the OCD groups were slower than healthy individuals in rating the images, there were no group differences in the magnitude of negative bias to concern-related scenes. A second experiment employing a common set of images replicated the results on an additional sample of OCD patients. Although there was a larger bias to negative OC-related images without pre-exposure overall, no group differences in attentional bias were observed. However, OCD patients subsequently rated the images more slowly and more negatively, again suggesting post-attentional processing abnormalities. The results argue against a robust attentional bias in OCD patients, regardless of their depression status and speak to generalized difficulties disengaging from negative valence stimuli. Rather, post-attentional processing abnormalities may account for differences in emotional processing in OCD.

  11. Cognitive inflexibility in obsessive-compulsive disorder and major depression is associated with distinct neural correlates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter L Remijnse

    Full Text Available Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD and major depressive disorder (MDD are frequently co-morbid, and dysfunctional frontal-striatal circuits have been implicated in both disorders. Neurobiological distinctions between OCD and MDD are insufficiently clear, and comparative neuroimaging studies are extremely scarce. OCD and MDD may be characterized by cognitive rigidity at the phenotype level, and frontal-striatal brain circuits constitute the neural substrate of intact cognitive flexibility. In the present study, 18 non-medicated MDD-free patients with OCD, 19 non-medicated OCD-free patients with MDD, and 29 matched healthy controls underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging during performance of a self-paced letter/digit task switching paradigm. Results showed that both patient groups responded slower relative to controls during repeat events, but only in OCD patients slowing was associated with decreased error rates. During switching, patients with OCD showed increased activation of the putamen, anterior cingulate and insula, whereas MDD patients recruited inferior parietal cortex and precuneus to a lesser extent. Patients with OCD and MDD commonly failed to reveal anterior prefrontal cortex activation during switching. This study shows subtle behavioral abnormalities on a measure of cognitive flexibility in MDD and OCD, associated with differential frontal-striatal brain dysfunction in both disorders. These findings may add to the development of biological markers that more precisely characterize frequently co-morbid neuropsychiatric disorders such as OCD and MDD.

  12. with obsessive compulsive disorder

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-09-25

    Sep 25, 2007 ... received the diagnosis of OCD, according to ICD-10 DCR1S, were included. ... morbid anxiety disorders, concurrent major illness or systemic dysfunction ..... a comparison with social phobic and normal control subjects. J.

  13. OBSESSIVE-COMPULSIVE DISORDER (OCD) IN GENERAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) was previously considered rare, psychologically based and with no ... An obsession is a recurrent, persistent thought, image or impulse causing anxiety ... OCD), other anxiety disorders, eating disorders ...

  14. THE COMPARATIVE STUDY OF EVENT RELATED POTENTIALS IN PATIENTS WITH OBSESSIVE COMPULSIVE DISORDER, DEPRESSION AND ANXIETY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Zeping; CHEN Xingshi; ZHANG Mingdao; LOU Feiying; CHEN Jue

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the variations of contingent negative variations (CNV), P300 and mismatch negativity (MMN) in patients with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), depression and anxiety. Methods: Event- related potentials CNV, P300 and MMN were recorded in 31 patients with OCD by Nicolet Spirit Instrument, and were compared with that of 20 depression controls (DC) and 17 anxiety controls (AC) and 28 normal controls (NC). Results: A significant difference of CNV among 4 subject groups was found in both post- imperative negative variation (PINV) and amplitudes (M1) (P < 0.01 ) (emergence of PINV were 45%,60%, 35%, and 4% in OCD, DC, AC and NC groups respectively). Compared with NC group, DC and AC groups showed decreased M1 amplitude ( P < 0.01). A significant difference of P300 among 4 groups was found in both latencies (Cz/N2) and P3 and nontarget - P2 amplitudes (P < 0.05 ~ 0.01). The delayed MMN latencies of OCD and DC were similar to that of P300 changes. Conclusions: CNV, P300 and MMN are useful tools for assessing the brain malfunction of OCD, DC and AC, and its clinical application are suggested. The characteristics ERPs of those patients might be useful indexes in distinguishing OCD from DC and AC patients.

  15. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder in DSM-5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Porgali Zayman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There have been some changes of the Obsessive Compulsive Disorder in DSM-V in terms of its classification and description. First of all, it has been suggested that the disorder should be out of a lower cap of the anxiety disorders and with DSM-5 a new heading has become an issue like obsessive compulsive disorder and related disorders. The ones that suggest the obsessive compulsive spectrum disorders fundamentally assume that the obsessive compulsive disorder and the disorders defined as related with the OCD come from the same etiologic origin unlike the other anxiety disorders. The purpose of this compilation is to mention on how OCD has been defined all along the history and what kind of conceptual changes it went through until DSM-5. [Cukurova Med J 2016; 41(2.000: 360-362

  16. Suicide in Obsessive Compulsive and Related Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonca Karakus

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Suicide is a complex term. Suicide attempts are common in women, but completed suicide rates are higher in men. Several demographic factors, stressful life events, previous suicide attempts, childhood abuse, physical or psychiatric disorders are risk factors for suicide. Suicide rates in a variety of mental disorders is more than the normal population. Data on rates and risk factors of suicide in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder and related disorders are limited. Present data are often associated with patients with obsessive compulsive disorder and body dysmorphic disorder. Lifetime suicidal ideation rates in patients with obsessive compulsive disorder is within a range of 36-63%. Any comorbid psychiatric diagnosis is an important risk factor for suicide in this disorder. This article aims to review the relationship between suicide and obsessive compulsive and related disorders [Archives Medical Review Journal 2015; 24(3.000: 402-413

  17. Neurocognitive endophenotypes of obsessive-compulsive disorder

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Menzies, Lara; Achard, Sophie; Chamberlain, Samuel R; Fineberg, Naomi; Chen, Chi-Hua; del Campo, Natalia; Sahakian, Barbara J; Robbins, Trevor W; Bullmore, Ed

    2007-01-01

    .... It is theorized that endophenotype models of disease will help to clarify both diagnostic classification and aetiological understanding of complex brain disorders such as obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD...

  18. [Obsessive-compulsive disorder. A hidden disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haraldsson, Magnús

    2015-02-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder is a common and often chronic psychiatric illness that significantly interferes with the patient´s functioning and quality of life. The disorder is characterized by excessive intrusive and inappropriate anxiety evoking thoughts as well as time consuming compulsions that cause significant impairment and distress. The symptoms are often accompanied by shame and guilt and the knowledge of the general public and professional community about the disorder is limited. Hence it is frequently misdiagnosed or diagnosed late. There are indications that the disorder is hereditary and that neurobiological processes are involved in its pathophysiology. Several psychological theories about the causes of obsessive-compulsive disorder are supported by empirical evidence. Evidence based treatment is either with serotoninergic medications or cognitive behavioral therapy, particularly a form of behavioral therapy called exposure response prevention. Better treatment options are needed because almost a third of people with obsessive-compulsive disorder respond inadequatly to treatment. In this review article two cases of obsessive-compulsive disorder are presented. The former case is a young man with typical symptoms that respond well to treatment and the latter is a middle aged lady with severe treatment resistant symptoms. She underwent stereotactic implantation of electrodes and received deep brain stimulation, which is an experimental treatment for severe obsessive-compulsive disorder that does not respond to any conventional treatment. Landspitali University Hospital, Division of Psychiatry. Faculty of Medicine, University of Iceland.

  19. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Child What Kids Say About: Handling Stress Anxiety, Fears, and Phobias Community Service: A Family's Guide to Getting Involved ... ON THIS TOPIC Helping Kids Handle Worry Anxiety, Fears, and Phobias Childhood Stress What Is "PANS"? Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder ...

  20. Determinants of obsessive compulsive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sateesh Rangarao Koujalgi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The family has a significant role both in the genesis and prognosis of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD. Early identification, treatment and prevention of relapse in patients with OCD have important therapeutic and psychosocial implications. Hence, to study and determine family factors like high expressed emotion (EE and family dysfunction are essential. These two factors play a significant role in the relapse and course of OCD. Aim: The aim was to study the relationship between family function, EE and OCD. Materials and Methods: The sample included 30 patients who were diagnosed with OCD using International Classification of Diseases-10 Diagnostic Criteria for Research criteria. Yale-Brown obsessive compulsive scale was used to assess the severity of OCD. EE was assessed in cases using Family Emotional Involvement and Criticism Scale and family function was assessed in cases using the family interaction pattern scale (FIPS. Statistical analysis was performed using Statistical Packages for Social Science. Patient and caregivers of the patients were assessed on self-developed socio-demographic proforma. Pearson co-relation co-efficient test was used to study the correlation between OCD, high EE and family dysfunction. Results: The result showed that there are significant correlations between high EE, family dysfunction and OCD. The Pearson correlation co-efficient between OCD and EE shows a significant correlation between the high EE of the caregiver and OCD with P < 0.01. The Pearson correlation co-efficient between OCD and Family Interaction Pattern Scale shows a significant correlation between the family dysfunction of the caregiver and OCD. Conclusion: Impaired family function and high EE in caregivers associated with OCD. Thus clinical interventions may improve the functional abilities of the caregivers.

  1. Metacognitive Model of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinar Yoruk

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article the metacognitive model which is one of the approaches in explaining the obsessive compulsive disorder is reviewed. A key feature of the metacognitive model is that irrespective of the content of both intrusions and beliefs about the self or the world, obsessive compulsive symptoms are caused by a small set of specific metacognitions concerning the power and significance of thoughts and how to react to them. Studies support the role of metacognitive beliefs and processes in predicting obsessive compulsive disorder symptoms and emphasize the importance of metacognitive beliefs and processes in formulating obsessive compulsive problems. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2015; 7(2: 190-207

  2. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: What an Educator Needs to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Amrita; Murdick, Nikki L.; Gartin, Barbara C.

    2014-01-01

    The presence of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) impairs social, emotional and academic functioning. Individuals with OCD may have co-morbid disorders including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, depression, oppositional defiant disorder, or Tourette syndrome. Challenges occur when students with OCD become a part of the general education…

  3. Trichotillomania and obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, D J; Simeon, D; Cohen, L J; Hollander, E

    1995-01-01

    Trichotillomania, a disorder characterized by repetitive hair pulling, has been only recently systemically investigated. Such research was encouraged by data that showed obsessive-compulsive disorder, which is also characterized by ritual behaviors, responds selectively to serotonin reuptake inhibitors. In this review, we consider similarities and contrasts in the diagnosis, demographics, phenomenology, neurochemistry, neuropsychiatry, and treatment of trichotillomania and obsessive-compulsive disorder. We argue that a view of trichotillomania as an obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorder that may involve disturbances in grooming behaviors comprises a useful clinical and research heuristic. Nevertheless, there may also be important differences between the two disorders; in particular, trichotillomania has a number of characteristics in common with impulsive disorders. Further empirical investigation is necessary to determine the nature of these complex disorders and their relationship to one another.

  4. OBSESSIVE COMPULSIVE DISORDER: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pathan Dilnawaz N

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD is a type of anxiety disorder which can vary from being very mild to being very severe. From feeling compelled to wash your hands, to keep fixating your thoughts on one particular thing, OCD can take a variety of forms. While OCD patients may know that logically there is no need for their behavior, they still feel a compulsion keep repeating their obsessive actions. As the OCD condition worsens, a person’s anxiety and distress levels keep rising. If treatment is not sought by victims, soon the problem begins to take up more and more time of their regular day until it seems as if the problem has completely taken over their life and there is no time to do anything other than washing, thinking, or continuing with any other obsessive behavior. OCD’s effects are far and wide as the person’s ability to work, their relationships with friends and family, and their overall living standards all take a nosedive. Among the treatment options available, Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT has been found to be most effective.CBT focuses in on the problem itself and is the most goal-oriented of all therapy options. Further, it is an interactive approach in the sense that after giving a full understanding of what the problem is, the patient is taught the necessary skills to comprehend and overcome his problem. If, nonetheless, medications are prescribed, they usually comprise of antidepressants, however, these medications have been found to be temporary solutions in the sense that when they are stopped OCD tends to resurface quite quickly.

  5. A case study in treating chronic comorbid obsessive-compulsive disorder and depression with behavioral activation and pharmacotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arco, Lucius

    2015-06-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is difficult to treat, and more so when comorbid with major depressive disorder (MDD). The aim of the present case study was to examine effects of behavioral activation (BA) and pharmacotherapy with an adult with chronic comorbid OCD and MDD. BA aimed at increasing approach behaviors in life activities and decreasing avoidant and inactive behaviors. After 21 months of treatment at a community mental health clinic, OCD and MDD symptoms, including compulsive checking behaviors, were no longer at clinical levels. Symptom alleviation and psychological health improved in line with increases in activities of living such as self-care, domestic, social, and studying, and decreases in medications from a regimen of mood stabilizers and anxiolytics to a sole antidepressant. The participant was satisfied with treatment procedures and outcome. The results add to growing evidence of effective BA treatments for comorbid disorders that include depression.

  6. Anxiety Sensitivity and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calamari, John E.; Rector, Neil A.; Woodard, John L.; Cohen, Robyn J.; Chik, Heather M.

    2008-01-01

    Anxiety sensitivity (AS), a cognitive risk factor for anxiety disorders, was evaluated in a homogeneous obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) sample. A total of 280 individuals with OCD completed measures. Evaluation of the Anxiety Sensitivity Index revealed a latent structure that was congruent with previous studies showing a single higher order…

  7. Anxiety Sensitivity and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calamari, John E.; Rector, Neil A.; Woodard, John L.; Cohen, Robyn J.; Chik, Heather M.

    2008-01-01

    Anxiety sensitivity (AS), a cognitive risk factor for anxiety disorders, was evaluated in a homogeneous obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) sample. A total of 280 individuals with OCD completed measures. Evaluation of the Anxiety Sensitivity Index revealed a latent structure that was congruent with previous studies showing a single higher order…

  8. Obsessive compulsive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia on clozapine and with obsessive compulsive disorder: a comparison study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Doyle, Mairead

    2014-01-01

    Obsessive compulsive symptoms are commonly reported in those with schizophrenia. Clozapine has previously been reported to induce, aggravate and alleviate these symptoms. It is unclear if these are similar to the symptoms experienced by those with obsessive compulsive disorder. This study describes the obsessive compulsive symptom profile of a population of patients with schizophrenia treated with clozapine (n = 62) and compares this with patients with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (n = 35). All participants were attending an outpatient community mental health service. The Obsessive Compulsive Inventory (which measures the frequency and associated distress of a range of "behavioural" and "cognitive" symptoms), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and a demographic questionnaire were completed. In addition the schizophrenia group treated with clozapine completed the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. The OCD group reported significantly more symptoms for all OCI subscales compared to the clozapine group. Overall fourteen (22%) of the schizophrenia treated with clozapine group had clinically significant total OCI scores. Two (3%) had documented OCS pre clozapine. De novo OCS was reported in twelve (19%) cases. Nine (11%) had documented OC symptoms pre-clozapine while only two (3%) had symptoms after clozapine was initiated. In terms of OC symptom profile, the clozapine group scored highest on the Doubting scale, a cognitive symptom whereas the OCD group scored highest on Washing, a behavioural symptom. Both groups reported greater distress with cognitive rather than behavioural symptoms. Medication including clozapine dose was not correlated with symptom severity. Anxiety correlated highly with obsessive compulsive symptoms in the Clozapine group but not the OCD group. Within the Clozapine group, Obsessing correlated highly with Unusual Thought Content. Findings suggest that obsessive compulsive symptoms in the Clozapine group may reflect a subtype of \\'schizo

  9. The correlates of obsessive-compulsive, schizotypal, and borderline personality disorders in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melca, Isabela A; Yücel, Murat; Mendlowicz, Mauro V; de Oliveira-Souza, Ricardo; Fontenelle, Leonardo F

    2015-06-01

    We assessed correlates of obsessive-compulsive (OCPD), schizotypal (SPD) and borderline (BPD) personality disorders in 110 obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients. We found OCD patients with OCPD (20.9%) to exhibit higher rates of hoarding and bipolar disorders, increased severity of hoarding and symmetry, lower prevalence of unacceptable thoughts involving sex and religion and less non-planning impulsivity. Conversely, OCD patients with SPD (13.6%) displayed more frequently bipolar disorder, increased severity of depression and OCD neutralization, greater prevalence of "low-order" behaviors (i.e., touching), lower low-planning impulsivity and greater "behavioral" compulsivity. Finally, in exploratory analyses, OCD patients with BPD (21.8%) exhibited lower education, higher rates of several comorbid psychiatric disorders, greater frequency of compulsions involving interpersonal domains (e.g. reassurance seeking), increased severity of depression, anxiety and OCD dimensions other than symmetry and hoarding, more motor and non-planning impulsivity, and greater "cognitive" compulsivity. These findings highlight the importance of assessing personality disorders in OCD samples.

  10. A Case of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twohig, Michael P.; Whittal, Maureen L.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the case of a 51-year old woman with obsessive-compulsive disorder. "Caroline" reported obsessions of harming people secondary to spreading her "bad energy," which is experienced as dust on her hands and in her mouth. To prevent harm coming to others she mentally "vacuums" the dust, creates…

  11. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in Late Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calamari, John E.; Pontarelli, Noelle K.; Armstrong, Kerrie M.; Salstrom, Seoka A.

    2012-01-01

    Although obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has received increasing attention, the study and treatment of OCD in late life has been neglected. The obsessions and compulsions seen with older adults do not appear to differ from the symptoms experienced by other age groups, although developmental issues might influence symptom focus (e.g., memory…

  12. Obsessive compulsive disorder presenting for redundant clothing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N A Uvais

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a case report of a 15-year-old girl who presented with redundant clothing. On evaluation, it was found that she had obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD, and redundant clothing was a symptom of OCD, which has hitherto not been reported.

  13. A Case of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twohig, Michael P.; Whittal, Maureen L.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the case of a 51-year old woman with obsessive-compulsive disorder. "Caroline" reported obsessions of harming people secondary to spreading her "bad energy," which is experienced as dust on her hands and in her mouth. To prevent harm coming to others she mentally "vacuums" the dust, creates…

  14. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder and the School Counselor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertlieb, Ellen C.

    2008-01-01

    The current article is designed to provide school counselors an understanding of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The causes, characteristics, and treatment approaches are presented with examples focusing on school-related issues. The article concludes with a discussion about the role that the school counselor can take in helping the child…

  15. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in Late Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calamari, John E.; Pontarelli, Noelle K.; Armstrong, Kerrie M.; Salstrom, Seoka A.

    2012-01-01

    Although obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has received increasing attention, the study and treatment of OCD in late life has been neglected. The obsessions and compulsions seen with older adults do not appear to differ from the symptoms experienced by other age groups, although developmental issues might influence symptom focus (e.g., memory…

  16. Depression and risk of suicide in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder: A hospital-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupesh Kumar Chaudhary

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD is a chronic, distressing, anxiety disorder associated with significant functional impairment. Patient with OCD often suffer from one or more co-morbid disorders. Major depression has been the most common co-morbid syndrome. Comorbid Axis I disorders along with increased severity of comorbid depressive and anxiety symptoms, increased severity of obsessions, feelings of hopelessness and past history of suicide attempts have been associated with worsening levels of suicidality in OCD (Angelakis I, Gooding P., 2015. As per data Thirty-six percent of the patients of OCD report lifetime suicidal thoughts and 11% have a history of attempted suicide(Torres AR, Ramos-Cerqueira AT, et al, 2011. There is a reasonable probability that the patient of OCD have suicidal thoughts, plans or actually attempt suicide. Aim: To assess depression and suicidality in OCD patients. Method: This study was conducted on 50 patients diagnosed with OCD as per ICD 10 criteria, both outpatient & indoor, from department of psychiatry, Dayanand Medical College & Hospital, Ludhiana, Punjab, India. A socio-demographic proforma (containing demographic details, Hamilton Depression Rating & Scale, Columbia suicide severity rating scale (CSSRS & Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale Symptom Checklist (YBOCS were administered. Results: Mild depression was found out to be 40% whereas 16% were suffering from moderate depression and 10% and 14% had severe and very severe depression respectively. Suicidal ideation was found in 52 % of patients.16% of patients had history of actual attempt. Data showed that 70% of females had suicidal ideations. It was also found that in cases of severe and very severe depression associated with OCD all the patients had suicidal ideations as compared to 35% in mild and 87.5% in moderate depressive patients. It was found that 40% of severe depressive and 28.57% of very severe depressive patients had attempted

  17. Suicide in Obsessive Compulsive and Related Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Gonca Karakus; Lut Tamam

    2015-01-01

    Suicide is a complex term. Suicide attempts are common in women, but completed suicide rates are higher in men. Several demographic factors, stressful life events, previous suicide attempts, childhood abuse, physical or psychiatric disorders are risk factors for suicide. Suicide rates in a variety of mental disorders is more than the normal population. Data on rates and risk factors of suicide in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder and related disorders are limited. Present data are o...

  18. Metacognitive Model of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Zihni Sungur

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Several authors have suggested that not only appraisal of significance of external events and signals from the body, but also appraisal of the personal significance of thoughts are important, and emphasized the conceptual limitations of the schema approach in cognitive model and developed the integrative information processing model of emotional disorders. According to this approach, the assessment of the meaning of thought, rather than thought itself is more important in the development and maintenance of the psychopathology. In the metacognitive model of obsessive compulsive disorder, three types of metacognitive beliefs are emphasized. These are; thought-action fusion (thought-action, thought-event, thought-object, metacognitive beliefs on performing the rituals and metacognitive beliefs on the warning to stop to terminate the rituals. According to the model, targeting directly to change in metacognitive beliefs will increase success in therapy. In this article, the concept of metacognition in emotional disorders, the metacognitive model of obsessive compulsive disorder and the advances that the model introduced in conceptualization and treatment of obsessive compulsive disorder have been discussed.

  19. Dysregulation of Neurosteroids in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Bigos, KL; Folan, MM; Jones, Van; Haas, GL; Kroboth, FJ; Kroboth, PD

    2008-01-01

    Alterations in hormone concentrations, including adrenocorticotropin, corticotropin releasing hormone, and cortisol have been reported in patients with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfated metabolite, DHEA-S, have not been assessed in patients with OCD. We report 24-hour serum DHEA, DHEA-S, and cortisol concentrations in a young man with OCD and 15 healthy young men. Circadian patterns of DHEA and cortisol were markedly different in the subject w...

  20. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in the Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P. Philpot

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Four cases of obsessive-compulsive disorder arising in late life in association with a presumed organic aetiology are described. Three of the four had brief episodes of OCD earlier in their lives. Neuropsychological assessment demonstrated impairments in verbal fluency and visuo-spatial tasks. No case exhibited global intellectual impairment. The two patients who complied with appropriate treatment became asymptomatic after 4–6 months.

  1. Memory Functioning in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abbruzzese

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of studies have reported neuropsychological deficits in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD. These have mainly implicated frontal or temporal dysfunction. In this study, we compared the performances of OCD patients and normal subjects using a factorial interpretation of the Wechsler Memory Scale. Our results do not demonstrate significant memory impairment in OCD patients but point to the possibility of frontal lobe dysfunction as a factor in the pathophysiology of OCD.

  2. Prevalence of Childhood Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Traits in Adults with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder versus Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, Anthony; Greene, Ashley L.; Storch, Eric A.; Simpson, H. Blair

    2014-01-01

    Identifying risk factors of psychopathology has been an important research challenge. Prior studies examining the impact of childhood temperament on adult disorder have largely focused on undercontrolled and inhibited presentations, with little study of overcontrolled traits such as obsessive-compulsive personality traits (OCPTs). We compared rates of childhood OCPTs in adults with OCD (without OCPD) (n = 28) to adults with OCPD (without OCD) (n = 27), adults with both OCD and OCPD (n = 28), ...

  3. Sleep and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Jessica L; Reynolds, Amy C; Ferguson, Sally A; Dawson, Drew

    2013-12-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic mental illness that can have a debilitating effect on daily functioning. A body of research reveals altered sleep behaviour in OCD sufferers; however, findings are inconsistent and there is no consensus on the nature of this relationship. Understanding sleep disturbance in OCD is of critical importance given the known negative consequences of disturbed sleep for mood and emotional wellbeing. A systematic literature search was conducted of five databases for studies assessing sleep in adults diagnosed with OCD. Fourteen studies met inclusion criteria and qualitative data analysis methods were used to identify common themes. There was some evidence of reduced total sleep time and sleep efficiency in OCD patients. Many of the sleep disturbances noted were characteristic of depression. However, some OCD sufferers displayed delayed sleep onset and offset and an increased prevalence of delayed sleep phase disorder (DSPD). Severe OCD symptoms were consistently associated with greater sleep disturbance. While the sleep of OCD patients has not been a major focus to date, the existing literature suggests that addressing sleep disturbance in OCD patients may ensure a holistic approach to treatment, enhance treatment efficacy, mitigate relapse and protect against the onset of co-morbid psychiatric illnesses.

  4. Comorbidity in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD): a report from the International College of Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum Disorders (ICOCS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochner, Christine; Fineberg, Naomi A; Zohar, Joseph; van Ameringen, Michael; Juven-Wetzler, Alzbeta; Altamura, Alfredo Carlo; Cuzen, Natalie L; Hollander, Eric; Denys, Damiaan; Nicolini, Humberto; Dell'Osso, Bernardo; Pallanti, Stefano; Stein, Dan J

    2014-10-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is often associated with significant psychiatric comorbidity. Comorbid disorders include mood and anxiety disorders as well as obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders (OCSDs). This paper aims to investigate comorbidity of DSM Axis I-disorders, including OCSDs, in patients with OCD from 10 centers affiliated with the International College of Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum Disorders (ICOCS). This is a cross-sectional study of comorbidity of Axis I disorders including OCSDs in 457 outpatients with primary OCD (37% male; 63% female), with ages ranging from 12 to 88years (mean: 39.8±13). Treating clinicians assessed Axis I disorders using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview and assessed OCSDs using the Structured Clinical Interview for OCD related/spectrum disorders (SCID-OCSD). In terms of the OCSDs, highest comorbidity rates were found for tic disorder (12.5%), BDD (8.71%) and self-injurious behavior (7.43%). In terms of the other Axis I-disorders, major depressive disorder (MDD; 15%), social anxiety disorder (SAD; 14%), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD; 13%) and dysthymic disorder (13%) were most prevalent. High comorbidity of some OCSDs in OCD supports the formal recognition of these conditions in a separate chapter of the nosology. Rates of other Axis I disorders are high in both the general population and in OCSDs, indicating that these may often also need to be the focus of intervention in OCD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder as a Predictor of Exposure and Ritual Prevention Outcome for Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, Anthony; Liebowitz, Michael R.; Edna B. Foa; Simpson, H. Blair

    2011-01-01

    Despite elevated rates of obsessive compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) in patients with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), no study has specifically examined comorbid OCPD as a predictor of exposure and ritual prevention (EX/RP) outcome. Participants were adult outpatients (n = 49) with primary OCD and a Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (YBOCS) total score ≥ 16 despite a therapeutic serotonin reuptake inhibitor dose for at least 12 weeks prior to entry. Participants received 17 ses...

  6. Attachment states of mind in adolescents with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and/or depressive disorders: a controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivarsson, Tord; Granqvist, Pehr; Gillberg, Christopher; Broberg, Anders G

    2010-11-01

    Little is known about the contribution of attachment insecurity to Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD), though speculations have been extensive. We aimed to study how states of mind (SoM) with regard to attachment relate to OCD with and without depressive disorder (DD). We interviewed 100 adolescents, 25 each with OCD, DD, OCD plus DD and general population controls, using the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) to assess attachment SoM. In the AAI, interviewees are asked about both generalized/semantic and biographical/episodic descriptions of childhood experience. Discourse styles are coded and classified by a blinded coder. While about half of the adolescents from the general population had secure SoM (52%), most adolescents in the clinical groups did not: OCD 12%; DD 8%; and DD + OCD 4% (Fisher's exact test, p = 0.0001). SoM with regard to attachment profiles differed significantly across the groups with 60% of participants with OCD classified as dismissing (Ds), 40% of the DD group as unresolved with regard to loss or abuse (U) and 28% as cannot classify, while 44 and 36%, respectively, of those with OCD + DD group were classified as either Ds or U (Fisher's exact test, p = 0.0001). Different kinds of SoM reflecting insecure attachment differentiated the clinical groups studied, with OCD predominantly showing dismissing traits and depression attachment SoM commonly associated with severe adverse events. Such differences might play distinct roles in the pathogenic processes of the psychiatric disorders, or be the result of the cognitive states associated with OCD and DD.

  7. Relapse prevention and residual symptoms: a closer analysis of placebo-controlled continuation studies with escitalopram in major depressive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Per; Lönn, Sara L; Overø, Kerstin F

    2010-01-01

    -Severity of Illness scores and relapse status in 4 studies published from 2005 to 2007, 1 each in major depressive disorder (MDD), generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), were analyzed using mixed-effects model repeated measures as a function of Montgomery...

  8. Comorbidity in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) : a report from the International College of Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum Disorders (ICOCS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lochner, Christine; Fineberg, Naomi A; Zohar, Joseph; van Ameringen, Michael; Juven-Wetzler, Alzbeta; Altamura, Alfredo Carlo; Cuzen, Natalie L; Hollander, Eric; Denys, D.; Nicolini, Humberto; Dell'Osso, Bernardo; Pallanti, Stefano; Stein, Dan J

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is often associated with significant psychiatric comorbidity. Comorbid disorders include mood and anxiety disorders as well as obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders (OCSDs). This paper aims to investigate comorbidity of DSM Axis I-disorders, includin

  9. Atypical presentation of childhood obsessive compulsive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyakam Mohapatra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD is one of the most prevalent psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents. The phenomenology of OCD in children and adolescent is strikingly similar to that of adults. But at times, the presentation of OCD may be so atypical or unusual in children and adolescents that may lead to misdiagnosis or delay in diagnosis. We report a case of 10-year-old child who was initially misdiagnosed with schizophrenia, and treated with antipsychotic for 2 months. But once the core symptoms were recognized as obsessions and compulsions and appropriately treated in the line of OCD, the symptoms resolved significantly.

  10. Incompleteness as a link between obsessive-compulsive personality traits and specific symptom dimensions of obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecker, Willi; Kupfer, Jochen; Gönner, Sascha

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the contribution of incompleteness/'not just right experiences' (NJREs) to an understanding of the relationship between obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and obsessive-compulsive personality traits (OCPTs). It investigates the association of specific OCD symptom dimensions with OCPTs, conceptualized as continuous phenomena that are also observable below the diagnostic threshold. As empirical findings and clinical observation suggest that incompleteness feelings/NJREs may play a significant affective and motivational role for certain OCD subtypes, but also for patients with accentuated OCPTs, we hypothesized that OCPTs are selectively linked with incompleteness-associated OCD symptom dimensions (ordering, checking, hoarding and counting). Moreover, we assumed that this selective relationship cannot be demonstrated any more after statistical control of incompleteness, whereas it is preserved after statistical control of anxiety, depression, pathological worry and harm avoidance. Results from a study with a large clinical sample (n = 185) partially support these hypotheses and suggest that NJREs may be an important connecting link between specific OCD symptom dimensions, in particular ordering and checking, and accentuated OCPTs. Obsessive-compulsive personality traits (OCPTs) are positively related to obsessive-compulsive disorder symptom dimensions (ordering, checking, hoarding and counting) hypothesized or found to be associated with incompleteness/'not just right experiences' (NJREs), but not to washing and obsessions. This positive relationship, which is strongest for ordering and checking, is eliminated when NJREs are statistically controlled. Ordering, checking and accentuated OCPTs may share NJREs as a common affective-motivational underpinning.Dysfunctional behaviour patterns of people with accentuated OCPTs or obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) may be viewed as efforts to avoid or reduce subjectively intolerable NJREs

  11. Obsessive compulsive disorder: report of six cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovuga, E

    2001-05-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) refers to interloping and interative thoughts, ideas, images, fantasies, impulses and actions accompanied by feelings of distress and declarations of resistance. It is assumed that OCD is rare among black Africans. This paper reports six cases from Uganda. The report indicates that OCD exists among black Africans and that those affected experience considerable amounts of emotional, social and occupational distress. It is suggested that OCD should be taught adequately to medical students to enable future general-duty medical officers to recognise and manage it appropriately. The names that appear in the text are pseudonyms.

  12. Superstitiousness in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugger, Peter; Viaud-Delmon, Isabelle

    2010-01-01

    It has been speculated that superstitiousness and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) exist along a continuum. The distinction between superstitious behavior and superstitious belief, however, is crucial for any theoretical account of claimed associations between superstitiousness and OCD. By demonstrating that there is a dichotomy between behavior and belief, which is experimentally testable, we can differentiate superstitious behavior from superstitious belief, or magical ideation. Different brain circuits are responsible for these two forms of superstitiousness; thus, determining which type of superstition is prominent in the symptomatology of an individual patient may inform us about the primarily affected neurocognitive systems.

  13. Understudied Clinical Dimensions in Pediatric Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin, Adam B.; Caporino, Nicole; Murphy, Tanya K.; Geffken, Gary R.; Storch, Eric A.

    2010-01-01

    The present study aimed to assess the phenomenology and treatment sensitivity of insight, avoidance, indecisiveness, overvalued responsibility, pervasive slowness, and pathological doubting among youth with Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) using the ancillary items on the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS). These factors…

  14. Understudied Clinical Dimensions in Pediatric Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin, Adam B.; Caporino, Nicole; Murphy, Tanya K.; Geffken, Gary R.; Storch, Eric A.

    2010-01-01

    The present study aimed to assess the phenomenology and treatment sensitivity of insight, avoidance, indecisiveness, overvalued responsibility, pervasive slowness, and pathological doubting among youth with Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) using the ancillary items on the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS). These factors…

  15. Obsessive-compulsive disorder and related disorders: a comprehensive survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solano Paola

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Our aim was to present a comprehensive, updated survey on obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD and obsessive-compulsive related disorders (OCRDs and their clinical management via literature review, critical analysis and synthesis. Information on OCD and OCRD current nosography, clinical phenomenology and etiology, may lead to a better comprehension of their management. Clinicians should become familiar with the broad spectrum of OCD disorders, since it is a pivotal issue in current clinical psychiatry.

  16. Two cases of delayed-onset suicidal ideation, dysphoria and anxiety after ketamine infusion in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder and a history of major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niciu, Mark J; Grunschel, Beth D G; Corlett, Philip R; Pittenger, Christopher; Bloch, Michael H

    2013-07-01

    Ketamine is a non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist that is Food and Drug Administration-approved in the United States for anesthesia due to its sedative effects with low risk of severe respiratory depression. Subanesthetic dose intravenous ketamine has rapidly acting antidepressant effects in treatment-resistant unipolar and bipolar depression. We recently reported an open-label trial of ketamine in 10 subjects with treatment-refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder, seven of whom had active comorbid depression. Although ketamine had no sustained anti-obsessive effect, four of the seven subjects with comorbid depression experienced an acute antidepressant effect. However, we unexpectedly observed delayed-onset dysphoria, worsening anxiety and suicidal thinking in two of the three subjects with obsessive-compulsive disorder and extensive psychiatric comorbidity but minimal depressive symptoms at the start of infusion. The implications of these adverse neuropsychiatric effects in two patients with similar psychiatric comorbidity are discussed. We conclude that there remains insufficient data on therapeutic ketamine in the presence of comorbid psychiatric disorders to promote its off-label use in a non-research milieu.

  17. Relationship Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Interference, Symptoms, and Maladaptive Beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doron, Guy; Derby, Danny; Szepsenwol, Ohad; Nahaloni, Elad; Moulding, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Obsessive preoccupation, doubts, and compulsive behaviors focusing on one's romantic relationship and partner are receiving increasing clinical, theoretical, and empirical attention. Commonly referred to as relationship obsessive-compulsive disorder (ROCD), such symptoms have been linked with decreased relational and sexual functioning and lower mood, even after controlling for other obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms. To date, however, these symptoms have been studied in community samples alone. In the present study, we compared levels of interference, OCD, and mood symptoms between clinical participants with ROCD, OCD, and community controls. We also examined group differences in maladaptive beliefs previously linked with OCD and ROCD. Participants included 22 ROCD clients, 22 OCD clients, and 28 community controls. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview was used to attain clinical diagnoses of OCD and ROCD. The Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale was used to evaluate primary-symptoms severity. All participants completed measures of symptoms and dysfunctional beliefs. ROCD clients reported more severe ROCD symptoms than the OCD and control groups. ROCD and OCD clients did not differ in severity of their -primary-symptoms. ROCD clients scored higher than the other groups on maladaptive OCD-related and relationship-related beliefs. Finally, ROCD clients showed more severe depression symptoms than community controls. ROCD is a disabling presentation of OCD that warrants research attention. Maladaptive OCD-related and relationship-related beliefs may be implicated in the development and maintenance of ROCD.

  18. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Case Following Cerebral Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semra Bilge

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Obsessive compulsive disorder is characterised by recurrent, unwanted, distressing thoughts, images, impulses and associated behaviours which generally emerge in the 2nd or 3rd decades of life. Elderly onset cases are rare. A 71 year old patient was admitted to our hospital because of left-sided weakness. Neurological examination revealed left hemiparesis, mild dysphasia and anosognosia. Using cranial magnetic resonance, infarcts were found in the MCA territories, in the posterior portion of the middle temporal gyrus supplied by the cortical (inferior branch and in the internal capsule, globus pallidus and putamen portions supplied by the lenticolostriate branch. An occlusion was also present in the right internal carotid artery (ICA. Fifteen days after presentation he developed an abnormal fear of urine contamination. He showered and handwashed excessively and exhibited insomnia and anxiety. The patient knew that his behaviour was ridiculous but could not prevent it. Formal neuropsychological testing found his simple attention to be mildly impared. His visuospatial function and construction abilities were also impaired. Obsessive compulsive disorder is usually an early onset disease. However this report seeks to draw attention to late-onset cases such as this, which are due to a cerebrovascular disorder.

  19. Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that they consider more appropriate, like anxiety or frustration. A person with OCPD has symptoms of perfectionism ... help reduce anxiety and depression from OCPD. Talk therapy is thought to be the most effective treatment ...

  20. Trauma-related obsessive-compulsive disorder: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykshoorn, Kristy L

    2014-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a highly researched and conceptualized disorder, and yet it remains one of the most debilitating, widespread, and expensive disorders one can be afflicted with [Real, E., Labad, J., Alonso, P., Segalas, C., Jimenez-Murcia, S., Bueno, B., … Menchon, J. M. (2011). Stressful life events at onset of obsessive-compulsive disorder are associated with a distinct clinical pattern. Depression and Anxiety, 28, 367-376. doi:10.1002/da.20792]. Exposure treatments and cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) have been largely accepted as best practice for those with OCD, and yet there are still many who are left with "treatment-resistant OCD" [Rowa, K., Antony, M., & Swinson, R. (2007). Exposure and response prevention. In C. Purdon, M. Antony, & L. J. Summerfeldt (Eds.), Psychological treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder: Fundamentals and beyond (pp. 79-109). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association; Foa, E. B. (2010). Cognitive behavioural therapy of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Dialogues of Clinical Neuroscience, 12, 199-207]. Similarly, exposure treatments and CBT have been accepted as best practice for trauma-related distress (i.e. post-traumatic stress disorder; Foa, E. B., Keane, T. M., Friedman, M. J., & Cohen, J. A. (2009). Effective treatments for PTSD: Practice guidelines from the international society for traumatic studies (2nd ed.). New York, NY: The Guilford Press). From a literature review, evidence has been provided that demonstrates a high prevalence rate (30-82%) of OCD among individuals with a traumatic history in comparison to the prevalence rate of the general population (1.1-1.8%; [Cromer, K. R., Schmidt, N. B., & Murphy, D. L. (2006). An investigation of traumatic life events and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 45, 1683-1691. doi:10.1016/j.brat.2006.08.018; Fontenelle, L. F., Cocchi, L., Harrison, B. J., Shavitt, R. G., do Rosario, M. C., Ferrao, Y. A

  1. Relationship between severity of obsessive-compulsive symptoms and schizotypy in obsessive-compulsive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamamoto H

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Haruka Yamamoto,1 Hideto Tsuchida,1 Takashi Nakamae,1 Seiji Nishida,1 Yuki Sakai,1 Akihito Fujimori,1 Jin Narumoto,1 Yoshihisa Wada,1 Takafumi Yoshida,2 Chiaki Taga,3 Kenji Fukui11Department of Psychiatry, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan; 2Kyoto Cognitive Behavior Therapy Counseling Room, Kyoto, Japan; 3Department of Psychiatry, Kyoto Second Red Cross Hospital, Kyoto, JapanPurpose: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD patients exhibit a noninhibition response pattern very similar to that observed in schizotypy patients in cognitive tasks. It has been suggested that the reduced cognitive inhibition observed in both schizotypy and OCD may result in the frequent entry into awareness of unacceptable urges and intrusive thoughts. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the severity of obsession or compulsion and schizotypy in OCD.Patients and methods: Sixty subjects (25 males and 35 females who were OCD outpatients in the University Hospital at the Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine during the period 2008–2010 were enrolled in the study. Assessments of these patients were made using the Yale–Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS, the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D, and the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A. The Pearson correlation coefficients between Y-BOCS and SPQ scores were calculated. Furthermore, hierarchical multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to assess whether schizotypy predicted the severity of obsession and compulsion.Results: By calculating the Pearson correlation coefficient, it was found that the Y-BOCS obsession score, not the Y-BOCS compulsion score, was correlated with the SPQ total score. Results of the hierarchical multiple linear regression analysis showed that SPQ total score was a significant predictor of the Y-BOCS obsession score, after accounting for control

  2. Obsessive-Compulsive-Bipolar Disorder Comorbidity: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Pedro Ribeiro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety disorders have been described as features of Bipolar Disorder (BD, and Obsessive-compulsive-bipolar disorder (OCBD may occur in as many as 56% of obsessive-compulsive patients. Mania in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD can occur either as an independent comorbidity or as a result of an antidepressant-induced switch. We report the case of a 38-year-old male with a 3 year diagnosis of OCD treated with antidepressants, admitted due to a manic episode, and describe diagnostic and treatment challenges of this comorbidity.

  3. Obsessive compulsive disorder comorbidity in DBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Innocenti Alice

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Diamond-Blackfan Anemia (DBA is a congenital erythroid aplasia characterized as a normochromic macrocytic anemia with a selective deficiency in red blood cell precursors in otherwise normocelullar bone marrow. DBA is known to be associated with mental retardation and learning disabilities. Although comorbidities with other psychiatric conditions have not been reported in the existing literature, we report in this paper a case of a DBA patient with previously undiagnosed comorbidity of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD, successfully treated with sertaline 200 mg/day and valproic acid 600 mg/day. This case of comorbid presentation has clinical, therapeutic and pathophysiological implications. Given the difficulty of distinguishing among mental retardation, learning disabilities and OCD and the importance of precocious diagnosis in treating OCD especially since there are treatment methods interfering with anemia symptoms, physicians should adapt an adequate screening tool treating a child with DBA and comorbid mental disorder.

  4. Common Dermatoses in Patients with Obsessive Compulsive Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea Tampa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Obsessive-compulsive disorder is a chronic, debilitating syndrome, consisting of intrusive thoughts- which are experienced as inappropriate by the patient and are producing anxiety- and compulsions, defined as repetitive behaviours produced to reduce anxiety. While patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder typically have xerosis, eczema or lichen simplex chronicus, as a result of frequent washing or rubbing their skin, several other disorders which are included in the group of factitious disorders have also been associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder. A close collaboration between the dermatologist and the psychiatrist is therefore mandatory in order to achieve favourable outcomes for these patients. The aim of the article is to present the most frequent dermatological disorders associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder and to look over some of the rare ones.

  5. Sleep in Children and Adolescents with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Katharine C; Gradisar, Michael; Alfano, Candice A

    2015-06-01

    Sleep problems are not a core feature of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), but emerging empirical data indicate some form of sleep disruption to be highly common. Available research in both adult and child patients is limited in several important ways, including the use of subjective reports (particularly in children), high rates of comorbid depression, and concurrent use of psychotropic medication. The presence of sleep disruption in OCD patients may compound severity and impairment of the disorder. More research is needed to fully understand the nature and consequences of sleep-wake disruption in children with OCD.

  6. Psychometric Properties of the Obsessive Compulsive Inventory: Child Version in Children and Adolescents with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Anna M.; De Nadai, Alessandro S.; Arnold, Elysse B.; McGuire, Joseph F.; Lewin, Adam B.; Murphy, Tanya K.; Storch, Eric A.

    2013-01-01

    The psychometric properties of the Obsessive Compulsive Inventory-Child Version (OCI-CV) were examined in ninety-six youth with a primary/co-primary diagnosis of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). A confirmatory factor analysis revealed an acceptable model of fit with factors consisting of doubting/checking, obsessing, hoarding, washing,…

  7. Psychometric Properties of the Obsessive Compulsive Inventory: Child Version in Children and Adolescents with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Anna M.; De Nadai, Alessandro S.; Arnold, Elysse B.; McGuire, Joseph F.; Lewin, Adam B.; Murphy, Tanya K.; Storch, Eric A.

    2013-01-01

    The psychometric properties of the Obsessive Compulsive Inventory-Child Version (OCI-CV) were examined in ninety-six youth with a primary/co-primary diagnosis of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). A confirmatory factor analysis revealed an acceptable model of fit with factors consisting of doubting/checking, obsessing, hoarding, washing,…

  8. Scurvy induced by obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Amanda A O; Minicucci, Marcos Ferreira; Gaiolla, Rafael D; Okoshi, Marina P; Duarte, Daniella R; Matsubara, Luiz S; Inoue, Roberto M T; Azevedo, Paula S; Polegato, Bertha F; Zornoff, Leonardo A M; Paiva, Sergio A R

    2009-01-01

    Historically, scurvy has been associated with sailors of great navigational epochs. This disease has been known since ancient Egypt, but nowadays it is almost forgotten. Although its prevalence has decreased over the centuries, scurvy is still present in developed countries. A 61-year-old man was referred to hospital with a 30-day history of anorexia, fatigue, gingival bleeding and ecchymosis of the arms and legs. On physical examination he presented gingival hypertrophic lesions, signs of chronic periodontitis and petechial rash, and several bruises on his arms and legs. A food frequency questionnaire revealed a long history of poor diet, with no vegetables or fruit. The patient had ingested only chocolate milk and cookies for the last 10 years due to fear of pesticides being present in foods of vegetable origin. A diagnosis of scurvy induced by obsessive-compulsive disorder was suspected, and after vitamin C supplementation there was a marked improvement of symptoms.

  9. Subtyping Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Neuropsychological Correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine L. Harris

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We administered neuropsychological measures considered sensitive to prefrontal dysfunction (both orbitofrontal and dorsolateral prefrontal neocortex to obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD patients and control subjects. OCD subjects exhibited performance deficits, in comparison to community controls, on three measures sensitive to orbitofrontal neocortex dysfunction. Contrary to expectation, OCD patients also exhibited performance deficits on measures sensitive to dorsolateral prefrontal neocortex dysfunction. However, distinct neurocognitive profiles emerged when we examined the impact of comorbid schizotypal personality features on neuropsychological test performance. Primary OCD patients displayed impaired performance on measures sensitive to orbitofrontal dysfunction; however, they did not differ from control subjects on tests of dorsolateral function. OCD subjects presenting with schizotypal personality features performed poorly not only on tests sensitive to orbitofrontal dysfunction, but also on tests sensitive to dorsolateral dysfunction. Findings suggest that OCD can be subdivided into clinical subtypes, and distinct prefrontal subsystems may be differentially involved in these subtypes.

  10. Obsessive compulsive disorder in dental setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preetika Chandna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Globally, 20% of children and adolescents suffer from a disabling psychologic illness. Among these, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD is listed by the World Health Organization (WHO as one of the 10 most disabling conditions, with prevalence rates of OCD in children ranging between 1 to 3%. Pediatric dentists are in a unique position to diagnose psychological problems in children and adolescents due to their ongoing relationship with children and their parents that starts at a very early age. Timely diagnosis of psychological illness can result in early intervention as well as better patient management for the dentist too. The purpose of this case report is to highlight a case of OCD in an adolescent girl diagnosed in a dental setting.

  11. Standards of care for obsessive-compulsive disorder centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menchón, José M; van Ameringen, Michael; Dell'Osso, Bernardo; Denys, Damiaan; Figee, Martijn; Grant, Jon E; Hollander, Eric; Marazziti, Donatella; Nicolini, Humberto; Pallanti, Stefano; Ruck, Christian; Shavitt, Roseli; Stein, Dan J; Andersson, Erik; Bipeta, Rajshekhar; Cath, Danielle C; Drummond, Lynne; Feusner, Jamie; Geller, Daniel A; Hranov, Georgi; Lochner, Christine; Matsunaga, Hisato; McCabe, Randy E; Mpavaenda, Davis; Nakamae, Takashi; O'Kearney, Richard; Pasquini, Massimo; Pérez Rivera, Ricardo; Poyurovsky, Michael; Real, Eva; do Rosário, Maria Conceição; Soreni, Noam; Swinson, Richard P; Vulink, Nienke; Zohar, Joseph; Fineberg, Naomi

    2016-09-01

    In recent years, many assessment and care units for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have been set up in order to detect, diagnose and to properly manage this complex disorder, but there is no consensus regarding the key functions that these units should perform. The International College of Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum Disorders (ICOCS) together with the Obsessive Compulsive and Related Disorders Network (OCRN) of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology (ECNP) and the Anxiety and Obsessive Compulsive Disorders Section of the World Psychiaric Association (WPA) has developed a standards of care programme for OCD centres. The goals of this collaborative initiative are promoting basic standards, improving the quality of clinical care and enhance the validity and reliability of research results provided by different facilities and countries.

  12. Psychobiology of anxiety disorders and obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Dan J

    2008-09-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder is currently classified as an anxiety disorder. However, there is growing interest in the concept of an obsessive-compulsive spectrum of disorders (OCSDs). The relationship between anxiety disorders and OCSDs has been questioned. The psychobiology of anxiety disorders and OCSDs is briefly reviewed in this article. While there appear to be several distinct contrasts in the underlying psychobiology of these conditions, there is also evidence of overlapping mechanisms. In addition, there are crucial gaps in our current database, confounding nosological decision-making. Conceptualizing various anxiety disorders and putative OCSDs as lying within a broader spectrum of emotional disorders may be useful. However, clinicians must also recognize that individual anxiety and obsessive-compulsive spectrum conditions, including disorders characterized by body-focused repetitive behaviors, have distinct psychobiological underpinnings and require different treatment approaches.

  13. Predictors of Treatment Response in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Golda S.; Kingery, Julie Newman; Drake, Kelly L.; Grados, Marco A.

    2008-01-01

    The study examines predictors of treatment response in pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder, which is a severe mental illness causing distress and impaired functioning. Summarized findings of psychosocial factors and medication interventions are presented.

  14. Brain Imaging in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMaster, Frank P.; O'Neill, Joseph; Rosenberg, David R.

    2008-01-01

    Neuroimaging findings support the frontal-striatal-thalamic model of pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder. Glutamate is also implicated in the pathological finding of the disease. Implications for pediatric OCD treatments are discussed.

  15. Brain Imaging in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMaster, Frank P.; O'Neill, Joseph; Rosenberg, David R.

    2008-01-01

    Neuroimaging findings support the frontal-striatal-thalamic model of pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder. Glutamate is also implicated in the pathological finding of the disease. Implications for pediatric OCD treatments are discussed.

  16. Predictors of Treatment Response in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Golda S.; Kingery, Julie Newman; Drake, Kelly L.; Grados, Marco A.

    2008-01-01

    The study examines predictors of treatment response in pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder, which is a severe mental illness causing distress and impaired functioning. Summarized findings of psychosocial factors and medication interventions are presented.

  17. Clinical features of psychiatric inpatients with obsessive compulsive disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Gonca Karakus; Lut Tamam

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the clinical and sociodemographic characteristics of the inpatients admitted in a university psychiatry clinic with a diagnosis of obsessive-compulsive disorder in ten years period. Material and Methods: Patients who had been diagnosed with obsessive compulsive disorder according to DSM IV TR and hospitalized in Cukurova University Faculty of Medicine Balcali Hospital Department of Psychiatry between 2006 and 2015 were included. Data were ob...

  18. Relationships that compulsive buying has with addiction, obsessive-compulsiveness, hoarding, and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Lee Matthew; Ciorciari, Joseph; Kyrios, Michael

    2014-07-01

    Compulsive buying has been associated with addiction, depression, and obsessive-compulsive disorder, as well as hoarding. The present study investigated the relationship that compulsive buying (CB) has with 'addictive' (i.e., sensitivity to reward), obsessive-compulsive, and depressive phenomena, after controlling for hoarding, substance dependence, manic, and Borderline Personality Disorder symptoms. 87 participants from a community population completed the online questionnaires for the study, however 70 participants (M=29.19, SD=10.45; 70% were female) were used in the analyses because of exclusion criteria. As expected, CB measures correlated with hoarding, depression, sensitivity to reward, and, but less so, obsessive-compulsive measures. Sensitivity to reward was the most important predictor of CB severity, compared to obsessive-compulsive and depression symptoms. Hoarding was also an important predictor of CB severity. Small sample size meant gender comparisons could not be made, and the use of a novel, communicated questionnaire meant that interpretation should be considered conservatively. Overall, findings suggest that CB may be most closely related to the phenomena associated with addiction (an increased sensitivity to reward), rather than obsessive-compulsive or depression symptoms. Hoarding and reward sensitivity perhaps might separate compulsive buying from ordinary and recreational shopping. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Obsessive Compulsive Symptoms/disorder in patients with schizophrenia: Prevalence, relationship with other symptom dimensions and impact on functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Sandeep; Dua, Devakshi; Chakrabarti, Subho; Avasthi, Ajit

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of comorbid obsessive compulsive symptoms/disorder and its impact on outcome among patients with schizophrenia. 181 patients with schizophrenia were evaluated on Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Symptom Checklist, Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale, Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia, Positive and Negative Symptom Scale, Social Occupational Functioning Scale, Global Assessment of Functioning Scale and Indian Disability Evaluation and Assessment Scale. Slightly more than one-fourth of patients fulfilled the diagnosis of current (28.2%) and lifetime (29.8%) diagnosis of obsessive compulsive disorder. On Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Symptom Checklist, the most common lifetime obsessions were those of contamination (25.4%), followed by obsessions of need for symmetry or exactness (11.6%). The most common compulsions were those of cleaning/washing (27.1%), followed by those of checking (24.3%). Presence of obsessive compulsive symptoms was associated with younger age of onset, higher prevalence of comorbid depression, and current suicidal ideations. Thus, it can be concluded that a significant proportion of patients with schizophrenia have obsessive compulsive symptoms/disorder. Clinicians managing patients of schizophrenia should evaluate the patients thoroughly for presence of comorbid obsessive compulsive symptoms/disorder and must take the same into account while managing the patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Assessment of obsessive-compulsive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emmelkamp, PMG; Kraaijkamp, HJM; Van den Hout, MA

    1999-01-01

    self-report assessment devices of obsessive-compulsive symptoms are widely used by behavior therapists. In the present investigation, psychometric characteristics and concurrent, discriminant, and factorial validity of the Maudsley Obsessional Compulsive Inventory (MOCI) were studied in clinical sam

  1. Effect of concomitant administration of three different antidepressants with vitamin B6 on depression and obsessive compulsive disorder in mice models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesripour, Azadeh; Hajhashemi, Valiollah; Kuchak, Athar

    2017-01-01

    Vitamin B6 is a cofactor of various enzymes influencing numerous neurotransmitters in the brain such as norepinephrin, and serotonin. Since these neurotransmitters influence mood, the aim the present work to evaluate the effect of vitamin B6 on depression and obsessive compulsive behavior when coadministred with clomipramine, fluoxetine, or venlafaxine. Male mice weighing 25–30 g were used. The immobility time and latency to immobility was measured in the forced swimming test as a model of despair and the number of marbles buried (MB) in an open field was used as the model of obsessive compulsive behavior in mice. Vitamin B6 (100 mg/kg, i.p.) was injected to animals for six days and on the last day antidepressants were also administered and the tests took place with 30 min intervals. Immobility was reduced in vitamin B6 + clomipramine (141 ± 15 s) or venlafaxine (116 ± 15 s) but it was not significant comparing with the drugs alone. No beneficial response was seen in co-administration of vitamin B6 with fluoxetine compared to fluoxetine alone. Fluoxetine also increased the latency to first immobility. Vitamin B6 + clomipramine or venlafaxine reduced the MB behaviour by 77 ± 12% and 83 ± 7% respectively, while using them alone was less effective. Fluoxetine was very effective in reducing MB behaviour (95 ± 3.4%) thus using vitamin B6 concomitantly was not useful. Therefore vitamin B6 as a harmless agent could be suggested in depression and particularly in obsessive compulsive disorder as an adjuvant for better drug response.

  2. Symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder predict cannabis misuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spradlin, Alexander; Mauzay, Dakota; Cuttler, Carrie

    2017-09-01

    Cannabis use has been linked to many psychological disorders. There is, however, a paucity of research investigating the link between cannabis use and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The present study sought to examine this link by exploring associations between severity of OCD symptoms, cannabis use, and cannabis misuse; determining whether these associations exist above and beyond symptoms of anxiety, depression, and stress; and testing the mediating role of cannabis coping motives (i.e., using cannabis to cope with negative affect and other problems). A large sample of young adult cannabis users (n=430) completed an online survey containing measures of OCD symptoms, cannabis use, cannabis misuse, and cannabis use motives. Severity of OCD (as indexed by higher scores on the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory-Revised) was unrelated to frequency and quantity of cannabis use, but it was significantly, positively related to increased cannabis misuse. These effects persisted after controlling for anxiety, depression, and stress. The specific feature of obsessing was found to consistently predict cannabis misuse. Finally, an indirect effect of severity of OCD on cannabis misuse via coping motives was discovered. Together, these findings indicate that there may be an association between OCD and cannabis misuse that is independent of anxiety, depression, and stress, and that is mediated by coping motives. Based on these findings, we recommend that individuals with OCD symptoms avoid using cannabis because they may be more vulnerable to the development of problematic use and cannabis use disorder. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Dimensional correlates of poor insight in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubovski, Ewgeni; Pittenger, Christopher; Torres, Albina Rodrigues; Fontenelle, Leonardo Franklin; do Rosario, Maria Conceicao; Ferrão, Ygor Arzeno; de Mathis, Maria Alice; Miguel, Euripedes Constantino; Bloch, Michael H

    2011-08-15

    Cross-sectional studies have associated poor insight in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) with increased OCD symptom severity, earlier age of onset, comorbid depression, and treatment response. The goal of this current study was to examine the relationship between dimensions of OCD symptomatology and insight in a large clinical cohort of Brazilian patients with OCD. We hypothesized that poor insight would be associated with total symptom severity as well as with hoarding symptoms severity, specifically. 824 outpatients underwent a detailed clinical assessment for OCD, including the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS), the Dimensional Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (DY-BOCS), the Brown Assessment of Beliefs Scale (BABS), a socio-demographic questionnaire, and the Structured Clinical Interview for axis I DSM-IV disorders (SCID-P). Tobit regression models were used to examine the association between level of insight and clinical variables of interest. Increased severity of current and worst-ever hoarding symptoms and higher rate of unemployment were associated with poor insight in OCD after controlling for current OCD severity, age and gender. Poor insight was also correlated with increased severity of current OCD symptoms. Hoarding and overall OCD severity were significantly but weakly associated with level of insight in OCD patients. Further studies should examine insight as a moderator and mediator of treatment response in OCD in both behavioral therapy and pharmacological trials. Behavioral techniques aimed at enhancing insight may be potentially beneficial in OCD, especially among patients with hoarding. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms in Schizophrenia and in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Differences and Similarities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonna, Matteo; Ottoni, Rebecca; Paglia, Francesca; Monici, Alberto; Ossola, Paolo; DE Panfilis, Chiara; Marchesi, Carlo

    2016-03-01

    A growing literature suggests that obsessive-compulsive (OC) phenomena represent a distinct dimension in schizophrenia, independent of nuclear psychotic symptoms. Nevertheless, the OC psychopathologic profile in schizophrenia, compared with "pure" obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), has not yet been investigated extensively. This study investigated the clinical features of the OC dimension in patients with schizophrenia compared with patients with pure OCD. The main psychopathologic features of obsessions and compulsions were rated in 35 patients with schizophrenia and 31 patients with OCD, using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders, the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale, and the Leyton Obsessional Inventory. OC phenomena were indistinguishable in terms of their severity, resistance, interference, and control in both groups. However, patients with OCD showed higher rates of aggressive, contamination-related, sexual, and somatic themes; moreover, in the group with schizophrenia, a positive relationship was found between washing compulsions and delusions and between hoarding obsessions and delusions. These results indicate that patients with schizophrenia exhibit a narrower range of obsessive content compared with patients with OCD; in addition, OC and delusional themes tend to be related in schizophrenia as a unique symptomatic phenomenon.

  5. Mortality Among Persons With Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Sandra M; Mattheisen, Manuel; Mors, Ole

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: Several mental disorders have consistently been found to be associated with decreased life expectancy, but little is known about whether this is also the case for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). OBJECTIVE: To determine whether persons who receive a diagnosis of OCD are at increased.......7 years. The risk of death by natural or unnatural causes was significantly higher among persons with OCD (MRR, 1.68 [95% CI, 1.31-2.12] for natural causes; MRR, 2.61 [95% CI, 1.91-3.47] for unnatural causes) than among the general population. After the exclusion of persons with comorbid anxiety disorders......, depression, or substance use disorders, OCD was still associated with increased mortality risk (MRR, 1.88 [95% CI, 1.27-2.67]). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: The presence of OCD was associated with a significantly increased mortality risk. Comorbid anxiety disorders, depression, or substance use disorders...

  6. Conscientiousness and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Douglas B; Widiger, Thomas A

    2011-07-01

    A dimensional perspective on personality disorder hypothesizes that the current diagnostic categories represent maladaptive variants of general personality traits. However, a fundamental foundation of this viewpoint is that dimensional models can adequately account for the pathology currently described by these categories. While most of the personality disorders have well established links to dimensional models that buttress this hypothesis, obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) has obtained only inconsistent support. The current study administered multiple measures of 1) conscientiousness-related personality traits, 2) DSM-IV OCPD, and 3) specific components of OCPD (e.g., compulsivity and perfectionism) to a sample of 536 undergraduates who were oversampled for elevated OCPD scores. Six existing measures of conscientiousness-related personality traits converged strongly with each other supporting their assessment of a common trait. These measures of conscientiousness correlated highly with scales assessing specific components of OCPD, but obtained variable relationships with measures of DSM-IV OCPD. More specifically, there were differences within the conscientiousness instruments such that those designed to assess general personality functioning had small to medium relationships with OCPD, but those assessing more maladaptive variants obtained large effect sizes. These findings support the view that OCPD does represent a maladaptive variant of normal-range conscientiousness.

  7. Tic disorders and obsessive-compulsive disorder : Is autoimmunity involved?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, PJ; Minderaa, RB

    2006-01-01

    The precise cause of tic disorders and paediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is unknown. In addition to genetic factors, autoimmunity may play a role, possibly as a sequela of preceding streptococcal throat infections in susceptible children. Here we review the most recent findings, from Ju

  8. Latent class analysis of the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale symptoms in obsessive-compulsive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.L. Delucchi; H. Katerberg; S.E. Stewart; D.A.J.P. Denys; C. Lochner; D.E. Stack; J.A. den Boer; A.J.L.M. van Balkom; M.A. Jenike; D.J. Stein; D.C. Cath; C.A. Mathews

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is phenomenologically heterogeneous, and findings of underlying structure classification based on symptom grouping have been ambiguous to date. Variable-centered approaches, primarily factor analysis, have been used to identify homogeneous groups of sym

  9. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: When Unwanted Thoughts or Irresistable Actions Take Over

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... treated? Finding Help Reprints For More Information Share Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: When Unwanted Thoughts or Irresistible Actions Take Over ... things you enjoy? If so, you may have obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The good news is that, with treatment, ...

  10. Altered inhibition-related frontolimbic connectivity in obsessive-compulsive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Velzen, Laura S; de Wit, Stella J; Ćurĉić-Blake, Branislava; Cath, Daniëlle C|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/194111423; de Vries, Froukje E; Veltman, Dick J; van der Werf, Ysbrand D; van den Heuvel, Odile A

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent studies have shown that response inhibition is impaired in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder and their unaffected siblings, suggesting that these deficits may be considered a cognitive endophenotype of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Structural and functional neural

  11. Altered Inhibition-Related Frontolimbic Connectivity in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Velzen, Laura S.; de Wit, Stella J.; Curcic-Blake, Branisalava; Cath, Danielle C.; de Vries, Froukje E.; Veltman, Dick J.; van der Werf, Ysbrand D.; van den Heuvel, Odile A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Recent studies have shown that response inhibition is impaired in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder and their unaffected siblings, suggesting that these deficits may be considered a cognitive endophenotype of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Structural and functional neural

  12. Prevalence of Childhood Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Traits in Adults with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder versus Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Anthony; Greene, Ashley L; Storch, Eric A; Simpson, H Blair

    2015-01-01

    Identifying risk factors of psychopathology has been an important research challenge. Prior studies examining the impact of childhood temperament on adult disorder have largely focused on undercontrolled and inhibited presentations, with little study of overcontrolled traits such as obsessive-compulsive personality traits (OCPTs). We compared rates of childhood OCPTs in adults with OCD (without OCPD) (n = 28) to adults with OCPD (without OCD) (n = 27), adults with both OCD and OCPD (n = 28), and healthy controls (HC) (n= 28), using the Childhood Retrospective Perfectionism Questionnaire, a validated measure of perfectionism, inflexibility, and drive for order. Adults with OCPD (both with and without comorbid OCD) reported higher rates of all three childhood OCPTs relative to HC. Individuals with OCD (without OCPD) reported higher rates of inflexibility and drive for order relative to HC, suggesting that these traits may presage the development of OCD, independent of OCPD. Childhood OCPTs were associated with particular OCD symptom dimensions in adulthood (contamination/cleaning, doubt/checking, and symmetry/ordering), independent of OCD onset age and OCPD diagnosis. Longitudinal prospective studies evaluating OCPTs in children are needed to better understand the progression of these traits from childhood to adulthood and their ability to predict future psychopathology.

  13. [Obsessive-compulsive disorders and religion in contemporary perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, K

    2007-10-01

    After a retrospect on former viewpoints about the relationship between psychiatry and religion, especially concerning obsessive-compulsive disorders (S. Freud; "Ekklesiogenic Neurosis") a contemporary perspective shows: religion is hardly mentioned in German-speaking psychiatry textbooks. Pathogenic interaction between religion and psychological disorders is discussed in plurifactorial perspective. Religious views can be distorted by psychic disorders and adapted to the disorders. Starting from an anthropological definition of religion (C. Geertz), the paper presents three functions of religion and explains the relationship of Christian faith and obsessions/compulsions. Teaching programs for students and psychiatrists seem indicated for a better understanding of religion (and its absence) in the context of psychological disorders.

  14. The Effect of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy on the Frequency and Severity of Symptoms of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razieh Izadi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy in obsessive- compulsive disorder. A single case design used in five patients with obsessive- compulsive disorder. Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale, Beck Depression Inventory-II, Beck anxiety Inventory and a processing measure was used for assessment of patients. Results suggested the significant decreases in all measures in post test in five patients and these results maintained at 1-month follow up. Process of treatment and results from this study suggest that Acceptance and Commitment Therapy can be effective intervention for difficult thoughts, feelings, and behaviors seen in OCD.

  15. Perfectionism and Peer Relations among Children with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Huan J.; Rice, Kenneth G.; Storch, Eric A.

    2008-01-01

    The study examined perfectionism, symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and depression, and peer relationships among a clinical sample of 31 youth (age range 7-18 years) diagnosed with OCD. Using a correlational design, perfectionistic beliefs accounted for significant variance in OCD symptoms, depressive symptoms, and difficulties in…

  16. Perfectionism and Peer Relations among Children with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Huan J.; Rice, Kenneth G.; Storch, Eric A.

    2008-01-01

    The study examined perfectionism, symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and depression, and peer relationships among a clinical sample of 31 youth (age range 7-18 years) diagnosed with OCD. Using a correlational design, perfectionistic beliefs accounted for significant variance in OCD symptoms, depressive symptoms, and difficulties in…

  17. Brain Regions and Neuropsychological Deficits in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Erdem

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Neurobiological factors had been shown to play an important role in the emergence of obsessive-compulsive disorder by the information obtained from the methods developed over the years. According to the neuropsychological perspective, the defects had been detected mainly in executive functions, in attention, memory, visual-spatial functions; and abnormalities had been described in the frontal lobe, cingulate cortex, basal ganglia, and thalamus regions of the patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. The main and the most repeated abnormalities in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder are dysfunctions in executive function and visual memory. Dysfunctions of the inhibitory processes associated with the dominant frontal area lead to an insufficiency on the inhibition of verbal functions. Excessive activation of the orbitofrontal cortex that mediate the behavioral response suppression function in obsessive-compulsive disorder demonstrated by functional imaging techniques. Repeated-resistant behaviors (eg: compulsions are composed by the deteriorations of the inhibitions of motor or cognitive programs in basal ganglions provided through cycles of frontal lobe. The findings of clinical observations in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder could be considered as a reflection of excessive work in 'error detection system' which is the cause of the thoughts that something goes wrong and efforts to achieve perfection. As neurobiological, this finding is observed as excessive activity in orbitofrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex representing the ability of humans to provide and detect errors. It is is expected to develop the vehicles that are more sensitive to the characteristics of cognitive deficits in obsessive-compulsive disorder. In addition to the neuropsychological tests, using electrophysiological and advanced functional imaging techniques will put forward a better underlying the physiopathology of this disorder in order to

  18. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder in Pregnancy and Postpartum Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Emin Demirkol

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy and postpartum period are risky periods about occurrence and recurrence of many psychiatric disorders. General opinion is that obsessive compulsive disorder is more common in pregnancy and postpartum period than the normal population. Obsessions and compulsions should be questionned in these periods. Obsessions are generally about contagion and agression, compulsions are generally about washing and cleaning. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and cognitive behavioral therapy are the first rank treatment options. In this article we briefly reviewed prevalence, etiology, comorbidities, clinical features and treatment options of obsessive compulsive disorder in pregnancy and postpartum period.

  19. Dream content and intrusive thoughts in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallotti, Simone; Casetta, Cecilia; Fanti, Valentina; Gambini, Orsola; Ostinelli, Edoardo G; Ranieri, Rebecca; Vanelli, Irene; D'Agostino, Armando

    2016-10-30

    Although central to any exhaustive theory of human subjectivity, the relationship between dream and waking consciousness remains uncertain. Some findings suggest that dream consciousness can be influenced by severe disorders of thought content. The suppression of unwanted thoughts has been shown to influence dream content in healthy individuals. In order to better define this phenomenon, we evaluated the persistence of obsessive/compulsive themes across the dream and waking cognition of OCD patients and in a control group of healthy subjects. Participants were administered a shortened version of the Thematic Apperception Test to produce a waking fantasy narration, and were trained to keep a dream diary. Dream and waking narrative contents were analyzed in order to recognize obsessive/compulsive themes, and to calculate Mean Dream Obsession/Compulsion (MDO, MDC) and Mean TAT Obsession/Compulsion (MTO, MTC) parameters. No differences were found between the two populations in terms of MDO, MDC, MTO, nor MTC. Density of obsessive and compulsive themes were significantly higher in dream reports than in waking narratives for both groups. No correlation was observed between MDO/MDC scores and Y-BOCS obsession/compulsion scores in the OCD group. These findings strengthen the discontinuity hypothesis, suggesting that ruminative aspects of cognition are somehow interrupted during dream activity.

  20. Cigarette smoking in patients with obsessive compulsive disorder: a report from the International College of Obsessive Compulsive Spectrum Disorders (ICOCS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Osso, Bernardo; Nicolini, Humberto; Lanzagorta, Nuria; Benatti, Beatrice; Spagnolin, Gregorio; Palazzo, M Carlotta; Marazziti, Donatella; Hollander, Eric; Fineberg, Naomi; Stein, Dan J; Pallanti, Stefano; Van Ameringen, Michael; Lochner, Christine; Hranov, Georgi; Karamustafalioglu, Oguz; Hranov, Luchezar; Zohar, Joseph; Denys, Damiaan; Altamura, A Carlo; Menchon, Jose M

    2015-10-01

    Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) showed a lower prevalence of cigarette smoking compared to other psychiatric disorders in previous and recent reports. We assessed the prevalence and clinical correlates of the phenomenon in an international sample of 504 OCD patients recruited through the International College of Obsessive Compulsive Spectrum Disorders (ICOCS) network. Cigarette smoking showed a cross-sectional prevalence of 24.4% in the sample, with significant differences across countries. Females were more represented among smoking patients (16% vs 7%; pdisorder (pdisorders but higher compared to previous and more recent OCD studies. Geographic differences were found and smoking was more common in females and comorbid Tourette's syndrome/tic disorder.

  1. Capacity to delay reward differentiates obsessive-compulsive disorder and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Anthony; Steinglass, Joanna E; Greene, Ashley L; Weber, Elke U; Simpson, H Blair

    2014-04-15

    Although the relationship between obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) has long been debated, clinical samples of OCD (without OCPD) and OCPD (without OCD) have never been systematically compared. We studied whether individuals with OCD, OCPD, or both conditions differ on symptomatology, functioning, and a measure of self-control: the capacity to delay reward. Twenty-five OCD, 25 OCPD, 25 comorbid OCD + OCPD, and 25 healthy control subjects completed clinical assessments and a validated intertemporal choice task that measures capacity to forego small immediate rewards for larger delayed rewards. OCD and OCPD subjects both showed impairment in psychosocial functioning and quality of life, as well as compulsive behavior, but only subjects with OCD reported obsessions. Individuals with OCPD, with or without comorbid OCD, discounted the value of delayed monetary rewards significantly less than OCD and healthy control subjects. This excessive capacity to delay reward discriminates OCPD from OCD and is associated with perfectionism and rigidity. OCD and OCPD are both impairing disorders marked by compulsive behaviors, but they can be differentiated by the presence of obsessions in OCD and by excessive capacity to delay reward in OCPD. That individuals with OCPD show less temporal discounting (suggestive of excessive self-control), whereas prior studies have shown that individuals with substance use disorders show greater discounting (suggestive of impulsivity), supports the premise that this component of self-control lies on a continuum in which both extremes (impulsivity and overcontrol) contribute to psychopathology. © 2013 Society of Biological Psychiatry Published by Society of Biological Psychiatry All rights reserved.

  2. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbing, Mary-Lee C.; Ficca, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is an anxiety disorder characterized by disturbing thoughts, impulses, or images (obsessions); repetitive or ritualistic behaviors (compulsions); or the presence of both. Although some may believe this disorder is isolated to the adult population, it affects anywhere from 1% to 4% of children in the United…

  3. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbing, Mary-Lee C.; Ficca, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is an anxiety disorder characterized by disturbing thoughts, impulses, or images (obsessions); repetitive or ritualistic behaviors (compulsions); or the presence of both. Although some may believe this disorder is isolated to the adult population, it affects anywhere from 1% to 4% of children in the United…

  4. Late-Onset Startle Syndrome and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Gonzalez

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of late onset sporadic startle syndrome in a patient with a right posterior fossa brain tumour is reported. The exaggerated startle response did not respond to treatment with clonazepam. In addition to anxiety and depression, the patient developed obsessive- compulsive symptoms which responded to behavioural therapy. The possible mechanisms for this unique pattern of symptoms are discussed.

  5. Standards of care for obsessive-compulsive disorder centres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menchón, José M; van Ameringen, Michael; Dell'Osso, Bernardo; Denys, D.; Figee, Martijn; Grant, Jon E; Hollander, Eric; Marazziti, Donatella; Nicolini, Humberto; Pallanti, Stefano; Ruck, Christian; Shavitt, Roseli; Stein, Dan J; Andersson, Erik; Bipeta, Rajshekhar; Cath, Danielle C; Drummond, Lynne; Feusner, Jamie; Geller, Daniel A; Hranov, Georgi; Lochner, Christine; Matsunaga, Hisato; McCabe, Randy E; Mpavaenda, Davis; Nakamae, Takashi; O'Kearney, Richard; Pasquini, Massimo; Pérez Rivera, Ricardo; Poyurovsky, Michael; Real, Eva; do Rosário, Maria Conceição; Soreni, Noam; Swinson, Richard P; Vulink, Nienke; Zohar, Joseph; Fineberg, Naomi

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, many assessment and care units for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have been set up in order to detect, diagnose and to properly manage this complex disorder, but there is no consensus regarding the key functions that these units should perform. The International College of Obse

  6. Obsessive compulsive disorder as early manifestation of b12 deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Valizadeh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available B12 acts as a cofactor in synthesis of neurotransmitters such as serotonin and dopamine, thus B12 deficiency affects mood, emotions and sleeping and can lead to psychiatric disorders. Psychiatric manifestations of B12 deficiency are varied. They seldom precede anemia. We want to present a case of B12 deficiency which was presented with obsessive compulsive disorder.

  7. Peer Victimization in Children with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Relations with Symptoms of Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storch, Eric A.; Ledley, Deborah Roth; Lewin, Adam B.; Murphy, Tanya K.; Johns, Natalie B.; Goodman, Wayne K.; Geffken, Gary R.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the frequency of peer victimization and psychological symptom correlates among youth with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The Schwartz Peer Victimization Scale, Children's Depression Inventory, and Asher Loneliness Scale were administered to 52 children and adolescents diagnosed with OCD. The child's parent or guardian…

  8. Peer Victimization in Children with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Relations with Symptoms of Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storch, Eric A.; Ledley, Deborah Roth; Lewin, Adam B.; Murphy, Tanya K.; Johns, Natalie B.; Goodman, Wayne K.; Geffken, Gary R.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the frequency of peer victimization and psychological symptom correlates among youth with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The Schwartz Peer Victimization Scale, Children's Depression Inventory, and Asher Loneliness Scale were administered to 52 children and adolescents diagnosed with OCD. The child's parent or guardian…

  9. The specific pattern of obsessive-compulsive symptoms in patients with bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Alizadeh

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Some preliminary findings have suggested that patients with bipolar disorder show a disparate pattern of obsessive-compulsive (OC symptoms. This study aimed to reevaluate this subject on a different sample within a different cultural background.METHODS: The present cross-sectional study was carried out in a clinical non-experimental setting on 78 obsessivecompulsive disorder (OCD patients; 39 with and 39 without bipolar disorder (BD. Subjects underwent a Structured Clinical Diagnostic Interview for DSM-IV (SCID-I as well as the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Rating Scale (YBOCS.RESULTS: The diagnoses in the non-bipolar group were mostly major depressive disorder (38% and dysthymic disorder (38%. The mean age of the bipolar group was significantly lower than that of the non-bipolars (P CONCLUSIONS: The content of OC symptoms which is not traditionally considered a helpful factor for diagnosing a psychiatric disorder might be able to lead the clinician to the diagnosis of bipolarity in a depressed patient with OCD.KEY WORDS: Bipolar disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, obsessive-compulsive symptoms.

  10. Correlates of Insight among Youth with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin, Adam B.; Bergman, R. Lindsey; Peris, Tara S.; Chang, Susanna; McCracken, James T.; Piacentini, John

    2010-01-01

    Background: Individuals with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) may lack insight into the irrational nature of their symptoms. Among adults with OCD, poor insight has been linked to greater symptom severity, increased likelihood of comorbid symptoms, lower adaptive functioning, and worse treatment outcomes. Parallel work regarding insight among…

  11. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder as a Disturbance of Security Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szechtman, Henry; Woody, Erik

    2004-01-01

    The authors hypothesize that the symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), despite their apparent nonrationality, have what might be termed an epistemic origin-that is, they stem from an inability to generate the normal "feeling of knowing" that would otherwise signal task completion and terminate the expression of a security motivational…

  12. Twin studies on obsessive-compulsive disorder: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grootheest, van D.S.; Cath, D.C.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2005-01-01

    Genetic factors have historically been thought of as important in the development of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). For the estimation of the relative importance of genetic and environmental factors, twin studies are an obvious approach. Twin studies of OCD have a long history, starting in 192

  13. Twin studies on obsessive-compulsive disorder: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grootheest, van D.S.; Cath, D.C.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2005-01-01

    Genetic factors have historically been thought of as important in the development of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). For the estimation of the relative importance of genetic and environmental factors, twin studies are an obvious approach. Twin studies of OCD have a long history, starting in

  14. The Pregnancy Obsession-Compulsion-Personality Disorder Symptom Checklist

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Broekhoven, K.; Hartman, E.; Spek, V.; Bergink, V.; van Son, M.J.M.; Karreman, A.; Pop, V.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Up until now, very little research has been undertaken on the possible role of personality traits, such as perfectionism and obsessive compulsive personality disorder (OCPD), on pregnancy distress. This is possibly due to the fact that no appropriate instruments are available for use dur

  15. Pentagastrin has panic inducing properties in obsessive compulsive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    deLeeuw, AS; DenBoer, JA; Slaap, BR; Westenberg, HGM

    1996-01-01

    The effects of the CCKB-receptor agonist pentagastrin, a synthetic analogue of the cholecystokinin tetrapeptide (CCK-4), were studied in seven patients suffering from obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and seven healthy controls. All subjects were challenged with an IV dose of 0.6 mu g/kg pentagast

  16. Students with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Participating in Recess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Matthew D.; Sturgis, Amanda L.

    2012-01-01

    The participation of a student with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) in recess can often be both challenging and rewarding for the student and teacher. This paper will address common characteristics of students with OCD and present basic solutions to improve the experience of these students in the recess setting. Initially the definition,…

  17. Correlates of Insight among Youth with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin, Adam B.; Bergman, R. Lindsey; Peris, Tara S.; Chang, Susanna; McCracken, James T.; Piacentini, John

    2010-01-01

    Background: Individuals with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) may lack insight into the irrational nature of their symptoms. Among adults with OCD, poor insight has been linked to greater symptom severity, increased likelihood of comorbid symptoms, lower adaptive functioning, and worse treatment outcomes. Parallel work regarding insight among…

  18. Pentagastrin has panic inducing properties in obsessive compulsive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    deLeeuw, AS; DenBoer, JA; Slaap, BR; Westenberg, HGM

    The effects of the CCKB-receptor agonist pentagastrin, a synthetic analogue of the cholecystokinin tetrapeptide (CCK-4), were studied in seven patients suffering from obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and seven healthy controls. All subjects were challenged with an IV dose of 0.6 mu g/kg

  19. Subthalamic nucleus stimulation in severe obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallet, Luc; Polosan, Mircea; Jaafari, Nematollah; Baup, Nicolas; Welter, Marie-Laure; Fontaine, Denys; du Montcel, Sophie Tezenas; Yelnik, Jérôme; Chéreau, Isabelle; Arbus, Christophe; Raoul, Sylvie; Aouizerate, Bruno; Damier, Philippe; Chabardès, Stephan; Czernecki, Virginie; Ardouin, Claire; Krebs, Marie-Odile; Bardinet, Eric; Chaynes, Patrick; Burbaud, Pierre; Cornu, Philippe; Derost, Philippe; Bougerol, Thierry; Bataille, Benoit; Mattei, Vianney; Dormont, Didier; Devaux, Bertrand; Vérin, Marc; Houeto, Jean-Luc; Pollak, Pierre; Benabid, Alim-Louis; Agid, Yves; Krack, Paul; Millet, Bruno; Pelissolo, Antoine

    2008-11-13

    Severe, refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a disabling condition. Stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus, a procedure that is already validated for the treatment of movement disorders, has been proposed as a therapeutic option. In this 10-month, crossover, double-blind, multicenter study assessing the efficacy and safety of stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus, we randomly assigned eight patients with highly refractory OCD to undergo active stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus followed by sham stimulation and eight to undergo sham stimulation followed by active stimulation. The primary outcome measure was the severity of OCD, as assessed by the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS), at the end of two 3-month periods. General psychopathologic findings, functioning, and tolerance were assessed with the use of standardized psychiatric scales, the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scale, and neuropsychological tests. After active stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus, the Y-BOCS score (on a scale from 0 to 40, with lower scores indicating less severe symptoms) was significantly lower than the score after sham stimulation (mean [+/-SD], 19+/-8 vs. 28+/-7; P=0.01), and the GAF score (on a scale from 1 to 90, with higher scores indicating higher levels of functioning) was significantly higher (56+/-14 vs. 43+/-8, P=0.005). The ratings of neuropsychological measures, depression, and anxiety were not modified by stimulation. There were 15 serious adverse events overall, including 1 intracerebral hemorrhage and 2 infections; there were also 23 nonserious adverse events. These preliminary findings suggest that stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus may reduce the symptoms of severe forms of OCD but is associated with a substantial risk of serious adverse events. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00169377.) 2008 Massachusetts Medical Society

  20. Anterior Cingulate Implant for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ridder, Dirk; Leong, Sook Ling; Manning, Patrick; Vanneste, Sven; Glue, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a brain disorder with a lifetime prevalence of 2.3%, causing severe functional impairment as a result of anxiety and distress, persistent and repetitive, unwanted, intrusive thoughts (obsessions), and repetitive ritualized behavior (compulsions). Approximately 40%-60% of patients with OCD fail to satisfactorily respond to standard treatments. Intractable OCD has been treated by anterior capsulotomy and cingulotomy, but more recently, neurostimulation approaches have become more popular because of their reversibility. Implants for OCD are commonly being used, targeting the anterior limb of the internal capsula or the nucleus accumbens, but an implant on the anterior cingulate cortex has never been reported. We describe a patient who was primarily treated for alcohol addiction, first with transcranial magnetic stimulation, then by implantation of 2 electrodes overlying the rostrodorsal part of the anterior cingulate cortex bilaterally. Her alcohol addiction developed as she was relief drinking to self-treat her OCD, anxiety, and depression. After the surgical implant, she underwent placebo stimulation followed by real stimulation of the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, which dramatically improved her OCD symptoms (decrease of 65.5% on the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale) as well as her alcohol craving (decrease of 87.5%) after 36 weeks of treatment. Although there were improvements in all the scores, there was only a modest reduction in the patient's weekly alcohol consumption (from 50 units to 32 units). Based on these preliminary positive results we propose to further study the possible beneficial effect of anterior cingulate cortex stimulation for intractable OCD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Obsessive-compulsive disorder and its related disorders: a reappraisal of obsessive-compulsive spectrum concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Dennis L.; Timpano, Kiara R.; Wheaton, Michael G.; Greenberg, Benjamin D.; Miguel, Euripedes C.

    2010-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a clinical syndrome whose hallmarks are excessive, anxiety-evoking thoughts and compulsive behaviors that are generally recognized as unreasonable, but which cause significant distress and impairment. When these are the exclusive symptoms, they constitute uncomplicated OCD. OCD may also occur in the context of other neuropsychiatric disorders, most commonly other anxiety and mood disorders. The question remains as to whether these combinations of disorders should be regarded as independent, cooccurring disorders or as different manifestations of an incompletely understood constellation of OCD spectrum disorders with a common etiology. Additional considerations are given here to two potential etiology-based subgroups: (i) an environmentally based group in which OCD occurs following apparent causal events such as streptococcal infections, brain injury, or atypical neuroleptic treatment; and (ii) a genomically based group in which OCD is related to chromosomal anomalies or specific genes. Considering the status of current research, the concept of OCD and OCD-related spectrum conditions seems fluid in 2010, and in need of ongoing reappraisal. PMID:20623919

  2. The Relationship between Obsessive Compulsive Personality and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Treatment Outcomes: Predictive Utility and Clinically Significant Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadri, Shalane K; McEvoy, Peter M; Egan, Sarah J; Kane, Robert T; Rees, Clare S; Anderson, Rebecca A

    2017-09-01

    The evidence regarding whether co-morbid obsessive compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) is associated with treatment outcomes in obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is mixed, with some research indicating that OCPD is associated with poorer response, and some showing that it is associated with improved response. We sought to explore the role of OCPD diagnosis and the personality domain of conscientiousness on treatment outcomes for exposure and response prevention for OCD. The impact of co-morbid OCPD and conscientiousness on treatment outcomes was examined in a clinical sample of 46 participants with OCD. OCPD diagnosis and scores on conscientiousness were not associated with poorer post-treatment OCD severity, as indexed by Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (YBOCS) scores, although the relative sample size of OCPD was small and thus generalizability is limited. This study found no evidence that OCPD or conscientiousness were associated with treatment outcomes for OCD. Further research with larger clinical samples is required.

  3. Symptoms Analysis of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in Adolescents and Adults in a Teaching Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goit, B K; Ghimire, S R

    2014-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder has a broadly diverse clinical expression that reflects heterogeneity. Several studies have identified consistent symptom dimensions of obsessive-compulsive disorder. The purpose of this study was to conduct an exploratory symptoms analysis of obsessive-compulsive symptoms in adolescents and adults with obsessive-compulsive disorder. This was a cross-sectional study conducted in the Department of Psychiatry, National Medical College. This study examined lifetime occurrence of obsessive-compulsive symptoms included in the 13 symptom categories of the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale. Symptoms analysis was performed on 60 patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Eight categories of obsessions and six categories of compulsions from Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale were included in the analyses. SPSS software package (version 16) was used to analyze the data and shown in the table. Of 60 adolescents and adults, female and male were in the ratio of 1.2:1. Contamination was the most common occurring obsession followed by aggressive obsession. The most common occurring compulsion was checking followed by washing. Only a minority of patients (13.33%) presented predominantly with obsessions however 18.33% patients presented predominantly with compulsions. Certain obsessions and compulsions co-occur to form a cluster. In adolescents and adults, obsessive-compulsive disorder is a multidimensional disorder. Symptom dimensions are predominantly congruent with those described in similar studies of adults with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

  4. Clinical picture of obsessive-compulsive disorder with poor insight: a regression model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellino, Silvio; Patria, Luca; Ziero, Simona; Bogetto, Filippo

    2005-09-15

    DSM-IV included a type of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) with poor insight in the official classification. The present study was performed using a continuous measure of the level of insight to analyze the association between this variable and characteristics of the disorder. Seventy-four consecutive OCD outpatients (DSM-IV criteria) were assessed using: a semistructured interview for sociodemographic and clinical features, the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS), the National Institute of Mental Health Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (NIMH-OCS), the Hamilton Depression and Anxiety Rating Scales (HDRS, HARS), and the Overvalued Ideas Scale (OVIS) as a continuous measure of the level of insight. Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that demographic and clinical factors were related to the OVIS score. The following four factors were found to be significantly related to the OVIS score: the Y-BOCS score for compulsions, OCD chronic course, and family history of OCD were positively related, while obsessive-compulsive personality disorder was negatively related. These results suggest that poor insight identifies a group of OCD patients with distinct clinical characteristics.

  5. Fluoxetine, but not tricyclic antidepressants, potentiates the 5-hydroxytryptophan-mediated increase in plasma cortisol and prolactin secretion in subjects with major depression or with obsessive compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, H; Bastani, B; Jayathilake, K; Maes, M

    1997-07-01

    It has been suggested that the clinical efficacy of chronic treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) such as fluoxetine and perhaps all antidepressants is due to their ability to enhance serotonergic activity. The effects of chronic treatment with fluoxetine or tricyclic antidepressants on the L-5-hydroxytryptophan (200 mg, L-5-HTP; PO)-induced increases in plasma cortisol and prolactin (PRL) concentrations were studied in patients with major depression or obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Administration of L-5-HTP increased plasma cortisol and PRL levels in medicated and unmedicated patients with major depression or OCD. The L-5-HTP-induced cortisol and PRL responses were significantly higher in fluoxetine-treated than in tricyclic-treated or unmedicated major depressed patients. The latter two groups did not differ significantly in their cortisol or PRL responses to L-5-HTP. The L-5-HTP-induced increases in cortisol and PRL in fluoxetine-treated patients with major depression or OCD were not significantly different. The results suggest that fluoxetine, but not tricyclic antidepressants, potentiates 5-HT receptor-mediated stimulation of cortisol and PRL secretion in humans, consistent with available evidence that fluoxetine treatment, but not tricyclic antidepressants, increases central serotonergic activity in patients with MD or OCD by a presynaptic mechanism.

  6. Treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and OCD-related disorders using GVG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewey, Stephen L. (Manorville, NY); Brodie, Jonathan D. (Cos Cob, CT); Ashby, Jr., Charles R. (Miller Place, NY)

    2002-01-01

    The present invention relates to the use of gamma vinyl-GABA (GVG) to treat obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and OCD-related disorders, and to reduce or eliminate behaviors associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and OCD-related disorders.

  7. Obsessive-compulsive disorder and ventromedial frontal lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Irle, E; Exner, C; Thielen, K

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors sought to determine the long-term outcome of subjects with severe and refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) who had undergone ventromedial frontal leukotomy during the 1970s. Special emphasis was given to the analysis of specific lesion sites. METHOD: Sixteen OCD...... resonance imaging scans. RESULTS: The leukotomized OCD subjects showed significant improvement of obsessive-compulsive symptoms; subjects with frontostriatal lesions tended to have improved most. The subjects with combined diagnoses of OCD and obsessive personality disorder (N = 3) had improved...... but not obsessive personality disorder. Lesions of the ventral striatum were significantly related to the occurrence of substance dependence, suggesting a role of this area in human addictive behavior....

  8. Clinical features of psychiatric inpatients with obsessive compulsive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonca Karakus

    2017-03-01

    Results: Forty one of the patients were female (57.7% and 30 of them were male (42.3%. Mean age of patients was 25+/-10,04 years; first treatment age was 27.75+/-9.19 and mean duration of untreated illness was 32.82+/-48.06 months. There was a significant difference in patients, when first treatment age and mean duration of untreated illness were examined by gender. In patients with family history of obsessive-compulsive disorder, the mean duration of untreated illness was higher. Conclusion: Obsessive compulsive disorder is a chronic disorder with significant risk factors for prognosis. [Cukurova Med J 2017; 42(1.000: 140-146

  9. Functional Neurosurgery in the Treatment of Severe Obsessive Compulsive Disorder and Major Depression: Overview of Disease Circuits and Therapeutic Targeting for the Clinician

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Dhwani B.; Pesiridou, Angeliki; Baltuch, Gordon H.; Malone, Donald A.; O’Reardon, John P.

    2008-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, there has been a concerted effort to expand our understanding of the neural circuitry involved in the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders. Distinct neuronal circuits and networks have been implicated in obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) involving feedback loops between the cortex, striatum, and thalamus. When neurosurgery is used as a therapeutic tool in severe OCD and MDD, the goal is to modulate specific targets or nodes within these networks in an effort to produce symptom relief. Currently, four lesioning neurosurgical procedures are utilized for treatment refractory OCD and MDD: cingulotomy, capsulotomy, subcaudate tractotomy, and limbic leucotomy. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a novel neurosurgical approach that has some distinct advantages over lesioning procedures. With DBS, the desired clinical effect can be achieved by reversible, high frequency stimulation in a nucleus or at a node in the circuit without the need to produce an irreversible lesion. Recent trials of deep brain stimulation in both OCD and MDD at several neuroanatomical targets have reported promising early results in highly refractory patients and with a good safety profile. Future definitive trials in MDD and OCD are envisaged. PMID:19727257

  10. Obsessive-compulsive disorder: an integrative genetic and neurobiological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauls, David L; Abramovitch, Amitai; Rauch, Scott L; Geller, Daniel A

    2014-06-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by repetitive thoughts and behaviours that are experienced as unwanted. Family and twin studies have demonstrated that OCD is a multifactorial familial condition that involves both polygenic and environmental risk factors. Neuroimaging studies have implicated the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuit in the pathophysiology of the disorder, which is supported by the observation of specific neuropsychological impairments in patients with OCD, mainly in executive functions. Genetic studies indicate that genes affecting the serotonergic, dopaminergic and glutamatergic systems, and the interaction between them, play a crucial part in the functioning of this circuit. Environmental factors such as adverse perinatal events, psychological trauma and neurological trauma may modify the expression of risk genes and, hence, trigger the manifestation of obsessive-compulsive behaviours.

  11. Deep brain stimulation for severe treatment-resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder: An open-label case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrand, Sarah; Evans, Andrew H; Mangelsdorf, Simone; Loi, Samantha M; Mocellin, Ramon; Borham, Adam; Bevilacqua, JoAnne; Blair-West, Scott; Walterfang, Mark A; Bittar, Richard G; Velakoulis, Dennis

    2017-09-01

    Deep brain stimulation can be of benefit in carefully selected patients with severe intractable obsessive-compulsive disorder. The aim of this paper is to describe the outcomes of the first seven deep brain stimulation procedures for obsessive-compulsive disorder undertaken at the Neuropsychiatry Unit, Royal Melbourne Hospital. The primary objective was to assess the response to deep brain stimulation treatment utilising the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale as a measure of symptom severity. Secondary objectives include assessment of depression and anxiety, as well as socio-occupational functioning. Patients with severe obsessive-compulsive disorder were referred by their treating psychiatrist for assessment of their suitability for deep brain stimulation. Following successful application to the Psychosurgery Review Board, patients proceeded to have deep brain stimulation electrodes implanted in either bilateral nucleus accumbens or bed nucleus of stria terminalis. Clinical assessment and symptom rating scales were undertaken pre- and post-operatively at 6- to 8-week intervals. Rating scales used included the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale, Obsessive Compulsive Inventory, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale and Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale. Seven patients referred from four states across Australia underwent deep brain stimulation surgery and were followed for a mean of 31 months (range, 8-54 months). The sample included four females and three males, with a mean age of 46 years (range, 37-59 years) and mean duration of obsessive-compulsive disorder of 25 years (range, 15-38 years) at the time of surgery. The time from first assessment to surgery was on average 18 months. All patients showed improvement on symptom severity rating scales. Three patients showed a full response, defined as greater than 35% improvement in Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale score, with the remaining showing responses between 7% and 20%. Deep

  12. Cognitive behavioral therapy of obsessive-compulsive disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Edna B. Foa

    2010-01-01

    Until the mid-1960s, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) was considered to be treatment-resistant, as both psychodynamic psychotherapy and medication had been unsuccessful in significantly reducing OCD symptoms. The first real breakthrough came in 1966 with the introduction of exposure and ritual prevention. This paper will discuss the cognitive behavioral conceptualizations that influenced the development of cognitive behavioral treatments for OCD. There will be a brief discussion of the use...

  13. Relapse prevention and residual symptoms: a closer analysis of placebo-controlled continuation studies with escitalopram in major depressive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Per; Lönn, Sara L; Overø, Kerstin F

    2010-01-01

    -Severity of Illness scores and relapse status in 4 studies published from 2005 to 2007, 1 each in major depressive disorder (MDD), generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), were analyzed using mixed-effects model repeated measures as a function of Montgomery......-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) scores on items 1, 3, and 7 at randomization. RESULTS: All studies showed a statistically significant (P needed to treat approximately 4. Patients with residual symptoms (MADRS score...... > 0) and without residual symptoms (MADRS score = 0) at the start of continuation treatment were defined by how patients scored on 3 core items of the MADRS: depressed mood (observed), inner or psychic tension, and lassitude. At randomization, patients with a residual symptom were globally more ill...

  14. Latent Class Analysis of YBOCS Symptoms in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delucchi, Kevin L.; Katerberg, Hilga; Stewart, S. Evelyn; Denys, Damiaan A.J.P.; Lochner, Christine; Stack, Denise E.; den Boer, Johan A.; van Balkom, Anton J.L.M.; Jenike, Michael A.; Stein, Dan J.; Cath, Danielle C.; Mathews, Carol A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is phenomenologically heterogeneous, and findings of underlying structure classification based on symptom grouping have been ambiguous to date. Variable-centered approaches, primarily factor analysis, have been used to identify homogeneous groups of symptoms, but person-centered latent methods have seen little use. This study was designed to uncover sets of homogeneous groupings within 1611 individuals with OCD, based on symptoms. Method Latent class analysis (LCA) models using 61 obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) collected from the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale were fit. Relationships between latent class membership and treatment response, gender, symptom severity and comorbid tic disorders were tested for relationship to class membership. Results LCA models of best fit yielded three classes. Classes differed only in frequency of symptom endorsement. Classes with higher symptom endorsement were associated with earlier age of onset, being male, higher YBOCS symptom severity scores, and comorbid tic disorders. There were no differences in treatment response between classes. Conclusions These results provide support for the validity of a single underlying latent OCD construct, in addition to the distinct symptom factors identified previously via factor analyses. PMID:21145539

  15. Defining Treatment Response and Remission in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Signal Detection Analysis of the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storch, Eric A.; Lewin, Adam B.; De Nadai, Alessandro S.; Murphy, Tanya K.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine the optimal Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS) percent reduction cutoffs for predicting treatment response and clinical remission among children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Method: Youth with OCD (N = 109; range 7 to 19 years) received 14 sessions of weekly or intensive…

  16. Defining Treatment Response and Remission in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Signal Detection Analysis of the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storch, Eric A.; Lewin, Adam B.; De Nadai, Alessandro S.; Murphy, Tanya K.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine the optimal Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS) percent reduction cutoffs for predicting treatment response and clinical remission among children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Method: Youth with OCD (N = 109; range 7 to 19 years) received 14 sessions of weekly or intensive…

  17. Major depressive disorder schizophrenia Bipolar disorder obsessive-compulsive disorder | EU Clinical Trials Register [EU Clinical Trials Register

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e disorder is a scale used to assess the severity of obsessions and compulsions o...ivo-compulsivo es una escala empleada para valorar la severidad de las obsesiones y compulsiones de los paci

  18. Dance-like movements in obsessive compulsive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amar Bavle

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The presentation of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD is sometimes unusual and can mimic other disorders. There are a number of rare and varied manifestations of this disorder, reported in literature. The case reported here, presented with a hitherto unreported symptom; a dance-like compulsion in a case of OCD. This symptom is notable for the influence of cultural environment, on the content of symptom manifestation, in a psychiatric disorder. When one symptom in a disorder presents itself very prominently, the other symptoms, which are less prominent become masked; and need to be elicited by detailed assessment.

  19. Treatment of Sexual-Orientation Obsessions in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Using Exposure and Ritual Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Monnica T.; Crozier, Marjorie; Powers, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Presented is a case report of exposure and ritual prevention (EX/RP) therapy administered to a 51-year-old, White, heterosexual male with sexual-orientation obsessions in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The patient had been previously treated with pharmacotherapy, resulting in inadequate symptom reduction and unwanted side effects. OCD symptoms included anxiety about the possibility of becoming gay, mental reassurance, and avoidance of other men, which resulted in depressive symptoms and...

  20. The effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy in treating a case of obsessive compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakili, Yaghoob; Gharraee, Banafshe

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) in treating obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). In a single-subject experiment trial, the treatment process was carried out on a 39-year old male subject. The patient satisfied the DSM-IV-TR criteria for OCD and was assessed for pre-duration and post treatment. The scales used in this study included: The Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale(Y-BOCS), Beck Depression Inventory-II-second edition (BDI-II), and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). In addition, all scales were again completed by the subject at 1-month, 3-months, and 6-months follow-ups. The treatment led to reductions in symptoms of OCD, depression and anxiety. Gains were maintained at follow-ups. The treatment approach appears to be effective in the treatment of OCD.

  1. The effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy in treating a case of obsessive compulsive disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaghoob Vakili

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT in treating obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD.In a single-subject experiment trial, the treatment process was carried out on a 39-year old male subject. The patient satisfied the DSM-IV-TR criteria for OCD and was assessed for pre-duration and post treatment. The scales used in this study included: The Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale(Y-BOCS, Beck Depression Inventory-II-second edition (BDI-II, and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI. In addition, all scales were again completed by the subject at 1-month, 3-months, and 6-months follow-ups.The treatment led to reductions in symptoms of OCD, depression and anxiety. Gains were maintained at follow-ups.The treatment approach appears to be effective in the treatment of OCD.

  2. Obsessive-compulsive disorder in the postpartum period: diagnosis, differential diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Verinder; Sommerdyk, Christina

    2015-07-01

    Childbirth can trigger or exacerbate a variety of psychiatric disorders but the extant literature has focused primarily on mood disorders. Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) after childbirth can occur alone or in combination with other psychiatric disorders such as major depressive disorder. Due to the general lack of awareness of the relationship between childbirth and OCD among clinicians as well as patients, the disorder may be underdiagnosed or misdiagnosed as major depressive disorder. This article describes the prevalence, clinical features, common psychiatric comorbidities, differential diagnosis and potential consequences of underdiagnosis or misdiagnosis. Using case vignettes strategies for its detection and clinical management are suggested. Finally, areas in need of further research are proposed.

  3. Practice Parameter for the Assessment and Treatment of Children and Adolescents with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Research in etiology, neurobiology, genetics, clinical correlates, and evidence-based treatments in children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder indicate a need for the revision of the Practice Parameters for the Assessment and Treatment of Children and Adolescents with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder first published a decade ago. The…

  4. Altered Inhibition-Related Frontolimbic Connectivity in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Velzen, Laura S.; de Wit, Stella J.; Curcic-Blake, Branisalava; Cath, Danielle C.; de Vries, Froukje E.; Veltman, Dick J.; van der Werf, Ysbrand D.; van den Heuvel, Odile A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Recent studies have shown that response inhibition is impaired in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder and their unaffected siblings, suggesting that these deficits may be considered a cognitive endophenotype of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Structural and functional neural corre

  5. Practice Parameter for the Assessment and Treatment of Children and Adolescents with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Research in etiology, neurobiology, genetics, clinical correlates, and evidence-based treatments in children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder indicate a need for the revision of the Practice Parameters for the Assessment and Treatment of Children and Adolescents with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder first published a decade ago. The…

  6. Symptom dimensions, clinical course and comorbidity in men and women with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torresan, Ricardo C; Ramos-Cerqueira, Ana Teresa A; Shavitt, Roseli G; do Rosário, Maria Conceição; de Mathis, Maria Alice; Miguel, Euripedes C; Torres, Albina R

    2013-09-30

    The study aimed to compare male and female patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) across symptom dimensions, clinical course and comorbidity. A cross-sectional study was undertaken with 858 adult OCD patients (DSM-IV) from the Brazilian Research Consortium on Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum Disorders. Patients were evaluated using structured interviews, including the Dimensional Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (DY-BOCS) and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I disorders (SCID-I). The sample was composed of 504 women (58.7%) and 354 men (41.3%) with a mean age of 35.4 years-old (range: 18-77). Men were younger, more frequently single and presented more tics, social phobia and alcohol use disorders. Among men, symptom interference occurred earlier and symptoms of the sexual/religious dimension were more common and more severe. Conversely, women were more likely to present symptoms of the aggressive, contamination/cleaning and hoarding dimension and comorbidity with specific phobias, anorexia nervosa, bulimia, trichotillomania, skin picking and "compulsive" buying. In the logistic regression, female gender remained independently associated with the aggressive and contamination/cleaning dimensions. In both genders the aggressive dimension remained associated with comorbid post-traumatic stress disorder, the sexual/religious dimension with major depression and the hoarding dimension with tic disorders. Gender seems to be relevant in the determination of OCD clinical presentation and course and should be considered an important aspect when defining more homogeneous OCD subgroups.

  7. Obsessive-compulsive disorder presenting with compulsions to urinate frequently

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Amarjeet Jiwanmall

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD is a common psychiatric disorder which is easily recognized. However, sometimes patients of OCD present in such an atypical presentation of symptoms and a pathway to care involving multiple specialities. We report a case of a girl who had consulted several physicians and a urologist for frequent micturition, who was treated as a case of OCD after clarifying the compulsive nature of her symptom. There was significant improvement in her condition following 8 weeks of treatment with 200 mg of Sertraline and behaviour therapy.

  8. Longitudinal course of pharmacotherapy in obsessive-compulsive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grant, Jon E; Mancebo, Maria C; Weinhandl, Eric

    2013-01-01

    -term course of SRI utilization among individuals with OCD. METHODS: A total of 252 adult outpatients with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed. OCD, treated with medication in the community, were examined for discontinuation and resumption of SRIs. Data on weekly OCD symptoms......BACKGROUND: Although data fully support the use of serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs) in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), investigations on pharmacotherapy discontinuation during the course of OCD are lacking. This 5-year prospective study sought to better understand the long...

  9. Comparing attentional control and intrusive thoughts in obsessive-compulsive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder and non clinical population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehri Moradi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Attention is an important factor in information processing; obsessive- compulsive disorder (OCD and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD are two main emotional disorders with a chronic course. This research examined the relationship among attentional control and intrusive thoughts (worry, rumination and obsession in these disorders. It was hypothesized that attentional control is a common factor in OCD and GAD. In addition, we compared worry, rumination and obsession among OCD, GAD and non- clinical participants.The research sample included three groups: OCD (n = 25, GAD (n = 30 and non- clinical samples (n = 56. Data were collected using the Attentional Control Scale (ACS, Rumination Response Scale (RRS, Pennsylvania State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI, Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory-Revised (OCI-R and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28. Data were analyzed using MANOVA and MANCOVA by SPSS-17.Multivariate Analysis of Variance revealed that the OCD and GAD groups reported greater deficits in attentional control, higher obsessive-compulsive symptoms, rumination, worry, anxiety and depression compared to the control group.This research indicated a great attentional deficit in obsessive- compulsive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder. However, no significant difference was found between these two disorders.

  10. Intact coding region of the serotonin transporter gene in obsessive-compulsive disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altemus, M.; Murphy, D.L.; Greenberg, B. [NIMH, NIH, Bethesda, MD (United States); Lesch, K.P. [Univ. of Wuerzburg (Germany)

    1996-07-26

    Epidemiologic studies indicate that obsessive-compulsive disorder is genetically transmitted in some families, although no genetic abnormalities have been identified in individuals with this disorder. The selective response of obsessive-compulsive disorder to treatment with agents which block serotonin reuptake suggests the gene coding for the serotonin transporter as a candidate gene. The primary structure of the serotonin-transporter coding region was sequenced in 22 patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder, using direct PCR sequencing of cDNA synthesized from platelet serotonin-transporter mRNA. No variations in amino acid sequence were found among the obsessive-compulsive disorder patients or healthy controls. These results do not support a role for alteration in the primary structure of the coding region of the serotonin-transporter gene in the pathogenesis of obsessive-compulsive disorder. 27 refs.

  11. The 5-HT7 receptor influences stereotypic behavior in a model of obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedlund, Peter B; Sutcliffe, J Gregor

    2007-03-13

    The 5-HT7 receptor has been suggested as a new putative target for the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders, especially depression. This hypothesis is based on the finding that antidepressant drugs have relatively high affinity for the 5-HT7 receptor, and that inactivation or blockade of the receptor leads to an antidepressant-like profile in behavioral models and sleep parameters. Obsessive-compulsive disorder is also believed to involve the serotonergic system and is treated using antidepressants, thus it is of interest to study the possible role of the 5-HT7 receptor in this disorder. We have evaluated the effect of inactivation or pharmacological blockade of the 5-HT7 receptor in three mouse behavioral models that are believed to mimic some of the stereotypic aspects of obsessive-compulsive disorder. In the most well-established behavioral model, marble burying, both inactivation and blockade of the 5-HT7 receptor reduced stereotypic behavior in that the number of marbles buried decreased. In two newer, less well-characterized models, head dipping and plastic-mesh screen chewing, there was no difference between wild-type mice and mice lacking the 5-HT7 receptor. Taken together the data confirms and expands on previous findings that the 5-HT7 receptor is of importance for behaviors affected by antidepressants, and suggests that the 5-HT7 receptor might be of relevance as a target for the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder.

  12. Relationship between Obsessive Beliefs and Symptoms in Patients with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    TÜMKAYA, Selim; KARADAĞ, Filiz; KALKAN OĞUZHANOĞLU, Nalan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Misinterpretation of intrusive thoughts because of obsessive beliefs has been thought to be important in the development of obsessive compulsive symptoms. In current study, (I) the difference between OCD patients and healthy controls in regard of obsessive beliefs and (II) the relation of obsesive beliefs with the prevelance and severity of obsessive compulsive symptoms was investigated. Methods The current study included 47 OCD patients and 44 healthy controls who have same properties with regard to age, sex and duration of education. All subjects were applied to Obsessive Beliefs Scale, Maudsley Obsessive Compulsive Scale, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale. OCD patients were applied to Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale as well as the other scales. Results In analyses by controlling depression and anxiety scores, OCD patients had significantly higher scores than controls, with regard to all subscales of Obsessive Beliefs Scale. Also, prevalence of obsessive compulsive symptoms other than cleaning were correlated with obsessive beliefs about “responsibility and threat estimation” and “perfectionism and need for certainty”. Hovewer, there was no correlation in between severity of obsessive compulsive symptoms and subscale scores of Obsessive Beliefs Scale. Conclusion Excluding the effects of depression and anxiety, generally the results suggests that obsessive beliefs have an important role for development of obsessive compulsive symptoms. Future studies of seperated OCD subgroup with regard to obsessive compulsive symptoms will be helpful in determinig the difference among these subgroups in regard of obsessive beliefs. PMID:28360676

  13. Open-label study of duloxetine for the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Darin D; Corse, Andrew K; Chou, Tina; Duffy, Amanda; Arulpragasam, Amanda R; Deckersbach, Thilo; Jenike, Michael A; Keuthen, Nancy J

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to investigate the efficacy of duloxetine for the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder (DSM-IV). Twenty individuals were enrolled in a 17-week, open-label trial of duloxetine at Massachusetts General Hospital. Data were collected between March 2007 and September 2012. Study measures assessing obsessive-compulsive disorder symptoms, quality of life, depression, and anxiety were administered at baseline and weeks 1, 5, 9, 13, and 17. The primary outcome measures were the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale and Clinical Global Improvement scale. For the 12 study completers, pre- and posttreatment analyses revealed significant improvements (Pobsessive-compulsive disorder symptoms and quality of life. Among the 12 completers, more than one-half (n=7) satisfied full medication response criteria. Intention-to-treat analyses (n=20) showed similar improvements (Pobsessive-compulsive disorder. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00464698; http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00464698?term=NCT00464698&rank=1. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.

  14. Stepped Care for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: An Open Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Gilliam, Christina M.; Diefenbach, Gretchen J.; Whiting, Sara E.; Tolin, David F.

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness and treatment costs associated with a stepped care protocol of exposure and response prevention (EX/RP) for obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). In the current open trial, patients (N = 14) began with self-directed EX/RP and minimal therapist guidance over the course of six weeks (Step 1). During this phase of treatment, no therapist-directed exposures were conducted. Those who did not respond optimally to Step 1 went on to Step 2, which consisted of 15 ...

  15. Intensive cognitive behavioural therapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsson, H.; Kristensen, M.; Arendt, M.

    2015-01-01

    Despite promising results from intensive formats of cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) the format is rarely used. The aim of the study was to systematically review the literature within this area of research and provide a meta-analysis of the effectiveness......-up, mainly due to slight deterioration among patients who had received intensive CBT while patients from weekly conditions changed little. In sum, the meta-analysis indicates that intensive CBT is an effective treatment for youths and adults with OCD, and could be a promising format to enhance immediate...

  16. Sumatriptan (5-HT1D receptor agonist) does not exacerbate symptoms in obsessive compulsive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pian, KLH; Westerberg, HGM; van Megen, HJGM; den Boer, JA

    1998-01-01

    The non-selective serotonin (5-HT) receptor agonist meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP) has been reported to elicit symptoms in patients with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). MK-212, another nonselective 5-HT receptor agonist, does not seem to induce obsessive compulsive symptoms in OCD patients.

  17. Response of symptom dimensions in obsessive-compulsive disorder to treatment with citalopram or placebo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stein, Dan J; Andersen, Elisabeth Anne Wreford; Overo, Kerstin Fredricson

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: There is increasing evidence that the symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder lie on discrete dimensions. Relatively little work has, however, explored the relationship between such factors and response to pharmacotherapy. METHOD: Data from a multi-site randomized placebo......-controlled study of citalopram in obsessive-compulsive disorder were analyzed. Factor analysis of individual items and symptom categories of the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale Checklist were undertaken, and the impact of symptom dimensions on treatment outcomes was analysed. RESULTS: Factor analysis of Yale......-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale Checklist individual items yielded 5 factors (contamination/cleaning, harm/checking, aggressive/sexual/religious, hoarding/symmetry, and somatic/hypochondriacal). Hoarding/symmetry was associated with male gender, longer duration of obsessive-compulsive disorder and early onset...

  18. Comorbidity between obsessive-compulsive disorder and body dysmorphic disorder: prevalence, explanatory theories, and clinical characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frías Á

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Álvaro Frías,1,2 Carol Palma,1,2 Núria Farriols,1,2 Laura González2 1FPCEE Blanquerna, Universitat Ramon Llull, Barcelona, 2Adult Outpatient Mental Health Center, Hospital de Mataró – CSdM, Mataró, Spain Background: With the advent of the fifth edition of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, body dysmorphic disorder (BDD has been subsumed into the obsessive-compulsive disorders and related disorders (OCDRD category. Objective: We aimed to determine the empirical evidence regarding the potential relationship between BDD and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD based on the prevalence data, etiopathogenic pathways, and clinical characterization of patients with both disorders. Method: A comprehensive search of databases (PubMed and PsycINFO was performed. Published manuscripts between 1985 and May 2015 were identified. Overall, 53 studies fulfilled inclusion criteria. Results: Lifetime comorbidity rates of BDD–OCD are almost three times higher in samples with a primary diagnosis of BDD than those with primary OCD (27.5% vs 10.4%. However, other mental disorders, such as social phobia or major mood depression, are more likely among both types of psychiatric samples. Empirical evidence regarding the etiopathogenic pathways for BDD–OCD comorbidity is still inconclusive, whether concerning common shared features or one disorder as a risk factor for the other. Specifically, current findings concerning third variables show more divergences than similarities when comparing both disorders. Preliminary data on the clinical characterization of the patients with BDD and OCD indicate that the deleterious clinical impact of BDD in OCD patients is greater than vice versa. Conclusion: Despite the recent inclusion of BDD within the OCDRD, data from comparative studies between BDD and OCD need further evidence for supporting this nosological approach. To better define this issue, comparative studies between BDD, OCD, and social phobia

  19. Neurological soft signs in schizophrenia and obsessive compulsive disorder spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumkaya, S; Karadag, F; Oguzhanoglu, N K

    2012-04-01

    Obsessive compulsive symptoms are more frequent in patients with schizophrenia compared to normal population. Patients with obsessive compulsive disorder may also exhibit psychosis-like symptoms. Based on these findings, it has been suggested that there is a spectrum of disorders between OCD and schizophrenia. We compared two OCD groups (with good and poor insight) and two schizophrenia groups (with and without OCD) in this recommended spectrum especially in terms of neurological soft signs (NSSs) associated with sensory integration. The schizophrenia with OCD (schizo-obsessive) group exhibited worse performance than the schizophrenia group (p=0.002) in only graphesthesia tasks. Moreover, schizo-obsessive patients exhibited worse performance compared to OCD patients in terms of graphesthesia (p=0.001) and audiovisual integration (p=0.001). Interestingly, OCD patients with poor insight tended to exhibit graphesthesia deficit in a similar manner to schizo-obsessive patients rather than OCD patients. According to our results, graphesthesia disorder is strongly associated both with OCD and schizophrenia. This suggests that neurodevelopmental disorders that lead to graphesthesia disorder overlap in comorbid OCD and schizophrenia patients.

  20. Why do eating disorders and obsessive-compulsive disorder co-occur?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, Lauren O; Forbush, Kelsie T

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to use an alternative, dimensionally based approach to understanding the reasons for comorbidity between eating disorders and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Participants from a representative community sample (N=407; 47% female) completed self-report measures of eating pathology, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, perfectionism, and neuroticism. Hierarchical multiple regression indicated that neuroticism and perfectionism completely mediated associations between most obsessive-compulsive and eating disorder symptoms. However, body dissatisfaction shared unique associations with checking, cleaning, and obsessive rituals that could not be explained by these personality traits. Results suggest that shared personality traits play a key role in the comorbidity between eating disorders characterized by binge eating and dietary restraint and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Future studies are needed to examine whether similar underlying neurocognitive processes that give rise to compulsive checking, cleaning, and obsessive rituals may also contribute to the development and maintenance of body checking in individuals diagnosed with eating disorders.

  1. Why Do Eating Disorders and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Co-Occur?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, Lauren O.; Forbush, Kelsie T.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use an alternative, dimensionally based approach to understanding the reasons for comorbidity between eating disorders and obsessive compulsive disorder. Participants from a representative community sample (N=407; 47% female) completed self-report measures of eating pathology, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, perfectionism, and neuroticism. Hierarchical multiple regression indicated that neuroticism and perfectionism completely mediated associations between most obsessive-compulsive and eating disorder symptoms. However, body dissatisfaction shared unique associations with checking, cleaning, and obsessive rituals that could not be explained by these personality traits. Results suggest that shared personality traits play a key role in the comorbidity between eating disorders characterized by binge eating and dietary restraint and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Future studies are needed to examine whether similar underlying neurocognitive processes that give rise to compulsive checking, cleaning, and obsessive rituals may also contribute to the development and maintenance of body checking in individuals diagnosed with eating disorders. PMID:23557823

  2. HOW TO TEST MEDICINES OF OBSESSIVE COMPULSIVE DISORDER??

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parle Milind

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD is a psychiatric affliction with a lifetime prevalence of 1-3%. OCD is an anxiety disorder characterized by obsessive thinking (persistent ideas, thoughts, impulses or images that are experienced as intrusive and inappropriate and compulsive behaviour (repetitive behaviours or mental acts [e.g. hand-washing, checking, praying, and counting] that causes marked distress or significant impairment. During the last 30 years there have been many attempts to develop animal models of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD, in the hope that they may provide a path for furthering our understanding and treatment of this disorder. The present review article provides the reader with an overview of the currently active animal models of OCD with their strengths and limitations. We have reviewed the genetic, pharmacological, neurodevelopmental and behavioural animal models of OCD, and discussed their face validity (derived from phenomenological similarity between the behavior of the animal and the specific symptoms of the human condition, predictive validity (derived from similarity in response to treatment and construct validity (derived from similarity in the underlying mechanisms.

  3. Prevalence and correlates of obsessive-compulsive disorder and subthreshold obsessive-compulsive disorder among college students in Kerala, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaisoorya, T S; Janardhan Reddy, Y C; Nair, B Sivasankaran; Rani, Anjana; Menon, Priya G; Revamma, M; Jeevan, C R; Radhakrishnan, K S; Jose, Vineetha; Thennarasu, K

    2017-01-01

    There are scarce data on the prevalence of adult obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in India. The aim was to study the point prevalence of OCD and subthreshold OCD and its psychosocial correlates among college students in the district of Ernakulam, Kerala, India. A cross-sectional survey of 5784 students of the age range of 18-25 years from 58 colleges was conducted. Students were self-administered the OCD subsection of the Clinical Interview Schedule-Revised, the Composite International Diagnostic Interview for obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCSs), and other relevant instruments to identify OCD, subthreshold OCD, and related clinical measures. The point prevalence of OCD and subthreshold OCD was determined. Categorical variables were compared using Chi-square/Fisher's exact tests as necessary. Differences between means were compared using the ANOVA. The point prevalence of OCD was 3.3% (males = 3.5%; females = 3.2%). 8.5% students (males = 9.9%; females = 7.7%) fulfilled criteria of subthreshold OCD. Taboo thoughts (67.1%) and mental rituals (57.4%) were the most common symptoms in OCD subjects. Compared to those without obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCSs), those with OCD and subthreshold OCD were more likely to have lifetime tobacco and alcohol use, psychological distress, suicidality, sexual abuse, and higher attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptom scores. Subjects with subthreshold OCD were comparable to those with OCD except that OCD subjects had higher psychological distress scores and academic failures. OCD and subthreshold OCD are not uncommon in the community, both being associated with significant comorbidity. Hence, it is imperative that both are identified and treated in the community because of associated morbidity.

  4. Symptom dimensions in obsessive-compulsive disorder and obsessive beliefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trinette Cordeiro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD is a heterogeneous condition with a few major symptom dimensions. These symptom dimensions are thought to have unique clinical and neurobiological correlates. There seems to be a specific relation between OCD symptom dimensions and obsessive beliefs, but the findings are not consistent across studies. There is also a paucity of literature from culturally diverse settings. One of the reasons for the varied findings could be due to the method employed in measuring OCD symptoms. Materials and Methods: In this study, we examined the relation between symptom dimensions and obsessive beliefs using the Dimensional Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale and the Obsessive Beliefs Questionnaire respectively in 75 patients with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition OCD. Results: Perfectionism predicted both aggressive and symmetry dimensions whereas responsibility beliefs predicted sexual and religious dimensions. Conclusions: The findings suggest that certain obsessive beliefs predicted certain OCD symptom dimensions, but results are not entirely consistent with the published literature suggesting the possibility of cross-cultural variations. That the symptom dimensions have unique belief domains support the argument that symptom dimensions could be targeted to reduce the heterogeneity in etiological and treatment studies of OCD. Therapeutic interventions may have to aim at modifying unique belief domains underlying certain symptom dimensions rather than having generic cognitive-behavioral strategies.

  5. Symptom Dimensions in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Obsessive Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Trinette; Sharma, Mahendra P.; Thennarasu, Kandavel; Reddy, Y. C. Janardhan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a heterogeneous condition with a few major symptom dimensions. These symptom dimensions are thought to have unique clinical and neurobiological correlates. There seems to be a specific relation between OCD symptom dimensions and obsessive beliefs, but the findings are not consistent across studies. There is also a paucity of literature from culturally diverse settings. One of the reasons for the varied findings could be due to the method employed in measuring OCD symptoms. Materials and Methods: In this study, we examined the relation between symptom dimensions and obsessive beliefs using the Dimensional Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale and the Obsessive Beliefs Questionnaire respectively in 75 patients with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition OCD. Results: Perfectionism predicted both aggressive and symmetry dimensions whereas responsibility beliefs predicted sexual and religious dimensions. Conclusions: The findings suggest that certain obsessive beliefs predicted certain OCD symptom dimensions, but results are not entirely consistent with the published literature suggesting the possibility of cross-cultural variations. That the symptom dimensions have unique belief domains support the argument that symptom dimensions could be targeted to reduce the heterogeneity in etiological and treatment studies of OCD. Therapeutic interventions may have to aim at modifying unique belief domains underlying certain symptom dimensions rather than having generic cognitive-behavioral strategies. PMID:26702171

  6. Social cognition and metacognition in obsessive-compulsive disorder: an explorative pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrogiorgou, Paraskevi; Bethge, Mareike; Luksnat, Stefanie; Nalato, Fabio; Juckel, Georg; Brüne, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a severe psychiatric condition that is, among other features, characterized by marked impairment in social functioning. Although theoretically plausible with regard to neurobiological underpinnings of OCD, there is little research about possible impairments in social cognitive and meta-cognitive abilities and their connections with social functioning in patients with OCD. Accordingly, we sought to examine social cognitive skills and metacognition in OCD. Twenty OCD patients and age-, sex-, and education-matched 20 healthy controls were assessed using neurocognitive and diverse social cognitive skills including the Ekman 60 Faces test, the Hinting Task, the faux pas test, and a proverb test. In addition, the Metacognition Questionnaire-30 was administered to both the OCD and the control groups. Social functioning was measured using the Personal and Social Performance Scale. Symptom severity in patients was determined by the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale and the Maudsley Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory. No group differences emerged in basic social cognitive abilities. In contrast, compared to controls, OCD patients scored higher on all MCQ dimensions, particularly negative beliefs about worry, uncontrollability, and danger; beliefs about need to control thoughts; and cognitive self-consciousness. There were no significant correlations between social or metacognitive parameters and OCD symptom severity. However, in the patient group, depression and metacognition predicted social functioning. OCD patients show normal basal social cognitive abilities, but dysfunctional metacognitive profiles, which may contribute to their psychosocial impairment.

  7. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Obsessive compulsive disorder- prevalence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ships between its various symptoms and co-morbid disorders. It is hoped ... Subjects and methods. Subjects ... living parent and one living sibling or alternatively two living parents, to ... anxiety disorders and psychosis, were in line with similar.

  8. Intravenous Clomipramine for Treatment-Resistant Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karameh, Wael Karameh; Khani, Munir

    2015-07-28

    This open trial was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of intravenous clomipramine (CMI) in refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Thirty OCD poor responders to previous multiple trials of anti-obsessive medications were selected and admitted to the hospital. Severity of the illness and response to treatment were primarily assessed by the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS). CMI was gradually administered intravenously for one week. All patients were thereafter switched to oral CMI with a maximum dose of 225 mg/day. The Y-BOCS total score mean at admission was in the severe range (24-31), and dropped on discharge and follow-ups to the moderate range (16-23). At discharge, 23 patients (76.7%) had a decrease in Y-BOCS ≥ 25% and were considered responders, while only 18 (60%) were still responders at 24 weeks. No relevant persistent side effects were reported. Intravenous clomipramine could be of benefit for severe OCD cases that have not adequately responded to several therapies, including oral clomipramine. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.

  9. Attachment Style and Resiliency in Patients with Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakiei, Ali; Alikhani, Mostafa; Farnia, Vahid; Khkian, Zinab; Shakeri, Jalal; Golshani, Sanobar

    2017-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to determine the relationships between attachment styles and resiliency in obsessive-compulsive personality disorder. A random sample of 260 subjects was obtained from the population of undergraduate students of the Nour Branch of Islamic Azad University, which is located in Mazandaran, and these subjects were enrolled in this descriptive and correlational study. The collected data included the subjects' responses to an adult attachment style questionnaire, resilience scale, and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder questionnaire. The data were analyzed with Pearson correlation coefficient indices and multiple regressions. The results of the data analysis showed a positive correlation (relationship) between ambivalent/avoidant attachment styles and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder and a negative correlation between resilience and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder. Furthermore, these results demonstrated that attachment style and resiliency can predict obsessive-compulsive personality disorder. In addition, no significant relationships were found between the demographic variables (convertibles) and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder. These results suggested that attachment style and resiliency contribute to the development of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder.

  10. Health anxiety in obsessive compulsive disorder and obsessive compulsive symptoms in severe health anxiety: An investigation of symptom profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedman, Erik; Ljótsson, Brjánn; Axelsson, Erland; Andersson, Gerhard; Rück, Christian; Andersson, Erik

    2017-01-01

    Severe health anxiety (SHA) shares features with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and in recent years there has been a debate as to whether the two disorders may represent two facets of the same condition. Few studies have however investigated the overlap and differences in symptom profiles between the disorders. The primary aim of the present study was to investigate these aspects using one sample of participants with a principal diagnosis of SHA and one sample of participants with a principal OCD diagnosis. The second aim was to examine differences in improvement trajectories on measures of health anxiety and OCD symptoms in patients with SHA receiving treatment with exposure and response prevention. We compared persons participating in clinical trials with a principal diagnosis of SHA (N=290) to persons with a principal diagnosis of OCD (n=95) on measures of health anxiety, OCD symptoms, and depressive symptoms. A subsample of SHA participants (n=99) received exposure and response prevention (ERP) for SHA over 12 weeks and was assessed at baseline and post-treatment. The results showed large and significant differences between SHA and OCD patients on measures of health anxiety (ds=2.99-3.09) and OCD symptoms (ds=1.64-2.14), while they had equivalent levels of depressive symptoms (d=0.19, 95% CI [-0.04, 0.43]). In the SHA sample 7.6% had comorbid OCD, and in the OCD sample 9.5% had SHA. For participants with a principal diagnosis of SHA, ERP led to large reductions of health anxiety, but effects on OCD symptoms were small to moderate. Among participants with comorbid OCD, effect sizes were large on measures of health anxiety and moderate to large on OCD measures. We conclude that SHA and OCD are separate psychiatric disorders with limited overlap in symptom profiles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. #164230 OBSESSIVE-COMPULSIVE DISORDER; OCD [OMIM

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available by recurring obsessions and/or compulsions and has been estimated to affect nearl...t- and second-degree relatives of the probands were also assessed. Ordering compulsion...by the presence of ordering compulsions, aberrant grooming behaviors, and anxiety disorders other than OCD.

  12. Delusional misidentification syndromes in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melca, Isabela A; Rodrigues, Clarissa L; Serra-Pinheiro, Maria A; Pantelis, Christos; Velakoulis, Dennis; Mendlowicz, Mauro V; Fontenelle, Leonardo F

    2013-06-01

    Delusional misidentification syndromes (DMS) have been rarely reported in patients with conditions other than schizophrenia-related disorders, diffuse brain disease (dementia) and focal neurological illness. In this report, we describe DMS (i.e. Capgras and Fregoli syndromes) in two patients with severe and treatment resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), one with paranoid personality disorder (PPD) and the other with a pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) not otherwise specified. While our findings highlight an interesting phenomenon (the occurrence of DMS in OCD), it is presently unclear whether this association is rare or underreported. Misidentification syndromes might be the ultimate result of a combination of obsessive fears and preexisting cognitive bias/deficits, such as mistrustfulness (in PPD) or poor theory of mind (in PDD).

  13. Obsessive-compulsive disorder comorbidity: clinical assessment and therapeutic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano ePallanti

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD is a neuropsychiatric disorder affecting approximately 1-3% of the population. OCD is probably an etiologically heterogeneous condition. Individuals with OCD frequently have additional psychiatric disorders concomitantly or at some time during their lifetime. Recently, some authors proposed an OCD sub-classification based on co-morbidity. An important issue in assessing comorbidity is the fact that the non-response to treatment often involves the presence of comorbid conditions. Non-responsive patients are more likely to meet criteria for comorbid axis I or axis II disorders and the presence of a specific comorbid condition could be a distinguishing feature in OCD, with influence on the treatment adequacy and outcome.

  14. The Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale: Reliability and Validity for Use among 5 to 8 Year Olds with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Jennifer; Flessner, Christopher A.; Garcia, Abbe

    2011-01-01

    The Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS) is the instrument of choice for assessing symptom severity in older children (i.e., 8-18 years) diagnosed with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The reliability and validity of this measure for use among younger children (i.e., 5-8 years of age), however, has never been examined.…

  15. The Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale: Reliability and Validity for Use among 5 to 8 Year Olds with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Jennifer; Flessner, Christopher A.; Garcia, Abbe

    2011-01-01

    The Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS) is the instrument of choice for assessing symptom severity in older children (i.e., 8-18 years) diagnosed with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The reliability and validity of this measure for use among younger children (i.e., 5-8 years of age), however, has never been examined.…

  16. Microgenetic styles in histrionic and obsessive-compulsive personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubino, I A; Greco, E; Zanna, V; Pezzarossa, B

    1994-02-01

    Microgenetic styles of regulation of subjects with (n = 46) and without (n = 44) psychometric evidence of personality disorders were assessed by means of the Serial Color-Word Test. The disordered group were characterized by the primary Dissociative pattern and by very low values of the initial strategy called ITa. Subjects with psychometric evidence of Histrionic (n = 21) and Obsessive-Compulsive (n = 21) Personality Disorders were then compared. Histrionic personality corresponded most often to a primary Stabilized style, with a progressive slight increase of dissociation over time (Cv type). The compulsive trait was instead associated with high primary cumulation (and moderately elevated dissociation), concomitantly with secondary dissociative patterns (CDr and Dv/CDv). These results seem to encourage further clinical research with the Serial Color-Word Test.

  17. Dissecting the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale severity scale to understand the routes for symptomatic improvement in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Daniel L da Conceição; Barbosa, Veronica S; Requena, Guaraci; Shavitt, Roseli G; Pereira, Carlos A de Bragança; Diniz, Juliana B

    2017-04-01

    We aimed to investigate which items of the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Severity Scale best discriminate the reduction in total scores in obsessive-compulsive disorder patients after 4 and 12 weeks of pharmacological treatment. Data from 112 obsessive-compulsive disorder patients who received fluoxetine (⩽80 mg/day) for 12 weeks were included. Improvement indices were built for each Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Severity Scale item at two timeframes: from baseline to week 4 and from baseline to week 12. Indices for each item were correlated with the total scores for obsessions and compulsions and then ranked by correlation coefficient. A correlation coefficient ⩾0.7 was used to identify items that contributed significantly to reducing obsessive-compulsive disorder severity. At week 4, the distress items reached the threshold of 0.7 for improvement on the obsession and compulsion subscales although, contrary to our expectations, there was greater improvement in the control items than in the distress items. At week 12, there was greater improvement in the time, interference, and control items than in the distress items. The use of fluoxetine led first to reductions in distress and increases in control over symptoms before affecting the time spent on, and interference from, obsessions and compulsions. Resistance did not correlate with overall improvement. Understanding the pathway of improvement with pharmacological treatment in obsessive-compulsive disorder may provide clues about how to optimize the effects of medication.

  18. Early childhood experiences shaping vulnerability to Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Barcaccia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available According to the literature, inflated responsibility/sensitivity to guilt play a pivotal role in both the genesis and maintenance of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD. They may be learned in childhood and adolescence, through particular experiences and parental rearing styles, involving criticism, excessively high standards, and social moralization. Preliminary data on the role of dysfunctional beliefs in the development/maintenance of OCD also show that non-affected family members of OC individuals score higher than controls in domains concerning responsibility, suggesting it might represent a candidate endophenotype for the disorder. Compulsive conducts, that far from being mechanical reactions are instead clearly goal-oriented, may be triggered by the need of preventing responsibility/guilt. Therefore, useful psychological interventions aimed at not only reappraising meanings associated with the specific early experiences connected to hyper-sensitivity to guilt, but also at developing a more general compassionate and forgiving stance towards oneself, may prove particularly effective.

  19. Sexual Functions in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Patients: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nergis LAPSEKİLİ

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD, even if the patient’s obsession content is not related to sexuality, may be a problem in the sexual lives of individuals. In this article, sexual function in obsessive compulsive disorder patients is discussed based on an OCD case. Case: Male 36 years old and female 32 years old couple. Man had complaints of lack of control of ejaculation and woman had complaints of lack of orgasm. Man was diagnosed with premature ejaculation and woman was diagnosed with aversion and anorgasmia according to DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual Of Mental Disorders criteria. During therapy, the female patient was diagnosed with OCD as well. Loss of control was not acceptable to the patient. Thus she was avoiding from exhilarating stimuli. After cognitive restructuring of her evaluations about control, sex therapy was continued. At the end of the therapy the avoidance of the patient disappeared and anorgasmia was treated and ejeculation time of the male patient was 15 minutes. Conclusion: Sexual dysfunction is a common problem in patients with OCD. Patient may have avoidance that may adversely affect her sexuality. If a patient has avoidance about sexuality, the reason of this avoidance may or may not be the usual and expected thought content like avoidance of contamination. The evaluations of OCD patients about control may also adversely affect their sexuallity. The thought leading to avoidance behavior, may vary from patient to patient. However, to identify these thoughts with cognitive interventions and work with them will improve.the patient.

  20. Presentation and treatment of complicated obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Charles F

    2014-03-01

    Some of the most common complicating factors for clinicians treating a person with obsessive-compulsive disorder include suicidal obsessions, dangerous compulsions, overvalued ideation, and low motivation. When a patient reports suicidal thoughts, clinicians must assess whether these thoughts are ego-syntonic or ego-dystonic because patients with ego-dystonic suicidal obsessions have less risk of imminent harm. For individuals whose compulsions are dangerous, clinicians must determine the best type of treatment facility to reduce the risk of harm. Patients with overvalued ideation may require unique interviewing approaches and the support of family members. Finally, clinicians should assess for health problems that can cause low energy and fatigue and consider motivational interviewing and additional therapies for patients who have low motivation to continue treatment.

  1. Potential role of anticonvulsants in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive and related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hee Ryung; Woo, Young Sup; Bahk, Won-Myong

    2014-10-01

    We reviewed the extant literature to evaluate the current evidence regarding the efficacy and safety of anticonvulsants in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive and related disorders. Relevant literature was accessed using the Cochrane database, embase and PubMed on 29 October 2013. Prospective studies examining the efficacy of anticonvulsants in obsessive-compulsive and related disorders were included. Case reports, case series, and retrospective studies were excluded. A total of 10 studies were included in this review. The studies of obsessive-compulsive disorder, except for two negative studies, showed favorable efficacy results of anticonvulsants. In one study on body dysmorphic disorder, levetiracetam showed favorable efficacy. In two lamotrigine studies for pathologic skin-picking, the efficacy findings were inconsistent. In one trichotillomania study, topiramate had reduced hair-pulling symptoms. Despite limited evidence, our review suggests that anticonvulsants have a potential role in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive and related disorders.

  2. Contemporary models of pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder: An evaluation with a large clinical sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nadai, Alessandro; Nagpal, Prianka S; Piacentini, John; Peris, Tara S; Geffken, Gary R; Geller, Daniel A; Murphy, Tanya K; Storch, Eric A; Lewin, Adam B

    2015-09-30

    We evaluated the construct validity of the Child Yale-Brofwn Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (CYBOCS) in a large clinical sample (N=730) using confirmatory factor analysis. Results found inadequate fit for a priori models, though a model accounting for overlapping item content displayed good fit. Parallel obsessions/compulsions items may provide largely redundant information on the CYBOCS. Findings suggest modifying the CYBOCS to reduce burden on researchers, patients, and clinicians, and to more accurately measure pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. 强迫性障碍伴抑郁发作患者护理多元化干预%Diversified Intervention Nursing on Patients of Obsessive-compulsive Disorder With Depressive Episode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    缪丽华

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨护理多元化干预措施对强迫性障碍伴抑郁发作患者的康复影响。方法选取我院收治的64例强迫障碍伴抑郁发作患者作为研究对象,将其随机均分为观察组和对照组,观察组进行护理等多元化干预措施合并氯米帕明系统治疗,对照组接受氯米帕明系统治疗加常规护理。分别在入组前和入组干预后3周和6周用抑郁自评量表(Self-rating depression scale,SDS)和耶鲁布朗强迫障碍量表(The Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale,Y-BOCS)≥18分、强迫性思维因子和强迫性行为因子评定效果。结果观察组治疗有效率为84.4%,高于对照组53.1%,两组比较,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论护理多元化干预措施可以显著改善强迫性障碍伴抑郁发作患者的病情,提高患者的生活质量。%Objective To explore the Rehabilitation effect of diversified intervention nursing on patients of obsessive-compulsive disorder with depressive episode.Methods 64 cases of patients of obsessive-compulsive disorder with depressive episode from our hospital were reviewed and analyzed and were randomly assigned to the observation group and the control group, the observation group patients were accepted diversiifed intervention nursing merged clomipramine, the control group patients were accepted clomipramine merged regular nursing. Evaluation of the effect with self rating depression scale, the Yale-Brown obsessive compulsive scale, compulsive thinking factor, compulsive behavior factor before and after intervention 3 weeks, 6 weeks.Results The observation group effective rate is 84.4% higher than the control group 53.1% effective rate, the difference of effective rate between the two groups were statistically signiifcant (P < 0.05).Conclusion Diversiifed intervention nursing may significantly improve state of an illness of obsessive-compulsive disorder with depressive episode patients and enhance

  4. Obsessive-compulsive (anankastic) personality disorder: toward the ICD-11 classification

    OpenAIRE

    Naomi A. Fineberg; Samar Reghunandanan; Sangeetha Kolli; Murad Atmaca

    2014-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) is an early-onset disorder characterized by perfectionism, need for control, and cognitive rigidity. Its nosological status is currently under review. Historically, OCPD has been conceptualized as bearing a close relationship with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). In this article, we discuss the diagnosis of OCPD in anticipation of its review for the ICD-11, from the perspective of clinical utility, global applicability, and research plannin...

  5. Psychometric properties of the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale in youth with autism spectrum disorders and obsessive-compulsive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Monica S; McGuire, Joseph F; Arnold, Elysse B; Lewin, Adam B; Murphy, Tanya K; Storch, Eric A

    2014-01-01

    The psychometric properties of the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS) were investigated in 46 treatment-seeking youth, 7-15 years of age, who were diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and exhibited obsessive-compulsive symptoms. The CY-BOCS Total score exhibited good internal consistency, with differing internal consistencies observed on the Obsession Severity scale (α = 0.86) and Compulsion Severity scale (α = 0.59). Good to excellent inter-rater reliability was observed for the CY-BOCS Total score and both Severity scales. Convergent and divergent validity of the CY-BOCS Total score and both Severity scales were satisfactory. Insight into obsessive-compulsive symptoms was moderately associated with the CY-BOCS Total score. The CY-BOCS demonstrated treatment sensitivity, demonstrating significant changes in obsessive-compulsive symptoms within a subsample of youth receiving cognitive-behavioral treatment. Overall, the CY-BOCS demonstrated adequate psychometric properties and utility in assessing obsessive-compulsive symptoms in youth with ASD and clinically significant obsessive-compulsive symptoms.

  6. Differential-diagnosis of obsessive-compulsive symptoms in the borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunnhuber, Stefan

    2003-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive symptoms are clinically unspecific and can be found in numerous disorders. Within the framework of psychotherapeutically treatable illnesses, the classical obsessive-compulsive neurosis can be distinguished from early anancastia in the case of borderline personality disorder. The text refers to some aspects of the obsessive-compulsive disorder within these earlier disorders. At least five characteristics can be discussed: In the course of this, the varying functions of obsessive-compulsive symptoms for the inner-psychological organization become clear and specifically show that on a low structural level, symptoms do not appear to be primarily pathological but are a part of a "quasi-physiological" and ego-sustaining mechanism. What remains open to discussion in the end is, whether there may be an important substratum for the basis of a historiographical biology as called repeatedly for from psychosomatic theory repeatedly. In addition to this, the awareness of both forms is an important requirement for treatment.

  7. Structural covariance of neostriatal and limbic regions in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Subirà, Marta; Cano, Marta; De Wit, Stella J.; Alonso, Pino; Cardoner, Narcís; Hoexter, Marcelo Q.; Kwon, Jun Soo; Nakamae, Takashi; Lochner, Christine; Sato, João R.; Jung, Wi Hoon; Narumoto, Jin; Stein, Dan J.; Pujol, Jesus; Mataix-Cols, David; Veltman, Dick J.; Busatto, Geraldo F.; Cath, Danielle C.; Denys, Damiaan; Fukui, Kenji; Fouche, Jean Paul; Jang, Joon Hwan; Kim, Sung Nyun; Miguel, Euripides C.; Nishida, Seiji; Phillips, Mary L.; Remijnse, Peter L.; Sakai, Yuki; Schweren, Lizanne; Shin, Na Young; Yamada, Kei; Menchón, José M.; Van Den Heuvel, Odile A.; Soriano-Mas, Carles

    2016-01-01

    Frontostriatal and frontoamygdalar connectivity alterations in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have been typically described in functional neuroimaging studies. However, structural covariance, or volumetric correlations across distant brain regions, also provides network-level

  8. Subclinical autism spectrum symptoms in pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arildskov, Trine Wigh; Højgaard, David R M A; Skarphedinsson, Gudmundur; Thomsen, Per Hove; Ivarsson, Tord; Weidle, Bernhard; Melin, Karin Holmgren; Hybel, Katja A

    2016-07-01

    The literature on subclinical autism spectrum (ASD) symptoms in pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is scarce, and it remains unclear whether ASD symptoms are related to OCD severity. The aims of the present study were to assess the prevalence of ASD symptoms and age and sex differences in children and adolescents with OCD, and to explore the relation between ASD symptoms and OCD severity. This is the largest study of ASD symptoms in an OCD population to date, and the first directly aimed at elucidating sex and age differences in this matter. The study used baseline data from the Nordic Long-term OCD Treatment Study in which parents of 257 children and adolescents with OCD aged 7-17 completed the Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire. OCD severity was assessed with the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale. Pediatric OCD patients were found to exhibit elevated rates of ASD symptoms compared to a norm group of school-age children. ASD symptoms were concentrated in a subgroup with a prevalence of 10-17 %. This subgroup was characterized by a male preponderance with a sex ratio of approximately 2.6:1, while children versus adolescents with OCD exhibited similar rates. Autism-specific social and communication difficulties were not related to OCD severity, while restricted repetitive behavior was positively related to OCD severity. The results indicate that clinicians need to be aware of ASD symptoms in children and adolescents with OCD since one out of ten exhibits such symptoms at a clinical sub-threshold.

  9. Comorbid Personality Disorders in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Its Symptom Dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulli, Francesco; Melli, Gabriele; Cavalletti, Veronica; Stopani, Eleonora; Carraresi, Claudia

    2016-06-01

    The current paper was aimed at: (1) investigating the comorbidity between obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and personality disorders (PDs) using an OCD sample and clinician-administered structured interviews; (2) exploring the associations of different cluster comorbid PDs with the specific symptom dimensions of OCD; (3) analyzing the variables which could play a significant role in the probability of having at least one comorbid PD, controlling for confounding variables. The SCID-II and Y-BOCS, together with a series of self-report measures of OCD, depression and anxiety symptoms were administered to a clinical sample of 159 patients with a primary diagnosis of OCD. 20.8 % of the participants suffered from at least one comorbid PD; the most common was obsessive-compulsive PD (9.4 %), followed by narcissistic PD (6.3 %). In OCD patients with comorbid cluster C PDs, the percentage of responsibility for harm, injury, or bad luck symptoms was significantly greater than other OCD symptom dimensions (p < .005). Logistic regression found some evidence supporting the association between severity of OCD symptoms and comorbid PDs. PDs are prevalent among Italian people with OCD and should be routinely assessed, as comorbidity may affect help-seeking behaviour and response to treatment.

  10. Study on the Clinical characteristics of comorbidity of obsessive-compulsive disorder and depression%强迫症共病抑郁的临床特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张迎黎; 张红梅; 张建宏

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨强迫症(OCD)共病抑郁的发生率、临床特征以及强迫症状和抑郁之间的关系.方法 入组252名OCD患者,用耶鲁-布朗强迫量表(Y-BOCS)和强迫维度量表(DY-BOCS)评估强迫症的严重度和症状维度,用抑郁自评量表(SDS)和焦虑自评量表(SAS)评估抑郁和焦虑症状.结果 252名强迫症患者有79人共病抑郁(占31.3%).共病者已婚少、发病年龄早、有高的教育水平.共病抑郁者强迫观念分、强迫行为分及其总分,抑郁分、焦虑分均显著高于非共病者,差异有统计学意义(P< 0.01或P< 0.05).二分类Logistic回归分析显示,有关性(OR=2.116,95%CI 1.550~2.887)、攻击(0R=1.377,95%CI 1.088~1.743)、对称(OR=1.655,95%CI 1.155~2.370)3类强迫症状维度是OCD共病抑郁的危险因素.结论 OCD共病抑郁的发生率31.3%,共病者有较多的心理病理症状;与性、攻击、对称相关的强迫症状是OCD共病抑郁的危险症状.%OBJECTIVE To assessed prevalence and clinical characteristics of comorbidity of obsessive -compulsive disorder (OCD) and depression, and to analyze the relationship between depression and symptom dimensions of OCD. METHODS A total of 252 OCD patients were recruited in current study. Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) and Dimensional Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (DY-BOCS) were employed to assess the severity of OCD and symptom dimensions respectively. Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS) and Self-rating Anxiety Scale ( SAS) were used to measure the severity of depressive and anxious symptoms. RESULTS The prevalence rate of comorbid OCD and depression was 31.3%. Compared with non-depression patients, the depression patients were less Likely to be married, younger at onset and achieved a higher educational level. The scores of obsession, compulsion and total, depression and anxiety were significantly higher in comorbid depressed patients than that of non-depression patients (P< 0

  11. Obsessive-compulsive disorder and trichotillomania: a phenomenological comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochner, Christine; Seedat, Soraya; du Toit, Pieter L; Nel, Daniel G; Niehaus, Dana JH; Sandler, Robin; Stein, Dan J

    2005-01-01

    Background Similarities between obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and trichotillomania (TTM) have been widely recognized. Nevertheless, there is evidence of important differences between these two disorders. Some authors have conceptualized the disorders as lying on an OCD spectrum of conditions. Methods Two hundred and seventy eight OCD patients (n = 278: 148 male; 130 female) and 54 TTM patients (n = 54; 5 male; 49 female) of all ages were interviewed. Female patients were compared on select demographic and clinical variables, including comorbid axis I and II disorders, and temperament/character profiles. Results OCD patients reported significantly more lifetime disability, but fewer TTM patients reported response to treatment. OCD patients reported higher comorbidity, more harm avoidance and less novelty seeking, more maladaptive beliefs, and more sexual abuse. OCD and TTM symptoms were equally likely to worsen during menstruation, but OCD onset or worsening was more likely associated with pregnancy/puerperium. Conclusions These findings support previous work demonstrating significant differences between OCD and TTM. The classification of TTM as an impulse control disorder is also problematic, and TTM may have more in common with conditions characterized by stereotypical self-injurious symptoms, such as skin-picking. Differences between OCD and TTM may reflect differences in underlying psychobiology, and may necessitate contrasting treatment approaches. PMID:15649315

  12. Obsessive-compulsive disorder and trichotillomania: a phenomenological comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandler Robin

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Similarities between obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD and trichotillomania (TTM have been widely recognized. Nevertheless, there is evidence of important differences between these two disorders. Some authors have conceptualized the disorders as lying on an OCD spectrum of conditions. Methods Two hundred and seventy eight OCD patients (n = 278: 148 male; 130 female and 54 TTM patients (n = 54; 5 male; 49 female of all ages were interviewed. Female patients were compared on select demographic and clinical variables, including comorbid axis I and II disorders, and temperament/character profiles. Results OCD patients reported significantly more lifetime disability, but fewer TTM patients reported response to treatment. OCD patients reported higher comorbidity, more harm avoidance and less novelty seeking, more maladaptive beliefs, and more sexual abuse. OCD and TTM symptoms were equally likely to worsen during menstruation, but OCD onset or worsening was more likely associated with pregnancy/puerperium. Conclusions These findings support previous work demonstrating significant differences between OCD and TTM. The classification of TTM as an impulse control disorder is also problematic, and TTM may have more in common with conditions characterized by stereotypical self-injurious symptoms, such as skin-picking. Differences between OCD and TTM may reflect differences in underlying psychobiology, and may necessitate contrasting treatment approaches.

  13. Psychopathology and personality characteristics in relation to blood serotonin in Tourette's syndrome and obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cath, D C; Spinhoven, P; Landman, A D; van Kempen, G M

    2001-06-01

    Family studies suggest an interrelationship between Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome (GTS) and some forms of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Some authors consider GTS to be part of a serotonergically mediated cluster of OCD spectrum disorders. The present study was undertaken to compare measures of psychopathology, personality and blood serotonin between GTS and OCD (without tics), and to investigate whether an OCD spectrum hypothesis is supported for GTS. Fifteen GTS without OCD subjects, 21 tic with (+) OCD subjects, 15 OCD without tic subjects and 26 controls (all without serotonergic medication) were evaluated with self-rated and clinician-rated measures of psychopathology and personality. Whole blood serotonin (5-HT) and platelet monoamine oxidase activity (MAO) was measured, and Spearman's correlations were calculated between whole blood 5-HT, MAO and rating scale scores within the entire sample and within subgroups. There were main effects of OCD on anxiety, obsessive-compulsive, neuroticism and extraversion scores. There were main effects of tics on depression, obsessive-compulsive, trait anxiety and neuroticism scores, and on platelet MAO. There were interaction effects on platelet MAO, 5-HT, Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Rating Scale severity, trait anxiety and Eysenck Personality Questionnaire neuroticism scores. Platelet MAO activity was elevated in tic-free OCD subjects when compared to tic + OCD, GTS without OCD and controls. Whole blood 5-HT was lowered in tic + OCD patients in comparison to GTS without OCD and tic-free OCD subjects. Whole blood 5-HT and obsessive-compulsive severity were negatively correlated within OCD without tic patients and MAO and Leyton Obsessive Inventory scores were negatively related within GTS without OCD patients. The biochemical data of this study suggest that in tic + OCD and in tic-free OCD patients, 5-HT dysregulations play a role, but not necessarily in pure GTS. Serotonergic dysregulations within tic + OCD and

  14. Goal-directed learning and obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillan, Claire M; Robbins, Trevor W

    2014-11-05

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has become a paradigmatic case of goal-directed dysfunction in psychiatry. In this article, we review the neurobiological evidence, historical and recent, that originally led to this supposition and continues to support a habit hypothesis of OCD. We will then discuss a number of recent studies that have directly tested this hypothesis, using behavioural experiments in patient populations. Based on this research evidence, which suggests that rather than goal-directed avoidance behaviours, compulsions in OCD may derive from manifestations of excessive habit formation, we present the details of a novel account of the functional relationship between these habits and the full symptom profile of the disorder. Borrowing from a cognitive dissonance framework, we propose that the irrational threat beliefs (obsessions) characteristic of OCD may be a consequence, rather than an instigator, of compulsive behaviour in these patients. This lays the foundation for a potential shift in both clinical and neuropsychological conceptualization of OCD and related disorders. This model may also prove relevant to other putative disorders of compulsivity, such as substance dependence, where the experience of 'wanting' drugs may be better understood as post hoc rationalizations of otherwise goal-insensitive, stimulus-driven behaviour.

  15. Psychotherapy and medication management strategies for obsessive-compulsive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McDougle CJ

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Kelda H Walsh, Christopher J McDougleDepartment of Psychiatry, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USAAbstract: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD is a chronic anxiety disorder. While medication and psychotherapy advances have been very helpful to patients, many patients do not respond adequately to initial trials of serotonergic medication or cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT and require multiple treatment trials or combination therapies. Comorbidity may also influence treatment response. The role of streptococcal infections in pediatric OCD has become an area of intense scrutiny and controversy. In this article, current treatment methods for OCD will be reviewed, with special attention to strategies for treating OCD in children and in patients with comorbid tic disorders. Alternative psychotherapy strategies for patients who are highly anxious about starting CBT, such as cognitive therapy or augmentation with D-cycloserine, will be reviewed. Newer issues regarding use of antibiotics, neuroleptics, and glutamate modulators in OCD treatment will also be explored.Keywords: OCD, exposure/response prevention therapy, PANDAS, tic disorder

  16. Hoarding in Children and Adolescents with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Jack; Grados, Marco A; Riddle, Mark A; Bienvenu, O Joseph; Goes, Fernando S; Cullen, Bernadette; Wang, Ying; Greenberg, Benjamin D; Fyer, Abby J; McCracken, James T; Geller, Dan; Murphy, Dennis L; Knowles, James A; Rasmussen, Steven A; McLaughlin, Nicole C; Piacentini, John; Pauls, David L; Stewart, S Evelyn; Shugart, Yin-Yao; Maher, Brion; Pulver, Ann E; Nestadt, Gerald

    2014-10-01

    Compared to studies in adults, there have been few studies of hoarding in children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). In the current study, we evaluated OCD clinical features, Axis I disorders, and social reciprocity scores in 641 children and adolescents with OCD, of whom 163 (25%) had hoarding compulsions and 478 did not. We found that, as a group, youth with hoarding had an earlier age at onset and more severe lifetime OCD symptoms, poorer insight, more difficulty making decisions and completing tasks, and more overall impairment. The hoarding group also had a greater lifetime prevalence of panic disorder, specific phobia, Tourette disorder, and tics. As measured with the Social Reciprocity Scale, the hoarding group had more severe deficits in parent-rated domains of social communication, social motivation, and restricted interests and repetitive behavior. In a multivariable model, the overall social reciprocity score, age at onset of OCD symptoms, symmetry obsessions, and indecision were independently related to hoarding in these children and adolescents with OCD. These features should be considered as candidate risk factors for the development of hoarding behavior in pediatric OCD.

  17. Selective attention deficits in obsessive-compulsive disorder: the role of metacognitive processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Julia; Exner, Cornelia

    2015-02-28

    While initial studies supported the hypothesis that cognitive characteristics that capture cognitive resources act as underlying mechanisms in memory deficits in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), the influence of those characteristics on selective attention has not been studied, yet. In this study, we examined the influence of cognitive self-consciousness (CSC), rumination and worrying on performance in selective attention in OCD and compared the results to a depressive and a healthy control group. We found that 36 OCD and 36 depressive participants were impaired in selective attention in comparison to 36 healthy controls. In all groups, hierarchical regression analyses demonstrated that age, intelligence and years in school significantly predicted performance in selective attention. But only in OCD, the predictive power of the regression model was improved when CSC, rumination and worrying were implemented as predictor variables. In contrast, in none of the three groups the predictive power improved when indicators of severity of obsessive-compulsive (OC) and depressive symptoms and trait anxiety were introduced as predictor variables. Thus, our results support the assumption that mental characteristics that bind cognitive resources play an important role in the understanding of selective attention deficits in OCD and that this mechanism is especially relevant for OCD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy for obsessive compulsive disorder: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andersson Gerhard

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT is widely regarded as an effective treatment for obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD, but access to CBT therapists is limited. Internet-based CBT (ICBT with therapist support is a way to increase access to CBT but has not been developed or tested for OCD. The aim of this study was to evaluate ICBT for OCD. Method An open trial where patients (N = 23 received a 15-week ICBT program with therapist support consisting of psychoeducation, cognitive restructuring and exposure with response prevention. The primary outcome was the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS, which was assessed by a psychiatrist before and immediately after treatment. Secondary outcomes were self-rated measures of OCD symptoms, depressive symptoms, general functioning, anxiety and quality of life. All assessments were made at baseline and post-treatment. Results All participants completed the primary outcome measure at all assessment points. There were reductions in OCD symptoms with a large within-group effect size (Cohen's d = 1.56. At post-treatment, 61% of participants had a clinically significant improvement and 43% no longer fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of OCD. The treatment also resulted in statistically significant improvements in self-rated OCD symptoms, general functioning and depression. Conclusions ICBT with therapist support reduces OCD symptoms, depressive symptoms and improves general functioning. Randomized trials are needed to confirm the effectiveness of this new treatment format. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01348529

  19. Empathy and symptoms dimensions of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontenelle, Leonardo F; Soares, Isabela D; Miele, Flavia; Borges, Manuela C; Prazeres, Angélica M; Rangé, Bernard P; Moll, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    Patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) often display cognitions and/or behaviors that may well reflect the existence of "hyper-attachment" to different environmental elements, including their offspring, family members, divine entities, or even inanimate objects. Based on the fact that both OCD symptoms and physiologic interpersonal attachment mechanisms involve overlapping ventral fronto-limbic circuits, we hypothesized that there is a relationship between empathy, evaluated with the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI), and OCD symptom dimensions. We evaluated 53 patients with OCD and 53 age- and sex-matched individuals from the community with the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnosis of DSM-IV axis I disorders, the Saving Inventory-Revised, the IRI (composed of four sub-scales), the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory - Revised, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Beck Anxiety Inventory. Patients with OCD displayed greater levels of affective empathy (i.e., empathic concern (p=0.006) and personal discomfort (panxiety, only the association between hoarding and fantasy remained robust (r=0.41; panxiety symptoms predicted 33% of the variance on the fantasy scale. Our findings suggest that hoarding is linked to specific aspects of interpersonal reactivity. Comorbid depression and anxiety, however, explain a large proportion of the empathic profile exhibited by patients with OCD.

  20. 1例抑郁症与强迫症共病患者的精神动力导向治疗%Psychodynamic Oriented Treatment of a Patient with Deep Depression and Obsessive-compulsive Disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟宪璋; 刘国华

    2011-01-01

    目的:报告1例抑郁症与强迫症共病患者的精神动力导向的治疗过程.方法:采用精神动力导向的治疗方法,每周1次晤谈,共45次.结果:患者的强迫观念、抑郁症状及社会功能有所好转,对症状的无意识意义有所领悟.结论:患者童年期共生性、过分溺爱的母子关系和敌对性的父子关系,令其陷入乱伦和弑父的强烈罪疚和洗刷罪恶的强迫重复中.%Objective: To introduce the psychodynamic oriented treatment process of a patient with deep depression and obsessive-compulsive disorder.Methods: A psychodynamic oriented treatment of fifty minutes once a week was given to a patient with deep depression and obsessive-compulsive disorder, totally of 45 sessions.Results: His obsessive beliefs,depressive symptoms and social function were all somewhat better.He also understood some of the unconscious symbols of his symptoms.Conclusion: The early symbiotic and over-spoiled relationship with his mother, as well as the hostile relationship with his father, have made him involve in the strong guilt of incest and parricide and compulsive repetitions to wash it out.

  1. [Hoarding as a Disorder of the Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schön, Daniela; Wahl-Kordon, Andreas; Zurowski, Bartosz

    2015-06-01

    Hoarding often occurs without obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), it shows distinguishable neuropsychological and neurobiological correlates and a distinct comorbidity spectrum. Further, it occurs secondarily to other psychiatric and neurobiological disorders. Therefore hoarding disorder has been included as a distinct diagnosis in DSM-5.Neuroimaging studies point to functional and structural abnormalities of networks subserving decision making, attention, action planning and emotional regulation.The cognitive-behavioral model outlines the most important characteristics of pathological hoarding, comprising deficits of information processing, maladaptive beliefs about information processing deficits, maladaptive beliefs about posessions as well as emotional attachment to them accompanied with emotional distress and avoidance.Because of a low willingness for therapy plus a high rate of discontinuation of therapy, a manualized cognitive-behavioral therapy approach for pathological hoarding has been established. It builds on observational learning, cognitive strategies, graduated exposure, response prevention, training/coaching to sort out, and relapse prevention are key components of the treatment. Particularily in case of lacking motivation for any kind of behavioral therapy or other psychological treatments, a pharmacotherapy with SSRIs is recommended.

  2. Neurological soft signs in obsessive-compulsive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guz H

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neurological soft signs (NSSs are defined as abnormal motor or sensory findings, including involuntary movements, a variety of dispraxia, difficulties in performing rapid alternating movements, difficulties in two-point discrimination, and graphesthesia in a person without a neurological disorder which can be determined as its focus. Aims: to investigate the relationship of NSSs with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD. Settings and Design: This study was designed in the Psychiatry Polyclinic of Ondokuz Mayis University Hospital. After signing an informed consent form, all the subjects were divided into 2 groups: (1 the patient group and (2 the control group. Material and Methods: Thirty consecutive patients presenting with DSM-IV OCD were included in this study. The control group consisted of 30 healthy subjects without a psychiatric/neurological disorder. All subjects underwent a physical and neurological examination for soft signs (PANESS. Statistical analysis used: The Mann-Whitney U test was used for statistical analysis of data. Results: It was seen that graphesthesia, two-point discrimination, and total PANESS scores were significantly higher in the group with OCD than the control group. In other NSSs, there was no significant difference between the patient and control groups. Conclusions: Unlike some studies, in the present study, the difference between the groups in graphesthesia compared to other NSSs was significant. The results of this preliminary study suggest that there is a relationship between NSSs and OCD. We think that NSSs may point to a structural brain abnormality in patients with OCD.

  3. Predictors of Parental Accommodation in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Findings from the Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Treatment Study (POTS) Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flessner, Christopher A.; Freeman, Jennifer B.; Sapyta, Jeffrey; Garcia, Abbe; Franklin, Martin E.; March, John S.; Foa, Edna

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Few studies have examined predictors of parental accommodation (assessed with the Family Accommodation Scale-Parent Report) among families of children with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). No studies have examined this phenomenon using empirically derived subscales of the Family Accommodation Scale-Parent Report (i.e., Caregiver…

  4. Altered inhibition-related frontolimbic connectivity in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Velzen, Laura S; de Wit, Stella J; Ćurĉić-Blake, Branislava; Cath, Daniëlle C; de Vries, Froukje E; Veltman, Dick J; van der Werf, Ysbrand D; van den Heuvel, Odile A

    2015-10-01

    Recent studies have shown that response inhibition is impaired in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder and their unaffected siblings, suggesting that these deficits may be considered a cognitive endophenotype of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Structural and functional neural correlates of altered response inhibition have been identified in patients and siblings. This study aims to examine the functional integrity of the response inhibition network in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder and their unaffected siblings. Forty-one unmedicated patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder, 17 of their unaffected siblings and 37 healthy controls performed a stop signal task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Psycho-physiological interaction analysis was used to examine functional connectivity between the following regions of interest: the bilateral inferior frontal gyri, presupplementary motor area, subthalamic nuclei, inferior parietal lobes, anterior cingulate cortex, and amygdala. We then used dynamic causal modeling to investigate the directionality of the networks involved. Patients, and to a lesser extent also their unaffected siblings, show altered connectivity between the inferior frontal gyrus and the amygdala during response inhibition. The follow-up dynamic causal modeling suggests a bottom-up influence of the amygdala on the inferior frontal gyrus in healthy controls, whereas processing occurs top-down in patients with obsessive-compulsive, and in both directions in siblings. Our findings suggest that amygdala activation in obsessive-compulsive disorder interferes differently with the task-related recruitment of the inhibition network, underscoring the role of limbic disturbances in cognitive dysfunctions in obsessive-compulsive disorder. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Subjective Uncertainty and Limbic Hyperactivation in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Emily R.; Welsh, Robert C.; Gonzalez, Richard; Fitzgerald, Kate D.; Abelson, James L.; Taylor, Stephan F.

    2017-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is often associated with pathological uncertainty regarding whether an action has been performed correctly or whether a bad outcome will occur, leading to compulsive “evidence gathering” behaviors aimed at reducing uncertainty. The current study used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate neural functioning in OCD patients and controls as subjective certainty was rated in response to sequential pieces of evidence for a decision. Uncertainty was experimentally manipulated so that some decisions were associated with no “objective” uncertainty (all observed evidence pointed to one correct choice), whereas other decisions contained calculable but varying levels of objective uncertainty based on displayed probabilities. Results indicated that OCD patients differed from controls on decisions that contained no objective uncertainty, such that patients rated themselves as more uncertain. Patients also showed greater activation in a network of brain regions previously associated with internally-focused thought and valuation including ventromedial prefrontal cortex, parahippocampus, middle temporal cortex, as well as amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex/ventral anterior insula. In the patient group, a significantly greater number of positive intersubject correlations were found among several of these brain regions, suggesting that this network is more interconnected in patients. OCD patients did not differ from controls on decisions where task parameters led to uncertainty. These results indicate that OCD is associated with hyperactivation in a network of limbic/paralimbic brain regions when making decisions, which may contribute to the greater subjective experience of doubt that characterizes the disorder. PMID:22461182

  6. Characterization of SLITRK1 Variation in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozomaro, Uzoezi; Yoon, Seungtai; Makarov, Vladimir; Delorme, Richard; Betancur, Catalina; Ruhrmann, Stephan; Falkai, Peter; Grabe, Hans Jörgen; Maier, Wolfgang; Wagner, Michael; Lennertz, Leonhard; Moessner, Rainald; Murphy, Dennis L.; Buxbaum, Joseph D.; Züchner, Stephan; Grice, Dorothy E.

    2013-01-01

    Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is a syndrome characterized by recurrent and intrusive thoughts and ritualistic behaviors or mental acts that a person feels compelled to perform. Twin studies, family studies, and segregation analyses provide compelling evidence that OCD has a strong genetic component. The SLITRK1 gene encodes a developmentally regulated stimulator of neurite outgrowth and previous studies have implicated rare variants in this gene in disorders in the OC spectrum, specifically Tourette syndrome (TS) and trichotillomania (TTM). The objective of the current study was to evaluate rare genetic variation in SLITRK1 in risk for OCD and to functionally characterize associated coding variants. We sequenced SLITRK1 coding exons in 381 individuals with OCD as well as in 356 control samples and identified three novel variants in seven individuals. We found that the combined mutation load in OCD relative to controls was significant (p = 0.036). We identified a missense N400I change in an individual with OCD, which was not found in more than 1000 control samples (Pdisorder. Examination of additional samples will help assess the role of rare SLITRK1 variation in OCD and in related psychiatric illness. PMID:23990902

  7. Visuospatial memory in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamika Sahu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD is a clinically heterogeneous disorder. The previous studies have been conducted to elucidate visuospatial and nonverbal memory deficits in OCD patients. However, they did not reach equivocal results which need to be replicated. Objectives: The current study examines the visuospatial memory in male patients with OCD as compared to normal healthy controls. Materials and Methods: It is a cross-sectional hospital-based study, in which 15 OCD patients and 15 age-, sex-, and education-matched normal healthy controls were chosen by purposive sampling technique. All the participants underwent the Extended Complex Figure Test (ECFT for the assessment of visuospatial memory. Results: Significant difference was found between OCD patients and normal healthy controls on various domains of ECFT. OCD patients performed poorly on copy condition (t = −4.46; P< 0.001, immediate recall (t = −5.20; P< 0.001, delayed recall (t = −5.18; P< 0.001, recognition task (P < 0.001, and matching task (P < 0.001 than the controls. Conclusion: Visuospatial memory was significantly impaired in OCD that included disturbed encoding and impaired visuospatial functioning. Hence, it is important to understand the significance of visuospatial memory in the pathophysiology for OCD diagnosis and therapeutic decision.

  8. Patient-reported outcomes in obsessive-compulsive disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Mythily; Soh, Pauline; Ong, Clarissa; Esmond Seow, Lee Seng; Picco, Louisa; Vaingankar, Janhavi Ajit; Chong, Siow Ann

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the article was to provide an overview of patient-reported outcomes (PROs) and related measures that have been examined in the context of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The current review focused on patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) that evaluated three broad outcome domains: functioning, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and OCD-related symptoms. The present review ultimately included a total of 155 unique articles and 22 PROMs. An examination of the PROs revealed that OCD patients tend to suffer from significant functional disability, and report lower HRQoL than controls. OCD patients report greater symptom severity than patients with other mental disorders and evidence indicates that PROMs are sensitive to change and may be even better than clinician-rated measures at predicting treatment outcomes. Nonetheless, it should be noted that the measures reviewed lacked patient input in their development. Future research on PROMs must involve patient perspectives and include rigorous psychometric evaluation of these measures. PMID:25152661

  9. Diagnostic Stability of Internet Addiction in Obsessive-compulsive Disorder: Data from a Naturalistic One-year Treatment Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bipeta, Rajshekhar; Yerramilli, Srinivasa Srr; Karredla, Ashok Reddy; Gopinath, Srinath

    2015-01-01

    Whether internet addiction should be categorized as a primary psychiatric disorder or the result of an underlying psychiatric disorder still remains unclear. In addition, the relationship between internet addiction and obsessive-compulsive disorder remains to be explored. We hypothesized that internet addiction is a manifestation of underlying psychopathology, the treatment of which will improve internet addiction. We enrolled 34 control subjects (with or without internet addiction) and compared them to 38 patients with "pure" obsessive-compulsive disorder (with or without internet addiction). Internet addiction and obsessive-compulsive disorder were diagnosed based on Young's Diagnostic Questionnaire and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), respectively. Age and Internet Addiction Test scores were comparable in both the control (years: 26.87±6.57; scores: 43.65±11.56) and obsessive-compulsive disorder groups (years: 27.00±6.13 years, p=0.69; scores: 43.47±15.21, p=0.76). Eleven patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (28.95%) were diagnosed with internet addiction as compared to three control subjects (p=0.039). In the obsessive-compulsive disorder group, no difference in the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (24.07±3.73 non-internet addiction, 23.64±4.65 internet addiction; p=0.76) score was seen between the internet addiction/obsessive-compulsive disorder and non-internet addiction/obsessive-compulsive disorder groups. As expected, the Internet Addiction Test scores were higher in the internet addiction/obsessive-compulsive disorder group (64.09±9.63) than in the non-internet addiction/obsessive-compulsive disorder group (35.07±6.37; p=0.00). All enrolled patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder were subsequently treated for a period of one year. Treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder improved Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale and Internet Addiction Test scores over time. At 12 months, only

  10. Patterns of Default Mode Network Deactivation in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Óscar F.; Soares, José Miguel; Carvalho, Sandra; Leite, Jorge; Ganho-Ávila, Ana; Fernandes-Gonçalves, Ana; Pocinho, Fernando; Carracedo, Angel; Sampaio, Adriana

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to research the patterns of Default Mode Network (DMN) deactivation in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) in the transition between a resting and a non-rest emotional condition. Twenty-seven participants, 15 diagnosed with OCD and 12 healthy controls (HC), underwent a functional neuroimaging paradigm in which DMN brain activation in a resting condition was contrasted with activity during a non-rest condition consisting in the presentation of emotionally pleasant and unpleasant images. Results showed that HC, when compared with OCD, had a significant deactivation in two anterior nodes of the DMN (medial frontal and superior frontal) in the non-rest pleasant stimuli condition. Additional analysis for the whole brain, contrasting the resting condition with all the non-rest conditions grouped together, showed that, compared with OCD, HC had a significantly deactivation of a widespread brain network (superior frontal, insula, middle and superior temporal, putamen, lingual, cuneus, and cerebellum). Concluding, the present study found that OCD patients had difficulties with the deactivation of DMN even when the non-rest condition includes the presentation of emotional provoking stimuli, particularly evident for images with pleasant content. PMID:28287615

  11. Arbitration between Action Strategies in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruner, Patricia; Anticevic, Alan; Lee, Daeyeol; Pittenger, Christopher

    2016-04-01

    Decision making in a complex world, characterized both by predictable regularities and by frequent departures from the norm, requires dynamic switching between rapid habit-like, automatic processes and slower, more flexible evaluative processes. These strategies, formalized as "model-free" and "model-based" reinforcement learning algorithms, respectively, can lead to divergent behavioral outcomes, requiring a mechanism to arbitrate between them in a context-appropriate manner. Recent data suggest that individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) rely excessively on inflexible habit-like decision making during reinforcement-driven learning. We propose that inflexible reliance on habit in OCD may reflect a functional weakness in the mechanism for context-appropriate dynamic arbitration between model-free and model-based decision making. Support for this hypothesis derives from emerging functional imaging findings. A deficit in arbitration in OCD may help reconcile evidence for excessive reliance on habit in rewarded learning tasks with an older literature suggesting inappropriate recruitment of circuitry associated with model-based decision making in unreinforced procedural learning. The hypothesized deficit and corresponding circuitry may be a particularly fruitful target for interventions, including cognitive remediation.

  12. Inverse reasoning processes in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Shiu F; Grisham, Jessica R

    2017-04-01

    The inference-based approach (IBA) is one cognitive model that aims to explain the aetiology and maintenance of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The model proposes that certain reasoning processes lead an individual with OCD to confuse an imagined possibility with an actual probability, a state termed inferential confusion. One such reasoning process is inverse reasoning, in which hypothetical causes form the basis of conclusions about reality. Although previous research has found associations between a self-report measure of inferential confusion and OCD symptoms, evidence of a specific association between inverse reasoning and OCD symptoms is lacking. In the present study, we developed a task-based measure of inverse reasoning in order to investigate whether performance on this task is associated with OCD symptoms in an online sample. The results provide some evidence for the IBA assertion: greater endorsement of inverse reasoning was significantly associated with OCD symptoms, even when controlling for general distress and OCD-related beliefs. Future research is needed to replicate this result in a clinical sample and to investigate a potential causal role for inverse reasoning in OCD.

  13. Obsessive compulsive disorder with bipolar mood disorder: A rare comorbidity in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindu Annigeri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Obsessive compulsive features occurring in mania have been well documented. Though there have been some studies on obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD comorbid with mania in the western countries, there are very few case reports and studies in India. Our aim is to report one such case here, who presented with OC features which are not typical of the symptom cluster of the OCD commonly seen with mania in earlier reports. Also, the comorbidities in OCD should be recognized as this can have important diagnostic and therapeutic implications.

  14. Worry and Rumination in Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar, Kaiser A; Iqbal, Naved

    2015-01-01

    Ample work has already been conducted on worry and rumination as negative thought processes involved in the etiology of most of the anxiety and mood related disorders. However, minimal effort has been exerted to investigate whether one type of negative thought process can make way for another type of negative thought process, and if so, how it subsequently results in experiencing a host of symptoms reflective of one or the other type of psychological distress. Therefore, the present study was taken up to investigate whether rumination mediates the relationship between worry and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), and between worry and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) in two clinical groups. Self-report questionnaires tapping worry, rumination, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) were administered to a clinical sample of 60 patients aged 30-40. Worry, rumination, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) correlated substantially with each other, however, rumination did not mediate the relationship between worry and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and between worry and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). We also analyzed differences of outcome variables within two clinical groups. These results showed that worry and rumination were significantly different between GAD and OCD groups.

  15. Copy number variation in obsessive-compulsive disorder and tourette syndrome: A cross-disorder study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.M. McGrath; D. Yu (D.); C.R. Marshall (Christian); L.K. Davis (Lea); B. Thiruvahindrapuram (Bhooma); B. Li (Bingbin); C. Cappi (Carolina); G. Gerber (Gloria); A. de Wolf (Anneke); F.A. Schroeder (Frederick); L. Osiecki (Lisa); C. O'Dushlaine (Colm); A. Kirby (Andrew); C. Illmann (Cornelia); S. Haddad (Stephen); P. Gallagher (Patience); J. Fagerness (Jesen); C.L. Barr; L. Bellodi (Laura); F. Benarroch (Fortu); O.J. Bienvenu (Oscar); D.W. Black (Donald W); J. Bloch (Jocelyne); R.D. Bruun (Ruth); C.L. Budman (Cathy); B. Camarena (Beatriz); D. Cath (Daniëlle); M.C. Cavallini (Maria); S. Chouinard; V. Coric (Vladimir); C. Cullen; R. Delorme (Richard); D.A.J.P. Denys (Damiaan); E.M. Derks (Eske); Y. Dion (Yves); M.C. Rosário (Maria); C.E. Eapen (Chundamannil Eapen); P. Evans; P. Falkai (Peter); T.V. Fernandez (Thomas); H. Garrido (Helena); D. Geller (Daniel); H.J. Grabe (Hans Jörgen); M. Grados (Marco); B.D. Greenberg (Benjamin); V. Gross-Tsur (Varda); E. Grünblatt (Edna); M.L. Heiman (Mark); S.M.J. Hemmings (Sian); L.D. Herrera (Luis); A.G. Hounie (Ana); J. Jankovic (Joseph); J.L. Kennedy; R.A. King; R. Kurlan; N. Lanzagorta (Nuria); M. Leboyer (Marion); J.F. Leckman; L. Lennertz (Leonhard); C. Lochner (Christine); T.L. Lowe (Thomas); H.N. Lyon (Helen); F. MacCiardi (Fabio); W. Maier (Wolfgang); J.T. McCracken (James); W.M. McMahon (William); D.L. Murphy (Dennis); A.L. Naarden (Allan); E. Nurmi (Erika); A.J. Pakstis; C. Pato (Carlos); C. Pato (Carlos); J. Piacentini (John); C. Pittenger (Christopher); M.N. Pollak (Michael); V.I. Reus (Victor); M.A. Richter (Margaret); M. Riddle (Mark); M.M. Robertson; D. Rosenberg (David); G.A. Rouleau; S. Ruhrmann (Stephan); A.S. Sampaio (Aline); J. Samuels (Jonathan); P. Sandor (Paul); B. Sheppard (Brooke); H.S. Singer (Harvey); J.H. Smit (Jan); D.J. Stein (Dan); J.A. Tischfield (Jay); H. Vallada (Homero); J. Veenstra-Vanderweele (Jeremy); S. Walitza (Susanne); Y. Wang (Ying); A. Wendland (Annika); Y.Y. Shugart; E.C. Miguel (Euripedes); H. Nicolini (Humberto); B.A. Oostra (Ben); R. Moessner (Rainald); M. Wagner (Michael); A. Ruiz-Linares (Andres); P. Heutink (Peter); G. Nestadt (Gerald); N.B. Freimer (Nelson); T.L. Petryshen (Tracey); D. Posthuma (Danielle); M.A. Jenike (Michael); N.J. Cox (Nancy); G.L. Hanna (Gregory); H. Brentani (Helena); S.W. Scherer (Stephen); P.D. Arnold (Paul); S.E. Stewart; C. Mathews; J.A. Knowles (James A); E.H. Cook (Edwin); D.L. Pauls (David); K. Wang (Kai); J.M. Scharf; B.M. Neale (Benjamin)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractObjective Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and Tourette syndrome (TS) are heritable neurodevelopmental disorders with a partially shared genetic etiology. This study represents the first genome-wide investigation of large (>500 kb), rare (<1%) copy number variants (CNVs) in OCD and th

  16. Prevalence of Psychotic Disorders in Patients with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, Lieuwe; Dudek-Hodge, Christine; Verhoeven, Yolanda; Denys, Damiaan

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: The co-occurrence of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in patients with schizophrenia and related disorders has been increasingly recognized. However, the rate of psychosis comorbidity in OCD patients has yet to be systematically evaluated. Methods: The prevalence of the Diagnostic a

  17. Copy number variation in obsessive-compulsive disorder and tourette syndrome: A cross-disorder study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.M. McGrath; D. Yu (D.); C.R. Marshall (Christian); L.K. Davis (Lea); B. Thiruvahindrapuram (Bhooma); B. Li (Bingbin); C. Cappi (Carolina); G. Gerber (Gloria); A. de Wolf (Anneke); F.A. Schroeder (Frederick); L. Osiecki (Lisa); C. O'Dushlaine (Colm); A. Kirby (Andrew); C. Illmann (Cornelia); S. Haddad (Stephen); P. Gallagher (Patience); J. Fagerness (Jesen); C.L. Barr; L. Bellodi (Laura); F. Benarroch (Fortu); O.J. Bienvenu (Oscar); D.W. Black (Donald W); J. Bloch (Jocelyne); R.D. Bruun (Ruth); C.L. Budman (Cathy); B. Camarena (Beatriz); D. Cath (Daniëlle); M.C. Cavallini (Maria); S. Chouinard; V. Coric (Vladimir); C. Cullen; R. Delorme (Richard); D.A.J.P. Denys (Damiaan); E.M. Derks (Eske); Y. Dion (Yves); M.C. Rosário (Maria); C.E. Eapen (Chundamannil Eapen); P. Evans; P. Falkai (Peter); T.V. Fernandez (Thomas); H. Garrido (Helena); D. Geller (Daniel); H.J. Grabe (Hans Jörgen); M. Grados (Marco); B.D. Greenberg (Benjamin); V. Gross-Tsur (Varda); E. Grünblatt (Edna); M.L. Heiman (Mark); S.M.J. Hemmings (Sian); L.D. Herrera (Luis); A.G. Hounie (Ana); J. Jankovic (Joseph); J.L. Kennedy; R.A. King; R. Kurlan; N. Lanzagorta (Nuria); M. Leboyer (Marion); J.F. Leckman; L. Lennertz (Leonhard); C. Lochner (Christine); T.L. Lowe (Thomas); H.N. Lyon (Helen); F. MacCiardi (Fabio); W. Maier (Wolfgang); J.T. McCracken (James); W.M. McMahon (William); D.L. Murphy (Dennis); A.L. Naarden (Allan); E. Nurmi (Erika); A.J. Pakstis; C. Pato (Carlos); C. Pato (Carlos); J. Piacentini (John); C. Pittenger (Christopher); M.N. Pollak (Michael); V.I. Reus (Victor); M.A. Richter (Margaret); M. Riddle (Mark); M.M. Robertson; D. Rosenberg (David); G.A. Rouleau; S. Ruhrmann (Stephan); A.S. Sampaio (Aline); J. Samuels (Jonathan); P. Sandor (Paul); B. Sheppard (Brooke); H.S. Singer (Harvey); J.H. Smit (Jan); D.J. Stein (Dan); J.A. Tischfield (Jay); H. Vallada (Homero); J. Veenstra-Vanderweele (Jeremy); S. Walitza (Susanne); Y. Wang (Ying); A. Wendland (Annika); Y.Y. Shugart; E.C. Miguel (Euripedes); H. Nicolini (Humberto); B.A. Oostra (Ben); R. Moessner (Rainald); M. Wagner (Michael); A. Ruiz-Linares (Andres); P. Heutink (Peter); G. Nestadt (Gerald); N.B. Freimer (Nelson); T.L. Petryshen (Tracey); D. Posthuma (Danielle); M.A. Jenike (Michael); N.J. Cox (Nancy); G.L. Hanna (Gregory); H. Brentani (Helena); S.W. Scherer (Stephen); P.D. Arnold (Paul); S.E. Stewart; C. Mathews; J.A. Knowles (James A); E.H. Cook (Edwin); D.L. Pauls (David); K. Wang (Kai); J.M. Scharf; B.M. Neale (Benjamin)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractObjective Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and Tourette syndrome (TS) are heritable neurodevelopmental disorders with a partially shared genetic etiology. This study represents the first genome-wide investigation of large (>500 kb), rare (<1%) copy number variants (CNVs) in OCD and

  18. Copy number variation in obsessive-compulsive disorder and tourette syndrome : a cross-disorder study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McGrath, Lauren M; Yu, Dongmei; Marshall, Christian; Davis, Lea K; Thiruvahindrapuram, Bhooma; Li, Bingbin; Cappi, Carolina; Gerber, Gloria; Wolf, Aaron; Schroeder, Frederick A; Osiecki, Lisa; O'Dushlaine, Colm; Kirby, Andrew; Illmann, Cornelia; Haddad, Stephen; Gallagher, Patience; Fagerness, Jesen A; Barr, Cathy L; Bellodi, Laura; Benarroch, Fortu; Bienvenu, O Joseph; Black, Donald W; Bloch, Michael H; Bruun, Ruth D; Budman, Cathy L; Camarena, Beatriz; Cath, Danielle C; Cavallini, Maria C; Chouinard, Sylvain; Coric, Vladimir; Cullen, Bernadette; Delorme, Richard; Denys, D.; Derks, Eske M; Dion, Yves; Rosário, Maria C; Eapen, Valsama; Evans, Patrick; Falkai, Peter; Fernandez, Thomas V; Garrido, Helena; Geller, Daniel; Grabe, Hans J; Grados, Marco A; Greenberg, Benjamin D; Gross-Tsur, Varda; Grünblatt, Edna; Heiman, Gary A; Hemmings, Sian M J; Herrera, Luis D; Hounie, Ana G; Jankovic, Joseph; Kennedy, James L; King, Robert A; Kurlan, Roger; Lanzagorta, Nuria; Leboyer, Marion; Leckman, James F; Lennertz, Leonhard; Lochner, Christine; Lowe, Thomas L; Lyon, Gholson J; Macciardi, Fabio; Maier, Wolfgang; McCracken, James T; McMahon, William; Murphy, Dennis L; Naarden, Allan L; Neale, Benjamin M; Nurmi, Erika; Pakstis, Andrew J; Pato, Michele T; Pato, Carlos N; Piacentini, John; Pittenger, Christopher; Pollak, Yehuda; Reus, Victor I; Richter, Margaret A; Riddle, Mark; Robertson, Mary M; Rosenberg, David; Rouleau, Guy A; Ruhrmann, Stephan; Sampaio, Aline S; Samuels, Jack; Sandor, Paul; Sheppard, Brooke; Singer, Harvey S; Smit, Jan H; Stein, Dan J; Tischfield, Jay A; Vallada, Homero; Veenstra-VanderWeele, Jeremy; Walitza, Susanne; Wang, Ying; Wendland, Jens R; Shugart, Yin Yao; Miguel, Euripedes C; Nicolini, Humberto; Oostra, Ben A; Moessner, Rainald; Wagner, Michael; Ruiz-Linares, Andres; Heutink, Peter; Nestadt, Gerald; Freimer, Nelson; Petryshen, Tracey; Posthuma, Danielle; Jenike, Michael A; Cox, Nancy J; Hanna, Gregory L; Brentani, Helena; Scherer, Stephen W; Arnold, Paul D; Stewart, S Evelyn; Mathews, Carol A; Knowles, James A; Cook, Edwin H; Pauls, David L; Wang, Kai; Scharf, Jeremiah M

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and Tourette syndrome (TS) are heritable neurodevelopmental disorders with a partially shared genetic etiology. This study represents the first genome-wide investigation of large (>500 kb), rare (<1%) copy number variants (CNVs) in OCD and the largest g

  19. Copy number variation in obsessive-compulsive disorder and tourette syndrome : a cross-disorder study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McGrath, Lauren M; Yu, Dongmei; Marshall, Christian; Davis, Lea K; Thiruvahindrapuram, Bhooma; Li, Bingbin; Cappi, Carolina; Gerber, Gloria; Wolf, Aaron; Schroeder, Frederick A; Osiecki, Lisa; O'Dushlaine, Colm; Kirby, Andrew; Illmann, Cornelia; Haddad, Stephen; Gallagher, Patience; Fagerness, Jesen A; Barr, Cathy L; Bellodi, Laura; Benarroch, Fortu; Bienvenu, O Joseph; Black, Donald W; Bloch, Michael H; Bruun, Ruth D; Budman, Cathy L; Camarena, Beatriz; Cath, Danielle C|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/194111423; Cavallini, Maria C; Chouinard, Sylvain; Coric, Vladimir; Cullen, Bernadette; Delorme, Richard; Denys, Damiaan; Derks, Eske M; Dion, Yves; Rosário, Maria C; Eapen, Valsama; Evans, Patrick; Falkai, Peter; Fernandez, Thomas V; Garrido, Helena; Geller, Daniel; Grabe, Hans J; Grados, Marco A; Greenberg, Benjamin D; Gross-Tsur, Varda; Grünblatt, Edna; Heiman, Gary A; Hemmings, Sian M J; Herrera, Luis D; Hounie, Ana G; Jankovic, Joseph; Kennedy, James L; King, Robert A; Kurlan, Roger; Lanzagorta, Nuria; Leboyer, Marion; Leckman, James F; Lennertz, Leonhard; Lochner, Christine; Lowe, Thomas L; Lyon, Gholson J; Macciardi, Fabio; Maier, Wolfgang; McCracken, James T; McMahon, William; Murphy, Dennis L; Naarden, Allan L; Neale, Benjamin M; Nurmi, Erika; Pakstis, Andrew J; Pato, Michele T; Pato, Carlos N; Piacentini, John; Pittenger, Christopher; Pollak, Yehuda; Reus, Victor I; Richter, Margaret A; Riddle, Mark; Robertson, Mary M; Rosenberg, David; Rouleau, Guy A; Ruhrmann, Stephan; Sampaio, Aline S; Samuels, Jack; Sandor, Paul; Sheppard, Brooke; Singer, Harvey S; Smit, Jan H|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/113700644; Stein, Dan J; Tischfield, Jay A; Vallada, Homero; Veenstra-VanderWeele, Jeremy; Walitza, Susanne; Wang, Ying; Wendland, Jens R; Shugart, Yin Yao; Miguel, Euripedes C; Nicolini, Humberto; Oostra, Ben A; Moessner, Rainald; Wagner, Michael; Ruiz-Linares, Andres; Heutink, Peter; Nestadt, Gerald; Freimer, Nelson; Petryshen, Tracey; Posthuma, Danielle; Jenike, Michael A; Cox, Nancy J; Hanna, Gregory L; Brentani, Helena; Scherer, Stephen W; Arnold, Paul D; Stewart, S Evelyn; Mathews, Carol A; Knowles, James A; Cook, Edwin H; Pauls, David L; Wang, Kai; Scharf, Jeremiah M

    OBJECTIVE: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and Tourette syndrome (TS) are heritable neurodevelopmental disorders with a partially shared genetic etiology. This study represents the first genome-wide investigation of large (>500 kb), rare (<1%) copy number variants (CNVs) in OCD and the largest

  20. Copy number variation in obsessive-compulsive disorder and tourette syndrome : a cross-disorder study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McGrath, Lauren M; Yu, Dongmei; Marshall, Christian; Davis, Lea K; Thiruvahindrapuram, Bhooma; Li, Bingbin; Cappi, Carolina; Gerber, Gloria; Wolf, Aaron; Schroeder, Frederick A; Osiecki, Lisa; O'Dushlaine, Colm; Kirby, Andrew; Illmann, Cornelia; Haddad, Stephen; Gallagher, Patience; Fagerness, Jesen A; Barr, Cathy L; Bellodi, Laura; Benarroch, Fortu; Bienvenu, O Joseph; Black, Donald W; Bloch, Michael H; Bruun, Ruth D; Budman, Cathy L; Camarena, Beatriz; Cath, Danielle C; Cavallini, Maria C; Chouinard, Sylvain; Coric, Vladimir; Cullen, Bernadette; Delorme, Richard; Denys, Damiaan; Derks, Eske M; Dion, Yves; Rosário, Maria C; Eapen, Valsama; Evans, Patrick; Falkai, Peter; Fernandez, Thomas V; Garrido, Helena; Geller, Daniel; Grabe, Hans J; Grados, Marco A; Greenberg, Benjamin D; Gross-Tsur, Varda; Grünblatt, Edna; Heiman, Gary A; Hemmings, Sian M J; Herrera, Luis D; Hounie, Ana G; Jankovic, Joseph; Kennedy, James L; King, Robert A; Kurlan, Roger; Lanzagorta, Nuria; Leboyer, Marion; Leckman, James F; Lennertz, Leonhard; Lochner, Christine; Lowe, Thomas L; Lyon, Gholson J; Macciardi, Fabio; Maier, Wolfgang; McCracken, James T; McMahon, William; Murphy, Dennis L; Naarden, Allan L; Neale, Benjamin M; Nurmi, Erika; Pakstis, Andrew J; Pato, Michele T; Pato, Carlos N; Piacentini, John; Pittenger, Christopher; Pollak, Yehuda; Reus, Victor I; Richter, Margaret A; Riddle, Mark; Robertson, Mary M; Rosenberg, David; Rouleau, Guy A; Ruhrmann, Stephan; Sampaio, Aline S; Samuels, Jack; Sandor, Paul; Sheppard, Brooke; Singer, Harvey S; Smit, Jan H; Stein, Dan J; Tischfield, Jay A; Vallada, Homero; Veenstra-VanderWeele, Jeremy; Walitza, Susanne; Wang, Ying; Wendland, Jens R; Shugart, Yin Yao; Miguel, Euripedes C; Nicolini, Humberto; Oostra, Ben A; Moessner, Rainald; Wagner, Michael; Ruiz-Linares, Andres; Heutink, Peter; Nestadt, Gerald; Freimer, Nelson; Petryshen, Tracey; Posthuma, Danielle; Jenike, Michael A; Cox, Nancy J; Hanna, Gregory L; Brentani, Helena; Scherer, Stephen W; Arnold, Paul D; Stewart, S Evelyn; Mathews, Carol A; Knowles, James A; Cook, Edwin H; Pauls, David L; Wang, Kai; Scharf, Jeremiah M

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and Tourette syndrome (TS) are heritable neurodevelopmental disorders with a partially shared genetic etiology. This study represents the first genome-wide investigation of large (>500 kb), rare (<1%) copy number variants (CNVs) in OCD and the largest g

  1. Copy number variation in obsessive-compulsive disorder and tourette syndrome: A cross-disorder study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.M. McGrath; D. Yu (D.); C.R. Marshall (Christian); L.K. Davis (Lea); B. Thiruvahindrapuram (Bhooma); B. Li (Bingbin); C. Cappi (Carolina); G. Gerber (Gloria); A. de Wolf (Anneke); F.A. Schroeder (Frederick); L. Osiecki (Lisa); C. O'Dushlaine (Colm); A. Kirby (Andrew); C. Illmann (Cornelia); S. Haddad (Stephen); P. Gallagher (Patience); J. Fagerness (Jesen); C.L. Barr; L. Bellodi (Laura); F. Benarroch (Fortu); O.J. Bienvenu (Oscar); D.W. Black (Donald W); J. Bloch (Jocelyne); R.D. Bruun (Ruth); C.L. Budman (Cathy); B. Camarena (Beatriz); D. Cath (Daniëlle); M.C. Cavallini (Maria); S. Chouinard; V. Coric (Vladimir); C. Cullen; R. Delorme (Richard); D.A.J.P. Denys (Damiaan); E.M. Derks (Eske); Y. Dion (Yves); M.C. Rosário (Maria); C.E. Eapen (Chundamannil Eapen); P. Evans; P. Falkai (Peter); T.V. Fernandez (Thomas); H. Garrido (Helena); D. Geller (Daniel); H.J. Grabe (Hans Jörgen); M. Grados (Marco); B.D. Greenberg (Benjamin); V. Gross-Tsur (Varda); E. Grünblatt (Edna); M.L. Heiman (Mark); S.M.J. Hemmings (Sian); L.D. Herrera (Luis); A.G. Hounie (Ana); J. Jankovic (Joseph); J.L. Kennedy; R.A. King; R. Kurlan; N. Lanzagorta (Nuria); M. Leboyer (Marion); J.F. Leckman; L. Lennertz (Leonhard); C. Lochner (Christine); T.L. Lowe (Thomas); H.N. Lyon (Helen); F. MacCiardi (Fabio); W. Maier (Wolfgang); J.T. McCracken (James); W.M. McMahon (William); D.L. Murphy (Dennis); A.L. Naarden (Allan); E. Nurmi (Erika); A.J. Pakstis; C. Pato (Carlos); C. Pato (Carlos); J. Piacentini (John); C. Pittenger (Christopher); M.N. Pollak (Michael); V.I. Reus (Victor); M.A. Richter (Margaret); M. Riddle (Mark); M.M. Robertson; D. Rosenberg (David); G.A. Rouleau; S. Ruhrmann (Stephan); A.S. Sampaio (Aline); J. Samuels (Jonathan); P. Sandor (Paul); B. Sheppard (Brooke); H.S. Singer (Harvey); J.H. Smit (Jan); D.J. Stein (Dan); J.A. Tischfield (Jay); H. Vallada (Homero); J. Veenstra-Vanderweele (Jeremy); S. Walitza (Susanne); Y. Wang (Ying); A. Wendland (Annika); Y.Y. Shugart; E.C. Miguel (Euripedes); H. Nicolini (Humberto); B.A. Oostra (Ben); R. Moessner (Rainald); M. Wagner (Michael); A. Ruiz-Linares (Andres); P. Heutink (Peter); G. Nestadt (Gerald); N.B. Freimer (Nelson); T.L. Petryshen (Tracey); D. Posthuma (Danielle); M.A. Jenike (Michael); N.J. Cox (Nancy); G.L. Hanna (Gregory); H. Brentani (Helena); S.W. Scherer (Stephen); P.D. Arnold (Paul); S.E. Stewart; C. Mathews; J.A. Knowles (James A); E.H. Cook (Edwin); D.L. Pauls (David); K. Wang (Kai); J.M. Scharf; B.M. Neale (Benjamin)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractObjective Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and Tourette syndrome (TS) are heritable neurodevelopmental disorders with a partially shared genetic etiology. This study represents the first genome-wide investigation of large (>500 kb), rare (<1%) copy number variants (CNVs) in OCD and th

  2. Is obsessive-compulsive disorder an autoimmune disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, P D; Richter, M A

    2001-11-13

    OBSESSIVE-COMPULSIVE DISORDER (OCD) IS A COMMON and debilitating neuropsychiatric disorder. Although it is widely believed to have a genetic basis, no specific genetic factors have been conclusively identified as yet, leading researchers to look for environmental risk factors that may interact with an underlying genetic susceptibility in affected individuals. Recently, there has been increasing interest in a possible link between streptococcal infections and the development of OCD and tic disorders in children. It has been suggested that OCD in some susceptible individuals may be caused by an autoimmune response to streptococcal infections, that is, a similar biological mechanism to that associated with Sydenham's chorea. The term "pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections" (PANDAS) has been used to describe a subset of children with abrupt onset or exacerbations of OCD or tics, or both, following streptococcal infections. Affected children have relatively early symptom onset, characteristic comorbid symptoms and subtle neurological dysfunction. Neuroimaging studies reveal increased basal ganglia volumes, and the proposed cause involves the cross-reaction of streptococcal antibodies with basal ganglia tissue. Vulnerability to developing PANDAS probably involves genetic factors, and elevated levels of D8/17 antibodies may represent a marker of susceptibility to PANDAS. Prophylactic antibiotic treatments have thus far not been shown to be helpful in preventing symptom exacerbations. Intravenous immunoglobulin therapy may be an effective treatment in selected individuals. Further understanding of the role of streptococcal infections in childhood-onset OCD will be important in determining alternative and effective strategies for treatment, early identification and prevention of this common and debilitating psychiatric disorder.

  3. The Role of the Orbitofrontal Cortex in Normally Developing Compulsive-Like Behaviors and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, David W.; Lewis, Marc D.; Iobst, Emily

    2004-01-01

    Mounting evidence concerning obsessive-compulsive disorders points to abnormal functioning of the orbitofrontal cortices. First, patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) perform poorly on tasks that rely on response suppression/motor inhibition functions mediated by the orbitofrontal cortex relative to both normal and clinical controls.…

  4. Paediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder, a neurodevelopmental disorder? Evidence from neuroimaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huyser, C.; Veltman, D.J.; de Haan, E.; Boer, F.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To present an overview of neuroimaging data on paediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and discuss implications for further research. Method: Medline PsycINFO databases and reference lists were searched for relevant articles. All neuroimaging studies up to October 1, 2008 involving

  5. Early orbitofrontal hyperactivation in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagemann, Tobias; Rentzsch, Johannes; Montag, Christiane; Gallinat, Jürgen; Jockers-Scherübl, Maria; Winter, Christine; Reischies, Friedel Martin

    2012-06-30

    Dysfunctional activity in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is one of the core features in the pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Neuroimaging studies indicate orbitofrontal hyperactivation during the resting state as well as during symptom provocation, whereas orbitofrontal hypoactivation has been reported during tasks designed to dissociate specific cognitive processes. Combined magnetoencephalic and functional magnetic resonance imaging studies show early involvement of the OFC in stimulus processing in healthy subjects. However, it is unclear whether OFC activation is dysfunctional at an early stage in patients with OCD. We investigated early electrical OFC activation evoked by reward and punishment feedback in a visual probabilistic object reversal task (pORT). Patients with OCD (n=23) and healthy controls (n=27), matched for gender, age and educational level, performed the pORT during a 29-channel electroencephalographic recording. Low resolution brain electromagnetic tomography was applied to localize orbitofrontal sources of neuronal activity at 80 to 200 ms post-stimulus. Group comparison showed significantly higher orbitofrontal activation in OCD patients at 100-120 ms after the reward stimulus. No group differences were found with respect to OFC activation in response to punishment stimuli and in task performance. Results substantiate dysfunctional OFC activity at a very early stage in the processing of reward stimuli in patients with OCD. Our results provide support for the assumption that the OFC plays a more active role in the processing of visual stimuli as previously supposed. As orbitofrontal hyperactivation following rewarding feedback occurred as early as 100 ms after receipt of the visual stimulus in patients with OCD, and as we did not find any OFC dysfunction following negative feedback, our findings may point towards a specific early disturbance of reward processing in OCD. This finding might have implications for cognitive

  6. Quality of Web-based information on obsessive compulsive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klila H

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Hedi Klila,1 Anne Chatton,2 Ariane Zermatten,2 Riaz Khan,2 Martin Preisig,1,3 Yasser Khazaal2,4 1Department of Psychiatry, Lausanne University Hospital, Lausanne, Switzerland; 2Department of Mental Health and Psychiatry, Geneva University Hospitals, Geneva, Switzerland; 3Lausanne University, Lausanne, Switzerland; 4Geneva University, Geneva, Switzerland Background: The Internet is increasingly used as a source of information for mental health issues. The burden of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD may lead persons with diagnosed or undiagnosed OCD, and their relatives, to search for good quality information on the Web. This study aimed to evaluate the quality of Web-based information on English-language sites dealing with OCD and to compare the quality of websites found through a general and a medically specialized search engine. Methods: Keywords related to OCD were entered into Google and OmniMedicalSearch. Websites were assessed on the basis of accountability, interactivity, readability, and content quality. The "Health on the Net" (HON quality label and the Brief DISCERN scale score were used as possible content quality indicators. Of the 235 links identified, 53 websites were analyzed. Results: The content quality of the OCD websites examined was relatively good. The use of a specialized search engine did not offer an advantage in finding websites with better content quality. A score ≥16 on the Brief DISCERN scale is associated with better content quality. Conclusion: This study shows the acceptability of the content quality of OCD websites. There is no advantage in searching for information with a specialized search engine rather than a general one. Practical implications: The Internet offers a number of high quality OCD websites. It remains critical, however, to have a provider–patient talk about the information found on the Web. Keywords: Internet, quality indicators, anxiety disorders, OCD, search engine

  7. Cortical and brainstem plasticity in Tourette syndrome and obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suppa, Antonio; Marsili, Luca; Di Stasio, Flavio; Berardelli, Isabella; Roselli, Valentina; Pasquini, Massimo; Cardona, Francesco; Berardelli, Alfredo

    2014-10-01

    Gilles de la Tourette syndrome is characterized by motor/vocal tics commonly associated with psychiatric disorders, including obsessive-compulsive disorder. We investigated primary motor cortex and brainstem plasticity in Tourette patients, exposed and unexposed to chronic drug treatment, with and without psychiatric disturbances. We also investigated primary motor cortex and brainstem plasticity in obsessive-compulsive disorder. We studied 20 Tourette patients with and without psychiatric disturbances, 15 with obsessive-compulsive disorder, and 20 healthy subjects. All groups included drug-naïve patients. We conditioned the left primary motor cortex with intermittent/continuous theta-burst stimulation and recorded motor evoked potentials. We conditioned the supraorbital nerve with facilitatory/inhibitory high-frequency stimulation and recorded the blink reflex late response area. In healthy subjects, intermittent theta-burst increased and continuous theta-burst stimulation decreased motor evoked potentials. Differently, intermittent theta-burst failed to increase and continuous theta-burst stimulation failed to decrease motor evoked potentials in Tourette patients, with and without psychiatric disturbances. In obsessive-compulsive disorder, intermittent/continuous theta-burst stimulation elicited normal responses. In healthy subjects and in subjects with obsessive-compulsive disorder, the blink reflex late response area increased after facilitatory high-frequency and decreased after inhibitory high-frequency stimulation. Conversely, in Tourette patients, with and without psychiatric disturbances, facilitatory/inhibitory high-frequency stimulation left the blink reflex late response area unchanged. Theta-burst and high-frequency stimulation elicited similar responses in drug-naïve and chronically treated patients. Tourette patients have reduced plasticity regardless of psychiatric disturbances. These findings suggest that abnormal plasticity contributes to the

  8. The Maudsley Obsessive-Compulsive Stimuli Set: validation of a standardized paradigm for symptom-specific provocation in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mataix-Cols, D.; Lawrence, N.S.; Wooderson, S.; Speckens, A.E.M.; Phillips, M.L.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes and further validates a standardized symptom-provocation procedure that combines symptom-specific audio instructions and pictures to reliably provoke different kinds of symptom-specific anxiety in obsessive-compulsive disorder, corresponding to its four major symptom dimension

  9. Onset of obsessive compulsive disorder in pregnancy with pica as the sole manifestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suneet Kumar Upadhyaya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pica refers to eating of non-nutritious substances, which is usually seen in childhood or pregnancy. Here we report a case of an illiterate tribal woman who developed pica as the sole manifestation of obsessive compulsive disorder, with onset during pregnancy. The patient had compulsions of eating uncooked rice or wheat, which resulted in toothache and abdominal discomfort. She had this habit in three pregnancies, consecutively. In the first two pregnancies it resolved spontaneously after puerperium, but persisted in the last one. Probably physical stress of limb edema during the third pregnancy was reason for the persistence. She responded to fluoxetine 40 mg / day after three months of treatment, without behavioral therapy. We conclude that pica may either be only a manifestation of obsessive compulsive disorder during pregnancy or it is an obsessive compulsive spectrum disorder.

  10. Pharmacogenetics of antidepressant treatment in obsessive-compulsive disorder: an update and implications for clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zai, Gwyneth; Brandl, Eva J; Müller, Daniel J; Richter, Margaret A; Kennedy, James L

    2014-06-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic neuropsychiatric disorder with high genetic influence. Antidepressants such as serotonin reuptake inhibitors, are widely accepted as the first-line medications for OCD; however, approximately 50% of OCD patients show poor response. Personalized medicine utilizing genetic testing has recently received much attention because the variability of antidepressant response and tolerability are partly due to an individual's genetic variations. This has led to researchers investigating the role of specific genetic factors on antidepressant response and utility of testing in the clinical realm. Genetic test panels are showing promise for guiding antidepressant treatment to improve outcomes in depression. This article will review the most recent findings in the pharmacogenetics of OCD and its related disorders. Promising results have been reported for several serotonergic and glutamatergic system genes and the cytochrome CYP450 liver enzyme genes, which appear to play an important role in OCD and antidepressant response.

  11. The anteromedial GPi as a new target for deep brain stimulation in obsessive compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Girish; Evans, Andrew; Bear, Renee E; Velakoulis, Dennis; Bittar, Richard G

    2014-05-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is now well established in the treatment of intractable movement disorders. Over the past decade the clinical applications have expanded into the realm of psychosurgery, including depression and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). The optimal targets for electrode placement in psychosurgery remain unclear, with numerous anatomical targets reported for the treatment of OCD. We present four patients with Tourette's syndrome and prominent features of OCD who underwent DBS of the anteromedial globus pallidus internus (GPi) to treat their movement disorder. Their pre-operative and post-operative OCD symptoms were compared, and responded dramatically to surgery. On the basis of these results, we propose the anteromedial (limbic) GPi as a potential surgical target for the treatment of OCD, and furnish data supporting its further investigation as a DBS target for the treatment of psychiatric conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Comorbidity between Schizophrenia and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Rita Passos; Maria do Céu Ferreira; Pedro Morgado

    2015-01-01

    Background: The  prevalence  of  obsessive-compulsive  symptoms and obses-sive-compulsive  disorder  in  patients  primarily  diagnosed  with schizophrenia  has increased significantly in the last years with increasing the  number  of publications  focused on this theme.Aims: The present review aims to analyze the concepts  of schizophrenia,  obsessive-compulsive  disorder  and  the  comorbility between both disorders as well as some of the clinical features which distinguishes them.Methods: ...

  13. Early maladaptive schemas and suicidal risk in an Iranian sample of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravani, Vahid; Sharifi Bastan, Farangis; Samimi Ardestani, Mehdi; Jamaati Ardakani, Razieh

    2017-09-01

    There are few studies on suicidal risk and its related factors in patients diagnosed with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). This study investigated the associations of early maladaptive schemas, OC symptom dimensions, OCD severity, depression and anxiety with suicidality (i.e., suicidal ideation and suicide attempts) in OCD patients. Sixty OCD outpatients completed the Scale for Suicide Ideation (SSI), the Young Schema Questionnaire-Short Form (YSQ-SF), the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS), the Dimensional Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (DOCS) and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21). 51.7% of patients had lifetime suicide attempts and 75% had suicidal ideation. OCD patients with lifetime suicide attempts exhibited significantly higher scores on early maladaptive schemas than those without such attempts. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the mistrust/abuse schema and the OC symptom dimension of unacceptable thoughts explained lifetime suicide attempts. The mistrust/abuse schema, unacceptable thoughts and depression significantly predicted suicidal ideation. These findings indicated that the mistrust/abuse schema may contribute to high suicidality in OCD patients. Also, patients suffering from unacceptable thoughts need to be assessed more carefully for warning signs of suicide. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Signal attenuation as a rat model of obsessive compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goltseker, Koral; Yankelevitch-Yahav, Roni; Albelda, Noa S; Joel, Daphna

    2015-01-09

    In the signal attenuation rat model of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), lever-pressing for food is followed by the presentation of a compound stimulus which serves as a feedback cue. This feedback is later attenuated by repeated presentations of the stimulus without food (without the rat emitting the lever-press response). In the next stage, lever-pressing is assessed under extinction conditions (i.e., no food is delivered). At this stage rats display two types of lever-presses, those that are followed by an attempt to collect a reward, and those that are not. The latter are the measure of compulsive-like behavior in the model. A control procedure in which rats do not experience the attenuation of the feedback cue serves to distinguish between the effects of signal attenuation and of extinction. The signal attenuation model is a highly validated model of OCD and differentiates between compulsive-like behaviors and behaviors that are repetitive but not compulsive. In addition the measures collected during the procedure eliminate alternative explanations for differences between the groups being tested, and are quantitative, unbiased and unaffected by inter-experimenter variability. The major disadvantages of this model are the costly equipment, the fact that it requires some technical know-how and the fact that it is time-consuming compared to other models of OCD (11 days). The model may be used for detecting the anti- or pro-compulsive effects of pharmacological and non-pharmacological manipulations and for studying the neural substrate of compulsive behavior.

  15. Genome-wide Association Study of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, S Evelyn; Yu, Dongmei; Scharf, Jeremiah M; Neale, Benjamin M; Fagerness, Jesen A; Mathews, Carol A; Arnold, Paul D; Evans, Patrick D; Gamazon, Eric R; Osiecki, Lisa; McGrath, Lauren; Haddad, Stephen; Crane, Jacquelyn; Hezel, Dianne; Illman, Cornelia; Mayerfeld, Catherine; Konkashbaev, Anuar; Liu, Chunyu; Pluzhnikov, Anna; Tikhomirov, Anna; Edlund, Christopher K; Rauch, Scott L; Moessner, Rainald; Falkai, Peter; Maier, Wolfgang; Ruhrmann, Stephan; Grabe, Hans-Jörgen; Lennertz, Leonard; Wagner, Michael; Bellodi, Laura; Cavallini, Maria Cristina; Richter, Margaret A; Cook, Edwin H; Kennedy, James L; Rosenberg, David; Stein, Dan J; Hemmings, Sian MJ; Lochner, Christine; Azzam, Amin; Chavira, Denise A; Fournier, Eduardo; Garrido, Helena; Sheppard, Brooke; Umaña, Paul; Murphy, Dennis L; Wendland, Jens R; Veenstra-VanderWeele, Jeremy; Denys, Damiaan; Blom, Rianne; Deforce, Dieter; Van Nieuwerburgh, Filip; Westenberg, Herman GM; Walitza, Susanne; Egberts, Karin; Renner, Tobias; Miguel, Euripedes Constantino; Cappi, Carolina; Hounie, Ana G; Conceição do Rosário, Maria; Sampaio, Aline S; Vallada, Homero; Nicolini, Humberto; Lanzagorta, Nuria; Camarena, Beatriz; Delorme, Richard; Leboyer, Marion; Pato, Carlos N; Pato, Michele T; Voyiaziakis, Emanuel; Heutink, Peter; Cath, Danielle C; Posthuma, Danielle; Smit, Jan H; Samuels, Jack; Bienvenu, O Joseph; Cullen, Bernadette; Fyer, Abby J; Grados, Marco A; Greenberg, Benjamin D; McCracken, James T; Riddle, Mark A; Wang, Ying; Coric, Vladimir; Leckman, James F; Bloch, Michael; Pittenger, Christopher; Eapen, Valsamma; Black, Donald W; Ophoff, Roel A; Strengman, Eric; Cusi, Daniele; Turiel, Maurizio; Frau, Francesca; Macciardi, Fabio; Gibbs, J Raphael; Cookson, Mark R; Singleton, Andrew; Hardy, John; Crenshaw, Andrew T; Parkin, Melissa A; Mirel, Daniel B; Conti, David V; Purcell, Shaun; Nestadt, Gerald; Hanna, Gregory L; Jenike, Michael A; Knowles, James A; Cox, Nancy; Pauls, David L

    2014-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a common, debilitating neuropsychiatric illness with complex genetic etiology. The International OCD Foundation Genetics Collaborative (IOCDF-GC) is a multi-national collaboration established to discover the genetic variation predisposing to OCD. A set of individuals affected with DSM-IV OCD, a subset of their parents, and unselected controls, were genotyped with several different Illumina SNP microarrays. After extensive data cleaning, 1,465 cases, 5,557 ancestry-matched controls and 400 complete trios remained, with a common set of 469,410 autosomal and 9,657 X-chromosome SNPs. Ancestry-stratified case-control association analyses were conducted for three genetically-defined subpopulations and combined in two meta-analyses, with and without the trio-based analysis. In the case-control analysis, the lowest two p-values were located within DLGAP1 (p=2.49×10-6 and p=3.44×10-6), a member of the neuronal postsynaptic density complex. In the trio analysis, rs6131295, near BTBD3, exceeded the genome-wide significance threshold with a p-value=3.84 × 10-8. However, when trios were meta-analyzed with the combined case-control samples, the p-value for this variant was 3.62×10-5, losing genome-wide significance. Although no SNPs were identified to be associated with OCD at a genome-wide significant level in the combined trio-case-control sample, a significant enrichment of methylation-QTLs (p<0.001) and frontal lobe eQTLs (p=0.001) was observed within the top-ranked SNPs (p<0.01) from the trio-case-control analysis, suggesting these top signals may have a broad role in gene expression in the brain, and possibly in the etiology of OCD. PMID:22889921

  16. Obsessive-compulsive disorder symptom dimensions show specific relationships to psychiatric comorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasler, Gregor; LaSalle-Ricci, V Holland; Ronquillo, Jonne G; Crawley, Sarah A; Cochran, Lauren W; Kazuba, Diane; Greenberg, Benjamin D; Murphy, Dennis L

    2005-06-15

    The goals of this study were to examine relationships among symptom categories in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), to establish OCD symptom dimensions by factor- and cluster-analytic analyses, and to explore associations between OCD symptom dimensions and comorbid neuropsychiatric conditions. A total of 317 OCD participants underwent a systematic diagnostic interview using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. OCD symptoms assessed by the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale Symptom Checklist (N=169) and by the Thoughts and Behaviors Inventory (N=275) were subjected to factor and cluster analyses. An identical four-factor solution emerged in two different data sets from overlapping samples, in agreement with most smaller factor-analytic studies employing the YBOCS checklist alone. The cluster analysis confirmed the four-factor solution and provided additional information on the similarity among OCD symptom categories at five different levels. OCD symptom dimensions showed specific relationships to comorbid psychiatric disorders: Factor I (aggressive, sexual, religious and somatic obsessions, and checking compulsions) was broadly associated with comorbid anxiety disorders and depression; Factor II (obsessions of symmetry, and repeating, counting and ordering/arranging compulsions) with bipolar disorders and panic disorder/agoraphobia; and Factor III (contamination obsessions and cleaning compulsions) with eating disorders. Factors I and II were associated with early onset OCD. This study encourages the use of cluster analyses as a supplementary method to factor analyses to establish psychiatric symptom dimensions. The frequent co-occurrence of OCD with other psychiatric disorders and the relatively specific association patterns between OCD symptom dimensions and comorbid disorders support the importance of OCD subtyping for treatment, genetic, and other research studies of this heterogeneous disorder.

  17. A Case Study of Cognitive and Biophysical Models of Education as Linked to Anxiety and Obsessive Compulsive Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maye, Kelly M.

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive and biophysical factors have been considered contributors linked to identifiable markers of obsessive compulsive and anxiety disorders. Research demonstrates multiple causes and mixed results for the short-term success of educational programs designed to ameliorate problems that children with obsessive compulsive and anxiety disorders…

  18. Processes of Change in Cognitive-Behavioural Treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder : Current Status and Some Future Directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polman, Annemiek; Bouman, Theo K.; van Hout, Wiljo J. P. J.; de Jong, Peter J.; den Boer, Johan A.

    2010-01-01

    The present paper discusses theoretical and methodological issues involved in the processes of change in cognitive-behavioural treatment (CBT) of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Treatment outcome studies showed that CBT is effective in reducing obsessive-compulsive symptoms. However, why and ho

  19. Imbalance in habitual versus goal directed neural systems during symptom provocation in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banca, Paula; Voon, Valerie; Vestergaard, Martin D; Philipiak, Gregor; Almeida, Inês; Pocinho, Fernando; Relvas, João; Castelo-Branco, Miguel

    2015-03-01

    Intrusive thoughts and compulsive urges to perform stereotyped behaviours are typical symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Emerging evidence suggests a cognitive bias towards habit formation at the expense of goal-directed performance in obsessive-compulsive disorder. In this study, we test this hypothesis using a novel individualized ecologically valid symptom provocation design: a live provocation functional magnetic resonance imaging paradigm with synchronous video-recording of behavioural avoidance responses. By pairing symptom provocation with online avoidance responses on a trial-by-trial basis, we sought to investigate the neural mechanisms leading to the compulsive avoidance response. In keeping with the model of habit formation in obsessive-compulsive disorder, we hypothesized that this disorder would be associated with lower activity in regions implicated in goal-directed behaviours and higher activity in regions implicated in habitual behaviours. Fifteen patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder and 15 healthy control volunteers participated in this functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Online stimuli were individually tailored to achieve effective symptom provocation at neutral, intermediate and strong intensity levels. During the symptom provocation block, the participant could choose to reject or terminate the provoking stimuli resulting in cessation of the symptom provocation. We thus separately analysed the neural correlates of symptom provocation, the urge to avoid, rejection and relief. Strongly symptom-provoking conditions evoked a dichotomous pattern of deactivation/activation in patients, which was not observed either in control conditions or in healthy subjects: a deactivation of caudate-prefrontal circuits accompanied by hyperactivation of subthalamic nucleus/putaminal regions. This finding suggests a dissociation between regions engaged in goal-directed and habitual behaviours. The putaminal hyperactivity during patients

  20. A comparison of clinical features of obsessive-compulsive disorder and schizophrenia with obsessive-compulsive symptoms%强迫症与伴强迫症状的精神分裂症的临床特征比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志宇; 孔维波; 王岩; 李根

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare the clinical characteristics of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder and schizophrenia with obsessive-compulsive symptoms.Methods The Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) and Yale Brown obsessive compulsive quantity scale (Y-BOCS) of 60 cases of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and 60 cases with spirit of OCD schizophrenic patients were assessed and to clear the clinical features.Results Amount of two groups of patients with Y-BOCS score had no significant difference(P>0.05);factors of BPRS to compare the results:two groups of patients with anxiety and depression, lack of energy, thought disorder,hostile suspiciousness, insight score compared with a significant difference(P<0.05).Conclusion There is a significant difference in clinical features between patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder and schizophrenia with obsessive compulsive symptoms.The specific clinical symptoms can be used as diagnostic basis in the diagnosis.%目的:比较强迫症患者与伴强迫症状的精神分裂症患者的临床特征。方法采用简明精神病量表(BPRS)和耶鲁布朗强迫症量表(Y-BOCS)对强迫症患者60例和伴强迫症的精神分裂症患者60例进行评估,以明确二者的临床特征。结果两组患者的Y-BOCS量表评分比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);PRS各因子分比较结果为:两组患者的焦虑抑郁、缺乏活力、思维障碍、敌对猜疑、自知力等几项评分比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论强迫症患者与伴强迫症状的精神分裂症患者之间有着明显的临床特征差异,在诊断时可以将特异性临床症状作为诊断依据。

  1. Maintenance electroconvulsive therapy for comorbid pharmacotherapy-refractory obsessive-compulsive and schizoaffective disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanisch F

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective There is a high comorbidity of schizophrenia and obsessive-compulsory disorder (OCD associated with more severe symptoms. Standard pharmacotherapy achieve symptom improvement in approximately 60% only. Results We report about a 48-old women treated for depression which developed successively psychotic symptoms (ideas of reference, psychotic worries, negative symptoms (blunted affect, impoverished thinking, difficulties in planning, and obsessive-compulsive symptoms (mainly repeating rituals, avoidance behaviour, collecting and hoarding. She did not respond to combined treatment with neuroleptics and high dose selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors. She acutely improved during a course of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT and was maintained on outpatient ECTs fortnightly together with 12 mg sertindol and 45 mg mirtazapine for 42 weeks. Conclusion Maintenance ECT is not an approved therapy in OCD but might be an option in pharmacotherapy refractory cases of comorbid OCD and schizophrenic/schizoaffective disorder.

  2. Wilson′s disease presenting as isolated obsessive-compulsive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumawat B

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Wilson′s disease (WD is a genetic neurodegenerative disorder; it exhibits wide heterogeneity in symptoms and usually presents with liver disease and/ or neuropsychiatric manifestations. The common neurological manifestations observed are dysarthria, gait disturbance, dystonia, rigidity, tremor, dysphagia and chorea. The frequent psychiatric manifestations reported are personality and mood changes, depression, phobias, cognitive impairment, psychosis, anxiety, compulsive and impulsive behavior. Isolated obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD is a rare presentation of WD. Reported herein is a case of a 17-year-old boy with isolated OCD. He presented to the psychiatrist with symptoms of contamination obsessions and washing compulsions, along with compulsion of repeated feet tapping, and was treated with adequate doses of fluoxetine for 6 months but did not improve. Later on, he was diagnosed as a case of WD and showed improvement with chelating and behavior therapy. This implies the importance of the occurrence of isolated psychological symptoms in WD.

  3. Parent-Child Agreement in the Assessment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canavera, Kristin E.; Wilkins, Kendall C.; Pincus, Donna B.; Ehrenreich-May, Jill T.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to extend research regarding parent-child agreement in the assessment of anxiety disorders to include youth with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Ninety-three children and adolescents with OCD (50 female, 43 male), ages 6 to 17 years, and their parents were administered the Anxiety Disorders Interview…

  4. Parent-Child Agreement in the Assessment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canavera, Kristin E.; Wilkins, Kendall C.; Pincus, Donna B.; Ehrenreich-May, Jill T.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to extend research regarding parent-child agreement in the assessment of anxiety disorders to include youth with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Ninety-three children and adolescents with OCD (50 female, 43 male), ages 6 to 17 years, and their parents were administered the Anxiety Disorders Interview…

  5. Escitalopram in obsessive-compulsive disorder: response of symptom dimensions to pharmacotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stein, Dan J; Carey, Paul D; Lochner, Christine

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: There is a substantial body of evidence that obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms can be grouped into a series of discrete dimensions, and some evidence that not all OCD symptom dimensions respond equally well to pharmacologic or psychotherapeutic intervention. The response...... of OCD symptom dimensions to 12 weeks of treatment with escitalopram or placebo was investigated. METHODS: Data from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of escitalopram in 466 adults with OCD were analyzed. Exploratory factor analysis of individual items of the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive...... of individual Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale items yielded 5 factors (contamination/cleaning, harm/checking, hoarding/symmetry, religious/sexual, and somatic/hypochondriacal). Analyses of covariance including all the subscales demonstrated that escitalopram was more effective than placebo...

  6. Comorbidity variation in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder according to symptom dimensions: Results from a large multicentre clinical sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Albina R; Fontenelle, Leonardo F; Shavitt, Roseli G; Ferrão, Ygor A; do Rosário, Maria Conceição; Storch, Eric A; Miguel, Euripedes C

    2016-01-15

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has a heterogeneous and complex phenomenological picture, characterized by different symptom dimensions and comorbid psychiatric disorders, which frequently co-occur or are replaced by others over the illness course. To date, very few studies have investigated the associations between specific OCD symptom dimensions and comorbid disorders. Cross-sectional, multicenter clinical study with 1001 well-characterized OCD patients recruited within the Brazilian Research Consortium on Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders. The primary instruments were the Dimensional Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (DY-BOCS) and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders. Bivariate analyses between symptom dimensions and comorbidities were followed by logistic regression. The most common comorbidities among participants (56.8% females) were major depression (56.4%), social phobia (34.6%), generalized anxiety disorder (34.3%), and specific phobia (31.4%). The aggressive dimension was independently associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), separation anxiety disorder, any impulse-control disorder and skin picking; the sexual-religious dimension was associated with mood disorders, panic disorder/agoraphobia, social phobia, separation anxiety disorder, non-paraphilic sexual disorder, any somatoform disorder, body dysmorphic disorder and tic disorders; the contamination-cleaning dimension was related to hypochondriasis; and the hoarding dimension was associated with depressive disorders, specific phobia, PTSD, impulse control disorders (compulsive buying, skin picking, internet use), ADHD and tic disorders. The symmetry-ordering dimension was not independently associated with any comorbidity. Cross-sectional design; participants from only tertiary mental health services; personality disorders not investigated. Different OCD dimensions presented some specific associations with comorbid disorders, which may influence

  7. Prevalence of obsessive-compulsive disorder in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhondzadeh Shahin

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Estimates of the annual prevalence for Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD were consistent across the international sites range, 1.9% – 2.5%. The nine population surveys, which used Diagnostic Interview Schedule, estimated a six-month prevalence of OCD ranging from 0.7% to 2.1%. This study performed in order to determine the prevalence of OCD in a population-based study among Iranian adults aged 18 and older and to study the association of them with factors such as sex, marital status, education, type of occupation and residential area. Methods A cross-sectional nationwide epidemiological study of the Iranian population aged 18 and older was designed to estimate the prevalence of psychiatric disorders and their association with the above mentioned factors. 25180 individuals were selected and interviewed through a randomized systematic and cluster sampling method from all Iranian households. Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (SADS and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV criteria were used in diagnosis of OCD. 250 clinical psychologists interviewed the selected subjects face to face at their homes. Results The prevalence of OCD in Iran is 1.8% (0.7% and 2.8% in males and females; respectively. 50.3% of the survey sample were men, 49.9% women, 29.1% single, 67.45% married, 0.4% separated or divorced, 2.5% widow/widower and 4% undetermined. All of the above-mentioned factors were examined in the univariate and multivariate logistic regression models. Although the data did not fit the models well, but in univariate models, sex, the category "single" of marital status, age, the categories "business" and "housewife" and residential areas showed significant effect adjusting for the factors, but the models didn't fit the data properly. Conclusion The study suggests that the prevalence of OCD is not rare in the community of Iran and is within the range of other countries. Similar to prior

  8. Perceived quality of life in obsessive-compulsive disorder: related factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saiz-Ruiz Jeronimo

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD affects young adults and has great impact on the social, emotional and work spheres. Methods We measured perceived quality of life (QOL in OCD patients, in order to analyse socio-demographic and clinical factors that may be associated with QOL perception. 64 OCD outpatients were assessed with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview for DSM-IV, the Yale-Brown Obsessions and Compulsions scale (Y-BOCS, Hamilton's depression scale and the SF-36 self-administered global QOL perception scale. Results We found a correlation among Hamilton's scale scores and all SF-36 subscales. The severity of the obsessive-compulsive disorder was correlated with all SF-36 subscales and with the highest scores in Hamilton's scale. The obsessions subscale was correlated to all SF-36 subscales, while the compulsions subscale was correlated only to social functioning, emotional role, mental health and vitality. Compulsions were not related to general health perception. There were significant differences between OCD patients and the Spanish general population in all SF-36 subscales except those related to physical health and pain. Gender, age, age of onset of the disorder, years of evolution and marital status of the patients did not significantly affect quality of life perception. Being employed was related to better scores in the subscale of physical role. Patients with medical comorbidity scored lower in the subscales of general health, social functioning and mental health. Patients with comorbid psychiatric disorders had worse scores in the subscales of pain, general health, social functioning and mental health. Conclusion Quality of life perception was different in OCD patients and the general population. Quality of life perception was related to severity of the disorder, physical and psychiatric comorbidity and employment status.

  9. [Comorbidity between obsessive-compulsive disorder and schizophrenia: prevalence, explanatory theories, and nosological status].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frías-Ibáñez, Alvaro; Palma-Sevillano, Cárol; Farriols-Hernando, Núria

    2014-01-01

    This theoretical study reviews the main findings and research on comorbidity between obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and schizophrenia. On the one hand, it is argued that high prevalence of comorbidity implies common risk factors (neuroanatomical and neuropsychological correlates) and a causal relationship between these mental illnesses, OCD usually preceding schizophrenia. On the other hand, independent nosological status of this “comorbidity” is supported on the basis of several external criteria (negative symptomatology, depressed mood, psychosocial impairment, neurobiological and neuropsychological correlates), which distinguish this mixed clinical entity from OCD and schizophrenia separately. These conclusions are discussed, considering the lack of recognition of “schizo-obsessive disorder” within the current diagnosis reference manuals.

  10. Obsessive-compulsive disorder is associated with broad impairments in executive function: A meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Hannah R.; Kaiser, Roselinde H.; Warren, Stacie L.; Heller, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a serious and often chronically disabling condition. The current dominant model of OCD focuses on abnormalities in prefrontal-striatal circuits that support executive function (EF). While there is growing evidence for EF impairments associated with OCD, results have been inconsistent, making the nature and magnitude of these impairments controversial. The current meta-analysis uses random-effects models to synthesize 110 previous studies that compared participants with OCD to healthy control participants on at least one neuropsychological measure of EF. The results indicate that individuals with OCD are impaired on tasks measuring most aspects of EF, consistent with broad impairment in EF. EF deficits were not explained by general motor slowness or depression. Effect sizes were largely stable across variation in demographic and clinical characteristics of samples, although medication use, age, and gender moderated some effects. PMID:25755918

  11. Eating disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder: neurochemical and phenomenological commonalities.

    OpenAIRE

    Jarry, J L; Vaccarino, F J

    1996-01-01

    This paper explores a possible connection between neurochemistry and cognitions in eating disorders (ED). Cognitions play an important role in ED. However, a possible neurochemical origin of these cognitions has not been explored. Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is known as a disorder of thinking. Extensive neurochemical research conducted on this disorder indicates a connection between serotonin (5-HT) dysregulation and cognitions in OCD. This study used research done on OCD as a templat...

  12. Thought-Action Fusion and Inflated Responsibility Beliefs in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Emily Marie; Rucklidge, Julia Jane; Blampied, Neville

    2009-01-01

    In obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), inflated responsibility (IR) beliefs and thought-action fusion (TAF) are two cognitive schema argued to contribute to obsessions and compulsions. We investigated whether IR and TAF are OCD-specific or whether they occur in other anxiety disorders. Adults diagnosed with OCD (n = 20) or other anxiety disorders…

  13. Repetitive Behaviors in Autism and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: New Perspectives from a Network Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzzano, Laura; Borsboom, Denny; Geurts, Hilde M.

    2015-01-01

    The association between autism and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) seems largely dependent upon observed similarities in the repetitive behaviors that manifest in both disorders. The aim of this study was to use a network approach to explore the interactions between these behaviors. We constructed a network based on clinician's…

  14. Deep brain stimulation for obsessive-compulsive disorders : long-term analysis of quality of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ooms, Pieter; Mantione, Mariska; Figee, Martijn; Schuurman, P Richard; van den Munckhof, Pepijn; Denys, D.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the long-term effects of deep brain stimulation (DBS) on quality of life (QOL) in therapy-refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients. DESIGN: 16 patients who met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed) (DSM-IV) criteria for OCD and were cons

  15. Error-Related Negativity and Tic History in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Gregory L.; Carrasco, Melisa; Harbin, Shannon M.; Nienhuis, Jenna K.; LaRosa, Christina E.; Chen, Poyu; Fitzgerald, Kate D.; Gehring, William J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The error-related negativity (ERN) is a negative deflection in the event-related potential after an incorrect response, which is often increased in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, the relation of the ERN to comorbid tic disorders has not been examined in patients with OCD. This study compared ERN amplitudes…

  16. Rage Attacks in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Phenomenology and Clinical Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storch, Eric A.; Jones, Anna M.; Lack, Caleb W.; Ale, Chelsea M.; Sulkowski, Michael L.; Lewin, Adam B.; De Nadai, Alessandro S.; Murphy, Tanya K.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Rage attacks have been documented in youth with varied psychiatric disorders, but few data have been reported on the clinical characteristics and correlates of rage attacks among children with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Method: Participants were 86 children (ages 6-16 years) with a primary diagnosis of OCD. Patients and their…

  17. Comparison of Child Behavior Checklist subscales in screening for obsessive-compulsive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Pia Aaron Skovby; Bilenberg, Niels

    2012-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a prevalent psychiatric disorder in children and adolescents associated with significant functional impairment. Early and correct diagnosis is essential for an optimal treatment outcome. The purpose of this study was to determine which of four subscales...

  18. Children with Very Early Onset Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Clinical Features and Treatment Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatani, Eriko; Krebs, Georgina; Micali, Nadia; Turner, Cynthia; Heyman, Isobel; Mataix-Cols, David

    2011-01-01

    Background: There is emerging evidence that early onset obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) may be a phenomenologically distinct subtype of the disorder. Previous research has shown that individuals who report an early onset display greater severity and persistence of symptoms, and they may be less responsive to treatment. To date, this question…

  19. Thought-Action Fusion and Inflated Responsibility Beliefs in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Emily Marie; Rucklidge, Julia Jane; Blampied, Neville

    2009-01-01

    In obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), inflated responsibility (IR) beliefs and thought-action fusion (TAF) are two cognitive schema argued to contribute to obsessions and compulsions. We investigated whether IR and TAF are OCD-specific or whether they occur in other anxiety disorders. Adults diagnosed with OCD (n = 20) or other anxiety disorders…

  20. Emotion regulation before and after transcranial magnetic stimulation in obsessive compulsive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, S J; van der Werf, Y D; Mataix-Cols, D; Trujillo, J P; van Oppen, P; Veltman, D J; van den Heuvel, O A

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Impaired emotion regulation may underlie exaggerated emotional reactivity in patients with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), yet instructed emotion regulation has never been studied in the disorder. METHOD: This study aimed to assess the neural correlates of emotion processing and reg

  1. Update on repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in obsessive-compulsive disorder: different targets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, R.M.; Figee, M.; Vulink, N.; Denys, D.

    2011-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic, disabling disorder. Ten percent of patients remain treatment refractory despite several treatments. For these severe, treatment-refractory patients, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been suggested as a treatment option. Since

  2. Rage Attacks in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Phenomenology and Clinical Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storch, Eric A.; Jones, Anna M.; Lack, Caleb W.; Ale, Chelsea M.; Sulkowski, Michael L.; Lewin, Adam B.; De Nadai, Alessandro S.; Murphy, Tanya K.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Rage attacks have been documented in youth with varied psychiatric disorders, but few data have been reported on the clinical characteristics and correlates of rage attacks among children with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Method: Participants were 86 children (ages 6-16 years) with a primary diagnosis of OCD. Patients and their…

  3. Comparison of Child Behavior Checklist subscales in screening for obsessive-compulsive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Pia Aaron Skovby; Bilenberg, Niels

    2012-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a prevalent psychiatric disorder in children and adolescents associated with significant functional impairment. Early and correct diagnosis is essential for an optimal treatment outcome. The purpose of this study was to determine which of four subscales...

  4. Error-Related Negativity and Tic History in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Gregory L.; Carrasco, Melisa; Harbin, Shannon M.; Nienhuis, Jenna K.; LaRosa, Christina E.; Chen, Poyu; Fitzgerald, Kate D.; Gehring, William J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The error-related negativity (ERN) is a negative deflection in the event-related potential after an incorrect response, which is often increased in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, the relation of the ERN to comorbid tic disorders has not been examined in patients with OCD. This study compared ERN amplitudes…

  5. Treatment of internet addiction in patient with panic disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Veruska; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; King, Anna Lucia Spear

    2015-01-01

    Problematic Internet use is a worldwide social issue and it can be found in any age, social, educational, or economic range. In some countries like China and South Korea internet addiction (IA) is considered a public health condition and this governments support research, education and treatment. Internet addiction has been associated with others psychiatric disorders. Panic disorder (PD) and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) are anxiety disorders that involve a lot of damages in patient's life. We report a treatment of a patient with Panic Disorder and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder and internet addition involving pharmacotherapy and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT). The Cognitive Behavioral Therapy was conducted 1 time per week during 10 weeks and results suggest that the treatment was an effective treatment for the anxiety and for the internet addiction.

  6. Should an obsessive-compulsive spectrum grouping of disorders be included in DSM-V?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Katharine A; Stein, Dan J; Rauch, Scott L; Hollander, Eric; Fallon, Brian A; Barsky, Arthur; Fineberg, Naomi; Mataix-Cols, David; Ferrão, Ygor Arzeno; Saxena, Sanjaya; Wilhelm, Sabine; Kelly, Megan M; Clark, Lee Anna; Pinto, Anthony; Bienvenu, O Joseph; Farrow, Joanne; Leckman, James

    2010-06-01

    The obsessive-compulsive (OC) spectrum has been discussed in the literature for two decades. Proponents of this concept propose that certain disorders characterized by repetitive thoughts and/or behaviors are related to obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and suggest that such disorders be grouped together in the same category (i.e. grouping, or "chapter") in DSM. This article addresses this topic and presents options and preliminary recommendations to be considered for DSM-V. The article builds upon and extends prior reviews of this topic that were prepared for and discussed at a DSM-V Research Planning Conference on Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum Disorders held in 2006. Our preliminary recommendation is that an OC-spectrum grouping of disorders be included in DSM-V. Furthermore, we preliminarily recommend that consideration be given to including this group of disorders within a larger supraordinate category of "Anxiety and Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum Disorders." These preliminary recommendations must be evaluated in light of recommendations for, and constraints upon, the overall structure of DSM-V.

  7. The medial forebrain bundle as a target for deep brain stimulation for obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coenen, Volker A; Schlaepfer, Thomas E; Goll, Peter; Reinacher, Peter C; Voderholzer, Ulrich; Tebartz van Elst, Ludger; Urbach, Horst; Freyer, Tobias

    2017-06-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a promising putative modality for the treatment of refractory psychiatric disorders such as major depression and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Several targets have been posited; however, a clear consensus on differential efficacy and possible modes of action remain unclear. DBS to the supero-lateral branch of the medial forebrain bundle (slMFB) has recently been introduced for major depression (MD). Due to our experience with slMFB stimulation for MD, and because OCD might be related to similar dysfunctions of the reward system, treatment with slMFB DBS seams meaningful. Here we describe our first 2 cases together with a hypothetical mode of action. We describe diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) fiber tractographically (FT)-assisted implantation of the bilateral DBS systems in 2 male patients. In a selected literature overview, we discuss the possible mode of action. Both patients were successfully implanted and stimulated. The follow-up time was 12 months. One patient showed a significant response (Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale [YBOCS] reduction by 35%); the other patient reached remission criteria 3 months after surgery (YBOCS<14) and showed mild OCD just above the remission criterion at 12 months follow-up. While the hypermetabolism theory for OCD involves the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical (CSTC) network, we think that there is clinical evidence that the reward system plays a crucial role. Our findings suggest an important role of this network in mechanisms of disease development and recovery. In this uncontrolled case series, continuous bilateral DBS to the slMFB led to clinically significant improvements of ratings of OCD severity. Ongoing research focuses on the role of the reward system in OCD, and its yet-underestimated role in this underlying neurobiology of the disease.

  8. The role of early maladaptive schemas in predicting exposure and response prevention outcome for obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haaland, Aashild Tellefsen; Vogel, Patrick A; Launes, Gunvor; Haaland, Vegard Øksendal; Hansen, Bjarne; Solem, Stian; Himle, Joseph A

    2011-11-01

    This is the first study that explores whether early maladaptive schemas are related to treatment outcome for patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The sample consisted of 88 outpatients with a diagnosis of OCD who completed exposure and response prevention treatment. The Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS), the Beck Depression Inventory and Young Schema Questionnaire - Short Form were administered before and after treatment. Regression analyses using post-treatment Y-BOCS as the dependent variable indicated that higher scores on the abandonment schema at pre-treatment were related to poor outcome and explained 7% of the variance in symptoms at post-treatment. Higher scores on the self-sacrifice schema at pre-treatment were related to good outcome and explained 6% of the variance in obsessive-compulsive symptoms at post-treatment. During treatment, only changes in the failure schema were significantly related to good outcome and explained 18% of the variance in symptoms at post-treatment.

  9. Comorbidity between Schizophrenia and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Passos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The  prevalence  of  obsessive-compulsive  symptoms and obses-sive-compulsive  disorder  in  patients  primarily  diagnosed  with schizophrenia  has increased significantly in the last years with increasing the  number  of publications  focused on this theme.Aims: The present review aims to analyze the concepts  of schizophrenia,  obsessive-compulsive  disorder  and  the  comorbility between both disorders as well as some of the clinical features which distinguishes them.Methods: A literature review was carried out using the Pubmed between 2009 and 2014 with  the  keywords:  “Comorbidity between Obsessive-Compulsive  Disorder  and  Schizophrenia” and “Schizo-Obsessive Disorder”.Results  and  Conclusions: The  available literature focuses mainly on the proposal of explanatory theories for the high comorbidity between obsessive-compulsive  disorder and schizophrenia – one disorder as a risk factor of the other one; common risk factors of the two  disorders; pharmacologically  induced obsessive-compulsive disorder – and on the distinction between obsessions and delusions and between compulsions and repetitive delusional behaviour, essential for the differential diagnosis of the two disorders. The  controversy  associated  with  the recently  proposed  new  sub-group  of  schizophrenia  –  Schizo-obsessive  disorder – and with the causal relation between the two pathologies allows the conclusion that future studies should focus on the temporal relation between the emergence of the two disorders and also the appearance of symptoms of one disorder in the course of the other.

  10. [Development of sexuality and motivational aspects of sexual behavior in men with obsessive-compulsive disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Sexual behavior and formation of sexuality in men with obsessive-compulsive disorder is one of the pressing issues in contemporary medicine. Obsessive-compulsive disorder is characterized by the development of intrusive thoughts, memories, movements and actions, as well as a variety of pathological fears (phobias). Increase in the number of patients with this pathology in modern clinical practice of neurotic disorders, the young age of the patients and as a result violation of interpersonal, communicational and sexual nature is quite apparent. The study involved 35 men aged 23 to 47 years with clinical signs of OCD. We determined the severity of obsessive-compulsive symptoms using the Yale-Brown scale. We established the presence of a mild degree of disorder in 34,3% of cases; in 48,6% of cases disorder of moderate severity was diagnosed; remaining 17.1% were assessed subclinical condition of OCD at the applicable scale. The system of motivational maintenance of sexual behavior in men with obsessive-compulsive disorders is investigated. Motives of sexual behavior of the investigated men with the pathology are determined. The presented research in men with OCD have established multidimensionality and complexity of motivational ensuring of sexual behavior.

  11. Decreased Family Accommodation Associated with Improved Therapy Outcome in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlo, Lisa J.; Lehmkuhl, Heather D.; Geffken, Gary R.; Storch, Eric A.

    2009-01-01

    Pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic, disabling condition that affects both patients and their families. Despite the identification of efficacious treatments (e.g., cognitive-behavioral therapy and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor medications), not all patients respond fully. The purpose of the present study was to…

  12. Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) | EU Clinical Trials Register [EU Clinical Trials Register

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available a for obsessive-compulsive disorder- Y-BOCS score > 16 if obsessions and compulsion...s- Y-BOCS score > 10 if only obsessions- Y-BOCS score > 10 if only compulsions- Male and female, aged betw

  13. Perception of facial expressions in obsessive-compulsive disorder : a dimensional approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montagne, B.; Geus, F. de; Kessels, R.P.C.; Denys, D.; Haan, E.H.F. de; Westenberg, H.G.

    2008-01-01

    The study examined the perception of facial expressions of different emotional intensities in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) subtypes. Results showed that the High Risk Assessment and Checking subtype was more sensitive in perceiving the emotions fear and happiness. This suggests that altered a

  14. Effects of meta-chlorophenylpiperazine on cerebral blood flow in obsessive-compulsive disorder and controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pian, KLH; Westenberg, HGM; den Boer, JA; de Bruin, WI; van Rijk, PP

    1998-01-01

    Background: A number of studies have shown that the serotonin receptor agonist meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP) can exacerbate symptoms in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), The aim of the present study was to study the effect of this compound on regional cerebral bloodflow (rCBF)

  15. Sensory gating and sensorimotor gating in medication-free obsessive-compulsive disorder patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Leeuw, Aart S; Oranje, Bob; van Megen, Harold J G M

    2010-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is associated with deficits in inhibition mechanisms. This is reflected in reports showing impaired sensorimotor and sensory gating in OCD patients, as measured with prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the startle reflex and P50 suppression paradigms. However, most...

  16. Four-Factor Structure of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Symptoms in Children, Adolescents, and Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, S. Evelyn; Rosario, Maria C.; Baer, Lee; Carter, Alice S.; Brown, Timothy A.; Scharf, Jeremiah M.; Illmann, Cornelia; Leckman, James F.; Sukhodolsky, Denis; Katsovich, Lilya; Rasmussen, Steven; Goodman, Wayne; Delorme, Richard; Leboyer, Marion; Chabane, Nadia; Jenike, Michael A.; Geller, Daniel A.; Pauls, David L.

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted to establish the efficacy of four-factor obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptom structure for use in child, adolescent and adult groups. Results indicated that the four-factor OCD structure is inadequate for use in children, adolescent and adult age groups.

  17. Treatment of Pediatric Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Utilizing Parent-Facilitated Acceptance and Commitment Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barney, Jennifer Y.; Field, Clint E.; Morrison, Kate L.; Twohig, Michael P.

    2017-01-01

    Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) is a modern form of cognitive behavior therapy that uses acceptance and mindfulness-based procedures to address clinical issues. A brief protocol of ACT was used with 3 children ages 10 and 11 years who were diagnosed with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Results showed notable and clinically significant…

  18. Treatment of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder in Young Children: An Intervention Model and Case Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Golda S.; Burstein, Marcy; Becker, Kimberly D.; Drake, Kelly L.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an intervention model for young children with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The intervention, designed to reduce compulsive behavior and improve parenting practices, was tested using a multiple baseline design with 7 children (M = 6 years old; 57% female) in which participants were randomly assigned to 1, 2, or 3 weeks…

  19. Neurocognitive functions in obsessive-compulsive disorder patients and their unaffected first-degree relatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张龙

    2012-01-01

    Objective To find the common neurocognitive deficits in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and their unaffected first-degree relatives (UFDR) and to identify neurocognitive endophenotypes for OCD. Methods Forty patients with OCD,forty UFDR of OCD probands and forty healthy

  20. Family Therapy in Iran: A Case Study of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodayarifard, Mohammad; McClenon, James

    2011-01-01

    Iranian clinical psychologists have devised family therapy methods that use cognitive behavior models that ft with their collectivist Islamic culture. The authors review Islamic-based strategies and describe family therapy with a culturally specific case of childhood obsessive-compulsive disorder. Family therapy, adapted to integrated,…

  1. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy as a Treatment for Scrupulosity in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehlin, John P.; Morrison, Kate L.; Twohig, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) for scrupulosity-based obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Five adults were treated with eight sessions of ACT, without in-session exposure, in a multiple baseline across participants design. Daily monitoring of compulsions and avoided valued activities were tracked throughout the…

  2. Developmental Alterations of Frontal-Striatal-Thalamic Connectivity in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Kate Dimond; Welsh, Robert C.; Stern, Emily R.; Angstadt, Mike; Hanna, Gregory L.; Abelson, James L.; Taylor, Stephan F.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder is characterized by abnormalities of frontal-striatal-thalamic circuitry that appear near illness onset and persist over its course. Distinct frontal-striatal-thalamic loops through cortical centers for cognitive control (anterior cingulate cortex) and emotion processing (ventral medial frontal…

  3. Clinical Considerations when Tailoring Cognitive Behavioral Treatment for Young Children with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choate-Summers, Molly L.; Freeman, Jennifer B.; Garcia, Abbe M.; Coyne, Lisa; Przeworski, Amy; Leonard, Henrietta L.

    2008-01-01

    Research on the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy, and in particular, exposure with response prevention for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD), has only been systematically evaluated in children and adolescents ages 7-17. These treatments do not address the unique characteristics of young children with OCD. This paper discusses…

  4. Recent Developments in the Assessment and Treatment of Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Noah C.; Abramowitz, Jonathan S.

    2010-01-01

    Although tremendous strides have recently been made in the development of assessment and treatment methods for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), more accurate methods for diagnosis, more effective treatments, and more refined instruments for monitoring progress during therapy are still needed. The present commentary highlights the…

  5. Patient Adherence Predicts Outcome from Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Helen Blair; Maher, Michael J.; Wang, Yuanjia; Bao, Yuanyuan; Foa, Edna B.; Franklin, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effects of patient adherence on outcome from exposure and response prevention (EX/RP) therapy in adults with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Method: Thirty adults with OCD were randomized to EX/RP (n = 15) or EX/RP augmented by motivational interviewing strategies (n = 15). Both treatments included 3 introductory…

  6. Understanding Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in Students: Symptoms and School-Based Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyches, Tina Taylor; Leininger, Melissa; Heath, Melissa Allen; Prater, Mary Anne

    2010-01-01

    This article provides current information relevant to school social workers who serve students with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), including how OCD is defined in children and adolescents, the impact of OCD on schooling, issues in identifying students with OCD, and effective interventions. The authors offer suggestions for collaboration…

  7. A Structural Equation Analysis of Family Accommodation in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporino, Nicole E.; Morgan, Jessica; Beckstead, Jason; Phares, Vicky; Murphy, Tanya K.; Storch, Eric A.

    2012-01-01

    Family accommodation of symptoms is counter to the primary goals of cognitive-behavioral therapy for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and can pose an obstacle to positive treatment outcomes. Although increased attention has been given to family accommodation in pediatric OCD, relatively little is known about associated child and…

  8. Using Motivational Interviewing to Enhance Treatment Outcome in People with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Helen Blair; Zuckoff, Allan

    2011-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a leading cause of health-related disability. There are two evidence-based treatments for OCD, pharmacotherapy and cognitive-behavioral therapy consisting of exposure and response prevention (EX/RP). Although effective, outcome from both treatments is often limited by patient lack of adherence to the…

  9. Cognitive Control of a Simple Mental Image in Patients with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocak, Orhan Murat; Ozpolat, Aysegul Yilmaz; Atbasoglu, Cem; Cicek, Metehan

    2011-01-01

    The nature of obsessions has led researchers to try to determine if the main problem in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is impaired inhibitory control. Previous studies report that the effort to suppress is one of the factors that increase the frequency of obsessive thoughts. Based on these results and those of the present study that suggest…

  10. Family Factors Predict Treatment Outcome for Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peris, Tara S.; Sugar, Catherine A.; Bergman, R. Lindsey; Chang, Susanna; Langley, Audra; Piacentini, John

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine family conflict, parental blame, and poor family cohesion as predictors of treatment outcome for youths receiving family-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (FCBT) for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Method: We analyzed data from a sample of youths who were randomized to FCBT (n = 49; 59% male; M age = 12.43 years) as…

  11. Evidence-Based Assessment of Child Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: Recommendations for Clinical Practice and Treatment Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin, Adam B.; Piacentini, John

    2010-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) presents heterogeneously and can be difficult to assess in youth. This review focuses on research-supported assessment approaches for OCD in childhood. Content areas include pre-visit screening, diagnostic establishment, differential diagnosis, assessment of comorbid psychiatric conditions, tracking symptom…

  12. Impact of Comorbidity on Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Response in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storch, Eric A.; Merlo, Lisa J.; Larson, Michael J.; Geffken, Gary R.; Lehmkuh, Heather D.; Jacob, Marni L.; Murphy, Tanya K.; Goodman, Wayne K.

    2008-01-01

    A chronic psychiatric condition among children and adolescents of concern is obsessive-compulsive disorder, which involves comorbid conditions. The impact of a range of comorbid illnesses on cognitive-behavioral therapy response and remission rates was conducted, with results revealing a negative impact on treatment response.

  13. The Application of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy to Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twohig, Michael P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is part of a case series illustrating the application of different therapies to a case of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). It describes the hypothetical application of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT). This paper covers the philosophy and basic research on language and cognition that inform ACT. It also provides an ACT-based…

  14. A Review of Metacognition in Psychological Models of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Clare S.; Anderson, Rebecca A.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioural models and interventions for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have always included some metacognitive elements but until recently these have been predominantly construed of as cognitive as opposed to metacognitive processes. Increasingly, psychological models of OCD are now recognising the importance of metacognitive…

  15. Treatment of Pediatric Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Utilizing Parent-Facilitated Acceptance and Commitment Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barney, Jennifer Y.; Field, Clint E.; Morrison, Kate L.; Twohig, Michael P.

    2017-01-01

    Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) is a modern form of cognitive behavior therapy that uses acceptance and mindfulness-based procedures to address clinical issues. A brief protocol of ACT was used with 3 children ages 10 and 11 years who were diagnosed with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Results showed notable and clinically significant…

  16. The Application of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy to Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twohig, Michael P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is part of a case series illustrating the application of different therapies to a case of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). It describes the hypothetical application of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT). This paper covers the philosophy and basic research on language and cognition that inform ACT. It also provides an ACT-based…

  17. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy as a Treatment for Scrupulosity in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehlin, John P.; Morrison, Kate L.; Twohig, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) for scrupulosity-based obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Five adults were treated with eight sessions of ACT, without in-session exposure, in a multiple baseline across participants design. Daily monitoring of compulsions and avoided valued activities were tracked throughout the…

  18. Effects of paroxetine and venlafaxine on immune parameters in patients with obsessive compulsive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denys, D; Fluitman, S; Kavelaars, A; Heijnen, C; Westenberg, HGM

    2006-01-01

    Background: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has been associated with an altered activity of the immune system. This study was carried out to investigate whether treatment with paroxetine and venlafaxine modifies the immune function in OCD and whether this modification is related to treatment out

  19. Neither Saints nor Wolves in Disguise: Ambivalent Interpersonal Attitudes and Behaviors in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, Steffen; Wahl, Karina; Ertle, Andrea; Jelinek, Lena; Hauschildt, Marit; Klinge, Ruth; Hand, Iver

    2009-01-01

    Inflated responsibility is ascribed a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The aim of the study was to assess interpersonal attitudes and behaviors contributing to enhanced responsibility in OCD. In particular, we tested the hypothesis that individuals diagnosed with OCD share stronger latent aggression toward…

  20. Understanding Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in Students: Symptoms and School-Based Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyches, Tina Taylor; Leininger, Melissa; Heath, Melissa Allen; Prater, Mary Anne

    2010-01-01

    This article provides current information relevant to school social workers who serve students with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), including how OCD is defined in children and adolescents, the impact of OCD on schooling, issues in identifying students with OCD, and effective interventions. The authors offer suggestions for collaboration…

  1. Dysfunctional belief-based subgroups and inferential confusion in obsessive-compulsive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polman, Annemiek; O'Connor, Kieron P.; Huisman, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioural models emphasize the mediating role of dysfunctional beliefs in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, recent studies indicated that beliefs related to responsibility and threat-estimation, Importance and Control of Thoughts, and perfectionism and intolerance of uncertai

  2. Patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder are impaired in associative learning based on external feedback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nielen, M. M.; den Boer, J. A.; Smid, H. G. O. M.

    2009-01-01

    Background. Patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have to repeat their actions before feeling satisfied that the action reached its intended goal. Learning theory predicts that this may be due to a failure in the processing of external feedback. Method. We examined the performance of 29

  3. Deep brain stimulation for treatment-refractory obsessive compulsive disorder : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kohl, Sina; Schönherr, Deva M; Luigjes, Judy; Denys, D.; Mueller, Ulf J; Lenartz, Doris; Visser-Vandewalle, Veerle; Kuhn, Jens

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Obsessive-compulsive disorder is one of the most disabling of all psychiatric illnesses. Despite available pharmacological and psychotherapeutic treatments about 10% of patients remain severely affected and are considered treatment-refractory. For some of these patients deep brain

  4. Two-Year Stability and Change of Schizotypal, Borderline, Avoidant, and Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilo, Carlos M.; Sanislow, Charles A.; Gunderson, John G.; Pagano, Maria E.; Yen, Shirley; Zanarini, Mary C.; Shea, Tracie M.; Skodol, Andrew E.; Stout, Robert L.; Morey, Leslie C.; McGlashan, Thomas H.

    2004-01-01

    The authors examined the stability of schizotypal (STPD), borderline (BPD), avoidant (AVPD) and obsessive-compulsive (OCPD) personality disorders (PDs) over 2 years of prospective multiwave follow-up. Six hundred thirty-three participants recruited at 4 collaborating sites who met criteria for 1 or more of the 4 PDs or for major depressive…

  5. Family Factors Predict Treatment Outcome for Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peris, Tara S.; Sugar, Catherine A.; Bergman, R. Lindsey; Chang, Susanna; Langley, Audra; Piacentini, John

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine family conflict, parental blame, and poor family cohesion as predictors of treatment outcome for youths receiving family-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (FCBT) for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Method: We analyzed data from a sample of youths who were randomized to FCBT (n = 49; 59% male; M age = 12.43 years) as…

  6. A Review of Metacognition in Psychological Models of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Clare S.; Anderson, Rebecca A.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioural models and interventions for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have always included some metacognitive elements but until recently these have been predominantly construed of as cognitive as opposed to metacognitive processes. Increasingly, psychological models of OCD are now recognising the importance of metacognitive…

  7. A Structural Equation Analysis of Family Accommodation in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporino, Nicole E.; Morgan, Jessica; Beckstead, Jason; Phares, Vicky; Murphy, Tanya K.; Storch, Eric A.

    2012-01-01

    Family accommodation of symptoms is counter to the primary goals of cognitive-behavioral therapy for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and can pose an obstacle to positive treatment outcomes. Although increased attention has been given to family accommodation in pediatric OCD, relatively little is known about associated child and…

  8. Patient Adherence Predicts Outcome from Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Helen Blair; Maher, Michael J.; Wang, Yuanjia; Bao, Yuanyuan; Foa, Edna B.; Franklin, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effects of patient adherence on outcome from exposure and response prevention (EX/RP) therapy in adults with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Method: Thirty adults with OCD were randomized to EX/RP (n = 15) or EX/RP augmented by motivational interviewing strategies (n = 15). Both treatments included 3 introductory…

  9. Sensory gating and sensorimotor gating in medication-free obsessive-compulsive disorder patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Leeuw, Aart S; Oranje, Bob; van Megen, Harold J G M

    2010-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is associated with deficits in inhibition mechanisms. This is reflected in reports showing impaired sensorimotor and sensory gating in OCD patients, as measured with prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the startle reflex and P50 suppression paradigms. However, most...

  10. Family Therapy in Iran: A Case Study of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodayarifard, Mohammad; McClenon, James

    2011-01-01

    Iranian clinical psychologists have devised family therapy methods that use cognitive behavior models that ft with their collectivist Islamic culture. The authors review Islamic-based strategies and describe family therapy with a culturally specific case of childhood obsessive-compulsive disorder. Family therapy, adapted to integrated,…

  11. Recent Developments in the Assessment and Treatment of Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Noah C.; Abramowitz, Jonathan S.

    2010-01-01

    Although tremendous strides have recently been made in the development of assessment and treatment methods for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), more accurate methods for diagnosis, more effective treatments, and more refined instruments for monitoring progress during therapy are still needed. The present commentary highlights the…

  12. Developmental Alterations of Frontal-Striatal-Thalamic Connectivity in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Kate Dimond; Welsh, Robert C.; Stern, Emily R.; Angstadt, Mike; Hanna, Gregory L.; Abelson, James L.; Taylor, Stephan F.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder is characterized by abnormalities of frontal-striatal-thalamic circuitry that appear near illness onset and persist over its course. Distinct frontal-striatal-thalamic loops through cortical centers for cognitive control (anterior cingulate cortex) and emotion processing (ventral medial frontal…

  13. Using Motivational Interviewing to Enhance Treatment Outcome in People with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Helen Blair; Zuckoff, Allan

    2011-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a leading cause of health-related disability. There are two evidence-based treatments for OCD, pharmacotherapy and cognitive-behavioral therapy consisting of exposure and response prevention (EX/RP). Although effective, outcome from both treatments is often limited by patient lack of adherence to the…

  14. Clinical Considerations when Tailoring Cognitive Behavioral Treatment for Young Children with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choate-Summers, Molly L.; Freeman, Jennifer B.; Garcia, Abbe M.; Coyne, Lisa; Przeworski, Amy; Leonard, Henrietta L.

    2008-01-01

    Research on the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy, and in particular, exposure with response prevention for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD), has only been systematically evaluated in children and adolescents ages 7-17. These treatments do not address the unique characteristics of young children with OCD. This paper discusses…

  15. Treatment of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder in Young Children: An Intervention Model and Case Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Golda S.; Burstein, Marcy; Becker, Kimberly D.; Drake, Kelly L.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an intervention model for young children with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The intervention, designed to reduce compulsive behavior and improve parenting practices, was tested using a multiple baseline design with 7 children (M = 6 years old; 57% female) in which participants were randomly assigned to 1, 2, or 3 weeks…

  16. Cognitive Control of a Simple Mental Image in Patients with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocak, Orhan Murat; Ozpolat, Aysegul Yilmaz; Atbasoglu, Cem; Cicek, Metehan

    2011-01-01

    The nature of obsessions has led researchers to try to determine if the main problem in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is impaired inhibitory control. Previous studies report that the effort to suppress is one of the factors that increase the frequency of obsessive thoughts. Based on these results and those of the present study that suggest…

  17. Impact of Comorbidity on Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Response in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storch, Eric A.; Merlo, Lisa J.; Larson, Michael J.; Geffken, Gary R.; Lehmkuh, Heather D.; Jacob, Marni L.; Murphy, Tanya K.; Goodman, Wayne K.

    2008-01-01

    A chronic psychiatric condition among children and adolescents of concern is obsessive-compulsive disorder, which involves comorbid conditions. The impact of a range of comorbid illnesses on cognitive-behavioral therapy response and remission rates was conducted, with results revealing a negative impact on treatment response.

  18. Obsessive-compulsive disorders and anxiety disorders: A comparison of personality and emotionality patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelissolo, Antoine; Moukheiber, Albert; Mallet, Luc

    2015-10-30

    Even though obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCD) and anxiety disorders (AD) have been separated in the taxonomy adopted by the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, many issues remain concerning the physiopathological similarities and differences between those categories. Our objective was therefore to explore and compare their personality and emotional features, with the assumption that the distinction of two independent spectrums should imply the existence of two partially distinct temperamental profiles. We used the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI-R) and the Positive and Negative Emotionality (PNE) scale to compare two groups of patients with OCD (n=227) or AD (n=827). The latter group included patients with social anxiety disorder, panic disorder, agoraphobia, and generalized anxiety disorder. Most temperament, character and emotionality measures showed no significant differences between both groups. In the personality measures results, only the self-directedness score (TCI-R) was significantly lower in OCD patients but this difference was not significant when the comparison was adjusted for the depressive scale score and age. Only lower PNE positive affects scores were obtained in OCD patients in the adjusted comparisons. These findings suggest that OCD and AD are not really distinguishable from the point of view of associated personality traits.

  19. Early Maladaptive Schemas in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Anxiety Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoosefi, Afsaneh; RajeziEsfahani, Sepideh; Pourshahbaz, Abbas; Dolatshahee, Behrooz; Assadi, Abbasali; Maleki, Fahime; Momeni, Sara

    2016-10-01

    Purpose of this study is comparing early maladaptive schemas which are active in patients suffering from obsessive-compulsive disorder and anxiety disorders together, considering recent DSM-5 changes through which OCD has been placed in a separate and new diagnostic level. This research is a causal-comparative study. 151 persons were categorized in three groups of people suffering from OCD (50), suffering from anxiety disorders (50), and control group (51). Early diagnosis of disorders in two clinical groups were verified based on structured clinical interview for DSM )SCID-I) and Yale-Brown obsessive-compulsive scale (Y-BOCS). General health questionnaire (GHQ-28), the short versions of the Young schemas questionnaire (YSQ), and Padua inventory-Washington State University Revision (PI-WSUR) were also implemented. Findings revealed that mean scores of all schemas of those suffering from anxiety disorders, except for Self-Sacrifice, Unrelenting-Standards/Hypercriticalness, Entitlement/Grandiosity schemas, and mean scores of all early maladaptive schemas of those suffering from obsessive compulsive disorder are significantly higher than those of control group. OCD group had significantly higher scores in Emotional Deprivation, Mistrust/Abuse, and Defectiveness/Shame schemas than anxiety disorders group. Defectiveness/Shame and Vulnerability to Harm or Illness schemas can explain 38 percent of variance of obsessive compulsive symptoms. The dominant and specific early maladaptive schemas of OCD are Defectiveness/Shame, Mistrust/Abuse, and Emotional Deprivation Schemas. This study besides supporting the theory of early maladaptive schemas, suggests that interventions based on specific schemas can be useful methods in treatment of OCD and anxiety disorders.

  20. Schizophrenia and obsessive-compulsive disorder: from comorbidity to schizo-obsessive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attademo, Luigi; De Giorgio, Giuseppina; Quartesan, Roberto; Moretti, Patrizia

    2012-01-01

    Current genetic, neurobiological, clinical-descriptive and pharmacological data about obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) and/or obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in schizophrenia hypothesize that schizophrenia combined with OCD is more than a mere comorbidity. To prove this hypothesis, “dimensional diagnosis”, based on the identification of a dysfunctional area common to different clinical cases, should replace “categorical diagnosis”, that focuses on discrete parameters that define specific disorders. It is our hope that the DSM-V will make reference to principles based on psychopathological “spectra” because these reflect the integration of pharmacotherapeutic, descriptive and etiopathogenetic aspects (genotypes common to various disorders, temperamental predispositions, neurobiological and chemical alteration). These three aspects explain how obsessive phenomena can develop into delusional phenomena.

  1. Cognitive-behavioral group therapy in obsessive-compulsive disorder: a clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cordioli Aristides V

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To develop a cognitive-behavioral group therapy protocol and to verify its efficacy to reduce obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Methods: An open clinical trial with 32 obsessive-compulsive patients was performed, in which a cognitive-behavioral group therapy protocol of 12 weekly sessions of two hours, in 5 consecutive groups, was applied. The severity of symptoms was rated with the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive (Y-BOCS, Hamilton Anxiety (HAM A and Hamilton Depression (HAM D scales. The patients were followed up for 3 months after the end of the treatment. Results: There was a significant reduction in the scores of Y-BOCS, HAM A and HAM D scales with the treatment regardless the use of anti-obsessive medications. The rate of improved patients (decrease of > or = 35% in Y-BOCS was 78.1%. Two patients (6.25% dropped out from the study. The effect size calculated for the Y-BOCS scale was 1.75. Conclusions: This study suggests that cognitive-behavioral group therapy reduces obsessive-compulsive symptoms. In addition, patients presented good compliance.

  2. A comparative study of early maladaptive schemas in obsessive-compulsive disorder and panic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Kyung-Hwa; Lee, Seung Jae

    2015-12-30

    Schema theory and therapy may be an additional therapeutic approach to identify and treat chronic psychological problems, namely early maladaptive schemas (EMSs), in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and panic disorder (PAD). In the current study, we investigated the characteristics in EMSs between patients with OCD and PAD. Fifty-one patients with OCD, 46 patients with PAD, and 70 normal controls participated in this study. EMSs and depressive symptoms were measured using the Young Schema Questionnaire and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), respectively. Analysis of covariance was conducted with age, sex, BDI score, and education level as covariates to assess group differences. Direct comparisons among the three groups revealed that the defectiveness/shame and social isolation/alienation schemas were prominently activated in patients with OCD, whereas the vulnerability to harm or illness and self-sacrifice were activated in patients with PAD. In subgroup analysis, these differences were observed between subgroups with lower BDI scores, but not between the patient subgroups with higher BDI scores. However, the differences between the patient groups in the defectiveness/shame and vulnerability to harm or illness schemas almost reached significance. Patients with OCD and PAD differed in particular EMS characteristics, which could have potential therapeutic implications.

  3. Tourette's and comorbid syndromes: obsessive compulsive and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. A common etiology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, D M; Bradshaw, J L; Purcell, R; Pantelis, C

    1999-08-01

    Tourette's syndrome (TS), a neuropsychiatric movement disorder that manifests itself in childhood, is often associated with comorbid symptomatology, such as obsessions, compulsions, hyperactivity, distractibility, and impulsivity. Epidemiological studies suggest that a substantial number of TS patients develop clinical levels of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and/or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This review aims to provide an integrated account of the three disorders in terms of their comorbidity. Neuroimaging studies suggest that all three disorders involve neuropathology of the basal-ganglia thalamocortical (BGTC) pathways: TS in the sensorimotor and limbic BGTC circuits; OCD in the prefrontal and limbic BGTC pathways; and ADHD in the sensorimotor, orbitofrontal, and limbic BGTC circuits. The pattern of comorbidity and other evidence indicates that the TS gene(s) may be responsible for a spectrum of disorders, including OCD and ADHD, but also that the disorders OCD and ADHD can exist in their own right with their own etiologies.

  4. Alexithymia, responsibility attitudes and suicide ideation among outpatients with obsessive-compulsive disorder: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Berardis, Domenico; Serroni, Nicola; Campanella, Daniela; Rapini, Gabriella; Olivieri, Luigi; Feliziani, Barbara; Carano, Alessandro; Valchera, Alessandro; Iasevoli, Felice; Tomasetti, Carmine; Mazza, Monica; Fornaro, Michele; Perna, Giampaolo; Di Nicola, Marco; Martinotti, Giovanni; Di Giannantonio, Massimo

    2015-04-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is psychiatric disorder with a significant suicide risk, and the presence of alexithymia may increase this risk. As several studies attribute an important role, in OCD, to responsibility, the aims of this study were to evaluate possible clinical differences between patients positive or not for alexithymia concerning disorder severity, responsibility attitudes and suicide ideation and investigate which variables were associated with increased suicide ideation. 104 adult outpatients with OCD were recruited. Alexithymia was measured with Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), attitude about responsibility was tested with Responsibility Attitude Scale (RAS), suicide ideation was assessed with Scale of Suicide Ideation (SSI) and depressive symptoms were evaluated with Montgomery Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). Score of item #11 on the Y-BOCS was considered as a measure of insight. Patients positive for alexithymia showed higher responsibility attitudes and more severe suicide ideation. In a blockwise regression model, the presence of lower insight, higher RAS scores and difficulty in identifying feelings dimension of TAS-20 were associated with higher SSI scores. OCD patients with alexithymia may show higher disorder severity, lower insight and inflated responsibility, all related to suicide ideation, independently from depressive symptoms. Implications were discussed and study limitations considered and reported. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Neural Correlates of Symptom Dimensions in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Andrew R.; Akkal, Dalila; Almeida, Jorge R. C.; Mataix-Cols, David; Kalas, Catherine; Devlin, Bernie; Birmaher, Boris; Phillips, Mary L.

    2009-01-01

    The use of functional magnetic resonance imaging on a group of pediatric subjects with obsessive compulsive disorder reveals that this group has reduced activity in neural regions underlying emotional processing, cognitive processing, and motor performance as compared to control subjects.

  6. Neural Correlates of Symptom Dimensions in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Andrew R.; Akkal, Dalila; Almeida, Jorge R. C.; Mataix-Cols, David; Kalas, Catherine; Devlin, Bernie; Birmaher, Boris; Phillips, Mary L.

    2009-01-01

    The use of functional magnetic resonance imaging on a group of pediatric subjects with obsessive compulsive disorder reveals that this group has reduced activity in neural regions underlying emotional processing, cognitive processing, and motor performance as compared to control subjects.

  7. Understanding obsessive-compulsive personality disorder in adolescence: a dimensional personality perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Aelterman, Nathalie; Decuyper, Mieke; Fruyt, Filip De

    2010-01-01

    The validity of the Axis II Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD) category and its position within the Cluster C personality disorder (PDs) section of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV, APA, 2000) continues to be a source of much debate. The present study examines the associations between general and maladaptive personality traits and OCPD symptoms, prior to and after controlling for co-occurring PD variance, in a general population sample of 274 Fle...

  8. Understanding obsessive-compulsive personality disorder in adolescence: a dimensional personality perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Aelterman, Nathalie; Decuyper, Mieke; De Fruyt, Filip

    2010-01-01

    The validity of the Axis II Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD) category and its position within the Cluster C personality disorder (PDs) section of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV, APA, 2000) continues to be a source of much debate. The present study examines the associations between general and maladaptive personality traits and OCPD symptoms, prior to and after controlling for co-occurring PD variance, in a general population sample of 274 Fle...

  9. Obsessive compulsive and related disorders: comparing DSM-5 and ICD-11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marras, Anna; Fineberg, Naomi; Pallanti, Stefano

    2016-08-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has been recognized as mainly characterized by compulsivity rather than anxiety and, therefore, was removed from the anxiety disorders chapter and given its own in both the American Psychiatric Association (APA) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) and the Beta Draft Version of the 11th revision of the World Health Organization (WHO) International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). This revised clustering is based on increasing evidence of common affected neurocircuits between disorders, differently from previous classification systems based on interrater agreement. In this article, we focus on the classification of obsessive-compulsive and related disorders (OCRDs), examining the differences in approach adopted by these 2 nosological systems, with particular attention to the proposed changes in the forthcoming ICD-11. At this stage, notable differences in the ICD classification are emerging from the previous revision, apparently converging toward a reformulation of OCRDs that is closer to the DSM-5.

  10. Abnormal Spontaneous Neural Activity in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Resting-State Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ping

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging studies of obsessive-compulsive disorder have found abnormalities in orbitofronto-striato-thalamic circuitry, including the orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, caudate, and thalamus, but few studies have explored abnormal intrinsic or spontaneous brain activity in the resting state. We investigated both intra- and inter-regional synchronized activity in twenty patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder and 20 healthy controls using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Regional homogeneity (ReHo and functional connectivity methods were used to analyze the intra- and inter-regional synchronized activity, respectively. Compared with healthy controls, patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder showed significantly increased ReHo in the orbitofrontal cortex, cerebellum, and insula, and decreased ReHo in the ventral anterior cingulate cortex, caudate, and inferior occipital cortex. Based on ReHo results, we determined functional connectivity differences between the orbitofrontal cortex and other brain regions in both patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder and controls. We found abnormal functional connectivity between the orbitofrontal cortex and ventral anterior cingulate cortex in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder compared with healthy controls. Moreover, ReHo in the orbitofrontal cortex was correlated with the duration of obsessive-compulsive disorder. These findings suggest that increased intra- and inter-regional synchronized activity in the orbitofrontal cortex may have a key role in the pathology of obsessive-compulsive disorder. In addition to orbitofronto-striato-thalamic circuitry, brain regions such as the insula and cerebellum may also be involved in the pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder.

  11. A comparative study of obsessive beliefs in obsessive-compulsive disorder, anxiety disorder patients and a normal group.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giti Shams

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive models of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD posit that specific kinds of dysfunctional beliefs underlie the development of this disorder. The aim of present study was to determine whether these beliefs are endorsed more strongly by OCD patients than by those with other anxiety disorders and by community samples. A battery of questionnaires, including the OBQ-44, MOCI, BDI-II, BAI, STAI, used to assess obsessive-compulsive symptoms, depression and anxiety in 39 OCD patients (OC, 46 anxious patients (AC and 41 community controls (CC. Compared to CCs and ACs, OC patients more strongly endorsed beliefs related to importance and control of thoughts. Both OC and AC patients scored higher than CC participants did on belief domains about responsibility/threat estimation and perfectionism/certainty. Therefore, the domain that seems to be specific to OCD is a set of beliefs that revolves around the contention that it is possible and necessary to control one's thoughts. Results regarding group differences on particular items of the OBQ-44 indicated that 21 items discriminated between the OC and CC groups and 7 items discriminated between the OC and AC groups, suggesting that these items are more specific to the OC group. Additional research warranted because it is plausible that these cognitive factors relate differently to OCD phenomena across different cultures.

  12. Recent Advances in the Study of Sleep in the Anxiety Disorders, Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, Elaine M; Ross, Richard J

    2015-12-01

    Sleep disturbance is frequently associated with generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder. This article reviews recent advances in understanding the mechanisms of the sleep disturbances in these disorders and discusses the implications for developing improved treatments.

  13. Obsessive-compulsive (anankastic) personality disorder: toward the ICD-11 classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fineberg, Naomi A; Reghunandanan, Samar; Kolli, Sangeetha; Atmaca, Murad

    2014-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) is an early-onset disorder characterized by perfectionism, need for control, and cognitive rigidity. Its nosological status is currently under review. Historically, OCPD has been conceptualized as bearing a close relationship with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). In this article, we discuss the diagnosis of OCPD in anticipation of its review for the ICD-11, from the perspective of clinical utility, global applicability, and research planning. Considering the recent establishment of an obsessive-compulsive and related disorders (OCRD) category in DSM-5, we focus on the relationship between OCPD and the disorders that are currently thought to bear a close relationship with OCD, including DSM-5 OCRD, and other compulsive disorders such as eating disorder and autistic spectrum disorder (that were not included in the DSM-5 OCRD category), as well as with the personality disorders, focusing on nosological determinants such as phenomenology, course of illness, heritability, environmental risk factors, comorbidity, neurocognitive endophenotypes, and treatment response. Based on this analysis, we attempt to draw conclusions as to its optimal placement in diagnostic systems and draw attention to key research questions that could be explored in field trials.

  14. Obsessive-compulsive (anankastic personality disorder: toward the ICD-11 classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi A. Fineberg

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD is an early-onset disorder characterized by perfectionism, need for control, and cognitive rigidity. Its nosological status is currently under review. Historically, OCPD has been conceptualized as bearing a close relationship with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD. In this article, we discuss the diagnosis of OCPD in anticipation of its review for the ICD-11, from the perspective of clinical utility, global applicability, and research planning. Considering the recent establishment of an obsessive-compulsive and related disorders (OCRD category in DSM-5, we focus on the relationship between OCPD and the disorders that are currently thought to bear a close relationship with OCD, including DSM-5 OCRD, and other compulsive disorders such as eating disorder and autistic spectrum disorder (that were not included in the DSM-5 OCRD category, as well as with the personality disorders, focusing on nosological determinants such as phenomenology, course of illness, heritability, environmental risk factors, comorbidity, neurocognitive endophenotypes, and treatment response. Based on this analysis, we attempt to draw conclusions as to its optimal placement in diagnostic systems and draw attention to key research questions that could be explored in field trials.

  15. Personality Disorders in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Comparative Study versus Other Anxiety Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Pena-Garijo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this paper is to provide evidence for the relationship between personality disorders (PDs, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD, and other anxiety disorders different from OCD (non-OCD symptomatology. Method. The sample consisted of a group of 122 individuals divided into three groups (41 OCD; 40 non-OCD, and 41 controls matched by sex, age, and educational level. All the individuals answered the IPDE questionnaire and were evaluated by means of the SCID-I and SCID-II interviews. Results. Patients with OCD and non-OCD present a higher presence of PD. There was an increase in cluster C diagnoses in both groups, with no statistically significant differences between them. Conclusions. Presenting anxiety disorder seems to cause a specific vulnerability for PD. Most of the PDs that were presented belonged to cluster C. Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD is the most common among OCD. However, it does not occur more frequently among OCD patients than among other anxious patients, which does not confirm the continuum between obsessive personality and OCD. Implications for categorical and dimensional diagnoses are discussed.

  16. Challenges Using Motivational Interviewing as an Adjunct to Exposure Therapy for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Simpson, Helen Blair; Zuckoff, Allan; Maher, Michael J.; Page, Jessica; Franklin, Martin; Edna B. Foa; Schmidt, Andrew B.; Wang, Yuanjia

    2010-01-01

    Exposure and response prevention (EX/RP) is an efficacious treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, patients often do not adhere fully to EX/RP procedures. Motivational Interviewing (MI) has been shown to improve treatment adherence in other disorders. This pilot study used a randomized controlled design to examine whether MI can be successfully added to EX/RP and whether this intervention (EX/RP+MI) could improve patient adherence to between-session EX/RP procedures relati...

  17. Dissociative symptoms and dissociative disorder comorbidity in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belli, Hasan; Ural, Cenk; Vardar, Melek Kanarya; Yesılyurt, Sema; Oncu, Fatıh

    2012-10-01

    The present study attempted to assess the dissociative symptoms and overall dissociative disorder comorbidity in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). In addition, we examined the relationship between the severity of obsessive-compulsive symptoms and dissociative symptoms. All patients admitted for the first time to the psychiatric outpatient unit were included in the study. Seventy-eight patients had been diagnosed as having OCD during the 2-year study period. Patients had to meet the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria for OCD. Most (76.9%; n = 60) of the patients were female, and 23.1% (n = 18) of the patients were male. Dissociation Questionnaire was used to measure dissociative symptoms. The Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition Dissociative Disorders interviews and Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Checklist and Severity Scale were used. Eleven (14%) of the patients with OCD had comorbid dissociative disorder. The most prevalent disorder in our study was dissociative depersonalization disorder. Dissociative amnesia and dissociative identity disorder were common as well. The mean Yale-Brown score was 23.37 ± 7.27 points. Dissociation Questionnaire scores were between 0.40 and 3.87 points, and the mean was 2.23 ± 0.76 points. There was a statistically significant positive correlation between Yale-Brown points and Dissociation Questionnaire points. We conclude that dissociative symptoms among patients with OCD should alert clinicians for the presence of a chronic and complex dissociative disorder. Clinicians may overlook an underlying dissociative process in patients who have severe symptoms of OCD. However, a lack of adequate response to cognitive-behavioral and drug therapy may be a consequence of dissociative process. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Escitalopram in obsessive-compulsive disorder: a randomized, placebo-controlled, paroxetine-referenced, fixed-dose, 24-week study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stein, Dan J; Andersen, Elisabeth Anne Wreford; Tonnoir, Brigitte

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A randomized, placebo controlled fixed-dose trial was undertaken to determine the efficacy and tolerability of escitalopram in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), using paroxetine as the active reference. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 466 adults with OCD from specialized...... endpoint was the mean change in the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) total score from baseline to week 12. Secondary efficacy endpoints included remission (defined as Y-BOCS total score

  19. Family functioning in patients with obsessive compulsive disorder: A case - control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sateesh R Koujalgi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Psychological disorders can have a direct impact on family functioning. Family dysfunction is an indirect factor leading to the relapse of psychological disorders. Literature on family dysfunction in anxiety disorder is limited. Role of family and its functioning in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD may help in better understanding of the role of social factors in OCD. Aim: The aim was to compare family functions in patients with OCD and compare with controls. Materials and Methods: The sample included 30 cases and 30 age and sex-matched controls. The patients were diagnosed as having OCD using ICD-10 DCR criteria. Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale was used to assess the severity of OCD among patients. General Health Questionnaire was used as screening instruments for psychiatric disorder among the control population. Family function was assessed in cases and control using the Family Interaction Patterns Schedule (FIPS. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software. Results: Obsessive compulsive disorder patients in comparison controls had significantly increased total FIPS score (P = 0.001. Conclusion: Families with OCD are more significantly impaired in multiple domains of family dynamics than families without member suffering from OCD. It is, therefore, essential that family-based structure effective assessment be sought in the psychosocial management of OCD.

  20. Comparative Prevalence of Eating Disorders in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Other Anxiety Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu Tyagi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this study was to compare the prevalence of comorbid eating disorders in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD and other common anxiety disorders. Method. 179 patients from the same geographical area with a diagnosis of OCD or an anxiety disorder were divided into two groups based on their primary diagnosis. The prevalence of a comorbid eating disorder was calculated in both groups. Results. There was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of comorbid eating disorders between the OCD and other anxiety disorders group. Conclusions. These results suggest that the prevalence of comorbid eating disorders does not differ in anxiety disorders when compared with OCD. However, in both groups, it remains statistically higher than that of the general population.

  1. Cigarette smoking in obsessive-compulsive disorder and unaffected parents of OCD patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramovitch, Amitai; Pizzagalli, Diego A.; Geller, Daniel A.; Reuman, Lillian; Wilhelm, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    Background Cigarette smoking is more prevalent among individuals with psychiatric disorders than the general population. Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) may be an intriguing exception, although no recent study has investigated this hypothesis in OCD patients. Moreover, it is unknown whether reduced smoking rates are present in unaffected first-degree relatives of OCD patients. Methods We assessed smoking prevalence in adults with OCD and unaffected parents of youth with OCD (PYOCD). To this end, 113 adults with OCD completed online questionnaires assessing symptom severity and smoking status. Smoking status was obtained from an independent sample of 210 PYOCD assessed for psychiatric diagnoses. Results Smoking prevalence rates in adults with OCD (13.3%; n = 15) and PYOCD (9.5%; n = 20) samples were significantly lower than those found in representative samples of the general population (19-24%, all p < .001) and Axis I disorders (36-64%; p < .001). There were no smokers in the adult OCD subset without clinically significant depressive symptoms (n = 54). Conclusion Low prevalence of smoking in OCD may be familial and unique among psychiatric disorders, and might represent a possible state-independent OCD marker. Hypotheses concerning the uncharacteristically low prevalence rates are discussed with relation to OCD phenomenology and pathophysiology. PMID:24637253

  2. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy as an augmentation treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, Brenda L; Rowa, Karen; Bieling, Peter; McCabe, Randi; Pawluk, Elizabeth J

    2017-09-01

    A significant number of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients continue to experience symptoms that interfere with their functioning following cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT). Providing an additional augmentation treatment following CBT could help reduce these residual symptoms. Mindfulness interventions that facilitate less reactivity to thoughts and feelings may be helpful for patients suffering from residual OCD symptoms. The purpose of the current randomized waitlist control trial was to evaluate the feasibility and impact of providing an 8-week mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) intervention following completion of a CBT intervention to OCD patients who continued to suffer from significant symptoms. Results indicated that compared to the waitlist control group, MBCT participants reported decreases in OCD symptoms (d = 1.38), depression symptoms (d = 1.25), anxiety symptoms (d = 1.02), and obsessive beliefs (d = 1.20) along with increases in self-compassion (d = 0.77) and mindfulness skills (d = 0.77). Additionally, participants reported high levels of satisfaction with the MBCT intervention. The results suggest that the use of MBCT for OCD as an augmentation therapy is acceptable to patients who continue to suffer from OCD symptoms after completing CBT and provides some additional relief from residual symptoms. Mindfulness interventions teach skills that facilitate disengaging from cognitive routines and accepting internal experience, and these skills may be valuable in treating obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), as individuals describe getting "stuck" in repetitive thoughts and consequent rituals. The results of this study suggest that teaching mindfulness skills using an 8-week mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) intervention provides an added benefit (decreases in OCD, depression, and anxiety symptoms) for patients with OCD who have completed a cognitive behavioural therapy intervention and continued to suffer from

  3. Dysfunctional beliefs in group and individual cognitive behavioral therapy for obsessive compulsive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jónsson, Hjalti; Hougaard, Esben; Bennedsen, Birgit

    2011-01-01

    The primary aim of the study was to investigate dysfunctional beliefs in the form of inflated responsibility (IR) and thought action fusion (TAF) as predictive and mediating variables in Individual (n = 33) and Group (n = 37) Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) for Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD...... of the study with pre-and post-therapy measurements only does not allow for a causal mediator analysis...

  4. Threat Processing in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Evidence from a Modified Negative Priming Task

    OpenAIRE

    Amir, Nader; Cobb, Michelle; Morrison, Amanda S.

    2008-01-01

    Individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) often experience intrusive thoughts. These intrusions may be due to biases in information processing mechanisms, including attention, memory, and learning. To examine this hypothesis, we presented a modified negative priming (NP) paradigm with idiographically-selected words to 19 individuals with OCD (OCs) and 19 matched non-anxious control participants (NACs). The words included OCD-relevant threat, OCD-relevant positive, and neutral words...

  5. Symptom Dimensions in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Phenomenology and Treatment Outcomes with Exposure and Ritual Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Monnica T.; Mugno, Beth; Franklin, Martin; Faber, Sonya

    2013-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a severe condition with varied symptom presentations. The cognitive-behavioral treatment with the most empirical support is currently exposure and ritual prevention (EX/RP); however, clinical impression and some empirical data suggest that certain OCD symptoms are more responsive to treatment than others. Prior work identifying symptom dimensions within OCD is discussed, including epidemiological findings, factor analytic studies, and biological findings...

  6. The Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Treatment Study II: rationale, design and methods

    OpenAIRE

    March John S; Khanna Muniya S; Sapyta Jeffrey J; Moore Phoebe S; Garcia Abbe M; Choate-Summers Molly L; Freeman Jennifer B; Foa Edna B; Franklin Martin E

    2009-01-01

    Abstract This paper presents the rationale, design, and methods of the Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Treatment Study II (POTS II), which investigates two different cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) augmentation approaches in children and adolescents who have experienced a partial response to pharmacotherapy with a serotonin reuptake inhibitor for OCD. The two CBT approaches test a "single doctor" versus "dual doctor" model of service delivery. A specific goal was to develop and test...

  7. Using Motivational Interviewing to Enhance Treatment Outcome in People With Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Simpson, Helen Blair; Zuckoff, Allan

    2011-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a leading cause of health-related disability. There are two evidence-based treatments for OCD, pharmacotherapy and cognitive-behavioral therapy consisting of exposure and response prevention (EX/RP). Although effective, outcome from both treatments is often limited by patient lack of adherence to the treatment procedures. In this article, we present the rationale for using motivational interviewing (MI) to increase EX/RP adherence. We then review two pub...

  8. Attachment Style and Resiliency in Patients with Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Zakiei, Ali; Alikhani, Mostafa; Farnia, Vahid; Khkian, Zinab; Shakeri, Jalal; Golshani, Sanobar

    2017-01-01

    Background The goal of the present study was to determine the relationships between attachment styles and resiliency in obsessive-compulsive personality disorder. Methods A random sample of 260 subjects was obtained from the population of undergraduate students of the Nour Branch of Islamic Azad University, which is located in Mazandaran, and these subjects were enrolled in this descriptive and correlational study. The collected data included the subjects' responses to an adult attachment sty...

  9. Hypomania with hypersexuality following bilateral anterior limb stimulation in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chun-Hung; Chen, Shin-Yuan; Hsiao, Yi-Ling; Tsai, Sheng-Tzung; Tsai, Hsin-Chi

    2010-06-01

    This 28-year-old Chinese man was referred for deep brain stimulation (DBS) evaluation for an 8-year history of refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder. After the patient had signed an informed consent, the authors implanted DBS leads. Hypomania with hypersexuality was noted on stimulation at Contact 2 and became aggravated with a higher voltage (> or = 3 V) during chronic bilateral DBS. After the voltage was decreased to 1 V, the patient's hypomanic symptoms subsided and his libido returned to baseline.

  10. Neuroimaging communality between schizophrenia and obsessive compulsive disorder: a putative basis for schizo-obsessive disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross-Isseroff, Ruth; Hermesh, Haggai; Zohar, Joseph; Weizman, Abraham

    2003-07-01

    Four major brain regions have been repeatedly implicated in the pathophysiology of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) in in vivo neuroimaging studies: the caudate nucleus, the orbitofrontal cortex, the anterior cingulate gyrus and the mediodorsal thalamic nucleus. The present review describes the neuroimaging studies on schizophrenia, pertaining to these brain regions. Our working hypothesis is that such common brain regions, if dysfunctional in schizophrenic patients, would be candidates for a neural network subserving the newly emerging syndrome of schizo-obsessive disorder. Findings, though, are controversial. We conclude that further studies, aimed at specific monitoring of these brain regions, in patients suffering from the schizo-obsessive syndrome are warranted.

  11. Differences in clinical intrusive thoughts between obsessive-compulsive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and hypochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Sanchiz, Pablo; Nogueira-Arjona, Raquel; Godoy-Ávila, Antonio; Gavino-Lázaro, Aurora; Freeston, Mark H

    2017-07-26

    Differences and similarities between intrusive thoughts typical of obsessive-compulsive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and hypochondriasis are relevant for their differential diagnosis, formulation, and psychological treatment. Previous research in non-clinical samples pointed out the relevance of some process variables, such as responsibility, guilt, or neutralization strategies. This research is aimed to investigate the differences and similarities between clinical obsessions, worries, and illness intrusions in some of these process variables. A second aim is to identify models based on these variables that could reliably differentiate between them. Three groups of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (n = 35; 60% women, mean age 38.57), generalized anxiety disorder (n = 36; 61.1% women, mean age 41.50), and hypochondriasis (n = 34; 70.6% women, mean age 31.59) were evaluated using the Cognitive Intrusions Questionnaire-Transdiagnostic Version (Romero-Sanchiz, Nogueira-Arjona, Godoy-Ávila, Gavino-Lázaro, & Freeston, ). The results showed that some appraisals (e.g., responsibility or egodystonicity), emotions (e.g., guilt or insecurity), neutralization strategies, and other variables (e.g., verbal content or trigger from body sensation) are relevant for the discrimination between obsessions, worries, and illness intrusions. The results also showed 3 stable models based on these variables for the discrimination between these thoughts. The implication of these results in the diagnosis, formulation, and psychological treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and hypochondriasis is discussed. Key Pratictioner Message The current study provides evidence about the discrimination between clinical obsessions, worries, and illness intrusions from a transdiagnostic perspective. The differentiation between them is crucial for the diagnosis, formulation, and psychological treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder

  12. Relationship between symptom dimensions and brain morphology in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Motohisa; Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Nemoto, Kiyotaka; Sutoh, Chihiro; Asano, Kenichi; Miyata, Haruko; Matsumoto, Junko; Nakazato, Michiko; Matsumoto, Koji; Masuda, Yoshitada; Iyo, Masaomi; Shimizu, Eiji; Nakagawa, Akiko

    2016-10-11

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is known as a clinically heterogeneous disorder characterized by symptom dimensions. Although substantial numbers of neuroimaging studies have demonstrated the presence of brain abnormalities in OCD, their results are controversial. The clinical heterogeneity of OCD could be one of the reasons for this. It has been hypothesized that certain brain regions contributed to the respective obsessive-compulsive dimensions. In this study, we investigated the relationship between symptom dimensions of OCD and brain morphology using voxel-based morphometry to discover the specific regions showing alterations in the respective dimensions of obsessive-compulsive symptoms. The severities of symptom dimensions in thirty-three patients with OCD were assessed using Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory-Revised (OCI-R). Along with numerous MRI studies pointing out brain abnormalities in autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) patients, a previous study reported a positive correlation between ASD traits and regional gray matter volume in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and amygdala in OCD patients. We investigated the correlation between gray and white matter volumes at the whole brain level and each symptom dimension score, treating all remaining dimension scores, age, gender, and ASD traits as confounding covariates. Our results revealed a significant negative correlation between washing symptom dimension score and gray matter volume in the right thalamus and a significant negative correlation between hoarding symptom dimension score and white matter volume in the left angular gyrus. Although our result was preliminary, our findings indicated that there were specific brain regions in gray and white matter that contributed to symptom dimensions in OCD patients.

  13. Exploring the role of external criticism in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: a narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, Sonia M; Thwaites, Richard; Freeston, Mark H

    2011-04-01

    The concept of external criticism has been associated with different aspects of Obsessive Compulsive phenomena. The various threads of evidence highlight the potential role of criticism within different areas of the cognitive model of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) with often overlapping ideas. However, the fragmented nature of the findings makes it difficult to identify how or why criticism impacts on OCD. This review collates the existing findings and maps these onto the cognitive model of OCD to provide a better understanding of the potential role of criticism. It proposes criticism could play a role in OCD as a vulnerability factor, but also as a perpetuating factor. Furthermore potential research questions have been generated which could help inform future understanding. Future research should consider the complexity of the concept when defining criticism as well as developing methodological designs which could answer questions of causality.

  14. Tourette's disorder with and without obsessive-compulsive disorder in adults: are they different?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, B J; Miguel, E C; Biederman, J; Baer, L; Rauch, S L; O'Sullivan, R L; Savage, C R; Phillips, K; Borgman, A; Green-Leibovitz, M I; Moore, E; Park, K S; Jenike, M A

    1998-04-01

    Clinical research has documented a bidirectional overlap between Tourette's disorder (TD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) from familial-genetic, phenomenological, comorbidity, and natural history perspectives. Patients with Tourette's disorder plus obsessive-compulsive disorder (TD + OCD), a putative subtype, share features of both. The purpose of this exploratory study was to evaluate correlates of patients with TD, OCD, and TD + OCD to determine whether TD + OCD is a subtype of TD, OCD, or an additive form of both. Sixty-one subjects with TD, OCD, or TD + OCD were evaluated with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R supplemented with additional modules. The three groups differed in the rates of bipolar disorder (p < .04), social phobia (p < .02), body dysmorphic disorder (p < .002), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (p < .03), and substance use disorders (p < .04). These findings were accounted for by the elevated rates of the disorders in the TD + OCD group compared with the TD and OCD groups. These finding are most consistent with the hypothesis that TD + OCD is a more severe disorder than TD and OCD and may be more etiologically linked to TD than to OCD. These findings highlight the importance of assessment of the full spectrum of psychiatric comorbidity in patients with TD and OCD.

  15. IMPACT OF PSYCHOPATHOLOGY OF ADULT OBSESSIVE COMPULSIVE DISORDER ON QUALITY OF LIFE: A PATIENT CONTROLLED STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd. Aleem

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD is the 10th leading cause of disability of all medical conditions in the industrialized world and the ‘Quality of Life’ has emerged as a valid parameter to measure the outcome of illness and effectiveness of treatment. OBJECTIVE To see the quality of life, functioning and clinical variables between the OCD patient and the ‘Patient control’ group MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 120 probands were assessed, of which 60 subjects were OCD patients and 60 stable schizophrenia patients were used as patient control group. Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Rating Scale, Positive and Negative Symptom Scale for Schizophrenia, Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety, The Brown Assessment of Beliefs Scale, WHOQOL-BREF, Global Assessment of Functioning Scale were applied as per the protocol. The data was analysed using descriptive statistics with the help of SPSS version 16.0 for Windows. RESULTS The cost of medication was significantly higher in OCD group as compared to Schizophrenia Group. Depression and anxiety scores were significantly higher in OCD group. Global functioning was significantly better in schizophrenia group but quality of life better in OCD group on Physical Health domain and Environment domain of WHOQOL-BREF. CONCLUSION The Psychopathology of OCD spared satisfaction with sleep, ability to perform daily living activities, capacity to work, ability to get around, energy for everyday life, physical pain and need for any medical treatment to function in daily life, satisfaction with the conditions of your living places, access to health services, transport, opportunities for leisure activities, money to meet the needs, availability of the required information, and safety in daily life; when compared to stable schizophrenia patients The Psychopathology of OCD had as severe an impact as Schizophrenia on ‘enjoying life, finding it meaningful, level of negative

  16. Clomipramine demethylation rate is important on the outcome of obsessive-compulsive disorder treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcourakis, Tania; Bernik, Márcio A; Lotufo Neto, Francisco; Gedanke Shavitt, Roseli; Gorenstein, Clarice

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of demethylation rate on the outcome of obsessive-compulsive disorder patients treated with clomipramine. Eighteen patients meeting the DSM-IV criteria for obsessive-compulsive disorder received 150-300 mg of clomipramine daily in a single-blind design for 12 weeks. The patients were evaluated with the Clinical Global Impression scale and the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (YBOCS). Clinical assessment and serum measurements of clomipramine and desmethylclomipramine were carried out at baseline and after 3, 6, 8, 10, and 12 weeks. A greater improvement in Clinical Global Impression scale rating was associated with a lower desmethylclomipramine/daily dose and the total clomipramine and desmethylclomipramine/daily dose. Moreover, an improved response on the YBOCS-obsession score was associated with higher serum levels of clomipramine and the total clomipramine and desmethylclomipramine/daily dose. Patients with a greater reduction in baseline YBOCS rating had a lower desmethylclomipramine/clomipramine ratio. These data suggest that a lower demethylation rate correlates with better clinical outcome.

  17. The Comparison of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy with Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors in the Treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaghoob Vakili

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs, and the combination of ACT and SSRIs in the treatment of adults with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD. Materials and Methods: In This experimental study 32 outpatients meeting DSM-IV-TR criteria for OCD were randomly assigned to one of three treatment conditions: ACT, SSRIs, and combined treatment. The Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS, Beck Depression Inventory-II-Second edition (BDI-II, and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI were administered at pre- and post-treatment. Twenty-seven patients completed the study. Data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVAs and one - way analysis of covariance (ANCOVAs, clinically significant change, and complete remission status. Results: Analyses with ANCOVA revealed that the patients treated with ACT and combined treatment experienced a significantly greater improvement in obsessive- compulsive symptoms at post-treatment as compared to those treated with SSRIs alone. However, there were no significant differences between ACT and combined treatment on OC symptoms. In addition, no significant differences were found between all the 3 treatment groups regarding reduction in the BDI-II and BAI scores at post-treatment. Clinically significant change and complete remission status results also showed that, unlike the SSRI, the ACT and combined treatment lead to more improvement in OC symptoms. Conclusion: ACT and combined treatment are more effective than SSRIs alone in treating OC symptoms. However, it seems that adding SSRIs to ACT does not increase the effectiveness of ACT in the treatment of adults with OCD in the short-term.

  18. Escitalopram in the treatment of patients with schizophrenia and obsessive-compulsive disorder: an open-label, prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stryjer, Rafael; Dambinsky, Yael; Timinsky, Igor; Green, Tamar; Kotler, Moshe; Weizman, Abraham; Spivak, Baruch

    2013-03-01

    The current data suggest that up to 50% of patients with schizophrenia have obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms coexisting with psychosis and between 7.8 and 46% of schizophrenia patients also have full-blown obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of the most selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor escitalopram in the management of OCD in schizophrenia patients. The study was an open-label prospective trial of 12 weeks' duration in which escitalopram at a dose of up to 20 mg/day was added to the existing antipsychotic drug regimen in schizophrenia patients with OCD. Fifteen patients (10 men/five women) with the diagnosis of schizophrenia and OCD were recruited for the study (mean age: 39±14, range 21-61 years) and received escitalopram according to the study design. A significant improvement was observed in the total Yale Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) scores and in the scores of both the Y-BOCS-Obsession and the Y-BOCS-Compulsion subscale at the end point. In addition, a significant improvement was observed in the total scores of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and particularly in scores of anxiety, tension, depression, and preoccupation items. No adverse effects of escitalopram were reported by patients during the trial. In our prospective 12-week open-label study, escitalopram 20 mg/day was well tolerated and improved OC symptoms in schizophrenia patients. Our preliminary results are encouraging and a double-blind randomized study is required to confirm our results.

  19. Clinical Profile and Comorbidity of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder among Children and Adolescents: A Cross-Sectional Observation in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Hafizur Rahman Chowdhury

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD is a common disorder characterised by persistent and unwanted intrusive thoughts, images, and urges and repetitive behaviours or mental acts and can cause pervasive impairments. In Bangladesh, the prevalence of OCD among children is 2% which is higher than in previous reporting. This study was aimed at looking into the type, frequency, and severity of symptoms of OCD and comorbidity among children and adolescents. A consecutive 60 OCD cases from a child mental health service with age range of 5–18 years were recruited and divided into below and above 12 years of age group. The assessment was carried out using standardized Bangla version of Development and Wellbeing Assessment and Children’s Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale was administered. Of the obsession, contamination was the highest followed by doubt, and of the compulsion, washing/cleaning was the highest followed by checking, repeating, and ordering rituals. More than half of the subjects had severe OCD and comorbidity was present in 58% subjects. Specific phobia, social phobia, major depressive disorder, and tic disorder were more prevalent. These symptoms and comorbidity profile can serve the baseline data for a country like Bangladesh and further large scale study would better generalize the study results.

  20. Sleep, arousal, and circadian rhythms in adults with obsessive-compulsive disorder: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nota, Jacob A; Sharkey, Katherine M; Coles, Meredith E

    2015-04-01

    Findings of this meta-analysis show that obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is related to disruptions in both the duration and timing of sleep. PsycINFO and Google Scholar database searches identified 12 relevant studies that compared measures of sleep in individuals with OCD to those of either a healthy control group or published norms. Sleep measures included sleep onset latency, sleep duration, awakening after sleep onset, percentage of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, percentage of slow wave sleep, and prevalence of delayed sleep phase disorder (DSPD). Individual effect sizes were pooled using a random effects model. Sleep duration was found to be shorter, and the prevalence of DSPD higher, in individuals with OCD compared to controls. Further, excluding samples with comorbid depression did not meaningfully reduce the magnitude of these effects (although the results were no longer statistically significant) and medication use by participants is unlikely to have systematically altered sleep timing. Overall, available data suggest that sleep disruption is associated with OCD but further research on both sleep duration and sleep timing in individuals with OCD is needed.

  1. Obsessive-compulsive disorder for ICD-11: proposed changes to the diagnostic guidelines and specifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Blair Simpson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the approval of the ICD-10 by the World Health Organization (WHO in 1990, global research on obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD has expanded dramatically. This article evaluates what changes may be needed to enhance the scientific validity, clinical utility, and global applicability of OCD diagnostic guidelines in preparation for ICD-11. Existing diagnostic guidelines for OCD were compared. Key issues pertaining to clinical description, differential diagnosis, and specifiers were identified and critically reviewed on the basis of the current literature. Specific modifications to ICD guidelines are recommended, including: clarifying the definition of obsessions (i.e., that obsessions can be thoughts, images, or impulses/urges and compulsions (i.e., clarifying that these can be behaviors or mental acts and not calling these “stereotyped”; stating that compulsions are often associated with obsessions; and removing the ICD-10 duration requirement of at least 2 weeks. In addition, a diagnosis of OCD should no longer be excluded if comorbid with Tourette syndrome, schizophrenia, or depressive disorders. Moreover, the ICD-10 specifiers (i.e., predominantly obsessional thoughts, compulsive acts, or mixed should be replaced with a specifier for insight. Based on new research, modifications to the ICD-10 diagnostic guidelines for OCD are recommended for ICD-11.

  2. Deep brain stimulation for treatment refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder--a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csigó, Katalin; Dome, Lászó; Valálik, I; Harsányi, András; Demeter, Gyula; Racsmány, Mihály

    2010-03-30

    In the past 30 years it has been a great development in the unders-anding and therapy of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Adequate pharmaco- and cognitive-behavior therapies reduce the symptoms in 40-60% of patients, so a remarkable portion of patients still remains refractory to conventional treatment. Neurosurgery--with it's reversible and irreversible techniques--brought a breakthrough in the therapy of treatment refractory patients. In the present case, we represent a 3 months follow-up of an obsessive-compulsive pctient treated by deep brain stimulation. In our case, the stimulation target was the anterior limb of internal capsule. The clinical symptoms were measured by Y-BOCS. In addition various neuropsychological tests were used to monitor patient's executive functions before and 3 months after the deep brain stimulation. We found that obsessive-compu sive symptoms improved after three months of the stimulation. The neuropsychological tests showed improvement in some executive functions (e.g. fluency, set-shifting, decision making). On the other hand our results revealed severe neurocognitive--mainly attention skill--deficits in a treatment refractory obsessive-compulsive patient.

  3. Neuropsychological Functioning in Obsessive-Compulsive Washers: Drug-Naive Without Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saremi, Ali Akbar; Shariat, Seyed Vahid; Nazari, Mohammad Ali; Dolatshahi, Behrooz

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a complex and heterogeneous neuropsychiatric syndrome. Contamination obsessions and washing/cleaning compulsions are the most frequent clinical OCD subtypes. The current study aimed at examining the neuropsychological impairments in drug-naive obsessive-compulsive (OC) washers without depressive symptoms and their association with the severity of symptoms. Methods: In the current causal-comparative study, 35 patients with diagnostic and statistical mental disorders class (DSM)-IV diagnosed with washing-subtype OCD and 35 healthy subjects were selected by the convenience sampling method and evaluated by computerized neuropsychology battery and clinical tests as Stroop Color-Word Test (SCWT), Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), Go/No-Go Test, Digits Forward (DF), Digits Backward (DB), Yale-Brown Obsessive–Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ)-28. The patients were matched to the comparison group with regard to age, gender, intelligence quotient (IQ), education, and handedness. All the tests were standardized in Iran. SPSS version 20.00 was used for descriptive and analytical data analysis. Results: There was no statistically significant different between the OCD washing and the control groups regarding socio-demographic variables or IQ. There were significant differences between the OC washer and the healthy control groups on the neuropsychological functioning. The obtained results suggested that OC washers performed significantly worse on neuropsychological measures than the controls. There was no significant association between the severity of OC symptoms and the neuropsychological functions in the OCD washing group. Conclusion: It was concluded that executive function impairment, which is a core feature in OC washers was trait-like in nature. PMID:28781731

  4. The role of avoidant and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder traits in matching patients with major depression to cognitive behavioral and psychodynamic therapy : A replication study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kikkert, Martijn J; Driessen, Ellen; Peen, Jaap; Barber, Jacques P; Bockting, Claudi; Schalkwijk, Frans; Dekker, Jeff; Dekker, Jack J M

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Barber and Muenz (1996) reported that cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) was more effective than interpersonal therapy (IPT) for depressed patients with elevated levels of avoidant personality disorder, while IPT was more effective than CBT in patients with elevated levels of obsessive-com

  5. The role of avoidant and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder traits in matching patients with major depression to cognitive behavioral and psychodynamic therapy : A replication study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kikkert, M. J.; Driessen, E.; Peen, J.; Barber, J. P.; Bockting, C. L. H.; Schalkwijk, F.; Dekker, J.; Dekker, J. J. M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Barber and Muenz (1996) reported that cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) was more effective than interpersonal therapy (IPT) for depressed patients with elevated levels of avoidant personality disorder, while IPT was more effective than CBT in patients with elevated levels of

  6. Clinical Philosophy for the treatment of paranoid schizophrenia and obsessive-compulsive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Gole

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Clinical Philosophy (CP can be understood as an approach to the treatment of mental disorders. The goal of the present study is to put this CP approach to a first empirical testing. I present Arnold, a comorbid case with an insufficient treatment response to conventional, standard cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT. Using a single case pre-test/post-test design a CP approach was developed drawing heavily on existentialist and philosophy-oriented writers. The client responded well to this novel treatment approach. Above all, levels of intolerance of uncertainty improved greatly from pre- to post-treatment. Also, a decrease in overall illness severity as well as specific psychopathological variables such as obsessive-compulsive symptoms, depression, and anxiety could be observed. Results are discussed in terms of the underlying mechanism of the CP approach. An account of the underlying mechanism of efficacy, understood as a tripartite function, is introduced. CP as a philosophy-oriented method within the broader framework of third wave CBT and existential analysis is considered.

  7. Quality of Life and its Correlates in Patients With Obsessive-compulsive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Ying Hou

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The care of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD has raised quality of life (QOL issues. The purpose of this study was to compare the level of QOL between patients with and without OCD, and to examine the associations between QOL and sociodemographic data, course of illness, psychopathology, perceived social support, and treatment characteristics. The QOL levels measured with the Taiwan version of the Short Form of the World Health Organization Questionnaire on Quality of Life were compared between 57 subjects with OCD and 106 subjects without OCD. The correlates of QOL were examined among subjects with OCD. The analysis revealed that QOL scores for the general, physical, psychological and social relationship domains were lower in the OCD group than in the control group; however, no difference in the environmental domain was found. Multiple factors were associated with poor QOL in subjects with OCD, including comorbid depression, severe obsession symptoms, perceived low social support, severe adverse effects of medication, combined use of mood stabilizers, and low social status. Different domains of QOL are differently affected by OCD. The QOL of subjects with OCD was correlated to multiple factors that were specific to individual subjects and influenced by interactions with treatment and the social environment.

  8. Methamphetamine and fluoxetine treatment of a child with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussing, R; Levin, G M

    1993-01-01

    ABSTRACT An 11-year-old child with obsessive-compulsive disorder, major depression, and attentiondeficit hyperactivity disorder was successfully treated with a combination of fluoxetine (mean 30 mg daily) and methamphetamine (sustained release 10 mg daily). Methamphetamine was selected because of the desirability of avoiding stimulants whose commercial formulations contain food dyes (this child appeared sensitive to tartrazine in dextroamphetamine and other agents), whose effects on hepatic metabolism were minimal (unlike methylphenidate) and whose mechanism of action is reliably rapid (unlike pemoline). Although methamphetamine carries the stigma of an abusable drug and has been implicated in neurotoxicity in animals when used at extremely high doses, methamphetamine may have certain advantages over other psychostimulants in some clinical situations. The combined use of fluoxetine and methamphetamine did not appear to be associated with significant adverse effects.

  9. Quality of Life in Children with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Joana; Ramalho E Silva, Filipa

    2016-09-01

    Introdução: A perturbação obsessiva-compulsiva foi apontada como uma das doenças mais debilitantes do mundo desenvolvido. Contudo, muito pouco é conhecido sobre esta doença relativamente ao modo como ela afeta a qualidade de vida das crianças. Material e Métodos: Conduzimos uma pesquisa na PubMed e Thomson Reuters Web Of Science usando os seguintes termos de pesquisa: ‘Quality of life’, ‘Obsessive-compulsive disorder’, ‘Child’, ‘Pediatrics’ e ‘Adolescent’. Dos 138 artigos obtidos, cinco correspondiam aos objetivos desta revisão. Analisámos a qualidade de vida de crianças com perturbação obsessiva-compulsiva comparando com a população geral e procurando a relação com outras variáveis clinicas como o sexo, idade, comorbilidades, categoria de sintomas, severidade dos sintomas e acomodação familiar. Resultados: Apesar dos estudos não serem concordantes relativamente às diferentes dimensões analisadas, os nossos resultados apontam para um decréscimo global da qualidade de vida em crianças com perturbação obsessiva-compulsiva. A presença de comorbilidades, a severidade dos sintomas e as obsessões de agressão/dano são as variáveis que têm maior influência na qualidade de vida dos pacientes. Discussão: O reduzido número de artigos encontrados e o facto de estes apresentarem uma metodologia extremamente heterogénea torna difícil alcançar conclusões robustas. Apesar disto, os nossos resultados são concordantes com estudos realizados em adultos. Conclusão: A qualidade de vida em crianças e adolescentes deve ser melhor explorada em futuros estudos. Sugerimos a introdução da qualidade de vida como instrumento usado rotineiramente para avaliar a resposta ao tratamento e evolução do paciente.

  10. Comparative neuropsychiatry: white matter abnormalities in children and adolescents with schizophrenia, bipolar affective disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, T; Langen, C; Schmidt, M; Hough, M; James, A

    2015-02-01

    There is considerable evidence that white matter abnormalities play a key role in the pathogenesis of a number of major psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, bipolar affective disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Few studies, however, have compared white matter abnormalities early in the course of the illness. A total of 102 children and adolescents participated in the study, including 43 with early-onset schizophrenia, 13 with early-onset bipolar affective disorder, 17 with obsessive-compulsive disorder, and 29 healthy controls. Diffusion tensor imaging scans were obtained on all children and the images were assessed for the presence of non-spatially overlapping regions of white matter differences, a novel algorithm known as the pothole approach. Patients with early-onset schizophrenia and early-onset bipolar affective disorder had a significantly greater number of white matter potholes compared to controls, but the total number of potholes did not differ between the two groups. The volumes of the potholes were significantly larger in patients with early-onset bipolar affective disorder compared to the early-onset schizophrenia group. Children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder showed no differences in the total number of white matter potholes compared to controls. White matter abnormalities in early-onset schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder are more global in nature, whereas children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder do not show widespread differences in FA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Differential efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy and pharmacological treatments for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Meca, Julio; Rosa-Alcázar, Ana I; Iniesta-Sepúlveda, Marina; Rosa-Alcázar, Angel

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a meta-analysis about the differential efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), pharmacological and combined treatment for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The literature research and the application of the inclusion criteria enabled us to locate 18 studies, yielding a total of 24 independent comparisons between a treated (10 pharmacological, 11 CBT, and 3 combined interventions) and a control group. All types of interventions were efficacious in reducing obsessive-compulsive symptoms, with effect sizes adjusted by the type of control group of d=1.203 for CBT, d=0.745 for pharmacological treatments, and d=1.704 for mixed treatments. Depression, anxiety and other secondary responses were also improved, especially with CBT interventions. The analysis of moderator variables showed that the CBT protocol and the total of intervention hours exhibited a significant influence on the effect size. Within pharmacological treatment, clomipramine (d=1.305) was more efficacious than selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (d=0.644), but its adverse effects were more severe. Finally, the clinical implications of the results are discussed.

  12. "Not Just Right Experiences" as a psychological endophenotype for obsessive-compulsive disorder: Evidence from an Italian family study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sica, Claudio; Bottesi, Gioia; Caudek, Corrado; Orsucci, Antonella; Ghisi, Marta

    2016-11-30

    The heart of the obsessional process may be considered the subject's underlying impression that "something is wrong" or "that something is not just as it should be". This phenomenon, labeled "not just right experiences" (NJREs), has increasingly been receiving attention as a possible marker of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The present study sought to add to the evidence that NJREs may be a putative endophenotype of obsessional symptoms. To this aim, measures of NJREs, obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms and psychological distress were compared in offspring of parents with and without OC symptoms. The offspring of parents with OC symptoms (N=120) reported higher frequency and severity of NJREs compared to offspring of parents without OC symptoms (N=106). Such differences remained significant for NJREs frequency and close to significance for NJREs severity, when general distress (i.e., anxiety and depression) was controlled. The possible role of NJREs as an endophenotype for OCD is discussed in reference to Gottesman and Gould criteria and the National Institute of Mental Health RDoC initiative. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Cool and Hot Aspects of Executive Function in Childhood Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hybel, Katja Anna; Erik lykke, Mortensen; Lambek, Rikke

    2016-01-01

    Aspects of executive functioning (EF) have been put forward as endophenotypes in obsessive- compulsive disorder (OCD) and meta-analyses support EF underperformance in adult samples. Childhood-onset OCD has been suggested to constitute a separate neurodevelopmental subtype of the disorder......-17 years of which 70% were female, 50 pairwise age and gender matched non-psychiatric controls (NP) and 38 children and adolescents with mixed anxiety disorders (MA). Participants underwent structured diagnostic interviews and assessment with a battery encompassing cool EF tasks of working memory, set...

  14. Vitamin D insufficiency in a boy with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Gonca; Tas, Didem Arslan; Varmıs, Dilek Altun; Tahiroglu, Aysegul; Avci, Ayse

    2016-07-01

    Vitamin D deficiency not only causes low bone mass but also may lead to neuropsychiatric disorders. In the present case, vitamin D supplementation reduced obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms associated with streptococcal infection in a 7-year-old boy. Sudden onset of symptoms, including excessive hand washing and fear of touching anything, had occurred 1 month before presentation. Although there are few studies on a possible causal relationship between vitamin D and neuropsychiatric disorders, the present report; together with previous data, suggest an etiological role of vitamin D-related immune processes.

  15. Depression, anxiety and obsessive-compulsive symptoms in relation to nutritional status and outcome in severe anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattar, Lama; Thiébaud, Marie-Raphaele; Huas, Caroline; Cebula, Christelle; Godart, Nathalie

    2012-12-30

    Depression, anxiety and obsessive-compulsive disorder are frequently reported to co-occur with anorexia nervosa (AN). There is clinical consensus that depressive symptoms and anxiety may in part be sequelae of malnutrition in AN. However, evidence-based data are still very rare. The present study among severe AN patients investigates links between these psychological variants and nutritional status at admission and subsequent to nutritional rehabilitation. Twenty-four women with AN diagnosed according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual IV (DSM-IV) were included prospectively and consecutively at hospitalisation. Nutritional status was assessed by body mass index (BMI). Several psychological aspects were assessed using various scales for depression, anxiety, social phobia, obsessive and eating behaviour symptoms. Follow-up weights and heights at 4-12 years after hospital discharge were measured in 18 patients. BMI and all the scores except the Yale-Brown obsessive-compulsive scale (Y-BOCS) showed significant improvement between admission and discharge. This study highlights the fact that some of the depressive and anxiety symptoms at least partially decrease with nutrition rehabilitation. The improvement in the scores on the psychometric scales between admission and discharge was not correlated with BMI improvement. Psychometric scores at admission and at discharge were not correlated with BMI at follow-up. BMI at follow-up was correlated with minimum lifetime BMI (r=0.486, P=0.04). Future studies should use a better indicator for nutritional status than BMI alone, and should also consider the initial degree of weight loss and the rate at which weight was lost. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS) between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, McKenzie L.; Guo, Wei; Samuels, Jack F.; Wang, Ying; Nestadt, Paul S.; Krasnow, Janice; Greenberg, Benjamin D.; Fyer, Abby J.; McCracken, James T.; Geller, Daniel A.; Murphy, Dennis L.; Knowles, James A.; Grados, Marco A.; Riddle, Mark A.; Rasmussen, Steven A.; McLaughlin, Nicole C.; Nurmi, Erika L.; Askland, Kathleen D.; Cullen, Bernadette; Piacentini, John; Pauls, David L.; Bienvenu, Joseph; Stewart, Evelyn; Goes, Fernando S.; Maher, Brion; Pulver, Ann E.; Mattheisen, Manuel; Qian, Ji; Nestadt, Gerald; Shugart, Yin Yao

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to identify any potential genetic overlap between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). We hypothesized that since these disorders share a sub-phenotype, they may share common risk alleles. In this manuscript, we report the overlap found between these two disorders. Methods: A meta-analysis was conducted between ADHD and OCD, and polygenic risk scores (PRS) were calculated for both disorders. In addition, a protein-protein analysis was completed in order to examine the interactions between proteins; p-values for the protein-protein interaction analysis was calculated using permutation. Conclusion: None of the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) reached genome wide significance and there was little evidence of genetic overlap between ADHD and OCD. PMID:28386217

  17. Restricted, Repetitive Behaviors in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Comparative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiujias, Marina; Kelley, Elizabeth; Hall, Layla

    2017-03-09

    This review paper critically examines literature regarding restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD). The similar behavioral profiles of these disorders presents the potential for confusion regarding diagnoses and intervention efforts. As such, this review highlights the similarities and differences between RRBs in ASD and OCD. The developmental trajectories of RRBs are presented, followed by an exploration of three constructs implicated in RRB manifestation: anxiety, executive functioning, and sensory phenomena. While RRBs tend to develop with some similarity in both disorders, the differing role of anxiety highlights important distinctions between ASD and OCD. We urge researchers and clinicians to think critically about the dimensions that affect RRB presentation. Future research should use this review as a starting point to further elucidate the differences between RRBs in these two populations.

  18. Perfectionism in obsessive-compulsive and eating disorders Perfeccionismo no transtorno obsessivo-compulsivo e nos transtornos alimentares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berta Rodrigues Maia

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The main aims of this article are twofold. First, to assess perfectionism dimensions in obsessive-compulsive disorder and eating disorders in comparison with psychiatric control (depression/anxiety and non-clinical control groups. Second, to examine if perfectionism is specifically related to these different clinical conditions. METHOD: Thirty-nine outpatients with obsessive-compulsive disorder, 24 outpatients with eating disorders, 65 outpatients with a diagnosis of depression and/or anxiety, and 70 non-clinical participants completed the Portuguese version of the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale. RESULTS: Compared to non-clinical subjects, individuals of all clinical samples had significantly higher scores on Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale total score, Self-Oriented and Socially-Prescribed Perfectionism. There were no significantly differences in Self-Oriented Perfectionism and Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale total score in all the three clinical samples. Subjects from the eating disorders sample had significantly higher scores of Socially-Prescribed Perfectionism in comparison to obsessive-compulsive disorder and psychiatric control samples. CONCLUSION: Perfectionism showed to be related with this broad range of psychopathologies. However, the differences between eating disorders versus obsessive-compulsive disorder and psychiatric control on Socially-Prescribed Perfectionism warrant further investigation in order to clarify the specificity of this perfectionism dimension in eating disorders.OBJETIVO: Este estudo tem dois objetivos principais. Primeiro, avaliar as dimensões do perfeccionismo no transtorno obsessivo-compulsivo e nos transtornos alimentares em comparação com duas amostras controle: psiquiátrica (depressão/ansiedade e não clínica. Segundo, avaliar se o perfeccionismo é um traço de personalidade especificamente relacionado com estas diferentes condições clínicas. MÉTODO: 39 pacientes com

  19. Correlation Between Migraine Headaches and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Two Year Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarabian MK

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Migraine is the most common cause of headache which affects 15% of female and 6% of male populations. Patients with migraine may have psychological problems, thus, association of migraine with depression, anxiety and other psychological disorders should be considered for choosing the best management approach. Methods: In this case-control analytical study, one hundred and twenty patients with migraine were recruited among patients who attended the Psychiatry Clinic of Farshchian Hospital in Hamedan, Iran during 2008- 2009. The patients met the IHS criteria for migraine and none had disorders, such as Huntington disease, that are associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD. The people who accompanied patients attending the Internal Medicine Clinic of the Hospital and had no history of migraine headaches were recruited as the controls. Maudsleys inventory was used for the diagnosis of OCD. Finally, the data were analyzed by SPSS software. Results: In the control group, 3 (2.5% and in the case group 11 (9.17% people had OCD (P=0.024. All of those with OCD in the control group and 9 out of 11 in the case group were female. There were no cases of OCD among patients with mild migraine. Among 36 patients with moderate headache 5 (13.89% people had OCD and among 62 people with severe migraine 6 (9.68% had OCD (P=0.510. Conclusion: The prevalence of OCD in patients with migraine was significantly higher than the normal population. Special attention to comorbid conditions such as OCD is necessary in the management of migraine headaches.

  20. Cognitive-behavioral high parental involvement treatments for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iniesta-Sepúlveda, Marina; Rosa-Alcázar, Ana I; Sánchez-Meca, Julio; Parada-Navas, José L; Rosa-Alcázar, Ángel

    2017-06-01

    A meta-analysis on the efficacy of cognitive-behavior-family treatment (CBFT) on children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) was accomplished. The purposes of the study were: (a) to estimate the effect magnitude of CBFT in ameliorating obsessive-compulsive symptoms and reducing family accommodation on pediatric OCD and (b) to identify potential moderator variables of the effect sizes. A literature search enabled us to identify 27 studies that fulfilled our selection criteria. The effect size index was the standardized pretest-postest mean change index. For obsessive-compulsive symptoms, the adjusted mean effect size for CBFT was clinically relevant and statistically significant in the posttest (dadj=1.464). For family accommodation the adjusted mean effect size was also positive and statistically significant, but in a lesser extent than for obsessive-compulsive symptoms (dadj=0.511). Publication bias was discarded as a threat against the validity of the meta-analytic results. Large heterogeneity among effect sizes was found. Better results were found when CBFT was individually applied than in group (d+=2.429 and 1.409, respectively). CBFT is effective to reduce obsessive-compulsive symptoms, but offers a limited effect for family accommodation. Additional modules must be included in CBFT to improve its effectiveness on family accommodation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Towards a post-traumatic subtype of obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontenelle, Leonardo F; Cocchi, Luca; Harrison, Ben J; Shavitt, Roseli G; do Rosário, Maria Conceição; Ferrão, Ygor A; de Mathis, Maria Alice; Cordioli, Aristides V; Yücel, Murat; Pantelis, Christos; Mari, Jair de Jesus; Miguel, Euripedes C; Torres, Albina R

    2012-03-01

    We evaluated whether traumatic events are associated with a distinctive pattern of socio-demographic and clinical features of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). We compared socio-demographic and clinical features of 106 patients developing OCD after post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD; termed post-traumatic OCD), 41 patients developing OCD before PTSD (pre-traumatic OCD), and 810 OCD patients without any history of PTSD (non-traumatic OCD) using multinomial logistic regression analysis. A later age at onset of OCD, self-mutilation disorder, history of suicide plans, panic disorder with agoraphobia, and compulsive buying disorder were independently related to post-traumatic OCD. In contrast, earlier age at OCD onset, alcohol-related disorders, contamination-washing symptoms, and self-mutilation disorder were all independently associated with pre-traumatic OCD. In addition, patients with post-traumatic OCD without a previous history of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) showed lower educational levels, greater rates of contamination-washing symptoms, and more severe miscellaneous symptoms as compared to post-traumatic OCD patients with a history of OCS.

  2. When religion and obsessive-compulsive disorder collide: treating scrupulosity in Ultra-Orthodox Jews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huppert, Jonathan D; Siev, Jedidiah; Kushner, Elyssa S

    2007-10-01

    Evidence-based practice suggests that clinicians should integrate the best available research with clinical judgment and patient values. Treatment of religious patients with scrupulosity provides a paradigmatic example of such integration. The purpose of this study is to describe potential adaptations to make exposure and response prevention, the first-line treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder, acceptable and consistent with the values of members of the Ultra-Orthodox Jewish community. We believe that understanding these challenges will enhance the clinician's ability to increase patient motivation and participation in therapy and thereby provide more effective treatment for these and other religious patients. (c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. NO ASSOCIATION BETWEEN TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR ALPHA AND OBSESSIVE COMPULSIVE DISORDER IN CHINESE HAN POPULATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate association between tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) in Chinese Han population.Methods Plasma concentrations of TNF-α were measured in 61 drug-free patients who fulfilled DSM-Ⅳ criteria for OCD and 93 healthy controls.TNF-α concentrations in blood were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).Two polymorphisms of TNF-α gene were investigated in the same patients and healthy controls:-308 G/A and-238 G/A.The allelic and genoty...

  4. Cross MFF—analysis in studying the obsessive-compulsive disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demin, S. A.; Panischev, O. Yu; Demina, N. Yu

    2016-08-01

    There were demonstrated capabilities of the Memory Function Formalism (MFF) in analyzing cross correlations in human brain bioelectric activity at obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). To extract the information about collective phenomena in (electroencephalogram) EEG brain activity we use the power spectra of memory functions and the memory quantifiers. We discover the pairs of the electrodes with the greatest differences in dynamic and stochastic parameters for patients with the different condition. The high OCD condition is characterized by the influence of the memory effects. The MFF cross correlation analysis allow to describe the collective phenomena in EEG dynamics at OCD including the dynamic, spectral and stochastic behavior.

  5. Prevalence and correlates of electroconvulsive therapy delivery in 1001 obsessive-compulsive disorder outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos-Ribeiro, Samara; Lins-Martins, Natália M; Frydman, Ilana; Conceição do Rosário, Maria; Ferrão, Ygor A; Shavitt, Roseli G; Yücel, Murat; Miguel, Euripedes C; Fontenelle, Leonardo F

    2016-05-30

    Individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) who sought treatment in seven different specialized centers (n=1001) were evaluated with a structured assessment battery. Thirteen OCD patients (1.3% of the sample) reported having been treated with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in the past. They were older and exhibited higher global severity of OCD symptoms, but were less likely to display symmetry/ordering and contamination/washing symptoms. They also had greater suicidality and increased rates of psychosis. Finally, OCD patients exposed to ECT were more frequently treated with antipsychotics, although they did not differ in terms of responses to adequate trials with serotonin reuptake inhibitors.

  6. [The treatment of hypersexuality in a male with obsessive compulsive disorder as psychiatric co-morbidity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jairam, J; van Marle, H J C

    2008-01-01

    Patients with paraphilias often also have psychiatric co-morbidity. In this study of a case from an outpatient clinic we discuss the treatment of paraphilia not otherwise specified, characterised by hypersexuality, in a patient with paraphilia and psychiatric co-morbidity. After explaning the diagnosis and treatment plan we describe how the treatment proceeded. We begin by focusing on interventions to tackle the symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder and then concentrate more on the patient's hypersexuality and treatment by means of pharmacology. Thereafter we make a more detailed study of the role played by libido-reducing drug in the treatment of the patient's hypersexuality.

  7. Obsessive-compulsive disorder: a new risk factor for Alzheimer disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrabet Khiari, Hela; Achouri, Afef; Ben Ali, Nadia; Cherif, Aroua; Batti, Hend; Messaoud, Taieb; Mrabet, Amel

    2011-10-01

    We describe a case of a 75-year-old woman referred to the Memory Clinic of the neurological Department of Charles Nicolle Hospital, Tunis, for cognitive decline and behavioral disturbances. Her past medical history was marked by severe obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) with contamination obsessions and washing compulsions. She has a family history for OCD and/or of dementia in 15 members. Clinical features, along with neuropsychological findings and Brain imaging were in favor of Alzheimer disease (AD). The present report is the first family study reporting the possible association of OCD and AD. The glutamatergic dysfunction may be a common pathophysiology of OCD and AD explaining this association.

  8. The psychobiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder: how important is the role of disgust?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, D J; Liu, Y; Shapira, N A; Goodman, W K

    2001-08-01

    Psychobiologic models of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have focused on cortico-striatal-thalamic-cortical (CTSC) circuits, noting normal function in cognitive and motoric procedural strategies. Such models have relied on the classification of OCD as an anxiety disorder, seldom exploring other relevant emotions. Based on the hypothesis that a central emotion in OCD is disgust, the authors review the literature on its psychobiology and its relevance to current models of OCD. There are important parallels between the psychobiology of OCD and that of disgust. Obsessive- compulsive disorder may be conceptualized in terms of a false contamination alarm in which disgust plays a crucial organizing or embodying role, not only at a basic brain level, but also in terms of the psychosocial aspects of the disorder. Just as psychobiologic models of panic disorder and post- traumatic stress disorder have been strengthened by the inclusion of preclinical work on amygdala-mediated fear conditioning, so findings on disgust and its mediating CSTC circuits may generate useful hypotheses for OCD research.

  9. Changes in metabolism of cerebral glucose after stereotactic leukotomy for refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biver, F; Goldman, S; François, A; De La Porte, C; Luxen, A; Gribomont, B; Lotstra, F

    1995-01-01

    Brain glucose metabolism was investigated with PET and [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose, before and after a bifrontal stereotactic leukotomy in a 37 year old woman with refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder. A bilateral decrease in glucose metabolism was found in the orbital frontal cortex after psychosurgery. Glucose metabolism was decreased to a lesser degree in Brodmann's area 25, in the thalamus, and in the caudate nucleus. Clinical improvement in obsessive-compulsive disorder after stereotactic tractotomy seems to be associated with metabolic changes in the brain, in particular, in the orbital part of the frontal lobe. Images PMID:7738568

  10. The subjective well-being of patients with major depression disorder, anxiety disorders and obsessive-compulsive disorder%抑郁症、焦虑症、强迫症患者主观幸福感比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王阳; 李箕君; 王纯; 张宁; 张婕; 张亚林

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To compare the difference of subjective well-being between patients with major depression disorder (MDD) , anxiety disorders ( AD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder ( OCD) and explore the applicability of the Theory of subjective well-being homeostasis to MDD,AD and OCD. Method:Patients with MDD(n=79) ,AD(n =53) and OCD(n=48) and control group(n= 57) were measured with Hamilton depression scale ( HAMD) and Subjective Well-being Index Questionnaire. Results: ①There were significant differences in the scores of subjective well-being index between patients groups (MDD, AD and OCD) and control group ( F = 16. 55 , P < 0. 01) . ②In MDD group,The scores of subjective well-being index and the desperation factor scores are negatively correlated (P<0.01) ;In AD group,The scores of subjective well - being index and the cognition factor scores,the sleep factor scores,the desperation factor scores are negatively correlated (P < 0.05) ;In OCD group,The scores of subjective well-being index and the HAMD scores, the diurnal variation scores,the retardation scores,the desperation factor scores are negatively correlated (P <0.05). ③Stepwise regression analysis indicated the desperation factor and the anxiety factor significantly affect the level of subjective well-being in MDD group;the cognition factor and the sleep factor significantly affect the level of subjective well-being in AD group;the desperation factor significantly affect the level of subjective well-being in OCD group. Conclusion:Subjective well - being in patients with MDD,AD and OCD is lower than control people,and associated with depressive symptoms.%目的:比较抑郁症、焦虑症、强迫症患者主观幸福感的异同,探索主观幸福感稳态理论对三者的适用性. 方法:对门诊和病房的抑郁症(n=79)、焦虑症(n=53)、强迫症(n=48)患者,及正常对照组(n=57)被试进行24项汉密顿抑郁量表(HAMD)、幸福感指数问卷测评分析. 结果:①抑郁症组、焦

  11. Insight, Cognitive Insight and Sociodemographic Features in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Presenting with Reactive and Autogeneus Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katre ÇAMLI

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the present study was to test hypothesis that obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD patients who have autogenous obsessions and reactive obsessions show different sociodemographic and clinical characteristics with different insight and cognitive insight levels. Method: Sixty-one patients diagnosed as OCD according to the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R (SCID-I are recruited. 31 patients had reactive obsessions and 30 had autogenous obsessions. The sociodemographic characteristics of patients and the symptomatology were evaluated using psychiatric scales including SCID-I, Yale Brown Obsessive- Compulsive Scale (YBOCS, Yale Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale-Symptom Checklist (YBOCS-SC and Beck Insight Scale. Results: The percentage of women in reactive obsessive group was higher and also this group had significantly less antipsychotic medication prescribed than the autogenous obsessive group. No significant difference was found for the other demographic variables. No significant difference was identified for the Beck Insight Self-Reflectiveness subscale but for the Self-Certainty subscale, reactive obsessives had higher scores. Although there was no significant difference for the composit index points, which is the subtraction of the two subscales, the p value was close to the limit. On the other hand YBOCS item- 11 scores which evaluates insight were higher in autogenous obsessives meaning low levels of insight. Conclusion: For the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics; there was no significant difference between the groups except gender distribution and antipsychotic medication. Our data about insight seems inconsistent but insight and cognitive insight can be different entities which show different levels of insight. Further investigation with different obsession types is needed.

  12. D-cycloserine augmentation in behavioral therapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia J

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Jing Xia,1 Yanqiu Du,2 Jiyang Han,1 Guo Liu,1 Xumei Wang11Department of Psychiatry, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Heping District Shenyang, Liaoning, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Medicine, Shenyang Ninth People’s Hospital, Tiexi District, Shenyang, Liaoning, People’s Republic of ChinaObjective: To evaluate the overall effect of D-cycloserine (DCS augmentation on exposure and response prevention (ERP therapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD.Methods: Clinical studies on the effect of DCS augmentation on ERP therapy for OCD compared to placebo were included for meta analysis. The primary outcome was the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS. Meta-analyses were performed with a random-effect model or a fixed-effect model using the Cochrane Review Manager (RevMan, version 5.2 to calculate the odds ratio and the mean difference, with their corresponding 95% confidence intervals.Results: A total of six studies was included in the current meta-analyses, and their data were extracted. Among them, four were for analyses of DCS and Y-BOCS at midtreatment, six for analysis at posttreatment, and four at 3-month follow-up. Besides, three of the six eligible studies were included in the meta-analysis of the DCS and Clinical Global Impression – Severity Scale at posttreatment, and three in the meta-analysis of DCS and proportions of treatment responders and of subjects attaining clinical remission status criteria at posttreatment. Our meta-analyses do not reveal a significant effect of DCS augmentation in ERP therapy for OCD patients, except when measured at midtreatment. Compared to the placebo group, DCS augmentation did show a trend toward significantly lower/decreased Y-BOCS; when measured at posttreatment and in the subpopulation of DCS taken before some of the ERP sessions, DCS augmentation showed a trend toward significantly lower/decreased Y-BOCS.Conclusion: Our result suggested that with the careful

  13. Reduced Prefrontal Hemodynamic Response in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder as Measured by Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Toyosaku; Iida, Junzo; Sawada, Masayuki; Suehiro, Yuko; Yamamuro, Kazuhiko; Matsuura, Hiroki; Tanaka, Shohei; Kishimoto, Naoko; Negoro, Hideki; Kishimoto, Toshifumi

    2013-01-01

    Recent developments in near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) have enabled non-invasive clarification of brain functions in psychiatric disorders. Functional neuroimaging studies of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have suggested that the frontal cortex and subcortical structures may play a role in the pathophysiology of the disorder.…

  14. Reduced Prefrontal Hemodynamic Response in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder as Measured by Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Toyosaku; Iida, Junzo; Sawada, Masayuki; Suehiro, Yuko; Yamamuro, Kazuhiko; Matsuura, Hiroki; Tanaka, Shohei; Kishimoto, Naoko; Negoro, Hideki; Kishimoto, Toshifumi

    2013-01-01

    Recent developments in near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) have enabled non-invasive clarification of brain functions in psychiatric disorders. Functional neuroimaging studies of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have suggested that the frontal cortex and subcortical structures may play a role in the pathophysiology of the disorder.…

  15. Comparing family accommodation in pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder, anxiety disorders, and nonanxious children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebowitz, Eli R; Scharfstein, Lindsay A; Jones, Johnna

    2014-12-01

    Family accommodation describes ways in which parents modify their behavior to help a child avoid or alleviate distress caused by emotional disorders. Accommodation is associated with increased symptom severity, lower functioning, and poorer treatment outcomes. Accommodation is prevalent in childhood obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and anxiety disorders (ADs) but no studies have compared accommodation in these groups or compared them to healthy controls to ascertain if accommodation is prevalent in the general population. This study addresses these gaps by comparing patterns of accommodation, factors that maintain accommodation, and its relation to symptom severity in OCD and AD, relative to healthy controls. We directly compared reports of accommodation to childhood OCD (N = 26) and AD (N = 31), and a comparison group of nonanxious (NA) children (N = 30). Mothers completed measures of accommodation (Family Accommodation Scale (FAS)/Family Accommodation Scale-Anxiety (FASA)), anxiety (Screen for Childhood Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders-Parent Report (SCARED-PR)), and OCD (Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (CYBOCS)). Family accommodation is prevalent among mothers of children with OCD and AD. Few differences were found between the two clinical groups who reported more accommodation (F[2,84] = 23.411, P anxiety in AD (r = .426, P = .017) and OCD (r = .465, P = .017), but not in the NA group. Findings highlight family accommodation as a phenomenon that applies broadly and in a similar manner to children with AD and OCD. Evaluating accommodation provides useful information for clinical care and is an important part of the assessment of children with AD and OCD. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Neither bipolar nor obsessive-compulsive disorder: compulsive buyers are impulsive acquirers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filomensky, Tatiana Zambrano; Almeida, Karla Mathias; Castro Nogueira, Marcelo Campos; Diniz, Juliana Belo; Lafer, Beny; Borcato, Sonia; Tavares, Hermano

    2012-07-01

    Compulsive buying (CB) is currently classified as an impulse control disorder (ICD) not otherwise classified. Compulsive buying prevalence is estimated at around 5% of the general population. There is controversy about whether CB should be classified as an ICD, a subsyndromal bipolar disorder (BD), or an obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) akin to a hoarding syndrome. To further investigate the appropriate classification of CB, we compared patients with CB, BD, and OCD for impulsivity, affective instability, hoarding, and other OCD symptoms. Eighty outpatients (24 CB, 21 BD, and 35 OCD) who were neither manic nor hypomanic were asked to fill out self-report questionnaires. Compulsive buying patients scored significantly higher on all impulsivity measures and on acquisition but not on the hoarding subdimensions of clutter and "difficulty discarding." Patients with BD scored higher on the mania dimension from the Structured Clinical Interview for Mood Spectrum scale. Patients with OCD scored higher on obsessive-compulsive symptoms and, particularly, higher on the contamination/washing and checking dimensions from the Padua Inventory; however, they did not score higher on any hoarding dimension. A discriminant model built with these variables correctly classified patients with CB (79%), BD (71%), and OCD (77%). Patients with CB came out as impulsive acquirers, resembling ICD- rather than BD- or OCD-related disorders. Manic symptoms were distinctive of patients with BD. Hoarding symptoms other than acquisition were not particularly associated with any diagnostic group. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The Association of Anger with Symptom Subtypes in Severe Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piacentino, Daria; Pasquini, Massimo; Tarsitani, Lorenzo; Berardelli, Isabella; Roselli, Valentina; Maraone, Annalisa; Biondi, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Despite the theoretical and clinical relevance of psychopathological dimensions in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), no studies to date have investigated their possible association with obsession subtypes. Thus, we aimed to examine whether, in OCD patients, anger and other psychopathological dimensions are associated with specific obsession subtypes. We consecutively recruited 57 first-visit OCD patients (66.7% female, mean age 34 years) at our Psychiatric Outpatient Clinic. We used the point biserial coefficient (rpbi) to measure the correlation between psychopathological dimensions and obsession subtypes. We found significant correlations (p < 0.05) between the following: (1) anger/aggressiveness dimension and aggressive, contamination, and sexual obsessions; (2) apprehension/fear dimension and contamination, religious, and somatic obsessions; (3) sadness/demoralization dimension and contamination and somatic obsessions; (4) impulsivity dimension and aggressive and sexual obsessions, and (5) somatic concern/somatization dimension and contamination and somatic obsessions. We also found that OCD patients with comorbid obsessive-compulsive personality disorder--but not schizotypal or histrionic disorders--showed higher levels (p < 0.05) of obsessiveness/iterativity and anger/aggressiveness than OCD patients without the personality disorder. Anger and other psychopathological dimensions seem to be linked with specific obsession subtypes in OCD patients, suggesting an association between these dimensions and OCD. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Using direct-to-consumer marketing strategies with obsessive-compulsive disorder in the nonprofit sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanski, Jeff

    2012-06-01

    Three to four million individuals struggle with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in the United States at any given time. OCD can be a debilitating disorder associated with significant quality-of-life and occupational impairment. First-line treatments for OCD (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and exposure and response prevention therapy) have been shown to be effective; yet, many individuals suffering from OCD experience multiple barriers to accessing these treatments. In fact, it can take as many as 17 years from onset of symptoms to effective treatment. Given the need to increase access to and utilization of effective treatments, direct-to-consumer marketing in the context of OCD appears crucial. The International OCD Foundation (formerly the Obsessive Compulsive Foundation) was established as a nonprofit organization with a mission to educate the public and mental health professionals about appropriate practice guidelines, raise awareness of the disorder, and ensure that individuals looking for treatment find the necessary resources. This paper reviews the obstacles those struggling with OCD face in their attempts to alleviate suffering, as well as the direct-to-consumer strategies and tactics used by the International OCD Foundation to improve access to empirically supported, effective treatment.

  19. Early maladaptive schemas activated in patients with obsessive compulsive disorder: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atalay, Hakan; Atalay, Figen; Karahan, Dilara; Caliskan, Mecit

    2008-01-01

    Aim. The aim of the present article is to investigate the activation patterns of early maladaptive schemas (EMSs) in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Method. During the time between 1 January 2006 and 1 April 2006, 45 consecutive patients from an outpatient facility of a general hospital and 45 age- and gender-matched healthy control subjects from the hospital staff were included in the study. They were administered the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnosis of DSM-IV Mental Disorders (SCID-1), the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R Personality Disorders (SCID-2), the Young Schema Questionnaire-Short Form (YSQ-SF), the Young Parenting Inventory (YPI) and the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS). The results were assessed using GraphPad Prisma V.3 statistical program. Results. The YSQ total score of the OCD group was significantly higher than the control group (t=3.62, Pschemas were significantly higher than the average scores of the control group, although the others did not make any difference between the OCD and control groups. Conclusion. The study demonstrates that, in the patients with OCD, most of the early maladaptive schemas including social isolation, vulnerability and pessimism, are prominently activated.

  20. REDUCED DISGUST PROPENSITY IS ASSOCIATED WITH IMPROVEMENT IN CONTAMINATION/WASHING SYMPTOMS IN OBSESSIVE-COMPULSIVE DISORDER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athey, Alison J.; Elias, Jason A.; Crosby, Jesse M.; Jenike, Michael A.; Pope, Harrison G.; Hudson, James I.; Brennan, Brian P.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Disgust is a well-established phenomenon with known neurobiological correlates. However, it remains unclear how or whether disgust changes with clinical treatment, because few longitudinal studies have tracked the association of disgust vulnerability and clinical symptoms in patient populations. Methods We assessed disgust propensity and symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in 134 patients receiving intensive residential treatment for OCD. Using linear regression with adjustment for age, sex, and depression severity, we tested the association between change in disgust propensity and change in OCD symptoms from admission to discharge. Results Change in disgust propensity was significantly associated with improvement in contamination/washing symptoms (β = 0.25 [95% confidence interval: 0.11–0.39]; P = .001). No significant association was found between change in disgust propensity and change in other OCD symptom dimensions. Conclusions In patients with OCD undergoing intensive residential treatment, disgust propensity appears to improve in parallel with contamination/washing symptoms. PMID:25485229

  1. Motivation, Time Course, and Heterogeneity in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Response to Taylor, McKay, and Abramowitz (2005)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woody, Erik Z.; Szechtman, Henry

    2005-01-01

    In response to commentary by S. Taylor, D. McKay, and J. S. Abramowitz, the authors discuss the distinctive features of their theory of obsessive-compulsive disorder outlined in their original article, which explains the disorder as a dysfunction of a security-motivation system. The authors address issues of the interrelation of emotion,…

  2. Brief Report: Exposure and Response Prevention for Obsessive Compulsive Disorder in a 12-Year-Old with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmkuhl, Heather D.; Storch, Eric A.; Bodfish, James W.; Geffken, Gary R.

    2008-01-01

    Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) involves exaggerated or excessive worry about threatening and non-threatening stimuli coupled with impairing rituals believed to reduce anxiety. Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are characterized by impairment in social and communicative activities as well as restricted and repetitive behaviors. Approximately 2%…

  3. Motivation, Time Course, and Heterogeneity in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Response to Taylor, McKay, and Abramowitz (2005)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woody, Erik Z.; Szechtman, Henry

    2005-01-01

    In response to commentary by S. Taylor, D. McKay, and J. S. Abramowitz, the authors discuss the distinctive features of their theory of obsessive-compulsive disorder outlined in their original article, which explains the disorder as a dysfunction of a security-motivation system. The authors address issues of the interrelation of emotion,…

  4. Obsessive-compulsive disorder: a review of the diagnostic criteria and possible subtypes and dimensional specifiers for DSM-V

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.F. Leckman; D. Denys; H.B. Simpson; D. Mataix-Cols; E. Hollander; S. Saxena; E.C. Miguel; S.L. Rauch; W.K. Goodman; K.A. Phillips; D.J. Stein

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Since the publication of the DSM-IV in 1994, research on obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has continued to expand. It is timely to reconsider the nosology of this disorder, assessing whether changes to diagnostic criteria as well as subtypes and specifiers may improve diagnostic valid

  5. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder: Empirical review and clinical recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Martin E; Kratz, Hilary E; Freeman, Jennifer B; Ivarsson, Tord; Heyman, Isobel; Sookman, Debbie; McKay, Dean; Storch, Eric A; March, John

    2015-05-30

    The efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has been the subject of much study over the past fifteen years. Building on a foundation of case studies and open clinical trials, the literature now contains many methodologically sound studies that have compared full CBT protocols to waitlist controls, pill placebo, psychosocial comparison conditions, active medication, combined treatments, and brief CBT. This review is part of a series commissioned by The Canadian Institute for Obsessive Compulsive Disorders (CIOCD) in an effort to publish in one place what is known about the efficacy of treatments for OCD. A total of fourteen studies were identified; collectively their findings support the efficacy of CBT for youth with OCD. CBT protocols that emphasized either strictly behavioral or cognitive conceptualizations have each been found efficacious relative to waitlist controls. Efforts to enhance CBT׳s efficacy and reach have been undertaken. These trials provide guidance regarding next steps to be taken to maximize efficacy and treatment availability. Findings from studies in community clinics suggest that significant treatment benefits can be realized and are not reported only from within academic contexts. These findings bode well for broader dissemination efforts. Recommendations for future research directions are provided.

  6. Implicit awareness of ambiguity: a role in the development of obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkin, Benjamin L; Mayes, Gillian M

    2008-07-01

    The cognitive-behavioral model of obsessive-compulsive disorder proposes that obsessional symptoms are the consequence of the manner in which intrusive cognitions are interpreted [e.g., Salkovskis, P. M. (1998). Cognitive-behavioral approach to understanding obsessional thinking. British Journal of Psychiatry, 173(35S), 53-63]. The present study suggests that this may be attributable to maladaptive implicit cognitive processing, a deficit that results in the explicit awareness of ambiguity in idiographic obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) stimuli. The present study examines decision-making responses of low and high OCD scorers in a non-clinical undergraduate sample. Via a computer console, participants were shown sentence statements for three levels of ambiguity. They were then presented with a propositional statement for which they had to indicate agreement or disagreement for sentences of varying ambiguity. After this, the participants indicated whether they were completely confident or unconfident as regards their previous agree-disagree decisions. Results indicate that the high compared to the low OCD scoring group had less agreement and subsequent less confidence in decisions made for sentences of varying ambiguity. Response latencies partially fitted the predicted hypotheses. Consequently, an addition to Salkovskis, Forester, and Richards' [1998. Cognitive-behavioral approach to understanding obsessional thinking. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 173(35S), 53-63] model of OCD is suggested: namely that an implicit ambiguity deficit mediates the likelihood of normally occurring intrusions developing into abnormal obsessions. Methodological limitations and future research are considered.

  7. Faulty Appraisals and Belief Domains in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder From Childhood to Adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irem Pisgin

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Among cognitive models attempting to explain the etiology of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD, models such as Inflated Responsibility Model, Misinterpretation of Significance Theory and Cognitive Control Model are currently considered to be valid in many aspects in understanding adulthood OCD. Embracing these models that underline various cognitions in adult OCD, the presence of six faulty appraisals and belief domains can be noticed: inflated responsibility; overimportance of thoughts; excessive concern about the importance of controlling one's thoughts, overestimation of threat, intolerance of uncertainty and perfectionism. Previous studies indicated a difference between early onset OCD and late onset OCD with regards to the presence of pure compulsions, insidious onset of symptoms. Examining faulty assessment and belief domains related with OCD reveals that overimportance of thoughts, intolerance of uncertainty and perfectionism is not only limited to adulthood, but also observed during childhood and/or adolescence periods. Nevertheless, inflated responsibility, excessive concern about the importance of controlling one's thoughts and overestimation of threat found in childhood and adolescence period is not as pronounced and striking as observed with adults. Considering the facts that OCD symptoms and related areas of faulty appraisals and belief domains differ amongst various age groups, early diagnosis and intervention will be critical in terms of the course of treatment for obsessive compulsive disorder. The purpose of this review is to briefly examine three current cognitive models proposed for OCD and evaluate six faulty appraisals and belief domains considered to play a role in the understanding of OCD with respect to developmental periods.

  8. Adenylate-cyclase activity in platelets of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Marazziti, S Baroni

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available D Marazziti, S Baroni, L Palego, I Masala, G Consoli, M Catena Dell’Osso, G Giannaccini, A LucacchiniDipartimento di Psichiatria, Neurobiologia, Farmacologia e Biotecnologie, Università di Pisa, Pisa, ItalyAbstract: Although the main biological hypothesis on the pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD is centered on the serotonin system, indications are available that other neurotransmitters, and even second messengers, particularly the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP signaling, may be involved, though effective data are few. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare the basal and isoprenaline (ISO-stimulated velocity of adenylate-cyclase (AC in human platelet membranes of patients with OCD and healthy control subjects. The results showed that the basal and ISO-stimulated AC activity, as well as the dose-response curves of ISO by using agonist concentrations ranging between 0.1 nM and 10 µM, were not different in the two groups. However, OCD patients showed lower EC50 and higher Emax values than healthy subjects. These findings suggest the presence of supersensitive β-adrenergic receptors in platelets of OCD patients.Keywords: obsessive-compulsive disorder, norepinephrine, second messengers, adenylate-cyclase, platelets, isoprenaline, β-adrenergic receptors

  9. Relationship between impulsivity and obsession types in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahmelikoglu Onur, Ozge; Tabo, Abdulkadir; Aydin, Erkan; Tuna, Ozgecan; Maner, Ayse Fulya; Yildirim, Ejder Akgun; Çarpar, Elif

    2016-11-01

    Impulsivity is an important aspect of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) which is classified under a new heading in DSM-5 with other impulsivity related disorders like trichotillomania. Due to its heterogeneous nature, different obsessions may be linked to varying impulsivity profiles. Aim of this study was to investigate the impulsivity traits and their relationship with obsession types by comparing OCD subjects who display sexual, religious and aggressive obsessions or other obsessions to healthy controls. Outpatients with OCD (n = 146) and healthy controls (n = 80) were evaluated with Sociodemographic Data Form, SCID-I, SCID non-patient version, Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) and Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11). BIS-11 attention scores of the OCD group were significantly higher than healthy subjects. In patients with sexual, aggressive, religious obsessions, BIS-11 attention scores were significantly higher than those who have other obsession types and that of controls. Higher levels of attentional impulsivity, particularly in patients suffering from sexual, aggressive or religious obsessions suggest a common diathesis for a dysfunction in neural correlates corresponding to these symptoms. The results of our study may promote further studies conducted with more advanced and objective neuropsychometric tests evaluating features of the clinical course, neurobiology and the response to OCD treatment.

  10. A randomized clinical trial of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy vs. Progressive Relaxation Training for obsessive compulsive disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twohig, Michael P.; Hayes, Steven C.; Plumb, Jennifer C.; Pruitt, Larry D.; Collins, Angela B.; Hazlett-Stevens, Holly; Woidneck, Michelle R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Effective treatments for adult OCD exist, but refusal and drop-out rates are high and treatments are not effective for all individuals who complete them. Thus, additional treatment options are needed. This study investigated the effectiveness of eight sessions of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) for adult obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) compared to Progressive Relaxation Training (PRT). Method 79 adults (66% Female) diagnosed with OCD (M age=37, 89% Caucasian) participated in a randomized clinical trial of 8 sessions of ACT or PRT with no in-session exposure. The following assessments were completed at pretreatment, posttreatment, and three month follow-up by an assessor who was unaware of treatment conditions: Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS), Beck Depression Inventory-II, Quality of Life Scale, Acceptance and Action Questionnaire, Thought Action Fusion Scale, and Thought Control Questionnaire. The Treatment Evaluation Inventory-Short Form was completed at posttreatment. Results ACT produced greater changes at posttreatment and follow-up over PRT on OCD severity (Y-BOCS: ACT pre=24.22, post=12.76, follow-up=11.79; PRT pre=25.4, post=18.67, follow-up=16.23), and produced greater change on depression among those reporting at least mild depression before treatment. Clinically significant change in OCD severity occurred more in the ACT condition than PRT using multiple criteria (clinical response rates: ACT post=46-56%, follow-up 46-66%; PRT post=13%-18%, follow-up 16-18%). Quality of life improved in both conditions but was marginally in favor of ACT at post. Finally, treatment refusal (2.4% ACT, 7.8% PRT) and drop-out (9.8% ACT, 13.2% PRT) were low in both conditions. Conclusions ACT is worth exploring further as a treatment for OCD. PMID:20873905

  11. The role of anxiety in sexual disorders: The connection between agoraphobic and obsessive compulsive simptoms and sexual disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Krevh

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Anxienty is closely related to sexual disorders, being their source, preserver, and consequence. Therefore, it represents an important obstacle in the course of a therapy. The role of anxiety in sexual disorders has already been widely investigated, but the question whether the above mentioned connection exists at a micro level remains unanswered. The present study focused on two specific anxiety disorders: agoraphobia and obsessive compulsive disorder. Two translated questionnaries were used: Mobility Inventory for Agoraphobia MIA (Chambless, Caputo, Jasin, & Gracely, 1985 and Padua Inventory PI (Sanavio, 1988. Participants were patients with sexual disorders who sought psychiatric help, and a group of students represented a control group. Results demonstrated a strong connection between agoraphobic and obsessive compulsive symptoms on one side and sexual disorders on the other. Among the possible explanations for this connection the circular model seems to be the most appropriate.

  12. EXECUTIVE FUNCTIONS EVALUATION PERFORMED BY EVENT RELATED POTENTIALS INCHILDREN WITH OBSESSIVE-COMPULSIVE DISORDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana ZORCEC

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Obsessive-compulsive disorder [OCD] is characterized by repetitive, disturbing obsessions and/or compulsions. Obsessions are thoughts, images or feelings which are unwanted, persistent and recurrent. Compulsions are repetitive and ritual motor acts which are performed to decrease the anxiety level caused by repetitive obsessions. The onset of the OCD is typically during adolescence or early adulthood. Its prevalence among children is from 1% to 3% and it appears to be more present among boys than girls. Nowadays, the most effective way to treat OCD is to combine psychopharmacological with cognitive-behavioral treatment strategies. In the past decades researchers were more involved in investigating the role of the executive functions [EF] in psychiatric disorders.Aim of the study: to investigate EF among children with OCD by using Event Related Potentials (ERPs on the Go/NoGo tasks. Subjects and methods: The sample is comprised of 20 children from both genders, between seven and 14 years of age [М=10,33±1,83], all diagnosed with OCD. Psychological evaluation was performed with Child Behavior Check List, Kohs cubes for assessment of the intellectual capacities, Beck Depression Inventory, The Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children, Stroop Color Word Test and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. Neuropsychological evaluation was performed with the Visual Continuous Performance Test [VCPT] from which the Event Related Potentials [ERP] components were extracted.Results: There is a clear presence of obsessions and/or compulsions, absence of symptoms of depression, presence of perseverative errors and mild difficulties in mental flexibility. The ERP results cannot be understood as a disturbance of the EF in a direct sense, rather than as a disturbed normal functioning caused by the high anxiety level.Conclusion: There is no significant clinical manifestation of cognitive dysfunction among children with OCD in

  13. A Time-Limited Behavioral Group for Treatment of Obsessive- Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Noppen, Barbara L.; Pato, Michele T.; Marsland, Richard; Rasmussen, Steven A.

    1998-01-01

    In vivo exposure with response prevention is an effective treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) either alone or combined with pharmacotherapy. Widespread application of this technique has been limited by lack of trained therapists and the expense of intensive individual behavioral therapy. This report describes a time-limited 10-session behavioral therapy group for OCD whose key elements are exposure, response prevention, therapist and participant modeling, and cognitive restructuring. In a naturalistic open trial of 90 patients meeting DSM-III-R criteria for OCD who completed the 10-session group, self-administered Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale scores (mean ± SD) were 21.8 ± 5.6 at baseline and 16.6 ± 6.4 after the 10-week treatment, a significant decrease. A descriptive analysis of the therapeutic elements of the group and its advantages over individual behavioral treatment are presented. (The Journal of Psychotherapy Practice and Research 1998; 7:272–280) PMID:9752638

  14. Influence ofWithania somnifera on obsessive compulsive disorder in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bhanu PS Kaurav; Manish M Wanjari; Amol Chandekar; Nagendra Singh Chauhan; Neeraj Upmanyu

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective:To study the influence of methanolic and aqueous extract ofWithania somnifera (W. somnifera) root on the marble-burying behavior of mice a well-accepted model of obsessive compulsive behavior.Methods:Mice were divided in different groups(n=6).Fluoxetine(5,10,15 mg/kg), (10,25,50,100 mg/kg) and methanolic extractW. somnifera(MEWS)(10,25,50,100 mg/kg) were administered i.p.30 min. prior to the assessment of marble burying behavior and locomotor activity.The control group received vehicle of the extract.Results:Administration of aqueous extractsW. somnifera(AEWS) andMEWS(50 mg/kg) successively decreaesed the marble burying behavior activity without affecting motor activity.This effect ofAEWS andMEWS was comparable to standard fluoxetine, ritanserin and parachlorophenylalanine.Conclusions:W. somnifera extract is effective in treating obsessive compulsive disorder.

  15. Sleep problems and cognitive behavior therapy in pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder have bidirectional effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivarsson, Tord; Skarphedinsson, Gudmundur

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the presence of sleep problems and their reaction to CBT in pediatric obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Moreover, we investigated whether sleep problems predict the outcome of CBT on OCD-symptoms. 269 children and adolescents, age 7-17 years, with DSM-IV primary OCD that took part in the first step of a stepwise treatment trial, were assessed with regard to both individual sleep problems and a sleep composite score (SCS) using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Their OCD symptoms were rated using the Children Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS). We found elevated symptoms of sleep deprivation and nightmares before treatment. However most sleep problems (e.g. nightmares (p=.03), too little sleep (psleeping (pCBT treatment. Co-morbidities had no effect on the reduction of SCS. Moreover, elevated levels of sleep problems using the SCS (psleep problem at baseline (pCBT on the OCD symptoms. Sleep problems in paediatric OCD are frequent and interfere with treatment outcome. They need to be assessed using better methods in future trials. Moreover, lack of resolution of sleep problems need to be recognized and treated as it seems probable that continued sleep problems may have a negative impact on CBT efficacy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A Clinical Case Study of the use of Ecological Momentary Assessment in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PJ Matt eTilley

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Accurate assessment of obsessions and compulsions is a crucial step in treatment planning for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD. In this pilot study, we sought to determine if the use of Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA could provide additional symptom information beyond that captured during standard assessment of OCD. We studied three adults diagnosed with OCD and compared the number and types of obsessions and compulsions captured using the Yale-Brown Obsessive-compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS compared to EMA. Following completion of the Y-BOCS interview, participants then recorded their OCD symptoms into a digital voice recorder across a twelve-hour period in reply to randomly sent mobile phone SMS prompts. The EMA approach yielded a lower number of symptoms of obsessions and compulsions than the Y-BOCS but produced additional types of obsessions and compulsions not identified by the Y-BOCS. We conclude that the EMA-OCD procedure may represent a worthy addition to the suite of assessment tools used when working with clients who have OCD. Further research with larger samples is required to strengthen this conclusion.

  17. A clinical case study of the use of ecological momentary assessment in obsessive compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilley, P J Matt; Rees, Clare S

    2014-01-01

    Accurate assessment of obsessions and compulsions is a crucial step in treatment planning for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD). In this clinical case study, we sought to determine if the use of Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) could provide additional symptom information beyond that captured during standard assessment of OCD. We studied three adults diagnosed with OCD and compared the number and types of obsessions and compulsions captured using the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) compared to EMA. Following completion of the Y-BOCS interview, participants then recorded their OCD symptoms into a digital voice recorder across a 12-h period in reply to randomly sent mobile phone SMS prompts. The EMA approach yielded a lower number of symptoms of obsessions and compulsions than the Y-BOCS but produced additional types of obsessions and compulsions not previously identified by the Y-BOCS. We conclude that the EMA-OCD procedure may represent a worthy addition to the suite of assessment tools used when working with clients who have OCD. Further research with larger samples is required to strengthen this conclusion.

  18. Abnormalities of emotional awareness and perception in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jee In; Namkoong, Kee; Yoo, Sang Woo; Jhung, Kyungun; Kim, Se Joo

    2012-12-10

    Emotional awareness deficit may play a critical role in the production and maintenance of obsessive-compulsive symptoms and social dysfunction in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The aim of this study was to investigate characteristics of emotional awareness such as empathy and alexithymia in OCD patients. In addition, we examined whether impaired emotional awareness measured by self-assessment questionnaires was associated with emotional facial recognition ability in OCD patients. Study participants included 107 patients with OCD and 130 healthy age- and sex-matched volunteers. The Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI) and Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20 were applied as measures of empathy and alexithymia. A subset of 56 patients with OCD additionally performed the emotional perception task of face expression. Patients with OCD scored significantly lower for perspective taking, and significantly higher for personal distress of IRI, and significantly higher for alexithymia compared to normal controls. Impaired emotional awareness such as lower perspective taking and fantasy seeking had a perception bias towards disgust in response to ambiguous facial expressions in OCD patients. The OCD group consisted of patients in different stages of the illness and with different degrees of severity. OCD involves the impairment of emotional awareness and perception and it may relate to social dysfunction and to impairments in the ability to shift naturally from obsessive thoughts to other thoughts in response to social situations in patients with OCD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Family Accommodation in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Study on Associated Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Cosentino

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to examine family accommodation in relatives of obsessive-compulsive disease (OCD patients. Accommodation was assessed in a sample of 31 relatives of OCD patients by means of the Family Accommodation Scale. Other variables measured as predictors of accommodation were the tendency of a family member to feel guilty, sensitivity to guilt, anxiety sensitivity and the prevalence of a passive communication style. Accommodation was found to be rather widespread in the family members who took part in our study, and they tended to show more accommodation the greater their sensitivity to guilt and the stable tendency to experience this emotion as well as anxiety sensitivity and a passive communication style. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that, among the variables considered, the family member’s sensitivity to guilt is the only factor which can predict accommodation with regard to the patient’s demands for involvement. On the other hand, the small number of family members in the sample and the lack of clinical data on patients (such as the severity, typology and duration of their obsessive-compulsive disorder pose limits to the generalizability of the results and point to the need for further research.

  20. Morphometric brain characterization of refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder: diffeomorphic anatomic registration using exponentiated Lie algebra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wanjie; Li, Bin; Huang, Xiaoqi; Jiang, Xiaoyu; Li, Fei; Wang, Lijuan; Chen, Taolin; Wang, Jinhui; Gong, Qiyong; Yang, Yanchun

    2013-10-01

    Few studies have used neuroimaging to characterize treatment-refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). This study sought to explore gray matter structure in patients with treatment-refractory OCD and compare it with that of healthy controls. A total of 18 subjects with treatment-refractory OCD and 26 healthy volunteers were analyzed by MRI using a 3.0-T scanner and voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Diffeomorphic anatomical registration using exponentiated Lie algebra (DARTEL) was used to identify structural changes in gray matter associated with treatment-refractory OCD. A partial correlation model was used to analyze whether morphometric changes were associated with Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale scores and illness duration. Gray matter volume did not differ significantly between the two groups. Treatment-refractory OCD patients showed significantly lower gray matter density than healthy subjects in the left posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and mediodorsal thalamus (MD) and significantly higher gray matter density in the left dorsal striatum (putamen). These changes did not correlate with symptom severity or illness duration. Our findings provide new evidence of deficits in gray matter density in treatment-refractory OCD patients. These patients may show characteristic density abnormalities in the left PCC, MD and dorsal striatum (putamen), which should be verified in longitudinal studies. © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The examining the obsessive-compulsive disorder and anxiety of students who do not make regular physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korkmaz Yiğiter

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The purpose of this study was to examine the obsessive-compulsive disorder and anxiety of students who do not make regular physical activity. For that purpose, 140 high school students participated in the study voluntarily. As data collection tools, inquiry form, State-Trait Anxiety and SCL-90 R ınventories were developed by the researcher, Spielberg (1970, and Derogatis (1977 respectively. In analysis of data, descriptive statistical techniques, independent simple t test and pearson correlation were used. The data was analysed in SPSS 16.0 package program. The significance level was found 0.05. According to results, there was not a significant statistically difference between males and females in obsessive-compulsive disorder (,279, p>0.05 and trait anxiety (,538, p>0.05. Besides, there was a significant statistically relationship between obsessive-compulsive disorder and trait anxiety in the positive direction (r=,389, p<0.05. As a result, those with obsessive-compulsive disorder had high levels of trait anxiety as well. Keywords: Obsesyon, Compulsive Disorder, Anxiety, Student, Sport.

  2. An Initial Investigation of the Orbitofrontal Cortex Hyperactivity in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Exaggerated Representations of Anticipated Aversive Events?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursu, Stefan; Carter, Cameron S.

    2009-01-01

    Orbitofrontal cortical (OFC) dysfunction has been repeatedly involved in obsessive-compulsive disorder, but the precise significance of this abnormality is still unclear. Current neurocognitive models propose that specific areas of the OFC contribute to behavioral regulation by representing the anticipated affective value of future events. This…

  3. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging during Planning before and after Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huyser, Chaim; Veltman, Dick J.; Wolters, Lidewij H.; de Haan, Else; Boer, Frits

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Pediatric obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) has been associated with cognitive abnormalities, in particular executive impairments, and dysfunction of frontal-striatal-thalamic circuitry. The aim of this study was to investigate if planning as an executive function is compromised in pediatric OCD and is associated with…

  4. Dissociative experiences in bipolar disorder II: Are they related to childhood trauma and obsessive-compulsive symptoms?

    OpenAIRE

    Gul Eryilmaz; Sermin Kesebir; Işil Göğcegöz Gül; Eylem Özten; Kayihan Oğuz Karamustafalioğlu

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study is to investigate the presence of dissociative symptoms and whether they are related to childhood trauma and obsessive-compulsive symptoms in bipolar disorder type II (BD-II). Methods Thirty-three euthymic patients (HDRS

  5. Tic-Related Versus Tic-Free Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder : Clinical Picture and 2-Year Natural Course

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Froukje E; Cath, Danielle C; Hoogendoorn, Adriaan W; van Oppen, Patricia; Glas, Gerrit; Veltman, Dick J; van den Heuvel, Odile A; van Balkom, Anton J L M

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The tic-related subtype of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has a distinct clinical profile. The course of tic-related OCD has previously been investigated in treatment studies, with inconclusive results. This study aimed to compare clinical profiles between tic-related and tic-free OC

  6. Multicenter voxel-based morphometry mega-analysis of structural brain scans in obsessive-compulsive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, Stella J; Alonso, Pino; Schweren, Lizanne; Mataix-Cols, David; Lochner, Christine; Menchón, José M; Stein, Dan J; Fouche, Jean-Paul; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Sato, Joao R; Hoexter, Marcelo Q; Denys, Damiaan; Nakamae, Takashi; Nishida, Seiji; Kwon, Jun Soo; Jang, Joon Hwan; Busatto, Geraldo F; Cardoner, Narcís; Cath, Danielle C; Fukui, Kenji; Jung, Wi Hoon; Kim, Sung Nyun; Miguel, Euripides C; Narumoto, Jin; Phillips, Mary L; Pujol, Jesus; Remijnse, Peter L; Sakai, Yuki; Shin, Na Young; Yamada, Kei; Veltman, Dick J; van den Heuvel, Odile A

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Results from structural neuroimaging studies of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have been only partially consistent. The authors sought to assess regional gray and white matter volume differences between large samples of OCD patients and healthy comparison subjects and their relation

  7. The Genetics of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Tourette Syndrome: An Epidemiological and Pathway-Based Approach for Gene Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grados, Marco A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To provide a contemporary perspective on genetic discovery methods applied to obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and Tourette syndrome (TS). Method: A review of research trends in genetics research in OCD and TS is conducted, with emphasis on novel approaches. Results: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are now in progress in OCD…

  8. Controlled Comparison of Family Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Psychoeducation/Relaxation Training for Child Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piacentini, John; Bergman, R. Lindsey; Chang, Susanna; Langley, Audra; Peris, Tara; Wood, Jeffrey J.; McCracken, James

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the efficacy of exposure-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) plus a structured family intervention (FCBT) versus psychoeducation plus relaxation training (PRT) for reducing symptom severity, functional impairment, and family accommodation in youths with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Method: A total of 71…

  9. A Randomized Clinical Trial of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy versus Progressive Relaxation Training for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twohig, Michael P.; Hayes, Steven C.; Plumb, Jennifer C.; Pruitt, Larry D.; Collins, Angela B.; Hazlett-Stevens, Holly; Woidneck, Michelle R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Effective treatments for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) exist, but additional treatment options are needed. The effectiveness of 8 sessions of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) for adult OCD was compared with progressive relaxation training (PRT). Method: Seventy-nine adults (61% female) diagnosed with OCD (mean age = 37…

  10. To discard or not to discard: the neural basis of hoarding symptoms in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    An, S.K.; Mataix-Cols, D.; Lawrence, N.S.; Wooderson, S.; Giampietro, V.; Speckens, A.E.M.; Brammer, M.J.; Phillips, M.L.

    2009-01-01

    Preliminary neuroimaging studies suggest that patients with the 'compulsive hoarding syndrome' may be a neurobiologically distinct variant of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) but further research is needed. A total of 29 OCD patients (13 with and 16 without prominent hoarding symptoms) and 21 hea

  11. Decision making and set shifting impairments are associated with distinct symptom dimensions in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lawrence, N.S.; Wooderson, S.; Mataix-Cols, D.; David, R.; Speckens, A.E.M.; Phillips, M.L.

    2006-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is clinically heterogeneous. The authors examined how specific OCD symptom dimensions were related to neuropsychological functions using multiple regression analyses. A total of 39 OCD patients and 40 controls completed the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT; A. Bechara, A.

  12. Psychosocial Stress Predicts Future Symptom Severities in Children and Adolescents with Tourette Syndrome and/or Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Haiqun; Katsovich, Liliya; Ghebremichael, Musie; Findley, Diane B.; Grantz, Heidi; Lombroso, Paul J.; King, Robert A.; Zhang, Heping; Leckman, James F.

    2007-01-01

    Background: The goals of this prospective longitudinal study were to monitor levels of psychosocial stress in children and adolescents with Tourette syndrome (TS) and/or obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) compared to healthy control subjects and to examine the relationship between measures of psychosocial stress and fluctuations in tic,…

  13. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging during Planning before and after Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huyser, Chaim; Veltman, Dick J.; Wolters, Lidewij H.; de Haan, Else; Boer, Frits

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Pediatric obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) has been associated with cognitive abnormalities, in particular executive impairments, and dysfunction of frontal-striatal-thalamic circuitry. The aim of this study was to investigate if planning as an executive function is compromised in pediatric OCD and is associated with…

  14. An Evaluation of Irreversible Psychosurgical Treatment of Patients With Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in the Netherlands, 2001-2008

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vliet, I. M.; van Well, E. P. L.; Bruggeman, Richard; Campo, Joost A.; Hijman, R.; van Megen, H. J. G. M.; van Balkom, A. J. L. M.; van Rijen, P. C.

    Admissions for irreversible psychosurgical treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) by the Working Group for Indication Psychosurgery in the Netherlands were analyzed, and the postsurgical effects on symptom severity and quality of life were evaluated. The data were extracted from patient

  15. Tic-Related Versus Tic-Free Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder : Clinical Picture and 2-Year Natural Course

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Froukje E; Cath, Danielle C; Hoogendoorn, Adriaan W; van Oppen, Patricia; Glas, Gerrit; Veltman, Dick J; van den Heuvel, Odile A; van Balkom, Anton J L M

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The tic-related subtype of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has a distinct clinical profile. The course of tic-related OCD has previously been investigated in treatment studies, with inconclusive results. This study aimed to compare clinical profiles between tic-related and tic-free OC

  16. Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in a Child with Asperger Syndrome: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reaven, Judy; Hepburn, Susan

    2003-01-01

    This case report outlines the cognitive-behavioral treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder in a 7-year-old female with Asperger syndrome. Interventions were based upon the work of March and Mulle and were adapted in light of the patient's cognitive, social, and linguistic characteristics. Symptoms improved markedly after 6 months of treatment.…

  17. Tic-Related Versus Tic-Free Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder : Clinical Picture and 2-Year Natural Course

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Froukje E; Cath, Danielle C; Hoogendoorn, Adriaan W; van Oppen, Patricia; Glas, Gerrit; Veltman, Dick J; van den Heuvel, Odile A; van Balkom, Anton J L M

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The tic-related subtype of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has a distinct clinical profile. The course of tic-related OCD has previously been investigated in treatment studies, with inconclusive results. This study aimed to compare clinical profiles between tic-related and tic-free

  18. The examining the obsessive-compulsive disorder and anxiety of students who do not make regular physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korkmaz Yiğiter

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the obsessive-compulsive disorder and anxiety of students who do not make regular physical activity. For that purpose, 140 high school students participated in the study voluntarily. As data collection tools, inquiry form, State-Trait Anxiety and SCL-90 R ınventories were developed by the researcher, Spielberg (1970, and Derogatis (1977 respectively. In analysis of data, descriptive statistical techniques, independent simple t test and pearson correlation were used. The data was analysed in SPSS 16.0 package program. The significance level was found 0.05. According to results, there was not a significant statistically difference between males and females in obsessive-compulsive disorder (,279, p>0.05 and trait anxiety (,538, p>0.05. Besides, there was a significant statistically relationship between obsessive-compulsive disorder and trait anxiety in the positive direction (r=,389, p<0.05. As a result, those with obsessive-compulsive disorder had high levels of trait anxiety as well.

  19. Obsessive-compulsive disorder and female reproductive cycle events : results from the OCD and reproduction collaborative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guglielmi, Valeria; Vulink, Nienke C C; Denys, D.; Wang, Ying; Samuels, Jack F; Nestadt, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Women with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) often report that symptoms first appear or exacerbate during reproductive cycle events; however, little is known about these relationships. The goals of this study were to examine, in a US and a European female OCD sample, onset and exacerba

  20. A Randomized Clinical Trial of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy versus Progressive Relaxation Training for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twohig, Michael P.; Hayes, Steven C.; Plumb, Jennifer C.; Pruitt, Larry D.; Collins, Angela B.; Hazlett-Stevens, Holly; Woidneck, Michelle R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Effective treatments for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) exist, but additional treatment options are needed. The effectiveness of 8 sessions of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) for adult OCD was compared with progressive relaxation training (PRT). Method: Seventy-nine adults (61% female) diagnosed with OCD (mean age = 37…

  1. Adapting Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction for the Treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sapana R.; Carmody, James; Simpson, H. Blair

    2007-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is an illness characterized by intrusive and distressing thoughts, images, or impulses (i.e., obsessions) and by repetitive mental or behavioral acts (i.e., compulsions) performed to prevent or reduce distress. Efficacious treatments for OCD include psychotropic medications and exposure and response prevention…

  2. Multicenter voxel-based morphometry mega-analysis of structural brain scans in obsessive-compulsive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, Stella J; Alonso, Pino; Schweren, Lizanne; Mataix-Cols, David; Lochner, Christine; Menchón, José M; Stein, Dan J; Fouche, Jean-Paul; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Sato, Joao R; Hoexter, Marcelo Q; Denys, Damiaan; Nakamae, Takashi; Nishida, Seiji; Kwon, Jun Soo; Jang, Joon Hwan; Busatto, Geraldo F; Cardoner, Narcís; Cath, Danielle C|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/194111423; Fukui, Kenji; Jung, Wi Hoon; Kim, Sung Nyun; Miguel, Euripides C; Narumoto, Jin; Phillips, Mary L; Pujol, Jesus; Remijnse, Peter L; Sakai, Yuki; Shin, Na Young; Yamada, Kei; Veltman, Dick J; van den Heuvel, Odile A

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Results from structural neuroimaging studies of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have been only partially consistent. The authors sought to assess regional gray and white matter volume differences between large samples of OCD patients and healthy comparison subjects and their relation

  3. Controlled Comparison of Family Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Psychoeducation/Relaxation Training for Child Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piacentini, John; Bergman, R. Lindsey; Chang, Susanna; Langley, Audra; Peris, Tara; Wood, Jeffrey J.; McCracken, James

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the efficacy of exposure-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) plus a structured family intervention (FCBT) versus psychoeducation plus relaxation training (PRT) for reducing symptom severity, functional impairment, and family accommodation in youths with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Method: A total of 71…

  4. Family aggregation and risk factors of obsessive-compulsive disorders in a nationwide three-generation study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Bisgaard, Charlotte; Munk-Jørgensen, Povl

    2013-01-01

    This nationwide register-based study investigates how often obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCD) with different age at diagnosis occur in affected families compared to control families. Furthermore, the study addresses the impact of certain risk factors, that is, sex, degree of urbanization, year...

  5. The Genetics of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Tourette Syndrome: An Epidemiological and Pathway-Based Approach for Gene Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grados, Marco A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To provide a contemporary perspective on genetic discovery methods applied to obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and Tourette syndrome (TS). Method: A review of research trends in genetics research in OCD and TS is conducted, with emphasis on novel approaches. Results: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are now in progress in OCD…

  6. Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder and Parkinson’s Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandra Nicoletti; Antonina Luca; Loredana Raciti; Donatella Contrafatto; Elisa Bruno; Valeria Dibilio; Giorgia Sciacca; Giovanni Mostile; Antonio Petralia; Mario Zappia

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the frequency of personality disorders in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients and in a group of healthy controls. METHODS: Patients affected by PD diagnosed according to the United Kingdom Parkinson's disease Society Brain Bank diagnostic criteria and a group of healthy controls were enrolled in the study. PD patients with cognitive impairment were excluded from the study. Structured Clinical Interview for Personality Disorders-II (SCID-II) has been performed to evaluate...

  7. Phenomenology, psychiatric comorbidity and family history in referred preschool children with obsessive-compulsive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coskun Murat

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The study aimed to investigate phenomenology, psychiatric comorbidity, and family history of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD in a clinical sample of normally developing preschool children with OCD. Method Subjects in this study were recruited from a clinical sample of preschool children (under 72 months of age who were referred to a university clinic. Subjects with a normal developmental history and significant impairment related to OCD symptoms were included in the study. Children’s Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale was used to assess OCD symptoms. Each subject was assessed for comorbid DSM-IV psychiatric disorders using a semi-structured interview. Parents were evaluated for lifetime history of OCD in individual sessions. Results Fifteen boys and ten girls (age range: 28 to 69 months; 54.12±9.08 months were included. Mean age of onset of OCD was 35.64±13.42 months. All subjects received at least one comorbid diagnosis. The most frequent comorbid disorders were non-OCD anxiety disorders (n=17; 68.0%, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD (n=15; 60.0%, oppositional defiant disorder (ODD (n=12; 48.0%, and tic disorders (n=6; 24.0%. Mean number of comorbid disorders was 3.65 and 2.35 for boys and girls, respectively. At least one parent received lifetime OCD diagnosis in 68 percent of the subjects. Conclusions The results indicated that OCD in referred preschool children is more common in males, highly comorbid with other psychiatric disorders, and associated with high rates of family history of OCD. Given the high rates of comorbidity and family history, OCD should be considered in referred preschool children with disruptive behavior disorders and/or with family history of OCD.

  8. Risk factors for early treatment discontinuation in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Belo Diniz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In obsessive-compulsive disorder, early treatment discontinuation can hamper the effectiveness of first-line treatments. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the clinical correlates of early treatment discontinuation among obsessive-compulsive disorder patients. METHODS: A group of patients who stopped taking selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs or stopped participating in cognitive behavioral therapy before completion of the first twelve weeks (total n = 41; n = 16 for cognitive behavioral therapy and n = 25 for SSRIs were compared with a paired sample of compliant patients (n = 41. Demographic and clinical characteristics were obtained at baseline using structured clinical interviews. Chisquare and Mann-Whitney tests were used when indicated. Variables presenting a p value <0.15 for the difference between groups were selected for inclusion in a logistic regression analysis that used an interaction model with treatment dropout as the response variable. RESULTS: Agoraphobia was only present in one (2.4% patient who completed the twelve-week therapy, whereas it was present in six (15.0% patients who dropped out (p = 0.044. Social phobia was present in eight (19.5% patients who completed the twelve-week therapy and eighteen (45% patients who dropped out (p = 0.014. Generalized anxiety disorder was present in eight (19.5% patients who completed the twelve-week therapy and twenty (50% dropouts (p = 0.004, and somatization disorder was not present in any of the patients who completed the twelveweek therapy; however, it was present in six (15% dropouts (p = 0.010. According to the logistic regression model, treatment modality (p = 0.05, agoraphobia, the Brown Assessment of Beliefs Scale scores (p = 0.03 and the Beck Anxiety Inventory (p = 0.02 scores were significantly associated with the probability of treatment discontinuation irrespective of interactions with other variables. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Early treatment

  9. Relations Between Obsessive-compulsive Personality Disorder and Obsessive-compulsive Disorder as Spectrum Disorders%强迫型人格障碍与强迫障碍的谱性关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆茜; 肖泽萍; 张天宏

    2012-01-01

    强迫型人格障碍(OCPD)的诊断经常与其他精神障碍特别是强迫症(OCD)的诊断存在着界限上的争议.本文通过对OCPD和OCD在产生的历史背景、临床表现、流行病学特征、共病、神经生物学及对药物治疗的预后上的特殊关系进行文献复习,进而讨论OCPD和OPD是否存在一种谱性关系.%The definition of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) and its relationship with other mental disorders especially obsessive-compulsive disorder has always been controversial. Focusing on backgrounds, phenomenology, epidemiology, comorbidity, neurobiology, and treatment response, this article examines related papers and discusses the relationship between the two disorders.

  10. Obsessive-compulsiveness in a population of tinnitus patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folmer, Robert L; Griest, Susan E; Martin, William Hal

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use the Maudsley Obsessional-Compulsive Inventory (MOCI) to assess obsessive-compulsiveness in a population of 196 tinnitus patients and to correlate MOCI scores with measures of anxiety, depression, and tinnitus severity. Tinnitus severity was positively correlated with measures of anxiety and depression. Depression was positively correlated with MOCI and anxiety scores. MOCI scores exhibited weaker positive correlations with tinnitus severity and anxiety. Effective management of tinnitus requires identification of psychological disorders or symptoms when they are present so that patients can receive appropriate treatment as soon as possible. The MOCI can be used to assess obsessive-compulsiveness in tinnitus patients.

  11. Reductions in Cortico-Striatal Hyperconnectivity Accompany Successful Treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder with Dorsomedial Prefrontal rTMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, Katharine; Woodside, Blake; Olmsted, Marion; Colton, Patricia; Giacobbe, Peter; Downar, Jonathan

    2016-04-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a disabling illness with high rates of nonresponse to conventional treatments. OCD pathophysiology is believed to involve abnormalities in cortico-striatal-thalamic-cortical circuits through regions such as dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) and ventral striatum. These regions may constitute therapeutic targets for neuromodulation treatments, such as repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). However, the neurobiological predictors and correlates of successful rTMS treatment for OCD are unclear. Here, we used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to identify neural predictors and correlates of response to 20-30 sessions of bilateral 10 Hz dmPFC-rTMS in 20 treatment-resistant OCD patients, with 40 healthy controls as baseline comparators. A region of interest in the dmPFC was used to generate whole-brain functional connectivity maps pre-treatment and post treatment. Ten of 20 patients met the response criteria (⩾50% improvement on Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale, YBOCS); response to dmPFC-rTMS was sharply bimodal. dmPFC-rTMS responders had higher dmPFC-ventral striatal connectivity at baseline. The degree of reduction in this connectivity, from pre- to post-treatment, correlated to the degree of YBOCS symptomatic improvement. Baseline clinical and psychometric data did not predict treatment response. In summary, reductions in fronto-striatal hyperconnectivity were associated with treatment response to dmPFC-rTMS in OCD. This finding is consistent with previous fMRI studies of deep brain stimulation in OCD, but opposite to previous reports on mechanisms of dmPFC-rTMS in major depression. fMRI could prove useful in predicting the response to dmPFC-rTMS in OCD.

  12. Social performance and secret ritual: battling against obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Catherine Francis

    2011-02-01

    This autoethnography offers an account of my experience with mental illness and provides an analysis of the performative aspects of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). OCD is a genetic disorder triggered by environmental stressors involving a chemical imbalance in the brain. The resulting biologically altered state leaves individuals to steer themselves among and between "appropriate" performance and secret rituals. Analyzing my own communication practices through a performance lens highlights the importance of image management for people struggling with disability. In telling my own story, this article provides readers an in-depth look at OCD as a traumatic brain disorder whose sufferers rely on communicative performance to maintain their public and private identities, and as a disease that impedes social life for its sufferers. Implications of this account for those struggling with mental disability and for practitioners aiming to help them are discussed.

  13. Comorbid psychopathology and clinical symptomatology in children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostopoulos, D C; Korlou, S; Sakellariou, K; Kondyli, V; Sarafidou, J; Tsakanikos, E; Giannakopoulos, G; Liakopoulou, M

    2016-01-01

    Comorbid psychopathology in children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has been investigated in a number of studies over the last twenty years. The aim of the present study was to investigate the phenomenology of illness and broader psychopathology in a group of Greek children and adolescents with OCD. The investigation of parental psychopathology in children and adolescents with OCD was a secondary aim of the present study. We studied 31 children and adolescents with OCD (n=31, age range 8-15 years) and their parents (n=62, age range 43-48 years) and compared to children and adolescents with specific reading and written expression learning disorders (n=30, age range 7-16 years) and their parents (n=58, age range 40-46 years). Appropriate testing showed specific reading and learning disorders, which were of mild to moderate severity for the 85% of this latter group. The diagnosis of learning disorder of reading and written expression was made through the use of standardized reading material, appropriate for ages 10-15 years. Reading comprehension and narration were tested. The written expression (spelling, syntax, content) was examined by a written text, in which the subject developed a certain theme from the reading material. Based on their level of education and occupation, the index families were classified as high (29%), average (45%) and low (26%) socioeconomic status, whereas 6.7% of control families belonged to high, 63.3% to average, and 30% to low status. In order to investigate psychopathology, the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Aged Children, Present and Life-time version was administered to children and their parents, as well as the Child Behavior Checklist 4/18 (CBCL) to both parents and adolescents (Youth Self-Report). Also the Yale- Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) was rated for both children and parents. Moreover, the children were given the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) and the

  14. Orthorexia nervosa: relationship with obsessive-compulsive symptoms, disordered eating patterns and body uneasiness among Italian university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brytek-Matera, Anna; Fonte, Maria Luisa; Poggiogalle, Eleonora; Donini, Lorenzo Maria; Cena, Hellas

    2017-08-24

    The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between ORTO-15 score and obsessive-compulsive symptoms, disordered eating patterns and body uneasiness among female and male university students and to examine the predictive model of ORTO-15 in both groups. One hundred and twenty students participated in the present study (mean age 22.74 years, SD 7.31). The ORTO-15 test, the Maudsley Obsessive-Compulsive Questionnaire, the Eating Attitudes Test-26 and the Body Uneasiness Test were used for the present study. Our results revealed no gender differences in ORTO-15 score. Our results show, rather unexpectedly, that in female students lower scores, corresponding to greater severity, were related to less pathological body image discomfort and obsessive-compulsive signs, while in male students, lower ORTO-15 scores were related to less pathological eating patterns, as behaviors and symptoms. Further studies regarding the relationship between ON and anorexia nervosa, as well as obsessive-compulsive symptoms, are needed to better understand the causality. Level of Evidence Level V, descriptive study.

  15. Mechanisms of deep brain stimulation for obsessive compulsive disorder: effects upon cells and circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Kathleen Bourne

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Deep brain stimulation (DBS has emerged as a safe, effective, and reversible treatment for a number of movement disorders. This has prompted investigation of its use for other applications including psychiatric disorders. In recent years, DBS has been introduced for the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD, which is characterized by recurrent unwanted thoughts or ideas (obsessions and repetitive behaviors or mental acts performed in order to relieve these obsessions (compulsions. Abnormal activity in cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical (CSTC circuits including the orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, ventral striatum, and mediodorsal thalamus has been implicated in OCD. To this end a number of DBS targets including the anterior limb of the internal capsule, ventral capsule/ventral striatum, ventral caudate nucleus, subthalamic nucleus, nucleus accumbens, and the inferior thalamic peduncle have been investigated for the treatment of OCD. Despite its efficacy and widespread use in movement disorders, the mechanism of DBS is not fully understood, especially as it relates to psychiatric disorders. While initially thought to create a functional lesion akin to ablative procedures, it is increasingly clear that DBS may induce clinical benefit through activation of axonal fibers spanning the CSTC circuits, alteration of oscillatory activity within this network, and/or release of critical neurotransmitters. In this article we review how the use of DBS for OCD informs our understanding of both the mechanisms of DBS and the circuitry of OCD. We review the literature on DBS for OCD and discuss potential mechanisms of action at the neuronal level as well as the broader circuit level.

  16. Neuroimaging studies in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing FAN; Zeping XIAO

    2013-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a common mental disorder of uncertain etiology.Neuroimaging studies of patients with OCD in China started to appear in the late 1990s,identifying structural abnormalities in the gray matter and white matter of the prefrontal lobe,the corpus striatum,and the thalamus.Studies using positron emission tomography (PET),functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI),and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) have found increased metabolism and activation in these brain regions that are correlated with the duration,severity and cognitive symptoms of OCD.After surgery for OCD the activation in these target areas decreases.These results in China are similar to those presented in previous neuroimaging studies,including several meta-analyses from other countries.

  17. Association study between functional polymorphisms in the TNF-alpha gene and obsessive-compulsive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Cappi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD is a prevalent psychiatric disorder of unknown etiology. However, there is some evidence that the immune system may play an important role in its pathogenesis. In the present study, two polymorphisms (rs1800795 and rs361525 in the promoter region of the cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFA gene were genotyped in 183 OCD patients and in 249 healthy controls. The statistical tests were performed using the PLINK® software. We found that the A allele of the TNFA rs361525 polymorphism was significantly associated with OCD subjects, according to the allelic χ² association test (p=0.007. The presence of genetic markers, such as inflammatory cytokines genes linked to OCD, may represent additional evidence supporting the role of the immune system in its pathogenesis.

  18. Surgical Approaches in Refractory Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: From Leukotomy to Gamma Knife Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru Altintas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD is a chronic and debilitating disorder that can cause significant distress and interference with daily functioning and impairment in quality of life, social and familial relationship. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and cognitive-behavioral therapy are currently viewed as the first line treatments of choice for OCD. Approximately 30-40% OCD patients fail to respond to these treatments. Anterior capsulotomy, cingulotomy, limbic leucotomy, subcaudate tractotomy are used for the treatment of refractory OCD. The studies suggested that gamma knife capsulotomy caused improvements in 55-70% refractory OCD patients. Many studies suggest that psychosurgery is a beneficial, well tolerated and safe method. This study aimed to report efficacy, adverse effects and long term effects of surgery techniques especially gamma knife and deep brain stimulation in refractory OCD patients . [Archives Medical Review Journal 2015; 24(2.000: 239-250

  19. An open trial of group metacognitive therapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Clare S; van Koesveld, Kate E

    2008-12-01

    Research supporting the metacognitive model of OCD (Wells, A. (2000). Emotional disorders and metacognitions: Innovative cognitive therapy. West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons; Wells, A. (1997). Cognitive therapy of anxiety disorders: A practice manual and conceptual guide. Chichester, UK: John Wiley and Sons) is beginning to accumulate Metacognitive Therapy (MCT) aims to teach clients to shift to a 'metacognitive mode' and incorporates cognitive strategies and behavioural experiments, with the aim of modifying maladaptive metacognitive beliefs rather than the content of anxious beliefs themselves. The current paper reports on a preliminary study, applying MCT in a clinical group setting with eight adults suffering from a variety of OCD presentations. Promising results indicate a larger randomised controlled trial, with recovery achieved for seven of the eight participants on the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale at 3-month follow-up. All participants demonstrated improvement on measures of OCD symptom severity and metacognitions.

  20. Decision-making impairment in obsessive-compulsive disorder as measured by the Iowa Gambling Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Filardi da Rocha

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate the process of decision-making in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD using the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT. In addition, we intend to expand the understanding of clinical and demographic characteristics that influence decision-making. METHOD: Our sample consisted of 214 subjects (107 diagnosed with OCD and 107 healthy controls who were evaluated on their clinical, demographic and neuropsychological features. Moreover, the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT, a task that detects and measures decision-making impairments, was used. RESULTS: We found that OCD patients performed significantly worse on the IGT. Furthermore, features such as symptoms of anxiety did not influence IGT performance. CONCLUSION: Impaired decision-making seems to be a key feature of OCD. Given that OCD is a complex heterogeneous disorder, homogeneous groups are necessary for an accurate characterization of our findings.

  1. The Efficacy of Exposure and Response Prevention for Geriatric Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: A Clinical Case Illustration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mairwen K. Jones

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD is one of the most frequently occurring psychiatric conditions in older adults. While exposure and response prevention (ERP is considered the most effective psychological treatment for children and adults with OCD, research investigating its effectiveness for older adults is scarce. This clinical case study investigates the effectiveness of ERP in an 80-year-old man with a 65-year history of OCD. The client received 14 individual, 50-minute ERP treatment sessions. Clinician-based Y-BOCS scores reduced by 65% from 20 (moderate at pretreatment to 7 (subclinical at 7-month posttreatment followup. OCI-R total scores reduced by 45% from 38 at baseline to 21 at 7-month follow-up. Despite his long history of the disorder, ERP was effective and well tolerated. The application of ERP for older adults with OCD, including age-specific modifications that may be required for this treatment approach, is discussed.

  2. Randomized controlled trial of yogic meditation techniques for patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannahoff-Khalsa, D S; Ray, L E; Levine, S; Gallen, C C; Schwartz, B J; Sidorowich, J J

    1999-12-01

    The objective of this study was to compare efficacy of two meditation protocols for treating patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Patients were randomized to two groups-matched for sex, age, and medication status-and blinded to the comparison protocol. They were told the trial would last for 12 months, unless one protocol proved to be more efficacious. If so, groups would merge, and the group that received the less efficacious treatment would also be afforded 12 months of the more effective one. The study was conducted at Children's Hospital, San Diego, Calif. Patients were selected according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Third Edition-Revised (DSM-III-R) criteria and recruited by advertisements and referral. At baseline, Group 1 included 11 adults and 1 adolescent, and Group 2 included 10 adults. Group 1 employed a kundalini yoga meditation protocol and Group 2 employed the Relaxation Response plus Mindfulness Meditation technique. Baseline and 3-month interval testing was conducted using the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS), Symptoms Checklist-90-Revised Obsessive Compulsive (SCL-90-R OC) and Global Severity Index (SCL-90-R GSI) scales, Profile of Moods scale (POMS), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), and Purpose in Life (PIL) test. Seven adults in each group completed 3 months of therapy. At 3 months, Group 1 demonstrated greater improvements (Student's independent groups t-test) on the Y-BOCS, SCL-90-R OC and GSI scales, and POMS, and greater but nonsignificant improvements on the PSS and PIL test. An intent-to-treat analysis (Y-BOCS) for the baseline and 3-month tests showed that only Group 1 improved. Within-group statistics (Student's paired t-tests) showed that Group 1 significantly improved on all six scales, but Group 2 had no improvements. Groups were merged for an additional year using Group 1 techniques. At 15 months, the final group (N=11) improved 71%, 62%, 66%, 74%, 39%, and 23%, respectively, on

  3. Sintomas obsessivo-compulsivos na depressão pós-parto: relatos de casos Obsessive-compulsive symptoms in postpartum depression: case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Fonseca Zambaldi

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available A depressão pós-parto é o transtorno afetivo mais prevalente no puerpério. O seu quadro clínico apresenta algumas peculiaridades sintomatológicas, podendo uma delas ser a presença mais freqüente de obsessões e compulsões. Relatamos seis casos identificados pela análise de prontuários de puérperas atendidas no Programa de Saúde Mental da Mulher do Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade Federal de Pernambuco. Todas elas tinham diagnóstico de depressão através do Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I e apresentavam concomitantemente sintomas obsessivo-compulsivos. Nos relatos, abordamos o período de aparecimento desses sintomas nas mulheres deprimidas, assim como o seu conteúdo, duração e resposta ao tratamento. Em duas mulheres, os sintomas obsessivo-compulsivos precederam os depressivos, e em outras duas, deu-se o inverso. Houve exacerbação de obsessões e compulsões preexistentes em duas puérperas. O conteúdo mais freqüente foi de pensamentos agressivos contra o bebê. Os sintomas tenderam a diminuir juntamente com a melhora da depressão.Postpartum depression is the most common affective disorder in the puerperium. There are some particular symptoms in its clinical presentation, and one might be the higher frequency of obsessions and compulsions. We report six cases identified from the analysis of medical charts of puerperal women receiving care at the Women's Mental Health Program, Hospital das Clínicas, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Brazil. All the women were diagnosed with postpartum depression using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I and had associated obsessive-compulsive symptoms. We report time of onset, topics, course and treatment response of these symptoms. Obsessive-compulsive symptoms preceded depressive symptoms in two women, and were succeeded in two other women. There was exacerbation of preexisting obsessions and compulsions in two

  4. Treating refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder: what to do when conventional treatment fails?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelar Pedro Franz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD is a chronic and impairing condition. A very small percentage of patients become asymptomatic after treatment. The purpose of this paper was to review the alternative therapies available for OCD when conventional treatment fails. Data were extracted from controlled clinical studies (evidence-based medicine published on the MEDLINE and Science Citation Index/Web of Science databases between 1975 and 2012. Findings are discussed and suggest that clinicians dealing with refractory OCD patients should: 1 review intrinsic phenomenological aspects of OCD, which could lead to different interpretations and treatment choices; 2 review extrinsic phenomenological aspects of OCD, especially family accommodation, which may be a risk factor for non-response; 3 consider non-conventional pharmacological approaches; 4 consider non-conventional psychotherapeutic approaches; and 5 consider neurobiological approaches.

  5. Treating refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder: what to do when conventional treatment fails?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Adelar Pedro; Paim, Mariana; Araújo, Rafael Moreno de; Rosa, Virgínia de Oliveira; Barbosa, Ísis Mendes; Blaya, Carolina; Ferrão, Ygor Arzeno

    2013-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic and impairing condition. A very small percentage of patients become asymptomatic after treatment. The purpose of this paper was to review the alternative therapies available for OCD when conventional treatment fails. Data were extracted from controlled clinical studies (evidence-based medicine) published on the MEDLINE and Science Citation Index/Web of Science databases between 1975 and 2012. Findings are discussed and suggest that clinicians dealing with refractory OCD patients should: 1) review intrinsic phenomenological aspects of OCD, which could lead to different interpretations and treatment choices; 2) review extrinsic phenomenological aspects of OCD, especially family accommodation, which may be a risk factor for non-response; 3) consider non-conventional pharmacological approaches; 4) consider non-conventional psychotherapeutic approaches; and 5) consider neurobiological approaches.

  6. Harm avoidance in subjects with obsessive-compulsive disorder and their families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettelt, Susan; Grabe, Hans Joergen; Ruhrmann, Stephan; Buhtz, Friederike; Hochrein, Andrea; Kraft, Susanne; Pukrop, Ralf; Klosterkötter, Joachim; Falkai, Peter; Maier, Wolfgang; John, Ulrich; Freyberger, Harald J; Wagner, Michael

    2008-04-01

    This study investigates the role of harm avoidance (HA) as a possible risk factor in the familiality of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). HA is considered to be a genetically influenced personality trait with an increasingly understood neuroanatomical basis. 75 subjects with OCD from hospital sites and a community sample and their 152 first degree relatives and 75 age and sex matched controls with their 143 first degree relatives were evaluated with structured clinical interviews (DSM-IV). HA was assessed with Cloninger's Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ). Subjects with OCD had higher scores of HA than controls (pbiological versus psychological factors related to an elevated level of anxiety in families of OCD cases. This is the first study to extent previous findings of elevated HA in OCD cases to their first degree relatives. Thus, HA may partially mediate the familial risk for OCD.

  7. The neuropsychology of adult obsessive-compulsive disorder: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramovitch, Amitai; Abramowitz, Jonathan S; Mittelman, Andrew

    2013-12-01

    A vast and heterogeneous body of literature on the neuropsychology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has accumulated in recent decades, yielding inconsistent results. In an attempt to quantitatively summarize the literature, we conducted a meta-analysis of 115 studies (including 3452 patients), comparing adult OCD patients with healthy controls on tests of 10 neuropsychological domains. Across studies, medium mean effect sizes were found for all executive function subdomains, processing speed, and sustained attention. Small effect sizes were found for visuospatial abilities and working memory. A large effect size was found for non-verbal memory whereas a small effect size was found for verbal memory, where only the former was found to be associated with impairments in executive functions. Moderators of effect sizes were also investigated. Results are discussed in terms of their clinical significance as well as their implications for current neurobiological models of OCD and methodological caveats.

  8. A challenging task for assessment of checking behaviors in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotge, J Y; Clair, A H; Jaafari, N; Hantouche, E G; Pelissolo, A; Goillandeau, M; Pochon, J B; Guehl, D; Bioulac, B; Burbaud, P; Tignol, J; Mallet, L; Aouizerate, B

    2008-06-01

    The present study concerns the objective and quantitative measurement of checking activity, which represents the most frequently observed compulsions in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). To address this issue, we developed an instrumental task producing repetitive checking in OCD subjects. Fifty OCD subjects and 50 normal volunteers (NV) were administered a delayed matching-to-sample task that offered the unrestricted opportunity to verify the choice made. Response accuracy, number of verifications, and response time for choice taken to reflect the degree of uncertainty and doubt were recorded over 50 consecutive trials. Despite similar levels of performance, patients with OCD demonstrated a greater number of verifications and a longer response time for choice before checking than NV. Such behavioral patterns were more pronounced in OCD subjects currently experiencing checking compulsions. The present task might be of special relevance for the quantitative assessment of checking behaviors and for determining relationships with cognitive processes.

  9. Effects of anti-obsessional treatment on pituitary volumes in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmaca, Murad; Yildirim, Hanefi; Mermi, Osman; Gurok, M Gurkan

    2016-03-01

    We aimed to examine the effct of anti-obsessional drugs on pituitary gland volumes in the patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). A group of patients with OCD and of healthy controls were evaluated by using pituitary gland magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at baseline and after twelve weeks of treatment with selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors or clomipramine. Pituitary gland volumes were found to be statistically significantly smaller in the patients with OCD compared to healthy control subjects at the beginning of the study. We found that pituitary volumes significantly increased throughout twelve weeks of treatment. This study provides an evidence of the effect of anti-obsessional treatment on the volumes of pituitary gland in OCD patients.

  10. Mechanisms of change in cognitive therapy for obsessive compulsive disorder: role of maladaptive beliefs and schemas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Sabine; Berman, Noah C; Keshaviah, Aparna; Schwartz, Rachel A; Steketee, Gail

    2015-02-01

    The present study aimed to identify mechanisms of change in individuals with moderately severe obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) receiving cognitive therapy (CT). Thirty-six adults with OCD received CT over 24 weeks. At weeks 0, 4/6, 12, 16/18, and 24, independent evaluators assessed OCD severity, along with obsessive beliefs and maladaptive schemas. To examine mechanisms of change, we utilized a time-varying lagged regression model with a random intercept and slope. Results indicated that perfectionism and certainty obsessive beliefs and maladaptive schemas related to dependency and incompetence significantly mediated (improved) treatment response. In conclusion, cognitive changes in perfectionism/certainty beliefs and maladaptive schemas related to dependency/incompetence precede behavioral symptom reduction for OCD patients. Targeting these mechanisms in future OCD treatment trials will emphasize the most relevant processes and facilitate maximum improvement. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A CRITICAL REVIEW OF MAGNETIC RESONANCE SPECTROSCOPY STUDIES OF OBSESSIVE-COMPULSIVE DISORDER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Brian P.; Rauch, Scott L.; Jensen, J. Eric; Pope, Harrison G.

    2012-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies have converged to suggest that cortico-striatal-thalamo-cortical (CSTC) circuit dysfunction is a core pathophysiolologic feature of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Now, complementary approaches examining regional neurochemistry are beginning to yield additional insights regarding the neurobiology of aberrant CSTC circuitry in OCD. In particular, proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS), which allows for the in vivo quantification of various neurochemicals in the CSTC circuit and other brain regions, has recently been used extensively in studies of OCD patients. In this review, we summarize the diverse and often seemingly inconsistent findings of these studies, consider methodological factors that may help to explain these inconsistencies, and discuss several convergent findings that tentatively appear to be emerging. We conclude with suggestions for possible future 1H-MRS studies in OCD. PMID:22831979

  12. Regional cerebral blood flow and cognitive function in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huirong Guo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the relationship between regional cerebral blood flow (CBF and cognitive function in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD. Method: Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT was performed for 139 OCD patients and 139 controls, and the radioactivity rate (RAR was calculated. Cognitive function was assessed by the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST. Results: The RARs of the prefrontal, anterior temporal, and right occipital lobes were higher in patients than controls. For the WCST, correct and classification numbers were significantly lower, and errors and persistent errors were significantly higher in OCD patients. Right prefrontal lobe RAR was negatively correlated with correct numbers, right anterior temporal lobe RAR was positively correlated with errors, and the RARs of the right prefrontal lobe and left thalamus were positively correlated with persistent errors. Conclusion: OCD patients showed higher CBF in the prefrontal and anterior temporal lobes, suggesting that these areas may be related with cognitive impairment.

  13. Cerebral glucose metabolism in childhood-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swedo, S.E.; Schapiro, M.B.; Grady, C.L.; Cheslow, D.L.; Leonard, H.L.; Kumar, A.; Friedland, R.; Rapoport, S.I.; Rapoport, J.L.

    1989-06-01

    The cerebral metabolic rate for glucose was studied in 18 adults with childhood-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and in age- and sex-matched controls using positron emission tomography and fludeoxyglucose F 18. Both groups were scanned during rest, with reduced auditory and visual stimulation. The group with OCD showed an increased glucose metabolism in the left orbital frontal, right sensorimotor, and bilateral prefrontal and anterior cingulate regions as compared with controls. Ratios of regional activity to mean cortical gray matter metabolism were increased for the right prefrontal and left anterior cingulate regions in the group with OCD as a whole. Correlations between glucose metabolism and clinical assessment measures showed a significant relationship between metabolic activity and both state and trait measurements of OCD and anxiety as well as the response to clomipramine hydrochloride therapy. These results are consistent with the suggestion that OCD may result from a functional disturbance in the frontal-limbic-basal ganglia system.

  14. A Review and Critique of Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder Etiologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Charles Hertler

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The present review and critique of extant etiological theories centers on a single finding: Obsessive-compulsive personality is highly heritable (0.78 and not significantly influenced by “common, shared-in-families environmental factors” (Torgersen et al., 2000, p. 424. This finding, though twelve years old, has remained dissociated from existing etiological accounts. Psychoanalytic theories anachronistically maintain that obsessive personality is familially forged. Biological theories, few, unelaborated and weakened by postulating proximate instead of ultimate explanations, fail to seriously reckon with Torgersen’s findings. Truly integrating heritability estimates into a functional etiological account of obsessive character, it is argued in the discussion section, will come from an evolutionary model that understands obsessive personality to be an evolved strategy rather than a dysfunctional disorder.

  15. Effects of cognitive self-consciousness on visual memory in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikul, Julia; Vetter, Jan; Lincoln, Tania M; Exner, Cornelia

    2011-05-01

    Previous research has documented high trait cognitive self-consciousness (CSC) in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). It remains unclear whether elevated CSC levels can also explain cognitive performance deficits that have frequently been found in OCD. This study examined whether experimentally heightened CSC affects visual memory performance in OCD. OCD participants and healthy controls completed a complex figure test under three experimental conditions: simultaneously focusing on their thoughts (= CSC condition), simultaneously focusing on acoustic stimuli (= dual-task condition), and without a parallel task (= standard condition). In the OCD sample both the CSC condition and the dual-task condition reduced memory performance compared to the standard condition, whereas in controls only the dual-task condition led to reduced performance. Results indicate that raising CSC in OCD has a deteriorating effect on memory encoding that parallels the effect of a secondary task. High CSC and its effects on cognitive performance might be amenable to meta-cognitive treatment approaches.

  16. 对比强迫症与伴强迫症状的精神分裂症临床特点%Comparison of Clinical Characteristics of Obsessive-compulsive Disorder and Schizophrenia with Obsessive-compulsive Symptoms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈彦华; 刘婷婷; 李辉

    2014-01-01

    目的对比强迫症和伴强迫症状的精神分裂症状不同的临床特点。方法选取我院在2012年1月~12月收治的80例强迫症患者作为强迫症组,选取80例伴强迫症患者作为分裂症组。结果分裂症组的强迫行为比率(63.8%)明显高于强迫症组(53.8%)(P<0.05)。结论强迫症患者承受的痛苦及功能障碍比伴强迫症者明显,但强迫行为没有伴强迫症者明显,临床在进行治疗时,要注意区分,做好鉴别,以便于采取对症的治疗方案。%Objective To compare the symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder and with forced schizophrenic symptoms of dif erent clinical characteristics.Methods Our hospital in January 2012 to December 2012,admit ed during the period of 80 patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder ocd group,80 patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder as schizophrenia group.Results The ratio of compulsive behavior schizophrenia group (63.8%)was obviously higher than ocd group (53.8%)( <0.05).Conclusion OCD patients suf er pain and dysfunction than with obsessive-compulsive disorder, but not compulsive behavior associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder,obvious clinical treatment,at ention should be paid to distinguish,completes the identification,in order to adopt the symptomatic treatment.

  17. The level changes of brain-derived neurotrophic factors, interleukin-2 and interleukin-6 in serum of patients with depression and obsessive-compulsive disorder before and after treatment and their clinical significance%抑郁症与强迫症患者治疗前后血清脑源性神经营养因子、白介素-2及白介素-6水平变化及其临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江鸿波; 李莉欣

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the level changes of brain-derived neurotrophic factors (BDNF), interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in serum of patients with depression and obsessive-compulsive disorder before and after treatment and the influential factors. Methods There were 30 cases in depression group (depression patients), 30 cases in obsessive-compulsive disorder group (patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder) and 30 cases in control group. On the basis of paroxetine therapy, the psychological therapy was administered in the depression group and the obsessive-compulsive disorder group. The levels of BDNF, IL-2 and IL-6 in serum of the three groups were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Before and after treatment, the scale assessment was conducted. Hamilton depression rating scale (HAMD) was applied to assess the symptoms of depression while yale-brown obsessive compulsive scale (Y-BOCS) to evaluate obsessive compulsive symptoms. The relative analysis was conducted between the levels of BDNF, IL-2 and IL-6 in serum of patients with depression and obsessive - compulsive disorder and HAMD total score, Y-BOCS total score, disease duration, age and gender. Results After treatment, serum BDNF level in the depression group significantly increased, while the levels of IL-2 and IL-6 obviously decreased, but BDNF level was still lower than that in the control group. Serum BDNF level in obsessive-compulsive disorder group conspicuously elevated, whereas IL-2 level markedly reduced, but BDNF level was still lower than that in the control group. In the depression group, serum BDNF level was associated with HAMD score negatively, while the levels of IL-2 and IL-6 in serum were related to HAMD score positively. In the obsessive-compulsive disorder group, serum BDNF level is associated with Y-BOCS score negatively, while serum IL-6 was related to Y -BOCS score positively. Conclusion BDNF, IL-2 and IL-6 can provide possible evidences for the i

  18. Symptom clusters in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD): influence of age and age of onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butwicka, Agnieszka; Gmitrowicz, Agnieszka

    2010-04-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is an ailment of heterogeneous nature. It is believed that the age of onset determines the subtype of juvenile OCD. The objective of our study was to evaluate the rates of symptoms' contents and the age of manifestation of the various OCD symptoms in adolescents and adults with early and late onset of disorder. Both authors independently reviewed the medical charts of patients treated for OCD between 1999 and 2007 in a psychiatric university hospital. Patients were evaluated using the Yale-Brown obsessive-compulsive scale check list (Y-BOCS). The patients were grouped as adolescents (group 1), adults with late onset (group 2) and adults with early onset (group 3). Chi2 was used for nominal variables and the non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA for continuous comparisons due to deviations from normality of distribution. A total of 132 patients were enrolled in the study (44 group 1, 43 group 2 and 45 group 3). There were no differences in gender distribution. Religious, sexual and miscellaneous obsessions were more frequent and somatic less frequent in group 1 than in group 2. Contamination compulsions were most seldom found in group 1. Cleaning obsessions were more frequent in group 3 than in group 1. Checking were the rarest and miscellaneous, the most often compulsion among adolescents in comparison to other groups. The symptoms' content in adolescents differed from those observed in adult, both with early and later onset of the disease. The age at onset influences the rates of adult patients' compulsions.

  19. Augmentation of treatment as usual with online Cognitive Bias Modification of Interpretation training in adolescents with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Salemink; L. Wolters; E. de Haan

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for children and adolescents with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is effective. However, since almost half of patients remain symptomatic after treatment, there remains room for improvement. Cognitive Bias Modification training of Interpret

  20. Relationship of quality of life with disability grade in obsessive compulsive disorder and dysthymic disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N V Roopesh Gopal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is paucity of information on the relationship of quality of life (QOL in obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD and dysthymic disorder (DD with disability grade in India. Aim: To assess the relation of QOL with disability level in OCD and DD. Materials and Methods: This hospital based study was conducted in a medical institution in Davanagere, Karnataka, India. Data was collected by using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual IV Text Revision (DSM IV TR criteria, WHO QOL BREF and IDEAS. Relationship between disability grade and QOL was assessed by independent sample t test. Results: Mild disabled OCD patients had a significantly better QOL in the Q1 domain i.e. perception on quality of life as compared to moderately disabled patients ( P 0.05. But, QOL score in physical domain showed significant difference across disability grades (56.00, SD = 6.89; 48.50, SD = 12.28 in DD, but not in other domains. Conclusion: Perception of QOL is better in those with mild disability in OCD, but in DD, physical domain of QOL score is more in mild disability compared to moderate disability.