Haibach, Jeffrey P; Homish, Gregory G; Collins, R Lorraine; Ambrosone, Christine B; Giovino, Gary A
Studies have consistently reported associations among depression, cigarette smoking, and fruit and vegetable intake (FVI). This study evaluated FVI as a moderator of the association between depressive symptoms and smoking. The authors analyzed data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979: Child and Young Adult. The study sample was adults aged 19-33 years at baseline in the year 2004 from the Young Adult Survey portion. Moderation analyses were performed using the Johnson-Neyman technique to assess whether baseline FVI moderated the association between depressive symptoms and smoking status cross-sectionally and as a predictor of smoking cessation longitudinally at 4-year follow-up. Cross-sectionally, at lower levels of FVI (smoking and depressive symptoms (P .05). Longitudinally, there was an inverse association between depressive symptoms and quitting smoking at FVI smoking cross-sectionally and longitudinally. The cross-sectional findings might be partially explained by the longitudinal findings paired with prior research; there might be fewer smokers with high FVI because depressive symptoms are removed as an impediment to cessation. Further experimental research is warranted to test the efficacy of increased FVI as an adjunct to smoking cessation, with a possible mechanism of action being reduced depressive symptoms during quit attempts.
Sakuma, Kari-Lyn Kobayakawa; Sun, Ping; Unger, Jennifer B; Johnson, C Anderson
Smoking prevention interventions have been shown to be effective in reducing smoking prevalence in the United States. Further work is needed to address smoking in China, where over one third of the world's current smokers reside. China, with more than 60% of the male population being smokers, also presents a unique opportunity to test cognitive processes involved in depression, social influences, and smoking. Adolescents at-risk for developing depression may process social information differently from low-risk counterparts. The Wuhan Smoking Prevention Trial was a school-based longitudinal randomized controlled trial aimed at preventing initiation and escalation of adolescent smoking behaviors. Thousand three hundred and ninety-one male seventh-grade students were assessed with a 200-item paper-and-pencil baseline survey, and it was readministered 1 year later following program implementation. Friend prevalence estimates were significantly higher among 30-day smokers and among those at highest risk for depression symptoms. The program appeared to be successful in changing the perception of friend smoking prevalence only among adolescents with a comorbidity of high scores of depression symptoms and who have experimented previously with smoking. This Program x Comorbidity interaction on perceived friend smoking prevalence was significant in predicting 30-day smoking 1 year after program implementation. This study provides evidence that those adolescents with high levels of depressive symptoms may be more sensitive to social influences associated with smoking prevalence. Individual Disposition x Social Environmental Influences may be important when developing future effective prevention programming.
Hooker, S A; MacGregor, K L; Funderburk, J S; Maisto, S A
Depressive symptoms and obesity are highly prevalent in primary care settings. Depressive symptoms and obesity are positively related; as body weight increases, individuals are more likely to display depressive symptoms. This study examines the moderating roles of health behaviours (alcohol use, smoking status and vigorous exercise) on the relationship between body mass index and depressive symptoms. Exercise attenuates the relationship between depressive symptoms and obesity. Primary care patients often report multiple health risk behaviours and symptoms, including obesity and depressive symptomatology. This study examined the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and depressive symptomatology among primary care patients and tested its moderation by health behaviours. Primary care patients (n = 497) completed self-report questionnaires. Using three multilevel models, we tested the moderation of health behaviours on the BMI-depressive symptoms relationship. After controlling for relevant covariates, BMI was positively related to depressive symptoms. Smokers reported more depressive symptoms (P symptoms (P > 0.05). Only vigorous exercise significantly moderated the BMI-depression relationship (P symptoms among patients who do not participate in vigorous activity, suggesting that vigorous activity reduces the risk for depressive symptoms among patients with higher BMI. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
McChargue, Dennis E; Doran, Neal
To evaluate whether cue-evoked affective response would moderate the relationship between depression-proneness and smoking years. Depression-proneness profiles were derived using clinician diagnosed personal and family histories of major depression, recurrent depression, trait-anhedonia, and ruminative coping styles (n=70). Affective distress was produced by idiographic, guided negative mood imageries in the presence of an in vivo cigarette exposure. Contrary to expectations, results showed that individuals less vulnerable to depression reported longer smoking histories. Stress-induced decreases in positive affect bolstered the association between depression vulnerability and smoking years. Depression-proneness assumptions are challenged and implications to affective influences on smoking behavior are discussed.
Stepankova, Lenka; Kralikova, Eva; Zvolska, Kamila; Pankova, Alexandra; Ovesna, Petra; Blaha, Milan; Brose, Leonie S
Smoking is more prevalent among people with depression. Depression may make cessation more difficult and cessation may affect depression symptoms. The aims of this study were to assess the associations between (1) baseline depression and 1-year smoking abstinence and (2) abstinence and change in depression. Observational study using data collected routinely in a smoking cessation clinic in the Czech Republic from 2008 to 2014. Aim 1: N = 3775 patients; 14.3% reported mild and 15.4% moderate/severe baseline depression levels measured using Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI-II). Logistic regressions assessed if depression level predicted 1-year biochemically verified abstinence while adjusting for patient and treatment characteristics. Aim 2: N = 835 patients abstinent at 1 year; change in depression was analysed using Chi-square statistics, t test and mixed method analyses of variance. Rate of abstinence was lower for patients with mild (32.5%, OR = 0.68; 95% CI: 0.54 to 0.87, p = 0.002) and moderate/severe depression (25.8%; OR = 0.57, 95% CI: 0.45 to 0.74, p smoking cessation clinic, depression at the start of treatment predicted reduced smoking abstinence 1 year later. Patients abstinent from smoking experienced considerable improvement in depression.
Knott, Verner; Bisserbe, Jean-Claude; Shah, Dhrasti; Thompson, Andrea; Bowers, Hayley; Blais, Crystal; Ilivitsky, Vadim
Comorbidity between depression and tobacco use may reflect self-medication of serotonergically mediated mood dysregulation, which has been associated with aberrant cortical activation and hemispheric asymmetry in patients with major depressive disorders (MDD). This randomized, double-blind study in 28 remitted MDD patients examined the moderating effects of acute nicotine and smoker vs. nonsmoker status on mood and EEG changes accompanying transient reductions in serotonin induced by acute tryptophan depletion (ATD). In smokers, who exhibited greater posterior high alpha power and increased left frontal low alpha power (signs of deactivation) compared to nonsmokers, ATD increased self-ratings of depressed mood and elevated left frontal and right parietal high alpha power (i.e. further cortical deactivation). Smokers were not affected by nicotine administration. In nonsmokers, ATD did not influence depression ratings, but it reduced vigor ratings and increased frontal and posterior theta power; both of which were blocked by acute nicotine. These findings indicate a role for nicotinic receptors in disordered mood. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Clancy, Nicole; Zwar, Nicholas; Richmond, Robyn
A high proportion of smokers suffer from mental health problems including depression. Despite many of them wanting to stop smoking, low mood adversely affects their ability to quit. To explore the experiences of smokers with self-reported depression, the relationship of smoking with mental health problems and the experiences of smokers while trying to quit. The study also explored what help within the primary care setting could assist in quitting. Participants were recruited from a large general-practice-based smoking cessation trial. Participants who had indicated they were suffering from depression on a self-reported baseline survey were invited to participate. Semi-structured interviews were conducted over the telephone and digitally recorded. The interviews were transcribed and analysed using a phenomenological qualitative approach. Sixteen interviews were conducted (11 females, 5 males). Mood disturbances were frequently reported as triggers for smoking and low mood was seen as a barrier to quitting. Perceived benefits of smoking when depressed were limited and for many, it was a learned response. A sense of hopelessness, lack of control over one's life and a lack of meaningful activities all emerged as important factors contributing to continued smoking. Participants felt that their quit attempts would be aided by better mood management, increased self-confidence and motivation and additional professional support. Smoking and depression were found to be strongly interconnected. Depressed smokers interested in quitting may benefit from increased psychological help to enhance self-confidence, motivation and mood management, as well as a supportive general practice environment.
Morrell, Holly E. R.; Cohen, Lee M.; McChargue, Dennis E.
This study examined the association between vulnerability to depression and smoking behavior in college students in 1214 college students (54% female), and evaluated gender and expectancies of negative affect reduction as moderators or mediators of this relationship. Depression vulnerability predicted smoking in females, but not males. The relationship between depression vulnerability and smoking status was mediated by expectancies of negative affect reduction in females only. Female college ...
Tan, Sylvia; Courtney, Lauren P; El-Mohandes, Ayman A E; Gantz, Marie G; Blake, Susan M; Thornberry, Jutta; El-Khorazaty, M Nabil; Perry, David; Kiely, Michele
This study sought to examine relationships between depressive symptoms and prenatal smoking and/or household environmental tobacco smoke exposure (HH-ETSE) among urban minority women. We analyzed private, audio computer-assisted self interview data from a clinic-based sample of 929 minority pregnant women in Washington, DC. Depressive symptoms were assessed via the Beck Depression Inventory Fast Screen. HH-ETSE, current smoking, and former smoking were assessed via self-report. Depression levels and demographic characteristics were compared: (1) among nonsmokers, for those reporting HH-ETSE versus no HH-ETSE; and (2) among smokers, for those reporting current smoking (in last 7 days) versus former smokers. Measures associated with HH-ETSE/current smoking in bivariate analysis at P smoking network, was assessed as a mediator for the relationship between depression and current smoking. Non-smokers reporting moderate-to-severe depressive symptoms showed significantly higher adjusted odds of prenatal HH-ETSE (AOR 2.5, 95% CI [1.2, 5.2]). Smokers reporting moderate-to-severe or mild depressive symptoms showed significantly higher adjusted odds of current smoking (AOR 1.9, 95% CI [1.1, 3.5] and AOR 1.8, 95% CI [1.1, 3.1], respectively). Among smokers, HH-ETSE was a significant mediator for the association between moderate-to-severe symptoms and current smoking. In conclusion, health care providers should be aware that depressed urban minority women are at risk of continued smoking/HH-ETSE during pregnancy. Interventions designed to encourage behavior change should include screening for depression, and build skills so that women are better able to address the social environment.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although diarrheal diseases are preventable and treatable, they are the leading cause of child mortality and morbidity as a consequence of poor hygiene and contaminated water. Handwashing with soap is an effective method for preventing and decreasing the incidence of diarrhea. However, mental disorders such as depression can substantially moderate an individual’s ability to cope with daily life and can exert a negative influence on daily hygiene activities such as handwashing with soap, especially in children. The aim of this study was to explain the influence of depression on pupils’ hand-washing behavior in Zimbabwe. Methods In a cross-sectional study, face-to-face interviews were carried out with primary school pupils in peri-urban Harare, Zimbabwe (n = 556 using a quantitative questionnaire to assess handwashing and its behavioral determinants in school settings. The Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale for Children (CES-DC was used to assess depression. Results More than half of the assessed children were depressed. Self-reported handwashing with soap among depressed children was significantly lower than among non-depressed children. Almost all behavioral determinants of hand-washing behavior were significantly lower in depressed children. The behavioral determinants worked differently in the depressed children than in the non-depressed children’s group. The effects of important behavioral determinants on handwashing were moderated by depression. Conclusions Depression exerts a negative influence on handwashing in children. These results suggest depression-relieving measures should be conducted together with any water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH interventions to make such interventions more effective.
Setodji, Claude M.; Martino, Steven C.; Scharf, Deborah M.; Shadel, William G.
Exposure to pro-smoking media (e.g., smoking in movies, advertising in magazines) contributes to smoking in young people. However, the extent to which the impact of exposure depends on the social context in which those exposures occur has not been investigated. This study used ecological momentary assessment to examine the moderating role of social context in the relationship between college students’ exposure to pro-smoking media and their smoking refusal self-efficacy and intention to smoke...
Kenney, Brent A.; Holahan, Charles J.
Objective and Participants: The authors examined (1) the relationship between depressive symptoms and cigarette smoking in a college sample and (2) the role of smoking self-efficacy (one's perceived ability to abstain from smoking) in explaining the relationship between depressive symptoms and cigarette smoking. Methods: Predominantly first-year…
Patten, Scott B; Williams, Jeanne V A; Lavorato, Dina H; Woolf, Benjamin; Wang, Jian Li; Bulloch, Andrew G M; Sajobi, Tolulope
Epidemiological studies have consistently linked smoking to poor mental health. Among non-smokers, some studies have also reported associations between secondhand smoke exposure and psychological symptoms. However, an association between secondhand smoke exposure and depressive disorders has not been well established. This analysis used cross-sectional data from a series of 10 population surveys conducted in Canada between 2003 and 2013. The surveys targeted the Canadian household population, included a brief structured interview for past year major depressive episode (MDE) and included items assessing secondhand smoke exposure. We used two-stage individual-level random-effects meta-regression to synthesize results from these surveys. Over the study interval, about 20% of non-smokers reported substantial exposure to secondhand smoke. In this group, the pooled annual prevalence of MDE was 6.1% (95% CI 5.3-6.9) compared to 4.0% (95% CI 3.7-4.3) in non-smokers without secondhand smoke exposure. The crude odds ratio was 1.5 (95% CI 1.4-1.7). With adjustment for a set of potential confounding variables the odds ratio was unchanged, 1.4 (95% CI 1.2 - 1.6). These results provide additional support for public health measures aimed at reducing secondhand smoke exposure. A causal connection between secondhand smoke exposure and MDEs cannot be confirmed due to the cross-sectional nature of the data. Longitudinal studies are needed to establish temporal sequencing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Wang, Yan; Chen, Xinguang; Gong, Jie; Yan, Yaqiong
More effective tobacco prevention and cessation programs require in-depth understanding of the mechanism by which multiple factors interact with each other to affect smoking behaviors. Stress has long been recognized as a risk factor for smoking. However, the underlying mediation and moderation mechanisms are far from clear. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of negative emotions in mediating the link between stress and smoking and whether this indirect link was modified by resilience. Survey data were collected using audio computer-assisted self-interview (ACASI) from a large random sample of urban residents (n = 1249, mean age = 35.1, 45.3% male) in Wuhan, China. Perceived stress, negative emotions (anxiety, depression), resilience were measured with reliable instruments also validated in China. Self-reported smoking was validated with exhaled carbon monoxide. Mediation analysis indicated that two negative emotions fully mediated the link between stress and intensity of smoking (assessed by number of cigarettes smoked per day, effect =.082 for anxiety and.083 for depression) and nicotine dependence (assessed by DSM-IV standard, effect =.134 for anxiety and.207 for depression). Moderated mediation analysis demonstrated that the mediation effects of negative emotions were negatively associated with resilience. Results suggest resilience interacts with stress and negative emotions to affect the risk of tobacco use and nicotine dependence among Chinese adults. Further research with longitudinal data is needed to verify the findings of this study and to estimate the effect size of resilience in tobacco intervention and cessation programs.
Setodji, Claude M.; Martino, Steven C.; Scharf, Deborah M.; Shadel, William G.
Exposure to pro-smoking media (e.g., smoking in movies, advertising in magazines) contributes to smoking in young people. However, the extent to which the impact of exposure depends on the social context in which those exposures occur has not been investigated. This study used ecological momentary assessment to examine the moderating role of social context in the relationship between college students’ exposure to pro-smoking media and their smoking refusal self-efficacy and intention to smoke. College students (N = 134) carried handheld computers for 21 days, recording their exposure to all forms of pro-smoking media during the assessment period. They also responded to three investigator-initiated control prompts (programmed to occur randomly) each day of the assessment. After each exposure to pro-smoking media and after each control prompt, participants answered questions about smoking refusal self-efficacy and their intentions to smoke; they also indicated whether they were with friends, with family, with a romantic partner, or alone (i.e., their social context). When participants were with friends, pro-smoking media exposures were associated with stronger smoking intentions and lower smoking refusal self-efficacy; these associations were not present when participants were alone. Being with family members or with a romantic partner did not moderate the impact of pro-smoking media exposure on either dependent variable. These results suggest a new role for peers in the development of youth smoking. PMID:22686961
Minami, Haruka; Bloom, Erika Litvin; Reed, Kathleen M Palm; Hayes, Steven C; Brown, Richard A
Recent smoking cessation studies have shown that decreasing experiential avoidance (EA; i.e., tendency to reduce or avoid internal distress) improves success, but to date none have examined the moderating effect of EA on the role of specific internal distress in smoking cessation. This study examined whether prequit general EA (Acceptance and Action Questionnaire) and smoking-specific EA (Avoidance and Inflexibility Scale) moderated the relations between 4 measures of postquit internal distress (depressive symptoms, negative affect, physical withdrawal symptoms, craving) and smoking. Forty adult smokers participated in a randomized controlled trial of distress tolerance treatment for smokers with a history of early lapse. Multilevel models showed that prequit smoking-specific EA, but not general EA, significantly moderated the relationship between all measures of internal distress, except craving, and smoking over 13 weeks postquit. When examined over 26 weeks, these relations remained unchanged for all, but the moderating effect became trend-level for depressive symptoms. Significant associations between postquit internal distress and smoking were found only in those with high prequit smoking-specific EA. Moreover, prequit smoking-specific EA did not predict postquit levels or changes in internal distress, suggesting that decreasing smoking-specific EA prequit may not reduce internal distress, but may instead reduce smoking risk in response to such distress during a quit attempt. Results mainly supported hypothesized relations, but only for smoking-specific EA. Smoking cessation interventions focusing on EA reduction may especially benefit those vulnerable to greater postquit depressive and withdrawal symptoms, and those who smoke to regulate aversive internal states. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Leventhal, Adam M
The elucidation of individual differences in tobacco use motivation is of considerable interest. Accordingly, the present study tested the hypothesis that between-person variation in reinforcement smoking (RS)--a tendency to smoke to regulate affect--moderates the relationship between poor mood and urge to smoke. In this cross-sectional, correlational study, smokers (N = 212; > or =5 cig/day) completed measures of RS, positive affect (PA), negative affect (NA), and smoking urge. RS significantly moderated the relation between PA and urge (betas > .11, ps relationship. The overall results were consistent across 2 measures of mood and adjusted models that controlled for demographics and smoking characteristics. Continued investigation of these moderational pathways could identify which smokers may benefit most from treatments that target mood during smoking cessation.
He, Qiang; Yang, Lei; Shi, Shenxun; Gao, Jingfang; Tao, Ming; Zhang, Kerang; Gao, Chengge; Yang, Lijun; Li, Kan; Shi, Jianguo; Wang, Gang; Liu, Lanfen; Zhang, Jinbei; Du, Bo; Jiang, Guoqing
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the risk factors that contribute to smoking in female patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and the clinical features in depressed smokers. METHODS: We examined the smoking status and clinical features in 6120 Han Chinese women with MDD (DSM-IV) between 30 and 60 years of age across China. Logistic regression was used to determine the association between clinical features of MDD and smoking status and between risk factors for MDD and smoking status. RESULTS: ...
Setodji, Claude M; Martino, Steven C; Scharf, Deborah M; Shadel, William G
Exposure to prosmoking media (e.g., smoking in movies, advertising in magazines) contributes to smoking in young people. However, the extent to which the impact of exposure depends on the social context in which those exposures occur has not been investigated. This study used ecological momentary assessment to examine the moderating role of social context in the relationship between college students' exposure to prosmoking media and their smoking refusal self-efficacy and intention to smoke. College students (n = 134) carried handheld computers for 21 days, recording their exposure to all forms of prosmoking media during the assessment period. They also responded to three investigator-initiated control prompts (programmed to occur randomly) each day of the assessment. After each exposure to prosmoking media and after each control prompt, participants answered questions about smoking refusal self-efficacy and their intentions to smoke; they also indicated whether they were with friends, with family, with a romantic partner, or alone (i.e., their social context). When participants were with friends, prosmoking media exposures were associated with stronger smoking intentions and lower smoking refusal self-efficacy; these associations were not present when participants were alone. Being with family members or with a romantic partner did not moderate the impact of prosmoking media exposure on either dependent variable. These results suggest a new role for peers in the development of youth smoking. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
Richards, C. Steven; Cohen, Lee M.; Morrell, Holly E. R.; Watson, Noreen L.; Low, Blakely E.
Objective: Cigarette smoking is the leading cause of preventable death in the United States. In addition, smoking rates among depressed and anxious smokers are higher than in the population at large. Furthermore, treating depressed and anxious smokers effectively is particularly challenging because of their significant negative affect,…
Lasser, Karen E; Lunze, Karsten; Cheng, Debbie M; Blokhina, Elena; Walley, Alexander Y; Tindle, Hilary A; Quinn, Emily; Gnatienko, Natalia; Krupitsky, Evgeny; Samet, Jeffrey H
Globally, persons with HIV infection, depression and substance use disorders have a higher smoking prevalence and smoke more heavily than other populations. These associations have not been explored among Russian smokers with HIV infection and substance use disorders. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the presence of depressive symptoms and smoking outcomes in an HIV-positive cohort of Russian smokers with a history of substance use disorders (alcohol and/or drug use disorders). We performed a cross-sectional secondary data analysis of a cohort of HIV-positive regular smokers with a history of substance use disorders recruited in St. Petersburg, Russia in 2012-2015. The primary outcome was heavy smoking, defined as smoking > 20 cigarettes per day. Nicotine dependence (moderate-very high) was a secondary outcome. The main independent variable was a high level of depressive symptoms in the past 7 days (defined as CES-D > = 24). We used multivariable logistic regression to examine associations between depressive symptoms and the outcomes, controlling for age, sex, education, income, running out of money for housing/food, injection drug use, and alcohol use measured by the AUDIT. Among 309 regular smokers, 79 participants (25.6%) had high levels of depressive symptoms, and 65 participants (21.0%) were heavy smokers. High levels of depressive symptoms were not significantly associated with heavy smoking (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.50, 95% CI 0.78-2.89) or with moderate-very high levels of nicotine dependence (aOR 1.35, 95% CI 0.75-2.41). This study did not detect an association between depressive symptoms and smoking outcomes among HIV-positive regular smokers in Russia.
Hitsman, Brian; Borrelli, Belinda; McChargue, Dennis E; Spring, Bonnie; Niaura, Raymond
The authors conducted a meta-analysis of published studies to (a) evaluate the premise that a history of major depression is associated with failure to quit smoking and (b) identify factors that moderate the relationship between history of depression and cessation outcome. Fifteen studies met the selection requirements and were coded for various study methodology and treatment characteristics. DSTAT was used to calculate individual study effect sizes, determine the mean effect size across studies, and test for moderator effects. No differences in either short-term ( or = 6 months) were observed between smokers positive versus negative for history of depression. Lifetime history of major depression does not appear to be an independent risk factor for cessation failure in smoking cessation treatment.
Vidrine, Jennifer Irvin; Anderson, Cheryl B; Pollak, Kathryn I; Wetter, David W
To examine relations among gender, self-generated smoking-outcome expectancies, and smoking in adolescents. Students from one all-girls' (n=350; 53%) and one all-boys' (n=315; 47%) Catholic high school participated. Analyses included binary and ordinal logistic regression. For boys, smoking behavior was associated with buzz (odds radio [OR] = 1.92, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.31-2.83, p exercise/sport impairment (OR = 2.84, 95% CI: 1.68-4.81, p gender-smoking relationship. Moderators included negative social (beta = -0.45, p = .021) and enhance self-esteem (beta = -1.07, p = .024). Interventions might benefit from tailoring on gender differences in smoking-outcome expectancies.
Rich, Alexander R.; Bonner, Ronald L.
Examined depression, life stress, cognitive distortions, cognitive rigidity, problem-solving, loneliness, and family support in college freshmen (N=158) using self-report measures. Results suggest that depression has important interpersonal correlates. Loneliness and poor self-appraised social problem-solving combined and interacted with life…
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the risk factors that contribute to smoking in female patients with major depressive disorder (MDD and the clinical features in depressed smokers. METHODS: We examined the smoking status and clinical features in 6120 Han Chinese women with MDD (DSM-IV between 30 and 60 years of age across China. Logistic regression was used to determine the association between clinical features of MDD and smoking status and between risk factors for MDD and smoking status. RESULTS: Among the recurrent MDD patients there were 216(3.6% current smokers, 117 (2.0% former smokers and 333(5.6% lifetime smokers. Lifetime smokers had a slightly more severe illness, characterized by more episodes, longer duration, more comorbid illness (panic and phobias, with more DSM-IV A criteria and reported more symptoms of fatigue and suicidal ideation or attempts than never smokers. Some known risk factors for MDD were also differentially represented among smokers compared to non-smokers. Smokers reported more stressful life events, were more likely to report childhood sexual abuse, had higher levels of neuroticism and an increased rate of familial MDD. Only neuroticism was significantly related to nicotine dependence. CONCLUSIONS: Although depressed women smokers experience more severe illness, smoking rates remain low in MDD patients. Family history of MDD and environmental factors contribute to lifetime smoking in Chinese women, consistent with the hypothesis that the association of smoking and depression may be caused by common underlying factors.
Chao, Ariana M; White, Marney A; Grilo, Carlos M; Sinha, Rajita
This study examined the relationships among smoking status and total and specific types of food cravings (i.e., high-fats, sweets, fast-food fats, and complex carbohydrates/starches) and the influence of demographic, clinical, and psychological factors on this relationship. Seven-hundred and twelve adults completed measures of food cravings, dietary intake, and smoking history. Heights and weights were measured. Data were analyzed using univariate and multivariate analyses while adjusting for demographic, clinical, and psychological covariates. Compared to never smokers, current smokers reported more frequent cravings for high-fat foods and fast-food fats, after controlling for depression, stress, BMI and demographic factors. Current smokers also reported consuming more high-fat foods and fast-food fats. The association between cigarette smoking and total food craving was no longer significant after accounting for depression and stress, suggesting that depression and stress may account for the relationship between smoking and total food craving. Smoking did not moderate the relationship between food cravings and food intake. Nicotine dependence was positively correlated with the frequency of general food cravings and cravings for high fats, sweets, and carbohydrates/starches. Cigarette smokers, and especially those with higher nicotine dependence, may have greater difficulties in addressing food craving and changing eating habits, particularly in the context of depression and stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mays, Darren; Luta, George; Walker, Leslie R.; Tercyak, Kenneth P.
Adolescent sports participants are less likely to smoke cigarettes, and sports participation may prevent young people from smoking. Research suggests that the relationship between sports participation and smoking may vary by race/ethnicity and is also possibly moderated by exposure to peer smoking. We investigated these relationships in a sample of 311 adolescents ages 13 – 21 presenting for well-visit medical appointments. Participants completed valid assessments of demographics, sports part...
Talib, Mansor Abu; Abdollahi, Abbas
Suicide is an important public health problem for adolescents, and it is essential to increase our knowledge concerning the etiology of suicide among adolescent students. Therefore, this study was designed to examine the associations between hopelessness, depression, spirituality, and suicidal behavior, and to examine spirituality as a moderator between hopelessness, depression, and suicidal behavior among 1376 Malaysian adolescent students. The participants completed measures of depression, hopelessness, daily spiritual experience, and suicidal behavior. Structural equation modeling indicated that adolescent students high in hopelessness and depression, but also high in spirituality, had less suicidal behavior than others. These findings reinforce the importance of spirituality as a protective factor against hopelessness, depression, and suicidal behavior among Malaysian adolescent students.
To examine the association between cigarette smoke exposure and depression among Korean adolescents using the seventh Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS). Cross-sectional study. A nationally representative sample of middle and high school students across South Korea. 75 643 eligible participants across the country. Current smoking, secondhand smoke exposure and depression. Data were analysed from a nationally representative survey of 75 643 participants (37 873 men and 37 770 women). Data were gathered on extensive information including current smoking, secondhand smoke exposure and depression in adolescence. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the association between current smoking, secondhand smoke exposure and depression in Korean adolescents. Among those who had never smoked, secondhand smoke exposure was positively associated with depression in male and female adolescents in a dose-response relation (OR 1.27, OR 1.52 in males; OR 1.25, OR 1.72 in females). Similar associations were observed among currently smoking men and women in a dose-response manner (OR 1.29, OR 1.55 in males; OR 1.22, OR 1.41 in females). These significant trends were consistently observed even after adjustments. We suggested that current smoking and secondhand smoke exposure were positively associated with depression in male and female adolescents. Efforts to encourage no smoking and no secondhand smoke exposure will be established for adolescents.
Peyrot, Wouter J; Van der Auwera, Sandra; Milaneschi, Yuri
BACKGROUND: The heterogeneity of genetic effects on major depressive disorder (MDD) may be partly attributable to moderation of genetic effects by environment, such as exposure to childhood trauma (CT). Indeed, previous findings in two independent cohorts showed evidence for interaction between p...
Scherphof, C.S.; Eijnden, R.J.J.M. van den; Harakeh, Z.; Raaijmakers, Q.A.W.; Kleinjan, M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Vollebergh, W.A.M.
Nicotine dependence has been shown to hamper successful smoking cessation in adolescents. Nicotine dependence and depression are highly comorbid, but the relation between depression and smoking cessation is not yet fully understood. Therefore, the present study examines both the longitudinal
Judy van de Venne
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine maternal and adolescent depression, maternal and teen sensation seeking, and maternal smoking, and their associations with adolescent smoking. Data were collected from a sample of 47 male and 66 female adolescents (ages 11—18 years and their mothers from three different health clinics. The findings indicated that maternal sensation seeking was linked indirectly with adolescent smoking through teen sensation seeking, both of which were significantly associated with teen smoking (β = 0.29, p < 0.001 and β = 0.32, p < 0.001, respectively. Teen depression was associated positively with teen smoking (β = 0.24, p < 0.01 when controlling for sensation seeking behaviors. Maternal smoking was also directly linked to adolescent smoking (β = 0.20, p < 0.05. These findings underscore a potentially important role of sensation seeking in the origins of adolescent smoking, and clarify pathways of influence with regard to maternal attitudes and behaviors in subsequent teenage nicotine use.
Zale, Emily L.; Maisto, Stephen A.; Ditre, Joseph W.
Pain and tobacco smoking are highly prevalent and comorbid conditions that impose considerable burdens on individuals and health care systems. A recently proposed reciprocal model suggests that these conditions interact in a bidirectional manner, resulting in greater pain and the maintenance of tobacco addiction. Anxiety and depression are common among smokers in pain and have been identified as central mechanisms of interest. There is emerging evidence that smokers with anxiety/depression may experience more severe pain and functional impairment, greater pain-induced motivation to smoke, and increased sensitivity to pain during periods of smoking abstinence. Based on empirical findings, we hypothesize that these experiences may engender expectations that abstaining from smoking will exacerbate both pain and negative affect, thus eroding self-efficacy for smoking cessation and increasing perceived barriers to quitting. The goal of this narrative review is to examine the role of anxiety/depression in complex pain–smoking relations so as to advance evolving theoretical perspectives and inform the development of tailored interventions. PMID:26467214
Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I; Cortina, Lilia M
Rates of major depressive disorder (MDD) and cigarette smoking increase with Latino/a acculturation, but this varies by gender and ethnic subgroup. We investigated how lived experiences (i.e., discrimination, family conflict, family cohesion, familismo) clustered together in the everyday lives of Latina/os. We further examined associations of cluster profile and Latino/a subgroup with MDD and smoking, and tested whether gender moderated these associations. Data came from the National Latino Asian American Study, which included 2,554 Latino/as (48 % female; mean age = 38.02 years). K-means cluster analysis revealed six profiles of experience, which varied by gender and socio-cultural characteristics. Proportionately more women than men were in groups with problematic family lives. Acculturated Latino/as were disproportionately represented in profiles reporting frequent discrimination, family conflict, and a lack of shared family values and cohesion. Profiles characterized by high discrimination and family problems also predicted elevated risk for MDD and smoking. Findings suggest that Latino/a acculturation comes jointly with increased discrimination, increased family conflict, and reduced family cohesion and shared family values, exacerbating risk for MDD and smoking. This research on pathways to depression and smoking can inform the development of targeted assessment, prevention, and intervention strategies, tailored to the needs of Latino/as.
Schleicher, Holly E.; Harris, Kari Jo; Catley, Delwyn; Nazir, Niaman
Objective: Expectancies about nicotine's ability to alleviate negative mood states may play a role in the relationship between smoking and depression. The authors examined the role of negative affect regulation expectancies as a potential mediator of depression (history of depression and depressive symptoms) and smoking among college students.…
Weinberger, Andrea H; Kashan, Rachel S; Shpigel, Danielle M; Esan, Hannah; Taha, Farah; Lee, Christine J; Funk, Allison P; Goodwin, Renee D
Smoking and depression are both leading causes of disability, mortality and morbidity around the world. Using epidemiologic data to study the association between depression and the severity, course, and persistence of smoking in the general population is important for understanding the scope of the problem of smoking among people with depression. The current paper aims to critically review existing epidemiologic research on the smoking behaviors of persons with depressive symptoms and disorders and to identify gaps in the literature that warrant further study. Literature searches of Medline and EMBASE were used to identify articles that analyzed epidemiologic data and examined an aspect of smoking behavior in persons with depressive symptoms or disorders. Six hundred ninety-three abstracts were reviewed and 45 studies met all of the inclusion criteria to be included in the review. Persons with depression, compared to those without depression, are more likely to smoke, and meet criteria for nicotine dependence, are less likely to quit smoking, and are more likely to relapse. Little is known about the association between depression and smoking behavior by age, socioeconomic status, or race/ethnicity or with regard to the use of tobacco products other than cigarettes. Persons with depression are more likely to smoke cigarettes and have greater difficulty quitting smoking. Community-based and public health approaches may need to begin considering the links between depression and smoking in order to best target the current smokers in the population and develop more effective tobacco control campaigns.
Foster, Dawn W; Langdon, Kirsten J; Schmidt, Norman B; Zvolensky, Michael
The present study evaluated the relative contribution of panic and depressive symptoms in relation to past cessation difficulties and smoking motives among treatment-seeking daily smokers. The sample included 392 treatment-seeking daily smokers (47.07% female; Mage = 35.48; SD = 13.56), who reported smoking an average of 10 or more cigarettes daily for at least one year. Findings indicated that panic and depressive symptoms were significantly associated with quit problems as well as addictive and negative affect motives for smoking. However, depressive symptoms were not associated with habitual smoking motives. Differential patterns of associations with smoking-based processes imply that although panic and depression are related, there are important distinctions. Such data highlight the need for additional research to examine the putative role of panic and depressive symptoms in relation to smoking behaviors to further elucidate the mechanisms through which panic, depression, and smoking impact one another.
Berstein, L M; Tsyrlina, E V; Semiglazov, V F; Kovalenko, I G; Gamayunova, V B; Evtushenko, T P; Ivanova, O A
One hundred and eighteen primary breast cancer (BC) patients, 35 of whom were smokers, in clinical stages I-II of the disease were examined. In order to investigate whether smoking changes endocrine function in BC patients, some indices of the hormone-metabolic status of smoking and non-smoking patients of reproductive and menopausal age were compared. It was found that in smokers with BC there was a decline in body weight and body fat content, a lack of lean body mass accumulation along with body mass increase, a tendency to hypotriglyceridemia and hypoinsulinemia, accelerated development of the upper type of body fat distribution with ageing, intensified gonadotropin secretion, shifts in steroidogenesis and SHBG level and elevated catecholamine execretion. It is suggested that a possible relation between hormone-mediated effects inherent to smoking and the mechanisms promoting genotoxic type of hormonal carcinogenesis and the factors of breast cancer prognosis cannot be excluded.
Weinberger, Andrea H; Mazure, Carolyn M; Morlett, Alejandra; McKee, Sherry A
Adults with depression smoke at higher rates than other adults leaving a large segment of this population, who already incur increased health-related risks, vulnerable to the enormous harmful consequences of smoking. Yet, the impact that depression has on smoking cessation is not clear due to the mixed results of past research. The primary aims of this review were to synthesize the research examining the relationship of depression to smoking cessation outcomes over a 20-year period, to examine the gender and racial composition of these studies, and to identify directions for future research. Potential articles published between January 1, 1990 and December 31, 2010 were identified through a MEDLINE search of the terms "clinical trial," "depression," and "smoking cessation." 68 studies used all three terms and met the inclusion criteria. The majority of studies examined either a past diagnosis of major depression or current depression symptoms. Within the few studies that examined the interaction of gender and depression on smoking cessation, depression had a greater impact on treatment outcomes for women than men. No study reported examining the interactive impact of race and depression on treatment outcomes. Although attention to the relationship of depression and smoking cessation outcomes has increased over the past 20 years, little information exists to inform a treatment approach for smokers with Current Major Depressive Disorder, Dysthymia, and Minor Depression and few studies report gender and racial differences in the relationship of depression and smoking cessation outcomes, thus suggesting major areas for targeted research.
Holloway, Breanna M; Santoro, Maya S; Cronan, Terry A
The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of smoking, stress, and depression on fibromyalgia health status. Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is a chronic musculoskeletal pain condition that negatively affects health status. Health status is not only affected by the constellation of physical symptoms, but also by mood symptoms, stress levels, and patient behaviors (e.g. smoking). Participants were 491 individuals with a physician's diagnosis of FMS. They completed self-report measures of their current levels of depression, stress, the number of cigarettes smoked per day, and health status. A linear regression analysis was conducted to determine whether these measures predicted FMS health status. All three measures predicted worse health status, predicting 51.5% of the variance in health status. However, it is important to evaluate and treat more than just the physical symptoms of FMS. Attention should also be paid to mental health status and to engagement in unhealthy behaviors in order to reduce their effects on FMS health status. Future researchers should design and evaluate interventions that target these modifiable risk factors to determine the extent to which they could improve health outcomes.
Andre G. Bastos
Full Text Available Objective: To identify neurocognitive and sociodemographic variables that could be associated with clinical response to three modalities of treatment for depression, as well as variables that predicted superior response to one treatment over the others. Method: The present study derives from a research project in which depressed patients (n=272 received one of three treatments – long-term psychodynamic psychotherapy (n=90, fluoxetine therapy (n=91, or a combination thereof (n=91 – over a 24-month period. Results: Sociodemographic variables were not found to be predictive. Six predictive neurocognitive variables were identified: three prognostic variables related to working memory and abstract reasoning; one prescriptive variable related to working memory; and two variables found to be moderators. Conclusions: The results of this study indicate subgroups of patients who might benefit from specific therapeutic strategies and subgroups that seem to respond well to long-term psychodynamic psychotherapy and combined therapy. The moderators found suggest that abstract reasoning and processing speed may influence the magnitude and/or direction of clinical improvement.
Roohafza, Hamidreza; Omidi, Razieh; Alinia, Tahereh; Heidari, Kamal; Farshad, Marziyeh; Davari, Hossein; Abtin, Zahra; Shahriari, Ezat; Taslimi, Mahshid; Sadeghi, Masoumeh
Background: Several common factors have been identified for smoking and depression. The The present study explores the relation of psychological and familial factors with depression, by student smoking behavior. Materials and Methods: A total of 5500 middle- and high-school students were selected in Isfahan province in 2010. A self-administered questionnaire collected data on background characteristics, smoking status, depression, and risk factors. Univariate analysis multiple logistic regres...
Ter Meulen, Wendela G; van Zaane, Jan; Draisma, Stasja; Beekman, Aartjan T F; Kupka, Ralph W
Evidence suggests that alcohol use and smoking are negatively associated with mood in bipolar disorders (BD). It is unknown if this relationship is moderated by the number of previous mood episodes. Therefore, this paper aims to examine whether the number of previous mood episodes moderates the relationship between alcohol use and smoking, and mood. This study assessed the outcomes of 108 outpatients with BD I and II in a prospective observational cohort study. For 1 year, subjects daily registered mood symptoms and substance use with the prospective Life Chart Method. The relationship between the average daily consumption of alcohol and tobacco units in the whole year and mood were examined by multiple linear regression analyses. Number of previous mood episodes, grouped into its quartiles, was added as effect moderator. Outcome was the number of depressive, hypomanic and manic days in that year. The number of depressive days in a year increased by 4% (adjusted β per unit tobacco = 1.040; 95% CI 1.003-1.079; p = 0.033) per unit increase in average daily tobacco consumption in that same year. Interaction analyses showed that in those subjects with less than 7 previous mood episodes, the number of manic and hypomanic days increased by 100.3% per unit increase in alcohol consumption (adjusted β per unit alcohol = 2.003; 95% CI 1.225-3.274; p = 0.006). In those with 7 to 13 previous mood episodes, the number of manic and hypomanic days decreased by 28.7% per unit increase in alcohol consumption (adjusted β per unit alcohol = 0.713; 95% CI 0.539-0.944; p = 0.019); and in subjects with 14 to 44 previous mood episodes, the number of manic and hypomanic days decreased by 7.2% per unit increase in tobacco consumption (adjusted β per unit tobacco = 0.928; 95% CI 0.871-0.989; p = 0.021). The number of previous mood episodes moderates the relationship between alcohol use and smoking and mood; and smoking is adversely associated with the number of
Cigarette smoking is a growing problem among adolescents. This correlational study tested theoretical relationships between the dependent variable (smoking behavior) and the independent variables (depression and smoking resistance self-efficacy) in a convenience sample of 364 college students ages 18 to 21 years recruited from a large urban public college. An a priori mediational model tested the role of smoking resistance self-efficacy as a mediator in the relationship between smoking behavior and depression. Findings showed there was a statistically significant positive relationship between depression and smoking behavior (r = 0.122, p = 0.01). There was a statistically significant negative relationship between smoking resistance self-efficacy and smoking behavior (r = -0.744, p = 0.01). Additionally, smoking resistance self-efficacy was a mediator of the relationship between depression and smoking behavior (beta = -0.757, p = 0.001). This study identifies a need for further theory-driven study of the relation of adolescent depression and smoking behavior. The findings of this study have implications for nursing interventions targeted to both current smokers and smoking initiation prevention programs.
Vinci, Christine; Spears, Claire A.; Peltier, MacKenzie R.; Copeland, Amy L.
The relationship between cigarette smoking and depressive symptoms is well-established. Dispositional mindfulness has been associated with lower depressive symptoms, lower smoking dependence, and higher odds of smoking cessation. Given that mindfulness is multi-faceted, the current study examined which facets of mindfulness might mediate the relationship between depressive symptoms and smoking behavior. Participants (n = 72) completed the Smoking Consequences Questionnaire (SCQ), Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CESD), and Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills (KIMS; subscales-Observe, Describe, Acting with Awareness, Accepting without Judgment), and indicated number of cigarettes smoked per day (CPD). Simple mediation models (followed by multiple mediation when more than one facet was significant) tested whether mindfulness facets mediated the relationship between CESD and smoking behavior (CPD and SCQ subscales). Results indicated that 1) lower depressive symptoms were associated with higher Accepting without Judgment, which was related to lower Negative Reinforcement expectancies, 2) lower depressive symptoms were associated with increased Describe, which was associated with greater perceived Negative Consequences, 3) lower depressive symptoms were associated with higher Accepting without Judgment, which was associated with lower Negative Consequences expectancies, and 4) higher depressive symptoms were associated with higher scores on Observe, which related to both greater Positive Reinforcement and Negative Consequences expectancies. Greater Accepting without Judgment and Describe aspects of mindfulness may serve as protective factors in the relationship of depressive symptoms and smoking. PMID:28083076
Roohafza, Hamidreza; Omidi, Razieh; Alinia, Tahereh; Heidari, Kamal; Farshad, Marziyeh; Davari, Hossein; Abtin, Zahra; Shahriari, Ezat; Taslimi, Mahshid; Sadeghi, Masoumeh
Several common factors have been identified for smoking and depression. The The present study explores the relation of psychological and familial factors with depression, by student smoking behavior. A total of 5500 middle- and high-school students were selected in Isfahan province in 2010. A self-administered questionnaire collected data on background characteristics, smoking status, depression, and risk factors. Univariate analysis multiple logistic regressions were conducted to compare between depressed and nondepressed people by adolescent smoking status. Odds ratios and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were reported. Fathers lower education attainment was accompanied adolescents higher depression prevalence. Parental smoking and sibling smoking increased the depression likelihood by 1.41 (95% CI: 1.18, 1.68) and 1.43 folds (95% CI: 1.04-1.94) for never-smokers. Positive attitude toward smoking increased the probability of depression by 1.18 among never-smokers. Never-smokers lacking refusal skill had 1.23 (1.03-1.47) higher chance of depression. A higher level of self-efficacy related to lower chance of depression. Taking risky behavior, increased the depression likelihood by 1.56 (95% CI: 1.29-1.89) in never-smokers, by 1.85 (95% CI: 1.37-2.44) in experimental smokers, and by 1.14 times (95% CI: 1.01-1.72) in current smokers. Family conflict increased depression chance by 2.25 times (95% CI: 1.89-2.66) in never-smokers, by 1.95 (95% CI: 1.46-2.61) in experimental smokers, and by 2.06 times (95% CI: 1.38-3.08) in current smokers. Targeting self-efficacy level, risky behavior, and family conflict can drop the comorbidity of smoking and depression simultaneously. This may help public health practitioners and policymakers to develop common strategies in reducing adolescents smoking and depression comorbidity.
Hori, H; Matsuo, J; Teraishi, T; Sasayama, D; Kawamoto, Y; Kinoshita, Y; Ota, M; Hattori, K; Kunugi, H
Smoking rates in schizotypic individuals are shown to be elevated, as in patients with schizophrenia, although findings on the association of smoking with different symptomatology of schizotypy have been mixed. Moreover, possible moderating effects of schizotypy on the relationship between smoking and cognition have not been well documented. The Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ) and the full version of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R) were administered to 501 healthy adults. Subjects were divided into smokers (n=85) and non-smokers (n=416) based on the presence/absence of current smoking. The analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) on the three factor scores as well as the total score of the SPQ, controlling for age and gender, revealed that cognitive-perceptual factor was significantly associated with an increased rate of smoking (P=0.048). The ANCOVA on the WMS-R indices, with smoking group as a fixed factor and age, gender and total SPQ score as covariates, revealed that the schizotypy-by-smoking interaction was significant for attention/working memory (P=0.029). Positive schizotypy may be associated with more smoking. Schizotypy and smoking could interact with each other to negatively affect attention/working memory. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Lopez, Alexa A; Skelly, Joan M; Higgins, Stephen T
We examined whether pregnant and newly postpartum smokers at risk for postpartum depression respond to an incentive-based smoking-cessation treatment and how the intervention impacts depression ratings. This study is a secondary data analysis. Participants (N = 289; data collected 2001-2013) were smokers at the start of prenatal care who participated in 4 controlled clinical trials on the efficacy of financial incentives for smoking cessation. Women were assigned either to an intervention wherein they earned vouchers exchangeable for retail items contingent on abstaining from smoking or to a control condition wherein they received vouchers of comparable value independent of smoking status. Treatments were provided antepartum through 12-weeks postpartum. Depression ratings (Beck Depression Inventory [BDI]-1A) were examined across 7 antepartum/postpartum assessments. Women who reported a history of prior depression or who had BDI scores ≥ 17 at the start of prenatal care were categorized as depression-prone (Dep+), while those meeting neither criterion were categorized as depression-negative (Dep-). The intervention increased smoking abstinence independent of depression status (p postpartum BDI ratings as well as the proportion of women scoring in the clinical range (≥17 and >21) compared with the control treatment (ps ≤ .05). Treatment effects on depression ratings were attributable to changes in Dep+ women. These results demonstrate that depression-prone pregnant and newly postpartum women respond well to this incentive-based smoking-cessation intervention in terms of achieving abstinence, and the intervention also reduces the severity of postpartum depression ratings in this at-risk population. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Orr, Suezanne Tangerose; Blazer, Dan G; Orr, Caroline A
Maternal smoking is a key preventable cause of poor pregnancy outcomes, such as low birthweight. In many areas of the United States, including Eastern North Carolina, rates of prenatal smoking are high. Prenatal depressive symptoms are associated with maternal smoking, but there remains much to learn about this relationship, especially among Black women, who have double the risk of poor pregnancy outcomes of White women. In the study reported in this paper, we investigated the relationship between maternal prenatal depressive symptoms with smoking behaviors, beliefs and attitudes, environmental factors which promote smoking and nicotine addiction. Pregnant women were enrolled in the study at the first prenatal visit to the clinics of the Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Family Medicine of the Brody School of Medicine, East Carolina University. An interviewer administered a questionnaire to each woman about smoking, smoking-related attitudes, knowledge, beliefs and behaviors, nicotine addiction, and home environmental factors that encourage smoking. The CES-D was used to measure depressive symptoms. We used the cut-point score of 23 or greater to indicate elevated depressive symptoms, which is thought to represent major depressive disorder. The sample consisted of 810 Black women, of whom 18% were smokers. CES-D score was associated with nicotine addiction, not thinking of quitting smoking, and not expecting support from family and friends if they decided to quit. Prenatal depressive symptoms may be a barrier to smoking cessation.
Grunau, Gilat L.; Ratner, Pamela A.; Hossain, Shahadut; Johnson, Joy L.
The objective of this study was to investigate the association between depression and anxiety and adolescents' smoking status, and to determine whether depression or anxiety mediate the association between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and smoking. A cross-sectional survey of tobacco use was conducted in regional school districts…
Mellick, William; Kalpakci, Allison; Sharp, Carla
Prior studies have examined critical expressed emotion (EE-Crit) in mothers in the intergenerational transmission of depression. However, the potential moderating effect of maternal depression diagnostic status in relation to EE-Crit and youth depressive symptoms has yet to be determined. A total of N=121 biological mother/daughter dyads that differed in maternal depression diagnostic status were recruited for the present study: (1) currently depressed mothers (current depression, n=29); (2) formerly depressed mothers (past depression, n=39); and (3) mothers free from any psychiatric history (healthy controls, n=53). Mothers were administered structured clinical interviews and completed self-report measures of EE-Crit and psychopathology, and daughters self-reported depressive symptoms. Results indicated no significant group differences in EE-Crit; however, current maternal depression status moderated EE-Crit such that the magnitude of the relation between EE-Crit and adolescent depressive symptoms was significantly greater in daughters of currently depressed mothers. These findings highlight the importance of considering current maternal depression, rather than a history of maternal depression, in relation to EE-Crit and adolescent depressive symptoms, providing impetus for future investigations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
De Wilde, Katrien S; Trommelmans, Leen C; Laevens, Hans H; Maes, Lea R; Temmerman, Marleen; Boudrez, Hedwig L
Relationships among feelings of depression, smoking behavior, and educational level during pregnancy have been documented. Feelings of depression may contribute to persistent smoking during pregnancy. No longitudinal studies assessing feelings of depression in women with different antepartum and postpartum smoking patterns are available. The aim was to determine relationships between depressive symptoms, sociodemographic characteristics, and smoking pattern during and after pregnancy. An observational, prospective, noninterventional study was conducted. Data were collected during two stages of pregnancy (T0: postpartum (T2: >6 weeks) in 523 Flemish women. Feelings of depression (measured using the Beck Depression Inventory [BDI]), smoking behavior, and sociodemographic variables were analyzed using a general linear mixed model implemented in SAS Proc MIXED. Smokers and initial smokers reported significantly more depressive symptoms at all time points compared with recent ex-smokers, nonsmokers, and initial nonsmokers (p postpartum. Smoking patterns were associated with depression and showed complex interactions with educational level. Assessment and intervention for both smoking and depression are needed throughout the perinatal period to support the health of mothers, their infants, and families.
Berg, Carla; Choi, Won S; Kaur, Harsohena; Nollen, Nicole; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S
The aim of the present study was to identify contextual factors related to smoking among urban African-American and White adolescents. We administered a survey assessing demographic and psychosocial variables to 299 adolescents in an urban pediatric clinic in the Midwest. Results indicated that being female, older age, lower academic performance, depressive symptoms, less frequent church attendance, parental smoking, and parental attitudes toward smoking were related to adolescent smoking. After controlling for demographics, the multivariate model predicting adolescent smoking included depressive symptoms, less frequent church attendance, and parental disapproval of smoking. Given these findings, efforts to decrease adolescent smoking may be enhanced by attending to depressive symptoms demonstrated by adolescents as well as contextual factors including parental attitudes and church attendance.
Introduction: Adults with depression smoke at higher rates than other adults leaving a large segment of this population, who already incur increased health-related risks, vulnerable to the enormous harmful consequences of smoking. Yet, the impact that depression has on smoking cessation is not clear due to the mixed results of past research. The primary aims of this review were to synthesize the research examining the relationship of depression to smoking cessation outcomes over a 20-year period, to examine the gender and racial composition of these studies, and to identify directions for future research. Methods: Potential articles published between January 1, 1990 and December 31, 2010 were identified through a MEDLINE search of the terms “clinical trial,” “depression,” and “smoking cessation.” 68 studies used all three terms and met the inclusion criteria. Results: The majority of studies examined either a past diagnosis of major depression or current depression symptoms. Within the few studies that examined the interaction of gender and depression on smoking cessation, depression had a greater impact on treatment outcomes for women than men. No study reported examining the interactive impact of race and depression on treatment outcomes. Conclusions: Although attention to the relationship of depression and smoking cessation outcomes has increased over the past 20 years, little information exists to inform a treatment approach for smokers with Current Major Depressive Disorder, Dysthymia, and Minor Depression and few studies report gender and racial differences in the relationship of depression and smoking cessation outcomes, thus suggesting major areas for targeted research. PMID:23100459
Baqar A. Husaini
Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effect of smoking and depression on hospital costs for lung cancer (LC. Methods: We extracted data on depression, smoking history, demographics, and hospital charges for patients with respiratory cancers (ICD-9 codes 161–163, 165 from the 2008 Tennessee Hospital Discharge Data System. The sample (n=6665 was mostly white (86% and male (57%. Age-adjusted rates were developed in accordance with Centers for Disease Control and Prevention methods, and hospital costs were compared for patients with LC with versus without depression and a smoking history. Results: Three findings (P<0.001 emerged: (1 the LC rate was higher among blacks than among whites, and higher among men than among women; (2 while 66% of LC patients smoked (more men than women without racial variation, 24% had depression (more females and whites were depressed; (3 the LC hospital cost was 54% higher than the non-LC hospital cost, and this cost doubled for patients with LC with depression and smoking versus those without such characteristics. Conclusion: While LC is more prevalent among blacks and men, depression is higher among female and white patients. Since depression with higher costs existed among LC patients, our findings point to (1 the possibility of cost savings by diagnosing and treating depression among LC patients, and (2 implementation of proven smoking cessation programs to reduce LC morbidity and hospital costs.
Godtfredsen, Nina; Prescott, E.; Osler, Merete
function and a tobacco consumption of 15-24 g/day. Additional determinants of smoking reduction and cessation such as inhalation habits and sociodemographic variables differed by gender. CONCLUSIONS: Several predictors of smoking reduction and cessation were identified, indicating that these subgroups......BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to examine the extent and gender distribution of unassisted tobacco reduction and cessation in a cohort of moderate and heavy smokers and to identify possible predictor variables associated with these changes in smoking behavior. METHODS: This was a prospective...... of smokers differ substantially from continuing smokers. This should be taken into account when assessing potential health benefits from these changes in smoking behavior....
Graham, Amanda L; Papandonatos, George D; Cobb, Caroline O; Cobb, Nathan K; Niaura, Raymond S; Abrams, David B; Tinkelman, David G
This study examined mediators and moderators of short-term treatment effectiveness from the iQUITT Study (Quit Using Internet and Telephone Treatment), a 3-arm randomized trial that compared an interactive smoking cessation Web site with an online social network (enhanced Internet) alone and in conjunction with proactive telephone counseling (enhanced Internet plus phone) to a static Internet comparison condition (basic Internet). The analytic sample was N = 1,236 participants with complete 3-month data on all mediating variables. The primary outcome was 30-day point prevalence abstinence (ppa) at 3 months. Recognizing the importance of temporal precedence in mediation analyses, we also present findings for 6-month outcomes. Purported mediators were treatment utilization and changes in psychosocial constructs. Proposed moderators included baseline demographic, smoking, and psychosocial variables. Mediation analyses examined the extent to which between-arm differences in 30-day ppa could be attributed to differential Web site utilization, telephone counseling, and associated changes in smoking self-efficacy and social support for quitting. Effect modification analyses fitted interactions between treatment and prespecified moderators on abstinence. Significant mediators of 30-day ppa were changes in smoking temptations, quitting confidence, and positive and negative partner support, which were strongly associated with increased Web site utilization. The addition of telephone counseling to an enhanced Web site further improved abstinence rates, partly via an association with increased quitting confidence. Baseline smoking rate was the only significant moderator. Increased treatment utilization and associated changes in several psychosocial measures yielded higher abstinence rates. Findings validate the importance of treatment utilization, smoking self-efficacy, and social support to promote abstinence. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf
Robinson, Jason D; Kypriotakis, George; Karam-Hage, Maher; Green, Charles E; Hatsukami, Dorothy K; Cinciripini, Paul M; Donny, Eric C
Research suggests a strong association between negative affect (NA) and smoking. However, little is known about the association between NA and smoking among individuals who switch to reduced-nicotine cigarettes. The goal of this study was to examine the extent to which cigarette nicotine content moderates the relationship between NA and smoking over time. Seven hundred and seventeen participants, 237 in the normal nicotine content (NNC; 15.8 mg/g and usual brand) cigarette group and 480 in the very low nicotine content (VLNC; 2.4 mg/g nicotine or less) cigarette group, participated in a randomized trial that examined the effects of cigarette nicotine content on smoking behavior over 6 weeks. We used parallel process latent growth curve modeling to estimate the relationship between changes in NA and changes in the numbers of cigarettes smoked per day (CPD), from baseline to 6 weeks, as a function of cigarette nicotine content. The relationship between NA and investigational CPD reduced over time for those in the VLNC group, but not for those in the NNC group. There was no significant relationship between change in PA and CPD over time for either cigarette group. Smoking VLNC cigarettes disrupts the relationship between smoking and negative affect, which may help reduce nicotine dependence. This study suggests that the association between NA and smoking behavior is reduced over time among those that smoked reduced-nicotine content cigarettes. This provides additional evidence that smoking reduced-nicotine content cigarettes may help reduce nicotine dependence. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Cinciripini, Paul M.; Blalock, Janice A.; Minnix, Jennifer A.; Robinson, Jason D.; Brown, Victoria L.; Lam, Cho; Wetter, David W.; Schreindorfer, Lisa; McCullough, James P., Jr.; Dolan-Mullen, Patricia; Stotts, Angela L.; Karam-Hage, Maher
Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate a depression-focused treatment for smoking cessation in pregnant women versus a time and contact health education control. We hypothesized that the depression-focused treatment would lead to improved abstinence and reduced depressive symptoms among women with high levels of depressive…
Talati, Ardesheer; Odgerel, Zagaa; Wickramaratne, Priya J; Weissman, Myrna M
Maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with a number of adverse offspring outcomes. In the present study, based on 209 offspring from a 3-generation family study of depression, we show that the effects of prenatal exposure on offspring externalizing psychopathology (conduct, substance use disorder) is more pronounced in the presence of lower-expressing brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene variants. BDNF plays an important role in the development and survival of neural circuits. Individuals with low-expressing variants who are further exposed to prenatal tobacco smoke may be most vulnerable to a spectrum of behavioral disorders that depend on these circuits. PMID:27611068
VanZomeren-Dohm, Adrienne A; Pitula, Clio E; Koss, Kalsea J; Thomas, Kathleen; Gunnar, Megan R
The purpose of this study was to examine whether FKBP5 rs1360780 moderates relations between different forms of life stress/adversity (early institutional rearing and peer victimization) and depressive symptoms in adolescents. As reported previously, PI youth were at risk for being victimized by peers. Here, victimization was associated with elevated depressive symptoms. While FKBP5 did not moderate the association between early life adversity and depressive symptoms for either sex, it moderated the association between current adversity and depressive symptoms for victimized girls carrying the minor allele. Consistent with a differential susceptibility model, girls with the minor allele exhibited more depressive symptoms at higher levels of victimization, but fewer depressive symptoms at lower levels of victimization. Interestingly, boys with the CC genotype had higher rates of depressive symptoms compared to girls with the CC genotype in the context of heightened victimization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Prokhorov Alexander V
Full Text Available Abstract Background In general having a parent who smokes or smoked is a strong and consistent predictor of smoking initiation among their children while authoritative parenting style, open communication that demonstrates mutual respect between child and parent, and parental expectations not to smoke are protective. It has been hypothesized that parental smoking affects their children's smoking initiation through both imitation of the behavior and effects on attitudes toward smoking. The goals of the current analysis were to examine these two potential mechanisms. Methods In 2003, 1,417 high school students in Houston, Texas, completed a cross-sectional survey as part of the evaluation of an interactive smoking prevention and cessation program delivered via CD-ROM. To assess the relationship between number of parents who currently smoke and children's smoking status, we completed an unconditional logistic regression. To determine whether the attitudes that children of smokers hold toward smoking are significantly more positive than the attitudes of children of non-smokers we examined whether the parents smoking status moderated the relationship between children's attitudes toward smoking and their ever smoking using unconditional logistic regressions. Results Compared to participants whose parents did not currently smoke, participants who reported one or both parents currently smoke, had increased odds of ever smoking (OR = 1.31; 95% CI: 1.03–1.68; Wald χ2 = 4.78 (df = 1 p = 0.03 and OR = 2.16; 95% CI: 1.51–3.10; Wald χ2 = 17.80 (df = 1 p 2 = 54.71 (df = 1 p 2 = 26.45 (df = 1 p Conclusion Children of smokers were more likely to smoke and reported more favorable attitudes toward smoking compared to children of non-smokers. One interpretation of our findings is that parental smoking not only directly influences behavior; it also moderates their children's attitudes towards smoking and thereby impacts their children's behavior. Our results
Hald, Kathrine; Rasmussen, Jacob; Kirkegaard, Helene
Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate the association between depression and maintenance of smoking cessation at 1-year follow-up in patients admitted with first-incidence acute myocardial infarction (MI) with a focus on educational level. Methods: From the 1st of September 2002...... or in the next 6 weeks, if they were screened for depression and if they gave information concerning smoking status. Results: A quarter of the patients were screened positive for depression. There was no significant difference in the participation at the smoking cessation part of the rehabilitation for patients...... screened positive or negative for depression, whether the results were adjusted for gender and educational level (OR = 0.84; p-value = .75) or not (OR = 0.75; p-value = .56). There was a significant association between a positive depression screening and failing to maintain a smoking cessation in men (OR...
Husaini, Baqar; Levine, Robert; Lammers, Phillip; Hull, Pam; Novotny, Meggan; Moonis, Majaz
The role of smoking and depression relative to hospital cost for lung cancer (LC) remains unknown. We extracted data on depression, smoking history, demographics, and hospital charges on patients with respiratory cancers (ICD-9 codes 161-163,165) from the 2008 Tennessee Hospital Discharge Data System. The sample (n=6,665) was mostly white (86%) and male (57). Age-adjusted rates were developed per CDC methodology, and hospital costs were compared for LC with vs. without depression and smoking. Three findings (psmoked (more males than females without racial variation), 24% had depression (more females and whites were depressed); (iii) The LC hospital cost was 54% higher compared to non-LC, and this cost doubled for LC with depression and smoking vs. those without such characteristics. While LC is more prevalent among blacks and males, depression is higher among female and white patients. Since depression with higher costs existed among LC patients, our findings point to: (i) possibility of cost savings by diagnosing and treating depression among LC, and (ii) implementing proven smoking cessation programs to reduce LC morbidity and hospital costs.
Young, Jami F.; Gallop, Robert; Mufson, Laura
This article reports on mother-child conflict as an outcome and moderator of Interpersonal Psychotherapy-Adolescent Skills Training (IPT-AST), a preventive intervention for depression. Forty-one adolescents (average age = 13.37, SD = 1.19) with elevated depression symptoms were randomized to receive IPT-AST or school counseling (SC). Adolescents…
Menezes, Ana Maria Baptista; Murray, Joseph; László, Mitzi; Wehrmeister, Fernando C; Hallal, Pedro C; Gonçalves, Helen; Assunção, Maria Cecilia F; Menezes, Carolina Baptista; Barros, Fernando C
Prenatal cigarette smoke exposure may have adverse psychological effects on offspring. The objective was to assess the association between parental smoking during pregnancy and offspring happiness at age 18, as well as depression. Participants were part of a birth cohort study in Pelotas, Brazil (5,249 participants). Happiness was measured by the Subjective Happiness Scale, a Likert-like scale with four questions generating a score from 1 to 7, with ≥ 6 indicating "happiness". Depression was measured using the Mini International Psychiatric Interview. About one third of mothers reported having smoked during pregnancy and 4.6% reported smoking 20 or more cigarettes a day. The prevalence of happiness was 32.2% (95% CI 30.8; 33.7), depression 6.8% (95% CI 6.1; 7.6), and simultaneous happiness and depression less than 1%. The prevalence of offspring happiness decreased as smoking in pregnancy increased, even after control for confounding variables, showing an OR = 0.79 [95% CI 0.55; 1.13]. The opposite happened to depression; the prevalence of offspring depression increased as smoking in pregnancy increased (happiness after adjustment for confounders, but did no show association with offspring depression. Offspring were less likely to be happy and more likely to be depressed if their mother smoked during pregnancy, and less likely to be happy if their father smoked during mother's pregnancy. Although we can not affirm that this is a "causal pathway", public policies to reduce smoking in pregnancy could improve the health of the offspring in the short and long term.
Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Ritt-Olson, Anamara; Soto, Daniel; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes
Hispanic youth are at risk for experiencing depressive symptoms and smoking cigarettes, and risk for depressive symptoms and cigarette use increase as Hispanic youth acculturate to U.S. culture. The mechanism by which acculturation leads to symptoms of depression and cigarette smoking is not well understood. The present study examined whether perceived discrimination explained the associations of acculturation with depressive symptoms and cigarette smoking among 1,124 Hispanic youth (54% fema...
Gawrysiak, Michael; Nicholas, Christopher; Hopko, Derek R.
Although depression is prevalent among university students, limited and dated research has examined the efficacy of behavioral interventions in treating this population (C. Lee, 2005). On the basis of a modified version of the Behavioral Activation Treatment for Depression (BATD; D. R. Hopko & C. W. Lejuez, 2007; C. W. Lejuez, D. R. Hopko, & S. D.…
Al-shair, Khaled; Kolsum, Umme; Dockry, Rachel
COPD is an inflammatory disease with major co-morbidities. It has recently been suggested that depression may be the result of systemic inflammation. We aimed to explore the association between systemic inflammation and symptoms of depression and fatigue in patients with mainly moderate and clini......COPD is an inflammatory disease with major co-morbidities. It has recently been suggested that depression may be the result of systemic inflammation. We aimed to explore the association between systemic inflammation and symptoms of depression and fatigue in patients with mainly moderate...
Full Text Available Background: Several common factors have been identified for smoking and depression. The The present study explores the relation of psychological and familial factors with depression, by student smoking behavior. Materials and Methods: A total of 5500 middle- and high-school students were selected in Isfahan province in 2010. A self-administered questionnaire collected data on background characteristics, smoking status, depression, and risk factors. Univariate analysis multiple logistic regressions were conducted to compare between depressed and nondepressed people by adolescent smoking status. Odds ratios and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs were reported. Results: Fathers lower education attainment was accompanied adolescents higher depression prevalence. Parental smoking and sibling smoking increased the depression likelihood by 1.41 (95% CI: 1.18, 1.68 and 1.43 folds (95% CI: 1.04–1.94 for never-smokers. Positive attitude toward smoking increased the probability of depression by 1.18 among never-smokers. Never-smokers lacking refusal skill had 1.23 (1.03–1.47 higher chance of depression. A higher level of self-efficacy related to lower chance of depression. Taking risky behavior, increased the depression likelihood by 1.56 (95% CI: 1.29–1.89 in never-smokers, by 1.85 (95% CI: 1.37–2.44 in experimental smokers, and by 1.14 times (95% CI: 1.01–1.72 in current smokers. Family conflict increased depression chance by 2.25 times (95% CI: 1.89–2.66 in never-smokers, by 1.95 (95% CI: 1.46–2.61 in experimental smokers, and by 2.06 times (95% CI: 1.38–3.08 in current smokers. Conclusions: Targeting self-efficacy level, risky behavior, and family conflict can drop the comorbidity of smoking and depression simultaneously. This may help public health practitioners and policymakers to develop common strategies in reducing adolescents smoking and depression comorbidity.
Bot, M.; Vink, J.M.; Willemsen, G.; Smit, J.H.; Neuteboom, J.; Kluft, C.; Boomsma, D.I.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.
Objective: Previous population-based studies suggest that exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) is related to increased depressive symptoms and poor mental health among non-smokers. We examined whether these associations could be replicated in two independent Dutch samples. Methods: Non-smoking adults
Correa-Fernandez, Virmarie; Ji, Lingyun; Castro, Yessenia; Heppner, Whitney L.; Vidrine, Jennifer Irvin; Costello, Tracy J.; Mullen, Patricia Dolan; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila; Velasquez, Mary M.; Greisinger, Anthony; Cinciripini, Paul M.; Wetter, David W.
Objective: Based on conceptual models of addiction and affect regulation, this study examined the mechanisms linking current major depressive syndrome (MDS) and anxiety syndrome (AS) to postpartum smoking relapse. Method: Data were collected in a randomized clinical trial from 251 women who quit smoking during pregnancy. Simple and multiple…
Bull, Leona; Burke, Ronan; Walsh, Siobhan; Whitehead, Emma
Examined attitudes toward smoking, current smoking behavior, mental health difficulties, and nicotine addiction among 38 pregnant women, mothers of young children, and their partners in East Surrey, England. Found that 11 female respondents presented symptoms of depression, anxiety, or social dysfunction. Smokers did not differ from ex-smokers or…
Fang, Su-Ying; Chang, Hong-Tai; Shu, Bih-Ching
The aims of the study were the following: (1) to understand the relationship between women's perceptions of empathy from their partners and their depressive symptoms and body image and (2) to examine the moderating effects of women's perceptions of empathy from their partners on the relationship between body image and depressive symptoms. A cross-sectional and correlational design was used, in which a convenience sample of 151 women who completed surgery and the necessary chemotherapy/radiotherapy were recruited from southern Taiwan. A structured questionnaire including the Other Dyadic Perspective-Taking Scale, the Body Image Scale, and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale were administered. Hierarchical regression was used to examine the moderating effects of empathy from partners between the women's body image and their level of depressive symptoms. The results showed significant relationships between empathy from a partner and depressive symptoms (p body image (p > 0.05). The moderating effect of empathy from a partner on the relationship between body image and depressive symptoms was also significant (p depressive symptoms women reported. Empathy from a partner could moderate the impact of body image changes on depressive symptoms. Women's depressive symptoms, resulting from a change in body image after breast cancer surgery, might be minimized if they perceived greater empathy from their partners. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Bot, Mariska; Vink, Jacqueline M; Willemsen, Gonneke; Smit, Johannes H; Neuteboom, Jacoline; Kluft, Cornelis; Boomsma, Dorret I; Penninx, Brenda W J H
Previous population-based studies suggest that exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) is related to increased depressive symptoms and poor mental health among non-smokers. We examined whether these associations could be replicated in two independent Dutch samples. Non-smoking adults were selected from two studies: 1) the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA), comprising individuals with current and remitted depressive and/or anxiety disorders, and healthy controls and 2) the Netherlands Twin Register (NTR), comprising twin-family studies on health-related behaviors. In both studies, SHS exposure was assessed with plasma cotinine levels (1-14ng/ml vs. depressive and/or anxiety disorders, and depression and anxiety symptom severity scores. In NTR, the Adult Self Report derived DSM-subscales for depressive and anxiety problems, and anxious depressive scores were analyzed. In NESDA non-smokers (n=1757), increased plasma cotinine level (≥1ng/ml) was not related to current depressive and/or anxiety disorders [odds ratio (OR) 0.96, P=.77], nor to depression or anxiety severity indicators. Similarly, in NTR non-smokers (n=1088) cotinine levels ≥1ng/ml were not associated with the DSM-subscale for depressive problems [unstandardized regression coefficient (B) 0.04, P=.88], nor to other depression and anxiety measures. In non-smoking adults from patient and population samples, we found no evidence that plasma cotinine levels were related to either depressive and/or anxiety disorders, or to depressive and anxiety symptoms. This suggests that SHS exposure is not related to depression and anxiety in non-smoking adults. © 2013.
Jung, Sun Jae; Shin, Aesun; Kang, Daehee
The relationship between tobacco smoking, including secondhand smoking, and depression has been assessed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between secondhand smoking among current, former and never smokers and depressive symptoms. For secondhand smoking, gender differences and sources of exposure were examined. Data from 34,693 participants from the fourth and fifth Korean Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (2007-2012) were analyzed in 2014. Self-reported exposure to active (current, former or never) and secondhand smoking and depressive symptoms experienced during the past year were analyzed using logistic regression. The dose-response relationship between duration of secondhand smoke exposure and depression was assessed with stratification by gender and sources of exposure (at home only, at the workplace only or both). Regardless of their smoking status, all women who had secondhand smoke exposure at home reported more depressive symptoms than non-smoking women without any exposure to secondhand cigarette smoking (OR 1.43, 95 % CI 1.04-1.96 for current smokers; OR 2.32, 95 % CI 1.04-5.16 for former smokers; OR 1.25, 95 % CI 1.08-1.43 for never smokers). There was also a significant dose-response pattern (p-trend secondhand smoke exposure at home among women. No significant association was found between smoking and depressive symptoms in men. There was a significant association between secondhand smoke exposure at home and depressive symptoms in women. Secondhand smoke exposure at home was associated with depressive symptoms in a dose-response manner.
Hummel, Alexandra C; Kiel, Elizabeth J
Maternal depression relates to child internalizing outcomes, but one missing aspect of this association is how variation in depressive symptoms, including mild and moderate symptoms, relates to young children's outcomes. The current study examined a moderated mediation model to investigate how maternal behaviors may mediate this association in the context of child temperament and gender. Mothers and toddlers completed a free-play/clean-up task in the laboratory. Mothers rated their depressive symptoms and their toddlers' temperament and internalizing behaviors. Results indicated a significant indirect effect of maternal warmth on the relation between maternal depressive symptoms and toddler internalizing outcomes for boys with low negative emotionality. Toddler gender and temperament moderated the relation between maternal intrusiveness and toddler internalizing outcomes, but mediation was not supported. Results highlight the important interaction between child and maternal variables in predicting child outcomes, and suggest mechanisms by and conditions under which mild maternal depressive symptomatology can be a risk factor for toddler internalizing outcomes.
Weinstein, Sally M; Mermelstein, Robin J
Understanding the emotional risk factors for cigarette smoking in adolescence can greatly inform prevention efforts. The current study examined prospective relationships between 3 affective dimensions--negative mood variability, overall negative mood, and depression---affect-related smoking motives, and future smoking patterns among adolescents. The current study expands on prior research by using real-time methods to assess mood and by focusing on a key developmental transition in smoking behavior: the progression from experimentation or low level, infrequent use to higher use. Ninth- and 10th-grade students (N = 461; 55% girls) provided data on cigarette use at a baseline and follow-up 15-month wave, and also provided ecological momentary assessments of negative moods via palmtop computers for 1 week at each wave. Negative mood was examined via the means of negative mood reports at each wave, and mood variability was examined via the intraindividual standard deviations of negative mood reports at each wave. Depressive symptoms and smoking motives were also assessed. Findings supported a complex self-medication model of smoking escalation in adolescence whereby mood-smoking relationships differed by affect dimension and gender. For girls, greater negative mood variability at baseline significantly predicted rapid escalation in smoking over time, whereas depressive symptoms and overall negative mood were unrelated to girls' smoking patterns. In contrast, overall negative mood significantly predicted boys' smoking escalation among those with affect-related motives for smoking. Results thus suggest that inconsistent mood-smoking relations in past work may be driven by the complex interrelationships among affect vulnerabilities, gender, and smoking patterns. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Weinstein, Sally M.; Mermelstein, Robin J.
Understanding the emotional risk factors for cigarette smoking in adolescence can greatly inform prevention efforts. The current study examined prospective relationships between three affective dimensions – negative mood variability, overall negative mood, and depression, affect-related smoking motives, and future smoking patterns among adolescents. The current study expands on prior research by using real-time methods to assess mood and by focusing on a key developmental transition in smoking behavior: the progression from experimentation or low level, infrequent use to higher use. Ninth and 10th grade students (N = 461; 55% girls) provided data on cigarette use at a baseline and follow-up 15-month wave, and also provided ecological momentary assessments of negative moods via palmtop computers for one week at each wave. Negative mood was examined via the means of negative mood reports at each wave, and mood variability was examined via the intraindividual standard deviations of negative mood reports at each wave. Depressive symptoms and smoking motives were also assessed. Findings supported a complex self-medication model of smoking escalation in adolescence whereby mood-smoking relationships differed by affect dimension and gender. For girls, greater negative mood variability at baseline significantly predicted rapid escalation in smoking over time, whereas depressive symptoms and overall negative mood were unrelated to girls’ smoking patterns. In contrast, overall negative mood significantly predicted boys’ smoking escalation among those with affect-related motives for smoking. Results thus suggest that inconsistent mood-smoking relations in past work may be driven by the complex interrelationships among affect vulnerabilities, gender, and smoking patterns. PMID:23438244
Hou,Yongmei; Hu,Peicheng; Zhang,Yongmei; Lu,Qiaoyun; Wang,Dandan; Yin,Ling; Chen,Yaoqi; Zou,Xiaobo
Objective: To explore the effect of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in combination with systemic family therapy (SFT) on mild to moderate postpartum depression and sleep quality. Methods: 249 primiparous women with mild to moderate postpartum depression were recruited and randomly assigned to a control group (n=128), which received conventional postpartum care, or to a psychological intervention group (n=121), which received conventional postpartum care combined with psychological interven...
Flensborg-Madsen, Trine; von Scholten, Mikael Bay; Flachs, Esben Meulengracht
A key question regarding the documented association between smoking and depression is whether it reflects a causal influence of smoking on depression; however, only a limited number of longitudinal studies exist in the literature, all of which have relatively short time frames. The purpose was to...... was to prospectively assess the risk of depression according to daily tobacco consumption in a Danish longitudinal study....
Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Ritt-Olson, Anamara; Soto, Daniel; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes
Hispanic youth are at risk for experiencing depressive symptoms and smoking cigarettes, and risk for depressive symptoms and cigarette use increase as Hispanic youth acculturate to U.S. culture. The mechanism by which acculturation leads to symptoms of depression and cigarette smoking is not well understood. The present study examined whether…
Nima, Ali Al; Rosenberg, Patricia; Archer, Trevor; Garcia, Danilo
Background Mediation analysis investigates whether a variable (i.e., mediator) changes in regard to an independent variable, in turn, affecting a dependent variable. Moderation analysis, on the other hand, investigates whether the statistical interaction between independent variables predict a dependent variable. Although this difference between these two types of analysis is explicit in current literature, there is still confusion with regard to the mediating and moderating effects of different variables on depression. The purpose of this study was to assess the mediating and moderating effects of anxiety, stress, positive affect, and negative affect on depression. Methods Two hundred and two university students (males = 93, females = 113) completed questionnaires assessing anxiety, stress, self-esteem, positive and negative affect, and depression. Mediation and moderation analyses were conducted using techniques based on standard multiple regression and hierarchical regression analyses. Main Findings The results indicated that (i) anxiety partially mediated the effects of both stress and self-esteem upon depression, (ii) that stress partially mediated the effects of anxiety and positive affect upon depression, (iii) that stress completely mediated the effects of self-esteem on depression, and (iv) that there was a significant interaction between stress and negative affect, and between positive affect and negative affect upon depression. Conclusion The study highlights different research questions that can be investigated depending on whether researchers decide to use the same variables as mediators and/or moderators. PMID:24039896
Tang, Ai-Min; Deng, Xue-Li; Du, Xiu-Xiu; Wang, Ming-Zhong
Guided by Beck's cognitive model of depression, this study examined the mediating role of negative self-cognition in the association between harsh parenting and adolescent depression and whether peer acceptance moderated this indirect relationship. Eight hundred and fifty-nine seventh to ninth graders (379 girls and 480 boys, mean age = 13.58…
Murray, Aja L.; McKenzie, Karen; Murray, Kara R.; Richelieu, Marc
Depressive symptoms, a lack of close supportive relationships and suicidal ideation are important risk factors for suicidal acts. Previous studies have primarily focused on the additive effects of close relationships and depressive symptoms on suicide risk. Here we explored whether, in addition, close relationships moderated the impact of…
Otten, R.; Engels, R.C.M.E.
Evidence for the assumption that cannabis use is associated with depression and depressive symptoms is inconsistent and mostly weak. It is likely that the mixed results are due to the fact that prior studies ignored the moderating effects of an individual's genetic vulnerability. The present study
Davis, Kelly A.; Epkins, Catherine C.
We extended past research that focused on the relation between family conflict and preadolescents' depressive and anxiety symptoms. In a sample of 160 11- to 12-year-olds, we examined whether private religious practices moderated the relations between family conflict and preadolescents' depressive and anxiety symptoms. Although preadolescents'…
This study examined self-esteem as a moderator of the influence of perceived stress and coping on symptoms of depression in a sample of 713 college students. The results suggest that self-esteem may play an important role in the development of depressive symptoms in college students through interactions with perceived stress and coping. If an…
Rodgers, Rachel F.; Paxton, Susan J.; Chabrol, Henri
This study aimed to explore the role of depression as a moderator of sociocultural influences on eating disorder symptoms. A sample of 509 adolescents (56% female) completed self-report questionnaires assessing depression, body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, bulimic symptoms and sociocultural influences on appearance from family, peers and…
Koelkebeck, Katja; Liedtke, Carla; Kohl, Waldemar; Alferink, Judith; Kret, Mariska Esther
Being able to understand other people's emotions and intentions is crucial for social interactions and well-being. Deficits in theory of mind (ToM) functioning hamper this ability and have been observed in depression and other neuropsychiatric disorders. However, results of previous research in depression have been inconclusive, possibly due to the presence of comorbid disorders and the disregarding of other modulating factors. Thirty-eight patients with a major depressive disorder (MDD) and forty healthy matched controls were assessed with a ToM task using animated triangles. Results were correlated with attachment styles, empathy abilities and neurocognitive performance. Our findings show that 1) healthy female controls performed significantly stronger on the ToM task than female MDD patients, 2) these performance differences were driven by attachment styles and 3) depression severity did not impact task performance. The pharmacological treatment of the majority of patients might limit the generalizability of this study. Results indicate a gender-specific impact of attachment styles on ToM performance. Future studies should investigate whether impairments in social cognitive tasks pose a risk factor for depression and/or interactional styles or vice versa. Moreover, with regard to remediation programs gender-specific needs should be taken into account. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Rodríguez-Cano, Rubén; López-Durán, Ana; del Río, Elena Fernández; Martínez-Vispo, Carmela; Martínez, Úrsula; Becoña, Elisardo
The relationship between tobacco and depressive symptoms has been examined. However, there is little information on the evolution of these symptoms when an individual quits. The aim of this study was to analyze the evolution of depressive symptoms over time (pre-, post-treatment, 1-, 3-, 6-, and 12-months follow-up) in relation to smoking status 12 months after having received a psychological treatment for smoking cessation. The sample was made up of 242 adults who received cognitive-behavioral treatment for smoking cessation (64.4% women; mean age=41.71 years). The BDI-II was used to assess depressive symptomatology. Participants were classified into three groups according to smoking status at 12-months follow-up (abstainers, relapsers, and smokers). There were no significant differences in depressive symptoms among the three groups at pretreatment. At the end of treatment, abstainers and relapsers presented less depressive symptomatology than smokers. At follow-up, abstainers continued to present less depressive symptomatology than smokers, whereas in relapsers, symptoms began to increase as the relapses occurred. Regarding the evolution of depressive symptomatology, the abstainer and relapser groups showed a significant reduction at the end of treatment. Only in the group of abstainers did the decrease continue during 12 months follow-up. The decrease of the initial sample size from 562 to 242 participants. Variables such as self-esteem and self-efficacy were not assessed. Smoking cessation is associated with a decrease in depressive symptomatology, that is maintained over time. In contrast, relapse is associated with an increase of such symptoms. These findings signify the potential importance of addressing depressive symptomatology in smoking cessation treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Müller, Sina; Rohde, Paul; Gau, Jeff M; Stice, Eric
We investigated factors hypothesized to moderate the effects of cognitive behavioral group-based (CB group) and bibliotherapy depression prevention programs. Using data from two trials (N = 631) wherein adolescents (M age = 15.5, 62% female, 61% Caucasian) with depressive symptoms were randomized into CB group, CB bibliotherapy, or an educational brochure control condition, we evaluated the moderating effects of individual, demographic, and environmental factors on depressive symptom reductions and major depressive disorder (MDD) onset over 2-year follow-up. CB group and bibliotherapy participants had lower depressive symptoms than controls at posttest but these effects did not persist. No MDD prevention effects were present in the merged data. Relative to controls, elevated depressive symptoms and motivation to reduce depression amplified posttest depressive symptom reduction for CB group, and elevated baseline symptoms amplified posttest symptom reduction effects of CB bibliotherapy. Conversely, elevated substance use mitigated the effectiveness of CB group relative to controls on MDD onset over follow-up. Findings suggest that both CB prevention programs are more beneficial for youth with at least moderate depressive symptoms, and that CB group is more effective for youth motivated to reduce their symptoms. Results also imply that substance use reduces the effectiveness of CB group-based depression prevention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Müller, Sina; Rohde, Paul; Gau, Jeff M.; Stice, Eric
We investigated factors hypothesized to moderate the effects of cognitive behavioral group-based (CB group) and bibliotherapy depression prevention programs. Using data from two trials (N = 631) wherein adolescents (M age = 15.5, 62% female, 61% Caucasian) with depressive symptoms were randomized into CB group, CB bibliotherapy, or an educational brochure control condition, we evaluated the moderating effects of individual, demographic, and environmental factors on depressive symptom reductions and major depressive disorder (MDD) onset over 2-year follow-up. CB group and bibliotherapy participants had lower depressive symptoms than controls at posttest but these effects did not persist. No MDD prevention effects were present in the merged data. Relative to controls, elevated depressive symptoms and motivation to reduce depression amplified posttest depressive symptom reduction for CB group, and elevated baseline symptoms amplified posttest symptom reduction effects of CB bibliotherapy. Conversely, elevated substance use mitigated the effectiveness of CB group relative to controls on MDD onset over follow-up. Findings suggest that both CB prevention programs are more beneficial for youth with at least moderate depressive symptoms, and that CB group is more effective for youth motivated to reduce their symptoms. Results also imply that substance use reduces the effectiveness of CB group-based depression prevention. PMID:26480199
Lam, Jeffrey; Lu, Bo; Doogan, Nate; Thomson, Tiffany; Ferketich, Amy; Paskett, Electra D.; Wewers, Mary Ellen
Depression is a serious, costly, and debilitating disorder that is understudied in rural women. Studies show that depression is associated with low social integration and support, but few studies investigate the relationship between depression and social network characteristics. This study examined the associations among women from three Ohio Appalachian counties enrolled in a health study, which aimed to collect information for a future social network smoking cessation intervention. An addre...
Sawchuk, Craig N; Roy-Byrne, Peter; Noonan, Carolyn; Bogart, Andy; Goldberg, Jack; Manson, Spero M; Buchwald, Dedra
Rates of cigarette smoking are disproportionately high among American Indian populations, although regional differences exist in smoking prevalence. Previous research has noted that anxiety and depression are associated with higher rates of cigarette use. We asked whether lifetime panic disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and major depression were related to lifetime cigarette smoking in two geographically distinct American Indian tribes. Data were collected in 1997-1999 from 1506 Northern Plains and 1268 Southwest tribal members; data were analyzed in 2009. Regression analyses examined the association between lifetime anxiety and depressive disorders and odds of lifetime smoking status after controlling for sociodemographic variables and alcohol use disorders. Institutional and tribal approvals were obtained for all study procedures, and all participants provided informed consent. Odds of smoking were two times higher in Southwest participants with panic disorder and major depression, and 1.7 times higher in those with posttraumatic stress disorder, after controlling for sociodemographic variables. After accounting for alcohol use disorders, only major depression remained significantly associated with smoking. In the Northern Plains, psychiatric disorders were not associated with smoking. Increasing psychiatric comorbidity was significantly linked to increased smoking odds in both tribes, especially in the Southwest. This study is the first to examine the association between psychiatric conditions and lifetime smoking in two large, geographically diverse community samples of American Indians. While the direction of the relationship between nicotine use and psychiatric disorders cannot be determined, understanding unique social, environmental, and cultural differences that contribute to the tobacco-psychiatric disorder relationship may help guide tribe-specific commercial tobacco control strategies. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on
Hald, Katrine; Rasmussen, Jakob; Kirkegaard, Helene
Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate the association between depression and maintenance of smoking cessation at 1-year follow-up in patients admitted with first-incidence acute myocardial infarction (MI) with a focus on educational level. Methods: From the 1st of September 2002...... to the 31st of December 2004, 388 patients Hospital in Denmark with first-incidence MI. The patients were screened for depression 6 weeks after admission and offered cardiac rehabilitation (CR). Patients were included if they stopped smoking at admission...... screened positive or negative for depression, whether the results were adjusted for gender and educational level (OR = 0.84; p-value = .75) or not (OR = 0.75; p-value = .56). There was a significant association between a positive depression screening and failing to maintain a smoking cessation in men (OR...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SCARB_ER2_MAS data are Smoke, Clouds and Radiation Brazil (SCARB) NASA ER2 Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) Airborne Simulator (MAS)...
Namkoong, Kang; Nah, Seungahn; Van Stee, Stephanie K; Record, Rachael A
This study examined the effects of an anti-smoking campaign that employs a crowdsourcing method with a social networking service. Drawing upon social capital scholarship and the expression effect research paradigm in eHealth systems, the study also investigated the roles of social trust and community life satisfaction in the social media campaign that has a specific geographical boundary. To that end, we conducted an experiment using a two-group pretest-posttest design. We randomly assigned 201 participants to two conditions: "campaign message reception only" as a control group and "message reception and expression" as a treatment group in which participants fully engaged in the campaign process by sharing their own campaign ideas with other participants. Findings revealed that social trust and community life satisfaction interacted with the treatment condition to positively affect persuasive intentions, but in distinct ways. Social trust moderated the effect of the message reception and interaction condition on participants' willingness to encourage community members to stop smoking. In contrast, community life satisfaction moderated the effect of the treatment condition on encouraging others to comply with the community's anti-smoking policy. These results provide theoretical and practical implications related to the roles of social capital in geographically defined social media campaigns.
Full Text Available Introduction Cigarette smoking has been recognized to be a risk factor for progression of periodontal disease. Due to less inflammation and bleeding in the presence of clinical signs of periodontal disease in smokers than in nonsmokers and given the conflicting results of studies on changes in the epithelium and gingival connective tissue by smoking, this study was performed to evaluate the thickness and keratosis on the epithelium of free and sulcular gingival tissue in smokers and nonsmokers patients with moderate to advanced periodontitis. Methods: In this cross sectional study, biopsies were obtained from palatal gingival of 60 patients with moderate to advanced periodontitis (30 smokers and 30 nonsmokers. These biopsies were histologically processed, serially sectioned at 5 microns, stained with H. E. and examined by image analysis software (analysis-SL-starter, which was used to perform the morphometric evaluation of the outer and inner epithelial thickness, keratosis and vascularity in connective tissue. The data were analyzed with SPSS 17, t-test, Mann-Whitney Test, and Pearson correlation. p0.001 Conclusions: It seems that the reduction of the clinical signs of inflammation in the gingival tissue of smokers is due to changes in gingival epithelium and connective tissue from smoking.
Shadel, William G.; Tharp-Taylor, Shannah; Fryer, Craig S.
Objective Increased exposure to cigarette advertisements is associated with increases in adolescent smoking but the reasons for this association are not known. This study evaluated whether the developmental maturity of the self-concept, operationalized as self-conflict, moderated smoking intentions following exposure to cigarette advertisements among adolescents who have never smoked. Methods Eighty-seven adolescents (ages 11–17): (a) completed measures of self-conflict; (b) were exposed to 3...
Although an association between lack of forgiveness and poor mental health is known, prior studies have reported mixed findings of the relationship between lack of forgiveness and depressive symptoms. In an attempt to explain the strength differences between lack of forgiveness and depressive symptoms, this study examined the moderating effect of self-compassion. A total of 311 Korean teachers (89 men, 222 women; M age = 39.3 year, SD = 9.1) were asked to complete self-report questionnaires, including the Korean versions of the Trait Forgivingness Scale, the Self-Compassion Scale, and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Moderated multiple regression was used for analysis, and a buffering interaction of self-compassion was discovered. Specifically, self-compassion moderated the relationship between lack of forgiveness and depression; the relationship was stronger for those low on self-compassion. © The Author(s) 2016.
Loprinzi, Paul D; Walker, Jerome F; Kane, Christy; Cardinal, Bradley J
Research demonstrates that nicotine dependence and depression are associated and that physical activity is effective in reducing depression symptoms. However, our understanding of the potential beneficial effects of physical activity on depression in current smokers is more limited. The purpose of this study was to examine whether physical activity moderates the association between nicotine dependence and depression in U.S. smokers. Cross-sectional. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006. Four hundred forty-one current adult smokers. Participants wore an accelerometer for at least 4 days and completed questionnaires to assess nicotine dependence and depression. Effect modification and statistical interaction models were used. Both models were significant. With regard to the statistical interaction model, and after controlling for age, gender, race/ethnicity, education, comorbidity index, homocysteine, cotinine, total cholesterol, sedentary behavior, and vitamins C, D, and E, objectively measured physical activity moderated the association between nicotine dependence and depression (interaction variable: odds ratio = 3.43; 95% confidence interval: 1.02-11.51; p = .04). In this national sample of current smokers, physical activity moderated the association between nicotine dependence and depression. These results suggest that those individuals with nicotine dependence and who are less physically active are more likely to be depressed than what would be expected on the basis of the individual effects of nicotine and physical inactivity separately.
Au, Apple C Y; Lau, Sing; Lee, Margaret T Y
This study examined the moderation effects of family cohesion and social self-concept on the well-established relation between depression and suicide ideation. Participants were 3,634 primary and 2,706 secondary school students. Based on hierarchical regression analyses, results confirmed the hypothesis that family cohesion and social self-concept were significant moderators for children and adolescents. Specifically, better family support and peer relationships weakened the relation between depression and suicide ideation. Further analysis showed that the moderation effect of social self-concept was less obvious among adolescents. The study introduced another approach for future research that includes other potential variables as moderators in the relation between depression and suicide ideation.
Timko, Christine; Cronkite, Ruth C.; Swindle, Ralph; Robinson, Rebecca L.; Sutkowi, Anne; Moos, Rudolf H.
This study examined whether having a depressed parent intensifies the secondary deficits that often co-occur with offspring's depression symptoms. The sample was adult offspring of parents who had been diagnosed with depression 23 years earlier (N = 143) and demographically matched nondepressed parents (N = 197). Respondents completed mailed…
Monroe, Scott M; Slavich, George M; Gotlib, Ian H
Three of the most consistently reported and powerful predictors of depression are a recent major life event, a positive family history for depression, and a personal history of past depressive episodes. Little research, however, has evaluated the inter-relations among these predictors in depressed samples. Such information is descriptively valuable and potentially etiologically informative. In the present article we summarize the existing literature and test four predictions in a sample of 62 clinically depressed individuals: (1) participants who experienced a major life event prior to onset would be less likely than participants who did not experience a major life event to have a positive family history for depression; (2) participants with a recent major life event would have fewer lifetime episodes of depression than would participants without; (3) participants with a positive family history for depression would have more lifetime episodes of depression than would participants with a negative family history for depression; and (4) we would obtain a 3-way interaction in which participants with a positive family history and without a major life event would have the most lifetime episodes, whereas participants with a negative family history and a major life event would have the fewest lifetime episodes. The first three predictions were confirmed, and the fourth prediction partially confirmed. These novel findings begin to elucidate the complex relations among these three prominent risk factors for depression, and point to avenues of research that may help illuminate the origins of depressive episodes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Castro, Yessenia; Costello, Tracy J; Correa-Fernández, Virmarie; Heppner, Whitney L; Reitzel, Lorraine R; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila; Mazas, Carlos A; Cinciripini, Paul M; Wetter, David W
Recent cross-sectional evidence suggests that the effect of depression on smoking prevalence and quit ratios differs by race/ethnicity. This study prospectively examined the main and interactive effects of race/ethnicity and depressive symptoms on smoking cessation during a specific quit attempt among smokers receiving cessation treatment. Data from a longitudinal study of smokers in treatment were examined using continuation ratio logit modeling. Continuous abstinence across Weeks 1, 2, and 4 post-quit was the outcome variable. Data were collected between March 2005 and November 2007, and the current study analyses were conducted in April 2010. Depressive symptoms predicted significantly lower cessation rates for whites and African Americans. In contrast, among Latinos there was no relationship between depression and cessation. This research is the first to prospectively demonstrate a racially/ethnically differentiated effect of depressive symptoms on smoking cessation, and it has implications for targeted smoking-cessation treatments as it indicates that depression may not be a key treatment target for Latinos. Copyright © 2011 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Chou, Wei-Po; Ko, Chih-Hung; Kaufman, Erin A; Crowell, Sheila E; Hsiao, Ray C; Wang, Peng-Wei; Lin, Jin-Jia; Yen, Cheng-Fang
This study examined the association between stress-related coping strategies and Internet addiction and the moderating effect of depression in a sample of Taiwanese college students. A total of 500 college students (238 men and 262 women) participated in this study. Internet addiction was assessed using the Chen Internet Addiction Scale. Participants' stress coping strategies and depressive symptoms were measured using the Coping Orientation to Problems Experienced and the Beck Depression Inventory-II, respectively. We used t and chi-square tests to examine differences in demographic characteristics, depression, and stress coping strategies between participants with and without Internet addiction. Significant variables were used in a logistic regression model to examine the association between stress coping strategies and Internet addiction and the moderating effect of depression on the association. Results indicated that use of restraint coping was negatively associated with Internet addiction (odds ratio [OR]=0.886, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.802-0.977), whereas denial (OR=1.177, 95% CI: 1.029-1.346) and mental disengagement (OR=2.673, 95% CI: 1.499-4.767) were positively associated with Internet addiction. Depression had a moderating effect on the association between denial and Internet addiction (OR=0.701, 95% CI: 0.530-0.927). Stress coping strategies and depression are important factors to evaluate when developing intervention programs targeting college undergraduate students with Internet addiction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jamal, Mumtaz; Van der Does, Willem; Penninx, Brenda W J H
Smoking, especially nicotine dependence is associated with more severe symptoms of depression and anxiety disorders. However, the mechanisms underlying this association are unclear. We investigated the effect of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val(66)Met polymorphism on the severity of depressive and anxiety symptoms in never-smokers, former smokers, non-dependent, and nicotine-dependent smokers with a current diagnosis of depression and/or anxiety. Patients with depressive or anxiety disorders and with available BDNF Val(66)Met polymorphism data (N=1271) were selected from Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA). Dependent variables were severity of symptoms. Independent variables were smoking status and BDNF genotype. Age, sex, education, recent negative life events, alcohol use, body mass index, and physical activity were treated as covariates. After controlling for covariates, nicotine-dependent smokers had more severe depressive symptoms than non-dependent smokers, former and never-smokers. The latter three groups did not differ in severity of depression. In Val(66)Val carriers, nicotine-dependent smokers had more severe symptoms of depression and anxiety than the other three groups, which were comparable in symptom severity. In Met(66) carriers, there were no group differences on severity of depression and anxiety. Nicotine dependence was the strongest predictor of severity of symptoms only in Val(66)Val carriers. In patients with a current diagnosis of depression or anxiety, the relationship between nicotine dependence and symptom severity may be moderated by BDNF Val(66)Met. These results suggest that inherent genetic differences may be crucial for the worse behavioral outcome of nicotine, and that Val(66)Val carriers may benefit most in mental health from smoking cessation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Conley, Claire C; Kamen, Charles S; Heckler, Charles E; Janelsins, Michelle C; Morrow, Gary R; Peppone, Luke J; Scalzo, Anthony J; Gross, Howard; Dakhil, Shaker; Mustian, Karen M; Palesh, Oxana G
The aim of this study was to examine the effect of modafinil on depression via a secondary data analysis of a randomized clinical trial of modafinil for fatigue in cancer patients. The primary aim is to elucidate factors that contributed to the effectiveness of modafinil in the parent trial. Five hundred forty-one cancer patients receiving chemotherapy and experiencing fatigue (Brief Fatigue Inventory [BFI] item 3 of ≥3) were randomized to receive 200 mg modafinil (n = 260) or placebo (n = 281) daily from baseline (cycle 2) to posttest (cycle 4). Patients completed the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D) and Profile of Mood States depression-dejection subscale at baseline and posttest. We used linear regression to address the hypothesis that modafinil would be associated with reduced depression, particularly in those experiencing severe fatigue (BFI ≥7). Modafinil did not have a significant effect on depression, even for those patients with severe fatigue. However, for subjects with severe fatigue (BFI ≥7), those receiving modafinil had lower depression scores than did control subjects. Modafinil significantly moderated the relationship between baseline fatigue and CES-D total scores (P = 0.04) and was marginally significant as a moderator for the relationship between baseline fatigue and Profile of Mood States depression-dejection subscale scores (P = 0.07). Modafinil also significantly moderated the relationship between baseline fatigue and CES-D positive affect subscale scores (P = 0.003), but not CES-D somatic, negative affect, or interpersonal subscale scores. Modafinil differentially impacts depression based on a patient's level of fatigue and reduced depressive symptoms only in those with extreme fatigue. This effect may be driven by increases in positive affective symptoms. These results have significant implications for intervention; in patients with high levels of fatigue, modafinil might also reduce depression. Future
Cassandra W. H. Ho
Full Text Available Background. Exercise has been suggested to be a viable treatment for depression. This study investigates the effect of supervised aerobic exercise training on depressive symptoms and physical performance among Chinese patients with mild to moderate depression in early in-patient phase. Methods. A randomized repeated measure and assessor-blinded study design was used. Subjects in aerobic exercise group received 30 minutes of aerobic training, five days a week for 3 weeks. Depressive symptoms (MADRS and C-BDI and domains in physical performance were assessed at baseline and program end. Results. Subjects in aerobic exercise group showed a more significant reduction in depressive scores (MADRS as compared to control (between-group mean difference = 10.08 ± 9.41; P=0.026 after 3 weeks training. The exercise group also demonstrated a significant improvement in flexibility (between-group mean difference = 4.4 ± 6.13; P=0.02. Limitations. There was lack of longitudinal followup to examine the long-term effect of aerobic exercise on patients with depression. Conclusions. Aerobic exercise in addition to pharmacological intervention can have a synergistic effect in reducing depressive symptoms and increasing flexibility among Chinese population with mild to moderate depression. Early introduction of exercise training in in-patient phase can help to bridge the gap of therapeutic latency of antidepressants during its nonresponse period.
Guo, Lan; Hong, Lingyao; Gao, Xue; Zhou, Jinhua; Lu, Ciyong; Zhang, Wei-Hong
This school-based study aimed to investigate the prevalence of being at risk for depression, bullying behavior, and current smoking among Chinese adolescents in order to explore gender differences in the vulnerability of adolescents with these behaviors to develop a smoking habit. A total of 35,893 high school students sampled from high schools in eighteen cities in China participated in the study from 2011 to 2012. Overall, the prevalence of current smoking was estimated at 6.4%. In total, 1.7% (618) of the participants admitted to bullying others, 5.8% (2071) reported being bullied, 3.5% (1269) were involved in both bullying others and being bullied, and 5.6% (2017) were at high risk for depression. Logistic regression analysis indicated that among girls, with high depression risk, bullying others, being bullied, and both bullying others and being bullied were independently and positively associated with current smoking habits, while the final results among boys showed that bullying others and both bullying others and being bullied were independently associated with an increased risk of current smoking. School-based prevention programs are highly recommended, and we should focus on high-risk students, particularly girls with high risk of depression or involved in school bullying and boys who are involved in school bullying. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Etcheverry, Paul E; Waters, Andrew J; Lam, Cho; Correa-Fernandez, Virmarie; Vidrine, Jennifer Irvin; Cinciripini, Paul M; Wetter, David W
To examine whether initial orienting (IO) and inability to disengage (ITD) attention from negative affective stimuli moderate the association of negative affect with smoking abstinence during a quit attempt. Data were from a longitudinal cohort study of smoking cessation (N = 424). A negative affect modified Stroop task was administered 1 week before and on quit day to measure IO and ITD. Ecological Momentary Assessments were used to create negative affect intercepts and linear slopes for the week before quitting and on quit day. Quit day and long-term abstinence measures were collected. Continuation ratio logit model analyses found significant interactions for prequit negative affect slope with prequit ITD, odds ratio (OR) = 0.738 (0.57, 0.96), p = .02, and for quit day negative affect intercept with quit day ITD, OR = 0.62 (0.41, 950), p = .03, predicting abstinence. The Prequit Negative Affect Intercept × Prequit IO interaction predicting quit day abstinence was significant, OR = 1.42 (1.06, 1.90), p = .02, as was the Quit Day Negative Affect Slope × Quit Day IO interaction predicting long-term abstinence, OR = 1.45 (1.02, 2.08), p = .04. The hypothesis that the association of negative affect with smoking abstinence would be moderated by ITD was generally supported. Among individuals with high ITD, negative affect was inversely related to abstinence, but unrelated to abstinence among individuals with lower levels of ITD. Unexpectedly, among individuals with low IO, negative affect was inversely related to abstinence, but unrelated to abstinence among individuals with higher levels of ITD. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Etcheverry, Paul E.; Waters, Andrew J.; Lam, Cho; Correa-Fernandez, Virmarie; Vidrine, Jennifer Irvin; Cinciripini, Paul M.; Wetter, David W.
Objective To examine whether initial orienting (IO) and inability to disengage attention (ITD) from negative affective stimuli moderate the association of negative affect with smoking abstinence during a quit attempt. Methods Data were from a longitudinal cohort study of smoking cessation (N=424). A negative affect modified Stroop was administered one week before and on quit day to measure IO and ITD. Ecological Momentary Assessments were used to create negative affect intercepts and linear slopes for the week before quitting and on quit day. Quit day and long-term abstinence measures were collected. Results Continuation ratio (CR) logit model analyses found significant interactions of pre-quit negative affect slope with pre-quit ITD [OR = .738(.57, .96), p= .02] and quit day negative affect intercept with quit day ITD [OR = .62(.41, 950), p= .03] predicting abstinence. The interaction of pre-quit negative affect intercept and pre-quit IO predicting quit day abstinence was significant [OR = 1.42(1.06, 1.90), p= .02], as was the interaction of quit day negative affect slope and quit day IO predicting long-term abstinence [OR = 1.45(1.02, 2.08), p= .04]. Conclusions The hypothesis that the association of negative affect with smoking abstinence would be moderated by ITD was generally supported. Among individuals with high ITD, negative affect was inversely related to abstinence, but unrelated to abstinence among individuals with lower levels of ITD. Unexpectedly, among individuals with low IO negative affect was inversely related to abstinence, but unrelated to abstinence among individuals with higher levels of ITD. PMID:27505211
Vinkers, Christiaan H; Joëls, Marian; Milaneschi, Yuri; Kahn, René S; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Boks, Marco P M
Even though traumatic stress is a major risk factor for depression, most people do not develop a depression. The effects of stress may particularly emerge after repeated exposure in vulnerable individuals. Therefore, we hypothesized that (1) increased exposure to stress across the life span is associated with an increased depression risk and (2) this effect is the most pronounced in individuals with high levels of neuroticism. We investigated the effect of childhood maltreatment, major life events, daily hassles, and a composite index thereof (cumulative stress index) on depressive symptoms and major depressive disorder (MDD) including the possible moderating role of neuroticism in a discovery sample from the general population (N = 563) and an independent replication sample from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (N = 2,274). All stress domains were independently associated with depressive symptoms in the discovery sample. In the replication sample, we confirmed these findings for childhood maltreatment and daily hassles but not for major life events with depressive symptoms as outcome. Nevertheless, all stress domains significantly contributed to the presence of MDD in the replication sample. The cumulative stress index was significantly associated with depression in the discovery (β = 1.42, P discovery: β = 0.013, P stress exposure across different stress domains contributes to depressive symptoms and MDD in adulthood. Moreover, we show that increased exposure to stress across the life span has more impact on vulnerable individuals with high levels of trait neuroticism. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Zeglin, Robert J; DeRaedt, Mary R; Lanthier, Richard P
Nearly 1 in 5 girls and 1 in 20 boys under the age of 18 will be the victim of child sexual abuse. As adults, these individuals are more likely to report myriad mental illnesses including depression. Testing the hypothesis that having children would moderate the depressive effects of child sexual abuse, the authors used public-use data of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health Wave IV (n = 5,114; mean age = 29.00 years; SD = 1.78). Results indicate that having children significantly moderates the relationship between child sexual abuse and depression for females. Though the risk of depression is increased for all females with a child sexual abuse history, this increase is less dramatic for mothers. Two potential explanations of this effect are presented: biological and psychosocial. The possible implications for mental health professionals working with mothers with a child sexual abuse history include highlighting the role of their children as possible support.
Holloway, Breanna M; McGill, Lakeya S; Bediako, Shawn M
Recent studies describe the clinical implications of sickle cell disease (SCD) stigma. However, little is known about its link to depressive symptoms or its relative influence on the association between depressive symptoms and SCD pain. We examined whether internalized stigma about SCD moderated the relation between depressive symptoms and pain among 69 adults attending a SCD clinic who reported pain episodes and healthcare use over the past three months. Unadjusted bivariate analyses showed a marginal association between depressive symptoms and SCD pain frequency ( r = .21, p symptoms and pain was observed among participants low in internalized stigma, but this relationship was attenuated at moderate and high stigma levels. These results denote counterintuitive consequences of internalized attitudes about SCD and suggest a need for further study of the psychosocial and clinical implications of SCD stigma.
Lee, Dong-Gwi; Park, Jae Joon; Bae, Byeong Hoon; Lim, Hyun-Woo
The present study investigated the moderating effects of prevention-focus on the paths from the dimensions of insecure attachment (attachment avoidance and attachment anxiety) to depression. Two hundred twenty eight Korean college students completed the Experience in Close Relationship - Revised Scale; the Regulatory Focus Strategies Scale; and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Results revealed a significant moderating effect for prevention-focus on the path from attachment avoidance to depression, but not on the path from attachment anxiety to depression. They further suggest that different interventions are needed for different combinations of persons' insecure attachment dimensions and levels of prevention-focus. Counseling implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.
Schnoll, Robert A; Leone, Frank T; Hitsman, Brian
Subscales from the Center for Epidemiologic Studies depression scale (CESD), assessed prior to treatment, were examined as predictors of withdrawal, craving, and affect during the first week of abstinence, as well as smoking abstinence during the first week of abstinence and at the end of treatment. The negative affect and somatic features CESD subscales were related to higher levels of nicotine withdrawal. The relationship between the interpersonal disturbance CESD subscale and nicotine withdrawal approached significance. This study suggests the need to examine novel psychological mechanisms that may account for the relationship between depression symptoms and smoking cessation.
Hübscher, Markus; Hartvigsen, Jan; Fernandez, Matthew
PURPOSE: To investigate whether depression symptomatology is associated with low back pain (LBP) in twins aged 70+ and whether this effect depends on a person's physical activity (PA) status. METHODS: This prospective cohort and nested case-control study used a nationally representative sample....... This effect is supposedly not attributable to genetic or shared environmental factors. Physical activity did not moderate the effect of depression symptomatology on LBP....
Full Text Available Objective: To explore the effect of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT in combination with systemic family therapy (SFT on mild to moderate postpartum depression and sleep quality. Methods: 249 primiparous women with mild to moderate postpartum depression were recruited and randomly assigned to a control group (n=128, which received conventional postpartum care, or to a psychological intervention group (n=121, which received conventional postpartum care combined with psychological intervention. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI were employed to evaluate depression and sleep quality, respectively. Results: 104 patients in the intervention group and 109 in the control group completed the study. After intervention, the EPDS score, PSQI score, sleep quality score, sleep latency score, sleep duration score, habitual sleep efficiency score, sleep disturbance score, and daytime dysfunction score were significantly lower in the intervention group than in the control group. The EPDS and PSQI scores of each group at different time points after intervention were markedly decreased compared with those before intervention, and the reduction in the intervention group was more evident than that in the control group. Conclusion: CBT in combination with SFT can improve depression and sleep quality in patients with mild to moderate postpartum depression.
Yu, Junhong; Rawtaer, Iris; Mahendran, Rathi; Collinson, Simon L; Kua, Ee-Heok; Feng, Lei
The co-occurrence of sleep problems, cognitive impairment, and depression among the elderly suggests that these three conditions are likely to be interrelated. Recent findings suggest that depressive symptoms moderate the relationship between sleep problems and cognitive impairment in elderly people but methodological problems have led to inconsistent conclusions. The present study aims to better understand the relationship between sleep quality, depressive symptoms, and cognitive function. We administered the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status and self-report measures of sleep quality and depression to 380 elderly participants (Mage = 68 years, SD= 5.7). Bootstrapped moderation analyses were conducted to examine the role of depressive symptoms in the relationship between sleep and various aspects of cognitive function. This moderation effect was significant in the domains of delayed memory (ΔR(2) = .01, F = 4.5, p = .04), language (ΔR(2) = .01, F = 4.6, p = .035), and general cognitive status (ΔR(2) = .01, F = 5.3, p = .02). However, unlike previous studies, higher sleep quality corresponded to better outcomes in delayed memory, language abilities, and general cognitive status in participants with low levels of depressive symptoms. No significant relationship between sleep quality and any cognitive function was observed among participants with high levels of depressive symptoms. Among individuals who reported low levels of depressive symptoms, sleep quality was positively related to cognitive performance in the domains of delayed recall, language, and general cognitive status. However, sleep quality was not significantly associated with cognitive abilities in these domains among participants with elevated levels of depressive symptoms; participants had relatively poor outcomes in these cognitive domains regardless of their sleep quality.
Lim, Kuang Hock; Chong, Zhuolin; Khoo, Yi Yi; Kaur, Jasvindar
Susceptibility to smoking is a reliable predictor of smoking initiation. This article describes its prevalence and associated factors among Malaysian school adolescents. Data were obtained from the Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS) 2012, a nationwide representative sample of school adolescents. The overall prevalence of susceptibility to smoking was 6.0% and significantly higher among males (9.5%) compared with females (3.6%). Multivariable analyses revealed that males (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 3.34, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.70-4.18) and school adolescents of indigenous Sabahan or Sarawakian descents (aOR 1.62, 95%CI 1.21-2.18) were significantly more likely to be susceptible to smoking. Susceptible school adolescents had a slightly higher likelihood to have symptoms of stress (aOR 1.31, 95% CI 1.02-1.70), anxiety (aOR 1.19, 95% CI 1.01-1.40), depression (aOR 1.56, 95% CI 1.25-1.96), including those whose one or both parents/guardians were smokers (aOR 1.48, 95% CI 1.21-1.82; aOR 2.33, 95% CI 1.22-4.44, respectively). The findings from this study point out the need for proactive measures to reduce smoking initiation among Malaysian adolescents with particular attention toward factors associated with susceptibility to smoking. © 2014 APJPH.
Smoking cessation is crucial for patients with coronary heart disease (CHD), yet depression may impede cessation success. We systematically reviewed the prospective association between depression and subsequent smoking cessation in individuals with CHD to quantify this effect.
Topham, Glade L; Page, Melanie C; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Rutledge, Julie M; Kennedy, Tay S; Shriver, Lenka; Harrist, Amanda W
The purpose of the study was to test the moderating influence of two risk factors, maternal depression and socio-economic status (SES), on the association between authoritarian and permissive parenting styles and child obesity. Correlational, cross-sectional study. Parenting style was measured with the Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire (PSDQ). Maternal depression was measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). BMI-for-age percentile was used to categorize children by weight status (children with BMI-for-age > or = 95th percentile were classified as obese). SES was computed from parent education and occupational status using the four-factor Hollingshead index. Rural public schools in a mid-western state in the USA. One hundred and seventy-six mothers of first-grade children (ninety-one boys, eighty-five girls) enrolled in rural public schools. Both maternal depression and SES were found to moderate the permissive parenting style/child obesity association, but not the authoritarian/child obesity association. For depressed mothers, but not for non-depressed mothers, more permissive parenting was predictive of child obesity. Similarly more permissive parenting was predictive of child obesity among higher SES mothers, but not for lower SES mothers. Maternal depression and SES interact with permissive parenting style to predict child obesity. Future research should examine the relationship among these variables using a longitudinal design.
Melin, Eva O; Thunander, Maria; Landin-Olsson, Mona; Hillman, Magnus; Thulesius, Hans O
Disturbances of the circadian rhythm of cortisol secretion are associated with depression, coronary calcification, and higher all-cause and cardiovascular mortality.The primary aim of this study was to test the associations between midnight salivary cortisol (MSC), depression and HbA1c, and control for behavioural, environmental and intra individual factors with possible impact on cortisol secretion, like smoking, physical inactivity, season, medication, diabetes duration, severe hypoglycemia episodes, age and gender in patients with type 1 diabetes. Secondary aims were to present MSC levels for a reference group of non-depressed type 1 diabetes patients with a healthy life style (physically active and non-smoking), and to explore seasonal variations. A cross-sectional population based study of 196 patients (54% men and 46% women) aged 18-59 years that participated in a randomized controlled trial targeting depression in type 1 diabetes. Depression was assessed by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-depression subscale. MSC, HbA1c, serum-lipids, blood pressure, waist circumference and data from medical records and the Swedish National Diabetes Registry were collected. Thirty four patients (17%) had MSC ≥9.3 nmol/L, which was associated with smoking (AOR 5.5), spring season (AOR 4.3), physical inactivity (AOR 3.9), self-reported depression (AOR 3.1), and older age (per year) (AOR 1.08). HbA1c >70 mmol/mol (>8.6%) (AOR 4.2) and MSC ≥9.3 nmol/L (AOR 4.4) were independently linked to self-reported depression. Season was strongly associated with MSC levels and no other variables studied showed seasonal variations. In a reference group of 137 non-depressed patients with a healthy life style (physically active, non-smoking) the median MSC level was 4.6 nmol/L (range 1.9-23.0). In this study of patients with type 1 diabetes high MSC was linked to smoking, physical inactivity, depression, season and older age. Thus a high cortisol value identified three major
de Jonge, Peter; Bos, Elisabeth Henriette
A recent paper published in BMC Cardiovascular Disorders reported on a study into whether tobacco smoking may serve as a risk factor for depression in patients with heart disease. In the current paper, we discuss several limitations of that study, of which many apply not just to the study itself but
Fernández-Fernández, Virginia; Márquez-González, María; Losada-Baltar, Andrés; Romero-Moreno, Rosa
The positive effects of leisure activities on depressive symptomatology are well known. However, the extent to which emotional regulation variables moderate that relationship has scarcely been studied, especially in older people. The aim of this study is to analyze the moderating role of rumination in the relation between leisure activities and depressive symptoms. Participants in this study were 311 people, aged 60 to 90 years (mean age: 71.27 years; SD: 6.99; 71.7% women). We evaluated depressive symptomatology, frequency of leisure activities, and rumination. We carried out a hierarchical regression analysis to confirm the moderating role of rumination. We obtained a model that explains 39.4% of the variance of depressive symptomatology. Main effects were found for the frequency of leisure activities (β = -0.397; p leisure activities and rumination (β = 0.110; p leisure activities and depressive symptomatology. A risk profile of elderly people may consist of those who engage in low levels of leisure activities but also use more frequently the dysfunctional emotional regulation strategy of rumination.
Phillips, Mary L; Chase, Henry W; Sheline, Yvette I; Etkin, Amit; Almeida, Jorge R C; Deckersbach, Thilo; Trivedi, Madhukar H
Despite significant advances in neuroscience and treatment development, no widely accepted biomarkers are available to inform diagnostics or identify preferred treatments for individuals with major depressive disorder. In this critical review, the authors examine the extent to which multimodal neuroimaging techniques can identify biomarkers reflecting key pathophysiologic processes in depression and whether such biomarkers may act as predictors, moderators, and mediators of treatment response that might facilitate development of personalized treatments based on a better understanding of these processes. The authors first highlight the most consistent findings from neuroimaging studies using different techniques in depression, including structural and functional abnormalities in two parallel neural circuits: serotonergically modulated implicit emotion regulation circuitry, centered on the amygdala and different regions in the medial prefrontal cortex; and dopaminergically modulated reward neural circuitry, centered on the ventral striatum and medial prefrontal cortex. They then describe key findings from the relatively small number of studies indicating that specific measures of regional function and, to a lesser extent, structure in these neural circuits predict treatment response in depression. Limitations of existing studies include small sample sizes, use of only one neuroimaging modality, and a focus on identifying predictors rather than moderators and mediators of differential treatment response. By addressing these limitations and, most importantly, capitalizing on the benefits of multimodal neuroimaging, future studies can yield moderators and mediators of treatment response in depression to facilitate significant improvements in shorter- and longer-term clinical and functional outcomes.
Baker, Ozgur Erdur; Bugay, Asli
The goal of this study was to examine the mediator and moderator roles of loneliness in the relationship between peer victimisation and depressive symptoms. The participants of the study were 144 adolescents (66 girls, 78 boys) ranging in age from 11 to 15 years. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted to test the relations of…
Fournier, Jay C.; DeRubeis, Robert J.; Shelton, Richard C.; Hollon, Steven D.; Amsterdam, Jay D.; Gallop, Robert
A recent randomized controlled trial found nearly equivalent response rates for antidepressant medications and cognitive therapy in a sample of moderate to severely depressed outpatients. In this article, the authors seek to identify the variables that were associated with response across both treatments as well as variables that predicted…
Korte, J.; Bohlmeijer, Ernst Thomas; Westerhof, Gerben Johan; Pot, Anne Margriet
Objectives: The role of reminiscence as a way of adapting to critical life events and chronic medical conditions was investigated in older adults with mild to moderate depressive symptoms. Reminiscence is the (non)volitional act or process of recollecting memories of one's self in the past. Method:
Wu, Pei-Chen; Kuo, Shin-Ting
The primary purpose of this study was to utilize a multidimensional perspective to examine whether children's self-concept served as a mediator between academic achievement and depression, and to further investigate whether this mediation effect was moderated by the ages of children. The participants consisted of 632 Taiwanese children in the…
Jung, JaeHoon; Roh, Daeyoung; Moon, Yoo Sun; Kim, Do Hoon
This article aimed to compare the level of suicidal ideation in the religiously affiliated and nonaffiliated groups and identify the moderating effect of religion variables on the relationship between depression and suicidal ideation. The sample in this study was 1180 residents who were older than 60 years and who resided in Gangwon Province, South Korea. We studied the cross-sectional relationships among religions and studied variables including organizational religious activity (ORA), non-ORA (NORA), intrinsic religiosity (IR), depression, well-being, and suicidal ideation. After controlling for sociodemographic variables, the depression, well-being, and suicidal ideation level in the religiously affiliated group were not significantly different from that of the religiously nonaffiliated group and the variables also were not significantly different between Christians and Buddhists. The effect of depression on suicidal ideation was significantly moderated by ORA and IR, and the effect showed different patterns by religion; ORA was a moderator only among the Buddhist group, and IR only moderated the relationships among the Christians.
Frey, Laura M; Hans, Jason D; Cerel, Julie
Existing literature has found a link between disclosure of a stigmatized identity and improved mental health; however, research on the impact of suicide disclosure to family members is scarce. Suicide attempt survivors (n = 74) in the United States were examined to assess whether family reaction moderates or mediates the relationship between suicide disclosure and subsequent depression symptoms. Family reaction did not moderate but did mediate the relationship between disclosure and depression symptoms while controlling for time since most recent attempt. Higher rates of disclosure predicted more positive family reactions, which in turn predicted less severe depression symptoms. Findings indicate that family members can play an essential role in the recovery process after an attempt occurs, which has important implications for both researchers and clinicians who seek to decrease stigma for attempt survivors while simultaneously decreasing the likelihood of future attempts. © 2015 The American Association of Suicidology.
Lopes, Sara L; Ferreira, Aristides I; Passos, Ana M; Neves, Mariana; Sousa, Cláudia; Sá, Maria José
: In this study, we intend to test if presenteeism productivity influences the relationship between depressive symptoms and quality of life and also if this relation is conditional upon levels of information processing speed. Data were collected from 231 participants who completed a neuropsychological test and self-reported measures. Results revealed a significant indirect effect and a significant moderation effect. The association between depressive symptoms and presenteeism productivity was moderated by information processing speed only in their medium and high levels. Our findings suggest that individuals with higher levels of processing speed may have more difficulty in focusing on work without being distracted by health problems. The present investigation has made a significant contribution to the existing literature about cognitive function and productivity in workers with depressive symptomatology and its effects on their quality of life.
Sutter, Christine; Zöllig, Jacqueline; Allemand, Mathias; Martin, Mike
Previous research has yielded inconclusive results on the relationship between self-reported sleep quality and cognitive performance in healthy old age. Discrepant findings have been reported regarding processing speed and attention, executive functions, and episodic memory. However, sleep quality has also been found to be related to cognitive performance in patients with depression. Our aim was to clarify the relationship between sleep quality and cognitive performance in healthy older adults, and to evaluate the moderating role of subclinical depression on this relationship. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index was used to assess subjective sleep quality in 107 participants (age ≥ 61 years). A broad battery of neuropsychological tests measured basic cognitive processes, executive functions, and memory processes. Subclinical depression moderated the link between sleep quality and cognitive performance. More precisely, poorer sleep quality was associated with lower performance in reasoning, semantic fluency, and shifting in those with high versus low levels of subclinical depression. Our findings suggest that poor sleep quality might affect higher order cognitive processes, particularly in those reporting higher levels of subclinical depression. Findings on the relationships between sleep quality, cognitive functioning, and depressive symptomatology are discussed in relation to neurobehavioral theories of sleep. (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.
Yalch, Matthew M; Lannert, Brittany K; Hopwood, Christopher J; Levendosky, Alytia A
Over a quarter of young women have experienced some form of violence within a dating relationship. The experience of dating violence is associated with problems in psychological functioning, including symptoms of anxiety and depression. However, not all women who experience dating violence exhibit anxious or depressive symptoms. One factor that may influence symptom expression is interpersonal style. In this study, we examined the main and moderating effects of dimensions of interpersonal style (dominance and warmth) on the association between dating violence and symptoms of anxiety and depression. Warmth exhibited a main effect on anxious and depressive symptoms over and above the effects of dating violence and other life stressors. Dominance moderated the association between dating violence and anxious and depressive symptoms. When levels of dating violence were high, women with higher levels of dominance reported fewer symptoms of anxiety and depression than women with lower dominance. These results indicated that whereas high warmth was associated with fewer symptoms of psychopathology generally, high dominance was a buffer against the effect of dating violence on symptoms more specifically. Directions for future research are discussed.
Li, Mengting; Mao, Weiyu; Chi, Iris; Lou, Vivian W Q
This study examined whether geographical proximity is a predictor of depressive symptoms, and whether family and friend support can moderate the relationship between geographical proximity and depressive symptoms. A survey of 557 adult child primary caregivers was conducted in Shanghai, China in 2013. Geographical proximity was measured as a categorical variable: coresidence, short distance (less than 30 minutes' travel time), and long distance (more than 30 minutes' travel time). Family and friend support were assessed using the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. Depressive symptoms were evaluated using the Center on Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Multiple regression analyses and interaction terms were used to test the moderating roles of family and friend support. Adult child caregivers who live more than 30 minutes away from care recipients experienced higher depressive symptoms than coresiding caregivers (β = .114, p < .01). Family support (β = -.408, p < .05) and friend support (β = -.235, p < .05) were protective factors that lessened depressive symptoms for long-distance adult child caregivers. This study adds spatial dimension to caregiving literature and extends stress process theory. These findings have important implications for service planning and social support for adult child caregivers.
Liu, Yangyang; Lu, Zuhong
In a sample of 368 Chinese high school students, the present study examined the different effects of Chinese high school students' academic stress on their depressive symptoms and the moderating effects of gender and students' perceptions of school climate on the relationships between their academic stress and depressive symptoms. Regression mixture model identified two different kinds of subgroups in the effects of students' academic stress on their depressive symptoms. One subgroup contained 90% of the students. In this subgroup, the students' perceptions of academic stress from lack of achievement positively predicted their depressive symptoms. For the other 10% of the students, academic stress did not significantly predict their depressive symptoms. Next, multinomial regression analysis revealed that girls or students who had high levels of achievement orientation were more likely to be in the first subgroup. The findings suggested that gender and students' perceptions of school climate could moderate the relationships between Chinese high school students' academic stress and their depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Tracy R. G. Gladstone
Full Text Available We evaluated predictors and moderators of differential response to two family-based depression prevention programs for families with a depressed parent: a clinician-facilitated intervention and a lecture group intervention. Individual and family level variables were examined using regression analyses with generalized estimating equations. For the outcome of child understanding of depression, parental changes in child-related behaviors and attitudes predicted greater child understanding (p<0.001. For the parent outcome of behavior and attitude change, across intervention conditions, younger parent age (p<0.05, female parent gender (p<0.01, more chronic and severe parental depression history (p<0.05, lower SES (p<0.05, and single-parent status (p<0.05 were associated with better outcomes across conditions. Effect sizes were moderate, ranging from 0.4 to 0.7 SD. Family and marital functioning were not found to be predictors of any outcomes. When both parents were depressed at baseline, there was no difference in the clinician- versus lecture-based approach, and when only the father was depressed, families reported more changes with the clinician condition than with the lecture condition (p<0.05. Findings from this study can help identify intervention strategies that are appropriate for different types of at-risk individuals and families.
Miyamoto, Kyoko; Yoshimura, Reiji; Ueda, Nobuhisa; Sugita, Atsuko; Umene, Wakako; Hori, Hikaru; Mitoma, Masae; Nakamura, Jun
In the present study, we examined the effects of acute treatment with paroxetine on the consumption of cigarette smoking and caffeine in 65 patients who met the DSM-IV criteria for major depressive disorder (M/F: 28/37, age: 48 +/- 15 years). Plasma levels of cotinine or caffeine were analysed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The amount of cigarette smoking and plasma levels of cotinine, but not caffeine, decreased 4 weeks after paroxetine treatment. There was no difference between smokers and nonsmokers with respect to their response to paroxetine treatment. In addition, plasma 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) levels in responders to paroxetine treatment was higher than those in nonresponders, and there was a negative correlation between the changes in plasma MHPG levels and the changes in Hamilton rating scale for depression (Ham-D) scores before and 4 weeks after paroxetine administration. These results suggest that paroxetine has the potential to reduce the amount of cigarette smoking in depressed smokers, and we reconfirmed our previous results that depressed patients with higher plasma MHPG levels had better response to paroxetine treatment than those with lower plasma MHPG levels using larger depressed samples. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Pawlina, Maritza Muzzi Cardozo; Rondina, Regina de Cássia; Espinosa, Mariano Martinez; Botelho, Clóvis
Objective: To evaluate changes in the levels of patient anxiety, depression, motivation, and stress over the course of smoking cessation treatment. Methods: This cohort study involved patients enrolled in a smoking cessation program in Cuiabá, Brazil. We selected patients who completed the program in six months or less (n = 142). Patient evaluations were conducted at enrollment (evaluation 1 [E1]); after 45 days of treatment with medication and cognitive-behavioral therapy (E2); and at the end of the six-month study period (E3). Patients were evaluated with a standardized questionnaire (to collect sociodemographic data and determine smoking status), as well as with the University of Rhode Island Change Assessment scale, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory, and Lipp Inventory of Stress Symptoms for Adults. The data were analyzed with the nonparametric Wilcoxon test for paired comparisons. To compare treatment success (smoking cessation) with treatment failure, the test for two proportions was used. Results: Among the 142 patients evaluated, there were improvements, in terms of the levels of anxiety, depression, motivation, and stress, between E1 and E2, as well as between E1 and E3. In addition, treatment success correlated significantly with the levels of motivation and anxiety throughout the study period, whereas it correlated significantly with the level of depression only at E2 and E3. Conclusions: We conclude that there are in fact changes in the levels of patient anxiety, depression, motivation, and stress over the course of smoking cessation treatment. Those changes appear to be more pronounced in patients in whom the treatment succeeded. PMID:26578135
Correa-Fernández, Virmarie; Ji, Lingyun; Castro, Yessenia; Heppner, Whitney L; Vidrine, Jennifer Irvin; Costello, Tracy J; Mullen, Patricia Dolan; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila; Velasquez, Mary M; Greisinger, Anthony; Cinciripini, Paul M; Wetter, David W
Based on conceptual models of addiction and affect regulation, this study examined the mechanisms linking current major depressive syndrome (MDS) and anxiety syndrome (AS) to postpartum smoking relapse. Data were collected in a randomized clinical trial from 251 women who quit smoking during pregnancy. Simple and multiple mediation models of the relations of MDS and AS with postpartum relapse were examined using linear regression, continuation ratio logit models, and a bootstrapping procedure to test the indirect effects. Both MDS and AS significantly predicted postpartum smoking relapse. After adjusting for MDS, AS significantly predicted relapse. However, after adjusting for AS, MDS no longer predicted relapse. Situationally based self-efficacy, expectancies of controlling negative affect by means other than smoking, and various dimensions of primary and secondary tobacco dependence individually mediated the effect of both MDS and AS on relapse. In multiple mediation models, self-efficacy in negative/affective situations significantly mediated the effect of MDS and AS on relapse. The findings underscore the negative impact of depression and anxiety on postpartum smoking relapse and suggest that the effects of MDS on postpartum relapse may be largely explained by comorbid AS. The current investigation provided mixed support for affect regulation models of addiction. Cognitive and tobacco dependence-related aspects of negative and positive reinforcement significantly mediated the relationship of depression and anxiety with relapse, whereas affect and stress did not. The findings emphasize the unique role of low agency with respect to abstaining from smoking in negative affective situations as a key predictor of postpartum smoking relapse. © 2012 American Psychological Association
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction COPD is an inflammatory disease with major co-morbidities. It has recently been suggested that depression may be the result of systemic inflammation. We aimed to explore the association between systemic inflammation and symptoms of depression and fatigue in patients with mainly moderate and clinically stable COPD using a range of inflammatory biomarkers, 2 depression and 2 fatigue scales. Method We assessed 120 patients with moderate COPD (FEV1% 52, men 62%, age 66. Depression was assessed using the BASDEC and CES-D scales. Fatigue was assessed using the Manchester COPD-fatigue scale (MCFS and the Borg scale before and after 6MWT. We measured systemic TNF-α, CRP, TNF-α-R1, TNF-α-R2 and IL-6. Results A multivariate linear model of all biomarkers showed that TNF-α only had a positive correlation with BASDEC depression score (p = 0.007. TNF-α remained positively correlated with depression (p = 0.024 after further adjusting for TNF-α-R1, TNF-α-R2, 6MWD, FEV1%, and pack-years. Even after adding the MCFS score, body mass and body composition to the model TNF-α was still associated with the BASDEC score (p = 0.044. Furthermore, patients with higher TNF-α level (> 3 pg/ml, n = 7 had higher mean CES-D depression score than the rest of the sample (p = 0.03. Borg fatigue score at baseline were weakly correlated with TNF-α and CRP, and with TNF-α only after 6MWT. Patients with higher TNF-α had more fatigue after 6MWD (p = 0.054. Conclusion This study indicates a possible association between TNF-α and two frequent and major co-morbidities in COPD; i.e., depression and fatigue.
Thurston, Idia B; Howell, Kathryn H; Kamody, Rebecca C; Maclin-Akinyemi, Courtney; Mandell, Jessica
Physical and emotional adversities in mothers have rippling effects across the family system. While an association between individual maternal adversities and problematic mental health outcomes has been established, less is known about co-existing adversities in mothers. Consistent with the syndemic conceptual framework, we examined the co-occurrence of Substance Abuse, Violence, and AIDS/HIV (i.e., SAVA), which are three adversities that uniquely affect racial/ethnic minorities, individuals living in poverty, and people in urban communities. We assessed the relationship between SAVA adversities and depressive symptoms among mothers living with HIV, as well as the moderating effect of resilience on this relationship. Participants included 55 mothers (M age = 41.24, SD = 9.01; 81% Black) living with HIV in the U.S. MidSouth. Mothers were recruited from community agencies serving individuals living with HIV and completed hour-long interviews about SAVA, depression, resilience, life stressors, and their child's mental health. Analyses were conducted in PROCESS for SPSS to test the relationship between SAVA and depression, as moderated by resilience. Analyses controlled for the influence of child maladaptive functioning (given known associations with maternal mental health) and maternal life stressors (given established associations with depressive symptoms). Findings indicated that experiencing more than one SAVA variable was associated with greater depressive symptoms (p resilience was associated with lower depressive symptoms (r = -.45; p resilience was low and weaker when resilience was high. Results not only highlight how co-occurring adversities exacerbate depressive symptoms, but also underscore the role of resilience as a key protective factor among mothers living with HIV. Resilience could therefore be a target of strengths-based treatment to reduce the negative effects of SAVA on depressive symptoms among mothers.
Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I; Unger, Jennifer B; Ritt-Olson, Anamara; Soto, Daniel; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes
Hispanic youth are at risk for experiencing depressive symptoms and smoking cigarettes, and risk for depressive symptoms and cigarette use increase as Hispanic youth acculturate to U.S. culture. The mechanism by which acculturation leads to symptoms of depression and cigarette smoking is not well understood. The present study examined whether perceived discrimination explained the associations of acculturation with depressive symptoms and cigarette smoking among 1,124 Hispanic youth (54% female). Youth in Southern California completed surveys in 9th-11th grade. Separate analyses by gender showed that perceived discrimination explained the relationship between acculturation and depressive symptoms for girls only. There was also evidence that discrimination explained the relationship between acculturation and cigarette smoking among girls, but the effect was only marginally significant. Acculturation was associated with depressive symptoms and smoking among girls only. Perceived discrimination predicted depressive symptoms in both genders, and discrimination was positively associated with cigarette smoking for girls but not boys. These results support the notion that, although Hispanic boys and girls experience acculturation and discrimination, their mental health and smoking behaviors are differentially affected by these experiences. Moreover, the results indicate that acculturation, gender, and discrimination are important factors to consider when addressing Hispanic youth's mental health and substance use behaviors.
Colman, Ian; Garad, Yasmin; Zeng, Yiye; Naicker, Kiyuri; Weeks, Murray; Patten, Scott B; Jones, Peter B; Thompson, Angus H; Wild, T Cameron
Studies suggest that childhood trauma is linked to both depression and heavy drinking in adulthood, and may create a lifelong vulnerability to stress. Few studies have explored the effects of stress sensitization on the development of depression or heavy drinking among those who have experienced traumatic childhood events. This study aimed to determine the effect of childhood trauma on the odds of experiencing depression or heavy drinking in the face of an adult life stressor, using a large population-based Canadian cohort. A total of 3,930 participants were included from the National Population Health Survey. The associations among childhood trauma, recent stress and depression/heavy drinking from 1994/1995 to 2008/2009 were explored using logistic regression, as were interactions between childhood trauma and recent stress. A generalized linear mixed model was used to determine the effects of childhood trauma and stressful events on depression/heavy drinking. Analyses were stratified by sex. Childhood trauma significantly increased the odds of becoming depressed (following 1 event: OR = 1.66; 95%CI 1.01, 2.71; 2+ events, OR = 3.89; 95%CI 2.44, 6.22) and drinking heavily (2+ events: OR = 1.79; 95%CI 1.03, 3.13). Recent stressful events were associated with depression, but not heavy drinking. While most interaction terms were not significant, in 2004/2005 the association between recent stress and depression was stronger in those who reported childhood trauma compared to those with no childhood trauma. Childhood trauma increases risk for both depression and heavy drinking. Trauma may moderate the effect of stress on depression; the relationship among trauma, stress and heavy drinking is less clear.
Lee, Jiyoun; Park, Heyeon; Chey, Jeanyung
The cognitive reserve theory explicates individual differences observed in the clinical manifestation of dementia despite similar brain pathology. Education, a popular proxy of the cognitive reserve, has been shown to have protective effects delaying the onset of clinical symptoms including memory. This study was conducted to test whether education can moderate the negative effect of depressive mood on memory performance in elderly women residing in the community. 29 elderly "unschooled" female (less than 6 years of formal education) and 49 "schooled" female (6 or more years) people were compared with regard to association between depressive mood and verbal memory functioning, which were measured by the Geriatric Depression Scale and the Elderly Verbal Learning Test, respectively. The results showed that completing or receiving more than primary school education significantly reduced the negative association between depressive mood and memory performance. Participants who did not complete primary schooling showed a decline in memory test scores depending on the level of depressive mood; whereas participants who have completed or received more than primary education displayed relatively stable memory function despite varying level of depressive mood. Our findings imply that education in early life may have protective effects against memory impairment related to elderly depression.
Zhu, Wenzhen; Wang, Chiachih Dc; Chong, Chu Chian
In the current study, we tested a moderated mediation model in which cultural orientation moderated the mediation model of adult attachment-perceived social support-depressive symptoms, using 2 comparable cross-cultural samples of college students recruited from China and the U.S. (n = 363 for each group). Results indicated that perceived social support mediated the effect of attachment anxiety on depressive symptoms as well as the link between attachment avoidance and depression in both samples. Moderated mediation analyses using PROCESS revealed that interdependent self-construal significantly buffered the indirect effect of attachment avoidance (via perceived social support) on depressive symptoms. The findings indicated significant differences in the mediation models between the U.S. and China groups and interdependent self-construal accounted for the between-country differences. Limitations, implications of the findings, and future research directions are discussed from the perspectives of cross-cultural variation of adult attachment functioning. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Dorn, L.D.; Pabst, S.; Sontag, L.M.; Kalkwarf, H.; Hillman, J.B.; Susman, E.J.
PURPOSE The purpose of the study was to examine (a) the association between depressive and anxiety symptoms with bone health, (b) the association of smoking or alcohol use with bone health, and, in turn, (c) whether the association between depressive and anxiety symptoms with bone health varied by smoking or alcohol use individually or by combined use. Bone health included total body bone mineral content (TB BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine, total hip, and femoral neck. Previous literature has not examined these issues in adolescence, a time when more than 50% of bone mass is accrued. METHODS An observational study enrolled 262 healthy adolescent girls by age cohort (11, 13, 15, and 17 years). Participants completed questionnaires and interviews on substance use, depressive symptoms, and anxiety. BMC and BMD were measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. RESULTS Higher depressive symptoms were associated with lower TB BMC and BMD (total hip, femoral neck). Those with the lowest level of smoking had higher BMD of the hip and femoral neck whereas no differences were noted by alcohol use. Regular users of both cigarettes and alcohol demonstrated a stronger negative association between depressive symptoms and TB BMC compared with non-users/experimental users and regular alcohol users. Findings were parallel for anxiety symptoms. CONCLUSION Depressive and anxiety symptoms may negatively influence bone health in adolescent girls. Consideration of multiple substances, rather than cigarettes or alcohol separately, may be particularly informative with respect to the association of depression with bone health. PMID:22018564
Roopnarine, Jaipaul L; Dede Yildirim, Elif
Drawing on couple-focused prevention intervention models that target family level processes, we used complier average causal effect (CACE) estimates to determine whether relationship skills education moderated the association between fathers' depressive symptoms assessed when their children were 15-months-old and again when their children were 36-months-old. The sample consisted of low-income Hispanic American, European American, and African American fathers (N = 2,540) from the Building Strong Families Study. Fathers from 8 sites across the United States were randomly assigned to either a treatment group who were offered relationship skills education or a control group. Paternal age and family residential stability predicted fathers' utilization of intervention services. Relationship skills education moderated the association between depressive symptoms at 15 months and depressive symptoms at 36 months. The impact of dosage of relationship skills education on depressive symptoms was inconsistent and dependent on percentage of receipt of relationship skills education classes. Data are interpreted in the context of the efficacy of intervention programs for tempering depressive symptoms in low-income fathers with young children. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Schwartzhaupt, Alexandre W; Lara, Diogo R; Hirakata, Vânia N; Schuch, Alice; Almeida, Ellen; Silveira, Leonardo; Caldieraro, Marco A K; Fleck, Marcelo P
Sleep deprivation (SD) has been used as an alternative approach to treat major depressive disorder (MDD). Caffeine, due to its stimulating effect, could be an alternative to promote sleep deprivation. However, there are no data about its potential influence on the antidepressive effect of SD. The objective of this study is to assess the effect of caffeine on SD in non-psychotic patients with moderate to severe unipolar depression. Randomized, double-blind, crossover clinical trial comparing caffeine and placebo in moderate to severe depressed patients who underwent total sleep deprivation (SD). The patients were assessed with items of the Bond-Lader scale, the 6-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD-6), and the Clinical Global Impression (CGI)-Severity/Improvement. Twenty patients participated in this study. The patients who consumed caffeine presented the same level of energy before and after sleep deprivation (lethargic-energetic item of the Bond-Lader scale), while the patients in the placebo group had a reduced level of energy after sleep deprivation (p=0.0045). There was no difference between the caffeine and placebo groups in the other items of the Bond-Lader scale. The combined use of caffeine and SD can be a useful strategy to keep the patient awake without impairing the effect of SD on depressed outpatients. However, further studies involving patients who have responded to SD are needed in order to verify if caffeine also does not interfere with the results in this group.
Babson, Kimberly A; Boden, Matthew Tyler; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O
This study sought to extend research on the relation between depression symptoms and problematic cannabis use by evaluating the potential moderating role of perceived sleep quality among medical cannabis users. This employed a cross-sectional design. The sample consisted of 162 adults (mean age = 42.05 years, SD = 14.8; 22% female), with current recommendations from a doctor for medical cannabis, recruited from a medical cannabis dispensary. Consistent with previous research, individuals with heightened depression symptoms had greater problematic cannabis use. In addition, perceived sleep quality moderated this relation, such that depression symptoms differentially related to problematic cannabis use as a function of perceived quality of sleep (ΔR(2) = .03, p = .02). Participants with higher levels of depression and good perceived sleep quality had the greatest rates of problematic cannabis use. These results suggest that individuals with heightened depression may have higher rates of problematic cannabis use, in part, because of the beneficial effects of cannabis in terms of perceived sleep quality.
Na Hyun Kim
Full Text Available Increasing evidence suggests that secondhand smoke exposure (SHSE may affect not only physical health, but also mental health. Therefore, we evaluated the association between SHSE and depressive symptoms among Korean adolescents.The JS High School Study enrolled 1071 high school freshmen from a rural community of South Korea. The current analysis was limited to 989 adolescents (495 male and 494 female adolescents, after excluding 48 ever-smokers, 3 students with physician-diagnosed depression, and 31 students who did not complete the depression questionnaire. SHSE was assessed using a self-reported questionnaire and was classified into three groups: none, occasional exposure, and regular exposure. Depressive symptoms were assessed according to the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI score, ranging from 0 to 63, and the presence of depressive symptoms was defined as a BDI score ≥10.Overall, adolescents with SHSE were more likely to have depressive symptoms than those without SHSE (p = 0.042.In a sex-specific analysis treating the BDI score as a continuous variable, regular SHSE was independently associated with higher BDI scores in male adolescents (β = 2.25, p = 0.026, but not in female adolescents (β = 1.11, p = 0.253. Compared to no SHSE, the odds ratio for having depressive symptoms among male adolescents with regular SHSE was 2.17 (95% confidence interval, 1.11 to 4.25 after adjusting for age, body mass index, and study year, and 3.65 (95% confidence interval, 1.52 to 8.73 after adjusting for age, body mass index, study year, exercise, and household income.Regular exposure to secondhand smoke was associated with having depressive symptoms among Korean male adolescents.
Kim, Na Hyun; Park, Ji Hye; Choi, Dong Phil; Lee, Joo Young; Kim, Hyeon Chang
Increasing evidence suggests that secondhand smoke exposure (SHSE) may affect not only physical health, but also mental health. Therefore, we evaluated the association between SHSE and depressive symptoms among Korean adolescents. The JS High School Study enrolled 1071 high school freshmen from a rural community of South Korea. The current analysis was limited to 989 adolescents (495 male and 494 female adolescents), after excluding 48 ever-smokers, 3 students with physician-diagnosed depression, and 31 students who did not complete the depression questionnaire. SHSE was assessed using a self-reported questionnaire and was classified into three groups: none, occasional exposure, and regular exposure. Depressive symptoms were assessed according to the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) score, ranging from 0 to 63, and the presence of depressive symptoms was defined as a BDI score ≥10. Overall, adolescents with SHSE were more likely to have depressive symptoms than those without SHSE (p = 0.042).In a sex-specific analysis treating the BDI score as a continuous variable, regular SHSE was independently associated with higher BDI scores in male adolescents (β = 2.25, p = 0.026), but not in female adolescents (β = 1.11, p = 0.253). Compared to no SHSE, the odds ratio for having depressive symptoms among male adolescents with regular SHSE was 2.17 (95% confidence interval, 1.11 to 4.25) after adjusting for age, body mass index, and study year, and 3.65 (95% confidence interval, 1.52 to 8.73) after adjusting for age, body mass index, study year, exercise, and household income. Regular exposure to secondhand smoke was associated with having depressive symptoms among Korean male adolescents.
Lam, Jeffrey; Lu, Bo; Doogan, Nate; Thomson, Tiffany; Ferketich, Amy; Paskett, Electra D; Wewers, Mary Ellen
Depression is a serious, costly, and debilitating disorder that is understudied in rural women. Studies show that depression is associated with low social integration and support, but few studies investigate the relationship between depression and social network characteristics. This study examined the associations among women from three Ohio Appalachian counties enrolled in a health study, which aimed to collect information for a future social network smoking cessation intervention. An address-based sampling method was used to randomly select and recruit 404 women. A cross-sectional survey and interview were used to collect information about demographic, psychosocial, behavioral factors, and ego-centric social network characteristics, which are variables derived from an individual (ego) and her first degree contacts (alters). The CES-D scale assessed depressive symptoms. A multivariable logistic regression analysis described the association between these factors and participants with depression (defined as CES-D≥16). Higher network density, or greater number of relationships among alters divided by the total amount of alters, reduced the risk for depression (OR = 0.84, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.73-0.95). Additionally, women with a high percentage of smoking alters were at greater risk for depression (OR = 1.19, 95% CI 1.02-1.39). Other factors associated with risk for depression included perceived stress score (OR = 1.34, 95% CI 1.24-1.45), loneliness score (OR = 1.37, 95% CI 1.05-1.80), and days with poor physical health (OR = 1.06, 95% CI 1.02-1.11). Findings suggest that psychosocial factors and social networks should be considered when addressing depression in clinical practice.
Mugoya, George Ct; Hooper, Lisa M; Tomek, Sara; George Dalmida, Safiya; Bolland, Anneliese; Ufomadu, Joy; Bolland, John
To explore the mediating effect of loneliness on the relationship between pain interference and depressive symptoms and to determine whether this mechanism is contingent on employment status. Cross-sectional study. A total of 876 adult caregivers of adolescents living in extremely impoverished conditions. Mediation and moderated mediation analyses using standard path-analytic approaches. The mean age of the sample was 39.0 (SD = 12.8) years and 80.7% ( n = 707) identified as female. Almost half (48.9%, n = 425) of the participants did not report any pain, while 32.5% ( n = 285) reported non-disabling pain, and 19.0% ( n = 166) reported disabling pain. The mean depressive symptoms score was 16.20 (SD = 10.6), and the mean loneliness score was 40.09 (SD = 10.5). Loneliness mediated the effect of both non-disabling and disabling pain on depressive symptoms. However, the indirect effect of pain interference on depressive symptoms through loneliness was more pronounced among participants reporting disabling pain (coefficient, 2.11; Boot 95% confidence interval (CI) (1.25-3.01)) than non-disabling pain (coefficient, 0.99; Boot 95% CI (0.25-1.76)). Moderated mediation results showed that the indirect effect of pain interference on depressive symptoms, via loneliness varied in magnitude as a function of employment status among participants reporting disabling pain but not those reporting non-disabling pain. Loneliness provides an important link in the relationship between depressive symptoms and pain interference. Furthermore, employment status is an important factor to consider, especially among individuals reporting disabling pain with comorbid depressive symptoms.
Benjet, Corina; Thompson, Renee J.; Gotlib, Ian H.
Background Relational peer victimization is associated with internalizing symptoms. Compared to boys, girls are more likely to be both relationally victimized by peers and distressed by the victimization. While previous studies have reported that a functional polymorphism in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) moderates the effect of stressful life events on depressive symptoms, the present study is the first to evaluate the interaction of this polymorphism with relational peer victimization to predict level of depressive symptoms in young girls. Methods Participants were 78 girls ages 10 to 14 who had no current or past Axis I disorder. Girls were genotyped for 5-HTTLPR; peer victimization was assessed with the Social Experiences Questionnaire, and depressive symptoms with the Children's Depression Inventory. Results The 5-HTTLPR polymorphism alone did not predict level of depressive symptoms; the interaction of 5-HTTLPR and relational peer victimization, however, was a significant predictor of depressive symptoms. Follow-up analyses indicated that peer victimization significantly predicted level of depressive symptoms only for girls who were homozygous for the short allele, and not for girls homozygous for the long allele or who were heterozygous for the short and long alleles. Conclusions The findings support the diathesis-stress model of depression: having two 5-HTTLPR short alleles confers vulnerability to depressive symptoms in adolescent girls when they experience relational peer victimization. These findings also suggest that relational peer victimization, at least for girls with genetic vulnerability, is a significant source of stress and should be recognized in the monitoring and prevention of bullying. PMID:19754661
Kujawa, Autumn; Proudfit, Greg H; Laptook, Rebecca; Klein, Daniel N
Children of parents with depression exhibit neural abnormalities in reward processing. Examining contributions of parenting could provide insight into the development of these abnormalities and to the etiology of depression. We evaluated whether early parenting moderates the effects of parental depression on a neural measure of reward and loss processing in mid-late childhood. Parenting was assessed when children were preschoolers. At age nine, children completed an event-related potential assessment and the feedback negativity (FN) was measured following rewards and losses ( N =344). Maternal authoritative parenting moderated the effect of maternal depression; among offspring of mothers with histories of depression, low authoritative parenting predicted a blunted FN. Observed maternal positive parenting interacted with paternal depression in a comparable manner, indicating that maternal parenting may buffer the effects of paternal depression. Early parenting may be important in shaping the neural systems involved in reward processing among children at high risk for depression.
John Erik Berg
Full Text Available Depression is a usual comorbidity in patients with Parkinson’s disease. It has been known for more than 50 years that electroconvulsive treatment (ECT has a positive effect on the muscular symptoms of Parkinson’s disease. Many countries do not allow giving ECT for this indication. We have recently treated a resident patient in an acute psychiatric facility referred to the hospital with moderate depressive symptoms and strong suicidal ideation. Before and after a series of ECT he filled out the Beck Depression Inventory and the Antonovsky Sense of Coherence test. The scores before ECT were 20 and 2.69, respectively, and after 12 treatments 14 and 3.38. Both test results indicate improvement regarding level of depression and coping in life. The physiotherapists treating him observed that his rigidity was reduced and his gait improved. Muscular tonus was reduced and increased his tendency of falling as he had less tonus in muscles close to joints. Self help efficiency in daily tasks improved. He got cognitive impairment during and in the weeks after ECT. Electroconvulsive treatment should be offered to more patients with Parkinson disease and depression in order to lessen the burden of both depression and Parkinson symptoms.
Korte, J; Bohlmeijer, E T; Cappeliez, P; Smit, F; Westerhof, G J
BACKGROUND. Although there is substantial evidence for the efficacy of life review therapy as an early treatment of depression in later life, its effectiveness in natural settings has not been studied. The present study evaluates an intervention based on life review and narrative therapy in a large multi-site, pragmatic randomized controlled trial(RCT). METHOD. Life review therapy was compared with care as usual. The primary outcome was depressive symptoms;secondary outcomes were anxiety symptoms, positive mental health, quality of life, and current major depressive episode (MDE). To identify groups for whom the intervention was particularly effective, moderator analyses were carried out (on sociodemographic variables, personality traits, reminiscence functions, clinically relevant depressive and anxiety symptoms, and past MDEs). RESULTS. Compared with care as usual (n=102), life review therapy (n=100) was effective in reducing depressive symptoms, at post-treatment (d=0.60, B= -5.3, plife review therapy as an early intervention for depression in an ecologically valid context, supporting its applicability to a broad target group. The intervention is also effective in reducing anxiety symptoms and strengthening positive mental health.
Eliana Silva; Ana Paula Soares de Matos; José Joaquim Marques da Costa; Vanessa Ramos; Joana Lopes
Intruduction: The comorbidity between depression and social anxiety is high in adolescence. Parental emotion socialization behaviors have been associated with the development of social skills and depressive symptomatology. Objectives: This study aims to explore the moderating effect of parenting styles on the relationship between social anxiety and depression, to study the associations between them, and to analyze the relationship between parenting styles, social anxiety and depressive sy...
Bloom, Erika Litvin; Oliver, Jason A; Sutton, Steven K; Brandon, Thomas H; Jacobsen, Paul B; Simmons, Vani Nath
An estimated 35-50% of lung and head and neck cancer patients are smoking at diagnosis; most try to quit; however, a substantial proportion resumes smoking. As cancer treatments improve, attention to the effects of continued smoking on quality of life in the survivorship period is increasing. The current study examines if smoking abstinence following surgical treatment is associated with better quality of life. Participants were 134 patients with head and neck or lung cancer who received surgical treatment. Smoking status and indices of quality of life (depressive symptoms, fatigue, and pain) were assessed at the time of surgery (baseline) and at 2, 4, 6, and 12 months post-surgery. Analyses were performed using a generalized estimating equations approach. A series of models examined the correlation between smoking status and post-surgery quality of life while adjusting for demographics, clinical variables, and baseline smoking status and quality of life. Continuous post-surgery abstinence was associated with lower levels of depressive symptoms and fatigue; however, the relationship with fatigue became nonsignificant after adjusting for baseline fatigue and income. There was no significant relationship observed between smoking status and pain. Findings add to a growing literature showing that smoking cessation is not associated with detrimental effects on quality of life and may have beneficial effects, particularly with regard to depressive symptoms. Such information can be used to motivate smoking cessation and continued abstinence among cancer patients and increase provider comfort in recommending cessation. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of this descriptive and cross-sectional study was to investigate the relationship between smoking status and depression of 492 police officers working at the Police Departments of Konya between 25th May 2006 and 15th June 2006. METHODS: A questionnaire was applied to determine the socio-demographic characteristics and smoking status. The depression level was evaluated by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI. RESULTS: Of all 492 police participating this study, 467 (94.9% were men, 25 (5.1% women, mean age 37.39±6.50 (min=22, max=53, and 462 (93.9% were married. Of the participants in this study, 41.9% (n=206 were current smokers, %34.3 (n=169 never smokers, %23.8 (n=117 were ex-smokers and the quit ratio was %36.2. The lowest age at starting smoking was 7, the highest age was 44 and the median value was 18. The median value of the duration of smoking (years was 17. Social factors (environment, friend groups, etc. were the first reason to start smoking (46.6%, n=96. According to the level of nicotine addiction determined using the Fagerstrom score, the median value was 3. While gender, age, marital status, education level, being in dept had no effects on smoking status (p>0.05, living place (p=0.022, having a private car (p=0.018 and affording to pay the credit cards in time (p0.05, the frequency of depression level was significantly higher among the police who were in dept, did not have their own home and could not afford to pay their credit card debts in time (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: The high level of depression has shown that police officers are at risk psychologically. It will be considerably beneficial to provide psychological support and consulting services to the police officers. An effective and comprehensive tobacco control program is urgently required for them. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(1.000: 31-38
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of this descriptive and cross-sectional study was to investigate the relationship between smoking status and depression of 492 police officers working at the Police Departments of Konya between 25th May 2006 and 15th June 2006. METHODS: A questionnaire was applied to determine the socio-demographic characteristics and smoking status. The depression level was evaluated by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI. RESULTS: Of all 492 police participating this study, 467 (94.9% were men, 25 (5.1% women, mean age 37.39±6.50 (min=22, max=53, and 462 (93.9% were married. Of the participants in this study, 41.9% (n=206 were current smokers, %34.3 (n=169 never smokers, %23.8 (n=117 were ex-smokers and the quit ratio was %36.2. The lowest age at starting smoking was 7, the highest age was 44 and the median value was 18. The median value of the duration of smoking (years was 17. Social factors (environment, friend groups, etc. were the first reason to start smoking (46.6%, n=96. According to the level of nicotine addiction determined using the Fagerstrom score, the median value was 3. While gender, age, marital status, education level, being in dept had no effects on smoking status (p>0.05, living place (p=0.022, having a private car (p=0.018 and affording to pay the credit cards in time (p0.05, the frequency of depression level was significantly higher among the police who were in dept, did not have their own home and could not afford to pay their credit card debts in time (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: The high level of depression has shown that police officers are at risk psychologically. It will be considerably beneficial to provide psychological support and consulting services to the police officers. An effective and comprehensive tobacco control program is urgently required for them. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2008; 7(1: 31-38
Full Text Available Major depression is among the most common and debilitating disorders worldwide, associated with large societal and individual costs. Effective treatments exist, but accessibility is scarce. Guided Internet-Based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (guided iCBT is a promising approach to reach more people in need of help. In the present pilot study, we investigated the outcome of a guided iCBT program for mild and moderate depression when disseminated from Sweden to Norway. The guided iCBT intervention was implemented within a university-based outpatient clinic by six student therapists under supervision. Twenty-two participants with mild and moderate depression were included in the study. Large treatment effects were found for depressive symptoms, whereas small to medium effects were observed for anxiety symptoms. More than half (55% of the participants were classified as recovered at post-treatment and more than a third (41% at follow-up. No participants had a significant deterioration from pre- to post-treatment, but two reported a significant deterioration from post-treatment to 6-month follow-up. Benchmarking the present results against those reported in the four original Swedish studies, we found that the treatment effect in the Norwegian study was slightly higher at post-treatment and slightly lower at 6-month follow-up compared to the outcome in the Swedish studies. The results should be interpreted with caution, as our sample was small and had no control group.
Fedina, Lisa; Nam, Boyoung; Jun, Hyun-Jin; Shah, Roma; Von Mach, Tara; Bright, Charlotte L; DeVylder, Jordan
Resilience has been found to attenuate the effects of negative mental health symptomology associated with interpersonal victimization; however, existing research has largely focused on resilience traits, such as individual cognitive and environmental factors that promote resilience. In addition, empirical knowledge on the extent to which resilience mitigates suicidal symptomology associated with interpersonal violence victimization is particularly limited. This study assesses whether the relationship between interpersonal violence (i.e., IPV and nonpartner sexual violence) and mental health symptomology (i.e., depression, psychological distress, and suicidal ideation) is moderated by resilience using a general population sample of women ( N = 932). A cross-sectional, observational survey was administered in four U.S. cities (Baltimore, New York City, Philadelphia, and Washington, D.C.). Bivariate results indicated that women exposed to interpersonal violence reported significantly higher rates of suicidal ideation, depression, and psychological distress compared with women without exposure to interpersonal violence. Regression models revealed significant positive associations between interpersonal violence and depression, distress, and suicidal ideation, adjusting for sociodemographics. Resilience did not significantly moderate the relationship between interpersonal violence victimization and any associated mental health outcomes. However, subgroup analyses reveal significant interaction effects between resilience and IPV within specific racial and ethnic minority subgroups, suggesting that attenuating effects of resilience on mental health symptoms (i.e., depression and psychological distress) associated with IPV likely vary across race and ethnicity. Implications for future research and clinical interventions focused on resilience among survivors of interpersonal violence are discussed.
Lai, Francisco T T; Wong, Wikki W K; Kwan, Joyce L Y
To facilitate effective tobacco control, it is important to identify the socioeconomic strata in which different quitting motives are more strongly associated with cessation. This study aims to examine such a moderating role of socioeconomic background. A total of 2022 past or current daily smoking men from the Hong Kong Thematic Household Survey 2010 who had attempted for cessation were analyzed. Binary socioeconomic indicators, quitting motives, and 1-year abstinence were entered in an exploratory backward-stepwise log-linear model, followed by a binary logistic regression to estimate the probability of one-year abstinence in each socioeconomic stratum. Results suggest that the association between cessation and health motives is stronger in less educated men ( P = .004) and nonmarried men ( P = .003). The estimated probability of cessation ranges from 0.02 (95% CI = 0.00-0.06) to 0.96 (95% CI = 0.89-1.00). Accordingly, policy makers should educate less-educated men and nonmarried men about the adverse health impacts of tobacco use.
Tong, Lian; Shi, Hui-Jing; Zhang, Zhe; Yuan, Yuan; Xia, Zhi-Juan; Jiang, Xiao-Xiao; Xiong, Xu
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been often found to be comorbid with other disorders, including anxiety, depression, and unhealthy behaviors such as drinking alcohol and smoking. These factors were often discussed separately, and the mediating effects of mental health on substance use are unknown. To study the mediating effects of anxiety and depression on the relationship between ADHD and drinking/smoking behaviors, we conducted a cross-sectional study of 1870 college stu...
Weiss, Jie W; Mouttapa, Michele; Cen, Steven; Johnson, C Anderson; Unger, Jennifer
The present study examined the associations between smoking initiation and, hostility, depressive symptoms, and bullying (bullies and bully-victims) among a culturally diverse sample of 1,771 adolescents who reported never having smoked at baseline. Data were obtained from a longitudinal school-based experimental trial of smoking prevention programs in Southern California. Annual survey was performed for students of the sixth, seventh, and eighth grades. All students in the 24 participating schools were invited to participate in the study during the sixth grade. The risk of smoking initiation was significantly higher among students who scored higher on hostility and depressive symptoms, and were bully-victims. The findings suggest that tobacco prevention programs should include strategies for managing hostile feelings and negative effect as part of the curriculum. In addition, it might be helpful to identify youth who score high on these psychosocial factors and teach them skills to handle interpersonal conflict and negative feelings to prevent their involvement in substance use. Copyright © 2011 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Taylor, Amy E; Fluharty, Meg E; Bjørngaard, Johan H
OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether associations of smoking with depression and anxiety are likely to be causal, using a Mendelian randomisation approach. DESIGN: Mendelian randomisation meta-analyses using a genetic variant (rs16969968/rs1051730) as a proxy for smoking heaviness, and observational...
A.E. Taylor (Amy E.); M.E. Fluharty (Meg E.); J.H. Bjørngaard (Johan H.); M.E. Gabrielsen (Maiken Elvestad); F. Skorpen (Frank); R.E. Marioni (Riccardo); A. Campbell (Archie); J. Engmann (Jorgen); S.S. Mirza (Saira); A. Loukola (Anu); T. Laatikainen (Tiina); T. Partonen (Timo); M. Kaakinen (Marika); F. Ducci (Francesca); A. Cavadino (Alana); L.L.N. Husemoen (Lise Lotte); T.S. Ahluwalia (Tarunveer Singh); R.K. Jacobsen (Rikke Kart); T. Skaaby (Tea); J.F. Ebstrup (Jeanette Frost); E.L. Mortensen (Erik); C.C. Minica (Camelia C.); J.M. Vink (Jacqueline); G.A.H.M. Willemsen (Gonneke); P. Marques-Vidal (Pedro); C.E. Dale (Caroline E.); A. Amuzu (Antoinette); L.T. Lennon (Lucy T.); J. Lahti (Jari); A. Palotie (Aarno); K. Räikkönen (Katri); A. Wong (Andrew); L. Paternoster (Lavinia); A.P.-Y. Wong (Angelita Pui-Yee); L.J. Horwood (L. John); M. Murphy (Michael); E.C. Johnstone (Elaine C.); M.A. Kennedy (Martin A.); Z. Pausova (Zdenka); T. Paus (Tomáš); Y. Ben-Shlomo; C. Nohr (Christian); D. Kuh (Diana); M. Kivimaki (Mika); J.G. Eriksson (Johan G.); R. Morris (Richard); J.P. Casas (Juan); M. Preisig (Martin); D.I. Boomsma (Dorret); A. Linneberg (Allan); C. Power (Christopher); E. Hypponen (Elina); J. Veijola (Juha); M.-R. Jarvelin (Marjo-Riitta); T. Korhonen (Tellervo); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning); M. Kumari (Meena); D.J. Porteous (David J.); C. Hayward (Caroline); P.R. Romundstad (Pa˚l R.); G.D. Smith; M.R. Munafò (Marcus)
textabstractObjectives: To investigate whether associations of smoking with depression and anxiety are likely to be causal, using a Mendelian randomisation approach. Design: Mendelian randomisation meta-analyses using a genetic variant (rs16969968/rs1051730) as a proxy for smoking heaviness, and
Santo, Jonathan B; Martin-Storey, Alexa; Recchia, Holly; Bukowski, William M
Two longitudinal studies conducted with early adolescents (ages 10-13) examined the hypothesis that self-continuity, or the degree to which individuals feel that they remain the same person over time regardless of how their specific characteristics may change, would moderate the association between victimization and depressed affect. Both Study 1 (N = 141) and Study 2 (N = 100) provided evidence of the moderating role of self-continuity as a buffer on the effect of peer victimization. Study 2 confirmed that self-continuity had a moderating effect after controlling for academic performance, number of friends, self-esteem, self-concept clarity, hopelessness, and self-blame. Findings support self-continuity as being protective with regard to negative peer environments. © 2018 Society for Research on Adolescence.
Rodríguez-Cano, Rubén; Paulus, Daniel J; López-Durán, Ana; Martínez-Vispo, Carmela; Fernández Del Río, Elena; Becoña, Elisardo; Zvolensky, Michael J
Although there is an interconnection between history of major depressive disorder and smoking, there has been relatively limited scientific attention oriented on the interplay between history of major depressive disorder and smoking maintenance processes. The current study sought to address whether history of major depressive disorder and post-cessation craving interact in the prediction of relapse among treatment-seeking smokers. Separate models were evaluated as a function of sex. Participants (n = 319, Mage = 41.7, 62.1% female) were treatment-seeking smokers who were abstinent at the end of six weekly 1-hour sessions involving psychosocial treatment for cessation. Participants completed a baseline assessment and reported post-cessation craving. Smoking status was assessed at 1-, 2-, 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up after the end of treatment. There was a significant interactive effect evident for females (B = 0.05, OR = 1.05, p = 0.013), but not males. The form of the interaction indicated females with history of major depressive disorder and greater post-treatment craving evinced the highest rate of relapse. Findings suggest that history of major depressive disorder and post-treatment craving are related to increased risk of relapse for female, but not male, smokers. Sex differences play a fundamental role in the explanation of the interaction of history of major depressive disorder and craving post-treatment in smoking relapse. Considering sex differences related to smoking relapse may help to tailor smoking cessation treatments.
García, Felipe E; Cova, Félix; Páez, Darío; Miranda, Francisca
This study analyzes the relationship between having experienced a work accident and developing depressive symptoms six months later, considering the subjective severity of accidents, the use of both positive and negative religious coping strategies, and brooding as predictors variables. Fifty seven women and 187 men were evaluated during the month following their accident (T1) and six months later (T2). The results show that after controlling for initial depressive symptoms, all predictors showed a statistically significant relationship with depression at six months, including the interaction between brooding and subjective severity of accident. Forty nine percent of resilient participants exhibited low symptoms at T1 and T2, 22% of recovered individuals showed high symptoms at T1 and low symptoms afterwards, 20% of depressive individuals had high symptoms at T1 and T2, and 8% exhibited high symptoms only at T2. High severity, brooding and religious coping at T1 differentiated those who exhibited stable symptoms from those who were resilient. Resilience was specifically predicted with a negative coefficient by the interaction of brooding with subjective severity of accident. We conclude that brooding is a variable that moderates the relationship between subjective severity of accident and the development and maintenance of depressive symptoms. Subjective severity of accident, brooding and negative religious coping are risk factors, while positive religious coping is not a sufficient protection factor. © 2018 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Background. The aim was to examine the association of depressive symptoms with fish eating habits, in elderly individuals. Methods. From June to October of 2009, we studied 330 men and 343 women, aged 65 to 100 years, permanent inhabitants of Ikaria Island. Among several characteristics, depression was assessed with the Geriatric Depression scale (GDS range 0–15, while dietary habits through a valid semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Results. Women had significantly higher values of the GDS compared to men (4.8±3.5 versus 3.3±3.1, =.001. Participants in the upper tertile of depression scale ate less frequent fish and consumed higher quantities of alcohol, compared to those in the lowest tertile (all 3 times/week versus never/rare was inversely associated with the odds of having GDS greater the median value (i.e., 4 (oddsratio=0.34, 95% CI: 0.19, 0.61, after controlling for several cofounders. Conclusion. Frequent fish consumption in elderly seems to moderate depression mood.
Bjärehed, Jonas; Sarkohi, Ali; Andersson, Gerhard
Depressed patients have been found to generate fewer anticipated positive future events, but most previous studies have included patients who have either been severely depressed or expressed suicidal thoughts and intents or both. The aim of this study was to compare positive and negative future-directed thinking in persons with mild to moderate depression who did not express suicidal thoughts or intents (n = 20) with a matched group of nondepressed persons (n = 20). The two groups completed the Future-Thinking Task (FTT), in which they were asked to generate positive and negative anticipated future events for three upcoming time periods (1 week, 1 year, and 5-10 years). In the present version of the FTT, both quantitative and qualitative aspects were included (i.e. subjective likelihood and emotional valence). Results showed that depressed persons reported lower scores regarding anticipated future positive events but they did not differ in terms of future negative events. The results are consistent with previous research and further strengthen the notion that reduced anticipation of future positive events is a defining characteristic of depression, even in the absence of suicidal ideation.
Bodner, Ehud; Bergman, Yoav S
Loneliness and depressive symptoms are closely related, and both are indicators of reduced physical and mental well-being in old age. In recent years, the subjective perception of how long an individual expects to live (subjective life expectancy) has gained importance as a significant predictor of future psychological functioning, as well as of physical health. The current study examined whether subjective life expectancy moderates the connection between loneliness and depressive symptoms in a representative sample of older adults. Data was collected from the Israeli component of the fifth wave of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE-Israel). Participants (n=2210; mean age=70.35) completed measures of loneliness, depressive symptoms, and life expectancy target age. A hierarchical regression analysis predicting depressive symptoms yielded a significant interaction of loneliness and subjective life expectancy. Further analyses demonstrated that low subjective life expectancy mitigated the loneliness-depressive symptoms connection. Findings are discussed in light of the potential burden of higher subjective life expectancy for lonesome older adults, and practical implications are suggested. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Beach, Steven R H; Lei, Man Kit; Ong, Mei Ling; Brody, Gene H; Dogan, Meeshanthini V; Philibert, Robert A
Smoking has been shown to have a large, reliable, and rapid effect on demethylation of AHRR, particularly at cg05575921, suggesting that methylation may be used as an index of cigarette consumption. Because the availability of methyl donors may also influence the degree of demethylation in response to smoking, factors that affect the activity of methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), a key regulator of methyl group availability, may be of interest. In the current investigation, we examined the extent to which individual differences in methylation of MTHFR moderated the association between smoking and demethylation at cg05575921 as well as at other loci on AHRR associated with a main effect of smoking. Using a discovery sample (AIM, N = 293), and a confirmatory sample (SHAPE, N = 368) of young adult African Americans, degree of methylation of loci in the first exon of MTHFR was associated with amplification of the association between smoking and AHRR demethylation at cg05575921. However, genetic variation at a commonly studied MTHFR variant, C677T, did not influence cg05575921 methylation. The significant interaction between MTHFR methylation and the smoking-induced response at cg05575921 suggests a role for individual differences in methyl cycle regulation in understanding the effects of cigarette consumption on genome wide DNA methylation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Weitz, E.S.; Hollon, S.D.; Twisk, J.; van Straten, A.; Huibers, M.J.H.; David, D.; DeRubeis, R.J.; Dimidjian, S.; Dunlop, B.W.; Cristea, I.A.; Faramarzi, M.; Hegerl, U.; Jarrett, R.B.; Kheirkhah, F.; Kennedy, S.H.; Mergl, R.; Miranda, J.; Mohr, D.C.; Rush, A.J.; Segal, Z.V.; Siddique, J.; Simons, A.D.; Vittengl, J.R.; Cuijpers, P.
IMPORTANCE Current guidelines recommend treating severe depression with pharmacotherapy. Randomized clinical trials as well as traditional meta-analyses have considerable limitations in testing for moderators of treatment outcomes. OBJECTIVES To conduct a systematic literature search, collect
Belvederi Murri, Martino; Amore, Mario; Calcagno, Pietro; Respino, Matteo; Marozzi, Valentina; Masotti, Mattia; Bugliani, Michele; Innamorati, Marco; Pompili, Maurizio; Galderisi, Silvana; Maj, Mario
The so-called "insight paradox" posits that among patients with schizophrenia higher levels of insight are associated with increased levels of depression. Although different studies examined this issue, only few took in account potential confounders or factors that could influence this association. In a sample of clinically stable patients with schizophrenia, insight and depression were evaluated using the Scale to assess Unawareness of Mental Disorder and the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia. Other rating scales were used to assess the severity of psychotic symptoms, extrapyramidal symptoms, hopelessness, internalized stigma, self-esteem, and service engagement. Regression models were used to estimate the magnitude of the association between insight and depression while accounting for the role of confounders. Putative psychological and sociodemographic factors that could act as mediators and moderators were examined using the PROCESS macro. By accounting for the role of confounding factors, the strength of the association between insight into symptoms and depression increased from 13% to 25% explained covariance. Patients with lower socioeconomic status (F = 8.5, P = .04), more severe illness (F = 4.8, P = .03) and lower levels of service engagement (F = 4.7, P = .03) displayed the strongest association between insight and depression. Lastly, hopelessness, internalized stigma and perceived discrimination acted as significant mediators. The relationship between insight and depression should be considered a well established phenomenon among patients with schizophrenia: it seems stronger than previously reported especially among patients with lower socioeconomic status, severe illness and poor engagement with services. These findings may have relevant implications for the promotion of insight among patients with schizophrenia. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved
Polanka, Brittanny M; Vrany, Elizabeth A; Patel, Jay; Stewart, Jesse C
We compared the relative importance of atypical major depressive disorder (MDD), nonatypical MDD, and dysthymic disorder in predicting 3-year obesity incidence and change in body mass index and determined whether race/ethnicity moderated these relationships. We examined data from 17,787 initially nonobese adults in the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions waves 1 (2001-2002) and 2 (2004-2005) who were representative of the US population. Lifetime subtypes of depressive disorders were determined using a structured interview, and obesity outcomes were computed from self-reported height and weight. Atypical MDD (odds ratio (OR) = 1.68, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.43, 1.97; P obesity than were nonatypical MDD (OR = 1.11, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.22; P = 0.027) and no history of depressive disorder. Atypical MDD (B = 0.41 (standard error, 0.15); P = 0.007) was a stronger predictor of increases in body mass index than were dysthymic disorder (B = -0.31 (standard error, 0.21); P = 0.142), nonatypical MDD (B = 0.007 (standard error, 0.06); P = 0.911), and no history of depressive disorder. Race/ethnicity was a moderator; atypical MDD was a stronger predictor of incident obesity in Hispanics/Latinos (OR = 1.97, 95% CI: 1.73, 2.24; P adults with atypical MDD are at particularly high risk of weight gain and obesity, and Hispanics/Latinos may be especially vulnerable to the obesogenic consequences of depressions. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Reese, Elizabeth D; Veilleux, Jennifer C
Decreased abstinence self-efficacy is linked to increased craving and negative affect, as well as poorer smoking outcomes, such as lapse, relapse, and withdrawal symptom severity. Research suggests that beliefs and cognitions concerning ourselves and the world orient us toward specific goals and thus impact our judgments and behavior. This study serves to investigate whether motives for smoking mediate the relationship between beliefs about craving and abstinence self-efficacy judgments and whether this may differ by nicotine dependence. In a sample of 198 smokers (M age = 34.96, 51.8% female, 81.8% Caucasian), self-report measures of craving beliefs, situational abstinence self-efficacy, and smoking motives were measured. We examined the effect of beliefs on abstinence self-efficacy in both craving and negative affect situations, with craving and negative reinforcement smoking motives as mediators, and nicotine dependence as a moderator. Results indicate that craving beliefs predict lower abstinence self-efficacy judgments in craving situations indirectly through increased craving motives. However, this relationship was only significant for less dependent smokers. Additionally, regardless of nicotine dependence, craving beliefs predicted lower abstinence self-efficacy in negative affect situations via increased negative reinforcement smoking motives. These findings suggest that beliefs concerning the specific nature of craving correlate with smoking motives (ie, smoking goals) and thus abstinence self-efficacy judgments. Furthermore, these associations are stronger for less dependent smokers. Such findings suggest the importance of addressing craving beliefs during smoking cessation treatment, especially for less dependent smokers whose craving beliefs are associated with abstinence self-efficacy across multiple situations. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved
Lee, Jong-Sun; Jeong, Bumseok
Background Easy access to the internet has spawned a wealth of research to investigate the effects of its use on depression. However, one limitation of many previous studies is that they disregard the interactive mechanisms of risk and protective factors. The aim of the present study was to investigate a resilience model in the relationship between worry, daily internet video game playing, daily sleep duration, mentors, social networks and depression, using a moderated mediation analysis. Met...
Kasckow, John; Golshan, Shahrokh; Zisook, Sidney
Suicidal deaths in middle-aged and older individuals with schizophrenia are a public health concern. Depression and schizophrenia are major risk factors for suicide. However, it is unknown whether age moderates the relationship between depression and suicidal ideation in patients with schizophrenia and subthreshold depression. Suicidal ideation was assessed with the InterSePT Scale for Suicidal Ideation and the Clinical Global Impression-Suicide Severity Scale in outpatients older than 39 years with schizophrenia and subthreshold depression (n = 213). Using linear regression, we examined whether depression (based on Calgary Depression Rating Scale scores), age, and "age by depressive symptoms" predicted suicidal ideation. Depressive symptoms predicted suicidal ideation. Neither age nor "depressive symptoms by age" predicted suicidal ideation. In this population, age does not appear to moderate the relationship between depressive symptoms and suicidal behavior. Thus, assessing depressive symptoms as a risk factor is important at all ages in this population. Copyright © 2014 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mason, Michael J; Golladay, Gregory; Jiranek, William; Cameron, Brian; Silverman, Joel J; Zaharakis, Nikola M; Plonski, Paul
The nonmedical use of prescription medication among US adults is a growing public health problem. Healthcare providers should proactively address this problem in outpatient encounters. We sought to understand the interactive effects among prescription drugs, pain, and psychiatric symptoms among adult outpatients to build an empirical foundation for comprehensive screening. We screened 625 adult neurosurgery and orthopedic patients at a suburban satellite clinic of an urban academic medical center. A convenience sample was screened for psychiatric and substance use disorder symptoms using the American Psychiatric Association's recommended screening protocol. We tested whether psychiatric symptoms moderated the relationship between pain level and nonmedical use of prescription medicine. Patients reported average levels of depression, anxiety, and pain symptoms, within 1 standard deviation of the screeners' normative data. However, patients reported highly elevated levels of nonmedical use of opioids and benzodiazapines compared with national data. Controlling for age, sex, and race, pain level predicted nonprescription use of opioid and benzodiazapine medications. Patients with high levels of depression and pain were more likely to engage in the unprescribed use of opioids. Likewise, patients with reduced levels of depression and pain were protected against the unprescribed use of opioids. These findings highlight the importance of examining unprescribed medication use even with patients at moderate levels of psychiatric symptoms and pain.
McCurdy, Ashley P; Boulé, Normand G; Sivak, Allison; Davenport, Margie H
To examine the influence of exercise on depressive symptoms and the prevalence of depression in the postpartum period. A structured search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Sport Discus, Ovid's All EBM Reviews, and ClinicalTrials.gov databases was performed with dates from the beginning of the databases until June 16, 2016. The search combined keywords and MeSH-like terms including, but not limited to, "exercise," "postpartum," "depression," and "randomized controlled trial." Randomized controlled trials comparing postpartum exercise (structured, planned, repetitive physical activity) with the standard care for which outcomes assessing depressive symptoms or depressive episodes (as defined by trial authors) were assessed. Trials were identified as prevention trials (women from the general postpartum population) or treatment trials (women were classified as having depression by the trial authors). Effect sizes with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using Hedges' g method and standardized mean differences in postintervention depression outcomes were pooled using a random-effects model. Across all 16 trials (1,327 women), the pooled standardized mean difference was -0.34 (95% CI -0.50 to -0.19, I=37%), suggesting a small effect of exercise among all postpartum women on depressive symptoms. Among the 10 treatment trials, a moderate effect size of exercise on depressive symptoms was found (standardized mean difference-0.48, 95% CI -0.73 to -0.22, I=42%). In six prevention trials, a small effect (standardized mean difference-0.22, 95% CI -0.36 to -0.08, I=2%) was found. In women with depression preintervention, exercise increased the odds of resolving depression postintervention by 54% (odds ratio 0.46, Mantel-Haenszel method, 95% CI 0.25-0.84, I=0%). The trials included in this meta-analysis were small and some had methodologic limitations. Light-to-moderate intensity aerobic exercise improves mild-to-moderate depressive symptoms and increases the likelihood that
Mashhood Ahmed Sheikh
Full Text Available The life course perspective, the risky families model, and stress-and-coping models provide the rationale for assessing the role of smoking as a mediator in the association between childhood adversity and anxious and depressive symptomatology (ADS in adulthood. However, no previous study has assessed the independent mediating role of smoking in the association between childhood adversity and ADS in adulthood. Moreover, the importance of mediator-response confounding variables has rarely been demonstrated empirically in social and psychiatric epidemiology. The aim of this paper was to (i assess the mediating role of smoking in adulthood in the association between childhood adversity and ADS in adulthood, and (ii assess the change in estimates due to different mediator-response confounding factors (education, alcohol intake, and social support. The present analysis used data collected from 1994 to 2008 within the framework of the Tromsø Study (N = 4,530, a representative prospective cohort study of men and women. Seven childhood adversities (low mother's education, low father's education, low financial conditions, exposure to passive smoke, psychological abuse, physical abuse, and substance abuse distress were used to create a childhood adversity score. Smoking status was measured at a mean age of 54.7 years (Tromsø IV, and ADS in adulthood was measured at a mean age of 61.7 years (Tromsø V. Mediation analysis was used to assess the indirect effect and the proportion of mediated effect (% of childhood adversity on ADS in adulthood via smoking in adulthood. The test-retest reliability of smoking was good (Kappa: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.63; 0.71 in this sample. Childhood adversity was associated with a 10% increased risk of smoking in adulthood (Relative risk: 1.10, 95% CI: 1.03; 1.18, and both childhood adversity and smoking in adulthood were associated with greater levels of ADS in adulthood (p < 0.001. Smoking in adulthood did not significantly
Carroll, Allison J; Auer, Reto; Colangelo, Laura A; Carnethon, Mercedes R; Jacobs, David R; Stewart, Jesse C; Widome, Rachel; Carr, John Jeffrey; Liu, Kiang; Hitsman, Brian
Depressive symptom clusters are differentially associated with prognosis among patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Few studies have prospectively evaluated the association between depressive symptom clusters and risk of CVD. Previously, we observed that smoking and global depressive symptoms were synergistically associated with coronary artery calcification (CAC). The purpose of this study was to determine whether the smoking by depressive symptoms interaction, measured cumulatively over 25 years, differed by depressive symptom cluster (negative affect, anhedonia, and somatic symptoms) in association with CAC. Participants (N = 3,189: 54.5% female; 51.5% Black; average age = 50.1 years) were followed from 1985-1986 through 2010-2011 in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study. Smoking exposure was measured by cumulative cigarette pack-years (cigarette packs smoked per day × number of years smoking; year 0 through year 25). Depressive symptoms were measured using a 14-item, 3-factor (negative affect, anhedonia, somatic symptoms) model of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) Scale (years 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25). CAC was assessed at year 25. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between the smoking by depressive symptom clusters interactions with CAC ( = 0 vs. > 0), adjusted for CVD-related sociodemographic, behavioral, and clinical covariates. 907 participants (28% of the sample) had CAC > 0 at year 25. The depressive symptom clusters did not differ significantly between the two groups. Only the cumulative somatic symptom cluster by cumulative smoking exposure interaction was significantly associated with CAC > 0 at year 25 (p = .028). Specifically, adults with elevated somatic symptoms (score 9 out of 18) who had 10, 20, or 30 pack-years of smoking exposure had respective odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of 2.06 [1.08, 3.93], 3.71 [1.81, 7.57], and 6.68 [2.87, 15.53], ps affect
Powell, Adam C; Torous, John; Chan, Steven; Raynor, Geoffrey Stephen; Shwarts, Erik; Shanahan, Meghan; Landman, Adam B
There are over 165,000 mHealth apps currently available to patients, but few have undergone an external quality review. Furthermore, no standardized review method exists, and little has been done to examine the consistency of the evaluation systems themselves. We sought to determine which measures for evaluating the quality of mHealth apps have the greatest interrater reliability. We identified 22 measures for evaluating the quality of apps from the literature. A panel of 6 reviewers reviewed the top 10 depression apps and 10 smoking cessation apps from the Apple iTunes App Store on these measures. Krippendorff's alpha was calculated for each of the measures and reported by app category and in aggregate. The measure for interactiveness and feedback was found to have the greatest overall interrater reliability (alpha=.69). Presence of password protection (alpha=.65), whether the app was uploaded by a health care agency (alpha=.63), the number of consumer ratings (alpha=.59), and several other measures had moderate interrater reliability (alphas>.5). There was the least agreement over whether apps had errors or performance issues (alpha=.15), stated advertising policies (alpha=.16), and were easy to use (alpha=.18). There were substantial differences in the interrater reliabilities of a number of measures when they were applied to depression versus smoking apps. We found wide variation in the interrater reliability of measures used to evaluate apps, and some measures are more robust across categories of apps than others. The measures with the highest degree of interrater reliability tended to be those that involved the least rater discretion. Clinical quality measures such as effectiveness, ease of use, and performance had relatively poor interrater reliability. Subsequent research is needed to determine consistent means for evaluating the performance of apps. Patients and clinicians should consider conducting their own assessments of apps, in conjunction with
Miloseva, Lence; Vukosavljevic-Gvozden, Tatjana; Richter, Kneginja; Milosev, Vladimir; Niklewski, Günter
Aim and Background: The role of the perceived social support in prevention of depression in adolescence still remains an insufficiently explored problem. By integrating the results of the previous studies of moderator role of perceived social support between negative life events and depression in adolescence we set up two goals. One is to determine whether perceived social support has moderator role in the sample consisted of clinical, subclinical and control respondents. Another goal is to i...
Singh, Prerna; Ghosh, Subharati; Nandi, Subhrangshu
The quantitative study assessed subjective burden, depression, and the moderating effect of social support in mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in India. Seventy mothers were interviewed using a structured interview schedule, which measured their subjective burden, depression, and social support from family, friends, and significant others. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and multiple regression analysis with interaction terms. Half of the mothers in the study reported depression of clinical significance. Higher subjective burden significantly predicted higher depression. Of the three sources of support, only medium/high family support had a direct impact on depression and also moderated the impact of the subjective burden of depression. Implications for practice and policy are discussed.
Szwedo, David E; Chango, Joanna M; Allen, Joseph P
Youths' ability to positively cope with negative emotions and their self-perceived friendship competence were examined as potential moderators of links between multiple aspects of romantic relationships and residualized increases in depressive symptoms from late adolescence into early adulthood. Participants included 184 teens (46% male; 42% non-White) assessed at ages 15 to 19 and 21, as well as a subsample of 62 romantic partners of participants assessed when teens were 18. Results of hierarchical linear regressions showed that positive coping served as a buffer against depressive symptoms for romantically involved adolescents and also for teens receiving more intense emotional support from their romantic partners, but not for youth whose relationship had ended and had not been replaced by a new relationship. Higher perceived friendship competence served as a buffer against depressive symptoms for youth enduring the dissolution and nonreplacement of their romantic relationship. Greater use of positive coping skills and higher perceived friendship competence may help protect adolescents from depressive symptoms in different types of romantic experiences.
Szwedo, David E.; Chango, Joanna M.; Allen, Joseph P.
Objective Youths' ability to positively cope with negative emotions and their self-perceived friendship competence were examined as potential moderators of links between multiple aspects of romantic relationships and residualized increases in depressive symptoms from late adolescence into early adulthood. Method Participants included 184 teens (46% male; 42% non-white) assessed at ages 15-19 and 21, as well as a sub-sample of 62 romantic partners of participants assessed when teens were 18. Results Results of hierarchical linear regressions showed that positive coping served as a buffer against depressive symptoms for romantically involved adolescents and also for teens receiving more intense emotional support from their romantic partners, but not for youth whose relationship had ended and had not been replaced by a new relationship. Higher perceived friendship competence served as a buffer against depressive symptoms for youth enduring the dissolution and non-replacement of their romantic relationship. Conclusions Greater use of positive coping skills and higher perceived friendship competence may help protect adolescents from depressive symptoms in different types of romantic experiences. PMID:24645877
Miloseva, Lence; Vukosavljevic-Gvozden, Tatjana; Richter, Kneginja; Milosev, Vladimir; Niklewski, Günter
The role of the perceived social support in prevention of depression in adolescence still remains an insufficiently explored problem. By integrating the results of the previous studies of moderator role of perceived social support between negative life events and depression in adolescence we set up two goals. One is to determine whether perceived social support has moderator role in the sample consisted of clinical, subclinical, and control respondents. Another goal is to identify in which group the interaction effect is significant, i.e. the perceived social support acts as moderator. The sample consisted of 412 adolescents (61.7% female and 38.3% male) aged 13-17 years (mean = 15.70, SD = 1.22). We applied: Data sheet for all respondents; Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview; Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support; Adolescent Life Events Questionnaire; Centre for Epidemiological Depression Scale. We have shown that the association between levels of depressive symptoms and negative life events changes as the value of the moderator variable perceived social support changes. The finding that the moderating interaction effect was significant only in the subclinical group is particularly interesting. Taking into account that perceived social support moderates the association between negative stress events and levels of depression, we can propose a model for the prevention of depression, which will include perceived social support. However, future research with longitudinal design is required to verify the results.
McBride, Carolina; Atkinson, Leslie; Quilty, Lena C.; Bagby, R. Michael
Anxiety and avoidance dimensions of adult attachment insecurity were tested as moderators of treatment outcome for interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). Fifty-six participants with major depression were randomly assigned to these treatment conditions. Beck Depression Inventory-II, Six-Item Hamilton Rating Scale…
Singh, Prerna; Ghosh, Subharati; Nandi, Subhrangshu
The quantitative study assessed subjective burden, depression, and the moderating effect of social support in mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in India. Seventy mothers were interviewed using a structured interview schedule, which measured their subjective burden, depression, and social support from family, friends, and…
Shorey, Ryan C.; Sherman, Amanda E.; Kivisto, Aaron J.; Elkins, Sara R.; Rhatigan, Deborah L.; Moore, Todd M.
The current study examined the moderating role of shame proneness on the association between physical, psychological, and sexual intimate partner violence victimization and depressive and anxious symptoms among male and female college students (N = 967). Students completed self-report measures of dating violence, depression, anxiety, and shame…
Shadel, William G; Tharp-Taylor, Shannah; Fryer, Craig S
Increased exposure to cigarette advertisements is associated with increases in adolescent smoking but the reasons for this association are not known. This study evaluated whether the developmental maturity of the self-concept, operationalized as self-conflict, moderated smoking intentions following exposure to cigarette advertisements among adolescents who have never smoked. Eighty-seven adolescents (ages 11-17): (a) completed measures of self-conflict; (b) were exposed to 30 contemporary cigarette advertisements; and (c) rated their intentions to smoke following exposure to each ad. Younger adolescents with higher numbers of self-conflicts who also said that cigarette advertising was relevant to them had stronger smoking intentions compared to younger adolescents with lower numbers of self-conflicts after exposure to cigarette advertising. Self-conflict did not play as strong a role with older adolescents. Younger adolescents (i.e., middle school aged) who are having the most difficulty figuring out "who they are" are most susceptible to the effects of cigarette advertising.
Niu, Geng-Feng; Luo, Yi-Jun; Sun, Xiao-Jun; Zhou, Zong-Kui; Yu, Feng; Yang, Shen-Long; Zhao, Liang
Social networking sites (SNSs), which provide abundant social comparison opportunities, are ubiquitous around the world, especially among adolescents. In China, Qzone stands out as the most popular SNS. Due to the opportunity it provides for meticulous self-presentation, SNS may give the impression that others are doing better, which is detrimental to individuals' well-being. Based on social comparison theory, the current study aimed to investigate the association between Chinese adolescents' SNS (Qzone) use and depression, as well as the mediating role of negative social comparison and the moderating role of self-esteem. A total of 764 adolescents (aged 12-18 years, M = 14.23, SD = 1.75), who had an active Qzone account, were recruited voluntarily to complete questionnaires on Qzone use intensity, negative social comparison on Qzone, self-esteem, and depression. More intense Qzone use was associated with higher level of negative social comparison on Qzone, which fully mediated the association between Qzone use and depression. Moreover, the mediating effect of negative social comparison on Qzone was moderated by self-esteem. The specific link between Qzone use and negative social comparison was weaker among adolescents with high self-esteem than those with low self-esteem. As all the data in this study were self-reported and cross-sectional, causal associations cannot be identified. Additionally, the specific activities on SNS were not identified. Negative social comparison may be a key factor and mechanism accounting for the positive association between SNS use and depression, while self-esteem could protect adolescents from the adverse outcome of SNS use. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Berlin, Lisa J; Whiteside-Mansell, Leanne; Roggman, Lori A; Green, Beth L; Robinson, JoAnn; Spieker, Susan
This study examined maternal depression, attachment avoidance, and attachment anxiety as moderators of Early Head Start's effects on four parenting outcomes assessed at age three. Participants (N = 947) were drawn from six sites of the Early Head Start National Research and Evaluation Project, a multi-site randomized trial. Findings suggest more positive program effects for mothers with less initial attachment avoidance or attachment anxiety. First, baseline attachment avoidance moderated Early Head Start program effects on observed maternal supportiveness, such that program mothers with lower baseline attachment avoidance were rated as more supportive of their three-year-olds than program mothers with higher baseline attachment avoidance. Second, program effects on spanking varied depending on mothers' baseline attachment anxiety.
Full Text Available Intruduction: The comorbidity between depression and social anxiety is high in adolescence. Parental emotion socialization behaviors have been associated with the development of social skills and depressive symptomatology. Objectives: This study aims to explore the moderating effect of parenting styles on the relationship between social anxiety and depression, to study the associations between them, and to analyze the relationship between parenting styles, social anxiety and depressive symptomatology in adolescents. Methods: The sample consisted of 122 parents and their children. Self-report instruments were used to assess social anxiety, depressive symptomatology and parenting styles. Results: It was found that social anxiety is significantly associated to depression and that the former has a predictive effect on the latter. The parenting styles revealed no significant associations with either depressive symptomatology or with social anxiety, but a moderating effect of explorer parenting style was found in the relationship between social anxiety (public performance and depressive symptomatology. Conclusions: The present investigation confirmed the existence of a significant association between social anxiety and depressive symptomatology in adolescence and suggests an effect of parental practices of emotional socialization in this relation, which, however, should be replicated in future research. It will also be important to study the effect of parenting styles on children's emotional regulation skills and their possible mediating effect on the relationship between social anxiety and depression.
Fletcher, Jesse B; Reback, Cathy J
Mounting evidence suggests a syndemic relation between methamphetamine use and depression to increase sexual risk taking (i.e., HIV transmission risk behavior) among men who have sex with men. This prospective analysis of longitudinal data collected from an outpatient methamphetamine abuse treatment program for gay and bisexual men assessed whether symptoms of depression mediated and/or moderated the associations between methamphetamine use and unprotected insertive/receptive anal intercourse. From November 2005 through October 2007, 167 treatment-seeking gay and bisexual men (63% HIV-positive) enrolled in and attended a 16-week methamphetamine abuse outpatient treatment program. Participants' depressive symptoms, biomarker-confirmed methamphetamine use, and self-reported sexual risk taking were assessed at baseline and follow-up evaluations. Path analysis tested the mediating and moderating effects of depression on the associations between methamphetamine use and unprotected insertive/receptive anal intercourse. Methamphetamine use during the treatment period had a significant indirect (Coef. = -.15; 95% CI [-.23, -.06]), but no direct (Coef. = .11; ns) or total effect (Coef. = -.04; ns) on participants' sexual risk taking after accounting for the significant mediating (Coef. = .56; 95% CI [.33, .78]) and moderating (Coef. = -.03; 95% CI [-.04, -.02]) effects of depression. Depression fully mediated and weakly moderated associations between methamphetamine use and sexual risk taking in this sample. Interventions and treatment programs to reduce sexual risk taking among gay and bisexual men should simultaneously address methamphetamine use and depression to optimize health outcomes. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Cano, Miguel Ángel; Castro, Yessenia; de Dios, Marcel A; Schwartz, Seth J; Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I; Roncancio, Angelica M; Martinez, Marcos J; Sheehan, Diana M; Auf, Rehab; Piña-Watson, Brandy; Huynh, Que-Lam; Zamboanga, Byron L
Emerging adulthood is often marked with elevated symptoms of anxiety and depression. Hispanic emerging adults may face cultural stressors such as ethnic discrimination that further increase levels of anxiety and depression symptoms. The study aims were to examine if (a) self-esteem mediated effects of ethnic discrimination on symptoms of anxiety and depression, and (b) if gender moderated the indirect effects of discrimination. The study design was cross-sectional self-report. Two moderated mediation models were tested, with 1084 Hispanic emerging adults (ages 18-25) enrolled in institutions of post-secondary in the United States. Results indicated that (a) higher ethnic discrimination was associated with higher anxiety symptoms (β = .05, p = .04), higher depression symptoms (β = .06, p = .02), and lower self-esteem (β = -.30, p mediated the associations of ethnic discrimination with anxiety and depression symptoms; and (c) gender moderated the indirect effects of discrimination, whereby self-esteem was a stronger mediator among men than women. Each moderated mediation model explained 26% of variability in symptoms of anxiety and depression, respectively. Findings suggest that the mediating effects of self-esteem linking ethnic discrimination with symptoms of anxiety and depression vary between genders.
Lee, Jong-Sun; Jeong, Bumseok
Easy access to the internet has spawned a wealth of research to investigate the effects of its use on depression. However, one limitation of many previous studies is that they disregard the interactive mechanisms of risk and protective factors. The aim of the present study was to investigate a resilience model in the relationship between worry, daily internet video game playing, daily sleep duration, mentors, social networks and depression, using a moderated mediation analysis. 6068 Korean undergraduate and graduate students participated in this study. The participants completed a web-based mental health screening questionnaire including the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and information about number of worries, number of mentors, number of campus social networks, daily sleep duration, daily amount of internet video game playing and daily amount of internet searching on computer or smartphone. A moderated mediation analysis was carried out using the PROCESS macro which allowed the inclusion of mediators and moderator in the same model. The results showed that the daily amount of internet video game playing and daily sleep duration partially mediated the association between the number of worries and the severity of depression. In addition, the mediating effect of the daily amount of internet video game playing was moderated by both the number of mentors and the number of campus social networks. The current findings indicate that the negative impact of worry on depression through internet video game playing can be buffered when students seek to have a number of mentors and campus social networks. Interventions should therefore target individuals who have higher number of worries but seek only a few mentors or campus social networks. Social support via campus mentorship and social networks ameliorate the severity of depression in university students.
Tak, Y.R.; Zundert, R.M.P. van; Kleinjan, M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.
Experiencing depressive symptoms during adolescence is associated with various detrimental outcomes during this developmental stage and with future depression in adulthood. This finding highlights the importance to identify risk and protective factors in the development of depressive symptoms during
Chou, K-L; Chi, I; Chow, N W S
This study examines the relationship between major source of income (i.e., adult children, financial independence and government welfare) and depression among elderly Hong Kong people. We also assessed the mediating and moderating effects of family social support and financial strain in the linkage between source of income and depression. The data came from a cross-sectional survey of a representative community sample of 1106 elderly respondents in Hong Kong. Using multiple regression models, data revealed that there was a differential impact of major sources of income on depression. Welfare participation and financial independence contributed to a higher level of depressive symptoms whereas people whose source of income was their adult children were more likely to report a lower level of depression than the others who were not. We also found that family social support was either a complete mediator or partial mediator in the relationship between different major sources of income and depression but it was not a significant moderator in the linkage between different major sources of income and depression. In contrast, financial strain was a significant moderator in the link between different major sources of income and depression. Specific and effective interventions must be developed for those who are financially independent or on welfare.
Navrady, L B; Adams, M J; Chan, S W Y; Ritchie, S J; McIntosh, A M
Polygenic risk scores (PRS) for depression correlate with depression status and chronicity, and provide causal anchors to identify depressive mechanisms. Neuroticism is phenotypically and genetically positively associated with depression, whereas psychological resilience demonstrates negative phenotypic associations. Whether increased neuroticism and reduced resilience are downstream mediators of genetic risk for depression, and whether they contribute independently to risk remains unknown. Moderating and mediating relationships between depression PRS, neuroticism, resilience and both clinical and self-reported depression were examined in a large, population-based cohort, Generation Scotland: Scottish Family Health Study (N = 4166), using linear regression and structural equation modelling. Neuroticism and resilience were measured by the Eysenck Personality Scale Short Form Revised and the Brief Resilience Scale, respectively. PRS for depression was associated with increased likelihood of self-reported and clinical depression. No interaction was found between PRS and neuroticism, or between PRS and resilience. Neuroticism was associated with increased likelihood of self-reported and clinical depression, whereas resilience was associated with reduced risk. Structural equation modelling suggested the association between PRS and self-reported and clinical depression was mediated by neuroticism (43-57%), while resilience mediated the association in the opposite direction (37-40%). For both self-reported and clinical diagnoses, the genetic risk for depression was independently mediated by neuroticism and resilience. Findings suggest polygenic risk for depression increases vulnerability for self-reported and clinical depression through independent effects on increased neuroticism and reduced psychological resilience. In addition, two partially independent mechanisms - neuroticism and resilience - may form part of the pathway of vulnerability to depression.
Goesling, Jenna; Brummett, Chad M; Meraj, Taha S; Moser, Stephanie E; Hassett, Afton L; Ditre, Joseph W
As smoking impacts physiological pathways in the central nervous system, it is important to consider the association between smoking and fibromyalgia, a pain condition caused predominantly by central nervous system dysfunction. The objectives were to assess the prevalence of current smoking among treatment-seeking chronic pain patients with (FM+) and without (FM-) a fibromyalgia-like phenotype; test the individual and combined influence of smoking and fibromyalgia on pain severity and interference; and examine depression as a mediator of these processes. Questionnaire data from 1566 patients evaluated for a range of conditions at an outpatient pain clinic were used. The 2011 Survey Criteria for Fibromyalgia were used to assess the presence of symptoms associated with fibromyalgia. Current smoking was reported by 38.7% of FM+ patients compared to 24.7% of FM- patients. FM+ smokers reported higher pain and greater interference compared to FM+ nonsmokers, FM- smokers, and FM- nonsmokers. There was no interaction between smoking and fibromyalgia. Significant indirect effects of fibromyalgia and smoking via greater depression were observed for pain severity and interference. Current smoking and positive fibromyalgia status were associated with greater pain and impairment among chronic pain patients, possibly as a function of depression. Although FM+ smokers report the most negative clinical symptomatology (i.e., high pain, greater interference) smoking does not appear to have a unique association with pain or functioning in FM+ patients, rather the effect is additive. The 38.7% smoking rate in FM+ patients is high, suggesting FM+ smokers present a significant clinical challenge. © 2015 American Academy of Pain Medicine.
Michalowski, Alexandra; Erblich, Joel
Cigarette cravings following exposure to smoking cues in a smoker's environment are thought to play an important role in cessation failure. The possibility that dispositional factors may impact cue-induced cravings, though intriguing, has received little attention. According to Cloninger's tridimensional personality theory, factors such as reward dependence (RD), harm avoidance (HA), and novelty seeking (NS) may figure prominently in risk for addiction, as well as relapse, in individuals attempting to abstain from drug and alcohol use. Particularly interesting in this regard is the possibility that smokers with higher levels of RD, who are especially sensitive to reward signals, will have heightened craving reactions to smoking cues. To that end, non-treatment-seeking nicotine dependent smokers (n=96, Mean age=41.1, 47% African American, 17% Caucasian, 22% Hispanic, 19.3 cigs/day, FTND=7.5) underwent a classic experimental cue-induction, during which they were exposed to imagery of: (1) smoking, (2) neutral, and (3) stress cues, and reported their cigarette cravings (0-100) before and after each exposure. Participants also completed the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire. Not surprisingly, smoking and stress cues (but not neutral cues) elicited significant elevations in craving (p's < 0.0001). Consistent with study hypothesis, smokers who scored higher on RD had stronger craving reactions to both smoking cues (p < .02) and stress cues (p < .03). Findings raise the possibility that dispositional characteristics, in particular, reward dependence, influence smoking by potentiating reactions to environmental smoking cues. Furthermore, the similar effects of RD on stress-induced craving suggest that both cue-and stress-induced cravings may be influenced by a common underlying disposition. PMID:25133977
Davis, Mary C.; Thummala, Kirti; Zautra, Alex J.
Background Chronic pain with co-morbid depression is characterized by poor mood regulation and stress-related pain. Purpose Compare depressed and non-depressed pain patients in mood and pain stress reactivity and recovery, and test whether a post-stress positive mood induction moderates pain recovery. Methods Women with fibromyalgia and/or osteoarthritis (N=110) underwent interpersonal stress and were then randomly assigned by pain condition and depression status, assessed via the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale, to positive versus neutral mood induction. Results Depression did not predict stress-related reactivity in despondency, joviality, or clinical pain. However, depression X mood condition predicted recovery in joviality and clinical pain; depressed women recovered only in the positive mood condition, whereas non-depressed women recovered in both mood conditions. Conclusions Depression does not alter pain and mood stress reactivity, but does impair recovery. Boosting post-stress jovial mood ameliorates pain recovery deficits in depressed patients, a finding relevant to chronic pain interventions. PMID:24532393
Aloise-Young, Patricia A; Slater, Michael D; Cruickshank, Courtney C
The purpose of the present study is to examine the relation between magazine advertising for cigarettes and adolescent cigarette smoking. Participants (242 adolescents) reported their frequency of reading 46 magazines and their attention to cigarette ads. Recognition of cigarette ads, passive peer pressure (i.e., normative beliefs), and the smoker image also were assessed. Results indicate that exposure to cigarette advertising and recognition of ads augment the effect of passive peer pressure on smoking. In addition, a positive smoker image was associated with attention to advertising and mediated the relation between attention and smoking. It is suggested that the effect of magazine ads on adolescents should be considered in policymaking on cigarette advertising.
Wilkinson, Anna V; Shete, Sanjay; Prokhorov, Alexander V
Abstract Background In general having a parent who smokes or smoked is a strong and consistent predictor of smoking initiation among their children while authoritative parenting style, open communication that demonstrates mutual respect between child and parent, and parental expectations not to smoke are protective. It has been hypothesized that parental smoking affects their children's smoking initiation through both imitation of the behavior and effects on attitudes toward smoking. The goal...
Robles, Zuzuky; Anjum, Sahar; Garey, Lorra; Kauffman, Brooke Y; Rodríguez-Cano, Rubén; Langdon, Kirsten J; Neighbors, Clayton; Reitzel, Lorraine R; Zvolensky, Michael J
Little work has focused on the underlying mechanisms that may link financial strain and smoking processes. The current study tested the hypothesis that financial strain would exert an indirect effect on cognitive-based smoking processes via depressive symptoms. Three clinically significant dependent variables linked to the maintenance of smoking were evaluated: negative affect reduction motives, negative mood abstinence expectancies, and perceived barriers for quitting. Participants included 102 adult daily smokers (M age =33.0years, SD=13.60; 35.3% female) recruited from the community to participate in a self-guided (unaided; no psychological or pharmacological intervention) smoking cessation study. Results indicated that depressive symptoms explain, in part, the relation between financial strain and smoking motives for negative affect reduction, negative mood abstinence expectancies, and perceived barriers for quitting. Results indicate that smoking interventions for individuals with high levels of financial strain may potentially benefit from the addition of therapeutic tactics aimed at reducing depression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Brondolo, Elizabeth; Monge, Angela; Agosta, John; Tobin, Jonathan N; Cassells, Andrea; Stanton, Cassandra; Schwartz, Joseph
Perceived ethnic discrimination has been associated with cigarette smoking in US adults in the majority of studies, but gaps in understanding remain. It is unclear if the association of discrimination to smoking is a function of lifetime or recent exposure to discrimination. Some sociodemographic and mood-related risk factors may confound the relationship of discrimination to smoking. Gender and race/ethnicity differences in this relationship have been understudied. This study examines the relationship of lifetime and recent discrimination to smoking status and frequency, controlling for sociodemographic and mood-related variables and investigating the moderating role of race/ethnicity and gender. Participants included 518 Black and Latino(a) adults from New York, US. Lifetime and past week discrimination were measured with the Perceived Ethnic Discrimination Questionnaire-Community Version. Ecological momentary assessment methods were used to collect data on smoking and mood every 20 min throughout one testing day using an electronic diary. Controlling for sociodemographic and mood-related variables, there was a significant association of recent (past week) discrimination exposure to current smoking. Lifetime discrimination was associated with smoking frequency, but not current smoking status. The association of recent discrimination to smoking status was moderated by race/ethnicity and gender, with positive associations emerging for both Black adults and for men. The association of lifetime discrimination on smoking frequency was not moderated by gender or race/ethnicity. Acute race/ethnicity-related stressors may be associated with the decision to smoke at all on a given day; whereas chronic stigmatization may reduce the barriers to smoking more frequently.
This investigation examined whether community cohesion mediates or moderates the relationship between outdoor activities and depressive symptoms in older adults displaced by Typhoon Morakot in Taiwan. This cross-sectional study included 292 adults aged 65 years or older who were relocated to permanent houses after Typhoon Morakot damaged their homes on 8th August 2009. Multiple regression analysis was applied to test the role of community cohesion on the association between outdoor activities and depressive symptoms. The sample of displaced older adults displayed higher prevalence of depressive symptoms than the average for community dwelling older people in Taiwan. Community cohesion fully mediated the relationship between outdoor activities and depressive symptoms. Community cohesion also moderated the relationship between outdoor activities and depressive symptoms. Community cohesion occupies a key role on the link between outdoor activities and depressive symptoms. Participation in outdoor activities was associated positively with community cohesion, while high community cohesion was related negatively to depressive symptoms. Additionally, the benefit of outdoor activities to fewer depressive symptoms only manifested in older adults with high community cohesion. Programs and services should be designed to enhance community cohesion in order to maximize the benefit of outdoor activities to the mental health of displaced older adults after natural disasters.
Rosaria Alba Merendino
Full Text Available MODERATE-severe depression (MSD is linked to overexpression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Fractalkine (FKN and macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha (MIP-1α are, respectively, members of CX3C and C-C chemokines, and both are involved in recruiting and activating mononuclear phagocytes in the central nervous system. We analysed the presence of FKN and MIP-1α in sera of untreated MSD patients and healthy donors. High FKN levels were observed in all MSD patients as compared with values only detectable in 26% of healthy donors. MIP-1α was measurable in 20% of patients, while no healthy donors showed detectable chemokine levels. In conclusion, we describe a previously unknown involvement of FKN in the pathogenesis of MSD, suggesting that FKN may represent a target for a specific immune therapy of this disease.
Chmelka, Mary B.; Trudeau, Linda; Spoth, Richard L.
Factors that might exacerbate or mitigate the transmission of depressive symptoms from parents to adolescents and the continuity of depressive symptoms into early adulthood are poorly understood. This study tested the hypothesis that the intergenerational transmission and stability of depressive symptoms would be stronger for girls than boys over adolescence and into early adulthood, while considering the possibility that the pattern of gender moderation might vary depending on parent gender and developmental timing. The participants were 667 rural Midwestern adolescents (52 % female) and their parents. Survey data on maternal and paternal depressive symptoms (at youth age 11) and on adolescent and young adult depressive symptoms (at youth ages 11, 18, and 21) were analyzed via multiple group structural equation modeling. Maternal depressive symptoms predicted increased late adolescent depressive symptoms for girls but not boys, and adolescent depressive symptoms were more stable in girls. Paternal depressive symptoms predicted increased late adolescent depressive symptoms for all youth. The findings suggest the need for early, tailored interventions. PMID:27055682
Lamis, Dorian A; Ballard, Elizabeth D; May, Alexis M; Dvorak, Robert D
Mixed evidence for the associations among depression, hopelessness, alcohol problems, and suicidal ideation in college students may be due to the influence of social support. A moderated-mediation analysis was conducted to examine relationships among suicide risk factors in 2,034 college students. Social support moderated the relation between depressive symptoms and hopelessness in predicting suicidal thoughts; specifically, the association between depressive symptoms and hopelessness was diminished among those students with high levels of social support. This resulted in attenuated indirect associations between depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation via hopelessness. Alcohol problems were associated with likelihood of experiencing suicidal ideation, but not severity. Social support may be a key variable for suicide prevention among college students. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Bunford, Nora; Evans, Steven W; Becker, Stephen P; Langberg, Joshua M
Although studies document an association between Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and social problems, little is known about mediating or moderating mechanisms underlying this association. We examined whether, among youth, emotion dysregulation (ED) mediates the negative association between ADHD and social skills, and whether this mediational process is moderated by symptoms of depression. A total of 171 youth with ADHD (76 % male; Mage = 12.15, SD = 0.95) and their parents completed measures of ED, depression, and social skills. Results indicated that, after controlling for oppositional defiant disorder, the negative association between ADHD and social skills was mediated by ED. Further, this indirect effect was relevant for youth with non-clinical and subclinical levels of depression but not for those with clinical levels of depression. These findings underscore the importance of ED in the association between ADHD and social functioning among youth and suggest a need for additional research to understand how and when ED impacts such functioning.
Verkooijen, Kirsten; Nielsen, Gert A; Kremers, Stef P J
, sense of coherence, and physically active self-concept as potential mediating and moderating variables. METHOD: Data were obtained through a postal survey among 3,940 Danes aged 16 to 20. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were performed to identify significant associations as well...... disappeared. Further analyses revealed that physically active self-concept acted both as a mediator and as a moderator of the studied relationship. CONCLUSION: The data suggest that participation in leisure time physical activity is indeed inversely associated with adolescent smoking, but only when physical...... activity is perceived as an important part of the self. Hence, interventions designed to promote physical activity among youth may also aim to boost physically active self-concepts....
Boyraz, Güler; Horne, Sharon G; Armstrong, Aisha P; Owens, Archandria C
More than half of the students entering college report a history of potentially traumatic events; however, little is known about the relationship of trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology to college students' mental health and access to social support or whether these relationships may show variations as a function of race and gender. The purpose of this study was to explore whether the relationships between PTSD symptoms and both depression and social support were moderated by gender and race. Data were collected from 631 African American (AA) and 299 European American (EA) freshmen students attending 2 universities in the Southeast. The majority of the students (74.3% of the AA and 68.2% of the EA sample) reported lifetime exposure to at least 1 traumatic event. PTSD symptomatology was significantly and positively associated with depression symptoms for all groups (i.e., AA and EA males and females); however, the relationship between these 2 variables was strongest for EA men. Similarly, the relationship between PTSD symptoms on the avoidance cluster and social support was stronger for EA males than other groups; avoidance symptoms did not significantly predict social support for AA men. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available Gülfizar Sözeri-Varma,1 Nalan Kalkan-Oğuzhanoglu,1 Muharrem Efe,1 Yilmaz Kiroglu,2 Taçlan Duman11Department of Psychiatry, 2Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Pamukkale University, Denizli, TurkeyBackground: Previous studies have determined the neurochemical metabolite abnormalities in major depressive disorder (MDD. The results of studies are inconsistent. Severity of depression may relate to neurochemical metabolic changes. The aim of this study is to investigate neurochemical metabolite levels in the prefrontal cortex (PFC of patients with mild/moderate MDD.Methods: Twenty-one patients with mild MDD, 18 patients with moderate MDD, and 16 matched control subjects participated in the study. Patients had had their first episode. They had not taken treatment. The severity of depression was assessed by the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D. Levels of N-acetyl aspartate (NAA, choline-containing compounds (Cho, and creatine-containing compounds (Cr were measured using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS at 1.5 T, with an 8-cm3 single voxel placed in the right PFC.Results: The moderate MDD patients had lower NAA/Cr levels than the control group. No differences were found in neurochemical metabolite levels between the mild MDD and control groups. No correlation was found between the patients’ neurochemical metabolite levels and HAM-D scores.Conclusion: Our findings suggest that NAA/Cr levels are low in moderate-level MDD in the PFC. Neurochemical metabolite levels did not change in mild depressive disorder. Our results suggest that the severity of depression may affect neuronal function and viability. Studies are needed to confirm this finding, including studies on severely depressive patients.Keywords: major depressive disorder, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, N-acetyl aspartate, creatine, choline
Chen, Yiwei; Peng, Yisheng; Ma, Xiaodong; Dong, Xinqi
The present study examined whether individuals' personality traits, Neuroticism and Conscientiousness, moderated the relationship between perceived stress and depressive symptoms among U.S. Chinese older adults. Data analysis was based on the Population Study of Chinese Elderly in Chicago (PINE). Three thousand one hundred and fifty-nine Chinese adults aged 60 years and older participated in the PINE study. They completed scales that assessed their personality (ie, Neuroticism and Conscientiousness of the NEO Five-Factor Inventory), perceived stress (the Chinese Perceived Stress Scale), and depressive symptoms (the Patient Health Questionnaire). Perceived stress was positively related to depressive symptoms among U.S. Chinese older adults. No moderation effects were found for Neuroticism. Conscientiousness significantly moderated the perceived stress-depressive symptom relationship. The positive relationship between perceived stress and depressive symptoms was weaker for people who were higher in Conscientiousness than those who were lower in Conscientiousness. Conscientiousness mitigated the stress-depressive symptom relationship among U.S. Chinese older adults. Future research is needed to identify the psychological and sociocultural profiles of individuals who show stress resilience and those who are vulnerable. Social services and psychological interventions are needed to promote health and well-being among U.S. Chinese older adults. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Carlson, Joshua M; Depetro, Emily; Maxwell, Joshua; Harmon-Jones, Eddie; Hajcak, Greg
Major depressive disorder is associated with lower medial prefrontal cortex volumes. The role that gender might play in moderating this relationship and what particular medial prefrontal cortex subregion(s) might be implicated is unclear. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess dorsal, ventral, and anterior cingulate regions of the medial prefrontal cortex in a normative sample of male and female adults. The Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS) was used to measure these three variables. Voxel-based morphometry was used to test for correlations between medial prefrontal gray matter volume and depressive traits. The dorsal medial frontal cortex was correlated with greater levels of depression, but not anxiety and stress. Gender moderates this effect: in males greater levels of depression were associated with lower dorsal medial prefrontal volumes, but in females no relationship was observed. The results indicate that even within a non-clinical sample, male participants with higher levels of depressive traits tend to have lower levels of gray matter volume in the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex. Our finding is consistent with low dorsal medial prefrontal volume contributing to the development of depression in males. Future longitudinal work is needed to substantiate this possibility. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Chen, Ya-Ling; Rittner, Barbara; Maguin, Eugene; Dziadaszek, Shannon
The aim of this research was to examine effects of cigarette smoking on depression and anxiety among children and adolescents (youth) with early onset schizophrenia and/or psychosis. Data were obtained from the national evaluation of the Comprehensive Community Mental Health Services for Children and Their Families Program (CMHS Program). Cubic…
Nieva, Gemma; Comín, Marina; Valero, Sergi; Bruguera, Eugeni
Workplace smoking cessation interventions increase quit rates compared to no treatment or minimal interventions. However, most studies report data up to one year. This study aims to evaluate long-term effects of a worksite smoking cessation intervention based on cognitive behavioral cessation groups combined with first-line medications, and determine to what extent cigarette dependence (FTCD) and depressive symptoms may influence results at five-year follow-up. Participants were invited to answer a short survey five years after starting the program. A total of 90.4% (n=227) of those who had attended at least one treatment session and were alive, completed the survey. At the five-year follow-up, 29.5% participants reported continuous abstinence. Low scores in the FTCD and low depressive symptoms at baseline predicted continuous abstinence. Three out of four continuous abstainers at twelve months remained abstinent at the five-year follow-up. The study shows that workplace smoking cessation interventions have long-term effects and supports the traditional one-year follow-up period to assess smoking cessation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Taylor, Amy E; Fluharty, Meg E; Bjørngaard, Johan H; Gabrielsen, Maiken Elvestad; Skorpen, Frank; Marioni, Riccardo E; Campbell, Archie; Engmann, Jorgen; Mirza, Saira Saeed; Loukola, Anu; Laatikainen, Tiina; Partonen, Timo; Kaakinen, Marika; Ducci, Francesca; Cavadino, Alana; Husemoen, Lise Lotte N; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer Singh; Jacobsen, Rikke Kart; Skaaby, Tea; Ebstrup, Jeanette Frost; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Minica, Camelia C; Vink, Jacqueline M; Willemsen, Gonneke; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Dale, Caroline E; Amuzu, Antoinette; Lennon, Lucy T; Lahti, Jari; Palotie, Aarno; Räikkönen, Katri; Wong, Andrew; Paternoster, Lavinia; Wong, Angelita Pui-Yee; Horwood, L John; Murphy, Michael; Johnstone, Elaine C; Kennedy, Martin A; Pausova, Zdenka; Paus, Tomáš; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Nohr, Ellen A; Kuh, Diana; Kivimaki, Mika; Eriksson, Johan G; Morris, Richard W; Casas, Juan P; Preisig, Martin; Boomsma, Dorret I; Linneberg, Allan; Power, Chris; Hyppönen, Elina; Veijola, Juha; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Korhonen, Tellervo; Tiemeier, Henning; Kumari, Meena; Porteous, David J; Hayward, Caroline; Romundstad, Pål R; Smith, George Davey; Munafò, Marcus R
To investigate whether associations of smoking with depression and anxiety are likely to be causal, using a Mendelian randomisation approach. Mendelian randomisation meta-analyses using a genetic variant (rs16969968/rs1051730) as a proxy for smoking heaviness, and observational meta-analyses of the associations of smoking status and smoking heaviness with depression, anxiety and psychological distress. Current, former and never smokers of European ancestry aged ≥16 years from 25 studies in the Consortium for Causal Analysis Research in Tobacco and Alcohol (CARTA). Binary definitions of depression, anxiety and psychological distress assessed by clinical interview, symptom scales or self-reported recall of clinician diagnosis. The analytic sample included up to 58 176 never smokers, 37 428 former smokers and 32 028 current smokers (total N=127 632). In observational analyses, current smokers had 1.85 times greater odds of depression (95% CI 1.65 to 2.07), 1.71 times greater odds of anxiety (95% CI 1.54 to 1.90) and 1.69 times greater odds of psychological distress (95% CI 1.56 to 1.83) than never smokers. Former smokers also had greater odds of depression, anxiety and psychological distress than never smokers. There was evidence for positive associations of smoking heaviness with depression, anxiety and psychological distress (ORs per cigarette per day: 1.03 (95% CI 1.02 to 1.04), 1.03 (95% CI 1.02 to 1.04) and 1.02 (95% CI 1.02 to 1.03) respectively). In Mendelian randomisation analyses, there was no strong evidence that the minor allele of rs16969968/rs1051730 was associated with depression (OR=1.00, 95% CI 0.95 to 1.05), anxiety (OR=1.02, 95% CI 0.97 to 1.07) or psychological distress (OR=1.02, 95% CI 0.98 to 1.06) in current smokers. Results were similar for former smokers. Findings from Mendelian randomisation analyses do not support a causal role of smoking heaviness in the development of depression and anxiety. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group
Khoury, Jennifer E.; Gonzalez, Andrea; Levitan, Robert; Masellis, Mario; Basile, Vincenzo; Atkinson, Leslie
Children of mothers with depressive symptoms often have high cortisol levels. Research shows that various child characteristics (e.g., attachment pattern, internalizing behaviours, and temperament) moderate this association. We suggest that these characteristics share common variance with emotion regulation strategy. Therefore, we examine infant…
In this study, the moderator effects of global self-esteem on the relationship between life satisfaction domains (family, friends and school) and depression in early adolescents were examined. The participants consisted of 255 students, aged from 11 to 15 years, from three junior high schools in Turkey. Data were collected using the Rosenberg…
Turner, Heather A.; Muller, Paul A.
Based on a sample of 649 students from 3 New England colleges, this study examined the long-term effects of childhood corporal punishment on symptoms of depression and considered factors that may moderate or mediate the association. Similar to national studies, approximately 40% of the sample reported experiencing some level of corporal punishment…
Zakalik, Robyn A.; Wei, Meifen
This study examined perceived discrimination as both a mediator and moderator between adult attachment (anxiety and avoidance) and levels of depression in a gay male sample. Survey data were collected from 234 self-identified gay males through the Internet and in person through community resources across several states. Results from structural…
Choe, Daniel E.; Olson, Sheryl L.; Sameroff, Arnold J.
This study examined bidirectional associations between mothers' depressive symptoms and children's externalizing behavior and whether they were moderated by preschool-age effortful control and gender. Mothers and teachers reported on 224 primarily White, middle-class children at ages 3, 5, and 10. Effortful control was assessed via…
Chang, Ling-Yin; Wu, Shan-Ying; Chiang, Chern-En; Tsai, Pei-Shan
Despite the recognition of the negative effects of depressive symptoms on self-care confidence and self-care maintenance in patients with heart failure, little is known about the moderating role of resilience underlying these relations. To explore whether depressive symptoms affect self-care maintenance through self-care confidence and whether this mediating process was moderated by resilience. The sample comprised 201 community-dwelling and medically stable patients with echocardiographically documented heart failure. A moderated mediation model was conducted to test whether self-care confidence mediated the association between depressive symptoms and self-care maintenance, and whether resilience moderated the direct and indirect effects of depressive symptoms after adjustment for covariates. Depressive symptoms reduced self-care maintenance indirectly by decreasing self-care confidence (indirect effect: -0.22, 95% confidence interval: -0.36, -0.11), and this pathway was only significant for patients with moderate and high levels and not with low levels of resilience. Resilience also moderated the direct effects of depressive symptoms on self-care maintenance such that the negative association between depressive symptoms and self-care maintenance was reversed by the existence of high resilience. Resilience moderated the direct and indirect effects of depressive symptoms through self-care confidence on self-care maintenance in heart failure patients. Efforts to improve self-care maintenance by targeting depressive symptoms may be more effective when considering self-care confidence in patients with moderate to high levels of resilience.
Tucker, Joan S.; Edelen, Maria Orlando; Go, Myung-Hyun; Pollard, Michael S.; Green, Harold D., Jr.; Kennedy, David P.
This longitudinal study examines individual differences in the tendency to initiate (N = 4,612) and escalate (N = 2,837) smoking when adolescents gain a best friend who smokes. Potential moderating factors include self-esteem, depression, problem behavior, school and family bonds, and household access to cigarettes. In addition to acquiring a…
Hellman, Natalie; Morris, Matthew C; Rao, Uma; Garber, Judy
Changes in cortisol and shame are commonly elicited by psychosocial stressors involving social-evaluative threat. According to social self preservation theory, this coordinated psychobiological response is adaptive. Individuals with a history of depression, however, may exhibit diminished cortisol reactivity to acute stressors, which could interfere with coordinated cortisol and shame responses. The present study examined temporal relations between cortisol and shame responses to a psychosocial stress task in young adults who varied in their history of depression (56 remitted-depressed, 46 never-depressed). Lagged effects multilevel models revealed that depression history moderated relations between cortisol levels and shame ratings 25-55min later. The pattern of these interactions was similar: whereas higher cortisol levels predicted increases in shame in never-depressed individuals, cortisol levels were unrelated to shame responses in remitted-depressed individuals. Findings suggest a dissociation between cortisol and shame responses to stress in individuals with a history of depression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Wingo, Aliza P; Wrenn, Glenda; Pelletier, Tiffany; Gutman, Alisa R; Bradley, Bekh; Ressler, Kerry J
Influences of resilience on the presence and severity of depression following trauma exposure are largely unknown. Hence, we examined effects of resilience on depressive symptom severity in individuals with past childhood abuse and/or other trauma exposure. In this cross-sectional study of 792 adults, resilience was measured with the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, depression with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), childhood abuse with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, and other traumas with the Trauma Events Inventory. Multiple linear regression modeling with depression severity (BDI score) as the outcome yielded 4 factors: childhood abuse (β=2.5, ptrauma (β=3.5, ptrauma × resilience interaction term (β=-0.1, p=0.0021), all of which were significantly associated with depression severity, even after adjusting for age, sex, race, education, employment, income, marital status, and family psychiatric history. Childhood abuse and trauma exposure contributed to depressive symptom severity while resilience mitigated it. Resilience moderates depressive symptom severity in individuals exposed to childhood abuse or other traumas both as a main effect and an interaction with trauma exposure. Resilience may be amenable to external manipulation and could present a potential focus for treatments and interventions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Although it is well known that perceived discrimination is a risk factor contributing to depressive symptoms among immigrants, most previous studies (1) did not distinguish between discrimination based on immigrant status and race and (2) used cross-sectional data. To address these limitations, the present study examined whether perceived discrimination affects depressive symptomatology in a representative sample of newly arrived immigrants from Mainland China to Hong Kong using longitudinal data over a period of one year. A representative sample of 347 migrants aged 18 and older were interviewed face to face in 2007 and 2008. The 20-item Center for Epidemiology Studies of Depression (CES-D) scale was used to measure depressive symptoms and a series of sociodemographic questions (age, gender, marital status, education, and personal income), stress due to perceived discrimination, social support, and neighborhood collective efficacy were also included. Perceived discrimination was significantly associated with depressive symptoms one year later, after adjusting for depressive symptoms at baseline assessment, sociodemographic characteristics, social support, and neighborhood collective efficacy. Moreover, both social support and neighborhood collective efficacy moderated the effect of perceived discrimination on depressive symptoms. Perceived discrimination is a common experience for new Mainland immigrants to Hong Kong, and it predicts depressive symptoms. Therefore, interventions that reduce discrimination and strengthen social support and neighborhood collective efficacy should be designed and implemented to improve the mental health of new immigrants in Hong Kong. Copyright Â© 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Keyser-Marcus, Lori; Vassileva, Jasmin; Stewart, Karen; Johns, Sade
Smoking remains one of the most preventable causes of morbidity and mortality in the United States (1). A number of factors contribute to the initiation and maintenance of smoking behavior, including psychosocial influences (2,3), neurobehavioral traits (4), and genetic susceptibility (5-7). Prevalence rates of tobacco dependence among individuals with mental health issues are strikingly high when compared to the general population, particularly among individuals with depression and anxiety disorders (8). There are well-established relationships between impulsivity, cue reactivity, and tobacco use in the literature (9). However, the interaction between these relationships remains unclear. The primary goal of this paper is to provide an overview of the existing literature across these domains and explore their interrelationship and subsequent impact on smoking initiation and tobacco dependence. Further, the clinical implications regarding the development of potential targeted smoking cessation strategies for this population are presented.
Morris, Matthew C; Rao, Uma; Garber, Judy
Alterations of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) function are well-established in adults with current depression. HPA alterations may persist into remission and confer increased risk for recurrence. A modified version of the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) was administered at baseline to 32 young adults with remitted major depressive disorder and 36 never-depressed controls. Participants were randomly assigned to either a 'high-stress' condition involving social evaluation or a 'low-stress' control condition. Cortisol concentrations were measured in saliva samples throughout the TSST. Participants were assessed again after 6 months for the occurrence of stressful life events and depressive symptoms/disorders during the follow-up period. Participants who exhibited enhanced cortisol reactivity in the low-stress condition showed increases in depressive symptoms over follow-up, after controlling for stressful life events during the follow-up period. Anticipatory stress cortisol and cortisol reactivity each interacted with history of depressive episodes to predict depression trajectories. The single TSST administration limits conclusions about whether alterations of cortisol reactivity represent trait-like vulnerability factors or consequences ("scars') of past depression. These results extend previous findings on stress sensitivity in depression and suggest that altered HPA function during remission could reflect an endophenotype for vulnerability to depression recurrence. Findings support interactive models of risk for depression recurrence implicating HPA function, depression history, and sensitivity to minor stressors. Results may have implications for interventions that match treatment approaches to profiles of HPA function. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Mereish, Ethan H; N'cho, Hammad S; Green, Carlton E; Jernigan, Maryam M; Helms, Janet E
Discrimination is related to depression and poor self-esteem among Black men. Poorer self-esteem is also associated with depression. However, there is limited research identifying how self-esteem may mediate the associations between discrimination and depressive symptoms for disparate ethnic groups of Black men. The purpose of this study was to examine ethnic groups as a moderator of the mediating effects of self-esteem on the relationship between discrimination and depressive symptoms among a nationally representative sample of African American (n = 1201) and Afro-Caribbean American men (n = 545) in the National Survey of American Life. Due to cultural socialization differences, we hypothesized that self-esteem would mediate the associations between discrimination and depressive symptoms only for African American men, but not Afro-Caribbean American men. Moderated-mediation regression analyses indicated that the conditional indirect effects of discrimination on depressive symptoms through self-esteem were significant for African American men, but not for Afro-Caribbean men. Our results highlight important ethnic differences among Black men.
Lam, Charlene L M; Yu, Junhong; Lee, Tatia M C
The relationship between depression, loneliness, and cognitive functioning among the elderly is not well understood in the literature. In the present study, we tested the moderating influence of depressive symptoms on loneliness and cognitive functioning. We recruited 100 community-dwelling older adults in Hong Kong. Demographic information, perceived loneliness, depressed mood, and general cognitive status were assessed. Results indicated that married participants reported lower levels of perceived loneliness (t (96) = 2.26, p = .03). We found a significant moderating effect of depressive symptoms on the relationship between perceived loneliness and general cognitive status (B = -.05, p = .002). Perceived loneliness correlated negatively with general cognitive status only in participants with higher levels of depressed mood (B = -.16, p = .01). Together, these findings suggest that perceived loneliness combined with depressed mood is related to poorer general cognitive status in older adults. The implications of these findings are discussed.
Anderson, Derek R; Roubinov, Danielle S; Turner, Aaron P; Williams, Rhonda M; Norvell, Daniel C; Czerniecki, Joseph M
This study examined the moderating influence of perceived social support on the prospective relationship between baseline levels of activities of daily living (ADL) and depressive symptoms during the 1st year following amputation. Participants included 73 veterans with new/first unilateral lower extremity amputation due to vascular disease or diabetes. Baseline levels of perceived social support, ADL function, and mobility were assessed by retrospective recall 6 weeks after amputation. Depressive symptoms were measured at 6 weeks and 12 months following surgery. Perceived social support moderated the relationship between baseline ADL functioning and depressive symptoms at 12 months (β = -0.27, p < .001) after controlling for 6-week depressive symptoms and sociodemographic and physical/functional variables. Lower levels of baseline ADL function were associated with depressive symptoms at 12 months among those who reported lower levels of perceived social support. These data allowed us to identify those participants with both low ADL function at baseline and low social support as being at higher risk for depression symptoms postamputation. The findings support the stress buffering hypothesis and suggest that perceived social support may be an important modifiable target of intervention among individuals with lower levels of functioning. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Geisner, Irene M; Trager, Bradley M; Hultgren, Brittney A; Larimer, Mary E; Mallett, Kimberly A; Turrisi, Rob
The comorbidity of depressed mood and college student drinking causes consequences for both the individual and society. Aspects of parenting have been shown to be important for college students' well-being. While some interventions are beginning to address this population, few studies have examined how parental monitoring impacts the relationship between depressed mood, alcohol use, and related consequences. The present study examined whether perceived parental monitoring moderated the relationship between depressed mood and alcohol use and related problems. Students (N = 796) completed a survey during the fall semester of their first two years of college at a large, public university assessing drinking and related negative consequences, maternal and paternal monitoring, and depressed mood. Results revealed that maternal and paternal monitoring moderated the relationship between depressed mood and typical weekly drinking, and depressed mood and consequences (i.e., self-perception, self-care, blackouts). Interventions should be tailored to parents based on considerations of both student mental health and alcohol use. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
N’cho, Hammad S.; Green, Carlton E.; Jernigan, Maryam M.; Helms, Janet E.
Discrimination is related to depression and poor self-esteem among Black men. Poorer self-esteem is also associated with depression. However, there is limited research identifying how self-esteem may mediate the associations between discrimination and depressive symptoms for disparate ethnic groups of Black men. The purpose of this study was to examine ethnic groups as a moderator of the mediating effects of self-esteem on the relationship between discrimination and depressive symptoms among a nationally representative sample of African American (n=1,201) and Afro-Caribbean American men (n=545) in the National Survey of American Life. Due to cultural socialization differences, we hypothesized that self-esteem would mediate the associations between discrimination and depressive symptoms only for African American men, but not Afro-Caribbean American men. Moderated-mediation regression analyses indicated that the conditional indirect effects of discrimination on depressive symptoms through self-esteem were significant for African American men, but not for Afro-Caribbean men. Our results highlight important ethnic differences among Black men. PMID:27337623
Radziszewska, B; Richardson, J L; Dent, C W; Flay, B R
This paper examines whether the relationship between parenting style and adolescent depressive symptoms, smoking, and academic grades varies according to ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status. Four parenting styles are distinguished, based on patterns of parent-adolescent decision making: autocratic (parents decide), authoritative (joint process but parents decide), permissive (joint process but adolescent decides), and unengaged (adolescent decides). The sample included 3993 15-year-old White, Hispanic, African-American, and Asian adolescents. Results are generally consistent with previous findings: adolescents with authoritative parents had the best outcomes and those with unengaged parents were least well adjusted, while the permissive and the autocratic styles produced intermediate results. For the most part, this pattern held across ethnic and sociodemographic subgroups. There was one exception, suggesting that the relationship between parenting styles, especially the unengaged style, and depressive symptoms may vary according to gender and ethnicity. More research is needed to replicate and explain this pattern in terms of ecological factors, cultural norms, and socialization goals and practices.
Brausch, Amy M; Decker, Kristina M
The current study investigated risk factors for suicidal ideation in a community sample of 392 adolescents (males 51.9 %; females 48.1 %), while also evaluating self-esteem, perceived parent support, and perceived peer support as protective factors and potential moderators between suicidal ideation and the 3 risk factors. Disordered eating, depression, parent support, and peer support were found to be significant predictors of current suicidal ideation, but body satisfaction was not. The relationship between depression and suicidal ideation was significantly moderated by both self-esteem and parent support, while the relationship between disordered eating and suicidal ideation was significantly moderated by peer support. Results underscore the importance of examining protective factors for suicide risk, as they have the potential to reduce suicidal ideation in adolescents.
Wilksch, Simon M; Wade, Tracey D
To investigate if baseline depression moderated response to Media Smart, an 8-lesson school-based program previously found to achieve a long-term risk reduction effect in young adolescents. 540 Grade 8 students (M age = 13.62 years, SD = .37) from 4 schools participated with 11 classes receiving the Media Smart program (126 girls; 107 boys) and 13 comparison classes receiving their normal lessons (147 girls; 160 boys). Shape and weight concern, media internalization, body dissatisfaction, dieting, ineffectiveness, and perceived pressure were the outcome variables. Moderation was indicated by significant interaction effects for group (Media Smart; Control) × moderator (high depression; low depression) × time (post-program; 6-month follow-up; 2.5-year follow-up), with baseline entered as a covariate. Such effects were found for shape and weight concern, media internalization, body dissatisfaction, ineffectiveness and perceived pressure. Post-hoc testing found high depression Media Smart participants scored significantly lower than their control counterparts at post-program on shape and weight concern, media internalization and dieting, whereas low depression Media Smart participants scored significantly lower on shape and weight concern at 2.5-year follow-up. Media Smart achieved a reduction in eating disorder risk factors for high-depression participants and a reduced rate of growth in risk factor scores for low-depression participants. Trial registry name: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry. URL: http://www.anzctr.org.au. Registration identification number: ACTRN12608000545369. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gim, Wook; Yoo, Jun-Hyun; Shin, Jin-Young; Goo, Ae-Jin
Research suggests that mental health is affected not only by smoking, but also by secondhand smoking. But the most researches have been conducted in North America and/or Europe. We examined whether this relationship remains evident within the South Korean population. Specifically, we investigated the effect of secondhand smoking on depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation. We analyzed data from 6,043 non-smoking adults who participated in the 2010-2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We compared the presence of depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation in 3,006 participants who were exposed to secondhand smoking in the office or at home with 3,037 non-exposed participants. In unadjusted logistic regression analysis, secondhand smoking exposure group had more suicidal ideations than no secondhand smoking exposure (16.1% vs. 12.2%; odds ratio [OR], 1.50; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.241-1.804), but risk of depressive symptoms was not significantly different between two groups (15.2% vs. 12.2%; OR, 1.21; 95% CI, 0.997-1.460). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, Among those exposed to secondhand smoking, the OR for depressive symptoms was 1.02 (95% CI, 0.866-1.299) and 1.43 (95% CI, 1.139-1.802) for suicidal ideation. Overall, secondhand smoking at home was significantly related to depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation. Among females, secondhand smoking exposure at home only (not in the office) was related to depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation. Exposure to secondhand smoking, especially at home, may be associated with an increase in especially in female depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation among adults in South Korea.
Gamble, Stephanie A.; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; Roberts, John E.; Ciesla, Jeffrey A.; Pelham, William E.
This study examined self-esteem reactivity to a variety of contextual cues in a sample of women prone to depression. Participants were 49 mothers of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Across a 9-month time-period, participants completed weekly measures of self-esteem, perceived stress, positive and negative affect, and child disruptive behavior. Results indicated that mothers reported lower self-esteem during weeks they experienced greater stress, lower positive affect, higher negative affect, and more inattentive, overactive, and oppositional behavior in their children. Depression history moderated these relationships such that mothers with prior histories of depression reported greater self-esteem reactivity to these cues than never depressed mothers. PMID:24443616
Gamble, Stephanie A; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; Roberts, John E; Ciesla, Jeffrey A; Pelham, William E
This study examined self-esteem reactivity to a variety of contextual cues in a sample of women prone to depression. Participants were 49 mothers of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Across a 9-month time-period, participants completed weekly measures of self-esteem, perceived stress, positive and negative affect, and child disruptive behavior. Results indicated that mothers reported lower self-esteem during weeks they experienced greater stress, lower positive affect, higher negative affect, and more inattentive, overactive, and oppositional behavior in their children. Depression history moderated these relationships such that mothers with prior histories of depression reported greater self-esteem reactivity to these cues than never depressed mothers.
Martoccio, Tiffany L; Brophy-Herb, Holly E; Maupin, Angela N; Robinson, Joann L
There is some evidence linking maternal depression, harsh parenting, and children's internal representations of attachment, yet, longitudinal examinations of these relationships and differences in the developmental pathways between boys and girls are lacking. Moderated mediation growth curves were employed to examine harsh parenting as a mechanism underlying the link between maternal depression and children's dysregulated representations using a nationally-representative, economically-vulnerable sample of mothers and their children (n = 575; 49% boys, 51% girls). Dysregulation representations were measured using the MacArthur Story Stem Battery at five years of age (M = 5.14, SD = 0.29). Harsh parenting mediated the association between early maternal depression and dysregulated representations for girls. Though initial harsh parenting was a significant mediator for boys, a stronger direct effect of maternal depression to dysregulated representations emerged over time. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for intervention efforts aimed at promoting early supportive parenting.
Hooper, Lisa M.; Caroline R. Newman
Building on previous research, the current study examined the relations between parent depressive symptoms, family religious involvement, and adolescent depressive symptoms in a convenience sample of 74 parent-adolescent dyads of southern U.S. families. We used hierarchical regression analysis to explore whether family religious involvement…
Melin, Eva O; Thunander, Maria; Svensson, Ralph; Landin-Olsson, Mona; Thulesius, Hans O
The aim of this study was to explore the associations between inadequate glycemic control of diabetes and psychological, anthropometric, and lifestyle variables in a population-based cohort of type 1 diabetes patients. Cross-sectional study. In this study, 292 patients with type 1 diabetes, aged 1859 years, participated. psychological data were assessed by self-report instruments: Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20. Anthropometrics, blood analyses, data from medical records, and data from the Swedish National Diabetes Registry were collected. Self-reported depression (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 4.8), obesity (AOR 4.3), and smoking (AOR 3.0) were independently associated with inadequate glycemic control of diabetes (HbA1c>8.6%). Gender-stratified analyses showed that self-reported depression (AOR 19.8) and obesity (AOR 7.0) in women and smoking in men (AOR 4.2) were associated with HbA1c>8.6%. Alexithymia, antidepressant medication, and physical inactivity were associated with HbA1c>8.6% only in bivariate analyses. Alexithymia, self-rated anxiety, physical inactivity, and absence of abdominal obesity were associated with self-reported depression. Depression was the only psychological factor independently associated with HbA1c>8.6%. The association was of comparable importance as obesity and smoking, well-known risk factors for inadequate glycemic control and diabetes complications. The association between depression and HbA1c>8.6% was particularly strong for women. Alexithymia, which is a relatively stable personality trait, was associated with depression. In the future care of patients with diabetes, psychological aspects should be considered alongside anthropometrics and lifestyle factors in order to achieve the goals for HbA1c.
Carrera, Stephanie G; Wei, Meifen
In his acculturative family distancing (AFD) theory, Hwang (2006b) argued that acculturation gaps among parents and youth may lead to psychological and emotional distancing. AFD includes 2 dimensions: incongruent cultural values and breakdowns in communication. This study examined whether bicultural competence (BC) served as a mediator and moderator for the relationship between AFD and depression using structural equation modeling. Two hundred and forty-one Latino/a college students attending predominantly White, midwestern universities completed an online survey at 2 time points. For mediation, results indicated that BC at Time 2 (T2) mediated the relationship between AFD at Time 1 (T1) and depression at T2 above and beyond the effects of depression, acculturation, and enculturation at T1. A bootstrap method estimated the significance of the indirect effect. Moreover, 16% of the variance in BC at T2 was explained by acculturation, enculturation, and AFD at T1; 30% of the variance in depression at T2 was explained by BC at T2 and depression at T1. Post hoc analyses of the AFD and BC dimensions suggested that (a) positive attitudes toward both groups, communication ability, and social groundedness were significant mediators for the incongruent cultural values-depression link and (b) communication ability and social groundedness were significant mediators for the communication breakdown-depression link. For moderation, the AFD × BC interaction did not significantly predict depression at T2. Limitations, future research directions, and counseling implications are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Shapero, Benjamin G; Hamilton, Jessica L; Stange, Jonathan P; Liu, Richard T; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B
Although the majority of research in the field has focused on childhood stressors as a risk factor for psychopathology, a burgeoning body of literature has focused on the possible steeling effect of moderate types of stressful events. The current study investigated the effects of proximal life stressors on prospective changes in depressive symptoms, and whether a history of moderate childhood adversity would moderate this relationship in a multi-wave study of a diverse community sample of early adolescents (N = 163, 52 % female, 51 % Caucasian). Hierarchical linear modeling was run with four waves of data. Adolescents with greater moderately severe early life events evinced a blunted depressive symptom response to changes in proximal stressful events in the previous 9 months, compared to those with fewer early moderately severe experiences of adversity. These results held after controlling for between-subject factors such as race, gender, severe early life stress, and average stress over the four waves of data. Findings indicate that greater exposure to moderate childhood stressors may buffer against the negative effects of subsequent stressors, suggesting the importance of a nuanced developmental approach to studying the effects of early life stress.
Um, Mee Young; Chi, Iris; Kim, Hee Jin; Palinkas, Lawrence A; Kim, Jae Yop
Although the prevalence of depressive disorders among North Korean (NK) refugees living in South Korea has been reported to be twice the rate of their South Korean counterparts, little is known about the correlates of depressive symptoms among this population. Despite their escape from a politically and economically repressive setting, NK refugees continue to face multidimensional hardships during their adaptation process in South Korea, which can adversely affect their mental health. However, to our knowledge, no empirical research exists to date on depressive symptoms in the context of adaptation or perceived discrimination among NK refugees. To fill this gap, this study used a sample of 261 NK refugees in South Korea from the 2010 National Survey on Family Violence to examine associations between sociocultural adaptation, perceived discrimination, and depressive symptoms, as well as the moderation effect of discrimination on adaptation to depressive symptoms. We found that poor sociocultural adaptation and perception of discrimination were associated with increased levels of depressive symptoms. Perception of discrimination attenuated the association between better adaptation and fewer depressive symptoms, when compared to no perception of discrimination. These findings highlight the need to improve NK refugees' adaptation and integration as well as their psychological well-being in a culturally sensitive and comprehensive manner. They also underscore the importance of educating South Koreans to become accepting hosts who value diversity, yet in a homogeneous society. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jeong, Ansuk; An, Ji Yeong
There is a consensus that cancer care should go beyond physical care as cancer patients and their family caregivers experience psychological burden, financial difficulty, as well as social relation issues. The current study aimed to investigate the moderating impact of social support on depression and anxiety of cancer patients and their family caregivers. Gastric cancer patients and their family caregivers who visited a university medical center in Seoul were approached for participation in the study. Fifty-two pairs of adult patients and caregivers participated in the study. Along with demographic information and the physical condition of the patients, such as pre-operation cancer stage and the type of gastrectomy, social support, depression, and anxiety were measured for patients and caregivers, respectively. In the first round of analysis, patients' depression was associated with age, while patients' anxiety was related to income. On the other hand, caregivers' depression was not associated with patients' health and living arrangement. In the second round of analysis to examine the moderating effect of social support, patients' income and social support were related to depression and anxiety, but the interaction of income and social support was only observed for anxiety. For caregivers, no interaction effects were found. Social support decreased the negative effects of low income status on the patients. While the income of the families with cancer cannot be adjusted in the short-term, their experience of social support can be managed by a proper support system. Diverse implications in medical settings are discussed.
Orstad, Stephanie L; McDonough, Meghan H; Klenosky, David B; Mattson, Marifran; Troped, Philip J
Physical environmental features of neighborhoods are associated with physical activity, but the influence of mental health factors, such as depression, on these associations is poorly understood. We examined whether the perceived neighborhood environment mediated associations between the observed neighborhood environment and physical activity, and whether these associations were moderated by depressive symptoms. Data consisted of systematic social observations of 343 neighborhoods and resident surveys. Participants' (N = 2969) mean age was 41.9 ± 16.2 years, 60.2% were female, and 67.9% were non-White. We conducted multiple linear regression and tests for mediation and moderated mediation. Observed recreation facilities, commercial destinations, physical disorder, and physical deterioration were indirectly associated with walking via perceived neighborhood environment variables. Observed recreation facilities was indirectly and positively associated with leisure-time physical activity via perceived park access, and indirectly and inversely associated with walking and leisure-time physical activity via perceived traffic danger, but only among participants with low depressive symptom scores. Observed recreation facilities was indirectly and inversely associated, and observed physical disorder and physical deterioration were indirectly and positively associated with walking via perceived disorder, but only among participants with high depressive symptom scores. Depressive symptoms affected the strength and direction of associations between the observed neighborhood environment and physical activity via residents' perceptions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Anyan, Frederick; Bizumic, Boris; Hjemdal, Odin
We investigated the specificity in mediated pathways that separately link specific stress dimensions through anxiety to depressive symptoms and the protective utility of resilience. Thus, this study goes beyond lumping together potential mediating and moderating processes that can explain the relations between stress and (symptoms of) psychopathology and the buffering effect of resilience. Ghanaian adolescents between 13 and 17 years (female = 285; male = 244) completed the Adolescent Stress Questionnaire (ASQ), Spielberger State Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Short Mood Feeling Questionnaire (SMFQ) and the Resilience Scale for Adolescents (READ). Independent samples t-test, multivariate analysis of covariance with follow-up tests and moderated mediation analyses were performed. Evidences were found for specificity in the associations between dimensions of adolescent stressors and depressive symptoms independent of transient anxiety. Transient anxiety partly accounted for the indirect effects of eight stress dimensions on depressive symptoms. Except stress of school attendance and school/leisure conflict, resilience moderated the indirect effects of specific stress dimensions on depressive symptoms. Results suggested differences in how Ghanaian adolescents view the various stress dimensions, and mediated pathways associated with anxiety and depressive symptoms. Use of cross-sectional data does not show causal process and temporal changes over time. Findings support and clarify the specificity in the interrelations and mediated pathways among dimensions of adolescent stress, transient anxiety, and depressive symptoms. Conditional process analyses shows that resilience does not only buffer direct, but also indirect psychological adversities. Interventions for good mental health may focus on low resilience subgroups in specific stress dimensions while minimizing transient anxiety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Feng, Xin; Keenan, Kate; Hipwell, Alison E.; Henneberger, Angela K.; Rischall, Michal S.; Butch, Jen; Coyne, Claire; Boeldt, Debbie; Hinze, Amanda K.; Babinski, Dara E.
Identifying childhood precursors for depression has been challenging and yet important for understanding the rapid increase in the rate of depression among adolescent girls. This study examined the prospective relations of preadolescent girls' emotion regulation and parenting style with depressive symptoms. Participants were 225 children and their…
Stone, Kristen C; Salisbury, Amy L; Miller-Loncar, Cynthia L; Mattera, Jennifer A; Battle, Cynthia L; Johnsen, Dawn M; O'Grady, Kevin E
This study examined the course of antidepressant use, sleep quality, and depression severity from pregnancy through 6-month postpartum in women with and without a depressive disorder during pregnancy. Women (N = 215) were interviewed during pregnancy, 1- and 6-month postpartum. Mixed linear models were used to examine the longitudinal course and inter-relationships for the time-varying variables of antidepressant use, subjective sleep quality, and depression severity. Pregnant women with a depressive disorder who did not use antidepressants had more variable depression severity over time with improvements in depression severity by 6-month postpartum. In contrast, the depression severity of their medicated counterparts remained stable and high throughout. Pregnant women without a depressive disorder had worse sleep quality when using antidepressants compared with when they were not. Antidepressant use significantly strengthened the magnitude of the effect of sleep quality on depression severity in women with a depressive disorder during pregnancy. When prenatally depressed women use antidepressants, their sleep disturbance is more highly linked to depression severity than when they do not. Furthermore, antidepressants are not adequately treating the sleep disturbance of these women or their remitted counterparts, leaving both groups vulnerable to significant negative mental and physical health outcomes.
Ng, Catalina S. M.; Hurry, Jane
Stress has an established association with depression. However, not all adolescents experiencing stressors become depressed and it is helpful to identify potential resilience factors. The current study tests a theoretical extension of a stress-diathesis model of depression in a Chinese context, with stress, coping, family relationships, and…
van Hecke, O; Torrance, N; Cochrane, L; Cavanagh, J; Donnan, P T; Padmanabhan, S; Porteous, D J; Hocking, L; Smith, B H
Smokers report more pain and worse functioning. The evidence from pain clinics suggests that depression affects this relationship: The association between smoking and chronic pain is weakened when controlling for depression. This study explored the relationship between smoking, pain and depression in a large general population-based cohort (Generation Scotland: Scottish Family Health Study). Chronic pain measures (intensity, disability), self-reported smoking status and a history of major depressive disorder (MDD) were analysed. A multivariate analysis of covariance determined whether smoking status was associated with both pain measures and a history of depressive illness. Using a statistical mediation model any mediating effect of depression on the relationship between smoking and chronic pain was sought. Of all 24,024 participants, 30% (n = 7162) reported any chronic pain. Within this chronic pain group, 16% (n = 1158) had a history of MDD; 7108 had valid smoking data: 20% (n = 1408) were current smokers, 33% (n = 2351) former and 47% (n = 3349) never smokers. Current smokers demonstrated higher pain intensity and pain-related disability scores compared with former and non-smokers (p relationship between smoking and a history of depression contributes significantly to the effect of smoking on pain intensity. When applied to smoking-related pain disability, there was no mediation effect. In contrast to smokers treated in pain clinics, a history of MDD mediated the relationship between smoking and pain intensity, but not pain-related disability in smokers in the community. © 2014 European Pain Federation - EFIC®
Walker, Rheeda L; Salami, Temilola K; Carter, Sierra E; Flowers, Kelci
Suicide is a public health problem for African Americans who are young and of working age. The purpose of this study was to examine mediated and moderated effects of perceived racism on suicide ideation in a community sample of 236 African American men and women. Measures of suicide ideation, depression symptoms, intrinsic/extrinsic religiosity, and perceived racism were administered. Perceived racial discrimination was directly and indirectly associated with suicide ideation. For participants who reported low levels of extrinsic religiosity, the mediated effect of perceived racism (via depression symptoms) was significant. These findings provide some insight into suicide vulnerability for specific subgroups of African Americans. © 2014 The American Association of Suicidology.
Heo, M; Pietrobelli, A; Fontaine, K R; Sirey, J A; Faith, M S
Sustained depressive mood is a gateway symptom for a major depressive disorder. This paper investigated whether the association between depressive mood and obesity differs as function of sex, age, and race in US adults after controlling for socio-economic variables of martial status, employment status, income level and education level. A total of 44,800 nationally representative respondents from the 2001 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey were studied. Respondents were classified as having experienced a depressive mood if they felt sad, blue, or depressed at least for 1 week in the previous month. The depressive mood was operationalized in terms of duration and sustenance, both defined based on number of days with depressive mood: 7+ and 14+ days. Age groups were classified as young (18-64 years) and old (65+ years). Obesity status was classified as: not overweight/obese (BMIobese (BMI>or=30). Prevalence of prior-month depressive mood was 14.3 and 7.8% for 7+ and 14+ days, respectively. Controlling for race and socio-economic variables, both young overweight and obese women were significantly more likely to have experienced depressive mood than nonoverweight/nonobese women. Young overweight, but not obese, men were significantly more likely to have experienced depressive mood than nonoverweight/nonobese men. Young obese women were also significantly more likely to have a sustained depressive mood than nonoverweight/nonobese women. For old respondents, depressive mood and its sustenance were not associated with obesity in either sex. The relationship between the depressive mood and obesity is dependent upon gender, age, and race. Young obese women, Hispanics in particular, are much more prone to depressive mood than nonobese women. Future studies testing associations between depression and obesity should be sensitive to the influence of these demographic and socio-economic variables.
Lin, Hualiang; Guo, Yanfei; Kowal, Paul; Airhihenbuwa, Collins O; Di, Qian; Zheng, Yang; Zhao, Xing; Vaughn, Michael G; Howard, Steven; Schootman, Mario; Salinas-Rodriguez, Aaron; Yawson, Alfred E; Arokiasamy, Perianayagam; Manrique-Espinoza, Betty Soledad; Biritwum, Richard B; Rule, Stephen P; Minicuci, Nadia; Naidoo, Nirmala; Chatterji, Somnath; Qian, Zhengmin Min; Ma, Wenjun; Wu, Fan
Background Little is known about the joint mental health effects of air pollution and tobacco smoking in low- and middle-income countries. Aims To investigate the effects of exposure to ambient fine particulate matter pollution (PM 2.5 ) and smoking and their combined (interactive) effects on depression. Method Multilevel logistic regression analysis of baseline data of a prospective cohort study ( n = 41 785). The 3-year average concentrations of PM 2.5 were estimated using US National Aeronautics and Space Administration satellite data, and depression was diagnosed using a standardised questionnaire. Three-level logistic regression models were applied to examine the associations with depression. Results The odds ratio (OR) for depression was 1.09 (95% C11.01-1.17) per 10 μg/m 3 increase in ambient PM 2.5 , and the association remained after adjusting for potential confounding factors (adjusted OR = 1.10, 95% CI 1.02-1.19). Tobacco smoking (smoking status, frequency, duration and amount) was also significantly associated with depression. There appeared to be a synergistic interaction between ambient PM 2.5 and smoking on depression in the additive model, but the interaction was not statistically significant in the multiplicative model. Conclusions Our study suggests that exposure to ambient PM 2.5 may increase the risk of depression, and smoking may enhance this effect. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2017.
Salt, Elizabeth; Crofford, Leslie J; Segerstrom, Suzanne
To improve function and quality of life in patients with chronic pain, a prevalent and costly condition, an understanding of the relationships among well-being, physical activity, depression, and life purpose with pain is needed. Because of the role loss experienced by people with chronic pain, activities such as volunteering could have an important role in improving health and well-being. In one study, chronic pain patients who participated in volunteer activities reported both decreased pain and "a sense of purpose." The aim of this study is to test the relationships among pain and well-being, physical activity, depression, and life purpose and then to determine if volunteering activities mediated or moderated these relationships. This observational study was conducted in a large university setting in Kentucky and used a sample of 200 women older than age 50. We found that people with higher pain were more depressed and had lower life purpose and well-being. People who volunteered less had more pain, lower perceived life purpose, more depressive symptoms, and decreased physical activity. Volunteer activities did have a significant mediating effect on the relationship between pain and depression; approximately 9% of the relationship between pain and depression can be accounted for by volunteering. Moderation by volunteering was found between pain and life purpose. We identified important relationships among pain, volunteering, and health outcomes and found that volunteering has a role in improving depressive symptoms and life purpose in women with pain. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Constantino, Michael J; Coyne, Alice E; Luukko, Emily K; Newkirk, Katie; Bernecker, Samantha L; Ravitz, Paula; McBride, Carolina
The therapeutic alliance has historically emerged as a pantheoretical correlate of favorable psychotherapy outcomes. However, uncertainty remains about the direction of the alliance-outcome link, and whether it is affected by other contextual variables. The present study explored (a) if early alliance quality predicted subsequent symptom change while controlling for the effect of prior symptom change in interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) for depression, and (b) whether baseline patient characteristics moderated the alliance-outcome relation (to help specify conditions under which alliance predicts change). Data derived from an open trial of 16 sessions of individual IPT delivered naturalistically to adult outpatients (N = 119) meeting criteria for major depression. Patients rated their sociodemographic, clinical, and interpersonal characteristics at baseline, their alliance with their therapist at Session 3, and their depressive symptoms at baseline, after every session, and at posttreatment. Data were analyzed using hierarchical linear modeling. Results indicated that alliance quality did not predict subsequent depression change, controlling for prior depression change. However, a significant education by alliance interaction emerged in predicting quadratic depression change (γ = .0007, p = .03); patients with higher levels of education who reported good early alliances with their therapists had the most positively accelerated change trajectory (i.e., faster depression reduction), whereas patients with higher levels of education who reported poorer early alliances had the most negatively accelerated change trajectory (i.e., slower depression reduction). The findings may help clarify a specific condition under which alliance quality influences subsequent improvement in an evidence-based treatment for depression. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Li, Xiao-Hong; An, Feng-Rong; Ungvari, Gabor S; Ng, Chee H; Chiu, Helen F K; Wu, Ping-Ping; Jin, Xin; Xiang, Yu-Tao
Few studies have compared the prevalence of smoking between patients with bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder (MDD) and schizophrenia. This study examined the prevalence of smoking and its relationships with demographic and clinical characteristics, and quality of life (QOL) in patients with these psychiatric disorders. A total of 1,102 inpatients were consecutively screened. Psychopathology and QOL were measured with standardized instruments. The prevalence of current smoking in the whole sample was 16.7%; 17.5% in bipolar disorder, 10.6% in MDD and 18.5% in schizophrenia. The rates of smoking in bipolar disorder (p = 0.004, OR = 2.5, 95%CI: 1.3-4.7) and schizophrenia (p = 0.03, OR = 2.0, 95%CI: 1.06-3.8) were significantly higher than in MDD, while no difference was found between bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Smokers had a higher mental QOL than non-smokers (p = 0.007) in MDD, but no difference was found in the other two groups. Male gender, living alone, higher personal income, older age of onset, health insurance coverage, and first episode was significantly associated with smoking in one or more diagnostic groups. Smoking appears more common in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia than in MDD in China. The figures in all disorders were lower than that reported in most of other countries.
Nesi, Jacqueline; Prinstein, Mitchell J
This study examined specific technology-based behaviors (social comparison and interpersonal feedback-seeking) that may interact with offline individual characteristics to predict concurrent depressive symptoms among adolescents. A total of 619 students (57 % female; mean age 14.6) completed self-report questionnaires at 2 time points. Adolescents reported on levels of depressive symptoms at baseline, and 1 year later on depressive symptoms, frequency of technology use (cell phones, Facebook, and Instagram), excessive reassurance-seeking, and technology-based social comparison and feedback-seeking. Adolescents also completed sociometric nominations of popularity. Consistent with hypotheses, technology-based social comparison and feedback-seeking were associated with depressive symptoms. Popularity and gender served as moderators of this effect, such that the association was particularly strong among females and adolescents low in popularity. Associations were found above and beyond the effects of overall frequency of technology use, offline excessive reassurance-seeking, and prior depressive symptoms. Findings highlight the utility of examining the psychological implications of adolescents' technology use within the framework of existing interpersonal models of adolescent depression and suggest the importance of more nuanced approaches to the study of adolescents' media use.
Merrill, Jennifer E; Reid, Allecia E; Carey, Michael P; Carey, Kate B
Brief motivational interventions (BMIs) effectively reduce problematic drinking in college students. However, not all students benefit, and little is known about the subgroups of students for whom BMIs are most effective. In the present study, we examined 2 factors that may influence BMI efficacy: gender and depression. We reanalyzed data from a clinical trial in which heavy drinking students (N = 330; 65% female) were randomized to a BMI (n = 165) or an assessment only control (n = 165). Depression was assessed at baseline; past-month typical drinks per week, heavy drinking frequency, and consequences were assessed at baseline and 1 month. Three- and 2-way interactions among intervention condition (BMI vs. control), gender (male vs. female), and depression (low vs. high) were tested. We observed 3-way interaction effects on 2 outcomes: (a) typical drinks per week and (b) frequency of heavy drinking at 1 month. Relative to controls and adjusting for baseline drinking, low-depression women reduced their drinking more after a BMI whereas high-depression women did not show differential improvement. In contrast, high-depression men showed significant reductions in weekly drinks following the BMI whereas low-depression men did not show differential improvement. In addition, higher levels of depression were associated with higher levels of consequences at follow-up across conditions. BMIs are indicated for heavy drinking, depressed men, consistent with recommendations for implementing screening and brief intervention in mental health settings. However, BMIs may need to be refined to enhance their efficacy for depressed women.
McLeish, Alison C; Zvolensky, Michael J; Marshall, Erin C; Leyro, Teresa M
The present investigation evaluated the moderational role of negative affectivity in the relation between smoking status and panic-relevant symptoms in a young adult sample (n = 222; 123 females; mean age = 22.45 years, SD = 8.08). Consistent with the prediction, negative affectivity moderated the association of smoking status with anxious arousal symptoms, anxiety sensitivity, and perceived health. Specifically, greater negative affectivity was associated with higher levels of anxious arousal and anxiety sensitivity and lower levels of perceived health among smokers compared to nonsmokers. The effects were evident after controlling for the variance accounted for by alcohol use problems and gender. Findings are discussed with regard to the role of negative affectivity in the relation between smoking and panic-related processes.
Donker, T; Batterham, P J; Warmerdam, L; Bennett, K; Bennett, A; Cuijpers, P; Griffiths, K M; Christensen, H
By identifying which predictors and moderators lead to beneficial outcomes, accurate selection of the best initial treatment will have significant benefits for depressed individuals. An automated, fully self-guided randomized controlled internet-delivered noninferiority trial was conducted comparing two new interventions (Interpersonal Psychotherapy [IPT; n=620] and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy [CBT; n=610]) to an active control intervention (MoodGYM; n=613) over a period of 4 weeks to spontaneous visitors of an internet-delivered therapy website (e-couch). A range of putative predictors and moderators (socio-demographic characteristics [age, gender, marital status, education level], clinical characteristics [depression/anxiety symptoms, disability, quality of life, medication use], skills [mastery and dysfunctional attitudes] and treatment preference) were assessed using internet-delivered self-report measures at baseline and immediately following treatment and at six months follow-up. Analyses were conducted using Mixed Model Repeated Measures (MMRM). Female gender, lower mastery and lower dysfunctional attitudes predicted better outcome at post-test and/or follow-up regardless of intervention. No overall differential effects for condition on depression as a function of outcome were found. However, based on time-specific estimates, a significant interaction effect of age was found. For younger people, internet-delivered IPT may be the preferred treatment choice, whereas older participants derive more benefits from internet-delivered CBT programs. Although the sample of participants was large, power to detect moderator effects was still lacking. Different e-mental health programs may be more beneficial for specific age groups. The findings raise important possibilities for increasing depression treatment effectiveness and improving clinical practice guidelines for depression treatment of different age groups. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Sevgi Durna Daştan
Full Text Available Phenylthiocarbamide (PTC is known as phenylthiourea and it is an organic compound that has the phenyl ring. Ability to perceive the tastes of PTC chemical is related to the dominance of taste genes. There are a large number of population studies regarding the PTC taste perception and different personal characteristics or disease conditions. The purpose of this study is to reveal and compare the relation between the PTC taste perception and work-out habits, smoking, alcohol consumption and tendency to the depression of people. A total of 2500 adults were volunteered to be included in this study. PTC taste perception was measured by tasting with PTC solution (10 mg/L filtered in a paper. It showed that tasters were significantly more frequent (81.8% than nontasters (18.2% in all population. And in some parameters analyzed in this study, there are significant differences. The taste genetics show up with environmental factors and create the sense of taste, which develops the feeding behaviors. The taste perception resulting from food and beverages diversifies by genetic and environmental effects and the nervous system interprets this perception. This study is enlightening in terms of presenting that the taste perception of people affects their lifestyles and lead them to start and either continue or discontinue some habits.
Wium-Andersen, Marie Kim; Ørsted, David Dynnes; Nordestgaard, Børge Grønne
BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoking is more common among patients with schizophrenia and depression than among healthy individuals. We tested the hypothesis that high tobacco smoking intensity is causally associated with antipsychotic medication use, schizophrenia, antidepressant medication use and.......60). Correspondingly, ORs were 1.60 (0.74-3.47) and 1.02 (0.11-9.10) for schizophrenia (P-interaction: 0.85), 1.02 (0.93-1.13) and 0.99 (0.85-1.15) for antidepressant medication (P-interaction: 0.87), 0.85 (0.66-1.10) and 1.26 (0.87-1.83) for depression (P-interaction: 0.30) and 1.31 (1.16-1.47) and 0.89 (0...... OR for schizophrenia was 1.06 (1.04-1.08) in ever- and never-smokers combined. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that tobacco smoking could influence the development of psychotic conditions causally, whereas an influence on depression seems unlikely....
Thomas, Sharon R; O'Brien, Kelly A; Clarke, Tana L; Liu, Yihao; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea
Maternal depression and parenting are robust predictors of developmental outcomes for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, methods commonly used to examine parent-child interactions in these families do not account for temporal associations between child and parent behavior that have been theorized to maintain negative child behavior. Moreover, studies examining associations between maternal depression and parenting in families of children with ADHD have not compared mothers who were currently depressed, remitted, and never clinically depressed. This study utilized sequential analysis to examine how maternal reinforcement of compliant and noncompliant child behavior differs as a function of maternal depression history. Within the 82 participating mother-child dyads, 21 mothers were currently depressed, 29 mothers had a lifetime history of depression but were in remission for at least 1 month, and 32 mothers had never been clinically depressed. 24 girls (29.6 %) and 57 boys (70.4 %) between the ages of 6-12 years old (M = 8.7, SD = 2.0) and were diagnosed with ADHD. Results indicated that all mothers were less likely to respond optimally than non-optimally to child compliant and noncompliant behaviors during observed parent-child interactions; however, currently depressed mothers were least likely to reinforce child compliance and responded most coercively to child noncompliance relative to the other groups. Remitted mothers in this sample were more coercive than never clinically depressed mothers, but were more likely to follow through with commands than never clinically depressed mothers. Implications for behavioral parent training programs aimed at skill development for depressed mothers of children with ADHD are discussed.
Beckner, Victoria; Howard, Isa; Vella, Lea; Mohr, David C.
Depression is common in individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS). While psychotherapy is an effective treatment for depression, not all individuals benefit. We examined whether baseline social support might differentially affect treatment outcome in 127 participants with MS and depression randomized to either Telephone-administered Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (T-CBT) or Telephone-administered Emotion-Focused Therapy (T-EFT). We predicted that those with low social support would improve more ...
Full Text Available Breastfeeding is known to benefit both the mother’s and the child’s health. Our aim was to test the interactive effects between estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1 rs2234693 and breastfeeding when predicting the child’s later depression in adulthood. A sample of 1209 boys and girls from the Young Finns Study were followed from childhood over 27 years up to age 30–45 years. Adulthood depressive symptoms were self-reported by the participants using the Beck Depression Inventory. Breastfeeding as well as several possibly confounding factors was reported by the parents in childhood or adolescence. Breastfeeding tended to predict lower adult depression, while ESR1 rs2234693 was not associated with depression. A significant interaction between breastfeeding and ESR1 was found to predict participants’ depression (P=.004 so that C/C genotype carriers who had not been breastfed had higher risk of depression than T-allele carriers (40.5% versus 13.0% while there were no genotypic differences among those who had been breastfed. In sex-specific analysis, this interaction was evident only among women. We conclude that child’s genes and maternal behavior may interact in the development of child’s adult depression so that breastfeeding may buffer the inherited depression risk possibly associated with the C/C genotype of the ESR1 gene.
Sacchi, C; De Carli, P; Vieno, A; Piallini, G; Zoia, S; Simonelli, A
Maternal depression represents an important social/environmental factor in early childhood; however, its effect on children's motor development may vary depending on the role of infants' dispositional variables. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of the interaction between maternal depressive symptoms in the first two years of a child's life and the child's temperamental negative emotionality on motor development during this time. Using a cross-sectional study, we assessed 272 infants aged 0 to 24 months old and their mothers. We measured the following variables: maternal depression, infant's negative emotionality, and motor development. A three-way interaction effect highlights that negative emotionality in infants and maternal depression together affect children's overall motor growth trajectory. Infants with low negative emotionality display no effect of maternal depression on motor development. Conversely, infants with high negative emotionality seem to be more susceptible to the effect of maternal depression. Specifically, high maternal depression tends to foster the negative effect of infant's negativity on motor development across time, albeit not significantly. Finally, the absence of maternal depression significantly buffers negative temperament in infants. Findings highlighted the importance of integrating different perspectives when describing early motor growth. In fact, only when considering the interdependence of potential predictors their effect on the motor growth significantly emerges. Screening for early temperamental vulnerability might help in tailoring interventions to prevent maternal depression from affecting infants' motor development. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hao, Junhui; Wu, Di; Liu, Li; Li, Xirui; Wu, Hui
Depressive symptoms have been in the limelight for many kinds of people, but few studies have explored positive resources for combating depressive symptoms among Chinese nurses. The purpose of this study is to explore the association between work-family conflict (WFC) and depressive symptoms among Chinese female nurses, along with the mediating and moderating role of psychological capital (PsyCap) in this relationship. This cross-sectional study was completed during the period of September and October 2013. A questionnaire that consisted of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, the Work-Family Conflict scale and the Psychological Capital Questionnair scale was distributed to nurses in Shenyang, China. A total of 824 individuals (effective response rate: 74.9%) participated. Asymptotic and resampling strategies explored the mediating role of PsyCap in the relationship between WFC and depressive symptoms. Hierarchical linear regression analyses were performed to explore the moderating role of PsyCap. Both WFC and family-work conflict (FWC) were positively related with depressive symptoms. PsyCap positively moderated the relationship of WFC with depressive symptoms. Self-efficacy and hope positively moderated the relationship of WFC with depressive symptoms. PsyCap partially mediated the relationship of FWC with depressive symptoms. Hope and optimism partially mediated the relationship of FWC with depressive symptoms. Work-family conflict, as the risk factor of depressive symptoms, can increase nurses' depressive symptoms, and PsyCap is a positive resource to combat nurses' depressive symptoms. PsyCap can aggravate the effects of WFC on depressive symptoms and FWC can impact PsyCap to increase nurses' depressive symptoms.
Ralston, T.E.; Palfai, T.P.; Rinck, M.
Background Research suggests that depressed mood is associated with alcohol-related problems, though its relation with drinking behavior has been inconsistent across studies. Efforts to better understand the link between depressed mood and alcohol use have examined drinking motives as a potentially
Priess-Groben, Heather A.; Hyde, Janet Shibley
Depression surges in adolescence, especially among girls. Most evidence indicates that the short allele of a polymorphism in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) interacts with stress to influence the onset of depression. This effect appears to be less robust in adolescents, particularly among boys, and may be moderated…
Schellinger, Kriston B.; Holmbeck, Grayson N.; Essner, Bonnie S.; Alvarez, Renae
The purpose of the study was to examine the extent to which parenting behaviors influence the relation between maternal and child depressive symptoms in youth with spina bifida and a comparison sample. Previous research has found that maternal depression not only negatively impacts the mother-child relationship, but also places the child at risk…
Verkooijen, K.T.; Nielsen, G.A.; Kremers, S.P.J.
Although physical activity has been associated negatively with smoking in adolescence, the association is not well understood. Purpose: This study examines the relationship between adolescents' leisure time physical activity and smoking behavior, while considering BMI, weight concern, sense of
Huang, Yunhui; Lv, Wei; Wu, Jiang
This study examined the effect of intrinsic academic motivation and interpersonal conflict on the perceived depression and stress. Participants were 537 Chinese undergraduate students (191 males and 346 females; M age = 20.4 years, SD age = 1.3). They completed four scales measuring intrinsic academic motivation, interpersonal conflict, stress, and depression. Linear regressions were conducted with intrinsic academic motivation, interpersonal conflict, and their interaction as independent variables to predict depression and stress. Results showed that intrinsic academic motivation was negatively, while interpersonal conflict was positively, associated with depression and stress. Moreover, the interaction was significant: negative association of "intrinsic academic motivation and depression" and that of "intrinsic academic motivation and stress" was weaker among participants who reported higher (vs. lower) levels of interpersonal conflict. © The Author(s) 2016.
Belvederi Murri, Martino; Amore, Mario; Calcagno, Pietro; Respino, Matteo; Marozzi, Valentina; Masotti, Mattia; Bugliani, Michele; Innamorati, Marco; Pompili, Maurizio; Galderisi, Silvana; Maj, Mario
The so-called “insight paradox” posits that among patients with schizophrenia higher levels of insight are associated with increased levels of depression. Although different studies examined this issue, only few took in account potential confounders or factors that could influence this association. In a sample of clinically stable patients with schizophrenia, insight and depression were evaluated using the Scale to assess Unawareness of Mental Disorder and the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia. Other rating scales were used to assess the severity of psychotic symptoms, extrapyramidal symptoms, hopelessness, internalized stigma, self-esteem, and service engagement. Regression models were used to estimate the magnitude of the association between insight and depression while accounting for the role of confounders. Putative psychological and sociodemographic factors that could act as mediators and moderators were examined using the PROCESS macro. By accounting for the role of confounding factors, the strength of the association between insight into symptoms and depression increased from 13% to 25% explained covariance. Patients with lower socioeconomic status (F = 8.5, P = .04), more severe illness (F = 4.8, P = .03) and lower levels of service engagement (F = 4.7, P = .03) displayed the strongest association between insight and depression. Lastly, hopelessness, internalized stigma and perceived discrimination acted as significant mediators. The relationship between insight and depression should be considered a well established phenomenon among patients with schizophrenia: it seems stronger than previously reported especially among patients with lower socioeconomic status, severe illness and poor engagement with services. These findings may have relevant implications for the promotion of insight among patients with schizophrenia. PMID:27069064
Worley, Matthew J.; Tate, Susan R.; Granholm, Eric; Brown, Sandra A.
Objective Neurocognitive impairment has not consistently predicted substance use treatment outcomes but has been linked to proximal mediators of outcome. These indirect effects have not been examined in adults with substance dependence and co-occurring psychiatric disorders. We examined mediators and moderators of the effects of neurocognitive impairment on substance use among adults in treatment for alcohol or drug dependence and major depression (MDD). Method Participants were veterans (N =197, mean age = 49.3 years, 90% male, 75% Caucasian) in a trial of two group interventions for alcohol/drug dependence and MDD. Measures examined here included intake neurocognitive assessments and percent days drinking (PDD), percent days using drugs (PDDRG), self-efficacy, 12-step affiliation, and depressive symptoms measured every 3 months from intake to the 18-month follow-up. Results Greater intake neurocognitive impairment predicted lower self-efficacy, lower 12-step affiliation, and greater depression severity, and these time-varying variables mediated the effects of impairment on future PDD and PDDRG. The prospective effects of 12-step affiliation on future PDD were greater for those with greater neurocognitive impairment. Impairment also interacted with depression to moderate the effects of 12-step affiliation and self-efficacy on PDD. Adults with greater impairment and currently severe depression had the strongest associations between 12-step affiliation/self-efficacy and future drinking. Conclusions Greater neurocognitive impairment may lead to poorer outcomes from group therapy for alcohol/drug dependence and MDD due to compromised change in therapeutic processes. Distal factors such as neurocognitive impairment can interact with dynamic risk factors to modulate the association between therapeutic processes and future drinking outcomes. PMID:24588403
Frewen, P.A.; Schmittmann, V.D.; Bringmann, L.F.; Borsboom, D.
Background Previous research demonstrates that posttraumatic memory reexperiencing, depression, anxiety, and guilt-shame are frequently co-occurring problems that may be causally related. Objectives The present study utilized Perceived Causal Relations (PCR) scaling in order to assess participants’
Frewen, Paul A.; Schmittmann, Verena D.; Bringmann, Laura F.; Borsboom, Denny
Background: Previous research demonstrates that posttraumatic memory reexperiencing, depression, anxiety, and guilt-shame are frequently co-occurring problems that may be causally related. Objectives: The present study utilized Perceived Causal Relations (PCR) scaling in order to assess
Full Text Available Heavy alcohol use in young adults has been prospectively associated with a host of psychosocial and alcohol-related problems. Recent studies have supported the interaction between serotonin transporter polymorphism and adverse environmental factors, as a predictor of alcohol use and the development of alcohol dependence. The current study examined the role of depressive symptoms in combination with the serotonin transporter polymorphism as a predictor of alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. Results revealed a significant genotype by depressive symptom interaction, such that heavier alcohol use was associated with depressive symptoms in L allele homozygotes but not among S allele carriers. These results remained significant after controlling for ethnicity and gender effects. These findings extend the emerging literature supporting 5-HTTLPR genotype as a risk factor for alcohol-related problems in the context of co-occurring symptoms of depression.
Ho, Jennefer S.
Rationale: Alzheimer’s disease caregivers demonstrate significant elevations in depression compared with noncaregivers. Addressing caregiver depression is of high public health importance due to its ties with overall wellbeing, increased risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVD), and ability to sustain caregiving duties. Improving caregiver mental and physical health may not only decrease healthcare costs, but it may also delay institutionalization of Alzheimer’s disease patients. Despite existi...
Price, Thomas S.; Grosser, Tilo; Plomin, Robert; Jaffee, Sara R.
Maternal smoking during pregnancy retards fetal growth and depresses infant birth weight. The magnitude of these effects may be moderated by fetal genotype. The current study investigated maternal smoking, fetal genotype, and fetal growth in a large population sample of dizygotic twins. Maternal smoking retarded fetal growth in a dose-dependent…
Hunter, Sarah B; Paddock, Susan M; Zhou, Annie; Watkins, Katherine E; Hepner, Kimberly A
The study goal was to determine whether client attributes were associated with outcomes from group cognitive behavioral therapy for depression (GCBT-D) as delivered in community-based addiction treatment settings. Data from 299 depressed residential clients assigned to receive either usual care (N = 159) or usual care plus GCBT-D (N = 140) were examined. Potential moderators included gender, race/ethnicity, education, referral status, and problem substance use. Study outcomes at 6 months post-baseline included changes in depressive symptoms, mental health functioning, negative consequences from substance use, and percentage of days abstinent. Initial examination indicated that non-Hispanic Whites had significantly better outcomes than other racial/ethnic groups on two of the four outcomes. After correcting for multiple testing, none of the examined client attributes moderated the treatment effect. GCBT-D appears effective; however, the magnitude and consistency of treatment effects indicate that it may be less helpful among members of racial/ethnic minority groups and is worthy of future study.
Tibi, L; van Oppen, P; van Balkom, A J L M; Eikelenboom, M; Rickelt, J; Schruers, K R J; Anholt, G E
Depression is the most common comorbidity in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, the mechanisms of depressive comorbidity in OCD are poorly understood. We assessed the directionality and moderators of the OCD-depression association over time in a large, prospective clinical sample of OCD patients. Data were drawn from 382 OCD patients participating at the Netherlands Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Association (NOCDA) study. Cross-lagged, structural equation modeling analyses were used to assess the temporal association between OCD and depressive symptoms. Assessments were conducted at baseline, two-year and four-year follow up. Cognitive and interpersonal moderators of the prospective association between OCD and depressive symptoms were tested. Cross-lagged analyses demonstrated that OCD predicts depressive symptoms at two-year follow up and not vice a versa. This relationship disappeared at four-year follow up. Secure attachment style moderated the prospective association between OCD and depression. Depressive comorbidity in OCD might constitute a functional consequence of the incapacitating OCD symptoms. Both OCD and depression symptoms demonstrated strong stability effects between two-year and four-year follow up, which may explain the lack of association between them in that period. Among OCD patients, secure attachment represents a buffer against future depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Albuja, Analia F; Lara, M Asunción; Navarrete, Laura; Nieto, Lourdes
Women who lack social support tend to have a higher risk of postpartum depression. The present study examined the traditional female role, understood here as the adoption of passive and submissive traits specific to Mexican women, as another risk factor for postpartum depressive symptomatology that interacts with social support. Using two waves of data from a longitudinal study of 210 adult Mexican women (20-44 years-old, M age = 29.50 years, SD = 6.34), we found that lacking social support during the third trimester of their pregnancy was associated with greater depressive symptoms at 6 months in the postpartum, although this relationship depended on the level of endorsement of the traditional female role during pregnancy. Lower social support during pregnancy predicted greater postpartum depressive symptoms for women with higher endorsement of the traditional female role, even when accounting for prenatal depressive symptoms. These results suggest that Mexican women's experience of social support may depend on their individual adherence to gender roles. Understanding the association between women's traditional roles and social support in the risk for postpartum depression can improve prevention and educational programs for women at risk.
U. C. Adler
Full Text Available Homeopathy is a complementary and integrative medicine used in depression, The aim of this study is to investigate the non-inferiority and tolerability of individualized homeopathic medicines [Quinquagintamillesmial (Q-potencies] in acute depression, using fluoxetine as active control. Ninety-one outpatients with moderate to severe depression were assigned to receive an individualized homeopathic medicine or fluoxetine 20 mg day−1 (up to 40 mg day−1 in a prospective, randomized, double-blind double-dummy 8-week, single-center trial. Primary efficacy measure was the analysis of the mean change in the Montgomery & Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS depression scores, using a non-inferiority test with margin of 1.45. Secondary efficacy outcomes were response and remission rates. Tolerability was assessed with the side effect rating scale of the Scandinavian Society of Psychopharmacology. Mean MADRS scores differences were not significant at the 4th (P = .654 and 8th weeks (P = .965 of treatment. Non-inferiority of homeopathy was indicated because the upper limit of the confidence interval (CI for mean difference in MADRS change was less than the non-inferiority margin: mean differences (homeopathy-fluoxetine were −3.04 (95% CI −6.95, 0.86 and −2.4 (95% CI −6.05, 0.77 at 4th and 8th week, respectively. There were no significant differences between the percentages of response or remission rates in both groups. Tolerability: there were no significant differences between the side effects rates, although a higher percentage of patients treated with fluoxetine reported troublesome side effects and there was a trend toward greater treatment interruption for adverse effects in the fluoxetine group. This study illustrates the feasibility of randomized controlled double-blind trials of homeopathy in depression and indicates the non-inferiority of individualized homeopathic Q-potencies as compared to fluoxetine in acute treatment of
Adler, U. C.; Paiva, N. M. P.; Cesar, A. T.; Adler, M. S.; Molina, A.; Padula, A. E.; Calil, H. M.
Homeopathy is a complementary and integrative medicine used in depression, The aim of this study is to investigate the non-inferiority and tolerability of individualized homeopathic medicines [Quinquagintamillesmial (Q-potencies)] in acute depression, using fluoxetine as active control. Ninety-one outpatients with moderate to severe depression were assigned to receive an individualized homeopathic medicine or fluoxetine 20 mg day−1 (up to 40 mg day−1) in a prospective, randomized, double-blind double-dummy 8-week, single-center trial. Primary efficacy measure was the analysis of the mean change in the Montgomery & Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) depression scores, using a non-inferiority test with margin of 1.45. Secondary efficacy outcomes were response and remission rates. Tolerability was assessed with the side effect rating scale of the Scandinavian Society of Psychopharmacology. Mean MADRS scores differences were not significant at the 4th (P = .654) and 8th weeks (P = .965) of treatment. Non-inferiority of homeopathy was indicated because the upper limit of the confidence interval (CI) for mean difference in MADRS change was less than the non-inferiority margin: mean differences (homeopathy-fluoxetine) were −3.04 (95% CI −6.95, 0.86) and −2.4 (95% CI −6.05, 0.77) at 4th and 8th week, respectively. There were no significant differences between the percentages of response or remission rates in both groups. Tolerability: there were no significant differences between the side effects rates, although a higher percentage of patients treated with fluoxetine reported troublesome side effects and there was a trend toward greater treatment interruption for adverse effects in the fluoxetine group. This study illustrates the feasibility of randomized controlled double-blind trials of homeopathy in depression and indicates the non-inferiority of individualized homeopathic Q-potencies as compared to fluoxetine in acute treatment of outpatients
Probst, Thomas; Neumeier, Susanne; Altmeppen, J?rgen; Angerer, Michael; Loew, Thomas; Pieh, Christoph
Research has shown that pain is associated with disability and that depressed mood mediates the relationship between pain and disability. The question of whether duration of pain moderates these effects was addressed in this cross-sectional study with 356 chronic pain patients. A simple mediation model replicated the notion that depressed mood explains a significant proportion of the relationship between pain and disability (in the study at hand: 12%). A moderated mediation model revealed tha...
Hickey, Emma; Fitzgerald, Amanda; Dooley, Barbara
This study examined the moderating role of gender and coping strategies in the relationship between perceived family support, self-esteem and depressive symptoms. Data were used from the My World Survey Second Level (MWS-SL), a national survey of mental health among 6062 young people aged 12-19 years. Conditional process analyses indicated that planned coping moderated the relationship between perceived family support and depressive symptoms for those engaging in low-moderate levels but not high levels of planned coping, and this moderating role was stronger for females than males. Avoidance coping was a moderator for those engaging in moderate-high but not low levels of avoidance coping, and gender also moderated this relationship. Support-focused coping only moderated the perceived family support/depressive symptoms relationship for females. Findings suggest that the strength of the relationship between perceived family support and depressive symptoms depends on level of engagement with a particular coping strategy, and this engagement is a consistently stronger moderator for females.
Kim, Su Yeong; Hou, Yang; Gonzalez, Yolanda
This study aimed to untangle the mixed effects of language brokering by examining a contextual factor (i.e., parent-child alienation) and a personal attribute (i.e., resilience) that may relate to adolescents' feelings during translating (i.e., sense of burden and efficacy) and that may moderate the association between such feelings and adolescent depressive symptoms. Participants included 557 adolescent language brokers (M age = 12.96) in Mexican-American families. Results showed that adolescents with a strong sense of alienation from parents or low resilience (a) experienced more burden or less efficacy in translating and (b) were more susceptible to the detrimental effects of feeling a sense of burden and the beneficial effects of experiencing a sense of efficacy, as measured by depressive symptoms. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Kim, Il-Ho; Noh, Samuel; Chun, Heeran
This study evaluated the relationship between ageism and depression, exploring the stress-mediating and stress-moderating roles of emotional reactions and coping behaviors. Data were from the 2013 Ageism and Health Study (n = 816), a cross-sectional survey of urban and rural community-dwelling seniors aged 60-89 years in South Korea. Participants with at least one experience of ageism reported on their emotional reactions and coping responses. The measure yielded two types of coping: problem-focused (taking formal action, confrontation, seeking social support) and emotion-focused (passive acceptance, emotional discharge). Although ageism was significantly associated with depressive symptoms (B = 0.27, p ageism and related coping processes among Korean elderly and suggest that regulating emotional reactions may determine the efficacy of coping with ageism.
Heinze, Justin E; Cook, Stephanie H; Wood, Erica P; Dumadag, Anne C; Zimmerman, Marc A
Exposure to violence during adolescence is associated with increased risk behaviors and mental health problems in adulthood. Friendship attachment during adolescence may, however, mitigate the negative effects of exposure to violence on trajectories of depression and anxiety in young adulthood. In this study, we used growth curve modeling to examine associations between exposure to violence and mental health outcomes, followed by multi-group analyses with friendship attachment as the moderator. The sample was drawn from a longitudinal study (12 waves; 1994-2012) of 676 (54% female) urban high school students. We found strong positive associations between exposure to violence during adolescence and later self-reported depressive and anxiety symptoms. Notably, securely attached adolescents reported faster decreases in mental health symptoms as a function of violence relative to their insecurely attached peers as they transitioned into adulthood.
Ruwaard, Jeroen; Schrieken, Bart; Schrijver, Menno; Broeksteeg, Janneke; Dekker, Jack; Vermeulen, Hans; Lange, Alfred
Depression is common but undertreated. Web-based self-help provides a widely accessible treatment alternative for mild to moderate depression. However, the lack of therapist guidance may limit its efficacy. The authors assess the efficacy of therapist-guided web-based cognitive behavioural treatment
Chen, Gui; Guo, Guiping; Gong, Jingbo; Xiao, Shuiyuan
The current study investigated the moderating effects of gender, age, and weight status on the relationship between body dissatisfaction and depression among adolescents. Data were collected on body dissatisfaction, depression, and demographic characteristics from a convenience sample of 1,101 adolescents (505 girls, 596 boys). The relationship…
Waelde, Lynn C.; And Others
Examines whether relationships of self-reported depression and suicidality to gender roles or gender are moderated by stressful life events. Results with 290 female and 247 male undergraduates support the androgyny model of adjustment and a self-schema model of depression. (SLD)
Ruwaard, J.; Schrieken, B.; Schrijver, M.; Broeksteeg, J.; Dekker, J.; Vermeulen, H.; Lange, A.
Depression is common but undertreated. Web-based self-help provides a widely accessible treatment alternative for mild to moderate depression. However, the lack of therapist guidance may limit its efficacy. The authors assess the efficacy of therapist-guided web-based cognitive behavioural treatment
Berntson, Jessica; Patel, Jay S; Stewart, Jesse C
We investigated whether number of recent stressful life events is associated with incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) and whether this relationship is stronger in adults with a history of clinical depression. Prospective data from 28,583 U.S. adults (mean age=45years) initially free of CVD who participated in Waves 1 (2001-2002) and 2 (2004-2005) of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) were examined. Number of past-year stressful life events (Wave 1), lifetime depressive disorder (Wave 1), and incident CVD (Wave 2) were determined by structured interviews. There were 1069 cases of incident CVD. Each additional stressful life event was associated with a 15% increased odds of incident CVD [Odds Ratio (OR)=1.15, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.11, 1.19]. As hypothesized, a stressful life events by lifetime depressive disorder interaction was detected (P=0.003). Stratified analyses indicated that stressful life events had a stronger association with incident CVD among adults with (OR=1.18, 95% CI: 1.10, 1.27, n=4908) versus without (OR=1.10, 95% CI: 1.07, 1.14, n=23,675) a lifetime depressive disorder. Our findings suggest that a greater number of recent stressful life events elevate the risk of new-onset CVD and that this risk is potentiated in adults with a history of clinical depression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
King, Kevin M; Karyadi, Kenny A; Luk, Jeremy W; Patock-Peckham, Julie A
"Impulsivity" has been consistently identified as a key personality predictor of alcohol-related problems and subsequent alcohol use disorder. Multiple prior studies have demonstrated impulsivity is an individual difference factor that strengthens the effects of some risk factors, such as alcohol consumption and depressive symptoms, on alcohol problems. However, recent research indicated common measures of impulsivity actually reflect multiple dispositions toward rash action, and that alcohol problems were most consistently related to one of those dispositions, negative urgency. Little research has examined how specific dispositions to rash action may act as putative moderators of other risk factors for alcohol problems. The goal of the current study was to test which dispositions to rash action moderated the effects of concurrent alcohol use or depressive symptoms on alcohol problems. Using a large cross-sectional sample of college students (n = 573), the current study utilized semicontinuous regression models, which allow prediction of both the likelihood and level of alcohol problems. Negative urgency was found to be the main predictor of alcohol problems, above and beyond other dispositions to rash action, which replicates prior research. However, each of the other dispositions exhibited risk-enhancing effects on the relations between either depressive symptoms or alcohol use and concurrent alcohol problems. Specifically, lower levels of premeditation enhanced the association between depressive symptoms and alcohol problems, while lower perseverance and higher sensation seeking were related to more alcohol problems at higher levels of alcohol use. Results suggest that multiple dispositions to rash action were related to problematic alcohol use both directly and via their interaction with other risk factors. (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.
Lei, Man-Kit; Beach, Steven R H; Simons, Ronald L; Philibert, Robert A
Social scientists have long recognized the important role that neighborhood crime can play in stress-related disease, but very little is known about potential biosocial mechanisms that may link the experience of living in high-crime neighborhoods with depression. The current study introduces an integrated model that combines neighborhood, genetic, and epigenetic factors. Hypotheses were tested with a sample of 99 African American women from the Family and Community Health Study (FACHS). Allele variants of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTT) interact with neighborhood crime to predict depressive symptoms in a manner consonant with the differential susceptibility perspective. Furthermore, this association is mediated by DNA methylation of the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene. The findings provide support for an integrated model in which changes in DNA methylation, resulting from neighborhood crime, can result in an increase or decrease in gene activity which, in turn, influences depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Krogh, Jesper; Videbech, Poul; Renvillard, Signe Groth
Background: Patients with depression display neurobiological changes of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis as well as cognitive disturbances. Aims: To assess any association between hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis reactivity and memory-related cognitive functions. Methods: Depressed...... the following day at the same times. Results: Patients and controls did not differ on any memory-related cognitive skills. After dexamethasone the cortisol level was 1.7 nmol/l higher (95% CI 0.0-2.8, P =¿0.05) in depressed patients compared with controls. In the control group, but not in the patients...... after dexamethasone and visuo-spatial memory primarily driven by the healthy controls. Otherwise, no association were found between HPA axis reactivity and memory-related cognitive function....
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many people living with chronic viral hepatitis C (HCV report reduced health-related quality of life. The relative contribution of behavioural, psychosocial and HCV disease factors to reduction in HCV health-related quality of life is not well understood. The objectives of the present study were to compare standardized health-related quality of life scores between Canadian HCV patients and age-matched Canadian and American norms, and to examine the relative contribution of biopsychosocial variables (ie, cigarette smoking, alcohol intake and depression to health-related quality of life scores among Canadian HCV patients.
Ruggles, Kelly V; Fang, Yixin; Tate, Janet; Mentor, Sherry M; Bryant, Kendall J; Fiellin, David A; Justice, Amy C; Braithwaite, R Scott
To evaluate and characterize the structure of temporal patterns of depression, smoking, unhealthy alcohol use, and other substance use among individuals receiving medical care, and to inform discussion about whether integrated screening and treatment strategies for these conditions are warranted. Using the Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS) we measured depression, smoking, unhealthy alcohol use and other substance use (stimulants, marijuana, heroin, opioids) and evaluated which conditions tended to co-occur within individuals, and how this co-occurrence was temporally structured (i.e. concurrently, sequentially, or discordantly). Current depression was associated with current use of every substance examined with the exception of unhealthy alcohol use. Current unhealthy alcohol use and marijuana use were also consistently associated. Current status was strongly predicted by prior status (p relationships. Associations in the HIV infected and uninfected subgroups were largely the same with the following exceptions. Smoking preceded unhealthy alcohol use and current smoking was associated with current depression in the HIV infected subgroup only (p smoking, unhealthy alcohol use, and other substance use were temporally concordant, particularly with regard to depression and substance use. These patterns may inform future development of more integrated screening and treatment strategies.
Liu, Ruth X.
This paper examines whether severity of depression reduces or intensifies the relationship between friends' suicide attempt and adolescent's own attempt to commit suicide, and whether there are gender differences in this interrelationship. Using logistic regression and data from a nationally representative sample of adolescents studied at 2 points…
Lopez, Frederick G.; Fons-Scheyd, Alia
This study examined interrelationships among role balance perceptions, adult attachment orientations, and depression within an ethnically diverse, mixed-gender sample of college students. Adult attachment orientations--and particularly attachment avoidance--significantly interacted with students' role balance levels to predict their depression…
Verstraeten, Katrien; Vasey, Michael W.; Raes, Filip; Bijttebier, Patricia
The present study examined the relations between temperament, ruminative response style and depressive symptoms both cross-sectionally and prospectively (1 year follow-up) in a community sample of 304 seventh- through tenth-graders. First, higher levels of negative affectivity (NA), lower levels of positive affectivity (PA) and lower levels of…
Korte, J.; Bohlmeijer, Ernst Thomas; Cappeliez, P.; Smit, F.; Westerhof, Gerben Johan
Background Although there is substantial evidence for the efficacy of life review therapy as an early treatment of depression in later life, its effectiveness in natural settings has not been studied. The present study evaluates an intervention based on life review and narrative therapy in a large
Karlsson, Hasse; Säteri, Ulla; Markowitz, John C
Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) has shown efficacy in randomized controlled trials. No reports exist on IPT for depressed patients with severe psychiatric comorbidities in public outpatient clinics. This pilot feasibility study assessed preliminary effectiveness and patient satisfaction with IPT for depressed patients with psychiatric comorbidities in municipal outpatient care in Turku, Finland. Because lengthy treatment strains mental healthcare resources, this trial also assessed the potential for IPT, a time-limited treatment, to discharge patients successfully. Seven clinicians in two municipal clinics were briefly trained to deliver IPT, while clinicians in two other clinics provided treatment as usual (TAU). Twenty-six patients with moderate to severe major depressive disorder received IPT for 16 weeks, and a control group (n = 20) received TAU. Seventy-six percent of patients had concurrent anxiety disorders, 73% personality disorders and 20% alcohol dependence. As 61% of patients received concurrent pharmacotherapy, the study lacked statistical power to find outcome differences between treatment groups. Depressive symptoms, social functioning and self-perceived health improved notably in both groups. The mean Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) score decreased from 20 to 10. Using HAMD ≤ 7 as a cutoff, 28.3% of patients achieved remission. Patients receiving IPT reported significantly greater satisfaction with their treatment and were more often able to terminate treatment after 16 sessions. Both treatments were effective in this small, highly comorbid sample. Conducting IPT appeared feasible in municipal outpatient clinics and offered some advantages over TAU. It was possible to train staff quickly. These results warrant a further, larger randomized trial.
Full Text Available The qi stagnation constitution is associated with depression in traditional Chinese medicine. It is unclear how rumination and stressful life events affect the relationship between the qi stagnation constitution and depression. The Qi Stagnation Constitution Scale, Ruminative Response Scale, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, and Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Checklist were used to assess this association in 1200 female college students. The results revealed that the qi stagnation constitution was positively associated with depression. Furthermore, rumination was a partial mediator of the relationship between the qi stagnation constitution and depression. In addition, stressful life events moderated the direct effect and mediating effect of the qi stagnation constitution on depression. These findings indicate that rumination and stressful life events may affect the relationship between the qi stagnation constitution and depression in women.
Starr, Lisa R.; Hammen, Constance
Studies support a link between adolescent romantic involvement and depression. Adolescent romantic relationships may increase depression risk by introducing chronic stress, and genetic vulnerability to stress reactivity/emotion dysregulation may moderate these associations. We tested genetic moderation of longitudinal associations between adolescent romantic involvement and later depressive symptoms by a polymorphism in the serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region gene (5-HTTLPR), and examined contributory roles of chronic stress and family discord. Three hundred eighty-one youth participated at ages 15 and 20. The results indicated that 5-HTTLPR moderated the association between age 15 romantic involvement and age 20 depressive symptoms, with strongest effects for short homozygotes. Conditional process analysis revealed that chronic stress functioned as a moderated mediator of this association, fully accounting for the romantic involvement-depression link among short/short genotypes. Also, romantic involvement predicted later depressive symptoms most strongly among short-allele carriers with high family discord. Results have important implications for understanding the romantic involvement-depression link and the behavioral and emotional Correlates of the 5-HTTLPR genotype. PMID:26037034
Elliot, Ari J; Gallegos, Autumn M; Moynihan, Jan A; Chapman, Benjamin P
To investigate whether observed interactions of mindfulness with the personality trait neuroticism extend to older adults and to aspects of psychological functioning other than depressive symptoms, and whether effects of mindfulness training in this population depend on levels of neuroticism. We performed a secondary analysis of data from a randomized controlled trial of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) for community-dwelling older adults. We investigated whether neuroticism moderates associations of dispositional mindfulness with various aspects of psychological and physical functioning at baseline, as well as effects of MBSR on these outcomes. Significant two-way interactions showed that greater mindfulness was associated with fewer depressive symptoms and less negative affect at baseline in individuals with average or higher levels of neuroticism. In contrast, mindfulness was associated with greater positive affect and vitality and fewer physical symptoms regardless of the level of neuroticism. There were no effects of MBSR on these outcomes at any level of neuroticism. Mindfulness may be more protective against psychological ill-being in older adults with higher levels of neuroticism, but conducive to positive psychological and physical well-being regardless of this personality trait. The potential moderating role of neuroticism should be further evaluated in studies of mindfulness-based interventions in older adults.
Dev, Varun; Dixon, Stephanie N; Fleet, Jamie L; Gandhi, Sonja; Gomes, Tara; Harel, Ziv; Jain, Arsh K; Shariff, Salimah Z; Tawadrous, Davy; Weir, Matthew A; Garg, Amit X
Many older patients have chronic kidney disease (CKD), and a lower dose of anti-depressants paroxetine, mirtazapine and venlafaxine is recommended in patients with CKD to prevent drug accumulation from reduced elimination. Using information available in large population-based healthcare administrative databases, we conducted this study to determine if ignoring the recommendation and prescribing a higher versus lower dose of anti-depressants associates with a higher risk of adverse events. We conducted a population-based cohort study to describe the 30-day risk of delirium in older adults who initiated a higher vs. lower dose of these three anti-depressants in routine care. We defined delirium using the best proxy available in our data sources - hospitalization with an urgent head computed tomography (CT) scan. We determined if CKD status modified the association between anti-depressant dose and outcome, and examined the secondary outcome of 30 day all-cause mortality. We used multivariable logistic regression analyses to estimate adjusted odds ratios (relative risk (RR)) and 95% confidence intervals. We identified adults (mean age 75) in Ontario who started a new study anti-depressant at a higher dose (n=36,651; 31%) or lower dose (n=81,160; 69%). Initiating a higher vs. lower dose was not associated with an increased risk of hospitalization with head CT (1.09% vs. 1.27% (adjusted RR 0.90; 95% CI, 0.80 to 1.02), but was associated with a lower risk of all-cause mortality (0.76% vs. 0.97% RR 0.82; 95% CI, 0.71 to 0.95). Neither of these relative risks were modified by the presence of CKD (p=0.16, 0.68, respectively). We did not observe an increase in two adverse outcomes when study anti-depressants were initiated at a higher dose in elderly patients with moderate CKD. Contrary to our hypothesis, the 30-day risk of mortality was lower when a higher versus lower dose of anti-depressant was initiated in these patients, a finding which requires corroboration and further
Cross, Kara; Flores, Roberto; Butterfield, Jacyln; Blackman, Melinda; Lee, Stephanie
The study examined the effects of music therapy and dance/movement therapy on cognitively impaired and mild to moderately depressed older adults. Passive listening to music and active observation of dance accompanied by music were studied in relation to memory enhancement and relief of depressive symptoms in 100 elderly board and care residents. The Beck Depression Inventory and the Recognition Memory Test-Faces Inventory were administered to two groups (one group exposed to a live 30-min. session of musical dance observation, the other to 30 min. of pre-recorded music alone) before the intervention and measured again 3 and 10 days after the intervention. Scores improved for both groups on both measures following the interventions, but the group exposed to dance therapy had significantly lower Beck Depression scores that lasted longer. These findings suggest that active observation of Dance Movement Therapy could play a role in temporarily alleviating moderate depressive symptoms and some cognitive deficits in older adults.
Temuryants, N. A.; Tumanyants, K. N.; Khusainov, D. R.; Cheretaev, I. V.; Tumanyants, E. N.
It was found that moderate electromagnetic shielding, which attenuates constant and variable components of the geomagnetic field (19 h per day for 10 days), induces in male rats the development of depression-like behavior. This behavior is diagnosed on the basis of increased passive swimming time and a decreased duration of active swimming in the Porsolt test. These behaviors reach their peak on days 3-4 of the experiment. The daily administration of 1 mg/kg exogenous melatonin reduces these depression-like behaviors as soon as day 1 of the experiment, and this effect persists throughout all stages of the experiment. Electromagnetic shielding and the administration of 1 mg/kg exogenous melatonin do not change the levels of intraspecies aggressiveness. An increase in melatonin dosage to 5 mg/kg even further reduces depression-like symptoms and stops the increase in intraspecies aggressiveness during the experiment. The conclusion is made that melatonin plays an important role in the mechanisms of physiological effects of a weakened electromagnetic geomagnetic field.
Sitnikov, Lilya; Rohan, Kelly J; Evans, Maggie; Mahon, Jennifer N; Nillni, Yael I
There is no empirical basis for determining which seasonal affective disorder (SAD) patients are best suited for what type of treatment. Using data from a parent clinical trial comparing light therapy (LT), cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), and their combination (CBT + LT) for SAD, we constructed hierarchical linear regression models to explore baseline cognitive vulnerability constructs (i.e., dysfunctional attitudes, negative automatic thoughts, response styles) as prognostic and prescriptive factors of acute and next winter depression outcomes. Cognitive constructs did not predict or moderate acute treatment outcomes. Baseline dysfunctional attitudes and negative automatic thoughts were prescriptive of next winter treatment outcomes. Participants with higher baseline levels of dysfunctional attitudes and negative automatic thoughts had less severe depression the next winter if treated with CBT than if treated with LT. In addition, participants randomized to solo LT who scored at or above the sample mean on these cognitive measures at baseline had more severe depressive symptoms the next winter relative to those who scored below the mean. Baseline dysfunctional attitudes and negative automatic thoughts did not predict treatment outcomes in participants assigned to solo CBT or CBT + LT. Therefore, SAD patients with extremely rigid cognitions did not fare as well in the subsequent winter if treated initially with solo LT. Such patients may be better suited for initial treatment with CBT, which directly targets cognitive vulnerability processes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Maaike Van Den Houte
Full Text Available Background: Several studies have shown that patients with functional somatic syndromes (FSS have, on average, deficient endogenous pain modulation (EPM, as well as elevated levels of negative affectivity (NA and high comorbidity with depression and reduced resting heart rate variability (HRV compared to healthy controls (HC. The goals of this study were (1 to replicate these findings and (2 to investigate the moderating role of NA, depression, and resting HRV in EPM efficiency within a patient group with fibromyalgia and/or chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS. Resting HRV was quantified as the root mean square of successive differences between inter-beat intervals (RMSSD in rest, a vagally mediated time domain measure of HRV.Methods: Seventy-eight patients with fibromyalgia and/or CFS and 33 HC completed a counter-irritation paradigm as a measure of EPM efficiency. Participants rated the painfulness of electrocutaneous stimuli (of individually calibrated intensity on the ankle before (baseline phase, during (counter-irritation phase and after (recovery phase the application of a cold pain stimulus on the forearm. A larger reduction in pain in the counter-irritation phase compared to the baseline phase reflects a more efficient EPM.Results: In contrast to our expectations, there was no difference between pain ratings in the baseline compared to counter-irritation phase for both patients and HC. Therefore, reliable conclusions on the moderating effect of NA, depression, and RMSSD could not be made. Surprisingly, patients reported more pain in the recovery compared to the counter-irritation and baseline phase, while HC did not. This latter effect was more pronounced in patients with comorbid depression, patients who rated the painfulness of the counter-irritation stimulus as high and patients who rated the painfulness of the electrocutaneous stimuli as low. We did not manage to successfully replicate the counter-irritation effect in HC or FSS patients
Rice, Simon; Gleeson, John; Davey, Christopher; Hetrick, Sarah; Parker, Alexandra; Lederman, Reeva; Wadley, Greg; Murray, Greg; Herrman, Helen; Chambers, Richard; Russon, Penni; Miles, Christopher; D'Alfonso, Simon; Thurley, Melissa; Chinnery, Gina; Gilbertson, Tamsyn; Eleftheriadis, Dina; Barlow, Emma; Cagliarini, Daniella; Toh, Jia-Wern; McAlpine, Stuart; Koval, Peter; Bendall, Sarah; Jansen, Jens Einar; Hamilton, Matthew; McGorry, Patrick; Alvarez-Jimenez, Mario
Implementation of targeted e-mental health interventions offers a promising solution to reducing the burden of disease associated with youth depression. A single-group pilot study was conducted to evaluate the acceptability, feasibility, usability and safety of a novel, moderated online social therapy intervention (entitled Rebound) for depression relapse prevention in young people. Participants were 42 young people (15-25 years) (50% men; mean age = 18.5 years) in partial or full remission. Participants had access to the Rebound platform for at least 12 weeks, including the social networking, peer and clinical moderator and therapy components. Follow-up data were available for 39 (92.9%) participants. There was high system usage, with 3034 user logins (mean = 72.2 per user) and 2146 posts (mean = 51.1). Almost 70% of users had ≥10 logins over the 12 weeks, with 78.5% logging in over at least 2 months of the pilot. A total of 32 (84%) participants rated the intervention as helpful. There was significant improvement between the number of participants in full remission at baseline (n = 5; none of whom relapsed) relative to n = 19 at 12-week follow-up (P < 0.001). Six (14.3%) participants relapsed to full threshold symptoms at 12 weeks. There was a significant improvement to interviewer-rated depression scores (Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS); P = 0.014, d = 0.45) and a trend for improved strength use (P = 0.088, d = 0.29). The single-group design and 12-week treatment phase preclude a full understanding of the clinical benefits of the Rebound intervention. The Rebound intervention was shown to be acceptable, feasible, highly usable and safe in young people with major depression. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Kragh, M.; Martiny, K.; Videbech, P.
, which additionally consisted of three wake therapy sessions in one week, 30-min daily light treatment and sleep time stabilization over the entire nine-week study period. Results: Patients in the wake therapy group had a significant decrease in depressive symptoms in week one as measured by HAM-D17, 17...... could not be maintained during the nine-week study period. However, sleep and general self-efficacy improved....
Sutter, Christine; Zöllig, Jacqueline; Allemand, Mathias; Martin, Mike
Objective: Previous research has yielded inconclusive results on the relationship between self-reported sleep quality and cognitive performance in healthy old age. Discrepant findings have been reported regarding processing speed and attention, executive functions, and episodic memory. However, sleep quality has also been found to be related to cognitive performance in patients with depression. Our aim was to clarify the relationship between sleep quality and cognitive performance in healthy ...
Gheyara, S; Klump, K L; McGue, M; Iacono, W G; Burt, S A
Prior work has suggested that genetic influences on major depressive disorder (MDD) may be activated by the experience of negative life events. However, it is unclear whether these results persist when controlling for the possibility of confounding active gene-environment correlations (rGE). We examined a sample of 1230 adopted and biological siblings between the ages of 10 and 20 years from the Sibling Interaction and Behavior Study. MDD was measured via a lifetime DSM-IV symptom count. Number of deaths experienced served as our environmental risk experience. Because this variable is largely independent of the individual's choices/behaviors, we were able to examine gene-environment interactions while circumventing possible rGE confounds. Biometric analyses revealed pronounced linear increases in the magnitude of genetic influences on symptoms of MDD with the number of deaths experienced, such that genetic influences were estimated to be near-zero for those who had experienced no deaths but were quite large in those who had experienced two or more deaths (i.e. accounting for roughly two-thirds of the phenotypic variance). By contrast, shared and non-shared environmental influences on symptoms of MDD were not meaningfully moderated by the number of deaths experienced. Such results constructively replicate prior findings of genetic moderation of depressive symptoms by negative life events, thereby suggesting that this effect is not a function of active rGE confounds. Our findings are thus consistent with the notion that exposure to specific negative life events may serve to activate genetic risk for depression during adolescence.
Clarke, T-K; Hall, L S; Fernandez-Pujals, A M; MacIntyre, D J; Thomson, P; Hayward, C; Smith, B H; Padmanabhan, S; Hocking, L J; Deary, I J; Porteous, D J; McIntosh, A M
Major depressive disorder (MDD) and obesity are frequently co-morbid and this correlation is partly due to genetic factors. Although specific genetic risk variants are associated with body mass index (BMI) and with larger effect sizes in depressed individuals, the genetic overlap and interaction with depression has not been addressed using whole-genome data. Polygenic profile scores for MDD and BMI were created in 13,921 members of Generation Scotland: the Scottish Family Health Study and tested for their association with BMI, MDD, neuroticism and scores on the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) (current psychological distress). The association between BMI polygenic profile scores and BMI was tested fitting GHQ, neuroticism or MDD status as an interaction term to test for a moderating effect of mood disorder. BMI polygenic profile scores were not associated with lifetime MDD status or neuroticism although a significant positive association with GHQ scores was found (P = 0.0001, β = 0.034, r(2) = 0.001). Polygenic risk for MDD was not associated with BMI. A significant interaction between BMI polygenic profile scores and MDD (P = 0.0003, β = 0.064), GHQ (P = 0.0005, β = 0.027) and neuroticism (P = 0.003, β = 0.023) was found when BMI was the dependent variable. The effect of BMI-increasing alleles was greater in those with MDD, high neuroticism or current psychological distress. MDD, neuroticism and current psychological distress amplify the effect of BMI polygenic profile scores on BMI. Depressed individuals with a greater polygenic load for obesity are at greater risk of becoming obese than control individuals.
Scheuer, Sandra; Ising, Marcus; Uhr, Manfred; Otto, Yvonne; von Klitzing, Kai; Klein, Annette Maria
FKBP5 is thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of stress-related disorders. Studies have shown that FKBP5 genotypes moderate the risk of post-traumatic stress disorder and depression in traumatized adults. We aimed to replicate this finding in a sample of preschool children. Parents of preschoolers (N = 186) were interviewed using the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment (PAPA) to evaluate the presence of anxiety and depressive disorders and to quantify the child's exposure to adverse events. All FKBP5 polymorphisms showed significant interactions with mild to moderate life events, but not with severe life events, in predicting the risk of anxiety and/or depressive disorders (p = 0.003-0.019). Children who experienced a high number of mild to moderate life events had a higher risk of developing an anxiety and/or depressive disorder if they were carriers of the minor allele compared to major allele homozygotes. Results indicate that genetic variation in FKBP5 influences the risk of anxiety and/or depressive disorders in preschool age by altering the sensitivity to the deleterious effects of mild to moderate adverse events. In case of severe life events, the FKBP5 genotype does not seem to play a role, suggesting that severe life events might influence directly the risk of anxiety and/or depressive disorders independent of an FKBP5 genotype-dependent vulnerability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Research has shown that pain is associated with disability and that depressed mood mediates the relationship between pain and disability. The question of whether duration of pain moderates these effects was addressed in this cross-sectional study with 356 chronic pain patients. A simple mediation model replicated the notion that depressed mood explains a significant proportion of the relationship between pain and disability (in the study at hand: 12%. A moderated mediation model revealed that the indirect effect of pain on disability through depressed mood is moderated by pain duration: while depressed mood did not mediate the effect of pain on disability in chronic pain patients with shorter pain duration, depressed mood significantly mediated the effect pain exerts on disability in chronic pain patients with longer pain duration. Pain duration did not moderate the direct effect of pain on disability. Implications of these findings for the treatment of chronic pain might be that targeting depressed mood is especially relevant in chronic pain patients with longer pain duration to reduce the effect of pain on disability.
Probst, Thomas; Neumeier, Susanne; Altmeppen, Jürgen; Angerer, Michael; Loew, Thomas; Pieh, Christoph
Research has shown that pain is associated with disability and that depressed mood mediates the relationship between pain and disability. The question of whether duration of pain moderates these effects was addressed in this cross-sectional study with 356 chronic pain patients. A simple mediation model replicated the notion that depressed mood explains a significant proportion of the relationship between pain and disability (in the study at hand: 12%). A moderated mediation model revealed that the indirect effect of pain on disability through depressed mood is moderated by pain duration: while depressed mood did not mediate the effect of pain on disability in chronic pain patients with shorter pain duration, depressed mood significantly mediated the effect pain exerts on disability in chronic pain patients with longer pain duration. Pain duration did not moderate the direct effect of pain on disability. Implications of these findings for the treatment of chronic pain might be that targeting depressed mood is especially relevant in chronic pain patients with longer pain duration to reduce the effect of pain on disability.
Shim, Eun-Jung; Lee, Jong Won; Min, Yul Ha
Fear of progression (FOP) is a prevalent concern among breast cancer patients that affect their adjustment to disease. This study examined whether self-efficacy moderates the effect of illness perception (IP) on FOP and whether the moderating effect of self-efficacy depends on the level of depressive symptoms. A cross-sectional survey including brief illness perception questionnaire (BIPQ), FOP short form, general self-efficacy scale, and the center for epidemiologic studies depression scale were administered to 245 patients with breast cancer in Korea. Self-efficacy moderated the negative impact of the patients' perception of chronic timeline and a greater emotional impact of the illness on FOP. However, the moderating effect of self-efficacy of the BIPQ timeline and emotions on FOP depended on level of depressive symptoms. The findings underscore the importance of considering the IP as determinants of FOP, as well as of self-efficacy and depression as the moderating factors in the relationship between IP and FOP, suggesting the need to enhance self-efficacy and depressive symptoms in order to compensate the negative impact of IP on FOP in breast cancer patients. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Zhitkova, J V
to compare different doses of escitalopram (cipralex) in the prevention of dementia in patients with depression and moderate cognitive dysfunction associated with chronic brain ischemia. Two groups of patients, aged 65-78 years, with chronic brain ischemia and mild or moderate depression with moderate cognitive dysfunction were treated with different doses of escitalopram: 30 patients received 5 mg daily during all treatment period; 42 patients - 5 mg daily during the first week and 10 mg from the second week of treatment. The treatment lasted for 6 months; the period of observation was 8 months. The efficacy of escitalopram is demonstrated not only for the treatment of depression associated with cognitive dysfunction in patients with chronic brain ischemia but for decrease of the risk of dementia in long-term period.
Hou, Cai-Lan; Ma, Xin-Rong; Cai, Mei-Ying; Li, Yan; Zang, Yu; Jia, Fu-Jun; Lin, Yong-Qiang; Chiu, Helen F K; Ungvari, Gabor S; Hall, Brian J; Zhong, Bao-Liang; Cao, Xiao-Lan; Xiang, Yu-Tao
This study described the prevalence and correlates of comorbid moderate-severe depressive symptoms (comorbid depression thereafter) and their association with quality of life (QOL) in schizophrenia patients treated in primary care. 623 schizophrenia patients were enrolled. Patients' socio-demographic and clinical characteristics including comorbid depression [defined as a total score of 18 or above on the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS)] were recorded. Depressive symptoms (defined as a total score of 9 or above on the MADRS) were present in 54.1 % of patients, while 17.7 % had comorbid depression. Analysis of covariance revealed that comorbid depression was significantly associated with lower mental QOL. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that more severe positive and negative symptoms, anxiety symptoms, use of first-generation antipsychotics and antidepressants, were independently associated with comorbid depression. Given the negative association between comorbid depression and QOL, attempts to address comorbid depression in schizophrenia patients treated in primary care should be made.
Griffiths, Kathleen Margaret; Reynolds, Julia; Vassallo, Sara
Online, peer-to-peer support groups for depression are common on the World Wide Web and there is some evidence of their effectiveness. However, little is known about the mechanisms by which Internet support groups (ISGs) might work. This study aimed to investigate consumer perceptions of the benefits and disadvantages of online peer-to-peer support by undertaking a content analysis of the spontaneous posts on BlueBoard, a well-established, moderated, online depression bulletin board. The research set comprised all posts on the board (n=3645) for each of 3 months selected at 4 monthly intervals over 2011. The data were analyzed using content analysis and multiple coders. A total of 586 relevant posts were identified, 453 (77.3%) reporting advantages and 133 (22.7%) reporting disadvantages. Positive personal change (335/453, 74.0%) and valued social interactions and support (296/453, 65.3%) emerged as perceived advantages. Other identified benefits were valued opportunities to disclose/express feelings or views (29/453, 6.4%) and advantages of the BlueBoard environment (45/453, 9.9%). Disadvantages were negative personal change (50/133, 37.6%), perceived disadvantages of board rules/moderation (42/133, 31.6%), unhelpful social interactions/contact with other members (40/133, 30.1%), and technical obstacles to using the board (14/133, 10.5%). Consumers value the opportunity to participate in an online mutual support group for mental health concerns. Further research is required to better understand how and if these perceived advantages translate into positive outcomes for consumers, and whether the perceived disadvantages of such boards can be addressed without compromising the safety and positive outcomes of the board.
Arpawong, Thalida Em; Sun, Ping; Chang, Megan Chia-Chen; Gallaher, Peggy; Pang, Zengchang; Guo, Qian; Johnson, C Anderson; Unger, Jennifer
Tobacco use among Chinese adolescents is increasing at approximately 80,000 new smokers per day. Assessing the causes for initiating tobacco use in China will be important in developing effective interventions and policies to stem rising prevalence rates. This study tested predictors of Resilience Theory in a sample of 602 Chinese adolescents. Results revealed that prior adversity, measured through school and family-related events, was significantly associated with increased smoking in females. Family factors (i.e., family cohesion, family adaptability, parental monitoring) and one personal factor (i.e., academic score) were associated with lower odds for smoking due to prior adversity and negative disposition.
Prescott, Anna T; Hull, Jay G; Dionne-Odom, J Nicholas; Tosteson, Tor D; Lyons, Kathleen Doyle; Li, Zhigang; Li, Zhongze; Dragnev, Konstantin H; Hegel, Mark T; Steinhauser, Karen E; Ahles, Tim A; Bakitas, Marie A
Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of early palliative care interventions in advanced cancer have positively impacted patient survival, yet the mechanisms remain unknown. This secondary analysis of 2 RCTs assessed whether an early palliative care intervention moderates the relationship between depressive symptoms and survival. The relationships among mood, survival, and early palliative care intervention were studied among 529 advanced cancer patients who participated in 2 RCTs. The first (N = 322) compared intervention versus usual care. The second (N = 207) compared early versus delayed intervention (12 weeks after enrollment). The interventions included an in-person consultation, weekly nurse coach-facilitated phone sessions, and monthly follow-up. Mood was measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D) scale. Cox proportional hazard analyses were used to examine the effects of baseline CES-D scores, the intervention, and their interaction on mortality risk while controlling for demographic variables, cancer site, and illness severity. The combined sample was 56% male (M = 64.7 years). Higher baseline CES-D scores were significantly associated with greater mortality risk (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.042, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.017, 1.067], p = .001). However, participants with higher CES-D scores who received the intervention had a lower mortality risk (HR = .963, CI [0.933, 0.993], p = .018) even when controlling for demographics, cancer site, and illness-related variables. This study is the first to demonstrate that patients with advanced cancer who also have depressive symptoms benefit the most from early palliative care. Future research should be devoted to exploring the mechanisms responsible for these relationships. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Wu, Anise M S; Li, Jibin; Lau, Joseph T F; Mo, Phoenix K H; Lau, Mason M C
Internet addiction (IA) is a risk factor while some psychosocial factors can be protective against depression among adolescents. Mechanisms of IA onto depression in terms of mediations and moderations involving protective factors are unknown and were investigated in this study. A representative cross-sectional study was conducted among Hong Kong Chinese secondary school students (n=9518). Among males and females, prevalence of depression at moderate or severe level (CES-D≥21) was 38.36% and 46.13%, and that of IA (CIAS>63) was 17.64% and 14.01%, respectively. Adjusted for socio-demographics, depression was positively associated with IA [males: adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=4.22, 95% CI=3.61-4.94; females: AOR=4.79, 95% CI=3.91-5.87] and negatively associated with psychosocial factors including self-esteem, positive affect, family support, and self-efficacy (males: AOR=0.76-0.94; females: AOR=0.72-0.92, psexes. Through significant moderations, IA also reduced magnitude of protective effects of self-efficacy and family support among males and that of positive affect among both sexes against depression. The high IA prevalence contributes to increased risk of prevalent depression through its direct effect, mediation (reduced level of protective factors) and moderation (reduced magnitude of protective effects) effects. Understanding to mechanisms between IA and depression through protective factors is enhanced. Screening and interventions for IA and depression are warranted, and should cultivate protective factors, and unlink negative impact of IA onto levels and effects of protective factors. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: On May 12th 2008, an earthquake with a magnitude of 8.0 on the Richter scale struck China, causing a large number of casualties and significant economic losses. By interviewing 2080 survivors of Wenchuan earthquake, the objective of this study is to estimate the role of different types of social support as possible moderating factors between anxiety and depression. METHODS: A stratified random sampling strategy about the cross-sectional study was adopted. The self-rating anxiety scale (SAS, Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS and Social Support Rating Scale (SSRS were used. A total of 2080 adult survivors of the Wenchuan earthquake from 19 damaged countries participated in the survey. Correlation analysis and regression analysis were performed to evaluate the moderating role of social support on the relationship between anxiety and depression. RESULTS: One year after the Wenchuan earthquake, anxiety and depression were found to be 37.6% and 40.7%, respectively. Demographic characteristics were seen as significant in the cases of depression, except for age (p=0.599, while age and education level were not found to be significant for anxiety. The results showed that social support, especially subjective support could moderate the association between anxiety and depression. CONCLUSIONS: Social support should be particularly focused on female survivors, those of the Han ethnic group, and those with a lower level of education and a lower income. Psychological intervention and care for survivors should focus on those most disoriented by the disaster.
Internalized homophobia is a risk factor for depression among gay men and lesbians. The aim of the study was to test whether the internalized homophobia-depression relation was moderated by gender (stronger among gay men compared with lesbians), age (stronger among younger compared with older gay men and lesbians), and place of residence (stronger among gay men and lesbians who live in rural areas compared with those who live in urban areas). An Australian sample of 311 self-identified gay men and 570 self-identified lesbians, aged 18 to 70 years, completed the Internalized Homophobia Scale and the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. Results indicated that age and gender did not moderate the internalized homophobia-depressive symptoms relation. Place of residence was a significant moderator for gay men but not lesbians. In contrast to the hypothesis, the internalized homophobia-depression relation was significant only among gay men who resided in urban areas. Those who work with gay men should be particularly aware of the significant relationship between internalized homophobia and depressive symptoms among gay men who reside in urban areas.
Hammond, Wizdom Powell
I examined the association between everyday racial discrimination and depressive symptoms and explored the moderating role of 2 dimensions of masculine role norms, restrictive emotionality and self-reliance. Cross-sectional survey data from 674 African American men aged 18 years and older recruited primarily from barbershops in 4 US regions (2003-2010) were used. Direct and moderated associations were assessed with multivariate linear regression analyses for the overall sample and different age groups. Models were adjusted for recruitment site, sociodemographics, masculine role norms salience, and general social stress. Everyday racial discrimination was associated with more depressive symptoms across all age groups. Higher restrictive emotionality was associated with more depressive symptoms among men aged 18 to 29 and 30 to 39 years. Self-reliance was associated with fewer depressive symptoms among men aged 18 to 29 years and 40 years and older. The positive association between everyday racial discrimination and depressive symptoms was stronger among men with high restrictive emotionality, but this moderated effect was limited to men older than 30 years. Interventions designed to reduce African American men's depression instigated by racism should be life-course specific and address masculine role norms that encourage emotion restriction.
Objectives. I examined the association between everyday racial discrimination and depressive symptoms and explored the moderating role of 2 dimensions of masculine role norms, restrictive emotionality and self-reliance. Methods. Cross-sectional survey data from 674 African American men aged 18 years and older recruited primarily from barbershops in 4 US regions (2003–2010) were used. Direct and moderated associations were assessed with multivariate linear regression analyses for the overall sample and different age groups. Models were adjusted for recruitment site, sociodemographics, masculine role norms salience, and general social stress. Results. Everyday racial discrimination was associated with more depressive symptoms across all age groups. Higher restrictive emotionality was associated with more depressive symptoms among men aged 18 to 29 and 30 to 39 years. Self-reliance was associated with fewer depressive symptoms among men aged 18 to 29 years and 40 years and older. The positive association between everyday racial discrimination and depressive symptoms was stronger among men with high restrictive emotionality, but this moderated effect was limited to men older than 30 years. Conclusions. Interventions designed to reduce African American men’s depression instigated by racism should be life-course specific and address masculine role norms that encourage emotion restriction. PMID:22401515
Nikita M Bajwa
Full Text Available Mild traumatic brain injuries can lead to long-lasting cognitive and motor deficits, increasing the risk of future behavioral, neurological, and affective disorders. Our study focused on long-term behavioral deficits after repeated injury in which mice received either a single mild CHI (mCHI, a repeated mild CHI (rmCHI consisting of one impact to each hemisphere separated by 3 days, or a moderate controlled cortical impact injury (CCI. Shams received only anesthesia. Behavioral tests were administered at 1, 3, 5, 7, and 90 days post-injury (dpi. CCI animals showed significant motor and sensory deficits in the early (1-7 dpi and long-term (90 dpi stages of testing. Interestingly, sensory and subtle motor deficits in rmCHI animals were found at 90 dpi. Most importantly, depression-like behaviors and social passiveness were observed in rmCHI animals at 90 dpi. These data suggest that mild concussive injuries lead to motor and sensory deficits and affective disorders that are not observed after moderate TBI.
Smets, Jorien; Griffith, James W; Wessel, Ineke; Walschaerts, Dominique; Raes, Filip
According to the CaRFAX model, rumination is one of the key underlying mechanisms of overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM). The association between rumination and OGM is well established in clinical populations, but this relationship is not robust in nonclinical samples. A series of null findings is reported in the current paper. Additionally we followed up on recent findings suggesting that a state of rumination needs to be active in order to detect a relationship between trait-rumination and OGM. Secondary school students (N= 123) completed questionnaires assessing trait-rumination and depressive symptoms as well as two autobiographical memory tests (AMTs), one before and one after a self-discrepancy induction. This induction should trigger state-rumination, which would subsequently promote the retrieval of general rather than specific memories. Trait-rumination failed to predict increases in OGM. We did find, however, that higher BDI-II scores were positively related to an increase in OGM following the induction. This adds to the growing body of evidence that OGM reactivity might be more important than baseline memory specificity.
Sun, Jing; Buys, Nicholas; Stewart, Donald; Shum, David
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether university students' smoking behaviour is associated with higher levels of stress and depression directly, or indirectly, via the mediation of coping, personal beliefs and social support. Design/methodology/approach: The study design involves a cross-sectional survey. Structural equation…
Jamal, Mumtaz; Van der Does, Willem; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.
Background: Smoking, especially nicotine dependence is associated with more severe symptoms of depression and anxiety disorders. However, the mechanisms underlying this association are unclear. We investigated the effect of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) VaI(66)Met polymorphism on the
Justicia, Azucena; Elices, Matilde; Cebria, Ana Isabel; Palao, Diego J; Gorosabel, Jesús; Puigdemont, Dolors; de Diego-Adeliño, Javier; Gabilondo, Andrea; Iruin, Alvaro; Hegerl, Ulrich; Pérez, Víctor
During the last decade online interventions have emerged as a promising approach for patients with mild/moderate depressive symptoms, reaching at large populations and representing cost-effective alternatives. The main objective of this double-blind, randomized controlled trial is to examine the efficacy of an internet-based self-management tool (iFightDepression) for mild to moderate depression as an add-on to treatment as usual (TAU) versus internet-based psychoeducation plus TAU. A total of 310 participants with major depression disorder (MDD) will be recruited at four different mental-health facilities in Spain. Participants will be randomly allocated to one of two study arms: iFightDepression (iFD) tool + TAU vs. internet-based psychoeducation + TAU. Both interventions last for 8 weeks and there is a 12 weeks follow up. The primary outcome measure is changes in depressive symptoms assessed with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Additionally, pre-post interventions assessments will include socio-demographic data, a brief medical and clinical history and self-reported measures of depressive symptoms, quality of life, functional impairments and satisfaction with the iFD tool. iFightDepression is an easy-prescribed tool that could increase the efficacy of conventional treatment and potentially reach untreated patients, shortening waiting lists to receive psychological treatment. Confirming the efficacy of the iFD internet-based self-management tool as an add-on treatment for individuals with mild to moderate depression will be clinically-relevant. Registration number NCT02312583 . Clinicaltrials.gov . December 4, 2014.
Akhondzadeh, Shahin; Tahmacebi-Pour, Najaf; Noorbala, Ahamad-Ali; Amini, Homayoun; Fallah-Pour, Hassan; Jamshidi, Amir-Hossein; Khani, Mousa
Depression is a serious disorder in today's society, with estimates of lifetime prevalence as high as 21% of the general population in some developed countries. As a therapeutic plant, saffron is considered excellent for stomach ailments and as an antispasmodic, to help digestion and to increase appetite. It is also used for depression in Persian traditional medicine. Our objective was to assess the efficacy of the stigmas of Crocus sativus (saffron) in the treatment of mild to moderate depression in a 6-week double-blind, placebo-controlled and randomized trial. Forty adult outpatients who met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition for major depression based on the structured clinical interview for DSM IV participated in the trial. Patients had a baseline Hamilton rating scale for depression score of at least 18. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, single-centre and randomized trial, patients were randomly assigned to receive a capsule of saffron 30 mg[sol ]day (BD) (Group 1) or a capsule of placebo (BD) (Group 2) for a 6-week study. At 6 weeks, Crocus sativus produced a significantly better outcome on the Hamilton depression rating scale than the placebo (d.f. = 1, F = 18.89, p effects. The results of this study indicate the efficacy of Crocus sativus in the treatment of mild to moderate depression. A large-scale trial is justified. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Dahl, Signe Kirk; Larsen, Janne Tidselbak; Petersen, Liselotte; Ubbesen, Mads Bonde; Mortensen, Preben Bo; Munk-Olsen, Trine; Musliner, Katherine Louise
Early adversity is a known risk factor for unipolar depression. We examined the impact of 9 types of early adversity on risk for moderate to severe unipolar depression in adolescence or adulthood, and evaluated whether these effects were moderated by gender and adversity timing. We conducted a prospective, population-based cohort study using Danish national registers. The sample included all individuals born in Denmark between 1980 and 1998 (N=978,647). Exposure to early adversity was assessed from ages 0-15. Types of adversity included parental illness, incarceration, death, disability, and psychiatric diagnosis; family disruption; out-of-home care; and childhood abuse. Individuals were followed from age 15 until first in- or outpatient depression diagnosis (ICD-10 codes F32, F33) in a psychiatric hospital, death, emigration, or December 31st, 2013, whichever came first. Hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated using Cox regressions. All adversities were significantly associated with increased risk for moderate to severe adolescent/adult depression (HR range: 1.30-2.72), although the effects were attenuated after mutual adjustment (adjusted HR range: 1.06-1.70). None of the effects were moderated by gender. The effect of family disruption was strongest between ages 0-4 (HR=1.66, 95% CI=1.61-1.71), while the effect of out-of-home care was strongest between ages 10-14 (HR=2.45, 95% CI=2.28-2.64). Untreated and primary-care treated depression were not measured. Our results support past findings that multiple types of early adversity increase risk for moderate to severe unipolar depression in adolescence and adulthood. Certain adversities may be more harmful if they occur during specific developmental time periods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Sevgi Durna Daştan; Yusuf Muhammed Durna; Taner Daştan
Phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) is known as phenylthiourea and it is an organic compound that has the phenyl ring. Ability to perceive the tastes of PTC chemical is related to the dominance of taste genes. There are a large number of population studies regarding the PTC taste perception and different personal characteristics or disease conditions. The purpose of this study is to reveal and compare the relation between the PTC taste perception and work-out habits, smoking, alcohol consumption and te...
Kangas, Julie L.; Baldwin, Austin S.; Rosenfield, David; Smits, Jasper A. J.; Rethorst, Chad D.
Objective People with depressive symptoms typically report lower levels of exercise self-efficacy and are more likely to discontinue regular exercise than others, but it is unclear how depressive symptoms affect people’s exercise self-efficacy. Among potential sources of self-efficacy, engaging in the relevant behavior is the strongest (Bandura, 1997). Thus, we sought to clarify how depressive symptoms affect the same-day relation between engaging in exercise and self-efficacy during the initiation of regular exercise. Methods Participants (N=116) were physically inactive adults (35% reported clinically significant depressive symptoms at baseline) who initiated regular exercise and completed daily assessments of exercise minutes and self-efficacy for four weeks. We tested whether (a) self-efficacy differed on days when exercise did and did not occur, and (b) the difference was moderated by depressive symptoms. Mixed linear models were used to examine these relations. Results An interaction between exercise occurrence and depressive symptoms (pself-efficacy was lower on days when no exercise occurred, but this difference was significantly larger for people with high depressive symptoms. People with high depressive symptoms had lower self-efficacy than those with low depressive symptoms on days when no exercise occurred (p=.03), but self-efficacy did not differ on days when exercise occurred (p=.34). Conclusions During the critical period of initiating regular exercise, daily self-efficacy for people with high depressive symptoms is more sensitive to whether they exercised than for people with low depressive symptoms. This may partially explain why people with depression tend to have difficulty maintaining regular exercise. PMID:25110850
Full Text Available Abstract Background The morbidity and mortality associated with depression are considerable and continue to increase. Depression currently ranks fourth among the major causes of disability worldwide, after lower respiratory infections, prenatal conditions, and HIV/AIDS. Crocus sativus L. is used to treat depression. Many medicinal plants textbooks refer to this indication whereas there is no evidence-based document. Our objective was to compare the efficacy of stigmas of Crocus sativus (saffron with imipramine in the treatment of mild to moderate depression in a 6-week pilot double-blind randomized trial. Methods Thirty adult outpatients who met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition for major depression based on the structured clinical interview for DSM IV participated in the trial. Patients have a baseline Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression score of at least 18. In this double-blind, single-center trial, patients were randomly assigned to receive capsule of saffron 30 mg/day (TDS (Group 1 and capsule of imipramine 100 mg/day (TDS (Group 2 for a 6-week study. Results Saffron at this dose was found to be effective similar to imipramine in the treatment of mild to moderate depression (F = 2.91, d.f. = 1, P = 0.09. In the imipramine group anticholinergic effects such as dry mouth and also sedation were observed more often that was predictable. Conclusion The main overall finding from this study is that saffron may be of therapeutic benefit in the treatment of mild to moderate depression. To the best of our knowledge this is the first clinical trial that supports this indication for saffron. A large-scale trial with placebo control is warranted.
Akhondzadeh, Shahin; Fallah-Pour, Hasan; Afkham, Khosro; Jamshidi, Amir-Hossein; Khalighi-Cigaroudi, Farahnaz
Background The morbidity and mortality associated with depression are considerable and continue to increase. Depression currently ranks fourth among the major causes of disability worldwide, after lower respiratory infections, prenatal conditions, and HIV/AIDS. Crocus sativus L. is used to treat depression. Many medicinal plants textbooks refer to this indication whereas there is no evidence-based document. Our objective was to compare the efficacy of stigmas of Crocus sativus (saffron) with imipramine in the treatment of mild to moderate depression in a 6-week pilot double-blind randomized trial. Methods Thirty adult outpatients who met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition for major depression based on the structured clinical interview for DSM IV participated in the trial. Patients have a baseline Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression score of at least 18. In this double-blind, single-center trial, patients were randomly assigned to receive capsule of saffron 30 mg/day (TDS) (Group 1) and capsule of imipramine 100 mg/day (TDS) (Group 2) for a 6-week study. Results Saffron at this dose was found to be effective similar to imipramine in the treatment of mild to moderate depression (F = 2.91, d.f. = 1, P = 0.09). In the imipramine group anticholinergic effects such as dry mouth and also sedation were observed more often that was predictable. Conclusion The main overall finding from this study is that saffron may be of therapeutic benefit in the treatment of mild to moderate depression. To the best of our knowledge this is the first clinical trial that supports this indication for saffron. A large-scale trial with placebo control is warranted. PMID:15341662
Wendy T M Pots
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Although there has been growing evidence for the efficacy of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT for different clinical populations, its effectiveness as a public mental health intervention has not been studied. The present study evaluates a community-based MBCT intervention for adults with mild to moderate depressive symptomatology in a large multi-site, pragmatic randomized controlled trial. METHOD: The participants with mild to moderate depressive symptomatology were recruited from the general population and randomized to the MBCT intervention (n = 76 or to a waiting list control group (n = 75. Participants completed measures before and after the intervention. Participants in the experimental condition also completed these measures at a 3-month follow-up. RESULTS: In the experimental condition significant reductions in depression, anxiety, and experiential avoidance, and improvements in mindfulness and emotional- and psychological mental health were found, compared to the waiting list (effect sizes Cohen's d = 0.31-0.56. These effects were sustained at the 3-month follow-up. The likelihood of a clinically significant change in depressive symptoms was significantly higher for the MBCT group [odds ratio (OR 3.026, p<0.01 at post-treatment; NNT = 5.10]. DISCUSSION: MBCT as a public mental health intervention for adults with mild to moderate depressive symptoms seems effective and applicable in a natural setting. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Nederlands Trial Register NTR2096.
Pots, Wendy T M; Meulenbeek, Peter A M; Veehof, Martine M; Klungers, Jorinde; Bohlmeijer, Ernst T
Although there has been growing evidence for the efficacy of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) for different clinical populations, its effectiveness as a public mental health intervention has not been studied. The present study evaluates a community-based MBCT intervention for adults with mild to moderate depressive symptomatology in a large multi-site, pragmatic randomized controlled trial. The participants with mild to moderate depressive symptomatology were recruited from the general population and randomized to the MBCT intervention (n = 76) or to a waiting list control group (n = 75). Participants completed measures before and after the intervention. Participants in the experimental condition also completed these measures at a 3-month follow-up. In the experimental condition significant reductions in depression, anxiety, and experiential avoidance, and improvements in mindfulness and emotional- and psychological mental health were found, compared to the waiting list (effect sizes Cohen's d = 0.31-0.56). These effects were sustained at the 3-month follow-up. The likelihood of a clinically significant change in depressive symptoms was significantly higher for the MBCT group [odds ratio (OR) 3.026, p<0.01 at post-treatment; NNT = 5.10]. MBCT as a public mental health intervention for adults with mild to moderate depressive symptoms seems effective and applicable in a natural setting. Nederlands Trial Register NTR2096.
Wickrama, Thulitha; Bryant, Chalandra M.
This study examined (a) associations between body mass index (BMI) and depressive symptoms in African American husbands and wives, (b) transactional associations between husbands and wives in this relationship, and (c) mediating and moderating role of couples' behavioral closeness in this association. Data came from a sample of 450 African…
Pots, Wendy Theresia Maria; Trompetter, H.R.; Schreurs, Karlein Maria Gertrudis; Bohlmeijer, Ernst Thomas
Background Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) has been demonstrated to be effective in reducing depressive symptoms. However, little is known how and for whom therapeutic change occurs, specifically in web-based interventions. This study focuses on the mediators, moderators and predictors of
Scherr, Sebastian; Reinemann, Carsten
Werther Effect research has almost solely focused on the behavioral level of media effects. Clinically relevant predispositions like depression as well as the moderating role of media effects on a perceptional level have been omitted so far. To bridge this gap, we reanalyzed the data of an experiment conducted by Rustad, Small, Jobes, Safer, and…
van der Werf-Eldering, Marieke J.; Burger, Huibert; Jabben, Nienke; Holthausen, Esther A. E.; Aleman, Andre; Nolen, Willem A.
Objectives: To investigate the association between cognitive complaints and objective cognitive functioning in bipolar patients, with a focus on the moderating role of depressive symptoms. Methods: The association between cognitive complaints (measured by the total score and four subscales of the
Korte, J.; Cappeliez, Philippe; Bohlmeijer, Ernst Thomas; Westerhof, Gerben Johan
To understand the adaptive value of reminiscence, a mediational model of reminiscence was tested in a sample of older adults with mild to moderate depressive symptoms. Using structural equation modeling, we investigated if psychological resources (mastery and meaning in life) mediate the relation
Full Text Available Goblet cell hyperplasia is a classic but variable pathologic finding in COPD. Current literature shows that smoking is a risk factor for chronic bronchitis but the relationship of these clinical features to the presence and magnitude of large airway goblet cell hyperplasia has not been well described. We hypothesized that current smokers and chronic bronchitics would have more goblet cells than nonsmokers or those without chronic bronchitis (CB, independent of airflow obstruction.We recruited 15 subjects with moderate to severe COPD, 12 healthy smokers, and 11 healthy nonsmokers. Six endobronchial mucosal biopsies per subject were obtained by bronchoscopy and stained with periodic acid Schiff-Alcian Blue. Goblet cell density (GCD was quantified as goblet cell number per millimeter of basement membrane. Mucin volume density (MVD was quantified as volume of mucin per unit area of basement membrane.Healthy smokers had a greater GCD and MVD than nonsmokers and COPD subjects. COPD subjects had a greater GCD than nonsmokers. When current smokers (healthy smokers and COPD current smokers, n = 19 were compared with all nonsmokers (nonsmoking controls and COPD ex-smokers, n = 19, current smokers had a greater GCD and MVD. When those with CB (n = 12 were compared to those without CB (n = 26, the CB group had greater GCD. This finding was also seen in those with CB in the COPD group alone. In multivariate analysis, current smoking and CB were significant predictors of GCD using demographics, lung function, and smoking pack years as covariates. All other covariates were not significant predictors of GCD or MVD.Current smoking is associated with a more goblet cell hyperplasia and number, and CB is associated with more goblet cells, independent of the presence of airflow obstruction. This provides clinical and pathologic correlation for smokers with and without COPD.
Sepanjnia, Khatereh; Modabbernia, Amirhossein; Ashrafi, Mandana; Modabbernia, Mohammad-Jafar; Akhondzadeh, Shahin
Thiazolidinediones have shown antidepressant effect in animal studies, as well as in some uncontrolled studies evaluating human subjects with concurrent major depressive disorder (MDD) and metabolic syndrome. Although these drugs are insulin sensitizers, they also have important anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, and anti-excitotoxic properties. Thus, we hypothesized that they would show antidepressant effect in patients with MDD even if it was not accompanied by metabolic disturbances. In this double-blind placebo-controlled study, 40 patients with MDD (DSM-IV-TR) and Hamilton depression rating scale-17 (Ham-D) score ≥ 22 were randomized to citalopram plus pioglitazone (15 mg every 12 h) (n=20) or citalopram plus placebo (n=20) for 6 weeks. Patients were evaluated using Ham-D (weeks 0, 2, 4, 6). Repeated-measure analysis of variance (ANOVA) and analysis of covariance were used for comparison of scores between the two groups. Treatment response (≥ 50% reduction in Ham-D score), remission (Ham-D score ≤ 7), and early improvement (≥ 20% reduction in Ham-D score within the first 2 weeks) were compared between the two groups using Fisher's exact test. Pioglitazone showed superiority over placebo during the course of the trial (F(1, 38)=9.483, p=0.004). Patients in the pioglitazone group had significantly lower scores at all time points than the placebo group (P<0.01). Frequency of early improvement, response (week 6), and remission was significantly higher in the pioglitazone group (95%, 95%, 45%, respectively) than in the placebo (30%, 40%, 15% respectively) group (P<0.001, <0.001, 0.04, respectively). Frequency of side effects was similar between the two groups. Pioglitazone is a safe and effective adjunctive short-term treatment in patients with moderate-to-severe MDD even in the absence of metabolic syndrome and diabetes.
An examination of the moderating effect of treatment with anti-depressants on the association of heart disease with depression in males with type 2 diabetes attending a Veterans Affairs Medical Center.
Higgins, Thomas S; Ritchie, Christine S; Stetson, Barbara A; Burke, John D; Looney, Stephen W
To examine the association of heart disease with depression and the impact of treatment with anti-depressants on this association in older males with type 2 diabetes. In this cross-sectional study, data were collected from the electronic medical record system of the Veterans Affairs Medical Center (VAMC) in a large mid-western city in the United States. Subjects were 8185 males older than 40, with a history of type 2 diabetes, who had visited the VAMC within the previous 6 years. Odds ratios were used to measure bivariate associations; multivariate logistic regression was used to adjust for potential confounding factors. After adjustments for confounding variables, significant associations were found between depression and any adverse heart event (OR=1.34, p=0.001), coronary artery disease (OR=1.23, p=0.039), myocardial infarction (MI; OR=1.77, pdepression and anti-depressant prescription status indicated that, except for MI, these associations were no longer significant among those who had been prescribed anti-depressants, but remained significant and were increased in magnitude among those who had not been prescribed anti-depressants. These findings support the premise that co-morbid depression in diabetics is associated with the occurrence of adverse heart events, and further suggest that treatment of depression with anti-depressants moderates this association.
Banny, Adrienne M.; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A.; Oshri, Assaf; Crick, Nicki R.
Child maltreatment, peer victimization, and a polymorphism of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) were examined as predictors of depressive symptomatology. Children (M age = 11.26, SD = 1.65), including 156 maltreated and 145 nonmaltreated children from comparable low socioeconomic backgrounds, provided DNA samples and self-reports of relational peer victimization, overt peer victimization, and depressive symptoms. Path analysis showed that relational and overt victimization mediated the association between child maltreatment and depressive symptoms. Bootstrapping procedures were used to test moderated mediation and demonstrated that genotype moderated the indirect effects of relational and overt victimization on child depressive symptoms, such that victimized children with the l/l variation were at an increased risk for depressive symptoms compared to victimized children carrying an s allele. Results highlight the utility of examining process models that incorporate biological and psychological factors contributing to the development of depressive symptomatology, and provide direction toward understanding and promoting resilience among high risk youth from a multiple levels of analysis approach. PMID:23880379
Salvatore, Jessica E; Haydon, Katherine C; Simpson, Jeffry A; Collins, W Andrew
This study tests a model of young adult romantic quality as a moderator of the effects of early caregiving on anxious-depressed symptoms over a 9-year period in adulthood. Participants (n = 93) were a subsample from a longitudinal study of risk and adaptation. Quality of early caregiving was measured using observational data collected at five points in the first 4 years of life. Young adult romantic relationship quality was assessed from interviews with participants at age 23. Self-report anxious-depressed symptoms were measured at ages 23, 26, and 32. The results indicated that romantic quality moderated early caregiving to predict symptom levels across this period, with evidence for inoculation, amplification, and compensation effects. A discriminant analysis examining young adult work competence as a moderator provided further evidence for the distinctiveness of romantic relationships in changing the association between early caregiving and adult internalizing symptoms.
Salvatore, Jessica E.; Haydon, Katherine C.; Simpson, Jeffry A.; Collins, W. Andrew
This study tests a model of young adult romantic quality as a moderator of the effects of early caregiving on anxious-depressed symptoms over a nine-year period in adulthood. Participants (n = 93) were a subsample from a longitudinal study of risk and adaptation. Quality of early caregiving was measured using observational data collected at five points in the first four years of life. Young adult romantic relationship quality was assessed from interviews with participants at age 23. Self-report anxious-depressed symptoms were measured at ages 23, 26, and 32. The results indicated that romantic quality moderated early caregiving to predict symptom levels across this period, with evidence for inoculation, amplification, and compensation effects. A discriminant analysis examining young adult work competence as a moderator provided further evidence for the distinctiveness of romantic relationships in changing the association between early caregiving and adult internalizing symptoms. PMID:23880395
Wei, Meifen; Ku, Tsun-Yao; Russell, Daniel W; Mallinckrodt, Brent; Liao, Kelly Yu-Hsin
This study examined 3 coping strategies (reflective, suppressive, and reactive), along with self-esteem, as moderators of the relation between perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms. International students (N = 354) from China, India, Korea, Taiwan, and Hong Kong provided data via an online survey. The role of perceived general stress was statistically controlled. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated a significant direct effect of perceived discrimination, a significant 2-way interaction of perceived discrimination and suppressive coping, and a significant 3-way interaction of perceived discrimination, reactive coping, and self-esteem in predicting depressive symptoms. An increased tendency to use suppressive coping appeared to strengthen the association between perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms. In contrast, the association between perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms was not significant when reactive coping was infrequently used, but only for students with relatively high self-esteem. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).
Bastin, Margot; Vanhalst, Janne; Raes, Filip; Bijttebier, Patricia
Co-rumination has been shown advantageous for friendship quality, but disadvantageous for mental health. Recently, two components have been distinguished, with co-brooding predicting increases in depressive symptoms and co-reflection decreases. The current study aimed to replicate these findings and investigated whether both components also show differential relations with friendship quality. Gender was investigated as a moderator. Path analyses were used on data of 313 adolescents aged 9-17 (50.5% girls). Co-brooding was related to more concurrent and prospective depressive symptoms in girls. Co-reflection predicted less concurrent and prospective depressive symptoms in girls and higher concurrent positive friendship quality for boys and girls. This study underscores the value of studying co-rumination components and suggests that boys and girls in this context differ in their pathways towards depression.
Full Text Available Bullying is one of the most widespread phenomenon in childhood and adolescence. Interestingly, most research on bullying focuses on bullying at school and not on bullying among siblings at home. Sibling bullying is the most frequent form of repeated aggression that children experience in their lifetime. Furthermore, previous studies indicate that sibling bullying is associated with depression and self-harm behavior. However, the association between sibling bullying and suicidal ideation was never previously examined. Attachment to parents is one variable that can moderate the association between sibling bullying and depression/suicide ideation. To our knowledge, there is no existing study that examines the association between sibling bullying and attachment patterns. In addition, no previous study has examined the moderating role of attachment on the association between sibling bullying and depression or suicidal ideation among adolescents. The current study includes 279 Israeli students aged 10–17 (M = 13.5; SD = 1.98; 164, 58.8% females who completed self-report questionnaires regarding school and sibling bullying, attachment to mother and father, depression, and suicidal ideation. The results indicated an association between bullying among siblings and school bullying. In addition, children and adolescents who were consistently involved in sibling bullying were at greater risk for depression and suicide ideation when compared to children and adolescents who were not involved in sibling bullying. A secure attachment to one’s father (but not to one’s mother moderated the association between sibling bullying and depression/suicide ideation. It should be noted that when suicide ideation was examined above and beyond depression, attachment to one’s father did not moderate the association between sibling bullying involvement and suicide ideation. This finding indicates that depression plays a central role in the association between
Bar-Zomer, Jasmin; Brunstein Klomek, Anat
Bullying is one of the most widespread phenomenon in childhood and adolescence. Interestingly, most research on bullying focuses on bullying at school and not on bullying among siblings at home. Sibling bullying is the most frequent form of repeated aggression that children experience in their lifetime. Furthermore, previous studies indicate that sibling bullying is associated with depression and self-harm behavior. However, the association between sibling bullying and suicidal ideation was never previously examined. Attachment to parents is one variable that can moderate the association between sibling bullying and depression/suicide ideation. To our knowledge, there is no existing study that examines the association between sibling bullying and attachment patterns. In addition, no previous study has examined the moderating role of attachment on the association between sibling bullying and depression or suicidal ideation among adolescents. The current study includes 279 Israeli students aged 10-17 (M = 13.5; SD = 1.98; 164, 58.8% females) who completed self-report questionnaires regarding school and sibling bullying, attachment to mother and father, depression, and suicidal ideation. The results indicated an association between bullying among siblings and school bullying. In addition, children and adolescents who were consistently involved in sibling bullying were at greater risk for depression and suicide ideation when compared to children and adolescents who were not involved in sibling bullying. A secure attachment to one's father (but not to one's mother) moderated the association between sibling bullying and depression/suicide ideation. It should be noted that when suicide ideation was examined above and beyond depression, attachment to one's father did not moderate the association between sibling bullying involvement and suicide ideation. This finding indicates that depression plays a central role in the association between sibling bullying and
E. V. Strokova
Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate the influence of antidepressant therapy with pirlindol on compliance to the long-term treatment and quality of life in patients with cardiovascular diseases and mild to moderate depression. Material and methods. 61 patients with cardiovascular diseases and mild to moderate depression (according to Beck depression scale were randomized into two groups. Patients of intervention group received pirlindol, while patients of control group did not receive this drug. Compliance to cardiovascular and antidepressant treatment were estimated in 3 and 6 months. Adverse reactions and patients self-assessment of their well-being and global satisfaction in treatmen were also registered. Results. 24 (75%, 2 (6% and 0 patients of intervention group continue pirlindol treatment in 1, 3 and 6 months, respectively. In 3 months of observation patients of intervention group took drugs for cardiovascular diseases more often than these in control group (81% vs 72%, respectively , р<0.05, they also less frequently showed adverse reactions (56% vs 72%, respectively ,p=0.01 and more often — improvement of their well-being (65% vs 50%, respectively , р=0.03. Compliance to cardiovascular therapy did not differ significantly in patients of both groups by the end the study. Conclusion. Antidepressant therapy with pirlindol did not influence compliance to long-term cardiovascular treatment in patients with cardiovascular diseases and mild to moderate depression, apparently because of low compliance to pirlindol therapy.
Kessing, Lars Veddel; Bukh, Jens Otto Drachmann
, that these diagnostic criteria represent an oversimplification, which has blurred the concept of depression. We suggest a greater emphasis on the depressed mood as the core symptom of depression, which may increase the specificity of the diagnosis. Furthermore, basic principles for the treatment of depression......The prevalence of depression is not clearly established, but estimated to 3-4% in a Danish questionnaire study. Lifetime's prevalences of 12-17% are reported in other community samples. In the current diagnostic system depression is defined categorically and operationally. It has been argued...
Kessing, Lars Veddel; Bukh, Jens Drachmann
The prevalence of depression is not clearly established, but estimated to 3-4% in a Danish questionnaire study. Lifetime's prevalences of 12-17% are reported in other community samples. In the current diagnostic system depression is defined categorically and operationally. It has been argued......, that these diagnostic criteria represent an oversimplification, which has blurred the concept of depression. We suggest a greater emphasis on the depressed mood as the core symptom of depression, which may increase the specificity of the diagnosis. Furthermore, basic principles for the treatment of depression...
Kim, Ji Young; Lee, Kyunghee
The purpose of this study was to examine the moderating mediation effect of self-esteem on the relations among adolescents' abuse experiences, depression and anxiety, and suicidal ideation. The participants were selected using secondary data from a population in the 2012 Korea Welfare Panel Survey (KOWEPS). Data were analyzed using SPSS 15.0 and SPSS Macro, and bootstrapping and hierarchical regression analysis were performed to analyze multilevel models. First, analysis of the mediating effect of the adolescents' abuse showed that there was significant mediating influence between suicidal ideation and depression and anxiety. Second, hierarchical regression analysis showed that self-esteem had significant mediation effect on depression and anxiety in adolescents' suicidal ideation. Third, SPSS Macro showed that self-esteem also significantly moderated the mediating effect of adolescents' abuse experiences on suicidal ideation through depression and anxiety. The study results suggest that in future research on adolescent's abuse experience, the risk of suicide in depression and anxiety scores should be selected through evaluation of each individual's self-esteem scale. Coping strategies with immediate early intervention should be suggested.
Zu, Si; Xiang, Yu-Tao; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Ling; Wang, Gang; Ma, Xin; Kilbourne, Amy M; Ungvari, Gabor S; Chiu, Helen F K; Lai, Kelly Y C; Wong, Samuel Y S; Yu, Doris S F; Li, Zhan-Jiang
No study has examined the effect of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) on moderate-severe major depressive disorders (MDD) in China. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of CBT, antidepressants alone (MED), combined CBT and antidepressants (COMB) and standard treatment (ST; i.e., receiving psycho-educational intervention and/or medication treatment determined by treating psychiatrists) on depressive symptoms and social functioning in Chinese patients with moderate-severe MDD. A total of 180 patients diagnosed with MDD according to ICD-10 were randomly allocated to one of the four treatment regimens for a period of 6 months. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD) and the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology-Self-Report (C-QIDS-SR). Remission threshold was defined as a C-QIDS-SR total score of combined CBT-antidepressant treatment in controlling the remission. The study provided important knowledge to inform the mental health care planning in China. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Markowitz, Anna J.
Depression is the most common psychiatric disorder worldwide. Conservative estimates Suggest that 20% of Americans will experience depression during their lifetime, inflicting high interpersonal, labor market, and health care costs. Although depression is highly heritable, environmental factors can powerfully influence its development both…
Wang, Peng-Wei; Yang, Pin-Chen; Yeh, Yi-Chun; Lin, Huang-Chi; Ko, Chih-Hung; Liu, Tai-Ling; Yen, Cheng-Fang
The aims of this study were (1) to examine differences in the level of self-esteem among adolescents with different roles in aggression involvement (aggression perpetrators, victims, perpetrator-victims and neutrals) according to gender and (2) to examine the moderating effects of depression and family support on association between aggression involvement and self-esteem. A total of 8085 adolescents in Taiwan completed questionnaires. The relationships between self-esteem and aggression involvement were examined by multiple regression analysis. The moderating effects of depression and family support on the association between aggression involvement and self-esteem were examined. The results showed that in females, aggression victims had lower self-esteem than those in the other three groups (t=-2.940 to 2.173, pself-esteem among perpetrators, perpetrator-victims, and neutrals (t=0.693-0.933, p>0.05). In males, self-esteem in victims and perpetrator-victims was lower than in neutrals and perpetrators (t=-3.339 to -2.704, pself-esteem between victims and perpetrator-victims (t=-1.115, p>0.05) or between perpetrators and neutrals (t=-1.396, p>0.05). Family support had a moderating effect on the association between self-esteem and victimization in males. Depression had a moderating effect on the association between self-esteem and perpetration-victimization and victimization in males. The results indicate that self-esteem in adolescents with different patterns of involvement in aggression is not the same as in those without involvement. The moderating effects of depression and family support should be considered when developing intervention strategies to raise self-esteem in adolescents with aggression involvement. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Full Text Available The aims of this study were (1 to examine differences in the level of self-esteem among adolescents with different roles in aggression involvement (aggression perpetrators, victims, perpetrator-victims and neutrals according to gender and (2 to examine the moderating effects of depression and family support on association between aggression involvement and self-esteem. A total of 8085 adolescents in Taiwan completed questionnaires. The relationships between self-esteem and aggression involvement were examined by multiple regression analysis. The moderating effects of depression and family support on the association between aggression involvement and self-esteem were examined. The results showed that in females, aggression victims had lower self-esteem than those in the other three groups (t=−2.940 to 2.173, p0.05. In males, self-esteem in victims and perpetrator-victims was lower than in neutrals and perpetrators (t=−3.339 to −2.704, p0.05 or between perpetrators and neutrals (t=−1.396, p>0.05. Family support had a moderating effect on the association between self-esteem and victimization in males. Depression had a moderating effect on the association between self-esteem and perpetration-victimization and victimization in males. The results indicate that self-esteem in adolescents with different patterns of involvement in aggression is not the same as in those without involvement. The moderating effects of depression and family support should be considered when developing intervention strategies to raise self-esteem in adolescents with aggression involvement.
Roys, Melanie; Weed, Keri; Carrigan, Maureen; MacKillop, James
Models of nicotine dependence have suggested that the association between urgency, a subconstruct of impulsivity, and smoking behaviors may be mediated by motivations. Motives that are driven by expectations that smoking will relieve negative affect or increase positive affect may be especially salient in persons who have depression symptoms such as anhedonia. Support for associations between symptoms of depression, urgency, and addiction has been found for alcohol dependence, but empirical analysis is lacking for an interactive effect of urgency and depression symptoms on nicotine dependence. The current study investigated relationships among the urgency facet of impulsivity, anhedonia, smoking motives, and nicotine dependence with secondary analyses of a sample of 1084 daily smokers using simultaneous moderation and multiple mediation analyses. The moderation analysis revealed that although urgency was significantly associated with smoking at average or higher levels of anhedonia, it was unrelated to smoking when few anhedonia symptoms were endorsed. Further, multiple mediation analyses revealed that the smoking motives of craving, cue exposure, positive reinforcement, and tolerance significantly mediated the relationship between urgency and nicotine dependence. Results suggest that models of alcohol addiction that include an interactive effect of urgency and certain symptoms of depression may be applied to nicotine dependence. Examination of the multiple mediational pathways between urgency and nicotine dependence suggests directions for intervention efforts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
... system. Doctors use them to treat things like insomnia or anxiety . But if depressant drugs (like sedatives, tranquilizers, or barbiturates) are abused, they can cause addiction , serious injury, or death. Depressants are usually ...
Notara, Venetia; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Tsompanaki, Elena; Kouvari, Matina; Kogias, Yannis; Papanagnou, George; Antonoulas, Antonis; Stravopodis, Petros; Zombolos, Spyros; Stergiouli, Ifigenia; Mantas, Yannis; Babatsikou, Fotoula; Pitsavos, Christos
The association between depression status and 10-year cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence among acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients, in relation to nutritional and financial status, was evaluated. From October 2003 to September 2004, a sample of 2172 consecutive ACS patients from 6 Greek hospitals was enrolled. In 2013-14, the 10-year follow-up was performed. Depressive symptoms were evaluated using the validated CES-D score (range 0-60). Adherence to Mediterranean diet was assessed through MedDietScore (range 0-55) and financial status was determined by the annual income. Ranking from the 1st to 3rd CES-D tertile, recurrent fatal/non fatal ACS rates were 33%, 37% and 42%, respectively (p=0.006). Multiple logistic regression models revealed an adverse association of severe depression status (i.e. 3rd tertile) compared to no depression (i.e. 1st tertile) [odds ratio (OR)=1.31, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.01, 1.69]. When controlling for financial status, the relationship between depression and ACS prognosis remained marginally significant; while subgroup analysis revealed that only patients with low/moderate income were negatively affected [OR=1.36, 95% CI 0.98, 1.88]. Further stratified analysis, by MedDietScore group, was applied; the above association remained significant only in patients with low compliance to this dietary pattern [OR=1.68, 95% CI 1.10, 2.18]. ACS coexisting with severe depression status seems to result in adverse disease outcomes while financial status and Mediterranean diet are proposed as potential moderators. Public health programs should focus on vulnerable groups and minimize depressive symptoms through appropriate medical treatment and lifestyle interventions, so as to ameliorate the disease prognosis in clinical and community levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Carlton P. Frost
Full Text Available Adverse caregiving during development can produce long-lasting changes to neural, endocrine, and behavioral responses to stress, and is strongly related to elevated risk of adult psychopathology. While prior experience of adversity is associated with altered sympathetic nervous system (SNS and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis activity, the underlying neural pathways are not completely understood. In a double-blind crossover study, we used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI to examine whether variation in white matter structure predicts differences in HPA-SNS interactions as a function of early adversity. Participants included 74 women who exhibited a wide range of depression severity and/or childhood emotional abuse (EA. Participants attended two experimental sessions during which they were administered 20 mg cortisol (CORT or placebo and after 90 min, viewed emotionally laden pictures while undergoing MRI scanning. Immediately after emotional picture-viewing, we collected salivary alpha-amylase (sAA to index SNS activation. We tested whether EA moderated the relation between fractional anisotropy (FA, a measure of white matter fiber structure, and sAA. In the placebo condition, for participants with minimal history of EA, higher FA in corticomotor projections was negatively correlated with sAA, whereas in participants with severe EA, the correlation was trending in the opposite direction. Following CORT administration, FA and sAA were not related, suggesting that SNS tone during acute cortisol elevation may depend on neural pathways other than corticomotor projections. The results suggest that at baseline—though not during cortisol elevation—increased FA in these tracts is associated with lower levels of SNS activity in women with minimal EA, but not in women with severe EA. These findings provide evidence that corticomotor projections may be a key component of altered neural circuitry in adults with history of maltreatment, and may be
Birney, Amelia J; Gunn, Rebecca; Russell, Jeremy K; Ary, Dennis V
Worldwide, depression is rated as the fourth leading cause of disease burden and is projected to be the second leading cause of disability by 2020. Annual depression-related costs in the United States are estimated at US $210.5 billion, with employers bearing over 50% of these costs in productivity loss, absenteeism, and disability. Because most adults with depression never receive treatment, there is a need to develop effective interventions that can be more widely disseminated through new channels, such as employee assistance programs (EAPs), and directly to individuals who will not seek face-to-face care. This study evaluated a self-guided intervention, using the MoodHacker mobile Web app to activate the use of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) skills in working adults with mild-to-moderate depression. It was hypothesized that MoodHacker users would experience reduced depression symptoms and negative cognitions, and increased behavioral activation, knowledge of depression, and functioning in the workplace. A parallel two-group randomized controlled trial was conducted with 300 employed adults exhibiting mild-to-moderate depression. Participants were recruited from August 2012 through April 2013 in partnership with an EAP and with outreach through a variety of additional non-EAP organizations. Participants were blocked on race/ethnicity and then randomly assigned within each block to receive, without clinical support, either the MoodHacker intervention (n=150) or alternative care consisting of links to vetted websites on depression (n=150). Participants in both groups completed online self-assessment surveys at baseline, 6 weeks after baseline, and 10 weeks after baseline. Surveys assessed (1) depression symptoms, (2) behavioral activation, (3) negative thoughts, (4) worksite outcomes, (5) depression knowledge, and (6) user satisfaction and usability. After randomization, all interactions with subjects were automated with the exception of safety-related follow
Staring, A B P; Van der Gaag, M; Van den Berge, M; Duivenvoorden, H J; Mulder, C L
Good insight into illness in patients with schizophrenia is related not only to medication compliance and high service engagement, but also to depression, low self-esteem, and low quality of life. The detrimental effects of insight pose a problem for treatment. To investigate whether the negative associations of good insight are moderated by perceived stigma. Respondents were 114 patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. We used Analyses of Variance (ANOVA) and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) to test moderation. Good insight was associated with high service engagement and high compliance. Also, good insight was associated with depressed mood, low quality of life, and negative self-esteem. This association was strong when stigma was high and weak when stigma was low. SEM showed that the constrained model performed significantly worse than the unconstrained model, in which detrimental associations of insight were free to vary across stigma groups (chi(2)=19.082; df=3; plow quality of life, and negative self-esteem are moderated by stigma. Patients with good insight who do not perceive much stigmatization seem to be best off across various outcome parameters. Those with poor insight have problems with service engagement and medication compliance. Patients with good insight accompanied by stigmatizing beliefs have the highest risk of experiencing low quality of life, negative self-esteem, and depressed mood. A clinical implication is that when it is attempted to increase insight, perceived stigma should also be addressed.
Aerobic exercise, ball sports, dancing, and weight lifting as moderators of the relationship between stress and depressive symptoms: an exploratory cross-sectional study with swiss university students.
Gerber, Markus; Brand, Serge; Elliot, Catherine; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Pühse, Uwe
This exploratory study was designed to compare four types of exercise activities in Swiss university students. A sample of 201 medical students (136 women, 65 men; M age = 23.2 yr., SD = 2.4) and 250 exercise and health sciences students (144 women, 106 men; M age = 22.3 yr., SD = 2.2) participated in the study. They completed the Perceived Stress Scale, the Depression Scale, and the Office in Motion Questionnaire. Interaction effects between stress and exercise activities were analysed using hierarchical regression analyses, after controlling for age, sex, and academic discipline. Frequent participation in ball sports and dancing were associated with decreased depressive symptoms among students with elevated perceived stress, whereas no such relationship existed among their peers with lower perceived stress. No stress-moderating effect was found for aerobic exercise. Weight lifting was only associated with lower depressive symptoms among students with low perceived stress. The present findings suggest that, among Swiss university students, certain exercises may have better potential to moderate the relationship between perceived stress and depressive symptoms than others. Future research could analyze whether personalized exercise programs created to satisfy participants' individual needs are more beneficial for stress management.
Longares, Lara; Escartín, Jordi; Rodríguez-Carballeira, Álvaro
The context of stigma, in which lesbians and gay men live in most countries, exposes them to possible discrimination and promotes the internalization of negative attitudes about their own sexual orientation, which may have negative consequences for their mental health. Their psychological distress may increase when lesbians and gay men are exposed to other sources of stress such as intimate partner violence. With the aim of analysing the relationship between these variables, this study intends to present a moderated mediation model that proposes: a) self-stigma mediates the relationship between private collective self-esteem and depressive symptomatology; b) receiving psychological abuse within same-sex couples moderates the relationship between self-stigma and depressive symptomatology. For this purpose we conducted an online survey with a sample of 357 Spanish lesbians and gay men. Our findings show that self-stigma mediates the relationship between private collective self-esteem and depressive symptomatology. Furthermore, participants who had higher levels of self-stigma and received more psychological abuse by the partner showed stronger negative effects on depressive symptomatology. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
Wu, Hua-Shan; Lin, Li-Chan
To examine the long-term effects of fixed/individualized spaced retrieval combined with Montessori-based activities on nutritional status and body mass index and nutritional improvement's moderating effect on depressive symptoms for people with dementia during a specific follow-up period. The decrease in food intake, often combined with poor nutrition, may induce depressive symptoms in people with dementia. A single-blind, quasi-experimental study with repeated measures. Twenty-five fixed group participants received spaced retrieval combined with Montessori-based activities over 24 sessions. Thirty-eight individualized group participants received the same intervention with different sessions, which was adjusted according to each participant's learning response. Twenty-seven control group participants just received routine care. The Chinese version of the Mini-Nutritional Assessment and Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia scores and body mass index were recorded at pre-test, posttest and 1-, 3- and 6-month follow-ups. Data were collected between July 2008-February 2010. The Mini-Nutritional Assessment scores and body mass index of the fixed and individualized groups could be significantly increased over time. Additionally, the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia scores could be significantly reduced as a result of the improvement of the Mini-Nutritional Assessment scores arising from the individualized intervention. The depressive symptoms of residents with dementia could be moderated by the individualized intervention through nutritional improvement. Trained clinical nurse specialists can use this individualized intervention for residents with dementia who also have poor nutrition and depressive symptoms. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Kuczmarski, Andrew V; Cotugna, Nancy; Mason, Marc A; Evans, Michele K; Zonderman, Alan B
Background: Recent research has linked caffeine consumption with a lower risk for depression and cognitive decline. However, no studies have examined the relationship in an African American compared to a white, socioeconomically diverse representative urban sample. Methods: Data from a cross-sectional study were used to determine the associations of caffeine use with depressive symptomatology and cognition in a sample of 1,724 participants in the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span (HANDLS) study. The United States Department of Agriculture's Automated Multiple Pass Method was used by trained interviewers to collect two, in-person 24-hour dietary recalls. Depressive symptoms and global cognition were assessed using two well-validated measures: the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depressive Scale (CES-D) and Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), respectively. Usual caffeine intake was based on both recalls. Data were analyzed with t - and chi-square tests, correlation analysis, and ordinal logistic regression. Results: African Americans consumed significantly less caffeine than did whites (89.0±3.2 and 244.0±8.7 mg respectively). Caffeine consumption was not associated with depressive symptomatology or global cognition. Age, less than 5th grade literacy, and less than high school education were significantly associated with both depressive symptoms and cognitive function. Smokers had a 43% greater risk for depression but only a 3% higher risk for cognitive impairment. Conclusion: The low level of dietary caffeine intake in combination with smoking among HANDLS study participants may have influenced the lack of association with depressive symptomatology or global cognition. For this sample, low literacy and education appear more highly associated with depressive symptoms and cognitive function than caffeine intake.
There is ample evidence that depression is000 a common comorbid health issue in people with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Reviews have also concluded that depression in diabetes is associated with higher HbA1c levels, less optimal self-care behaviours, lower quality of life, incident vascular...... complications and higher mortality rates. However, longitudinal studies into the course of depression in people with type 1 diabetes remain scarce. In this issue of Diabetologia, Kampling and colleagues (doi: 10.1007/s00125-016-4123-0 ) report the 5 year trajectories of depression in adults with newly diagnosed...... type 1 diabetes (mean age, 28 years). Their baseline results showed that shortly after the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes a major depressive episode was diagnosed in approximately 6% of participants, while 8% suffered from an anxiety disorder. The longitudinal depression data showed that, in a 5 year...
Zhang, Bin; Hao, Yanli; Jia, Fujun; Li, Xueli; Tang, Yi; Zheng, Huirong; Liu, Wuhan
Previous studies have reported that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) might improve sleep-related breathing disorders (SRBDs). However, the effects of SSRIs on breathing are not evaluated in subjects without moderate-to-severe SRBDs. Further, many symptoms of depression and SRBDs overlap, and so, it is interesting whether there are interactions between breathing and psychopathologic symptoms during SSRI treatment for depression. Data were taken from an open-label 8-week trial of sertraline in depressed patients with insomnia (n = 31). The depressed patients were administered 50 mg sertraline at 8 AM on the first day, and the dosage was subsequently titrated up to a maximum of 200 mg/day during the 8-week trial. All the patients were tested by repeated polysomnography (PSG) (baseline, 1st day, 14th day, 28th day, and 56th day). Sleep-disordered breathing events were categorized as apneas, hypopneas, and respiratory event-related arousals (RERAs). The clinical responses and PSG characteristics improved continuously during the 8-week trial. From the 14th day on, the RERA index during all-night and non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep became stable and significantly higher than baseline and the first day (RERA index 7.3 ± 2.2 at baseline, 7.3 ± 2.5 on the 1st day, 4.4 ± 1.9 on the 14th day, 3.9 ± 1.3 on the 28th day, 4.2 ± 2.0 on the 56th day, F = 5.71, P = 0.02; NREM-RERA index 6.2 ± 2.0 at baseline, 6.3 ± 2.3 on the 1st day, 3.2 ± 1.5 on the 14th day, 3.5 ± 0.9 on the 28th day, 3.2 ± 1.7 on the 56th day, F = 4.92, P = 0.03). Additionally, the NREM-apnea index showed a similar pattern to that of the RERA index and reached a significant difference between baseline (1.0 ± 0.5) and the 14th day (0.5 ± 0.4) (KW = 4.28, P = 0.047). Compared to the no-improvement group, the improvement group with a decreasing score rate of the respiratory disturbance index (RDI) greater
Lopes, Rodrigo T; Gonçalves, Miguel M; Fassnacht, Daniel B; Machado, Paulo P P; Sousa, Inês
In a previous clinical controlled trial (Lopes et al., 2014), narrative therapy (NT) showed promising results in ameliorating depressive symptoms with comparable outcomes to cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) when patients completed treatment. This paper aims to assess depressive symptoms and interpersonal problems in this clinical sample at follow-up. Using the Beck Depression Inventory-II and Outcome Questionnaire-45.2 Interpersonal Relations Scale, naturalistic prospective follow-up assessment was conducted at 21 and 31 months after the last treatment session. At follow-up, patients kept improving in terms of depressive symptoms and interpersonal problems. The odds that a patient maintained recovery from depressive symptoms at follow-up were five times higher than the odds that a patient maintained recovery from interpersonal problems. In the same way, the odds of a patient never recovering from interpersonal problems were five times higher than the odds of never recovering from depressive symptoms. The study did not control for the natural course of depression or treatment continuation. For depressed patients with greater interpersonal disabilities, longer treatment plans and alternative continuation treatments should be considered. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Starr, Lisa R.; Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia A.; Najman, Jake M.
Previous research demonstrates that carriers of the short allele of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) show both greater susceptibility to depression in response to stressful life events and higher rates of generation of stressful events in response to depression. The current study examines relational security (i.e., self-reported beliefs…
Full Text Available In this replication-and-extension study, we tested whether depressive symptoms, neuroticism, and allostatic load (multisystem physiological dysregulation were related to lower baseline cognitive ability and greater subsequent cognitive decline in older adults, and whether these relationships were moderated by the E4 allele of the apolipoprotein E (APOE gene. We also tested whether allostatic load mediated the relationships between neuroticism and cognitive outcomes.We used data from the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 (n at Waves 1-3: 1,028 [M age = 69.5 y]; 820 [M duration since Wave 1 = 2.98 y]; 659 [M duration since Wave 1 = 6.74 y]. We fitted latent growth curve models of general cognitive ability (modeled using five cognitive tests with groups of APOE E4 non-carriers and carriers. In separate models, depressive symptoms, neuroticism, and allostatic load predicted baseline cognitive ability and subsequent cognitive decline. In addition, models tested whether allostatic load mediated relationships between neuroticism and cognitive outcomes.Baseline cognitive ability had small-to-moderate negative associations with depressive symptoms (β range = -0.20 to -0.17, neuroticism (β range = -0.27 to -0.23, and allostatic load (β range = -0.11 to 0.09. Greater cognitive decline was linked to baseline allostatic load (β range = -0.98 to -0.83 and depressive symptoms (β range = -1.00 to -0.88. However, APOE E4 allele possession did not moderate the relationships of depressive symptoms, neuroticism and allostatic load with cognitive ability and cognitive decline. Additionally, the associations of neuroticism with cognitive ability and cognitive decline were not mediated through allostatic load.Our results suggest that APOE E4 status does not moderate the relationships of depressive symptoms, neuroticism, and allostatic load with cognitive ability and cognitive decline in healthy older adults. The most notable positive finding in the current research was
... and insomnia References American Psychiatric Association. Depressive disorders. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders . 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing; 2013: ...
Bedard, Marc; Woods, Robbie; Crump, Carly; Anisman, Hymie
Disturbances of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling, which may occur among those with a polymorphism of the Val66Met gene, comprising a Met substitution for the Val allele, may be associated with depressive cognitions. However, presumed elevated BDNF levels among individuals with the Val/Val genotype, might confer increased responsivity to contextual challenges, thus fostering vulnerability to depression. In Study 1, among undergraduate students (N = 252), increased loneliness perceptions were accompanied with depressive symptoms. This relationship was moderated by self-efficacy and BDNF genotype, such that when individuals appraised high self-efficacy, those with the Val/Val genotype, compared to Met carriers, reported greater depression scores when they perceived feeling lonely. Study 2 revealed that among undergraduate students (N = 178), lower depressive scores were associated with increased problem-focused coping among Val/Val individuals, but not Met carriers. Moreover, with increased perceived loneliness, Val/Val carriers endorsed lower problem-focused coping. Findings suggest that Val/Val individuals may have adverse neurocognitive vulnerability to loneliness experiences. PMID:28769852
Zannas, Anthony S; McQuoid, Douglas R; Steffens, David C; Chrousos, George P; Taylor, Warren D
Although the relation between stressful life events (SLEs) and risk of major depressive disorder is well established, important questions remain about the effects of stress on the course of geriatric depression. Our objectives were (1) to examine how baseline stress and change in stress is associated with course of geriatric depression and (2) to test whether polymorphisms of serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR) and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT Val158Met) genes moderate this relation. Two-hundred and sixteen depressed subjects aged 60 years or older were categorized by remission status (Montgomery-Asberg depression rating scale≤6) at 6 and 12 months. At 6 months, greater baseline numbers of self-reported negative and total SLEs and greater baseline perceived stress severity were associated with lower odds of remission. At 12 months, only baseline perceived stress predicted remission. When we examined change in stress, 12-month decrease in negative SLEs and level of perceived stress were associated with improved odds of 12-month remission. When genotype data were included, COMT Val158Met genotype did not influence these relations. However, when compared with 5-HTTLPR L/L homozygotes, S allele carriers with greater baseline numbers of negative SLEs and with greater decrease in negative SLEs were more likely to remit at 12 months. This study demonstrates that baseline SLEs and perceived stress severity may influence the 12-month course of geriatric depression. Moreover, changes in these stress measures over time correlate with depression outcomes. 5-HTTLPR S carriers appear to be more susceptible to both the effects of enduring stress and the benefit of interval stress reduction.
Rahnama, P; Javidan, A N; Saberi, H; Montazeri, A; Tavakkoli, S; Pakpour, A H; Hajiaghababaei, M
We evaluate the level of anxiety and depression among patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) in relation with their religious coping and spiritual health. Brain and Spinal Cord Injury Repair Research Center, Neuroscience Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. A sample of patients with SCI participated in this cross-sectional study. They completed a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Brief Religious Coping Questionnaire and the Spiritual Well-being Scale. Then, the association between anxiety, depression and independent variables was examined. In all, 213 patients with SCI were studied. Of these, 64 (30%) have had anxiety and 32 (15%) have had depression. Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed that gender (odds ratio (OR) for female=3.34, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.31-8.51, P=0.011), employment (OR for unemployed=5.71, 95% CI=1.17-27.78, P=0.031), negative religious coping (OR=1.15, 95% CI=1.04-1.28, P=0.006) and existential spiritual well-being (OR=0.93, 95% CI=0.89-0.97, P=0.003) were significant contributing factors to anxiety (Table 3), whereas negative religious coping (OR=1.21, 95% CI=1.06-1.37, P=0.004) and existential spiritual well-being (OR=0.90, 95% CI=0.84-0.96, P=0.001) were significant contributing factors to depression. The findings indicated that depression and anxiety are two psychologically important side effects after SCI. The findings also indicated that religion and spiritual well-being have a moderating role on occurrence of depression and anxiety.
Full Text Available Regular exercise has an antidepressant effect in human subjects. Studies using animals have suggested that the antidepressant effect of exercise is attributable to an increase of brain 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; however, the precise mechanism underlying the antidepressant action via exercise is unclear. In contrast, the effect of 5-HT on antidepressant activity has not been clarified, in part because the therapeutic response to antidepressant drugs has a time lag in spite of the rapid increase of brain 5-HT upon administration of these drugs. This study was designed to investigate the contribution of brain 5-HT to the antidepressant effect of exercise. Mice were fed a tryptophan-deficient diet and stressed using chronic unpredictable stress (CUS for 4 weeks with or without the performance of either moderate or intense exercise on a treadmill 3 days per week. The findings demonstrated that the onset of depression-like behavior is attributable not to chronic reduction of 5-HT but to chronic stress. Regular exercise, whether moderate or intense, prevents depression-like behavior with an improvement of adult hippocampal cell proliferation and survival and without the recovery of 5-HT. Concomitantly, the mice that exercised showed increased hippocampal noradrenaline. Regular exercise prevents the impairment of not long-term memory but short-term memory in a 5-HT-reduced state. Together, these findings suggest that: (1 chronic reduction of brain 5-HT may not contribute to the onset of depression-like behavior; (2 regular exercise, whether moderate or intense, prevents the onset of chronic stress-induced depression-like behavior independent of brain 5-HT and dependent on brain adrenaline; and (3 regular exercise prevents chronic tryptophan reduction-induced impairment of not long-term but short-term memory.
Secades-Villa, Roberto; Weidberg, Sara; González-Roz, Alba; Reed, Derek D; Fernández-Hermida, José R
Individuals with depression smoke more than smokers without depression. Research has shown that cigarette demand is a useful tool for quantifying tobacco reinforcement and supposes a clinical predictor of treatment outcomes. Despite previous studies examining the relative reinforcing efficacy of nicotine among different populations of smokers, to date, no study has assessed cigarette demand among individuals with elevated depressive symptoms. The aim of this study was to compare cigarette demand among samples of smokers with low and elevated depressive symptoms. Further, it also sought to examine the relationship between depressive symptomatology and the individual CPT demand indices. Participants (80 non-depressed smokers and 85 depressed smokers) completed the 19-item version of the Cigarette Purchase Task (CPT). Depression symptomatology was assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition (BDI-II). Depressed smokers needed to present at least moderate depressive symptoms as indicated by scoring ≥ 20 on the BDI-II. Depressive symptomatology and nicotine dependence were significantly associated with elasticity of demand (R 2 = 0.112; F(2, 155) = 9.756, p = ≤ 0.001). Depressive symptoms, cigarettes per day, and years of regular smoking also predicted breakpoint scores (R 2 = 0.088; F(4, 153) = 3.697, p = 0.007). As smokers with elevated depressive symptoms are less sensitive to increases in cigarette prices than those with low depressive symptomatology, future studies should consider these cigarette demand indices when designing depression-focused smoking cessation treatments. Providing this difficult-to-treat population with interventions that promote both pleasurable and alternative reinforcing activities is highly encouraged.
Cizza, G; Ravn, Pernille; Chrousos, G P
Existing studies of the relationship between depression and osteoporosis have been heterogeneous in their design and use of diagnostic instruments for depression, which might have contributed to the different results on the comorbidity of these two conditions. Nevertheless, these studies reveal a...
Johansen, Jon O. J.
Nyhederne er fulde af historier om depression. Overskrifter som: ’Danskerne propper sig med lykkepiller’ eller ‘depression er stadigvæk tabu’ går tit igen i dagspressen. Men hvor er nuancerne, og hvorfor gider vi læse de samme historier igen og igen? Måske er det fordi, vores egne forestillinger er...
Gajewski, Patrick D; Boden, Sylvia; Freude, Gabriele; Potter, Guy G; Claus, Maren; Bröde, Peter; Watzl, Carsten; Getzmann, Stephan; Falkenstein, Michael
Burnout is a syndrome occurring mainly in individuals with long-term stressful work. The main complaints are emotional exhaustion and reduced performance. Burnout also largely overlaps with depression. Both are characterized by increased incidence of infections due to dysregulation of the immune system, overexpression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and cognitive deficits, particularly related to executive functions. To distinguish between burnout and depression already at the pre-clinical stage, the present double-blinded study compared immunological and cognitive parameters in seventy-six employees from emotionally demanding occupations who were post-hoc subdivided into two groups scoring low (EE-) and high (EE+) in emotional exhaustion and low (DE-) and high (DE+) in depression. Immunological parameters were measured from blood samples. Executive functions were studied by analyzing event-related brain potentials (ERPs) and performance during a task switching paradigm. Psychosocial job parameters were measured with standardized questionnaires. Burnout and mild to moderate depression largely overlapped. However, several subjects showed burnout without depressive symptoms. Higher levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-12 were correlated with burnout severity and depressive symptoms in male individuals. In the switch task a trend for lower performance in the EE+ vs. EE- group and no difference between DE+ and DE- groups were found. In the ERPs, however, differences were observed which distinguished between subclinical burnout and depression: the terminal contingent negative variation (CNV), indicating preparatory activity and the P3b, related to allocation of cognitive resources were generally reduced in EE+ vs. EE-, whereas no differences were found in the DE+ vs. DE- groups. The frontal P3a was selectively reduced in switch trials in the EE+ vs. EE- group and showed only a trend in DE+ vs. DE-, indicating impairment of executive control in subclinical
Investigating Direct Links between Depression, Emotional Control, and Physical Punishment with Adolescent Drive for Thinness and Bulimic Behaviors, Including Possible Moderation by the Serotonin Transporter 5-HTTLPR Polymorphism
Full Text Available Objectives: To examine the relationship between psychological and social factors (depression, emotional control, sexual abuse, and parental physical punishment and adolescent drive for Thinness and Bulimic behaviors in a large community sample, and to investigate possible genetic moderation.Method: Data were drawn from the Australian Temperament Project (ATP, a population-based cohort study that has followed a representative sample of 2443 participants from infancy to adulthood across 16 waves since 1983. A subsample of 650 participants (50.2% female of Caucasian descent who provided DNA were genotyped for a serotonin transporter promoter polymorphism (5-HTTLPR. Adolescent disordered eating attitudes and behaviors were assessed using the Bulimia and Drive for Thinness scales of the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (15–16 years. Depression and emotional control were examined at the same age using the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire, and an ATP-devised measure of emotional control. History of sexual abuse and physical punishment were assessed retrospectively (23–24 years in a subsample of 467 of those providing DNA.Results: EDI-2 scores were associated with depression, emotional control, and retrospectively reported parental physical punishment. Although there was statistically significant moderation of the relationship between parental physical punishment and bulimic behaviors by 5-HTTLPR (p = 0.0048, genotypes in this subsample were not in Hardy–Weinberg Equilibrium. No other G×E interactions were significant. Conclusion: Findings from this study affirm the central importance of psychosocial processes in disordered eating patterns in adolescence. Evidence of moderation by 5-HTTLPR was not conclusive; however, genetic moderation observed in a subsample not in Hardy–Weinberg Equilibrium warrants further investigation.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM: Mild to moderate depression is common in those with cardiovascular disease and undertreated. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of internet-delivered Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (iCBT on depressive symptom severity and adherence to medical advice and lifestyle interventions in adults with mild to moderate depression and high cardiovascular disease (CVD risks. METHODS: Randomised double-blind, 12 week attention-controlled trial comparing an iCBT programme (E-couch with an internet-delivered attention control health information package (HealthWatch, n = 282. The primary outcome was depression symptom level on the nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9 (trial registration: ACTRN12610000085077. RESULTS: 487/562 (88% participants completed the endpoint assessment. 383/562 (70% were currently treated for cardiovascular disease and 314/562 (56% had at least one other comorbid condition. In ITT analysis of 562 participants iCBT produced a greater decline in the mean PHQ-9 score compared to the attention control of 1.06 (95% CI: 0.23-1.89 points, with differences between the two arms increasing over the intervention period (time by treatment effect interaction p = .012. There were also larger improvements in adherence (2.16 points; 95% CI: 0.33-3.99, reductions in anxiety (0.96 points; 95% CI: 0.19-1.73, and a greater proportion engaging in beneficial physical activity (Odds Ratio 1.91, 95%CI: 1.01-3.61 in the iCBT participants but no effect upon disability, or walking time/day. There were no withdrawals due to study related adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: In people with mild to moderate depression and high levels of CVD risk factors, a freely accessible iCBT programme (http://www.ecouch.anu.edu.au produced a small, but robust, improvement in depressive symptoms, adherence and some health behaviours. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12610000085077.
Breet, Elsie; Kagee, Ashraf; Seedat, Soraya
HIV stigma plays a major role in the etiology of psychological distress among persons living with HIV, but may be ameliorated by social support. This cross-sectional study examined whether social support mediates or moderates the relationship between HIV stigma and psychological symptoms. We recruited a convenience sample of 210 individuals living with HIV in three peri-urban communities in the Western Cape, South Africa. People living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA) completed self-report questionnaires that assessed HIV-related stigma, social support, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. Product-term regression analyses showed that social support played a mediating role in the relationship between HIV-related stigma and symptoms of PTSD (not depression). Social support did not, however, moderate the relationship between HIV-related stigma and PTSD or depression. The results indicate that perceived HIV-related stigma may decrease PLWHA's perceived level of social support, which in turn may increase PTSD symptoms. Moreover, these findings suggest that despite the protective role of social support, there are other factors that affect the relationship between HIV-related stigma and mental health that hinder the buffering role of social support in this relationship. These findings may have implications for designing and implementing interventions that increase perceived social support and decrease perceived HIV-related stigma, which in turn may decrease symptoms of PTSD among PLWHA.
Full Text Available To evaluate the mediating/moderating effects of common internalizing /externalizing disorders on the association between ADHD and adolescent substance use disorders (SUD in a population-based birth cohort.Among 5718 children in the birth cohort, 343 ADHD incident cases and 712 matched controls were identified. Psychiatric diagnoses prior to age 19 were classified into DSM-IV categories. The association between ADHD and SUD was summarized (hazard ratios (HR, 95% CI. The effect of depression, CD/ODD, anxiety was evaluated separately.Assessment of the joint effects of ADHD and each psychiatric disorder did not support a moderating effect of these disorders on SUD on additive scale. However, the association between ADHD and SUD was partially explained by a mediating role of these psychiatric disorders.For clinicians our results emphasize that depression (or CD/ODD confers greater risk for SUD than ADHD alone. Early detection/treatment of SUD among adolescents with depression (or CD/ODD is crucial regardless of ADHD.
Powell, Philip A; Azlan, Haffiezhah A; Simpson, Jane; Overton, Paul G
As maladaptive disgust responses are linked to mental health problems, and cancer patients may experience heightened disgust as a result of treatments they receive, we explored the associations between disgust-related side-effects and symptoms of depression and anxiety in people treated for cancer. One hundred and thirty two (83 women, M age = 57.48 years) participants answered questions about their treatments, side-effects, disgust responding, and mental health. Experiencing bowel and/or bladder problems, sickness and/or nausea (referred to here as "core" disgust-related side-effects) was significantly related to greater symptoms of depression and borderline increased anxiety. Further, these links were explained by a moderated mediation model, whereby the effects of core disgust side-effects on depression and anxiety were mediated by (physical and behavioural) self-directed disgust, and disgust propensity moderated the effect of core disgust side-effects on self-disgust. These findings stress the importance of emotional responses, like disgust, in psychological adaptation to the side-effects of cancer treatments.
Rabin, Rachel A; Ashare, Rebecca L; Schnoll, Robert A; Cinciripini, Paul M; Hawk, Larry W; Lerman, Caryn; Tyndale, Rachel F; George, Tony P
Tobacco and cannabis are frequently used in combination and cannabis co-use may lead to poor tobacco cessation outcomes. Therefore, it is important to explore if cannabis co-use is associated with a reduced likelihood of achieving successful tobacco abstinence among treatment-seeking tobacco smokers. The present study examined whether current cannabis use moderated tobacco cessation outcomes after 12 weeks of pharmacological treatment (varenicline vs. nicotine patch vs. placebo) with adjunctive behavioral counseling. Treatment-seeking tobacco smokers (N = 1,246) were enrolled in an intent-to-treat study, of which 220 were current cannabis users. Individuals were randomly assigned to 12 weeks of placebo (placebo pill plus placebo patch), nicotine patch (active patch plus placebo pill), or varenicline (active pill plus placebo patch), plus behavioral counseling. The primary endpoint was biochemically verified 7-day point prevalence abstinence at the end of treatment. Controlling for rate of nicotine metabolism, treatment arm, age, sex, alcohol, and level of nicotine dependence, cannabis users were as successful at achieving biochemically verified 7-day point prevalence abstinence compared to tobacco-only smokers. Findings suggest that cannabis use does not hinder the ability to quit tobacco smoking. Future tobacco cessation studies should employ prospective, longitudinal designs investigating cannabis co-use over time and at different severity levels. (Am J Addict 2016;25:291-296). © 2016 American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.
... don't have the right balance of chemicals. Hormonal factors – Menstrual cycle changes, pregnancy, miscarriage, postpartum period, perimenopause, and menopause may all cause a woman to develop depression. ...
Hamoen, Astrid B H; Redlich, Else M; de Weerd, Al W
Cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) is a well-known, effective treatment for primary insomnia. However, the majority of sleeping problems occur in the presence of another medical or psychiatric disorder. Depression and general anxiety disorder (with a main feature of excessive generalized worrying) are disorders that frequently co-occur with insomnia. The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether depressive symptom severity or worrying influences the subjective effectiveness of CBT-I. Patients with a complaint of insomnia received CBT-I. At the beginning of the therapy, patients completed a sleep evaluation list, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II-NL, N = 92), and the Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ, N = 119). Based on the BDI and the PSWQ, the sample was divided into different groups: patients with low versus high depression scores, low worriers versus high worriers, and patients without depressive symptoms who were also classified as low worriers and patients with depressive symptoms who were also classified as high worriers. The sleep evaluation list was completed directly after the treatment and 6 months later. Sleep evaluation scores, subjective total sleep time, subjective sleep onset latency, and subjective wake after sleep onset all changed in a positive way after CBT-I and remained that way over the next 6 months for all patients. These positive effects of CBT-I did not differ between the subgroups. Results suggest that CBT-I improves subjective sleep experiences, regardless of depressive symptom severity or worrying. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Krupchanka, Dzmitry; Katliar, Mikhail
Background: There is evidence of a positive association between insight and depression among patients with schizophrenia. Self-stigma was shown to play a mediating role in this association. We attempted to broaden this concept by investigating insight as a potential moderator of the association between depressive symptoms amongst people with schizophrenia and stigmatizing views towards people with mental disorders in their close social environment. Method: In the initial sample of 120 pairs, data were gathered from 96 patients with a diagnosis of “paranoid schizophrenia” and 96 of their nearest relatives (80% response rate). In this cross-sectional study data were collected by clinical interview using the following questionnaires: “The Scale to Assess Unawareness of Mental Disorder,” “Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia,” and “Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale.” The stigmatizing views of patients’ nearest relatives towards people with mental disorders were assessed with the “Mental Health in Public Conscience” scale. Results: Among patients with schizophrenia depressive symptom severity was positively associated with the intensity of nearest relatives’ stigmatizing beliefs (“Nonbiological vision of mental illness,” τ = 0.24; P insight. Directions for further research and practical implications are discussed. PMID:26970100
Willems, Roy A; Mesters, Ilse; Lechner, Lilian; Kanera, Iris M; Bolman, Catherine A W
The web-based computer-tailored Kanker Nazorg Wijzer (Cancer Aftercare Guide) supports cancer survivors with psychosocial issues during cancer recovery. The current study investigates whether the 6-month effects in increasing emotional and social functioning and reducing depression and fatigue hold at 12 months from baseline. Moreover, it explores whether patient characteristics moderate the 6- and 12-month intervention effectiveness. Cancer survivors from 21 Dutch hospitals (November 2013-June 2014) were randomized to an intervention (n = 231) or a wait-list control group (n = 231). Intervention effects on emotional and social functioning (EORTC QLQ-C30), depression (HADS), and fatigue (CIS) were evaluated through multilevel linear regression analyses. At 12 months from baseline, the intervention group no longer differed from the control group in emotional and social functioning, depression, and fatigue. Moderator analyses indicated that, at 6 months, the intervention was effective in improving social functioning for men (d = 0.34), reducing fatigue for participants ≤56 years (d = 0.44), and reducing depression for participants who received chemotherapy (d = 0.36). At 12 months, participants with a medium educational level reported higher social functioning (d = 0.19), while participants with a low educational level reported lower social functioning (d = 0.22) than participants with a similar educational level in the control group. The intervention gave cancer patients a head start to psychological recovery after the end of cancer treatment. The control group caught up in the long run. The Cancer Aftercare Guide expedited recovery after cancer treatment. Being a low intensity, easy accessible, and relatively low cost intervention, it could serve as a relevant step in recovery and stepped care.
Proudfoot, Judith; Clarke, Janine; Birch, Mary-Rose; Whitton, Alexis E; Parker, Gordon; Manicavasagar, Vijaya; Harrison, Virginia; Christensen, Helen; Hadzi-Pavlovic, Dusan
Mobile phone-based psychological interventions enable real time self-monitoring and self-management, and large-scale dissemination. However, few studies have focussed on mild-to-moderate symptoms where public health need is greatest, and none have targeted work and social functioning. This study reports outcomes of a CONSORT-compliant randomised controlled trial (RCT) to evaluate the efficacy of myCompass, a self-guided psychological treatment delivered via mobile phone and computer, designed to reduce mild-to-moderate depression, anxiety and stress, and improve work and social functioning. Community-based volunteers with mild-to-moderate depression, anxiety and/or stress (N = 720) were randomly assigned to the myCompass program, an attention control intervention, or to a waitlist condition for seven weeks. The interventions were fully automated, without any human input or guidance. Participants' symptoms and functioning were assessed at baseline, post-intervention and 3-month follow-up, using the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale and the Work and Social Adjustment Scale. Retention rates at post-intervention and follow-up for the study sample were 72.1% (n = 449) and 48.6% (n = 350) respectively. The myCompass group showed significantly greater improvement in symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress and in work and social functioning relative to both control conditions at the end of the 7-week intervention phase (between-group effect sizes ranged from d = .22 to d = .55 based on the observed means). Symptom scores remained at near normal levels at 3-month follow-up. Participants in the attention control condition showed gradual symptom improvement during the post-intervention phase and their scores did not differ from the myCompass group at 3-month follow-up. The myCompass program is an effective public health program, facilitating rapid improvements in symptoms and in work and social functioning for individuals with mild-to-moderate mental
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Wright, Michelle F.
The aim of this study was to examine the mitigating effect of perceived social support from parents, teachers, and friends on the association between cyber victimization and depression, accessed one year later. Adolescents (n = 131; 13-15 years old; 73% male) with intellectual and developmental disabilities completed questionnaires on their…
Adams, Ryan E.; Cantin, Stephane
The objective of the study was to examine the effects of self-disclosure in best friendships on the pathway from peer victimization to depressive symptoms as mediated by self-esteem for physical appearance (SEPA) in overweight adolescents. Utilizing data from 610 French-speaking Canadian adolescents in Grades 7 and 8, the current study examined…
Laurent, Heidemarie K.; Leve, Leslie D.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Harold, Gordon T.; Reiss, David
This study used a prospective adoption design to investigate effects of prenatal and postnatal parent depressive symptom exposure on child hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity and associated internalizing symptoms. Birth mother prenatal symptoms and adoptive mother/father postnatal (9-month, 27-month) symptoms were assessed with the Beck…
Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Elovainio, Marko; Virtanen, Marianna; Kivimäki, Mika; Hintsanen, Mirka; Hintsa, Taina; Jokela, Markus; Puttonen, Sampsa; Joensuu, Matti; Lipsanen, Jari; Raitakari, Olli T; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa
There have been calls to know more about vulnerability factors that may predispose to adverse health outcomes at work. We examined if childhood adverse experiences would affect vulnerability to psychosocial stress factors at work. A nationally representative sample of 1546 Finnish men and women was followed up from childhood to adulthood. Childhood adverse experiences consisted of socioeconomic and emotional factors. Job demands and job control were measured 21 years later, and depressive symptoms were measured 21 and 27 years after the childhood measurements. Job demands predicted depressive symptoms over 6 years, and the association was modified by childhood emotional adversity. Participants with three or more emotional adversities in childhood had more depressive symptoms in response to high job demands compared with participants with zero or one emotional adversities in childhood (Betas = -1.40 and -2.01, ps job control and depressive symptoms. Although modest in effect size, these findings provide a developmental viewpoint for understanding the role of childhood experiences in work-related stress factors. Such knowledge can enhance understanding of individual differences in vulnerability to the demands of working life. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Prospective relationship of depressive symptoms, drinking, and tobacco smoking among middle-aged and elderly community-dwelling adults: Results from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS).
Cheng, Hui G; Chen, Shengnan; McBride, Orla; Phillips, Michael R
Previous studies in Western countries have consistently documented positive associations of smoking and heavy drinking with depressive symptoms but a prospective analysis of these relationships among middle-aged and elderly community members in China have not previously been reported. Using data from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study, a two-wave nationally representative survey conducted in 15,628 adults 45 years of age and older, we estimated the prospective association between depressive symptoms and an array of smoking and drinking behaviors. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) short form. Inverse associations were the dominant pattern of association. For the population as a whole, individuals with baseline depressive symptoms were less likely to start drinking (OR=0.7, 95% CI=0.5, 0.9) or smoking (OR=0.6, 95% CI=0.4, 0.8). Similarly, baseline drinkers and smokers were less likely to develop depressive symptoms (ORdrinkers=0.6, 95% CI=0.5, 0.7; ORsmokers=0.7, 95% CJ=0.6, 0.9). No evidence was found for an increased incidence or persistence of depressive symptoms among high-frequency drinkers or heavy smokers or vice versa. Males who had never smoked prior to the onset of depressive symptoms tended to have more rapid onset of tobacco dependence compared to those without such symptoms. Males and females had different association patterns. The study is observational in nature and provides limited evidence for causality. The results are inconsistent with previous findings in Western countries, throwing into question the presumed universality of the association between alcohol drinking or tobacco use and depression among middle-aged and elderly adults. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Møldrup, Claus; Østergaard, Svetlana
Background: To investigate the most effective duration of combined psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy for achieving remission and preventing relapse in depressive patients compared to pharmacotherapy alone. Methods: A systematic review of English articles using PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science......, the Cochrane Library, and PsychINFO was performed in September 2009. Clinical studies comparing pharmacotherapy alone with pharmacotherapy in combination with a psychological intervention for depression treatment that reported response, remission or relapse as outcomes were included in the analysis. For each...... were included in the analysis. Patients receiving combined treatment experienced remission more often than those receiving pharmacotherapy alone, with the highest odds ratio OR, 2,36;95%Cl, 1.58-3.55 observed at 4 months after commencing the treatment. Patients receiving pharmacotherapy alone also...
Impact of variation in functions and delivery on the effectiveness of behavioural and mood management interventions for smoking cessation in people with depression: protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Taylor, Gemma; Aveyard, Paul; Meer, Regina Van der; Toze, Daniel; Stuijfzand, Bobby; Kessler, David; Munafò, Marcus
Tobacco is the world's leading preventable cause of disease and death. People with depression are twice as likely to smoke and are less responsive to standard tobacco treatments as compared with the general population. A Cochrane systematic review of randomised controlled trials of smoking cessation treatment for smokers with current or historical depression found that adding mood management to usual smoking treatment improved quit rates. However, the review did not examine if variation in intervention delivery or intervention functions impacted on treatment effectiveness.With the aim of providing information to develop tailored approaches to treating smoking for people with current depression, we will add-on to the Cochrane review in three ways: (1) use the Template for Intervention Description and Replication checklist to determine if variations in mood management delivery have impact on intervention effectiveness, (2) use the Taxonomy of Behaviour Change techniques for smoking cessation to examine which behaviour change functions are most effective for smoking cessation in people with current depression and (3) examine the difference in change in depression scores between intervention and control arms. We will include randomised controlled trials of smokers with current depression as identified by a previous Cochrane review and the in-progress update of this Cochrane review. We will use meta-regression to examine (1) if variations in delivery of mood management impact on smoking cessation intervention effectiveness, (2) determine which behaviour change functions are most effective for smoking cessation and (3) use meta-analysis of the difference in change in depression scores between treatment arms from baseline to follow-up to determine if offering smoking cessation treatment causes psychological harm. Ethical approval is not required for this study. We will disseminate the findings of this work at national and international conferences, and to relevant patient
Chen, Kang; Mao, Ye; Liu, Shao-hua; Wu, Qiong; Luo, Qing-zhi; Pan, Wen-qi; Jin, Qi; Zhang, Ning; Ling, Tian-you; Chen, Ying; Gu, Gang; Shen, Wei-feng; Wu, Li-qun
Objective: We are aimed to investigate whether right ventricular mid-septal pacing (RVMSP) is superior to conventional right ventricular apical pacing (RVAP) in improving clinical functional capacity and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) for patients with high-degree atrio-ventricular block and moderately depressed left ventricle (LV) function. Methods: Ninety-two patients with high-degree atrio-ventricular block and moderately reduced LVEF (ranging from 35% to 50%) were randomly allocated to RVMSP (n=45) and RVAP (n=47). New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class, echocardiographic LVEF, and distance during a 6-min walk test (6MWT) were determined at 18 months after pacemaker implantation. Serum levels of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. Results: Compared with baseline, NYHA functional class remained unchanged at 18 months, distance during 6MWT (485 m vs. 517 m) and LVEF (36.7% vs. 41.8%) were increased, but BNP levels were reduced (2352 pg/ml vs. 710 pg/ml) in the RVMSP group compared with those in the RVAP group, especially in patients with LVEF 35%–40% (for all comparisons, P<0.05). However, clinical function capacity and LV function measurements were not significantly changed in patients with RVAP, despite the pacing measurements being similar in both groups, such as R-wave amplitude and capture threshold. Conclusions: RVMSP provides a better clinical utility, compared with RVAP, in patients with high-degree atrioventricular block and moderately depressed LV function whose LVEF levels ranged from 35% to 40%. PMID:24903987
Chen, Kang; Mao, Ye; Liu, Shao-hua; Wu, Qiong; Luo, Qing-zhi; Pan, Wen-qi; Jin, Qi; Zhang, Ning; Ling, Tian-you; Chen, Ying; Gu, Gang; Shen, Wei-feng; Wu, Li-qun
We are aimed to investigate whether right ventricular mid-septal pacing (RVMSP) is superior to conventional right ventricular apical pacing (RVAP) in improving clinical functional capacity and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) for patients with high-degree atrio-ventricular block and moderately depressed left ventricle (LV) function. Ninety-two patients with high-degree atrio-ventricular block and moderately reduced LVEF (ranging from 35% to 50%) were randomly allocated to RVMSP (n=45) and RVAP (n=47). New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class, echocardiographic LVEF, and distance during a 6-min walk test (6MWT) were determined at 18 months after pacemaker implantation. Serum levels of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. Compared with baseline, NYHA functional class remained unchanged at 18 months, distance during 6MWT (485 m vs. 517 m) and LVEF (36.7% vs. 41.8%) were increased, but BNP levels were reduced (2352 pg/ml vs. 710 pg/ml) in the RVMSP group compared with those in the RVAP group, especially in patients with LVEF 35%-40% (for all comparisons, P<0.05). However, clinical function capacity and LV function measurements were not significantly changed in patients with RVAP, despite the pacing measurements being similar in both groups, such as R-wave amplitude and capture threshold. RVMSP provides a better clinical utility, compared with RVAP, in patients with high-degree atrioventricular block and moderately depressed LV function whose LVEF levels ranged from 35% to 40%.
Bravo, Adrian J; Pearson, Matthew R; Stevens, Leah E; Henson, James M
In college student samples, the association between depressive symptoms and alcohol-related problems has been found to be mediated by drinking-to-cope motives. Mindfulness-based interventions suggest that mindfulness may attenuate the conditioned response of using substances in response to negative emotional states, and trait mindfulness has been shown to be a protective factor associated with experiencing fewer alcohol-related problems. In the present study, we examined trait mindfulness as a moderator of the indirect associations of depressive symptoms on alcohol-related problems via drinking-to-cope motives. Participants were undergraduate students at a large, southeastern university in the United States who drank at least once in the previous month (n = 448). Participants completed an online survey regarding their personal mental health, coping strategies, trait mindfulness, and alcohol use behaviors. The majority of participants were female (n = 302; 67.4%), identified as being either White non-Hispanic (n = 213; 47.5%) or African American (n = 119; 26.6%), and reported a mean age of 22.74 (SD = 6.81) years. Further, 110 (25%) participants reported having a previous and/or current experience with mindfulness mediation. As hypothesized, the indirect effects from depressive symptoms to alcohol-related problems via drinking-to-cope motives were weaker among individuals reporting higher levels of mindfulness than among individuals reporting lower and average levels of mindfulness. The present study suggests a possible mechanism through which mindfulness-based interventions may be efficacious among college students: decoupling the associations between depressive symptoms and drinking-to-cope motives.
Conway, C.C.; Rancourt, D.; Adelman, C.B.; Burk, W.J.; Prinstein, M.J.
Tests of interpersonal theories of depression have established that elevated depression levels among peers portend increases in individuals' own depressive symptoms, a phenomenon known as depression socialization. Susceptibility to this socialization effect may be enhanced during the transition to
Full Text Available Animal studies find that prenatal stress is associated with increased physiological and emotional reactivity later in life, mediated via fetal programming of the HPA axis through decreased glucocorticoid receptor (GR gene expression. Post-natal behaviours, notably licking and grooming in rats, cause decreased behavioural indices of fear and reduced HPA axis reactivity mediated via increased GR gene expression. Post-natal maternal behaviours may therefore be expected to modify prenatal effects, but this has not previously been examined in humans. We examined whether, according to self-report, maternal stroking over the first weeks of life modified associations between prenatal depression and physiological and behavioral outcomes in infancy, hence mimicking effects of rodent licking and grooming. From a general population sample of 1233 first time mothers recruited at 20 weeks gestation we drew a stratified random sample of 316 for assessment at 32 weeks based on reported inter-partner psychological abuse, a risk to child development. Of these 271 provided data at 5, 9 and 29 weeks post delivery. Mothers reported how often they stroked their babies at 5 and 9 weeks. At 29 weeks vagal withdrawal to a stressor, a measure of physiological adaptability, and maternal reported negative emotionality were assessed. There was a significant interaction between prenatal depression and maternal stroking in the prediction of vagal reactivity to a stressor (p = .01, and maternal reports of infant anger proneness (p = .007 and fear (p = .043. Increasing maternal depression was associated with decreasing physiological adaptability, and with increasing negative emotionality, only in the presence of low maternal stroking. These initial findings in humans indicate that maternal stroking in infancy, as reported by mothers, has effects strongly resembling the effects of observed maternal behaviours in animals, pointing to future studies of the epigenetic
Eriksen, Stine Aistrup
Use of antidepressants is associated with an increased risk of fractures, and may be a result of both negative effects on the skeleton as well as increased risk of falling; however, the specific mechanisms are not yet known. Vitamin D play important roles for bone and muscle, and has previously...... shown positive effects in lowering the risk of osteoporosis and risk of falling. In addition, vitamin D may improve mental health, and deficiency of vitamin D is a common condition among patients suffering from depression. This thesis investigates bone and factors related to fall risk (including muscle...
Full Text Available Abstract Background In a working population, common mental complaints like depressed mood and chronic fatigue are highly prevalent and often result in further deterioration of mental health and consequently absence from work. In a large occupational health setting, we will evaluate the (cost- effectiveness of a Minimal Psychological Intervention (MPI, in reducing symptoms of depression and chronic fatigue in a working population. The MPI is also evaluated regarding its appreciation by worker, nurse, and occupational health physician (process evaluation. The tailor-made intervention is administered by nurses, who are trained in the principles of cognitive behavioural therapy and self-management. Methods/design The presented WoPaCoM study (Work Participation of Workers with Common Mental complaints is a two-armed randomized controlled trial, comparing MPI with usual care. A total number of 124 workers suffering from (chronic mental fatigue or mild to moderate depression will be included. A stratified and block randomization will be applied, stratifying by customer organisation, income, and gender, using a block size of four. It will include a baseline measurement and subsequently follow up measurements after 4, 6 and 12 months. The primary outcome measures are symptoms of either fatigue (using the Checklist Individual Strength and/or depression (using the Beck Depression Inventory and secondary outcome measures include sickness absence, self efficacy, costs and quality of life. Analysis will include both univariate and multivariate techniques and data will be analysed according to the intention to treat principle. Discussion Patient recruitment in an occupational setting proves to be complicated and time consuming. Shift work for instance proved to be an obstacle for making appointments for consultation with the nurse. Furthermore, economic developments might have created job insecurity which negatively influenced participation in the study, with
Klein, Jan Philipp; Gamon, Carla; Späth, Christina; Berger, Thomas; Meyer, Björn; Hohagen, Fritz; Hautzinger, Martin; Lutz, Wolfgang; Vettorazzi, Eik; Moritz, Steffen; Schröder, Johanna
This study aims to examine whether the effects of internet interventions for depression generalise to participants recruited in clinical settings. This study uses subgroup analysis of the results of a randomised, controlled, single-blind trial. The study takes place in five diagnostic centres in Germany. A total of 1013 people with mild to moderate depressive symptoms were recruited from clinical sources as well as internet forums, statutory insurance companies and other sources. This study uses either care-as-usual alone (control) or a 12-week internet intervention (Deprexis) plus usual care (intervention). The primary outcome measure was self-rated depression severity (Patient Health Questionnaire-9) at 3 months and 6 months. Further measures ranged from demographic and clinical parameters to a measure of attitudes towards internet interventions (Attitudes towards Psychological Online Interventions Questionnaire). The recruitment source was only associated with very few of the examined demographic and clinical characteristics. Compared with participants recruited from clinical sources, participants recruited through insurance companies were more likely to be employed. Clinically recruited participants were as severely affected as those from other recruitment sources but more sceptical of internet interventions. The effectiveness of the intervention was not differentially associated with recruitment source (treatment by recruitment source interaction=0.28, p=0.84). Our results support the hypothesis that the intervention we studied is effective across different recruitment sources including clinical settings. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01636752. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Fossion, Pierre; Leys, Christophe; Kempenaers, Chantal; Braun, Stephanie; Verbanck, Paul; Linkowski, Paul
Depressive and anxiety disorders (DAD) have become a major public health problem. Multiple trauma is known to increase the risk of DAD through a sensitization mechanism. We investigate the hypothesis that resilience is a mediator of this mechanism. Former Hidden Children (FHC), the Jewish youths who spent World War II in various hideaway shelters across Nazi-occupied Europe, were compared with a control group. In each group, we measured the presence of multiple traumas, the resilience with the Resilience Scale for Adults, which has a six factors solution, and the DAD with the Hopkins Symptoms Checklist. We test a mediated moderation model with childhood trauma as the predictor; Later trauma as the moderator; Resilience as the mediator; and DAD as the outcome variable. Results are consistent with a sensitization model of DAD mediated by resilience: confrontation with a primary trauma during childhood followed by secondary trauma(s) after childhood damages resilience, which, in turn, results in higher level of DAD. We are unable to differentiate if the sensitization process is a consequence of the nature of the trauma endured by FHC (long-standing exposure to extreme external events) or a consequence of the fact that this first trauma occurred during childhood. Resilience construct is multi-factorial and a limited damaging of some of the factors is sufficient to lead to DAD even if other factors remain unaltered. Resilience can be altered by multiple traumas and, therefore, needs to be bolstered in therapy sessions. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Occupational noise, smoking, and a high body mass index are risk factors for age-related hearing impairment and moderate alcohol consumption is protective: A European population-based multicenter study
Fransen, E.; Topsakal, V.; Hendrickx, J.J.
exposure was associated with a significant loss of hearing at high sound frequencies (> 1 kHz). Smoking significantly increased high-frequency hearing loss, and the effect was dose-dependent. The effect of smoking remained significant when accounting for cardiovascular disease events. Taller people had...... better hearing on average with a more pronounced effect at low sound frequencies (hearing loss across the frequency range tested. Moderate alcohol consumption was inversely correlated with hearing loss. Significant associations were found in the high......A multicenter study was set up to elucidate the environmental and medical risk factors contributing to age-related hearing impairment (ARHI). Nine subsamples, collected by nine audiological centers across Europe, added up to a total of 4,083 subjects between 53 and 67 years. Audiometric data (pure...
Detandt, Sandrine; Bazan, Ariane; Schröder, Elisa; Olyff, Giulia; Kajosch, Hendrik; Verbanck, Paul; Campanella, Salvatore
Cognitive impairment is a major component in addiction. However, research has been inconclusive as to whether this is also the case for smokers. The present study aims at providing electrophysiological clue for altered inhibitory control in smokers and at investigating whether reduced inhibition was more pronounced during exposure to a smoking cue. ERPs were recorded during a visual Go-NoGo task performed by 18 smokers and 23 controls, in which either a frequent Go signal (letter "M") or a rare No-Go signal ("letter W") were superimposed on three different long-lasting background contexts: black-neutral, smoking-related and non smoking-related. (1) Smokers performed worse and had an earlier NoGo-N2 latency as compared to controls and independently of context, suggesting a general inhibition impairment; (2) with smoking-related backgrounds specifically, smokers made fewer mistakes than they did in other contexts and displayed a larger NoGo P3 amplitude. These data might suggest that background cues related to addiction may help smokers to be more accurate in an inhibition task. Our results show the classical inhibitory impairment in smokers as compared to non-smokers. However, our data also suggest that a smoking-related background may bolster the inhibitory ability of smokers specifically. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Bias in estimating the cross-sectional smoking, alcohol, obesity and diabetes associations with moderate-severe periodontitis in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study: comparison of full versus partial-mouth estimates.
Akinkugbe, Aderonke A; Saraiya, Veeral M; Preisser, John S; Offenbacher, Steven; Beck, James D
To assess whether partial-mouth protocols (PRPs) result in biased estimates of the associations between smoking, alcohol, obesity and diabetes with periodontitis. Using a sample (n = 6129) of the 1996-1998 Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study, we used measures of probing pocket depth and clinical attachment level to identify moderate-severe periodontitis. Adjusting for confounders, unconditional binary logistic regression estimated prevalence odds ratios (POR) and 95% confidence limits. Specifically, we compared POR for smoking, alcohol, obesity and diabetes with periodontitis derived from full-mouth to those derived from 4-PRPs (Ramfjörd, National Health and Nutrition Examination survey-III, modified-NHANES-IV and 42-site-Random-site selection-method). Finally, we conducted a simple sensitivity analysis of periodontitis misclassification by changing the case definition threshold for each PRP. In comparison to full-mouth PORs, PRP PORs were biased in terms of magnitude and direction. Holding the full-mouth case definition at moderate-severe periodontitis and setting it at mild-moderate-severe for the PRPs did not consistently produce POR estimates that were either biased towards or away from the null in comparison to full-mouth estimates. Partial-mouth protocols result in misclassification of periodontitis and may bias epidemiologic measures of association. The magnitude and direction of this bias depends on choice of PRP and case definition threshold used. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Heiss, Christian; Amabile, Nicolas; Lee, Andrew C; Real, Wendy May; Schick, Suzaynn F; Lao, David; Wong, Maelene L; Jahn, Sarah; Angeli, Franca S; Minasi, Petros; Springer, Matthew L; Hammond, S Katharine; Glantz, Stanton A; Grossman, William; Balmes, John R; Yeghiazarians, Yerem
This study sought to analyze the effects of acute secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure on the number and function of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) over 24 h. Secondhand smoke increases the risk of vascular disease and is a major public health concern, but the mechanism(s) of action are not fully understood. Healthy nonsmokers (age SEM 30.3 +/- 1.3 years, n = 10) were exposed to 30 min of SHS yielding cotinine levels commonly observed in passive smokers and to smokefree air on 2 separate days. Measurements were taken before exposure (baseline), immediately after (0 h), and at 1 h, 2.5 h, and 24 h after. The EPCs (CD133(+)/KDR(+), CD34(+)/KDR(+)) and endothelial microparticles (EMPs: CD31(+)/CD41(-), CD144(+), CD62e(+)) were determined in blood using flow cytometry. The EPC chemotaxis toward vascular endothelial growth factor was measured. Endothelial function was assessed as flow-mediated dilation (FMD) using ultrasound. Secondhand smoke exposure increased EPCs and plasma vascular endothelial growth factor and completely abolished EPC chemotaxis during 24 h after exposure. Secondhand smoke increased EMPs and decreased FMD. Although FMD returned to baseline at 2.5 h, EMPs and vascular endothelial growth factor levels remained elevated at 24 h, suggesting endothelial activation and injury with functional impairment of the vascular endothelium. Exposure to smokefree air had no effect. Incubation of EPCs from nonexposed subjects with plasma isolated from SHS-exposed subjects in vitro decreased chemotaxis by blockade of vascular endothelial growth factor-stimulated nitric oxide production. Brief exposure to real-world levels of SHS leads to sustained vascular injury characterized by mobilization of dysfunctional EPCs with blocked nitric oxide production. Our results suggest that SHS not only affects the vascular endothelium, but also the function of EPCs.
Ling, Pamela M.; Neilands, Torsten B.; Glantz, Stanton A.
Background Young adults have the highest smoking rate of any age group in the U.S., and new strategies to decrease young adult smoking are needed. The objective of the current study was to identify psychographic and demographic factors associated with current smoking and quitting behaviors among young adults. Methods Attitudes, social groups, and self-descriptors, including supporting action against the tobacco industry, advertising receptivity, depression, alcohol use, and other factors associated with smoking were tested for associations with smoking behaviors in a 2005 cross-sectional survey of 1528 young adults (aged 18–25 years) from a web-enabled panel. Analyses were conducted in 2007. Results Being older was associated with current smoking, whereas having some higher education and being African American or Hispanic were negatively associated with smoking. Supporting action against the tobacco industry was negatively associated with smoking (AOR=0.34 [95% CI=0.22, 0.52]). Perceived usefulness of smoking, exposure to smokers, increased perceived smoking prevalence, receptivity to tobacco advertising, binge drinking, and exposure to tobacco advertising in bars and clubs were associated with smoking. Supporting action against the tobacco industry was associated with intentions to quit smoking (AOR= 4.43 [95% CI=2.18, 8.60]). Conclusions Young adults are vulnerable to tobacco-industry advertising. Media campaigns that denormalize the tobacco industry and appeal to young adults appear to be a powerful intervention to decrease young adult smoking. PMID:19269128
The Influence of Neurocognitive Impairment, Depression, and Alcohol Use Disorders on Health-Related Quality of Life among Incarcerated, HIV-Infected, Opioid Dependent Malaysian Men: A Moderated Mediation Analysis.
Shrestha, Roman; Weikum, Damian; Copenhaver, Michael; Altice, Frederick L
Prior research has widely recognized neurocognitive impairment (NCI), depression, and alcohol use disorders (AUDs) as important negative predictors of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among people living with HIV (PLWH). No studies to date, however, have explored how these neuropsychological factors operate together and affect HRQoL. Incarcerated male PLWH (N = 301) meeting criteria for opioid dependence were recruited from Malaysia's largest prison. Standardized scales for NCI, depression, alcohol use disorders (AUDs) and HRQoL were used to conduct a moderated mediation model to explore the extent to which depression mediated the relationship between NCI, HRQoL, and AUDs using an ordinary least squares regression-based path analytic framework. Results showed that increasing levels of NCI (B = -0.1773, p mediated via depression (B = -0.1230, p moderated mediation effect. The findings disentangle the complex relationship using a moderated mediation model, demonstrating that increasing levels of NCI, which can be reduced with HIV treatment, negatively influenced HRQoL via depression for individuals with AUDs. This highlights the need for future interventions to target these complex interplay between neuropsychological factors in order to improve HRQoL among PLWH, particularly incarcerated PLWH with AUDs.
Full Text Available Background Every woman during different stages of her growth faces various crises, and one of these crises, menopause, may create different problems. In modern societies, psychological disorders and particularly depression is one of the problems of menopausal women. Objectives This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of depression in postmenopausal women referred to selected health centers of Ahvaz in 2014. Patients and Methods This study was cross-sectional study. In this study, 1280 postmenopausal women aged between 40 and 65 years old who were referred to selected health centers of Ahvaz in 2014 were randomly enrolled. Hamilton depression scale and demographic questionnaire were used for gathering information. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. To analyze the data, descriptive statistics and analytical statistics (Independent t test, ANOVA, Pearson correlation and logistic regression were carried out (CI 95%. Results The mean ± SD score of depression for the subjects was 9.37 ± 4.62. The results showed that 59.8% of the 1280 samples were depressed; in particular, 39.8% had mild depression, 16% moderate depression, and 4% severe depression. There is a significant and inverse relation between variables of age, exposure to cigarette smoking, and the relationship with their spouses and the level of their depression, so higher age, more exposure to smoking, and better relation with their husbands, lead to the less depression. The results showed that the level of education is associated with depression. The highest rate of depression was in illiterate women; the finding also showed that there is a relationship between income and the severity of depression (Regression Log. T test showed that the mean depression level of employed postmenopausal women is higher than housewives postmenopausal women, and this difference is statistically significant (P < 0.001. Conclusions A significant percentage of women in their menopause experience
Jafari, S; Ashrafizadeh, S-G; Zeinoddini, A; Rasoulinejad, M; Entezari, P; Seddighi, S; Akhondzadeh, S
Depression is a debilitating complication of brucellosis and how best to treat this is a matter of debate. Inflammatory processes are involved in the pathogenesis of both brucellosis and depression. Therefore, we hypothesized that celecoxib could be beneficial for the treatment of depression due to brucellosis. Forty outpatients with depression due to brucellosis with a Hamilton Depression Rating Scale score (HDRS) brucellosis when compared with placebo. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
... Quit Smoking Print This Topic En español Quit Smoking Browse Sections The Basics Overview Secondhand Smoke How ... to be active with your family and friends. Smoking hurts almost every part of the body. Smoking ...
Kuijer, Roeline G; Boyce, Jessica A; Marshall, Emma M
The increase in obesity and the many educational messages prompting us to eat a healthy diet have heightened people's concerns about the effects of food choice on health and weight. An unintended side effect may be that such awareness fuels feelings of guilt and worry about food. Although guilt has the potential to motivate behaviour change, it may also lead to feelings of helplessness and loss of control. The current study examined the relationship between a default association of either 'guilt' or 'celebration' with a prototypical forbidden food item (chocolate cake), indicators of healthy eating and choosing food for mood regulation reasons. Following a 'diathesis-stress' perspective, the moderating roles of depressive symptoms and stress were examined. Although a default association of guilt was found to be harmless under some circumstances (i.e. under low stress), those who associated chocolate cake with guilt (vs. celebration) reported unhealthier eating habits and lower levels of perceived behavioural control over healthy eating when under stress, rated mood regulation reasons for food choice as important irrespective of their current affective state, and did not have more positive attitudes towards healthy eating. Implications for public health messages and interventions will be discussed.
Bajs Janović M
Full Text Available Maja Bajs Janović,1,3 Petra Kalember,2 Špiro Janović,1,3 Pero Hrabač,2 Petra Folnegović Grošić,1 Vladimir Grošić,4 Marko Radoš,5 Neven Henigsberg2,61University Department of Psychiatry, Clinical Hospital Center Zagreb, Zagreb, 2Polyclinic Neuron, Croatian Institute for Brain Research, School of Medicine, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, 3University North, Varaždin, 4Psychiatric Hospital Sveti Ivan, Zagreb, 5University Department of Radiology, Clinical Hospital Center Zagreb, Zagreb, 6Psychiatric Clinic Vrapče, Zagreb, CroatiaBackground: The role of brain metabolites as biological correlates of the intensity, symptoms, and course of major depression has not been determined. It has also been inconclusive whether the change in brain metabolites, measured with proton magnetic spectroscopy, could be correlated with the treatment outcome. Methods: Proton magnetic spectroscopy was performed in 29 participants with a first episode of moderate depression occurring in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and left amygdala at baseline and after 8 weeks of antidepressant treatment with escitalopram. The Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale, the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, and the Beck Depression Inventory were used to assess the intensity of depression at baseline and at the endpoint of the study. At endpoint, the participants were identified as responders (n=17 or nonresponders (n=12 to the antidepressant therapy. Results: There was no significant change in the N-acetyl aspartate/creatine ratio (NAA/Cr after treatment with antidepressant medication. The baseline and endpoint NAA/Cr ratios were not significantly different between the responder and nonresponder groups. The correlation between NAA/Cr and changes in the scores of clinical scales were not significant in either group. Conclusion: This study could not confirm any significant changes in NAA after antidepressant treatment in the first episode of moderate depression, or in
Conway, Christopher C.; Rancourt, Diana; Adelman, Caroline B.; Burk, William J.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.
Tests of interpersonal theories of depression have established that elevated depression levels among peers portend increases in individuals’ own depressive symptoms, a phenomenon known as depression socialization. Susceptibility to this socialization effect may be enhanced during the transition to adolescence as the strength of peer influence rises dramatically. Socialization of depressive symptoms among members of child and adolescent friendship groups was examined over a 1-year period among 648 youth in grades six through eight. Sociometric methods were utilized to identify friendship groups and ascertain the prospective effect of group-level depressive symptoms on youths’ own depressive symptoms. Hierarchical linear modeling results revealed a significant socialization effect and indicated that this effect was most potent for (a) girls and (b) individuals on the periphery of friendship groups. Future studies would benefit from incorporating child and adolescent peer groups as a developmentally salient context for interpersonal models of depression. PMID:21842961
Kangas, J.L.; Baldwin, A.S.; Rosenfield, D.; Smits, J.A.J.; Rethorst, C.D.
Objective: People with depressive symptoms report lower levels of exercise self-efficacy and are more likely to discontinue regular exercise than others, but it is unclear how depressive symptoms affect the relation between exercise and self-efficacy. We sought to clarify whether depressive symptoms
Koubaa, Abdessalem; Triki, Moez; Trabelsi, Hajer; Baati, Hamza; Sahnoun, Zouhair; Hakim, Ahmed
Aim. To examine the impact of interval training program on the antioxidant defense capability and lipid profile in men smoking cigarettes or hookah unable or unwilling to quit smoking. Methods. Thirty-five participants performed an interval training (2 : 1 work : rest ratio) 3 times a week for 12 weeks at an intensity of 70% of VO2max. All subjects were subjected to a biochemical test session before and after the training program. Results. The increase of total antioxidant status (TAS), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and α-tocopherol, is significant only for cigarette smokers (CS) and hookah smokers (HS) groups. The decrease of malondialdehyde (MDA) and the increase of glutathione reductase (GR) are more pronounced in smokers groups compared to those of nonsmokers (NS). Superoxide dismutase (SOD) increases in NS, CS, and HS groups by 10.1%, 19.5%, and 13.3%, respectively (P < 0.001). Likewise, a significant improvement of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and TC/HDL-C ratio was observed in CS and HS groups (P < 0.05). Conclusion. Although the interval training program does not have a significant effect on blood lipid levels, it seems to be very beneficial in the defense and prevention programs of oxidative stress. PMID:25664340
Full Text Available Aim. To examine the impact of interval training program on the antioxidant defense capability and lipid profile in men smoking cigarettes or hookah unable or unwilling to quit smoking. Methods. Thirty-five participants performed an interval training (2 : 1 work : rest ratio 3 times a week for 12 weeks at an intensity of 70% of VO2max. All subjects were subjected to a biochemical test session before and after the training program. Results. The increase of total antioxidant status (TAS, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, and α-tocopherol, is significant only for cigarette smokers (CS and hookah smokers (HS groups. The decrease of malondialdehyde (MDA and the increase of glutathione reductase (GR are more pronounced in smokers groups compared to those of nonsmokers (NS. Superoxide dismutase (SOD increases in NS, CS, and HS groups by 10.1%, 19.5%, and 13.3%, respectively (P<0.001. Likewise, a significant improvement of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C and TC/HDL-C ratio was observed in CS and HS groups (P<0.05. Conclusion. Although the interval training program does not have a significant effect on blood lipid levels, it seems to be very beneficial in the defense and prevention programs of oxidative stress.
Efficacy of individualized homeopathic treatment and fluoxetine for moderate to severe depression in peri- and postmenopausal women (HOMDEP-MENOP): study protocol for a randomized, double-dummy, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.
Macías-Cortés, Emma del Carmen; Aguilar-Faisal, Leopoldo; Asbun-Bojalil, Juan
The perimenopausal period refers to the interval when women's menstrual cycles become irregular and is characterized by an increased risk of depressive symptoms. Use of homeopathy to treat depression is widespread but there is a lack of clinical trials about its efficacy in depression in peri- and postmenopausal women. Previous trials suggest that individualized homeopathic treatments improve depression. In classical homeopathy, an individually selected homeopathic remedy is prescribed after a complete case history of the patient. The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy and safety of the homeopathic individualized treatment versus placebo or fluoxetine in peri- and postmenopausal women with moderate to severe depression. A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, double-dummy, three-arm trial with a six-week follow-up study was designed. The study will be conducted in a public research hospital in Mexico City (Juárez de México Hospital) in the outpatient service of homeopathy. One hundred eighty nine peri- and postmenopausal women diagnosed with major depression according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (moderate to severe intensity) will be included. The primary outcome is change in the mean total score among groups on the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression after the fourth and sixth week of treatment. Secondary outcomes are: Beck Depression Inventory change in mean score, Greene's Scale change in mean score, response and remission rates and safety. Efficacy data will be analyzed in the intention-to-treat population. To determine differences in the primary and secondary outcomes among groups at baseline and weeks four and six, data will be analyzed by analysis of variance for independent measures with the Bonferroni post-hoc test. This study is the first trial of classical homeopathy that will evaluate the efficacy of homeopathic individualized treatment using C-potencies versus placebo or
Childhood adversity, perceived discrimination, and coping strategies in relation to depressive symptoms among First Nations adults in Canada: The moderating role of unsupportive social interactions from ingroup and outgroup members.
McQuaid, Robyn Jane; Bombay, Amy; McInnis, Opal Arilla; Matheson, Kimberly; Anisman, Hymie
Aboriginal peoples are at greater risk of experiencing early life adversity relative to non-Aboriginal peoples in Canada, and as adults frequently experience high levels of discrimination that act as a further stressor. Although these factors appear to contribute to high rates of depressive disorders and suicidality in Aboriginal peoples, the psychosocial factors that contribute to the relationship between childhood adversity and the development of depressive symptoms have hardly been assessed in this group. The present investigation explored potential mediators to help explain the relation between childhood trauma and depressive symptoms among a sample of First Nations adults from across Canada. These mediated relationships were further examined in the context of unsupportive social interactions from ingroup and outgroup members. In Study 1, (N = 225), the relationship between childhood trauma and depression scores was mediated by perceived discrimination, and this was particularly notable in the presence of unsupportive relations with outgroup members. In Study 2, (N = 134) the relationship between childhood trauma and depressive symptoms was mediated by emotion-focused coping that was specific to coping with experiences of ethnic discrimination, and this mediated effect was moderated by both outgroup and ingroup unsupportive social interactions. Thus, it seems that experiences of discrimination and unsupport might contribute to depressive symptoms among First Nations adults who had experienced early life adverse events. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Russell V. Luepker, MD, MS
Full Text Available Objective: To review the literature on associations between cardiovascular diseases and tobacco use, including recent trends in smoking behaviors and clinical approaches for cessation of smoking. Methods: A literature review of recent scientific findings for smoking and cardiovascular diseases and recommendations for obtaining cessation. Results: Tobacco smoking is causally related to cardiovascular disease, with nearly a half million deaths annually attributed to cigarette smoking in the United States. The human, economic, medical, and indirect costs are enormous. Secondhand smoke as inhaled from the environment also plays an important role in the genesis of cardiovascular diseases. A recent trend in the use of e-cigarettes is noted particularly among youth. For children, prevention is the best strategy. For adult smokers, behavioral treatments, self-help approaches, and pharmacologic therapies are readily available. Clinicians can have a significant impact on patients’ smoking habits. Adding to individual strategies, regulatory community and public health approaches provide the potential for eliminating the use of tobacco. Conclusion: Tobacco smoke causes cardiovascular morbidity and death. Clinicians can play a role in preventing smoking and promoting cessation.
A preliminary look at loneliness as a moderator of the link between perfectionism and depressive and anxious symptoms in college students: does being lonely make perfectionistic strivings more distressing?
Chang, Edward C; Sanna, Lawrence J; Chang, Rita; Bodem, Marguerite R
An integrative model involving perfectionism [Hewitt, P. L., & Flett, G. L. (1991). Perfectionism in the self and social contexts: Conceptualization, assessment, and association with psychopathology. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60, 456-470] and loneliness as predictors of depressive and anxious symptoms was proposed and tested in 383 college students. Beyond the expected additive influences of the two predictors in the prediction of symptoms, loneliness was also hypothesized to moderate the link between perfectionism and symptoms. Results indicated that other-oriented perfectionism predicted anxious symptoms, whereas socially prescribed perfectionism predicted both depressive and anxious symptoms. Loneliness was found to add incremental validity to these predictions. Moreover, the Perfectionism x Loneliness interaction was found to further augment the prediction of depressive and anxious symptoms. These findings are taken to offer support for a more contextual model of perfectionism. Some implications of the present findings are discussed.
Krogh, Jesper; Saltin, Bengt; Gluud, Christian
OBJECTIVE: To assess the benefit and harm of exercise training in adults with clinical depression. METHOD: The DEMO trial is a randomized pragmatic trial for patients with unipolar depression conducted from January 2005 through July 2007. Patients were referred from general practitioners or psych......: Our findings do not support a biologically mediated effect of exercise on symptom severity in depressed patients, but they do support a beneficial effect of strength training on work capacity. TRIAL REGISTRATION: (ClinicalTrials.gov) Identifier: NCT00103415....
Businelle, Michael S; Kendzor, Darla E; Costello, Tracy J; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila; Li, Yisheng; Mazas, Carlos A; Vidrine, Jennifer Irvin; Reitzel, Lorraine R; Cinciripini, Paul M; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S; Wetter, David W
The majority of smoking cessation research has focused on heavy smokers. African Americans (AA) are less likely than the general population to be heavy smokers. Thus, little is known about the smoking and psychosocial characteristics of lighter AA smokers. The present study compared the baseline demographic, smoking, and psychosocial characteristics of light (5-10 cigarettes per day; n=86) and moderate to heavy (>10 cigarettes per day; n=286) AA smokers enrolled in a smoking cessation clinical trial. Results indicated no differences between groups on demographic variables. However, light smokers (LS) were less dependent on smoking, reported more previous quit attempts, and had higher self-efficacy to quit than moderate to heavy smokers (MHS). On a measure of withdrawal, LS reported less pre-quit craving and less difficulty concentrating than MHS. In addition, LS reported lower perceived stress, fewer symptoms of depression, and greater positive affect than AA MHS. These findings highlight important similarities and differences between AA LS and MHS, and have implications for the treatment of AA smokers.
Ellis, Erin M; Orom, Heather; Giovino, Gary A; Kiviniemi, Marc T
Health behaviors, including smoking and fruit and vegetable consumption, are both associated with psychological distress and vary by race/ethnicity. The relation of global psychological distress to behavior also varies by race/ethnicity, but the specific negative affective states responsible for this effect are not known. This study examined how the relation of feelings of depression and anxiety to health behaviors differs by race/ethnicity. Secondary data analysis of the HINTS nationally representative population survey was conducted. Survey participants reported their current symptoms of depression and anxiety, as well as smoking status and fruit and vegetable consumption. Survey weighted linear and logistic regression analyses were used to assess whether race/ethnicity moderated the relation of symptoms of depression and anxiety to smoking and fruit and vegetable consumption. For symptoms of depression, but not anxiety, there was a significant interaction between race/ethnicity and psychological distress in predicting both smoking status and fruit and vegetable consumption. Greater depressive symptoms were related to a greater likelihood of smoking and lower fruit and vegetable consumption for White, but not Black respondents. For Hispanic respondents, depressive symptoms were associated with a greater likelihood of currently smoking, but were not associated with fruit and vegetable consumption. The association between depressive symptoms and both smoking and fruit and vegetable consumption differs as a function of race/ethnicity. These findings have implications for understanding the extent to which negative affective states influence health behaviors across different racial/ethnic groups, and for developing interventions that effectively target smoking and fruit and vegetable consumption among different racial/ethnic subgroups. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Moderated Mediation Effect of Self-esteem on the Relationship Between Parenting Stress and Depression According to Employment Status in Married Women: A Longitudinal Study Utilizing Data from Panel Study on Korean Children.
Han, Jeong-Won; Kim, Ju Hee
This study was to examined the moderated mediation effect of self-esteem on the relationship between parenting stress and depression among married women with children using longitudinal data from the 3rd to 6th Panel Studies on Korean. The data from the Panel Study of Korean Children (Korea Institute of Child Care and Education) was collected as part of a longitudinal inquiry of babies born in 2008, their parents and their community environments. Only the data collected from the married women over the age of 20 who participated in the maternal survey was used for this study. The initial level of married women's parenting stress affects the initial level and the rate of change in self-esteem; the initial level of self-esteem, the initial level and rate of change in depression; and the initial level of parenting stress, the initial level of depression. However, the impact of the rate of change in parenting stress on that of self-esteem was significant only in employed women while the impact of the rate of change in self-esteem on that of depression was significant only in unemployed women. It is necessary to manage parenting stress among married women through various programs and education that increase self-esteem in order to reduce their level of depression. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Morrissey, Taryn W
This study examined associations between mothers' and fathers' depressive symptoms and their parenting practices relating to gun, fire, and motor vehicle safety. Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (ECLS-B), a nationally representative sample of children birth to age five, linear probability models were used to examine associations between measures of parents' depressive symptoms and their use of firearms, smoke detectors, and motor vehicle restraints. Parents reported use of smoke detectors, motor vehicle restraints, and firearm ownership and storage. Results suggest mothers with moderate or severe depressive symptoms were 2 % points less likely to report that their child always sat in the back seat of the car, and 3 % points less likely to have at least one working smoke detector in the home. Fathers' depressive symptoms were associated with a lower likelihood of both owning a gun and of it being stored locked. Fathers' depressive symptoms amplified associations between mothers' depressive symptoms and owning a gun, such that having both parents exhibit depressive symptoms was associated with an increased likelihood of gun ownership of between 2 and 6 % points. Interventions that identify and treat parental depression early may be effective in promoting appropriate safety behaviors among families with young children.
Shrestha, Roman; Copenhaver, Michael; Bazazi, Alexander R; Huedo-Medina, Tania B; Krishnan, Archana; Altice, Frederick L
Although it is well established that HIV-related stigma, depression, and lack of social support are negatively associated with health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among people living with HIV (PLH), no studies to date have examined how these psychosocial factors interact with each other and affect HRQoL among incarcerated PLH. We, therefore, incorporated a moderated mediation model (MMM) to explore whether depression mediates the effect of HIV-related stigma on HRQoL as a function of the underlying level of social support. Incarcerated HIV-infected men with opioid dependence (N = 301) were recruited from the HIV units in Kajang prison in Malaysia. Participants completed surveys assessing demographic characteristics, HIV-related stigma, depression, social support, and HRQoL. Results showed that the effect of HIV-related stigma on HRQoL was mediated via depression (a1:β = 0.1463, p social support and HRQoL was positive (β = 0.4352, p = 0.0433), whereas the interaction between HIV-related stigma and depression was negatively associated with HRQOL (β = -0.0317, p = 0.0133). This indicated that the predicted influence of HIV-related stigma on HRQoL via depression had negative effect on HRQoL for individuals with low social support. The results suggest that social support can buffer the negative impact of depression on HRQoL and highlights the need for future interventions to target these psychosocial factors in order to improve HRQoL among incarcerated PLH.
Clarke, Janine; Proudfoot, Judith; Birch, Mary-Rose; Whitton, Alexis E; Parker, Gordon; Manicavasagar, Vijaya; Harrison, Virginia; Christensen, Helen; Hadzi-Pavlovic, Dusan
Online psychotherapy is clinically effective yet why, how, and for whom the effects are greatest remain largely unknown. In the present study, we examined whether mental health self-efficacy (MHSE), a construct derived from Bandura's Social Learning Theory (SLT), influenced symptom and functional outcomes of a new mobile phone and web-based psychotherapy intervention for people with mild-to-moderate depression, anxiety and stress. STUDY I: Data from 49 people with symptoms of depression, anxiety and/or stress in the mild-to-moderate range were used to examine the reliability and construct validity of a new measure of MHSE, the Mental Health Self-efficacy Scale (MHSES). We conducted a secondary analysis of data from a recently completed randomised controlled trial (N = 720) to evaluate whether MHSE effected post-intervention outcomes, as measured by the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales (DASS) and Work and Social Adjustment Scale (WSAS), for people with symptoms in the mild-to-moderate range. STUDY I: The data established that the MHSES comprised a unitary factor, with acceptable internal reliability (Cronbach's alpha = .89) and construct validity. The intervention group showed significantly greater improvement in MHSE at post-intervention relative to the control conditions (p's depression, anxiety and overall distress. No effects were found for MHSE on work and social functioning. Mental health self-efficacy influences symptom outcomes of a self-guided mobile phone and web-based psychotherapeutic intervention and may itself be a worthwhile target to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of online treatment programs. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12610000625077.
Fuhr, Kristina; Schweizer, Cornelie; Meisner, Christoph; Batra, Anil
Despite a substantial number of studies providing evidence for the efficacy of psychological treatment for mild-to-moderate depression, maximally only 50% of participants respond to treatment, even when using gold-standard treatments such as cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) and interpersonal therapy. New approaches such as the 'third wave' psychotherapies have provided promising results; however, studies concerning the comparison with evidence-based treatments are lacking. This study aims to compare the efficacy of clinical hypnotherapy (HT) with gold-standard psychotherapy (CBT) in the treatment of mild-to-moderate major depressive episodes. The present study comprises a monocentric, two-armed, randomised-controlled, rater-blind (non-inferiority) clinical trial. A total of 160 participants with mild-to-moderate major depression episode will be randomly assigned to either CBT or HT involving 20 sessions of psychotherapy over a period of 24 weeks. We predict that the average improvement in the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale score will not be inferior in HT compared with CBT (non-inferiority hypothesis).Further outcome parameters will include the number of participants responding to treatment following the completion of treatment and 1 year after. Additionally, quality of life, treatment expectations and hypnotic susceptibility before and after end of treatment will be assessed. The study protocol and the documents for the informed consent have been approved by the Ethics Committee of the University Hospital Tuebingen (061/2015B02). The results of this trial will be submitted for publication in peer-reviewed journals, and will be presented at national and international conferences. NCT02375308; Pre-results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Adams, David J; Remick, Ronald A; Davis, Jennifer C; Vazirian, Sara; Khan, Karim M
Objective The evidence that regular physical activity can treat depressive disorders is increasingly robust. However, motivating patients with depression to engage in physical activity can be challenging. Interdisciplinary group medical visits (GMVs) with an integrated physical activity component may be a novel means to support patients in becoming more active. Methods We conducted a ‘pre–post’ pilot study within a primary care setting. Participants were adults (≥18 years) with a chronic major depressive disorder or a bipolar 2 disorder (depression; chronic). A psychiatrist and exercise therapist co-led a series of 14 weekly 2 h GMVs. Each group visit combined specific medical advice, physical activity, patient discussions and a targeted educational component. Participants also attended 11 weekly hatha yoga classes. Primary outcome was ‘steps’ as measured by accelerometer (SenseWear) as well as depression (Patient Health Questionnaire, PHQ-9) and anxiety (Generalised Anxiety Disorder, GAD-7) ratings. Results 14 of 15 participants (93.3%) completed the 14-week programme. After 3 months postintervention, median depression scales (PHQ-9) decreased 38% from 16 to 10 (p0.10). Conclusions While other studies have examined the efficacy of GMVs in addressing chronic illnesses and the promotion of lifestyle changes, none to our knowledge have embedded physical activity within the actual patient visits. Interdisciplinary GMVs (eg, psychiatrist/exercise professional) may be a means to decrease depression and anxiety ratings within clinical care while improving physical activity. PMID:27900130
Starr, Lisa R; Stroud, Catherine B; Li, Yihan I
Anxiety often precedes depression. The anxiety response styles theory of comorbidity suggests anxious individuals with a tendency to ruminate or make hopeless attributions about anxiety symptoms (negative anxiety response styles [NARS]) are more vulnerable to subsequent depressive symptoms. However, this theory has never been tested in adolescence, when the anxiety-depression transition may frequently occur, or using an extended (one-year) follow-up period. 128 early adolescent girls (M=12.39 years) participated with caregivers in a one-year longitudinal study. At baseline and follow-up, participants completed diagnostic interviews and self-report measures assessing child NARS and brooding rumination. T1 NARS predicted longitudinal elevations in depressive symptoms and increased associations between T1 anxiety and T2 depressive symptoms. This study examines anxiety and depression comorbidity using a community sample. The sample is relatively low on sociodemographic diversity. Results support the anxiety response styles theory, with potential implications for early identification of anxious youth at risk for later development of comorbid depression. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Individualized homeopathic treatment and fluoxetine for moderate to severe depression in peri- and postmenopausal women (HOMDEP-MENOP study: a randomized, double-dummy, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.
Emma Del Carmen Macías-Cortés
Full Text Available Perimenopausal period refers to the interval when women's menstrual cycles become irregular and is characterized by an increased risk of depression. Use of homeopathy to treat depression is widespread but there is a lack of clinical trials about its efficacy in depression in peri- and postmenopausal women. The aim of this study was to assess efficacy and safety of individualized homeopathic treatment versus placebo and fluoxetine versus placebo in peri- and postmenopausal women with moderate to severe depression.A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, double-dummy, superiority, three-arm trial with a 6 week follow-up study was conducted. The study was performed in a public research hospital in Mexico City in the outpatient service of homeopathy. One hundred thirty-three peri- and postmenopausal women diagnosed with major depression according to DSM-IV (moderate to severe intensity were included. The outcomes were: change in the mean total score among groups on the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, Beck Depression Inventory and Greene Scale, after 6 weeks of treatment, response and remission rates, and safety. Efficacy data were analyzed in the intention-to-treat population (ANOVA with Bonferroni post-hoc test.After a 6-week treatment, homeopathic group was more effective than placebo by 5 points in Hamilton Scale. Response rate was 54.5% and remission rate, 15.9%. There was a significant difference among groups in response rate definition only, but not in remission rate. Fluoxetine-placebo difference was 3.2 points. No differences were observed among groups in the Beck Depression Inventory. Homeopathic group was superior to placebo in Greene Climacteric Scale (8.6 points. Fluoxetine was not different from placebo in Greene Climacteric Scale.Homeopathy and fluoxetine are effective and safe antidepressants for climacteric women. Homeopathy and fluoxetine were significantly different from placebo in response definition only
Dağ, Begüm; Kutlu, Fatma Yasemin
While poor sleep quality and sleep problems are signs of depression in adolescents, depressive symptoms among this age group further deteriorate sleep quality. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between sleep quality and depressive symptoms in adolescents of 14 to 20 years of age. This study was conducted with a descriptive and cross-sectional research design. The sample group consisted of 313 adolescents in İstanbul, Turkey. The data were collected using a questionnaire form, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). The mean BDI score of the adolescents was 12.99 ± 8.94 (range: 0-53) and 4.8% had severe depressive symptoms. The global PSQI score of the adolescents was 4.69 ± 2.87 (range: 0-16) and 63.6% had good sleep quality, whereas the remaining 36.4% had poor sleep quality. There was a moderate positive correlation between BDI and PSQI scores. The factors affecting the quality of sleep of adolescents were mild and moderate-severe depressive symptom level, smoking, and the presence of sleep problems in a family member. This study shows a relationship between sleep quality and depressive symptom levels of adolescents. The findings of the current research will contribute to the development of school wellbeing programs that will be prepared with the aim of improving sleep quality and reducing depressive symptoms.
Krogh, Jesper; Saltin, Bengt; Gluud, Christian
OBJECTIVE: To assess the benefit and harm of exercise training in adults with clinical depression. METHOD: The DEMO trial is a randomized pragmatic trial for patients with unipolar depression conducted from January 2005 through July 2007. Patients were referred from general practitioners...... or psychiatrists and were eligible if they fulfilled the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, criteria for unipolar depression and were aged between 18 and 55 years. Patients (N = 165) were allocated to supervised strength, aerobic, or relaxation training during a 4-month period. The primary...... outcome measure was the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D(17)), the secondary outcome measure was the percentage of days absent from work during the last 10 working days, and the tertiary outcome measure was effect on cognitive abilities. RESULTS: At 4 months, the strength measured by 1...
Perrotte, Jessica K; Baumann, Michael R; Garza, Raymond T; Hale, Willie J
The present study investigated the relationships of enculturation and depressive symptoms with health risk behavior engagement in Mexican-American college students and examined how these relationships differed by gender. Previous research has noted consistent gender differences in health risk behavior (e.g. alcohol use, substance use, and risky sexual behavior) among Latina/os, and emphasized the role of U.S. acculturation in this difference. Research examining the role of heritage cultural retention (i.e. enculturation), and including the added influence of mental health variables, such as depressive symptoms, is currently lacking. This study sought to address this gap. A large sample (N = 677) of Mexican-American college students from four universities (located in New York, California, Florida, and Texas) completed an online questionnaire assessing health risk behaviors and corresponding variables. We found that males who endorsed more behavioral enculturation and depressive symptoms were more likely to engage in health risk behavior than all others in the sample. Contrary to previous literature, no relationship was found between behavioral enculturation and health risk behavior in females. The current study found behavioral enculturation to be associated with depressive symptoms, and in turn with health risk behaviors among the males in our sample. Additional research will be needed to identify the mechanism underlying the relationship between enculturation and depressive symptoms as well as between depressive symptoms and risky behavior.