WorldWideScience

Sample records for depression future research

  1. Breastfeeding and Postpartum Depression: An Overview and Methodological Recommendations for Future Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Carley J.; Mazmanian, Dwight

    2016-01-01

    Emerging research suggests that a relationship exists between breastfeeding and postpartum depression; however, the direction and precise nature of this relationship are not yet clear. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the relationship between breastfeeding and postpartum depression as it has been examined in the empirical literature. Also, the potential mechanisms of action that have been implicated in this relationship are also explored. PubMed and PsycINFO were searched using the keywords: breastfeeding with postpartum depression, perinatal depression, postnatal depression. Results of this search showed that researchers have examined this relationship in diverse ways using diverse methodology. In particular, researchers have examined the relationships between postpartum depression and breastfeeding intention, initiation, duration, and dose. Due to a number of methodological differences among past studies we make some recommendations for future research that will better facilitate an integration of findings. Future research should (1) use standardized assessment protocols; (2) confirm diagnosis through established clinical interview when possible; (3) provide a clear operationalized definition for breastfeeding variables; (4) clearly define the postpartum period interval assessed and time frame for onset of symptoms; (5) be prospective or longitudinal in nature; and (6) take into consideration other potential risk factors identified in the empirical literature. PMID:27148457

  2. Breastfeeding and Postpartum Depression: An Overview and Methodological Recommendations for Future Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carley J. Pope

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Emerging research suggests that a relationship exists between breastfeeding and postpartum depression; however, the direction and precise nature of this relationship are not yet clear. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the relationship between breastfeeding and postpartum depression as it has been examined in the empirical literature. Also, the potential mechanisms of action that have been implicated in this relationship are also explored. PubMed and PsycINFO were searched using the keywords: breastfeeding with postpartum depression, perinatal depression, postnatal depression. Results of this search showed that researchers have examined this relationship in diverse ways using diverse methodology. In particular, researchers have examined the relationships between postpartum depression and breastfeeding intention, initiation, duration, and dose. Due to a number of methodological differences among past studies we make some recommendations for future research that will better facilitate an integration of findings. Future research should (1 use standardized assessment protocols; (2 confirm diagnosis through established clinical interview when possible; (3 provide a clear operationalized definition for breastfeeding variables; (4 clearly define the postpartum period interval assessed and time frame for onset of symptoms; (5 be prospective or longitudinal in nature; and (6 take into consideration other potential risk factors identified in the empirical literature.

  3. The inflammatory & neurodegenerative (I&ND) hypothesis of depression: leads for future research and new drug developments in depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, Michael; Yirmyia, Raz; Noraberg, Jens; Brene, Stefan; Hibbeln, Joe; Perini, Giulia; Kubera, Marta; Bob, Petr; Lerer, Bernard; Maj, Mario

    2009-03-01

    Despite extensive research, the current theories on serotonergic dysfunctions and cortisol hypersecretion do not provide sufficient explanations for the nature of depression. Rational treatments aimed at causal factors of depression are not available yet. With the currently available antidepressant drugs, which mainly target serotonin, less than two thirds of depressed patients achieve remission. There is now evidence that inflammatory and neurodegenerative (I&ND) processes play an important role in depression and that enhanced neurodegeneration in depression may-at least partly-be caused by inflammatory processes. Multiple inflammatory-cytokines, oxygen radical damage, tryptophan catabolites-and neurodegenerative biomarkers have been established in patients with depression and these findings are corroborated by animal models of depression. A number of vulnerability factors may predispose towards depression by enhancing inflammatory reactions, e.g. lower peptidase activities (dipeptidyl-peptidase IV, DPP IV), lower omega-3 polyunsaturated levels and an increased gut permeability (leaky gut). The cytokine hypothesis considers that external, e.g. psychosocial stressors, and internal stressors, e.g. organic inflammatory disorders or conditions, such as the postpartum period, may trigger depression via inflammatory processes. Most if not all antidepressants have specific anti-inflammatory effects, while restoration of decreased neurogenesis, which may be induced by inflammatory processes, may be related to the therapeutic efficacy of antidepressant treatments. Future research to disentangle the complex etiology of depression calls for a powerful paradigm shift, i.e. by means of a high throughput-high quality screening, including functional genetics and genotyping microarrays; established and novel animal and ex vivo-in vitro models for depression, such as new transgenic mouse models and endophenotype-based animal models, specific cell lines, in vivo and ex vivo

  4. Future Research Directions in the Positive Valence Systems: Measurement, Development, and Implications for Youth Unipolar Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olino, Thomas M

    2016-01-01

    The Positive Valence Systems (PVS) have been introduced by the National Institute of Mental Health as a domain to help organize multiple constructs focusing on reward-seeking behaviors. However, the initial working model for this domain is strongly influenced by adult constructs and measures. Thus, the present review focuses on extending the PVS into a developmental context. Specifically, the review provides some hypotheses about the structure of the PVS, how PVS components may change throughout development, how family history of depression may influence PVS development, and potential means of intervening on PVS function to reduce onsets of depression. Future research needs in each of these areas are highlighted.

  5. The inflammatory & neurodegenerative (I&ND) hypothesis of depression: leads for future research and new drug developments in depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maes, Michael; Yirmyia, Raz; Noraberg, Jens

    2009-01-01

    Despite extensive research, the current theories on serotonergic dysfunctions and cortisol hypersecretion do not provide sufficient explanations for the nature of depression. Rational treatments aimed at causal factors of depression are not available yet. With the currently available antidepressa...

  6. The ROOTS study: a 10-year review of findings on adolescent depression, and recommendations for future longitudinal research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Gemma; Jones, Peter B; Goodyer, Ian M

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to review longitudinal findings on adolescent mental health from the 'ROOTS study', and provide directions and recommendations for future longitudinal research. To do this, we discuss relevant findings from the ROOTS study, and review its strengths and limitations. We examined all publications from the ROOTS study up to July 2015, selected those examining adolescent mental health, and classified them as investigating (a) childhood risk factors for adolescent depression, (b) genetic and cognitive vulnerability to depression in adolescence, (c) genetic markers, childhood adversities, and neuroendophenotypes, (d) morning cortisol and depression, (e) physical activity and depression symptoms, and (f) the underlying structure of mental health in adolescence. We reviewed the strengths and limitations of the ROOTS study, and how they feed into recommendations for future longitudinal research. There was evidence supporting a putative hormonal biomarker for the emergence of depression in boys. Environmental pathways from child adversity to adolescent depression were confirmed in girls, partly accounted for by negative life events in early adolescence. The preceding role of automatic cognitive biases assessed using behavioural tasks was substantiated, with evidence for genetic susceptibility. Novel latent statistical models of child adversity, depression, anxiety, and psychotic experiences were produced, with concurrent and prospective validity. Our experiences conducting the ROOTS study resulted in a set of strengths, limitations, and recommendations for future longitudinal studies. The ROOTS study has advanced knowledge on the aetiology of adolescent depression by investigating environmental, genetic, hormonal, and neural risk factors. Findings provide a foundation for future research integrating cognitive neuroscience with epidemiology.

  7. A meta-analysis and model of the relationship between sleep and depression in adolescents: recommendations for future research and clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovato, Nicole; Gradisar, Michael

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this review was to quantify the strength of evidence for a directional relationship between sleep disturbance and depression in adolescents. A literature search was conducted to identify research investigating the relationship between sleep disturbance and depression in adolescent samples (12-20 y). Twenty-three studies were identified; 13 explored associations between depression and sleep disturbance; seven examined the prospective role of sleep disturbance in the development of depression; and three investigated the role of adolescent depression in the development of subsequent sleep disturbance. Average weighted mean differences in sleep/depression-related outcome variables were calculated between adolescents with depression, and non-clinical adolescents, or those in remission. Adolescents with depression experienced significantly more wakefulness in bed (sleep onset latency, wake after sleep onset, number of awakenings and sleep efficiency), lighter sleep (more stage 1), and reported more subjective sleep disturbance. Overall effect sizes from longitudinal and treatment studies suggest sleep disturbance acts as a precursor to the development of depression. At follow-up, depressed adolescents had significantly longer sleep onset, more wake after sleep onset, and lower sleep efficiency compared to adolescents who were non-clinical, or had undergone remission. Little support was found for a predictive role of depressive symptoms in the development of sleep disturbance. Based on these findings we propose a model to understand the development of depression from initial sleep disturbance, provide recommendations for clinicians and recommendations for future research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Self-Predictions and Depressive Realism in Future Life Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Todd J.; And Others

    Research has demonstrated that depressed people lack the optimistic bias evidenced by nondepressed persons and that the former may be more realistic in predicting the outcome of future events (depressive realism hypothesis). This study assesses the depressive realism hypothesis by comparing the accuracy of depressed and nondepressed people's…

  9. Future Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beebe, G.W.; Hamilton, H.B.

    1975-01-01

    Much remains to be learned from continued monitoring of the medical experience of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki A-bomb survivors. Many effects are so small, or have such long latent periods, that there is not even now a complete catalogue of effects visible in this large population. There is as yet no evidence of a mutagenic effect, but biochemical and cytogenetic approaches now offer powerful tools for a final effort to derive information that may set limits on the size of the doubling dose for mutations in man. The list of specific neoplasms induced by the whole-body exposure to the A-bomb radiation remains incomplete, and the quantitative dose-response aspects of established carcinogenic effects remains to be worked out in relation to time, host factors, linear energy transfer (LET) characteristics of radiation, and risk factors other than radiation. The dose-response estimates must be made, where possible, in terms of tissue dose. If there is to be any definitive test of the hypothesis of radiation accelerated aging in man, it will doubtless come from observations on the A-bomb survivors. The experience of the A-bomb survivors can make no direct contribution to knowledge of dose rate, and is much too small to provide direct information in the region of low dose. Nevertheless, as better knowledge of mechanisms of radiation damage and repair accumulates from laboratory experimental programs, this unique human experience will be of increasing value to radiation biology. Continued monitoring of the health and medical experience of the A-bomb survivors will depend on the voluntary cooperation of the subjects and their families, and on the interest of the physicians in the community. Present indications are that the research would gain from a closer association with medical care and health maintenance programs. (auth.)

  10. Maternal Depression and Developmental Disability: Research Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Donald B., Jr.; Golden, Robert N.; Roberts, Jane; Ford, Amy

    2007-01-01

    Maternal depression in families having a child with a disability has been the subject of considerable research over the past 25 years. This review was designed to describe the literature on maternal depression, critique its research methodology, identify consensus findings across studies, and make recommendations for future research. A particular…

  11. [Post partum depression: future perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinna, Martina; Zompo, Maria Del

    2012-01-01

    Post partum depression (PPD) is a psychiatric illness approximately affecting 10-20% of women after childbirth. The objective of this work is to update our knowledge of PPD giving particular emphasis to etiopathogenetic hypotheses. An accurate search of the literature on this topic was conducted using free dedicated websites such as PubMed. The most recent studies reveal that PPD is a complex disease, whose pathogenesis is not yet clarified, determined by a mix of genetic, biological and environmental factors. Genetic studies have shown a possible involvement of polymorphisms of genes coding for serotonin transporter, 5HT2A and 5HT2C receptors, HMCN1 and METTL13 genes, D2 receptor and GABAA receptor (GABAAR). The involvement of these systems might provide an explanation of the relations among genetic alterations, hormonal fluctuations in the post partum, changes in neurotransmission and mood fluctuations typical of PPD. The results obtained so far are not exhaustive. However, there is a substantial evidence showing that patients with PPD may have a high genetic vulnerability, although we have not been able yet to pinpoint a specific biological marker of the disease. Recent research is focusing on the δ subunit of GABAAR and the possible role of selective agonists of this subunit, such as gaboxadol, in the treatment of PPD.

  12. A review of depression research in malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, C G

    2014-08-01

    Depression is a debilitating illness and has become a leading cause of morbidity globally. We aim to summarise the evidence available in regard to the prevalence, type of assessment tools used and treatment options for depression in Malaysia. Two hundred and forty seven articles related to depression were found in a search through a database dedicated to indexing all original data relevant to medicine published in Malaysia between the years 2000-2013. Fifty seven articles were selected and reviewed on the basis of clinical relevance and future research implications. Findings were summarised, categorised and presented according to prevalence of depression, depression in women, depression in clinical condition, assessment tools, and treatment of depression. The prevalence of depression in Malaysia was estimated to be between 8 and 12%. The figures were higher among women of low socio-economic background or those with comorbid medical condition. The common assessment tools used in Malaysia include Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS), Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ-9) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). They were translated into the Malay language and their psychometric properties were established. Both pharmacological treatment and psychotherapy were commonly used in Malaysia, and were highly recommended in local clinical practice guidelines. There are discrepancies in the reported rates of depression in Malaysia and this needs to be addressed. There were lack of studies looking into the depression among subgroups in Malaysia especially in the male population. There were several instruments available for assessment of depression in Malaysia but their suitability for the local setting need further research. Both pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy were recommended in the local treatment guideline in Malaysia. With the emergence of generic medication, we need to compare their clinical efficacy and tolerability

  13. Future in psychopathology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckers, Stephan

    2014-03-01

    Psychopathology research has focused either on the analysis of the mental state in the here and now or on the synthesis of mental status abnormalities with biological markers and outcome data. These two schools of psychopathology, the analytic and the synthetic, make contrasting assumptions, take different approaches, and pursue divergent goals. Analytic psychopathology favors the individual person and unique biography, whereas synthetic psychopathology abstracts from the single case and generalizes to the population level. The dimension of time, especially the prediction of future outcomes, is viewed differently by these two schools. Here I outline how Carpenter's proposal of strong inference and theory testing in psychopathology research can be used to test the value of analytic and synthetic psychopathology. The emerging field of personalized psychiatry can clarify the relevance of psychopathology for contemporary research in psychiatry.

  14. Future of research libraries

    CERN Document Server

    Naryandas, Narakesari; Kindström, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Research libraries have been an integral part of the scholarly communication system since that system emerged in its present form. They now face a period of unprecedentedly drastic and rapid change. This is caused, first and foremost, by the migration of much scholarly material to digital formats, raising the question of the future purpose of the 'library space'. Together with this come transfigurational changes to the communication change of recorded information, with the roles of authors , publishers, database producers and librarians and archivists all in a state of flux. Finally, new forms

  15. Implicit but not explicit self-esteem predicts future depressive symptomatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franck, Erik; De Raedt, Rudi; De Houwer, Jan

    2007-10-01

    To date, research on the predictive validity of implicit self-esteem for depressive relapse is very sparse. In the present study, we assessed implicit self-esteem using the Name Letter Preference Task and explicit self-esteem using the Rosenberg self-esteem scale in a group of currently depressed patients, formerly depressed individuals, and never depressed controls. In addition, we examined the predictive validity of explicit, implicit, and the interaction of explicit and implicit self-esteem in predicting future symptoms of depression in formerly depressed individuals and never depressed controls. The results showed that currently depressed individuals reported a lower explicit self-esteem as compared to formerly depressed individuals and never depressed controls. In line with previous research, all groups showed a positive implicit self-esteem not different from each other. Furthermore, after controlling for initial depressive symptomatology, implicit but not explicit self-esteem significantly predicted depressive symptoms at six months follow-up. Although implicit self-esteem assessed with the Name Letter Preference Test was not different between formerly depressed individuals and never depressed controls, the findings suggest it is an interesting variable in the study of vulnerability for depression relapse.

  16. Future directions in research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, J.G.; Lopez-Rangel, E.

    1996-01-01

    New studies of the effects of ionizing radiation on the human genome must include not only its effect on the sequence of a particular gene, but must also consider the possible location, complete structure, regulation, and function of the gene as well. Historically, genetic disorders have been characterized as single gene disorders, chromosomal aberrations, and multifactorial disorders. Now, however, the following have to be considered: mosaicism, genomic imprinting, uniparental disomy, cytoplasmic inheritance, allelic expansion. Molecular techniques that may be useful in analyzing radiation damage include Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization and the Polymerase Chain Reaction. The effect of radiation on the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3, damage to which is associated with the development of achondroplasia, is recommended as a fruitful, if complicated, research topic

  17. Orbitofrontal cortex activity and connectivity predict future depression symptoms in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jingwen; Narayanan, Ananth; Perlman, Greg; Luking, Katherine; DeLorenzo, Christine; Hajcak, Greg; Klein, Daniel N; Kotov, Roman; Mohanty, Aprajita

    2017-10-01

    Major depressive disorder is a leading cause of disability worldwide; however, little is known about pathological mechanisms involved in its development. Research in adolescent depression has focused on reward sensitivity and striatal mechanisms implementing it. The contribution of loss sensitivity to future depression, as well as the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) mechanisms critical for processing losses and rewards, remain unexplored. Furthermore, it is unclear whether OFC functioning interacts with familial history in predicting future depression. In this longitudinal study we recorded functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data while 229 adolescent females with or without parental history of depression completed a monetary gambling task. We examined if OFC blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) response and functional connectivity during loss and win feedback was associated with depression symptoms concurrently and prospectively (9 months later), and whether this relationship was moderated by parental history of depression. Reduced OFC response during loss was associated with higher depression symptoms concurrently and prospectively, even after controlling for concurrent depression, specifically in adolescents with parental history of depression. Similarly, increased OFC-posterior insula connectivity during loss was associated with future depression symptoms but this relationship was not moderated by parental history of depression. This study provides the first evidence for loss-related alterations in OFC functioning and its interaction with familial history of depression as possible mechanisms in the development of depression. While the current fMRI literature has mainly focused on reward, the present findings underscore the need to include prefrontal loss processing in existing developmental models of depression.

  18. Do strategic processes contribute to the specificity of future simulation in depression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addis, Donna Rose; Hach, Sylvia; Tippett, Lynette J

    2016-06-01

    The tendency to generate overgeneral past or future events is characteristic of individuals with a history of depression. Although much research has investigated the contribution of rumination and avoidance to the reduced specificity of past events, comparatively little research has examined (1) whether the specificity of future events is differentially reduced in depression and (2) the role of executive functions in this phenomenon. Our study aimed to redress this imbalance. Participants with either current or past experience of depressive symptoms ('depressive group'; N = 24) and matched controls ('control group'; N = 24) completed tests of avoidance, rumination, and executive functions. A modified Autobiographical Memory Test was administered to assess the specificity of past and future events. The depressive group were more ruminative and avoidant than controls, but did not exhibit deficits in executive function. Although overall the depressive group generated significantly fewer specific events than controls, this reduction was driven by a significant group difference in future event specificity. Strategic retrieval processes were correlated with both past and future specificity, and predictive of the future specificity, whereas avoidance and rumination were not. Our findings demonstrate that future simulation appears to be particularly vulnerable to disruption in individuals with current or past experience of depressive symptoms, consistent with the notion that future simulation is more cognitively demanding than autobiographical memory retrieval. Moreover, our findings suggest that even subtle changes in executive functions such as strategic processes may impact the ability to imagine specific future events. Future simulation may be particularly vulnerable to executive dysfunction in individuals with current/previous depressive symptoms, with evidence of a differential reduction in the specificity of future events. Strategic retrieval abilities were

  19. Research progress of functional MRI in depression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Shenghui; Niu Guangming; Han Xiaodong; Qiao Pengfei

    2013-01-01

    The mood disorders of depression are associated with abnormalities of brain structure and function, and exploring their pathological mechanism has important significance for the choice of treatment and the curative effect evaluation. In recent years, the research of MRI on brain structure and function of depression has made great progress, especially in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). fMRI can detect the functional change in real time, and also can display the activity of brain and changes in the nerve pathways in patients with depression. This article summarizes the present research situation and progress of MRI in the diagnosis of depression. (authors)

  20. Review of a nursing research report. Young people with depression: review of a nursing research report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Janay

    2013-01-01

    McCann's et al. (2012) research study revealed several adverse effects that depression can have on young adults. The findings showed that depression in young adults can be life-threatening if not treated (McCann et al., 2012). One implication for evidenced-based nursing practice would be to educate family and friends on the signs of depression and how to respond to them. A suggestion for future research would be to conduct a study showing the effectiveness of different treatment methods (e.g., therapy, medications) on adolescent depression.

  1. Distinguishing between unipolar depression and bipolar depression: current and future clinical and neuroimaging perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso de Almeida, Jorge Renner; Phillips, Mary Louise

    2013-01-15

    Differentiating bipolar disorder (BD) from recurrent unipolar depression (UD) is a major clinical challenge. Main reasons for this include the higher prevalence of depressive relative to hypo/manic symptoms during the course of BD illness and the high prevalence of subthreshold manic symptoms in both BD and UD depression. Identifying objective markers of BD might help improve accuracy in differentiating between BD and UD depression, to ultimately optimize clinical and functional outcome for all depressed individuals. Yet, only eight neuroimaging studies to date have directly compared UD and BD depressed individuals. Findings from these studies suggest more widespread abnormalities in white matter connectivity and white matter hyperintensities in BD than UD depression, habenula volume reductions in BD but not UD depression, and differential patterns of functional abnormalities in emotion regulation and attentional control neural circuitry in the two depression types. These findings suggest different pathophysiologic processes, especially in emotion regulation, reward, and attentional control neural circuitry in BD versus UD depression. This review thereby serves as a call to action to highlight the pressing need for more neuroimaging studies, using larger samples sizes, comparing BD and UD depressed individuals. These future studies should also include dimensional approaches, studies of at-risk individuals, and more novel neuroimaging approaches, such as connectivity analysis and machine learning. Ultimately, these approaches might provide biomarkers to identify individuals at future risk for BD versus UD and biological targets for more personalized treatment and new treatment developments for BD and UD depression. Copyright © 2013 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Biological research on burnout-depression overlap: Long-standing limitations and on-going reflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Renzo; Schonfeld, Irvin Sam; Laurent, Eric

    2017-12-01

    In this commentary, we discuss seldom-noticed methodological problems affecting biological research on burnout and depression and make recommendations to overcome the limitations of past studies conducted in this area. First, we suggest that identified subtypes of depression (e.g., depression with melancholic features and depression with atypical features) should be taken into account in future biological research on burnout and depression, given that different subtypes of depression have been associated with distinct autonomic and neuroendocrine profiles. Second, we underline that research on burnout-depression overlap is made difficult by the absence of a consensual conceptualization and operationalization of burnout. In order to resolve this problem, we draw researchers' attention to the urgency of establishing a commonly shared, clinically valid diagnosis for burnout. Finally, we question the possibility of identifying a biological signature for burnout in light of global research on burnout-depression overlap. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Predicting the future development of depression or PTSD after injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Therese S; Ruzek, Josef; Ackerson, Theimann; Wiebe, Douglas J; Winston, Flaura; Kassam-Adams, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    The objective was to develop a predictive screener that when given soon after injury will accurately differentiate those who will later develop depression or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) from those who will not. This study used a prospective, longitudinal cohort design. Subjects were randomly selected from all injured patients in the emergency department; the majority was assessed within 1 week postinjury with a short predictive screener, followed with in-person interviews after 3 and 6 months to determine the emergence of depression or PTSD within 6 months after injury. A total of 192 completed a risk factor survey at baseline; 165 were assessed over 6 months. Twenty-six subjects [15.8%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 10.2-21.3] were diagnosed with depression, four (2.4%, 95% CI 0.7-5.9) with PTSD and one with both. The final eight-item predictive screener was derived; optimal cutoff scores were ≥2 (of 4) depression risk items and ≥3 (of 5) PTSD risk items. The final screener demonstrated excellent sensitivity and moderate specificity both for clinically significant symptoms and for the diagnoses of depression and PTSD. A simple screener that can help identify those patients at highest risk for future development of PTSD and depression postinjury allows the judicious allocation of costly mental health resources. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for PTSD and Depression Symptoms Reduces Risk for Future Intimate Partner Violence among Interpersonal Trauma Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, Katherine M.; Gradus, Jaimie L.; Resick, Patricia A.; Suvak, Michael K.; Smith, Kamala F.; Monson, Candice M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Women who develop symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression subsequent to interpersonal trauma are at heightened risk for future intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is effective in reducing PTSD and depression symptoms, yet limited research has investigated the…

  5. Future of nuclear energy research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuketa, Toyojiro

    1989-09-01

    In spite of the easing of worldwide energy supply and demand situation in these years, we believe that research efforts towards the next generation nuclear energy are indispensably necessary. Firstly, the nuclear colleagues believe that nuclear energy is the best major energy source from many points of view including the global environmental viewpoint. Secondly, in the medium- and long-range view, there will once again be a high possibility of a tight supply and demand situation for oil. Thirdly, nuclear energy is the key energy source to overcome the vulnerability of the energy supply structure in industrialized countries like Japan where virtually no fossil energy source exists. In this situation, nuclear energy is a sort of quasi-domestic energy as a technology-intensive energy. Fourthly, the intensive efforts to develop the nuclear technology in the next generation will give rise to a further evolution in science and technology in the future. A few examples of medium- and long-range goals of the nuclear energy research are development of new types of reactors which can meet various needs of energy more flexibly and reliably than the existing reactors, fundamental and ultimate solution of the radioactive waste problems, creation and development of new types of energy production systems which are to come beyond the fusion, new development in the biological risk assessment of the radiation effects and so on. In order to accomplish those goals it is quite important to introduce innovations in such underlying technologies as materials control in more microscopic manners, photon and particle beam techniques, accelerator engineering, artificial intelligence, and so on. 32 refs, 2 figs

  6. Depression in adolescents: review of a nursing research report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, Jennifer G

    2013-01-01

    The research findings from the McCann et al.'s (2012) study are important to evidence-based nursing practice (EBNP) as they highlight the need to improve mental health literacy for health care professionals, including nurses, so that nurses are more aware of the signs of depression, young people's experiences of depression, and how to respond appropriately to their needs (McCann et al., 2012, p. 339). The findings that government funding, along with knowledgeable health care professionals, improved community awareness, and support of young people with depression, played a vital role in strengthening young people's ability to counteract the stigma while promoting self-empowerment, indicate the need for the identification and implementation of EBNP interventions incorporating their finding. (McCann et al., 2012, p. 339). One suggestion for future research would be to develop EBNP interventions designed to promote a smooth transition from youth to adulthood in those with depression and to conduct a research study evaluating the effectiveness of interventions implemented.

  7. Environmental Scanning, Futures Research, Strategic Foresight and Organizational Future Orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohrbeck, René; Bade, Manuel

    to adjacent research disciplines. Through such integration and linkage research should produce better recommendations for managers on how to build an organizational future orientation, drive organizational adaptation, and make their firms robust towards external discontinuous change.......In this paper we explore the current understanding on how firms explore future changes and trends as well as plan their managerial responses. We review literature in four research streams: (1) environmental scanning, (2) futures research, (3) peripheral vision, and (4) corporate/strategic foresight....... Through the analysis of more than 250 articles we (a) trace the evolution over time, (b) highlight the linkages between the different research streams, and (c) give recommendations for future research. Overall we call for more cross-fertilization of the different research streams and a stronger linkage...

  8. It gets better: future orientation buffers the development of hopelessness and depressive symptoms following emotional victimization during early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Jessica L; Connolly, Samantha L; Liu, Richard T; Stange, Jonathan P; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B

    2015-04-01

    Research consistently has linked hopelessness to a range of negative outcomes, including depression, during adolescence. Although interpersonal stressors such as familial and peer emotional victimization have been found to contribute to hopelessness, less research has examined whether adolescents with a greater tendency to think about and plan for the future (i.e., future orientation) are protected against the development of hopelessness, particularly in the context of negative events. Thus, the current study evaluated whether peer and familial emotional victimization predicted increases in hopelessness more strongly among adolescents with a weaker future orientation than those with a stronger orientation towards the future, and whether hopelessness in turn predicted increases in depression. In a diverse sample of 259 early adolescents (54% female; 51% African American; Mage = 12.86 years), both peer and familial emotional victimization predicted increases in hopelessness more strongly among adolescents with weaker future orientations than among those with stronger future orientations. Further, moderated mediation analyses revealed that hopelessness significantly mediated the relationship between emotional victimization and increases in depressive symptoms more strongly among adolescents with weaker orientations towards the future compared to those with stronger future orientations. These findings indicate that adolescents' tendency to think about the future may impact whether emotional victimization induces hopelessness and ultimately depressive symptoms during early adolescence. Results have important implications regarding intervention and prevention of depression during the critical developmental period of adolescence.

  9. Kennedy: Future Academic Research Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1982

    1982-01-01

    The president of Stanford University discusses his views on problems facing research universities, including research secrecy, ethics, and economics of proprietary knowledge generated in the university, faculty conflict of interest, place of humanities in a society driven by technology, and decline of government support for academic research.…

  10. MBR Technology: future research directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, H.; Temmink, B.G.; Remy, M.J.J.; Geilvoet, S.

    2005-01-01

    Cutting down the operational costs of MBR technology will be the key driver for research. This article outlines some research areas and specific topics that potentially will contribute to lower costs. Special attention to these topics should be given the coming years. Long term research should focus

  11. Future methods in pharmacy practice research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almarsdottir, A B; Babar, Z U D

    2016-01-01

    research. These are demographics, technology and professional standards. Second, deriving from this, it seeks to predict and forecast the future shifts in use of methodologies. Third, new research areas and availability of data impacting on future methods are discussed. These include the impact of aging...... of the trends for pharmacy practice research methods are discussed. © 2016, Springer International Publishing.......This article describes the current and future practice of pharmacy scenario underpinning and guiding this research and then suggests future directions and strategies for such research. First, it sets the scene by discussing the key drivers which could influence the change in pharmacy practice...

  12. Depression Research - The STAR*D Study - Relief in Hours?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Depression Research Past Issues / Summer 2007 Table of Contents ... multiple treatment options, two-thirds of those with depression can become symptom-free. Dr. A. John Rush ( ...

  13. Environmental futures research: experiences, approaches, and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N., comp. Bengston

    2012-01-01

    These papers, presented in a special session at the International Symposium on Society and Resource Management in June 2011, explore the transdisciplinary field of futures research and its application to long-range environmental analysis, planning, and policy. Futures research began in the post-World War II era and has emerged as a mature research field. Although the...

  14. Navy Telemedicine: Current Research and Future Directions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reed, Cheryl

    2002-01-01

    .... This report reviews military and civilian models for evaluating telemedicine systems in order to determine future directions for Navy telemedicine research within the current funding environment...

  15. Lasers: present and future research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philippe, P.

    1981-01-01

    Recent advances in the field of lasers are reviewed in particular in the French laboratories. Different lasers are briefly described related to their applications: rare gas halide, iodine, metal vapor, color center, transition-metal solid state, CO 2 , chemical, blue-green and free electron lasers. Among applications researches on thermonuclear fusion are given p. 125 and researches concerning isotope separation are given p. 126 and 127 [fr

  16. Alcohol Demand, Future Orientation, and Craving Mediate the Relation Between Depressive and Stress Symptoms and Alcohol Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltis, Kathryn E; McDevitt-Murphy, Meghan E; Murphy, James G

    2017-06-01

    Elevated depression and stress have been linked to greater levels of alcohol problems among young adults even after taking into account drinking level. This study attempts to elucidate variables that might mediate the relation between symptoms of depression and stress and alcohol problems, including alcohol demand, future time orientation, and craving. Participants were 393 undergraduates (60.8% female, 78.9% White/Caucasian) who reported at least 2 binge-drinking episodes (4/5+ drinks for women/men, respectively) in the previous month. Participants completed self-report measures of stress and depression, alcohol demand, future time orientation, craving, and alcohol problems. In separate mediation models that accounted for gender, race, and weekly alcohol consumption, future orientation and craving significantly mediated the relation between depressive symptoms and alcohol problems. Alcohol demand, future orientation, and craving significantly mediated the relation between stress symptoms and alcohol problems. Heavy-drinking young adults who experience stress or depression are likely to experience alcohol problems, and this is due in part to elevations in craving and alcohol demand, and less sensitivity to future outcomes. Interventions targeting alcohol misuse in young adults with elevated levels of depression and stress should attempt to increase future orientation and decrease craving and alcohol reward value. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  17. FOSER - Future of Software Engineering Research

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — The 2010 Report of the Presidents Council of Advisors on Science and Technology PCAST, entitled ?Designing a Digital Future: Federally Funded Research and...

  18. Research obstacles and future perpectives

    OpenAIRE

    RICKERBY David

    2013-01-01

    Nanotechnology enabled methods for the treatment of wastewater; drinking water and contaminated groundwater offer potential benefits but also carry significant risks. There are in addition technical, financial and regulatory barriers to innovation within the water sector itself. Progress in addressing the major technical challenges has been achieved through original applications and fresh research directions. These efforts are leading to increased efficiencies in photocatalytic water treatmen...

  19. Future Research Themes in Supply Chain Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieland, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Guest post on research results published in the article "Mapping the Landscape of Future Research Themes in Supply Chain Management" by Andreas Wieland, Robert Handfield and Christian Durach ( Journal of Business Logistics (2016). Vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 205-212).......Guest post on research results published in the article "Mapping the Landscape of Future Research Themes in Supply Chain Management" by Andreas Wieland, Robert Handfield and Christian Durach ( Journal of Business Logistics (2016). Vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 205-212)....

  20. Garden walking for depression: a research report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaffrey, Ruth; Hanson, Claire; McCaffrey, William

    2010-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the effect of garden walking and reflective journaling on adults who are 65 years old and older with depression. The Geriatric Depression Scale measured depression. Four themes emerged from the interview data collected from each participant.

  1. Future directions in fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    The author discusses his analysis to quantify the priority of fusion R and D in the United States. The conclusion is that this priority has been essentially constant for 35 years with only two exceptions. He identifies four basic problems that must be solved. These problems are: to improve the scientific understanding of confinement concepts if we are going to have an energy source that can be utilized some day; to understand the physics of burning plasmas; to develop the materials for fusion use to realize the environmental potential of fusion; and to develop fusion nuclear technology. A response to these problems is given, based on the author's argument for international collaboration in fusion research

  2. Using Data Mining to Predict Possible Future Depression Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Daimi, Kevin; Banitaan, Shadi

    2014-01-01

    Depression is a disorder characterized by misery and gloominess felt over a period of time. Some symptoms of depression overlap with somatic illnesses implying considerable difficulty in diagnosing it. This paper contributes to its diagnosis through the application of data mining, namely classification, to predict patients who will most likely develop depression or are currently suffering from depression. Synthetic data is used for this study. To acquire the results, the popular suite of mach...

  3. Maladaptive Perfectionism and Ineffective Coping as Mediators between Attachment and Future Depression: A Prospective Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Meifen; Heppner, P. Paul; Russell, Daniel W.; Young, Shannon K.

    2006-01-01

    This study used a longitudinal design to examine whether maladaptive perfectionism and ineffective coping served as 2 mediators of the relation between adult attachment and future depression. Data were collected from 372 undergraduates at 2 time points. Results indicated that (a) the impact of attachment on future depression was mediated through…

  4. Marine Radioecology. Current Research and Future Scope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1967-03-01

    This report consists of answers submitted by various laboratory directors or individual investigators who responded to an International Atomic Energy Agency questionnaire concerning their present research programme, future scope of that programme, the investigators' ideas and opinions on marine radioecology research. Information on the possibility of co-operation with other laboratories is also included

  5. Introduction: The Future of Social Movement Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stekelenburg, Jacquelien Van; Roggeband, Conny; Stekelenburg, Jacquelien Van; Roggeband, Conny; Klandermans, Bert

    2013-01-01

    In The Future of Social Movement Research, some of the most influential scholars in the field provide a wide-ranging understanding of how social movements arise and persist, engendering unanswered questions pointing to new theoretical strands and fields of research. The resulting work is

  6. The future of national research institutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popp, M.

    1992-01-01

    In Germany, the national research centers have prepared, accompanied and stabilized the development of nuclear technology. In the present, political, situation, they are no longer able to make a comparably constructive contribution to the future perspective of nuclear technology. The accompanying scientific services rendered nuclear technology by the national research centers also in the future include the cultivation of qualified expertise. In this way, the link between national research centers and nuclear technology is maintained, albeit at a different level. Cases in point are nuclear fusion or the development of new, advanced reactor lines. (orig.) [de

  7. Distinguishing between Unipolar Depression and Bipolar Depression: Current and Future Clinical and Neuroimaging Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    de Almeida, Jorge Renner Cardoso; Phillips, Mary Louise

    2012-01-01

    Differentiating bipolar disorder (BD) from recurrent unipolar depression (UD) is a major clinical challenge. Main reasons for this include the higher prevalence of depressive relative to hypo/manic symptoms during the course of BD illness and the high prevalence of subthreshold manic symptoms in both BD and UD depression. Identifying objective markers of BD might help improve accuracy in differentiating between BD and UD depression, to ultimately optimize clinical and functional outcome for a...

  8. Future directions for positive body image research

    OpenAIRE

    Halliwell, E.

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of positive body image research during the last 10 years represents an important shift in the body image literature. The existing evidence provides a strong empirical basis for the study of positive body image and research has begun to address issues of age, gender, ethnicity, culture, development, and intervention in relation to positive body image. This article briefly reviews the existing evidence before outlining directions for future research. Specifically, six areas for fu...

  9. The future role of research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaeser, W.

    2001-01-01

    The decline of neutron source capacity in the next decades urges for the planning and construction of new neutron sources for basic and applied research with neutrons. Modern safety precautions of research reactors make them competitive with other ways of neutron production using non-chain reactions for many applications. Research reactors consequently optimized offer a very broad range of possible applications in basic and applied research. Research reactors at universities also in the future have to play an important role in education and training in basic and applied nuclear science. (orig.)

  10. Research Skills for the Future: Research Workforce Under the Spotlight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Dobozy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The value and training needs of the future research workforce is under the spotlight. In this article, I take up Ulrich and Dash's (2013 somewhat provocative invitation to engage in discussion and debate about current and future research. In my three-tiered response, I first discuss Ulrich and Dash's article, followed by my own observations about the APEC/Deloitte (2010 research report: "Skills and Competencies Needed in the Research Field: Objectives 2020," and finally, I explore, in some detail, challenges of building a twentyfirst-century research workforce.

  11. The Futures of Qualitative Social Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reiner Keller

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution I begin by reviewing past views on the future of qualitative social research. In different ways, all of these views give the same account of a problematic present state which must be overcome by following their own particular "mandatory directives" for future developments. I then discuss four structural mechanisms from which current problems in the transmission of qualitative and interpretative designs or approaches originate. Recently, supporters of "post-qualitative research" have addressed such problems by arguing for a form of strong theorism in qualitative social research. However, this type of response can lead back to an outdated dominance of theory over research and empirical substance. In conclusion, some alternative options for navigating qualitative and interpretative research through post-positivist waters are discussed. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1401165

  12. The patient perspective in research on major depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuijpers Pim

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although thousands of studies have examined the genetics, epidemiology, etiology, biology, treatment and prevention of major depressive disorder, we still lack very basic knowledge about what patients with depressive disorders need. Despite the thousands of studies that have been conducted on major depression and the hundreds of randomized trials that have examined the effects of treatments, many patients still do not know how to cope with the daily problems caused by depressive disorders. In this Commentary the need for more research on the perspectives of patients is described. This research should guide treatment studies as well as basic research much more than it currently does. This perpective is especially important to understand and solve the undertreatment of depression, one of the major problems in this area. Up to 50% of depressed patients do not seek treatment, resulting in huge avoidable disease burden and economic costs. In order to solve this problem we need a better understanding of the problems patients encounter in daily life, and what factors contribute to the reasons for seeking treatment or not. Research from the patients' perspective is also necessary to meet the currently unmet information needs of patients, including information about the nature and causes of depression, stigma, medication, treatment and coping with the daily problems of having depression.

  13. The Past and Future of Nursing Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret M. Heitkemper, PhD, RN, FAAN

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The past three decades have witnessed a remarkable growth in nursing science development. In both Korea and the United States, nurse scientists are poised to address important issues related to the prevention and management of significant health care problems. The need for greater nursing science development in the areas of self management, genetics, geriatrics, health promotion across the lifespan, technology, and mental health are briefly highlighted. Future research efforts will be enhanced by interdisciplinary collaboration and the creation of international nursing research centers. At the same time, we need to remain cognizant of the importance of mentoring future nurse scientists.

  14. Competence of depressed patients for consent to research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelbaum, P S; Grisso, T; Frank, E; O'Donnell, S; Kupfer, D J

    1999-09-01

    The capacities of depressed patients to consent to research have been questioned by commentators who fear that the cognitive effects of a disorder may impair subjects' abilities to protect their interests. This study used a new instrument for assessing depressed patients' capacities to consent to research and examined their performance, including the relation between severity of depression and extent of impairment. Twenty-six female outpatients with major depression (assessed with the Schedule of Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Lifetime Version) enrolled in a study of maintenance psychotherapy were recruited for this project. Consent-related abilities were measured with the MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool-Clinical Research (MacCAT-CR) 1 week after intake and again 8-10 weeks later. Depressive symptoms were measured by the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Almost all subjects performed quite well on the capacity measures and maintained that level of performance over time. There was no correlation between performance and degree of depressive symptoms and little relation to prior research experience. Some subjects appeared confused about the extent to which decisions about assignment to treatment groups would be made on the basis of their clinical condition rather than randomly. This outpatient group with major depression showed few impairments in their decision-making capacities related to research. As in other studies, some concerns were raised about subjects' appreciation that treatment assignments would not be individualized for their needs. Examination of hospitalized patients and those with psychotic depression would help to determine whether they show greater degrees of impairment. The MacCAT-CR was easily adapted for use with this depressed group.

  15. Learning Analytics: Challenges and Future Research Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlatko Lukarov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, learning analytics (LA has attracted a great deal of attention in technology-enhanced learning (TEL research as practitioners, institutions, and researchers are increasingly seeing the potential that LA has to shape the future TEL landscape. Generally, LA deals with the development of methods that harness educational data sets to support the learning process. This paper provides a foundation for future research in LA. It provides a systematic overview on this emerging field and its key concepts through a reference model for LA based on four dimensions, namely data, environments, context (what?, stakeholders (who?, objectives (why?, and methods (how?. It further identifies various challenges and research opportunities in the area of LA in relation to each dimension.

  16. Future directions for positive body image research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliwell, Emma

    2015-06-01

    The emergence of positive body image research during the last 10 years represents an important shift in the body image literature. The existing evidence provides a strong empirical basis for the study of positive body image and research has begun to address issues of age, gender, ethnicity, culture, development, and intervention in relation to positive body image. This article briefly reviews the existing evidence before outlining directions for future research. Specifically, six areas for future positive body image research are outlined: (a) conceptualization, (b) models, (c) developmental factors, (d) social interactions, (e) cognitive processing style, and (f) interventions. Finally, the potential role of positive body image as a protective factor within the broader body image literature is discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Future directions of small research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blotcky, A.J.; Rack, E.P.

    1986-01-01

    In prognosticating future perspectives, it is important to realize that the current number of small reactors throughout the world is not overly large and will undoubtedly decrease or at best remain constant in future generations. To survive and remain productive, small reactor facilities must concentrate on work that is unique and that cannot be performed as well by other instruments. Wherever possible, these facilities should develop some form of collaboration with universities and medical center investigators. Future development will continue and will flourish in neutron activation analysis and its applications for a diversity of fields. Fundamental research such as hot atom chemistry will continue to use neutrons from small research reactors. Finally, training of power reactor operators can be an important source of revenue for the small facility in addition to performing an important service to the nuclear power industry

  18. Future Directions in Parent Education Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaronson, May

    This paper suggests goals for future research programs in parent education. Suggestions include: (1) developing and replicating long-term studies of the effects of parent education, (2) examining the antecedents of adult behavior disorders to plan parenting programs that aim at preventing such disorders, (3) replacing deficit models of parenting…

  19. Future Tasks of the International Calvin Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. H. Neuser

    1998-12-01

    The first answer includes both a review of the previous six Congresses as well as a glance at recent Calvin literature; the second answer will be developed in the overview which follows, titled The future tasks of Calvin research.

  20. Pressure ulcer research : current and future perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bader, D.L.; Bouten, C.V.C.; Colin, D.; Oomens, C.W.J.

    2005-01-01

    This book provides an up-to-date scientific account of all aspects related to pressure ulcers and pressure ulcer research, as well as evidence-based knowledge of pressure ulcer aetiology. Further, it describes current and future tools for evaluating patients at risk. It comprises 20 chapters by

  1. Past, Present and Future in Interdisciplinary Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusdorf, Georges

    1977-01-01

    Presents examples of interdisciplinary research since the origin of western science and predicts that future interdisciplinary approaches to epistemological writing will take into account divergent thinking patterns and thereby end the domination by western intellectual imperialism. For journal availability, see SO 506 201. (Author/DB)

  2. Willingness to treat drug dependence and depression: comparisons of future health professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ríos-Bedoya CF

    2011-03-01

    treat nicotine and alcohol dependence-affected patients as compared to depression-affected patients. Personal history was not associated with the students' willingness to treat, but men were less willing to treat. Drawing strength from the randomized reinforcer experimental design nested within this survey approach, the study evidence suggests potential nonparticipation bias in standard surveys on this topic.Conclusion: These results indicate that future health professionals may prefer to treat depression as opposed to drug dependence conditions. For SBIRT success, curriculum change with educational interventions may be needed to increase willingness to treat patients with neuropsychiatric conditions such as drug dependence. Future research requires attention to a possible problem of nonparticipation bias in surveys of this type.Keywords: alcohol dependence, nicotine dependence, depression, health professionals, stigma 

  3. Why is Past Depression the Best Predictor of Future Depression? Stress Generation as a Mechanism of Depression Continuity in Girls

    OpenAIRE

    Rudolph, Karen D.; Flynn, Megan; Abaied, Jamie; Groot, Alison; Thompson, Renee

    2009-01-01

    This study examined whether a transactional interpersonal life stress model helps to explain the continuity in depression over time in girls. Youth (86 girls, 81 boys; M age = 12.41, SD = 1.19) and their caregivers participated in a three-wave longitudinal study. Depression and episodic life stress were assessed with semi-structured interviews. Path analysis provided support for a transactional interpersonal life stress model in girls but not in boys, wherein depression predicted the generati...

  4. Why Is Past Depression the Best Predictor of Future Depression? Stress Generation as a Mechanism of Depression Continuity in Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Karen D.; Flynn, Megan; Abaied, Jamie L.; Groot, Alison; Thompson, Renee

    2009-01-01

    This study examined whether a transactional interpersonal life stress model helps to explain the continuity in depression over time in girls. Youth (86 girls, 81 boys; M age = 12.41, SD = 1.19) and their caregivers participated in a three-wave longitudinal study. Depression and episodic life stress were assessed with semistructured interviews.…

  5. Parenting and Adolescents' Depressive Symptoms: The Mediating Role of Future Time Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaconu-Gherasim, Loredana R; Bucci, Colleen M; Giuseppone, Kathryn R; Brumariu, Laura E

    2017-10-03

    This study investigated the relations between maternal and paternal rearing practices and adolescents' depressive symptoms, and whether time perspective in adolescence explains these links. The sample included 306 students (158 girls), aged between 10.83 and 14.42 years. Adolescents completed questionnaires assessing their perceptions of maternal and paternal acceptance and psychological control, and of their future time perspective and depressive symptoms. Adolescents who rated their mothers as more accepting and those who rated their fathers as less psychologically controlling also reported lower levels of depressive symptoms and greater future time perspective. Further, adolescents who had greater future time perspective reported lower levels of depressive symptoms. Finally, time perspective partially mediated the relations of maternal and paternal acceptance, and paternal control with depressive symptoms in adolescence. The findings highlight the unique relations of maternal acceptance and paternal psychological control with adolescents' depressive symptoms, and that future time perspective is one mechanism that might explain why parenting strategies are linked with depressive symptoms in adolescence.

  6. Pastoral research: past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, John J

    2004-01-01

    In healthcare environments of excellence, clinically trained chaplains are valued members of the medical treatment team. There are skills and values they hold in common with medicine and allied health disciplines: enhancing the health and well-being of the patient as a unity of body, mind, and spirit within a unique family and cultural system. This article examines the past, present, and future of pastoral research, including the chaplain's moral imperative to examine practice and to share what is found.

  7. Future directions of multiple behavior change research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Karly; Lippke, Sonia; Nigg, Claudio R

    2017-02-01

    Non-communicable diseases (i.e., chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease, cancer, chronic respiratory disease, diabetes and obesity) result in 36 million deaths each year. Individuals' habitual participation in a single health-risk behaviors substantially contribute to morbidity and mortality (e.g., tobacco use, daily fast food intake, etc.); however, more concerning is the impact of typically co-occurring or clustering of multiple health-risk behaviors. This burden can be minimized through successful cessation of health-risk behaviors and adoption of healthy behaviors; namely healthy lifestyle adoption or multiple health behavior change (MHBC). MHBC is a developing field and future research recommendations are provided to advance MHBC research. A valid measure of MHBC (i.e., lifestyle) is warranted to provide the needed basis for MHBC investigations and evaluations. MHBC is thought to occur through shared co-variation of underlying motivating mechanisms, but how these relationships influence behavior remains unclear. A better understanding of the relationship between behaviors and the related motivating mechanisms (and potential cross-relationship of influences) is needed. Future research should also aim to improve lifestyles through understanding how to change multiple health behaviors. Finally, MHBC research should target the development of sustainable interventions which result in lasting effects (e.g., capacity, systems, policy and environmental changes), with dissemination considered during development. Focusing MHBC research in these areas will increase our understanding and maximize the impact on the health of populations.

  8. [Big data approaches in psychiatry: examples in depression research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bzdok, D; Karrer, T M; Habel, U; Schneider, F

    2017-11-29

    The exploration and therapy of depression is aggravated by heterogeneous etiological mechanisms and various comorbidities. With the growing trend towards big data in psychiatry, research and therapy can increasingly target the individual patient. This novel objective requires special methods of analysis. The possibilities and challenges of the application of big data approaches in depression are examined in closer detail. Examples are given to illustrate the possibilities of big data approaches in depression research. Modern machine learning methods are compared to traditional statistical methods in terms of their potential in applications to depression. Big data approaches are particularly suited to the analysis of detailed observational data, the prediction of single data points or several clinical variables and the identification of endophenotypes. A current challenge lies in the transfer of results into the clinical treatment of patients with depression. Big data approaches enable biological subtypes in depression to be identified and predictions in individual patients to be made. They have enormous potential for prevention, early diagnosis, treatment choice and prognosis of depression as well as for treatment development.

  9. The Future of Qualitative Research in Psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demuth, Carolin; Terkildsen, Thomas Schjødt

    2015-01-01

    (Aalborg University) and Günter Mey (Stendal University of Applied Science). The discussion started out by addressing the specifics of qualitative research in the field of psychology, its historical development and the perils of recent trends of standardization and neo-positivistic orientations. In light......In May 2014, a workshop on ”The future of qualitative research in psychology” took place at Aalborg University, Department of Communication & Psychology organized by Carolin Demuth. Participants from Aalborg University engaged in a lively exchange with the two invited discussants Svend Brinkmann...... of the discrepancy of what could be potentially achieved with qualitative methods for psychological research and how they are actually currently applied, the need was stressed to return to an understanding of qualitative methods as a craft skill and to take into account the subjectivity of the researcher...

  10. The Future of Nearshore Processes Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elko, N.; Feddersen, F.; Foster, D. L.; Holman, R. A.; McNinch, J.; Ozkan-Haller, H. T.; Plant, N. G.; Raubenheimer, B.; Elgar, S.; Hay, A. E.; Holland, K. T.; Kirby, J. T., Jr.; Lippmann, T. C.; Miller, J. K.; Stockdon, H. F.; Ashton, A. D.; Boehm, A. B.; Clark, D.; Cowen, E.; Dalyander, S.; Gelfenbaum, G. R.; Hapke, C. J.; MacMahan, J.; McNamara, D.; Mulligan, R. P.; Palmsten, M. L.; Ruggiero, P.; Sherwood, C. R.; Hsu, T. J.

    2014-12-01

    Over 70 members of the nearshore coastal processes research community convened in April 2014 to discuss a vision for the future of nearshore science while celebrating the memories and contributions of our recently departed colleague, Abby Sallenger. The participants reviewed community accomplishments over the past four decades. Federal agencies, including FEMA, NOAA, NPS, USGS, USACE, and NRL discussed the most pressing societal needs within the coastal zone. The group engaged in a retrospective of the last four decades of progress, assessed the current status and limitations of nearshore processes research, and developed a vision for the future that focuses on societally relevant problems. The top research topics identified included: Long-term Coastal Impacts: Meaningfully improve our understanding and prediction of the long-term coastal effects of sea level rise and changes in storminess patterns and associated efforts to protect coastal infrastructure. Extreme Events: Coastal flooding, overland flow, and concurrent morphological evolution during extreme events including the subsequent process of coastal recovery. Human and Ecosystem Health: Linkages between physical coastal processes (transport and mixing) and land-based pollution (pathogens, nutrients, toxic contaminants). Critical for addressing these research questions is enabling infrastructure, such as new observational tools and data sets, models, and nearshore-community communication and collaboration. Idea and concepts developed during the meeting (to be published in Shore and Beach) will be presented to foster collaboration and advocacy amongst the wider nearshore community. Meeting materials are available at: https://scripps.ucsd.edu/centers/nearshorefuture/.

  11. Advancing research on loyalty programs: a future research agenda

    OpenAIRE

    Breugelmans, Els; Bijmolt, Tammo H. A.; Zhang, Jie; Basso, Leonardo J.; Dorotic, Matilda; Kopalle, Praveen; Minnema, Alec; Mijnlieff, Willem Jan; Wünderlich, Nancy V.

    2015-01-01

    This is the authors’ accepted and refereed manuscript to the article Despite the growing literature on loyalty program (LP) research, many questions remain underexplored. Driven by advancements in information technology, marketing analytics, and consumer interface platforms (e.g., mobile devices), there have been many recent developments in LP practices around the world. They impose new challenges and create exciting opportunities for future LP research. The main objective of this paper is...

  12. Leadership: current theories, research, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avolio, Bruce J; Walumbwa, Fred O; Weber, Todd J

    2009-01-01

    This review examines recent theoretical and empirical developments in the leadership literature, beginning with topics that are currently receiving attention in terms of research, theory, and practice. We begin by examining authentic leadership and its development, followed by work that takes a cognitive science approach. We then examine new-genre leadership theories, complexity leadership, and leadership that is shared, collective, or distributed. We examine the role of relationships through our review of leader member exchange and the emerging work on followership. Finally, we examine work that has been done on substitutes for leadership, servant leadership, spirituality and leadership, cross-cultural leadership, and e-leadership. This structure has the benefit of creating a future focus as well as providing an interesting way to examine the development of the field. Each section ends with an identification of issues to be addressed in the future, in addition to the overall integration of the literature we provide at the end of the article.

  13. Depression in elderly: A review of Indian research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Grover

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To review the existing literature on depression among elderly arising from India. Search was carried out using PubMed, Google Scholar, Google, and Medknow search engines to identify the relevant studies. Most of the literatures that are available are in terms of prevalence of depression. Community-based studies involving 70 to 7,150 elderly subjects report prevalence rate varying from 8.9% to 62.16%. Clinic-based studies involving 50 to 5,260 participants report prevalence rates ranging from 42.4% to 72%. Studies have reported depression to be more common among females. Other demographic factors that have been associated with depression among elderly include being unmarried, divorced or widowed elderly, residing in rural locality, being illiterate, increasing age, lower socioeconomic status, and unemployment. Depression has also been shown to be associated with various psychosocial factors, lifestyle and dietary factors, and presence of chronic physical illness. There are limited data on various therapeutic interventions. Available data suggest usefulness of pranayam, cognitive behavior therapy, and electroconvulsive therapy. The review of data suggests that prevalence of depression among elderly in India is high. However, there is lack of data on symptom profile and limited data is available on various therapeutic interventions for the management of depression in elderly from India. There is urgent need to conduct large multicentric studies to fill this void in research.

  14. Defining Future Directions for Endometriosis Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    D’Hooghe, Thomas M.; Fazleabas, Asgerally; Giudice, Linda C.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Petraglia, Felice; Taylor, Robert N.

    2013-01-01

    Endometriosis, defined as estrogen-dependent lesions containing endometrial glands and stroma outside the uterus, is a chronic and often painful gynecological condition that affects 6% to 10% of reproductive age women. Endometriosis has estimated annual costs of US $12 419 per woman (approximately €9579), comprising one-third of the direct health care costs with two-thirds attributed to loss of productivity. Decreased quality of life is the most important predictor of direct health care and total costs. It has been estimated that there is a mean delay of 6.7 years between onset of symptoms and a surgical diagnosis of endometriosis, and each affected woman loses on average 10.8 hours of work weekly, mainly owing to reduced effectiveness while working. To encourage and facilitate research into this debilitating disease, a consensus workshop to define future directions for endometriosis research was held as part of the 11th World Congress on Endometriosis in September 2011 in Montpellier, France. The objective of this workshop was to review and update the endometriosis research priorities consensus statement developed following the 10th World Congress on Endometriosis in 2008.1 A total of 56 recommendations for research have been developed, grouped under 6 subheadings: (1) diagnosis, (2) classification and prognosis, (3) clinical trials, treatment, and outcomes, (4) epidemiology, (5) pathophysiology, and (6) research policy. By producing this consensus international research priorities statement, it is the hope of the workshop participants that researchers will be encouraged to develop new interdisciplinary research proposals that will attract increased funding support for work on endometriosis. PMID:23427182

  15. Depression, realism, and the overconfidence effect: are the sadder wiser when predicting future actions and events?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunning, D; Story, A L

    1991-10-01

    Do depressed individuals make more realistic judgments than their nondepressed peers in real world settings? Depressed and nondepressed Ss in 2 studies were asked to make predictions about future actions and outcomes that might occur in their personal academic and social worlds. Both groups of Ss displayed overconfidence, that is, they overestimated the likelihood that their predictions would prove to be accurate. Of key importance, depressed Ss were less accurate in their predictions, and thus more overconfident, than their nondepressed counterparts. These differences arose because depressed Ss (a) were more likely to predict the occurrence of low base-rate events and (b) were less likely to be correct when they made optimistic predictions (i.e., stated that positive events would occur or that aversive outcomes would not). Discussion focuses on implications of these findings for the depressive realism hypothesis.

  16. Research Data Management Education for Future Curators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Scott

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Science has progressed by “standing on the shoulders of giants” and for centuries research and knowledge have been shared through the publication and dissemination of books, papers and scholarly communications. Moving forward, much of our understanding builds on (large scale datasets, which have been collected or generated as part of the scientific process of discovery. How will this be made available for future generations? How will we ensure that, once collected or generated, others can stand on the shoulders of the data we produce?Educating students about the challenges and opportunities of data management is a key part of the solution and helps the researchers of the future to start to think about the problems early on in their careers. We have compiled a set of case studies to show the similarities and differences in data between disciplines, and produced a booklet for students containing the case studies and an introduction to the data lifecycle and other data management practices. This has already been used at the University of Southampton within the Faculty of Engineering and is now being adopted centrally for use in other faculties. In this paper, we will provide an overview of the case studies and the guide, and reflect on the reception the guide has had to date.

  17. Scenario research: Can the future be predicted?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stacey, Julia; Sonne, Anne-Mette

    2000-01-01

    Mr. Jensen sits at the computer in his office wondering what to cook for dinner. He browses through the web site of his usual supermarket. Today's menu is fish. He skims the recipe that also informs him when, where and how the fish was caught. The fish is quite expensive but it has a story to tel...... and supplemented at workshops - one for each of the four sectors. Experts from industry, trade organisations, retailing, authorities and other interested parties participated....... of the project has been to develop scenarios for four sectors of the Danish food industry - meat, dairy, fish and fruit and vegetables - for 2010. The scenarios are put together with the purpose of making the food industry and food research reflect on which demands their competencies will be met with in various...... possible futures. In the process of creating the scenarios, researchers at MAPP and the Danish Technical University formulated mini scenarios based on their research. The scenarios were used as inspiration in discussions with experts from industry, trade organisations, authorities etc. and later discussed...

  18. Nanofluid Technology: Current Status and Future Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Stephen U.-S. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Technology Division

    1998-10-20

    Downscaling or miniaturization has been a recent major trend in modern science and technology. Engineers now fabricate microscale devices such as microchannel heat exchangers, and micropumps that are the size of dust specks. Further major advances would be obtained if the coolant flowing in the microchannels were to contain nanoscale particles to enhance heat transfer. Nanofluid technology will thus be an emerging and exciting technology of the 21st century. This paper gives a brief history of the Advanced Fluids Program at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), discusses the concept of nanofluids, and provides an overview of the R&D program at ANL on the production, property characterization, and performance of nanofluids. It also describes examples of potential applications and benefits of nanofluids. Finally, future research on the fundamentals and applications of nanofluids is addressed.

  19. Future orientation and suicide ideation and attempts in depressed adults ages 50 and over.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Jameson K; Duberstein, Paul R; Conner, Kenneth R; Heisel, Marnin J; Beckman, Anthony; Franus, Nathan; Conwell, Yeates

    2006-09-01

    The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that future orientation is associated with lower levels of suicide ideation and lower likelihood of suicide attempt in a sample of patients in treatment for major depression. Two hundred two participants (116 female, 57%) ages 50-88 years were recruited from inpatient and outpatient settings. All were diagnosed with major depression using a structured diagnostic interview. Suicide ideation was assessed with the Scale for Suicide Ideation (both current and worst point ratings), and a measure of future orientation was created to assess future expectancies. The authors predicted that greater future orientation would be associated with less current and worst point suicide ideation, and would distinguish current and lifetime suicide attempters from nonattempters. Hypotheses were tested using multivariate logistic regression and linear regression analyses that accounted for age, gender, hopelessness, and depression. As hypothesized, higher future orientation scores were associated with lower current suicidal ideation, less intense suicidal ideation at its worst point, and lower probability of a history of attempted suicide after accounting for covariates. Future orientation was not associated with current attempt status. Future orientation holds promise as a cognitive variable associated with decreased suicide risk; a better understanding of its putative protective role is needed. Treatments designed to enhance future orientation might decrease suicide risk.

  20. The future of nearshore processes research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elko, Nicole A.; Feddersen, Falk; Foster, Diane; Hapke, Cheryl J.; McNinch, Jesse E.; Mulligan, Ryan P.; Tuba Ӧzkan-Haller, H.; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Raubenheimer, Britt

    2014-01-01

    The nearshore is the transition region between land and the continental shelf including (from onshore to offshore) coastal plains, wetlands, estuaries, coastal cliffs, dunes, beaches, surf zones (regions of wave breaking), and the inner shelf (Figure ES-1). Nearshore regions are vital to the national economy, security, commerce, and recreation. The nearshore is dynamically evolving, is often densely populated, and is under increasing threat from sea level rise, long-term erosion, extreme storms, and anthropogenic influences. Worldwide, almost one billion people live at elevations within 10 m of present sea level. Long-term erosion threatens communities, infrastructure, ecosystems, and habitat. Extreme storms can cause billions of dollars of damage. Degraded water quality impacts ecosystem and human health. Nearshore processes, the complex interactions between water, sediment, biota, and humans, must be understood and predicted to manage this often highly developed yet vulnerable nearshore environment. Over the past three decades, the understanding of nearshore processes has improved. However, societal needs are growing with increased coastal urbanization and threats of future climate change, and significant scientific challenges remain. To address these challenges, members of academia, industry, and federal agencies (USGS, USACE, NPS, NOAA, FEMA, ONR) met at the “The Past and Future of Nearshore Processes Research: Reflections on the Sallenger Years and a New Vision for the Future” workshop to develop a nearshore processes research vision where societal needs and science challenges intersect. The resulting vision is comprised of three broad research themes: Long-term coastal evolution due to natural and anthropogenic processes: As global climate change alters the rates of sea level rise and potentially storm patterns and coastal urbanization increases over the coming decades, an understanding of coastal evolution is critical. Improved knowledge of long

  1. Juvenile fibromyalgia: current status of research and future developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashikar-Zuck, Susmita; Ting, Tracy V.

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile-onset fibromyalgia (JFM) is a poorly understood chronic pain condition most commonly affecting adolescent girls. The condition is characterized by widespread musculoskeletal pain and other associated symptoms, including fatigue, nonrestorative sleep, headaches, irritable bowel symptoms, dysautonomia and mood disorders such as anxiety and/or depression. In the past few years, there has been a greater focus on understanding JFM in adolescents. Research studies have provided insight into the clinical characteristics of this condition and its effect on both short-term and long-term psychosocial and physical functioning. The importance of early and effective intervention is being recognized, as research has shown that symptoms of JFM tend to persist and do not resolve over time as was previously believed. Efforts to improve treatments for JFM are underway, and new evidence strongly points to the potential benefits of cognitive–behavioural therapy on improving mood and daily functioning. Research into pharmacotherapy and other nonpharmacological options is in progress. Advancements in the understanding of adult fibromyalgia have paved the way for future studies on diagnosis, assessment and management of JFM. This Review focuses on our current knowledge of the condition, provides an update of the latest research advances, and highlights areas for further study. PMID:24275966

  2. Depression after low-energy fracture in older women predicts future falls: a prospective observational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Falls are one of the main causes of fractures in elderly people and after a recent fracture, the risk of another fall is increased, resulting in subsequent fracture. Therefore, risk factors for future falls should be determined. We prospectively investigated the relationship between depression and the incidence of falls in post-menopausal women after a low-energy fracture. Methods At baseline, 181 women aged 60 years and older who presented with a recent low-energy fracture were evaluated at the fracture and osteoporosis outpatient clinics of two hospitals. As well as clinical evaluation and bone mineral density tests, the presence of depression (measured using the Edinburgh Depression Scale, EDS, depression cut-off > 11) and risk factors for falling were assessed. During two years of follow-up, the incidence of falls was registered annually by means of detailed questionnaires and interviews. Results Seventy-nine (44%) of the women sustained at least one fall during follow-up. Of these, 28% (n = 22) suffered from depression at baseline compared to 10% (n = 10) of the 102 women who did not sustain a fall during follow-up (Χ2 = 8.76, df = 1, p = .003). Multiple logistic regression showed that the presence of depression and co-morbidity at baseline were independently related to falls (OR = 4.13, 95% CI = 1.58-10.80; OR = 2.25, 95% CI = 1.11-4.56, respectively) during follow-up. Conclusions The presence of depression in women aged 60 years and older with recent low-energy fractures is an important risk factor for future falls. We propose that clinicians treating patients with recent low-energy fractures should anticipate not only on skeletal-related risk factors for fractures, but also on fall-related risk factors including depression. PMID:22060677

  3. Depression after low-energy fracture in older women predicts future falls: a prospective observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van den Berg Martha

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Falls are one of the main causes of fractures in elderly people and after a recent fracture, the risk of another fall is increased, resulting in subsequent fracture. Therefore, risk factors for future falls should be determined. We prospectively investigated the relationship between depression and the incidence of falls in post-menopausal women after a low-energy fracture. Methods At baseline, 181 women aged 60 years and older who presented with a recent low-energy fracture were evaluated at the fracture and osteoporosis outpatient clinics of two hospitals. As well as clinical evaluation and bone mineral density tests, the presence of depression (measured using the Edinburgh Depression Scale, EDS, depression cut-off > 11 and risk factors for falling were assessed. During two years of follow-up, the incidence of falls was registered annually by means of detailed questionnaires and interviews. Results Seventy-nine (44% of the women sustained at least one fall during follow-up. Of these, 28% (n = 22 suffered from depression at baseline compared to 10% (n = 10 of the 102 women who did not sustain a fall during follow-up (Χ2 = 8.76, df = 1, p = .003. Multiple logistic regression showed that the presence of depression and co-morbidity at baseline were independently related to falls (OR = 4.13, 95% CI = 1.58-10.80; OR = 2.25, 95% CI = 1.11-4.56, respectively during follow-up. Conclusions The presence of depression in women aged 60 years and older with recent low-energy fractures is an important risk factor for future falls. We propose that clinicians treating patients with recent low-energy fractures should anticipate not only on skeletal-related risk factors for fractures, but also on fall-related risk factors including depression.

  4. Problematic assumptions have slowed down depression research: why symptoms, not syndromes are the way forward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiko I Fried

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Major Depression (MD is a highly heterogeneous diagnostic category. Diverse symptoms such as sad mood, anhedonia, and fatigue are routinely added to an unweighted sum-score, and cutoffs are used to distinguish between depressed participants and healthy controls. Researchers then investigate outcome variables like MD risk factors, biomarkers, and treatment response in such samples. These practices presuppose that (1 depression is a discrete condition, and that (2 symptoms are interchangeable indicators of this latent disorder. Here I review these two assumptions, elucidate their historical roots, show how deeply engrained they are in psychological and psychiatric research, and document that they contrast with evidence. Depression is not a consistent syndrome with clearly demarcated boundaries, and depression symptoms are not interchangeable indicators of an underlying disorder. Current research practices lump individuals with very different problems into one category, which has contributed to the remarkably slow progress in key research domains such as the development of efficacious antidepressants or the identification of biomarkers for depression.The recently proposed network framework offers an alternative to the problematic assumptions. MD is not understood as a distinct condition, but as heterogeneous symptom cluster that substantially overlaps with other syndromes such as anxiety disorders. MD is not framed as an underlying disease with a number of equivalent indicators, but as a network of symptoms that have direct causal influence on each other: insomnia can cause fatigue which then triggers concentration and psychomotor problems. This approach offers new opportunities for constructing an empirically based classification system and has broad implications for future research.

  5. Current and Future Research at DANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandel, M.; Baramsai, B.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A.; Hayes, A.; Kawano, T.; Mosby, S.; Rusev, G.; Stetcu, I.; Taddeucci, T. N.; Talou, P.; Ullmann, J. L.; Walker, C. L.; Wilhelmy, J. B.

    2015-05-01

    An overview of the current experimental program on measurements of neutron capture and neutron induced fission at the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) is presented. Three major projects are currently under way: 1) high precision measurements of neutron capture cross sections on Uranium isotopes, 2) research aimed at studies of the short-lived actinide isomer production in neutron capture on 235U and 3) measurements of correlated data of fission observables. New projects include developments of auxiliary detectors to improve the capability of DANCE. We are building a compact, segmented NEUtron detector Array at DANCE (NEUANCE), which will be installed in the central cavity of the DANCE array. It will provide experimental information on prompt fission neutrons in coincidence with the prompt fission gamma-rays measured by 160 BaF2 crystals of DANCE. Unique correlated data will be obtained for neutron capture and neutron-induced fission using the DANCE-NEUANCE experimental set up in the future.

  6. Future and benefits of corrosion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staehle, Roger W.

    2002-01-01

    The subject of corrosion is a design science. The subject of stress analysis is a design science as is the subject of heat transfer. When the subject of corrosion is considered in the framework design a clear framework of the priorities and objectives becomes apparent. Further, corrosion becomes a more explicit and important subject in the overall design, manufacturing, and operation phases of equipment: in this framework, the funding and support of corrosion work is necessary to the designers and users of equipment. The subject of corrosion is usually less important in the early stages of operation of equipment: in these early stages, the subjects. Corrosion becomes important to the longer term reliability and safety of equipment. Corrosion is often a principal determiner of design life. Corrosion is often more important after the manufacturing warranty is expired: therefore the subject is often more important to the user than to the manufacturer. In order that the subject of corrosion is considered and incorporated in the design as well as in user specifications, there must be a language and means of easily understood communication between the design-operation community and the corrosion community. For example, the designers do not understand the language of 'pitting potential': rather, they understand design life and permissible stress. Thus, corrosion must be put into terms that can be understood and utilized by designers and operators. Two methodologies have been developed for communicating effectively between the corrosion and the design communities: these are the 'Corrosion Based Design Approach' and the 'Location for Analysis Matrix.' These provide simple check off lists to designers for asking questions and assuring that credible answers have been obtained on issues that affect reliable and economic performance. Both of these subject are discussed in this presentation. The future of corrosion research is its effective linkage with design and operation of

  7. Research and development for future detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Collins, P R

    2003-01-01

    This review describes recent R&D for particle detectors, concentrating on results from the past year. There is particular emphasis on silicon devices, and on new technology ideas for a detector at a future Linear Collider. (59 refs)

  8. Predicting future major depression and persistent depressive symptoms: Development of a prognostic screener and PHQ-4 cutoffs in breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weihs, Karen L; Wiley, Joshua F; Crespi, Catherine M; Krull, Jennifer L; Stanton, Annette L

    2018-02-01

    Create a brief, self-report screener for recently diagnosed breast cancer patients to identify patients at risk of future depression. Breast cancer patients (N = 410) within 2 ± 1 months after diagnosis provided data on depression vulnerability. Depression outcomes were defined as a high depressive symptom trajectory or a major depressive episode during 16 months after diagnosis. Stochastic gradient boosting of regression trees identified 7 items highly predictive for the depression outcomes from a pool of 219 candidate depression vulnerability items. Three of the 7 items were from the Patient Health Questionnaire 4 (PHQ-4), a validated screener for current anxiety/depressive disorder that has not been tested to identify risk for future depression. Thresholds classifying patients as high or low risk on the new Depression Risk Questionnaire 7 (DRQ-7) and the PHQ-4 were obtained. Predictive performance of the DRQ-7 and PHQ-4 was assessed on a holdout validation subsample. DRQ-7 items assess loneliness, irritability, persistent sadness, and low acceptance of emotion as well as 3 items from the PHQ-4 (anhedonia, depressed mood, and worry). A DRQ-7 score of ≥6/23 identified depression outcomes with 0.73 specificity, 0.83 sensitivity, 0.68 positive predictive value, and 0.86 negative predictive value. A PHQ-4 score of ≥3/12 performed moderately well but less accurately than the DRQ-7 (net reclassification improvement = 10%; 95% CI [0.5-16]). The DRQ-7 and the PHQ-4 with a new cutoff score are clinically accessible screeners for risk of depression in newly diagnosed breast cancer patients. Use of the screener to select patients for preventive interventions awaits validation of the screener in other samples. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Using the NANA toolkit at home to predict older adults' future depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, J A; Harrison, R F; Brown, L J E; MacLean, L M; Hwang, F; Smith, T; Williams, E A; Timon, C; Adlam, T; Khadra, H; Astell, A J

    2017-04-15

    Depression is currently underdiagnosed among older adults. As part of the Novel Assessment of Nutrition and Aging (NANA) validation study, 40 older adults self-reported their mood using a touchscreen computer over three, one-week periods. Here, we demonstrate the potential of these data to predict future depression status. We analysed data from the NANA validation study using a machine learning approach. We applied the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator with a logistic model to averages of six measures of mood, with depression status according to the Geriatric Depression Scale 10 weeks later as the outcome variable. We tested multiple values of the selection parameter in order to produce a model with low deviance. We used a cross-validation framework to avoid overspecialisation, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis to determine the quality of the fitted model. The model we report contained coefficients for two variables: sadness and tiredness, as well as a constant. The cross-validated area under the ROC curve for this model was 0.88 (CI: 0.69-0.97). While results are based on a small sample, the methodology for the selection of variables appears suitable for the problem at hand, suggesting promise for a wider study and ultimate deployment with older adults at increased risk of depression. We have identified self-reported scales of sadness and tiredness as sensitive measures which have the potential to predict future depression status in older adults, partially addressing the problem of underdiagnosis. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. US computer research networks: Current and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratochvil, D.; Sood, D.; Verostko, A.

    1989-01-01

    During the last decade, NASA LeRC's Communication Program has conducted a series of telecommunications forecasting studies to project trends and requirements and to identify critical telecommunications technologies that must be developed to meet future requirements. The Government Networks Division of Contel Federal Systems has assisted NASA in these studies, and the current study builds upon these earlier efforts. The current major thrust of the NASA Communications Program is aimed at developing the high risk, advanced, communications satellite and terminal technologies required to significantly increase the capacity of future communications systems. Also, major new technological, economic, and social-political events and trends are now shaping the communications industry of the future. Therefore, a re-examination of future telecommunications needs and requirements is necessary to enable NASA to make management decisions in its Communications Program and to ensure the proper technologies and systems are addressed. This study, through a series of Task Orders, is helping NASA define the likely communication service needs and requirements of the future and thereby ensuring that the most appropriate technology developments are pursued.

  11. Research on depression in adolescents in Peru: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhonatan Steeven Navarro-Loli

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Depression in adolescents is a multicausal phenomenon and a predictor of social problems and other disorders. Thus, it is considered a public health problem. This investigation aims to systematically review the characteristics of the scientific articles about depression in Peruvian adolescents published in Peruvian and non-Peruvian journals. The search was performed in the databases of SciELO, Latindex, Redalyc, Scopus, PubMed, and through Google, using a combination of keywords related to the construct, the sample and its origin. The unit of analysis consisted of 21 articles. The reviewed articles showed inconsistency in the reporting and bibliographic support of the research designs, sampling procedures, psychometric properties of the instruments, instruments used to assess the construct which were not evaluated in our context, and cut-off points obtained in other countries’ samples. Therefore, we can state that the reviewed articles do not fully comply with the publication standards proposed by the American Psychological Association.

  12. Survey Research: Methods, Issues and the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Ernest W.; Torrisi-Steele, Geraldine; Wang, Victor C. X.

    2015-01-01

    Survey research is prevalent among many professional fields. Both cost effective and time efficient, this method of research is commonly used for the purposes of gaining insight into the attitudes, thoughts, and opinions of populations. Additionally, because there are several types of survey research designs and data collection instruments, the…

  13. Control group design: enhancing rigor in research of mind-body therapies for depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinser, Patricia Anne; Robins, Jo Lynne

    2013-01-01

    Although a growing body of research suggests that mind-body therapies may be appropriate to integrate into the treatment of depression, studies consistently lack methodological sophistication particularly in the area of control groups. In order to better understand the relationship between control group selection and methodological rigor, we provide a brief review of the literature on control group design in yoga and tai chi studies for depression, and we discuss challenges we have faced in the design of control groups for our recent clinical trials of these mind-body complementary therapies for women with depression. To address the multiple challenges of research about mind-body therapies, we suggest that researchers should consider 4 key questions: whether the study design matches the research question; whether the control group addresses performance, expectation, and detection bias; whether the control group is ethical, feasible, and attractive; and whether the control group is designed to adequately control for nonspecific intervention effects. Based on these questions, we provide specific recommendations about control group design with the goal of minimizing bias and maximizing validity in future research.

  14. Future for nuclear data research. Human resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, Mamoru

    2006-01-01

    A comment is given on the problem of human resources to support the future nuclear data activity which will be indispensable for advanced utilization of nuclear energy and radiations. Emphasis is put in the importance of the functional organization among the nuclear data center (JAEA), industries and universities for provision of human resources. (author)

  15. Value Orientations of Future Teachers-Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botalova, Olga B.; Osipova, Seraphima V.; Asenova, Nazymgul S.; Kenenbaeva, Marzhan A.; Kuderina, Aizhan Y.; Zholtaeva, Gulnar; Boribekova, Farzana; Zhanatbekova, Nazym; Vedilina, Elena A.; Azanbekova, Gulnaz

    2016-01-01

    Values are keystones of society; they can vary depending on the professional activity. Teacher's values play an important role, since they directly affect the formation of knowledge of students. The paper presents the characteristics of one of the structural components of future teachers' active scientific position--pedagogic values such as…

  16. NIDDK international conference report on diabetes and depression: current understanding and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Richard I G; de Groot, Mary; Lucki, Irwin; Hunter, Christine M; Sartorius, Norman; Golden, Sherita H

    2014-08-01

    Comorbid diabetes and depression are a major clinical challenge as the outcomes of each condition are worsened by the other. This article is based on the presentations and discussions during an international meeting on diabetes and depression convened by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) in collaboration with the National Institute of Mental Health and the Dialogue on Diabetes and Depression. While the psychological burden of diabetes may contribute to depression in some cases, this explanation does not sufficiently explain the relationship between these two conditions. Shared biological and behavioral mechanisms, such as hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation, inflammation, autonomic dysfunction, sleep disturbance, inactive lifestyle, poor dietary habits, and environmental and cultural risk factors, are important to consider in understanding the link between depression and diabetes. Both individual psychological and pharmacological depression treatments are effective in people with diabetes, but the current range of treatment options is limited and has shown mixed effects on glycemic outcomes. More research is needed to understand what factors contribute to individual differences in vulnerability, treatment response, and resilience to depression and metabolic disorders across the life course and how best to provide care for people with comorbid diabetes and depression in different health care settings. Training programs are needed to create a cross-disciplinary workforce that can work in different models of care for comorbid conditions. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  17. Research reactor status for future nuclear research in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raymond, Patrick; Bignan, Gilles; Guidez, Joel [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique - CEA (France)

    2010-07-01

    During the 1950's and 60's, the European countries built several research reactors, partially to support their emerging nuclear-powered electricity programs. Now, over forty years later, the use and operation of these reactors have both widened and grown more specialized. The irradiation reactors test materials and fuels for power reactors, produce radio-isotopes for medicine, neutro-graphies, doping silicon, and other materials. The neutron beam reactors are crucial to science of matter and provide vital support to the development of nano-technologies. Other reactors are used for other specialized services such as teaching, safety tests, neutron physics measurements... The modifications to the operating uses and the ageing of the nuclear facilities have led to increasing closures year after year. Since last ENC, for example, we have seen, only in France, the closure of the training reactor Ulysse in 2007, the closure of the safety test dedicated reactor Phebus in 2008 and recently the Phenix reactor, last fast breeder in operation in the European Community, has been shut down after a set of 'end of life' technological and physical tests. For other research reactors, safety re-evaluations have had to take place, to enable extension of reactor life. However, in the current context of streamlining and reorganization, new European tools have emerged to optimally meet the changing demands for research. However the operation market of these reactors seems now increasing in all fields. For the neutron beams reactors (FRMII, ORPHEE, ILL, ISIS,..) the experimental needs are increasing years after years, especially for nano sciences and bio sciences new needs. The measurement of residual stress on manufactured materials is also more and more utilised. All these reactors have increasing utilizations, and their future seems promising. A new project project based on a neutron spallation is under definition in Sweden (ESSS: European Spallation Source

  18. Research reactor status for future nuclear research in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raymond, Patrick; Bignan, Gilles; Guidez, Joel

    2010-01-01

    During the 1950's and 60's, the European countries built several research reactors, partially to support their emerging nuclear-powered electricity programs. Now, over forty years later, the use and operation of these reactors have both widened and grown more specialized. The irradiation reactors test materials and fuels for power reactors, produce radio-isotopes for medicine, neutro-graphies, doping silicon, and other materials. The neutron beam reactors are crucial to science of matter and provide vital support to the development of nano-technologies. Other reactors are used for other specialized services such as teaching, safety tests, neutron physics measurements... The modifications to the operating uses and the ageing of the nuclear facilities have led to increasing closures year after year. Since last ENC, for example, we have seen, only in France, the closure of the training reactor Ulysse in 2007, the closure of the safety test dedicated reactor Phebus in 2008 and recently the Phenix reactor, last fast breeder in operation in the European Community, has been shut down after a set of 'end of life' technological and physical tests. For other research reactors, safety re-evaluations have had to take place, to enable extension of reactor life. However, in the current context of streamlining and reorganization, new European tools have emerged to optimally meet the changing demands for research. However the operation market of these reactors seems now increasing in all fields. For the neutron beams reactors (FRMII, ORPHEE, ILL, ISIS,..) the experimental needs are increasing years after years, especially for nano sciences and bio sciences new needs. The measurement of residual stress on manufactured materials is also more and more utilised. All these reactors have increasing utilizations, and their future seems promising. A new project project based on a neutron spallation is under definition in Sweden (ESSS: European Spallation Source Scandinavia). The nuclear

  19. International Business Research: Past, Present and Future

    OpenAIRE

    David A Ricks

    1985-01-01

    The Editors of the Journal of International Business Studies (JIBS) always try to publish the best international business research. Unfortunately, there will probably never be a simple response to the question, What constitutes excellent international business research? We might make some progress, however, if we first attempt to define international business research and then identify several noteworthy examples.© 1985 JIBS. Journal of International Business Studies (1985) 16, 1–4

  20. Artificial Intelligence Research Branch future plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Helen (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    This report contains information on the activities of the Artificial Intelligence Research Branch (FIA) at NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) in 1992, as well as planned work in 1993. These activities span a range from basic scientific research through engineering development to fielded NASA applications, particularly those applications that are enabled by basic research carried out in FIA. Work is conducted in-house and through collaborative partners in academia and industry. All of our work has research themes with a dual commitment to technical excellence and applicability to NASA short, medium, and long-term problems. FIA acts as the Agency's lead organization for research aspects of artificial intelligence, working closely with a second research laboratory at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and AI applications groups throughout all NASA centers. This report is organized along three major research themes: (1) Planning and Scheduling: deciding on a sequence of actions to achieve a set of complex goals and determining when to execute those actions and how to allocate resources to carry them out; (2) Machine Learning: techniques for forming theories about natural and man-made phenomena; and for improving the problem-solving performance of computational systems over time; and (3) Research on the acquisition, representation, and utilization of knowledge in support of diagnosis design of engineered systems and analysis of actual systems.

  1. The future research of material science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, Hironobu [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1997-11-01

    High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), which was established on 1 April, consists of two institutes. One of these is Institute of Materials Structure Science. New research program in the new institute using synchrotron radiation, neutrons and muons are discussed. (author)

  2. Future Research in Psycho-Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goerling, Ute; Mehnert, Anja

    2018-01-01

    Since the mid-1970s psycho-oncology and psycho-oncological research have been systematically developed in many industrialized countries and have produced nationally and internationally accepted guidelines. In this article developments and challenges are presented and discussed. From the perspective of various oncological treatment options, different needs for further psycho-oncological research are considered.

  3. A Bright Future for Interdisciplinary Multilingualism Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comanaru, Ruxandra-S.; Dewaele, Jean-Marc

    2015-01-01

    Multilingualism is a prevalent reality in today's world. From an individual level to a societal one, multilingualism incorporates many aspects that have been studied extensively by diverse social research disciplines. The present article will explore the potential directions which multilingualism research can take, concentrating mainly on the…

  4. Research: the basis for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cambiaggio, Maria C.

    2001-01-01

    The significance of the scientific research for the technological development of a country is outlined and a short survey is given of the research activities in different fields carried out at the Argentine CNEA. The international Auger Project on very high-energy cosmic rays is described and the Argentine participation in it is also outlined

  5. Factors Influencing Depression Endpoints Research (FINDER: baseline results of Italian patients with depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grassi Luigi

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Factors Influencing Depression Endpoints Research (FINDER is a 6-month, prospective, observational study carried out in 12 European countries aimed at investigating health-related quality of life (HRQoL in outpatients receiving pharmacological treatment for a first or new depressive episode. Baseline characteristics of patients enrolled in Italy are presented. Methods All treatment decisions were at the discretion of the investigator. Data were collected at baseline and after 3 and 6 months of treatment. Baseline evaluations included demographics, medical and psychiatric history, and medications used in the last 24 months and prescribed at enrolment. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, was adopted to evaluate depressive symptoms, while somatic and painful physical symptoms were assessed by using the Somatic Symptom Inventory (SSI and a 0 to 100 mm visual analogue scale (VAS, HRQoL via 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36, and the European Quality of Life 5-Dimensions (EQ-5D instrument. Results A total of 513 patients were recruited across 38 sites. The mean ± standard deviation (SD age at first depressive episode was 38.7 ± 15.9 years, the mean duration of depression 10.6 ± 12.3 years. The most common psychiatric comorbidities in the previous 24 months were anxiety/panic (72.6% and obsessive/compulsive disorders (13.4%, while 35.9% had functional somatic syndromes. Most patients (65.1% reported pain from any cause. Monotherapy with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs and tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs was prescribed at enrolment in 64.5% and 6.4% of the cases, respectively. The most commonly prescribed agents were sertraline (17.3%, escitalopram (16.2%, venlaflaxine (15.6% and paroxetine (14.8%. The mean HADS subscores for depression and anxiety were 13.3 ± 4.2 and 12.2 ± 3.9, respectively; 76.4% of patients could be defined as being 'probable cases' for depression and 66.2% for anxiety. The

  6. Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the winter. Depression is one part of bipolar disorder. There are effective treatments for depression, including antidepressants, talk therapy, or both. NIH: National Institute of Mental Health

  7. Computer research in teaching geometry future bachelors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliya V. Bukusheva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study of the problem of usage educational studies and experiments in the geometric education of IT specialists. We consider research method applied in teaching Computer Geometry intending Bachelors studying `Mathematics and Computer Science` 02.03.01. Examples of educational and research geometric problems that require usage of computer means in order to be solved are given. These tasks are considered as variations of educational and research tasks creating problems that demand experiments with dynamic models of mathematic objects in order to be solved.

  8. The future of network governance research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewis, Jenny

    2011-01-01

    that comprises it. The main theoretical and empirical approaches that have been used to guide it to date are then briefly described, emphasizing recent debates about interpretivism and decentring. Next, it suggests that a robust and interesting future for network governance requires diversity, rather than...... adherence to a single approach. It is argued that more sophisticated approaches for examining network governance are fashioned through a synthesis of ideas and methods to create an analysis of networks as networks. This is especially the case where some formal analysis of network structure is used...

  9. Is it useful to ask "Está deprimido?" ("Are you depressed?") to terminally-ill Portuguese patients? Results from outpatient research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julião, Miguel; Nunes, Baltazar; Sobral, Maria Ana; Dias, Daniela; Inocêncio, Inês; Barbosa, António

    2016-04-01

    Depression is a serious psychological problem in the palliative care setting. Brief screening tools for depression are lacking and need to be brief and acceptable. This study aimed to identify the properties of the single Portuguese question "Está deprimido?" ("Are you depressed?") to screen for depression. Retrospective study from 100 patient's medical records identifying the answers on the single Portuguese question for depression "Está deprimido?" ("Are you depressed?") and the HADS depression sub-scale, using a score ≥11 on the latter as the gold standard for clinically significant depressive symptoms. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive and negative values were calculated. Response rate for the single Portuguese question for depression was 100%. Prevalence of depression symptoms (HADS-d ≥ 11) was 43%. To the question "Está deprimido?" 60 patients responded "yes." Sixteen patients who replied "no" to the single question had clinically significant depressive symptoms based on the HADS depression sub-scale. The single tool had 65.2% sensitivity, 49.2% specificity and 50.0% and 64.4% of positive predictive and negative values, respectively. In this first preliminary retrospective Portuguese study, the single question for depression has shown poor screening properties. Future research in larger and mixed patientś samples of Portuguese terminally ill is necessary to find more accurate and robust properties of this brief tool.

  10. The future of naval ocean science research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orcutt, John A.; Brink, Kenneth

    The Ocean Studies Board (OSB) of the National Research Council reviewed the changing role of basic ocean science research in the Navy at a recent board meeting. The OSB was joined by Gerald Cann, assistant secretary of the Navy for research, development, and acquisition; Geoffrey Chesbrough, oceanographer of the Navy; Arthur Bisson, deputy assistant secretary of the Navy for antisubmarine warfare; Robert Winokur, technical director of the Office of the Oceanographer of the Navy; Bruce Robinson, director of the new science directorate at the Office of Naval Research (ONR); and Paul Gaffney, commanding officer of the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL). The past 2-3 years have brought great changes to the Navy's mission with the dissolution of the former Soviet Union and challenges presented by conflicts in newly independent states and developing nations. The new mission was recently enunciated in a white paper, “From the Sea: A New Direction for the Naval Service,” which is signed by the secretary of the Navy, the chief of naval operations, and the commandant of the Marine Corps. It departs from previous plans by proposing a heavier emphasis on amphibious operations and makes few statements about the traditional Navy mission of sea-lane control.

  11. Does age at onset of first major depressive episode indicate the subtype of major depressive disorder?: the clinical research center for depression study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seon-Cheol; Hahn, Sang-Woo; Hwang, Tae-Yeon; Kim, Jae-Min; Jun, Tae-Youn; Lee, Min-Soo; Kim, Jung-Bum; Yim, Hyeon-Woo; Park, Yong Chon

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of age at onset of the first major depressive episode on the clinical features of individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) in a large cohort of Korean depressed patients. We recruited 419 MDD patients of age over 18 years from the Clinical Research Center for Depression study in South Korea. At the start of the study, the onset age of the first major depressive episode was self-reported by the subjects. The subjects were divided into four age-at-onset subgroups: childhood and adolescent onset (ages depressive episodes (F=3.475, p=0.016) and higher scores on the brief psychiatric rating scale (F=3.254, p=0.022), its negative symptom subscale (F=6.082, pdepressive episode is a promising clinical indicator for the clinical presentation, course, and outcome of MDD.

  12. Roadmapping Future E-Government Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicking, Melanie

    Global electronic markets, virtual organisations, virtual identities, virtual products and services, and Internet-related crime are growing in prominence and importance. In a world that is increasingly non-physical and borderless, what are government's roles, responsibilities and limitations? The Internet plays a central role within the transformation process from traditional governments towards modern and innovative government that the requirements of an Information Society. Based on the findings of the eGovRTD2020 project, that aims at identifying key research challenges and at implementing a model for a holistic government with horizon 2020, this paper explains the necessity to investigate and understand the Internet and in particular government's role and responsibilities in it. Furthermore, the paper provides a research roadmap that details how to address certain issue related research questions.

  13. European neutron research prepares for future challenges

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2013-01-01

    Neutrons are among the fundamental building blocks of matter. Some of the processes in which they are involved are responsible for energy generation in nuclear power plants. In this context, CERN’s n_TOF and other facilities participating in the ERINDA EU-funded programme help the community integrate all the scientific efforts needed to produce high-quality nuclear data for future nuclear technologies.   The 4π calorimeter inside the n_TOF experimental area. Image courtesy of the n_TOF Collaboration. Accurate measurements of the interactions between neutrons and each of the elements present in nuclear reactors are vital tools enabling scientists to explore solutions – other than simple protected storage – for the treatment of radioactive waste deriving from a number of applications, ranging from energy production to the medical field. Particularly valuable is the contribution provided by the 13 accelerator-based neutron sources, which the ERINDA EU-funded...

  14. The Future of Asthma Research and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masefield, Sarah; Edwards, Jessica; Hansen, Kjeld S.

    2017-01-01

    A unified approach to innovation is needed to address the challenge of asthma in Europe. It is the opinion of the EARIP consortium and associated members (comprising most asthma networks, societies and professional groups) that if all of these research priority areas were funded and the 15 research...... questions addressed, asthma outcomes would be transformed and avoidable use of healthcare systems eradicated, resulting in significant financial savings. The realisation of this vision through coordinated efforts at a European level is the only way to achieve the change needed to reduce asthma deaths...

  15. European Research towards Future Wireless Communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Flemming Bjerge; Prasad, Ramjee; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of four on-going European research projects in the field of mobile and wireless communications leading to the next generations of wireless communications. The projects started in 2004. They investigate requirements and definition of access technology, network...

  16. Soy Saponins: Current Research and Future Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saponins are a biologically active class of triterpenoid phytochemicals found in soybeans at concentrations similar to those of the isoflavones, and the role they may play in nutrition and health is not well understood. Research the functionality of these compounds in animals and humans has been ha...

  17. Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... reasons why a woman may have depression: Family history . Women with a family history of depression may be more at risk. But depression can also happen in women who don’t have a family history of depression. Brain changes. The brains of people ...

  18. The Learning of Biology: A Structural Basis for Future Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Darrel L.

    1977-01-01

    This article reviews recent research studies and experiences relating the learning theories of Ausubel to biology instruction. Also some suggestions are made for future research on the learning of biology. (MR)

  19. Current and Future Research Directions in Requirements Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Betty H. C.; Atlee, Joanne M.

    In this paper, we review current requirements engineering (RE) research and identify future research directions suggested by emerging software needs. First, we overview the state of the art in RE research. The research is considered with respect to technologies developed to address specific requirements tasks, such as elicitation, modeling, and analysis. Such a review enables us to identify mature areas of research, as well as areas that warrant further investigation. Next, we review several strategies for performing and extending RE research results, to help delineate the scope of future research directions. Finally, we highlight what we consider to be the “hot” current and future research topics, which aim to address RE needs for emerging systems of the future.

  20. Turbulent times : Consequences for crisis management and related future research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Molen, I.; Vos, Marita F.; Vos, Marita

    In this chapter, we will address the idea that organisational resilience calls for management across organisational and discipline borders. We will also discuss the need for related applied research and technological development. Finally, we will look into future research design.

  1. Destination Competitiveness: a Framework for Future Research

    OpenAIRE

    Gruescu, Ramona; Nanu, Roxana; Pirvu, Gheorghe

    2009-01-01

    We identify the competitive advantage of a tourist destination from a double perspective: the critical contribution of the employees and the ICT impact on promoting and selling the destination. Research methodology includes "bottom to top" analysis of the mentioned indicators. Thus, results include the eficientisation of tourist businesses and destinations due to both human element development and ICT. Two essential basis of the competitive advantage are isolated: differentiation and cost adv...

  2. Destination Competitiviness: A Framework for Future Research

    OpenAIRE

    Gruescu, Ramona; Nanu, Roxana; Pirvu, Gheorghe

    2009-01-01

    The paper envisages aspects concerning identification of the competitive advantage of a tourist destination from a double perspective: the critical contribution of the employees and the ICT impact on promoting and selling the destination. Research methodology includes ‘bottom to top’ analysis of the mentioned indicators. Thus, results include the eficientisation of tourist businesses and destinations due to both human element development and ICT technologies. Two essential basis of the compet...

  3. Creating the Future: Research and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    With the many different technical talents, Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) continues to be an important force behind many scientific breakthroughs. The MSFC's annual report reviews the technology developments, research in space and microgravity sciences, studies in space system concepts, and technology transfer. The technology development programs include development in: (1) space propulsion and fluid management, (2) structures and dynamics, (3) materials and processes and (4) avionics and optics.

  4. Active and passive problem solving: moderating role in the relation between depressive symptoms and future suicidal ideation varies by suicide attempt history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiñones, Victoria; Jurska, Justyna; Fener, Eileen; Miranda, Regina

    2015-04-01

    Research suggests that being unable to generate solutions to problems in times of distress may contribute to suicidal thoughts and behavior, and that depression is associated with problem-solving deficits. This study examined active and passive problem solving as moderators of the association between depressive symptoms and future suicidal ideation among suicide attempters and nonattempters. Young adults (n = 324, 73% female, mean age = 19, standard deviation = 2.22) with (n = 78) and without (n = 246) a suicide attempt history completed a problem-solving task, self-report measures of hopelessness, depression, and suicidal ideation at baseline, and a self-report measure of suicidal ideation at 6-month follow-up. Passive problem solving was higher among suicide attempters but did not moderate the association between depressive symptoms and future suicidal ideation. Among attempters, active problem solving buffered against depressive symptoms in predicting future suicidal ideation. Suicide prevention should foster active problem solving, especially among suicide attempters. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Mother-child interactions in depressed children and children at high risk and low risk for future depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Laura J; Birmaher, Boris; Williamson, Douglas E; Silk, Jennifer S; Dahl, Ronald E; Axelson, David A; Ehmann, Mary; Ryan, Neal D

    2008-05-01

    To compare mother-child interactions and parenting styles in families of children with major depressive disorder, youths at high risk for depression, and healthy controls. Currently depressed (n = 43), high-risk (n = 28), and healthy control (n = 41) youths and their mothers engaged in a standardized videotaped problem-solving interaction. Measures of affect and behavior for both mothers and children were obtained, in addition to global measures of parenting. Depressed children demonstrated more negativity and less positivity in dyadic interactions than did children at high risk and control children. Mothers of depressed children were more disengaged than control mothers. Exploratory repeated-measures analyses in a subgroup of depressed children (n = 16) suggested mother-child interactions do not significantly change when children recover from depression. Children at high risk demonstrated less positivity in dyadic interactions than did controls. Mothers with a history of major depressive disorder and mothers with higher current depressive symptoms demonstrated patterns of disengagement and low control in interactions with children. Mother-child interactions in depressed youths are marked by maternal disengagement and low child positivity that may not improve when children recover. The bidirectional effects of maternal disengagement and low levels of child positivity may precede onset of major depressive disorder in children and serve as risk factors for recurrent depression in youths.

  6. Tardigrades in Space Research - Past and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weronika, Erdmann; Łukasz, Kaczmarek

    2017-12-01

    To survive exposure to space conditions, organisms should have certain characteristics including a high tolerance for freezing, radiation and desiccation. The organisms with the best chance for survival under such conditions are extremophiles, like some species of Bacteria and Archea, Rotifera, several species of Nematoda, some of the arthropods and Tardigrada (water bears). There is no denying that tardigrades are one of the toughest animals on our planet and are the most unique in the extremophiles group. Tardigrada are very small animals (50 to 2,100 μm in length), and they inhabit great number of Earth environments. Ever since it was proven that tardigrades have high resistance to the different kinds of stress factors associated with cosmic journeys, combined with their relatively complex structure and their relative ease of observation, they have become a perfect model organism for space research. This taxon is now the focus of astrobiologists from around the world. Therefore, this paper presents a short review of the space research performed on tardigrades as well as some considerations for further studies.

  7. The Future of Collateral Artery Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakimzadeh, Nazanin; Verberne, Hein J.; Siebes, Maria; Piek, Jan J.

    2014-01-01

    In the event of obstructive coronary artery disease, collateral arteries have been deemed an alternative blood source to preserve myocardial tissue perfusion and function. Monocytes play an important role in modulating this process, by local secretion of growth factors and extracellular matrix degrading enzymes. Extensive efforts have focused on developing compounds for augmenting the growth of collateral vessels (arteriogenesis). Nonetheless, clinical trials investigating the therapeutic potential of these compounds resulted in disappointing outcomes. Previous studies focused on developing compounds that stimulated collateral vessel growth by enhancing monocyte survival and activity. The limited success of these compounds in clinical studies, led to a paradigm shift in arteriogenesis research. Recent studies have shown genetic heterogeneity between CAD patients with sufficient and insufficient collateral vessels. The genetic predispositions in patients with poorly developed collateral vessels include overexpression of arteriogenesis inhibiting signaling pathways. New directions of arteriogenesis research focus on attempting to block such inhibitory pathways to ultimately promote arteriogenesis. Methods to detect collateral vessel growth are also critical in realizing the therapeutic potential of newly developed compounds. Traditional invasive measurements of intracoronary derived collateral flow index remain the gold standard in quantifying functional capacity of collateral vessels. However, advancements made in hybrid diagnostic imaging modalities will also prove to be advantageous in detecting the effects of pro-arteriogenic compounds. PMID:23638829

  8. Tardigrades in Space Research - Past and Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weronika, Erdmann; Łukasz, Kaczmarek

    2017-12-01

    To survive exposure to space conditions, organisms should have certain characteristics including a high tolerance for freezing, radiation and desiccation. The organisms with the best chance for survival under such conditions are extremophiles, like some species of Bacteria and Archea, Rotifera, several species of Nematoda, some of the arthropods and Tardigrada (water bears). There is no denying that tardigrades are one of the toughest animals on our planet and are the most unique in the extremophiles group. Tardigrada are very small animals (50 to 2,100 μm in length), and they inhabit great number of Earth environments. Ever since it was proven that tardigrades have high resistance to the different kinds of stress factors associated with cosmic journeys, combined with their relatively complex structure and their relative ease of observation, they have become a perfect model organism for space research. This taxon is now the focus of astrobiologists from around the world. Therefore, this paper presents a short review of the space research performed on tardigrades as well as some considerations for further studies.

  9. The computational future for climate change research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washington, Warren M

    2005-01-01

    The development of climate models has a long history starting with the building of atmospheric models and later ocean models. The early researchers were very aware of the goal of building climate models which could integrate our knowledge of complex physical interactions between atmospheric, land-vegetation, hydrology, ocean, cryospheric processes, and sea ice. The transition from climate models to earth system models is already underway with coupling of active biochemical cycles. Progress is limited by present computer capability which is needed for increasingly more complex and higher resolution climate models versions. It would be a mistake to make models too complex or too high resolution. Arriving at a 'feasible' and useful model is the challenge for the climate model community. Some of the climate change history, scientific successes, and difficulties encountered with supercomputers will be presented

  10. The other research ways for future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camarcat, N.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes two of the three research ways developed by the French organizations in accordance with the December 30, 1991 law about the different possibilities for radioactive waste management: the separation and transmutation of isotopes, and the improvement of packaging and long-time surface storage. The separation and transmutation processes comprises two aspects developed in collaboration with COGEMA: the Puretex process for the volume reduction of B and C reprocessing wastes, and the Actinex process for the transformation of long-life and high-level radioactive wastes into shorter-life wastes. For the long-time surface storage, new packaging and processing techniques are developed to reduce the volume of wastes. (J.S.). 5 figs., 1 tab., 1 photo

  11. Visual soil evaluation - future research requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmet-Booth, Jeremy; Forristal, Dermot; Fenton, Owen; Ball, Bruce; Holden, Nick

    2017-04-01

    A review of Visual Soil Evaluation (VSE) techniques (Emmet-Booth et al., 2016) highlighted their established utility for soil quality assessment, though some limitations were identified; (1) The examination of aggregate size, visible intra-porosity and shape forms a key assessment criterion in almost all methods, thus limiting evaluation to structural form. The addition of criteria that holistically examine structure may be desirable. For example, structural stability can be indicated using dispersion tests or examining soil surface crusting, while the assessment of soil colour may indirectly indicate soil organic matter content, a contributor to stability. Organic matter assessment may also indicate structural resilience, along with rooting, earthworm numbers or shrinkage cracking. (2) Soil texture may influence results or impeded method deployment. Modification of procedures to account for extreme texture variation is desirable. For example, evidence of compaction in sandy or single grain soils greatly differs to that in clayey soils. Some procedures incorporate separate classification systems or adjust deployment based on texture. (3) Research into impacts of soil moisture content on VSE evaluation criteria is required. Criteria such as rupture resistance and shape may be affected by moisture content. It is generally recommended that methods are deployed on moist soils and quantification of influences of moisture variation on results is necessary. (4) Robust sampling strategies for method deployment are required. Dealing with spatial variation differs between methods, but where methods can be deployed over large areas, clear instruction on sampling is required. Additionally, as emphasis has been placed on the agricultural production of soil, so the ability of VSE for exploring structural quality in terms of carbon storage, water purification and biodiversity support also requires research. References Emmet-Booth, J.P., Forristal. P.D., Fenton, O., Ball, B

  12. Wildland fire ash: future research directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodí, Merche B.; Martins, Deborah A.; Cerdà, Artemi; Balfour, Victoria N.; Santin, Cristina; Doerr, Stefan H.; Pereira, Paulo; Mataix-Solera, Jorge

    2014-05-01

    Ash is a key component of the forest fires affected land (Cerdà, 1998; Bodí et al., 2011; Pereira et al., 2013a). Ash controls the hydrological processes and determines the water repellency (Dlapa et al., 2012) and the infiltration rates (Cerdà and Doerr, 2008;). Moreover, ash is the key factor on runoff initiation and then on the soil erosion. Little is known about the impact of ash in different ecosystems, but during the last decade a substantial increase in the papers that show the role of ash in the Earth and Soil System were published (Bodí et al., 2012; Pereira et al., 2013b).. Ash is being found as the key component of the post-fire pedological, geomorphological and hydrological response after forest fires (Fernández et al., 2012; Martín et al., 2012; Bodí et al., 2013; Guénon et al., 2013; Pereira et al., 2013c). A recent State-of-the-Art review about wildland fire ash (Bodí et al., 2014) compiles the knowledge regarding the production, composition and eco-hydro-geomorphic effects of wildland fire ash. In the present paper we indicate the knowledge gaps detected and suggest topics that need more research effort concerning: i) data collection and analysis techniques: a) To develop standardized sampling techniques that allow cross comparison among sites and avoid inclusion of the underlying soil unless the burned surface soil forms part of the ash layer, b) To develop standardized methods to define and characterize ash, including its color, physical properties such as particle size distribution or density, proportion of pyrogenic C, chemical and biological reactivity and persistence in the environment, c) To validate, calibrate and test measurements collected through remote sensing with on-the-ground measurements. ii) ash production, deposition redistribution and fate: d) To untangle the significance of the effects of maximum temperature reached during combustion versus the duration of heating, e) To understand the production of ash by measuring its

  13. Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Veddel; Bukh, Jens Drachmann

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of depression is not clearly established, but estimated to 3-4% in a Danish questionnaire study. Lifetime's prevalences of 12-17% are reported in other community samples. In the current diagnostic system depression is defined categorically and operationally. It has been argued......, that these diagnostic criteria represent an oversimplification, which has blurred the concept of depression. We suggest a greater emphasis on the depressed mood as the core symptom of depression, which may increase the specificity of the diagnosis. Furthermore, basic principles for the treatment of depression...

  14. Aetiology of Depression: Insights from epidemiological and genetic research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O. Story-Jovanova (Olivera)

    2018-01-01

    markdownabstractThis thesis includes several population-based studies that explore the aetiology of depression, with a specific interest on biological factors, genetics and epigenetics, and physical health factors for depression. Unravelling the aetiology of depression could potentially answer some

  15. Depressants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Teens / Depressants Print en español Depresores del sistema nervioso What They Are: Tranquilizers and other depressants ... of Use Notice of Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on TeensHealth® is for ...

  16. Permissive attitude toward suicide and future intent in individuals with and without depression: results from a nationwide survey in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Hong Jin; Park, Jae-Hyun; Shim, Eun-Jung

    2013-04-01

    Many previous studies have revealed that individuals with depression have higher thought of suicide, although not always exhibiting intent. We investigated the associated factors with respect to intent for suicide in the future. A total of 1584 adults were selected through a nationwide multistage probability sampling, randomly one person per household, and through face-to-face interviews (response rate was 63.4%) using the suicidality module of the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9. The group with depression (n = 152) revealed a significantly higher level of future suicide intent (t = 4.65, p attitude (t = 4.32, p attitude (adjusted odds ratio, 3.69; 95% confidence interval, 1.97-6.89) was the only factor significantly associated with future suicide intent, whereas age; sex; education years; monthly income; financial, job, and family stress; physical illness; lifetime suicide attempt; and depression showed no statistical significance. The group with depression showed significantly higher levels of future suicide intent than did the group without depression in those who had a higher permissive attitude (t = 4.18, p attitudes (t = 1.98, p = 0.067). Permissive attitude toward suicide was associated with intent for suicide in the future in individuals with depression. Permissive attitude could be evaluated and corrected to prevent suicide.

  17. Depression or depressiveness in patients diagnosed with Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa - pilot research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dêbska, Ewa; Janas, Adam; Bañczyk, Wojciech; Janas-Kozik, Małgorzata

    2011-09-01

    The target of this work is to consider if depressive symptoms intercurrent with patients suffering from Anorexia Nervosa (AN) and Bulimia Nervosa (BN) form a depression complex or whether they are physiological depression accompanying adolescence. We wished to observe the perception of these patients,of their functioning, both social and within their families and also looking for common point in the issues mentioned above trying to locate them within the course of the basic illness. We studied 19 patients suffering from eating disorders, and aged between 12 and 24 years old. 15 of them suffered from the restrictive form of AN and 4 suffered from BN. The control group consisted of 30 healthy girls in the same age interval. In the study authors used the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Quebec Quality of Life Questionnaire. Comparison of a number of points acquired in the survey using Beck Depression Scale revealed statistic significance at the level pdepression symptoms among persons with eating disorders comparing to control group. The survey using the Questionnaire for Social Quality showed no statistically significant differences between study and control groups (p>0.05). The authors observed a statistically significant increased frequency of suicidal thoughts in the study group compared to the controls. To diagnose depression, depressive symptoms presented by the patients must give the image of depression at the clinical level. The result of the Beck's scale needs to be confronted with the clinical picture. Depression in adolescence requires differentiation from depressiveness.

  18. [Children of mentally ill parents. Research perspectives exemplified by children of depressed parents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattejat, F; Wüthrich, C; Remschmidt, H

    2000-03-01

    Children of psychiatrically ill parents represent a risk group that has received growing attention during the last years. The risk for this group to develop a psychiatric illness is markedly increased due to genetic and psychosocial factors. The development of effective preventive concepts requires a thorough knowledge of the psychosocial factors. In this paper, deficits and problems of research in psychosocial transmission mechanism are discussed taking the example of children of depressive parents. Conclusions from this exemplary considerations may serve as guidelines for future research. The authors suggest that the focus be rather placed on coping strategies and developmental psychopathology. Further, research criteria are formulated that refer to theoretical models as well as to study design.

  19. Future Directions in Research on Mathematics-Related Teacher Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutovac, Sonja; Kaasila, Raimo

    2018-01-01

    Mathematics education research has placed great emphasis on teacher identity, examining both pre- and in-service teachers, and within these cohorts, specialised mathematics teachers and non-specialists such as elementary teachers. Extensive research has already been done; hence, this paper discusses possible future directions for research on…

  20. Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cizza, G; Ravn, Pernille; Chrousos, G P

    2001-01-01

    Existing studies of the relationship between depression and osteoporosis have been heterogeneous in their design and use of diagnostic instruments for depression, which might have contributed to the different results on the comorbidity of these two conditions. Nevertheless, these studies reveal...... a strong association between depression and osteoporosis. Endocrine factors such as depression-induced hypersecretion of corticotropin-releasing hormone and hypercortisolism, hypogonadism, growth hormone deficiency and increased concentration of circulating interleukin 6, might play a crucial role...... in the bone loss observed in subjects suffering from major depression....

  1. Direct-to-consumer antidepressant advertising and consumers' optimistic bias about the future risk of depression: the moderating role of advertising skepticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin Seong; Ju, Ilwoo; Kim, Kenneth Eunhan

    2014-01-01

    Although exposure to direct-to-consumer prescription drug advertising (DTCA) is reported to influence the public's beliefs about diseases, no research has investigated how DTCA may affect the extent of consumers' optimistic bias about the future risk of diseases. Based on a survey with members of an online consumer panel (n = 699), the current study revealed that: (a) Consumers exhibited a tendency to believe they were at less risk of developing clinical depression in the future than their peers, demonstrating an optimistic bias. (b) Exposure to antidepressant DTCA acted to reduce the extent of such bias, especially when consumers were less skeptical of prescription drug advertising. When consumers were highly skeptical, DTCA exposure did not significantly relate to the extent of optimistic bias. (c) Once formed, the extent of optimistic bias negatively related to consumers' intention to seek information about depression. Implications of the research for the theory and practice of DTCA were discussed.

  2. Pathways to the Future: A Review of Military Family Research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McClure, Peggy

    1999-01-01

    Each chapter in this compendium focuses on a particular topic area and reviews what we have learned, identifies gaps in our present knowledge, and suggests directions for future research on military...

  3. Relational Inquiries and the Research Interview: Mentoring Future Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskins, Marie L.; White, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    In this article we describe some of the challenges and constraints that students face when they engage in qualitative research interviews. We borrow extensively from Ron Pelias' in-depth description of "leaning in" during everyday life encounters. Although he refers to other kinds of relationships, we believe that the similarities…

  4. Reuse for Research: Curating Astrophysical Datasets for Future Researchers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Anders Sparre; Rasmus, Handberg; Svendsen, Michael

    2017-01-01

    “Our data are going to be valuable for science for the next 50 years, so please make sure you preserve them and keep them accessible for active research for at least that period.” These were approximately the words used by the principal investigator of the Kepler Asteroseismic Science Consortium ...

  5. Future directions in international financial integration research - A crowdsourced perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Lucey, B.M.; Vigne, S.A.; Ballester, L.; Barbopoulos, L.; Brzeszczynski, J.; Carchano, O.; Dimic, N.; Fernandez, V.; Gogolin, F.; González-Urteaga, A.; Goodell, J.W.; Helbing, P.; Ichev, R.; Kearney, F.; Laing, E.

    2018-01-01

    This paper is the result of a crowdsourced effort to surface perspectives on the present and future direction of international finance. The authors are researchers in financial economics who attended the INFINITI 2017 conference in the University of Valencia in June 2017 and who participated in the crowdsourcing via the Overleaf platform. This paper highlights the actual state of scientific knowledge in a multitude of fields in finance and proposes different directions for future research.

  6. Cold Fronts Research Programme: Progress, Future Plans, and Research Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, B. F.; Wilson, K. J.; Garratt, J. R.; Smith, R. K.

    1985-09-01

    Following the analysis of data collected during Phases land II of the Cold Fronts Research Programme (CFRP) a conceptual model for the Australian summertime "cool change" has been proposed. The model provides a focus and a framework for the design of Phase III.The model is based on data gathered from a mesoscale network centered on Mount Gambier, South Australia, and includes the coastal waters to the west and relatively flat terrain to the east. The first objective of Phase III is to generalize the model so that it is applicable to the ocean waters to the far west of Mount Gambier and to the more rugged terrain farther to the east in the vicinity of Melbourne, Victoria. The remaining objectives concentrate on resolving unsatisfactory aspects of the model such as the evolution of convective lines and the relationship between the surface cold front and the upper-tropospheric cold pool and its associated jet stream.The integrated nature of the Cold Fronts Research Programme has meant that it has stimulated a wide range of research activities that extend beyond the field observations. The associated investigations include climatological, theoretical, and numerical modeling studies.

  7. Future plans on the Kyoto University Research Reactor (KUR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Seiichi

    2000-01-01

    The Research Reactor Institute (RRI), Kyoto University, for aiming at performing the 'Experiments using a reactor and its related research', was established in Showa 38 (1963) as a cooperative research institute for universities and so on in allover Japan. Operation using KUR of one of main facilities in RRI was started by 1 MW of its rated output in 1964, and converted to 5 MW in 1968, after which through development , addition and modification of various research apparatus it has been proposed to the cooperative application researches with universities and so on in allover Japan, hitherto. Among these periods, its research organization is improved to six departments containing twenty divisions and two attached research facilities to progress some investigations on future plans at RRI for response to new researching trends. Here were described on present state of research on use of low concentrated uranium fuels at research reactor, and future plans on neutron factory and hybrid reactor. The former aims at establishment of a new research facility capable of alternating to KUR for future academic research on research reactor containing high quality and high degree application of neutron field and safety management and feature upgrading of nuclear energy. And, the latter aims at development on an accelerator drive uncritical reactor combined an accelerator neutron source and an uncritical reactor. (G.K.)

  8. The Teen Depression Awareness Project: Building an Evidence Base for Improving Teen Depression Care. Research Highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, David M.

    2010-01-01

    Depression's effects on adolescent functioning and family burden are not well understood; there is also limited understanding of teens' and parents' attitudes and knowledge about depression, how these and other factors influence readiness for treatment, and the barriers to care that teens and their parents encounter. To address these knowledge…

  9. Future studies and research in Egypt. Overview, examples, perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goell, Edgar

    2012-02-15

    During the last decade there have been several distinct activities and efforts with regards to future research in Egypt. Several institutions and capacities have been created. Although these capacities do not always meet high scientific standards, their results and studies offer important and well-grounded elements for future-oriented discussions and political decisions. Not least because of the Egypt revolt which started in January 2011 and the ongoing complex and conflicting societal struggles in Egypt the objective needs as well as the demand for systematic future thinking and future studies will very likely increase further. For that reason this report presents an overview about the context conditions, experiences and forms of future research in Egypt. The major challenges as well as the major issues are described. The main part is the description of the most important institutions, which are conducting future research, their projects and in addition two concrete projects, which try to practice Sustainable Development in different ways. Finally, several (self-)critical assessments and perspectives from selected experts of the future research community in Egypt will be presented.

  10. Consensus statement and research needs: the role of dopamine and norepinephrine in depression and antidepressant treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutt, David J; Baldwin, David S; Clayton, Anita H; Elgie, Rodney; Lecrubier, Yves; Montejo, Angel L; Papakostas, George I; Souery, Daniel; Trivedi, Madhukar H; Tylee, Andre

    2006-01-01

    During a special session, the faculty identified several specific areas related to the role of dopamine and norepinephrine in depression and antidepressant treatment that either warrant the clinician's attention or are in need of more research. Areas of interest include fatigue and lethargy in depression, treatment strategies for treatment-resistant depression, the somatic presentation of depression, neurobiology of fatigue and its role in determining treatment, symptom rating scales, and sexual side effects. In addition, the faculty discussed the importance of patient psychoeducation and self-management as well as the ways in which disease models of depression affect treatment.

  11. The Factors Influencing Depression Endpoints Research (FINDER study: final results of Italian patients with depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quail Deborah

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Factors Influencing Depression Endpoints Research (FINDER is a 6-month, prospective, observational study carried out in 12 European countries aimed at investigating health-related quality of life (HRQoL in outpatients receiving treatment for a first or new depressive episode. The Italian HRQoL data at 6 months is described in this report, and the factors associated with HRQoL changes were determined. Methods Data were collected at baseline, 3 and 6 months of treatment. HRQoL was measured using components of the 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36; mental component summary (MCS, physical component summary (PCS and the European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions (EQ-5D; visual analogue scale (VAS and health status index (HSI. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS was adopted to evaluate depressive symptoms, while somatic and painful physical symptoms were assessed by using the 28-item Somatic Symptom Inventory (SSI-28 and a VAS. Results Of the initial 513 patients, 472 completed the 3-month observation and 466 the 6-month observation. The SF-36 and EQ-5D mean (± SD scores showed HRQoL improvements at 3 months and a further smaller improvement at 6 months, with the most positive effects for SF-36 MCS (baseline 22.0 ± 9.2, 3 months 34.6 ± 10.0; 6 months 39.3 ± 9.5 and EQ-5D HSI (baseline 0.4 ± 0.3; 3 months 0.7 ± 0.3; 6 months 0.7 ± 0.2. Depression and anxiety symptoms (HADS-D mean at baseline 13.3 ± 4.2; HADS-A mean at baseline 12.2 ± 3.9 consistently decreased during the first 3 months (8.7 ± 4.3; 7.5 ± 3.6 and showed a further positive change at 6 months (6.9 ± 4.3; 5.8 ± 3.4. Somatic and painful symptoms (SSI and VAS significantly decreased, with the most positive changes in the SSI-28 somatic item (mean at baseline 2.4 ± 0.7; mean change at 3 months: -0.5; 95% CI -0.6 to -0.5; mean change at 6 months: -0.7; 95% CI -0.8 to -0.7; in 'interference of overall pain with daily activities' (mean at baseline 45

  12. Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pouwer, Frans

    2017-01-01

    There is ample evidence that depression is000  a common comorbid health issue in people with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Reviews have also concluded that depression in diabetes is associated with higher HbA1c levels, less optimal self-care behaviours, lower quality of life, incident vascular...... complications and higher mortality rates. However, longitudinal studies into the course of depression in people with type 1 diabetes remain scarce. In this issue of Diabetologia, Kampling and colleagues (doi: 10.1007/s00125-016-4123-0 ) report the 5 year trajectories of depression in adults with newly diagnosed...... type 1 diabetes (mean age, 28 years). Their baseline results showed that shortly after the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes a major depressive episode was diagnosed in approximately 6% of participants, while 8% suffered from an anxiety disorder. The longitudinal depression data showed that, in a 5 year...

  13. Virtual Reality Exercise for Anxiety and Depression: A Preliminary Review of Current Research in an Emerging Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Nan; Pope, Zachary; Lee, Jung Eun; Gao, Zan

    2018-03-04

    Although current evidence supports the use of virtual reality (VR) in the treatment of mental disorders, it is unknown whether VR exercise would be beneficial to mental health. This review synthesized literature concerning the effect of VR exercise on anxiety and depression among various populations. Ten electronic databases were searched for studies on this topic from January 2000 through October 2017. Studies were eligible if the article: (1) was peer-reviewed; (2) was published in English; and (3) used quantitative measures in assessing anxiety- and depression-related outcomes. A total of five empirical studies met the eligibility criteria. These studies included two randomized clinical trials, one control trial, and two cross-sectional studies. Four studies reported significant improvements in anxiety- and depression-related measures following VR exercise, including reduced tiredness and tension, in addition to increased energy and enjoyment. Nonetheless, one study failed to support the effectiveness of VR exercise over traditional exercise alone on depressive symptoms. Findings favor VR exercise in alleviating anxiety and depression symptomology. However, existing evidence is insufficient to support the advantages of VR exercise as a standalone treatment over traditional therapy in the alleviation of anxiety and depression given the paucity of studies, small sample sizes, and lack of high-quality research designs. Future studies may build upon these limitations to discern the optimal manner by which to employ VR exercise in clinical settings.

  14. Virtual Reality Exercise for Anxiety and Depression: A Preliminary Review of Current Research in an Emerging Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Zeng

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Although current evidence supports the use of virtual reality (VR in the treatment of mental disorders, it is unknown whether VR exercise would be beneficial to mental health. This review synthesized literature concerning the effect of VR exercise on anxiety and depression among various populations. Methods: Ten electronic databases were searched for studies on this topic from January 2000 through October 2017. Studies were eligible if the article: (1 was peer-reviewed; (2 was published in English; and (3 used quantitative measures in assessing anxiety- and depression-related outcomes. Results: A total of five empirical studies met the eligibility criteria. These studies included two randomized clinical trials, one control trial, and two cross-sectional studies. Four studies reported significant improvements in anxiety- and depression-related measures following VR exercise, including reduced tiredness and tension, in addition to increased energy and enjoyment. Nonetheless, one study failed to support the effectiveness of VR exercise over traditional exercise alone on depressive symptoms. Conclusions: Findings favor VR exercise in alleviating anxiety and depression symptomology. However, existing evidence is insufficient to support the advantages of VR exercise as a standalone treatment over traditional therapy in the alleviation of anxiety and depression given the paucity of studies, small sample sizes, and lack of high-quality research designs. Future studies may build upon these limitations to discern the optimal manner by which to employ VR exercise in clinical settings.

  15. The patient perspective in research on major depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuijpers, P.

    2011-01-01

    Although thousands of studies have examined the genetics, epidemiology, etiology, biology, treatment and prevention of major depressive disorder, we still lack very basic knowledge about what patients with depressive disorders need. Despite the thousands of studies that have been conducted on major

  16. Future Secretariat: an innovation research coordination and governance structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojima, D. S.; Johan, R.; Cramer, W.; Fukushi, K.; Allard, S.

    2014-12-01

    Future Earth, an emerging global sustainability research program, will be managed by a novel, internationally distributed secretariat spanning the globe and providing a platform for co-design, co-production, and co-delivery of knowledge to support research on the earth system, global development and transformation toward sustainability. The Future Earth secretariat has an innovative structure consisting of five global hubs functioning as a single entity; these hubs are located in Canada, Japan, France, Sweden, and the United States. The secretariat's reach is extended through a set of regional hubs covering Latin America, the Middle East, Africa, Europe, and Asia, with the potential to expand to additional areas. This secretariat will operate under the auspices of the Future Earth Governing Council The Future Earth Secretariat will support and enable the implementation of knowledge-sharing between research and stakeholder communities to enable society to cope with and to alter global environmental trends, and to transition society toward sustainability. The secretariat will provide coordination support to over 25 global environmental core projects and committees; coordinate scientific work across the whole Future Earth agenda; develop and implement innovative mechanisms for bottom-up inputs, synthesis and integration. Future Earth, as a research program, aims to support global transformations toward sustainability through partnerships among scientific and stakeholder communities worldwide. It brings together existing international environmental research core projects associated with DIVERSITAS, the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme, the International Human Dimensions Programme, and the World Climate Research Programme—to support coordinated, interdisciplinary research that can be used by decision makers seeking to reduce their impact and provide more sustainable products and services. USGCRP partners with Future Earth through scientific participation in

  17. The Evolution and Future of Cognitive Research in Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jack A.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the evolution and current status of cognitive research in music. Identifies the field's five research branches: (1) sensation; (2) perception; (3) concept formation and memory; (4) affect or emotions; and (5) psychomotor activity. Recommends five changes for the future of cognitive musicology. (CFR)

  18. Future Directions for Urban Forestry Research in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    John F. Dwyer; David J. Nowak; Gary W. Watson

    2002-01-01

    Urban forestry research promises to continue to be an integral part of the growth and development of forestry in urban and urbanizing areas of the United States. The future is expected to bring increased emphasis on research in support of the care of trees and other plants, ecological restoration, and comprehensive and adaptive management across the landscape....

  19. Reflecting on future research concerning the added value of FM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jensen, PA; van der Voordt, Theo; Coenen, C; Sarasoja, AL

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To summarize recent research findings and reflections on The Added Value of Facilities Management and to outline perspectives for future research and development of the added value of FM.
    Methodology - The article is based on reflections on contributions to the recently published book

  20. The Impact and Future of Arts and Humanities Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benneworth, Paul Stephen; Gulbrandsen, Magnus; Hazelkorn, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on original international research by a cross-European social science team, this book makes an important contribution to the discussion about the future of arts and humanities research. It explores the responses of these fields to the growing range of questions being asked about the value,

  1. Future plant of basic research for nuclear energy by university researchers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Toshikazu

    1984-01-01

    National Committee for Nuclear Energy Research, Japan Science Council has completed a future plan for basic nuclear energy research by university researchers. The JSC has recommended the promotion of basic research for nuclear energy based on the plan in 1983. The future plan consists of four main research fields, namely, (1) improvements of reactor safety, (2) down stream, (3) thorium fuel reactors, and (4) applications of research reactor and radioisotopes. (author)

  2. Status of nuclear regulatory research and its future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J. I.; Kim, W. S.; Kim, M. W.

    1999-01-01

    A comprehensive investigation of the regulatory research comprising an examination of the research system, its areas and contents, and the goals and financial resources is undertaken. As a result of this study, the future direction of regulatory research and its implementation strategies are suggested to resolve the current issues emerging from this examination. The major issues identified in the study are; (a) an insufficient investment in nuclear regulatory and safety research, (b) an interfacial discrepancy between similar research areas, and (c) a limitation of utilizing research results. To resolve these issues, several measures are proposed : (1) developing a lead project to establish a comprehensive infrastructure for enhancing research cooperation between nuclear organizations including institutes, industry, and universities, with an aim to improve cooperation between projects and to strengthen overall coordination functions among research projects, (2) introducing a certification system on research outcome to promote the proliferation of both research results themselves and their application with a view to enhancing the research quality, (3) strengthening the cooperative system to promote the international cooperative research, and (4) digitalizing all documents and materials relevant to safety and regulatory research to establish KIMS (knowledge and information based management system). It is expected that the aforementioned measures suggested in this study will enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of both nuclear regulatory and safety research, if they are implemented after deliberating with the government and related nuclear industries in the near future

  3. History, Development and Future of TRIGA Research Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    Due to its particular fuel design and resulting enhanced inherent safety features, TRIGA reactors (Training, Research, Isotopes, General Atomics) constitute a ‘class of their own’ among the large variety of research reactors built world-wide. This publication summarizes in a single document the information on the past and present of TRIGA research reactors and presents an outlook in view of potential issues to be solved by TRIGA operating organizations in the near future. It covers the historical development and basic TRIGA characteristics, followed by utilization, fuel conversion and ageing management of TRIGA research reactors. It continues with issues and challenges, introduction to the global TRIGA research reactor network and concludes with future perspectives. The publication is complemented with a CD-ROM to illustrate the historical developments of TRIGA research reactors through individual facility examples and experiences

  4. Supplier Development Literature Review and Key Future Research Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muddassir Ahmed

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to develop a Supplier Development (SD literature framework and identify the main focus areas in SD research. To this end, a comprehensive review of the existing SD academic literature has been undertaken, which includes 62 research papers. These papers are classified according to their research content and the research methodology employed. A comprehensive list of future research areas is also presented. Thus, this paper will also briefly explore proposed future research. The review of the SD literature presented here identifies the following main areas of focus: Supplier Development Activities, Practices and Success Factors; Direct or Indirect Supplier Development; Supplier Development as a Reactive or Strategic Process; Supplier Development in a Lean Six Sigma & SME context.

  5. Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jon O. J.

    2013-01-01

    Nyhederne er fulde af historier om depression. Overskrifter som: ’Danskerne propper sig med lykkepiller’ eller ‘depression er stadigvæk tabu’ går tit igen i dagspressen. Men hvor er nuancerne, og hvorfor gider vi læse de samme historier igen og igen? Måske er det fordi, vores egne forestillinger er...

  6. Research Facilities for the Future of Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ait Abderrahim, H.

    1996-01-01

    The proceedings of the ENS Class 1 Topical Meeting on Research facilities for the Future of Nuclear Energy include contributions on large research facilities, designed for tests in the field of nuclear energy production. In particular, issues related to facilities supporting research and development programmes in connection to the operation of nuclear power plants as well as the development of new concepts in material testing, nuclear data measurement, code validation, fuel cycle, reprocessing, and waste disposal are discussed. The proceedings contain 63 papers

  7. Research by pediatric radiologists - past accomplishments and future opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effmann, E.L.

    1987-01-01

    Pediatric radiologists have made numerous and important contributions to the body of medical knowledge. This essay reviews aspects of biomedical and radiological research, analyses the state of scholarship in pediatric radiology today, and examines future research opportunities. The author's research interest in cardiopulmonary malformations and in the use of murine models of human disease serve to illustrate of but one of many investigative areas open to academic pediatric radiologists. Finally, the application process for NIH funding is briefly discussed. (orig.)

  8. Annual Research Review: An expanded account of information-processing mechanisms in risk for child and adolescent anxiety and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Jennifer Y F; Waters, Allison M

    2017-04-01

    anxiety and/or depression risk. We discuss future research directions that can more systematically test whether these biases act as proximal mechanisms that mediate other distal risk factors. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  9. Needs and Requirements for Future Research Reactors (ORNL Perspectives)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilas, Germina; Bryan, Chris; Gehin, Jess C.

    2016-01-01

    The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) is a vital national and international resource for neutron science research, production of radioisotopes, and materials irradiation. While HFIR is expected to continue operation for the foreseeable future, interest is growing in understanding future research reactors features, needs, and requirements. To clarify, discuss, and compile these needs from the perspective of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) research and development (R&D) missions, a workshop, titled ''Needs and Requirements for Future Research Reactors'', was held at ORNL on May 12, 2015. The workshop engaged ORNL staff that is directly involved in research using HFIR to collect valuable input on the reactor's current and future missions. The workshop provided an interactive forum for a fruitful exchange of opinions, and included a mix of short presentations and open discussions. ORNL staff members made 15 technical presentations based on their experience and areas of expertise, and discussed those capabilities of the HFIR and future research reactors that are essential for their current and future R&D needs. The workshop was attended by approximately 60 participants from three ORNL directorates. The agenda is included in Appendix A. This document summarizes the feedback provided by workshop contributors and participants. It also includes information and insights addressing key points that originated from the dialogue started at the workshop. A general overview is provided on the design features and capabilities of high performance research reactors currently in use or under construction worldwide. Recent and ongoing design efforts in the US and internationally are briefly summarized, followed by conclusions and recommendations.

  10. Needs and Requirements for Future Research Reactors (ORNL Perspectives)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilas, Germina [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bryan, Chris [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gehin, Jess C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-02-10

    The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) is a vital national and international resource for neutron science research, production of radioisotopes, and materials irradiation. While HFIR is expected to continue operation for the foreseeable future, interest is growing in understanding future research reactors features, needs, and requirements. To clarify, discuss, and compile these needs from the perspective of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) research and development (R&D) missions, a workshop, titled “Needs and Requirements for Future Research Reactors”, was held at ORNL on May 12, 2015. The workshop engaged ORNL staff that is directly involved in research using HFIR to collect valuable input on the reactor’s current and future missions. The workshop provided an interactive forum for a fruitful exchange of opinions, and included a mix of short presentations and open discussions. ORNL staff members made 15 technical presentations based on their experience and areas of expertise, and discussed those capabilities of the HFIR and future research reactors that are essential for their current and future R&D needs. The workshop was attended by approximately 60 participants from three ORNL directorates. The agenda is included in Appendix A. This document summarizes the feedback provided by workshop contributors and participants. It also includes information and insights addressing key points that originated from the dialogue started at the workshop. A general overview is provided on the design features and capabilities of high performance research reactors currently in use or under construction worldwide. Recent and ongoing design efforts in the US and internationally are briefly summarized, followed by conclusions and recommendations.

  11. Examining Exposure Assessment in Shift Work Research: A Study on Depression Among Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Amy L; Franche, Renée-Louise; Koehoorn, Mieke

    2018-02-13

    Coarse exposure assessment and assignment is a common issue facing epidemiological studies of shift work. Such measures ignore a number of exposure characteristics that may impact on health, increasing the likelihood of biased effect estimates and masked exposure-response relationships. To demonstrate the impacts of exposure assessment precision in shift work research, this study investigated relationships between work schedule and depression in a large survey of Canadian nurses. The Canadian 2005 National Survey of the Work and Health of Nurses provided the analytic sample (n = 11450). Relationships between work schedule and depression were assessed using logistic regression models with high, moderate, and low-precision exposure groupings. The high-precision grouping described shift timing and rotation frequency, the moderate-precision grouping described shift timing, and the low-precision grouping described the presence/absence of shift work. Final model estimates were adjusted for the potential confounding effects of demographic and work variables, and bootstrap weights were used to generate sampling variances that accounted for the survey sample design. The high-precision exposure grouping model showed the strongest relationships between work schedule and depression, with increased odds ratios [ORs] for rapidly rotating (OR = 1.51, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.91-2.51) and undefined rotating (OR = 1.67, 95% CI = 0.92-3.02) shift workers, and a decreased OR for depression in slow rotating (OR = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.57-1.08) shift workers. For the low- and moderate-precision exposure grouping models, weak relationships were observed for all work schedule categories (OR range 0.95 to 0.99). Findings from this study support the need to consider and collect the data required for precise and conceptually driven exposure assessment and assignment in future studies of shift work and health. Further research into the effects of shift rotation frequency on depression is

  12. The Future of Qualitative Research in Psychology: Accentuating the Positive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Brendan; Lyons, Antonia

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we reflect on current trends and anticipate future prospects regarding qualitative research in Psychology. We highlight various institutional and disciplinary obstacles to qualitative research diversity, complexity and quality. At the same time, we note some causes for optimism, including publication breakthroughs and vitality within the field. The paper is structured into three main sections which consider: 1) the positioning of qualitative research within Psychology; 2) celebrating the different kinds of knowledge produced by qualitative research; and 3) implementing high quality qualitative research. In general we accentuate the positive, recognising and illustrating innovative qualitative research practices which generate new insights and propel the field forward. We conclude by emphasising the importance of research training: for qualitative research to flourish within Psychology (and beyond), students and early career researchers require more sophisticated, in-depth instruction than is currently offered.

  13. CLINICAL RESEARCH ON ACUPUNCTURE TREATMENT OF DEPRESSIVE PSYCHOSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Wenbin

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the therapeutic effect of acupuncture in the treatment of depressive psychosis.Methods: A total of 62 cases of depressive psychosis patients were randomly divided into treatment group (n=32) and control group (n=30). Acupoints used in treatment group were bilateral Hegu (LI 4), bilateral Taichong (LR 3), Baihui (GV 20) and Yintang (EX-HN 3). Patients of control group were asked to take Fluoxertine hydrochloride 20 mg/d.The therapeutic effect was assessed using Hamilton's depression (HAMD) scales. Results: After 8 weeks' treatment,in treatment and control groups, 4 and 3 cases were cured, 8 and 6 experienced marked improvement, 14 and 14 had improvement, 6 and 7 had no effect, with the effective rates being 81.25% and 76. 66% separately, and no significant difference was found between two groups in HAMD scales (P>0.05). Conclusion: Acupuncture therapy is an effective method for treatment of depressive psychosis.

  14. Future buildings Forum-2025: Toward a methodology for future buildings research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briggs, R.S.

    1990-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore methods that could be used in studying buildings of the future. The methodology that the forum will develop will have a number of likely applications, among them: the development of research agendas for new building energy technologies; the development of information and analytical capabilities usable by other IEA annexes to address their technology assessment needs; and the generation of information that can serve as input to global energy models designed to inform energy policy decisions. This paper is divided into two major sections. The first is an overview of existing methods of futures research. Terms and concepts are explained, providing the basis for the second section. The second section proposes a framework and general methodology for studying future buildings. This preliminary, or strawman, methodology is intended to provoke early thinking and discussions on how the research should be approached. 24 refs., 8 figs.

  15. Qualitative research in rehabilitation science: opportunities, challenges, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderKaay, Sandra; Moll, Sandra E; Gewurtz, Rebecca E; Jindal, Pranay; Loyola-Sanchez, Adalberto; Packham, Tara L; Lim, Chun Y

    2018-03-01

    Qualitative research has had a significant impact within rehabilitation science over time. During the past 20 years the number of qualitative studies published per year in Disability and Rehabilitation has markedly increased (from 1 to 54). In addition, during this period there have been significant changes in how qualitative research is conceptualized, conducted, and utilized to advance the field of rehabilitation. The purpose of this article is to reflect upon the progress of qualitative research within rehabilitation to date, to explicate current opportunities and challenges, and to suggest future directions to continue to strengthen the contribution of qualitative research in this field. Relevant literature searches were conducted in electronic data bases and reference lists. Pertinent literature was examined to identify current opportunities and challenges for qualitative research use in rehabilitation and to identify future directions. Six key areas of opportunity and challenge were identified: (a) paradigm shifts, (b) advancements in methodology, (c) emerging technology, (d) advances in quality evaluation, (e) increasing popularity of mixed methods approaches, and (f) evolving approaches to knowledge translation. Two important future directions for rehabilitation are posited: (1) advanced training in qualitative methods and (2) engaging qualitative communities of research. Qualitative research is well established in rehabilitation and has an important place in the continued growth of this field. Ongoing development of qualitative researchers and methods are essential. Implications for Rehabilitation Qualitative research has the potential to improve rehabilitation practice by addressing some of the most pervasive concerns in the field such as practitioner-client interaction, the subjective and lived experience of disability, and clinical reasoning and decision making. This will serve to better inform those providing rehabilitation services thereby benefiting

  16. Leaders, leadership and future primary care clinical research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qureshi Nadeem

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A strong and self confident primary care workforce can deliver the highest quality care and outcomes equitably and cost effectively. To meet the increasing demands being made of it, primary care needs its own thriving research culture and knowledge base. Methods Review of recent developments supporting primary care clinical research. Results Primary care research has benefited from a small group of passionate leaders and significant investment in recent decades in some countries. Emerging from this has been innovation in research design and focus, although less is known of the effect on research output. Conclusion Primary care research is now well placed to lead a broad re-vitalisation of academic medicine, answering questions of relevance to practitioners, patients, communities and Government. Key areas for future primary care research leaders to focus on include exposing undergraduates early to primary care research, integrating this early exposure with doctoral and postdoctoral research career support, further expanding cross disciplinary approaches, and developing useful measures of output for future primary care research investment.

  17. Construct validity-Current issues and recommendations for future hand hygiene research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neo, Jun Rong Jeffrey

    2017-05-01

    Health care-associated infection is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Hand hygiene is widely regarded as an effective prevention strategy. Often, hand hygiene research is designed and conducted by health care practitioners who may lack formal training in research methods, particularly in the area of social science. In a research context, a construct is a concept that can be measured or observed in some way. A construct can be directly or indirectly measured. For example, height can be directly measured by centimeters, whereas depression can be indirectly measured by a scale of 20 items. Every construct needs to be operationalized by measure(s) to make it a variable. Hence, construct validity refers to the degree of fit between the construct of interest and its operational measure. However, issues with construct validity often weaken the translation from construct to measure(s). This article will (1) describe the common threats to construct validity pertaining to hand hygiene research, (2) identify practical limitations in current research design, and (3) provide recommendations to improve construct validity in future hand hygiene research. By understanding how construct validity may affect hand hygiene research design, there is great potential to improve the validity of future hand hygiene research findings. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Research in pediatric radiology: preparing for our future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strife, J.L.; Ball, W.S. Jr.

    1998-01-01

    The changing healthcare environment challenges the traditional role of academic medicine. Pediatric radiologists involved in research, education and teaching are under pressure to forego such endeavors in favor of increased clinical responsibilities. How we perform research must change if our subspecialty is to survive into the future, as we cannot afford to give up our traditional duties as researchers and educators. To do so could summon the beginning of the end for pediatric radiology. Rather, we must begin the process of restructuring research in pediatric radiology to take into account the efficient use of our resources which provide the greatest return on our investment. (orig.)

  19. Reflecting on future research concerning the added value of FM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker; van der Voordt, Theo; Coenen, Christian

    2014-01-01

    on contributions to the recently published book “The Added Value of Facilities Management” and related future studies, as well as further exploration of five main themes. Findings – Added value is expected to be central in the future development of FM, which is confirmed by recent foresight studies....... There is a need for a better understanding of alignment between FM and core business, performance measurement methods and how models such as the FM Value Map can be of value to the involved stakeholders. Corporate social responsibility (CSR), sustainability and branding have great potential to add value......Purpose – This paper aims to summarize recent research findings and reflections on The Added Value of Facilities Management (FM) and to outline perspectives for future research and development of the added value of FM. Design/methodology/approach – The article is based on reflections...

  20. Rice Genome Research: Current Status and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Han

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Rice ( L. is the leading genomics system among the crop plants. The sequence of the rice genome, the first cereal plant genome, was published in 2005. This review summarizes progress made in rice genome annotations, comparative genomics, and functional genomics researches. It also maps out the status of rice genomics globally and provides a vision of future research directions and resource building.

  1. Radioisotopes and fungicide research- present status and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatrath, M.S.

    1996-01-01

    The developments in pesticides and radioisotopes fields were so near to each other that at a very early stage in this history, both became linked together and their usefulness was recognised for faster development. The purpose of this communication is to illustrate the present status these techniques in fungicide research by drawing suitable examples and also to bring out the directions in which future research will be going with the aid of these tools. 72 refs

  2. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation: Considerations for Research in Adolescent Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan C. Lee

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Adolescent depression is a prevalent disorder with substantial morbidity and mortality. Current treatment interventions do not target relevant pathophysiology and are frequently ineffective, thereby leading to a substantial burden for individuals, families, and society. During adolescence, the prefrontal cortex undergoes extensive structural and functional changes. Recent work suggests that frontolimbic development in depressed adolescents is delayed or aberrant. The judicious application of non-invasive brain stimulation techniques to the prefrontal cortex may present a promising opportunity for durable interventions in adolescent depression. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS applies a low-intensity, continuous current that alters cortical excitability. While this modality does not elicit action potentials, it is thought to manipulate neuronal activity and neuroplasticity. Specifically, tDCS may modulate N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors and L-type voltage-gated calcium channels and effect changes through long-term potentiation or long-term depression-like mechanisms. This mini-review considers the neurobiological rationale for developing tDCS protocols in adolescent depression, reviews existing work in adult mood disorders, surveys the existing tDCS literature in adolescent populations, reviews safety studies, and discusses distinct ethical considerations in work with adolescents.

  3. Conclusions, Reflections, and Prospects for Future Research, Policy, and Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark-Kazak, Christina

    2012-01-01

    This concluding chapter draws together some of the key themes from the contributions and proposes some recommended areas for future research, policy, and programming. It highlights the artificiality of categorization processes related to both migration and childhood that independent child migrants encounter, and problematizes the…

  4. The future of physical activity research: funding, opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernhall, Bo; Borghi-Silva, Audrey; Babu, Abraham S

    2015-01-01

    The worldwide impact of physical activity (PA) on health consequences has received increasing attention. At this point in time, there is little disagreement that increasing levels of PA is an important aspect of public health worldwide. The world literature on PA, exercise and fitness has also grown exponentially since the early 1990's. It is clear that there is a voluminous literature in this area of research and the exponential increase in the number of manuscripts has gained substantial momentum since the year 2000. Given the importance of PA research in regards to health outcomes, and apparent popularity of such research (based on the number of manuscripts published), one could argue that the viability and future of PA are indeed bright. However, one could also assume a different view, that although the field is popular, it is saturated and we already know what we need to know regarding the impact of PA on public health. Much of the future viability of PA research will also be dependent on funding sources available. It is also possible that the impact of PA may vary around the world, thus the "global" impact of PA research may be dependent on location. This review will discuss what we perceive as the current landscape and the future of PA research in three select areas of the world, the United States, South America and Asia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Religious and Spiritual Factors in Depression: Review and Integration of the Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonelli, Raphael; Dew, Rachel E.; Koenig, Harold G.; Rosmarin, David H.; Vasegh, Sasan

    2012-01-01

    Depressive symptoms and religious/spiritual (R/S) practices are widespread around the world, but their intersection has received relatively little attention from mainstream mental health professionals. This paper reviews and synthesizes quantitative research examining relationships between R/S involvement and depressive symptoms or disorders during the last 50 years (1962 to 2011). At least 444 studies have now quantitatively examined these relationships. Of those, over 60% report less depression and faster remission from depression in those more R/S or a reduction in depression severity in response to an R/S intervention. In contrast, only 6% report greater depression. Of the 178 most methodologically rigorous studies, 119 (67%) find inverse relationships between R/S and depression. Religious beliefs and practices may help people to cope better with stressful life circumstances, give meaning and hope, and surround depressed persons with a supportive community. In some populations or individuals, however, religious beliefs may increase guilt and lead to discouragement as people fail to live up to the high standards of their religious tradition. Understanding the role that R/S factors play in preventing depression, facilitating its resolution, or leading to greater depression will help clinicians determine whether this is a resource or a liability for individual patients. PMID:22928096

  6. Religious and Spiritual Factors in Depression: Review and Integration of the Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Bonelli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Depressive symptoms and religious/spiritual (R/S practices are widespread around the world, but their intersection has received relatively little attention from mainstream mental health professionals. This paper reviews and synthesizes quantitative research examining relationships between R/S involvement and depressive symptoms or disorders during the last 50 years (1962 to 2011. At least 444 studies have now quantitatively examined these relationships. Of those, over 60% report less depression and faster remission from depression in those more R/S or a reduction in depression severity in response to an R/S intervention. In contrast, only 6% report greater depression. Of the 178 most methodologically rigorous studies, 119 (67% find inverse relationships between R/S and depression. Religious beliefs and practices may help people to cope better with stressful life circumstances, give meaning and hope, and surround depressed persons with a supportive community. In some populations or individuals, however, religious beliefs may increase guilt and lead to discouragement as people fail to live up to the high standards of their religious tradition. Understanding the role that R/S factors play in preventing depression, facilitating its resolution, or leading to greater depression will help clinicians determine whether this is a resource or a liability for individual patients.

  7. Psychosocial Treatments for Major Depression and Dysthymia in Older Adults: A Review of the Research Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalaquett, Carlos P.; Stens, Andrea N.

    2006-01-01

    Older adults represent a growing segment of the population with the highest suicide rate and an increasing need of counseling services for major depression and dysthymia. The present study examined the literature with the purpose of identifying research addressing psychosocial treatments of depression in later life. A summary of treatments…

  8. Research progress of control of condensate depression for condenser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Liang, Run; Li, Fengyu

    2017-08-01

    It is introduced that significance and structure of the condensate depression control system. In accordance with controller devised procedure, we analyze and elaborate how to construct the lumped parameter and dynamic mathematical model which possesses distinct physics significance. Neural network model being called black-box model is also introduced. We analyze and contrast the control technique of condensate depression as conventional PI control, fuzzy PI control and fuzzy control. It is indicated that if the controller of condensate depression were devised inappropriate, while the steam discharged of turbine varying by a large margin, would result in the rotation rate of cooling water circulating pump accelerating at a great lick even to trigger the galloping danger which is less impressive for the units operating safely.

  9. Water management: Current and future challenges and research directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrove, William J.; Loucks, Daniel P.

    2015-06-01

    Water distinguishes our planet compared to all the others we know about. While the global supply of available freshwater is more than adequate to meet all current and foreseeable water demands, its spatial and temporal distributions are not. There are many regions where our freshwater resources are inadequate to meet domestic, economic development and environmental needs. In such regions, the lack of adequate clean water to meet human drinking water and sanitation needs is indeed a constraint on human health and productivity and hence on economic development as well as on the maintenance of a clean environment and healthy ecosystems. All of us involved in research must find ways to remove these constraints. We face multiple challenges in doing that, especially given a changing and uncertain future climate, and a rapidly growing population that is driving increased social and economic development, globalization, and urbanization. How best to meet these challenges requires research in all aspects of water management. Since 1965, the journal Water Resources Research has played an important role in reporting and disseminating current research related to managing the quantity and quality and cost of this resource. This paper identifies the issues facing water managers today and future research needed to better inform those who strive to create a more sustainable and desirable future.

  10. A future perspective on technological obsolescenceat NASA, Langley Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcintyre, Robert M.

    1990-01-01

    The present research effort was the first phase of a study to forecast whether technological obsolescence will be a problem for the engineers, scientists, and technicians at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC). There were four goals of the research: to review the literature on technological obsolescence; to determine through interviews of division chiefs and branch heads Langley's perspective on future technological obsolescence; to begin making contacts with outside industries to find out how they view the possibility of technological obsolescence; and to make preliminary recommendations for dealing with the problem. A complete description of the findings of this research can be reviewed in a technical report in preparation. The following are a small subset of the key findings of the study: NASA's centers and divisions vary in their missions and because of this, in their capability to control obsolescence; research-oriented organizations within NASA are believed by respondents to keep up to date more than the project-oriented organizations; asked what are the signs of a professional's technological obsolescence, respondents had a variety of responses; top performing scientists were viewed as continuous learners, keeping up to date by a variety of means; when asked what incentives were available to aerospace technologists for keeping up to data, respondents specified a number of ideas; respondents identified many obstacles to professionals' keeping up to date in the future; and most respondents expressed some concern for the future of the professionals at NASA vis a vis the issue of professional obsolescence.

  11. Customer perceived value—Conceptualization and avenues for future research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Zauner

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Given the present dynamic consumption environment due to technological innovations as well as interlinked economic developments on the macro-, micro-, and societal-level, researchers and managers have been increasingly showing interest in the concept of customer perceived value. However, especially given its vast empirical application, surprisingly little effort has been paid to synthesize various perspectives on the dimensionality, abstraction, and model taxonomy of customer perceived value. Therefore, based on a comprehensive literature review, this article identifies the predominant conceptualization of customer perceived value, thus also providing a sound basis for future empirical assessments of this concept, and discusses avenues for future research. In addition to contributing to research, this study also contributes to practice by comprehensively positioning customer perceived value as a key source of competitive advantage in the context of relationship marketing, management, and business models.

  12. Future atomic physics researches at HIRFL-CSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Xiaohong; Xia Jiawen; Zhan Wenlong

    1999-01-01

    A new storage ring system, HIRFL-CSR, is now in construction in the National Laboratory of Heavy Ion Research Facility of Lanzhou, China. The new facility consists of a main ring (CSRm) and an experimental ring (CSRe). With the flexibility of the production and the investigation of highly charged ions and radioactive ion beams the new HIRFL-CSR facility will make many frontier atomic physics researches possible in near future. The future physics researches at the HIRFL-CSR are now under consideration. In this paper an overview of the HIRFL-CSR project is given, and the main atomic physics programs to be carried at the HIRFL-CSR are presented. (orig.)

  13. The promise of ketamine for treatment-resistant depression: current evidence and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWilde, Kaitlin E.; Levitch, Cara F.; Murrough, James W.; Mathew, Sanjay J.; Iosifescu, Dan V.

    2014-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is one of the most disabling diseases worldwide and is a significant public health threat. Current treatments for MDD primarily consist of monoamine-targeting agents and have limited efficacy. However, the glutamate neurotransmitter system has recently come into focus as a promising alternative for novel antidepressant treatments. We review the current data on the glutamate NMDA receptor antagonist ketamine, which has been shown in clinical trials to act as a rapid antidepressant in MDD. We also examine ketamine efficacy on dimensions of psychopathology, including anhedonia, cognition, and suicidality, consistent with the NIMH Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) initiative. Other aspects of ketamine reviewed in this paper include safety and efficacy, different administration methods, and the risks of misuse of ketamine outside of medical settings. Finally, we conclude with a discussion of other glutamatergic agents other than ketamine currently being tested as novel antidepressants. PMID:25649308

  14. The future of research in female pelvic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Jamie; Chai, Toby C

    2015-02-01

    Female pelvic medicine and reconstructive surgery (FPMRS) was recently recognized as a subspecialty by the American Board of Medical Specialties (ABMS). FPMRS treats female pelvic disorders (FPD) including pelvic organ prolapse (POP), urinary incontinence (UI), fecal incontinence (FI), lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), lower urinary tract infections (UTI), pelvic pain, and female sexual dysfunction (FSD). These conditions affect large numbers of individuals, resulting in significant patient, societal, medical, and financial burdens. Given that treatments utilize both medical and surgical approaches, areas of research in FPD necessarily cover a gamut of topics, ranging from mechanistically driven basic science research to randomized controlled trials. While basic science research is slow to impact clinical care, transformational changes in a field occur through basic investigations. On the other hand, clinical research yields incremental changes to clinical care. Basic research intends to change understanding whereas clinical research intends to change practice. However, the best approach is to incorporate both basic and clinical research into a translational program which makes new discoveries and effects positive changes to clinical practice. This review examines current research in FPD, with focus on translational potential, and ponders the future of FPD research. With a goal of improving the care and outcomes in patients with FPD, a strategic collaboration of stakeholders (patients, advocacy groups, physicians, researchers, professional medical associations, legislators, governmental biomedical research agencies, pharmaceutical companies, and medical device companies) is an absolute requirement in order to generate funding needed for FPD translational research.

  15. Pedagogical Conditions of Future Philologists’ Research Culture Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Trufkina

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problem of - the pedagogical conditions- and it discloses the give phenomenon. In the following work there are outlined three kinds of pedagogical conditions that determine the formation of the future philologist's research culture and it also gives their detailed analysis. The urgency of the paper is determined by progressive methods of contemporary higher education. The aim of the work is to analyse pedagogical conditions that contribute to the research culture formation. The outlook of our investigations is connected with the detailed analysis of the Ŗresearch cultureŗ phenomenon, its components and pedagogical conditions contributing to its development.

  16. CLINICAL RESEARCH ON ACUPUNCTURE TREATMENT OF DEPRESSIVE PSYCHOSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    符文彬

    2002-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the therapeutic effect of acupuncture in the treatment of depressive psychosis.Methods:A total of 62 cases of depressive psychosis patients were randomly divided into treatment group(n=32) and control group(n=30).Acupoints used in treatment group were bilateral Hegu (LI 4),bilateral Taichong (LR 3),Baihui (GV 20) and Yintang (EX-HN 3).Patients of control group were asked to take Fluoxertine hydrochioride 20mg/d.The therapeutic effect was assessed using Hamilton's depression (HAMD) scales.Results:After 8 weeks' treatment,in treatment and control groups,4 and 3 cases were cured,8 and 6experienced marked improvement,14 and 14 had improvement,6 and 7 had no effect,with the effective rates being 81.25% and 76.66% separately,and no significant difference was found between two groups in HAMD scales (P>0.05).Conclusion:Acupuncture therapy is an effective method for treatment of depressive psychosis.

  17. Worksite health promotion research: challenges, current state and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg F. Bauer

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Worksite health promotion (WHP addresses diverse individual and work-related health determinants. Thus, multiple, non-standardized interventions as well as company outcomes other than health have to be considered in WHP research.

    Methods: The article builds primarily on published research reviews in WHP and related fields. It discusses key practical and research challenges of the workplace setting. The evidence available on the effectiveness of WHP is summarised and conclusions are drawn for future WHP practice and research.

    Results: WHP research on health-oriented, behavioural interventions shows that the level of evidence ranges from suggestive to acceptable for key prevention areas such as physical activity, nutrition, fitness, smoking, alcohol and stress. Such interventions are effective if key conditions are met. Future research is needed on long-term effects, on multi-component programs and on programs, which address environmental determinants of health behaviour as well. Research on work-related determinants of health shows the economic and public health relevance of WHP interventions. Reviews of work-oriented, organisational interventions show that they produce a range of individual and organisational outcomes. However, due to the complexity of the organisational context, the generalisability and predictability of such outcomes remain limited.

    Conclusions: WHP research shows success factors of WHP and provides evidence of its effectiveness. In future, the evidence base should be expanded by developing adaptive, company-driven intervention approaches which allow for continuous optimisation of companies from a health perspective. Also, approaches for active dissemination of such a systemic-salutogenic occupational health management approach should be developed to increase the public health impact of WHP.

  18. CONTEMPORARY DOMESTIC RESEARCH OF PSYCHOLOGY OF CONSTRUCTING THE FUTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Vladimirovich Mikhalsky

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the modern domestic research in the field of psychology of future perception and construction. Time, space, events only become meaningful when a position of observer arises, and when people are directly and vividly involved into them. The presence of human perception – an essential attribute of comprehension, appearance of the value for the time and space, in other words – the attribution of values – a separate measurement, giving the existence of time and space, allowing the existence of semantic relations, an integral component of constructing the future. An array of publications, images, ideas, «memes» on constructing the future is becoming more voluminous, but at the same time, it is very difficult to trace the evolution of a single line of ideas, concepts, theories, research directions, scientific and philosophical approaches to the practical aspects of use. The proposed concept and practical approach of contemporary researchers define a new impetus to scientific research, serves as the basis for practices and, perhaps, is the philosophy that is needed humanity, standing on sharp blades to survive in conditions of information overload, uncertainty and economic fluctuations, on the verge of which can not go – on the verge of using weapons of mass destruction, global international, cross-cultural encounters.

  19. Present status and future prospect of research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takemi, Hirokatsu

    1996-01-01

    The present status of research reactors more than MW class reactor in JAERI and the Kyoto University and the small reactors in the Musashi Institute of Technology, the Rikkyo University, the Tokyo University, the Kinki University and other countries are explained in the paper. The present status of researches are reported by the topics in each field. The future researches of the beam reactor and the irradiation reactor are reviewed. On various kinds of use of research reactor and demands of neutron field of a high order, new type research reactors under investigation are explained. Recently, the reactors are used in many fields such as the basic science: the basic physics, the material science, the nuclear physics, and the nuclear chemistry and the applied science; the earth and environmental science, the biology and the medical science. (S.Y.)

  20. Qualitative psychotherapy research: the journey so far and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, Heidi M

    2015-03-01

    This article documents the evolution of qualitative psychotherapy research over the past 3 decades. Clients' and therapists' accounts of their experiences in psychotherapy provide a window into the psychotherapy relationship and its mechanisms of change. A sizable body of literature has been generated that uses qualitative methods to collect and analyze these accounts and to shed light on the psychotherapy process. It notes changes in the field such as growing numbers of dissertations and publications using qualitative methods as well as a strengthening emphasis on qualitative research within graduate education and research funding bodies. Future recommendations include developing principles for practice from qualitative methods and conducting qualitative meta-analyses. Other recommendations include forming journal review policies that support the publication of qualitative research and that focus on coherence in adapting methods to meet research goals, in light of a study's characteristics and epistemological framework, rather than focusing on sets of procedures. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Assistant professor Andrea Wittenborn, research team conduct clinical trial to treat couples' depression, marital problems

    OpenAIRE

    Micale, Barbara L.

    2010-01-01

    Andrea Wittenborn, assistant professor, human development, is heading a research team conducting the Strengthening Bonds Couples Therapy Study to treat depression and marital problems (dyadic distress) in married/committed couple relationships.

  2. Monaco - IAEA [Marine Radioecology. Current Research and Future Scope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, J.; Chipman, W.A.; Fukai, R.; Duursma, E.K.

    1967-01-01

    Present and future research: Transport of radionuclides by turbulent diffusion processes. The radionuclides which are introduced into the sea will be dispersed by turbulent processes caused by currents, tides, waves and so forth. One of the most urgent needs for estimation of radionuclide behaviour in the sea is to study such diffusion processes and to interpret and describe the results so that they can be used for prediction of similar processes affecting the dispersion of radioactive materials in marine environments

  3. The microball and Gammasphere: Research highlights and future directions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devlin, M.; Sarantites, D.G.; LaFosse, D.R.; Lerma, F. [Washington Univ., Saint Louis, MO (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The Microball, a compact, 4{pi} charged-particle detector array, has been used in conjunction with Gammasphere for numerous physics experiments, and more are planned in the near future. A summary of this research program is presented, and the device and its capabilities are described. An example of its use in the study of the population and entry state excitation energy distributions of normal and superdeformed bands in {sup 82}Sr is presented.

  4. Digital Transformation: A Literature Review and Guidelines for Future Research

    OpenAIRE

    Reis, João Carlos Gonçalves dos; Amorim, Marlene Paula Castro; Melão, Nuno Filipe Rosa; Matos, Patrícia Sofia Lopes

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide insights regarding the state of the art of Digital Transformation, and to propose avenues for future research. Using a systematic literature review of 206 peer-reviewed articles, this paper provides an overview of the literature. Among other things, the findings indicate that managers should adapt their business strategy to a new digital reality. This mainly results in the adaptation of processes and operations management. Scholars, for the other side, are ...

  5. A European Perspective on Auditory Processing Disorder-Current Knowledge and Future Research Focus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    IIiadou, Vasiliki; Ptok, Martin; Grech, Helen

    2017-01-01

    Current notions of "hearing impairment," as reflected in clinical audiological practice, do not acknowledge the needs of individuals who have normal hearing pure tone sensitivity but who experience auditory processing difficulties in everyday life that are indexed by reduced performance in other...... of diseases as H93.25 and in the forthcoming beta eleventh version. APDs may have detrimental effects on the affected individual, with low esteem, anxiety, and depression, and symptoms may remain into adulthood. These disorders may interfere with learning per se and with communication, social, emotional......, and academic-work aspects of life. The objective of the present paper is to define a baseline European APD consensus formulated by experienced clinicians and researchers in this specific field of human auditory science. A secondary aim is to identify issues that future research needs to address in order...

  6. Chinese Herbal Medicine and Depression: The Research Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Lee Butler; Karen Pilkington

    2013-01-01

    Background. Alternative approaches for managing depression are often sought and herbal mixtures are widely used in China. The aim of this paper was to provide an overall picture of the current evidence by analysing published systematic reviews and presenting a supplementary systematic review of trials in Western databases. Methods. Searches were conducted using AMED, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, MEDLINE/PubMed, PsycINFO, and trial registers. Results were screened and selected trials were evaluat...

  7. Research on aircraft emissions. Need for future work

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, A [German Aerospace Establishment, Cologne (Germany). Transport Research Div.

    1998-12-31

    Reflecting the present status of the research on aircraft emissions and their impacts upon the atmosphere, task-fields for a work programme for the research on aircraft emissions can be derived. Most important measures are to support the efforts to define adequate reduction measures, and (with highest priority) scenario-writing for the long-term development in aircraft emissions, to be able to include into the decision making process the aspect of in-time-reaction against unwanted future. Besides that, a steady monitoring of global aircraft emissions will be necessary. (author) 5 refs.

  8. Research on aircraft emissions. Need for future work

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, A. [German Aerospace Establishment, Cologne (Germany). Transport Research Div.

    1997-12-31

    Reflecting the present status of the research on aircraft emissions and their impacts upon the atmosphere, task-fields for a work programme for the research on aircraft emissions can be derived. Most important measures are to support the efforts to define adequate reduction measures, and (with highest priority) scenario-writing for the long-term development in aircraft emissions, to be able to include into the decision making process the aspect of in-time-reaction against unwanted future. Besides that, a steady monitoring of global aircraft emissions will be necessary. (author) 5 refs.

  9. Substorms - Future of magnetospheric substorm-storm research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akasofu, S.I.

    1989-01-01

    Seven approaches and/or areas of magnetospheric substorm and storm science which should be emphasized in future research are briefly discussed. They are: the combining of groups of researchers who study magnetic storms and substorms in terms of magnetic reconnection with those that do not, the possible use of a magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling model to merge the groups, the development of improved input-output relationships, the complementing of satellite and ground-based observations, the need for global imaging of the magnetosphere, the complementing of observations with computer simulations, and the need to study the causes of changes in the north-south component of the IMF. 36 refs

  10. Personalized Telehealth in the Future: A Global Research Agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinesen, Birthe; Nonnecke, Brandie; Lindeman, David; Toft, Egon; Kidholm, Kristian; Jethwani, Kamal; Young, Heather M; Spindler, Helle; Oestergaard, Claus Ugilt; Southard, Jeffrey A; Gutierrez, Mario; Anderson, Nick; Albert, Nancy M; Han, Jay J; Nesbitt, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    As telehealth plays an even greater role in global health care delivery, it will be increasingly important to develop a strong evidence base of successful, innovative telehealth solutions that can lead to scalable and sustainable telehealth programs. This paper has two aims: (1) to describe the challenges of promoting telehealth implementation to advance adoption and (2) to present a global research agenda for personalized telehealth within chronic disease management. Using evidence from the United States and the European Union, this paper provides a global overview of the current state of telehealth services and benefits, presents fundamental principles that must be addressed to advance the status quo, and provides a framework for current and future research initiatives within telehealth for personalized care, treatment, and prevention. A broad, multinational research agenda can provide a uniform framework for identifying and rapidly replicating best practices, while concurrently fostering global collaboration in the development and rigorous testing of new and emerging telehealth technologies. In this paper, the members of the Transatlantic Telehealth Research Network offer a 12-point research agenda for future telehealth applications within chronic disease management.

  11. Planning for the future workforce in hematology research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abkowitz, Janis L.; Coller, Barry S.; DiMichele, Donna M.

    2015-01-01

    The medical research and training enterprise in the United States is complex in both its scope and implementation. Accordingly, adaptations to the associated workforce needs present particular challenges. This is particularly true for maintaining or expanding national needs for physician-scientists where training resource requirements and competitive transitional milestones are substantial. For the individual, these phenomena can produce financial burden, prolong the career trajectory, and significantly influence career pathways. Hence, when national data suggest that future medical research needs in a scientific area may be met in a less than optimal manner, strategies to expand research and training capacity must follow. This article defines such an exigency for research and training in nonneoplastic hematology and presents potential strategies for addressing these critical workforce needs. The considerations presented herein reflect a summary of the discussions presented at 2 workshops cosponsored by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and the American Society of Hematology. PMID:25758827

  12. Research in nuclear chemistry: current status and future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, A.V.R.

    2007-01-01

    Research in nuclear chemistry has seen a huge growth over the last few decades. The large umbrella of nuclear chemistry includes several research areas such as nuclear fission, reactions, spectroscopy, nuclear probes and nuclear analytical techniques. Currently, nuclear chemistry research has extended its horizon into various applications like nuclear medicine, isotopes for understanding physico chemical processes, and addressing environmental and biomedical problems. Tremendous efforts are going on for synthesizing new elements (isotopes), isolating physically or chemically wherever possible and investigating their properties. Theses studies are useful to understand nuclear and chemical properties at extreme ends of instability. In addition, nuclear chemists are making substantial contribution to astrophysics and other related areas. During this talk, a few of the contributions made by nuclear chemistry group of BARC will be discussed and possible future areas of research will be enumerated. (author)

  13. Comorbid forms of psychopathology: key patterns and future research directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdá, Magdalena; Sagdeo, Aditi; Galea, Sandro

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to systematically appraise the peer-reviewed literature about clustered forms of psychopathology and to present a framework that can be useful for studying comorbid psychiatric disorders. The review focuses on four of the most prevalent types of mental health problems: anxiety, depression, conduct disorder, and substance abuse. The authors summarize existing empirical research on the distribution of concurrent and sequential comorbidity in children and adolescents and in adults, and they review existing knowledge about exogenous risk factors that influence comorbidity. The authors include articles that used a longitudinal study design and used psychiatric definitions of the disorders. A total of 58 articles met the inclusion criteria and were assessed. Current evidence demonstrates a reciprocal, sequential relation between most comorbid pairs, although the mechanisms that mediate such links remain to be explained. Methodological concerns include the inconsistency of measurement of the disorders across studies, small sample sizes, and restricted follow-up times. Given the significant mental health burden placed by comorbid disorders, and their high prevalence across populations, research on the key risk factors for clustering of psychopathology is needed.

  14. A conceptual framework of stress vulnerability, depression, and health outcomes in women: potential uses in research on complementary therapies for depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinser, Patricia A; Lyon, Debra E

    2014-09-01

    Depression is a chronic mental health condition that affects millions of individuals worldwide. It is well-established that psychological stress plays an integral role in depression and that depression has numerous negative health outcomes. However, a closer look at components of stress vulnerabilities and depression is required to allow for the development and testing of appropriate interventions. This article describes a conceptual framework about the complex and bidirectional relationship between stress vulnerability, depression, and health outcomes in women. The authors elucidate how the framework can be applied in clinical research about cellular aging and on the mechanisms of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for depression, using yoga as an example of a CAM modality. The proposed conceptual framework may be helpful for adding depth to the body of knowledge about the use of mind-body therapies for individuals at high risk of stress vulnerability and/or depression.

  15. Health technology assessment: research trends and future priorities in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Camilla Palmhøj; Funch, Tina Maria; Kristensen, Finn Børlum

    2011-07-01

    To provide an overview of health services research related to health technology assessment (HTA) and to identify research priorities from a European perspective. Several methods were used: systematic review of articles indexed with the MeSH term 'technology assessment' in PubMed from February 1999-2009; online survey among experts; and conference workshop discussions. Research activity in HTA varies considerably across Europe. The research was categorised into six areas: (1) the breadth of analysis in HTA (such as economic, organizational and social aspects); (2) HTA products developed to meet the needs of policy-makers (such as horizon scanning, mini-HTA, and core HTA); (3) handling life-cycle perspectives in relation to technologies; (4) topics that challenge existing methods and for which HTA should be developed to address the themes more comprehensively (such as public health interventions and organizational interventions); (5) development of HTA capacity and programmes; and (6) links between policy and HTA. An online survey showed that the three areas that were given priority were the relationship between HTA and policy-making (71%), the impact of HTA (62%) and incorporating patient aspects in HTA (50%). Policy-makers highlighted HTA and innovation processes as their main research priority (42%). Areas that the systematic review identified as future priorities include issues within the six existing research areas such as disinvestment, developing evidence for new technologies, assessing the wider effects of technology use, and determining how HTA affects decision-making. In addition, relative effectiveness and individualized treatments are areas of growing interest. The research priorities identified are important for obtaining high quality and cost-effective health care in Europe. Managing the introduction, use and phasing out of technologies challenges health services throughout Europe, and these processes need to be improved to successfully manage future

  16. A review on citation amnesia in depression and inflammation research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Once original scientific results are published the author has the "intellectual property" and may claim ownership. Discovery credit is one of the most important "rewards" for scientists and thus incorrect credits undermine the reward system of science. Scientists who publish should therefore give proper credit and acknowledge the primary sources. Failure to do so is regarded as "citation negligence", "the disregard syndrome", "citation amnesia", "plagiarism by omission", "bibliographic plagiarism" or "citation plagiarism", and may range from an unconscious or conscious "failure to credit a prior discoverer so as to give an improper impression of priority" to "the appropriation of another person's ideas or results without given proper credit". False discovery credit is considered to be "a menace to honest science", "a serious transgression" or "intellectual theft, be it intentional or not". This paper describes some examples of citation amnesia showing that scientists often fail to credit prior sources and give false discovery credit to other scientists. One example is the association between major depression and activated immuno-inflammatory pathways, a discovery by European groups and published in many papers since 1990. Now, 25 years later, it is commonplace that these theories are credited to secondary American sources whose work in "the last decade", did or did not examine these pathways in major depression. This gives an improper impression of priority of American-based scientists. Here it is proposed that this citation amnesia and plagiarism reinforced the wrong science and had negative effects on the development of immune-inflammatory biomarkers and new immune-related treatments for depression. It is concluded that journal editors should improve their citation standards to guarantee correct assignment of discovery credit for example by demanding a signed pledge from the authors that correct citations to the primary sources were made.

  17. Space facilities: Meeting future needs for research, development, and operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Facilities Study (NFS) represents an interagency effort to develop a comprehensive and integrated long-term plan for world-class aeronautical and space facilities that meet current and projected needs for commercial and government aerospace research and development and space operations. At the request of NASA and the DOD, the National Research Council's Committee on Space Facilities has reviewed the space related findings of the NFS. The inventory of more than 2800 facilities will be an important resource, especially if it continues to be updated and maintained as the NFS report recommends. The data in the inventory provide the basis for a much better understanding of the resources available in the national facilities infrastructure, as well as extensive information on which to base rational decisions about current and future facilities needs. The working groups have used the inventory data and other information to make a set of recommendations that include estimates of cast savings and steps for implementation. While it is natural that the NFS focused on cost reduction and consolidations, such a study is most useful to future planning if it gives equal weight to guiding the direction of future facilities needed to satisfy legitimate national aspirations. Even in the context of cost reduction through facilities closures and consolidations, the study is timid about recognizing and proposing program changes and realignments of roles and missions to capture what could be significant savings and increased effectiveness. The recommendations of the Committee on Space Facilities are driven by the clear need to be more realistic and precise both in recognizing current incentives and disincentives in the aerospace industry and in forecasting future conditions for U.S. space activities.

  18. Solar energy in progress and future research trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen, Zekai [Istanbul Technical Univ., Dept. of Meteorology, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2004-07-01

    Extensive fossil fuel consumption in almost all human activities led to some undesirable phenomena such as atmospheric and environmental pollutions, which have not been experienced before in known human history. Consequently, global warming, greenhouse affect, climate change, ozone layer depletion and acid rain terminologies started to appear in the literature frequently. Since 1970, it has been understood scientifically by experiments and researches that these phenomena are closely related to fossil fuel uses because they emit greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and methane (CH{sub 4}) which hinder the long wave terrestrial radiation to escape into space, and consequently, the earth troposphere becomes warmer. In order to avoid further impacts of these phenomena, the two concentrative alternatives are either to improve the fossil fuel quality with reductions in their harmful emissions into the atmosphere or more significantly to replace fossil fuel usage as much as possible with environmentally friendly, clean and renewable energy sources. Among these sources, solar energy comes at the top of the list due to its abundance, and more evenly distribution in nature than any other renewable energy types such as wind, geothermal, hydro, wave and tidal energies. It must be the main and common purpose of humanity to sustain environment for the betterment of future generations with sustainable energy developments. On the other hand, the known limits of fossil fuels compel the societies of the world in the long run to work jointly for their gradual replacement by renewable energy alternatives rather than the quality improvement of fossil sources. Solar radiation is an integral part of different renewable energy resources. It is the main and continuous input variable from practically inexhaustible sun. Solar energy is expected to play a very significant role in the future especially in developing countries, but it has also potential prospects for developed

  19. MOZART EFFECT AND MUSIC PSYCHOLOGY: RECENT DEVELOPMENTS AND FUTURE RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaitsa Giannouli

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The field of Music Psychology has grown in the past 20 years, to emerge from being just a minor topic to one of mainstream interest within the brain sciences (Hallam, Cross, & Thaut, 2011. Despite the plethora of research attempts to examine the so-called hotly disputed “Mozart effect” which was first reported by Rauscher, Shaw, and Ky (1993, 1995, we still know little about it. This group of researchers were the first to support experimentally that visuospatial processing was enhanced in participants following exposure to Mozart’s Sonata for Two Pianos in D major (K.448. Although the first research attempts referred to the Mozart effect as an easy way of improving cognitive performance immediately after passive music listening to Mozart’s sonata K. 448 (Chabris, 1999, after which healthy young adult students could perform with enhanced spatial- temporal abilities in tasks such as the Paper Folding Task (PFT, nowadays there is a number of studies indicating that this specific music excerpt does not necessarily have this magical influence on all cognitive abilities (e.g. on the overall Intelligence Quotient in humans and on the behavior of animals (for a review see Giannouli, Tsolaki & Kargopoulos, 2010. In addition to that, questions arise whether listening to this ‘magic music excerpt’ does indeed have benefits that generalize across a wide range of cognitive performance, and if it can induce changes that are of importance for medical and therapeutic purposes in patients with neurological disorders (e.g. epilepsy or psychiatric disorders (e.g. dementia, depression (Verrusio et al., 2015.

  20. Chinese herbal medicine and depression: the research evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Lee; Pilkington, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Background. Alternative approaches for managing depression are often sought and herbal mixtures are widely used in China. The aim of this paper was to provide an overall picture of the current evidence by analysing published systematic reviews and presenting a supplementary systematic review of trials in Western databases. Methods. Searches were conducted using AMED, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, MEDLINE/PubMed, PsycINFO, and trial registers. Results were screened and selected trials were evaluated by two reviewers working independently. Systematic reviews were identified and assessed using key criteria. Results. Five systematic reviews were located addressing the Chinese literature, adjunctive use of Chinese herbs, and the formulae Chaihu-Shugan-San, Xiao Yao San, and Free and Easy Wanderer Plus. The supplementary review located 8 trials, 3 of which were not included in previous reviews. Positive results were reported: no significant differences from medication, greater effect than medication or placebo, reduced adverse event rates when combined or compared with antidepressants. However, limitations in methodology and reporting were revealed. Conclusions. Despite promising results, particularly for Xiao Yao San and its modifications, the effectiveness of Chinese herbal medicine in depression could not be fully substantiated based on current evidence. Further well-designed, well-reported trials that reflect practice may be worth pursuing.

  1. Research Program on Type 1 Diabetes and Youth Depression in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumba-Avilés, Eduardo; Sáez-Santiago, Emily

    2016-01-01

    This work reviews the progress and current state of a research program on Diabetes and youth depression in Puerto Rico. Given the high depression rate, its impact in youth with Type 1 Diabetes (T1D), and the lack of interventions to target this link in an integrative way, the manual titled Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment for Depression in Adolescents with T1D was developed. After its first use in an Open Trial, we currently assess the initial efficacy of its revised version to reduce depression and improve glycemic control, self-care, and quality of life. We present its approach, and initial data on its feasibility, acceptability and potential to reduce emotional problems in T1D youth. We discuss implications of this line of research for health psychology, and its utility to model the development of interventions alike focused on other chronic illnesses.

  2. Mechanisms of change in psychotherapy for depression: An empirical update and evaluation of research aimed at identifying psychological mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmens, Lotte H J M; Müller, Viola N L S; Arntz, Arnoud; Huibers, Marcus J H

    2016-12-01

    We present a systematic empirical update and critical evaluation of the current status of research aimed at identifying a variety of psychological mediators in various forms of psychotherapy for depression. We summarize study characteristics and results of 35 relevant studies, and discuss the extent to which these studies meet several important requirements for mechanism research. Our review indicates that in spite of increased attention for the topic, advances in theoretical consensus about necessities for mechanism research, and sophistication of study designs, research in this field is still heterogeneous and unsatisfactory in methodological respect. Probably the biggest challenge in the field is demonstrating the causal relation between change in the mediator and change in depressive symptoms. The field would benefit from a further refinement of research methods to identify processes of therapeutic change. Recommendations for future research are discussed. However, even in the most optimal research designs, explaining psychotherapeutic change remains a challenge. Psychotherapy is a multi-dimensional phenomenon that might work through interplay of multiple mechanisms at several levels. As a result, it might be too complex to be explained in relatively simple causal models of psychological change. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Research on the Risk Measurement for the Futures Market of Bulk Commodity – Taking the silver futures as the example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Yating

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The futures transaction of bulk commodity has played an important role since China became the global manufacturing center. Taking the commodity futures market in Shanghai as the research objective, this article selects the price of silver futures, uses GARCH-VaR and Stress Testing to measure the risk tolerance of the market. The research result shows the silver price is fluctuated within the scope specified by the market and won't influence the stable operation of futures market.

  4. Rationalization and future planning for AECL's research reactor capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slater, J.B.

    1990-01-01

    AECL's research reactor capability has played a crucial role in the development of Canada's nuclear program. All essential concepts for the CANDU reactors were developed and tested in the NRX and NRU reactors, and in parallel, important contributions to basic physics were made. The technical feasibility of advanced fuel cycles and of the organic-cooled option for CANDU reactors were also demonstrated in the two reactors and the WR-1 reactor. In addition, an important and growing radio-isotope production industry was established and marketed on a world-wide basis. In 1984, however, it was recognized that a review and rationalization of the research reactor capability was required. The commercial success of the CANDU reactor system had reduced the scope and size of the required development program. Limited research and development funding and competition from other research facilities and programs, required that the scope be reduced to a support basis essential to maintain strategic capability. Currently, AECL, is part-way through this rationalization program and completion should be attained during 1992/93 when the MAPLE reactor is operational and decisions on NRX decommissioning will be made. A companion paper describes some of the unique operational and maintenance problems which have resulted from this program and the solutions which have been developed. Future planning must recognize the age of the NRU reactor (currently 32 years) and the need to plan for eventual replacement. Strategy is being developed and supporting studies include a full technical assessment of the NRU reactor and the required age-related upgrading program, evaluation of the performance characteristics and costs of potential future replacement reactors, particularly the advanced MAPLE concept, and opportunities for international co-operation in developing mutually supportive research programs

  5. Late- versus early-onset geriatric depression in a memory research center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Dillon

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Carol Dillon1, Ricardo F Allegri2, Cecilia M Serrano1, Mónica Iturry1, Pablo Salgado1, Frank B Glaser1, Fernando E Taragano21Memory Research Center, Department of Neurology, Hospital General Abel Zubizarreta, GCBA Buenos Aires, Argentina; 2Department of Neuropsychology (SIREN, CEMIC University, Buenos Aires, ArgentinaObjective: To contrast early-onset (<60 years and late-onset (>60 years depression in geriatric patients by evaluating differences in cognition, vascular comorbidity and sociological risk factors. Both patient groups were compared with normal subjects.Materials and methods: We recruited 76 patients with depressive symptoms (37 late onset and 39 early onset and 17 normal controls matched by age and educational level. All subjects were assessed using a semistructured neuropsychiatric interview and an extensive neuropsychological battery. Vascular and sociological risk factors were also evaluated.Results: We found a significant variation in performance between depressive patients and normal controls in most cognitive functions, especially memory (P < 0.0001, semantic fluency (P < 0.0001, verbal fluency, and digit-symbol (P < 0.0001. Late-onset depression patients scored lower and exhibited more severe impairment in memory domains than early-onset depression patients (P < 0.05. Cholesterol levels and marital status were significantly (P < 0.05 different between the depressive groups. Both depressed groups (early- and lateonset were more inactive than controls (P < 0.05; odds ratio: 6.02.Conclusion: Geriatric depression may be a manifestation of brain degeneration, and the initial symptom of a dementia. It is important to consider this in the treatment of patients that exhibit late-onset depressive symptoms.Keywords: early- and late-onset depression, geriatrics, cognition

  6. Current situation and future of research reactor in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metoki, Naoto

    2011-01-01

    A new style of neutron facilities coexisting high intensity pulse neutron source (J-PARC/MLF) and steady state neutron from research reactor (JRR-3) is proposed. The coexistence of the pulse and reactor source is the world trend which is inevitable for the next generation neutron science. A sophisticated management and comprehensive user program are important for Japanese neutron community, involving high performance instruments with pulse neutron and steady neutron source with widely spread users. JAEA is the most responsible for the future of neutron science, because of the commitment for both type of neutron source, J-PARC/MLF and JRR-3. (author)

  7. SB loca research: regulatory application and needs for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brisbois, J.; Tellier, N.

    1985-06-01

    Besides the long term safety research whose main purpose is to develop and improve safety analysis tools, the lessons learned from the TMI accident showed that the emphasis should be given on small break analysis, with multiple failures or not, to have a thorough understanding of nuclear power and decay heat removal processes in its many modes in order to develop good plant procedures. The impact of these studies on the design and on the emergency procedures, resulting from the licensing process, are described and the needs for the future are identified

  8. Future Challenges and Opportunities in Online Prescription Drug Promotion Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southwell, Brian G.; Rupert, Douglas J.

    2016-01-01

    Despite increased availability of online promotional tools for prescription drug marketers, evidence on online prescription drug promotion is far from settled or conclusive. We highlight ways in which online prescription drug promotion is similar to conventional broadcast and print advertising and ways in which it differs. We also highlight five key areas for future research: branded drug website influence on consumer knowledge and behavior, interactive features on branded drug websites, mobile viewing of branded websites and mobile advertisements, online promotion and non-US audiences, and social media and medication decisions. PMID:26927597

  9. Questions raised over future of UK research council

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Michael

    2010-02-01

    Five senior physicists have written to the UK science minister, Lord Drayson, about the "dismal future" for researchers in the country in the wake of a £40m shortfall in the budget of the Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC). The physicists, who chair the STFC's five advisory panels, have also called for structural reforms to be made to the council. They warn that unless the government takes action to reverse the situation, the UK will be "perceived as an untrustworthy partner in global projects" and predict that a brain drain of the best UK scientists to positions overseas will ensue.

  10. Attitude of A Sample of Iranian Researchers toward The Future of Stem Cell Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfipanah, Mahdi; Azadeh, Fereydoon; Totonchi, Mehdi; Omani-Samani, Reza

    2018-10-01

    Stem cells that have unlimited proliferation potential as well as differentiation potency are considered to be a promising future treatment method for incurable diseases. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the future trend of stem cell researches from researchers' viewpoints. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study on researchers involved in stem cell research at Royan Institute. We designed a questionnaire using a qualitative study based on expert opinion and a literature review. Content validity was performed using three rounds of the Delphi method with experts. Face validity was undertaken by a Persian literature expert and a graphics designer. The questionnaire was distributed among 150 researchers involved in stem cell studies in Royan Institute biology laboratories. We collected 138 completed questionnaires. The mean age of participants was 31.13 ± 5.8 years; most (60.9%) were females. Participants (76.1%) considered the budget to be the most important issue in stem cell research, 79.7% needed financial support from the government, and 77.5% felt that charities could contribute substantially to stem cell research. A total of 90.6% of participants stated that stem cells should lead to commercial usage which could support future researches (86.2%). The aim of stem cell research was stipulated as increasing health status of the society according to 92.8% of the participants. At present, among cell types, importance was attached to cord blood and adult stem cells. Researchers emphasized the importance of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) rather than hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs, 57.73%). The prime priorities were given to cancer so that stem cell research could be directed to sphere stem cell research whereas the least preference was given to skin research. Regenerative medicine is considered the future of stem cell research with emphasis on application of these cells, especially in cancer treatment. Copyright© by Royan Institute. All rights

  11. Nurses' hospital orientation and future research challenges: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltokoski, J; Vehviläinen-Julkunen, K; Miettinen, M

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to describe the research on registered nurses' orientation processes in specialized hospital settings in order to illustrate directions for future research. The complex healthcare environment and the impact of nursing shortage and turnover make the hospital orientation process imperative. There is a growing recognition regarding research interests to meet the needs for evidence-based, effective and economically sound hospital orientation strategies. An integrative literature review was performed on publications from the period 2000 to 2013 included in the CINAHL and PubMed databases. English-language studies were included. Themes guiding the analysis were definition of the hospital orientation process, research topics, data collection and instruments and research evidence. Narrative synthesis was used. Eleven papers met the inclusion criteria. The conceptualization of orientation process reflected the complexity of the phenomenon. Less attention has been paid to designs to establish correlations or relationships between selected variables and hospital orientation process. The outcomes of hospital orientation programmes were limited primarily to retention and job satisfaction. The research evidence therefore cannot be evaluated as strong. The lack of an evidence-based approach makes it difficult to develop a comprehensive orientation process. Further research should explore interventions that will enhance the quality of hospital orientation practices to improve nurses' retention and job satisfaction. To provide a comprehensive hospital orientation process, hospital administrators have to put in place human resource development strategies along with practice implications and research efforts. Comprehensive hospital orientation benefits and outcomes should be visible to policy makers. © 2016 International Council of Nurses.

  12. Current frontiers and future directions of telecoupling research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J.

    2016-12-01

    The world has been increasingly interconnected over long distances though processes such as international trade, migration, telecommunication, and disease spread. However, previous studies often focused on socioeconomic or environmental issues of distant processes. While these studies have generated useful information for individual disciplines, integrating socioeconomic and environmental information is essential for holistic understanding of complex global challenges and unbiased decision making to address the challenges. To advance integrated research, the framework of telecoupling (socioeconomic and environmental interactions over distances) has been developed to explicitly address both socioeconomic and environmental issues simultaneously. Although the framework is relatively new, it has already been applied to tackle a variety of globally important issues, such as food security, water resources, energy sustainability, land use, international trade (e.g., food, forest products, energy, wildlife, industrial products), species invasion, investment, ecosystem services, conservation, information dissemination, and tourism. These applications have identified many important research gaps (e.g. spillover systems) and hidden linkages (e.g. feedbacks) among distant areas of the world with profound implications for sustainable development, ecosystem health, and human well-being. While working with telecoupling presents more challenges than focusing only on disciplinary issues, support from funding agencies has helped accelerate research on telecoupling and more efforts are being aimed at framework quantification and operationalization. The presenter will provide an overview of the current frontiers, discuss future research directions, and highlight emerging opportunities and challenges in telecoupling research and governance.

  13. Experiences and Future Challenges of Bioleaching Research in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Borja

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the state of the art of bioleaching research published in South Korean Journals. Our research team reviewed the available articles registered in the Korean Citation Index (KCI, Korean Journal Database addressing the relevant aspects of bioleaching. We systematically categorized the target metal sources as follows: mine tailings, electronic waste, mineral ores and metal concentrates, spent catalysts, contaminated soil, and other materials. Molecular studies were also addressed in this review. The classification provided in the present manuscript details information about microbial species, parameters of operation (e.g., temperature, particle size, pH, and process length, and target metals to compare recoveries among the bioleaching processes. The findings show an increasing interest in the technology from research institutes and mineral processing-related companies over the last decade. The current research trends demonstrate that investigations are mainly focused on determining the optimum parameters of operations for different techniques and minor applications at the industrial scale, which opens the opportunity for greater technological developments. An overview of bioleaching of each metal substrate and opportunities for future research development are also included.

  14. A European Perspective on Auditory Processing Disorder-Current Knowledge and Future Research Focus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliki (Vivian Iliadou

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Current notions of “hearing impairment,” as reflected in clinical audiological practice, do not acknowledge the needs of individuals who have normal hearing pure tone sensitivity but who experience auditory processing difficulties in everyday life that are indexed by reduced performance in other more sophisticated audiometric tests such as speech audiometry in noise or complex non-speech sound perception. This disorder, defined as “Auditory Processing Disorder” (APD or “Central Auditory Processing Disorder” is classified in the current tenth version of the International Classification of diseases as H93.25 and in the forthcoming beta eleventh version. APDs may have detrimental effects on the affected individual, with low esteem, anxiety, and depression, and symptoms may remain into adulthood. These disorders may interfere with learning per se and with communication, social, emotional, and academic-work aspects of life. The objective of the present paper is to define a baseline European APD consensus formulated by experienced clinicians and researchers in this specific field of human auditory science. A secondary aim is to identify issues that future research needs to address in order to further clarify the nature of APD and thus assist in optimum diagnosis and evidence-based management. This European consensus presents the main symptoms, conditions, and specific medical history elements that should lead to auditory processing evaluation. Consensus on definition of the disorder, optimum diagnostic pathway, and appropriate management are highlighted alongside a perspective on future research focus.

  15. Recreational 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine or 'ecstasy': Current perspective and future research prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrott, Andrew C; Downey, Luke A; Roberts, Carl A; Montgomery, Cathy; Bruno, Raimondo; Fox, Helen C

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to debate current understandings about the psychobiological effects of recreational 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or 'ecstasy'), and recommend theoretically-driven topics for future research. Recent empirical findings, especially those from novel topic areas were reviewed. Potential causes for the high variance often found in group findings were also examined. The first empirical reports into psychobiological and psychiatric aspects from the early 1990s concluded that regular users demonstrated some selective psychobiological deficits, for instance worse declarative memory, or heightened depression. More recent research has covered a far wider range of psychobiological functions, and deficits have emerged in aspects of vision, higher cognitive skill, neurohormonal functioning, and foetal developmental outcomes. However, variance levels are often high, indicating that while some recreational users develop problems, others are less affected. Potential reasons for this high variance are debated. An explanatory model based on multi-factorial causation is then proposed. A number of theoretically driven research topics are suggested, in order to empirically investigate the potential causes for these diverse psychobiological deficits. Future neuroimaging studies should study the practical implications of any serotonergic and/or neurohormonal changes, using a wide range of functional measures.

  16. Future Directions in Vulnerability to Depression among Youth: Integrating Risk Factors and Processes across Multiple Levels of Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankin, Benjamin L.

    2012-01-01

    Depression is a developmental phenomenon. Considerable progress has been made in describing the syndrome, establishing its prevalence and features, providing clues as to its etiology, and developing evidence-based treatment and prevention options. Despite considerable headway in distinct lines of vulnerability research, there is an explanatory gap…

  17. Transnational nurse migration: future directions for medical anthropological research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Megan; Nichter, Mark

    2014-04-01

    Transnational nurse migration is a serious global health issue in which inequitably distributed shortages hinder health and development goals. This article selectively reviews the literature on nurse migration that has emerged from nursing, health planning, and the social sciences and offers productive directions for future anthropological research. The literature on global nurse migration has largely focused on push/pull economic logic and the concept of brain drain to understand the causes and effects of nurse migration. These concepts obscure political-economic, historical, and cultural factors that pattern nurse migration and influence the complex effects of nurse migration. Global nurse care chain analysis helps illuminate the numerous nodes in the production and migration of nurses, and management of this transnational process. Examples are provided from the Philippines and India to illustrate ways in which this analysis may be deepened, refined and rendered more critical by anthropological research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. What is "neuromarketing"? A discussion and agenda for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Nick; Broderick, Amanda J; Chamberlain, Laura

    2007-02-01

    Recent years have seen advances in neuroimaging to such an extent that neuroscientists are able to directly study the frequency, location, and timing of neuronal activity to an unprecedented degree. However, marketing science has remained largely unaware of such advances and their huge potential. In fact, the application of neuroimaging to market research--what has come to be called "neuromarketing"--has caused considerable controversy within neuroscience circles in recent times. This paper is an attempt to widen the scope of neuromarketing beyond commercial brand and consumer behaviour applications, to include a wider conceptualisation of marketing science. Drawing from general neuroscience and neuroeconomics, neuromarketing as a field of study is defined, and some future research directions are suggested.

  19. Selective mutism: an update and suggestions for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Samantha; Beidel, Deborah C

    2011-08-01

    Speculation continues regarding the accurate classification of selective mutism and potential etiologic factors. Current research has shed some light on several factors that may predispose some children to this disorder, but conclusions are difficult to draw due to reliance on subjective measures, few comparison groups, and/or limited theoretical grounding. This article provides an update on recent efforts to elucidate the etiologic pathways of selective mutism and on the current debate regarding its strong overlap with anxiety disorders, most notably social phobia. An additional attempt is made to examine findings based on a developmental perspective that accounts for multiple pathways, context, and the developmental stage of the child. Emotion regulation theory is offered as a potential factor in why some children may be more vulnerable to the etiologic factors described. Suggestions for future research are offered based on this integration of information.

  20. Food reward system: current perspectives and future research needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Alonso, Miguel; Woods, Stephen C; Pelchat, Marcia; Grigson, Patricia Sue; Stice, Eric; Farooqi, Sadaf; Khoo, Chor San; Mattes, Richard D; Beauchamp, Gary K

    2015-05-01

    This article reviews current research and cross-disciplinary perspectives on the neuroscience of food reward in animals and humans, examines the scientific hypothesis of food addiction, discusses methodological and terminology challenges, and identifies knowledge gaps and future research needs. Topics addressed herein include the role of reward and hedonic aspects in the regulation of food intake, neuroanatomy and neurobiology of the reward system in animals and humans, responsivity of the brain reward system to palatable foods and drugs, translation of craving versus addiction, and cognitive control of food reward. The content is based on a workshop held in 2013 by the North American Branch of the International Life Sciences Institute. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute.

  1. Thyroid nodule guidelines: agreement, disagreement and need for future research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paschke, Ralf; Hegedüs, Laszlo; Alexander, Erik

    2011-01-01

    , clinically very relevant areas of uncertainty need to be addressed by further research. This situation applies, for instance, to better definition of ultrasound malignancy criteria and the evaluation of emerging new diagnostic and therapeutic techniques, including molecular markers. For clinicians who advise......This article reviews agreement, disagreement and need for future research of the thyroid nodule guidelines published by the British Thyroid Association, National Cancer Institute, American Thyroid Association and the joint, transatlantic effort of three large societies, the American Society...... of Clinical Endocrinologists, Associazione Medici Endocrinologi and the European Thyroid Association, published in 2010. Consensus exists for most topics in the various guidelines. A few areas of disagreement, such as the use of scintigraphy, are mostly due to differences in disease prevalence in different...

  2. Toward an integrative understanding of narrative and emotion processes in Emotion-focused therapy of depression: implications for theory, research and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angus, Lynne

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the fundamental contributions of client narrative disclosure in psychotherapy and its importance for the elaboration of new emotional meanings and self understanding in the context of Emotion-focused therapy (EFT) of depression. An overview of the multi-methodological steps undertaken to empirically investigate the contributions of client story telling, emotional differentiation and meaning-making processes (Narrative Processes Coding System; Angus et al., 1999) in EFT treatments of depression is provided, followed by a summary of key research findings that informed the development of a narrative-informed approach to Emotion-focused therapy of depression (Angus & Greenberg, 2011). Finally, the clinical practice and training implications of adopting a research-informed approach to working with narrative and emotion processes in EFT are described, and future research directions discussed.

  3. Base technology approaches in materials research for future nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Tatsuo

    1992-01-01

    In the development of advanced nuclear systems for future, majority of critical issues in material research and development are more or less related with the effects of neutron irradiation. The approaches to those issues in the past have been mainly concerned with interpretation of the facts and minor modification of existing materials, having been inevitably of passive nature. In combating against predicted complex effects arising from variety of critical parameters, approaches must be reviewed more strategically. Some attempts of shifting research programs to such a direction have been made at JAERI in the Base (Common) Technology Programs either by adding to or restructuring the existing tasks. Major tasks currently in progress after the reorientation are categorized in several disciplines including new tasks for material innovation and concept development for neutron sources. The efforts have been set forth since 1988, and a few of them are now mature to transfer to the tasks in the projects of advanced reactors. The paper reviews the status of some typical activities emphasizing the effects of the reorientation and possible extensions of the outcomes to future applications. (author)

  4. Nuclear Research and Development Capabilities Needed to Support Future Growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wham, Robert M. [ORNL, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6154 (United States); Kearns, Paul [Battelle Memorial Institute (United States); Marston, Ted [Marston Consulting (United States)

    2009-06-15

    The energy crisis looming before the United States can be resolved only by an approach that integrates a 'portfolio' of options. Nuclear energy, already an important element in the portfolio, should play an even more significant role in the future as the U.S. strives to attain energy independence and reduce carbon emissions. The DOE Office of Nuclear Energy asked Battelle Memorial Institute to obtain input from the commercial power generation industry on industry's vision for nuclear energy over the next 30-50 years. With this input, Battelle was asked to generate a set of research and development capabilities necessary for DOE to support the anticipated growth in nuclear power generation. This presentation, based on the report generated for the Office of Nuclear Energy, identifies the current and future nuclear research and development capabilities required to make this happen. The capabilities support: (1) continued, safe operation of the current fleet of nuclear plants; (2) the availability of a well qualified and trained workforce; (3) demonstration of the next generation nuclear plants; (4) development of a sustainable fuel cycle; (5) advanced technologies for maximizing resource utilization and minimization of waste and (6) advanced modeling and simulation for rapid and reliable development and deployment of new nuclear technologies. In order to assure these capabilities are made available, a Strategic Nuclear Energy Capability Initiative is proposed to provide the required resources during this critical period of time. (authors)

  5. Research on improvement of marine nuclear reactors and future perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokomura, Takeyoshi

    1988-01-01

    The features when atomic energy is utilized on the sea are that the fuel cost is low, accordingly it is suitable to the power sources of large output, that the volume and weight of fuel are small, accordingly it is suitable to the continuous operation for a long period without refueling, and that oxygen is not required for the burning, accordingly it is suitable to undersea power sources. In USSR, four nuclear icebreakers have been in use, and four more are under construction. A nuclear LASH ship has been operated, and one more is under construction. As the other fields than sea transportation, an electricity generation barge MH-1A of USA used as the auxiliary power source for the Panama Canal and a research submarine NR-1 of USA have been in practical use. With the advance of ocean development in future, the creation of needs such as deep sea power stations, deep sea research ships and deep sea work ships is expected. Marine nuclear reactor technology was begun in the form of the nuclearization of merchant ships, and Savannah of USA, Otto Hahn of West Germany and Mutsu of Japan were built. The marine nuclear reactors built so far and of which the conceptual design was carried out are shown. The improvement of marine reactors is the reduction of size and weight, the simplification of the system, the adoption of self pressurization and self compensation and so on. The research on the improvement in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute is reported. (Kako, I.)

  6. Thoughts on environmental actinide research-future and present situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Masayoshi

    2002-01-01

    Thoughts on environmental actinides, especially transuranium elements, are presented with emphasis on present situation and future researches. It is since 1945 that man has been in direct relationship to the significant quantities of such transuranium elements, although Pu was discovered in 1942 to exist in very small quantities in nature. Substantial amounts of these elements (Np, Pu, Am) have been distributed in the environment mainly as the result of nuclear weapon testing, followed by accident of satellite and release of radioactive substances from nuclear facilities. Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident might serve as a most recent example of such release. Considerable efforts have been devoted to the investigation of the processes involved in the transfer of radionuclides in the environment and how these can be influenced. And, many data (levels and distribution) and knowledge to understand these processes have been obtained and accumulated. The final purpose in all the research was the protection of the human being. The present trends for environmental radioactivity research (or radioecology) involves a further development of models, speciation of radionuclides, tracer studies and countermeasures of other species than man in radiological protection. Joint researches between radioecologists and specialists such as meteorology, oceanography, geology, botany, statistics and so on are more and more needed to make one of the most fascinating environmental sciences. Finally, an effort should be made to develop radioecology into a more hypothesis-oriented science, as mentioned by Platt. (author)

  7. Water, Society and the future of water resources research (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, C. M.

    2013-12-01

    The subject of water and society is broad, but at heart is the study of water as a resource, essential to human activities, a vital input to food and energy production, the sustaining medium for ecosystems and yet also a destructive hazard. Society demands, withdraws, competes, uses and wastes the resource in dynamic counterpart. The science of water management emerges from this interface, a field at the nexus of engineering and geoscience, with substantial influence from economics and other social sciences. Within this purview are some of the most pressing environmental questions of our time, such as adaptation to climate change, direct and indirect connections between water and energy policy, the continuing dependence of agriculture on depletion of the world's aquifers, the conservation or preservation of ecosystems within increasingly human-influenced river systems, and food security and poverty reduction for the earth's poorest inhabitants. This presentation will present and support the hypothesis that water resources research is a scientific enterprise separate from, yet closely interrelated to, hydrologic science. We will explore the scientific basis of water resources research, review pressing research questions and opportunities, and propose an action plan for the advancement of the science of water management. Finally, the presentation will propose a Chapman Conference on Water and Society: The Future of Water Resources Research in the spring of 2015.

  8. Parturition in domestic animals: targets for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taverne, M A M; van der Weijden, G C

    2008-11-01

    Contents Compared with other parts of the reproductive cycle, the parturition process of domestic animals has received relatively little attention from researchers during the last two decades. Yet, interventions during parturition, either by the owner or the veterinarian, are frequently judged necessary and perinatal losses in most of the domestic species are (still) rather high. The present paper focuses on the birth process in three domestic species, the dog, pig and cow, mainly because most of the experimental and research work of the authors themselves was dealing with these three species. Against the background of specific clinical problems, breeding circumstances and economic performance, selected topics and questions are addressed to identify areas for future research. These are, among others, related to the mechanisms that trigger the birth process (are the foetuses involved in the dog and sow?), the role of hormones and cytokines during ripening of the cervix (activation and/or de-activation of specific matrix metallo-proteinases and their local inhibitors), the functional significance of fetal body movements to prepare the foetus for expulsion, and the exact time course of events involved in the transportation of an individual foetus from its intrauterine location, via the pelvic canal, to the outside world. Research on some of these topics, such as the ripening of the cervix in cows, might also contribute to resolve clinical problems in human obstetrics.

  9. Depression research methodologies in the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology: a review and critique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennen, H; Hall, J A; Affleck, G

    1995-05-01

    Personality and social psychological studies of depression and depressive phenomena have become more methodologically sophisticated in recent years. In response to earlier problems in this literature, investigators have formulated sound suggestions for research designs. Studies of depression published in the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology (JPSP) between 1988 and 1993 were reviewed to evaluate how well these recommendations have been followed. Forty-one articles were examined for adherence to 3 suggestions appearing consistently in the literature: (a) multiple assessment periods, (b) multiple assessment methods, and (c) appropriate comparison groups. The studies published in JPSP have not adhered well to these standards. The authors recommend resetting minimum methodological criteria for studies of depression published in the premier journal in personality and social psychology.

  10. Three challenges for future research on cochlear implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B. Pisoni

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cochlear implants (CIs often work very well for many children and adults with profound sensorineural (SNHL hearing loss. Unfortunately, while many CI patients display substantial benefits in recognizing speech and understanding spoken language following cochlear implantation, a large number of patients achieve poor outcomes. Understanding and explaining the reasons for poor outcomes following implantation is a very challenging research problem that has received little attention despite the pressing clinical significance. In this paper, we discuss three challenges for future research on CIs. First, we consider the issue of individual differences and variability in outcomes following implantation. At the present time, we still do not have a complete and satisfactory account of the causal underlying factors that are responsible for the enormous individual differences and variability in outcomes. Second, we discuss issues related to the lack of preimplant predictors of outcomes. Very little prospective research has been carried out on the development of preimplant predictors that can be used to reliably identify CI candidates who may be at high risk for a poor outcome following implantation. Other than conventional demographics and hearing history, there are no prognostic tools available to predict speech recognition outcomes after implantation. Finally, we discuss the third challenge — what to do with a CI-user who has a poor outcome. We suggest that new research efforts need to be devoted to studying this neglected clinical population in greater depth to find out why they are doing poorly with their CI and what novel interventions and treatments can be developed to improve their speech recognition outcomes. Using these three challenges as objectives for future research on CIs, we suggest that the field needs to adopt a new narrative grounded in theory and methods from Cognitive Hearing Science and information processing theory. Without knowing

  11. Internet Research: Implications for The Future of Health Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortliffe, Ted

    1999-01-01

    The phenomenal growth in Internet usage, largely due to the success of the World Wide Web, has stressed the international networking infrastructure in ways that were never contemplated when the early ARPAnet emerged from research laboratories in the 1970s. Some of the challenges are logistical and legal, and have to do with management of domain names, intellectual-property agreements, and international business activities. Others are technical, resulting both because we are envisioning applications that the current Internet cannot support, and because the existing infrastructure cannot scale to a world in which a huge portion of the world's population is online and individual homes and businesses may have IP addresses for tens of electronic devices, such as appliances, heating systems, or security alarms. In this presentation, I will discuss some of the US research and testbed activities that are currently underway in an effort to respond to the technical challenges. These include the Internet-2 testbed created by a consortium of academic institutions, and the federal government's Next Generation Internet research initiative. I will explain the difference between these two programs and identify some of the technical requirements other than a simple increase in bandwidth that have been identified for the evolving Internet. This will lead to a discussion of the limitations of the current Internet that have constrained its use in health care and that accordingly help to define the networking research agenda that is of greatest importance to the biomedical community. Policy and regulatory issues that arise because of health care's use of the Internet will also be discussed, as will those technical requirements that may be unique to biomedical applications. One goal of the discussion will be to motivate an international discussion of the ways in which the medical informatics community should be engaged in both basic and applied research in the area of networking and the

  12. Status of muon collider research and development and future plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available The status of the research on muon colliders is discussed and plans are outlined for future theoretical and experimental studies. Besides work on the parameters of a 3–4 and 0.5 TeV center-of-mass (COM energy collider, many studies are now concentrating on a machine near 0.1 TeV (COM that could be a factory for the s-channel production of Higgs particles. We discuss the research on the various components in such muon colliders, starting from the proton accelerator needed to generate pions from a heavy-Z target and proceeding through the phase rotation and decay (π→μν_{μ} channel, muon cooling, acceleration, storage in a collider ring, and the collider detector. We also present theoretical and experimental R&D plans for the next several years that should lead to a better understanding of the design and feasibility issues for all of the components. This report is an update of the progress on the research and development since the feasibility study of muon colliders presented at the Snowmass '96 Workshop [R. B. Palmer, A. Sessler, and A. Tollestrup, Proceedings of the 1996 DPF/DPB Summer Study on High-Energy Physics (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA, 1997].

  13. Yoga for heart failure: A review and future research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula R Pullen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Complementary and alternative medicine is a rapidly growing area of biomedical inquiry. Yoga has emerged in the forefront of holistic medical care due to its long history of linking physical, mental, and spiritual well-being. Research in yoga therapy (YT has associated improved cardiovascular and quality of life (QoL outcomes for the special needs of heart failure (HF patients. Aim: The aim of this study is to review yoga intervention studies on HF patients, discuss proposed mechanisms, and examine yoga's effect on physiological systems that have potential benefits for HF patients. Second, to recommend future research directions to find the most effective delivery methods of yoga to medically stable HF patients. Methods: The authors conducted a systematic review of the medical literature for RCTs involving HF patients as participants in yoga interventions and for studies utilizing mechanistic theories of stretch and new technologies. We examined physical intensity, mechanistic theories, and the use of the latest technologies. Conclusions: Based on the review, there is a need to further explore yoga mechanisms and research options for the delivery of YT. Software apps as exergames developed for use at home and community activity centers may minimize health disparities and increase QoL for HF patients.

  14. The Job Demands–Resources model: Challenges for future research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelia Demerouti

    2011-05-01

    Research purpose: To provide an overview of the JD–R model, which incorporates many possible working conditions and focuses on both negative and positive indicators of employee well-being. Moreover, the studies of the special issue were introduced. Research design: Qualitative and quantitative studies on the JD–R model were reviewed to enlighten the health and motivational processes suggested by the model. Main findings: Next to the confirmation of the two suggested processes of the JD–R model, the studies of the special issue showed that the model can be used to predict work-place bullying, incidences of upper respiratory track infection, work-based identity, and early retirement intentions. Moreover, whilst psychological safety climate could be considered as a hypothetical precursor of job demands and resources, compassion satisfaction moderated the health process of the model. Contribution/value-add: The findings of previous studies and the studies of the special issue were integrated in the JD–R model that can be used to predict well-being and performance at work. New avenues for future research were suggested. Practical/managerial implications: The JD–R model is a framework that can be used for organisations to improve employee health and motivation, whilst simultaneously improving various organisational outcomes.

  15. Colloquium : The future of double β decay research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zdesenko, Yuri

    2002-01-01

    The current results and future perspectives of 2β decay research are reviewed. The present status of neutrino physics makes it necessary to enhance the sensitivity of 2β decay experiments (in terms of the half-life limit for the neutrinoless mode) to the level of 10 26 -10 28 yr. Requirements for future supersensitivity projects are formulated and it is concluded that such a goal will certainly be reached in the most realistic next generation experiments (e.g., CAMEO, CUORE, GEM, GENIUS, and MAJORANA), where restrictions on the neutrino mass may be pushed down to m ν ≤0.01-0.05 eV. In addition, the GEM and GENIUS projects may advance the best current limits on the existence of neutralinos--as dark matter candidates--by three orders of magnitude, and at the same time may be able to identify unambiguously the dark matter signal by detection of its seasonal modulation. All of these results will provide crucial tests of the key theoretical models of modern astroparticle physics and cosmology

  16. Global fate of POPs: Current and future research directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohmann, Rainer; Breivik, Knut; Dachs, Jordi; Muir, Derek

    2007-01-01

    For legacy and emerging persistent organic pollutants (POPs), surprisingly little is still known in quantitative terms about their global sources and emissions. Atmospheric transport has been identified as the key global dispersal mechanism for most legacy POPs. In contrast, transport by ocean currents may prove to be the main transport route for many polar, emerging POPs. This is linked to the POPs' intrinsic physico-chemical properties, as exemplified by the different fate of hexachlorocyclohexanes in the Arctic. Similarly, our current understanding of POPs' global transport and fate remains sketchy. The importance of organic carbon and global temperature differences have been accepted as key drivers of POPs' global distribution. However, future research will need to understand the various biogeochemical and geophysical cycles under anthropogenic pressures to be able to understand and predict the global fate of POPs accurately. - Future studies into the global fate of POPs will need to pay more attention to the various biogeochemical and anthropogenic cycles to better understand emissions, transport and sinks

  17. Global fate of POPs: Current and future research directions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohmann, Rainer [Graduate School of Oceanography, University of Rhode Island, Narragansett, RI 02882-1197 (United States)], E-mail: lohmann@gso.uri.edu; Breivik, Knut [Norwegian Institute for Air Research, PO Box 100, NO-2027 Kjeller (Norway); University of Oslo, Department of Chemistry, PO Box 1033, NO-0315 Oslo (Norway); Dachs, Jordi [Department of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Chemical and Environmental Research (IIQAB-CSIC), Jordi Girona 18-26, Barcelona 08034 (Spain); Muir, Derek [Aquatic Ecosystem Protection Research Division, Environment Canada, 867 Lakeshore Road, Burlington, ON L7R4A6 (Canada)

    2007-11-15

    For legacy and emerging persistent organic pollutants (POPs), surprisingly little is still known in quantitative terms about their global sources and emissions. Atmospheric transport has been identified as the key global dispersal mechanism for most legacy POPs. In contrast, transport by ocean currents may prove to be the main transport route for many polar, emerging POPs. This is linked to the POPs' intrinsic physico-chemical properties, as exemplified by the different fate of hexachlorocyclohexanes in the Arctic. Similarly, our current understanding of POPs' global transport and fate remains sketchy. The importance of organic carbon and global temperature differences have been accepted as key drivers of POPs' global distribution. However, future research will need to understand the various biogeochemical and geophysical cycles under anthropogenic pressures to be able to understand and predict the global fate of POPs accurately. - Future studies into the global fate of POPs will need to pay more attention to the various biogeochemical and anthropogenic cycles to better understand emissions, transport and sinks.

  18. Langley Research Center Utility Risk from Future Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Young, Russell J.; Ganoe, Rene

    2015-01-01

    The successful operation of NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) depends on services provided by several public utility companies. These include Newport News Waterworks, Dominion Virginia Power, Virginia Natural Gas and Hampton Roads Sanitation District. LaRC's plan to respond to future climate change should take into account how these companies plan to avoid interruption of services while minimizing cost to the customers. This report summarizes our findings from publicly available documents on how each company plans to respond. This will form the basis for future planning for the Center. Our preliminary findings show that flooding and severe storms could interrupt service from the Waterworks and Sanitation District but the potential is low due to plans in place to address climate change on their system. Virginia Natural Gas supplies energy to produce steam but most current steam comes from the Hampton trash burning plant, thus interruption risk is low. Dominion Virginia Power does not address climate change impacts on their system in their public reports. The potential interruption risk is considered to be medium. The Hampton Roads Sanitation District is projecting a major upgrade of their system to mitigate clean water inflow and infiltration. This will reduce infiltration and avoid overloading the pump stations and treatment plants.

  19. Organisational Information Security Strategy: Review, Discussion and Future Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig A. Horne

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Dependence on information, including for some of the world’s largest organisations such as governments and multi-national corporations, has grown rapidly in recent years. However, reports of information security breaches and their associated consequences indicate that attacks are escalating on organisations conducting these information-based activities. Organisations need to formulate strategy to secure their information, however gaps exist in knowledge. Through a thematic review of academic security literature, (1 we analyse the antecedent conditions that motivate the adoption of a comprehensive information security strategy, (2 the conceptual elements of strategy and (3 the benefits that are enjoyed post-adoption. Our contributions include a definition of information security strategy that moves from an internally-focussed protection of information towards a strategic view that considers the organisation, its resources and capabilities, and its external environment. Our findings are then used to suggest future research directions.

  20. Parental coping and childhood epilepsy: the need for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Lisa V

    2011-02-01

    Parents of children with epilepsy, like parents of children with many other chronic conditions, are faced with a constant feeling of uncertainty about their child's condition. This uncertainty can lead to a decreased ability to cope as evidenced by increased stress levels, negative mood states, and impaired family functioning. Because altered coping in the parent may have a profound negative impact on the child's psychosocial adjustment to living with a chronic condition, it is important to identify ways to facilitate positive coping skills in the parent. The purpose of this review was to critically analyze the existing literature related to the challenges associated with parenting a child who has epilepsy. Interventions geared toward facilitating coping in parents will also be reviewed, and gaps in the literature will be identified. Lastly, future implications for nursing research will be discussed.

  1. Supply chain risk management: review, classification and future research directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittal, M.L.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to be more efficient, firms have adopted strategies such as outsourcing, global partnerships and lean practices. Although such strategies have tremendous abilities to improve the efficiencies but simultaneously they make the firms vulnerable to market uncertainties, dependencies and disruptions. Moreover, natural calamities and manmade crises have also put negative impact on strategic, operational and tactical performance of supply chains. These factors have triggered the interest of academia and industry to consider the risk issues as prime concerns. To capture the more fine-grained elements of diversified risk issues related to the supply chain we employ a multi-layered top town taxonomy to classify and codify the literature and put forward the probable dimensions for future research. We further study the pool of SCRM literature focusing on coordination, decision making and sector-wise SCRM implementation issues and derive relevant propositions.

  2. The art of creating futures. Practical theology and a strategic research sensitivity for the future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, J.A.; Ganzevoort, R.R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores a futures perspective for practical theology. Although there are some examples of a future orientation, a systematic futures perspective has not been developed. Building on futures studies (including predictive studies on foresight and design and architecture studies), the

  3. Current and future geothermal research in New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, I.J.; Browne, P.; Christenson, B.W.; Hunt, T.M.; Weir, G.

    2000-01-01

    Research programs by Crown Research Institutes (Geological and Nuclear Sciences Ltd. and Industrial Research Ltd.), university departments (Auckland, Massey and Victoria), power companies and private consultancies aim to obtain a better understanding of currently producing geothermal fields in New Zealand, and of deep geothermal systems which might have potential for future resource development. Research is also being directed at industrial and environmental issues related to exploitation, water-rock alteration processes, changes in shallow geothermal systems with time, and mineralisation as it relates to epithermal ore formation. The chemical and physical environment of geothermal reservoirs in the Taupo Volcanic Zone (e.g. Thames, Kawerau, Ohaaki, Ngatamariki, Wairakei, Tongariro, Tauhara and Tokaanu-Waihi) is being quantified with the aim of developing a suite of magma to ambient production scenarios using numerical, reactive transport models. A variety of geological, geochemical and geophysical techniques including fluid inclusion geothermometry, stable isotope analysis, electromagnetic, micro-seismic and magnetotelluric analysis is providing high quality input data. Through experimentation and computer modelling, criteria for assessing the optimal depths for re-injection of production effluents are being developed, and related problems such as silica and calcite scaling, pipeline insulation and chemical corrosion investigated. Paths, flow mechanisms and flow rates of re-injection plumes are being modelled using electrical resistivity, micro-gravity and radioisotope tracer methods. Environmental effects related to testing and development, presently causing concern amongst local authorities and the public, are being quantitatively assessed, and recommendations made to mitigate them. The mechanical and petrological properties of rocks in shallow aquifers undergoing ground subsidence are being determined, and the extent and style of ground deformation investigated

  4. Water research to support society: past, present and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arheimer, Berit

    2014-05-01

    Scientists are nowadays claiming that we are leaving the geological era of Holocene and have entered the Anthropocene (the Age of Man), a man-made world, in which humans are not observers of nature but central to its workings and commanding the planet's features, fluxes and material cycles. Both the hydrological and the biogeochemical cycles are radically changed compared to pristine conditions and the biodiversity is radically declining as the human population is growing. The co-evolution between society and environment is complex and not always reversible and we therefore need more research on effects of change to raise awareness and prepare for consequences. Many problems caused by humans are also well recognized and can be remediated. As the society develops also the environmental concerns normally becomes more important leading to remedial measures and pollution control. The change in water quality for many rivers world-wide shows similar flux over time related to level of economic development, going from deterioration to recovery as an effect of improved water management. Water management is of major importance for sustainable development, both for efficient water use and ecosystem protection. Water management should be based on (i) best available site information and (ii) best practices from understanding cause-effect relationships; yet, large areas still remains un-monitored and the relations between processes are complex and often not well understood. These knowledge gaps hamper the societal development and are thus two key challenges to address in the hydrological sciences initiative Panta Rhei. This presentation will address some of these challenges for water research in the past, present and future. Hydrology is by tradition an applied research, in which scientific questions co-evolve with societal needs. This will be exemplified this by giving a brief overview of the shift in research questions at one national institute, SMHI, during the last 100 years

  5. Microbiomics of Oral Biofilms: Driving The Future of Dental Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaminda Jayampath Seneviratne

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Oral infectious diseases such as dental caries, periodontal disease, endodontic infections, oral candidiasis and peri-implantitis cause major health problems worldwide. All of these infectious diseases are associated with the biofilm growth mode of the oral pathogens. In the past, researchers often attempted to examine the association of single pathogens with particular dental diseases such as in the case of Streptococcus mutans acting as an aetiological agent for dental caries and the so-called “red-complex” bacteria for periodontal disease. However, with the recent advent of OMICS biology techniques such as genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, it is possible to gain new insights into the host-microbial interaction, microbial community structure and composition in the oral cavity. The new studies on oral microbiomics can unravel the facets of the aetiopathology of oral diseases as never seen before. This mini-review will provide an history and overview of some of the existing DNA sequencing platforms employed to study the microbiomics of oral biofilms and the exciting future ahead for dental research.

  6. Vitamin D and the brain: key questions for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xiaoying; Gooch, Helen; Groves, Natalie J; Sah, Pankaj; Burne, Thomas H; Eyles, Darryl W; McGrath, John J

    2015-04-01

    Over the last decade a convergent body of evidence has emerged from epidemiology, animal experiments and clinical trials which links low vitamin D status with a range of adverse neuropsychiatric outcomes. This research demonstrates that the timing of exposure to low vitamin D influences the nature of brain phenotypes, as exposures during gestation versus adulthood result in different phenotypes. With respect to early life exposures, there is robust evidence from rodent experiments indicating that transient developmental vitamin D (DVD) deficiency is associated with changes in brain structure, neurochemistry, gene and protein expression and behavior. In particular, DVD deficiency is associated with alterations in the dopaminergic neurotransmitter systems. In contrast, recently published animal experiments indicate that adult vitamin D (AVD) deficiency is associated with more subtle neurochemical and behavioral phenotypes. This paper explores key issues that need to be addressed in future research. There is a need to define the timing and duration of the 'critical window' during which low vitamin D status is associated with differential and adverse brain outcomes. We discuss the role for 'two-hit hypotheses', which propose that adult vitamin D deficiency leaves the brain more vulnerable to secondary adverse exposures, and thus may exacerbate disease progression. Finally, we explore the evidence implicating a role for vitamin D in rapid, non-genomic mechanisms that may involve L-type calcium channels and brain function. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled '17th Vitamin D Workshop'. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Peaking for optimal performance: Research limitations and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyne, David B; Mujika, Iñigo; Reilly, Thomas

    2009-02-01

    A key element of the physical preparation of athletes is the taper period in the weeks immediately preceding competition. Existing research has defined the taper, identified various forms used in contemporary sport, and examined the prescription of training volume, load, intensity, duration, and type (progressive or step). Current limitations include: the lack of studies on team, combative, racquet, and precision (target) sports; the relatively small number of randomized controlled trials; the narrow focus on a single competition (single peak) compared with multiple peaking for weekly, multi-day or multiple events; and limited understanding of the physiological, neuromuscular, and biomechanical basis of the taper. Future research should address these limitations, together with the influence of prior training on optimal tapering strategies, and the interactions between the taper and long-haul travel, heat, and altitude. Practitioners seek information on how to prescribe tapers from season to season during an athlete's career, or a team's progression through a domestic league season, or multi-year Olympic or World Cup cycle. Practical guidelines for planning effective tapers for the Vancouver 2010 and London 2012 Olympics will evolve from both experimental investigations and modelling of successful tapers currently employed in a wide range of sports.

  8. Implementation of proteomics for cancer research: past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Parisa; Shahrokni, Armin; Ranjbar, Mohammad R Nezami

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is the leading cause of the death, accounts for about 13% of all annual deaths worldwide. Many different fields of science are collaborating together studying cancer to improve our knowledge of this lethal disease, and find better solutions for diagnosis and treatment. Proteomics is one of the most recent and rapidly growing areas in molecular biology that helps understanding cancer from an omics data analysis point of view. The human proteome project was officially initiated in 2008. Proteomics enables the scientists to interrogate a variety of biospecimens for their protein contents and measure the concentrations of these proteins. Current necessary equipment and technologies for cancer proteomics are mass spectrometry, protein microarrays, nanotechnology and bioinformatics. In this paper, we provide a brief review on proteomics and its application in cancer research. After a brief introduction including its definition, we summarize the history of major previous work conducted by researchers, followed by an overview on the role of proteomics in cancer studies. We also provide a list of different utilities in cancer proteomics and investigate their advantages and shortcomings from theoretical and practical angles. Finally, we explore some of the main challenges and conclude the paper with future directions in this field.

  9. Past, present, and future in hippocampal formation and memory research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-López, Mónica

    2015-06-01

    Over 100 years of research on the hippocampal formation has led us understand the consequences of lesions in humans, the functional networks, anatomical pathways, neuronal types and their local circuitry, receptors, molecules, intracellular cascades, and some of the physiological mechanisms underlying long-term spatial and episodic memory. In addition, complex computational models allow us to formulate sophisticated hypotheses; many of them testable with techniques recently developed unthinkable in the past. Although the neurobiology of the cognitive map is starting to be revealed today, we still face a future with many unresolved questions. The aim of this commentary is twofold. First is to point out some of the critical findings in hippocampal formation research and new challenges. Second, to briefly summarize what the anatomy of memory can tell us about how highly processed sensory information from distant cortical areas communicate with different subareas of the entorhinal cortex, dentate gyrus, and hippocampal subfields to integrate and consolidate unique episodic memory traces. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Decommissioning program and future plan for research hot laboratory (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koya, Toshio; Nozawa, Yukio; Hanada, Yasushi; Ono, Katsuto; Kanazawa, Hiroyuki; Nihei, Yasuo; Owada, Isao

    2010-01-01

    The Research Hot Laboratory (RHL) in Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) was constructed in 1961, as the first one in JAPAN, to perform the examinations of irradiated fuels and materials. RHL consists of 10 heavy concrete cells and 38 lead cells, which had been contributed to research and development program in or out of JAEA for the investigation of irradiation behavior for fuels and nuclear materials. However, RHL is the one of target as the rationalization program for decrepit facilities in former Tokai institute. Therefore the decommissioning works of RHL have been started on April 2003. The decommissioning work will be progressing, dismantling the lead cells and decontamination of concrete caves then release in the regulation of controlled area. The 18 lead cells (including semi-hot cell and junior-cell) had been dismantled. Removal of the applause from the cells, survey of the contamination revel in the lead cells and prediction of radio active waste have been finished as the preparing work for dismantling of the remained 20 lead cells. The future plan of decommissioning work has been prepared to incarnate the basic vision and dismantling procedure. (author)

  11. Future developments in brain-machine interface research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedev, Mikhail A; Tate, Andrew J; Hanson, Timothy L; Li, Zheng; O'Doherty, Joseph E; Winans, Jesse A; Ifft, Peter J; Zhuang, Katie Z; Fitzsimmons, Nathan A; Schwarz, David A; Fuller, Andrew M; An, Je Hi; Nicolelis, Miguel A L

    2011-01-01

    Neuroprosthetic devices based on brain-machine interface technology hold promise for the restoration of body mobility in patients suffering from devastating motor deficits caused by brain injury, neurologic diseases and limb loss. During the last decade, considerable progress has been achieved in this multidisciplinary research, mainly in the brain-machine interface that enacts upper-limb functionality. However, a considerable number of problems need to be resolved before fully functional limb neuroprostheses can be built. To move towards developing neuroprosthetic devices for humans, brain-machine interface research has to address a number of issues related to improving the quality of neuronal recordings, achieving stable, long-term performance, and extending the brain-machine interface approach to a broad range of motor and sensory functions. Here, we review the future steps that are part of the strategic plan of the Duke University Center for Neuroengineering, and its partners, the Brazilian National Institute of Brain-Machine Interfaces and the École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL) Center for Neuroprosthetics, to bring this new technology to clinical fruition.

  12. Future developments in brain-machine interface research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail A. Lebedev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuroprosthetic devices based on brain-machine interface technology hold promise for the restoration of body mobility in patients suffering from devastating motor deficits caused by brain injury, neurologic diseases and limb loss. During the last decade, considerable progress has been achieved in this multidisciplinary research, mainly in the brain-machine interface that enacts upper-limb functionality. However, a considerable number of problems need to be resolved before fully functional limb neuroprostheses can be built. To move towards developing neuroprosthetic devices for humans, brain-machine interface research has to address a number of issues related to improving the quality of neuronal recordings, achieving stable, long-term performance, and extending the brain-machine interface approach to a broad range of motor and sensory functions. Here, we review the future steps that are part of the strategic plan of the Duke University Center for Neuroengineering, and its partners, the Brazilian National Institute of Brain-Machine Interfaces and the École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL Center for Neuroprosthetics, to bring this new technology to clinical fruition.

  13. Outstanding Issues and Future Directions of Inner Magnetospheric Research (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, P. C.

    2009-12-01

    Several research areas of the inner magnetosphere and ionosphere (MI) system have reached a state, where the coupling mechanisms can no longer be treated as boundary conditions or ad-hoc assumptions in our physical models. It is nothing new that our community has become increasingly aware of the necessity to use global measurements from multiple observation platforms and missions, in order to understand both the system as a whole as well as its individual subsystems. In this presentation we briefly review the current status and outstanding issues of inner MI research. We attempt to establish a working definition of the term "Systems Approach", then present observational tools and techniques that enable such an approach. Physical modeling plays a central role not only in understanding the mechanisms at work, but also in determining the key quantities to be measured. We conclude by discussing questions relevant to future directions. Are there new techniques that need more attention? Should multi-platform observations be included as a default component already at the mission-level in the future? Is solar minimum uninteresting from an MI perspective? Should we actively compare to magnetospheres of other planets? Examples of outstanding issues in inner MI research include the circulation of ionospheric plasma from low to high latitudes and its escape to the magnetosphere, where it is energized by magnetospheric processes and becomes a part of the plasma pressure that in turn affects the ionospheric and magnetospheric electric field. The electric field, in turn, plays a controlling role in the transport of both magnetospheric and ionospheric plasma, which is intimately linked with ionospheric conductance. The conductance, in turn, is controlled by thermospheric chemistry coupled with plasma flow and heating and magnetospheric precipitation and Joule heating. Several techniques have emerged as important tools: auroral imaging, inversions of ENA images to retrieve the

  14. Munchausen by internet: current research and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulman, Andy; Taylor, Jacqui

    2012-08-22

    also suggest directions for future research.

  15. Proceeding of human exoskeleton technology and discussions on future research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiqiang; Xie, Hanxing; Li, Weilin; Yao, Zheng

    2014-05-01

    After more than half a century of intense efforts, the development of exoskeleton has seen major advances, and several remarkable achievements have been made. Reviews of developing history of exoskeleton are presented, both in active and passive categories. Major models are introduced, and typical technologies are commented on. Difficulties in control algorithm, driver system, power source, and man-machine interface are discussed. Current researching routes and major developing methods are mapped and critically analyzed, and in the process, some key problems are revealed. First, the exoskeleton is totally different from biped robot, and relative studies based on the robot technologies are considerably incorrect. Second, biomechanical studies are only used to track the motion of the human body, the interaction between human and machines are seldom studied. Third, the traditional developing ways which focused on servo-controlling have inborn deficiency from making portable systems. Research attention should be shifted to the human side of the coupling system, and the human ability to learn and adapt should play a more significant role in the control algorithms. Having summarized the major difficulties, possible future works are discussed. It is argued that, since a distinct boundary cannot be drawn in such strong-coupling human-exoskeleton system, the more complex the control system gets, the more difficult it is for the user to learn to use. It is suggested that the exoskeleton should be treated as a simple wearable tool, and downgrading its automatic level may be a change toward a brighter research outlook. This effort at simplification is definitely not easy, as it necessitates theoretical supports from fields such as biomechanics, ergonomics, and bionics.

  16. Use of cyclotrons in medical research: Past, present, future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smathers, James B.; Myers, Lee T.

    1985-05-01

    The use of cyclotrons in medical research started in the late 1930s with the most prominent use being neutron irradiation in cancer therapy. Due to a lack of understanding of the biological effect of neutrons, the results were less than encouraging. In the 1940s and 1950s, small cyclotrons were used for isotope production and in the mid 60s, the biological effect of neutrons was more thoroughly studied, with the result that a second trial of neutron therapy was initiated at Hammersmith Hospital, England. Concurrent with this, work on the use of high energy charged particles, initially protons and alphas, was initiated in Sweden and Russia and at Harvard and Berkeley. The English success in neutron therapy led to some pilot studies in the USA using physics cyclotrons of various energies and targets. These results in turn lead to the present series of machines presently being installed at M.D. Anderson Hospital (42 MeV), Seattle (50 MeV) and UCLA (46 MeV). The future probably bodes well for cyclotrons at the two extremes of the energy range. For nuclear medicine the shift is away from the use of multiple isotopes, which requires a large range of particles and energies to 11C, 13N, 15O, and 18F, which can be incorporated in metabolic specific compounds and be made with small 8-10 MeV p+ "table top" cyclotrons. For tumor therapy machines of 60 MeV or so will probably be the choice for the future, as they allow the treatment of deep seated tumors with neutrons and the charged particles have sufficient range to allow the treatment of ocular tumors.

  17. Review of the status of learning in research on sport education: future research and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Rui; Mesquita, Isabel; Hastie, Peter A

    2014-12-01

    Research concerning Sport Education's educational impact has shown unequivocal results according to students' personal and social development. Nevertheless, research is still sparse with respect to the model's impact on student learning outcomes. The goal of the present review is to therefore scrutinize what is currently known regarding students' learning during their participation in Sport Education. This research spans a variety of studies, cross various countries, school grades, the sports studied, as well as the methods applied and dimensions of student learning analyzed. While research on the impact of Sport Education on students' learning, as well as teachers' and students' perceptions about student learning has shown students' improvements during the participation in Sport Education seasons, there is still considerable variance in these results. For example, some studies report superior learning opportunities to boys and higher skill-level students while other studies have identified superior learning opportunities for girls and lower skill-level students. These inconsistent results can be explained by factors not considered in the Sport Education research, such as the effect of time on students' learning and the control of the teaching-learning process within Sport Education units. In this review directions for future research and practice are also described. Future research should define, implement, and evaluate protocols for student-coaches' preparation in order to understand the influence of this issue on students' learning as well as consider the implementation of hybrid approaches. Moreover, future studies should consider the interaction of gender and skill level and a retention test in the analysis of students' learning improvements in order to obtain a more realist and complete portrait of the impact of Sport Education. Finally, in order to reach an entirely understanding of the teaching-learning process, it is necessary to use research designs that

  18. Review of the Status of Learning in Research on Sport Education: Future Research and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Rui; Mesquita, Isabel; Hastie, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    Research concerning Sport Education’s educational impact has shown unequivocal results according to students’ personal and social development. Nevertheless, research is still sparse with respect to the model’s impact on student learning outcomes. The goal of the present review is to therefore scrutinize what is currently known regarding students’ learning during their participation in Sport Education. This research spans a variety of studies, cross various countries, school grades, the sports studied, as well as the methods applied and dimensions of student learning analyzed. While research on the impact of Sport Education on students’ learning, as well as teachers’ and students’ perceptions about student learning has shown students’ improvements during the participation in Sport Education seasons, there is still considerable variance in these results. For example, some studies report superior learning opportunities to boys and higher skill-level students while other studies have identified superior learning opportunities for girls and lower skill-level students. These inconsistent results can be explained by factors not considered in the Sport Education research, such as the effect of time on students’ learning and the control of the teaching-learning process within Sport Education units. In this review directions for future research and practice are also described. Future research should define, implement, and evaluate protocols for student-coaches’ preparation in order to understand the influence of this issue on students’ learning as well as consider the implementation of hybrid approaches. Moreover, future studies should consider the interaction of gender and skill level and a retention test in the analysis of students’ learning improvements in order to obtain a more realist and complete portrait of the impact of Sport Education. Finally, in order to reach an entirely understanding of the teaching-learning process, it is necessary to

  19. Past performance and future perspectives of burnout research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. B. Schaufeli

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available After a brief introduction on the history of burnout, this article reviews the past performance of burnout research by answering ten key-questions: (1 How can burnout be assessed?; (2 Is burnout limited to the human services?; (3 Is burnout a mental disorder; (4 What is the prevalence of burnout?; (5 Is burnout a global phenomenon?; (6 Is burnout relevant for organisations; (7 What are the causes of burnout?; (8 What are the consequences of burnout?; (9 How can burnout be explained?; (10 Are burnout interventions effective? In the concluding section a future research agenda is drafted on the bases of the answers given to the previous questions. This agenda includes such issues as the measurement and conceptualisation of burnout, mild and severe forms of burnout, epidemiological and cross-cultural perspectives, organisational outcomes, longitudinal investigations, theoretical explanations, and interventions. Opsomming Na ’n kort inleiding oor die geskiedenis van uitbranding gee hierdie artikel ’n oorsig van vorige prestasie van navorsing ten opsigte van uitbranding deur tien sleutelvrae te beantwoord: (1 Hoe kan uitbranding bepaal word?; (2 Is uitbranding beperk tot die mens-dienste?; (3 Is uitbranding ’n geestesafwyking?; (4 Wat is die voorkoms van uitbranding?; (5 Is uitbranding ’n wêreldwye verskynsel?; (6 Is uitbranding relevant vir organisasies?; (7 Wat is die oorsake van uitbranding?; (8 Wat is die gevolge van uitbranding?; (9 Hoe kan uitbranding verklaar word?; (10 Is uitbrandingsingrepe effektief? In die gevolgtrekking word ’n toekomstige navorsingsagenda op grond van die antwoorde op die voorafgaande vrae opgestel. Hierdie agenda sluit aangeleenthede soos die meting en konseptualisering van uitbranding, matige en ernstige vorme van uitbranding, epidemiologiese en kruiskulturele perspektiewe, organisasie- uitkomste, longitudinale ondersoeke, teoretiese verklarings en intervensies in.

  20. Identifying future directions for subsurface hydrocarbon migration research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leifer, I.; Clark, J. F.; Luyendyk, B.; Valentine, D.

    Subsurface hydrocarbon migration is important for understanding the input and impacts of natural hydrocarbon seepage on the environment. Great uncertainties remain in most aspects of hydrocarbon migration, including some basic mechanisms of this four-phase flow of tar, oil, water, and gas through the complex fracture-network geometry particularly since the phases span a wide range of properties. Academic, government, and industry representatives recently attended a workshop to identify the areas of greatest need for future research in shallow hydrocarbon migration.Novel approaches such as studying temporal and spatial seepage variations and analogous geofluid systems (e.g., geysers and trickle beds) allow deductions of subsurface processes and structures that remain largely unclear. Unique complexities exist in hydrocarbon migration due to its multiphase flow and complex geometry, including in-situ biological weathering. Furthermore, many aspects of the role of hydrocarbons (positive and negative) in the environment are poorly understood, including how they enter the food chain (respiration, consumption, etc.) and “percolate” to higher trophic levels. But understanding these ecological impacts requires knowledge of the emissions' temporal and spatial variability and trajectories.

  1. Exploring paradigms in postpartum depression research: the need for feminist pragmatism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollard, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is an important area of women's health research internationally and across disciplines. There is no guiding paradigm, however, to ensure that PPD research results translate to women on a global level. This commentary builds on the work of Doucet, Letourneau, and Stoppard ( 2010 ) to determine a "best fit" paradigm with which to guide PPD research. Postpositivism, critical theory, constructivism, and pragmatism are combined with a feminist ideology and critiqued as potential guiding paradigms for PPD research. After thorough examination, I conclude the need for further use of a feminist pragmatist paradigm in PPD research.

  2. Beyond Depression: Towards a Process-Based Approach to Research, Diagnosis, and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgeard, Marie J. C.; Haigh, Emily A. P.; Beck, Aaron T.; Davidson, Richard J.; Henn, Fritz A.; Maier, Steven F.; Mayberg, Helen S.; Seligman, Martin E. P.

    2012-01-01

    Despite decades of research on the etiology and treatment of depression, a significant proportion of the population is affected by the disorder, fails to respond to treatment and is plagued by relapse. Six prominent scientists, Aaron Beck, Richard Davidson, Fritz Henn, Steven Maier, Helen Mayberg, and Martin Seligman, gathered to discuss the current state of scientific knowledge on depression, and in particular on the basic neurobiological and psychopathological processes at play in the disorder. These general themes were addressed: 1) the relevance of learned helplessness as a basic process involved in the development of depression; 2) the limitations of our current taxonomy of psychological disorders; 3) the need to work towards a psychobiological process-based taxonomy; and 4) the clinical implications of implementing such a process-based taxonomy. PMID:22509072

  3. Research on the Pathological Mechanism and Drug Treatment Mechanism of Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Guo-jiang; Tian, Jun-sheng; Gao, Xiao-xia; Zhou, Yu-zhi; Qin, Xue-mei

    2015-01-01

    Depression is one of the prevalent and persistent psychiatric illnesses. It brings heavy socioeconomic burden such as healthcare expenditures and even higher suicide rates. Despite many hypotheses about its mechanism have been put forward, so far it is still unclear, not to mention the precise and effective diagnostic or therapeutic methods. In this paper, the current conditions of pathological and pharmacological mechanism of depression were reviewed systematically. Firstly, the most recent hypotheses and metabolomics based research including hereditary, neurotransmitter systems, brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), hyperactivity of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis and inflammatory as well as metabolomics were summarized. Secondly, the present situation and development on antidepressant drugs at home and abroad were reviewed. Finally, a conclusion and prospect on the pathological and pharmacological mechanism of depression were provided primarily.

  4. REPORT OF RESEARCH ACCOMPLISHMENTS AND FUTURE GOALS HIGH ENERGY PHYSICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wise, Mark B. [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Kapustin, Anton N. [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Schwarz, John Henry [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Carroll, Sean [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Ooguri, Hirosi [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Gukov, Sergei [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Preskill, John [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Hitlin, David G. [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Porter, Frank C. [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Patterson, Ryan B. [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Newman, Harvey B. [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Spiropulu, Maria [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Golwala, Sunil [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Zhu, Ren-Yuan [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States)

    2014-08-26

    effort. Areas of activity include: CDMS II data analysis, contributions to SuperCDMS Soudan operations and analysis, R&D towards SuperCDMS SNOLAB, development of a novel screener for radiocontamination (the BetaCage), and development of new WIMP detector concepts. Ren-Yuan Zhu leads the HEP crystal laboratory for the advanced detector R&D effort. The crystal lab is involved in development of novel scintillating crystals and has proposed several crystal based detector concepts for future HEP experiments at the energy and intensity frontiers. Its current research effort is concentrated on development of fast crystal scintillators with good radiation hardness and low cost. II) THEORETICAL PHYSICS The main theme of Sergei Gukov's current research is the relation between the geometry of quantum group invariants and their categorification, on the one hand, and the physics of supersymmetric gauge theory and string theory, on the other. Anton Kapustin's research spans a variety of topics in non-perturbative Quantum Field Theory (QFT). His main areas of interest are supersymmetric gauge theories, non-perturbative dualities in QFT, disorder operators, Topological Quantum Field Theory, and non-relativistic QFT. He is also interested in the foundations and possible generalizations of Quantum Mechanics. Hirosi Ooguri's current research has two main components. One is to find exact results in Calabi-Yau compactification of string theory. Another is to explore applications of the AdS/CFT correspondence. He also plans to continue his project with Caltech postdoctoral fellows on BPS spectra of supersymmetric gauge theories in diverse dimensions. John Preskill works on quantum information science. This field may lead to important future technologies, and also lead to new understanding of issues in fundamental physics John Schwarz has been exploring a number of topics in superstring theory/M-theory, supersymmetric gauge theory, and their AdS/CFT relationships. Much of the

  5. Advancing vector biology research: a community survey for future directions, research applications and infrastructure requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, Alain; Pondeville, Emilie; Schnettler, Esther; Crisanti, Andrea; Supparo, Clelia; Christophides, George K.; Kersey, Paul J.; Maslen, Gareth L.; Takken, Willem; Koenraadt, Constantianus J. M.; Oliva, Clelia F.; Busquets, Núria; Abad, F. Xavier; Failloux, Anna-Bella; Levashina, Elena A.; Wilson, Anthony J.; Veronesi, Eva; Pichard, Maëlle; Arnaud Marsh, Sarah; Simard, Frédéric; Vernick, Kenneth D.

    2016-01-01

    Vector-borne pathogens impact public health, animal production, and animal welfare. Research on arthropod vectors such as mosquitoes, ticks, sandflies, and midges which transmit pathogens to humans and economically important animals is crucial for development of new control measures that target transmission by the vector. While insecticides are an important part of this arsenal, appearance of resistance mechanisms is increasingly common. Novel tools for genetic manipulation of vectors, use of Wolbachia endosymbiotic bacteria, and other biological control mechanisms to prevent pathogen transmission have led to promising new intervention strategies, adding to strong interest in vector biology and genetics as well as vector–pathogen interactions. Vector research is therefore at a crucial juncture, and strategic decisions on future research directions and research infrastructure investment should be informed by the research community. A survey initiated by the European Horizon 2020 INFRAVEC-2 consortium set out to canvass priorities in the vector biology research community and to determine key activities that are needed for researchers to efficiently study vectors, vector-pathogen interactions, as well as access the structures and services that allow such activities to be carried out. We summarize the most important findings of the survey which in particular reflect the priorities of researchers in European countries, and which will be of use to stakeholders that include researchers, government, and research organizations. PMID:27677378

  6. Frontal alpha asymmetry as a pathway to behavioural withdrawal in depression: Research findings and issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesulola, Emmanuel; Sharpley, Christopher F; Bitsika, Vicki; Agnew, Linda L; Wilson, Peter

    2015-10-01

    Depression has been described as a process of behavioural withdrawal from overwhelming aversive stressors, and which manifests itself in the diagnostic symptomatology for Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). The underlying neurobiological pathways to that behavioural withdrawal are suggested to include greater activation in the right vs the left frontal lobes, described as frontal EEG asymmetry. However, despite a previous meta-analysis that provided overall support for this EEG asymmetry hypothesis, inconsistencies and several methodological confounds exist. The current review examines the literature on this issue, identifies inconsistencies in findings and discusses several key research issues that require addressing for this field to move towards a defensible theoretical model of depression and EEG asymmetry. In particular, the position of EEG asymmetry in the brain, measurement of severity and symptoms profiles of depression, and the effects of gender are considered as potential avenues to more accurately define the specific nature of the depression-EEG asymmetry association. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The Future of Nearshore Processes Research: U.S. Integrated Coastal Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elko, N.; Feddersen, F.; Foster, D. L.; Hapke, C. J.; Holman, R. A.; McNinch, J.; Mulligan, R. P.; Ozkan-Haller, H. T.; Plant, N. G.; Raubenheimer, B.

    2016-02-01

    The authors, representing the acting Nearshore Advisory Council, have developed an implementation plan for a U.S. Nearshore Research Program based on the 2015 Future of Nearshore Processes report that was authored by the nearshore community. The objectives of the plan are to link research programs across federal agencies, NGOs, industry, and academia into an integrated national program and to increase academic and NGO participation in federal agency nearshore processes research. A primary recommendation is interagency collaboration to build a research program that will coordinate and fund U.S. nearshore processes research across three broad research themes: 1) long-term coastal evolution due to natural and anthropogenic processes; 2) extreme events; and 3) physical, biological and chemical processes impacting human and ecosystem health. The plan calls for a new program to be developed by an executive committee of federal agency leaders, NGOs, and an academic representative, created similarly to the existing NOPP program. This leadership will be established prior to the 2016 Ocean Sciences meeting and will have agreed on responsibilities and a schedule for development of the research program. To begin to understand the scope of today's U.S. coastal research investment, a survey was distributed to ten federal agency R&D program heads. Six of the ten agencies indicated that they fund coastal research, with a combined annual coastal research budget of nearly 100 million (NSF has not responded). The priority of the three research themes were ranked nearly equally and potential research support ranged from 15-19 million for each theme, with approximately 12 million as direct contribution to academic research. Beyond addressing our fundamental science questions, it is critical that the nearshore community stay organized to represent academic interests on the new executive committee. The program goal is the integration of academic, NGO, and federal agencies.

  8. Enhancing Hispanic participation in mental health clinical research: development of a Spanish-speaking depression research site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aponte-Rivera, Vivianne; Dunlop, Boadie W; Ramirez, Cynthia; Kelley, Mary E; Schneider, Rebecca; Blastos, Beatriz; Larson, Jacqueline; Mercado, Flavia; Mayberg, Helen; Craighead, W Edward

    2014-03-01

    Hispanics, particularly those with limited English proficiency, are underrepresented in psychiatric clinical research studies. We developed a bilingual and bicultural research clinic dedicated to the recruitment and treatment of Spanish-speaking subjects in the Predictors of Remission in Depression to Individual and Combined Treatments (PReDICT) study, a large clinical trial of treatment-naïve subjects with major depressive disorder (MDD). Demographic and clinical data derived from screening evaluations of the first 1,174 subjects presenting for participation were compared between the Spanish-speaking site (N = 275) and the primary English-speaking site (N = 899). Reasons for ineligibility (N = 888) for the PReDICT study were tallied for each site. Compared to English speakers, Spanish speakers had a lower level of education and were more likely to be female, uninsured, and have uncontrolled medical conditions. Clinically, Spanish speakers demonstrated greater depression severity, with higher mean symptom severity scores, and a greater number of previous suicide attempts. Among the subjects who were not randomized into the PReDICT study, Spanish-speaking subjects were more likely to have an uncontrolled medical condition or refuse participation, whereas English-speaking subjects were more likely to have bipolar disorder or a non-MDD depressive disorder. Recruitment of Hispanic subjects with MDD is feasible and may enhance efforts at signal detection, given the higher severity of depression among Spanish-speaking participants presenting for clinical trials. Specific approaches for the recruitment and retention of Spanish-speaking participants are required. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Adaptive and Maladaptive Means of Using Facebook: A Qualitative Pilot Study to Inform Suggestions for Development of a Future Intervention for Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Tanya B.; Uebelacker, Lisa; Wenze, Susan J.; Collins, Caitlin; Broughton, Monica K.

    2015-01-01

    Existing literature examining the relation between social networking sites and mental health is primarily based on correlational methods and presents mixed findings. Many researchers neglect to examine the cognitive and behavioral processes used while online. This study’s qualitative approach strives to understand how individuals with elevated depressive symptoms may use Facebook following an interpersonal stressor. Participants’ narration of their Facebook use was coded. Common adaptive uses included using Facebook to seek social support, actively communicate, distract, recall positive memories, and reappraise negative thoughts. Maladaptive uses included engaging in social comparison, ruminating, and recalling negative memories. Feedback regarding development of a future intervention was also elicited. Suggestions included using Facebook to view positive, interesting, or meaningful information, distract, garner social support, and engage in social activities. Findings indicate that how one engages with Facebook after an interpersonal stressor may affect adjustment and may help to inform the development of a novel, Facebook-based intervention. PMID:26554330

  10. Adaptive and Maladaptive Means of Using Facebook: A Qualitative Pilot Study to Inform Suggestions for Development of a Future Intervention for Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Tanya B; Uebelacker, Lisa; Wenze, Susan J; Collins, Caitlin; Broughton, Monica K

    2015-11-01

    Existing literature examining the relation between social networking sites and mental health is primarily based on correlational methods and presents mixed findings. Many researchers neglect to examine the cognitive and behavioral processes used while online. This study's qualitative approach strives to understand how individuals with elevated depressive symptoms may use Facebook following an interpersonal stressor. Participants' narration of their Facebook use was coded. Common adaptive uses included using Facebook to seek social support, actively communicate, distract, recall positive memories, and reappraise negative thoughts. Maladaptive uses included engaging in social comparison, ruminating, and recalling negative memories. Feedback regarding development of a future intervention was also elicited. Suggestions included using Facebook to view positive, interesting, or meaningful information, distract, garner social support, and engage in social activities. Findings indicate that how one engages with Facebook after an interpersonal stressor may affect adjustment and may help to inform the development of a novel, Facebook-based intervention.

  11. How Research Training Will Shape the Future of Dental, Oral, and Craniofacial Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Rena N; Colombo, John S

    2017-09-01

    This is a critical time in the history of the dental profession for it to fully embrace the responsibility to safeguard its reputation as a learned profession. In this golden era of scientific and technological advances, opportunities abound to create new diagnostics, preventions, treatments, and cures to improve oral health. Dental schools are the largest national resource entrusted with the responsibility to educate, train, and retain oral health researchers who can leverage such technologies and research opportunities that will benefit the profession at large as well as patients. This article reemphasizes the theme that research training and scholarship must be inextricably woven into the environment and culture in dental schools to ensure the future standing of the profession. An overview of the history of support provided by the National Institutes of Health and National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research for the training and career development of dentist-scientists is presented. In addition, new data on the outcomes of such investments are presented along with a comparison with other health professions. This overview underscores the need to expand the capacity of a well-trained cadre of oral health researchers through the reengineering of training programs. Such strategies will best prepare future graduates for team science, clinical trials, and translational research as well as other emerging opportunities. The urgent need for national organizations like the American Dental Association, American Dental Education Association, and American Association for Dental Research to create new alliances and novel initiatives to assist dental schools and universities in fulfilling their research mission is emphasized. To ignore such calls for action is to disavow a valuable legacy inherited by the dental profession. This article was written as part of the project "Advancing Dental Education in the 21 st Century."

  12. [Research on Depression in the GDR - Historical Lines of Development and Therapeutic Approaches].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thormann, J; Himmerich, H; Steinberg, H

    2014-02-01

    Historical research has raised the issue of whether GDR psychiatry was isolated from Western influences to such an extent that an autonomous East German psychiatry developed. Taking a chronological approach and being based on a clearly defined range of topics, the objective of this paper is to identify specific contributions made by GDR psychiatry to academic research as well as the degree of its international orientation by focusing on the treatment and research on depression. We have performed a systematic review of the East German psychiatric journal "Psychiatrie, Neurologie und medizinische Psychologie" and a screening of all psychiatric textbooks that appeared in the GDR. Although East German psychiatry was oriented towards Soviet as well as Western developments, some internationally used therapeutic or conceptual innovations reached East German clinics only with some delay. Yet, East German psychiatrists have also contributed their own, independent nosological and therapeutic concepts to research on depression. Pivotal figures included, among others, R. Lemke (Jena), D. Müller-Hegemann (Leipzig) or K. Leonhard (Berlin). With regard to research on depression one cannot truly speak of an autonomous East German psychiatry. Developments in East and West were largely running in parallel. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. The benefits associated with volunteering among seniors: a critical review and recommendations for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Nicole D; Damianakis, Thecla; Kröger, Edeltraut; Wagner, Laura M; Dawson, Deirdre R; Binns, Malcolm A; Bernstein, Syrelle; Caspi, Eilon; Cook, Suzanne L

    2014-11-01

    There is an urgent need to identify lifestyle activities that reduce functional decline and dementia associated with population aging. The goals of this article are to review critically the evidence on the benefits associated with formal volunteering among older adults, propose a theoretical model of how volunteering may reduce functional limitations and dementia risk, and offer recommendations for future research. Database searches identified 113 papers on volunteering benefits in older adults, of which 73 were included. Data from descriptive, cross-sectional, and prospective cohort studies, along with 1 randomized controlled trial, most consistently reveal that volunteering is associated with reduced symptoms of depression, better self-reported health, fewer functional limitations, and lower mortality. The extant evidence provides the basis for a model proposing that volunteering increases social, physical, and cognitive activity (to varying degrees depending on characteristics of the volunteer placement) which, through biological and psychological mechanisms, leads to improved functioning; we further propose that these volunteering-related functional improvements should be associated with reduced dementia risk. Recommendations for future research are that studies (a) include more objective measures of psychosocial, physical, and cognitive functioning; (b) integrate qualitative and quantitative methods in prospective study designs; (c) explore further individual differences in the benefits associated with volunteering; (d) include occupational analyses of volunteers' specific jobs in order to identify their social, physical, and cognitive complexity; (e) investigate the independent versus interactive health benefits associated with volunteering relative to engagement in other forms of activity; and (f) examine the relationship between volunteering and dementia risk. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. UAS Integration in the NAS Project and Future Autonomy Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Charles W.

    2014-01-01

    This presentation highlights NASA use of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) and related technologies for civil purposes. This briefing will give more insight into the UAS projects progress and future goals.

  15. [Preliminary research on multi-neurotransmitters' change regulation in 120 depression patients' brains].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Ming; Qing, Xue-Mei; Pan, Yan-Shu; Xu, Feng-Quan; Liu, Chao; Zhang, Cheng; Xu, Zhen-Hua

    2014-04-01

    In view of the effective traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in the treatment of clinical depression, the mechanism is not clear, this study attempts to research the cause of depression in a complex situation to lay the foundation for the next step of TCM curative effect evaluation. Based on the brain wave of 120 depression patients and 40 ordinary person, the change regulation of acetylcholine, dopamine, norepinephrine, depression neurotransmitters and excited neurotransmitters in the whole and various encephalic regions' multi-neurotransmitters of depression patients-serotonin are analysed by search of encephalo-telex (SET) system, which lays the foundation for the diagnosis of depression. The result showed that: contrased with the normal person group, the mean value of the six neurotransmitters in depression patients group are: (1) in the whole encephalic region of depression patients group the dopamine fall (P neurotransmitters and neurotransmitters: (1) the three antagonizing pairs of neurotransmitters-serotonin and dopamine, acetylcholine and norepinephrine, depression neurotransmitters and excited neurotransmitters, in ordinary person group and depression patients group are characterizeed by middle or strong negative correlation. Serotonin and dopamine, which are characterized by weak negative correlation in the right rear temporal region of ordinary person group, are characterized by strong negative correlation in the other encephalic regions and the whole encephalic (ordinary person group except the right rear temporal region: the range of [r] is [0.82, 0.92], P neurotransmitters and excited neurotransmitters are characterized by middle strong negative correlation (ordinary person group: the range of [r] is [0.57, 0.80], P neurotransmitters which are not antagonizing pairs of neurotransmitters, serotonin and excited neurotransmitters, or acetylcholine and depression neurotra-nsmitters, or dopamine and depression neurotransmitters in the various encephalic

  16. Applying Place-Based Social-Ecological Research to Address Water Scarcity: Insights for Future Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio J. Castro

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Globally, environmental and social change in water-scarce regions challenge the sustainability of social-ecological systems. WaterSES, a sponsored working group within the Program for Ecosystem Change and Society, explores and compares the social-ecological dynamics related to water scarcity across placed-based international research sites with contrasting local and regional water needs and governance, including research sites in Spain and Sweden in Europe, South Africa, China, and Alabama, Idaho, Oklahoma, and Texas in the USA. This paper aims to provide a commentary on insights into conducting future solutions-oriented research on water scarcity based on the understanding of the social-ecological dynamics of water scarce regions.

  17. Future Research in Health Information Technology: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmat, Morteza; Ayatollahi, Haleh; Maleki, Mohammad Reza; Saghafi, Fatemeh

    2017-01-01

    Currently, information technology is considered an important tool to improve healthcare services. To adopt the right technologies, policy makers should have adequate information about present and future advances. This study aimed to review and compare studies with a focus on the future of health information technology. This review study was completed in 2015. The databases used were Scopus, Web of Science, ProQuest, Ovid Medline, and PubMed. Keyword searches were used to identify papers and materials published between 2000 and 2015. Initially, 407 papers were obtained, and they were reduced to 11 papers at the final stage. The selected papers were described and compared in terms of the country of origin, objective, methodology, and time horizon. The papers were divided into two groups: those forecasting the future of health information technology (seven papers) and those providing health information technology foresight (four papers). The results showed that papers related to forecasting the future of health information technology were mostly a literature review, and the time horizon was up to 10 years in most of these studies. In the health information technology foresight group, most of the studies used a combination of techniques, such as scenario building and Delphi methods, and had long-term objectives. To make the most of an investment and to improve planning and successful implementation of health information technology, a strategic plan for the future needs to be set. To achieve this aim, methods such as forecasting the future of health information technology and offering health information technology foresight can be applied. The forecasting method is used when the objectives are not very large, and the foresight approach is recommended when large-scale objectives are set to be achieved. In the field of health information technology, the results of foresight studies can help to establish realistic long-term expectations of the future of health information

  18. Role of nuclear safety research and future plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, W. S.; Lee, J. I.; Kang, S. C.; Park, Y. W.; Lee, J. H.; Kim, M. W.; Lee, C. J.; Park, Y. I.

    2000-01-01

    For promoting and improving nuclear safety research activities, this report gives an insight on the scope of safety research and its role in the safety management of nuclear installations, and suggests measures to adequately utilize the research results through taking an optimized role share among research organizations. Several measures such as cooperative planning of common research areas and proper role assignment, improvement of the interfaces among researchers, and reflection of end-users' opinion in the course of planning and conducting research to promote application of research results are identified. It is expected that the identified measures will contribute to enhancing the efficiency and effectiveness of nuclear safety research, if they are implemented after deliberating with the government and safety research organizations

  19. Role of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in the Etiology, Treatment, and Prevention of Depression: Current Status and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Robert K.

    2016-01-01

    Over the past three decades a body of translational evidence has implicated dietary deficiency in long-chain omega-3 (LCn-3) fatty acids, including eicosapenaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), in the pathophysiology and etiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). Cross-national and cross-sectional data suggest that greater habitual intake of preformed EPA+DHA is associated with reduced risk for developing depressive symptoms and syndromal MDD. Erythrocyte EPA and DHA composition is highly correlated with habitual fish or fish oil intake, and case-control studies have consistently observed lower erythrocyte EPA and/or DHA levels in patients with MDD. Low erythrocyte EPA+DHA composition may also be associated with increased risk for suicide and cardiovascular disease, two primary causes of excess premature mortality in MDD. While controversial, dietary EPA+DHA supplementation may have antidepressant properties and may augment the therapeutic efficacy of antidepressant medications. Neuroimaging and rodent neurodevelopmental studies further suggest that low LCn-3 fatty acid intake or biostatus can recapitulate central pathophysiological features associated with MDD. Prospective findings suggest that low LCn-3 fatty acid biostatus increases risk for depressive symptoms in part by augmenting pro-inflammatory responsivity. When taken collectively, these translational findings provide a strong empirical foundation in support of dietary LCn-3 fatty acid deficiency as a modifiable risk factor for MDD. This review provides an overview of this translational evidence and then discusses future directions including strategies to translate this evidence into routine clinical screening and treatment algorithms. PMID:27766299

  20. Scientific research in school psychology: Leading researchers weigh in on its past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Kent; Martinez, Rebecca S; Ty, Sophie V; McClain, Maryellen B

    2013-06-01

    A survey of established researchers in school psychology was conducted to reflect on the state of the science of school psychology research. A total of 54 members of the Society for the Study of School Psychology shared their perceptions of (a) the most significant findings of the past 25years that have influenced research and practice in school psychology, (b) current, exciting research topics, and (c) topics that are likely to guide the future of research in school psychology. Qualitative analyses revealed 6 major categories and 17 minor categories within the major categories. Four major categories were present across each of the three time periods: (a) Data-Informed Practices and their Implementation, (b) Theory Development, (c) Changing Role and Function, and (d) Biological Bases of Behavior. Additional major categories included Advances in Research Methodology and Psychometrics (found across past and present time periods) and There is Not One Single Most Important Idea (found during only the past time period). Quotations are provided to illustrate these categories and share the respondents' ideas in their own words. Copyright © 2013 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Service User Participation In Qualititative Mental Health Research: Sharing Adolescents' Experiences Of Depression Through Film

    OpenAIRE

    2017-01-01

    IMPACT-My Experience (IMPACT-ME) is a qualitative study, which aimed to explore adolescents' experiences of depression and receiving therapy, as well as their parents' experiences. As researchers working on the study, our focus was on writing academic papers to disseminate what we were learning from the qualitative interviews with the young people and families. However, over the course of the project we started to think about how we could share our findings with a wider audience. In consultat...

  2. Research Paper: Executive Functions in Students With Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bita Ajilchi

    2017-05-01

    Conclusion: The findings of this research raised specific issues in relation to the role of depression, anxiety, and stress in the disruption of the executive functions of sufferers. Selective and shifting attention and cognitive abilities are specifically affected in this regard. Meanwhile, the role of stress in impairing decision making and the major role of anxiety in impairing sustained attention was shown to be considerable.

  3. Substantial Research Secures the Blue Future for our Blue Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moustafa Abdel Maksoud

    2016-06-01

    or holiday regions. In some coastal regions, the geographical conditions allow for building a near shore tidal dam to accumulate tidal water. The water enters the dam at high tide and leaves it at low tide. The tidal energy can be harnessed by using conventional water turbines which convert the hydraulic power into electric power. The turbines in this case are well developed and therefore only some minor improvement are necessary. The cost of constructing the tidal dam is high; however, the operation costs are relatively low. A tidal dam can have a strong Influence on aquatic life and therefore the environmental impacts of such a project must be investigated very accurately. It is therefore essential to intensify the research and development activities on renewable maritime energy technology to make the vision of a blue future for our blue planet to become reality. 

  4. Social networks and future direction for obesity research: A scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Soohyun; Redeker, Nancy; Whittemore, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Despite significant efforts to decrease obesity rates, the prevalence of obesity continues to increase in the United States. Obesity risk behaviors including physical inactivity, unhealthy eating, and sleep deprivation are intertwined during daily life and are difficult to improve in the current social environment. Studies show that social networks-the thick webs of social relations and interactions-influence various health outcomes, such as HIV risk behaviors, alcohol consumption, smoking, depression, and cardiovascular mortality; however, there is limited information on the influences of social networks on obesity and obesity risk behaviors. Given the complexities of the biobehavioral pathology of obesity and the lack of clear evidence of effectiveness and sustainability of existing interventions that are usually focused on an individual approach, targeting change in an individual's health behaviors or attitude may not take sociocontextual factors into account; there is a pressing need for a new perspective on this problem. In this review, we evaluate the literature on social networks as a potential approach for obesity prevention and treatment (i.e., how social networks affect various health outcomes), present two major social network data analyses (i.e., egocentric and sociometric analysis), and discuss implications and the future direction for obesity research using social networks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Ayurvedic research and methodology: Present status and future strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Ashutosh; Semwal, Deepak Kumar; Mishra, Satyendra Prasad; Semwal, Ruchi Badoni

    2015-01-01

    Ayurveda is a science of life with a holistic approach to health and personalized medicine. It is one of the oldest medical systems, which comprises thousands of medical concepts and hypothesis. Interestingly, Ayurveda has ability to treat many chronic diseases such as cancer, diabetes, arthritis, and asthma, which are untreatable in modern medicine. Unfortunately, due to lack of scientific validation in various concepts, this precious gift from our ancestors is trailing. Hence, evidence-based research is highly needed for global recognition and acceptance of Ayurveda, which needs further advancements in the research methodology. The present review highlights various fields of research including literary, fundamental, drug, pharmaceutical, and clinical research in Ayurveda. The review further focuses to improve the research methodology for Ayurveda with main emphasis on the fundamental research. This attempt will certainly encourage young researchers to work on various areas of research for the development and promotion of Ayurveda.

  6. Ayurvedic research and methodology: Present status and future strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Ashutosh; Semwal, Deepak Kumar; Mishra, Satyendra Prasad; Semwal, Ruchi Badoni

    2015-01-01

    Ayurveda is a science of life with a holistic approach to health and personalized medicine. It is one of the oldest medical systems, which comprises thousands of medical concepts and hypothesis. Interestingly, Ayurveda has ability to treat many chronic diseases such as cancer, diabetes, arthritis, and asthma, which are untreatable in modern medicine. Unfortunately, due to lack of scientific validation in various concepts, this precious gift from our ancestors is trailing. Hence, evidence-based research is highly needed for global recognition and acceptance of Ayurveda, which needs further advancements in the research methodology. The present review highlights various fields of research including literary, fundamental, drug, pharmaceutical, and clinical research in Ayurveda. The review further focuses to improve the research methodology for Ayurveda with main emphasis on the fundamental research. This attempt will certainly encourage young researchers to work on various areas of research for the development and promotion of Ayurveda. PMID:27833362

  7. Protecting human research subjects: the past defines the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breault, Joseph L

    2006-01-01

    The creation of Institutional Review Boards to assure the protection of research subjects came out of terrible research abuses that resulted in the Belmont Report and federal regulations establishing rules for federally funded research and its independent review. The Common Rule became widely accepted as the way to oversee human research that is funded by federal agencies, or used in FDA submissions. The Office of Human Research Protections, now under the Secretary of DHHS, created Federalwide Assurances with groups that receive federal funding and others, the vast majority of which have agreed to apply the same ethical rules to all research regardless of funding source. There are controversies over the best methods to protect human research subjects, confusion about how to handle some of the gray areas, increased regulatory burdens, and debates about the adequacy of the IRB system. New exciting directions have evolved and overall, research subjects appear better protected than ever.

  8. Product Design: Research Trends and an Agenda for the Future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di Benedetto, A.C.

    2012-01-01

    Academic research in product design is growing in popular- ity, and new challenging research questions are emerging. This article explores several of these product design research issues. We first explore the role of design as a driver of innovation and as a strategic resource to senior managers for

  9. Public Service Motivation Research : Achievements, Challenges, and Future Directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perry, James L.; Vandenabeele, Wouter

    2015-01-01

    This article takes stock of public service motivation research to identify achievements, challenges, and an agenda for research to build on progress made since 1990. After enumerating achievements and challenges, the authors take stock of progress on extant proposals to strengthen research. In

  10. Childhood obesity: State of art and future research directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz García Cortés

    2016-04-01

    It is expected to clarify agreements and dissonances in the proposals to combat and prevent childhood obesity. Furthermore, this study aims to project recommendations for future studies involving childhood obesity throw the causes that have been associated disease in the reviewed literature.

  11. The Research of the Personality Qualities of Future Educational Psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolgova, V. I.; Salamatov, A. A.; Potapova, M. V.; Yakovleva, N. O.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the authors substantiate the existence of the personality qualities of future educational psychologists (PQFEP) that are, in fact, a sum of knowledge, skills, abilities, socially required qualities of personality allowing the psychologist to solve problems in all the fields of professional activities. A model of PQFEP predicts the…

  12. The role of research reactor and its future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagome, Yoshihiro

    2005-01-01

    About a half century passed since the start of operation of research reactors. Many research reactors were stopped their operation or decommissioned. With the practical use of nuclear energy, the meaning of research reactor has been buried in oblivion in the developed countries. Furthermore, under the nuclear weapons nonproliferation policy, the use of high enriched uranium fuel in research reactors is obliged to change to the use of low enriched uranium fuel. In such severe situation, this paper refers to the role of the research reactor once more through the operation experience of university-owned research reactor KUR (Kyoto University Reactor, Japan) and describes that research reactor is indispensable for the preparation to the second coming nuclear age. (author)

  13. Stem cell research in pakistan; past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahra, Sayeda Anum; Muzavir, Sayed Raheel; Ashraf, Sadia; Ahmad, Aftab

    2015-05-01

    Stem cells have proved to have great therapeutic potential as stem cell treatment is replacing traditional ways of treatment in different disorders like cancer, aplastic anemia, stroke, heart disorders. The developed and developing countries are investing differently in this area of research so research output and clinical translation of research greatly vary among developed and developing countries. Present study was done to investigate the current status of stem cells research in Pakistan and ways to improve it. Many advanced countries (USA, UK and Canada etc.) are investing heavily in stem cell research and treatment. Different developing countries like Iran, Turkey and India are also following the developed countries and investing a lot in stem cells research. Pakistan is also making efforts in establishing this field to get desired benefits but unfortunately the progress is at very low pace. If Government plays an active role along with private sector, stem cell research in Pakistan can be boosted up. The numbers of publications from Pakistan are very less compared to developed and neighboring countries and Pakistan also has very less number of institutes working in this area of research. Stem cells research is at its initial stages in Pakistan and there is great need to bring Government, academia and industry together so they could make serious efforts to promote research in this very important field. This will help millions of patients suffering from incurable disorders and will also reduce economic loss.

  14. Anxiety and depression symptoms and migraine: a symptom-based approach research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, Mario Fernando Prieto; Mercante, Juliane P P; Tobo, Patricia R; Kamei, Helder; Bigal, Marcelo Eduardo

    2017-12-01

    Anxiety and mood disorders have been shown to be the most relevant psychiatric comorbidities associated with migraine, influencing its clinical course, treatment response, and clinical outcomes. Limited information is available on how specific anxiety and depression symptoms are related to migraine. Symptoms-based approach, a current trend in mental health research, may improve our understanding in migraine comorbidity. The purpose of this study was to analyze how anxiety and depression aspects are related to migraine through a symptom-based approach. We studied 782 patients from the general population who completed a self-administered questionnaire assessing demographics, headache features, anxiety and depression symptoms. A binary logistic regression analyses were conducted to test the association between all four ratings in GAD-7 (anxiety) and PHQ-9 (depression) scales subitems as covariates, and migraine vs no headache as the outcome. The leading Odd Ratios (OR) observed in individuals with migraine relative to those without migraine were anxiety related, "Not being able to stop or control worrying" on a daily basis [OR (CI 95%)] 49.2 (13.6-178.2), "trouble relaxing" 25.7 (7.1-92.6), "Feeling nervous, anxious or on edge" on a daily basis 25.4 (6.9-93.8), and "worrying too much about different things" 24.4 (7.7-77.6). Although the hallmark symptoms of depression are emotional (hopelessness and sadness), the highest scores found were physical: apetite, fatigue, and poor sleep. Irritability had a significant increase in migraine risk [OR 3.8 (1.9-7.8) if experienced some days, 7.5 (2.7-20.7) more than half the days, and 22.0 (5.7-84.9) when experienced nearly every day]. Anxiety was more robustly associated with increase in migraine risk than depression. Lack of ability to properly control worrying and to relax are the most prominent issues in migraine psychiatric comorbidity. Physical symptoms in depression are more linked to migraine than emotional symptoms. A

  15. Retrospect and prospect: advances and future strategies in climate research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A brief review of the progress in climate research and a prospect on its further development in the 21st century is presented. Some key findings including the concept of climate system, the discovery of climatic multi-equilibrium and abrupt climate changes, and the recognition of human activities as an important force of climate change made breakthroughs in climatology possible during last few decades. The adaptation to climatic and global change emerged as a new aspect of climatic research during the 1990s. Climate research will break through in the observation of the global system, in the analysis of mass data, in the deepening of research on the mechanism of climatic change, and in the improvement of models. In the applied fields of climate research, there will be substantial progress in the research on adaptation to global change and sustainable development, on orderly human activities, and climate modification.

  16. Present status of research reactor and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Ken

    2013-01-01

    Research reactors have been playing an important role in the research and development of the various fields, such as physics, chemistry, biology, engineering, agriculture, medicine, etc. as well as human resource development. However, the most of them are older than 40 years, and the ageing management is an important issue. In Japan, only two research reactors are operational after the Great East Japan Earthquake in 2011. JAEA's reactors suffered from the quake and they are under inspections. Kyoto University Research Reactor, one of the operational reactors, has been widely used for research and human resource development, and the additional safety measures against the station blackout were installed. Besides the affect of the quake, the disposal or treatment of spent fuel becomes an inevitable problem for research reactors. The way of spent fuel disposal or treatment should be determined with the nation-wide and/or international coalition. (author)

  17. CERN and ESA examine future fundamental physics research in space

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Press Office. Geneva

    2000-01-01

    A special workshop on Fundamental Physics in Space and related topics will be held at CERN in Geneva from 5 to 7 April 2000. Remarkable advances in technology and progress made in reliability and cost effectiveness of European space missions in recent years have opened up exciting new directions for such research. The workshop provides a forum for sharing expertise gained in high energy physics research with colleagues working in research in space.

  18. Burnout does not help predict depression among French school teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Renzo; Schonfeld, Irvin Sam; Laurent, Eric

    2015-11-01

    Burnout has been viewed as a phase in the development of depression. However, supportive research is scarce. We examined whether burnout predicted depression among French school teachers. We conducted a 2-wave, 21-month study involving 627 teachers (73% female) working in French primary and secondary schools. Burnout was assessed with the Maslach Burnout Inventory and depression with the 9-item depression module of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). The PHQ-9 grades depressive symptom severity and provides a provisional diagnosis of major depression. Depression was treated both as a continuous and categorical variable using linear and logistic regression analyses. We controlled for gender, age, and length of employment. Controlling for baseline depressive symptoms, linear regression analysis showed that burnout symptoms at time 1 (T1) did not predict depressive symptoms at time 2 (T2). Baseline depressive symptoms accounted for about 88% of the association between T1 burnout and T2 depressive symptoms. Only baseline depressive symptoms predicted depressive symptoms at follow-up. Similarly, logistic regression analysis revealed that burnout symptoms at T1 did not predict incident cases of major depression at T2 when depressive symptoms at T1 were included in the predictive model. Only baseline depressive symptoms predicted cases of major depression at follow-up. This study does not support the view that burnout is a phase in the development of depression. Assessing burnout symptoms in addition to "classical" depressive symptoms may not always improve our ability to predict future depression.

  19. The Future of Pedagogical Action Research in Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormack, Sophie; Bourne, Victoria; Deuker, Charmaine; Norton, Lin; O'Siochcru, Cathal; Watling, Rosamond

    2014-01-01

    Psychology lecturers are well-qualified to carry out action research which would contribute to the theoretical understanding of learning as well as having practical benefits for students. Pedagogical action research demonstrates how knowledge of psychology can be applied to solve practical problems, providing role models of psychological literacy…

  20. The Future Relations Between Research and Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nybom, Thorsten

    1997-01-01

    Explores factors affecting the relationship between research and higher education, particularly in the rapidly changing European context where the rise in mass education and institutional differentiation has created a crisis for the traditional university. Argues that these changes will lead to a fundamental restructuring of research and its…

  1. HRM and innovation: Themes, contingencies and directions for future research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Florén, H.; Rundquist, J.; Schuler, R.S.; Bondarouk, Tatiana; Ruel, Hubertus Johannes Maria

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of this special issue were to connect Human Resource Management (HRM) research and innovation research and to contribute towards a better understanding of how HRM can be deployed to support organisations in their innovation efforts. In this commentary, we review the results from the

  2. Polish Qualitative Sociology. Insight into the future of postdisciplinary research

    OpenAIRE

    Konecki, Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    The paper desctibes the definitions of following concepts: multidisiplinarity, interdisciplinarity, transdysciplinarity, postdisciplinarity. MOreover it discuss the meanings of a concept of discipline. It describes the place of the Polish qualitative sociology in the context of postdisciplinary research. The main question of paper is: Does the POlish Qualitative Sociology has entered the postdisciplinary phase of research? DGS, UL Krzysztof Konecki

  3. Research accomplishments and future goals in particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitaker, J.S.

    1990-01-01

    This document presents our proposal to continue the activities of Boston University researchers in eight projects in high energy physics research: Colliding Beams Physics; Accelerator Design Physics; MACRO Project; Proton Decay Project; Theoretical Particle Physics; Muon G-2 Project; and Hadron Collider Physics. The scope of each of these projects is presented in detail in this paper

  4. Future Directions for Research on Online Technical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvitz, Brian S.

    2017-01-01

    Most research on online learning in higher education has been focused on general education at four-year institutions. There is a need for more research that focuses on online and hybrid education at community colleges in technical education fields. This issue includes articles from eight National Science Foundation funded projects doing innovative…

  5. Does Action Research Have a Future? A Reply to Higgins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman-Peck, Lorraine; Heilbronn, Ruth

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a view of action research (AR) as a valuable way in which teachers can pose fertile questions and engage in inquiry with transformative possibilities. This counters claims of its being at best a sterile method of teacher research and at worst a perilous trap for teachers. Chris Higgins has argued that AR has lost its original…

  6. Research and development for the future nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morimoto, Hideo [Japan International Cooperation Agency, Tokyo (Japan)

    2002-11-01

    This paper consists of nuclear power technologies in Japan, its states of other countries, the today's objects, investment, change of the research and development paradigm, new type of reactor, public research and target research and resource. The new types of reactor investigated in Japan are FBR, 4S, aqueous homogenous reactor, gas reactor and molten-salt reactor. On the basis of correspondence to environment of market and materialization of business model, nuclear power has to cooperate with electric power side. The international joint research should be investigated, because the investment is limited. There are three references such as Report of nuclear power section in the total source energy investigation (2001): http://www.meti.go.jp/report/data/g10627aj.html, OECD/NEA (2002): http://www.neafr/html/ndd/reports/2002/nea3969.html and public research: http://www.iae.or.jp/koubo/koubo.html. (S.Y.)

  7. Research and development for the future nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morimoto, Hideo

    2002-01-01

    This paper consists of nuclear power technologies in Japan, its states of other countries, the today's objects, investment, change of the research and development paradigm, new type of reactor, public research and target research and resource. The new types of reactor investigated in Japan are FBR, 4S, aqueous homogenous reactor, gas reactor and molten-salt reactor. On the basis of correspondence to environment of market and materialization of business model, nuclear power has to cooperate with electric power side. The international joint research should be investigated, because the investment is limited. There are three references such as Report of nuclear power section in the total source energy investigation (2001): http://www.meti.go.jp/report/data/g10627aj.html, OECD/NEA (2002): http://www.neafr/html/ndd/reports/2002/nea3969.html and public research: http://www.iae.or.jp/koubo/koubo.html. (S.Y.)

  8. [Effort-reward imbalance at work and depression: current research evidence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegrist, J

    2013-01-01

    In view of highly prevalent stressful conditions in modern working life, in particular increasing work pressure and job insecurity, it is of interest to know whether specific constellations of an adverse psychosocial work environment increase the risk of depressive disorder among employed people. This contribution gives a short overview of current research evidence based on an internationally established work stress model of effort-reward imbalance. Taken together, results from seven prospective epidemiological investigations demonstrate a two-fold elevated relative risk of incident depressive disorder over a mean observation period of 2.7 years among exposed versus non-exposed employees. Additional findings from experimental and quasi-experimental studies point to robust associations of effort-reward imbalance at work with proinflammatory cytokines and markers of reduced immune competence. These latter markers may indicate potential psychobiological pathways. In conclusion, incorporating this new knowledge into medical treatment and preventive efforts seems well justified.

  9. Researching the psychological therapies in prison: considerations and future recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Joanna; Bertrand-Godfrey, Betty

    2014-01-01

    The psychological therapies are widely considered within the forensic literature as holding a useful role in the prison system, however, despite this, very little research into the psychological therapies has taken place. Further, where research is carried out, it is often associated with the need for evidence-based practice (EBP), involving quantification and randomization. The paper aims to discuss these issues. This paper will initially introduce the importance of research into the psychological therapies in prison, followed by a consideration of EBP which can be thought of as the current movement governing research in the psychological therapies in the UK. However, in providing a focused critique of EBP, particularly within prisons, this paper will attempt to pave the way for a consideration of alternative research methodologies and resultant methods in researching the psychological therapies in prisons in the UK. Through this it is argued that research within the prison setting should act not to promote interventions and create an evidence-based as such, but to provide an accessible body of knowledge for the psychological therapists working in prisons in the UK.

  10. CERN openlab Whitepaper on Future IT Challenges in Scientific Research

    CERN Document Server

    Di Meglio, Alberto; Purcell, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    This whitepaper describes the major IT challenges in scientific research at CERN and several other European and international research laboratories and projects. Each challenge is exemplified through a set of concrete use cases drawn from the requirements of large-scale scientific programs. The paper is based on contributions from many researchers and IT experts of the participating laboratories and also input from the existing CERN openlab industrial sponsors. The views expressed in this document are those of the individual contributors and do not necessarily reflect the view of their organisations and/or affiliates.

  11. Italy. Report 1 [Marine Radioecology. Current Research and Future Scope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argiero, L.

    1967-01-01

    Present research programme: Studies on radioactive, biological and hydrographic characteristics of Tyrrhenian Sea; Organization of suitable control network of marine water and fauna: systematic measurement of present components of natural and artificial radioactivity of water, sediments and of the marine food chain techniques of sampling; analysis and measurement of particular radioisotopes in marine water. α, β, γ analysis of samples; γ spectrometry, research on 90 Sr and 137 Cs. Determination of concentration factors of radioisotopes which are responsible for contamination of principal components of the flora and fauna in the Tyrrhenian Sea; research of hydrographie factors influencing the distribution of marine radioactivity. Nuclide content of other organisms of the Tyrrhenian flora and fauna

  12. Ensuring future national gas supplies. High stakes for research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojey, A.

    1996-01-01

    A considerable increase in natural gas demand has been forecast for the coming years. Present-day supply sources will be unable to cover the growing demand in Europe and new suppliers will need to be called on more and more. Diversifying to new supply sources will entail heavy investments and is bound to mean rising costs. Technical progress is necessary to reduce costs, while protecting the environment and providing improved safety conditions. Innovative solutions in the areas of production, processing, transportation and chemical conversion should in the future widen the options and outlets available to operators. (author)

  13. Country variations in depressive symptoms profile in Asian countries: Findings of the Research on Asia Psychotropic Prescription (REAP) studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee, Kok-Yoon; Tripathi, Adarsh; Avasthi, Ajit; Chong, Mian-Yoon; Xiang, Yu-Tao; Sim, Kang; Si, Tian-Mei; Kanba, Shigenobu; He, Yan-Ling; Lee, Min-Soo; Fung-Kum Chiu, Helen; Yang, Shu-Yu; Kuga, Hironori; Udormatn, Pichet; Kallivayalil, Roy A; Tanra, Andi J; Maramis, Margarita; Grover, Sandeep; Chin, Loi-Fei; Dahlan, Rahima; Mohamad Isa, Mohd Fadzli; Ebenezer, Esther Gunaseli M; Nordin, Norhayati; Shen, Winston W; Shinfuku, Naotaka; Tan, Chay-Hoon; Sartorius, Norman

    2015-09-01

    This study was to assess differences in the symptom profile of depressive illness across various countries/territories in Asia. The study was a part of the Research on Asia Psychotropic Prescription project. The participating countries/territories include China, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Singapore, Taiwan, and Thailand. The pattern of depressive symptoms in 1,400 subjects with depressive disorder from 42 psychiatric centers in 10 Asian countries/territories was assessed. We collected information on socio-demographic and clinical characteristics with a standardized protocol and data collection procedure. The most common presentations of depressive symptoms were persistent sadness, loss of interest, and insomnia. Similar findings were found regardless of the region, country, or its income level. Patients with depressive disorder from high-income countries presented significantly more with vegetative symptom cluster (P countries had significantly more with both mood (P countries, patients with depressive symptoms had significantly less mood symptom cluster (P countries/territories, core depressive symptoms remain the same. Variations have been found in presentation of depressive symptoms with regards to the level of income of countries. Physical or vegetative symptoms were reported more by centers in higher income countries, while depressive cognition and suicidal thoughts/acts were more frequently reported from lower income countries. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  14. Key insights for the future of urban ecosystem services research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peleg Kremer

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the dynamics of urban ecosystem services is a necessary requirement for adequate planning, management, and governance of urban green infrastructure. Through the three-year Urban Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (URBES research project, we conducted case study and comparative research on urban biodiversity and ecosystem services across seven cities in Europe and the United States. Reviewing > 50 peer-reviewed publications from the project, we present and discuss seven key insights that reflect cumulative findings from the project as well as the state-of-the-art knowledge in urban ecosystem services research. The insights from our review indicate that cross-sectoral, multiscale, interdisciplinary research is beginning to provide a solid scientific foundation for applying the ecosystem services framework in urban areas and land management. Our review offers a foundation for seeking novel, nature-based solutions to emerging urban challenges such as wicked environmental change issues.

  15. Present state and future planning on research cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Atsushi

    1997-01-01

    NUCEF is a comprehensive large scale research facility to conduct from critical safety study to study on nuclear fuel cycle back end, and aims to be a kerneled research place by intending its effective application through common application due to colaboration and others. Therefore, NUCEF hopes to promote active research cooperation with various research institutes in or out of Japan and wide development. NUCEF held the 1st International Symposium NUCEF'95 in 1995, to discuss the engineering safety of nuclear fuel recycle facility. Subsequently, NUCEF'98 will hold next year, to intend to promote studies relating to nuclear fuel recycle from an international view. And also, it will intend to promote positively cooperation in response to needs with relating institutes, and private companies as well as to expect some innovative studies to create new techniques through colaboration with universities. (G.K.)

  16. Research accomplishments and future goals in particle physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-30

    This document presents our proposal to continue the activities of Boston University researchers in high energy physics research. We have a broad program of participation in both non-accelerator and accelerator-based efforts. High energy research at Boston University has a special focus on the physics program of the Superconducting Supercollider. We are active in research and development for detector subsystems, in the design of experiments, and in study of the phenomenology of the very high energy interactions to be observed at the SSC. The particular areas discussed in this paper are: colliding beams physics; accelerator design physics; MACRO project; proton decay project; theoretical particle physics; muon G-2 project; fast liquid scintillators; SSCINTCAL project; TRD project; massively parallel processing for the SSC; and physics analysis and vertex detector upgrade at L3.

  17. Italy. Report 2 [Marine Radioecology. Current Research and Future Scope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreiber, B. [Istituto di Zoologia, Universita-Parma (Italy)

    1967-03-15

    Present research programme (long-term): Radionuclides in plankton an marine sediments. Ecology of Anvantheria as Sr ''scanengers''. General distribution of radionuclides in marine environment Systematics and ecology of Avantharia, studied in different seas as a biological problem. Content of {sup 90}Sr in plankton in relation to the presence or absence of Avantharia Radiochemistry of sea sediments (littoral); sedimentological and petrographical researches for stratigraphic purposes. Fall-out and wastes radionuclides absorbed by sediments. Correlation between Acantharia and concentration factor for {sup 90}Sr. Stratigraphy of fall-out radionuclides in sea sediments. Biological researches on Acantharia rearing for turnover studies in vitro. Stratigraphical researches on recent coastal sediments for geochronological problems by means of fall-out radionuclides.

  18. Finland [Marine Radioecology. Current Research and Future Scope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miettinen, J. K.

    1967-01-01

    The research ideas given below are mainly based on experiences obtained in studies of radioecology in fresh waters but may be useful at least for comparison when considering radioecological studies in brackish and true ocean waters

  19. Considerations for future education in integrative landscape research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tress, G.; Tress, B.; Fry, G.; Opdam, P.F.M.; Ahern, J.F.; Antrop, M.; Hartig, T.; Hobbs, R.; Miller, D.; Silbernagel, J.M.; Winder, N.

    2006-01-01

    This chapter discusses challenges for PhD students involved in integrative landscape research. These challenges include terminology, epistemology, expectations, stakeholder involvement, organizational barriers, communicating and publishing, as well as career development. The chapter presents

  20. Nest predation research: Recent findings and future perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalfoun, Anna D.; Ibanez-Alamo, J. D.; Magrath, R. D.; Schmidt, Kenneth A.; Thomson, R. L.; Oteyza, Juan C.; Haff, T. M.; Martin, T.E.

    2016-01-01

    Nest predation is a key source of selection for birds that has attracted increasing attention from ornithologists. The inclusion of new concepts applicable to nest predation that stem from social information, eavesdropping or physiology has expanded our knowledge considerably. Recent methodological advancements now allow focus on all three players within nest predation interactions: adults, offspring and predators. Indeed, the study of nest predation now forms a vital part of avian research in several fields, including animal behaviour, population ecology, evolution and conservation biology. However, within nest predation research there are important aspects that require further development, such as the comparison between ecological and evolutionary antipredator responses, and the role of anthropogenic change. We hope this review of recent findings and the presentation of new research avenues will encourage researchers to study this important and interesting selective pressure, and ultimately will help us to better understand the biology of birds.

  1. Italy. Report 2 [Marine Radioecology. Current Research and Future Scope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, B.

    1967-01-01

    Present research programme (long-term): Radionuclides in plankton an marine sediments. Ecology of Anvantheria as Sr ''scanengers''. General distribution of radionuclides in marine environment Systematics and ecology of Avantharia, studied in different seas as a biological problem. Content of 90 Sr in plankton in relation to the presence or absence of Avantharia Radiochemistry of sea sediments (littoral); sedimentological and petrographical researches for stratigraphic purposes. Fall-out and wastes radionuclides absorbed by sediments. Correlation between Acantharia and concentration factor for 90 Sr. Stratigraphy of fall-out radionuclides in sea sediments. Biological researches on Acantharia rearing for turnover studies in vitro. Stratigraphical researches on recent coastal sediments for geochronological problems by means of fall-out radionuclides

  2. Research reactor of the future: The advanced neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appleton, B.; West, C.

    1994-01-01

    Agents for cancer detection and treatment, stronger materials, better electronic gadgets, and other consumer and industrial products - these are assured benefits of a research reactor project proposed for Oak Ridge. Just as American companies have again assumed world leadership in producing semiconductor chips as well as cars and trucks, the United States is poised to retake the lead in neutron science by building and operating the $2.9 billion Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) research reactor by the start of the next century. In 1985, the neutron community, led by ORNL researchers, proposed a pioneering project, later called the ANS. Scheduled to begin operation in 2003, the ANS is seen not only as a replacement for the aging HFIR and HFBR but also as the best laboratory in the world for conducting neutron-based research

  3. Philanthropic partnerships and the future of cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murciano-Goroff, Yonina R

    2015-02-01

    Complementing government and industry funding, philanthropies have made distinct contributions to altering the trajectory of cancer research, often in ways that reflect both the business training of their donors and their close ties to the lay public.

  4. Health psychology in primary care: recent research and future directions

    OpenAIRE

    Thielke, Stephen; Thompson,; Stuart,

    2011-01-01

    Stephen Thielke1, Alexander Thompson2, Richard Stuart31Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Washington, Geriatric Research, Education, and Clinical Center, Puget Sound VA Medical Center, Seattle, WA, USA; 2Group Health Cooperative, Seattle, WA, USA; 3Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USAAbstract: Over the last decade, research about health psychology in primary care has reiterated its contributions to mental and physical health promotion, ...

  5. The Job Demands?Resources model: Challenges for future research

    OpenAIRE

    Demerouti, Eva; Bakke, Arnold B.

    2011-01-01

    textabstractMotivation: The motivation of this overview is to present the state of the art of Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model whilst integrating the various contributions to the special issue. Research purpose: To provide an overview of the JD-R model, which incorporates many possible working conditions and focuses on both negative and positive indicators of employee well-being. Moreover, the studies of the special issue were introduced. Research design: Qualitative and quantitative studie...

  6. Is there a future for material fatigue research?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joosse, P.; Bulder, B.

    1996-01-01

    Due to the fact that it is quite difficult to get new funding for (fundamental) wind turbine material related fatigue research the authors started a discussion with the following title: Are there still wind turbine engineering specific fatigue problems? and What are the research goals for the fatigue experts in wind engineering for the second half of the 90 ies . In this paper the present status of the fatigue issue and the discussion following is reported. (au)

  7. Is there a future for material fatigue research?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joosse, P [Stork Product Engineering b.v., Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bulder, B [ECN-Renewable Energy, Petten (Netherlands)

    1996-09-01

    Due to the fact that it is quite difficult to get new funding for (fundamental) wind turbine material related fatigue research the authors started a discussion with the following title: Are there still wind turbine engineering specific fatigue problems? and What are the research goals for the fatigue experts in wind engineering for the second half of the 90{sup ies}. In this paper the present status of the fatigue issue and the discussion following is reported. (au)

  8. Examining Overgeneral Autobiographical Memory as a Risk Factor for Adolescent Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawal, Adhip; Rice, Frances

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Identifying risk factors for adolescent depression is an important research aim. Overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) is a feature of adolescent depression and a candidate cognitive risk factor for future depression. However, no study has ascertained whether OGM predicts the onset of adolescent depressive disorder. OGM was…

  9. Future Research on Cyber-Physical Emergency Management Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang-Jing Wu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Cyber-physical systems that include human beings and vehicles in a built environment, such as a building or a city, together with sensor networks and decision support systems have attracted much attention. In emergencies, which also include mobile searchers and rescuers, the interactions among civilians and the environment become much more diverse, and the complexity of the emergency response also becomes much greater. This paper surveys current research on sensor-assisted evacuation and rescue systems and discusses the related research issues concerning communication protocols for sensor networks, as well as several other important issues, such as the integrated asynchronous control of large-scale emergency response systems, knowledge discovery for rescue and prototyping platforms. Then, we suggest directions for further research.

  10. Future plans for the Imperial College CONSORT research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franklin, S.J.

    1999-01-01

    The Imperial College (IC) research reactor was designed jointly by GEC and the IC Mechanical Engineering Department. It first went critical on 9 April 1965 and has been operating successfully for over 33 years. The reactor provides a service to both academia and industry for neutron activation analysis, reactor and applied nuclear physics training, neutron detector calibration, isotope production and irradiations. The reactor has strategic importance for the UK, as it is now the only remaining research reactor in the country. It is therefore important to put in place refurbishment programmes and to maintain and upgrade the safety case. This paper describes the current facilities, applications and users of the research reactor and outlines both the recent and the planned developments. (author)

  11. Designing future learning. A posthumanist approach to researching design processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juelskjær, Malou

    I investigate how a design process – leading up to the design of a new education building - enact, transform and highlight tacit everyday practices and experiences in an education setting, whereby becoming an art of managing. I apply a post-humanist performative perspective, highlighting entangled...... agencies rather than focusing on human agency. I focus on the design process rather than the designer. The design process accelerated and performed past and future experiences of schooling, learning, teaching. This called for analytical attention to agential forces of not only the material but also...... and temporalities matter in design processes. Furthermore, the analysis emphasise how design translate affective economies and that attention to those affective economies are vital for the result of the design process....

  12. Future Efforts in Flynn Effect Research: Balancing Reductionism with Holism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Mingroni

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available After nearly thirty years of concerted effort by many investigators, the cause or causes of the secular gains in IQ test scores, known as the Flynn effect, remain elusive. In this target article, I offer six suggestions as to how we might proceed in our efforts to solve this intractable mystery. The suggestions are as follows: (1 compare parents to children; (2 consider other traits and conditions; (3 compare siblings; (4 conduct more and better intervention programs; (5 use subtest profile data in context; and (6 quantify the potential contribution of heterosis. This last section contains new simulations of the process of heterosis, which provide a plausible scenario whereby rapid secular changes in multiple genetically influenced traits are possible. If there is any theme to the present paper, it is that future study designs should be simpler and more highly focused, coordinating multiple studies on single populations.

  13. New trends for future reactors. A research and development review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anzieu, P.

    2002-01-01

    Third generation reactors proposed to the market are mostly LWR, pressurized or boiling, with confirmed competitiveness. A special effort to increase the safety level is sensible and should be improved. At least, solutions are studied to better use plutonium. The development of a new generation of NPPs offers opportunity to have another step towards more safety, for example in being fail-safe, and towards a minimization of ultimate waste produced. In this field, CEA dedicates its main effort to the development of a gas cooled reactor and constraint on safety, waste minimization are indicated. At least some examples of progression in the safety level of a plant are shown from an existing one to an hypothetical future reactor

  14. Advances, gaps, and future prospects in biological soil crust research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Bettina; Büdel, Burkhard; Belnap, Jayne

    2017-04-01

    Research progress has led to the understanding that biological soil crusts (biocrusts) are often complete miniature ecosystems comprising a variety of photosynthesizers (cyanobacteria, algae, lichens, bryophytes), decomposers like bacteria, fungi, and archaea, and heterotrophic organisms, like protozoa, nematodes, and microarthropods feeding on them. Biocrusts are one of the oldest terrestrial ecosystems, playing central roles in the structure and functioning of dryland ecosystems and presumably also influencing global biogeochemical cycles. On the other hand, biocrusts have been shown to be highly sensitive to global change, being easily destroyed by mechanical disturbance and severely threatened by minor changes in climate patterns. Despite the large increase in biocrust research, we still see major knowledge gaps which need to be tackled. Considering biodiversity studies, there are major regions of potential biocrust occurrence, where hardly any studies have been conducted. Molecular identification techniques are increasingly employed, but genetically characterized entities need to be linked with morphologically identified organisms to identify their ecological roles. Although there is a large body of research on the role of biocrusts in water and nutrient budgets, we are still far from closing the overall cycles. Results suggest that not all mechanisms have been identified, yet, leading to sometimes contradictory results between different studies. Knowledge on how to minimize impact to biocrusts during surface-disturbing activities has hardly been gained, and despite research efforts, instructions on effective biocrust restoration are still exemplary. In order to fill these research gaps, novel scientific approaches are needed. We expect that global research networks could be extremely helpful to answer scientific questions by tackling them within different regions, utilizing the same methodological techniques. Global networks could also be used for long

  15. Contemporary issues and future directions for research into pathological gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, M; Baron, E

    2000-08-01

    The recent healthy increase in research into all aspects of gambling is noted. The dominant theme accounting for most of this research is the mental disorder model of pathological gambling and measures that have been derived from this conceptualization. It is suggested that an alternative approach focusing on the construct of choice or subjective control over gambling may be a research direction that will ensure that progress is maintained. In this paper a context for the discussion is provided by first identifying briefly fundamental conceptual and methodological issues associated with the mental disorder model. In particular it is argued that the heterogeneity of the diagnosis of pathological gambling makes the research task of assessing truly independent variables extremely difficult. Subsequently an illustrative schema is presented that demonstrates both the potential advantages and some of the complexities associated with the dependent variable of self-control over gambling behaviour. The main advantages are argued to be (a) the focus of research is narrowed to one potential cause of harmful impacts rather than the great diversity of impacts themselves, (b) prospective studies of regular gamblers in real gambling venues may be a key source of insight into the development of pathological gambling and (c) it promotes the development of theoretical links with the mainstream of the discipline of psychology. Despite the conceptual difficulties that may be associated with the variable of self-control, it is suggested that these may be overcome because contemporary research into the addictive behaviours has demonstrated considerable success in the definition and measurement of control and related themes such as craving, restraint and temptation.

  16. Cutting-edge research in developing the library of the future new paths for building future services

    CERN Document Server

    Eden, Bradford Lee

    2015-01-01

    Cutting-Edge Research in the 21st-Century Academic Library: New Paths for Building Future Services explores examples of exciting new library services and workflows and provides opportunities for the rest of the library profession to model and adapt for their own communities and patrons.

  17. India [Marine Radioecology. Current Research and Future Scope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganguly, A.K.; Viswanathan, R.; Patel, B.; Bhatt, Y.M.; Pillai, K.C.

    1967-01-01

    Present research programme (long-term) - Radioactivity studies in the marine environment of the West Coast of India: (a) To understand the radioactivity and trace-element distribution in the continental shelf in Arabian Sea. This has the twin objectives of gaining basic information on marine geochemistry and marine biochemistry and assessing the capacity of the region to receive radioactive wastes from atomic energy installations. (b) To derive maximum permissible radioactive contamination limits in sea-water, marine organisms and marine products. (c) To collaborate with IAEA in research contract (Project Marina) with objectives stated in (a) and (b) above

  18. Neurobiology of anxious depression: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionescu, Dawn F; Niciu, Mark J; Mathews, Daniel C; Richards, Erica M; Zarate, Carlos A

    2013-04-01

    Anxious depression is a common, distinct clinical subtype of major depressive disorder (MDD). This review summarizes current neurobiological knowledge regarding anxious depression. Peer-reviewed articles, published January 1970 through September 2012, were identified via PUBMED, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library, using the following key words: anxious depression electroencephalography (EEG), anxious depression functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), anxious depression genetics, anxious depression neurobiology, and anxious melancholia neurobiology. Despite a general dearth of neurobiological research, the results suggest that anxious depression-when defined either syndromally or dimensionally-has distinct neurobiological findings that separate it from nonanxious depression. Structural neuroimaging, EEG, genetics, and neuropsychiatric studies revealed differences in subjects with anxious depression compared to other groups. Endocrine differences between individuals with anxious depression and those with nonanxious depression have also been noted, as evidenced by abnormal responses elicited by exogenous stimulation of the system. Despite these findings, heterogeneity in the definition of anxious depression complicates the results. Because exploring the neurobiology of this depressive subtype is important for improving diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment, enrichment strategies to decrease heterogeneity within the field should be employed for future research. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Computers in Language Testing: Present Research and Some Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James Dean

    1997-01-01

    Explores recent developments in the use of computers in language testing in four areas: (1) item banking; (2) computer-assisted language testing; (3) computerized-adaptive language testing; and (4) research on the effectiveness of computers in language testing. Examines educational measurement literature in an attempt to forecast the directions…

  20. Yugoslavia. Report 2 [Marine Radioecology. Current Research and Future Scope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branica, M.

    1967-01-01

    Present research programme (long-term): Physico-chemical investigations of micro-constituents in sea water. Determination of redox ionic state, complexibility, quantities and precipitation of micro-constituents in sea water. The physico-chemical state and quantity of micro-constituents is very important for the elucidation of the mechanism of transport and fixation of radionuclides into sediments and the biota

  1. Recapitalization, Implications for Educational Policy and Practice and Future Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheerens, Jaap; Scheerens, Jaap

    2017-01-01

    In this concluding chapter conclusions are drawn, and the relevance of the results for educational science and policy and practice are discussed. Illustrations are provided that were drawn from the exploration of policy and practices in the Netherlands. Synthetic answers to the three research

  2. Feasibility studies on future phycological research in polar regions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Elster, Josef; Svoboda, J.; Ohtani, S.; Kanda, H.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 15, - (2002), s. 114-122 ISSN 0914-5613 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6005002; GA ČR GA206/93/1177 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6005908; CEZ:MSM 123100004 Keywords : Cyanobacteria * algae * primary succession * primary production Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology

  3. Scholars Worry Conflicts over Data Could Hamstring Future Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Sarah D.

    2010-01-01

    The recent high-profile data-confidentiality fights in Arizona and Los Angeles have researchers worried that access to educators may become a difficult path. In the course of a decadelong federal lawsuit over English-language-learner programs in Arizona, lawyers for state schools chief Tom Horne subpoenaed the raw data from three studies…

  4. Research and development for the nuclear energy of the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, P.

    2002-01-01

    In the framework of the energy demand increase facing the environment protection, the three main objectives of the research and development for the nuclear energy are developed in this document: to support the today nuclear industry, to answer the public anxiety concerning the sanitary and environmental impact of nuclear activities, to design, evaluate and develop new reactors. (A.L.B.)

  5. 25 Years of Transparency Research : Evidence and Future Directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cucciniello, Maria; Porumbescu, Gregory A.; Grimmelikhuijsen, Stephan|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313875405

    2017-01-01

    This article synthesizes the cross-disciplinary literature on government transparency. It systematically reviews research addressing the topic of government transparency published between 1990 and 2015. The review uses 187 studies to address three questions: (1) What forms of transparency has the

  6. Five challenges for the future of media-effects research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valkenburg, P.M.; Peter, J.

    2013-01-01

    The past several decades have witnessed thousands of studies into the effects of media on children and adults. The effects sizes that are found in these studies are typically small to moderate, at best. In this article, we first compare the effect sizes found in media-effects research to those found

  7. Yugoslavia. Report 2 [Marine Radioecology. Current Research and Future Scope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branica, M. [Laboratory for Physico-Chemical Separations, Institute ' ' Ruder Boskovic' ' , Zagreb, Yugoslavia (Croatia)

    1967-03-15

    Present research programme (long-term): Physico-chemical investigations of micro-constituents in sea water. Determination of redox ionic state, complexibility, quantities and precipitation of micro-constituents in sea water. The physico-chemical state and quantity of micro-constituents is very important for the elucidation of the mechanism of transport and fixation of radionuclides into sediments and the biota.

  8. Yugoslavia. Report 1 [Marine Radioecology. Current Research and Future Scope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kečkeš, S.; Pučar, Z. [Laboratory of Marine Radiobiology and Laboratory for Electromigration, Institute ' ' Ruder Boskovic' ' , Rovinj and Zagreb, Yugoslavia (Croatia)

    1967-03-15

    Present research programme (long-term): Transport of various radiqnuclides in marine environment. Uptake, loss and accumulation of radionuclides in selected marine biota. Study of the physico-chemical forms of various radionuclides in sea water. Tracer experiments on the uptake and loss rate in biota. Electromigration techniques for the characterization of the physico-chemical forms of radionuclides.

  9. Amorphous Computing: A Research Agenda for the Near Future

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wiedermann, Jiří

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 1 (2012), s. 59-63 ISSN 1567-7818 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP202/10/1333 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : amorphous computing * nano-machines * flying amorphous computer Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science Impact factor: 0.683, year: 2012

  10. Irrigation scheduling research: South African experiences and future ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper was originally presented at the Water Research. Commission 40-Year .... direct link with dry matter production (Tanner and Sinclair,. 1983). Scheduling ..... type infrared thermometer for measuring canopy temperature received much ..... subscribers and advice was made available through web down- loads for ...

  11. Plant cell engineering: current research, application and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xunqing; Liu Luxiang

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviewed the current status of basic research in plant cell engineering, highlighted the application of embryo culture, double haploid (DH) technology, protoplast culture and somatic hybridization, somaclonal variation, rapid propagation, and bio-products production of plant-origin, and t he prospects. (authors)

  12. A Critical Look at Communication Strategies: Possibilities for Future Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doqaruni, Vahid Rahmani

    2015-01-01

    Like general theories of human communication, previous research into second language (L2) communication strategies (CSs) has also been characterized on either interactional conceived account or cognitively conceived one. However, this paper is a critical attempt to show that CSs' full significance can only be understood if the domain of CSs…

  13. Research on Hearing and Balance--Current and Future Developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, James B., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    This article reviews current research that has located disease genes causing hearing impairments, discovered the ability of sensory cells of the inner ear to regenerate, developed vaccines to prevent otitis media, developed programmable hearing aids, improved cochlear implants, and demonstrated the positive effects of physical therapy with balance…

  14. Gifted Male Readers: Current Understandings and Suggestions for Future Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagnani, Alexander R.

    2013-01-01

    Research literature concerning gifted male readers relies primarily on more extensive bodies of work regarding gifted males and male readers. Studied as a whole, the two halves portray a worrisome state of affairs for gifted male readers, who lag behind their female counterparts in the same patterns found across the ability spectrum. This literacy…

  15. The future of work | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-06-12

    Jun 12, 2017 ... English · Français ... The digitization of work is enabling job seekers to enter new labour markets, often in ... Through five in-depth case studies led by Southern researchers, new ... a class room of students using computers.

  16. Research on Future Skill Demands: A Workshop Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Margaret

    2008-01-01

    Over the past five years, business and education groups have issued a series of reports indicating that the skill demands of work are rising, due to rapid technological change and increasing global competition. Researchers have begun to study changing workplace skill demands. Some economists have found that technological change is…

  17. The Job Demands?Resources model: Challenges for future research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Demerouti (Eva); A.B. Bakke (Arnold B.)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractMotivation: The motivation of this overview is to present the state of the art of Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model whilst integrating the various contributions to the special issue. Research purpose: To provide an overview of the JD-R model, which incorporates many possible working

  18. The Job Demands-Resources model: challenges for future research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demerouti, E.; Bakker, A.B.

    2011-01-01

    Motivation: The motivation of this overview is to present the state of the art of Job Demands–Resources (JD–R) model whilst integrating the various contributions to the special issue. Research purpose: To provide an overview of the JD–R model, which incorporates many possible working conditions and

  19. Obesity in the news: directions for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanasova, D; Koteyko, N; Gunter, B

    2012-06-01

    Obesity attracts large volumes of news coverage. This in turn has spawned academic studies investigating how news framing may affect views about causes of and solutions to obesity. We use key studies to demonstrate that although existing research has made valuable discoveries about how obesity is defined in various media outlets, some methodological and theoretical questions remain unaddressed. We argue that extant research has focused on one dimension of analysis--the problematization of obesity in news stories--precluding insights into the entire process of obesity communication. Drawing on framing and media studies research, we propose a multidimensional approach to shed more light on factors affecting the production of obesity news stories by journalists and how they may be received by audience members. Ways of moving research into this multidimensional direction are proposed, including analysis of journalistic news values, political leaning and style of media outlets, emotion-eliciting language, readers' comments and obesity-related news visuals. Knowledge resulting from the exploration of these dimensions of the issue of obesity can be used to improve strategies to inform and engage audience members. © 2012 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2012 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  20. Contracting out maintenance and a plan for future research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, H.H.

    1997-01-01

    Presents a discussion of the research survey carried out at the Faculty of Technology Management at the Eindhoven University of Technology concerning contractors’ maintenance. First, gives a brief introduction to the emerging contracting out phenomenon in The Netherlands. Then, provides an overview

  1. Talent management : Current theories and future research directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al Ariss, A.; Cascio, W.F.; Paauwe, J.

    2014-01-01

    Research on Talent Management (TM) has been lagging behind businesses in offering vision and leadership in this field. After sketching a comprehensive outline of knowledge about TM, theoretical as well as practical, we introduce the papers in this special issue and their important contributions.

  2. Livestock in biomedical research: history, current status and future prospective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polejaeva, Irina A; Rutigliano, Heloisa M; Wells, Kevin D

    2016-01-01

    Livestock models have contributed significantly to biomedical and surgical advances. Their contribution is particularly prominent in the areas of physiology and assisted reproductive technologies, including understanding developmental processes and disorders, from ancient to modern times. Over the past 25 years, biomedical research that traditionally embraced a diverse species approach shifted to a small number of model species (e.g. mice and rats). The initial reasons for focusing the main efforts on the mouse were the availability of murine embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and genome sequence data. This powerful combination allowed for precise manipulation of the mouse genome (knockouts, knockins, transcriptional switches etc.) leading to ground-breaking discoveries on gene functions and regulation, and their role in health and disease. Despite the enormous contribution to biomedical research, mouse models have some major limitations. Their substantial differences compared with humans in body and organ size, lifespan and inbreeding result in pronounced metabolic, physiological and behavioural differences. Comparative studies of strategically chosen domestic species can complement mouse research and yield more rigorous findings. Because genome sequence and gene manipulation tools are now available for farm animals (cattle, pigs, sheep and goats), a larger number of livestock genetically engineered (GE) models will be accessible for biomedical research. This paper discusses the use of cattle, goats, sheep and pigs in biomedical research, provides an overview of transgenic technology in farm animals and highlights some of the beneficial characteristics of large animal models of human disease compared with the mouse. In addition, status and origin of current regulation of GE biomedical models is also reviewed.

  3. Psychological Therapies for Auditory Hallucinations (Voices): Current Status and Key Directions for Future Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, N.; Hayward, M.; Peters, E; van der Gaag, M.; Bentall, R.P.; Jenner, J.; Strauss, C.; Sommer, I.E.; Johns, L.C.; Varese, F.; Gracia-Montes, J.M.; Waters, F.; Dodgson, G.; McCarthy-Jones, S.

    2014-01-01

    This report from the International Consortium on Hallucinations Research considers the current status and future directions in research on psychological therapies targeting auditory hallucinations (hearing voices). Therapy approaches have evolved from behavioral and coping-focused interventions,

  4. Preparing for an interdisciplinary future: A perspective from early-career researchers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bridle, Helen; Vrieling, A.; Cardillo, Monica; Araya, Yoseph; Hinojosa, Leonith

    2013-01-01

    Increasingly, research is moving towards more interdisciplinary endeavours. Effective collaboration between people from different disciplines is necessary to maximize the potential benefits of interdisciplinarity for future research activity. This paper analyses an approach to fostering the skills

  5. Status and future directions for advanced accelerator research - conventional and non-conventional collider concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siemann, R.H.

    1997-01-01

    The relationship between advanced accelerator research and future directions for particle physics is discussed. Comments are made about accelerator research trends in hadron colliders, muon colliders, and e + 3 - linear colliders

  6. Highways of the future : a strategic plan for highway infrastructure research and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    This Highways of the FutureA Strategic Plan for Highway Infrastructure Research and Development was developed in response to a need expressed by the staff of the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) Office of Infrastructure Research and Developme...

  7. Looking Ahead: Future Directions in, and Future Research into, Second Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen-Freeman, Diane

    2018-01-01

    This article begins by situating modern-day second language acquisition (SLA) research in a historical context, tracing its evolution from cognitive to social to sociocognitive accounts. Next, the influence of the zeitgeist is considered. In this era of rapid change and turmoil, there are both perils and opportunities afforded by globalization. In…

  8. Future needs in research on genetic sexing of Ceratitis capitata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seawright, J.A.

    1997-01-01

    The author makes suggestions on the direction of research for genetic sexing over the next several years and prepared the paper as a guide for discussion. The literature of genetic and cytogenetic studies on insects as a whole is the basis for most of the approaches that the genetic control community has used, but only a tiny fraction of the literature is directed at genetic sexing and most of that is limited to, small scale laboratory studies. The effort to use genetic sexing strains on the scale of mass rearing of medflies is unprecedented, and it is not surprising that a few problems have been encountered during implementation. Consideration of this fact leads to the conclusion that it is necessary to 'think big' and target the research. (author)

  9. Incredible Years parenting interventions: current effectiveness research and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Frances; Leijten, Patty

    2017-06-01

    The Incredible Years parenting intervention is a social learning theory-based programme for reducing children's conduct problems. Dozens of randomized trials, many by independent investigators, find consistent effects of Incredible Years on children's conduct problems across multiple countries and settings. However, in common with other interventions, these average effects hide much variability in the responses of individual children and families. Innovative moderator research is needed to enhance scientific understanding of why individual children and parents respond differently to intervention. Additionally, research is needed to test whether there are ways to make Incredible Years more effective and accessible for families and service providers, especially in low resource settings, by developing innovative delivery systems using new media, and by systematically testing for essential components of parenting interventions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Research accomplishments and future goals in particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    This report presents the research accomplishments and ongoing activities of Boston University researchers in high energy physics. We are active in eight principal areas which are discussed in this report: Colliding Beams - physics of electron-positron annihilation; Accelerator Design Physics - advanced accelerator design; Monopole/ Neutrino - searchers for magnetic monopoles and for neutrino oscillations; Proton Decay - search for nucleon instability and study of nonaccelarator physics; Particle Theory - theoretical high energy particles physics; Muon G-2 - an experiment to measure the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon with a factor of 20 better precision than currently achieved; SSSintcal - scintillating fiber calorimetry for the SSC; and SSC Muon Detectors - development of muon detectors for the GEM Experiment at the SSC

  11. Future Research Opportunities in Peri-Prosthetic Joint Infection Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berbari, Elie; Segreti, John; Parvizi, Javad; Berríos-Torres, Sandra I

    Peri-prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a serious complication of prosthetic joint arthroplasty. A better understanding and reversal of modifiable risk factors may lead to a reduction in the incidence of incisional (superficial and deep) and organ/space (e.g., PJI) surgical site infections (SSI). Recently, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC) published the Guideline for Prevention of Surgical Site Infection. This targeted update applies evidence-based methodology in drafting recommendations for potential strategies to reduce the risk of SSI both across surgical procedures and specifically in prosthetic joint arthroplasty. A panel of PJI content experts identified nine PJI prevention research opportunities based on both evidence gaps identified through the guideline development process (transfusion, immunosuppressive therapy, anticoagulation, orthopedic space suit, and biofilm) and expert opinion (anesthesia, operative room environment, glycemic control, and Staphylococcus aureus nasal screening and decolonization. This article offers a road map for PJI prevention research.

  12. Health Behaviour Change Support Systems: Past Research and Future Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Mettler, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of mobile devices and social technologies has opened up new possibilities for health promotion and disease prevention. By means of emotional stimuli, motivation, and persuasion health behaviour change support systems (HBCSS) aim at influencing users to improve their health and wellbeing. This article presents the results of a bibliometric analysis related to the existing HBCSS body of knowledge. A total of 51 research studies were analysed with a look at their topical and theore...

  13. Supply Chain Risk Management: Literature Review and Future Research

    OpenAIRE

    Iwan Vanany; Suhaiza Zailani; Nyoman Pujawan

    2009-01-01

    Supply chain risk management has increasingly becoming a more popular research area recently. Various papers, with different focus and approaches, have been published since a few years ago. This paper aims to survey supply chain risk management (SCRM) literature. Paper published in relevant journals from 2000 to 2007 are analysed and classified into five categories: conceptual, descriptive, empirical, exploratory cross-sectional, and exploratory longitudinal. We also looked at the papers in t...

  14. General insurance marketing: a review and future research agenda

    OpenAIRE

    Robson, Julie

    2015-01-01

    The financial services sector is a huge and diverse industry comprising many different forms of organisations and product offerings. Yet, a review of past papers in the Journal of Financial Services Marketing (JFSM) reveals a heavy bias towards articles on banking, to the neglect of other equally important financial services categories. The purpose of this paper is to address this imbalance and to call for more research to be conducted in a wider range of financial services categories. In par...

  15. Research accomplishments and future goals in particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This document presents a report of the research accomplishments of Boston University researchers in six projects in high energy physics research: Study of high energy electron-positron annihilation, using the ASP and SLD detectors at SLAC; Search for proton decay and neutrinos from point astrophysical sources, as well as the study of cosmic ray muons and neutrinos in the IMB detector; Development of a new underground detector facility in the Gran Sasso Laboratory in Italy for magnetic monopoles and to study astrophysical muons and neutrinos; Preparation of an experiment to measure the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon in a new superconducting storage ring and detector system at BNL; Development of new concepts for particle accelerator components, including design and prototyping of high-precision electrostatic and magnetic elements; and Study of theoretical particle physics, including lattice gauge theories, string theories, phenomenology of the Standard Model and its extensions, and application of particle physics concepts to the early universe, cosmology and astrophysics, as well as the extension of these techniques into computational physics

  16. Research accomplishments and future goals in particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This document presents our proposal to continue the activities of Boston University researchers in eight projects in high energy physics research: study of high energy electron-positron annihilation, using SLD detector at SLAC. Development of integrated transition radiation detection and tracking for an SSC detector; Development of new concepts for particle accelerator components, including design and prototyping of high-precision electrostatic and magnetic elements; Development of a new underground detector facility in the Gran Saso Laboratory in Italy to search for magnetic monopoles and to study astrophysical muons and neutrinos; Search for proton decay and neutrinos from point astrophysical sources, and the study of cosmic ray muons and neutrinos in the IMB detector; Study of theoretical particle physics, including lattice gauge theories, string theories, phenomenology of the Standard Model and its extensions, and application of particle physics concepts to the early universe, cosmology and astrophysics, as well as the extension of these techniques into computational physics; Preparation of an experiment to measure the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon in a new superconducting storage ring and detector system at BNL; Fabrication (with M.I.T. and Princeton) of the BGO endcaps and associated tracking chambers for the L3 detector at LEP. Development of a central tracker for the SSC; and This new tasks requests support for research, development, and beam testing of a prototype SSC calorimeter featuring a tower geometry and composed of lead alloy and scintillating fibers

  17. Melodic Intonation Therapy: Back to Basics for Future Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna eZumbansen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a critical review of the literature on Melodic intonation therapy (MIT, one of the most formalized treatments used by speech-language therapist in Broca’s aphasia. We suggest basic clarifications to enhance the scientific support of this promising treatment. First, MIT is a program, not a single speech facilitation technique. The goal of MIT is to restore propositional speech. The rational is that patients can learn a new way to speak through singing by using language-capable regions of the right cerebral hemisphere. We argue that many treatment programs covered in systematic reviews on MIT’s efficacy do not match MIT’s therapeutic goal and rationale. Second, we distinguish between the immediate effect of MIT’s main speech facilitation technique (i.e., intoned-speech and the effect of the entire program on language recovery. Many results in the MIT literature can be explained by this duration factor. Finally, we propose that MIT can be viewed as a treatment of apraxia of speech more than aphasia. This issue should be explored in future experimental studies.

  18. Imagine! On the Future of Teaching and Learning and the Academic Research Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kelly E.

    2014-01-01

    In the future, what role will the academic research library play in achieving the mission of higher education? This essay describes seven strategies that academic research libraries can adopt to become future-present libraries--libraries that foster what Douglas Thomas and John Seely Brown have called "a new culture of learning." Written…

  19. Environmental futures research at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Olson

    2012-01-01

    Relatively little research on environmental futures has been carried out in the United States. An exception is the long-running futures research that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been conducting since the 1970s. This paper reviews past and current efforts toward developing a capacity for environmental foresight within the EPA, and discusses some...

  20. Past, Present, and Future Research Avenues for Metformin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparkes, Steven T.; Patel, Dhiren K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To review why metformin is considered first-line therapy for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and review newer avenues of research currently being evaluated. Data Sources: The Cochrane Library and Medline (to January 2014) were searched for case–control and cohort studies, clinical trials, and systematic reviews and meta-analyses involving metformin for any indication. Study Selection and Data Extraction: The literature search found 5 major avenues of research for metformin: reduction in mortality, delayed-onset or prevention of T2DM in the presence of prediabetes, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), and decreased cancer risk. When available, multi-center, double-blind, controlled clinical trials or meta-analyses thereof were selected for review. If these types of studies did not exist, other types of studies were chosen for review. Data Synthesis: Metformin significantly decreases all-cause and diabetes-related mortality in overweight and obese patients with T2DM. It may also decrease risk of progression to T2DM in patients with prediabetes. Metformin has been studied for the treatment of NAFLD though data are limited. Metformin alone or combined with clomiphene may increase pregnancy and ovulation rates but has not yet been shown to increase live-birth rates in patients with PCOS. Metformin may decrease risk of colorectal cancer but not all-cancer risk. Conclusions: Metformin’s clinical role in T2DM and prediabetes is well established. Other avenues of research being evaluated at this time are NAFLD, PCOS, and reduced risk of cancer; more data are needed before it has a clinical role in these indications.

  1. Prescription for antidepressant in reducing future alcohol-related readmission in patients suffering from depression and alcohol use disorder: a retrospective medical record review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Patrick; Yomen, Katie; Turcios, Jennifer; Richman, Mark

    2015-12-21

    Patients suffering from major depressive disorder are more likely to suffer from alcohol use disorder. The data is inconclusive for the effectiveness of antidepressant treatment of patients suffering from both illnesses in regards to improving sobriety and reducing alcohol-related healthcare expenses such as hospitalizations. The objective of this study is to determine if a new prescription of an antidepressant upon inpatient discharge is associated with a reduction in the number of future acute alcohol-related hospital readmissions to the same institution in patients suffering from major depressive disorder and alcohol-use disorder. A retrospective, medical record review study was conducted at a publicly-supported hospital in Sylmar, CA. A query was performed for adult patients admitted between 1/1/2005-12/31/2013 who had ICD-9 codes for both alcohol-use disorder and depression. Index admission was the first hospitalization in which the patient was currently consuming alcohol and had depression as identified by physician documentation as a problem. Acute alcohol-related admissions were those for alcohol intoxication or withdrawal (indicating current alcohol use). Patients were excluded if they were receiving an antidepressant on index admission, depressive disorder with a prescription for an antidepressant is not associated with a reduction in future readmissions, nor significantly increase the number of days to readmission. The study does not support the concept of antidepressants in reducing acute alcohol-related readmissions.

  2. Exploring Astrobiology: Future and In-Service Teacher Research Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cola, J.; Williams, L. D.; Snell, T.; Gaucher, E.; Harris, B.; Usselman, M. C.; Millman, R. S.

    2009-12-01

    The Georgia Tech Center for Ribosome Adaptation and Evolution, a center funded by the NASA Astrobiology Institute, developed an educational Astrobiology program titled, “Life on the Edge: Astrobiology.” The purpose of the program was to provide educators with the materials, exposure, and skills necessary to prepare our future workforce and to foster student interest in scientific discovery on Earth and throughout the universe. A one-week, non-residential summer enrichment program for high school students was conducted and tested by two high school educators, an undergraduate student, and faculty in the Schools of Biology, and Chemistry and Biochemistry at Georgia Tech. In an effort to promote and encourage entry into teaching careers, Georgia Tech paired in-service teachers in the Georgia Intern-Fellowship for Teachers (GIFT) program with an undergraduate student interested in becoming a teacher through the Tech to Teaching program. The GIFT and Tech to Teaching fellows investigated extremophiles which have adapted to life under extreme environmental conditions. As a result, extremophiles became the focus of a week-long, “Life on the Edge: Astrobiology” curriculum aligned with the Georgia Performance Standards in Biology. Twenty-five high school students explored the adaptation and survival rates for various types of extremophiles exposed to UV radiation and desiccation; students were also introduced to hands-on activities and techniques such as genomic DNA purification, gel electrophoresis, and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). The impact on everyone invested and involved in the Astrobiology program including the GIFT and Tech to Teaching fellows, high school students, and faculty are discussed.

  3. Japan [Marine Radioecology. Current Research and Future Scope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saiki, M.

    1967-01-01

    Among the present research programmes: Studies on rcidiochemical analysis of sea-water and fishes; Studies on uptake of radionuclides by marine organisms; Studies on internal exposure arising from marine products; The convenient and appropriate method of analysis and determination of radioactivity in sea— water and fishes is investigated; Biological concentration of fission products and induced products in fishes and plankton arc studied from the radioecological point of view; Contribution of radionuclides in fishes and algae to those in the total Japanese diet is studied, in connection with fall-out studies

  4. Australia [Marine Radioecology. Current Research and Future Scope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, R.M.

    1967-01-01

    Present research programme: 1.1. Investigation of the fate of radioactive nuclides introduced into a tidal estuary. 1.2. To obtain information on the eventual accumulation of radioactive nuclides in marine organisms which form part of the human food chain. 1.3. Studies are being made of the ecology of the estuarine system and the passage of selected nuclides through various trophic levels. Particular attention is being paid to oysters (Saxostrea commercialis) and stable Zn, Ca, Sr and In levels in the oysters and in estuarine water being measured to determine concentration factors for these elements in this organism

  5. Sweden [Marine Radioecology. Current Research and Future Scope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agnedal, P.-O.

    1967-01-01

    The research which is going on now is concentrated on a study of uptake of cobalt, zinc and iron in the food chains in brackish water. We are following different lines in this work and they can be listed as follows: A. A study of accumulation and biological half-life of cobalt (later zinc and iron) in organisms in brackish water by means of radioactive isotopes. B. Analyses of stable elements (Co, Zn and Fe) in water, algae, evertebrates and fish from different localities in the Baltic and on the Swedish West Coast

  6. Australia [Marine Radioecology. Current Research and Future Scope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fry, R. M. [Australian Atomic Energy Commission Research Establishment, AAEC, Research Establishment, Private Mail Bag, Sutherland, N.S.W. (Australia)

    1967-03-15

    Present research programme: 1.1. Investigation of the fate of radioactive nuclides introduced into a tidal estuary. 1.2. To obtain information on the eventual accumulation of radioactive nuclides in marine organisms which form part of the human food chain. 1.3. Studies are being made of the ecology of the estuarine system and the passage of selected nuclides through various trophic levels. Particular attention is being paid to oysters (Saxostrea commercialis) and stable Zn, Ca, Sr and In levels in the oysters and in estuarine water being measured to determine concentration factors for these elements in this organism.

  7. Astroinformatics, data mining and the future of astronomical research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brescia, Massimo, E-mail: longo@na.infn.it [INAF, Astronomical Obs. of Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Napoli (Italy); Longo, Giuseppe [Department of Physics, University Federico II, Via Cintia 6, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Department of Astronomy, Caltech, Pasadena (United States)

    2013-08-21

    Astronomy, as many other scientific disciplines, is facing a true data deluge which is bound to change both the praxis and the methodology of every day research work. The emerging field of astroinformatics, while on the one end appears crucial to face the technological challenges, on the other is opening new exciting perspectives for new astronomical discoveries through the implementation of advanced data mining procedures. The complexity of astronomical data and the variety of scientific problems, however, call for innovative algorithms and methods as well as for an extreme usage of ICT technologies.

  8. Astroinformatics, data mining and the future of astronomical research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brescia, Massimo; Longo, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Astronomy, as many other scientific disciplines, is facing a true data deluge which is bound to change both the praxis and the methodology of every day research work. The emerging field of astroinformatics, while on the one end appears crucial to face the technological challenges, on the other is opening new exciting perspectives for new astronomical discoveries through the implementation of advanced data mining procedures. The complexity of astronomical data and the variety of scientific problems, however, call for innovative algorithms and methods as well as for an extreme usage of ICT technologies

  9. Puerto Rico [Marine Radioecology. Current Research and Future Scope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowman, Frank G.

    1967-01-01

    Present research programme: Marine biology programme (marine biogeochemistry). The programme is designed to provide measurements of the distribution and movements of selected trace elements in a restricted but complete ecological and biogeochemical system. To obtain information on interactions between the marine biosphere and hydrosphere, measurements are being made of biological productivity, amounts of trace elements in the organisms and the environment, biological half-lives of trace elements, characteristics of food webs, and the influence of physical and chemical oceanographic factors upon the distribution patterns of trace elements in the marine waters, organisms and sediments offshore from the west coast of Puerto Rico

  10. Journalism in virtual reality : opportunities and future research challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Sirkkunen, Esa; Väätäjä, Heli; Uskali, Turo; Rezaei, Parisa Pour

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a state-of-the-art overview on journalism and its opportunities and challenges in virtual reality. First we take a look at what kind of real-life journalistic experiments there have been made in this field so far, then we analyze the research literature on journalistic VR. The paper proceeds to discuss the emergence of virtual reality and immersive journalism explored in the latest reports in the fields of HCI and VR design. In order to analyse VR-journalism...

  11. Neutron scattering research at JAERI reactors - past, present and future -

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funahashi, Satoru; Morii, Yukio; Minakawa, Nobuaki

    1992-01-01

    It was in 1961 that the first neutron scattering experiment was performed in Japan at JRR-2. The start of JRR-3 in 1964 accelerated the neutron scattering activities in Japan. The research in this field in Japan grew up by using these two research reactors. Among them JRR-2 has played an important role because its neutron flux was about seven times higher than that of the old JRR-3. The completion of the new JRR-3M in 1990 made an epoch to the neutron scattering activities in Japan. The long-waited JRR-3M came up to the expectations of the scientists of Japan. It is a realization of the ideal reactor with tangential beam holes, cold source and neutron guides in a large guide hall. The flux at the neutron scattering instruments is about five times higher than that of JRR-2. Utilization of JRR-3M has just started. Twelve neutron scattering machines are running there. The number will increase up to close twenty in a couple of years. (author)

  12. Research accomplishments and future goals in particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This document reports the past year's achievements and the present directions of the activities of Boston University researchers in seven projects in high energy physics research: study of high energy electron-positron annihilation, using the SLD detector at SLAC; search for proton decay and neutrinos from point astrophysical sources, as well as the study of cosmic ray muons and neutrinos in the IMB detector; development of a new underground detector facility in the Gran Sasso Laboratory in Italy for magnetic monopoles and to study astrophysical muons and neutrinos; preparation of an experiment to measure the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon in a new superconducting storage ring detector system at BNL; development of new concepts for particle accelerator components, including design and prototyping of high-precision electrostatic and magnetic elements; study of proton-antiproton collisions using the UA1 detector at CERN; and study of theoretical particle physics, including lattice gauge theories, string theories, phenomenology of the Standard Model and its extensions, and application of particle physics concepts to the early universe, cosmology and astrophysics, as well as the extension of these techniques into computational physics

  13. Gravitational-wave research: Current status and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorne, K.S.

    1980-01-01

    There is a reasonably good change that in the 1980s cosmic gravitational waves will be discovered and will become a powerful tool for astronomy. This prospect has stimulated a three-pronged research effort. First, relativity theorists are developing new mathematical tools for the analysis of gravitational radiation: including (i) methods of analyzing the generation of gravity waves by sources with strong self-gravity and large internal velocities (e.g., collisions of black holes), (ii) methods of computing radiation reaction in sources, and (iii) methods of analyzing how gravitational waves propagate through our lumpy curved-space Universe. Second, astrophysicists are attempting to identify the most promissing sources of gravitational waves, and are using the relativity theorists' mathematical tools to estimate the characteristics of the waves they emit. Third, with the estimated wave characteristics in mind, experimenters are designing and constructing a second generation of gravitational-wave detectors: detectors of three types: Doppler tracking of interplanetary spacecraft, Earth-based laser interferometers, and Earth-based Weber-type resonant bars. This article reviews, in brief, all three prongs of the research effort and gives references to more detailed articles about specialized aspects of gravitational-wave physics

  14. Livestock Production - Future Directions and Priority Research Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, P.H., E-mail: phrobinson@ucdavis.edu [Department of Animal Science, University of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2014-07-15

    While specific issues facing ruminant production differ in detail between developed and developing countries, the general constraints and challenges suggest that common research interests will continue to exist. The need to increase outputs of ruminant meat and milk products differ sharply between the developed and developing world, although a need to increase animal productivity is evident in both, albeit primarily to increase product output in the developing world but to decrease environmental impacts of food producing ruminants in the developed world. The largest single limitation to increasing productivity of ruminants in the low digestibility of the structural carbohydrates which comprise a large proportion of their diets. Research on actions of secondary compounds in ruminal metabolism is required to avoid their negative effects and harvest the benefits of their positive effects. Domesticated ruminants have historically provided a substantial portion of the world's supplies. However if that is to continue, ways must be found to increase digestibility of their primary feedstocks, increase the 'healthfulness' of their products to humans, and decrease the environmental impact of their production systems.

  15. Livestock Production - Future Directions and Priority Research Areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, P.H.

    2014-01-01

    While specific issues facing ruminant production differ in detail between developed and developing countries, the general constraints and challenges suggest that common research interests will continue to exist. The need to increase outputs of ruminant meat and milk products differ sharply between the developed and developing world, although a need to increase animal productivity is evident in both, albeit primarily to increase product output in the developing world but to decrease environmental impacts of food producing ruminants in the developed world. The largest single limitation to increasing productivity of ruminants in the low digestibility of the structural carbohydrates which comprise a large proportion of their diets. Research on actions of secondary compounds in ruminal metabolism is required to avoid their negative effects and harvest the benefits of their positive effects. Domesticated ruminants have historically provided a substantial portion of the world's supplies. However if that is to continue, ways must be found to increase digestibility of their primary feedstocks, increase the 'healthfulness' of their products to humans, and decrease the environmental impact of their production systems

  16. Social working memory: Neurocognitive networks and directions for future research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan L Meyer

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Navigating the social world requires the ability to maintain and manipulate information about people’s beliefs, traits, and mental states. We characterize this capacity as social working memory. To date, very little research has explored this phenomenon, in part because of the assumption that general working memory systems would support working memory for social information. Various lines of research, however, suggest that social cognitive processing relies on a neurocognitive network (i.e., the ‘mentalizing network’ that is functionally distinct from, and considered antagonistic with, the canonical working memory network. Here, we review evidence suggesting that demanding social cognition requires social working memory and that both the mentalizing and canonical working memory neurocognitive networks support social working memory. The neural data run counter to the common finding of parametric decreases in mentalizing regions as a function of working memory demand and suggest that the mentalizing network can support demanding cognition, when it is demanding social cognition. Implications for individual differences in social cognition and pathologies of social cognition are discussed.

  17. Social working memory: neurocognitive networks and directions for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Meghan L; Lieberman, Matthew D

    2012-01-01

    Navigating the social world requires the ability to maintain and manipulate information about people's beliefs, traits, and mental states. We characterize this capacity as social working memory (SWM). To date, very little research has explored this phenomenon, in part because of the assumption that general working memory systems would support working memory for social information. Various lines of research, however, suggest that social cognitive processing relies on a neurocognitive network (i.e., the "mentalizing network") that is functionally distinct from, and considered antagonistic with, the canonical working memory network. Here, we review evidence suggesting that demanding social cognition requires SWM and that both the mentalizing and canonical working memory neurocognitive networks support SWM. The neural data run counter to the common finding of parametric decreases in mentalizing regions as a function of working memory demand and suggest that the mentalizing network can support demanding cognition, when it is demanding social cognition. Implications for individual differences in social cognition and pathologies of social cognition are discussed.

  18. Health psychology in primary care: recent research and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thielke S

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Stephen Thielke1, Alexander Thompson2, Richard Stuart31Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Washington, Geriatric Research, Education, and Clinical Center, Puget Sound VA Medical Center, Seattle, WA, USA; 2Group Health Cooperative, Seattle, WA, USA; 3Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USAAbstract: Over the last decade, research about health psychology in primary care has reiterated its contributions to mental and physical health promotion, and its role in addressing gaps in mental health service delivery. Recent meta-analyses have generated mixed results about the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of health psychology interventions. There have been few studies of health psychology interventions in real-world treatment settings. Several key challenges exist: determining the degree of penetration of health psychology into primary care settings; clarifying the specific roles of health psychologists in integrated care; resolving reimbursement issues; and adapting to the increased prescription of psychotropic medications. Identifying and exploring these issues can help health psychologists and primary care providers to develop the most effective ways of applying psychological principles in primary care settings. In a changing health care landscape, health psychologists must continue to articulate the theories and techniques of health psychology and integrated care, to put their beliefs into practice, and to measure the outcomes of their work.Keywords: health psychology, primary care, integrated care, collaborative care, referral, colocation

  19. Activities and future plans of the radiation effects research foundation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagataki, Shigenobu

    2000-01-01

    The Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) was established in 1975 as a binational research foundation supported by Japan and the United States. It continues the work of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC) which was established in 1974. ABCC-RERF studies focus on several fixed cohorts of survivors and their children: the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort (120,000 survivors); the In-Utero cohort (3,300 people born within 9 months of the bombings); the F 1 cohort (88,000 people born between mid-1946 and 1984), and the Adult Health Study (AHS) cohort (an ongoing clinical study of 17,000 LSS survivors and 1,100 people exposed in-utero). Epidemiological data have shown increased risks of leukemia and solid cancers by radiation exposure among the survivors. Excess leukemia risks, especially for children, were markedly elevated 5 to 10 years after exposure and have continued at reduced levels. Excess solid cancer rates became apparent within 10 years after exposure, increasing throughout life in rough proportion to background rates. For doses of interest in radiation protection excess leukemia risks exhibit an upward curving dose response pattern while the solid cancer excess appears to be linear by dose with no apparent threshold. In addition to malignancy, AHS data has shown dose-related increased risk for various non-malignant diseases; radiation cataracts, benign tumors of uterus, thyroid and parathyroid (hyperparathyroidism), and autoimmune thyroid diseases. Persons exposed in-utero exhibit a broad range of dose-related effects including delayed growth and development and higher rates of microcephaly. Studies of birth defects, chromosome aberrations, childhood mortality, and genetic variants of serum or erythrocyte proteins have provided no indication of heritable mutations in the F 1 cohort. Continued follow-up of survivors exposed as children (90% are still alive) is essential to understanding the temporal pattern of excess risks and lifetime risks, and may

  20. Value of pharmaceuticals: ensuring the future of research and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serajuddin, Hamida K; Serajuddin, Abu T M

    2006-01-01

    To analyze the current situation under which the pharmaceutical industry is criticized for the production of drugs with potential adverse effects, the high prices of medicines, and aggressive marketing practices, and to provide a proposal to rectify the situation. Published books, pharmaceutical journals, Web of Science database using the search terms pharmaceutical, research, development, marketing, cost, and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Web site. Most breakthroughs in the treatment of diseases and prolongation of lives have come about through pharmaceuticals discovered and developed by the pharmaceutical industry. While the process of discovering and developing new pharmaceuticals is lengthy, costly, and lacking any assurance of success, investment in research and development by the U.S. pharmaceutical industry has increased progressively, reaching 51.3 billion dollars in 2005. Yet the annual number of FDA approvals of new molecular entities (NMEs) has gradually decreased over the past 10 years. Additionally, a large part of the patent life of a successful NME is consumed during this lengthy development phase. Few businesses, if any, have such long product gestation lives and risks. For these reasons, the pharmaceutical industry is often in a rush to recoup its investment before the product's patent expires, and this is the root cause of many criticisms against the pharmaceutical industry. To rectify the current situation, a new system is proposed under which innovator pharmaceutical companies would be allowed royalties for their products after the expiration of patents, in a manner similar to the way in which other intellectual properties (such as books, music, films) are protected by copyright. Such a system would allow pharmaceutical companies to continue research on new pharmaceutical products unimpeded by the patent clock. Given appropriate legislative or other facilitatory actions, a royalty-based system for the marketing of generic products after

  1. ELENA prepares a bright future for antimatter research

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    At its recent session in June, the CERN Council approved the construction of the Extra Low ENergy Antiproton ring (ELENA) – an upgrade of the existing Antiproton Decelerator. ELENA will allow the further deceleration of antiprotons, resulting in an increased number of particles trapped downstream in the experimental set-ups. This will give an important boost to antimatter research in the years to come.   Layout of the AD experimental hall: the Antiproton Decelerator ring (purple); the ALPHA, ASACUSA, and ATRAP experiments (green); the ACE experiment (not pictured); and the new ELENA ring (blue). The Antiproton Decelerator (AD) is CERN’s widely recognized facility for the study of antimatter properties. The recent successes of the AD experiments are just the latest in a long list of important scientific results that started with LEAR (Low Energy Antiproton Ring). The scientific demand for low-energy antiprotons at the AD continues to grow. There are now four experiments runnin...

  2. Trends in restorative composites research: what is in the future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, Mariel Soeiro; Alania, Yvette; Natale, Livia Camargo; Rodrigues, Marcela Charantola; Watts, David Christopher; Braga, Roberto Ruggiero

    2017-08-28

    Clinical trials have identified secondary caries and bulk fracture as the main causes for composite restoration failure. As a measure to avoid frequent reinterventions for restoration replacement, composites with some sort of defense mechanism against biofilm formation and demineralization, as well as materials with lower susceptibility to crack propagation are necessary. Also, the restorative procedure with composites are very time-consuming and technically demanding, particularly concerning the application of the adhesive system. Therefore, together with bulk-fill composites, self-adhesive restorative composites could reduce operator error and chairside time. This literature review describes the current stage of development of remineralizing, antibacterial and self-healing composites. Also, an overview of the research on fiber-reinforced composites and self-adhesive composites, both introduced for clinical use in recent years, is presented.

  3. Status and future of food irradiation research project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimaki, Masao

    1982-01-01

    The first part of the report presented the results of wholesomeness evaluation of the irradiated potato, onion, rice and wheat by Organization of the National Research Programme on Food Irradiation which conducts food irradiation in Japan. The second part dealt with the wholesomeness evaluation of food irradiation by the joint specialist conference of FAO, IAEA and WHO. It was concluded that irradiation of a maximum mean of 10 KGy or less was unconditionally permissible for every food item, not requiring a toxicity test. However, the relationship between irradiation techniques and economic feasibility, wholesomeness of high dose irradiation, the human effect of use of irradiated food item, food chemistry and nutritional problems remain to be examined. (Chibe, N.)

  4. Soil Contamination and Remediation Strategies. Current research and future challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruzzelli, G.

    2012-04-01

    eliminating the source of pollution, but also on blocking the pathways from contaminants to receptors or reducing the exposure to contaminants,. Future challenge integration of sustainability into remediation decision-making. Soil is not a waste! There is a growing interest in the clean up approaches that maintain soil quality after remediation treatments. This issue is of great importance in the U.S.A. where the EPA from 2009 is promoting innovative clean-up strategies (Green Remediation). Green remediation is defined as the practice of considering all environmental effects of remedy and incorporating options to maximize environmental benefit of cleanup actions . These remediation strategies restore contaminated sites to productive use with a great attention to the global environmental quality, including the preservation of soil functionality according to the following principles: use minimally invasive technologies; use passive energy technologies such as bioremediation and phytoremediation as primary remedies or finishing steps where possible and effective; minimize soil and habitat disturbance; minimize bioavailability of contaminants trough adequate contaminant source and plume control If we move from the current definition of remedial targets based on total concentrations, technologies with low impact on the environment can be utilized reducing the wrong choice to disposal soil in landfill destroying quickly a not renewable essential resource.

  5. Israel [Marine Radioecology. Current Research and Future Scope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilat, E.; Steiger-Shafrir, N.H.

    1967-01-01

    Present research programme - Radioactive contamination in marine environment and biota in the eastern Mediterranean. Detail of programme: (1) Objectives and most important points: The study of radioactive contamination of marine environment and biota involved qualitative and quantitative determinations for radionuclides of biological interest. The purpose of such an investigation is to determine; (a) Rate of passage of radionuclides through the food chain to the human organism in subtropical conditions prevailing in the eastern Mediterranean. The Levantine Basin of the Mediterranean is characterized by high temperatures and salinities which are typical for a tropical area. These are the cause of survival and development of numerous Indo-Pacific organisms which penetrate from the Red Sea through the Suez Canal into the eastern Mediterranean. It is therefore of interest to determine concentrations of radionuclides taken up by the endemic as well as the Indo-Pacific species at various levels of the food chain, (b) Indicator organisms which can be used in measuring the concentration of radionuclides in marine environment. (c) Effect of organisms on the distribution of elements in the sea. The elements, of which a large proportion passes through the organisms, will thus undergo a modification in their spatial and seasonal distribution in the water and sediments

  6. Journalism Research in Germany: Origins, theoretical innovations and future outlook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Hanitzsch

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In Germany, the study of journalism has a long tradition. Löff elholz (2004b identifi ed the work of the writer and literary historian Robert Eduard Prutz (1816-1872 as being the ancestor of journalism theory. In 1845, long before the establishment of newspaper studies (“Zeitungskunde” as a fi eld of research, Prutz published “The History of German Journalism.” In later years the theoretical study of journalism was dominated by normative approaches, which continued for many decades. The belief that journalistic talent, similar to artistic talent, lies in the personality of the journalist (see Dovifat 1962 endured well into the 1970’s. At this time the scholarly discussion was mainly centered on the journalist as an individual who could barley live up to the normative expectations placed on news people. The result was a long-lasting (into the 1990s array of often romantic demands on journalists which they could hardly fulfi ll.

  7. Active fault research in India: achievements and future perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mithila Verma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a brief overview of the progress made towards active fault research in India. An 8 m high scarp running for more than 80 km in the Rann of Kachchh is the classical example of the surface deformation caused by the great earthquake (1819 Kachchh earthquake. Integration of geological/geomorphic and seismological data has led to the identification of 67 active faults of regional scale, 15 in the Himalaya, 17 in the adjoining foredeep with as many as 30 neotectonic faults in the stable Peninsular India. Large-scale trenching programmes coupled with radiometric dates have begun to constraint the recurrence period of earthquakes; of the order of 500–1000 years for great earthquakes in the Himalaya and 10,000 years for earthquakes of >M6 in the Peninsular India. The global positioning system (GPS data in the stand alone manner have provided the fault parameters and length of rupture for the 2004 Andaman Sumatra earthquakes. Ground penetration radar (GPR and interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR techniques have enabled detection of large numbers of new active faults and their geometries. Utilization of modern technologies form the central feature of the major programme launched by the Ministry of Earth Sciences, Government of India to prepare geographic information system (GIS based active fault maps for the country.

  8. Research progresses and future directions on pool boiling heat transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kumar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the previous work carried on pool boiling heat transfer during heating of various liquids and commodities categorized as refrigerants and dielectric fluids, pure liquids, nanofluids, hydrocarbons and additive mixtures, as well as natural and synthetic colloidal solutions. Nucleate pool boiling is an efficient and effective method of boiling because high heat fluxes are possible with moderate temperature differences. It is characterized by the growth of bubbles on a heated surface. It occurs during boiling of liquids for excess temperature ranging from 5 to 30 °C in various processes related to high vaporization of liquid for specific purposes like sugarcane juice heating for jaggery making, milk heating for khoa making, steam generation, cooling of electronic equipments, refrigeration and etcetera. In this review paper, pool boiling method during heating of liquids for specific purpose is depicted. It is inferred that enhancement in pool boiling heat transfer is a challenging and complex task. Also, recent research and use of various correlations for natural convection pool boiling is reviewed.

  9. Sleep disturbance due to noise: Current issues and future research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Hume

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available There is growing interest in carrying out further research to understand and reduce the impact of aircraft noise on airport neighborhood in anticipation of the projected substantial increase in global aviation. Soundscapes provide new analytical methods and a broader, more comprehensive appreciation of the aural environment, which may have a useful role in understanding noise-induced sleep disturbance and annoyance. Current noise metrics like Leq do not provide a common language to report noise environment to residents, which is a key obstacle to effective noise management and acceptance. Non-auditory effects complicate the production of consistent dose-response functions for aircraft noise affecting sleep and annoyance. There are various end-points that can be chosen to assess the degree of sleep disturbance, which has detracted from the clarity of results that has been communicated to wider audiences. The World Health Organization (WHO-Europe has produced Night Noise Guidelines for Europe, which act as a clear guide for airports and planners to work towards. Methodological inadequacies and the need for simpler techniques to record sleep will be considered with the exciting potential to greatly increase cost-effective field data acquisition, which is needed for large scale epidemiological studies

  10. Current and future directions in culture and happiness research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Shigehiro; Gilbert, Elizabeth A

    2016-04-01

    Once believed to be universal, a growing body of research shows that both the conception and predictors of happiness vary cross-culturally. First, the meaning and importance of happiness varies both across time and between nations. Americans, for instance, tend to define happiness in terms of pleasure or enjoyment and view happiness as universally positive, whereas East Asian and Middle Eastern cultures may highlight the transient and socially disruptive nature of happiness and be ambivalent about whether it is good. Second, predictors of happiness vary between cultures. Recent work highlights new mediators (e.g., relational mobility), individual predictors (e.g., person-culture fit), societal factors (e.g., good governance and wealth), within-culture variations (e.g., at the state or city level), and interventions (e.g., practicing gratitude) that differ cross-culturally or help explain cultural differences in happiness. Though many questions remain, this review highlights how these recent advances broaden and revise our understanding of culture and happiness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Research of future network with multi-layer IP address

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guoling; Long, Zhaohua; Wei, Ziqiang

    2018-04-01

    The shortage of IP addresses and the scalability of routing systems [1] are challenges for the Internet. The idea of dividing existing IP addresses between identities and locations is one of the important research directions. This paper proposed a new decimal network architecture based on IPv9 [11], and decimal network IP address from E.164 principle of traditional telecommunication network, the IP address level, which helps to achieve separation and identification and location of IP address, IP address form a multilayer network structure, routing scalability problem in remission at the same time, to solve the problem of IPv4 address depletion. On the basis of IPv9, a new decimal network architecture is proposed, and the IP address of the decimal network draws on the E.164 principle of the traditional telecommunication network, and the IP addresses are hierarchically divided, which helps to realize the identification and location separation of IP addresses, the formation of multi-layer IP address network structure, while easing the scalability of the routing system to find a way out of IPv4 address exhausted. In addition to modifying DNS [10] simply and adding the function of digital domain, a DDNS [12] is formed. At the same time, a gateway device is added, that is, IPV9 gateway. The original backbone network and user network are unchanged.

  12. European Fusion Materials Research Program - Recent Results and Future Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diegele, E.; Andreani, R.; Laesser, R.; Schaaf, B. van der

    2005-01-01

    The paper reviews the objectives and the status of the current EU long-term materials program. It highlights recent results, discusses some of the key issues and major existing problems to be resolved and presents an outlook on the R and D planned for the next few years. The main objectives of the Materials Development program are the development and qualification of reduced activation structural materials for the Test Blanket Modules (TBMs) in ITER and of low activation structural materials resistant to high fluence neutron irradiation for in-vessel components such as breeding blanket, divertor and first wall in DEMO. The EU strategy assumes: (i) ITER operation starting in 2015 with DEMO relevant Test Blanket Modules to be installed from day one of operation, (ii) IFMIF operation in 2017 and (iii) DEMO final design activities in 2022 to 2025. The EU candidate structural material EUROFER for TBMs has to be fully code qualified for licensing well before 2015. In parallel, research on materials for operation at higher temperatures is conducted following a logical sequence, by supplementing EUROFER with the oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic steels and, thereafter, with fibre-reinforced Silicon Carbide (SiC f /SiC). Complementary, tungsten alloys are developed as structural material for high temperature applications such as gas-cooled divertors

  13. Health psychology in primary care: recent research and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thielke, Stephen; Thompson, Alexander; Stuart, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Over the last decade, research about health psychology in primary care has reiterated its contributions to mental and physical health promotion, and its role in addressing gaps in mental health service delivery. Recent meta-analyses have generated mixed results about the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of health psychology interventions. There have been few studies of health psychology interventions in real-world treatment settings. Several key challenges exist: determining the degree of penetration of health psychology into primary care settings; clarifying the specific roles of health psychologists in integrated care; resolving reimbursement issues; and adapting to the increased prescription of psychotropic medications. Identifying and exploring these issues can help health psychologists and primary care providers to develop the most effective ways of applying psychological principles in primary care settings. In a changing health care landscape, health psychologists must continue to articulate the theories and techniques of health psychology and integrated care, to put their beliefs into practice, and to measure the outcomes of their work.

  14. Future Marine Polar Research Capacities - Science Planning and Research Services for a Multi-National Research Icebreaker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biebow, N.; Lembke-Jene, L.; Wolff-Boenisch, B.; Bergamasco, A.; De Santis, L.; Eldholm, O.; Mevel, C.; Willmott, V.; Thiede, J.

    2011-12-01

    Despite significant advances in Arctic and Antarctic marine science over the past years, the polar Southern Ocean remains a formidable frontier due to challenging technical and operational requirements. Thus, key data and observations from this important region are still missing or lack adequate lateral and temporal coverage, especially from time slots outside optimal weather seasons and ice conditions. These barriers combined with the obligation to efficiently use financial resources and funding for expeditions call for new approaches to create optimally equipped, but cost-effective infrastructures. These must serve the international science community in a dedicated long-term mode and enable participation in multi-disciplinary expeditions, with secured access to optimally equipped marine platforms for world-class research in a wide range of Antarctic science topics. The high operational and technical performance capacity of a future joint European Research Icebreaker and Deep-sea Drilling Vessel (the AURORA BOREALIS concept) aims at integrating still separately operating national science programmes with different strategic priorities into joint development of long-term research missions with international cooperation both in Arctic and Antarctica. The icebreaker is planned to enable, as a worldwide first, autonomous year-round operations in the central Arctic and polar Southern Ocean, including severest ice conditions in winter, and serving all polar marine disciplines. It will facilitate the implementation of atmospheric, oceanographic, cryospheric or geophysical observatories for long-term monitoring of the polar environment. Access to the biosphere and hydrosphere e.g. beneath ice shelves or in remote regions is made possible by acting as advanced deployment platform for instruments, robotic and autonomous vehicles and ship-based air operations. In addition to a report on the long-term strategic science and operational planning objectives, we describe foreseen

  15. Panel plenary session: Status and future needs in the field of reactor safety research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finzi, S.; Cicognani, G.; Heusener, G.; Geijzers, H.F.G.; Alonso-Santos, A.; Holtbecker, H.F.

    1990-01-01

    Status and future needs in the field of reactor safety research. Overviews are given of the nuclear programme in France and the Netherlands. Spanish and Italian reactor safety research both current and for the future is outlined. LWR safety and the continuation of the establishment of safety standards particularly for LMFBR reactors is discussed. The new framework for the research in reactor safety by the Commission of the European Communities for 1990-1994 is outlined. The discussion which followed is reported. (UK)

  16. Neonatal Platelet Transfusions and Future Areas of Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sola-Visner, Martha; Bercovitz, Rachel S

    2016-10-01

    thrombocytopenia is common. Their unique physiology and associated complications make the risks and benefits of platelet transfusions difficult to understand. The goal of this review was to highlight research areas that need to be addressed to better understand the risks and benefits of platelet transfusions in neonates. Specifically, it will be important to identify neonates at risk of bleeding who would benefit from a platelet transfusion and to determine whether platelet transfusions either abrogate or exacerbate common neonatal complications such as sepsis, chronic lung disease, necrotizing enterocolitis, and retinopathy of prematurity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Symptom specificity in the acute treatment of Major Depressive Disorder: a re-analysis of the treatment of depression collaborative research program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Jeremy G; Harkness, Kate L

    2012-03-01

    Antidepressant medications, Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) and Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT) are equally efficacious in the acute treatment of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). Nevertheless, remission rates remain unacceptably low. Examining the differential time course of remission of specific symptom clusters across treatments may provide a basis for assigning patients to treatments that have the highest chance of being effective. This study re-analyzed data from the NIMH Treatment of Depression Collaborative Research Project (TDCRP), which included 250 adult outpatients with MDD randomized to 16 weeks of CBT, IPT, imipramine+clinical management (IMI-CM), or pill placebo (PLA-CM). We derived four symptom factors from the 23-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, and three symptom factors from the Beck Depression Inventory. Within-subject hierarchical regression models were specified to examine the linear and quadratic patterns of symptom remission over five assessment points. IMI-CM produced a more rapid rate of remission than CBT or IPT for both the somatic/vegetative and cognitive-affective symptoms of MDD. There were no statistically significant differences in the rates of improvement of any of the symptom factors between the IMI-CM and PLA-CM groups. Some core symptoms of depression were excluded due to low factor loadings. Past research has argued that the CBT arm in the TDCRP may have been weak. We failed to find evidence that treatments act preferentially on specific symptom clusters. Therefore, the symptoms of MDD may be inter-dependent when it comes to their courses of remission in treatment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Dimensional approach to symptom factors of major depressive disorder in Koreans, using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale: the Clinical Research Center for Depression of South Korea study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seon-Cheol; Jang, Eun Young; Kim, Daeho; Jun, Tae-Youn; Lee, Min-Soo; Kim, Jae-Min; Kim, Jung-Bum; Jo, Sun-Jin; Park, Yong Chon

    2015-01-01

    Although major depressive disorder (MDD) has a variety of symptoms beyond the affective dimensions, the factor structure and contents of comprehensive psychiatric symptoms of this disorder have rarely been explored using the 18-item Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS). We aimed to identify the factor structure of the 18-item BPRS in Korean MDD patients. A total of 258 MDD patients were recruited from a multicenter sample of the Clinical Research Center for Depression of South Korea study. Psychometric scales were used to assess overall psychiatric symptoms (BPRS), depression (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale), anxiety (Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale), global severity (Clinical Global Impression of Severity Scale), suicidal ideation (Scale for Suicide Ideation), functioning (Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale), and quality of life (World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment-abbreviated version). Common factor analysis with oblique rotation was used to yield factor structure. A four-factor structure was designed and interpreted by the symptom dimensions to reflect mood disturbance, positive symptoms/apathy, bipolarity, and thought distortion/mannerism. These individual factors were also significantly correlated with clinical variables. The findings of this study support the view that the BPRS may be a promising measuring tool for the initial assessment of MDD patients. In addition, the four-factor structure of the BPRS may be useful in understanding the mood and psychotic characteristics of these patients. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  19. Dimensional approach to symptom factors of major depressive disorder in Koreans, using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale: The Clinical Research Center for Depression of South Korea Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seon-Cheol Park

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although major depressive disorder (MDD has a variety of symptoms beyond the affective dimensions, the factor structure and contents of comprehensive psychiatric symptoms of this disorder have rarely been explored using the 18-item Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS. We aimed to identify the factor structure of the 18-item BPRS in Korean MDD patients. A total of 258 MDD patients were recruited from a multicenter sample of the Clinical Research Center for Depression of South Korea study. Psychometric scales were used to assess overall psychiatric symptoms (BPRS, depression (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, anxiety (Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, global severity (Clinical Global Impression of Severity Scale, suicidal ideation (Scale for Suicide Ideation, functioning (Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale, and quality of life (World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment-abbreviated version. Common factor analysis with oblique rotation was used to yield factor structure. A four-factor structure was designed and interpreted by the symptom dimensions to reflect mood disturbance, positive symptoms/apathy, bipolarity, and thought distortion/mannerism. These individual factors were also significantly correlated with clinical variables. The findings of this study support the view that the BPRS may be a promising measuring tool for the initial assessment of MDD patients. In addition, the four-factor structure of the BPRS may be useful in understanding the mood and psychotic characteristics of these patients.

  20. Depression and Social Identity: An Integrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruwys, Tegan; Haslam, S Alexander; Dingle, Genevieve A; Haslam, Catherine; Jetten, Jolanda

    2014-08-01

    Social relationships play a key role in depression. This is apparent in its etiology, symptomatology, and effective treatment. However, there has been little consensus about the best way to conceptualize the link between depression and social relationships. Furthermore, the extensive social-psychological literature on the nature of social relationships, and in particular, research on social identity, has not been integrated with depression research. This review presents evidence that social connectedness is key to understanding the development and resolution of clinical depression. The social identity approach is then used as a basis for conceptualizing the role of social relationships in depression, operationalized in terms of six central hypotheses. Research relevant to these hypotheses is then reviewed. Finally, we present an agenda for future research to advance theoretical and empirical understanding of the link between social identity and depression, and to translate the insights of this approach into clinical practice. © 2014 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  1. Research Note: Equivalence of French and English Language Versions of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D) among Caregivers of Persons with Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rourke, Norm

    2003-01-01

    The Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D) is among the most widely used depression screening measures. Existing research suggests a higher-order factor structure of responses among older adults (factors labelled "depressive affect," "absence of well-being," "somatic symptoms," and "interpersonal affect," each loading upon a…

  2. Brief Communication : Future avenues for permafrost science from the perspective of early career researchers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fritz, M.; Deshpande, B. N.; Bouchard, F.; Högström, E.; Malenfant-Lepage, J.; Morgenstern, A.; Nieuwendam, A.; Oliva, M.; Paquette, M.; Rudy, A. C A; Siewert, M. B.; Sjöberg, Y.; Weege, S.

    2015-01-01

    Accelerating climate change and increased economic and environmental interests in permafrost-affected regions have resulted in an acute need for more directed permafrost research. In June 2014, 88 early career researchers convened to identify future priorities for permafrost research. This

  3. Comparison of Athletes' Proneness to Depressive Symptoms in Individual and Team Sports: Research on Psychological Mediators in Junior Elite Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixdorf, Insa; Frank, Raphael; Beckmann, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Depression among elite athletes is a topic of increasing interest and public awareness. Currently, empirical data on elite athletes' depressive symptoms are rare. Recent results indicate sport-related mechanisms and effects on depression prevalence in elite athlete samples; specific factors associated with depression include overtraining, injury, and failure in competition. One such effect is that athletes competing in individual sports were found to be more prone to depressive symptoms than athletes competing in team sports. The present study examined this effect by testing three possible, psychological mediators based on theoretical and empirical assumptions: namely, cohesion in team or training groups; perception of perfectionistic expectations from others; and negative attribution after failure. In a cross-sectional study, 199 German junior elite athletes (M age = 14.96; SD = 1.56) participated and completed questionnaires on perfectionism, cohesion, attribution after failure, and depressive symptoms. Mediation analysis using path analysis with bootstrapping was used for data analysis. As expected, athletes in individual sports showed higher scores in depression than athletes in team sports [t(197) = 2.05; p sports (β = 0.27; p sports and depression scores. Neither cohesion nor perfectionism met essential criteria to serve as mediators: cohesion was not elevated in either team or individual sports, and perfectionism was positively related to team sports. The results support the assumption of previous findings on sport-specific mechanisms (here the effect between individual and team sports) contributing to depressive symptoms among elite athletes. Additionally, attribution after failure seems to play an important role in this regard and could be considered in further research and practitioners in the field of sport psychology.

  4. Comparison of Athletes’ Proneness to Depressive Symptoms in Individual and Team Sports: Research on Psychological Mediators in Junior Elite Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixdorf, Insa; Frank, Raphael; Beckmann, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Depression among elite athletes is a topic of increasing interest and public awareness. Currently, empirical data on elite athletes’ depressive symptoms are rare. Recent results indicate sport-related mechanisms and effects on depression prevalence in elite athlete samples; specific factors associated with depression include overtraining, injury, and failure in competition. One such effect is that athletes competing in individual sports were found to be more prone to depressive symptoms than athletes competing in team sports. The present study examined this effect by testing three possible, psychological mediators based on theoretical and empirical assumptions: namely, cohesion in team or training groups; perception of perfectionistic expectations from others; and negative attribution after failure. In a cross-sectional study, 199 German junior elite athletes (Mage = 14.96; SD = 1.56) participated and completed questionnaires on perfectionism, cohesion, attribution after failure, and depressive symptoms. Mediation analysis using path analysis with bootstrapping was used for data analysis. As expected, athletes in individual sports showed higher scores in depression than athletes in team sports [t(197) = 2.05; p sports (β = 0.27; p sports and depression scores. Neither cohesion nor perfectionism met essential criteria to serve as mediators: cohesion was not elevated in either team or individual sports, and perfectionism was positively related to team sports. The results support the assumption of previous findings on sport-specific mechanisms (here the effect between individual and team sports) contributing to depressive symptoms among elite athletes. Additionally, attribution after failure seems to play an important role in this regard and could be considered in further research and practitioners in the field of sport psychology. PMID:27378988

  5. Toward a Holistic Federated Future Internet Experimentation Environment: The Experience of NOVI Research and Experimentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maglaris, V.; Papagianni, C.; Androulidakis, G.; Grammatikou, M.; Grosso, P.; van der Ham, J.; de Laat, C.; Pietrzak, B.; Belter, B.; Steger, J.; Laki, S.; Campanella, M.; Sallent, S.

    This article presents the design and pilot implementation of a suite of intelligent methods, algorithms, and tools for federating heterogeneous experimental platforms (domains) toward a holistic Future Internet experimentation ecosystem. The proposed framework developed within the NOVI research and

  6. Critical research needs for identifying future changes in Gulf coral reef ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feary, David A.; Burt, John A.; Bauman, Andrew G.; Al Hazeem, Shaker; Abdel-Moati, Mohamed A.; Al-Khalifa, Khalifa A.; Anderson, Donald M.; Amos, Carl; Baker, Andrew; Bartholomew, Aaron; Bento, Rita; Cavalcante, Geórgenes H.; Chen, Chaolun Allen; Coles, Steve L.; Dab, Koosha; Fowler, Ashley M.; George, David; Grandcourt, Edwin; Hill, Ross; John, David M.; Jones, David A.; Keshavmurthy, Shashank; Mahmoud, Huda; Moradi Och Tapeh, Mahdi; Mostafavi, Pargol Ghavam; Naser, Humood; Pichon, Michel; Purkis, Sam; Riegl, Bernhard; Samimi-Namin, Kaveh; Sheppard, Charles; Vajed Samiei, Jahangir; Voolstra, Christian R.; Wiedenmann, Joerg

    2014-01-01

    Expert opinion was assessed to identify current knowledge gaps in determining future changes in Arabian/ Persian Gulf (thereafter ‘Gulf’) coral reefs. Thirty-one participants submitted 71 research questions that were peer-assessed in terms of scientific importance (i.e., filled a knowledge gap and was a research priority) and efficiency in resource use (i.e., was highly feasible and ecologically broad). Ten research questions, in six major research areas, were highly important for both understanding Gulf coral reef ecosystems and also an efficient use of limited research resources. These questions mirrored global evaluations of the importance of understanding and evaluating biodiversity, determining the potential impacts of climate change, the role of anthropogenic impacts in structuring coral reef communities, and economically evaluating coral reef communities. These questions provide guidance for future research on coral reef ecosystems within the Gulf, and enhance the potential for assessment and management of future changes in this globally significant region. PMID:23643407

  7. The planning of future research program of underground laboratories in overseas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honma, Nobuyuki; Tanai, Kenji; Hasegawa, Hiroshi

    2002-02-01

    The objectives of this study is to identify the research issues, which are to be conducted in the future underground research laboratory, about operation and logistics systems for the planning of future research and development program. The research programs and experiments, etc. were investigated for the geological disposal projects in overseas sedimentary rocks and coastal geological environments aiming to reflect in the future underground research facility plan in Japan. In the investigation, information on the engineered-barrier performance, design and construction of underground facilities, tunnel support, transportation and emplacement, and backfilling technology, etc. were collected. Based on these informations, the purpose, the content, and the result of each investigations and tests were arranged. The strategy and the aim in the entire underground research facility, and the flow of investigations and tests, etc. were also arranged from the purpose, the relations and the sequence of each investigation and experiment, and the usage of results, etc. (author)

  8. Critical research needs for identifying future changes in Gulf coral reef ecosystems

    KAUST Repository

    Feary, David A.

    2013-07-01

    Expert opinion was assessed to identify current knowledge gaps in determining future changes in Arabian/Persian Gulf (thereafter \\'Gulf\\') coral reefs. Thirty-one participants submitted 71 research questions that were peer-assessed in terms of scientific importance (i.e., filled a knowledge gap and was a research priority) and efficiency in resource use (i.e., was highly feasible and ecologically broad). Ten research questions, in six major research areas, were highly important for both understanding Gulf coral reef ecosystems and also an efficient use of limited research resources. These questions mirrored global evaluations of the importance of understanding and evaluating biodiversity, determining the potential impacts of climate change, the role of anthropogenic impacts in structuring coral reef communities, and economically evaluating coral reef communities. These questions provide guidance for future research on coral reef ecosystems within the Gulf, and enhance the potential for assessment and management of future changes in this globally significant region. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Critical research needs for identifying future changes in Gulf coral reef ecosystems

    KAUST Repository

    Feary, David A.; Burt, John A.; Bauman, Andrew G.; Al Hazeem, Shaker; Abdel-Moati, Mohamed A R; Al-Khalifa, Khalifa A.; Anderson, Donald M.; Amos, Carl L.; Baker, Andrew C.; Bartholomew, Aaron; Bento, Rita; Cavalcante, Geó rgenes H.; Chen, Chaolun Allen; Coles, Steve L.; Dab, Koosha; Fowler, Ashley M.; George, David Glen; Grandcourt, Edwin Mark; Hill, Ross; John, David Michael; Jones, David Alan; Keshavmurthy, Shashank; Mahmoud, Huda M A; Moradi Och Tapeh, Mahdi; Mostafavi, Pargol Ghavam; Naser, Humood A.; Pichon, Michel; Purkis, Sam J.; Riegl, Bernhard M.; Samimi-Namin, Kaveh; Sheppard, Charles R C; Vajed Samiei, Jahangir; Voolstra, Christian R.; Wiedenmann, Jö rg

    2013-01-01

    Expert opinion was assessed to identify current knowledge gaps in determining future changes in Arabian/Persian Gulf (thereafter 'Gulf') coral reefs. Thirty-one participants submitted 71 research questions that were peer-assessed in terms of scientific importance (i.e., filled a knowledge gap and was a research priority) and efficiency in resource use (i.e., was highly feasible and ecologically broad). Ten research questions, in six major research areas, were highly important for both understanding Gulf coral reef ecosystems and also an efficient use of limited research resources. These questions mirrored global evaluations of the importance of understanding and evaluating biodiversity, determining the potential impacts of climate change, the role of anthropogenic impacts in structuring coral reef communities, and economically evaluating coral reef communities. These questions provide guidance for future research on coral reef ecosystems within the Gulf, and enhance the potential for assessment and management of future changes in this globally significant region. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  10. McDonnell Douglas Helicopter Company independent research and development: Preparing for the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggerty, Allen C.

    1988-01-01

    During the 1970's and 80's, research has produced the technology that is seen in aircraft such as the LHX and future models. The technology is discussed that is reaching maturity and moving into the application stage of future programs. Technology is discussed in six major areas: advanced concepts, analysis techniques, structures, systems, simulation, and research and development facilities. The partnership of McDonnell Douglas Helicopter Co. and the government in developing these technologies is illustrated in several programs.

  11. Futures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Haldrup

    2017-01-01

    Currently both design thinking and critical social science experience an increased interest in speculating in alternative future scenarios. This interest is not least related to the challenges issues of global sustainability present for politics, ethics and design. This paper explores the potenti......Currently both design thinking and critical social science experience an increased interest in speculating in alternative future scenarios. This interest is not least related to the challenges issues of global sustainability present for politics, ethics and design. This paper explores...... the potentials of speculative thinking in relation to design and social and cultural studies, arguing that both offer valuable insights for creating a speculative space for new emergent criticalities challenging current assumptions of the relations between power and design. It does so by tracing out discussions...... of ‘futurity’ and ‘futuring’ in design as well as social and cultural studies. Firstly, by discussing futurist and speculative approaches in design thinking; secondly by engaging with ideas of scenario thinking and utopianism in current social and cultural studies; and thirdly by showing how the articulation...

  12. Subclinical depression in Urban Indian adolescents: Prevalence, felt needs, and correlates

    OpenAIRE

    Singhal, Meghna; Manjula, M.; Vijay Sagar, K. John

    2016-01-01

    Background: Subclinical depression in adolescents constitutes a risk factor for future clinical depression and hence warrants examination. However, there is a paucity of research that documents subclinical depression among adolescents in India. Objectives: (a) To investigate the prevalence of subclinical depression in urban school-going adolescents; (b) to investigate the problems and felt needs of these adolescents; (c) to examine depression-related variables; and (d) to examine the relation...

  13. Commentary on the Future of Community Psychology: Perspective of a Research Community Psychologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milburn, Norweeta G

    2016-12-01

    Community psychology is commented upon from the perspective of a community psychologist who was trained in the Community Psychology Program at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor. Her background and training are reviewed. A brief survey of research on homelessness as a frame for community psychology research is presented. Concluding remarks are provided on the future of research in community psychology. © Society for Community Research and Action 2016.

  14. Past, present and future of dust research at the Elliot Lake Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenier, M.; Bigu, J.

    1985-12-01

    A brief history of the dust research work at the Elliot Lake Laboratory is given. Two decades of dust research work are studied and reviewed. This review clearly shows where, when, and with what intensity various components of dust research were performed. From the data presented here, it is suggested that a major portion of the future efforts be aimed at research directed towards the control and suppression of dust in underground mines

  15. Considerations and Future Research Directions for E-Cigarette Warnings?Findings from Expert Interviews

    OpenAIRE

    Wackowski, Olivia A.; Hammond, David; O?Connor, Richard J.; Strasser, Andrew A.; Delnevo, Cristine D.

    2017-01-01

    Tobacco warning labels are important sources of risk information but research historically has been cigarette-centric. This qualitative study aimed to inform future direction and research on warnings for e-cigarettes. Between June and August 2016, we conducted interviews with 10 researchers with expertise in tobacco warning label research. Interviewees were registrants of a 2016 National Cancer Institute grantee meeting on tobacco warnings. Several participants agreed that the Food and Drug A...

  16. The effect of differentiated margin on futures market investors' behavior and structure An experimental research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-hui Luo; Di-fang Wan; Yang Yang; Guang Yang

    2011-01-01

    Purpose-The purpose of this paper is to empirically analyze the role of differentiated margin system in leading investors' investing behavior and then optimize investor structure in futures markets.Design/methodology/approach-Using economic experimental research method,this paper designs and conducts a futures market experiment according to experimental research's basic norms,thus acquiring needed and credible empirical data.Findings-By analyzing the experimental data,it is found that compared with situations in futures markets that implement uniform margin system,investors' (especially speculators') futures open position and the ratio of their open position and futures turnover are both significantly higher,in futures markets that implement differentiated margin system.On the other hand,differentiated margin system has no effects on hedgers' futures turnover,but significantly reduces speculators' futures turnover.Research limitations/implications-The findings suggest that compared with uniform margin system,differentiated margin system is beneficial to effectively restrict both speculators' and hedgers' speculating behavior and lead hedgers' market participation.Practical implications-In order to resolve the problem of unreasonable investor structure in China's futures market,i.e.lack of hedgers and over-speculating China's futures market's regulators should reform the margin system and adopt differentiated margin system to lead investors' rational behavior and optimize investor structure.Originality/value-This paper empirically analyzes and verifies,for the first time,the roles of differentiated margin system in affecting investors' investing behavior.The futures market experiment designed and used in this study is a pioneering and exploratory experiment.

  17. Epidemiologic research programs at the Department of Energy: Looking to the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The secretary of the Department of Energy (DOE) asked the National Research Council in 1989 to establish a Committee on Radiation Epidemiological Research Programs to provide scientific advice on the current status and future direction of DOE's epidemiologic research program. This report is in response to a request from the National Research Council committee to provide advice regarding the future directions of OEHS's epidemiologic research. This report begins with some of the background leading to the current activities of OEHS. In 1990, a committee (the Secretarial Panel for the Evaluation of Epidemiological Research Activities, or SPEERA) established by the secretary of the DOE recommended that DOE enter into a memorandum of understanding (MoU) with the Department of Health and Human Services that outlined the responsibilities of the two departments regarding epidemiologic research. The present report points out that the implementation of the SPEERA recommendations and the MoU by DOE have raised issues that have not been satisfactorily resolved

  18. Major depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depression - major; Depression - clinical; Clinical depression; Unipolar depression; Major depressive disorder ... providers do not know the exact causes of depression. It is believed that chemical changes in the ...

  19. Viewing the Future of University Research Libraries through the Perspectives of Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawthorne, Jon Edward

    2013-01-01

    This research highlights the scenarios that might serve as a strategic vision to describe a future beyond the current library, one which both guides provosts and creates a map for the transformation of human resources and technology in the university research libraries. The scenarios offer managerial leaders an opportunity to envision new roles…

  20. Informal mentoring at work: A review and suggestions for future research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Suzanne; van Vuuren, Hubrecht A.; de Jong, Menno D.T.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on informal mentoring at work. Based on two basic premises of interpersonal relationships, it discusses four promising areas in current mentoring research that could be cultivated further by future research. The first premise that we hold is that relationships never

  1. What Future for Educational Research in Europe? Political, Epistemological and Ethical Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi, Emiliano

    2015-01-01

    This article reflects on the future of European educational research (EER) and its politics of knowledge. EER is interpreted as a field of power/knowledge, where a hegemonic epistemic framework is raised that assembles an evidence-based epistemology, a "what works" political rationality and a technocratic model of educational research.…

  2. ASSESSMENT OF ALLERGENIC POTENTIAL OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS: AN AGENDA FOR FUTURE RESEARCH

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbstractSpeakers and participants in the Workshop Assessment of the Allergenic Potential of Genetically Modified Foods met in breakout groups to discuss a number of issues including needs for future research. There was agreement that research should move forward quickly in t...

  3. Key Challenges and Future Directions for Educational Research on Scientific Argumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, J. Bryan; McNeill, Katherine L.; González-Howard, María; Close, Kevin; Evans, Mat

    2018-01-01

    At the 2015 "NARST: A Worldwide Organization for Improving Science Teaching and Learning Through Research" Annual International Conference, a group of scholars held an extended pre-conference workshop to discuss key challenges and future directions faced by argumentation researchers around the world. This wide-ranging group of…

  4. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility (ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2008-01-30

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  5. Governance in the Digital Age: A Research and Action Framework for an Uncertain Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawes, Sharon S.

    2009-01-01

    Research into relationships among government, society and technology has grown substantially over the past 30 years. However, most research and most advances in practice address narrowly defined categories of concern such as government organization, citizen services, interoperability, or personal privacy. By contrast, the future presents complex…

  6. Future demand and advancement in medical fields for best allocation of research funding

    OpenAIRE

    Hermanns, Valerie; Grignano, Daniel; Latobesi, Andrew; Ho, Mark

    2017-01-01

    For a high school competition we were provided with access to altmetric data, and asked to predict the future of science. Based upon this, we shifted our focus to the medical sector, and to the correlation between future demand, and current research. Based on this focus, our goal was to predict which medical sectors will have the greatest need for research funding in the coming years. Our results will aid in the distribution of research funding in order to prepare for increased demand in medi...

  7. Para Sport Athletic Identity from Competition to Retirement: A Brief Review and Future Research Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Michelle; Martin, Jeffrey

    2018-05-01

    The primary purpose of this article is to review the literature on para sport athletic identity and provide avenues for future research direction. First, the authors briefly describe the existing quantitative and qualitative research on para sport athletic identity and, thereby, illustrate the complexities para sport athletes experience regarding the way they describe their participation in competitive sport. Next, the authors describe how para sport athletes with acquired permanent disabilities and congenital disabilities face similar, yet unique, identity-related challenges. Finally, the authors argue that future researchers should consider examining para sport athletes' identity through narrative identity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Early Improvement in Work Productivity Predicts Future Clinical Course in Depressed Outpatients: Findings from the CO-MED Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Manish K.; Minhajuddin, Abu; Greer, Tracy L.; Carmody, Thomas; Rush, A. John; Trivedi, Madhukar H.

    2018-01-01

    Objective Depression symptom severity, the most commonly studied outcome in antidepressant treatment trials, accounts for only a small portion of burden related to major depression. While lost work productivity is the biggest contributor to depression’s economic burden, few studies have systematically evaluated the independent effect of treatment on work productivity and the relationship between changes in work productivity and longer-term clinical course. Method Work productivity was measured repeatedly by the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment (WPAI) self-report in 331 employed participants with major depression enrolled in the Combining Medications to Enhance Depression Outcomes (CO-MED) trial. Trajectories of change in work productivity during the first 6 weeks of treatment were identified and used to predict remission at 3 and 7 months. Results Participants reported reduced absence from work and increased work productivity with antidepressant treatment even after controlling for changes in depression severity. Three distinct trajectories of changes in work productivity were identified: 1) robust early improvement (24%), 2) minimal change (49%), and 3) high-impairment slight reduction (27%). As compared to other participants, those with robust improvement had 3–5 times higher remission rates at 3 months and 2–5 times higher remission rates at 7 months, even after controlling for select baseline variables and remission status at week 6. Conclusions In this secondary analysis, self-reported work productivity improved in depressed patients with antidepressant treatment even after accounting for depressive symptom reduction. Early improvement in work productivity is associated with much higher remission rates after 3 and 7 months of treatment. PMID:27523501

  9. Hypothesis-driven research for G × E interactions: the relationship between oxytocin, parental divorce during adolescence, and depression in young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windle, Michael; Mrug, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    Research in molecular genetics has generally focused on genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and exploratory candidate gene and candidate gene-environment (G × E) studies. In this article it is proposed that hypothesis-driven and biologically informed research provides a complementary approach to GWAS to advance pressing research questions about G × E relations that are of public health relevance. Prior research studies and developmental and evolutionary theory were used to guide hypothesis testing of G × E relationships in this study. The study investigated whether the oxytocin polymorphism, rs53576, moderated the relationship between parental divorce during adolescence and depression symptoms in young adulthood. Oxytocin is a neuropeptide that has been related to the regulation of complex social cognition and behaviors such as empathy, attachment, and nurturance. We hypothesized that the GG polymorphism would be associated with more depressive symptoms following parental divorce, and that this effect would be stronger in females than males. The sample consisted of 340 individuals who participated in a longitudinal study with data used both from adolescence and young adulthood. Findings using prospective follow-up and autoregressive change models supported the hypothesized relationships. Young adult females who had experienced parental divorce during adolescence and had the GG oxytocin genotype reported almost twice as many depressive symptoms relative to young adult females who also experienced parental divorce during adolescence but had the AA or AG genotype. This pattern was not indicated among males. Findings were discussed with regard to how molecular genetic factors in combination with environmental stressors, such parental divorce, framed within a developmental framework may facilitate the future study of G × E relationships in the parental divorce-child adjustment literature and contribute to a prevention science perspective.

  10. Hypothesis-Driven Research for G x E Interactions: The Relationship between Oxytocin, Parental Divorce during Adolescence, and Depression in Young Adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eWindle

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Research in molecular genetics has generally focused on genome-wide association studies (GWAS and exploratory candidate gene and candidate gene-environment (GE studies. In this article it is proposed that hypothesis-driven and biologically informed research provides a complementary approach to GWAS to advance pressing research questions about GE relations that are of public health relevance. Prior research studies and developmental and evolutionary theory were used to guide hypothesis testing of GE relationships in this study. The study investigated whether the oxytocin polymorphism, rs53576, moderated the relationship between parental divorce during adolescence and depression symptoms in young adulthood. Oxytocin is a neuropeptide that has been related to the regulation of complex social cognition and behaviors such as empathy, attachment, and nurturance. We hypothesized that the GG polymorphism would be associated with more depressive symptoms following parental divorce, and that this effect would be stronger in females than males. The sample consisted of 340 individuals who participated in a longitudinal study with data used both from adolescence and young adulthood. Findings using prospective follow-up and autoregressive change models supported the hypothesized relationships. Young adult females who had experienced parental divorce during adolescence and had the GG oxytocin genotype reported almost twice as many depressive symptoms relative to young adult females who also experienced parental divorce during adolescence but had the AA or AG genotype. This pattern was not indicated among males. Findings were discussed with regard to how molecular genetic factors in combination with environmental stressors, such parental divorce, framed within a developmental framework may facilitate the future study of G X E relationships in the parental divorce-child adjustment literature and contribute to a prevention science perspective.

  11. Research inventory of child health: A report on roadmaps for the future of child health research in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Ottova, Veronika; Alexander, Denise; Rigby, Michael; Staines, Anthony; Hjern, Anders; Leonardi, Matilde; Blair, Mitch; Tamburlini, Giorgio; Gaspar de Matos, Margarida; Bourek, Ales; Köhler, Lennart; Gunnlaugsson, Geir; Tomé, Gina; Ramiro, Lucia; Santos, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    RICHE was the response to a call under HEALTH-2009-3.3-5, with the title of 'European child health research platform'. The call text asked us to “address the diversity and fragmentation in child health research in Europe in an inclusive multidisciplinary way, identifying existing research programmes in Member States, recent advances and identification of gaps to explore road maps for the future of child health research in Europe”. Project structure A consortium, with a final total of 23 pa...

  12. Subsyndromal symptomatic depression: a new concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadek, N; Bona, J

    2000-01-01

    Although DSM-IV acknowledged the clinical significance of some subthreshold forms of unipolar depression, such as minor depression (MinD) and recurrent brief depression (RBD), clinicians continued to struggle with the concept of "subthreshold" depression. A substantial number of patients continued to present with depressive symptoms that still did not satisfy any DSM-IV diagnosis. Generally, these patients failed to complain of anhedonia and depressed mood, a criterion that DSM-IV mandates for any diagnosis of depression. Therefore, researchers reexamined the question of whether this cluster of depressive symptoms, in the absence of anhedonia and depressed mood, was clinically significant. Some researchers labeled this cluster of symptoms, "subsyndromal symptomatic depression" (SSD). Specifically, SSD is defined as a depressive state having two or more symptoms of depression of the same quality as in major depression (MD), excluding depressed mood and anhedonia. The symptoms must be present for more than 2 weeks and be associated with social dysfunction. Using Medline Search, the authors reviewed the literature on the epidemiology, demographics, clinical characteristics, and psychosocial impairment of SSD. SSD is found to be comparable in demographics and clinical characteristics to MD, MinD, and dysthymia. SSD is also associated with significant psychosocial dysfunction as compared with healthy subjects. Further; it has significant risk for suicide and future MD. Few studies have been conducted on the treatment of SSD. The high prevalence of SSD, the significant psychosocial impairment associated with it, and the chronicity of its course make subsyndromal symptomatic depression a matter for serious consideration by clinicians and researchers.

  13. Mechanisms of change in psychotherapy for depression : An empirical update and evaluation of research aimed at identifying psychological mediators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmens, L.H.J.M.; Müller, V.N.L.S.; Arntz, A.; Huibers, M.J.H.

    2016-01-01

    We present a systematic empirical update and critical evaluation of the current status of research aimed at identifying a variety of psychological mediators in various forms of psychotherapy for depression. We summarize study characteristics and results of 35 relevant studies, and discuss the extent

  14. The Global Climate and Energy Project at Stanford University: Fundamental Research Towards Future Energy Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, Jennifer L.; Sassoon, Richard E.; Hung, Emilie; Bosshard, Paolo; Benson, Sally M.

    The Global Climate and Energy Project (GCEP), at Stanford University, invests in research with the potential to lead to energy technologies with lower greenhouse gas emissions than current energy technologies. GCEP is sponsored by four international companies, ExxonMobil, GE, Schlumberger, and Toyota and supports research programs in academic institutions worldwide. Research falls into the broad areas of carbon based energy systems, renewables, electrochemistry, and the electric grid. Within these areas research efforts are underway that are aimed at achieving break-throughs and innovations that greatly improve efficiency, performance, functionality and cost of many potential energy technologies of the future including solar, batteries, fuel cells, biofuels, hydrogen storage and carbon capture and storage. This paper presents a summary of some of GCEP's activities over the past 7 years with current research areas of interest and potential research directions in the near future.

  15. History, Development and Future of TRIGA Research Reactors. Companion CD-ROM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    Due to its particular fuel design and resulting enhanced inherent safety features, TRIGA reactors (Training, Research, Isotopes, General Atomics) constitute a ‘class of their own’ among the large variety of research reactors built world-wide. This publication summarizes in a single document the information on the past and present of TRIGA research reactors and presents an outlook in view of potential issues to be solved by TRIGA operating organizations in the near future. It covers the historical development and basic TRIGA characteristics, followed by utilization, fuel conversion and ageing management of TRIGA research reactors. It continues with issues and challenges, introduction to the global TRIGA research reactor network and concludes with future perspectives. This CD-ROM illustrates the historical developments of TRIGA research reactors through individual facility examples and experiences

  16. Toward Omics-Based, Systems Biomedicine, and Path and Drug Discovery Methodologies for Depression-Inflammation Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, Michael; Nowak, Gabriel; Caso, Javier R; Leza, Juan Carlos; Song, Cai; Kubera, Marta; Klein, Hans; Galecki, Piotr; Noto, Cristiano; Glaab, Enrico; Balling, Rudi; Berk, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Meta-analyses confirm that depression is accompanied by signs of inflammation including increased levels of acute phase proteins, e.g., C-reactive protein, and pro-inflammatory cytokines, e.g., interleukin-6. Supporting the translational significance of this, a meta-analysis showed that anti-inflammatory drugs may have antidepressant effects. Here, we argue that inflammation and depression research needs to get onto a new track. Firstly, the choice of inflammatory biomarkers in depression research was often too selective and did not consider the broader pathways. Secondly, although mild inflammatory responses are present in depression, other immune-related pathways cannot be disregarded as new drug targets, e.g., activation of cell-mediated immunity, oxidative and nitrosative stress (O&NS) pathways, autoimmune responses, bacterial translocation, and activation of the toll-like receptor and neuroprogressive pathways. Thirdly, anti-inflammatory treatments are sometimes used without full understanding of their effects on the broader pathways underpinning depression. Since many of the activated immune-inflammatory pathways in depression actually confer protection against an overzealous inflammatory response, targeting these pathways may result in unpredictable and unwanted results. Furthermore, this paper discusses the required improvements in research strategy, i.e., path and drug discovery processes, omics-based techniques, and systems biomedicine methodologies. Firstly, novel methods should be employed to examine the intracellular networks that control and modulate the immune, O&NS and neuroprogressive pathways using omics-based assays, including genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, epigenomics, immunoproteomics and metagenomics. Secondly, systems biomedicine analyses are essential to unravel the complex interactions between these cellular networks, pathways, and the multifactorial trigger factors and to delineate new drug targets in the cellular

  17. Social Science Research Related to Wildfire Management: An Overview of Recent Findings and Future Research Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah M. McCaffrey; Eric Toman; Melanie Stidham; Bruce. Shindler

    2012-01-01

    As with other aspects of natural-resource management, the approach to managing wildland fires has evolved over time as scientific understanding has advanced and the broader context surrounding management decisions has changed. Prior to 2000 the primary focus of most fire research was on the physical and ecological aspects of fire; social science research was limited to...

  18. Identifying future research directions for biodiversity, ecosystem services and sustainability : perspectives from early-career researchers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hossain, S.; Pogue, S.J.; Trenchard, L.; Oudenhoven, van A.P.E.; Washbourne, C-L.; Muiruri, E.W.; Tomczyk, A.M.; García-Llorente, M.; Hale, R.; Hevia, V.; Adams, T.; Tavallali, L.; De, Bell S.; Pye, M.; Resende, F.

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to identify priority research questions in the field of biodiversity, ecosystem services and sustainability (BESS), based on a workshop held during the NRG BESS Conference for Early Career Researchers on BESS, and to compare these to existing horizon scanning exercises. This work highlights

  19. Research Activity and Infrastructure of Korea Polar Research Institute: Current and Future Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, D.; Kim, S.; Lee, H.

    2011-12-01

    The Korea Polar Research Institute (KOPRI) opened the Antarctic King Sejong research station in 1988 at the King George Island off the Antarctic Peninsula and started the polar research mainly in the fields of biology and geology with some atmosphere observations. To extend the view of polar research, the KOPRI opened the Arctic Dasan research station at Ny-Alesund, Spitsbergen Island in 2002 and has studied the rapid climate change diagnostics and some microbiological observation. The KOPRI is now expanding the Arctic research into Alaska and Canada under the international collaboration, and planning to outreach to Russia to monitor the change in permafrost and to understand its impact on global warming. To deepen the views of polar research including the ice covered oceans in both poles, the ice-breaking vessel, the ARAON of about 7000 ton, was launched recently and successfully finished the Arctic and Antarctic cruises for research activity on all perspectives of ocean sciences and support for the King Sejong station. The KOPRI is now building another Antarctic research station, called Jangbogo, at the Terra Nova Bay off the Ross Sea and plan to open the station at the March of 2014. By building the second Antarctic station together with the ARAON, the KOPRI will focus its research on understanding the rapid climate change in west Antarctica such as to monitor the calving of the Larsen Ice shelf, rapid melting of Pine Island Glacier, and upper atmosphere, to study the sea ice and ecosystem change in the Amundsen Sea and the role of the southern annular mode in the west Antarctic warming, upper atmosphere and climate change, to reconstruct paleoclimate records from ice and sediment cores.

  20. The potential impact of biochemical mediators on telomere attrition in major depressive disorder and implications for future study designs: A narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoliu, Andrei; Bosch, Oliver G; Brakowski, Janis; Brühl, Annette B; Seifritz, Erich

    2018-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) has been proposed to represent a "disease of premature aging", which is associated with certain biomarkers of cellular ageing and numerous other age-related diseases. Over the last decade, telomere length (TL) arose as a surrogate for cellular aging. Recent data suggests that TL might be reduced in patients with MDD, however, results are still inconclusive. This might be explained by the lack of assessment of potential biochemical mediators that are directly associated with telomere shortening and frequently observed in patients with MDD. A narrative review was performed. The PubMed database was searched for relevant studies. We identified four major mediators, which are recurrently reported in patients with MDD and are associated with reduced TL: inflammation/oxidative stress, dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, metabolic dysbalance including insulin resistance, and decreased brain-derived neurotrophic factor. These mediators are also mutually associated and were not systematically assessed in current studies investigating TL and MDD, which might explain inconclusive findings across current literature. Finally, we discuss possible ways to assess those mediators and potential implications of such approaches for future research. The majority of identified studies had cross-sectional designs and used heterogeneous methods to assess TL and associated relevant biochemical mediators. A better understanding of the complex interactions between biochemical mediators, somatic comorbidities and shortened telomeres in patients with MDD might further specify the pathophysiology-based conceptualization and, based on that, personalized treatment of MDD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Social Skills Training for Depression and Comparative Efficacy Research: A 30-Year Retrospective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thase, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    By the late 1970s it was clear that cognitive and behavioral therapies were promising alternatives to antidepressant medications for treatment of depressed outpatients. One such model of therapy, Social Skills Training, was developed by Michel Hersen and his colleagues specifically for treatment of depressed women. Professor Hersen and his…

  2. Environmental application research and future plans in plasma arc technology at the georgia institute of technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemeth, J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper summarizes the facilities and past, current, and future research efforts at the georgia institute of technology plasma Arc research facility established in 1992. This research facility was established specifically to develop and test applications related to waste management and various remediation concepts. The results of research programs in the vitrification of asbestos materials, municipal incinerator ash, and in situ testing programs, including soil remediation, waste to energy research, landfill remediation and capacity management. The presentation will also include conference and symposium announcements and invitations. 9 tabs

  3. Present status and future perspective of research and test reactors in JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, Osamu; Kaieda, Keisuke

    1999-01-01

    Since 1957, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has constructed several research and test reactors to fulfil a major role in the study of nuclear energy and fundamental research. At present, four reactors, the Japan Research Reactor No. 3 and No. 4 (JRR-3M and JRR-4 respectively), the Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR) and the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR), are in operation, and a new High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) has reached first criticality and is waiting for the power-up test. This paper introduce these reactors and describe their present operational status. The recent tendency of utilization and future perspectives are also reported. (author)

  4. Present status and future perspective of research and test reactors in JAERI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baba, Osamu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment; Kaieda, Keisuke

    1999-08-01

    Since 1957, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has constructed several research and test reactors to fulfil a major role in the study of nuclear energy and fundamental research. At present, four reactors, the Japan Research Reactor No. 3 and No. 4 (JRR-3M and JRR-4 respectively), the Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR) and the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR), are in operation, and a new High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) has reached first criticality and is waiting for the power-up test. This paper introduce these reactors and describe their present operational status. The recent tendency of utilization and future perspectives are also reported. (author)

  5. Depression as a systemic syndrome: mapping the feedback loops of major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittenborn, A K; Rahmandad, H; Rick, J; Hosseinichimeh, N

    2016-02-01

    Depression is a complex public health problem with considerable variation in treatment response. The systemic complexity of depression, or the feedback processes among diverse drivers of the disorder, contribute to the persistence of depression. This paper extends prior attempts to understand the complex causal feedback mechanisms that underlie depression by presenting the first broad boundary causal loop diagram of depression dynamics. We applied qualitative system dynamics methods to map the broad feedback mechanisms of depression. We used a structured approach to identify candidate causal mechanisms of depression in the literature. We assessed the strength of empirical support for each mechanism and prioritized those with support from validation studies. Through an iterative process, we synthesized the empirical literature and created a conceptual model of major depressive disorder. The literature review and synthesis resulted in the development of the first causal loop diagram of reinforcing feedback processes of depression. It proposes candidate drivers of illness, or inertial factors, and their temporal functioning, as well as the interactions among drivers of depression. The final causal loop diagram defines 13 key reinforcing feedback loops that involve nine candidate drivers of depression. Future research is needed to expand upon this initial model of depression dynamics. Quantitative extensions may result in a better understanding of the systemic syndrome of depression and contribute to personalized methods of evaluation, prevention and intervention.

  6. Prompting transdisciplinary research: Promising futures for using the performance metaphor in research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boyd, Davina; Buizer, I.M.; Schibeci, Renato; Baudains, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Transdisciplinary research is increasingly recognised as important for investigating and addressing ‘wicked’ problems such as climate change, food insecurity and poverty, but is far from commonplace. There are structural impediments to transdisciplinarity such as university structures, publication

  7. Ambiguity tolerance in organizations: definitional clarification and perspectives on future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLain, David L; Kefallonitis, Efstathios; Armani, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    Ambiguity tolerance is an increasingly popular subject for study in a wide variety of fields. The definition of ambiguity tolerance has changed since its inception, and accompanying that change are changes in measurement and the research questions that interest researchers. There is a wealth of opportunity for research related to ambiguity tolerance and recent advances in neuroscience, measurement, trait research, perception, problem solving, and other fields highlight areas of interest and point to issues that need further attention. The future of ambiguity tolerance research is promising and it is expected that future studies will yield new insights into individual differences in reactions to the complex, unfamiliar, confusing, indeterminate, and incomplete stimuli that fall within the conceptual domain of ambiguity.

  8. Ambiguity Tolerance in Organizations: Definitional Clarification and Perspectives on Future Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L Mclain

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Ambiguity tolerance is an increasingly popular subject for study in a wide variety of fields. The definition of ambiguity tolerance has changed since its inception, and accompanying that change are changes in measurement and the research questions that interest researchers. There is a wealth of opportunity for research related to ambiguity tolerance and recent advances in neuroscience, measurement, trait research, perception, problem solving, and other fields highlight areas of interest and point to issues that need further attention. The future of ambiguity tolerance research is promising and it is expected that future studies will yield new insights into individual differences in reactions to the complex, unfamiliar, confusing, indeterminate, and incomplete stimuli that fall within the conceptual domain of ambiguity.

  9. Identifying future research directions for biodiversity, ecosystem services and sustainability: perspectives from early-career researchers

    OpenAIRE

    Hossain, S.; Pogue, S.J.; Trenchard, L.; Oudenhoven, van, A.P.E.; Washbourne, C-L.; Muiruri, E.W.; Tomczyk, A.M.; García-Llorente, M.; Hale, R.; Hevia, V.; Adams, T.; Tavallali, L.; De, Bell S.; Pye, M.; Resende, F.

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to identify priority research questions in the field of biodiversity, ecosystem services and sustainability (BESS), based on a workshop held during the NRG BESS Conference for Early Career Researchers on BESS, and to compare these to existing horizon scanning exercises. This work highlights the need for improved data availability through collaboration and knowledge exchange, which, in turn, can support the integrated valuation and sustainable management of ecosystems in response to g...

  10. RO1 Funding for Mixed Methods Research: Lessons learned from the Mixed-Method Analysis of Japanese Depression Project

    OpenAIRE

    Arnault, Denise Saint; Fetters, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    Mixed methods research has made significant in-roads in the effort to examine complex health related phenomenon. However, little has been published on the funding of mixed methods research projects. This paper addresses that gap by presenting an example of an NIMH funded project using a mixed methods QUAL-QUAN triangulation design entitled “The Mixed-Method Analysis of Japanese Depression.” We present the Cultural Determinants of Health Seeking model that framed the study, the specific aims, ...

  11. Future Deltas Utrecht University research focus area: towards sustainable management of sinking deltas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stouthamer, E.; van Asselen, S.

    2015-11-01

    Deltas are increasingly under pressure from human impact and climate change. To deal with these pressures that threat future delta functioning, we need to understand interactions between physical, biological, chemical and social processes in deltas. This requires an integrated approach, in which knowledge on natural system functioning is combined with knowledge on spatial planning, land and water governance and legislative frameworks. In the research focus area Future Deltas of Utrecht University an interdisciplinary team from different research groups therefore works together. This allows developing integrated sustainable and resilient delta management strategies, which is urgently needed to prevent loss of vital delta services.

  12. Middle Childhood Support-Seeking Behavior during Stress: Links with Self-Reported Attachment and Future Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dujardin, Adinda; Santens, Tara; Braet, Caroline; De Raedt, Rudi; Vos, Pieter; Maes, Bea; Bosmans, Guy

    2016-01-01

    This study tested whether children's more anxious and avoidant attachment is linked to decreased support-seeking behavior toward their mother during stress in middle childhood, and whether children's decreased support-seeking behavior enhances the impact of experiencing life events on the increase of depressive symptoms 18 months later.…

  13. The Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility (SARAF): Overview, research programs and future plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardor, Israel; Aviv, Ofer; Avrigeanu, Marilena; Berkovits, Dan; Dahan, Adi; Dickel, Timo; Eliyahu, Ilan; Gai, Moshe; Gavish-Segev, Inbal; Halfon, Shlomi; Hass, Michael; Hirsh, Tsviki; Kaiser, Boaz; Kijel, Daniel; Kreisel, Arik; Mishnayot, Yonatan; Mukul, Ish; Ohayon, Ben; Paul, Michael; Perry, Amichay; Rahangdale, Hitesh; Rodnizki, Jacob; Ron, Guy; Sasson-Zukran, Revital; Shor, Asher; Silverman, Ido; Tessler, Moshe; Vaintraub, Sergey; Weissman, Leo

    2018-05-01

    The Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility (SARAF) is under construction in the Soreq Nuclear Research Center at Yavne, Israel. When completed at the beginning of the next decade, SARAF will be a user facility for basic and applied nuclear physics, based on a 40 MeV, 5 mA CW proton/deuteron superconducting linear accelerator. Phase I of SARAF (SARAF-I, 4 MeV, 2 mA CW protons, 5 MeV 1 mA CW deuterons) is already in operation, generating scientific results in several fields of interest. The main ongoing program at SARAF-I is the production of 30 keV neutrons and measurement of Maxwellian Averaged Cross Sections (MACS), important for the astrophysical s-process. The world leading Maxwellian epithermal neutron yield at SARAF-I (5 × 10^{10} epithermal neutrons/s), generated by a novel Liquid-Lithium Target (LiLiT), enables improved precision of known MACSs, and new measurements of low-abundance and radioactive isotopes. Research plans for SARAF-II span several disciplines: precision studies of beyond-Standard-Model effects by trapping light exotic radioisotopes, such as 6He, 8Li and 18, 19, 23Ne, in unprecedented amounts (including meaningful studies already at SARAF-I); extended nuclear astrophysics research with higher energy neutrons, including generation and studies of exotic neutron-rich isotopes relevant to the rapid (r-) process; nuclear structure of exotic isotopes; high energy neutron cross sections for basic nuclear physics and material science research, including neutron induced radiation damage; neutron based imaging and therapy; and novel radiopharmaceuticals development and production. In this paper we present a technical overview of SARAF-I and II, including a description of the accelerator and its irradiation targets; a survey of existing research programs at SARAF-I; and the research potential at the completed facility (SARAF-II).

  14. The future of qualitative research in psychology--a students' perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terkildsen, Thomas; Petersen, Sofie

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this article is to explore the future of qualitative research as seen from a students' perspective. This exploration will initially be incited through a discussion of the use of the term 'qualitative research', and the risks associated with the use of such an umbrella term. It is discussed that the use of an overarching umbrella term can lead to an overhomogenized understanding of qualitative research, that fails to represent the diversity and variety of methodological and epistemological approaches that exist within this research paradigm. It is also discussed that this overhomogenization reinforces the idea of qualitative research as an anti-doctrine to quantitative research, which is argued to discourage interparadigmatic integration. Lastly, it is considered how these (mis)conceptions of qualitative research influence how psychology students are taught about research methodology and how this education could affect these (mis)conceptions. We advocate that the future for qualitative research in psychology should be ensured through a restructure and a refocus on an educational level. This change should overall be centered around teaching students how to be reflective research practitioners based on an in-depth understanding of the variety of epistemologies within both meta-research-paradigms.

  15. An American Thoracic Society Official Research Statement: Future Directions in Lung Fibrosis Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Eric S; Borok, Zea; Brown, Kevin K; Eickelberg, Oliver; Guenther, Andreas; Jenkins, R Gisli; Kolb, Martin; Martinez, Fernando J; Roman, Jesse; Sime, Patricia

    2016-04-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis encompasses a group of lung-scarring disorders that occur owing to known or unknown insults and accounts for significant morbidity and mortality. Despite intense investigation spanning decades, much remains to be learned about the natural history, pathophysiology, and biologic mechanisms of disease. To identify the most pressing research needs in the lung fibrosis community and to provide a roadmap of priorities to investigators, funding agencies, patient advocacy groups, and other interested stakeholders. An ad hoc international working group of the American Thoracic Society with experience in clinical, translational, and bench-based research in fibrotic lung diseases was convened. The group used an iterative consensus process to identify successes and challenges in pulmonary fibrosis research. The group identified five main priority areas in which substantial resources should be invested to advance our understanding and to develop novel therapies for patients with pulmonary fibrosis. These priorities include develop newer models of human lung fibrosis, engage current and new stakeholders to provide sustained funding for the initiatives, create a global infrastructure for storing patient-derived materials, establish collaborative preclinical and clinical research networks in fibrotic lung disease, and create a global lung fibrosis initiative that unites these multifaceted efforts into a single virtual umbrella structure. Despite recent advances in the treatment of some forms of lung fibrosis, many gaps in knowledge about natural history, pathophysiology, and treatment remain. Investment in the research priorities enumerated above will help address these shortcomings and enhance patient care worldwide.

  16. Precarious beginnings: Gendered risk discourses in psychiatric research literature about postpartum depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godderis, Rebecca

    2010-09-01

    The transition to motherhood in western society is particularly informed by risk-based scientific and medical discourses and, as a result, women are especially subject to rationalities and practices that are employed in the name of risk. The aim of this article is to examine the gendered risk discourses that are embedded in one aspect of medicalized mothering - the postpartum period. This article interrogates three key elements of the discursive construction of postpartum depression (PPD) in contemporary psychiatric research literature (approximately 1980-2007). Specifically, I examine how risk-based reasoning is incorporated into the concepts of the postpartum triad and the high-risk mother, and how arguments about why PPD is a 'significant social problem' create a tension between the rights of the mother and those of the child. By placing women in a position to manage certain types of risks related to the postpartum period, these discourses serve to responsibilize women and structure their subjectivities in gendered ways.This analysis contributes to a growing literature that investigates how assumptions about gender, race, class and sexuality are produced and re-produced through the notion of risk.

  17. Making the business case for enhanced depression care: the National Institute of Mental Health-harvard Work Outcomes Research and Cost-effectiveness Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Philip S; Simon, Gregory E; Kessler, Ronald C

    2008-04-01

    Explore the business case for enhanced depression care and establish a return on investment rationale for increased organizational involvement by employer-purchasers. Literature review, focused on the National Institute of Mental Health-sponsored Work Outcomes Research and Cost-effectiveness Study. This randomized controlled trial compared telephone outreach, care management, and optional psychotherapy to usual care among depressed workers in large national corporations. By 12 months, the intervention significantly improved depression outcomes, work retention, and hours worked among the employed. Results of the Work Outcomes Research and Cost-effectiveness Study trial and other studies suggest that enhanced depression care programs represent a human capital investment opportunity for employers.

  18. Novel Forms of Research Governance and Their Possible Impact on the Future of Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pataki, Gyöngyvér

    2015-01-01

    This article sets out to contribute to the current debate on the transformation of educational research with regard to global transitions and challenges. Nation-centred hierarchical organizations in Europe have increasingly failed to address emergent processes. And in contrast novel forms of governance have gained prevalence in controlling…

  19. Teacher Emotion Research: Introducing a Conceptual Model to Guide Future Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, Leanne; Mansfield, Caroline; Dobozy, Eva

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on the development of a conceptual model of teacher emotion through a review of teacher emotion research published between 2003 and 2013. By examining 82 publications regarding teacher emotion, the main aim of the review was to identify how teacher emotion was conceptualised in the literature and develop a conceptual model to…

  20. Contributions of Attachment Theory and Research: A Framework for Future Research, Translation, and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Jude; Jones, Jason D.; Shaver, Phillip R.

    2014-01-01

    Attachment theory has been generating creative and impactful research for almost half a century. In this article we focus on the documented antecedents and consequences of individual differences in infant attachment patterns, suggesting topics for further theoretical clarification, research, clinical interventions, and policy applications. We pay particular attention to the concept of cognitive “working models” and to neural and physiological mechanisms through which early attachment experiences contribute to later functioning. We consider adult caregiving behavior that predicts infant attachment patterns, and the still-mysterious “transmission gap” between parental AAI classifications and infant Strange Situation classifications. We also review connections between attachment and (a) child psychopathology, (b) neurobiology, (c) health and immune function, (d) empathy, compassion, and altruism, (e) school readiness, and (f) culture. We conclude with clinical-translational and public policy applications of attachment research that could reduce the occurrence and maintenance of insecure attachment during infancy and beyond. Our goal is to inspire researchers to continue advancing the field by finding new ways to tackle long-standing questions and by generating and testing novel hypotheses. PMID:24342848