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  1. Perfectionism in depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder and eating disorders.

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    Sassaroli, Sandra; Lauro, Leonor J Romero; Ruggiero, Giovanni Maria; Mauri, Massimo C; Vinai, Piergiuseppe; Frost, Randy

    2008-06-01

    High levels of perfectionism have been observed in major depression, anxiety disorders and eating disorders. Though few studies have compared levels of perfectionism across these disorders, there is reason to believe that different dimensions of perfectionism may be involved in eating disorders than in depression or anxiety [Bardone-Cone, A. M. et al. (2007). Perfectionism and eating disorders: Current status and future directions. Clinical Psychology Review, 27, 84-405]. The present study compared patients with major depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and eating disorders on dimensions of perfectionism. Concern over Mistakes was elevated in each of the patient groups while Pure Personal Standards was only elevated in the eating disorder sample. Doubts about Actions was elevated in both patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder and eating disorders, but not in depressed patients. Analyses of covariance indicated that Concern over Mistakes accounted for most of the variance in the relationship of perfectionism to these forms of psychopathology.

  2. Eating Disorders

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    ... Binge-eating, which is out-of-control eating Women are more likely than men to have eating disorders. They usually start in the teenage years and often occur along with depression, anxiety disorders, and substance abuse. Eating disorders can lead ...

  3. Depressive mood, eating disorder symptoms, and perfectionism in female college students: a mediation analysis.

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    García-Villamisar, Domingo; Dattilo, John; Del Pozo, Araceli

    2012-01-01

    Although perfectionism has long been established as an important risk factor for depressive mood and eating disorders, the mechanisms through which this temperamental predisposition mediates the relationship between depressive mood and eating disorder symptoms are still relatively unclear. In this study we hypothesized that both perfectionism dimensions, self-oriented perfectionism and socially prescribed perfectionism, would mediate the relationship between current symptoms of depression and eating disorders in a non-clinical sample of Spanish undergraduate females. Two hundred sixteen female undergraduate students of the University Complutense of Madrid (Spain) completed the Spanish versions of the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-40), the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (MPS), OBQ-44, and BDI-II and BAI. Results demonstrated the importance of socially prescribed perfectionism in mediation of the relationship between depressive mood and symptoms of eating disorders. Socially prescribed perfectionism mediates the relationship between depressive mood and eating disorder symptoms for female college students.

  4. Relationship between body dissatisfaction and disordered eating: mediating role of self-esteem and depression.

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    Brechan, Inge; Kvalem, Ingela Lundin

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that the effect of body dissatisfaction on disordered eating behavior is mediated through self-esteem and depression. If the effect of body dissatisfaction on disordered eating can be explained by self-esteem and depression, treatment may benefit from focusing more on self-esteem and depression than body dissatisfaction. We also hypothesized body image importance to be associated with lower self-esteem, stronger symptoms of depression, and more disordered eating. The results showed that the effect of body dissatisfaction on disorder eating was completely mediated, whereas the effect of body image importance was partly mediated. Both self-esteem and depression were significant mediators. Body image importance and self-esteem had a direct effect on restrained eating and compensatory behavior. Depression had a direct effect on binge eating. This effect was significantly stronger among women. Depression also had a direct effect on restrained eating. This effect was positive among women, but negative among men. The results support emotion regulation and cognitive behavioral theories of eating disorders, indicating that self-esteem and depression are the most proximal factors, whereas the effect of body dissatisfaction is indirect. The results point out the importance of distinguishing between different symptoms of bulimia. Depression may cause binge eating, but compensatory behavior depends on self-esteem and body image importance. The results suggest that women may turn to both binge eating and restrained eating to escape awareness of negative emotions, whereas men focus on eating to a lesser extent than women. Existing treatment focuses on eating behavior first and mechanisms such as self-esteem and depression second. The results from this study suggest that an earlier focus on self-esteem and depression may be warranted in the treatment of disordered eating.

  5. Eating Disorders

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    Ahmad Farah

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Health Issue Eating disorders are an increasing public health problem among young women. Anorexia and bulimia may give rise to serious physical conditions such as hypothermia, hypotension, electrolyte imbalance, endocrine disorders, and kidney failure. Key Issues Eating disorders are primarily a problem among women. In Ontario in 1995, over 90% of reported hospitalized cases of anorexia and bulimia were women. In addition to eating disorders, preoccupation with weight, body image and self-concept disturbances, are more prevalent among women than men. Women with eating disorders are also at risk for long-term psychological and social problems, including depression, anxiety, substance abuse and suicide. For instance, in 2000, the prevalence of depression among women who were hospitalized with a diagnosis of anorexia (11.5% or bulimia (15.4 % was more than twice the rate of depression (5.7 % among the general population of Canadian women. The highest incidence of depression was found in women aged 25 to 39 years for both anorexia and bulimia. Data Gaps and Recommendations Hospitalization data are the most recent and accessible information available. However, this data captures only the more severe cases. It does not include the individuals with eating disorders who may visit clinics or family doctors, or use hospital outpatient services or no services at all. Currently, there is no process for collecting this information systematically across Canada; consequently, the number of cases obtained from hospitalization data is underestimated. Other limitations noted during the literature review include the overuse of clinical samples, lack of longitudinal data, appropriate comparison groups, large samples, and ethnic group analysis.

  6. Body-Related Social Comparison and Disordered Eating among Adolescent Females with an Eating Disorder, Depressive Disorder, and Healthy Controls

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    Daniel Le Grange

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between body-related social comparison (BRSC and eating disorders (EDs by: (a comparing the degree of BRSC in adolescents with an ED, depressive disorder (DD, and no psychiatric history; and (b investigating whether BRSC is associated with ED symptoms after controlling for symptoms of depression and self-esteem. Participants were 75 girls, aged 12–18 (25 per diagnostic group. To assess BRSC, participants reported on a 5-point Likert scale how often they compare their body to others’. Participants also completed a diagnostic interview, Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2, Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II, and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE. Compared to adolescents with a DD and healthy adolescents, adolescents with an ED engaged in significantly more BRSC (p ≤ 0.001. Collapsing across groups, BRSC was significantly positively correlated with ED symptoms (p ≤ 0.01, and these associations remained even after controlling for two robust predictors of both ED symptoms and social comparison, namely BDI-II and RSE. In conclusion, BRSC seems to be strongly related to EDs. Treatment for adolescents with an ED may focus on reducing BRSC.

  7. Eating Disorders and Major Depression: Role of Anger and Personality

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    Abbate-Daga Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate comorbidity for MD in a large ED sample and both personality and anger as clinical characteristics of patients with ED and MD. We assessed 838 ED patients with psychiatric evaluations and psychometric questionnaires: Temperament and Character Inventory, Eating Disorder Inventory-2, Beck Depression Inventory, and State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory. 19.5% of ED patients were found to suffer from comorbid MD and 48.7% reported clinically significant depressive symptomatology: patients with Anorexia Binge-Purging and Bulimia Nervosa were more likely to be diagnosed with MD. Irritable mood was found in the 73% of patients with MD. High Harm Avoidance (HA and low Self-Directedness (SD predicted MD independently of severity of the ED symptomatology, several clinical variables, and ED diagnosis. Assessing both personality and depressive symptoms could be useful to provide effective treatments. Longitudinal studies are needed to investigate the pathogenetic role of HA and SD for ED and MD.

  8. [Eating disorders].

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    Miyake, Yoshie; Okamoto, Yuri; Jinnin, Ran; Shishida, Kazuhiro; Okamoto, Yasumasa

    2015-02-01

    Eating disorders are characterized by aberrant patterns of eating behavior, including such symptoms as extreme restriction of food intake or binge eating, and severe disturbances in the perception of body shape and weight, as well as a drive for thinness and obsessive fears of becoming fat. Eating disorder is an important cause for physical and psychosocial morbidity in young women. Patients with eating disorders have a deficit in the cognitive process and functional abnormalities in the brain system. Recently, brain-imaging techniques have been used to identify specific brain areas that function abnormally in patients with eating disorders. We have discussed the clinical and cognitive aspects of eating disorders and summarized neuroimaging studies of eating disorders.

  9. Depression as a Moderator of Sociocultural Influences on Eating Disorder Symptoms in Adolescent Females and Males

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    Rodgers, Rachel F.; Paxton, Susan J.; Chabrol, Henri

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the role of depression as a moderator of sociocultural influences on eating disorder symptoms. A sample of 509 adolescents (56% female) completed self-report questionnaires assessing depression, body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, bulimic symptoms and sociocultural influences on appearance from family, peers and…

  10. Relationship between Eating Disorders, Stress and Depression in Medical Students of Lorestan University of Medical Sciences & Health Services

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    Afarin Ahmadian

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aim: Nowadays eating disorders are considered as one of the main psychological disorders. These types of disorder result in physical and mental health problems and affect the individuals’ quality of life. This study has aimed to survey eating disorders and its relation with depression and stress in medical students of Lorestan University of Medical Sciences. Methodology: In a descriptive study, 340 university students were chosen by the use of simple random sampling and also three questionnaires had been used: 1 Eating attitude questionnaire (EAT-26, revised Beck depression inventory (BDI and Students stressors questionnaire by Pouladi. Collected information was analyzed by the use of SPSS software and statistical tests. Findings: Based on research results 9.41% of students had eating disorder, 12.5% had average depression, 33.4% had severe depression, 12.5% had average stress and 31.3% had high stress. Relative frequency of eating disorder in medical students was the same based on gender, age, living conditions and marital status. Also there was a significant relation between relative frequency of eating disorder, depression severity and stress. Conclusion: Study findings showed that there was a relation between eating disorder, depression severity and stress; thus necessity of paying more attention to some mental symptoms such as depression and stress helps clinicians diagnose and cure eating disorders.

  11. CBT for eating disorders: The impact of early changes in eating pathology on later changes in personality pathology, anxiety and depression.

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    Turner, Hannah; Marshall, Emily; Wood, Francesca; Stopa, Lusia; Waller, Glenn

    2016-02-01

    Whilst studies have consistently identified early symptom reduction as an important predictor of treatment outcome, the impact of early change on common comorbid features has not been investigated. This study of CBT for eating disorders explored patterns of early change in eating pathology and longer-term change in personality pathology, anxiety and depression. It also explored the impact of early change in eating pathology on overall change in personality pathology, anxiety and depression. Participants were 179 adults diagnosed with eating disorders who were offered a course of CBT in an out-patient community eating disorders service in the UK. Patients completed a measure of eating disorder psychopathology at the start of treatment and following the 6th session. They also completed measures of personality disorder cognitions, anxiety and depression at the start and end of treatment. There were significant changes in eating pathology over the first six sessions of treatment. Significant improvements were also seen in personality disorder pathology, anxiety and depression by the end of therapy. Effect sizes were medium to large for both completer and intention to treat analyses. Early changes in eating pathology were associated with later changes in common comorbid features, with early reduction in restraint being a key predictor. These findings demonstrate that early symptom change can be achieved in CBT for eating disorders when delivered in routine clinical practice. Such change has long-term benefits that go beyond the domain of eating pathology, enhancing change in personality pathology, anxiety and depression.

  12. Self-Objectification, Disordered Eating, and Depression: A Test of Mediational Pathways

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    Peat, Christine M.; Muehlenkamp, Jennifer J.

    2011-01-01

    Objectification theory asserts that poor interoceptive awareness and features of anxiety, such as social anxiety, may be two potential mechanisms that place women at risk for both eating disorders and depression. Existing research supports this theory; however, few studies have examined the extent to which these two constructs may serve as…

  13. The Coronary Health Improvement Projects Impact on Lowering Eating, Sleep, Stress, and Depressive Disorders

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    Merrill, Ray M.; Aldana, Stephen G.; Greenlaw, Roger L.; Diehl, Hans A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The Coronary Health Improvement Project (CHIP) is designed to lower cardiovascular risk factors among a group of generally healthy individuals through health education. Purpose: This study will evaluate the efficacy of the CHIP intervention at improving eating, sleep, stress, and depressive disorders. Methods: A health education…

  14. Eating disorders.

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    Treasure, Janet; Claudino, Angélica M; Zucker, Nancy

    2010-02-13

    This Seminar adds to the previous Lancet Seminar about eating disorders, published in 2003, with an emphasis on the biological contributions to illness onset and maintenance. The diagnostic criteria are in the process of review, and the probable four new categories are: anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, and eating disorder not otherwise specified. These categories will also be broader than they were previously, which will affect the population prevalence; the present lifetime prevalence of all eating disorders is about 5%. Eating disorders can be associated with profound and protracted physical and psychosocial morbidity. The causal factors underpinning eating disorders have been clarified by understanding about the central control of appetite. Cultural, social, and interpersonal elements can trigger onset, and changes in neural networks can sustain the illness. Overall, apart from studies reporting pharmacological treatments for binge eating disorder, advances in treatment for adults have been scarce, other than interest in new forms of treatment delivery. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Correlation of binge eating disorder with level of depression and glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.

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    Çelik, Selime; Kayar, Yusuf; Önem Akçakaya, Rabia; Türkyılmaz Uyar, Ece; Kalkan, Kübra; Yazısız, Veli; Aydın, Çiğdem; Yücel, Başak

    2015-01-01

    It is reported that eating disorders and depression are more common in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In this study, we aimed to determine the prevalence of binge eating disorder (BED) in T2DM patients and examine the correlation of BED with level of depression and glycemic control. One hundred fifty-two T2DM patients aged between 18 and 75 years (81 females, 71 males) were evaluated via a Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorder, Clinical Version in terms of eating disorders. Disordered eating attitudes were determined using the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT) and level of depression was determined using the Beck Depression Scale. Patients who have BED and patients who do not were compared in terms of age, gender, body mass index, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels, depression and EAT scores. Eight of the patients included in the study (5.26%) were diagnosed with BED. In patients diagnosed with BED, depression and EAT scores were significantly high (PEAT scores and depression scores (r = +0.196, Peating attitudes. Psychiatric treatments should be organized for patients diagnosed with BED by taking into consideration comorbid depression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Eating Disorders

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    ... This kind of research can help guide the development of new means of diagnosis and treatment of eating disorders. Treatments and Therapies Adequate nutrition, reducing excessive exercise, and stopping purging behaviors are the foundations of treatment. Treatment plans are ...

  17. Binge Eating Disorder and Night Eating Syndrome: A Comparative Study of Disordered Eating

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    Allison, Kelly C.; Grilo, Carlos M.; Masheb, Robin M.; Stunkard, Albert J.

    2005-01-01

    The authors compared eating patterns, disordered eating, features of eating disorders, and depressive symptoms in persons with binge eating disorder (BED; n = 177), with night eating syndrome (NES; n = 68), and in an overweight comparison group without BED or NES (comparison; n = 45). Participants completed semistructured interviews and several…

  18. Eating disorders

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    Kontić Olga

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Eating disorders are considered chronic diseases of civilization. The most studied and well known are anorexia and bulimia nervosa. Anorexia is considered one of the most common psychiatric problems of girls in puberty and adolescence. Due to high mortality and morbidity as well as the increasing expansion of these diseases, it is clear why the amount of research on these diseases is growing worldwide. Eating disorders lead to numerous medical complications, mostly due to late diagnosis. The main characteristic of these diseases is changed behavior in the nutrition, either as an intentional restriction of food, i.e. extreme dieting, or overeating, i.e. binge eating. Extreme dieting, skipping meals, self-induced vomiting, excessive exercise, and misuse of laxatives and diuretics for the purpose of maintaining or reducing body weight are characteristic forms of compensatory behavior of patients with eating disorder. The most appropriate course of treatment is determined by evaluating the patient’s health condition, associated with behavior and eating habits, the experience of one’s own body, character traits of personality, and consequently the development and functioning of the individual. The final treatment plan is individual. Eating disorders are a growing medical problem even in this part of the world. Prevention should be planned in cooperation with different sectors so as to stop the epidemic of these diseases.

  19. Risk behaviors for eating disorders and depressive symptoms: a study of female adolescents in Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

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    Leonardo de Sousa Fortes

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the relationship between depressive symptoms and eating disorders in female adolescents. The sample included 371 girls ranging from 12 to 16 years of age in Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The study used the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26 and Major Depression Inventory (MDI to evaluate eating disorders and depressive symptoms, respectively. The linear regression model showed that 18% of the EAT-26 scores were influenced by MDI (F(1, 370 = 14.18; p = 0.001. Moreover, the findings indicated a statistically significant association between depressive symptoms and eating disorders (χ2 = 14.71; Wald = 12.90; p = 0.001. The authors concluded that depressive symptoms were related to eating disorders in female adolescents. Thus, girls with some level of depression showed a greater tendency to adopt disordered eating as a daily habit.

  20. Autonomic nervous system and lipid metabolism: findings in anxious-depressive spectrum and eating disorders

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    Messina Vincenzo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To correlate lipid metabolism and autonomic dysfunction with anxious-depressive spectrum and eating disorders. To propose the lipid index (LI as a new possible biomarker. Methods 95 patients and 60 controls were enrolled from the University Psychiatry Unit of Catania and from general practitioners (GPs. The patients were divided into four pathological groups: Anxiety, Depression, Anxious-Depressive Disorder and Eating Disorders [Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR official/appendix criteria]. The levels of the cholesterol, triglycerides and apolipoproteins A and B were determined. The LI, for each subject, was obtained through a mathematical operation on the values of the cholesterol and triglycerides levels compared with the maximum cut-off of the general population. The autonomic functioning was tested with Ewing battery tests. Particularly, the correlation between heart rate variability (HRV and lipid metabolism has been investigated. Results Pathological and control groups, compared among each other, presented some peculiarities in the lipid metabolism and the autonomic dysfunction scores. In addition, a statistically significant correlation has been found between HRV and lipid metabolism. Conclusions Lipid metabolism and autonomic functioning seem to be related to the discussed psychiatric disorders. LI, in addition, could represent a new possible biomarker to be considered.

  1. Eating disorders

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    The incidence of eating disorders is increasing, and health care professionals are faced with the difficult task of treating these refractory conditions. The first clinical description of anorexia nervosa (AN) was reported in 1694 and included symptoms such as decreased appetite, amenorrhea, food av...

  2. Eating disorder and depressive symptoms in urban high school girls from different ethnic backgrounds.

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    Bisaga, Katarzyna; Whitaker, Agnes; Davies, Mark; Chuang, Shirley; Feldman, Judith; Walsh, B Timothy

    2005-08-01

    This study examined ethnic group differences in the rates of eating disorder symptoms (EDS) and depressive disorder symptoms (DDS) with respect to ethnic identity, relative body weight, and abnormal eating behaviors among adolescent girls. A district-wide sample of high school girls (N = 1445) from different ethnic backgrounds was surveyed. EDS were assessed with the Eating Attitudes Test-26, abnormal eating behaviors with the Eating Behaviors Survey, and DDS with the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire. Two dimensions of ethnic identity, ethnic identity achievement and other group orientation, were assessed with Multi-Group Ethnic Identity Measure. Hispanic and non-Hispanic white girls had the highest and African-American (AA) and Caribbean girls the lowest rates of EDS. Asian girls reported the highest and AA girls the lowest rates of DDS. Early dieting was associated with EDS and DDS in Caribbean, non-Hispanic white, and mixed background girls. Relative body weight was related to EDS in all ethnic groups except in non-Hispanic white and mixed background girls. The authors did not find an effect of ethnic identity achievement on psychopathology, but there was an effect of other group orientation on both EDS and DDS. Clinicians should inquire about EDS and DDS in girls of all ethnic groups. Prevention efforts to delay unsupervised dieting may protect adolescent girls from the development of EDS and DDS.

  3. Assessing eating disorder risk: the pivotal role of achievement anxiety, depression and female gender in non-clinical samples.

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    Fragkos, Konstantinos C; Frangos, Christos C

    2013-03-12

    The objective of the present study was to assess factors predicting eating disorder risk in a sample of undergraduate students. A structured questionnaire was employed on a random sample (n = 1865) consisting of the following sections: demographics, SCOFF (Sick, Control, One stone, Fat, Food) questionnaire for screening eating disorders and the Achievement Anxiety Test and the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale. The students at risk for eating disorders (SCOFF score ≥2) were 39.7%. Eating disorder risk was more frequent in females, students with divorced parents, students who lived alone, students who were seeking a romantic relationship or were married, students who were at a post-secondary vocational institute/college (private-public) educational level and who were more likely to have marks under merit level. Also, the mean scores for the psychological factors of depression, stress and anxiety were higher in students with eating disorder risk. A logistic regression model was produced depicting that depression, stress, female gender, being married and searching for a romantic relationship were risk factors of having an eating disorder risk. The suggested psychological model examined with structural equation modelling signified the role of academic anxiety as an immediate precursor of general anxiety. Hence, college populations in Greece need organized infrastructures of nutrition health services and campaigns to assist in reducing the risk of eating disorders.

  4. Assessing Eating Disorder Risk: The Pivotal Role of Achievement Anxiety, Depression and Female Gender in Non-Clinical Samples

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    Christos C. Frangos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to assess factors predicting eating disorder risk in a sample of undergraduate students. A structured questionnaire was employed on a random sample (n = 1865 consisting of the following sections: demographics, SCOFF (Sick, Control, One stone, Fat, Food questionnaire for screening eating disorders and the Achievement Anxiety Test and the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale. The students at risk for eating disorders (SCOFF score ≥2 were 39.7%. Eating disorder risk was more frequent in females, students with divorced parents, students who lived alone, students who were seeking a romantic relationship or were married, students who were at a post-secondary vocational institute/college (private-public educational level and who were more likely to have marks under merit level. Also, the mean scores for the psychological factors of depression, stress and anxiety were higher in students with eating disorder risk. A logistic regression model was produced depicting that depression, stress, female gender, being married and searching for a romantic relationship were risk factors of having an eating disorder risk. The suggested psychological model examined with structural equation modelling signified the role of academic anxiety as an immediate precursor of general anxiety. Hence, college populations in Greece need organized infrastructures of nutrition health services and campaigns to assist in reducing the risk of eating disorders.

  5. Disordered eating among Swedish adolescents : Associations with emotion dysregulation, depression and self-esteem

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    Hansson, Erika

    2017-01-01

    The path to an eating disorder (ED) always leads through a borderland, which, in this thesis, is referred to as disordered eating (DE) (Neumark-Sztainer, Wall, Eisenberg,Story, & Hannan, 2006; Waaddegaard, Thoning, & Petersson, 2003). In this borderland, people tend to make unhealthy eating choices, such as greatly reducing their food intake, self-inducing vomiting, or engaging in binge eating, but not to the extent that they would receive an ED diagnosis. Nevertheless, DE can have a ...

  6. Electroencephalography in eating disorders

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    Jáuregui-Lobera I

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Ignacio Jáuregui-Lobera1,21Behavioral Sciences Institute, 2Pablo de Olavide University, Seville, SpainAbstract: Clinical applications of electroencephalography (EEG are used with different objectives, EEG being a noninvasive and painless procedure. In respect of eating disorders, in the 1950s a new line of study about the neurological bases of anorexia nervosa was started and has since been developed. The purpose of this review is to update the existing literature data on the main findings in respect of EEG in eating disorders by means of a search conducted in PubMed. Despite the fact that weight gain tends to normalize some brain dysfunctions assessed by means of EEG, the specific effect of gaining weight remains controversial. Different studies have reported that cortical dysfunctions can be found in patients with anorexia nervosa even after weight gain, whereas others have reported a normalization of EEG in respect of the initial reduced alpha/increased beta power in those patients with refeeding. Findings of studies that have analyzed the possible relationship between eating disorders and depression, based on sleep EEG disturbances, do not support the idea of eating disorders as a variant of depression or affective disorders. Some EEG findings are very consistent with previous neuroimaging results on patients with anorexia nervosa, reporting neural disturbances in response to stimuli that are relevant to the pathology (eg, stimuli like food exposure, different emotional situations, or body images.Keywords: electroencephalography, event-related potentials, sleep, depression, refeeding, weight gain

  7. Kids and Eating Disorders

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    ... Know About Puberty Train Your Temper Kids and Eating Disorders KidsHealth > For Kids > Kids and Eating Disorders Print ... withdrawing from social activities previous continue What Causes Eating Disorders? There really is no single cause for an ...

  8. Binge Eating Disorder

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    ... Our ePublications > Binge eating disorder fact sheet ePublications Binge eating disorder fact sheet Print this fact sheet Binge eating disorder fact sheet (PDF, 211 KB) Related information Anorexia ...

  9. An interactional test of the reformulated helplessness theory of depression in women receiving clinical treatment for eating disorders.

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    Rotenberg, Ken J; Costa, Paula; Trueman, Mark; Lattimore, Paul

    2012-08-01

    The study tested the Reformulated Helplessness model that individuals who show combined internal locus of control, high stability and high globality attributions for negative life events are prone to depression. Thirty-six women (M=29 years-8 months of age) receiving clinical treatment for eating disorders completed: the Attribution Style Questionnaire, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Stirling Eating Disorder Scales. An HRA yielded a three-way interaction among the attributional dimensions on depressive symptoms. Plotting of the slopes showed that the attribution of negative life events to the combination of internal locus of control, high stability, and a high globality, was associated with the optimal level of depressive symptoms. The findings supported the Reformulated Helplessness as a model of depression.

  10. Subjective and objective binge eating in relation to eating disorder symptomatology, depressive symptoms, and self-esteem among treatment-seeking adolescents with bulimia nervosa.

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    Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E; Ciao, Anna C; Accurso, Erin C; Pisetsky, Emily M; Peterson, Carol B; Byrne, Catherine E; Le Grange, Daniel

    2014-07-01

    This study investigated the importance of the distinction between objective (OBE) and subjective binge eating (SBE) among 80 treatment-seeking adolescents with bulimia nervosa. We explored relationships among OBEs, SBEs, eating disorder (ED) symptomatology, depression, and self-esteem using two approaches. Group comparisons showed that OBE and SBE groups did not differ on ED symptoms or self-esteem; however, the SBE group had significantly greater depression. Examining continuous variables, OBEs (not SBEs) accounted for significant unique variance in global ED pathology, vomiting, and self-esteem. SBEs (not OBEs) accounted for significant unique variance in restraint and depression. Both OBEs and SBEs accounted for significant unique variance in eating concern; neither accounted for unique variance in weight/shape concern, laxative use, diuretic use, or driven exercise. Loss of control, rather than amount of food, may be most important in defining binge eating. Additionally, OBEs may indicate broader ED pathology, while SBEs may indicate restrictive/depressive symptomatology. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  11. Mothers with depression, anxiety or eating disorders: outcomes on their children and the role of paternal psychological profiles.

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    Cimino, Silvia; Cerniglia, Luca; Paciello, Marinella

    2015-04-01

    The present paper aims to longitudinally assess the emotional functioning of children of mothers with depression, anxiety, or eating disorders and of mothers with no psychological disorders and to evaluate the possible mediating role of fathers' psychological profiles on children's internalizing/externalizing functioning using SCID I, SCL-90/R and CBCL/1½-5. The results showed maternal psychopathology to be strongly related to children's maladaptive profiles. Children of mothers with depression and anxiety showed higher internalizing scores than children of other groups. These scores increased from T1 to T2. Children of mothers with eating disorders showed higher and increasing externalizing scores than children of other groups. The data showed that fathers' interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety and psychoticism significantly predicted internalizing problems of the children. Moreover, interpersonal sensitivity and psychoticism significantly predicted externalizing problems. Our results confirmed the impact of maternal psychopathology on maladaptive outcomes in their children, which suggests the importance of considering paternal psychological profiles.

  12. Comparison of associated features and drug treatment between co-occurring unipolar and bipolar disorders in depressed eating disorder patients.

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    Tseng, Mei-Chih Meg; Chang, Chin-Hao; Liao, Shih-Cheng; Chen, Hsi-Chung

    2017-02-27

    To examine the differences of associated characteristics and prescription drug use between co-occurring unipolar and bipolar disorders in patients with eating disorders (EDs). Patients with EDs and major depressive episode (MDE) were recruited from psychiatric outpatient clinics. They were interviewed and completed self-administered measures assessing eating and general psychopathology. The prescribed drugs at the index outpatient visit were recorded. Clinical characteristics and prescription drugs of groups with major depressive disorder (ED-MDD), MDE with lifetime mania (ED-BP I), and MDE with lifetime hypomania (ED-BP II) were compared. Continuous variables between groups were compared using generalized linear regression with adjustments of age, gender, and ED subtype for pair-wise comparisons. Multivariate logistic regression with adjustments of age, gender, and ED subtype was employed to estimate adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals between groups. Two hundred and twenty-seven patients with EDs had a current MDE. Among them, 17.2% and 24.2% experienced associated manic and hypomanic episodes, respectively. Bipolar I and II patients displayed significantly poorer weight regulation, more severe impulsivity and emotional lability, and higher rates of co-occurring alcohol use disorders than ED-MDD patients. ED-BP I patients were found to have the lowest IQ, poorest working memory, and the most severe depression, suicidality and functional impairment among all patients. Patients with ED-BP II shared affect and behavioral dysregulations with ED-BP I, but had less severe degrees of cognitive and functional impairments than ED-BP I. Patients with ED-BP I were significantly less likely than those in the ED-MDD and ED-BP II groups to be on antidepressant monotherapy, but a great rate (27%) of ED-BP I individuals taking antidepressant monotherapy had potential risk of mood switch during the course of treatment. Our study identified discriminative features

  13. Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as little as possible. Others with anorexia may start binge eating and purging — eating a lot of food and then trying to get rid of the calories by making themselves throw up, using some type of medication or laxatives, or exercising excessively, or ...

  14. Binge Eating Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senol Turan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Binge Eating Disorder, characterized by frequent and persistent overeating episodes that are accompanied by feeling of loss of control over eating without regular compensatory behaviors and was identified in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition as a new eating disorder category. Binge Eating Disorder is the most common eating disorder among adults. Binge Eating Disorder is associated with significant morbidity, including medical complications related to obesity, eating disorder psychopathology, psychiatric comorbidity; reduced quality of life, and impaired social functioning. Current treatments of Binge Eating Disorder include pharmacotherapy, psychotherapy and bariatric surgery. In this review, the definition, epidemiology, etiology, clinical features, and also mainly treatment of Binge Eating Disorder are discussed.

  15. Night Eating Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Deniz Tuncel; Fatma Özlem Orhan

    2009-01-01

    Hunger is an awakening related biological impulse. The relationship between hunger and sleep is moderated by the control of homeostatic and circadian rhytms of the body. Abnormal eating behavior during sleep period could result from different causes. Abnormal eating during the main sleep period has been categorized as either night eating syndrome or sleep related eating disorder. Night eating syndrome (NES) is an eating disorder characterised by the clinical features of morning anorexia, even...

  16. [Are eating disorders addictions?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzl, Johann F; Biebl, Wilfried

    2010-01-01

    The various eating disorders, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge-eating disorder, are characterized by severe disturbances in eating behavior and are seen as typical "psychosomatic disorders". The subdivision of anorexia nervosa into two subtypes, namely "anorexia nervosa restricting type" and "anorexia nervosa bulimic type" has proved to be very good. It is to be assumed that eating disorders are not a homogeneous group, and that the various subtypes of eating disorders are also heterogeneous at several levels. Co-morbid psychiatric disorders, especially affective disorders, anxiety disorders, substance-related disorders, and personality disorders, are often found in eating- disordered patients. Many anorectics of the restrictive type and orthorectics show co-morbid psychiatric disorders such as anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorders, and avoidant or obsessive-compulsive personality disorders, while a co-morbidity of affective disorders, addiction, personality disorders, especially multi-impulsivity and borderline personality disorder, is frequently found in anorectics of bulimic type, bulimics, and binge eaters. Addictive behavior manifests itself in permanent preoccupation with food and eating, withdrawal symptoms, continuation of disturbed eating behavior in spite of negative consequences, loss of control, and frequent relapse. There are some indications that there is a basic psychological disturbance common to eating disorders, especially bulimia nervosa, and to substance-related disorders, namely a personality disorder with an emotional instability and multi-impulsivity. The possible associations between eating disorders and mental disorders, particularly addictions, will be discussed.

  17. Sleep and Eating Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Kelly C; Spaeth, Andrea; Hopkins, Christina M

    2016-10-01

    Insomnia is related to an increased risk of eating disorders, while eating disorders are related to more disrupted sleep. Insomnia is also linked to poorer treatment outcomes for eating disorders. However, over the last decade, studies examining sleep and eating disorders have relied on surveys, with no objective measures of sleep for anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa, and only actigraphy data for binge eating disorder. Sleep disturbance is better defined for night eating syndrome, where sleep efficiency is reduced and melatonin release is delayed. Studies that include objectively measured sleep and metabolic parameters combined with psychiatric comorbidity data would help identify under what circumstances eating disorders and sleep disturbance produce an additive effect for symptom severity and for whom poor sleep would increase risk for an eating disorder. Cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia may be a helpful addition to treatment of those with both eating disorder and insomnia.

  18. Eating disorders in midlife women: A perimenopausal eating disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Jessica H; Runfola, Cristin D

    2016-03-01

    Eating disorders afflict women across the lifespan with peak onset during critical or sensitive developmental periods of reproductive hormone change, such as puberty. A growing body of research supports the role of reproductive hormones, specifically estrogen, in the risk for eating disorders and related symptomatology in adolescence and young adulthood. Like puberty, perimenopause is characterized by estrogen change and may also present a window of vulnerability to eating disorder development. Here, we discuss the evidence that suggests perimenopause indeed may be a vulnerable period for the development or redevelopment of an eating disorder for midlife women. Drawing from what is known about the influence of estrogen on eating disorders at younger ages and from other psychiatric disorders with similar risk trajectories (i.e., perimenopausal depression), we describe a potential mechanism of risk for a perimenopausal eating disorder and how this can be explored in future research. Investigating vulnerability to perimenopausal eating disorders will clarify eating disorder etiology, identify reproductive stage-specific risk profiles, and guide future treatment directions.

  19. Factor structure and clinical utility of the Beck depression inventory in patients with binge eating disorder and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udo, Tomoko; McKee, Sherry A; Grilo, Carlos M

    2015-01-01

    The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) is often used to assess depression symptoms, but its factor structure and its clinical utility have not been evaluated in patients with binge eating disorder (BED) and obesity. A total of 882 treatment-seeking obese patients with BED were administered structured interviews (Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition Axis I Disorders) and completed self-report questionnaires. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported a brief 16-item BDI version with a three-factor structure (affective, attitudinal and somatic). Both 21- and 16-item versions showed excellent internal consistency (both α=0.89) and had significant correlation patterns with different aspects of eating disorder psychopathology; three factors showed significant but variable associations with eating disorder psychopathology. Area under the curves (AUC) for both BDI versions were significant in predicting major depressive disorder (MDD; AUC=0.773 [16-item], 73.5% sensitivity/70.2% specificity, AUC=0.769 [21-item], 79.5% sensitivity/64.1% specificity) and mood disorders (AUC=0.763 [16-item], 67.1% sensitivity/71.5% specificity, AUC=0.769 [21-item], 84.2% sensitivity/55.7% specificity). The 21-item BDI (cutoff score ≥16) showed higher negative predictive values (94.0% vs. 93.0% [MDD]; 92.4% vs. 88.3% [mood disorders]) than the brief 16-item BDI (cutoff score ≥13). Both BDI versions demonstrated moderate performance as a screening instrument for MDD/mood disorders in obese patients with BED. Advantages and disadvantages for both versions are discussed. A three-factor structure has potential to inform the conceptualization of depression features. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Males and Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Males and Eating Disorders Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of Contents For ... this page please turn Javascript on. Photo: PhotoDisc Eating disorders primarily affect girls and women, but boys and ...

  1. Binge Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Upcoming and past meetings Follow Us Social media, RSS feeds, and more Follow Us ... and Facts for Binge Eating Disorder Symptoms and Causes of Binge Eating Disorder Diagnosis and Treatment of ...

  2. Ghrelin and eating disorders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fabbri, Alessandra Donzelli; Deram, Sophie; Kerr, Daniel Shikanai; Cordás, Táki Athanássios

    2015-01-01

    ...; we searched PubMed, Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO), and LILACS databases using the keywords "eating disorder", "ghrelin", "polymorphism", "anorexia nervosa", "bulimia nervosa", "binge eating disorder", and their combinations...

  3. Self-esteem and social support as moderators of depression, body image, and disordered eating for suicidal ideation in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brausch, Amy M; Decker, Kristina M

    2014-01-01

    The current study investigated risk factors for suicidal ideation in a community sample of 392 adolescents (males 51.9 %; females 48.1 %), while also evaluating self-esteem, perceived parent support, and perceived peer support as protective factors and potential moderators between suicidal ideation and the 3 risk factors. Disordered eating, depression, parent support, and peer support were found to be significant predictors of current suicidal ideation, but body satisfaction was not. The relationship between depression and suicidal ideation was significantly moderated by both self-esteem and parent support, while the relationship between disordered eating and suicidal ideation was significantly moderated by peer support. Results underscore the importance of examining protective factors for suicide risk, as they have the potential to reduce suicidal ideation in adolescents.

  4. EATING DISORDERS IN INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivasan, T.N.; Suresh, T.R.; Jayaram, Vasantha; Fernandez, M. Peter

    1995-01-01

    Data on the nature and extent of major eating disorders, anorexia nervosa and bulimia is lacking in non-white, native populations of the developing world, leaving a gap in understanding the determinants of these disorders. In a study on 210 medical students examined by a two-stage survey method, 31 subjects were found to have distress relating to their eating habits and body size not amounting to criterion-based diagnosis of eating disorders. The characteristics of this eating distress syndro...

  5. Body movements and their role in music therapy in the treatment of depression and an eating disorder : a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Karvonen, Riikka

    2015-01-01

    Music and dance play an important role in every culture and society. In some parts of the world, the word for music and dance is the same. Due to this, one good treatment and psychological support can be music and dance. The purpose of this master’s thesis was to investigate how body movements and their role in music therapy in the treatment of depression and an eating disorder can offer one insights, and improve depression and quality of life. This case study was conducted within a cl...

  6. Emerging Treatments in Eating Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutter, Michael

    2017-07-01

    Eating disorders (EDs), including anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge-eating disorder, constitute a class of common and deadly psychiatric disorders. While numerous studies in humans highlight the important role of neurobiological alterations in the development of ED-related behaviors, the precise neural substrate that mediates this risk is unknown. Historically, pharmacological interventions have played a limited role in the treatment of eating disorders, typically providing symptomatic relief of comorbid psychiatric issues, like depression and anxiety, in support of the standard nutritional and psychological treatments. To date there are no Food and Drug Administration-approved medications or procedures for anorexia nervosa, and only one Food and Drug Administration-approved medication each for bulimia nervosa (fluoxetine) and binge-eating disorder (lisdexamfetamine). While there is little primary interest in drug development for eating disorders, postmarket monitoring of medications and procedures approved for other indications has identified several novel treatment options for patients with eating disorders. In this review, I utilize searches of the PubMed and ClinicalTrials.gov databases to highlight emerging treatments in eating disorders.

  7. The relationship between assessment of family relationships and depression in girls with various types of eating disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilecki, Maciej Wojciech

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of the study was to assess the relationship between depressive symptoms and girls’ assessment of their family relations in a group of (female patients with a diagnosis of various subtypes of eating disorders in comparison with (female patients with a diagnosis of depressive disorders (episode of major depression, dysthymia, adjustment reaction with depressive mood and female students in Krakow, Poland schools. Method. Data from 54 (female patients with a diagnosis of restrictive anorexia (ANR, 22 with a diagnosis of binge-purge anorexia (ANB, 36 with a diagnosis of bulimia (BUL, 36 with a diagnosis of depressive disorders (DEP and a 85 (female Krakow school students (CON were used in the statistical analyses. There were no significant differences between age of the girls in studied groups.In analyses, results of the Polish version of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI and also the Family Assessment Questionnaire (KOR were used. Results. In the CON group, correlations attesting to a link between depressiveness and a negative assessment of the family were observed on all scales of the questionnaire with the exception of the Values and Norms scale. In the DEP group, such a dependence was ascertained on scales: Completing Tasks, Communication, Emotionality, Control, Defence, Positive Statements. In the case of the ANR group, no statistically significant relationship between results of the questionnaires was noted. In group ANB, correlations attesting to a link between depressiveness and a negative picture of the family were ascertained on scales: Communication and Defence. The same dependence was ascertained in the BUL group on scales: Completing Tasks, Emotionality, Emotional involvement, Control, General result, Negative Statements. Conclusions. An increase in depressiveness is linked in a significant way with a worsening assessment of the family relations amongst girls with a diagnosis of bulimia, depressive disorders and students.

  8. Childhood Maltreatment, Depressive Symptoms, and Body Dissatisfaction in Patients with Binge Eating Disorder: The Mediating Role of Self-Criticism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkley, David M.; Masheb, Robin M.; Grilo, Carlos M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective We examined the mediating role of self-criticism in the relation between childhood maltreatment and both depressive symptoms and body dissatisfaction in patients with binge eating disorder (BED). Method Participants were 170 BED patients who completed measures of childhood maltreatment, self-criticism, self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and body dissatisfaction. Results Specific forms of childhood maltreatment (emotional abuse, sexual abuse) were significantly associated with body dissatisfaction. Path analyses demonstrated that self-criticism fully mediated the relation between emotional abuse and both depressive symptoms and body dissatisfaction. Specificity for the mediating role of self-criticism was demonstrated in comparison to other potential mediators (low self-esteem) and alternative competing mediation models. Conclusion These results highlight self-criticism as a potential mechanism through which certain forms of childhood maltreatment may be associated with depressive symptoms and body dissatisfaction in BED patients. PMID:20119938

  9. Symptoms of Eating Disorders and Depression in Emerging Adults with Early-Onset, Long-Duration Type 1 Diabetes and Their Association with Metabolic Control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Bächle

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the prevalence of and association between symptoms of eating disorders and depression in female and male emerging adults with early-onset, long-duration type 1 diabetes and investigated how these symptoms are associated with metabolic control.In a nationwide population-based survey, 211 type 1 diabetes patients aged 18-21 years completed standardized questionnaires, including the SCOFF questionnaire for eating disorder symptoms and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9 for symptoms of depression and severity of depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 score. Multiple linear and logistic regression models were used to analyze the association between eating disorder and depressive symptoms and their associations with HbA1c.A total of 30.2% of the women and 9.5% of the men were screening positive for eating disorders. The mean PHQ-9 score (standard deviation was 5.3 (4.4 among women and 3.9 (3.6 among men. Screening positive for an eating disorder was associated with more severe depressive symptoms among women (βwomen 3.8, p<0.001. However, neither eating disorder symptoms nor severity of depressive symptoms were associated with HbA1c among women, while HbA1c increased with the severity of depressive symptoms among men (βmen 0.14, p=0.006.Because of the high prevalence of eating disorder and depressive symptoms, their interrelationship, and their associations with metabolic control, particularly among men, regular mental health screening is recommended for young adults with type 1 diabetes.

  10. Can Violence cause Eating Disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juli, Maria Rosaria

    2015-09-01

    The origin and course of eating disorders and nutrition have a multifactorial etiology and should therefore take into consideration: psychological factors, evolutionary, biological and socio-cultural (Juli 2012). Among the psychological factors we will focus on violence (in any form) and in particular on the consequences that they have on women, which vary in severity. Recent studies show that women get sick more than men, both from depression and eating disorders, with a ratio of 2:1; this difference begins in adolescence and continues throughout the course of life (Niolu 2010). The cause of this difference remains unclear. Many studies agree that during adolescence girls have negative feelings more frequently and for a longer duration caused by stressful life events and difficult circumstances, such as abuse or violence. This results in an increased likelihood of developing a symptom that will be connected to eating disorders and/or depression. As far as the role of food is concerned in eating disorders, it has a symbolic significance and offers emotional comfort. Eating means to incorporate and assimilate, and even in an ideal sense, the characteristics of the foods become part of the individual. Feelings that lead to binges with food are normally a result of feelings related to abuse or violence and lead to abnormal behavior which leads to binging and the final result being that the person is left feeling guilty and ashamed. Research confirms that 30% of patients who have been diagnosed with eating disorders, especially bulimia, have a history of sexual abuse during childhood. Ignoring the significance of this factor can result in the unleashing of this disease as the patient uses the disorder as his expressive theater (Mencarelli 2008). Factors that contribute to the possibility of developing an eating disorder are both the age of the patient at the time of the abuse and the duration of the abuse. The psychological effects that follow may include dissociative

  11. [Schizophrenia and eating disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulon, C

    2003-01-01

    The comorbidity of schizophrenia and eating disorders is understudied. In the early nineteenth century, Eugen Bleuler has reported cases of schizophrenia with eating disorders that were related to delusional ideas. Potomania, merycism and pica have often been described in schizophrenic patients. Schizophrenic patients with eating disorders usually do not meet all criteria for typical eating disorders and are therefore classified as "eating disorders not otherwise specified" (EDNOS). It may even be difficult to recognize schizophrenia in patients with eating disorders associated to delusional ideas and distorted cognitions related to food or body perception. In any case, the diagnosis of schizophrenia should preferably be made and is only valid after renutrition is achieved. The prevalence of schizophrenia in samples of patients with eating disorders is generally below 10% but reaches 35% in males, the most frequent form being hebephrenia. Cognitive behavioural therapies for eating disorders need to be adapted in cases of comorbid schizophrenia. The new antipsychotic medications seem helpful in patients with eating disorders with or without schizophrenia. They reduce anxiety towards eating and bring in better adherence to treatments.

  12. [Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, Depression and Eating Disorders in Patients Submitted to Bariatric Surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, Isabel; Marques Pinho, Ana; Arrojado, Filipa; Pinto-Bastos, Ana; Maia da Costa, José; Coelho, Rui; Calhau, Conceição; Conceição, Eva

    2016-03-01

    Introdução: A obesidade associa-se a um elevado número de comorbilidades, entre as quais a diabetes mellitus tipo 2 e a patologia psiquiátrica. A cirurgia bariátrica tem demonstrado ser a melhor solução para a perda de peso e a melhoria das complicações nos casos de obesidade mórbida. O objetivo deste estudo é o de analisar a evolução da diabetes mellitus tipo 2 e de variáveis psicopatológicas antes e depois da cirurgia bariátrica e verificar o seu impacto na perda de peso. Material e Métodos: É um estudo longitudinal, que avalia 75 indivíduos antes e depois de serem submetidos a cirurgia bariátrica (47 - banda gástrica; 19 - bypass Roux-en-Y gástrico; 9 - sleeve gástrico), com tempo de follow-up entre 18 e 46 meses. Os instrumentos de avaliação foram a entrevista clínica e os questionários Eating Disorder Examination questionnaire - EDE-Q e Beck Depression Inventory - BDI. Resultados: Verificou-se melhoria relativamente à variável dicotómica diabetes mellitus tipo 2 após a cirurgia (X(1) = 26,132, p sentido esta relação é estabelecida, nem a relação que estas variáveis metabólicas e psicológicas possam ter entre si ao longo do período pós cirurgia bariátrica. Conclusão: A diabetes mellitus tipo 2 evoluiu favoravelmente após a cirurgia. Diabetes mellitus tipo 2, depressão e patologia alimentar no período pós-cirúrgico associaram-se a menor perda de peso. As variáveis estudadas no período pré cirúrgico não contribuíram de forma significativa para a perda de peso.

  13. Anxiety, Alexithymia, and Depression as Mediators of the Association between Childhood Abuse and Eating Disordered Behavior in African American and European American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzeo, Suzanne E.; Mitchell, Karen S.; Williams, Larry J.

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated structural equation models of the associations among family functioning, childhood abuse, depression, anxiety, alexithymia, and eating disorder symptomatology in a sample of 412 European American and 192 African American female undergraduates. Additionally, the specific roles of anxiety, depression, and alexithymia as…

  14. Night Eating Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Tuncel

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Hunger is an awakening related biological impulse. The relationship between hunger and sleep is moderated by the control of homeostatic and circadian rhytms of the body. Abnormal eating behavior during sleep period could result from different causes. Abnormal eating during the main sleep period has been categorized as either night eating syndrome or sleep related eating disorder. Night eating syndrome (NES is an eating disorder characterised by the clinical features of morning anorexia, evening hyperphagia, and insomnia with awakenings followed by nocturnal food ingestion. Recently night eating syndrome, conceptualized as a delayed circadian intake of food. Sleep-related eating disorder, thought to represent a parasomnia and as such included within the revised International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD-2, and characterized by nocturnal partial arousals associated with recurrent episodes of involuntary food consumption and altered levels of consciousness. Whether, however, sleep-related eating disorder and night eating syndrome represent different diseases or are part of a continuum is still debated. This review summarizes their characteristics, treatment outcomes and differences between them.

  15. Boys with Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatmaker, Grace

    2005-01-01

    Although commonly associated with girls and women, eating disorders do not discriminate. School nurses need to be aware that male students also can suffer from the serious health effects of anorexia nervosa, bulimia, anorexia athletica, and eating disorders not otherwise specified. Sports that focus on leanness and weight limits can add to a…

  16. [Nocturnal eating disorder--sleep or eating disorder?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzischinski, O; Lazer, Y

    2000-02-01

    Nocturnal eating disorder (NED) is a rare syndrome that includes disorders of both eating and sleeping. It is characterized by awakening in the middle of the night, getting out of bed, and consuming large quantities of food quickly and uncontrollably, then returning to sleep. This may occur several times during the night. Some patients are fully conscious during their nocturnal eating, while some indicate total amnesia. The etiology of NED is still unclear, as research findings are contradictory. Those suffering from NED exhibit various levels of anxiety and depression, and many lead stressful life-styles. Familial conflict, loneliness and personal crises are commonly found. Recently, a connection has been discovered between NED and unclear self-definition, faulty interpersonal communication, and low frustration threshold. Several authors link it to sleepwalking, leg movements during sleep, and sleep apnea. Treatment is still unclear and there have been trials of pharmacotherapy, psychotherapy, or a combination of both. However, pharmacological treatment has generally been found to be the most effective, although each case must be considered individually. In 1998, 7 women referred to our Eating Disorders Clinic, 5% of all referrals, were subsequently diagnosed as suffering from NED. Of these, 3 suffered from concurrent binge-eating disorder and 4 also from bulimia nervosa. 2 case studies representative of NED are presented.

  17. Depressive Mood and Testosterone Related to Declarative Verbal Memory Decline in Middle-Aged Caregivers of Children with Eating Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Martínez, Ángel; Ruiz-Robledillo, Nicolás; Moya-Albiol, Luis

    2016-03-04

    Caring for children diagnosed with a chronic psychological disorder such as an eating disorder (ED) can be used as a model of chronic stress. This kind of stress has been reported to have deleterious effects on caregivers' cognition, particularly in verbal declarative memory of women caregivers. Moreover, high depressive mood and variations in testosterone (T) levels moderate this cognitive decline. The purpose of this study was to characterize whether caregivers of individuals with EDs (n = 27) show declarative memory impairments compared to non-caregivers caregivers (n = 27), using for this purpose a standardized memory test (Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test). Its purpose was also to examine the role of depressive mood and T in memory decline. Results showed that ED caregivers presented high depressive mood, which was associated to worse verbal memory performance, especially in the case of women. In addition, all caregivers showed high T levels. Nonetheless, only in the case of women caregivers did T show a curvilinear relationship with verbal memory performance, meaning that the increases of T were associated to the improvement in verbal memory performance, but only up to a certain point, as after such point T continued to increase and memory performance decreased. Thus, chronic stress due to caregiving was associated to disturbances in mood and T levels, which in turn was associated to verbal memory decline. These findings should be taken into account in the implementation of intervention programs for helping ED caregivers cope with caregiving situations and to prevent the risk of a pronounced verbal memory decline.

  18. [Affective disorders and eating disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakra, Eric; Belzeaux, R; Azorin, J M; Adida, M

    2014-12-01

    Epidemiologic studies show a frequent co-occurence of affective and eating disorders. The incidence of one disorder in patients suffering from the other disorder is well over the incidence in the general population. Several causes could explain this increased comorbidity. First, the iatrogenic origin is detailed. Indeed, psychotropic drugs, and particularly mood stabilizers, often lead to modification in eating behaviors, generally inducing weight gain. These drugs can increase desire for food, reduce baseline metabolism or decrease motor activity. Also, affective and eating disorders share several characteristics in semiology. These similarities can not only obscure the differential diagnosis but may also attest of conjoint pathophysiological bases in the two conditions. However, genetic and biological findings so far are too sparse to corroborate this last hypothesis. Nonetheless, it is noteworthy that comorbidity of affective and eating disorders worsens patients'prognosis and is associated with more severe forms of affective disorders characterized by an earlier age of onset in the disease, higher number of mood episodes and a higher suicidality. Lastly, psychotropic drugs used in affective disorders (lithium, antiepileptic mood stabilizers, atypical antipsychotics, antidepressants) are reviewed in order to weigh their efficacy in eating disorders. This could help establish the best therapeutic option when confronted to comorbidity. Copyright © 2014 L’Encéphale. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.

  19. Examining Duration of Binge Eating Episodes in Binge Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber-Gregory, Deanna N.; Lavender, Jason M.; Engel, Scott G.; Wonderlich, Steve A.; Crosby, Ross D.; Peterson, Carol B.; Simonich, Heather; Crow, Scott; Durkin, Nora; Mitchell, James E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The primary goal of this paper is to examine and clarify characteristics of binge eating in individuals with binge eating disorder (BED), particularly the duration of binge eating episodes, as well as potential differences between individuals with shorter compared to longer binge eating episodes. Method Two studies exploring binge eating characteristics in BED were conducted. Study 1 examined differences in clinical variables among individuals (N = 139) with BED who reported a short (binge duration. Study 2 utilized an ecological momentary assessment (EMA) design to examine the duration and temporal pattern of binge eating episodes in the natural environment in a separate sample of nine women with BED. Results Participants in Study 1 who were classified as having long duration binge eating episodes displayed greater symptoms of depression and lower self-esteem, but did not differ on other measures of eating disorder symptoms, compared to those with short duration binge eating episodes. In Study 2, the average binge episode duration was approximately 42 minutes, and binge eating episodes were most common during the early afternoon and evening hours, as well as more common on weekdays versus weekends. Discussion Past research on binge episode characteristics, particularly duration, has been limited to studies of binge eating episodes in BN. This study contributes to the existing literature on characteristics of binge eating in BED. PMID:23881639

  20. The Role of Body Image and Disordered Eating as Risk Factors for Depression and Suicidal Ideation in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brausch, Amy M.; Gutierrez, Peter M.

    2009-01-01

    There is much empirical literature on factors for adolescent suicide risk, but body image and disordered eating are rarely included in these models. In the current study, disordered eating and body image were examined as risk factors for suicide ideation since these factors are prevalent in adolescence, particularly for females. It was…

  1. The Role of Body Image and Disordered Eating as Risk Factors for Depression and Suicidal Ideation in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brausch, Amy M.; Gutierrez, Peter M.

    2009-01-01

    There is much empirical literature on factors for adolescent suicide risk, but body image and disordered eating are rarely included in these models. In the current study, disordered eating and body image were examined as risk factors for suicide ideation since these factors are prevalent in adolescence, particularly for females. It was…

  2. Eating disorders in Malta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grech, Anton

    2013-09-01

    In the beginning of 2014 a new service (residential and non residential) for eating disorders is being planned to open in Malta. A telephone based survey was conducted between 30 May and 11 June 2012. A randomized sample of 6000 of the population between 15 and 50 years old was chosen. 2.9 per cent of respondents have suffered from an eating disorder at some point in time. 2.0 percent of these had suffered from an eating disorder in the past, while the remaining (0.9 per cent) were suffering from an eating disorder at the time of study. Out of these 2,008 individuals participated in the study. Binge Eating was the most common eating disorder, with 55.8 per cent of respondents having this condition, followed by Anorexia (34.3 per cent) and Bulimia (13.3 per cent). These results were comparable to those of other European countries. Awareness of these conditions in the general population was generally good, higher in females and in those with a higher educational level.

  3. Addictive eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, M

    1989-03-01

    Addictive eating disorders have been a part of history and have only recently been recognized as psychiatric disorders. Increased publicity has enabled family and friends of eating disordered individuals to recognize the disease and seek help for them from trained medical professionals. Everyone is "at risk," but certain subpopulations have been "coming out of the closet" in epidemic proportions. An ever-increasing number of high school-aged and college-aged females have developed some form of eating disorder, from fad diets to self-induced vomiting. In these individuals, the obsession with thinness takes priority over family, friends, schoolwork, or career. Strangely enough, the eating disordered person's addiction is not to food but to the feeling of numbness her behavior brings. Over time, the need to control is desperately sought and many patients transfer their obsession to other patterns of self-abuse. Nursing intervention should include setting the appropriate example in terms of the professional's relationship with food, while providing much needed emotional support. An innovative method of intervention available to nursing professionals includes the use of creative, visual imagery to repeatedly diffuse fear and anxiety about food until a level of personal autonomy over the disorder and other emotional concerns is achieved. Therefore, a system of recovery can be designed for the anorectic or bulimic patient and the experience of recovery from the eating disorder can be a lifelong process of personal growth.

  4. Eating Disorders in Paraguayan Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Maria E.; McIntosh, David E.; Kruczek, Theresa

    2013-01-01

    Eating disorders, once thought to be exclusively a disorder of the more affluent Western countries, are now spreading around the world. Despite the wealth of information on the prevalence of eating disorders in developed countries, epidemiological data for South America is scarce. The 26-item Eating Attitude Test (EAT-26) was used to explore the…

  5. Eating Disorders in Paraguayan Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Maria E.; McIntosh, David E.; Kruczek, Theresa

    2013-01-01

    Eating disorders, once thought to be exclusively a disorder of the more affluent Western countries, are now spreading around the world. Despite the wealth of information on the prevalence of eating disorders in developed countries, epidemiological data for South America is scarce. The 26-item Eating Attitude Test (EAT-26) was used to explore the…

  6. Understanding Eating Disorders, Anorexia, Bulimia, and Binge-Eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Javascript on. Photo: iStock Eating disorders, such as anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating , are among ... There are three main types of eating disorders: anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge-eating disorder. People ...

  7. [Eating disorders and sexual function].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravvariti, V; Gonidakis, Fr

    2016-01-01

    groups of patients report more often than general population a lack of satisfaction from their sexual experiences. Other factors that are common to eating disorders and sexual dysfunction are personality traits, negative body-image, adverse childhood experiences, negative family climate and especially early traumatic experiences such as sexual abuse. Furthermore, comorbidity of eating disorders with depression may have a negative impact on the patient's sexual function. The treatment and improvement of sexual behavior is quite problematic when the patient is also suffering from an eating disorder. Eating Disorder patients are often very reluctant to discuss their sexual life with the therapist and to engage in any kind of therapeutic intervention. Comorbidity with a number of other disorders makes psychotherapy even more difficult for those patients. Furthermore, a considerable percentage of Anorexia Nervosa patients do not have any kind of sexual activity, at least until nutrition and weight are restored.

  8. Epigenetics and eating disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pjetri, Eneda; Schmidt, Ulrike; Kas, Martien J; Campbell, Iain C

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Eating disorders are complex psychiatric disorders in which genes, environment, and gene-environment interactions (G×E) have a role. Such G×E may occur in adulthood or during development. They may also be modified by factors such as (mal)nutrition or stress and this may result in

  9. [Sleep related eating disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Yuichi; Komada, Yoko

    2010-01-01

    Nighttime eating is categorized as either sleep-related eating disorder (SRED) or night eating syndrome (NES). Critical reviews of the literature on both disorders have suggested that they are situated at opposite poles of a disordered eating spectrum. The feeding behavior in SRED is characterized by recurrent episodes of eating after an arousal from nighttime sleep with amnesia. Conversely, NES could be considered as an abnormality in the circadian rhythm of meal timing with a normal circadian timing of sleep onset. Both conditions clearly concentrate to occur during young adulthood, and are often relentless and chronic. Misunderstanding and low awareness of SRED and NES have limited our ability to determine the exact prevalence of the two disorders. SRED is frequently associated with other sleep disorders, in particular parasomnias such as sleep walking. Cognitive-behavioral therapy is ineffective, but pharmacotherapy is very effective in controlling SRED. Especially, studies have shown that the anti-seizure medication topiramate may be an effective treatment for SRED.

  10. Neuroimaging in eating disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jáuregui-Lobera I

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Ignacio Jáuregui-LoberaBehavioral Sciences Institute and Pablo de Olavide University, Seville, SpainAbstract: Neuroimaging techniques have been useful tools for accurate investigation of brain structure and function in eating disorders. Computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography, single photon emission computed tomography, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and voxel-based morphometry have been the most relevant technologies in this regard. The purpose of this review is to update the existing data on neuroimaging in eating disorders. The main brain changes seem to be reversible to some extent after adequate weight restoration. Brain changes in bulimia nervosa seem to be less pronounced than in anorexia nervosa and are mainly due to chronic dietary restrictions. Different subtypes of eating disorders might be correlated with specific brain functional changes. Moreover, anorectic patients who binge/purge may have different functional brain changes compared with those who do not binge/purge. Functional changes in the brain might have prognostic value, and different changes with respect to the binding potential of 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A, and D2/D3 receptors may be persistent after recovering from an eating disorder.Keywords: neuroimaging, brain changes, brain receptors, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, eating disorders

  11. Depressive Mood and Testosterone Related to Declarative Verbal Memory Decline in Middle-Aged Caregivers of Children with Eating Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Romero-Martínez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Caring for children diagnosed with a chronic psychological disorder such as an eating disorder (ED can be used as a model of chronic stress. This kind of stress has been reported to have deleterious effects on caregivers’ cognition, particularly in verbal declarative memory of women caregivers. Moreover, high depressive mood and variations in testosterone (T levels moderate this cognitive decline. The purpose of this study was to characterize whether caregivers of individuals with EDs (n = 27 show declarative memory impairments compared to non-caregivers caregivers (n = 27, using for this purpose a standardized memory test (Rey’s Auditory Verbal Learning Test. Its purpose was also to examine the role of depressive mood and T in memory decline. Results showed that ED caregivers presented high depressive mood, which was associated to worse verbal memory performance, especially in the case of women. In addition, all caregivers showed high T levels. Nonetheless, only in the case of women caregivers did T show a curvilinear relationship with verbal memory performance, meaning that the increases of T were associated to the improvement in verbal memory performance, but only up to a certain point, as after such point T continued to increase and memory performance decreased. Thus, chronic stress due to caregiving was associated to disturbances in mood and T levels, which in turn was associated to verbal memory decline. These findings should be taken into account in the implementation of intervention programs for helping ED caregivers cope with caregiving situations and to prevent the risk of a pronounced verbal memory decline.

  12. Binge Eating Disorder Mediates Links between Symptoms of Depression, Anxiety, and Caloric Intake in Overweight and Obese Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseann E. Peterson

    2012-01-01

    . The associations between internalizing symptoms and food intake are best described as operating indirectly through a BED diagnosis. This suggests that symptoms of depression and anxiety influence whether one engages in binge eating, which influences kcal intake. Greater understanding of the mechanisms underlying the associations between mood, binge eating, and food intake will facilitate the development of more effective prevention and treatment strategies for both BED and obesity.

  13. Eating disorder severity and functional impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Annika Helgadóttir; Hoyt, William T.; Poulsen, Stig Bernt

    2017-01-01

    diagnosed with bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder or eating disorder not otherwise specified. Regression analysis was applied to assess the effect of the hypothesized moderators and mediators. Eating disorder severity was measured with the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire, functional impairment...

  14. Cultural trends and eating disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pike, Kathleen M.; Hoek, Hans W.; Dunne, Patricia E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review Culture has long been recognized as significant to the cause and expression of eating disorders. We reviewed the recent literature about recent trends in the occurrence of eating disorders in different cultures. Recent findings While historically, eating disorders were conceptualiz

  15. Cultural trends and eating disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pike, Kathleen M.; Hoek, Hans W.; Dunne, Patricia E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review Culture has long been recognized as significant to the cause and expression of eating disorders. We reviewed the recent literature about recent trends in the occurrence of eating disorders in different cultures. Recent findings While historically, eating disorders were

  16. Cultural trends and eating disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pike, Kathleen M.; Hoek, Hans W.; Dunne, Patricia E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review Culture has long been recognized as significant to the cause and expression of eating disorders. We reviewed the recent literature about recent trends in the occurrence of eating disorders in different cultures. Recent findings While historically, eating disorders were conceptualiz

  17. Neuronal substrate of eating disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Timofeeva, Elena; Calvez, Juliane

    2014-01-01

    Eating disorders are devastating and life-threatening psychiatric diseases. Although clinical and experimental investigations have significantly progressed in discovering the neuronal causes of eating disorders, the exact neuronal and molecular mechanisms of the development and maintenance of these pathologies are not fully understood. The complexity of the neuronal substrate of eating disorders hampers progress in revealing the precise mechanisms. The present re...

  18. Eating Disorders in Adolescent Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Shannon L.

    2004-01-01

    Research indicates that the primary onset of eating disorders occurs in adolescence and that there is a growing prevalence of adolescent males with eating disorders. This article describes the eating disorders of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa as they relate to adolescent males. Diagnostic criteria, at-risk groups, and implications for…

  19. Binge eating disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schousboe, Birgitte Hartvig; Waaddegaard, Mette

    2011-01-01

    Binge eating disorder kaldes også bulimi uden opkastning eller den tredje spiseforstyrrelse. Det er en udbredt, men mindre kendt spiseforstyrrelse end anoreksi og bulimi. Patienterne er ofte overvægtige og har ikke kompenserende adfærd over for overspisningen i form af opkastning eller brug af...

  20. Eating Disorder Prevention Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapia, Jennifer L.

    This paper provides information for school psychologists regarding the necessity and benefits of school-based prevention programming for students at risk for developing eating disorders (i.e., females). School-based programming is a cost-effective means of reaching the largest number of individuals at once and identifying those individuals…

  1. Ghrelin and eating disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Donzelli Fabbri

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Ghrelin is a potent hormone with central and peripheral action. This hormone plays an important role in the regulation of appetite, food intake, and energy balance. Studies have suggested that ghrelin is involved with eating disorders (ED, particularly bingeing and purging. Genetic variants have also been studied to explain changes in eating behavior. Methods We conducted a literature review; we searched PubMed, Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO, and LILACS databases using the keywords “eating disorder”, “ghrelin”, “polymorphism”, “anorexia nervosa”, “bulimia nervosa”, “binge eating disorder”, and their combinations. We found 319 articles. Thirty-nine articles met the inclusion criteria. Results High levels of ghrelin were found in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN, especially in the purging subtype (AN-P. There was also a positive correlation between fasting ghrelin level and frequency of episodes of bingeing/purging in bulimia nervosa (BN and the frequency of bingeing in periodic binge eating disorder (BED. Some polymorphisms were associated with AN and BN. Conclusion Changes in ghrelin levels and its polymorphism may be involved in the pathogenesis of EDs; however, further studies should be conducted to clarify the associations.

  2. Perfectionism and eating disorders: current status and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardone-Cone, Anna M; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Frost, Randy O; Bulik, Cynthia M; Mitchell, James E; Uppala, Saritha; Simonich, Heather

    2007-04-01

    The literature examining the relation between perfectionism and eating disorders was reviewed and content and methodological comparisons were made with the perfectionism literature in anxiety disorders and depressive disorders. A PsychInfo search using the key words "perfectionism/perfect/perfectionistic," "anorexia," "bulimia," and "eating disorders" was performed and the generated list of papers was supplemented based on a review of reference lists in the papers. A total of 55 papers published between 1990 and 2005 were identified that assessed perfectionism among individuals with diagnosed eating disorders. The key research questions were distilled from these publications and empirical findings were summarized for each question, followed by a comparison with perfectionism papers in the anxiety and depressive disorder literatures. Also, key research design methodological parameters were identified and comparisons made across the three literatures: eating disorders, anxiety disorders, depressive disorders. The current review concludes with conceptual and methodological recommendations for researchers interested in perfectionism and eating disorders.

  3. Urbanisation and the incidence of eating disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Son, Gabrielle E.; Van Hoeken, Daphne; Bartelds, Aad I. M.; Van Furth, Eric F.; Hoek, Hans W.

    2006-01-01

    The link between degree of urbanisation and a number of mental disorders is well established. Schizophrenia, psychosis and depression are known to occur more frequently in urban areas. In our primary care-based study of eating disorders, the incidence of bulimia nervosa showed a dose-response relati

  4. Urbanisation and the incidence of eating disorders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Son, G.E. van; Hoeken, D. van; Bartelds, A.I.M.; Furth, E.F. van; Hoek, H.W.

    2006-01-01

    The link between degree of urbanisation and a number of mental disorders is well established. Schizophrenia, psychosis and depression are known to occur more frequently in urban areas. In our primary care-based study of eating disorders, the incidence of bulimia nervosa showed a dose response

  5. Urbanisation and the incidence of eating disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Son, Gabrielle E.; Van Hoeken, Daphne; Bartelds, Aad I. M.; Van Furth, Eric F.; Hoek, Hans W.

    2006-01-01

    The link between degree of urbanisation and a number of mental disorders is well established. Schizophrenia, psychosis and depression are known to occur more frequently in urban areas. In our primary care-based study of eating disorders, the incidence of bulimia nervosa showed a dose-response

  6. Urbanisation and the incidence of eating disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Son, Gabrielle E.; Van Hoeken, Daphne; Bartelds, Aad I. M.; Van Furth, Eric F.; Hoek, Hans W.

    2006-01-01

    The link between degree of urbanisation and a number of mental disorders is well established. Schizophrenia, psychosis and depression are known to occur more frequently in urban areas. In our primary care-based study of eating disorders, the incidence of bulimia nervosa showed a dose-response relati

  7. Urbanisation and the incidence of eating disorders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Son, G.E. van; Hoeken, D. van; Bartelds, A.I.M.; Furth, E.F. van; Hoek, H.W.

    2006-01-01

    The link between degree of urbanisation and a number of mental disorders is well established. Schizophrenia, psychosis and depression are known to occur more frequently in urban areas. In our primary care-based study of eating disorders, the incidence of bulimia nervosa showed a dose response relati

  8. Gender-Related Risk and Protective Factors for Depressive Symptoms and Disordered Eating in Adolescence: A 4-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreiro, Fatima; Seoane, Gloria; Senra, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    The interplay between intrapersonal risk (low self-esteem, perfectionism and body dissatisfaction) and interpersonal protection (social support) appears relevant for delineating gender-specific pathways that lead to both depressive and eating psychopathology. The aims of this longitudinal study were to examine gender differences in the levels of…

  9. Disordered eating practices in gastrointestinal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satherley, R; Howard, R; Higgs, S

    2015-01-01

    To systematically review evidence concerning disordered eating practices in dietary-controlled gastrointestinal conditions. Three key questions were examined: a) are disordered eating practices a feature of GI disorders?; b) what abnormal eating practices are present in those with GI disorders?; and c) what factors are associated with the presence of disordered eating in those with GI disorders? By exploring these questions, we aim to develop a conceptual model of disordered eating development in GI disease. Five key databases, Web of Science with Conference Proceedings (1900-2014) and MEDLINE (1950-2014), PubMed, PsycINFO (1967-2014) and Google Scholar, were searched for papers relating to disordered eating practices in those with GI disorders. All papers were quality assessed before being included in the review. Nine papers were included in the review. The majority of papers reported that the prevalence of disordered eating behaviours is greater in populations with GI disorders than in populations of healthy controls. Disordered eating patterns in dietary-controlled GI disorders may be associated with both anxiety and GI symptoms. Evidence concerning the correlates of disordered eating was limited. The presence of disordered eating behaviours is greater in populations with GI disorders than in populations of healthy controls, but the direction of the relationship is not clear. Implications for further research are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Eating Expectancies in Relation to Eating Disorder Recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E.; Keatts, Dara A.; Bardone-Cone, Anna M.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relation between eating expectancies, assessed via the Eating Expectancy Inventory, and eating disorder recovery. Individuals formerly seen for an eating disorder were categorized as having an active eating disorder (n = 53), as partially recovered (n = 15), or as fully recovered (n = 20). The expectancies of these groups were compared to each other and to 67 non-eating disorder controls. Results revealed that three of the five eating expectancies differed across group...

  11. Perfectionism in obsessive-compulsive and eating disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Maia,Berta Rodrigues; Soares,Maria João; Gomes, Ana; Marques,Mariana; Pereira,Ana Telma; Cabral, Ana; Valente,José; Bos,Sandra Carvalho; Pato, Michele; Pocinho, Fernando; Azevedo, Maria Helena; Macedo,António

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The main aims of this article are twofold. First, to assess perfectionism dimensions in obsessive-compulsive disorder and eating disorders in comparison with psychiatric control (depression/anxiety) and non-clinical control groups. Second, to examine if perfectionism is specifically related to these different clinical conditions. METHOD: Thirty-nine outpatients with obsessive-compulsive disorder, 24 outpatients with eating disorders, 65 outpatients with a diagnosis of depression an...

  12. Animal models of eating disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Sangwon F Kim

    2012-01-01

    Feeding is a fundamental process for basic survival, and is influenced by genetics and environmental stressors. Recent advances in our understanding of behavioral genetics have provided a profound insight on several components regulating eating patterns. However, our understanding of eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating is still poor. The animal model is an essential tool in the investigation of eating behaviors and their pathological forms, yet develop...

  13. Treatment of binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, G Terence

    2011-12-01

    The two specialty psychological therapies of CBT and IPT remain the treatments of choice for the full range of BED patients, particularly those with high levels of specific eating disorder psychopathology such as overvaluation of body shape and weight. They produce the greatest degree of remission from binge eating as well as improvement in specific eating disorder psychopathology and associated general psychopathology such as depression. The CBT protocol evaluated in the research summarized above was the original manual from Fairburn and colleagues. Fairburn has subsequently developed a more elaborate and sophisticated form of treatment, namely, enhanced CBT (CBT-E) for eating disorders. Initial research suggests that CBT-E may be more effective than the earlier version with bulimia nervosa and Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified patients. CBT-E has yet to be evaluated for the treatment of BED, although it would currently be the recommended form of CBT. Of relevance in this regard is that the so-called broad form of the new protocol includes 3 optional treatment modules that could be used to address more complex psychopathology in BED patients. One of the modules targeted at interpersonal difficulties is IPT, as described earlier in this chapter. Thus, the broader protocol could represent a combination of the two currently most effective therapies for BED. Whether this combined treatment proves more effective than either of the components alone, particularly for a subset of BED patients with more complex psychopathology, remains to be tested. CBT-E also includes a module designed to address what Fairburn terms “mood intolerance” (problems in coping with negative affect) that can trigger binge eating and purging. The content and strategies of this mood intolerance module overlap with the emotional regulation and distress tolerance skills training of Linehan's dialectical behavior therapy (DBT). Two randomized controlled trials have tested the efficacy of an

  14. Evolutionary Explanations of Eating Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Kardum

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews several most important evolutionary mechanisms that underlie eating disorders. The first part clarifies evolutionary foundations of mental disorders and various mechanisms leading to their development. In the second part selective pressures and evolved adaptations causing contemporary epidemic of obesity as well as differences in dietary regimes and life-style between modern humans and their ancestors are described. Concerning eating disorders, a number of current evolutionary explanations of anorexia nervosa are presented together with their main weaknesses. Evolutionary explanations of eating disorders based on the reproductive suppression hypothesis and its variants derived from kin selection theory and the model of parental manipulation were elaborated. The sexual competition hypothesis of eating disorder, adapted to flee famine hypothesis as well as explanation based on the concept of social attention holding power and the need to belonging were also explained. The importance of evolutionary theory in modern conceptualization and research of eating disorders is emphasized.

  15. Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, Kamryn T.; Doyle, Angela Celio; Hoste, Renee Rienecke; Herzog, David B.; Le Grange, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    A study to examine the kind of eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS) among adolescents encountered during treatment at an outpatient eating disorder clinic is conducted. Results indicate that EDNOS is more predominant among adolescents seeking treatment for eating disorders.

  16. Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, Kamryn T.; Doyle, Angela Celio; Hoste, Renee Rienecke; Herzog, David B.; Le Grange, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    A study to examine the kind of eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS) among adolescents encountered during treatment at an outpatient eating disorder clinic is conducted. Results indicate that EDNOS is more predominant among adolescents seeking treatment for eating disorders.

  17. Perfectionism and Eating Disorders Reconsidered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, Jeffrey S.; Kottman, Terry; Schoen, Eva

    1998-01-01

    Examines differences between college women being treated for eating disorders and a comparison group on measures of adaptive and maladaptive perfectionism. Results show that individuals with eating disorders had significantly higher scores on a factor representing perfectionism; however, there were no significant differences between the two groups…

  18. Genetic determinants of eating disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slof-Op 't Landt, Margarita Cornelia Theodora

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis, a series of studies on different aspects of the genetics of eating disorders is presented. The heritability of disordered eating behavior and attitudes in relation with body mass index (BMI) was evaluated in a large adolescent twin-family sample ascertained through the Netherlands Tw

  19. Eating Disorders as Coping Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagener, Amy M.; Much, Kari

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on the complex nature of eating disorders, specifically highlighting their use as coping mechanisms for underlying emotional and psychological concerns. Case examples of college counseling center clients are discussed in order to illustrate common ways in which eating disorders are utilized by clients with varying…

  20. Genetic determinants of eating disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slof-Op 't Landt, Margarita Cornelia Theodora

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis, a series of studies on different aspects of the genetics of eating disorders is presented. The heritability of disordered eating behavior and attitudes in relation with body mass index (BMI) was evaluated in a large adolescent twin-family sample ascertained through the Netherlands

  1. Eating Disorders as Coping Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagener, Amy M.; Much, Kari

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on the complex nature of eating disorders, specifically highlighting their use as coping mechanisms for underlying emotional and psychological concerns. Case examples of college counseling center clients are discussed in order to illustrate common ways in which eating disorders are utilized by clients with varying…

  2. Advances in eating disorder therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Annika Helgadóttir; Lau, Marianne Engelbrecht

    2014-01-01

    Researchers at the Stolpegaard Psychotherapy Centre are seeking to improve outcomes for patients with eating disorders by gathering their feedback on group psychotherapy sessions with the aim of optimising treatment.......Researchers at the Stolpegaard Psychotherapy Centre are seeking to improve outcomes for patients with eating disorders by gathering their feedback on group psychotherapy sessions with the aim of optimising treatment....

  3. Parenting styles and eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jáuregui Lobera, I; Bolaños Ríos, P; Garrido Casals, O

    2011-10-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse the parental bonding profiles in patients with eating disorders (ED), as well as the relationship among the different styles of parenting and some psychological and psychopathological variables. In addition, the association between the perceived parental bonding and different coping strategies was analysed. Perception of parenting styles was analysed in a sample of 70 ED patients. The Parental Bonding Instrument, Self-Esteem Scale of Rosenberg, Coping Strategies Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory and Eating Disorders Inventory-2 were used. Kruskal-Wallis test (comparisons), Spearman correlation coefficients (association among different variables) and χ(2)-test (parental bonding profiles differences) were applied. The stereotyped style among ED patients is low care-high control during the first 16 years, and the same can be said about current styles of the mothers. Between 8.6% and 12.9% of the patients perceive their parents' styles as neglectful. The neglectful parenting is the style mainly involved in the specific ED symptoms as drive for thinness, body dissatisfaction and bulimia. In order to achieve a better balanced parents' role during the treatment, it would be necessary to improve the role of the mothers as caregivers, decreasing their role mainly based on the overprotection. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing.

  4. Depression (Major Depressive Disorder)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... generally miserable or unhappy without really knowing why. Depression symptoms in children and teens Common signs and ... in normal activities, and avoidance of social interaction. Depression symptoms in older adults Depression is not a ...

  5. [Eating disorders and mass media].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peroutsi, A; Gonidakis, F

    2011-01-01

    During the last 50 years, eating disorders have developed to a complicated and widespread medical and social issue. The latest research results indicate that eating disorders have a quite complicated and multifactorial etiology. According to the multifactorial etiological model, the impact of mass media can be regarded mainly as a precipitating factor. The literature review showed that mass media have a considerable impact on the development and perpetuation of eating disorders. Mass media contribute to the promotion of the thinness ideal as a way to achieve social approval, recognition and success. Mass media also promote dieting and food deprivation, as a successful way of life or as a socially agreeable practice. Furthermore, the literature review showed that mass media remain the main source of information about eating disorders. Considering the above result, mass media could play a major role in the promotion of prevention practices and early diagnosis and treatment of eating disorders.

  6. Anxiety and depression mediate the role of low self-esteem and low self-directedness in the development of eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloi, Matteo; Segura-García, Cristina

    2016-10-14

    Low self-esteem and low self-directedness (SD) are considered a risk factor for the development of eating disorders (EDs). The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that low self-esteem and low SD lead to a higher risk for EDs through the mediation of anxiety and depression. Seventy-seven female teenagers answered the Eating Disorder Inventory 3 (EDI-3), the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale (IUS), the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised (TCI-R), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), and the State and Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R). To test the hypothesis, a structural equation model (SEM) was used. According to the EDI3-EDRC scores, 23/77 (29.9%) participants demonstrated positive results in the screening. Participants who had positive results in the screening had significantly higher scores on trait and state anxiety, depression, and IU, and lower means of self-esteem and SD. The SEM demonstrated good fit indices and all paths were significant in the predicted directions, confirming the hypothesized model. The current results confirm the role of self-esteem and SD in the development of an ED among adolescent females through the mediating action of IU, anxiety, and depression.

  7. Eating Disorder Examination – Differences in eating disorder pathology between men and women with eating disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koefoed, Maja Schølarth; Clausen, Loa; Rokkedal, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    Objective In general eating disorder pathology in men shows more similarities than differences compared to women though with an overall lower level of pathology. In community studies men have been found to have more excessive exercise and more binge eating and in clinical populations men have been...... found to have more vomiting. Eating Disorder Examination (EDE) is “the golden standard” of diagnostic interviewing in eating disorder but analysis of gender differences in scores on the EDE have never been reported. The present study aim to explore gender differences on the EDE among adolescents...

  8. Muscle Dysmorphia: A New Form of Eating Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodale, Kimberly R.; Watkins, Patti Lou; Cardinal, Bradley J.

    2001-01-01

    Examined symptoms of muscle dysmorphia (MD), a variation of the eating disorders anorexia nervosa and bulimia, among college students. Surveys indicated that MD symptomatology appears in the general population and among both sexes. MD significantly related to eating disorder pathology and depression, and to some degree to impaired social support.…

  9. Gender identity disorder and eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepp, Urs; Milos, Gabriella

    2002-12-01

    We report three cases of transsexual patients who are suffering from an eating disorder: a biological male patient diagnosed with anorexia nervosa (AN), a biological male patient with bulimia nervosa (BN), and a biological female patient with AN as well as a severe alcohol dependence. The relationship between eating behavior, gender identity, sexual orientation, and body dissatisfaction is discussed. Copyright 2002 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 32: 473-478, 2002.

  10. SCREENING FOR EARLY DETECTION OF EATING DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisaveta Pavlova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Eating Disorders (EDs are characterized by a persistent disturbance of eating or eating-related behavior that significantly impairs physical health or psychosocial functioning. EDs are caused by a complex interaction of genetic, biological, behavioral, psychological, and social factors. Their epidemiology is rising for the past decades, and EDs affect all races, social levels and both genders. Due to the long and expensive treatment, chronic course, and the fact that most of the sufferers do not realize the need for therapy or do not seek treatment, the demand on developing prevention programs, early detection and assessment is essential. Despite the fact, that many new EDs screening tools were developed already, there is a great lack of validated screening instruments, adapted to the Bulgarian conditions. Objects and methods: Our study aimed at eliciting a comprehensive battery for screening of not only specific ED pathology, but also some risk factors, such as negative body image, weight and depressive symptoms. The object of our study consisted of 201 females, aged 18 to 45 (mean 24.65. SCOOF- questionnaire, Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale (EDDS-5, Body Image Questionnaire-34 and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI were applied. Results: Our preliminary results show that approximately 45% of the tested subjects show some of the: negative body image, eating disorders’ clinical pathology, distorted eating patterns, subclinical eating disorders pathology, overweight/obesity, or depressive symptoms. Conclusion: Our ongoing efforts in area of research also are aimed at developing and refining strategies for preventing and treating ED among adolescents and adults.

  11. Sudden death in eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jáuregui-Garrido, Beatriz; Jáuregui-Lobera, Ignacio

    2012-01-01

    Eating disorders are usually associated with an increased risk of premature death with a wide range of rates and causes of mortality. "Sudden death" has been defined as the abrupt and unexpected occurrence of fatality for which no satisfactory explanation of the cause can be ascertained. In many cases of sudden death, autopsies do not clarify the main cause. Cardiovascular complications are usually involved in these deaths. The purpose of this review was to report an update of the existing literature data on the main findings with respect to sudden death in eating disorders by means of a search conducted in PubMed. The most relevant conclusion of this review seems to be that the main causes of sudden death in eating disorders are those related to cardiovascular complications. The predictive value of the increased QT interval dispersion as a marker of sudden acute ventricular arrhythmia and death has been demonstrated. Eating disorder patients with severe cardiovascular symptoms should be hospitalized. In general, with respect to sudden death in eating disorders, some findings (eg, long-term eating disorders, chronic hypokalemia, chronically low plasma albumin, and QT intervals >600 milliseconds) must be taken into account, and it must be highlighted that during refeeding, the adverse effects of hypophosphatemia include cardiac failure. Monitoring vital signs and performing electrocardiograms and serial measurements of plasma potassium are relevant during the treatment of eating disorder patients.

  12. Understanding Eating Disorders in Elite Gymnastics: Ethical and Conceptual Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jacinta Oon Ai; Calitri, Raff; Bloodworth, Andrew; McNamee, Michael J

    2016-04-01

    Eating disorders and disordered eating are more common in high performance sports than the general population, and particularly so in high performance aesthetic sports. This paper presents some of the conceptual difficulties in understanding and diagnosing eating disorders in high performance gymnasts. It presents qualitative and quantitative data from a study designed to ascertain the pattern of eating disorder symptoms, depressive symptoms and levels of self-esteem among national and international level gymnasts from the UK in the gymnastic disciplines of sport acrobatics, tumbling, and rhythmic gymnastics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Binge Eating Disorder and Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipsky, Rachele K; McGuinness, Teena M

    2015-08-01

    Children and adolescents who eat unusually large amounts of food, feel guilty about it, and try to hide their overeating may be struggling with binge eating disorder (BED), a condition associated with suicidal ideation and other eating disorders. Although BED is new to the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, the syndrome is becoming increasingly recognized. The study of BED in children and adolescents is in its natal phase, but the importance of recognition and possible treatment strategies are discussed in the current article along with psychiatric nursing implications.

  14. Disordered eating and eating disorders in aquatic sports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melin, Anna; Torstveit, Monica Klungland; Burke, Louise

    2014-01-01

    judgements of performance. The reported prevalence of DE and EDs in athletic populations including athletes from aquatic sports ranges from 18-45 % in female athletes and 0-28 % in male athletes. To prevent EDs, aquatic athletes should practice healthy eating behaviour at all periods of development pathway......Disordered eating behaviour (DE) and eating disorders (EDs) are of great concern due to their associations with physical and mental health risks and, in the case of athletes, impaired performance. The syndrome originally known as the Female Athlete Triad, which focused on the interaction of energy...

  15. Prevalence and correlates of binge eating in seasonal affective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donofry, Shannon D; Roecklein, Kathryn A; Rohan, Kelly J; Wildes, Jennifer E; Kamarck, Marissa L

    2014-06-30

    Eating pathology in Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) may be more severe than hyperphagia during winter. Although research has documented elevated rates of subclinical binge eating in women with SAD, the prevalence and correlates of binge eating disorder (BED) in SAD remain largely uncharacterized. We examined the prevalence and correlates of binge eating, weekly binge eating with distress, and BED as defined by the DSM-IV-TR in SAD. We also tested whether binge eating exhibits a seasonal pattern among individuals with BED. Two samples were combined to form a sample of individuals with SAD (N=112). A third sample included non-depressed adults with clinical (n=12) and subclinical (n=11) BED. All participants completed the Questionnaire of Eating and Weight Patterns-Revised (QEWP-R) and modified Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (M-SPAQ). In the SAD sample, 26.5% reported binge eating, 11.6% met criteria for weekly binge eating with distress, and 8.9% met criteria for BED. Atypical symptom severity predicted binge eating and BED. In the BED sample, 30% endorsed seasonal worsening of mood, and 26% reported a winter pattern of binge eating. The spectrum of eating pathology in SAD includes symptoms of BED, which are associated with atypical depression symptoms, but typical depression symptoms.

  16. Comorbidity of bipolar disorder and eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez Ruiz, Eva M; Gutiérrez-Rojas, Luis

    2015-01-01

    The comorbidity of bipolar disorder and eating disorders has not been studied in depth. In addition, clinical implications involved in the appearance of both disorders are very important. A systematic literature review of MEDLINE published up to September 2013 was performed, analyzing all the articles that studied the comorbidity of both conditions (bipolar disorder and eating disorders) and others research that studied the efficacy of pharmacological treatment and psychotherapy to improve these illnesses. In this review we found a high comorbidity of bipolar disorder and eating disorders, especially of bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. Studies show that lithium and topiramate are 2 of the more effective pharmacological agents in the treatment of both disorders. There are a lot of studies that show evidence of comorbidity of bipolar disorder and eating disorders. However, further research is needed on assessment and treatment when these conditions co-exist, as well as study into the biopsychological aspects to determine the comorbid aetiology. Copyright © 2014 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  17. The role of interpersonal personality traits and reassurance seeking in eating disorder symptoms and depressive symptoms among women with bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Tyler B; Lavender, Jason M; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Crosby, Ross D; Joiner, Thomas E; Mitchell, James E; Crow, Scott J; Klein, Marjorie H; Le Grange, Daniel; Bardone-Cone, Anna M; Peterson, Carol B

    2016-07-01

    The role of interpersonal factors has been proposed in various models of eating disorder (ED) psychopathology and treatment. We examined the independent and interactive contributions of two interpersonal-focused personality traits (i.e., social avoidance and insecure attachment) and reassurance seeking in relation to global ED psychopathology and depressive symptoms among women with bulimia nervosa (BN). Participants were 204 adult women with full or subclinical BN who completed a battery of self-report questionnaires. Hierarchical multiple OLS regressions including main effects and interaction terms were used to analyze the data. Main effects were found for social avoidance and insecure attachment in association with global ED psychopathology and depressive symptoms. In addition, two-way interactions between social avoidance and reassurance seeking were observed for both global ED psychopathology and depressive symptoms. In general, reassurance seeking strengthened the association between social avoidance and global ED psychopathology and depressive symptoms. These results demonstrate the importance of reassurance seeking in psychopathology among women with BN who display personality features characterized by social avoidance. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Sudden death in eating disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jáuregui-Garrido B

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Beatriz Jáuregui-Garrido1, Ignacio Jáuregui-Lobera2,31Department of Cardiology, University Hospital Virgen del Rocío, 2Behavioral Sciences Institute, 3Pablo de Olavide University, Seville, SpainAbstract: Eating disorders are usually associated with an increased risk of premature death with a wide range of rates and causes of mortality. “Sudden death” has been defined as the abrupt and unexpected occurrence of fatality for which no satisfactory explanation of the cause can be ascertained. In many cases of sudden death, autopsies do not clarify the main cause. Cardiovascular complications are usually involved in these deaths. The purpose of this review was to report an update of the existing literature data on the main findings with respect to sudden death in eating disorders by means of a search conducted in PubMed. The most relevant conclusion of this review seems to be that the main causes of sudden death in eating disorders are those related to cardiovascular complications. The predictive value of the increased QT interval dispersion as a marker of sudden acute ventricular arrhythmia and death has been demonstrated. Eating disorder patients with severe cardiovascular symptoms should be hospitalized. In general, with respect to sudden death in eating disorders, some findings (eg, long-term eating disorders, chronic hypokalemia, chronically low plasma albumin, and QT intervals >600 milliseconds must be taken into account, and it must be highlighted that during refeeding, the adverse effects of hypophosphatemia include cardiac failure. Monitoring vital signs and performing electrocardiograms and serial measurements of plasma potassium are relevant during the treatment of eating disorder patients.Keywords: sudden death, cardiovascular complications, refeeding syndrome, QT interval, hypokalemia

  19. Binge Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... himself. Understanding Binge Eating If you gorged on chocolate during Halloween or ate so much pumpkin pie ... that seem beyond someone's control. Doctors, counselors, and nutrition experts often work together to help those with ...

  20. Binge Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more chips to eat while he does his math. He hates that he's overweight, but he can' ... to have a healthy relationship with food. Nutrition specialists or dietitians can help teens and their families ...

  1. Existential interventions in eating disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Michael

    2001-01-01

    This study provides the result of a doctorate research into the impact of existential psychotherapeutic interventions with people experiencing chronic eating disorders. The results indicate that positive outcomes are correlated to therapeutic interventions which concentrate on the clients own perception of control and choice over their own eating habits. The research aim was to explore both the effects and the effectiveness of existential therapy in altering the individuals subjective int...

  2. Examining affect and perfectionism in relation to eating disorder symptoms among women with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavender, Jason M; Mason, Tyler B; Utzinger, Linsey M; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Crosby, Ross D; Engel, Scott G; Mitchell, James E; Le Grange, Daniel; Crow, Scott J; Peterson, Carol B

    2016-07-30

    This study examined personality and affective variables in relation to eating disorder symptoms in anorexia nervosa (AN). Women (N=118) with DSM-IV AN completed baseline questionnaires (Beck Depression Inventory, Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale) and interviews (Eating Disorder Examination, Yale-Brown-Cornell Eating Disorder Scale), followed by two weeks of ecological momentary assessment (EMA) involving multiple daily reports of affective states and eating disorder behaviors. Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted using eating disorder symptoms as dependent variables (i.e., EMA binge eating, EMA self-induced vomiting, eating disorder rituals, eating disorder preoccupations, dietary restraint). Predictor variables were maladaptive perfectionism (baseline), depressive symptoms (baseline), and affect lability (EMA). Results revealed that affect lability was independently associated with binge eating, whereas depressive symptoms were independently associated with self-induced vomiting. Depressive symptoms were independently associated with eating disorder rituals, whereas both depressive symptoms and maladaptive perfectionism were independently associated with eating disorder preoccupations. Finally, maladaptive perfectionism and affect lability were both independently associated with dietary restraint. This pattern of findings suggests the importance of affective and personality constructs in relation to eating disorder symptoms in AN and may highlight the importance of targeting these variables in the context of treatment.

  3. Eating disorder symptoms and parenting styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haycraft, Emma; Blissett, Jackie

    2010-02-01

    This study aimed to examine associations between symptoms of eating disorders and parenting style, in a non-clinical sample. One hundred and five mothers completed self-report measures of eating disorder symptoms and parenting style. Higher levels of eating disorder symptoms were associated with more authoritarian and permissive parenting styles. Authoritative parenting was not significantly related to eating disorder symptoms. The findings demonstrate that eating disorder symptoms in non-clinical individuals are related to less adaptive parenting styles. These findings have potential implications for clinicians working with mothers with eating disorders.

  4. Non-suicidal self-injury in patients with eating disorder: associations with identity formation above and beyond anxiety and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claes, Laurence; Luyckx, Koen; Bijttebier, Patricia; Turner, Brianna; Ghandi, Amarendra; Smets, Jos; Norre, Jan; Van Assche, Leen; Verheyen, Els; Goris, Yvienne; Hoksbergen, Ingrid; Schoevaerts, Katrien

    2015-03-01

    In the present study, we investigated the association between non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and problems in identity formation among patients with eating disorder (ED). NSSI is highly prevalent in ED, and problems with identity formation are characteristic of both NSSI and ED. Few studies, however, have investigated identity formation in patients with ED with and without NSSI while taking into account comorbid psychopathology (e.g. anxiety and depression). Therefore, we investigated the relationships between NSSI characteristics, identity confusion/synthesis, and anxiety/depression in 99 female patients with ED by means of self-report questionnaires. The results showed that 58.6% of the patients with ED engaged in at least one type of NSSI (most frequently cutting), with no significant differences in rates of NSSI or identity problems among ED subtypes. Presence, versatility and automatic negative reinforcement functions of NSSI were each significantly and positively related to identity confusion and negatively related to identity synthesis. Even after controlling for age, anxiety, and depression, lack of identity synthesis remained a significant predictor of NSSI in patients with ED. Given that NSSI may constitute an effort to deal with identity confusion/synthesis in patients with ED, therapists should take this developmental task into account while treating patients with ED with NSSI.

  5. Eating Behavior and Eating Disorders in Adults Prior to Bariatric Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, James E.; King, Wendy C.; Courcoulas, Anita; Dakin, George; Elder, Katherine; Engel, Scott; Flum, David; Kalarchian, Melissa; Khandelwal, Saurabh; Pender, John; Pories, Walter; Wolfe, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe eating patterns, prevalence of problematic eating behaviors, and determine factors associated with binge eating disorder (BED), prior to bariatric surgery. Method Prior to surgery, 2,266 participants (median age 46 years; 78.6% female; 86.9% white; median body mass index 45.9 kg/m2) of the Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery-2 (LABS-2) study completed eating behavior survey items in the self-administered LABS-2 Behavior form. Other measures included the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test, the LABS-2 Psychiatric and Emotional Test Survey, the Beck Depression Inventory, the Interpersonal Support Evaluation List-12, the Short Form-36 Health Survey and Impact of Weight Quality of Life-Lite Survey. Results The vast majority (92.1%) of participants reported eating dinner regularly, while just over half (54.0%) reported eating breakfast regularly. Half of the participants reported eating at least 4 meals/week at restaurants; two meals/week were fast food. Loss of control eating was reported by 43.4%, night eating syndrome by 17.7%; 15.7% satisfied criteria for binge eating disorder (BED), 2% for bulimia nervosa. Factors that independently increased the odds of BED were being a college graduate, eating more times per day, taking medication for psychiatric or emotional problems, and having symptoms of alcohol use disorder, lower self-esteem and greater depressive symptoms. Discussion Prior to undergoing bariatric surgery a substantial proportion of patients report problematic eating behaviors. Several factors associated with BED were identified, most suggesting other mental health problems, including higher levels of depressive symptomotology. The strengths of this study include the large sample size, the multi-center design and use of standardized assessment practices. PMID:24719222

  6. Prevalence and correlates of binge eating in seasonal affective disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donofry, Shannon D.; Roecklein, Kathryn A.; Rohan, Kelly J.; Wildes, Jennifer E.; Kamarck, Marissa L.

    2014-01-01

    Eating pathology in Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) may be more severe than hyperphagia during winter. Although research has documented elevated rates of subclinical binge eating in women with SAD, the prevalence and correlates of BED in SAD remain largely uncharacterized. We examined the prevalence and correlates of binge eating, weekly binge eating with distress, and BED as defined by the DSM-IV-TR in SAD. We also tested whether binge eating exhibits a seasonal pattern among individuals with BED. Two samples were combined to form a sample of individuals with SAD (N = 112). A third sample included non-depressed adults with clinical (n=12) and subclinical (n=11) BED. All participants completed the Questionnaire of Eating and Weight Patterns-Revised (QEWP-R) and modified Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (M-SPAQ). In the SAD sample, 26.5% reported binge eating, 11.6% met criteria for weekly binge eating with distress, and 8.9% met criteria for BED. Atypical symptom severity predicted binge eating and BED. In the BED sample, 30% endorsed seasonal worsening of mood, and 26% reported a winter pattern of binge eating. The spectrum of eating pathology in SAD includes symptoms of BED, which are associated with atypical depression symptoms, but typical depression symptoms. PMID:24680872

  7. Current and Emerging Drug Treatments for Binge Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reas, Deborah L.; Grilo, Carlos M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction This study evaluated controlled treatment studies of pharmacotherapy for binge eating disorder (BED). Areas Covered The primary focus of the review was on phase II and III controlled trials testing medications for BED. A total of 46 studies were considered and 26 were reviewed in detail. BED outcomes included binge-eating remission, binge-eating frequency, associated eating-disorder psychopathology, associated depression, and weight loss. Expert Opinion Data from controlled trials suggests that certain medications are superior to placebo for stopping binge-eating and for producing faster reductions in binge eating, and - to varying degrees - for reducing associated eating-disorder psychopathology, depression, and weight loss over the short-term. Almost no data exist regarding longer-term effects of medication for BED. Except for topiramate, which reduces both binge eating and weight, weight loss is minimal with medications tested for BED. Psychological interventions and the combination of medication with psychological interventions produce binge-eating outcomes that are superior to medication-only approaches. Combining medications with psychological interventions does not significantly enhance binge-eating outcomes, although the addition of certain medications enhances weight losses achieved with cognitive-behavioral therapy and behavioral weight loss, albeit modestly. PMID:24460483

  8. Eating disorders in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podfigurna-Stopa, Agnieszka; Czyzyk, Adam; Katulski, Krzysztof; Smolarczyk, Roman; Grymowicz, Monika; Maciejewska-Jeske, Marzena; Meczekalski, Blazej

    2015-10-01

    Eating disorders (EDs) are disturbances that seriously endanger the physical health and often the lives of sufferers and affect their psychosocial functioning. EDs are usually thought of as problems afflicting teenagers. However, the incidence in older women has increased in recent decades. These cases may represent either late-onset disease or, more likely, a continuation of a lifelong disorder. The DSM-5 classification differentiates 4 categories of eating disorder: anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge-eating disorders and other specified feeding and eating disorders. The weight loss and malnutrition resulting from EDs have widespread negative consequences for physical, mental and social health. The main risk factors for developing long-term consequences are the degree of weight loss and the chronicity of the illness. Most of the cardiac, neurological, pulmonary, gastric, haematological and dermatological complications of EDs are reversible with weight restoration. EDs are serious illnesses and they should never be neglected or treated only as a manifestation of the fashion for dieting or a woman's wish to achieve an imposed standard feminine figure. Additionally, EDs are associated with high risk of morbidity and mortality. The literature concerning EDs in older, postmenopausal women is very limited. The main aim of this paper is to ascertain the epidemiology and prognosis of EDs in older women, and to review their diagnosis and management. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. [Gender identity and eating disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar, R; de la Barrera, M; Michelotti, J

    2001-09-01

    A possible role of the feminine gender role in the genesis of eating disorders is possible, since most patients with these disorders are women. To compare some traits of gender identity between females with eating disorders and a control group. An structured clinical interview based on the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for eating disorders and the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) were administered to 63 patients that fulfilled the DSM-IV criteria for anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa (ED group) and 63 comparison subjects (C group). Forty three percent of patients in contrast with 23.8% of controls were classified within the feminine category. Likewise 19% of patients and 31.7% of controls were qualified as Androgynous; 27% of patients and 43% of controls were qualified as Undifferentiated. There were significant differences between patients and controls in 22 items of the BSRI (p gender identity in patients suffering of eating disorders. In contrast, Androgyny showed by the control group could result in a better adaptability and flexibility to face difficult life circumstances.

  10. The Relationship of Personality to Eating Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Besharat

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights a variety of personality disorders in individuals with eating disorder and also emphasizes the importance of identifying clinically meaningful eating disorders subtypes based on concurrent personality disorder. The relationship between personality disorders and eating disorders is an important issue as this association has implications for assessment and treatment. Different hypotheses concerning the relationship between personality disorders and eating disorders will be reviewed. The prevalence rates of concomitant personality disorder diagnoses in eating disorder patients is highlighted to illustrate some of the pertinent conceptual issues concerning the meaning of the co-occurrence of separately defined diagnostic entities. The literature review reveals a robust finding that patients with ersonality pathology have a poorer response to treatment of Axis I disorders than those without such pathology. It is also argued that therapeutic relationship deserves more attention in the assessment and treatment of eating disorder patients with a co morbid personality disorder.

  11. Binge eating disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chap 37. Read More Anorexia Appetite - increased Bulimia Depression - overview Electrolytes Esophagitis Foreign object - inhaled or swallowed Gas - flatulence Hemorrhoids Pharyngitis - sore throat Review Date 2/2/2016 Updated by: Fred K. ...

  12. Prevention of Disordered Eating among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey-Stokes, Marilyn S.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses unhealthy dieting behaviors that can lead to eating disorders during adolescence. Outlines ways middle school and high school teachers and administrators can aid in the prevention of disordered eating among adolescents. Lists resources for eating disorders awareness and prevention. (SR)

  13. Disordered Eating and Psychological Distress among Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Julie Hicks; Stahl, Sarah T.; Sundaram, Murali

    2011-01-01

    The majority of our knowledge about eating disorders derives from adolescent and young adult samples; knowledge regarding disordered eating in middle and later adulthood is limited. We examined the associations among known predictors of eating disorders for younger adults in an age-diverse sample and within the context of psychological distress.…

  14. Disordered Eating and Psychological Distress among Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Julie Hicks; Stahl, Sarah T.; Sundaram, Murali

    2011-01-01

    The majority of our knowledge about eating disorders derives from adolescent and young adult samples; knowledge regarding disordered eating in middle and later adulthood is limited. We examined the associations among known predictors of eating disorders for younger adults in an age-diverse sample and within the context of psychological distress.…

  15. Prevention of Disordered Eating among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey-Stokes, Marilyn S.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses unhealthy dieting behaviors that can lead to eating disorders during adolescence. Outlines ways middle school and high school teachers and administrators can aid in the prevention of disordered eating among adolescents. Lists resources for eating disorders awareness and prevention. (SR)

  16. Recovery from Binge Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krentz, Adrienne; Chew, Judy; Arthur, Nancy

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the psychological processes of recovery from binge eating disorder (BED). A model was developed by asking the research question, "What is the experience of recovery for women with BED?" Unstructured interviews were conducted with six women who met the DSM-IV criteria for BED, and who were recovered…

  17. Adolescent Eating Disorder: Anorexia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muuss, Rolf E.

    1985-01-01

    Examines anorexia nervosa, an eating disorder seen with increasing frequency, especially among adolescent girls. Presents five theories about causation, discusses early characteristics, typical family patterns, physical and medical characteristics, social adjustment problems, and society's contribution to anorexia. Describes course of the…

  18. Eating Disorders: Prevention through Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, K. L.; Jones, Karen H.

    1993-01-01

    School prevention programs for teenage eating disorders should emphasize nutrition education (knowledge, attitudes, behavior) and living skills (self-concept, coping). Secondary prevention involves identifying early warning signs and places for referral; tertiary prevention creates a supportive school environment for recoverers with teachers as…

  19. Mindfulness-based eating awareness training for treating binge eating disorder: the conceptual foundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristeller, Jean L; Wolever, Ruth Q

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the conceptual foundation of mindfulness-based eating awareness training (MB-EAT). It provides an overview of key therapeutic components as well as a brief review of current research. MB-EAT is a group intervention that was developed for treatment of binge eating disorder (BED) and related issues. BED is marked by emotional, behavioral and physiological disregulation in relation to food intake and self-identity. MB-EAT involves training in mindfulness meditation and guided mindfulness practices that are designed to address the core issues of BED: controlling responses to varying emotional states; making conscious food choices; developing an awareness of hunger and satiety cues; and cultivating self-acceptance. Evidence to date supports the value of MB-EAT in decreasing binge episodes, improving one's sense of self-control with regard to eating, and diminishing depressive symptoms.

  20. Treatment of nocturnal eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Michael J; Schenck, Carlos H

    2009-09-01

    Identifying abnormal nocturnal eating is critically important for patient care and public health. Obesity is a global pandemic and a leading cause of preventable mortality in the United States, with more than 100,000 deaths annually. Normally, nighttime energy homeostasis is maintained, despite an absence of food intake, through appetite suppression and alterations in glucose metabolism that result in stable energy stores. Two conditions break this nighttime fast and are associated with weight gain as well as medical and neuropsychiatric comorbidities. Sleep-related eating disorder (SRED) is characterized by isolated nocturnal eating, whereas the night-eating syndrome (NES) is a circadian delay in meal timing leading to evening hyperphagia, nocturnal eating, and morning anorexia. Recently, SRED has been associated with the benzodiazepine receptor agonist zolpidem. Both SRED and NES are treatable and represent potentially reversible forms of obesity. In SRED, the antiseizure medication topiramate and dopaminergics have both demonstrated promising results. Nocturnal eating associated with NES has responded well to sertraline.

  1. [Personality disorders in eating disorder patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Murcia, Francisco M; Cangas, Adolfo J; Pozo, Eugenia M; Martínez Sánchez, Margarita; López Pérez, Manuel

    2009-02-01

    Personality disorders in eating disorder patients. A follow-up study was designed to analyze the relation between personality disorders (PD) and the course of eating disorders (ED) in 34 patients who required treatment over 4 years and half. 91% of the clinical sample met the criteria for PD at the initial assessment and 36% at the end of treatment, with a significant reduction in MCMI-II scores at follow-up. The outcome of the ED was significantly related to the PD outcome. There was a higher rate of improvement of PD in the bulimic group (61%) than in anorexic group (34%). The patients who presented schizoid and avoidant personality disorders were the most resistant and they adhered less to treatment. The prevalence of PD in the clinical sample and its relation to the course of ED from a person-centered model is discussed.

  2. Eating disorders in adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    JÁGLOVÁ, Štěpánka

    2013-01-01

    The bachelor degree work deals with disorders food intake, in particular, mental anorexia and mental bulimia in maturing period. The theoretical part is aimed at maturing problems and food intake disorders generally. There is characteristics and division of maturing period into early and late adolescence including psychological and physical changes which are typical for this period. Then food intake disorders, their causes, effects and their possible treatment are specified. The aim of the pr...

  3. Prevalence of eating disorders and eating attacks in narcolepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Dahmen

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Norbert Dahmen, Julia Becht, Alice Engel, Monika Thommes, Peter TonnPsychiatry Department, University of Mainz, GermanyAbstract: Narcoleptic patients suffer frequently from obesity and type II diabetes. Most patients show a deficit in the energy balance regulating orexinergic system. Nevertheless, it is not known, why narcoleptic patients tend to be obese. We examined 116 narcoleptic patients and 80 controls with the structured interview for anorectic and bulimic eating disorders (SIAB to test the hypothesis that typical or atypical eating attacks or eating disorders may be more frequent in narcoleptic patients. No difference in the current prevalence of eating disorders bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, or anorexia nervosa was found, nor was the frequency of eating attacks higher in the narcolepsy group. We conclude that present eating disorders and eating attacks as defined in DSM IV are not the reason for the observed differences in body composition. Additional factors, such as basal metabolic rates and lifestyle factors need to be considered.Keywords: narcolepsy, eating disorder, SIAB, bulimia, anorexia, eating attack

  4. [Integrated psychotherapy for eating disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomizawa, O

    1995-01-01

    The various psychotherapeutic strategies for eating disorders (EDs) include psychoanalytic, cognitive-behavioral, family oriented, arts therapy and others. In this paper, the psychodynamism of EDs and their therapy are reexamined and considered holistically from "the separate aspects of eating" point of view. That is the separation of eating regulated by biological appetite and the eating or not eating deriving from the patient's mind, unrelated to appetite. A new therapeutic technique called "formalization", which clarifies the separation of aspects of eating are invented. For integrated psychotherapy of EDs, it is necessary to combine the formalization technique of which clarifies and promotes patients' conflicts, and the integrated psychodynamic therapies that treat the promoted conflicts. The psychodynamism of EDs is the subject of much argument by many therapist. Although these arguments differ, they are similar in two points. Firstly, all of them consider EDs as distinctly separate from biological appetites. Secondly, the behavior of patients with EDs are taken as "false solution" or "substitution" of their essential problem. It is impossible to completely separate the physical action of eating mentally, however there may be a second meaning of eating separate from appetite. Seen in this light, psychotherapies are classified into two groups. One supports and sympathizes with these conflicts and the other is an educational one, telling the patients that a false solution is invalid. The former approach is employed by almost all psychodynamic therapies, such as psychoanalysis, family oriented therapy, arts therapy, self-help groups and the like. These therapies treat patients' conflicts with a non-judgemental approach, transform the psychodynamism, and consequently improve the eating behavior. The latter is applied by behavior therapy. Under strict operant conditioning, adequate behavior is reinforced by reward and inadequate behavior is eliminated by punishment

  5. Facebook Use and Disordered Eating in College-Aged Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Morgan; Thornton, Laura; De Choudhury, Munmun; Teevan, Jaime; Bulik, Cynthia M; Levinson, Cheri A; Zerwas, Stephanie

    2015-08-01

    Disordered eating behavior-dieting, laxative use, fasting, binge eating-is common in college-aged women (11%-20%). A documented increase in the number of young women experiencing eating psychopathology has been blamed on the rise of engagement with social media sites such as Facebook. We predicted that college-aged women's Facebook intensity (e.g., the amount of time spent on Facebook, number of Facebook friends, and integration of Facebook into daily life), online physical appearance comparison (i.e., comparing one's appearance to others' on social media), and online "fat talk" (i.e., talking negatively about one's body) would be positively associated with their disordered eating behavior. In an online survey, 128 college-aged women (81.3% Caucasian, 6.7% Asian, 9.0% African-American, and 3.0% Other) completed items, which measured their disordered eating, Facebook intensity, online physical appearance comparison, online fat talk, body mass index, depression, anxiety, perfectionism, impulsivity, and self-efficacy. In regression analyses, Facebook intensity, online physical appearance comparison, and online fat talk were significantly and uniquely associated with disordered eating and explained a large percentage of the variance in disordered eating (60%) in conjunction with covariates. However, greater Facebook intensity was associated with decreased disordered eating behavior, whereas both online physical appearance comparison and online fat talk were associated with greater disordered eating. College-aged women who endorsed greater Facebook intensity were less likely to struggle with disordered eating when online physical appearance comparison was accounted for statistically. Facebook intensity may carry both risks and benefits for disordered eating. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Attachment insecurity, personality, and body dissatisfaction in eating disorders.

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    Abbate-Daga, Giovanni; Gramaglia, Carla; Amianto, Federico; Marzola, Enrica; Fassino, Secondo

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study is assessing interactions between attachment style and personality in predicting body dissatisfaction (BD). A total of 586 outpatients with eating disorders (EDs) were recruited: 101 with anorexia nervosa, restricting type; 52 with anorexia nervosa, binge-eating/purging type; 184 with bulimia nervosa, purging type; and 249 with an eating disorder not otherwise specified. Participants completed Temperament and Character Inventory, Body Shape Questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory, and Attachment Style Questionnaire. An insecure attachment was found in all EDs, as well as in eating disorder not otherwise specified. In all diagnostic groups, need for approval, as measured by the Attachment Style Questionnaire and depressive symptomatology, was found to be the best predictor of BD. Personality traits are weaker predictors of BD. This study supports the hypothesis that attachment insecurity is directly correlated with BD, core element in predicting and perpetuating EDs, independently of personality. Implications for treatment are discussed.

  7. Eating-related anxiety in individuals with eating disorders.

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    Webb, C M; Thuras, P; Peterson, C B; Lampert, J; Miller, D; Crow, S J

    2011-12-01

    Although previous research has supported the importance of anxiety as an etiological and maintenance factor for eating disorders, the specific mechanisms are not well understood. The role of anxiety in the context of eating behavior is especially unclear. The purpose of this study was to identify anxiety-eliciting eating situations and anxiety management strategies patients use to mitigate anxiety experienced in the context of eating as determined by diagnostic groups and symptom patterns. Fifty-three eating disorder outpatients were administered the Eating and Anxiety Questionnaire (EAQ) and the Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale. Ratings indicated significant anxiety in most eating situations, whereas management strategies were more limited yet regularly employed. Factor analysis of the EAQ revealed a 6-factor solution for anxiety management strategies and a 4-factor solution for anxiety-eliciting situations. These results indicate patients with eating disorders report high levels of anxiety associated with eating behaviors but utilize limited yet consistent anxiety management strategies. Effective intervention strategies for managing eating-related anxiety should be incorporated into treatment and may need to be specified for different diagnostic subgroups.

  8. Binge eating disorder, anxiety, depression and body image in grade III obesity patients Compulsão alimentar periódica, ansiedade, depressão e imagem corporal em pacientes com obesidade grau III

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    Maria Isabel R Matos

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to assess the frequency of Binge Eating Disorder (BED or Binge Eating episodes (BINGE, anxiety, depression and body image disturbances in severely obese patients seeking treatment for obesity. METHOD: We assessed 50 patients (10M and 40F with Body Mass Index (BMI between 40 and 81.7 Kg/m² (mean 52.2±9.2 Kg/m² and aging from 18 to 56 years (mean 38.5±9.7. Used instruments: Questionnaire on Eating and Weight Patterns ¾ Revised (QEWP-R for BED or BINGE assessment, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI for depressive symptoms, State - Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-TRAIT and STAI-STATE for anxiety and Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ for body image assessments. RESULTS: In this population BED and BINGE frequencies were 36% and 54%, respectively. Symptoms of depression were detected in 100% while severe symptomatology was found in 84% of the cases. The frequency of anxiety as a trait was 70%, as a state, 54% and 76% of all patients reported discomfort regarding body image. The frequency of BED was higher in patients with higher anxiety scores as a personality trait (>40 but not as a state (46% vs. 13%; p140 in the BSQ assessment. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate a high frequency of binge eating episodes, severe depressive symptoms, anxiety and concern with body image in grade III obesity patients.INTRODUÇÃO: O objetivo desse trabalho é avaliar a freqüência de transtorno da compulsão alimentar periódica (TCAP, episódios de compulsão alimentar periódica (CAP, ansiedade, depressão e distúrbios na imagem corporal em pacientes com obesidade grau III que procuram tratamento para obesidade. MÉTODO: Foram avaliados 50 pacientes (10M e 40F com Índice de Massa Corporal (IMC de 40 a 81,7 Kg/m² (média =52,2±9,2 Kg/m² e idade entre 18 e 56 anos (média de 38,5±9,7. Instrumentos utilizados: Questionário sobre Padrões de Alimentação e Peso ("Questionnaire on Eating and Weight Patterns - Revised" - QEWP

  9. Eating Disorders: Facts about Eating Disorders and the Search for Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spearing, Melissa

    Eating disorders involve serious disturbances in eating behavior, such as extreme and unhealthy reduction of food intake or severe overeating, as well as feelings of distress or extreme concern about body shape or weight. Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are the two main types of eating disorders. Eating disorders frequently co-occur with…

  10. Eating behavior and psychological profile: associations between daughters with distinct eating disorders and their mothers.

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    Vázquez-Velázquez, Verónica; Kaufer-Horwitz, Martha; Méndez, Juan Pablo; García-García, Eduardo; Reidl-Martínez, Lucy María

    2017-09-06

    Associations of eating behaviors and psychological profile between mothers and daughters with eating disorders exist, but it is important to dissect the influence of the mother in each specific disorder since all eating disorders must be seen or treated not as one entity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association of eating behavior and psychological profile between mothers and daughters with different eating disorders and a control group. The study group included young girls with anorexia nervosa (AN, n = 30), bulimia nervosa (BN, n = 30), binge eating disorder (BED, n = 19), and a control group of women (Non-ED, n = 54) together with their mothers. BMI was calculated for dyads and Eating Disorder Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Toronto Alexithymia Scale and Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire were applied. The differences between dyads were tested by Student's t test and Pearson's correlation was used to study the association between BMI, variables of eating behavior and psychological profile in each dyad. The study found significant inverse correlations between the AN dyad; some correlations between the BN dyad, and the highest positive correlations exist in BED dyad, especially in eating behavior. Finally, between the control dyads, low but significant correlations were found in the majority of cases. The study concluded that the associations between mothers and daughters with distinct eating disorders varied depending on the specific diagnosis of the daughter, indicating it is necessary to analyze them individually, given that there may be different implications for treatment.

  11. Nonspecific eating disorders - a subjective review

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    Aneta Michalska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of this paper was to characterise nonspecific eating disorders (other than anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. Method. The Medline database was searched for articles on nonspecific eating disorders. The following disorders were described: binge eating disorder (BED, pica, rumination disorder, avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder, night eating syndrome (NES, sleep-related eating disorder (SRED, bigorexia, orthorexia, focusing on diagnosis, symptoms, assessment, comorbidities, clinical implications and treatment. Results. All of the included disorders may have dangerous consequences, both somatic and psychological. They are often comorbid with other psychiatric disorders. Approximately a few percent of general population can be diagnosed with each disorder, from 0.5–4.7% (SRED to about 7% (orthorexia. With the growing literature on the subject and changes in DSM-5, clinicians recognise and treat those disorders more often. Conclusions. More studies have to be conducted in order to differentiate disorders and treat or prevent them appropriately.

  12. Nonspecific eating disorders - a subjective review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalska, Aneta; Szejko, Natalia; Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Wojnar, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to characterise nonspecific eating disorders (other than anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa). The Medline database was searched for articles on nonspecific eating disorders. The following disorders were described: binge eating disorder (BED), pica, rumination disorder, avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder, night eating syndrome (NES), sleep-related eating disorder (SRED), bigorexia, orthorexia, focusing on diagnosis, symptoms, assessment, comorbidities, clinical implications and treatment. All of the included disorders may have dangerous consequences, both somatic and psychological. They are often comorbid with other psychiatric disorders. Approximately a few percent of general population can be diagnosed with each disorder, from 0.5-4.7% (SRED) to about 7% (orthorexia). With the growing literature on the subject and changes in DSM-5, clinicians recognise and treat those disorders more often. More studies have to be conducted in order to differentiate disorders and treat or prevent them appropriately.

  13. Prevalence of Eating Disorders in Adults with Celiac Disease

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    V. Passananti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Symptoms of celiac disease negatively impact social activities and emotional state. Aim was to investigate the prevalence of altered eating behaviour in celiac patients. Methods. Celiac patients and controls completed a dietary interview and the Binge Eating Staircases, Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI-2, Eating Attitudes Test, Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale, State Trait Anxiety Inventory Forma Y (STAI-Y1 and STAI-Y2, and Symptom Check List (SCL-90. Results. One hundred celiac adults and 100 controls were not statistically different for gender, age, and physical activity. STAI-Y1 and STAI-Y2, Somatization, Interpersonal, Sensitivity, and Anxiety scores of the SLC-90 were higher in CD patients than controls. EDI-2 was different in pulse thinness, social insecurity, perfectionism, inadequacy, ascetisms, and interpersonal diffidence between CD and HC women, whilst only in interceptive awareness between CD and HC men. A higher EAT-26 score was associated with the CD group dependently with gastrointestinal symptoms. The EAT26 demonstrated association between indices of diet-related disorders in both CD and the feminine gender after controlling for anxiety and depression. Conclusion. CD itself and not gastrointestinal related symptoms or psychological factors may contribute pathological eating behavior in celiac adults. Eating disorders appear to be more frequent in young celiac women than in CD men and in HC.

  14. Prevalence of Eating Disorders in Adults with Celiac Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passananti, V.; Siniscalchi, M.; Zingone, F.; Bucci, C.; Tortora, R.; Iovino, P.; Ciacci, C.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Symptoms of celiac disease negatively impact social activities and emotional state. Aim was to investigate the prevalence of altered eating behaviour in celiac patients. Methods. Celiac patients and controls completed a dietary interview and the Binge Eating Staircases, Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI-2), Eating Attitudes Test, Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale, State Trait Anxiety Inventory Forma Y (STAI-Y1 and STAI-Y2), and Symptom Check List (SCL-90). Results. One hundred celiac adults and 100 controls were not statistically different for gender, age, and physical activity. STAI-Y1 and STAI-Y2, Somatization, Interpersonal, Sensitivity, and Anxiety scores of the SLC-90 were higher in CD patients than controls. EDI-2 was different in pulse thinness, social insecurity, perfectionism, inadequacy, ascetisms, and interpersonal diffidence between CD and HC women, whilst only in interceptive awareness between CD and HC men. A higher EAT-26 score was associated with the CD group dependently with gastrointestinal symptoms. The EAT26 demonstrated association between indices of diet-related disorders in both CD and the feminine gender after controlling for anxiety and depression. Conclusion. CD itself and not gastrointestinal related symptoms or psychological factors may contribute pathological eating behavior in celiac adults. Eating disorders appear to be more frequent in young celiac women than in CD men and in HC. PMID:24369457

  15. Peer harassment and disordered eating.

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    Eisenberg, Marla; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we review existing literature regarding peer harassment and its association with a range of weight-related attitudes and behaviors. We conceptualize peer harassment to include traditionally defined bullying behavior, other social and relational forms of bullying, as well as teasing and other verbal harassment. Weight-based teasing is particularly relevant to weight-related issues and has been associated with clinical eating disorders, unhealthy weight control behaviors, and weight-related attitudes, such as body dissatisfaction. Studies using both clinical samples of eating disorder patients and general samples of college students or adolescents have demonstrated these relations. Emerging issues in this field, including teasing by family members, research with males, teasing and weight-related issues in developing countries, and the measurement of teasing experience are also discussed. Interventions with healthcare providers, parents, school personnel, and policy can contribute to the prevention of teasing and its associated weight-related attitudes and behaviors.

  16. Sudden death in eating disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Jáuregui-Garrido B; Jáuregui-Lobera I

    2012-01-01

    Beatriz Jáuregui-Garrido1, Ignacio Jáuregui-Lobera2,31Department of Cardiology, University Hospital Virgen del Rocío, 2Behavioral Sciences Institute, 3Pablo de Olavide University, Seville, SpainAbstract: Eating disorders are usually associated with an increased risk of premature death with a wide range of rates and causes of mortality. “Sudden death” has been defined as the abrupt and unexpected occurrence of fatality for which no satisfact...

  17. Etiological model of disordered eating behaviors in Brazilian adolescent girls.

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    Fortes, Leonardo de Sousa; Filgueiras, Juliana Fernandes; Oliveira, Fernanda da Costa; Almeida, Sebastião Sousa; Ferreira, Maria Elisa Caputo

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to construct an etiological model of disordered eating behaviors in Brazilian adolescent girls. A total of 1,358 adolescent girls from four cities participated. The study used psychometric scales to assess disordered eating behaviors, body dissatisfaction, media pressure, self-esteem, mood, depressive symptoms, and perfectionism. Weight, height, and skinfolds were measured to calculate body mass index (BMI) and percent body fat (%F). Structural equation modeling explained 76% of variance in disordered eating behaviors (F(9, 1,351) = 74.50; p = 0.001). The findings indicate that body dissatisfaction mediated the relationship between media pressures, self-esteem, mood, BMI, %F, and disordered eating behaviors (F(9, 1,351) = 59.89; p = 0.001). Although depressive symptoms were not related to body dissatisfaction, the model indicated a direct relationship with disordered eating behaviors (F(2, 1,356) = 23.98; p = 0.001). In conclusion, only perfectionism failed to fit the etiological model of disordered eating behaviors in Brazilian adolescent girls.

  18. Disordered eating and eating disorders in aquatic sports.

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    Melin, Anna; Torstveit, Monica Klungland; Burke, Louise; Marks, Saul; Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn

    2014-08-01

    Disordered eating behavior (DE) and eating disorders (EDs) are of great concern because of their associations with physical and mental health risks and, in the case of athletes, impaired performance. The syndrome originally known as the Female Athlete Triad, which focused on the interaction of energy availability, reproductive function, and bone health in female athletes, has recently been expanded to recognize that Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S) has a broader range of negative effects on body systems with functional impairments in both male and female athletes. Athletes in leanness-demanding sports have an increased risk for RED-S and for developing EDs/DE. Special risk factors in aquatic sports related to weight and body composition management include the wearing of skimpy and tight-fitting bathing suits, and in the case of diving and synchronized swimming, the involvement of subjective judgments of performance. The reported prevalence of DE and EDs in athletic populations, including athletes from aquatic sports, ranges from 18 to 45% in female athletes and from 0 to 28% in male athletes. To prevent EDs, aquatic athletes should practice healthy eating behavior at all periods of development pathway, and coaches and members of the athletes' health care team should be able to recognize early symptoms indicating risk for energy deficiency, DE, and EDs. Coaches and leaders must accept that DE/EDs can be a problem in aquatic disciplines and that openness regarding this challenge is important.

  19. Endocrine manifestations of eating disorders.

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    Warren, Michelle P

    2011-02-01

    The endocrinopathies associated with eating disorders involve multiple systems and mechanisms designed to preserve energy and protect essential organs. Those systems that are most affected are in need of significant energy, such as the reproductive and skeletal systems. The changes in neuropeptides and in the hypothalamic axis that mediate these changes also receive input from neuroendocrine signals sensitive to satiety and food intake and in turn may be poised to provide significant energy conservation. These adaptive changes are described, including the thyroid, GH, and cortisol axes, as well as the gastrointestinal tract. Articles were found via PubMed search for both original articles and reviews summarizing current understanding of the endocrine changes of eating disorders based on peer review publications on the topic between 1974 and 2009. The signals that control weight and food intake are complex and probably involve multiple pathways that appear to have as a central control the hypothalamus, in particular the medial central area. The hypothalamic dysfunction of eating disorders provides a reversible experiment of nature that gives insight into understanding the role of various neuropeptides signaling nutritional status, feeding behavior, skeletal repair, and reproductive function.

  20. POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER IN WOMEN WITH BINGE EATING DISORDER IN PRIMARY CARE

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    Grilo, Carlos M.; White, Marney A.; Barnes, Rachel D.; Masheb, Robin M.

    2012-01-01

    Background To examine the frequency and significance of comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in ethnically diverse obese patients with binge eating disorder (BED) seeking treatment for obesity and binge eating in primary care. Methods Participants were a consecutive series of 105 obese women with BED; 43% were African-American, 36% were Caucasian, and 21% were Hispanic-American/other. Participants were evaluated with reliable semi-structured interviews and established measures. Results Of the 105 women, 25 (24%) met criteria for PTSD. PTSD was associated with significantly elevated rates of mood, anxiety, and drug use disorders, significantly elevated eating disorder psychopathology (Eating Disorder Examination global score and scales), greater depressive affect, and lower self-esteem, even though the patients with comorbid PTSD did not have higher body mass indexes (BMIs) or greater frequency of binge eating. The heightened eating disorder psychopathology and depression and the lower self-esteem among patients with comorbid PTSD persisted even after controlling for anxiety disorder comorbidity. Conclusions Our findings suggest that among ethnically/racially diverse obese women with BED who present for obesity and binge eating treatment in primary care settings, PTSD is common and is associated with heightened psychiatric comorbidity, greater eating disorder psychopathology, and poorer psychological functioning. PMID:23160245

  1. A Web nursing intervention to prevent Eating Disorders

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    Esther Quirós Abajo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Eating Disorders are an important health problem of our society because of their rising incidence in the last years, as well as their high cost in terms of Public Health. Nowadays the best option to face this problem is through prevention. The objective of the present work is to evaluate if a Web nursing intervention based on Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy can prevent Eating Disorders by reducing risk factors in 15 to 18 years old women.Methodology: It is a randomized clinical trial in which the experimental group will receive the Web nursing intervention and the control group will not receive any kind of preventive intervention related to Eating Disorders. The study will be developed in six Secondary Education Institutes of the areas 9 and 10 of Madrid Community. Women at risk will be selected by the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ. Risk factors such as body image dissatisfaction, eating and depressive symptoms will be evaluated. Measurements will be, besides BSQ, the Body Attitudes Test (BAT, the Eating Disorders Inventory (EDI, the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI.

  2. Affect and eating behavior in obese adults with and without elevated depression symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldschmidt, Andrea B.; Crosby, Ross D.; Engel, Scott G.; Crow, Scott J.; Cao, Li; Peterson, Carol B.; Durkin, Nora

    2014-01-01

    Objective Although there is a modest relation between obesity and depression, mechanisms that contribute to this co-occurrence are unclear. This study examined mood and eating behavior among obese adults with and without elevated depression symptoms. Method Obese adults (N=50) were subtyped according to a Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) cutoff of 14, indicating “probable depression.” Participants with (BDI≥14; n=15) and without elevated depression symptoms (BDI<14; n=35) were compared on affect- and eating-related variables measured via questionnaire and ecological momentary assessment (EMA) using ANCOVA and mixed model regression. Results After adjusting for group differences in body mass index (BMI; p=.03), participants with elevated depression symptoms reported greater emotional eating via self-report questionnaire [F(1,50)=4.3; p=.04], as well as more frequent binge eating (Wald chi-square=13.8; p<.001) and higher daily negative affect (Wald chi-square=7.7; p=.005) on EMA recordings. Emotional eating mediated the relationship between depression status and BMI (indirect effect estimate=3.79; 95% CI=1.02–7.46). Discussion Emotional eating and binge eating were more commonly reported by obese adults with elevated depression symptoms compared to those without, and may occur against a general backdrop of overall low mood. Intervention and prevention programs for obesity and/or depression should address disordered eating to prevent or minimize adverse health consequences. PMID:24014067

  3. Temperament and emotional eating: a crucial relationship in eating disorders.

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    Rotella, Francesco; Fioravanti, Giulia; Godini, Lucia; Mannucci, Edoardo; Faravelli, Carlo; Ricca, Valdo

    2015-02-28

    Specific personality traits are related to Eating Disorders (EDs) specific and general psychopathology. Recent studies suggested that Emotional Eating (EE) is a common dimension in all EDs, irrespective of binge eating. The present study was aimed to explore the relationship of temperamental features with EE and eating symptomatology in a sample of EDs patients, adjusting for general psychopathology. One hundred and sixty six female patients were enrolled at the Eating Disorders Outpatient Clinic of the Careggi Teaching-Hospital of Florence. Participants completed the emotional eating scale, the temperament and character inventory, the eating disorder examination questionnaire and the symptom checklist 90-revised. Novelty seeking and self directedness showed significant correlations with EE after adjustment for general psychopathology. Patients with binge eating displayed significant associations between EE and novelty seeking and self directedness. Among patients without binge eating, no significant correlation between EE and temperamental features was observed. Specific temperamental features are associated to EE in EDs. A clear, different pattern of association in patients with different eating attitudes and behavior was found. Considering that treatments of EDs are largely based on psychotherapeutic interventions, focused on emotions and cognitions, the present data provide some hints which could be helpful for the development of more appropriate psychotherapeutic strategies.

  4. Eating disorders need more experimental psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Anita

    2016-11-01

    Eating disorders are severe and disabling mental disorders. The scientific study of eating disorders has expanded dramatically over the past few decades, and provided significant understanding of eating disorders and their treatments. Those significant advances notwithstanding, there is scant knowledge about key processes that are crucial to clinical improvement. The lack of understanding mechanisms that cause, maintain and change eating disorders, currently is the biggest problem facing the science of eating disorders. It hampers the development of really effective interventions that could be fine-tuned to target the mechanisms of change and, therefore, the development of more effective treatments. It is argued here that the science of eating disorders and eating disorder treatment could benefit tremendously from pure experimental studies into its mechanisms of change, that is, experimental psychopathology (EPP). To illustrate why eating disorders need more EPP research, some key symptoms - restriction of intake, binge eating and body overvaluation - will be discussed. EPP studies challenge some generally accepted views and offer a fresh new look at key symptoms. This will, consequently, better inform eating disorder treatments. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. The Role of Loss of Control Eating in Purging Disorder

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    Forney, K. Jean; Haedt-Matt, Alissa A.; Keel, Pamela K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Purging Disorder (PD), an Other Specified Feeding or Eating Disorder,1 is characterized by recurrent purging in the absence of binge eating. Though objectively large binge episodes are not present, individuals with PD may experience a loss of control (LOC) while eating a normal or small amounts of food. The present study sought to examine the role of LOC eating in PD using archival data from 101 women with PD. Method Participants completed diagnostic interviews and self-report questionnaires. Analyses examined the relationship between LOC eating and eating disorder features, psychopathology, personality traits, and impairment, in bivariate models and then in multivariate models controlling for purging frequency, age, and body mass index. Results Across bivariate and multivariate models, LOC eating frequency was associated with greater disinhibition around food, hunger, depressive symptoms, negative urgency, and distress and impairment. Discussion LOC eating is a clinically significant feature of PD and should be considered in future definitions of PD. Future research should examine whether LOC eating better represents a dimension of severity in PD or a specifier that may impact treatment response or course. PMID:24185981

  6. DEPRESSIVE DISORDERS IN EPILEPSY

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    Koralia Todorova

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Depressive disorders are the most frequent psychiatric comorbidity in epilepsy but very often remain unrecognized and untreated. We examined 103 epileptic patients, aged 18-60 years, 40 males and 63 females, for the presence of interictal depressive disorder. All subjects underwent clinical psychiatric examination, including evaluation on Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D-17. A questionnaire for demographic and seizure-related variables was also completed. Concurrent depressive disorder (clinically presented according to ICD-10 diagnostic criteria affected 28.3% of all evaluated patients. Based on HAM-D-17 scores depression was defined as mild - 80% of all depressed patients, moderate - 17% and severe - 3%. Atypical presentation of interictal depressive disorder was frequent. Depression has a tremendous effect on one’s family, social and psychological functioning, even more than the actual seizure frequency and severity. Diagnostic difficulties come through the atypical mode of presentation of depressive disorders in epilepsy. Proper neuropsychiatric evaluation is essential for improving treatment and quality of life for patients with epilepsy.

  7. Attempted suicide in patients with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portzky, Gwendolyn; van Heeringen, Kees; Vervaet, Myriam

    2014-01-01

    Suicide is a major cause of mortality for patients with eating disorders (ED), especially for patients with anorexia nervosa. Attempted suicide is also relatively common in patients with anorexia or bulimia nervosa. This study aimed at examining associations between attempted suicide and trait- and state-dependent characteristics in a large clinical population of ED patients. The sample consisted of 1,436 in- and outpatients of the Centre for Eating Disorders of the Ghent University Hospital. Measures of ED symptoms, psychopathology, and personality traits were compared between ED patients with and ED patients without a history of attempted suicide. A history of attempted suicide was found in 11.8% of the ED patients and lifetime suicidal ideation was reported by 43.3%. Multivariate analyses showed that a history of attempted suicide was associated with higher scores on depression, purging symptomatology, early-developed cognitive schemes (impaired autonomy and increased inhibition), and social insecurity. These findings support the increased risk of suicidal behavior in ED. The presence of particular personality traits, of cognitive schemes, and of purging and depressive symptoms should increase vigilance for suicidal behavior.

  8. Mindfulness-Action Based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for concurrent Binge Eating Disorder and Substance Use Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courbasson, Christine M; Nishikawa, Yasunori; Shapira, Leah B

    2011-01-01

    Individuals with Binge Eating Disorder (BED) often evidence comorbid Substance Use Disorders (SUD), resulting in poor outcome. This study is the first to examine treatment outcome for this concurrent disordered population. In this pilot study, 38 individuals diagnosed with BED and SUD participated in a 16-week group Mindfulness-Action Based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (MACBT). Participants significantly improved on measures of objective binge eating episodes; disordered eating attitudes; alcohol and drug addiction severity; and depression. Taken together, MACBT appears to hold promise in treating individuals with co-existing BED-SUD.

  9. Perception of parental acceptance in women with binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominy, N L; Johnson, W B; Koch, C

    2000-01-01

    The authors contribute to the validating literature for binge eating disorder (BED) by examining perceptions of parents and satisfaction with life among obese women with and without BED. Participants were female patients, recruited through a private medical clinic, who were assigned to groups on the basis of body mass index (BMI) and scores on the Questionnaire on Eating and Weight Patterns (QEWP; R. L. Spitzer et al., 1992). Groups consisted of (a) obese women with BED (n = 32), (b) obese women who had no eating disorders (n = 51), and (c) nonobese women with no eating disorders (n = 30). All participants completed the Parental Acceptance/Rejection Questionnaire (PARQ; R. P. Rohner, 1986), the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS; J. Fischer & K. Corcoran, 1994), and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI; A. T. Beck & R. A. Steer, 1987). Obese women with BED perceived their fathers as more rejecting than did women in the other groups. Moreover, obese women with BED perceived their fathers as significantly more rejecting than their mothers. The BED group indicated lower satisfaction with life and higher levels of depression than the groups without eating disorders. These findings further validate the diagnostic category of BED. Obese women with BED appear to be a distinct subgroup of the obese population. The results indicate a need for further assessment of the father-daughter relationship in connection to BED and other eating disorders.

  10. Are There Common Familial Influences for Major Depressive Disorder and an Overeating-Binge Eating Dimension in both European-American and African-American Female Twins?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munn-Chernoff, Melissa A.; Grant, Julia D.; Agrawal, Arpana; Koren, Rachel; Glowinski, Anne L.; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Madden, Pamela A. F.; Heath, Andrew C.; Duncan, Alexis E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Although prior studies have demonstrated that depression is associated with an overeating-binge eating dimension (OE-BE), phenotypically, little research has investigated whether familial factors contribute to the co-occurrence of these phenotypes, especially in community samples with multiple racial/ethnic groups. We examined the extent to which familial (i.e., genetic and shared environmental) influences overlapped between Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and OE-BE in a population-based sample and whether these influences were similar across racial/ethnic groups Method Participants included 3226 European-American (EA) and 550 African-American (AA) young adult women from the Missouri Adolescent Female Twin Study. An adaptation of the Semi-Structured Assessment for the Genetics of Alcoholism (SSAGA) was administered to assess lifetime DSM-IV MDD and OE-BE. Quantitative genetic modeling was used to estimate familial influences between both phenotypes; all models controlled for age. Results The best-fitting model, which combined racial/ethnic groups, found that additive genetic influences accounted for 44% (95% CI: 34%, 53%) of the MDD variance and 40% (25%, 54%) for OE-BE, with the remaining variances due to non-shared environmental influences. Genetic overlap was substantial (rg = .61 [.39, .85]); non-shared environmental influences on MDD and OE-BE overlapped weakly (re = .26 [.09, .42]) Discussion Results suggest that common familial influences underlie MDD and OE-BE, and the magnitude of familial influences contributing to the comorbidity between MDD and OE-BE is similar between EA and AA women. If racial/ethnic differences truly exist, then larger sample sizes may be needed to fully elucidate familial risk for comorbid MDD and OE-BE across these groups. PMID:24659561

  11. Eating disorders in men aged midlife and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reas, Deborah L; Stedal, Kristin

    2015-06-01

    Eating disorders are serious psychiatric illnesses which can occur across the lifespan. Men aged midlife and beyond are vulnerable to stigma, shame, and stereotypes portraying eating disorders as afflictions of youth and female gender. Historically, men have been neglected in the field of eating disorders owing to traditional and female-centric approaches to conceptualization and classification. In this literature review, we identified 16 case reports of eating disorders in males ranging from the age of 40 to 81 years. The majority of cases reported an earlier onset in life, followed by a variable course of illness with periods of relapse interspersed with remission. Diagnostic crossover or symptom fluctuation was common. High rates of comorbid depression were found, and several cases described a history of weight cycling and premorbid obesity. Precipitating factors included stressors which disproportionately occur in later life, including loss due to death or divorce, changes in financial or housing situation, and medical issues. Very little is known regarding the prevalence of eating disorders in older men, with initial population estimates ranging from 0.02% to 1.6%. Rates of subthreshold eating disordered behavior are higher and appear to be increasing among older individuals and males in the community. Recent revisions in the DSM-5 will likely increase the broader applicability of diagnostic criteria for eating disorders, stimulating improved recognition of diverse presentations occurring across the lifespan for both genders. Eating disorders should be included in the differential diagnosis of unexplained weight gain or weight loss irrespective of age or gender. Multi-site studies are needed for adequate sampling and to allow larger empirical investigations regarding how to improve clinical practices in screening and assessment, as well the provision of differential care for older men suffering from an eating disorder. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd

  12. Neural correlates of eating disorders: translational potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McAdams CJ

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Carrie J McAdams,1,2 Whitney Smith1 1University of Texas at Southwestern Medical Center, 2Department of Psychiatry, Texas Health Presbyterian Hospital of Dallas, Dallas, TX, USA Abstract: Eating disorders are complex and serious psychiatric illnesses whose etiology includes psychological, biological, and social factors. Treatment of eating disorders is challenging as there are few evidence-based treatments and limited understanding of the mechanisms that result in sustained recovery. In the last 20 years, we have begun to identify neural pathways that are altered in eating disorders. Consideration of how these pathways may contribute to an eating disorder can provide an understanding of expected responses to treatments. Eating disorder behaviors include restrictive eating, compulsive overeating, and purging behaviors after eating. Eating disorders are associated with changes in many neural systems. In this targeted review, we focus on three cognitive processes associated with neurocircuitry differences in subjects with eating disorders such as reward, decision-making, and social behavior. We briefly examine how each of these systems function in healthy people, using Neurosynth meta-analysis to identify key regions commonly implicated in these circuits. We review the evidence for disruptions of these regions and systems in eating disorders. Finally, we describe psychiatric and psychological treatments that are likely to function by impacting these regions. Keywords: anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, social cognition, reward processing, decision-making

  13. Epidemiology, course, and outcome of eating disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smink, Frederique R. E.; van Hoeken, Daphne; Hoek, Hans W.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of reviewTo review the recent literature about the epidemiology, course, and outcome of eating disorders in accordance with the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5).Recent findingsThe residual category eating disorder not otherwise specified' (ED

  14. A review of eating disorders in males

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raevuori, Anu; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna; Hoek, Hans W.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review Research in eating disorders in males has been active lately compared to the past. This review aims to provide an overview of the recently published studies of eating disorders in males. Recent findings Publication of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th e

  15. A review of eating disorders in males

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raevuori, Anu; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna; Hoek, Hans W.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review Research in eating disorders in males has been active lately compared to the past. This review aims to provide an overview of the recently published studies of eating disorders in males. Recent findings Publication of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th

  16. Eating Disorder Diagnoses: Empirical Approaches to Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Joiner, Thomas E., Jr.; Keel, Pamela K.; Williamson, Donald A.; Crosby, Ross D.

    2007-01-01

    Decisions about the classification of eating disorders have significant scientific and clinical implications. The eating disorder diagnoses in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) reflect the collective wisdom of experts in the field but are frequently not supported in…

  17. Epidemiology, course, and outcome of eating disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smink, Frederique R. E.; van Hoeken, Daphne; Hoek, Hans W.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of reviewTo review the recent literature about the epidemiology, course, and outcome of eating disorders in accordance with the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5).Recent findingsThe residual category eating disorder not otherwise specified' (ED

  18. Animal models of eating disorder traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kas, Martien J H; Adan, Roger A H

    2011-01-01

    Eating disorders, such as anorexia and bulimia nervosa, are psychiatric disorders that are likely determined by a complex interaction between genetic variations, developmental processes, and certain life events. Cross-species analysis of traits related to eating disorders may provide a way to functi

  19. Epidemiology, course, and outcome of eating disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smink, Frederique R. E.; van Hoeken, Daphne; Hoek, Hans W.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of reviewTo review the recent literature about the epidemiology, course, and outcome of eating disorders in accordance with the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5).Recent findingsThe residual category eating disorder not otherwise specified'

  20. How Specific are the Relationships between Eating Disorder Behaviors and Perfectionism?

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Jing; Forbush, Kelsie T.; Williamson, J. Austin; Markon, Kristian E.; Pollack, Lauren O.

    2013-01-01

    Perfectionism is associated with several mental disorders, including depression, anxiety, and eating disorders. The goal of this study was to test the specificity of the associations between perfectionism facets and eating disorder behaviors, by examining whether neuroticism and conscientiousness mediated or moderated associations between these variables. Participants from a representative community sample (N=407; 47% female) completed questionnaires assessing perfectionism, neuroticism, cons...

  1. Educators' views of eating disorder prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varnado-Sullivan, Paula J; Parr, Francoise; O'Grady, Megan A; Savoy, Sarah

    2013-06-01

    Further understanding of educators' views of eating disorder prevention can further engage them in this effort. No previous studies of educators have used acceptability methodology or compared eating disorder prevention to other prevention efforts. Educators (n = 135) rated the acceptability of five sample programs and provided their opinions about eating disorder and other prevention programs. The results indicated primarily psychoeducational and general well-being programs were most acceptable. Educators-specified trained professionals should implement programs during school hours to male and female junior high students. Although eating disorder prevention was perceived as important, it was not rated as vital as other programs, such as substance abuse prevention.

  2. Perceptions of the causes of eating disorders: a comparison of individuals with and without eating disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Blodgett Salafia, Elizabeth H.; Jones, Maegan E.; Haugen, Emily C.; Schaefer, Mallary K.

    2015-01-01

    Background In this study, we examined perceptions regarding the causes of eating disorders, both among those with eating disorders as well as those without. By understanding the differences in perceived causes between the two groups, better educational programs for lay people and those suffering from eating disorders can be developed. Method This study used open-ended questions to assess the beliefs of 57 individuals with self-reported eating disorders and 220 without. Participants responded ...

  3. Perceptions of the causes of eating disorders: a comparison of individuals with and without eating disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Blodgett Salafia, Elizabeth H.; Jones, Maegan E.; Haugen, Emily C.; Schaefer, Mallary K.

    2015-01-01

    Background In this study, we examined perceptions regarding the causes of eating disorders, both among those with eating disorders as well as those without. By understanding the differences in perceived causes between the two groups, better educational programs for lay people and those suffering from eating disorders can be developed. Method This study used open-ended questions to assess the beliefs of 57 individuals with self-reported eating disorders and 220 without. Participants responded ...

  4. Restless Eating, Restless Legs, and Sleep Related Eating Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Michael J

    2014-03-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) often presents with a primary complaint of sleep initiation difficulty with only ambiguous allusions to motor symptoms. This may result in the condition being misdiagnosed as a psychophysiological insomnia. Further, nocturnal eating is common in RLS and like the classic motor symptoms, patients will describe an inability to initiate sleep until their urge (to eat) is addressed. Restless nocturnal eating arises, intensifies, and subsides in parallel to motor symptoms. Once misdiagnosed as psychophysiological insomnia, RLS patients are frequently treated with benzodiazepine receptor agonists. The CNS actions of these sedating agents, suppression of memory and executive function, unleash predisposed amnestic behaviors. In the case of RLS this would be expected to include the inappropriate ambulatory and eating behaviors of sleep related eating disorder (SRED). The evidence and implications of a link between the restless eating of RLS and SRED is presented here.

  5. Eating attitudes and behaviors of pre- and postpubertal females: clues to the etiology of eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, J M; Goldstein, S J

    1995-07-01

    Eating disorders are most likely to occur in females in early adolescence. In the hope of identifying the nature of the changes occurring across puberty which may predispose adolescents to eating disorders three groups, 30 prepubertal girls, 28 postpubertal girls, and 28 adult women matched on height and weight to the postpubertal group were compared for meal pattern characteristics and food intake regulation, as well as changes in eating attitudes and behaviors. They completed a set of psychometrics measuring their eating attitudes, body image, and disposition and also maintained 7-day diaries of everything they ingested, time of ingestion, and subjective and social conditions. Neither the overall intakes nor the meal sizes significantly differed between age groups. The prepubertal females ate the most relative to body weight, ate with more other people present and earlier in the day. They were relatively happy, calm, slightly hungry, unrestrained, satisfied with their bodies and depression was associated with lower intake. The postpubertal group, on the other hand, were relatively restrained, ate faster, and ate only 76.5% of the recommended amount. They had a more negative body image, greater dissatisfaction with their bodies, and greater restraint of eating than the prepubertal group, and depression was associated with higher intake. These changes may leave the young woman extremely vulnerable and under the appropriate conditions or with the appropriate personality type may lead to the development of an eating disorder.

  6. Predictors and long-term health outcomes of eating disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Denis R.; Sandler, Dale P.; Hall, Janet E.; Weinberg, Clarice R.

    2017-01-01

    Anorexia and bulimia nervosa may have long-term effects on overall and reproductive health. We studied predictors of self-reported eating disorders and associations with later health events. We estimated odds ratios (ORs) for these associations in 47,759 participants from the Sister Study. Two percent (n = 967) of participants reported a history of an eating disorder. Risk factors included being non-Hispanic white, having well-educated parents, recent birth cohort (OR = 2.16, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.01–2.32 per decade), and having a sister with an eating disorder (OR = 3.68, CI: 1.92–7.02). As adults, women who had experienced eating disorders were more likely to smoke, to be underweight, to have had depression, to have had a later first birth, to have experienced bleeding or nausea during pregnancy, or to have had a miscarriage or induced abortion. In this descriptive analysis, we identified predictors of and possible long-term health consequences of eating disorders. Eating disorders may have become more common over time. Interventions should focus on prevention and mitigation of long-term adverse health effects. PMID:28700663

  7. [Self-esteem: a comparison study between eating disorders and social phobia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiber, R; Vera, L; Mirabel-Sarron, C; Guelfi, J-D

    2003-01-01

    Eating disorder patients evidenced very often a low self-esteem. Self-esteem in eating disorder patients is excessively based on body dissatisfaction. In eating disorders there seems to be a link between body image dissatisfaction and social anxiety. We hypothesised: self-esteem would be as low in eating disorder patients as in social phobia patients; self-esteem would be lower in eating disorder patients with social phobia than in patients with social phobia alone; self-esteem would be lower in eating disorder patients with depressive cognitions than in social phobia patients with depressive cognitions; self-esteem could have different characteristics in the two disorders; self-esteem would be as low in anorexia as in bulimia; 103 eating disorder patients (33 restrictive anorectics, 34 anorectics-bulimics, 36 bulimics) and 26 social phobia patients diagnosed according to DSM IV and ICD-10 criteria have been investigated by the Self-Esteem Inventory of Coopersmith, the Assertiveness Schedule of Rathus, the Fear Survey Schedule of Wolpe (FSS III) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Patients were free of medication and presented no episode of major depression according to DSM IV criteria. Evaluations took place before any psychotherapy. Self-esteem in eating disorder patients is reduced at the same level as in social phobia patients; 86.1% of the total sample and 84.5% of the eating disorder patients have a very low self-esteem (score 33 in the SEI). Eating disorder patients have significantly higher scores in the Social (p=0.016) and Professional (p=0.0225) sub-scales of the SEI than social phobia patients. Eating disorder patients show higher scores on the Assertiveness Schedule of Rathus (p=0.0013) than social phobia patients. Eating disorder patients disclose higher scores on the BDI (p=0.0003) but eating disorder patients with depressive cognitions do not differ from social phobia patients with depressive cognitions in the level of self-esteem. The FSS III

  8. The relationship between compulsive buying, eating disorder symptoms, and temperament in a sample of female students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claes, Laurence; Bijttebier, Patricia; Mitchell, James E; de Zwaan, Martina; Mueller, Astrid

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between compulsive buying (CB), eating disorder symptoms, and temperament (controlling for depression) in a sample of female students. We assessed 211 female undergraduate students using the Compulsive Buying Scale, the Eating Disorder Inventory, the Behavioral Inhibition System and Behavioral Activation System scales, the Adult Temperament Questionnaire, and the Physical Health Questionnaire-Depression. The results show a positive association between CB and the Eating Disorder Inventory-II drive for thinness and bulimia subscales. Both CB and eating disorder symptoms were related to low levels of effortful control. Finally, CB was also related to high levels of Behavioral Activation Scale reactivity (impulsivity), whereas eating disorder symptoms (especially drive for thinness) were more strongly related to high levels of Behavioral Inhibition Scale reactivity (anxiety). The implications of these findings for the treatment of CB and eating disorder symptoms will be discussed. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Controversies about a common etiology for eating and mood disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara eRossetti

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and depression represent a growing health concern worldwide. For many years, basic science and medicine have considered obesity as a metabolic illness, while depression was classified a psychiatric disorder. Despite accumulating evidence suggesting that obesity and depression may share commonalities though, the causal link between eating and mood disorders remains to be fully understood. This etiology is highly complex, consisting of multiple environmental and genetic risk factors that interact with each other. In this review, we sought to summarize the preclinical and clinical evidence supporting a common etiology for eating and mood disorders, with a particular emphasis on signaling pathways involved in the maintenance of energy balance and mood stability, among which orexigenic and anorexigenic neuropeptides, metabolic factors, stress responsive hormones, cytokines and neurotrophic factors.

  10. Night eating syndrome in young adults: delineation from other eating disorders and clinical significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Sophia; Meyer, Andrea H; Hermann, Ernst; Tuch, Alex; Munsch, Simone

    2012-12-30

    The Night Eating Syndrome (NES) is a recently described disordered eating style whose status in current diagnostic systems needs to be further clarified. The aim of this study was to increase knowledge about the clinical features of NES in a sample of 1514 young adults aged 18-26 years from the general population who participated in an anonymous Internet survey. We first examined characteristics of NES and tried to delineate it from healthy controls as well as from other eating disorders in terms of socio-demography, eating disorder pathology and general psychopathology. Second, we attempted to further clarify the clinical utility of the NES by assessing the degree of distress as well as impairment. Twenty (1.3%) participants with NES were identified and there was only modest overlap between NES and both Binge Eating Disorder (BED) and Bulimia nervosa (BN) according to questionnaire-based DSM-IV criteria. Compared to healthy controls, NES individuals reported more pronounced eating disorder pathology as well as general psychopathology (depressive symptoms, chronic social stress). NES seems to be associated with considerable distress and impairment. Implications for the validity and classification of NES are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Prevention of eating disorders in female athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Gabriela Morgado de Oliveira; Gomes, Ainá Innocencio da Silva; Ribeiro, Beatriz Gonçalves; Soares, Eliane de Abreu

    2014-01-01

    Eating disorders are serious mental diseases that frequently appear in female athletes. They are abnormal eating behaviors that can be diagnosed only by strict criteria. Disordered eating, although also characterized as abnormal eating behavior, does not include all the criteria for diagnosing eating disorders and is therefore a way to recognize the problem in its early stages. It is important to identify factors to avoid clinical progression in this high-risk population. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to discuss critical information for the prevention of eating disorders in female athletes. This review discusses the major correlates for the development of an eating disorder. We also discuss which athletes are possibly at highest risk for eating disorders, including those from lean sports and female adolescent athletes. There is an urgent need for the demystification of myths surrounding body weight and performance in sports. This review includes studies that tested different prevention programs' effectiveness, and the majority showed positive results. Educational programs are the best method for primary prevention of eating disorders. For secondary prevention, early identification is essential and should be performed by preparticipation exams, the recognition of dietary markers, and the use of validated self-report questionnaires or clinical interviews. In addition, more randomized clinical trials are needed with athletes from multiple sports in order for the most reliable recommendations to be made and for some sporting regulations to be changed.

  12. Eating disorders – compulsive overeating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Ogris

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available The research aims to establish the main characteristics of subjects prone to compulsive overeating (experimental group, EG, and the differences between them and the girls who are not prone to any kind of eating disorders (control group, CG. The results of the research are in accordance with the expectations. Girls from the EG exhibit personality characteristics which are signifficantly different from the girls in the CG. These characteristics may be either possible predispositions for development of overeating, or they may already be the consequences of the girls' struggles with overeating and their perception of being overweight. The responses given by the girls from the EG confirm the generaly accepted characteristics of overeating individuals. It can be said that the girls from the ES show the pre-clinical picture of overeating, while some of them have already developed the clinical picture. The results of the research strongly support the view that overeating must be defined as a form of eating disorder just as important as anorexia and bulimia nervosa.

  13. Body Image and Eating Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janete Maximiano

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Eating disorders should be understood in a multidimensional perspective, emphasizing a biopsicossocial context. In these pathologies it`s the body, in the first instance, that reveals the disease, being in this way the target of the conflict, revealing a disturbed body experience and as a consequence a weak conception of their personal body image. The body image is conceptualised as a subjective image that the individuals form in their own mind, about their body, in relation with differ- ent contexts of life. The intent of the studies is to comprehend the level of body image disturbance, which have concluded that in the majority of the cases, significant changes on perceptive capacity of the patients do not exist. In this way it`s important to study in a more effective and qualitative way the affective and personal factors. The authors pretend with this bibliographic revision, make a research of body image assessment to the Eating Disorders (Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa, and to reflect which are the best ones to adapt for Portuguese reality.

  14. Emotional Eating among Individuals with Concurrent Eating and Substance Use Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courbasson, Christine Marie; Rizea, Christian; Weiskopf, Nicole

    2008-01-01

    Emotional eating occurs frequently in individuals with eating disorders and is an overlooked factor within addictions research. The present study identified the relationship between emotional eating, substance use, and eating disorders, and assessed the usefulness of the Emotional Eating Scale (EES) for individuals with concurrent eating disorders…

  15. Sleep, eating disorder symptoms, and daytime functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tromp, Marilou Dp; Donners, Anouk Amt; Garssen, Johan; Verster, Joris C

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between eating disorders, body mass index (BMI), sleep disorders, and daytime functioning. DESIGN: Survey. SETTING: The Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS: N=574 Dutch young adults (18-35 years old). MEASUREMENTS: Participants completed a survey on eating and sleep

  16. Integrative Response Therapy for Binge Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Athena

    2013-01-01

    Binge eating disorder (BED), a chronic condition characterized by eating disorder psychopathology and physical and social disability, represents a significant public health problem. Guided self-help (GSH) treatments for BED appear promising and may be more readily disseminable to mental health care providers, accessible to patients, and…

  17. Body Image, Media, and Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derenne, Jennifer L.; Beresin, Eugene V.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Eating disorders, including obesity, are a major public health problem today. Throughout history, body image has been determined by various factors, including politics and media. Exposure to mass media (television, movies, magazines, Internet) is correlated with obesity and negative body image, which may lead to disordered eating. The…

  18. Integrative Response Therapy for Binge Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Athena

    2013-01-01

    Binge eating disorder (BED), a chronic condition characterized by eating disorder psychopathology and physical and social disability, represents a significant public health problem. Guided self-help (GSH) treatments for BED appear promising and may be more readily disseminable to mental health care providers, accessible to patients, and…

  19. Feedback in Group Psychotherapy for Eating disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Annika Helgadóttir; Poulsen, Stig; Lindschou, Jane

    2017-01-01

    -generated allocation sequence concealed to the investigators. One-hundred and 59 adult participants, diagnosed with bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, or eating disorder not otherwise specified according to DSM-IV, were included. Eighty participants were allocated to the experimental group, and 79 participants...

  20. Remission of eating disorder during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ida Ringsborg; Hørder, Kirsten; Støving, René Klinkby

    2009-01-01

    Eating disorder during pregnancy is associated with a diversity of adverse outcomes and is of potential danger to both mother and child. There is, however, a tendency for remission of the eating disorder during pregnancy with improvement of symptoms such as restrictive dieting, binging and purgin...

  1. [The treatment of binge eating disorder - a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, Ildikó; Szumska, Irena; Túry, Ferenc

    2015-01-01

    The binge eating disorder is a relatively new type of eating disorders, which was first described in 1992, and became a distinct nosological entity in the system of DSM-5 in 2013. Its central symptom is the binge, which is not followed by compensatory behaviours as in bulimia nervosa. Therefore, the patients are generally obese. The prevalence of the disorder is 1-3% in the general population, but much higher in help-seeking obese subjects. The two main goals of the therapy is body weight reduction, and the cessation of binges. In the pharmacotherapy of binge eating disorder the antidepressants are recommended mainly in the case of unsuccessful psychotherapy, and in treating comorbid depression. In the field of psychotherapy data are available mainly on the effectiveness of cognitive behavioural therapy, dialectic behaviour therapy, behavioural weight loss, and interpersonal therapy. Effectivity studies on new therapeutic methods and treatment combinations are needed as well as long term follow-up studies.

  2. Family mealtimes and eating psychopathology: the role of anxiety and depression among adolescent girls and boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Hannah J; Haycraft, Emma; Meyer, Caroline

    2014-04-01

    Characteristics of family mealtimes are associated with disordered eating behaviours. However, little is known about the relationships between characteristics of family mealtimes and disordered eating attitudes, or how symptoms of anxiety or depression may contribute to these relationships. This study therefore aimed to examine differences between adolescent girls and boys in the relationship between family mealtime characteristics and eating psychopathology, and to explore the influence of anxiety and depression on this relationship. Adolescents (N=535; 286 girls and 249 boys) aged 14-18years completed self-report measures of family mealtime characteristics, eating psychopathology, anxiety and depression. Reports of more frequent family mealtimes, a more positive mealtime atmosphere and a high level of priority placed on mealtimes were all associated with significantly lower levels of eating-disordered attitudes among girls only. For boys, all four mealtime measures (higher mealtime frequency, more positive mealtime atmosphere, greater priority of mealtimes and higher levels of mealtime structure) were associated with lower levels of depression. Among girls, several of the family mealtime and eating psychopathology relationships were partially or fully mediated by either anxiety or depression. While these findings require longitudinal replication, family mealtimes are likely to be important in promoting psychological well-being among both girls and boys. Families should be encouraged to think beyond the frequency of mealtimes and to foster a positive mealtime environment which may help to promote adolescent psychological wellbeing, and might even protect young females against the development of eating psychopathology.

  3. Disordered eating, perfectionism, and food rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Amanda Joelle; Parman, Kortney M; Rudat, Deirdre A; Craighead, Linda W

    2012-12-01

    Clinically significant trait perfectionism is often characteristic of individuals exhibiting symptoms of eating disorders. The present study reports on a measure developed to assess the use of food rules and evaluates the hypothesis that adherence to food rules may be one mechanism through which trait perfectionism exacerbates risk for developing eating disorder symptoms. Forty-eight female college students completed a battery of questionnaires, and multiple regression analyses were used to test a mediational model. Results indicated that adherence to food rules mediated the relationship between self-oriented perfectionism and three indices of disordered eating in this sample. This relationship was specific to self-oriented perfectionism and did not hold for other-oriented or socially prescribed perfectionism. These findings may have implications for designing early interventions for disordered eating and may be useful in tailoring treatment for individuals with disordered eating who also report high levels of perfectionism.

  4. Perceptions of the causes of eating disorders: a comparison of individuals with and without eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blodgett Salafia, Elizabeth H; Jones, Maegan E; Haugen, Emily C; Schaefer, Mallary K

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examined perceptions regarding the causes of eating disorders, both among those with eating disorders as well as those without. By understanding the differences in perceived causes between the two groups, better educational programs for lay people and those suffering from eating disorders can be developed. This study used open-ended questions to assess the beliefs of 57 individuals with self-reported eating disorders and 220 without. Participants responded to the questions, "What do you think was (were) the cause(s) of your eating disorder?" and "What do you think is (are) the cause(s) of eating disorders?". A list of possible codes for the causes of eating disorders was created based on a thorough review of the literature. A manually-generated set of eight codes was then created from individuals' actual responses. Frequencies and chi square analyses demonstrated differences in rates of endorsement between those with eating disorders and those without. Participants with eating disorders most frequently endorsed psychological/emotional and social problems, with genetics/biology and media/culture ideals least endorsed. Participants without eating disorders most frequently endorsed psychological/emotional problems and media/culture ideals, with traumatic life events and sports/health least endorsed. There was a difference between groups in the endorsement of the media as a cause of eating disorders, suggesting that those without eating disorders may overly attribute the media as the main cause while those with eating disorders may not be fully aware of the media's impact. Additionally, while both groups highly endorsed psychological/emotional problems, there was a noticeable stigma about eating disorders among those without eating disorders. There were noteworthy differences between samples; such differences suggest that there is a need for more education on the topic of eating disorders. Furthermore, despite empirical support for the effects of

  5. Neuropsychology of eating disorders: 1995-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jáuregui-Lobera, Ignacio

    2013-01-01

    Eating disorders are considered psychiatric pathologies that are characterized by pathological worry related to body shape and weight. The lack of progress in treatment development, at least in part, reflects the fact that little is known about the pathophysiologic mechanisms that account for the development and persistence of eating disorders. The possibility that patients with eating disorders have a dysfunction of the central nervous system has been previously explored; several studies assessing the relationship between cognitive processing and certain eating behaviors have been conducted. These studies aim to achieve a better understanding of the pathophysiology of such diseases. The aim of this study was to review the current state of neuropsychological studies focused on eating disorders. This was done by means of a search process covering three relevant electronic databases, as well as an additional search on references included in the analyzed papers; we also mention other published reviews obtained by handsearching.

  6. Neuropsychology of eating disorders: 1995–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jáuregui-Lobera, Ignacio

    2013-01-01

    Eating disorders are considered psychiatric pathologies that are characterized by pathological worry related to body shape and weight. The lack of progress in treatment development, at least in part, reflects the fact that little is known about the pathophysiologic mechanisms that account for the development and persistence of eating disorders. The possibility that patients with eating disorders have a dysfunction of the central nervous system has been previously explored; several studies assessing the relationship between cognitive processing and certain eating behaviors have been conducted. These studies aim to achieve a better understanding of the pathophysiology of such diseases. The aim of this study was to review the current state of neuropsychological studies focused on eating disorders. This was done by means of a search process covering three relevant electronic databases, as well as an additional search on references included in the analyzed papers; we also mention other published reviews obtained by handsearching. PMID:23580091

  7. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Autism (13 items) Bipolar Disorder (2 items) Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (28 items) Eating Disorders ( ... Autism (13 items) Bipolar Disorder (2 items) Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (28 items) Eating Disorders ( ...

  8. Neuroendocrine and Molecular Interactions in Eating Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Bozkurt Zincir

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available There are three basic pillars for the development of eating disorders: genetic predisposition, neuro-endocrine-molecular changes in the brain and metabolic response to it. As a result of neuroendocrine research, a close relationship has been found between neuroendocrine functions and symptom domains of psychiatric disorders such as eating disorders and mood disorders. Certain hormones, neurotransmitters and other molecules which might have effect on the basis of eating disorders can be listed as estrogen, serotonin, leptin, ghreline, alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone, cholecystokinin, dopamine, noradrenaline, brain-derived neurotropic factor, agouti-related protein, neuropeptide-Y, opioids and their receptors, thiamine, zinc, omega-3 acids. In this review, main neuroendocrine-molecular changes and interactions that occur in the eating disorders have been discussed. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(4.000: 389-400

  9. Prevention of eating disorders in female athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coelho GMO

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Gabriela Morgado de Oliveira Coelho,1 Ainá Innocencio da Silva Gomes,2 Beatriz Gonçalves Ribeiro,2 Eliane de Abreu Soares11Nutrition Institute, Rio de Janeiro State University, Maracanã, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; 2Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Macaé Campus, Granja dos Cavaleiros, Macaé, BrazilAbstract: Eating disorders are serious mental diseases that frequently appear in female athletes. They are abnormal eating behaviors that can be diagnosed only by strict criteria. Disordered eating, although also characterized as abnormal eating behavior, does not include all the criteria for diagnosing eating disorders and is therefore a way to recognize the problem in its early stages. It is important to identify factors to avoid clinical progression in this high-risk population. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to discuss critical information for the prevention of eating disorders in female athletes. This review discusses the major correlates for the development of an eating disorder. We also discuss which athletes are possibly at highest risk for eating disorders, including those from lean sports and female adolescent athletes. There is an urgent need for the demystification of myths surrounding body weight and performance in sports. This review includes studies that tested different prevention programs' effectiveness, and the majority showed positive results. Educational programs are the best method for primary prevention of eating disorders. For secondary prevention, early identification is essential and should be performed by preparticipation exams, the recognition of dietary markers, and the use of validated self-report questionnaires or clinical interviews. In addition, more randomized clinical trials are needed with athletes from multiple sports in order for the most reliable recommendations to be made and for some sporting regulations to be changed.Keywords: nutrition, disordered eating, sport, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa

  10. Alexithymia, depression, anxiety and binge eating in obese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Źak-Gołąb

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Alexithymia is a personality trait that may affect the development and course of obesity and effectiveness of treatment. The aim of the study is to assess the prevalence of alexithymia in obese women beginning a weight reduction program and determine the relationships between alexithymia and anxiety, depression, and binge eating. Methods: Obese women (n = 100; age 45 ± 13 yr completed the following self-report inventories: Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS 26, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, and Binge Eating Scale (BES. Results: Alexithymia was found in 46 patients and was more frequent among women who had attained only primary and vocational education than in those with a higher education level (39.1% vs. 10.9%; p = 0.002 and in those >45 years old than in younger women (30.4% vs. 69.6%; p = 0.03. The frequency of severe depression symptoms was higher in alexithymic women than in non-alexithymic women (19.6% vs. 5.6%; p = 0.03; however, the anxiety state was equally prevalent in both subgroups. The prevalence of alexithymia (52.6% vs. 44.4% and its level (73.2 ± 8.9 vs. 71.2 ± 11.3 points were similar in women with and without binge eating disorder. Multivariate mixed linear regression analysis revealed that higher body mass index was associated with primary and vocational education (odds ratio [OR] = 16.69 and severe depression symptoms (OR = 52.45, but not alexithymia. Conclusions: In addition to severe depression and low education level, obesity may predispose for the development of alexithymia. However, alexithymia does not affect the severity of obesity in women.

  11. Eating Disorders in Child and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzu Onal Sonmez

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Eating disorders are relatively common and serious disorders in adolescent and pre-adolescent age. The aim of this review is to update new findings related with mostly seen feeding and eating disorders in child and adolescents. The article focuses specifically on anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2017; 9(3.000: 301-316

  12. Eating-related Intrusive Thoughts Inventory: exploring the dimensionality of eating disorder symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perpiñá, Conxa; Roncero, María; Belloch, Amparo; Sánchez-Reales, Sergio

    2011-08-01

    The aims of this study were, first, to examine the structure and validity of the Eating-related Intrusive Thoughts Inventory (INPIAS), a self-report questionnaire designed to assess eating disorders related to intrusive thoughts (EDITs), and second, to explore the existence of a continuum ranging from normal to abnormal thought intrusions related to eating, weight, and shape. Participants were 574 (408 women) nonclinical community individuals. Analyses revealed that EDITs can be clustered into three sets: appearance-dieting, need to exercise, and thoughts-impulses related to eating disorders. EDITs' consequences showed a two-factor structure: emotional consequences/personal meaning and thought-action fusion responsibility; and four factors of strategies: "anxiety," suppression, obsessive-compulsive rituals, and distraction. The sample was then divided according to reported restrained eating. The High dietary restraint group reported a higher frequency of EDITs, whereas differences in the other factors were mediated by depression, anxiety, and obsessionality. The results suggest that eating disorder-related cognitions are experienced by nonclinical individuals, and distributed on a continuum.

  13. Neurocognitive Treatments for Eating Disorders and Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichen, Dawn M; Matheson, Brittany E; Appleton-Knapp, Sara L; Boutelle, Kerri N

    2017-09-01

    Recent research has highlighted executive function and neurocognitive deficits among individuals with eating and weight disorders, identifying a potential target for treatment. Treatments targeting executive function for eating and weight disorders are emerging. This review aims to summarize the recent literature evaluating neurocognitive/executive function-oriented treatments for eating and weight disorders and highlights additional work needed in this area. Cognitive remediation therapy (CRT) for anorexia nervosa has been the most extensively studied neurocognitive treatment for eating disorders. Results demonstrate that CRT improves executive function and may aid in the reduction of eating disorder symptomatology. Computer training programs targeting modifying attention and increasing inhibition are targeting reduction of binge eating and weight loss with modest success. Neurocognitive treatments are emerging and show initial promise for eating and weight disorders. Further research is necessary to determine whether these treatments can be used as stand-alone treatments or whether they need to be used as an adjunct to or in conjunction with other evidence-based treatments to improve outcomes.

  14. Neuropsychology of eating disorders: 1995–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jáuregui-Lobera I

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Ignacio Jáuregui-LoberaNutrition and Bromatology, Pablo de Olavide University, Seville, SpainAbstract: Eating disorders are considered psychiatric pathologies that are characterized by pathological worry related to body shape and weight. The lack of progress in treatment development, at least in part, reflects the fact that little is known about the pathophysiologic mechanisms that account for the development and persistence of eating disorders. The possibility that patients with eating disorders have a dysfunction of the central nervous system has been previously explored; several studies assessing the relationship between cognitive processing and certain eating behaviors have been conducted. These studies aim to achieve a better understanding of the pathophysiology of such diseases. The aim of this study was to review the current state of neuropsychological studies focused on eating disorders. This was done by means of a search process covering three relevant electronic databases, as well as an additional search on references included in the analyzed papers; we also mention other published reviews obtained by handsearching.Keywords: eating disorders, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge-eating disorder, neuropsychology, cognitive performance

  15. Eating Disorders in College Students in Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudlaug Thorsteinsdottir

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The prevalence of eating disorders in Iceland is unknown. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of eating disorders in a large sample of college students in Iceland. Methods: A sample of 3.052 students from around the country aged 15-20 years was used to determine prevalence of eating disorders. The Eating Disorders Diagnostic Scale (EDDS and Eating disorder Screen for Primary care (ESP were employed. Results: On the ESP, 51.3% of females and 22.9% of males report discontent with their eating patterns and 63% of the females and 30.9% of the males report that they are emotionally affected by their weight. The ESP returned 10.5% prevalence when cut off level of 3 responses in the direction of an eating disorder was used, and 20.3% when cut off level of 2 was applied. A total of 9.8% of participants received diagnosis with EDDS, 15.2 % of females and 1.9% of males. For anorexia nervosa 1.1% of females received a diagnosis but no male. For bulimia nervosa 5.6% of females and 0.8% of males received a diagnosis and for binge eating disorder 0.6% of females and 0.2% of males. Prevalence of all subthreshold diagnoses combined was 5%. Conclusions: The prevalence of eating disorders is high in college students in Iceland, bulimia nervosa being the most common diagnosis for both males and females.

  16. Epidemiology of eating disorders in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoeken, Daphne; Burns, Jonathan K.; Hoek, Hans W.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of reviewThis is the first review of studies on the epidemiology of eating disorders on the African continent.Recent findingsThe majority of articles found through our search did not assess formal diagnoses, but only screened for eating attitudes and behaviors. Only four studies - including

  17. Epidemiology of eating disorders in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoeken, Daphne; Burns, Jonathan K.; Hoek, Hans W.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of reviewThis is the first review of studies on the epidemiology of eating disorders on the African continent.Recent findingsThe majority of articles found through our search did not assess formal diagnoses, but only screened for eating attitudes and behaviors. Only four studies - including

  18. Eating Disorder Treatment: Know Your Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... review in therapy sessions and identify triggers that cause you to binge, purge or do other unhealthy eating behaviors. Registered dietitians and other professionals involved in your treatment can help you better understand your eating disorder and help you develop a plan to achieve ...

  19. Cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome masquerading as an eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewerton, Timothy D; Anderson, Odette

    2016-08-01

    The case of a 22 year old woman with cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome (CHS) presenting as an eating disorder is described. The importance of recognizing chronic cannabis use as a cause of episodic vomiting is emphasized, given that CHS can be confused with self-induced purging and cyclic vomiting. This case was further complicated by the well-defined history of anorexia nervosa (binge-purge type), major depressive disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, migraine headache, and the initial denial of cannabis use. However, collateral history and a positive drug screen confirmed the diagnosis. The signs, symptoms and pathophysiological mechanisms of CHS are reviewed in light of clinical presentations that mimic eating disorder phenomenology complicated by addiction. Given the trend for increasing legalization of recreational marijuana as well as medical marijuana, CHS is an important and potentially complicating disorder that eating disorder clinicians need to be aware of. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2016; 49:826-829). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Heredity and Environment in Etiology of Eating Disorders. I. Review of Twin Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meshkova T.A.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Twin studies of eating disorders (anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating are reviewed. Historically, eating disorders (ED was viewed as a disorders primarily influenced by sociocultural factors, however, over the past decade, this perception has been challenged. Twin studies demonstrate that genetic factors significantly influence the risk for ED and substantially contribute to the observed association between ED and other disorders and personal traits (major depression, anxiety disorders, substance use disorders, perfectionism. Among environmental factors nonshared (unique environment plays the main role, except of early puberty.

  1. A primer on binge eating disorder diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrome, Leslie

    2015-12-01

    Binge eating disorder (BED) is the most common eating disorder, with an estimated lifetime prevalence of 2.6% among U.S. adults, yet often goes unrecognized. In the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), BED is defined by recurrent episodes of binge eating (eating in a discrete period of time an amount of food larger than most people would eat in a similar amount of time under similar circumstances and a sense of lack of control over eating during the episode), occurring on average at least once a week for 3 months, and associated with marked distress. It can affect both men and women, regardless if they are at normal weight, overweight, or obese, and regardless of their ethnic or racial group. Psychiatric comorbidities are very common, with 79% of adults with BED also experiencing anxiety disorders, mood disorders, impulse control disorders, or substance use disorders; almost 50% of persons with BED have ≥ 3 psychiatric comorbidities. Multiple neurobiological explanations have been proffered for BED, including dysregulation in reward center and impulse control circuitry, with potentially related disturbances in dopamine neurotransmission and endogenous μ-opioid signaling. Additionally, there is interplay between genetic influences and environmental stressors. Psychological treatments such as cognitive behavioral interventions have been recommended as first line and are supported by meta-analytic reviews. Unfortunately, routine medication treatments for anxiety and depression do not necessarily ameliorate the symptoms of BED; however, at present, there is one approved agent for the treatment of moderate to severe BED-lisdexamfetamine, a stimulant that was originally approved for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

  2. Parenting styles and eating disorder pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enten, Roni S; Golan, Moria

    2009-06-01

    Our objective was to investigate the association between parenting style and eating disorder symptoms in patients treated in an intensive outpatient center for eating disorders. The study design is a cross-sectional survey set in a community-based facility for eating disorders. Participants included 53 families, including 32 with a child meeting the DSM-IV criteria for anorexia nervosa, 18 for bulimia nervosa, and 3 diagnosed ED-NOS. Data was collected using the Parental Authority Questionnaire (PAQ), the Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2) and the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26). Significant, negative correlations were found between drive for thinness scores and body dissatisfaction scores and the patient's perception of the father as authoritative. Total patient EDI score was significantly and positively correlated with patient's perception of the father as authoritarian and inversely correlated with her perception of him as authoritative. These results emphasize the importance of fathers' role in the eating disorder pathology, a relatively untapped area of research.

  3. Psychiatric Disorders Associated with the Onset and Persistence of Bulimia Nervosa and Binge Eating Disorder during Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaider, Talia I.; Johnson, Jeffrey G.; Cockell, Sarah J.

    2002-01-01

    Conducted a prospective longitudinal study to investigate whether anxiety, depressive, personality, or substance abuse disorders increase risk for onset of bulimia nervosa (BN) or binge eating disorder (BED) during adolescence. Findings for 201 adolescents suggest that adolescents with chronic depressive symptoms may be at elevated risk for the…

  4. Evidence for Broadening Criteria for Atypical Depression Which May Define a Reactive Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, Brett; Angst, Jules

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Arguing that additional symptoms should be added to the criteria for atypical depression. Method. Published research articles on atypical depression are reviewed. Results. (1) The original studies upon which the criteria for atypical depression were based cited fatigue, insomnia, pain, and loss of weight as characteristic symptoms. (2) Several studies of DSM depressive criteria found patients with atypical depression to exhibit high levels of insomnia, fatigue, and loss of appetite/weight. (3) Several studies have found atypical depression to be comorbid with headaches, bulimia, and body image issues. (4) Most probands who report atypical depression meet criteria for "somatic depression," defined as depression associated with several of disordered eating, poor body image, headaches, fatigue, and insomnia. The gender difference in prevalence of atypical depression results from its overlap with somatic depression. Somatic depression is associated with psychosocial measures related to gender, linking it with the descriptions of atypical depression as "reactive" appearing in the studies upon which the original criteria for atypical depression were based. Conclusion. Insomnia, disordered eating, poor body image, and aches/pains should be added as criteria for atypical depression matching criteria for somatic depression defining a reactive depressive disorder possibly distinct from endogenous melancholic depression.

  5. Evidence for Broadening Criteria for Atypical Depression Which May Define a Reactive Depressive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Silverstein

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Arguing that additional symptoms should be added to the criteria for atypical depression. Method. Published research articles on atypical depression are reviewed. Results. (1 The original studies upon which the criteria for atypical depression were based cited fatigue, insomnia, pain, and loss of weight as characteristic symptoms. (2 Several studies of DSM depressive criteria found patients with atypical depression to exhibit high levels of insomnia, fatigue, and loss of appetite/weight. (3 Several studies have found atypical depression to be comorbid with headaches, bulimia, and body image issues. (4 Most probands who report atypical depression meet criteria for “somatic depression,” defined as depression associated with several of disordered eating, poor body image, headaches, fatigue, and insomnia. The gender difference in prevalence of atypical depression results from its overlap with somatic depression. Somatic depression is associated with psychosocial measures related to gender, linking it with the descriptions of atypical depression as “reactive” appearing in the studies upon which the original criteria for atypical depression were based. Conclusion. Insomnia, disordered eating, poor body image, and aches/pains should be added as criteria for atypical depression matching criteria for somatic depression defining a reactive depressive disorder possibly distinct from endogenous melancholic depression.

  6. The risk of eating disorders among female undergraduates in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Hui-Wen; Tzeng, Nian-Sheng; Chu, Hsin; Chou, Yuan-Hwa; Lu, Ru-Band; O'Brien, Anthony Paul; Chang, Yue-Cune; Hsieh, Chia-Jung; Chou, Kuei-Ru

    2009-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate disordered eating among female college students. The study sought to establish a predictive model for the risk of eating disorders in young female university students in Taiwan. A group of 336 student participants were recruited with the results showing that more than one third (43.2%) of the college women surveyed were identified to be at risk for developing an eating disorder. The results of multiple logistic regression showed that bulimia score, elevated depression index, eating binges, the use of laxatives and medicine to control weight, and having lost 20 lb, or more, in the past 6 months were all considered to be risk factors for developing an eating disorder (the corresponding area under receiver operating characteristic curve = 0.905). The results demonstrate that unhealthy dietary behaviors are rapidly spreading among young Taiwanese female students. For the sample described in this article, 67.6% of the female college students had lost weight: 51% had dieted at least once to lose weight, 43% used exercise to lose weight, 24% used low-calorie diets to lose weight, 11% used healthy food to lose weight, 9.2% used rubber clothing and a diet patch to lose weight, 17.9% of the students used weight-loss drugs, and a few students sought medical assistance from weight-loss clinics or actually underwent liposuction (1.5%).

  7. Parents' personality clusters and eating disordered daughters' personality and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amianto, Federico; Ercole, Roberta; Marzola, Enrica; Abbate Daga, Giovanni; Fassino, Secondo

    2015-11-30

    The present study explores how parents' personality clusters relate to their eating disordered daughters' personality and psychopathology. Mothers and fathers were tested with the Temperament Character Inventory. Their daughters were assessed with the following: Temperament and Character Inventory, Eating Disorder Inventory-2, Symptom Checklist-90, Parental Bonding Instrument, Attachment Style Questionnaire, and Family Assessment Device. Daughters' personality traits and psychopathology scores were compared between clusters. Daughters' features were related to those of their parents. Explosive/adventurous mothers were found to relate to their daughters' borderline personality profile and more severe interoceptive awareness. Mothers' immaturity was correlated to their daughters' higher character immaturity, inadequacy, and depressive feelings. Fathers who were explosive/methodic correlated with their daughters' character immaturity, severe eating, and general psychopathology. Fathers' character immaturity only marginally related to their daughters' specific features. Both parents' temperament clusters and mothers' character clusters related to patients' personality and eating psychopathology. The cluster approach to personality-related dynamics of families with an individual affected by an eating disorder expands the knowledge on the relationship between parents' characteristics and daughters' illness, suggesting complex and unique relationships correlating parents' personality traits to their daughters' disorder.

  8. Den tredje spiseforstyrrelse - Binge Eating Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schousboe, Birgitte Hartvig

    2010-01-01

    Mennesker med Binge Eating Disorder indtager større mængder mad uden at være sultne. Overspisningen kan dulme svære følelser, men medfører typisk ekstremt ubehag og skam. Mennesker, der lider af spiseforstyrrelsen Binge Eating Disorder (i daglig tale kaldet BED), har ofte problemer med overvægt, og...

  9. Media image eating disorders – Literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Gordon, Kimberly

    2010-01-01

    Abstract This review aims to critically analyse the literature which considers the relationship between the media’s portrayal of the ‘ideal body image’ and adolescent eating disorders. Currently within Western society, the media endorses a thin-ideal for females and a lean, muscular-ideal for males. A critical review was chosen to deconstruct the evident debate within the literature as to whether the media is solely to blame for eating disorder development or whether other risk fact...

  10. Neuropsychology of eating disorders: 1995–2012

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Ignacio Jáuregui-LoberaNutrition and Bromatology, Pablo de Olavide University, Seville, SpainAbstract: Eating disorders are considered psychiatric pathologies that are characterized by pathological worry related to body shape and weight. The lack of progress in treatment development, at least in part, reflects the fact that little is known about the pathophysiologic mechanisms that account for the development and persistence of eating disorders. The possibility that patients with e...

  11. Den tredje spiseforstyrrelse - Binge Eating Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schousboe, Birgitte Hartvig

    2010-01-01

    Mennesker med Binge Eating Disorder indtager større mængder mad uden at være sultne. Overspisningen kan dulme svære følelser, men medfører typisk ekstremt ubehag og skam. Mennesker, der lider af spiseforstyrrelsen Binge Eating Disorder (i daglig tale kaldet BED), har ofte problemer med overvægt, og...

  12. Eating Disorders in a Nonclinical Adolescent Population: Implications for Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachenmeyer, Juliana Rasic; Muni-Brander, Paulette

    1988-01-01

    Investigated prevalence of adolescent eating disorders across gender, cultural groupings, and socioeconomic status. Administered Eating Attitudes Test, Binge-Eating Questionnaire, and demographic questionnaire to 1,261 high school students. Results indicated high rate of eating disorders in nonclinical adolescent population. Eating disorders…

  13. Disordered eating behaviors among Italian men: objectifying media and sexual orientation differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakanalis, Antonios; Di Mattei, Valentina E; Bagliacca, Elena Pagani; Prunas, Antonio; Sarno, Lucio; Riva, Giuseppe; Zanetti, M Assunta

    2012-01-01

    Objectification theory was tested as a suitable framework for explaining sexual orientation differences in disordered eating behaviors in college-aged Italian men. The theory's applicability to 125 homosexual and 130 heterosexual men was investigated using self-report questionnaires. Gay men scored significantly higher on exposure to sexually objectifying media, body surveillance, body shame, disordered eating behaviors, and depression than heterosexual men. Although path analyses support the theory's applicability to both groups, for gay men the path model demonstrated a better fit to the objectification theory for disordered eating and depression. Practical implications are discussed.

  14. A critique of the literature on etiology of eating disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Rikani, Azadeh A.; Choudhry, Zia; Choudhry, Adnan M.; Ikram, Huma; Asghar, Muhammad W; Kajal, Dilkash; WAHEED, Abdul; Mobassarah, Nusrat J

    2013-01-01

    The development of eating disorders including anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, and atypical eating disorders that affect many young women and even men in the productive period of their lives is complex and varied. While numbers of presumed risk factors contributing to the development of eating disorders are increasing, previous evidence for biological, psychological, developmental, and sociocultural effects on the development of eating disorders have not been conclusi...

  15. University of South Bohemia students' awareness about eating disorders

    OpenAIRE

    PEKÁRKOVÁ, Petra

    2016-01-01

    The thesis focuses on knowledge of eating disorders by students of University of South Bohemia. The theoretical part defines particular types of eating disorders and the causes related with this problems. There are possible treatment methods for eating disorders mentioned at the end of this part. The practical part deals with students? awareness of eating disorders. It focuses on students? knowledge of eating disorders and orthorexia nerovosa. The research is based on questionnaire constructi...

  16. University of South Bohemia students' awareness about eating disorders

    OpenAIRE

    PEKÁRKOVÁ, Petra

    2016-01-01

    The thesis focuses on knowledge of eating disorders by students of University of South Bohemia. The theoretical part defines particular types of eating disorders and the causes related with this problems. There are possible treatment methods for eating disorders mentioned at the end of this part. The practical part deals with students? awareness of eating disorders. It focuses on students? knowledge of eating disorders and orthorexia nerovosa. The research is based on questionnaire constructi...

  17. [Eating Disorders and drug use in adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisetto Pons, David; Botella Guijarro, Álvaro; Sancho Muñoz, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to show whether there was a connection between drug use and Eating Disorders, as well as to identify the type of drugs most widely used and to ascertain whether they are used to suppress appetite. An "ad hoc" scale was developed using the items of the Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale, whose aim is to detect cases at risk of certain types of eating disorder, and items for assessing drug use. This scale was applied to samples of teenagers (n=446) aged 13-18 from various secondary schools in the Valencia Region (Comunidad Valenciana) in Spain. An association was found between teenagers that use drugs, and particularly between the variable "use of some kind of drug as an appetite suppressant", and being at risk of having an eating disorder. Tobacco was the drug most commonly used (accounting for 66% of those within the risk threshold of the Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale). We conclude that those teenagers from the sample who fall within any of the risk thresholds consume more drugs than those who do not fall within the risk threshold of the Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale. Stimulant-type drugs are those most widely used by these teenagers with the aim of suppressing appetite.

  18. Married patients with eating disorders in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiriike, N; Nagata, T; Matsunaga, H; Tobitani, W; Nishiura, T

    1996-12-01

    A total of 40 married and 22 unmarried female patients with eating disorders were studied in order to investigate the relationship between eating disorders and marriage. Eating disorders developed in 14 patients before marriage (premarital onset) and in 26 patients at the time of or after marriage (postmarital onset). The postmarital-onset group was characterized by a significantly higher age at onset, but was similar in age and duration of illness to the group of 22 unmarried patients. However, the various clinical features of the three groups did not differ. For premarital-onset patients showed exaggerated clinical features after marriage, but the other patients showed no change in clinical features after marriage. In the postmarital-onset group, eating disorders were triggered in 18 patients (69%) by marital problems, separation or divorce. In contrast, eating disorders were triggered by dieting in order to lose weight in 8 patients (57%) in the premarital-onset group and 12 patients (55%) in the unmarried group. These results suggest that marital conflict plays an important role in the development and continuation of eating disorders in married women.

  19. Personality Disorders in patients with disorders in eating behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanesa Carina Góngora

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The interest for the systematic study of personality disorder in patients with eating disorders starts in 1980 with the edition of the DSM III multiaxial classification system. Since then, several publications have been focused on the prevalence and the effect on treatment of personality disorders in bulimic and anorexic patients. These researches showed inconsistent results due to conceptual and methodological divergences. In this paper, the more relevant findings of these studies are presented and the possible sources of discrepancy are analyzed. In general, there is a moderate comorbidity between personality disorders and eating disorders. The most frequent disorders are borderline, histrionic, obsessive-compulsive, dependent and avoidant personality disorders. Borderline and histrionic personality disorders are more frequently associated with bulimia, whereas avoidant and obsessive- compulsive personality disorders are more characteristic of anorexia nervosa. Nevertheless, the effect of the relationship between eating disorders and personality disorders in treatment remains uncertain, giving raise to several controversies and researches. 

  20. The impact of client race on clinician detection of eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Kathryn H; Brattole, Marissa M; Wingate, Laricka R; Joiner, Thomas E

    2006-12-01

    Eating disorders are thought to occur less among African-American women than among women of other ethnic groups. Ninety-one clinicians read 1 of 3 passages (differing only with regards to the girl's race: African-American, Caucasian, or Hispanic) describing disturbed eating patterns of a fictional character named Mary. Participants were then asked to indicate if they thought Mary had a problem and to rate her anxiety, depression, and eating disorder symptoms based upon the passage they had read. The results suggest that clinicians may have race-based stereotypes about eating disorders that could impede their detection of symptoms in African-American girls.

  1. Globalization and eating disorder risk: Peer influence, perceived social norms, and adolescent disordered eating in Fiji

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbasi, Margaret E.; Richards, Lauren K.; Thomas, Jennifer J.; Agnew-Blais, Jessica C.; Thompson-Brenner, Heather; Gilman, Stephen E.; Becker, Anne E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The increasing global health burden imposed by eating disorders warrants close examination of social exposures associated with globalization that potentially elevate risk during the critical developmental period of adolescence in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The study aim was to investigate the association of peer influence and perceived social norms with adolescent eating pathology in Fiji, a LMIC undergoing rapid social change. Method We measured peer influence on eating concerns (with the Inventory of Peer Influence on Eating Concerns; IPIEC), perceived peer norms associated with disordered eating and body concerns, perceived community cultural norms, and individual cultural orientations in a representative sample of school-going ethnic Fijian adolescent girls (n=523). We then developed a multivariable linear regression model to examine their relation to eating pathology (measured by the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire; EDE-Q). Results We found independent and statistically significant associations between both IPIEC scores and our proxy for perceived social norms specific to disordered eating (both p <.001) and EDE-Q global scores in a fully adjusted linear regression model. Discussion Study findings support the possibility that peer influence as well as perceived social norms relevant to disordered eating may elevate risk for disordered eating in Fiji, during the critical developmental period of adolescence. Replication and extension of these research findings in other populations undergoing rapid social transition—and where globalization is also influencing local social norms—may enrich etiologic models and inform strategies to mitigate risk. PMID:25139374

  2. Globalization and eating disorder risk: peer influence, perceived social norms, and adolescent disordered eating in Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbasi, Margaret E; Richards, Lauren K; Thomas, Jennifer J; Agnew-Blais, Jessica C; Thompson-Brenner, Heather; Gilman, Stephen E; Becker, Anne E

    2014-11-01

    The increasing global health burden imposed by eating disorders warrants close examination of social exposures associated with globalization that potentially elevate risk during the critical developmental period of adolescence in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The study aim was to investigate the association of peer influence and perceived social norms with adolescent eating pathology in Fiji, a LMIC undergoing rapid social change. We measured peer influence on eating concerns (with the Inventory of Peer Influence on Eating Concerns; IPIEC), perceived peer norms associated with disordered eating and body concerns, perceived community cultural norms, and individual cultural orientations in a representative sample of school-going ethnic Fijian adolescent girls (n = 523). We then developed a multivariable linear regression model to examine their relation to eating pathology (measured by the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire; EDE-Q). We found independent and statistically significant associations between both IPIEC scores and our proxy for perceived social norms specific to disordered eating (both p global scores in a fully adjusted linear regression model. Study findings support the possibility that peer influence as well as perceived social norms relevant to disordered eating may elevate risk for disordered eating in Fiji, during the critical developmental period of adolescence. Replication and extension of these research findings in other populations undergoing rapid social transition--and where globalization is also influencing local social norms--may enrich etiologic models and inform strategies to mitigate risk. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Risk of eating disorders in immigrant populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustelin, L; Hedman, A M; Thornton, L M; Kuja-Halkola, R; Keski-Rahkonen, A; Cantor-Graae, E; Almqvist, C; Birgegård, A; Lichtenstein, P; Mortensen, P B; Pedersen, C B; Bulik, C M

    2017-08-01

    The risk of certain psychiatric disorders is elevated among immigrants. To date, no population studies on immigrant health have addressed eating disorders. We examined whether risk of eating disorders in first- and second-generation immigrants differs from native-born Danes and Swedes. All individuals born 1984-2002 (Danish cohort) and 1989-1999 (Swedish cohort) and residing in the respective country on their 10th birthday were included. They were followed up for the development of eating disorders based on out-patient and in-patient data. The risks of all eating disorder types were lower among first-generation immigrants compared to the native populations: Incidence-rate ratio (95% confidence interval) was 0.39 (0.29, 0.51) for anorexia nervosa, 0.60 (0.42, 0.83) for bulimia nervosa, and 0.62 (0.47, 0.79) for other eating disorders in Denmark and 0.27 (0.21, 0.34) for anorexia nervosa, 0.30 (0.18, 0.51) for bulimia nervosa, and 0.39 (0.32, 0.47) for other eating disorders in Sweden. Likewise, second-generation immigrants by both parents were at lower risk, whereas those with only one foreign-born parent were not. The decreased risk of eating disorders among immigrants is opposite to what has been observed for other psychiatric disorders, particularly schizophrenia. Possible explanations include buffering sociocultural factors and underdetection in health care. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Family mealtimes and eating psychopathology : the role of anxiety and depression among adolescent girls and boys\\ud

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Characteristics of family mealtimes are associated with disordered eating behaviours. However, little is known about the relationships between characteristics of family mealtimes and disordered eating attitudes, or how symptoms of anxiety or depression may contribute to these relationships. This study therefore aimed to examine differences between adolescent girls and boys in the relationship between family mealtime characteristics and eating psychopathology, and to explore the influence of a...

  5. [Eating disorders, body image and sexuality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba, Patricio; Kes, Mariana Gabriela

    2013-01-01

    Eating disorders are a growing problem in healthcare. Altered eating behaviors are a consequence of cognitions and emotions generated by low self-esteem and dissatisfaction with body image and schema. It is possible, that a negative body image, and in many cases, distorted, may be the most difficult feature to approach and improve in this disorders. But the dissatisfaction to one's own body would not be related only to altered eating behaviors. Several studies show that body image and one's own body perception are an essential feature in sexual experiences, especially in women's sexuality. This article describes the relation and influences between body image and women's sexuality, and the sexuality in women with eating disorders.

  6. Pro-eating disorder search patterns: the possible influence of celebrity eating disorder stories in the media

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Stephen P; Klauninger, Laura; Marcincinova, Ivana

    2016-01-01

    Pro eating disorder websites often contain celebrity-focused content (e.g., images) used as thinspiration to engage in unhealthy eating disorder behaviours. The current study was conducted to examine whether news media stories covering eating disorder disclosures of celebrities corresponded with increases in Internet searches for pro eating disorder material. Results indicated that search volumes for pro eating disorder terms spiked in the month immediately following such news coverage but on...

  7. Implicación de la ansiedad y la depresión en los trastornos de alimentación de jóvenes con obesidad Implication of the anxiety and depression in eating disorders of young obese

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    C. Calderón

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Los objetivos del presente estudio eran: 1 comparar los niveles de ansiedad, depresión y trastornos de alimentación en jóvenes atendidos en un hospital pediátrico por obesidad; 2 determinar si la ansiedad y la depresión explican los síntomas de trastornos de alimentación, y 3 conocer cuáles de esos síntomas discriminan mejor entre jóvenes con distintos grados de obesidad. Material y métodos: Estudio descriptivo, transversal con una muestra de 281 jóvenes (56% mujeres de entre 11 y 17 años. Los percentiles de IMC se calcularon utilizando las tablas de crecimiento de la OMS. Se crearon dos grupos de estudio: obesidad severa y sobrepeso-obesidad leve-moderada. Se utilizaron los siguiente cuestionarios: Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2, cuestionario de depresión(CDI y cuestionario de ansiedad estado-rasgo (STAI. Resultados: Los jóvenes con obesidad severa mostraron más problemas psicológicos que los jóvenes con sobrepeso-obesidad leve-moderada, un 12% presentaban ansiedad y un 11% depresión. En ambos grupos, las conductas relacionadas con los trastornos de alimentación eran, en parte, explicadas por la mayor presencia de síntomas de ansiedad y de depresión. La insatisfacción corporal junto con una elevada ansiedad rasgo incrementaban el riesgo de perpetuar la obesidad y eran los dos síntomas que mejor discriminaban a los pacientes con o sin obesidad severa. Conclusión: Los programas de prevención de la obesidad deberían incluir la insatisfacción corporal y la ansiedad rasgo en los protocolos de evaluación y tratamiento, y prevenir que la ansiedad se instaure como rasgo de personalidad.Objectives: the goals of the present study were: 1 to compare the levels of anxiety, depression, and eating disorders in young patients assisted at a children's hospital for obesity; 2 to determine whether anxiety and depression explain the symptoms of the eating disorders; and 3 to know which of these symptoms better

  8. Group behavioral activation for patients with severe obesity and binge eating disorder: a randomized controlled trial.

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    Alfonsson, Sven; Parling, Thomas; Ghaderi, Ata

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess whether behavioral activation (BA) is an efficacious treatment for decreasing eating disorder symptoms in patients with obesity and binge eating disorder (BED). Ninety-six patients with severe obesity and BED were randomized to either 10 sessions of group BA or wait-list control. The study was conducted at an obesity clinic in a regular hospital setting. The treatment improved some aspects of disordered eating and had a positive effect on depressive symptoms but there was no significant difference between the groups regarding binge eating and most other symptoms. Improved mood but lack of effect on binge eating suggests that dysfunctional eating (including BED) is maintained by other mechanisms than low activation and negative mood. However, future studies need to investigate whether effects of BA on binge eating might emerge later than at post-assessment, as in interpersonal psychotherapy for bulimia nervosa.

  9. Eating disorder emergencies: understanding the medical complexities of the hospitalized eating disordered patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, Martina M

    2004-12-01

    Eating disorders are maladaptive eating behaviors that typically develop in adolescence and early adulthood. Psychiatric maladies and comorbid conditions, especially insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, frequently co-exist with eating disorders. Serious medical complications affecting all organs and tissues can develop and result in numerous emergent hospitalizations. This article reviews the pathophysiologies of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and orthorexia nervosa and discusses the complexities associated with the treatment of medical complications seen in these patients.

  10. Hormonal Factors and Disturbances in Eating Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culbert, Kristen M; Racine, Sarah E; Klump, Kelly L

    2016-07-01

    This review summarizes the current state of the literature regarding hormonal correlates of, and etiologic influences on, eating pathology. Several hormones (e.g., ghrelin, CCK, GLP-1, PYY, leptin, oxytocin, cortisol) are disrupted during the ill state of eating disorders and likely contribute to the maintenance of core symptoms (e.g., dietary restriction, binge eating) and/or co-occurring features (e.g., mood symptoms, attentional biases). Some of these hormones (e.g., ghrelin, cortisol) may also be related to eating pathology via links with psychological stress. Despite these effects, the role of hormonal factors in the etiology of eating disorders remains unknown. The strongest evidence for etiologic effects has emerged for ovarian hormones, as changes in ovarian hormones predict changes in phenotypic and genetic influences on disordered eating. Future studies would benefit from utilizing etiologically informative designs (e.g., high risk, behavioral genetic) and continuing to explore factors (e.g., psychological, neural responsivity) that may impact hormonal influences on eating pathology.

  11. Disordered eating among Brazilian female college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarenga, Marle Dos Santos; Lourenço, Bárbara Hatzlhoffer; Philippi, Sonia Tucunduva; Scagliusi, Fernanda Baeza

    2013-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate the socioeconomic and nutritional factors associated with disordered eating among Brazilian female college students (n = 2,489). Prevalence ratios of risk factors were calculated using Poisson regression models with robust variance based on responses to selected questions from the Eating Attitude Test and Disordered Eating Attitude Scale. It was found that 40.7% of students were dieting, 35.6% were using diet or compensatory methods, 23.9% skipping meals, 12.6% not eating or just drinking liquids, and 3.3%, vomiting to lose weight. A positive association was found between not eating or just drinking liquids and skipping meals and nutritional status after adjustment for age and region. A positive association was found between compensatory methods and dieting and education level of the head of the family. Disordered eating behaviors were frequent, and not eating and skipping meals were more prevalent among overweight/obese students; compensatory methods and dieting were less prevalent among students from families whose head had up to only four years of education. Prevention strategies and food education are necessary in order to decrease the prevalence of these behaviors.

  12. Review of the Literature Regarding Female Collegiate Athletes with Eating Disorders and Disordered Eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klasey, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    The primary objective of this review of literature was to examine the relationship of eating disorders and disordered eating among female collegiate athletes. Since the institution of Title IX in 1972, the Educational Amendment to the Civil Rights Act of 1964, female participation in sports has been consistently rising at all levels of…

  13. Behavioral management of night eating disorders

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    Berner LA

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Laura A Berner,1 Kelly C Allison2 1Department of Psychology, Drexel University, 2Department of Psychiatry, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: Night eating syndrome (NES is a form of disordered eating associated with evening hyperphagia (overeating at night and nocturnal ingestions (waking at night to eat. As with other forms of disordered eating, cognitive and behavioral treatment modalities may be effective in reducing NES symptoms. This review presents evidence for a variety of behavioral treatment approaches, including behavioral therapy, phototherapy, behavioral weight loss treatment, and cognitive-behavioral therapy. A more detailed overview of cognitive-behavioral therapy for NES is provided. All of these studies have been case studies or included small samples, and all but one have been uncontrolled, but the outcomes of many of these approaches are promising. Larger randomized controlled trials are warranted to advance NES treatment literature. With the inclusion of NES in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5 as a “Feeding or Eating Disorder Not Elsewhere Classified,” more sophisticated, empirically-supported, behaviorally-based treatment approaches are much needed. Keywords: night eating syndrome, cognitive-behavioral treatment, phototherapy, behavioral weight loss, behavior therapy

  14. Depression, disturbed eating behavior, and metabolic control in teenage girls with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colton, Patricia A; Olmsted, Marion P; Daneman, Denis; Rodin, Gary M

    2013-08-01

    Depression and disturbed eating behavior (DEB) are more common in girls with type 1 diabetes (T1D) than in the general population, and may negatively affect metabolic control. To examine the relationship among depression, DEB, and metabolic control in teenage girls with T1D. Metabolic control, body mass index and interview-ascertained symptoms of depression, and DEB were assessed twice in 98 girls with T1D, 9-14 y at baseline and 5 yr later at 14-18 yr. At year 5, 12.2% of girls reported current depressive symptoms, 49.0% reported current DEB, and 13.3% had a full or subthreshold eating disorder (ED). Eating Disorder Examination score was higher in girls with depression (1.4 ± 1.3 vs. 0.5 ± 0.7; p = 0.03), and 75.0% of girls with depression also endorsed DEB vs. 45.3% of girls without depression (p = 0.05). Girls with an ED were at high risk for depressive symptoms; 69.2% reported depressive symptoms vs. 22.0% of girls with no DEB (p = 0.004). Metabolic control was not significantly associated with either depression or DEB in this cohort. A regression model using baseline and year 5 depression and DEB to predict year 5 hemoglobin A1c was not significant overall. Depression and DEB were common and frequently concurrent in this cohort. It was encouraging that poor metabolic control was not yet strongly associated with either depression or DEB. Early detection and treatment may help to prevent the development of entrenched difficulties in this triad of mood, eating behavior, and metabolic control in a vulnerable population. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  15. A critique of the literature on etiology of eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rikani, Azadeh A; Choudhry, Zia; Choudhry, Adnan M; Ikram, Huma; Asghar, Muhammad W; Kajal, Dilkash; Waheed, Abdul; Mobassarah, Nusrat J

    2013-10-01

    The development of eating disorders including anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, and atypical eating disorders that affect many young women and even men in the productive period of their lives is complex and varied. While numbers of presumed risk factors contributing to the development of eating disorders are increasing, previous evidence for biological, psychological, developmental, and sociocultural effects on the development of eating disorders have not been conclusive. Despite the fact that a huge body of research has carefully examined the possible risk factors associated with the eating disorders, they have failed not only to uncover the exact etiology of eating disorders, but also to understand the interaction between different causes of eating disorders. This failure may be due complexities of eating disorders, limitations of the studies or combination of two factors. In this review, some risk factors including biological, psychological, developmental, and sociocultural are discussed.

  16. Eating behaviour and eating disorders in students of nutrition sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korinth, Anne; Schiess, Sonja; Westenhoefer, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    Sometimes the suspicion is put forward that nutrition students show more disordered eating patterns, which may be among the motivating factors to study nutrition. At the same time, it is not clear whether the students' increasing knowledge about diet and nutrition is associated with a more healthy eating behaviour or with an unhealthy obsession with food choices. Cross-sectional comparison of nutrition students from German universities during the first year of their studies (n 123) and during higher semesters (n 96), with a control group from other study programmes (n 68 and n 46, respectively). Dietary restraint, disinhibition, the tendency towards orthorexia nervosa and healthy food choices were assessed using a questionnaire. Nutrition students showed higher levels of dietary restraint than the control group. Disinhibition and orthorexia nervosa did not differ between nutrition students and controls. Orthorexic tendencies were lower in the more advanced nutrition students. Healthy food choices did not differ among students in the first year. More advanced nutrition students showed healthier food choices, whereas the corresponding controls showed slightly more unhealthy food choices. Nutrition students, more than other students, tend to restrict their food intake in order to control their weight, but they do not have more disturbed or disordered eating patterns than other students. Moreover, during the course of their studies, they adopt slightly more healthy food choices and decrease their tendency to be obsessive in their eating behaviour.

  17. Sleep, eating disorder symptoms, and daytime functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tromp MD

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Marilou DP Tromp,1 Anouk AMT Donners,1 Johan Garssen,1,2 Joris C Verster1,31Division of Pharmacology, Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands; 2Nutricia Research, Utrecht, the Netherlands; 3Center for Human Psychopharmacology, Swinburne University, Melbourne, VIC, AustraliaObjective: To investigate the relationship between eating disorders, body mass index (BMI, sleep disorders, and daytime functioning.Design: Survey.Setting: The Netherlands.Participants: N=574 Dutch young adults (18–35 years old.Measurements: Participants completed a survey on eating and sleep habits including the Eating Disorder Screen for Primary care (ESP and SLEEP-50 questionnaire subscales for sleep apnea, insomnia, circadian rhythm disorder (CRD, and daytime functioning. SLEEP-50 outcomes of participants who screened negative (≤2 and positive (>2 on the ESP were compared. In addition, SLEEP-50 scores of groups of participants with different ESP scores (0–4 and different BMI groups (ie, underweight, healthy weight, overweight, and obese were compared using nonparametric statistics.Results: Almost 12% (n=67 of participants screened positive for having an eating disorder. Relative to participants without eating disorders, participants who screened positive for eating disorders reported significantly higher scores on sleep apnea (3.7 versus 2.9, P=0.012, insomnia (7.7 versus 5.5, P<0.0001, CRD (2.9 versus 2.3, P=0.011, and impairment of daytime functioning (8.8 versus 5.8, P=0.0001. ESP scores were associated with insomnia (r=0.117, P=0.005, sleep apnea (r=0.118, P=0.004, sleep quality (r=−0.104, P=0.012, and daytime functioning (r=0.225, P<0.0001, but not with CRD (r=0.066, P=0.112. BMI correlated significantly with ESP scores (r=0.172, P<0.0001 and scores on sleep apnea (r=0.171, P<0.0001. When controlling for BMI, the partial correlation between ESP and sleep apnea remained significant (r=0.10, P=0.015.Conclusion

  18. A mindful eating group as an adjunct to individual treatment for eating disorders: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepworth, Natasha S

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate potential benefits of a Mindful Eating Group as an adjunct to long-term treatment for a variety of eating disorders. Individuals (N = 33) attending treatment at an outpatient treatment facility participated in the 10-week intervention designed to enhance awareness around hunger and satiety cues. Disordered eating symptoms were assessed pre- and post-intervention using the EAT-26. Significant reductions were found on all subscales of the EAT-26 with large effect sizes. No significant differences were identified between eating disorder diagnoses. Results suggest potential benefits of an adjunct mindfulness group intervention when treating a variety of eating disorders. Limitations are discussed.

  19. Serotonergic dysfunction across the eating disorders: relationship to eating behaviour, purging behaviour, nutritional status and general psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteleone, P; Brambilla, F; Bortolotti, F; Maj, M

    2000-09-01

    Several recent studies have pointed to a dysfunction of serotonin transmission in patients with eating disorders. Notwithstanding, it is not known whether serotonergic abnormalities are related primarily to eating and/or purging behaviour, nutritional status or general psychopathological dimensions. Therefore, by using a validated neuroendocrine strategy, we investigated central serotonergic function in patients with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa or binge-eating disorder who differ on the above parameters. Plasma prolactin response to D-fenfluramine (30 mg p.o.) or placebo was measured in 58 drug-free female volunteers, comprising 15 underweight anorexic women, 18 bulimic women, 10 women with binge-eating disorder and 15 female healthy controls. Behavioural assessment included ratings of eating disorder symptoms, depression, aggression and food-related obsessions and compulsions. A significantly decreased prolactin response to D-fenfluramine was found in underweight anorexic women and in bulimics with high frequency bingeing ( > 2 binge episodes/day), but not in patients with binge-eating disorder or in bulimics with low frequency bingeing (nervosa. Moreover, they show, for the first time, that the hypothalamic serotonergic system is not altered in women with binge-eating disorder.

  20. Predictors of eating disorders outcomes in Polish teenage patients

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    Pilecki, Maciej Wojciech

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study. The aim of this study was to assess factors associated with the outcome of eating disorders in Polish teenage patients. Material and methods. Analyses covered the data of 47 patients diagnosed with any of the eating disorders according to DSM IV consulted for the first time in the outpatients clinic of the Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Unit between 2002/2004 in Krakow (DGN1, Poland and then followed up between 2009/2011 (DGN2. The influence of the number of variables collected at DGN1 on outcomes was analysed. Results. The outcomes of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are influenced by some aspects of clinical picture, patients’ objective family situation, their self-image and the perception they have of their family relations. The co-occurrence of depressive symptoms and younger age of parents proved to be the most clinically important negative outcome predictors in the whole group of eating disorders. Discussion. The small size of group in the follow-up study is the most important limitating factor. Conclusion. Outcomes in eating disorders are affected by several psycho-bio-social factors common to all patients and specific for the diagnosis type they initially present.

  1. [Role of Serotonin Transporter Gene in Eating Disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Muñoz, Sandra; Camarena-Medellin, Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    The serotoninergic system has been implicated in mood and appetite regulation, and the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) is a commonly studied candidate gene for eating disorders. However, most studies have focused on a single polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) in SLC6A4. We present the studies published on the association between eating disorders (ED) and 5-HTTLPR polymorphism in anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS). Search of databases: MEDLINE, ISI, and PubMed for SLC6A4 and ED. From a review of 37 original articles, it was suggested that carriers of S allele is a risk factor for eating disorders, especially for AN. However, BN did not show any association. Also, BMI, impulsivity, anxiety, depression, and age of onset have been associated with S allele in ED patients. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  2. Binge Eating Disorder and Body Uneasiness

    OpenAIRE

    Massimo Cuzzolaro; Maurizio Bellini; Lorenzo Donini; Chiara Santomassimo

    2008-01-01

    Debate continues regarding the nosological status of binge eating disorder (BED) and the specific diagnostic criteria, including whether, like anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, it should be characterized by body image disturbances in addition to abnormal eating behaviour. The aims of this article are: a) to concisely review the main points of the literature that has developed on diagnosis and treatment (especially pharmacological) of BED and b) to present the results of an original resear...

  3. Eating disorders among classic ballet dancers

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    Mayara Freitas Monteiro

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the prevalence of eating disorders symptoms among classical ballet dancers. Methods: This is an analytical, observational, cross-sectional study, conducted in 2009, that investigated eating disorder symptoms using the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26 and Bulimic Investigatory Test, Edinburgh (BITE. The body image of the study population was assessed by the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ. In addition, the anthropometric assessment was performed – measurement of weight, height and skin folds, calculation of body mass index (BMI and body fat percentage. Results: Of all the 139 emale adolescents assessed, 4.4% (n=6 had nutrition problems and 23% (n=23 presented abnormal values of body fat. The analysis of the EAT concluded that 12.3% (n=17 of the girls presented positive results for anorexia nervosa (AN. The BITE results showed that 13.7% (n=19 ofthe girls had unusual eating habits and 6.5% (n=9 presented subclinical bulimia nervosa (BN. As for severity, 3.6% (n=5 of the girls presented clinically significant results and 1.4% (n=2 were diagnosed with high severity. Concerning the results of the BSQ, 15.7% (n=21 of the girls were slightly concerned about body image; 5.2% (n=7 were moderately worried, and 6.7% (n=9 were severely concerned about it. Conclusion: This study did not diagnose the occurrence of eating disorders but found symptoms of AN (Anorexia Nervosa and BN (Bulimia Nervosa. Its main purpose was to alert about the prevalence of the possible development of eating disorders due to the influences of the environment where the teenagers are inserted – under a model defined by the classic ballet dance and the psychological turmoil of adolescence. doi:10.5020/18061230.2013.p396

  4. Prevention of eating disorders in female athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Coelho GMO; Gomes AIS; Ribeiro BG; EA. Soares

    2014-01-01

    Gabriela Morgado de Oliveira Coelho,1 Ainá Innocencio da Silva Gomes,2 Beatriz Gonçalves Ribeiro,2 Eliane de Abreu Soares11Nutrition Institute, Rio de Janeiro State University, Maracanã, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; 2Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Macaé Campus, Granja dos Cavaleiros, Macaé, BrazilAbstract: Eating disorders are serious mental diseases that frequently appear in female athletes. They are abnormal eating behaviors that can ...

  5. Binge eating disorder and night eating syndrome in adults with type 2 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    To determine the prevalence of binge eating disorder (BED) and night eating syndrome (NES) among applicants to the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) study. The Eating Disorders Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q) and the Night Eating Questionnaire (NEQ) were used to screen patients. Phone int...

  6. Life History Strategy and Disordered Eating Behavior

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    Catherine Salmon

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A sample of female undergraduates completed a packet of questionnaires consisting of the Arizona Life History Battery, a modified version of the Eating Disorders Inventory, the Behavioral Regulation scales from the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function, and two measures of Female Intrasexual Competitiveness that distinguished between competition for mates and competition for status. As predicted, Executive Functions completely mediated the relation between Slow Life History Strategy and Disordered Eating Behavior. Surprisingly, however, the relation between Female Intrasexual Competitiveness (competition for mates and competition for status and Disordered Eating Behavior was completely spurious, with executive functions serving as a common cause underlying the inhibition of both Disordered Eating Behavior and Female Intrasexual Competitiveness. The protective function of Slow Life History Strategy with respect to Disordered Eating Behavior apparently resides in a higher degree of Behavioral Regulation, a type of Executive Function. The enhanced Behavioral Regulation or self-control, of individuals with a Slow Life History Strategy is also protective against hazardously escalated levels of Female Intrasexual Competitiveness.

  7. Alexithymia in Eating Disorders: a transcultural perspective

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    Stefania Roma

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The role of alexithymia in eating disorders has been exstensively studied in Western cultures. On the contrary, studies on alexithymia in the Far East are rare, and its possible role in eating disorders is yet unstudied. After discussing the history and the meaning of the concept of alexithymia in Western cultures, the present paper poses the anthropological question whether alexithymia has a different meaning in Western and Eastern cultures. The sinologist literature on the topic of emotions in China is fi rstly addressed, followed by a review of empirical studies on eating disorders in China. Finally, the results of a preliminary study that compared the role of alexithymia in Italian and Chinese eating disorders are discussed, stressing that the signifi cantly lower alexithymia scores in Chinese eating disorders might be interpreted as strictly connected with the native culture, that is the tendency of Chinese girls to give socially desirable answers. Accordingly, a relevant pathoplastic role of the native culture not only on symptoms, but even on basic traits like alexithymia is suggested.

  8. Prevalence of eating disorders and eating attacks in narcolepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Norbert Dahmen; Julia Becht; Alice Engel; Monika Thommes; Peter Tonn

    2008-01-01

    Norbert Dahmen, Julia Becht, Alice Engel, Monika Thommes, Peter TonnPsychiatry Department, University of Mainz, GermanyAbstract: Narcoleptic patients suffer frequently from obesity and type II diabetes. Most patients show a deficit in the energy balance regulating orexinergic system. Nevertheless, it is not known, why narcoleptic patients tend to be obese. We examined 116 narcoleptic patients and 80 controls with the structured interview for anorectic and bulimic eating disorders (SIAB) to te...

  9. A review of nighttime eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Michael J; Schenck, Carlos H; Crow, Scott J

    2009-02-01

    Nighttime eating is categorized as either night eating syndrome (NES) or sleep-related eating disorder (SRED). These conditions represent an interruption in the overnight fast that characterizes human sleep. A critical review of the literature on NES and SRED will suggest that they are situated at opposite poles of a disordered eating spectrum. NES could be considered an abnormality in the circadian rhythm of meal timing with a normal circadian timing of sleep onset. Conversely, the feeding behavior in SRED is characterized by recurrent episodes of eating after an arousal from nighttime sleep with or without amnesia. Both conditions are often relentless and chronic. Multiple definitions of night eating have limited our ability to determine the exact prevalence of NES. Studies have suggested that central nervous system (CNS) serotonin modulation may lead to an effective treatment of NES. SRED is frequently associated with other sleep disorders, in particular parasomnias. Early studies have shown that the anti-seizure medication topiramate may be an effective treatment for SRED.

  10. Is "drunkorexia" an eating disorder, substance use disorder, or both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Tyler K; Forbush, Kelsie T

    2016-08-01

    Researchers have identified a specific behavior pattern labeled "drunkorexia" to describe recurrent inappropriate compensatory behaviors (e.g., fasting and self-induced vomiting) to avoid weight gain from consuming alcohol (referred to as ICB-WGA). Several studies have investigated the prevalence of these behaviors among college students, but few have tested whether this behavior pattern is more strongly related to substance use or disordered eating, which may have future implications for eating disorder and substance abuse research fields. The aim of this project was to test: (1) whether disordered eating or alcohol use adds incremental validity to the prediction of ICB-WGA when controlling for the other variable and (2) the effect of sex on ICB-WGA. College participants (N=579; 53% female) completed the Eating Pathology Symptoms Inventory (EPSI), the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), and several questions designed to measure ICB-WGA. Results indicated that EPSI Restricting and Body Dissatisfaction scales were not significant predictors of ICB-WGA, whereas the AUDIT and EPSI Cognitive Restraint, Excessive Exercise, Purging, and Binge Eating scales significantly predicted ICB-WGAs. Results indicated that disordered eating and alcohol use both added incremental validity to the prediction of ICB-WGA; however, ICB-WGA was more strongly related to disordered eating, and this was particularly true for women. Our findings suggest that individuals engaging in ICB-WGA may be at-risk for future development of both eating and substance disorders. Notably, our findings highlight the need for future research to focus on trans-diagnostic prevention programs that target mechanisms that underlie both disordered eating and substance misuse.

  11. Defining Features of Unhealthy Exercise Associated with Disordered Eating and Eating Disorder Diagnoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Lauren A; Brown, Tiffany A; Keel, Pamela K

    2014-01-01

    The current study sought to compare different features of unhealthy exercise on associations with disordered eating and their ability to identify individuals with eating disorders. A secondary aim of the study was to compare prevalence and overlap of different aspects of unhealthy exercise and potential differences in their gender distribution. Cross-sectional epidemiological study. A community-based sample of men (n=592) and women (n=1468) completed surveys of health and eating patterns, including questions regarding exercise habits and eating disorder symptoms. Compulsive and compensatory features of exercise were the best predictors of disordered eating and eating disorder diagnoses compared to exercise that was excessive in quantity. Further, compulsive and compensatory aspects of unhealthy exercise represented overlapping, yet distinct qualities in both men and women. Including the compulsive quality among the defining features of unhealthy exercise may improve identification of eating disorders, particularly in men. Results suggest that the compensatory aspect of unhealthy exercise is not adequately captured by the compulsive aspect of unhealthy exercise. Thus, interventions that target unhealthy exercise behaviors among high-risk individuals, such as athletes, may benefit from addressing both the compulsive and compensatory aspects of unhealthy exercise. Future prospective longitudinal studies will aid in determining the direction of the association between these features of unhealthy exercise and the onset of eating pathology.

  12. SOCIOTROPY AND AUTONOMY IN EATING DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radziwiłłowicz, Wioletta

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Studies of development psychopathology and psychia try have shown that personality variables are greatly associated with eating disorders. Sociotropy and autonomy may be features that facilitate the occurrence and persistence of the eating disturbances. Theoretical framework for own research was mainly the A. Beck’s concept of autonomy and sociotropy. The aim of the study was to answer the research question whether a person suffering from an eating disorder is characterized by a higher level of sociotropy and autonomy than those in risk and the control groups, as well as to emergence the relationship between the severity, sociotropy and autonomy in each group. Methods: The study was conducted within three groups: clini cal (23 girls diagnosed with eating disorders, risk (15 girls, who suffered of binge eating episodes, control (15 girls. The mean age of girls was 17,9 years. A structured clinical interview and Sociotropy - Autonomy Scale (T. Sato were used. Results: Emphasison the autonomous functioning and relationships problems are elevated among girls with eating disorders when compared to girls at risk and the control groups. They are characterized by greater difficulties in experiencing intimacy and trust, emotional distancing and low sensitivity to others, and a high fear of being controlled by the others. The sociotropy scores did not show differences between groups. Correlation analysis endorse no relationship between the intensity of sociotropy and autonomy. Conclusions: Sociotropy and autonomy are independent psychological constructs. Emphasis on the autonomous functioning and interpersonal difficulties may play a more important role in the origin and persistence of eating disorders symptomatology than sociotropy features.

  13. Eating attitudes of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder and obesity without eating disorder female patients: differences and similarities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarenga, M S; Koritar, P; Pisciolaro, F; Mancini, M; Cordás, T A; Scagliusi, F B

    2014-05-28

    The objective was to compare eating attitudes, conceptualized as beliefs, thoughts, feelings, behaviors and relationship with food, of anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED) patients and a group of obese (OBS) without eating disorders (ED). Female patients from an Eating Disorder (ED) Unit with AN (n=42), BN (n=52) and BED (n=53) and from an obesity service (n=37) in Brazil answered the Disordered Eating Attitude Scale (DEAS) which evaluate eating attitudes with 5 subscales: relationship with food, concerns about food and weight gain, restrictive and compensatory practices, feelings toward eating, and idea of normal eating. OBS patients were recruited among those without ED symptoms according to the Binge Eating Scale and the Questionnaire on Eating and Weight Patterns. ANOVA was used to compare body mass index and age between groups. Bonferroni test was used to analyze multiple comparisons among groups. AN and BN patients presented more dysfunctional eating attitudes and OBS patients less dysfunctional (p<0.001). For DEAS total score, AN and BN patients were similar and all other were different (p<0.001). Similarities suggested between BN and BED were true just for the "Relationship with food" and "Idea of normal eating." BED patients were worst than OBS for "Relationship with food" and as dysfunctional as AN patients - besides their behavior could be considered the opposite. Differences and similarities support a therapeutic individualized approach for ED and obese patients, call attention for the theoretical differences between obesity and ED, and suggest more research focused on eating attitudes.

  14. Processing art sculptures relative to the issue of eating disorders

    OpenAIRE

    KONEČNÁ, Monika

    2016-01-01

    This thesis deals with the problems of eating disorders. Objective of the thesis is definition of eating disorder, a description of the individual faults an as a practical part there is an artistic creation of specific disorders. Theoretical part includes characteristics, division and insight into history. There are described four forms of eating disorders: anorexia, bulimia, obesity and bigorexia. In the practical part is the visual processing of transformation of two excessive eating disord...

  15. Integrating Eating Disorder and Obesity Prevention Programs for Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Heather; Ng, Janet; Stice, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly, researchers in the areas of eating disorders and obesity prevention are recognizing the benefits of collaborative efforts aimed at curbing the spectrum of eating-related disturbances. Research suggests that eating disorders and overweight tend to co-occur, and that individuals cross over from one eating-related disturbance to…

  16. Negative affect mediates effects of psychological stress on disordered eating in young Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jue; Wang, Zhen; Guo, Boliang; Arcelus, Jon; Zhang, Haiyin; Jia, Xiuzhen; Xu, Yong; Qiu, Jianyin; Xiao, Zeping; Yang, Min

    2012-01-01

    The bi-relationships between psychological stress, negative affect and disordered eating has been well studied in western culture, while tri-relationship among them, i.e. how some of those factors influence these bi-relationships, has rarely been studied. However, there has been little related study in the different Chinese culture. This study was conducted to investigate the bi-relationships and tri-relationship between psychological stress, negative affect, and disordered eating attitudes and behaviors in young Chinese women. A total of 245 young Chinese policewomen employed to carry out health and safety checks at the 2010 Shanghai World Expo were recruited in this study. The Chinese version of the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10), Beck Depression Inventory Revised (BDI-II), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and Eating Attitude Test (EAT-26) were administered to all participants. The total scores of PSS-10, BDI-II and BAI were all highly correlated with that of EAT-26. The PSS-10 score significantly correlated with both BDI-II and BAI scores. There was no statistically significant direct effect from perceived stress to disordered eating (-0.012, 95%CI: -.038~0.006, p=0.357), however, the indirect effects from PSS-10 via affect factors were statistically significant, e.g. the estimated mediation effects from PSS to EAT-26 via depression and anxiety were 0.036 (95%CI: 0.022~0.044, pstress and negative affects of depression and anxiety were demonstrated to be strongly associated with disordered eating. Negative affect mediated the relationship between perceived stress and disordered eating. The findings suggest that effective interventions and preventative programmes for disordered eating should pay more attention to depression and anxiety among the young Chinese female population.

  17. Gastrointestinal symptoms and disorders in patients with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yasuhiro; Fukudo, Shin

    2015-10-01

    The two most clinically serious eating disorders are anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. A drive for thinness and fear of fatness lead patients with anorexia nervosa either to restrict their food intake or binge-eat then purge (through self-induced vomiting and/or laxative abuse) to reduce their body weight to much less than the normal range. A drive for thinness leads patients with bulimia nervosa to binge-eat then purge but fail to reduce their body weight. Patients with eating disorders present with various gastrointestinal disturbances such as postprandial fullness, abdominal distention, abdominal pain, gastric distension, and early satiety, with altered esophageal motility sometimes seen in patients with anorexia nervosa. Other common conditions noted in patients with eating disorders are postprandial distress syndrome, superior mesenteric artery syndrome, irritable bowel syndrome, and functional constipation. Binge eating may cause acute gastric dilatation and gastric perforation, while self-induced vomiting can lead to dental caries, salivary gland enlargement, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and electrolyte imbalance. Laxative abuse can cause dehydration and electrolyte imbalance. Vomiting and/or laxative abuse can cause hypokalemia, which carries a risk of fatal arrhythmia. Careful assessment and intensive treatment of patients with eating disorders is needed because gastrointestinal symptoms/disorders can progress to a critical condition.

  18. [Changes to the classification of Eating Disorders in DSM-5].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, Susanne; Föcker, Manuel; Hebebrand, Johannes

    2014-09-01

    The fifth revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) resulted in substantial changes with regard to the classification of Eating Disorders. In DSM-5, Feeding and Eating Disorders are for the first time subsumed in a single category. The Binge Eating Disorder (BED) was established as the third classical eating disorder in addition to Anorexia Nervosa (AN) and Bulimia Nervosa (BN). The criteria for AN changed remarkably, whereas there were only minor changes to the BN criteria. The criteria for BED differ only marginally from the DSM-IV research criteria. There are now subtypes of AN, BN, and BED in the new category "Other Specific Feeding and Eating Disorders." The rest category "Eating Disorders Not Otherwise Specified" has been renamed to "Unspecified Feeding or Eating Disorders." The practicability of the DSM-5 criteria for Eating Disorders, and for AN in particular, for both clinical practice and research remains to be seen.

  19. Pro-eating disorder search patterns: the possible influence of celebrity eating disorder stories in the media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Stephen P; Klauninger, Laura; Marcincinova, Ivana

    2016-01-01

    Pro eating disorder websites often contain celebrity-focused content (e.g., images) used as thinspiration to engage in unhealthy eating disorder behaviours. The current study was conducted to examine whether news media stories covering eating disorder disclosures of celebrities corresponded with increases in Internet searches for pro eating disorder material. Results indicated that search volumes for pro eating disorder terms spiked in the month immediately following such news coverage but only for particularly high-profile celebrities. Hence, there may be utility in providing recovery-oriented resources within the search results for pro-eating disorder Internet searches and within news stories of this nature.

  20. Risk factors for eating disorder symptoms at 12 years of age: A 6-year longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Elizabeth H; Adamson, Ashley J; Basterfield, Laura; Le Couteur, Ann; Reilly, Jessica K; Reilly, John J; Parkinson, Kathryn N

    2017-01-01

    Eating disorders pose risks to health and wellbeing in young adolescents, but prospective studies of risk factors are scarce and this has impeded prevention efforts. This longitudinal study aimed to examine risk factors for eating disorder symptoms in a population-based birth cohort of young adolescents at 12 years. Participants from the Gateshead Millennium Study birth cohort (n = 516; 262 girls and 254 boys) completed self-report questionnaire measures of eating disorder symptoms and putative risk factors at age 7 years, 9 years and 12 years, including dietary restraint, depressive symptoms and body dissatisfaction. Body mass index (BMI) was also measured at each age. Within-time correlates of eating disorder symptoms at 12 years of age were greater body dissatisfaction for both sexes and, for girls only, higher depressive symptoms. For both sexes, higher eating disorder symptoms at 9 years old significantly predicted higher eating disorder symptoms at 12 years old. Dietary restraint at 7 years old predicted boys' eating disorder symptoms at age 12, but not girls'. Factors that did not predict eating disorder symptoms at 12 years of age were BMI (any age), girls' dietary restraint at 7 years and body dissatisfaction at 7 and 9 years of age for both sexes. In this population-based study, different patterns of predictors and correlates of eating disorder symptoms were found for girls and boys. Body dissatisfaction, a purported risk factor for eating disorder symptoms in young adolescents, developed concurrently with eating disorder symptoms rather than preceding them. However, restraint at age 7 and eating disorder symptoms at age 9 years did predict 12-year eating disorder symptoms. Overall, our findings suggest that efforts to prevent disordered eating might beneficially focus on preadolescent populations.

  1. [Eating disorders in childhood and adolescence. Anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlinghoff, M; Backmund, H

    2004-03-01

    The most important eating disorders are anorexia and bulimia, which most frequently occur for the first time during adolescence and continue into adulthood. Medical complications and accompanying psychological disturbances cause a significant mortality rate of up to 6% in anorexia and up to 3% in bulimia. The pathogenesis of eating disorders is still unclear. Current etiological concepts are multidimensional including biological, individual, familial, and sociocultural factors. In spite of a great variety of therapeutic possibilities, the prognosis for eating disorders is quite poor. In the long term, only about 50% of the persons affected overcome their illness. Preventive measures are therefore indispensable.

  2. Family Histories of Anxiety in Overweight Men and Women with Binge Eating Disorder: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomquist, Kerstin K.; Grilo, Carlos M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective A preliminary examination of the significance of family histories of anxiety in the expression of binge eating disorder (BED) and associated functioning. Methods Participants were 166 overweight patients with BED assessed using diagnostic interviews. Participants were administered a structured psychiatric history interview about their first-degree relatives (parents, siblings, children) (N=897) to determine lifetime diagnoses of DSM-IV anxiety disorders and completed a battery of questionnaires assessing current and historical eating and weight variables and associated psychological functioning (depression). Results BED patients with a family history of anxiety disorder were significantly more likely than BED patients without a family history of anxiety disorder to have lifetime diagnoses of anxiety disorders and mood disorders but not substance use disorders. A family history of anxiety was not significantly associated with timing or sequencing of age at onset of anxiety disorder, binge eating, dieting, or obesity, or with variability in current levels of binge eating, eating disorder psychopathology, or psychological functioning. Conclusions Although replication with direct interview method is needed, our preliminary findings suggest that a family history of anxiety confers greater risk for comorbid anxiety and mood disorders but is largely unrelated to the development of binge eating, dieting, or obesity and unrelated to variability in eating disorder psychopathology or psychological functioning in overweight patients with BED. PMID:26343481

  3. Keep an Eye Out for Eating Disorders in Loved Ones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_163877.html Keep an Eye Out for Eating Disorders in Loved Ones If you suspect someone has ... problem, be careful not to shame or criticize, eating disorder expert says To use the sharing features on ...

  4. Set-shifting abilities, mood and loss of control over eating in binge eating disorder: An experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingemans, Alexandra E; Visser, Hiske; Paul, Linda; van Furth, Eric F

    2015-12-15

    Executive functions play an important role in problem-solving and self-control. Set-shifting is an aspect of executive functioning and represents cognitive flexibility. The inability to control eating in Binge Eating Disorder (BED) may imply deficits in set-shifting which could be exacerbated by negative mood and depressive symptoms. The aim of the study was to test whether there is a causal relationship between set-shifting ability, changes in mood and loss of control over eating in BED. Seventy-five participants diagnosed with BED were randomly assigned to a negative or neutral mood induction. Set-shifting abilities, depressive symptoms, current mood and loss of control over eating were assessed. Having depressive symptoms and poorer set-shifting abilities resulted in a more negative mood after a negative mood induction, whereas this was not observed in the neutral mood induction. Post-hoc analyses revealed that individuals with poorer set-shifting abilities and more changes in negative mood, experienced more feelings of loss of control over eating than individuals whose set-shifting abilities were better and whose mood did not change. The results suggest that both depressive symptoms and deficits in set-shifting abilities may decrease an individual's ability to handle negative affect and increase loss of control over eating in individuals with BED.

  5. Screening for eating disorders: false negatives and eating disorders not otherwise specified

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Vetrone

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study the problem of false negatives in the screening for eating disorders. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We administered the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT40 and the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI to 186 Italian female students (age 17.68 ± 0.9; BMI 20.84 ± 2.69. Then we submitted not only high-scorers but also all the subjects to a semi-structured diagnostic interview (Eating Disorder Examination - EDE 12.0D. The diagnosis of eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS was applied to cases which met all the DSM-IV criteria for AN and/or BN with one exception. RESULTS: 17 girls (9.1% fulfilled diagnostic criteria for eating disorders: 1 bulimia nervosa full-syndrome and 16 EDNOS. Of the 17 girls 11 were EAT low-scorers (< 30 and 8 were EDI low-scorers (< 50; 5 subjects scored below the cutoff on both instruments. We calculated sensitivity (35.3%, specificity (88.8%, positive predictive value (PPV, 24.0% and negative predictive value (NPV, 93.2% of the EAT40; the respective values for the EDI were 52.9% (sensitivity, 85.2% (specificity, 26.4% (PPV and 94.7% (NPV. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Our data show that the introduction of the EDNOS diagnoses increases the PPV of the two questionnaires but lowers their sensitivity. We conclude that using a two stage screening approach leads to a very high rate of false negatives with a significant underestimation of the prevalence of eating disorders, particularly of EDNOS.

  6. Race, Ethnicity, and Eating Disorder Recognition by Peers

    OpenAIRE

    Sala, Margarita; Reyes-Rodríguez, Mae Lynn; Bulik, Cynthia M.; Bardone-Cone, Anna

    2013-01-01

    We investigated racial/ethnic stereotyping in the recognition and referral of eating disorders with 663 university students. We explored responses to problem and eating disorder recognition, and health care referral after reading a vignette concerning a patient of different race/ethnic background presenting with eating disorders. A series of three 4 × 3 ANOVAs revealed significant main effects for eating disorder across all three outcome variables. There were no significant main effects acros...

  7. Validation of the exercise and eating disorders questionnaire

    OpenAIRE

    Danielsen, Marit; Bjørnelv, Sigrid; Rø, Øyvind

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Compulsive exercise is a well-known feature in eating disorders. The Exercise and Eating Disorder (EED) self-report questionnaire was developed to assess aspects of compulsive exercise not adequately captured by existing instruments. This study aimed to test psychometric properties and the factor structure of the EED among women with eating disorders and a control group. Method: The study included 449 female participants, including 244 eating disorders patients and...

  8. The role of experiential avoidance, rumination and mindfulness in eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowdrey, Felicity A; Park, Rebecca J

    2012-04-01

    Anorexia nervosa has been associated with high levels of ruminative thoughts about eating, shape and weight as well as avoidance of emotion and experience. This study examined the associations between disorder-specific rumination, mindfulness, experiential avoidance and eating disorder symptoms. A sample of healthy females (n=228) completed a battery of on-line self-report measures. A hierarchical regression analysis revealed that ruminative brooding on eating, weight and shape concerns was uniquely associated with eating disorder symptoms, above and beyond anxiety and depression symptoms. In a small group (n=42) of individuals with a history of anorexia nervosa, only reflection on eating weight and shape was able to predict eating disorder symptoms when controlling for depression and anxiety. The results suggest that rumination (both brooding and reflection) on eating, weight and shape concerns may be a process which exacerbates eating disorder symptoms. Examining rumination may improve understanding of the cognitive processes which underpin anorexia nervosa and this may in turn aid the development of novel strategies to augment existing interventions. Replication in a larger clinical sample is warranted.

  9. Early improvement in eating attitudes during cognitive behavioural therapy for eating disorders: the impact of personality disorder cognitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Emma C; Waller, Glenn; Gannon, Kenneth

    2014-03-01

    The personality disorders are commonly comorbid with the eating disorders. Personality disorder pathology is often suggested to impair the treatment of axis 1 disorders, including the eating disorders. This study examined whether personality disorder cognitions reduce the impact of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for eating disorders, in terms of treatment dropout and change in eating disorder attitudes in the early stages of treatment. Participants were individuals with a diagnosed eating disorder, presenting for individual outpatient CBT. They completed measures of personality disorder cognitions and eating disorder attitudes at sessions one and six of CBT. Drop-out rates prior to session six were recorded. CBT had a relatively rapid onset of action, with a significant reduction in eating disorder attitudes over the first six sessions. Eating disorder attitudes were most strongly associated with cognitions related to anxiety-based personality disorders (avoidant, obsessive-compulsive and dependent). Individuals who dropped out of treatment prematurely had significantly higher levels of dependent personality disorder cognitions than those who remained in treatment. For those who remained in treatment, higher levels of avoidant, histrionic and borderline personality disorder cognitions were associated with a greater change in global eating disorder attitudes. CBT's action and retention of patients might be improved by consideration of such personality disorder cognitions when formulating and treating the eating disorders.

  10. VREPAR 2: VR in eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, G; Bacchetta, M; Baruffi, M; Defrance, C; Gatti, F; Galimberti, C; Nugues, P; Ferretti, G S; Tonci, A

    1999-01-01

    Virtual Reality Environments for Psychoneurophysiological Assessment and Rehabilitation (VREPAR) are two European Community funded projects (Telematics for health-HC 1053/HC 1055-http://www.psicologia.net) whose aim is (a) to develop a PC based virtual reality system (PC-VRS) for the medical market that can be marketed at a price that is accessible to its possible endusers (hospitals, universities, and research centres) and that would have the modular, connectability and interoperability characteristics that the existing systems lack; and (b) to develop three hardware/software modules for the application of the PC-VRS in psychoneurophysiological assessment and rehabilitation. The chosen development areas are eating disorders (bulimia, anorexia, and obesity), movement disorders (Parkinson's disease and torsion dystonia), and stroke disorders (unilateral neglect and hemiparesis). In particular, the VREPAR 2 project is now testing the eating disorders module on a clinical sample.

  11. The Eating Disorders Continuum, Self-Esteem, and Perfectionism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Lisa D.; Lightsey, Owen Richard

    2008-01-01

    Among 261 undergraduate women, increased severity of eating disorders along a continuum was associated with decreased self-esteem, increased perfectionism, and increased scores on 7 subscales of the Eating Disorders Inventory-2. Women with eating disorders differed from both symptomatic women and asymptomatic women on all variables, whereas…

  12. Disordered Eating in Women of Color: Some Counseling Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talleyrand, Regine M.

    2012-01-01

    There is little attention devoted to studying eating disorder symptoms in racially and ethnically diverse groups despite the fact that the prevalence rates among women of color for eating disorder symptoms are similar to those of European American women. This article reviews research related to eating disorders in women of color, including a…

  13. Adult Attachment and Disordered Eating in Undergraduate Men and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgin, Jenna; Pritchard, Mary

    2006-01-01

    Previous research on gender differences between males and females on the risk factors leading to disordered eating is sparse, especially on males and eating disorders using attachment theory. This study examined the relationship between adult attachment style and disordered eating in men and women. Secure attachment scores were significantly…

  14. College Student Stress: A Predictor of Eating Disorder Precursor Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Virginia L.; Valkyrie, Karena T.

    2010-01-01

    Eating disorders are compulsive behaviors that can consume a person's life to the point of becoming life threatening. Previous research found stress associated with eating disorders. College can be a stressful time. If stress predicted precursor behaviors to eating disorders, then counselors would have a better chance to help students sooner. This…

  15. The Eating Disorders Continuum, Self-Esteem, and Perfectionism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Lisa D.; Lightsey, Owen Richard

    2008-01-01

    Among 261 undergraduate women, increased severity of eating disorders along a continuum was associated with decreased self-esteem, increased perfectionism, and increased scores on 7 subscales of the Eating Disorders Inventory-2. Women with eating disorders differed from both symptomatic women and asymptomatic women on all variables, whereas…

  16. Disordered Eating in Women of Color: Some Counseling Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talleyrand, Regine M.

    2012-01-01

    There is little attention devoted to studying eating disorder symptoms in racially and ethnically diverse groups despite the fact that the prevalence rates among women of color for eating disorder symptoms are similar to those of European American women. This article reviews research related to eating disorders in women of color, including a…

  17. General practitioner knowledge, skills and attitudes to eating disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Doherty, Sally; McNamee, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Given that general practitioners are perfectly placed to detect eating disorders this summer research study aimed to examine general practitioners’ knowledge, skills and attitudes towards eating disorders. The study aimed to compile a national picture of the diagnosis, referral practices, and management of eating disorders in primary care in Ireland.

  18. Preventing a Continuum of Disordered Eating: Going beyond the Individual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell-Mayhew, Shelly

    2007-01-01

    Efforts aimed at the prevention of eating disorders need to consider the context within which these disorders develop and aim to promote not only healthy eating and physical activity but also address mental health factors, such as body image. Exploring the relationship between body image and eating disorders will provide a foundation and further…

  19. Perplexities and Provocations of Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halmi, Katherine A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Etiological hypotheses of eating disorders, anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa have not produced informative research for predictably effective treatment. Methods: The rationale for applying a model of allostasis, a dysregulation of reward circuits with activation of brain and hormonal stress responses to maintain apparent stability,…

  20. Effectiveness of Parent Counselling in Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbate-Daga, Giovanni; Quaranta, Michela; Marzola, Enrica; Cazzaniga, Giovanna; Amianto, Federico; Fassino, Secondo

    2013-01-01

    Eating Disorders (ED) are often severe illnesses entailing a heavy burden for families. Family therapy is recommended for young patients, but only a few studies have investigated therapeutic interventions with families tailored also to adult and longstanding patients. We recruited 87 families with daughters affected by an ED, aiming to assess the…

  1. Effectiveness of Parent Counselling in Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbate-Daga, Giovanni; Quaranta, Michela; Marzola, Enrica; Cazzaniga, Giovanna; Amianto, Federico; Fassino, Secondo

    2013-01-01

    Eating Disorders (ED) are often severe illnesses entailing a heavy burden for families. Family therapy is recommended for young patients, but only a few studies have investigated therapeutic interventions with families tailored also to adult and longstanding patients. We recruited 87 families with daughters affected by an ED, aiming to assess the…

  2. Perplexities and Provocations of Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halmi, Katherine A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Etiological hypotheses of eating disorders, anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa have not produced informative research for predictably effective treatment. Methods: The rationale for applying a model of allostasis, a dysregulation of reward circuits with activation of brain and hormonal stress responses to maintain apparent stability,…

  3. Treatment and Counseling Approaches for Eating Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Kristin L.

    Maladaptive eating behaviors are a growing phenomenon which has captured the interest of not only health and psychology professionals, but also the general public. This paper examines the various types of treatment and counseling approaches for treating anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. Definitions for both disorders are provided, followed by…

  4. An Empirically Supported Eating Disorder Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, LeAdelle; Sapia, Jennifer; Nathanson, David; Nelson, Linda

    2000-01-01

    An eating disorder prevention program was completed with middle school, high school, and college females. Some successful outcomes included: (1) facilitating an acknowledgement of pressures to attain a model skeletal look; (2) changing attitudes about standards of beauty; and (3) altering the participants' current and future intentional use of…

  5. Interspecies genetics of eating disorder traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kas, Martien J H; Kaye, Walter H; Foulds Mathes, Wendy; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2009-01-01

    Family and twin studies have indicated that genetic factors play a role in the development of eating disorders, such as anorexia and bulimia nervosa, but novel views and tools may enhance the identification of neurobiological mechanisms underlying these conditions. Here we propose an integrative gen

  6. Self-Mutilation and Eating Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favazza, Armando R.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Presents evidence from literature review, patient interviews, responses to Self-Harm Behavior Survey, and case reports that patients with eating disorders are at high risk for self-mutilation. In lieu of dual diagnosis, postulates that combination of self-mutilation, anorexia, bulimia, and other symptoms may be manifestations of impulse control…

  7. Diagnosis and Treatment of Eating Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman, Patricia; And Others

    This paper was designed to provide professional counselors with a comprehensive but concise method of accurately evaluting, interviewing, and planning for treatment of eating disorder clients. The paper is organized in five sections. The first section, Diagnosis, compares, contrasts, and offers clear explanations of the diagnostic criteria for…

  8. Psychological Treatments for Binge Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gredysa, Dana M.; Altman, Myra; Wilfley, Denise E.

    2012-01-01

    Binge eating disorder (BED) is the most prevalent eating disorder in adults, and individuals with BED report greater general and specific psychopathology than non-eating disordered individuals. The current paper reviews research on psychological treatments for BED, including the rationale and empirical support for cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), dialectical behavior therapy (DBT), behavioral weight loss (BWL), and other treatments warranting further study. Research supports the effectiveness of CBT and IPT for the treatment of BED, particularly for those with higher eating disorder and general psychopathology. Guided self-help CBT has shown efficacy for BED without additional pathology. DBT has shown some promise as a treatment for BED, but requires further study to determine its long-term efficacy. Predictors and moderators of treatment response, such as weight and shape concerns, are highlighted and a stepped-care model proposed. Future directions include expanding the adoption of efficacious treatments in clinical practice, testing adapted treatments in diverse samples (e.g., minorities and youth), improving treatment outcomes for nonresponders, and developing efficient and cost-effective stepped-care models. PMID:22707016

  9. Genetics and epigenetics of eating disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yilmaz Z

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Zeynep Yilmaz,1 J Andrew Hardaway,1 Cynthia M Bulik1–3 1Department of Psychiatry, 2Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; 3Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden Abstract: Eating disorders (EDs are serious psychiatric conditions influenced by biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors. A better understanding of the genetics of these complex traits and the development of more sophisticated molecular biology tools have advanced our understanding of the etiology of EDs. The aim of this review is to critically evaluate the literature on the genetic research conducted on three major EDs: anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder. We will first review the diagnostic criteria, clinical features, prevalence, and prognosis of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder, followed by a review of family, twin, and adoption studies. We then review the history of genetic studies of EDs covering linkage analysis, candidate-gene association studies, genome-wide association studies, and the study of rare variants in EDs. Our review also incorporates a translational perspective by covering animal models of ED-related phenotypes. Finally, we review the nascent field of epigenetics of EDs and a look forward to future directions for ED genetic research. Keywords: anorexia nervosa, binge eating disorder, bulimia nervosa, animal models, genome-wide association studies, high-throughput sequencing

  10. Quality of life in eating disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, Laura Vad; Christiansen, Erik; Lichtenstein, Mia Beck

    2014-01-01

    to general population norm data and to investigate potential differences between ED diagnostic groups. A systematic review of the current literature was conducted using a keyword-based search in PubMed and PsychInfo. The search covered anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), eating disorders...

  11. Smoking status and psychosocial factors in binge eating disorder and bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Ariana M; White, Marney A; Grilo, Carlos M

    2016-04-01

    To examine eating-disorder psychopathology and depressive symptoms by smoking status (never, former, or current smoker) in persons with binge eating disorder (BED) and bulimia nervosa (BN). Participants were 575 adult volunteers from the community (mean age=36.0±12years and BMI=32.9±9.5kg/m(2); 80% white; 88% female) who were classified with BED (n=410) or BN (n=165). Participants completed a battery of questionnaires, including items about current and historical cigarette smoking, the Eating Disorder Examination -Questionnaire, and the Beck Depression Inventory. Among those with BED, depressive symptoms were significantly higher in current smokers than former or never smokers (p=.001). There were no significant differences in depressive symptoms by smoking status in participants with BN and no differences in eating-disorder psychopathology by smoking status in either the BED or BN groups. In this non-clinical group of community volunteers, we found that smoking history or status was not associated with eating disorder psychopathology in participants classified with BED and BN but was significantly associated with depressive symptoms in participants with BED. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Personality profiles in young adults with disordered eating behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynal, Patrick; Melioli, Tiffany; Chabrol, Henri

    2016-08-01

    Personality traits are closely related to eating disorders (ED) and might be involved in their development and maintenance. Nevertheless little is known regarding the association between personality traits and disordered eating in subclinical populations. College students answered questionnaires assessing disordered eating behaviors (DEB) and the following personality disorder (PD) traits: schizotypal, autistic, obsessional, borderline and cyclothymic. Participants with DEB (n=101, 87% women) displayed significantly higher scores for several variables including schizotypy, cyclothymic, borderline and obsessional traits compared to other participants (n=378). Cluster analysis in the DEB subsample led to the identification of three groups: 1) a cluster with a high level of traits (HT); 2) a cluster scoring high on schizotypal, borderline and cyclothymic traits (SBC); 3) a cluster with a low level of traits (LT). Symptoms of depression, suicidal ideations, trait anger and obsessive-compulsive symptoms were higher in the HT and the SBC clusters compared to the LT cluster. Given that two thirds of participants suffering from DEB appeared to display a morbid personality profile, it appears of prime importance to take into account PD traits of individuals with DEB.

  13. A review on eating disorders and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkcaldy, B D; Siefen, G R; Kandel, I; Merrick, J

    2007-06-01

    Eating disorders in adolescence are a public health concern with both personal costs and a financial burden for the community health services. This paper is a review of incidence and gender differences of eating disorders; comorbid psychopathology, including substance abuse, mood disorders, anxiety disorders and personality disorders; developmental and intellectual factors; family, socio-cultural functioning and birth order; self-injury and suicidal behaviour with health outcome and therapy success rate. We have also asked several questions from our clinical experience and tried to answer them with our clinical knowledge and based on literature review. Overall, there is an indication that therapy success is significantly correlated with (low) manifestation, specifically for social problems and aggressivity. Due to the complexity of factors involved in the manifestation of eating disorders, the inclusion of cognitive-behavioural therapy as well as family-oriented therapeutic concepts coupled with medical treatment would appear to offer an intervention inventory, which would be most effective in offering adolescents optimal treatment programmes. The implications of our review is discussed in terms of psychotherapeutic treatment plans for adolescents in clinical care.

  14. Eating attitudes, weight control behaviors and risk factors for eating disorders among Chinese female dance students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuoli Tao

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Along with the economic development, eating disorders begin to appear in China. In this context, we study potential risks for eating disorders. Methods: 1,199 Chinese students, aged 12-25 years, were randomly selected in spring 2006 from a survey with a series of scales (EAT-26, EDI that were used as a screening examination for eating attitudes, weight control behaviors and risk factors. Among them were 31 female Chinese dance students. The dancer students were compared with the female high risk group of eating disorders (EAT ≥ 20 and the female low risk group (EAT 0-9 according to their scores on EAT-26 and EDI. Results: There were just 3 dancers (10% with scores on the EAT-26 who were over the cut-off point of 20 for high risk of an eating disorder. The dance group also showed significantly higher scores than the low risk group (EAT 0-9 not only on the subscales Dieting, and EAT-26 total scores on the EAT-26, but also on the subscales Perfectionism and Maturity Fears on the EDI. Conclusions: Among the group of female Chinese dance students, most participants did not show a high risk for eating disorders and their high scores on some subscales on the EAT-26 and EDI could be caused by their occupation.

  15. [Lack of assertiveness in patients with eating disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar A, Rosa; Manzo G, Rodrigo; Casanova Z, Dunny

    2006-03-01

    Low self-assertion has been noted as an important feature among patients with eating disorders. To verify, in a female population, if assertiveness is related or has a predictive capacity for the development of eating disorders. An structured clinical interview, the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-40) and the Rathus Assertiveness Scale (RAS) were administered to 62 patients that fulfilled the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for eating disorders and to 120 female students without eating problems. Patients with eating disorders ranked significantly higher on the EAT-40 and its factors (p assertiveness on the RAS (p Assertiveness measured by RAS and its factors was inversely related to EAT-40 and its items (r= -0.21). The predictive capability of the lack of self-assertion in the development of an eating disorder reached 53%, when patients with eating disorders and subjects at risk were considered together and compared to students without such disorder. Lack of assertiveness is a significant trait in patients with eating disorders; it may worsen its outcome and even perpetuate symptoms. Low self-assertion may be considered a predictive factor in the development of an eating disorder and must be managed from a preventive or therapeutic point of view.

  16. Metacognition in eating disorders: comparison of women with eating disorders, self-reported history of eating disorders or psychiatric problems, and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olstad, Siri; Solem, Stian; Hjemdal, Odin; Hagen, Roger

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare a clinical sample with eating disorders to different control samples on self-report measures of metacognition and eating disorder symptoms, in order to investigate the role of metacognition in eating disorders. The clinical group consisted of 53 female patients with eating disorders who completed the Metacognitions Questionnaire-30 and the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire 6.0. One-hundred and fifty women who served as a control group completed the questionnaires as an Internet survey. This control group was divided into three groups based on self-reported history of eating and psychiatric problems (N=47), other psychiatric problems (N=37), or no such problems (healthy controls: N=66). The clinical group scored significantly higher on dysfunctional metacognition than healthy controls, especially on "negative beliefs about uncontrollability and danger", "need to control thoughts", and total MCQ-30 score. Eating disorder symptomatology was positively correlated with metacognition. Metacognition explained 51% of the variance in eating disorder symptoms after controlling for age and BMI, with "need to control thoughts" as the most important factor. Metacognitive beliefs may be central in understanding eating disorders, and metacognitive treatment strategies could be a promising approach in developing new psychological treatments for eating disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Eating Disorders and Disordered Eating Symptoms in Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toni, Giada; Berioli, Maria Giulia; Cerquiglini, Laura; Ceccarini, Giulia; Grohmann, Ursula; Principi, Nicola; Esposito, Susanna

    2017-08-19

    Eating problems in adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D) can be divided into two groups. The first includes the diagnosed eating disorders (EDs), i.e., diseases specifically identified by defined signs and symptoms for which a degree of severity has been established, such as anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge-eating disorder, pica, and rumination. The second is the group of disordered eating symptoms (DES), which include behaviors such as dieting for weight loss, binge eating, self-induced vomiting, excessive exercise, and laxative or diuretic use; these behaviors cannot be categorized as complete diseases, and, although apparently mild, they must be closely evaluated because they can evolve into true EDs. In this review, present knowledge about the clinical relevance of EDs and DES and the possible preventive and therapeutic measures used to reduce their impact on the course of T1D will be discussed. As adolescents with diabetes are at higher risk of eating disturbances and consequently for higher rates of disease complications, care providers should pay attention to clinical warning signs that raise suspicion of disturbed eating to refer these patients early to an expert in nutrition and mental health disorders. To ensure the best care for adolescents with T1D, diabetes teams should be multidisciplinary and include a pediatric diabetologist, a skilled nurse, a dietician, and a psychologist.

  18. Exploring divergent trajectories: Disorder-specific moderators of the association between negative urgency and dysregulated eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racine, Sarah E; Martin, Shelby J

    2016-08-01

    Negative urgency (i.e., the tendency to act impulsively when experiencing negative emotions) is a well-established risk factor for dysregulated eating (e.g., binge eating, loss of control eating, emotional eating). However, negative urgency is transdiagnostic, in that it is associated with multiple forms of psychopathology. It is currently unclear why some individuals with high negative urgency develop dysregulated eating while others experience depressive symptoms or problematic alcohol use. Investigating disorder-specific moderators of the association between negative urgency and psychopathology may help elucidate these divergent trajectories. The current study examined interactions among negative urgency and eating disorder-specific risk factors specified in the well-established dual-pathway model of bulimic pathology (i.e., appearance pressures, thin-ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction, dietary restraint). We hypothesized that these interactions would predict dysregulated eating, but not depressive symptoms or problematic alcohol use. Latent moderated structural equation modeling was used to test this hypothesis in a large (N = 313) sample of female college students. Negative urgency was significantly associated with dysregulated eating, depressive symptoms, and problematic alcohol use. However, interactions among negative urgency and dual-pathway model variables were specific to dysregulated eating and accounted for an additional 3-5% of the variance beyond main effects. Findings suggest that eating disorder-specific risk factors may shape negative urgency into manifesting as dysregulated eating versus another form of psychopathology. Future research should use longitudinal designs to further test the impact of interactions among disorder-specific risk factors and negative urgency on divergent psychopathology trajectories.

  19. The overlap between binge eating disorder and substance use disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schreiber, Liana R N; Odlaug, Brian Lawrence; Grant, Jon E

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Binge eating disorder (BED) is a relatively common condition, especially in young adult females, and is characterized by chronic over-consumption of food resulting in embarrassment, distress, and potential health problems. It is formally included as a disorder in DSM-5...

  20. Body image, eating disorders, and the media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Marjorie J; Strasburger, Victor C

    2008-12-01

    Adolescence is a time of tremendous change in physical appearance. Many adolescents report dissatisfaction with their body shape and size. Forming one's body image is a complex process, influenced by family, peers, and media messages. Increasing evidence shows that the combination of ubiquitous ads for foods and emphasis on female beauty and thinness in both advertising and programming leads to confusion and dissatisfaction for many young people. Sociocultural factors, specifically media exposure, play an important role in the development of disordered body image. Of significant concern, studies have revealed a link between media exposure and the likelihood of having symptoms of disordered eating or a frank eating disorder. Pediatricians and other adults must work to promote media education and make media healthier for young people. More research is needed to identify the most vulnerable children and adolescents.

  1. Pharmacologic Treatments for Binge-Eating Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElroy, Susan L

    2017-01-01

    Binge-eating disorder (BED) is the most common eating disorder and is associated with poor physical and mental health outcomes. Psychological and behavioral interventions have been a mainstay of treatment for BED, but as understanding of this disorder has grown, pharmacologic agents have become promising treatment options for some patients. At this time, only one drug-the stimulant prodrug lisdexamfetamine-is approved for the treatment of BED. Numerous classes of medications including antidepressants, anticonvulsants, and antiobesity drugs have been explored as off-label treatments for BED with variable success. Although not all patients with BED may be suitable candidates for pharmacotherapy, all patients should be considered for and educated about pharmacologic treatment options. © Copyright 2017 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  2. Oral health in female patients with eating disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazurek Mateusz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to evaluate oral health in women with eating disorders. The clinical study covered 30 patients aged 14-36 years suffering from diagnosed eating disorders and treated in closed psychiatric institutions. The control group comprised 30 healthy women at the mean age corresponding to that of the patient group. No relationships were confirmed between eating disorders and the intensity of dental caries. Eating disorders contribute to increased loss of dental hard tissues. In women suffering from eating disorders non-specific lesions in oral cavity are more common than in healthy women.

  3. Eating disorders today--not just a girl thing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepworth, Kimberly

    2010-01-01

    Most people envision eating disorders occurring in young women with anorexia or bulimia. Today, disordered eating is increasingly prevalent in males and in every age group, along with new terms: binge eating, bigorexia, orthorexia, and diabulimia. Healthcare providers aware of and knowledgeable about eating disorders, signs and symptoms, risk factors, and treatment are better able to screen patients, assist them in receiving help earlier, and increase the likelihood of successful outcomes.

  4. Preventing Eating Disorder Pathology: Common and Unique Features of Successful Eating Disorders Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciao, Anna C.; Loth, Katie; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2014-01-01

    Over the past two decades, the field of eating disorders has made remarkable strides in identifying, evaluating, and disseminating successful prevention programs. The current review identifies and discusses nine distinct eating disorders prevention programs that reduce existing eating disorder pathology or prevent the onset of future pathology. Each program was evaluated in one or more controlled trial with a follow-up period of at least six months. We review the evidence base for these nine successful programs and discuss their common and unique features. Based on authors’ descriptions of their programs in published trials, we found that all programs were theory-driven, targeted one or more eating disorder risk factor (e.g., body dissatisfaction), were delivered across multiple group sessions, and included at least some interactive content. Most programs included content related to healthy eating/nutrition, media literacy/sociocultural pressures, and body acceptance/body satisfaction. Notably, there was wide variation in some participant features (e.g., participant age, sex, risk status) and intervention features (e.g., setting and format, length and dose, providers), suggesting that a variety of programs are beneficial in impacting eating disorder pathology. Implications and directions for future research are discussed, including an increased focus on universal and indicated prevention programs, expanding programs to a wider age range and a broader spectrum of weight-related problems, and rigorous evaluation of programs through efficacy, effectiveness, and implementation research. PMID:24821099

  5. Preventing eating disorder pathology: common and unique features of successful eating disorders prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciao, Anna C; Loth, Katie; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2014-07-01

    Over the past two decades, the field of eating disorders has made remarkable strides in identifying, evaluating, and disseminating successful prevention programs. The current review identifies and discusses nine distinct eating disorders prevention programs that reduce existing eating disorder pathology or prevent the onset of future pathology. Each program was evaluated in one or more controlled trial with a follow-up period of at least six months. We review the evidence base for these nine successful programs and discuss their common and unique features. Based on authors' descriptions of their programs in published trials, we found that all programs were theory-driven, targeted one or more eating disorder risk factor (e.g., body dissatisfaction), were delivered across multiple group sessions, and included at least some interactive content. Most programs included content related to healthy eating/nutrition, media literacy/sociocultural pressures, and body acceptance/body satisfaction. Notably, there was wide variation in some participant features (e.g., participant age, sex, risk status) and intervention features (e.g., setting and format, length and dose, providers), suggesting that a variety of programs are beneficial in impacting eating disorder pathology. Implications and directions for future research are discussed, including an increased focus on universal and indicated prevention programs, expanding programs to a wider age range and a broader spectrum of weight-related problems, and rigorous evaluation of programs through efficacy, effectiveness, and implementation research.

  6. Adherence to Alternative Healthy Eating Index in relation to depression and anxiety in Iranian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saneei, Parvane; Hajishafiee, Maryam; Keshteli, Ammar Hassanzadeh; Afshar, Hamid; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Adibi, Peyman

    2016-07-01

    Earlier studies have shown a protective association between adherence to healthy eating guidelines and mental disorders in Western nations; however, data in this regard are limited from the understudied region of Middle East. We examined the association between adherence to healthy eating guidelines, as measured by Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI)-2010, and prevalence of anxiety and depression in a large sample of Iranian adults. In this cross-sectional study, data on dietary intakes of 3363 adult participants were collected using a validated dish-based 106-item semi-quantitative FFQ. Adherence to healthy eating was quantified using AHEI-2010, as suggested by earlier publications. The Iranian validated version of Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was used to assess anxiety and depression in study participants. Data on other covariates were gathered using a pre-tested questionnaire. Overall, the prevalence of anxiety and depression was 15·2 % (males 10·8 % and females 18·3 %) and 30·0 % (males 22·9 % and females 35·1 %), respectively. After controlling for potential confounders, those in the top quartile of AHEI-2010 had a 49 % lower chance of anxiety (OR 0·51; 95 % CI 0·35, 0·72) and a 45 % lower odds of depression (OR 0·55; 95 % CI 0·42, 0·72), compared with those in the bottom quartile. Stratified analysis by sex revealed that women in the highest categories of AHEI-2010 had a 49 % lower odds of having anxiety and depression, after adjustment for confounders, but no significant association was found in men. In addition, among individuals who were 40 years old or younger, those with high adherence to AHEI-2010 were 58 and 51 % less likely to have anxiety and depression, compared with those with less adherence. Adherence to healthy eating was inversely associated with a lower chance of anxiety and depression in Iranian adults. Prospective studies are required to confirm these associations in Middle-Eastern populations.

  7. Central and peripheral noradrenalin regulation in eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirke, K M

    1996-04-16

    Norepinephrine and its metabolites were studied in various body fluids (plasma, urine and cerebrospinal fluid) of patients with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and healthy young women. The reaction of plasma norepinephrine to different stimuli like orthostatic challenge, test meals, standardized exercise, mental challenge tests etc. were studied. All results indicate a reduced noradrenergic activity in the central and peripheral nervous system of patients with eating disorders. The clinical consequences of these changes are hypotension, bradicardia, hypothermia and depression. Evidence is presented that the reduced activity of the sympathetic nervous system is caused by starvation (anorexia nervosa) or intermittent dieting (bulimia nervosa).

  8. Suicidal behavior and self-harm in girls with eating disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koutek J

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Jiri Koutek, Jana Kocourkova, Iva Dudova Department of Child Psychiatry, Charles University Second Faculty of Medicine, University Hospital Motol, Prague, Czech Republic Abstract: Comorbid psychopathology, including self-harm and suicidal behavior, is often found in patients with eating disorders. To better understand the reasons for high comorbid psychopathology among eating disorders, self-harm, and suicidal behavior, we examined this comorbidity in female patients hospitalized with eating disorders. In a sample of 47 girls admitted for anorexia nervosa, atypical anorexia nervosa, and bulimia nervosa, 72% had depressive symptoms, 11% had obsessive-compulsive symptoms, 9% had anxiety disorder, 23% had substance abuse, and 57% had disharmonious personality development. Suicidal behavior was present in 60% of patients and self-harm in 49%. Association was found between self-harm and suicidality. In all, 68% of girls with eating disorders had a positive score in the Children’s Depression Inventory questionnaire and 62% of them in the Child Adolescent Suicidal Potential Index questionnaire. Clinical examination of girls with eating disorders should focus on identifying the risk of suicidal behavior and self-harm. Keywords: eating disorders, child, adolescent, self-harm, suicidal behavior

  9. Does enhanced cognitive behaviour therapy for eating disorders improve quality of life?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Hunna J; Allen, Karina; Fursland, Anthea; Byrne, Susan M; Nathan, Paula R

    2012-09-01

    Quality of life (QOL) is the degree of enjoyment and satisfaction experienced in life, and embraces emotional well-being, physical health, economic and living circumstances, and work satisfaction. QOL recovery with eating disorder treatment has received sparse attention, and until now, no study has investigated QOL recovery with enhanced cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT-E). Patients (n = 196) admitted to a specialist eating disorders outpatient programme and receiving CBT-E completed measures of QOL, eating disorder psychopathology, depression, anxiety and self-esteem, before and after treatment. QOL at intake was compared with community norms, and QOL below the norm was predicted from sociodemographic and clinical correlates with logistic regression. Baseline QOL below the norm was associated with depression and anxiety Axis I comorbidity, and severity of depressive symptoms. Predictors of post-treatment QOL were baseline QOL and level of depressive symptoms and self-esteem at post-treatment. CBT-E was associated with gains in QOL over the course of treatment, in addition to eating disorder symptom relief. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  10. Social and individual influences on eating in pre-adolescents: The role of friends’ eating behaviours and individual anxiety and depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Houldcroft

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Friends are important role models for the formation of social norms and behaviour comparisons, particularly in children. This study examined the similarities between pre-adolescent children’s own eating behaviours with the eating behaviours of those in their friendship group. It also evaluated whether symptoms of anxiety and depression were related to eating behaviours in this age group. Methods: Three hundred and forty three children (mean age 8.75 years completed questionnaires designed to measure dietary restraint, emotional eating and external eating, as well as general and social anxiety, and symptoms of depression. Children also provided details about their friendship groups. Results: Pre-adolescents’ dietary restraint was positively predicted by the dietary restraint of members of their friendship groups, and their individual levels of anxiety and depression. The levels of general anxiety exhibited by pre-adolescents predicted emotional and external eating behaviours. Younger children were significantly more likely to report higher levels of emotional and external eating than older children, and boys were more likely to report more external eating behaviours than girls. Conclusions: These results suggest that greater dieting behaviours in pre-adolescents are related to their friends’ reports of greater dieting behaviours. In contrast, greater levels of eating governed by emotions, and eating in response to external hunger cues, are related to greater symptoms of anxiety in pre-adolescent children. Such findings underline the importance of friends’ social influences on dieting behaviours in this age group and highlight the value of targeting healthy eating and eating disorder prevention interventions at pre-adolescents.

  11. Personality Disorders in patients with disorders in eating behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Vanesa Carina Góngora

    2016-01-01

    The interest for the systematic study of personality disorder in patients with eating disorders starts in 1980 with the edition of the DSM III multiaxial classification system. Since then, several publications have been focused on the prevalence and the effect on treatment of personality disorders in bulimic and anorexic patients. These researches showed inconsistent results due to conceptual and methodological divergences. In this paper, the more relevant findings of these studies are presen...

  12. Eating Disorders in African American Girls: Implications for Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talleyrand, Regine M.

    2010-01-01

    Given the recent focus on eating disorders in children, it is imperative that counselors consider eating concerns that affect children of all racial and ethnic groups and hence are effective in working with this population. The author discusses risk factors that potentially contribute to eating disorders in African American girls given their…

  13. Eating Disorders in African American Girls: Implications for Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talleyrand, Regine M.

    2010-01-01

    Given the recent focus on eating disorders in children, it is imperative that counselors consider eating concerns that affect children of all racial and ethnic groups and hence are effective in working with this population. The author discusses risk factors that potentially contribute to eating disorders in African American girls given their…

  14. Evidence-Based Practices in Outpatient Treatment for Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffner, Angela D.; Buchanan, Linda Paulk

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the current issues relevant to implementing evidence-based practices in the context of outpatient treatment for eating disorders. The study also examined the effectiveness of an outpatient treatment program for eating disorders among a group of 196 patients presenting with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, or eating disorder…

  15. Risk of Eating Disorders among Female College Athletes and Nonathletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Ginger; Singh, Kusum; Getz, Hildy

    2001-01-01

    Compares the prevalence of eating disorder behaviors between female collegiate athletes and female college nonathletes. Although female nonathletes had somewhat higher average scores on the Eating Attitudes Test 26, the proportion at risk for disordered eating was not different in the two groups. There was no significant difference among female…

  16. Interpersonal problems across restrictive and binge-purge samples: data from a community-based eating disorders clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raykos, Bronwyn C; McEvoy, Peter M; Carter, Olivia; Fursland, Anthea; Nathan, Paula

    2014-08-01

    Contemporary models of eating disorders suggest that interpersonal problems contribute to the maintenance of eating disorders. This study examined whether baseline interpersonal problems differed across eating disorder diagnoses and across eating disorder subtypes ("restrictors" vs. "binge-purge" patients) in a large clinical sample. Patients with a primary eating disorder diagnosis (N=406) completed measures of interpersonal problems, eating disorder symptoms, and mood prior to treatment at a specialist eating disorder clinic. Across the sample, more severe eating disorder psychopathology was associated with significantly greater difficulty socializing. Anorexia Nervosa (AN)/restrictor patients reported significantly greater difficulty socializing than Bulimia Nervosa (BN)/binge-purge patients. AN patients reported significantly greater difficulty on a measure of competitiveness/assertiveness compared to BN and Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified patients. All findings were significant after controlling for comorbid depression and anxiety symptoms. Interpersonal problems appear to be unique risk factors for eating disorders. Specific interpersonal mechanisms include difficulties socializing and being assertive, which were most pronounced in AN patients. These findings provide potential avenues for enhancing interventions, such as adjunctive assertiveness training for AN.

  17. Primary Prevention of Eating Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shisslak, Catherine M.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Summarizes current understanding of anorexia nervosa and bulimia (clinical symptoms and outcome, prevalence and risk factors), offering suggestions for the primary prevention of these disorders at the individual, family, and community levels, and emphasizing prevention in the schools. (Author/KS)

  18. Olfaction in eating disorders and abnormal eating behavior: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Anisul eIslam; Ana Beatriz Fagundo; Jon eArcelus; Zaida eAguera; Susana eJiménez-Murcia; Jose Manuel Fernandez-Real; Francisco J Tinahones; Rafael eDe La Torre; Cristina eBotella; Gema eFrühbeck; Casanueva, Felipe F; Jose M Menchon; Fernando eFernandez-Aranda

    2015-01-01

    The study provides a systematic review that explores the current literature on olfactory capacity in abnormal eating behavior. The objective is to present a basis for discussion on whether research in olfaction in eating disorders may offer additional insight with regard to the complex etiopathology of eating disorders (ED) and abnormal eating behaviors. Electronic databases (Medline, PsycINFO, PubMed, Science Direct, and Web of Science) were searched using the components in relation to olfac...

  19. Does maternal history of eating disorders predict mothers' feeding practices and preschoolers' emotional eating?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Barse, Lisanne M; Tharner, Anne; Micali, Nadia; Jaddoe, Vincent V W; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C; Franco, Oscar H; Tiemeier, Henning; Jansen, Pauline W

    2015-02-01

    We aimed to examine whether a maternal history of eating disorders predicted mothers' feeding practices and preschoolers' emotional eating patterns. Data were available from 4851 mothers and their children, who participated in a Dutch population-based cohort study (the Generation R Study). Maternal history of lifetime eating disorders was assessed during pregnancy using a self-report questionnaire. Mothers filled out the Child Feeding Questionnaire and the Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaire when children were four years old. Linear regression analyses were performed, adjusting for potential confounders. Of all mothers, 8.6% had a history of an eating disorder (2.5% anorexia nervosa (AN); 3.9% bulimia nervosa (BN); 2.2% both AN and BN). Compared to mothers without a history of eating disorders, mothers with a history of eating disorders, in particular AN, used less pressuring feeding strategies (standardized B = -0.30; 95% CI: -0.49, -0.11). Children of mothers with a history of AN had relatively high levels of emotional overeating (standardized B = 0.19; 95% CI: 0.00, 0.39). Maternal history of BN was not related to mothers' feeding practices or children's emotional eating. Overall, the levels of emotional overeating among children of mothers with a history of eating disorders are noteworthy, particularly considering the young age (4 years) of participating children. This finding may reflect an effect of maternal eating disorders on the development of disordered eating patterns, but could also be subject to mothers' perception.

  20. Psychopathology and hormonal disturbances in eating disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierpaola D’Arista

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Our aim was to study the relationship between hormonal disturbances and psychopathology in Eating Disorders (ED.

    Methods: Forty-nine women diagnosed as Eating Disorders according to DSM-IV were subjected to control plasma levels of TSH, FT3, FT4, LH, FSH, 17beta-estradiol, prolactin, cortisol, DHEAS, GH and IGF-1. They were also administered by SCL-90R, BAT, DES II questionnaires. We applied multivariate regression models.

    Results: Our results highlight a statistically significant relation between LH, FSH and prolactin decreased levels, mood and thought disturbances (subscales 3, 5, 7, 8 and 9 of SCL-90r which are associated to Body Attitude ( BAT total scale and Dissociative Experiences (DES II total scale.

    Conclusions: Decreased sexual hormones levels could have a role in ED psychological disturbances, not inquired yet

  1. Appropriate care for children with eating disorders and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Radhi, A Sahib

    Eating disorders are essentially psychological diseases that are characterised by abnormal eating habits. Anorexia nervosa and bulimia are the most common forms of eating disorders. There is an increased recognition of eating disorders among both men and women, and growing numbers of children and teenagers seeking help for eating disorders. Fear of body-weight gain is central to both anorexia nervosa and bulimia. Before the diagnosis of an eating disorder is made, it is essential to exclude organic diseases that may present with similar symptoms to eating disorders. Management initially should focus on correcting the nutritional deficiencies and dehydration at a paediatric or paediatric gastroenterology department, followed by a multidisciplinary approach. At the other extreme, the prevalence of obesity in children is increasing at an alarming rate, and presents a serious public health challenge.

  2. Altered brain reward circuits in eating disorders: chicken or egg?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Guido K W

    2013-10-01

    The eating disorders anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) are severe psychiatric disorders with high mortality. Our knowledge about the neurobiology of eating disorders is very limited, and the question remains whether alterations in brain structure or function in eating disorders are state related, remnants of the illness or premorbid traits. The brain reward system is a relatively well-characterized brain circuitry that plays a central role in the drive to eat and individuals with current or past eating disorders showed alterations in those pathways compared to controls. Here we propose that structural and functional alterations in the insula and frontal cortex, including orbitofrontal and cingulate regions, areas that contribute to reward and anxiety processing, could predispose to developing an eating disorder and that adaptive changes in those circuits in response to malnutrition or repeated binge eating and purging could further promote illness behavior, hinder recovery and contribute to relapse.

  3. Evaluation of the DSM-5 severity indicator for binge eating disorder in a clinical sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilo, Carlos M; Ivezaj, Valentina; White, Marney A

    2015-08-01

    This study tested the new DSM-5 severity criterion for binge eating disorder (BED) based on frequency of binge-eating in a clinical sample. This study also tested overvaluation of shape/weight as an alternative severity specifier. Participants were 834 treatment-seeking adults diagnosed with DSM-5 BED using semi-structured diagnostic and eating-disorder interviews. Participants sub-grouped based on DSM-5 severity levels and on overvaluation of shape/weight were compared on demographic and clinical variables. Based on DSM-5 severity definitions, 331 (39.7%) participants were categorized as mild, 395 (47.5%) as moderate, 83 (10.0%) as severe, and 25 (3.0%) as extreme. Analyses comparing three (mild, moderate, and severe/extreme) severity groups revealed no significant differences in demographic variables or body mass index (BMI). Analyses revealed significantly higher eating-disorder psychopathology in the severe/extreme than moderate and mild groups and higher depression in moderate and severe/extreme groups than the mild group; effect sizes were small. Participants characterized with overvaluation (N = 449; 54%) versus without overvaluation (N = 384; 46%) did not differ significantly in age, sex, BMI, or binge-eating frequency, but had significantly greater eating-disorder psychopathology and depression. The robustly greater eating-disorder psychopathology and depression levels (medium-to-large effect sizes) in the overvaluation group was observed without attenuation of effect sizes after adjusting for ethnicity/race and binge-eating severity/frequency. Our findings provide support for overvaluation of shape/weight as a severity specifier for BED as it provides stronger information about the severity of homogeneous groupings of patients than the DSM-5 rating based on binge-eating. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A review of eating disorders in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponton, L E

    1995-01-01

    Many review articles address the diverse and rapidly developing field of eating disorders, but there are far fewer articles addressing the specific population of adolescents. The social contributors (desire for thinness amplified by the media) to these illnesses are considerable and affect all adolescent and latency-age girls to some degree. Understanding the full range of behavior and those at high risk to develop pathology is important. Developing prevention programs that target adolescent girls and their families, schools, and the relevant media is also important. Prevention has been a much-neglected area within the field of eating disorders. The chronic nature of eating disorders characterized by remission and relapse bears further study. Attention to the factors that provoke a symptomatic period is crucial. Along with relapse and remission are shifts between diagnostic categories within the field of eating disorders and comorbid illnesses. A better understanding of the factors that cause these shifts to occur would be quite valuable. Outcome and prospective studies would provide valuable information about the course of the illnesses and further identify the individuals at high risk. Certain groups are known to be at high risk, such as girls involved in specific athletics (e.g., gymnastics) or career activities, but recent investigations have indicated that girls involved in what was previously believed to be a low risk activity, such as swimming, may also be at risk (Benson et al., 1990). Further investigation of these factors is crucial. Cultural factors play a role in these illnesses, and cross-cultural studies provide crucial information. We must also continue to explore the biological and psychological correlates of these illnesses and further define the complex and heterogeneous etiology of these illnesses. Their study still promises to yield exciting challenges. Increased public awareness regarding the need for treatment of these illnesses is a high

  5. Genetics and epigenetics of eating disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Yilmaz Z; Hardaway JA; Bulik CM

    2015-01-01

    Zeynep Yilmaz,1 J Andrew Hardaway,1 Cynthia M Bulik1–3 1Department of Psychiatry, 2Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; 3Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden Abstract: Eating disorders (EDs) are serious psychiatric conditions influenced by biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors. A better understanding of the genetics of these complex traits and the developm...

  6. Binge Eating Disorder: A Review of a New "DSM" Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Laura L.; Wiman, Allison M.

    2014-01-01

    In 1994, binge eating disorder (BED) was introduced as a disorder requiring further study in the "American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders", fourth edition ("DSM-IV"). It is now listed as a distinct eating disorder in the "DSM-5", along with bulimia nervosa and anorexia…

  7. Binge Eating Disorder: A Review of a New "DSM" Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Laura L.; Wiman, Allison M.

    2014-01-01

    In 1994, binge eating disorder (BED) was introduced as a disorder requiring further study in the "American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders", fourth edition ("DSM-IV"). It is now listed as a distinct eating disorder in the "DSM-5", along with bulimia nervosa and…

  8. Binge Eating Disorder: A Review of a New "DSM" Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Laura L.; Wiman, Allison M.

    2014-01-01

    In 1994, binge eating disorder (BED) was introduced as a disorder requiring further study in the "American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders", fourth edition ("DSM-IV"). It is now listed as a distinct eating disorder in the "DSM-5", along with bulimia nervosa and anorexia…

  9. The relationship between self-injurious behavior and self-disclosure in adolescents with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klomek, Anat Brunstein; Lev-Wiesel, Rachel; Shellac, Evia; Hadas, Arik; Berger, Uri; Horwitz, Mira; Fennig, Silvana

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the current study is to examine the association between self disclosure and self-injurious behaviors among adolescent patients diagnosed with an eating disorder. Sixty three female patients who fulfilled the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria of eating disorders were included (i.e. anorexia, bulimia, binge eating disorder and eating disorders not otherwise specified). Participants' age ranged from 11.5 to 20 years (M = 15.42, SD = 1.82). Participants completed self- report questionnaires about eating disorders, self-disclosure, self-injurious behaviors (FASM) and depression (BDI-II) RESULTS: 82.5% of the sample endorsed severe self-injurious behaviors. A moderate negative relationship was found between general disclosure to parents and self-injurious behaviors indicating that patients who generally self-disclose to their parents (on different topics, apart from suicidal ideation) engage less frequently in self-injurious behaviors. In addition, the more patients self-disclose their suicidal ideation to others, the more they tend to self-injure. Self-disclosure to parents on any topic may buffer against self-injurious behaviors and therefore it is important to work with adolescents suffering from eating disorders on effective self disclosure. In addition, self-disclosure about suicidal ideation to others by adolescents suffering from eating disorders should always be taken seriously, since it may be related to self-injurious behaviors.

  10. Prevalence and correlates of binge eating in seasonal affective disorder

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Eating pathology in Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) may be more severe than hyperphagia during winter. Although research has documented elevated rates of subclinical binge eating in women with SAD, the prevalence and correlates of BED in SAD remain largely uncharacterized. We examined the prevalence and correlates of binge eating, weekly binge eating with distress, and BED as defined by the DSM-IV-TR in SAD. We also tested whether binge eating exhibits a seasonal pattern among individuals w...

  11. [Eating disorders as risk factors for osteoporosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Gallardo, Ma Teresa; Ma del Socorro, Parra-Cabrera; Barriguete-Meléndez, Jorge Armando

    2005-01-01

    Eating disorders (TCA per its abbreviation in Spanish) are common in young women, with an estimated prevalence of 4-5%. One of the physical complications of eating disorders, especially anorexia nervosa (AN) and eating disorder not otherwise specified (TANE) is bone mass loss, which affects both cortical and trabecular bone. The synergistic effect of malnutrition and estrogen deficiency produces significant bone mass loss, resulting from the uncoupling of bone turnover characterized by a decrease in osteoblastic bone formation and an increase in osteclastic bone resorption. The mechanisms implied in the pathogenesis of bone loss are the hypoestrogenism, hypercortisolism, serum leptin levels and insulin-like growth factor decrease. Severity of bone loss in anorexia nervosa varies depending on duration of illness, the minimal weight ever and sedentarism or strenuous exercise. Long term consequences occur, such as a fracture risk increase in patients who have suffered anorexia nervosa, compared with the general population. The first treatment line to recover bone mass is nutritional rehabilitation together with weight gain. Hormonal replacement therapy may be effective if combined with an anabolic method. Osteopenia and osteoporosis are terms adopted to define the deficiency of bone mass in adults. Authors have used these terms to define densitometric data in young subjects who have not reached their peak bone mass. We suggest the term "hypo-osteogenesia" to define the deficiency in the development of bone mass in adolescents or children.

  12. The role of complementary and alternative medicine in the treatment of eating disorders: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Sarah; Smith, Caroline A; Hay, Phillipa

    2016-04-01

    This systematic review critically appraises the role of complementary and alternative medicine in the treatment of those with an eating disorder. Sixteen studies were included in the review. The results of this review show that the role of complementary and alternative medicine in the treatment of those with an eating disorder is unclear and further studies should be conducted. A potential role was found for massage and bright light therapy for depression in those with Bulimia Nervosa and a potential role for acupuncture and relaxation therapy, in the treatment of State Anxiety, for those with an eating disorder. The role of these complementary therapies in treating eating disorders should only be provided as an adjunctive treatment only.

  13. [Eating disorders and psychiatric day hospital treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekui, C A; Weber, K

    2015-02-11

    Eating disorders are complex pathologies characterised by the entanglement between physical and mental aspects and by their high impact on health. Studies on care models showed the need for other therapeutic modalities due to the complexity of treatments, the risk of recurrence after hospitalisation, as well as to the cost and duration of hospital stays. Day hospitals specific to these disorders have been created, albeit with very few studies. Even though the available studies tend to find good therapeutic efficacy, they are disparate, describing care centres that are rather different in their structure and theoretical approach, and factors of therapeutic efficacy are not always well described.

  14. The relationship between compulsive buying and eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, James E; Redlin, Jennifer; Wonderlich, Steve; Crosby, Ross; Faber, Ron; Miltenberger, Ray; Smyth, Joshua; Stickney, Marci; Gosnell, Blake; Burgard, Melissa; Lancaster, Kathy

    2002-07-01

    Compulsive buying has received increased research attention in the last decade. The disorder has high rates of comorbidity for other disorders, including eating disorders. This study explored the possible relationship between compulsive buying and eating disorders. Twenty women who scored in the pathological range on a measure of compulsive buying and 20 controls were recruited via the media. Various measures of psychopathology and eating disorder symptoms were administered to both groups. Compulsive buyers were significantly more likely to have a higher lifetime history of substance abuse or dependence. No differences existed between normal controls and compulsive buyers in prevalence of current or lifetime eating disorders, nor were there differences in scores of eating-related psychopathology. This work failed to demonstrate an increased risk for eating disorder in compulsive buyers, although a higher rate of substance dependence or abuse and higher scores on pathological personality dimension scales were seen.

  15. Depressed affect and dietary restraint in adolescent boys' and girls' eating in the absence of hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Nichole R; Shomaker, Lauren B; Pickworth, Courtney K; Grygorenko, Mariya V; Radin, Rachel M; Vannucci, Anna; Shank, Lisa M; Brady, Sheila M; Courville, Amber B; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Yanovski, Jack A

    2015-08-01

    Data suggest that depressed affect and dietary restraint are related to disinhibited eating patterns in children and adults. Yet, experimental research has not determined to what extent depressed affect acutely affects eating in the absence of physiological hunger (EAH) in adolescents. In the current between-subjects experimental study, we measured EAH in 182 adolescent (13-17 y) girls (65%) and boys as ad libitum palatable snack food intake after youth ate to satiety from a buffet meal. Just prior to EAH, participants were randomly assigned to view either a sad or neutral film clip. Dietary restraint was measured with the Eating Disorder Examination. Adolescents who viewed the sad film clip reported small but significant increases in state depressed affect relative to adolescents who viewed the neutral film clip (p < .001). Yet, there was no main effect of film condition on EAH (p = .26). Instead, dietary restraint predicted greater EAH among girls, but not boys (p < .001). These findings provide evidence that adolescent girls' propensity to report restrained eating is associated with their greater disinhibited eating in the laboratory. Additional experimental research, perhaps utilizing a more potent laboratory stressor and manipulating both affective state and dietary restraint, is required to elucidate how state affect may interact with dietary restraint to influence EAH during adolescence.

  16. Development and validity of the Disordered Eating Attitude Scale (DEAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarenga, Marle dos Santos; Scagliusi, Fernanda Baeza; Philippi, Sonia Tucunduva

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and validate the Disordered Eating Attitude Scale to measure disordered eating attitudes, defined as abnormal beliefs, thoughts, feelings, behaviors, and relationship regarding food. Exploratory factor analysis was performed and internal consistency assessed in a sample of female university students (N=196). Convergent validity was acceptable based on statistically significant correlations with the Eating Attitude Test-26 and Restraint Scale. Known-groups validity was determined by comparing the student sample's mean scores against scores of an eating disorder group (N=51). The Disordered Eating Attitude Scale comprises 25 questions and five subscales explaining 54.3% of total variance. The total scores differentiated student, bulimia, and anorexia groups. The scale should prove useful for evaluating eating attitudes in various population groups and eating disordered patients.

  17. Personality and Eating Disorders: A Longitudinal Study on a Non-Clinical Sample of Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    De Caro, Elide Francesca; Di Blas, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    The present longitudinal study is aimed at analyzing how adolescents change their dysfunctional attitudes towards their body and eating behaviors in relation to personality characteristics across a six-month time span. Via multiple regression analyses we investigated whether MMPI-A Obsessiveness, Low Self-Esteem, Depression, Family Problems and Concern for health are temporal antecedents of EDI-2 eating disorders, and vice versa. Our main findings revealed a bidirectio...

  18. Eating disorder symptomatology in normal-weight vs. obese individuals with binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldschmidt, Andrea B; Le Grange, Daniel; Powers, Pauline; Crow, Scott J; Hill, Laura L; Peterson, Carol B; Crosby, Ross D; Mitchell, Jim E

    2011-07-01

    Although normal-weight individuals comprise a substantial minority of the binge eating disorder (BED) population, little is known about their clinical presentation. This study sought to investigate the nature and severity of eating disturbances in normal-weight adults with BED. We compared 281 normal-weight (n = 86) and obese (n = 195) treatment-seeking adults with BED (mean age = 31.0; s.d. = 10.8) on a range of current and past eating disorder symptoms using ANOVA and χ(2) analyses. After controlling for age and sex, normal-weight participants reported more frequent use of a range of healthy and unhealthy weight control behaviors compared to their obese peers, including eating fewer meals and snacks per day; exercising and skipping meals more frequently in the past month; and avoiding certain foods for weight control. They also endorsed more frequent attempts at dieting in the past year, and feeling more frequently distressed about their binge eating, at a trend level. There were no group differences in binge eating frequency in the past month, age at onset of binge eating, overvaluation of shape/weight, or likelihood of having used certain weight control behaviors (e.g., vomiting, laxative use) or having sought treatment for an eating disorder in the past. Based on our findings, normal-weight individuals appear to be a behaviorally distinct subset of the BED population with significantly greater usage of both healthy and unhealthy weight control behaviors compared to their obese peers. These results refute the notion that distress and impairment in BED are simply a result of comorbid obesity.

  19. Attitude and knowledge changes in collegiate dancers following a short-term, team-centered prevention program on eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-McGehee, Toni M; Green, James M; Leaver-Dunn, Deidre; Leeper, James D; Bishop, Phillip A; Richardson, Mark T

    2011-06-01

    Eating knowledge, nutritional knowledge, and psychological changes among female collegiate dancers were examined before and after a 4-wk. team-centered program on sport nutrition, exercise, and disordered eating consequences. Collegiate female dancers from two NCAA Division I institutions participated in a control (n = 19; M age = 19.1 yr., SD = 1.0) or intervention (n = 21; M age = 19.2 yr., SD = 1.2) group. Measures were administered to both groups before and after intervention to assess eating disorders, depression, and nutritional and disordered eating knowledge. There was a statistically significant increase in scores on nutritional and overall eating disorder knowledge in the intervention group compared to the control group. Mean scores on depression, drive for thinness, body dissatisfaction, and maturity fears decreased in the intervention group.

  20. Motivational dynamics underlying eating regulation in young and adult female dieters: relationships with healthy eating behaviours and disordered eating symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstuyf, Joke; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Soetens, Barbara; Soenens, Bart

    2016-06-01

    To investigate whether type of goals and motives underlying females' eating regulation are associated differentially with daily eating behaviours, dependent upon weight and age category. 99 late adolescent female dieters (Mage = 18.94) and 98 adult female dieters (Mage = 45.06), 23.6% of which were overweight, completed a questionnaire and a 7-day diary assessment. Descriptive analysis and path analysis were performed to investigate the research questions. Healthy eating behaviours (HEHS), drive for thinness and binge eating symptoms (EDI). Appearance-focused and controlled eating regulation were positively related to disordered eating symptoms throughout the week. In contrast, autonomous and health-focused eating regulation were associated positively with healthy eating behaviours and were either related negatively or unrelated to disordered eating symptoms. Mean level differences in motivation and eating behaviours emerged according to age and weight status. However, the examined structural model was similar for late adolescent and adult dieters and only few differences emerged between normal-weight and overweight dieters. Dieters' type of motivation helps to explain when eating regulation relates to healthy and disordered eating symptoms.

  1. Nonnormative eating behavior and psychopathology in prebariatric patients with binge-eating disorder and night eating syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldofski, Sabrina; Tigges, Wolfgang; Herbig, Beate; Jurowich, Christian; Kaiser, Stefan; Stroh, Christine; de Zwaan, Martina; Dietrich, Arne; Rudolph, Almut; Hilbert, Anja

    2015-01-01

    Binge-eating disorder (BED) as a distinct eating disorder category and night eating syndrome (NES) as a form of Other Specified Feeding or Eating Disorders were recently included in the 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). This study sought to investigate the prevalence of BED and NES and associations with various forms of nonnormative eating behavior and psychopathology in prebariatric patients. Within a consecutive multicenter registry study, patients in 6 bariatric surgery centers in Germany were recruited. Overall, 233 prebariatric patients were assessed using the Eating Disorder Examination and self-report questionnaires. Assessment was unrelated to clinical procedures. Diagnostic criteria for full-syndrome BED and NES were currently met by 4.3% and 8.2% of prebariatric patients, respectively. In addition, 8.6% and 6.9% of patients met subsyndromal BED and NES criteria, respectively. Co-morbid BED and NES diagnoses were present in 3.9% of patients. In comparison to patients without any eating disorder symptoms, patients with BED and NES reported greater emotional eating, eating in the absence of hunger, and more symptoms of food addiction. Moreover, differences between patients with BED and NES emerged with more objective binge-eating episodes and higher levels of eating concern, weight concern, and global eating disorder psychopathology in patients with BED. BED and NES were shown to be prevalent among prebariatric patients, with some degree of overlap between diagnoses. Associations with nonnormative eating behavior and psychopathology point to their clinical significance and discriminant validity. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Disordered eating patterns in coeliac disease: a framework analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satherley, R-M; Higgs, S; Howard, R

    2017-04-17

    The need for dietary-management in coeliac disease may lead to the development of disordered eating patterns. A theoretical model of disordered eating has been proposed to explain disordered eating in coeliac disease. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of typical and disordered eating in coeliac disease to gain a greater understanding of these processes and explore specific pathways within this model. We interviewed 21 individuals with coeliac disease, recruited from a previous database, about their experiences with food and food environments. Information about disordered eating status was assessed via questionnaire. The interviews were analysed qualitatively using Framework analysis, which was underpinned by the theoretical model of disordered eating in coeliac disease. Experiences differed between participants scoring high on measures of disordered eating and those who scored low (typical eaters). Participants scoring high on measures of disordered eating were concerned about the consequences of their gluten-free diet on body image and they described eating patterns similar to binge/restrict cycles. Typical eaters reported being able to integrate their dietary self-management into their daily lives; however, general concerns around food and cross-contamination were associated with a restriction in food intake. Coeliac disease has a varied impact on eating patterns. The need to follow a gluten-free diet and to be vigilant around food has to be balanced with concerns around food availability and cross-contamination which have the potential to contribute towards disordered eating attitudes and behaviours. The findings suggest that the theoretical model of disordered eating provides an adequate explanation of disordered eating patterns in coeliac disease. © 2017 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  3. Are Intuitive Eating and Eating Disorder Symptomatology Opposite Poles of the Same Construct?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tylka, Tracy L.; Wilcox, Jennifer A.

    2006-01-01

    Two studies explored whether intuitive eating (i.e., eating based on physiological hunger and satiety cues rather than situational and emotional cues) is a distinct construct from low levels of eating disorder (ED) symptomatology among college women. Previous research has demonstrated that high levels of ED symptomatology are related to lower…

  4. Race, ethnicity, and eating disorder recognition by peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Margarita; Reyes-Rodríguez, Mae Lynn; Bulik, Cynthia M; Bardone-Cone, Anna

    2013-01-01

    We investigated racial/ethnic stereotyping in the recognition and referral of eating disorders with 663 university students. We explored responses to problem and eating disorder recognition and health care referrals after subjects read a vignette concerning a patient of a different race/ethnic background presenting with eating disorders. A series of three 4 × 3 ANOVAs revealed significant main effects for eating disorders across all three outcome variables. There were no significant main effects across the four different race/ethnicity conditions and no significant race by condition interactions. Lack of general eating disorder recognition and health care referrals by student participants were found. [Supplemental files are available for this article. Go to the publishers's online edition of Eating Disorders for the following free supplemental resource: online appendix containing vignettes 1-3, as described in the "Methods" section].

  5. Codependency as a mediator between stressful events and eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, D F

    1997-02-01

    This study examined the role of codependency in the relationship between stressful events and the development of eating disorders. Ninety-five undergraduate women completed the Codependency Assessment, the Eating Disorder Inventory-2, the Differentiation of Self Scale, and an open-ended questionnaire asking about stressful experiences, including relationships with alcoholic family members. Results supported the hypothesis that women who reported experience with an alcoholic significant other or a chronic stressful situation exhibited higher levels of eating disordered behavior. However, a family history of parental alcohol abuse alone did not result in differences in eating disorder symptoms. Further, women who exhibited more characteristics of codependency (e.g., caretaking, needs for control) also evidenced more eating disorder symptoms. The findings suggest a developmental sequence, whereby codependency mediates the relationship between excessive stress and the development of an eating disorder.

  6. Interpersonal influences on late adolescent girls' and boys' disordered eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shomaker, Lauren B; Furman, Wyndol

    2009-04-01

    Perceived socio-cultural pressure to be thin has an important impact on disordered eating during early and middle adolescence, but less is known about late adolescence. Most prospective studies included only girls, and less is known about the influence on boys. This study investigated interpersonal influences on changes in late adolescent boys' and girls' symptoms of disordered eating over one year. Participants were a community sample of late adolescents 16-19 years of age (N=199; 49.75% girls), their mothers, and friends. Structural equation modeling revealed that interpersonal pressure to be thin and criticism about appearance predicted increases in disordered eating over time. Late adolescents', mothers' and friends' reports of pressure were associated with disordered eating at Time 1 and Time 2. Further, adolescents' perceptions and friends' reports of pressure to be thin predicted changes in disordered eating over time. Findings underscore the significance of interpersonal relationships for disordered eating during late adolescence in both girls and boys.

  7. Eating disorder symptoms do not just disappear: the implications of adolescent eating-disordered behaviour for body weight and mental health in young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Dempfle, Astrid; Konrad, Kerstin; Klasen, Fionna; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike

    2015-06-01

    This study reports the outcomes of childhood and adolescent eating-disordered behaviour on the development of body mass index (BMI) and psychological functioning in young adulthood in a population-based sample in Germany (the BELLA study). Information at baseline and follow-up was obtained through a telephone interview and mailed self-report questionnaires. At both measurement points, BMI, eating disorder symptoms (SCOFF questionnaire), and symptoms of depression and anxiety were assessed in the same cohort of 771 participants (n = 420 females, n = 351 males). The age range at baseline was 11-17 years, and the age range at follow-up was 17-23 years. High scores for eating-disordered behaviour in childhood or adolescence significantly predicted eating-disordered behaviour in young adulthood (multiplicative effect estimate: 1.31; 95 % CI: 1.2-1.42, p < 0.0001), although there was a decline in prevalence (from 19.3 to 13.8 %, p = 0.002) and severity (mean decrease in SCOFF 0.07, 95 % CI: -0.01-0.14, p = 0.06). After accounting for potentially confounding variables at baseline (SES, probands' BMI, parental BMI, depressive symptoms), participants with more eating disorder symptoms at baseline had a higher risk of developing overweight (odds ratio (OR): 1.58; 95 % CI: 1.19-2.09, p = 0.001), obesity (OR = 1.67; 95 % CI: 1.03-2.66, p = 0.03), and depressive symptoms at follow-up (additive effect estimate: 0.45; 95 %CI: 0.19-0.7, p = 0.0006). Early symptoms of depression showed a significant relationship with extreme underweight in young adulthood (OR = 1.13; 95 %CI: 1.01-1.25, p = 0.02). The high stability of eating disorder symptoms and the significant association with overweight and worse mental health in adulthood underscore the need for early detection and intervention during childhood and adolescence. Youth with depression should be monitored for the development of restrictive eating disorders.

  8. Binge Eating Disorder and Body Uneasiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Cuzzolaro

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Debate continues regarding the nosological status of binge eating disorder (BED and the specific diagnostic criteria, including whether, like anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, it should be characterized by body image disturbances in addition to abnormal eating behaviour. The aims of this article are: a to concisely review the main points of the literature that has developed on diagnosis and treatment (especially pharmacological of BED and b to present the results of an original research on body image in obese patients with BED. The study was aimed to verify the following hypothesis: in persons with obesity, BED is associated with greater body uneasiness independently of some possible modulating factors. We studied a clinical sample of 159 (89 females and 70 males adult obese patients who fulfilled DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria for BED matched to 159 non-BED obese patients for gender, ethnicity, BMI class, age, weight, stature, onset age of obesity, education level, and marital status. We used the Body Uneasiness Test (BUT, a valuable multidimensional tool for the clinical assessment of body uneasiness in subjects suffering from eating disorders and/or obesity. Obese patients with BED reported higher scores than non-BED patients in the General Severity Index (BUT-A GSI and in every BUT-A subscale. All differences were statistically significant in both sexes. As expected women obtained higher scores than men. According to some other studies, our findings suggest that a negative body image should be included among diagnostic criteria for BED. Consequently, treatment should be focused not simply on eating behaviour and outcome studies should evaluate changes of body image as well.

  9. Understanding the Female Athlete Triad: Eating Disorders, Amenorrhea, and Osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beals, Katherine A.; Brey, Rebecca A.; Gonyou, Julianna B.

    1999-01-01

    Examines three disorders that can affect female athletes who focus on succeeding athletically and achieving a prescribed body weight: disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. The paper presents prevention and treatment suggestions for athletes with eating disorders, focusing on primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention. Recommends that…

  10. Sex Roles and Eating Disorders: Evidence for Two Independent Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdue, Lauren

    Because such eating disorders as anorexia and bulimia have been found to be more common in women than in men, much recent research on these disorders has examined their relationship to gender roles. Some evidence exists supporting the existence of two types of eating disorders; one associated with stereotypically feminine concerns, the other…

  11. Eating Disorders in the Adolescent Population: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reijonen, Jori H.; Pratt, Helen D.; Patel, Dilip R.; Greydanus, Donald E.

    2003-01-01

    Selectively reviews the literature on the diagnostic criteria for eating disorders (anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge-eating disorder) as described in "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed.) and "International Classification of Diseases" (10th ed.). Discusses the prevalence and course of…

  12. Sex Roles and Eating Disorders: Evidence for Two Independent Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdue, Lauren

    Because such eating disorders as anorexia and bulimia have been found to be more common in women than in men, much recent research on these disorders has examined their relationship to gender roles. Some evidence exists supporting the existence of two types of eating disorders; one associated with stereotypically feminine concerns, the other…

  13. Apps and eating disorders: A systematic clinical appraisal

    OpenAIRE

    Fairburn, Christopher G; Rothwell, Emily R.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective Smartphone applications (apps) are proliferating and health‐related apps are particularly popular. The aim of this study was to identify, characterize, and evaluate the clinical utility of apps designed either for people with eating disorders or for eating disorder professionals. Method A search of the major app stores identified 805 potentially relevant apps, of which 39 were primarily designed for people with eating disorders and five for professionals. Results The apps f...

  14. Eating disorders in people with type I diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Kathryn

    Individuals with type 1diabetes are at increased risk of developing an eating disorder, the effects of which can be physically and psychologically damaging. Early detection of an eating disorder and appropriate treatment is therefore essential. This article explores the possible factors that may increase the risk of people with type 1 diabetes developing an eating disorder, and highlights the signs and symptoms to help healthcare professionals detect people at risk so they can encourage them to accept appropriate help.

  15. Vision in depressive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bubl, E.; Tebartz Van Elst, L.; Ebert, D.

    2009-01-01

    Background. Reduced dopaminergic transmission has been implicated in the pathophysiology of major depression. Furthermore, dopaminergic neurotransmission plays an important role in the physiology of visual contrast sensitivity (CS). To test the hypothesis that altered dopaminergic neurotransmissi...

  16. The association between emotions and eating behaviour in an obese population with binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, W; Devonport, T J; Blake, M

    2016-01-01

    There is utility in understanding the antecedents of binge eating (BE), with a view to explaining poorer weight loss treatment responses in this subgroup. A systematic review was completed according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines with the aim of exploring associations between emotions and eating behaviour in a population affected by obesity and binge eating disorder (BED). A comprehensive literature search of four electronic databases (2004-2014) yielded 15 studies for inclusion. Included studies performed poorly on data quality analysis with respect to controlling for confounding variables, and sample size. Included papers largely focused on negative emotions as antecedents of BE; depression was consistently associated with a BED-obese classification and BE. Negative mood, sadness, tension and instability of emotions were found to be antecedents of BE in an adult BED-obese sample. However, findings were mixed regarding the role of stress, anger and positive emotions within the BED-obese population. Recommendations are presented for the identification of BED, and ecologically valid experimental designs that further understanding of the complex and varied emotions that associate with BE. The implications of these and other limitations for both researchers and practitioners are discussed. The paper concludes with recommendations for future research alongside suggestions for practitioners. © 2015 World Obesity.

  17. How specific are the relationships between eating disorder behaviors and perfectionism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jing; Forbush, Kelsie T; Williamson, J Austin; Markon, Kristian E; Pollack, Lauren O

    2013-08-01

    Perfectionism is associated with several mental disorders, including depression, anxiety, and eating disorders. The goal of this study was to test the specificity of the associations between perfectionism facets and eating disorder behaviors, by examining whether neuroticism and conscientiousness mediated or moderated associations between these variables. Participants from a representative community sample (N = 407; 47% female) completed questionnaires assessing perfectionism, neuroticism, conscientiousness, and eating disorder behaviors. Neuroticism partially mediated associations between binge eating, restraint, body dissatisfaction, and maladaptive perfectionism facets. Neuroticism did not mediate associations between restriction and achievement striving perfectionism facets. Conscientiousness did not mediate any associations between perfectionism facets and eating disorder behaviors, yet Doubts about Actions interacted with conscientiousness to predict body dissatisfaction. Results indicate that neuroticism is key for understanding general risk factors that lead to myriad internalizing disorders, whereas maladaptive perfectionism has limited usefulness as a specific risk factor for eating disorder behaviors. Nevertheless, there is a unique association between dietary restraint and achievement striving dimensions of perfectionism that cannot be explained by higher-order personality traits.

  18. Brief report: Correlates of inpatient psychiatric admission in children and adolescents with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Matthew J; Watson, Hunna J; Egan, Sarah J; Hoiles, Kimberley J; Harper, Emily; McCormack, Julie; Shu, Chloe; Forbes, David A

    2015-06-01

    To examine the prevalence and importance of psychological, behavioural, and situational correlates of impending psychiatric inpatient admissions in children and adolescents with eating disorders. The sample consisted of 285 patients (8-17 years, M = 14.4, SD = 1.49) with DSM-5 eating disorders assessed between 2006 and 2013 from the Helping to Outline Pediatric Eating Disorders (HOPE) Project. The sample was split into two groups, those with (n = 38) and without (n = 247) impending psychiatric admission; Discriminant function analysis was used to examine correlates. The prevalence of impending psychiatric admission was 13.3%. Suicidal ideation provided the greatest discriminating power, followed by eating pathology, depressive symptoms, anxiety, multiple methods of weight control, binge eating, and family functioning. Earlier recognition of comorbid symptoms in eating disorders in the community may reduce the number of young people with eating disorders who present needing critical psychiatric care. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Personal identities and disordered eating behaviors in Mexican American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Karen Farchaus; Corte, Colleen; Ronis, David L

    2010-08-01

    Eating disorder behaviors are prevalent in Latina populations. This study tested Schwartz's (2006) theoretical view that a broad array of personal identities serves as an internal resource during acculturation and prevents internalization of dysfunctional weight related beliefs. Sixty-six Mexican American women completed measures of personal identities, fat self-definition, eating disorder symptoms and acculturation. Results show that few positive and many negative personal identities predict higher eating disorder scores and effects are mediated through the fat self-definition. Characteristics of personal identities may influence internalization of cultural values related to weight. Interventions focused on overall identity may prevent eating disorders in Latinas.

  20. Comparative Prevalence of Eating Disorders in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Other Anxiety Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu Tyagi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this study was to compare the prevalence of comorbid eating disorders in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD and other common anxiety disorders. Method. 179 patients from the same geographical area with a diagnosis of OCD or an anxiety disorder were divided into two groups based on their primary diagnosis. The prevalence of a comorbid eating disorder was calculated in both groups. Results. There was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of comorbid eating disorders between the OCD and other anxiety disorders group. Conclusions. These results suggest that the prevalence of comorbid eating disorders does not differ in anxiety disorders when compared with OCD. However, in both groups, it remains statistically higher than that of the general population.

  1. Change in binge eating and binge eating disorder associated with migration from Mexico to the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Sonja A; Saito, Naomi; Borges, Guilherme; Benjet, Corina; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Breslau, Joshua

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to Western popular culture is hypothesized to increase risk for eating disorders. This study tests this hypothesis with respect to the proposed diagnosis of binge eating disorder (BED) in an epidemiological sample of people of Mexican origin in Mexico and the U.S. Data come from the Mexico National Comorbidity Survey, National Comorbidity Survey Replication, and National Latino and Asian American Survey (N = 2268). Diagnoses were assessed with the WMH-CIDI. Six groups were compared: Mexicans with no migrant family members, Mexicans with at least one migrant family member, Mexican return-migrants, Mexican-born migrants in the U.S., and two successive generations of Mexican-Americans in the U.S. The lifetime prevalence of BED was 1.6% in Mexico and 2.2% among Mexican-Americans. Compared with Mexicans in families with migrants, risk for BED was higher in US-born Mexican-Americans with two U.S.-born parents (aHR = 2.58, 95% CI 1.12-5.93). This effect was attenuated by 24% (aHR = 1.97, 95% CI 0.84-4.62) with adjustment for prior-onset depressive or anxiety disorder. Adjustment for prior-onset conduct disorder increased the magnitude of association (aHR = 2.75, 95% CI 1.22-6.20). A similar pattern was observed for binge eating. Among respondents reporting binge eating, onset in the U.S. (vs. Mexico) was not associated with prevalence of further eating disorder symptoms. Migration from Mexico to the U.S. is associated with an increased risk for BED that may be partially attributable to non-specific influences on internalizing disorders. Among respondents reporting binge eating in either country, similar levels of further symptoms were endorsed, suggesting some cross-cultural generalizability of criteria.

  2. Identification and management of eating disorders in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, David S

    2010-12-01

    The incidence and prevalence of eating disorders in children and adolescents has increased significantly in recent decades, making it essential for pediatricians to consider these disorders in appropriate clinical settings, to evaluate patients suspected of having these disorders, and to manage (or refer) patients in whom eating disorders are diagnosed. This clinical report includes a discussion of diagnostic criteria and outlines the initial evaluation of the patient with disordered eating. Medical complications of eating disorders may affect any organ system, and careful monitoring for these complications is required. The range of treatment options, including pharmacotherapy, is described in this report. Pediatricians are encouraged to advocate for legislation and policies that ensure appropriate services for patients with eating disorders, including medical care, nutritional intervention, mental health treatment, and care coordination.

  3. Neuromodulation for eating disorders: obesity and anorexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorgulho, Alessandra A; Pereira, Julio L B; Krahl, Scott; Lemaire, Jean-Jacques; De Salles, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Extremes of eating disorders (ED) have become prevalent in both developed and developing countries. Available therapies, though largely effective, fail in a substantial number of patients and carry considerable side effects. Morbid obesity and anorexia nervosa (AN) represent important causes of morbidity and mortality among young adults. Morbid obesity affects disproportionate numbers of children. AN is also important for its high mortality in young adults. The challenges of effectively treating AN are well recognized. In this article, important aspects of ED are reviewed in detail and novel approaches to the treatment of ED are proposed.

  4. Words on walls: Passive eating disorder education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Mary E; Henkel, Kristin E

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effect of a short-term passive intervention on nursing students' beliefs about eating disorders (EDs). Before and after a weeklong ED education poster campaign, participants completed questionnaires assessing their attitudes about individuals with EDs. Results showed a reduction in the belief that people with EDs are almost always women, increased attribution to biological and genetic factors, and decreased attribution to society's thin ideal. Personal connection moderated response to the items: [people with EDs] "are putting their lives at risk" and "would not improve with treatment." This intervention shows promise for reducing ED-associated stereotype endorsement among medical professionals.

  5. A Review of Eating Disorders and Disordered Eating amongst Nutrition Students and Dietetic Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahn, Heather Mciver; Lordly, Daphne

    2015-03-01

    The diet industry and media have a powerful influence over women, leading many to believe that they must modify their appearance for societal acceptance. Dietetics, as one of many predominantly female professions, may be particularly vulnerable to these pressures. An integrative review process was used to examine eating disorders and disordered eating within the dietetics profession with the aim to both synthesize existing data and develop questions for future research. Seventeen articles were reviewed using broad search terms and dates because of the dearth of available literature. Given nutrition programs and dietetic practice often involve significant exposure to food, ideas and opinions about food, weight, and its place in health and dietetic practice researchers were compelled to ask "why". Findings were organized under 3 categories including thinness ideology, implications of food and body associated with nutrition or dietetic education, and establishment of a continuum. This review serves as a platform to inspire future research in an understudied but important topic related to dietetic education and practice. Minimally as a profession, baseline data need to be collected to understand the prevalence of disordered eating and eating disorders along the continuum of practice in Canada.

  6. Evaluation of the DSM-5 severity indicator for binge eating disorder in a community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilo, Carlos M; Ivezaj, Valentina; White, Marney A

    2015-03-01

    Research has examined various aspects of the diagnostic criteria for binge-eating disorder (BED) but has yet to evaluate the DSM-5 severity criterion. This study examined the DSM-5 severity criterion for BED based on binge-eating frequency and tested an alternative severity specifier based on overvaluation of shape/weight. 338 community volunteers categorized with DSM-5 BED completed a battery of self-report instruments. Participants were categorized first using DSM-5 severity levels and second by shape/weight overvaluation and were compared on clinical variables. 264 (78.1%) participants were categorized as mild, 67 (19.8%) as moderate, 6 (1.8%) as severe, and 1 (0.3%) as extreme. Analyses comparing mild and moderate severity groups revealed no significant differences in demographic variables or BMI; the moderate severity group had greater eating-disorder psychopathology (small effect-sizes) but not depression than the mild group. Participants with overvaluation (N = 196; 60.1%) versus without (N = 130; 39.9%) did not differ significantly in age, sex, BMI, or binge-eating frequency. The overvaluation group had significantly greater eating-disorder psychopathology and depression than the non-overvaluation group. The greater eating-disorder and depression levels (medium-to-large effect-sizes) persisted after adjusting for ethnicity/race and binge-eating severity/frequency, without attenuation of effect-sizes. Findings from this non-clinical community sample provide support for overvaluation of shape/weight as a specifier for BED as it provides stronger information about severity than the DSM-5 rating based on binge-eating. Future research should include treatment-seeking patients with BED to test the utility of DSM-5 severity specifiers and include broader clinical validators. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The mediating role of emotion dysregulation and depression on the relationship between childhood trauma exposure and emotional eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michopoulos, Vasiliki; Powers, Abigail; Moore, Carla; Villarreal, Stephanie; Ressler, Kerry J; Bradley, Bekh

    2015-08-01

    Exposure to childhood adversity is implicated in the etiology of adverse health outcomes, including depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and obesity. The relationship between childhood trauma and obesity may be related to the association of childhood trauma and risk for emotional eating. One pathway between trauma exposure, psychopathology, and emotional eating may be through emotion dysregulation and depression. The current study was undertaken to characterize demographic, environmental, and psychological risk factors for emotional eating in a primarily African American, low socioeconomic status (SES), inner-city population (N = 1110). Emotional eating was measured using the Dutch Eating Behavioral Questionnaire and the Emotional Dysregulation Scale was used to assess emotion regulation. The Beck Depression Inventory and the modified PTSD Symptom Scale were used to assess depression and PTSD, respectively. Higher levels of emotional eating were associated with body mass index, income, childhood and adulthood trauma exposure, depressive and PTSD symptoms, negative affect and emotion dysregulation. Childhood emotional abuse was the most associated with emotional eating in adulthood. Hierarchical linear regression and mediation analyses indicated that the association between childhood trauma exposure (and emotional abuse specifically) and emotional eating was fully mediated by depression symptoms and emotion dysregulation, with emotional dysregulation contributing more to the mediation effect. Together these findings support a model in which obesity and related adverse health outcomes in stress- and trauma-exposed populations may be directly related to self-regulatory coping strategies accompanying emotion dysregulation. Our data suggest that emotion dysregulation is a viable therapeutic target for emotional eating in at-risk populations.

  8. The Relationship of Disordered Eating Attitudes with Stress Level, Bone Turnover Markers, and Bone Mineral Density in Obese Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okbay Güneş, Aslı; Alikaşifoğlu, Müjgan; Şen Demirdöğen, Ezgi; Erginöz, Ethem; Demir, Türkay; Kucur, Mine; Ercan, Oya

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the effect of stress caused by disordered eating attitudes on bone health in obese adolescents. A cross-sectional study comprising 80 obese adolescents was performed from November 2013 to September 2014. Twenty-four-hour urinary free cortisol levels were measured as a biological marker of stress. Bone turnover was evaluated using bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, serum osteocalcin, and urinary N-telopeptide concentrations. Bone mineral density was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire, Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire, Children's Depression Inventory, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children were used to assess eating disorders, depression, and anxiety. Psychiatric examinations were performed for binge eating disorders. In the Pearson's correlation test, a positive correlation was found between the 24-hour urinary cortisol level and Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire total and restrained eating subscale scores (pturnover and bone mineral density in our obese adolescents at the time of the study, our results suggest that disordered eating attitudes, and especially restrained eating attitudes, might be a source of stress. Therefore, studies in this area should continue.

  9. Adolescent Eating Disorders Predict Psychiatric, High-Risk Behaviors and Weight Outcomes in Young Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micali, Nadia; Solmi, Francesca; Horton, Nicholas J; Crosby, Ross D; Eddy, Kamryn T; Calzo, Jerel P; Sonneville, Kendrin R; Swanson, Sonja A; Field, Alison E

    2015-08-01

    To investigate whether anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), binge eating disorder (BED), and other specified feeding and eating disorders (OSFED), including purging disorder (PD), subthreshold BN, and BED at ages 14 and 16 years, are prospectively associated with later depression, anxiety disorders, alcohol and substance use, and self-harm. Eating disorders were ascertained at ages 14 and 16 years in 6,140 youth at age 14 (58% of those eligible) and 5,069 at age 16 (52% of those eligible) as part of the prospective Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Outcomes (depression, anxiety disorders, binge drinking, drug use, deliberate self-harm, weight status) were measured using interviews and questionnaires about 2 years after predictors. Generalized estimating equation models adjusting for gender, socio-demographic variables, and prior outcome were used to examine prospective associations between eating disorders and each outcome. All eating disorders were predictive of later anxiety disorders. AN, BN, BED, PD, and OSFED were prospectively associated with depression (respectively AN: odds ratio [OR] = 1.39, 95% CI = 1.00-1.94; BN: OR = 3.39, 95% CI = 1.25-9.20; BED: OR = 2.00, 95% CI = 1.06-3.75; and PD: OR = 2.56, 95% CI = 1.38-4.74). All eating disorders but AN predicted drug use and deliberate self-harm (BN: OR = 5.72, 95% CI = 2.22-14.72; PD: OR = 4.88, 95% CI = 2.78-8.57; subthreshold BN: OR = 3.97, 95% CI = 1.44-10.98; and subthreshold BED: OR = 2.32, 95% CI = 1.43-3.75). Although BED and BN predicted obesity (respectively OR = 3.58, 95% CI = 1.06-12.14 and OR = 6.42, 95% CI = 1.69-24.30), AN was prospectively associated with underweight. Adolescent eating disorders, including subthreshold presentations, predict negative outcomes, including mental health disorders, substance use, deliberate self-harm, and weight outcomes. This study highlights the high public health and clinical burden of eating disorders

  10. Different moderators of cognitive-behavioral therapy on subjective and objective binge eating in bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder: a three-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellini, Giovanni; Mannucci, Edoardo; Lo Sauro, Carolina; Benni, Laura; Lazzeretti, Lisa; Ravaldi, Claudia; Rotella, Carlo M; Faravelli, Carlo; Ricca, Valdo

    2012-01-01

    Different studies considered the mechanisms involved in the maintenance of binge eating in bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED), suggesting different pathways. The present 3-year follow-up study evaluated the relationships between psychopathological variables, and objective and subjective binge eating episodes in the two syndromes. 85 BN and 133 BED patients were studied. Objective and subjective binge eating, and psychopathological data were collected in a face-to-face interview, and by means of different self-reported questionnaires. The same assessment was repeated at baseline (T0), at the end of an individual cognitive-behavioral treatment (T1), and 3 years after the end of treatment (T2). At baseline, BN and BED patients showed different emotions associated with binge eating: anger/frustration for BN and depression for BED patients. Objective binge eating frequency reduction across time was associated with lower impulsivity and shape concern in BN patients, and with lower emotional eating and depressive symptoms in BED patients. Lower subjective binge eating frequency at baseline predicted recovery, in both BN and BED patients. Recovery was associated with lower impulsivity and body shape concern at baseline for BN patients, and lower depression and emotional eating for BED patients. Eating psychopathology, psychiatric comorbidity, impulsivity and emotional eating have a different pattern of association with objective and subjective binge eating in BN and BED patients, and they act as different moderators of treatment. A different target of intervention for these two syndromes might be taken into account, and subjective binge eating deserves an accurate assessment. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Food preferences, eating patterns, and physical activity among adolescents: correlates of eating disorders symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, S A; Perry, C L; Leon, G R; Fulkerson, J A

    1994-06-01

    Food preferences, eating patterns, and physical activity patterns were examined in a cohort of adolescent females and males participating in a longitudinal study of the developmental antecedents of eating disorders. All adolescents (n = 1494) in grades seven through ten in an entire school district completed a survey about their dieting behaviors, eating, and exercise patterns. Principal components analysis showed similar factor structures for food preferences and eating patterns among males and females. Gender differences were present in physical activity patterns. Sports participation was correlated with healthy food preference and was a significant predictor of eating disorders symptoms. Junk food preference was marginally inversely related to eating disorders symptoms in females. Preference for other types of foods and reported intake of foods were not related to eating disorders symptoms. The percent of variance in risk score accounted for by dietary intake and physical activity patterns was small. Psychological and social/environmental variables may explain a larger proportion of the variance in eating disorders risk than the dietary and physical activity variables examined in this study. Implications for understanding the etiology and behavioral expression of eating disorders are discussed.

  12. Eating disorders: Insights from imaging and behavioral approaches to treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Shaw, Heather

    2017-08-01

    Understanding factors that contribute to eating disorders, which affect 13% of females, is critical to developing effective prevention and treatment programs. In this paper, we summarize results from prospective studies that identified factors predicting onset and persistence of eating disorders and core symptom dimensions. Next, implications for intervention targets for prevention, and treatment interventions from the risk- and maintenance-factor findings are discussed. Third, given that evidence suggests eating disorders are highly heritable, implying biological risk and maintenance factors for eating disorders, we offer working hypotheses about biological factors that might contribute to eating disorders, based on extant risk factor findings, theory, and cross-sectional studies. Finally, potentially fruitful directions for future research are presented. We suggest that it would be useful for experimental therapeutics trials to evaluate the effects of reducing the risk factors on future onset of eating pathology and on reducing maintenance factors on the risk for persistence of eating pathology, and encourage researchers to utilize prospective high-risk studies so that knowledge regarding potential intervention targets for prevention and treatment interventions for eating disorders can be advanced. Using the most rigorous research designs should help improve the efficacy of prevention and treatment interventions for eating disorders.

  13. Neurobiological features of binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balodis, Iris M; Grilo, Carlos M; Potenza, Marc N

    2015-12-01

    Biobehavioral features associated with binge-eating disorder (BED) have been investigated; however, few systematic reviews to date have described neuroimaging findings from studies of BED. Emerging functional and structural studies support BED as having unique and overlapping neural features as compared with other disorders. Neuroimaging studies provide evidence linking heightened responses to palatable food cues with prefrontal areas, particularly the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), with specific relationships to hunger and reward-sensitivity measures. While few studies to date have investigated non-food-cue responses; these suggest a generalized hypofunctioning in frontostriatal areas during reward and inhibitory control processes. Early studies applying neuroimaging to treatment efforts suggest that targeting neural function underlying motivational processes may prove important in the treatment of BED.

  14. Eating Disorders in children and adolescents with Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes: prevalence, risk factors, warning signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racicka, Ewa; Bryńska, Anita

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes is associated with increased risk for eating disorders, various dependent on type of diabetes. Binge eating disorder is more common in patient with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Whereas, intentional omission of insulin doses for the purpose of weight loss occurs mainly in patient with type 1 diabetes (T1DM), however, in some patients with type 2 diabetes omission of oral hypoglycemic drugs can be present. Risk factors for the development of eating disorders in patients with diabetes include: age, female gender, greater body weight, body image dissatisfaction, history of dieting and history of depression. Poor glycemic control, recurrent episodes of ketoacidosis or recurrent episodes of hypoglycemia, secondary to intentional insulin overdose, missed clinical appointments, dietary manipulation and low self-esteem should raise concern. The consequence of eating disorders or disordered eating patterns in patients with diabetes is poor glycemic control and hence higher possibility of complications such as nephropathy, retinopathy and premature death.

  15. Eating Disorders in children and adolescents with Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes: prevalence, risk factors, warning signs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Racicka

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is associated with increased risk for eating disorders, various dependent on type of diabetes. Binge eating disorder is more common in patient with type 2 diabetes (T2DM. Whereas, intentional omission of insulin doses for the purpose of weight loss occurs mainly in patient with type 1 diabetes (T1DM, however, in some patients with type 2 diabetes omission of oral hypoglycemic drugs can be present. Risk factors for the development of eating disorders in patients with diabetes include: age, female gender, greater body weight, body image dissatisfaction, history of dieting and history of depression. Poor glycemic control, recurrent episodes of ketoacidosis or recurrent episodes of hypoglycemia, secondary to intentional insulin overdose, missed clinical appointments, dietary manipulation and low self-esteem should raise concern. The consequence of eating disorders or disordered eating patterns in patients with diabetes is poor glycemic control and hence higher possibility of complications such as nephropathy, retinopathy and premature death.

  16. Topiramate: use in binge eating disorder?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Gentile

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Topiramate was serendipitously synthesized in 1979 during research aimed at developing a fructose-1,6-diphosphatase inhibitor that might be used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Some investigators have suggested it might be used in the treatment of binge eating disorder (BED. The aim of this review was to evaluate current knowledge and opinions on this topic. Materials and methods: We conducted a search of five electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, Nice, Cochrane, Cinahl using the search strategy ‘‘topiramate’’ AND ‘‘binge’’, ‘‘binge eating disorder.’’ No time limits were applied, and only reports of randomized controlled trials were included in our analysis. Results: In clinical studies, topiramate use has been associated with significant weight loss mediated by reductions in the frequency of bingeing episodes. The most common side effects of the drug are paresthesias, but nephrolithiasis, oligohydrosis, and dizziness have also been described. Conclusions: Available data are limited, but the literature we reviewed suggests that topiramate can be useful in the medical treatment of BED, reducing both body weight and binge episodes. Side effects are not negligible. Before topiramate can be regarded as a good tool for the treatment of BED, further data must be obtained from longer, methodologically correct studies of larger populations.

  17. Multidisciplinary study: DCD method applied to patients with eating disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Conese

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Eating disorders are quite common in clinical practice and can include out-of-control behaviours and thoughts that powerfully reinforce unhealthy eating patterns. They include anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa and Binge Eating Disorder. We conducted a trial on 102 patients (89 females and 13 males to investigate the efficacy of “DCD method” (appropriate dietary education associated to New-Electrosculpture on patients with obesity and eating disorders. The study underlines the efficacy of “DCD method”, especially when supported by behavioural therapy, in obese and overweight patients.

  18. I Think My Friend May Have an Eating Disorder. What Should I Do?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Shyness I Think My Friend May Have an Eating Disorder. What Should I Do? KidsHealth > For Teens > I ... Signs of Eating Disorders How to Help About Eating Disorders Every year, thousands of teens (and adults, too) ...

  19. Characterization of eating patterns among individuals with eating disorders: what is the state of the plate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbush, Kelsie T; Hunt, Tyler K

    2014-07-01

    Eating disorders will affect approximately 18 million individuals in the United States at some point in their lives, and are associated with significant psychological distress, psychosocial and quality-of-life impairment, medical morbidity, and mortality. Although aberrant eating behaviors play a central role in diagnostic definitions for eating disorders, much remains to be learned about eating patterns, diet quality, and energy balance among individuals with eating pathology. The goal of the current paper was to systematically review and integrate findings from published research studies characterizing the eating behaviors of individuals with eating disorders, including findings from both descriptive and laboratory-based research. We also describe results from studies using ecological momentary assessment - a methodology that assesses individuals' behaviors in their natural environment as they occur, which may reduce retrospective recall bias, and provide improved ability to prospectively assess the temporal occur of changes in multiple eating behaviors over time. We conclude with suggestions for future research, including the need for additional studies to test for differences in eating patterns among different demographic groups of individuals with eating disorders, and the need for new, more objective, assessment tools.

  20. Identification and treatment of eating disorders in women with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel-Fabbri, Ann E; Fikkan, Janna; Connell, Alexa; Vangsness, Laura; Anderson, Barbara J

    2002-01-01

    A series of case reports in the early 1980s and prevalence studies in the 1990s highlighted the serious medical consequences of coexisting eating disorders and diabetes mellitus. Diabetes-specific treatment issues, such as the need to carefully monitor diet, exercise, and blood glucose, may contribute to the development of eating disorder symptoms among women with diabetes mellitus. The attention to food portions and bodyweight that is part of routine diabetes mellitus management parallels the rigid thinking about food and body image found in women with eating disorders who do not have diabetes mellitus. Additionally, intensive insulin management of diabetes mellitus, the current standard of care, has been shown to be associated with bodyweight gain. Following from this, it may be that the very goals of state-of-the-art diabetes mellitus care increase the risk for developing an eating disorder. Once an eating disorder and recurrent insulin omission becomes entrenched, a pattern develops which is hard to break - one of chronic hyperglycemia, depressed mood, fear of bodyweight gain, and frustration with diabetes management. Eating disorders predispose women with diabetes mellitus to many complex medical risks. For example, insulin omission and reduction, eating disorder symptoms unique to diabetes mellitus, are strongly associated with an increased risk of diabetic ketoacidosis and with microvascular complications of diabetes mellitus such as retinopathy. For this reason, it is critical that diabetes mellitus clinicians understand more about eating disorders so as to improve the likelihood of early detection, appropriate treatment, and prevention of acute and long-term medical complications within this high-risk group of women.

  1. HYPERPHAGIA REACTIONS WITHIN EATING DISORDERS. CLINICAL FEATURES AND THERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Gladyshev

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate clinical features of hyperphagia reactions, their significance in attraction abnormities within eating disorders and treatment options for these conditions with escitalopram.Material and methods. Mental state of 39 women (age 19-50 years with psychogenic overeating and obesity (body mass index of 30 to 53 kg/m2 was studied. Patients were admitted to the Institute of Nutrition of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences. Diagnostic criteria for International Classification of Diseases, 10th edition, as well as Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS and Ferreri Anxiety Rating Diagram (FARD were used for syndrome qualifications. Patient Global Impression of Change was also studied using a 4-point scale of results (excellent, good, fair, and negative.Results. Clinical features of hyperphagic reactions were found. Escitalopram treatment course was completed with excellent and good results in 80% of patients. 50%-reduction in HADS score for anxiety was found in 74% of patients, for depression – in 63%, and for Ferreri scale – in 68% of patients. Escitalopram promoted more intensive body weight loss: 11% vs 8% of baseline weight in active and control groups, respectively. Adverse events occurred only in 7 (36% patients; they were transient and did not require therapy discontinuation.Conclusion: Significant differences of premanifest disorders were often observed in patients history. Escitalopram in these patients showed efficacy in improvement of both mental and somatic symptoms of anxiety. It decreased dependence on food as a factor mitigating affect and stress, thus provided better results in body weight reduction.

  2. HYPERPHAGIA REACTIONS WITHIN EATING DISORDERS. CLINICAL FEATURES AND THERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Gladyshev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate clinical features of hyperphagia reactions, their significance in attraction abnormities within eating disorders and treatment options for these conditions with escitalopram.Material and methods. Mental state of 39 women (age 19-50 years with psychogenic overeating and obesity (body mass index of 30 to 53 kg/m2 was studied. Patients were admitted to the Institute of Nutrition of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences. Diagnostic criteria for International Classification of Diseases, 10th edition, as well as Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS and Ferreri Anxiety Rating Diagram (FARD were used for syndrome qualifications. Patient Global Impression of Change was also studied using a 4-point scale of results (excellent, good, fair, and negative.Results. Clinical features of hyperphagic reactions were found. Escitalopram treatment course was completed with excellent and good results in 80% of patients. 50%-reduction in HADS score for anxiety was found in 74% of patients, for depression – in 63%, and for Ferreri scale – in 68% of patients. Escitalopram promoted more intensive body weight loss: 11% vs 8% of baseline weight in active and control groups, respectively. Adverse events occurred only in 7 (36% patients; they were transient and did not require therapy discontinuation.Conclusion: Significant differences of premanifest disorders were often observed in patients history. Escitalopram in these patients showed efficacy in improvement of both mental and somatic symptoms of anxiety. It decreased dependence on food as a factor mitigating affect and stress, thus provided better results in body weight reduction.

  3. Parent Conversations about Healthful Eating and Weight: Associations with Adolescent Disordered Eating Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Jerica M.; MacLehose, Rich; Loth, Katie A.; Eisenberg, Marla; Bucchianeri, Michaela M.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2013-01-01

    Objective The prevalence of weight-related problems in adolescents is high. Parents of adolescents may wonder whether talking about eating habits and weight is useful or detrimental. This study aimed to examine the associations between parent conversations about healthful eating and weight and adolescent disordered eating behaviors. Design Cross-sectional analysis using data from two linked multi-level population-based studies. Setting Anthropometric assessments and surveys completed at school by adolescents and surveys completed at home by parents in 2009–2010. Participants Socio-economically and racially/ethnically diverse sample (81% ethnic minority; 60% low income) of adolescents from EAT (Eating and Activity in Teens) 2010 (n = 2,793, mean age=14.4) and parents from F-EAT (Families and Eating and Activity in Teens) (n = 3,709, mean age = 42.3). Main Exposure Parent conversations about healthful eating and weight/size. Outcome Measures Adolescent dieting, unhealthy weight control behaviors, and binge eating. Results Mothers and fathers who engaged in weight-related conversations had adolescents who were more likely to diet, use unhealthy weight control behaviors, and engage in binge eating. Overweight/obese adolescents whose mothers engaged in conversations that were focused only on healthful eating behaviors were less likely to diet and use unhealthy weight control behaviors. Additionally, sub-analyses with adolescents with data from two parents showed that when both parents engaged in healthful eating conversations, their overweight/obese adolescent children were less likely to diet and use unhealthy weight control behaviors. Conclusion Parent conversations focused on weight/size are associated with increased risk for adolescent disordered eating behaviors, whereas conversations focused on healthful eating are protective against disordered eating behaviors. PMID:23797808

  4. Parent conversations about healthful eating and weight: associations with adolescent disordered eating behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Jerica M; Maclehose, Rich; Loth, Katie A; Eisenberg, Marla; Bucchianeri, Michaela M; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2013-08-01

    The prevalence of weight-related problems in adolescents is high. Parents of adolescents may wonder whether talking about eating habits and weight is useful or detrimental. To examine the associations between parent conversations about healthful eating and weight and adolescent disordered eating behaviors. Cross-sectional analysis using data from 2 linked multilevel population-based studies. Anthropometric assessments and surveys completed at school by adolescents and surveys completed at home by parents in 2009-2010. Socioeconomically and racially/ethnically diverse sample (81% ethnic minority; 60% low income) of adolescents from Eating and Activity in Teens 2010 (EAT 2010) (n = 2793; mean age, 14.4 years) and parents from Project Families and Eating and Activity in Teens (Project F-EAT) (n = 3709; mean age, 42.3 years). EXPOSURE Parent conversations about healthful eating and weight/size. Adolescent dieting, unhealthy weight-control behaviors, and binge eating. Mothers and fathers who engaged in weight-related conversations had adolescents who were more likely to diet, use unhealthy weight-control behaviors, and engage in binge eating. Overweight or obese adolescents whose mothers engaged in conversations that were focused only on healthful eating behaviors were less likely to diet and use unhealthy weight-control behaviors. Additionally, subanalyses with adolescents with data from 2 parents showed that when both parents engaged in healthful eating conversations, their overweight or obese adolescent children were less likely to diet and use unhealthy weight-control behaviors. Parent conversations focused on weight/size are associated with increased risk for adolescent disordered eating behaviors, whereas conversations focused on healthful eating are protective against disordered eating behaviors.

  5. Epidemiology of eating disorders, eating disordered behaviour, and body image disturbance in males: a narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchison, Deborah; Mond, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Challenges to epidemiological studies of eating and related body image disturbance disorders in males include, in addition to low base rates and the predominance of residual diagnostic categories, the female-centric nature of current classification schemes and the consequent lack of appropriate assessment instruments. In this narrative review, we summarise epidemiological data regarding the prevalence and correlates of eating disorders, related body image disturbance disorders, and eating disorder features in males. Attention is focused on disorders most likely to be observed among males, such as muscle dysmorphia and muscularity-oriented excessive exercise. It is argued that, given the multiple challenges involved in research of this kind, a focus on features is more likely to advance the field than a focus on diagnoses. In terms of correlates, we focus on impairment and help-seeking, since these issues are most relevant in informing public health burden, service provision, and related issues. We end with some thoughts about current gaps in the knowledge base and directions for future research that we consider to be most promising.

  6. Rapid response to eating disorder treatment: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linardon, Jake; Brennan, Leah; de la Piedad Garcia, Xochitl

    2016-10-01

    This review aimed to (a) examine the effects of rapid response on behavioral, cognitive, and weight-gain outcomes across the eating disorders, (b) determine whether diagnosis, treatment modality, the type of rapid response (changes in disordered eating cognitions or behaviors), or the type of behavioral outcome moderated this effect, and (c) identify factors that predict a rapid response. Thirty-four articles met inclusion criteria from six databases. End of treatment and follow-up outcomes were divided into three categories: Behavioral (binge eating/purging), cognitive (EDE global scores), and weight gain. Average weighted effect sizes(r) were calculated. Rapid response strongly predicted better end of treatment and follow-up cognitive and behavioral outcomes. Moderator analyses showed that the effect size for rapid response on behavioral outcomes was larger when studies included both binge eating and purging (as opposed to just binge eating) as a behavioral outcome. Diagnosis, treatment modality, and the type of rapid response experienced did not moderate the relationship between early response and outcome. The evidence for weight gain was mixed. None of the baseline variables analyzed (eating disorder psychopathology, demographics, BMI, and depression scores) predicted a rapid response. As there is a solid evidence base supporting the prognostic importance of rapid response, the focus should shift toward identifying the within-treatment mechanisms that predict a rapid response so that the effectiveness of eating disorder treatment can be improved. There is a need for future research to use theories of eating disorders as a guide to assess within-treatment predictors of rapid response. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 2016; 49:905-919. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Distinguishing Between Risk Factors for Bulimia Nervosa, Binge Eating Disorder, and Purging Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Karina L; Byrne, Susan M; Crosby, Ross D

    2015-08-01

    Binge eating disorder and purging disorder have gained recognition as distinct eating disorder diagnoses, but risk factors for these conditions have not yet been established. This study aimed to evaluate a prospective, mediational model of risk for the full range of binge eating and purging eating disorders, with attention to possible diagnostic differences. Specific aims were to determine, first, whether eating, weight and shape concerns at age 14 would mediate the relationship between parent-perceived childhood overweight at age 10 and a binge eating or purging eating disorder between age 15 and 20, and, second, whether this mediational model would differ across bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, and purging disorder. Participants (N = 1,160; 51 % female) were drawn from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study, which has followed children from pre-birth to age 20. Eating disorders were assessed via self-report questionnaires when participants were aged 14, 17 and 20. There were 146 participants (82 % female) with a binge eating or purging eating disorder with onset between age 15 and 20 [bulimia nervosa = 81 (86 % female), binge eating disorder = 43 (74 % female), purging disorder = 22 (77 % female)]. Simple mediation analysis with bootstrapping was used to test the hypothesized model of risk, with early adolescent eating, weight and shape concerns positioned as a mediator between parent-perceived childhood overweight and later onset of a binge eating or purging eating disorder. Subsequently, a conditional process model (a moderated mediation model) was specified to determine if model pathways differed significantly by eating disorder diagnosis. In the simple mediation model, there was a significant indirect effect of parent-perceived childhood overweight on risk for a binge eating or purging eating disorder in late adolescence, mediated by eating, weight and shape concerns in early adolescence. In the conditional process model

  8. Similarities and differences between eating disorders and orthorexia nervosa

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, Kristine Instefjord

    2013-01-01

    In today`s society there is an increased focus on having a healthy lifestyle and a good health. For some people, the attempt to achieve good health turns into an obsession which again may lead to an eating disorder. In recent years a new term is noticed, called orthorexia nervosa. Orthorexia is about being obsessed with healthy eating. Today there is a lot of research and literature about eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, while scientific literature...

  9. Food cravings, binge eating, and eating disorder psychopathology: Exploring the moderating roles of gender and race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Ariana M; Grilo, Carlos M; Sinha, Rajita

    2016-04-01

    To examine the moderating effects of gender and race on the relationships among food cravings, binge eating, and eating disorder psychopathology in a community sample. Data were collected from a convenience sample of 320 adults (53% male; mean age 28.5±8.2years; mean BMI 27.1±5.2kg/m(2); mean education 15.1±2.2years; 64% white, 24% black, and 13% other race) participating in a cross-sectional study examining the interactions between stress, self-control and addiction. Participants completed a comprehensive assessment panel including a demographic questionnaire, the Food Craving Inventory, and Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire. Data were analyzed using multiple logistic regression for binge eating behavior and multiple linear regression for eating disorder psychopathology. Overall, food cravings demonstrated significant main effects for binge eating behavior (adjusted OR=2.65, pdisorder psychopathology (B=.47±.09, pfood cravings and eating disorder psychopathology than males; there were no statistically significant differences by race. These findings, based on a diverse sample recruited from the community, suggest that food cravings are associated with binge eating and eating disorder psychopathology and may represent an important target for interventions. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Epidemiology of Eating Disorders : Incidence, Prevalence and Mortality Rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smink, Frederique R. E.; van Hoeken, Daphne; Hoek, Hans W.

    2012-01-01

    Eating disorders are relatively rare among the general population. This review discusses the literature on the incidence, prevalence and mortality rates of eating disorders. We searched online Medline/Pubmed, Embase and PsycINFO databases for articles published in English using several keyterms rela

  11. Reliability of self-reported eating disorders : Optimizing population screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keski-Rahkonen, Anna; Sihvola, Elina; Raevuori, Anu; Kaukoranta, Jutta; Bulik, Cynthia M.; Hoek, Hans W.; Rissanen, Aila; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to assess whether short self-report eating disorder screening questions are useful population screening methods. Method: We screened the female participants (N = 2881) from the 1975-1079 birth cohorts of Finnish twins for eating disorders, using several sho

  12. Review of the prevalence and incidence of eating disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, HW; van Hoeken, D

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To review the literature on the incidence and prevalence of eating disorders. Methods: We searched Medline using several key terms relating to epidemiology and eating disorders and we checked the reference lists of the articles that we found. Special attention has been paid to methodologi

  13. Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale: Additional Evidence of Reliability and Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Fisher, Melissa; Martinez, Erin

    2004-01-01

    The authors conducted 4 studies investigating the reliability and validity of the Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale (HDDS; E. Stice, C. F. Telch, & S. L. Rizvi, 2000), a brief self-report measure for diagnosing anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder. Study 1 found that the HDDS showed criterion validity with interview-based…

  14. Autonomy, Eating Disorders and Elite Gymnastics: Ethical and Conceptual Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloodworth, Andrew; McNamee, Mike; Tan, Jacinta

    2017-01-01

    Participation in elite sport, and in particular those sports with special demands in terms of weight and shape, is associated with a higher risk for eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa [Sundgot-Borgen, J., & Torstveit, M. K. (2010). Aspects of disordered eating continuum in elite high intensity sports. "Scandinavian Journal of…

  15. Eating Disorders and Body Image of Undergraduate Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ousley, Louise; Cordero, Elizabeth Diane; White, Sabina

    2008-01-01

    Eating disorders and body dissatisfaction among undergraduate men are less documented and researched than are eating disorders and body dissatisfaction among undergraduate women. Objective and Participants: In this study, the authors examined these issues in undergraduate men to identify similarities and differences between this population and…

  16. The prevalence of eating disorders not otherwise specified

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Machado, Paulo P. P.; Machado, Barbara C.; Goncalves, Sonia; Hoek, Hans W.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Eating Disorders Not Otherwise Specified (EDNOS) represent the most common eating disorder diagnosed in specialized treatment settings. The purpose of the current study is to assess the prevalence of EDNOS in a nationwide community sample. Method: Participants were 2,028 female students,

  17. Reliability of self-reported eating disorders : Optimizing population screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keski-Rahkonen, Anna; Sihvola, Elina; Raevuori, Anu; Kaukoranta, Jutta; Bulik, Cynthia M.; Hoek, Hans W.; Rissanen, Aila; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to assess whether short self-report eating disorder screening questions are useful population screening methods. Method: We screened the female participants (N = 2881) from the 1975-1079 birth cohorts of Finnish twins for eating disorders, using several

  18. Epidemiology of Eating Disorders : Incidence, Prevalence and Mortality Rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smink, Frederique R. E.; van Hoeken, Daphne; Hoek, Hans W.

    Eating disorders are relatively rare among the general population. This review discusses the literature on the incidence, prevalence and mortality rates of eating disorders. We searched online Medline/Pubmed, Embase and PsycINFO databases for articles published in English using several keyterms

  19. Acculturation and Eating Disorders in a Mexican American Community Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cachelin, Fary M.; Phinney, Jean S.; Schug, Robert A.; Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.

    2006-01-01

    Our purpose was to investigate acculturation and eating disorders by examining the role of ethnic identity and by utilizing a bidimensional perspective toward two cultures. We predicted that orientation toward European American culture and lower ethnic identity would be positively associated with eating disorders. Participants were 188 Mexican…

  20. The prevalence of eating disorders not otherwise specified

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Machado, Paulo P. P.; Machado, Barbara C.; Goncalves, Sonia; Hoek, Hans W.

    Objective: Eating Disorders Not Otherwise Specified (EDNOS) represent the most common eating disorder diagnosed in specialized treatment settings. The purpose of the current study is to assess the prevalence of EDNOS in a nationwide community sample. Method: Participants were 2,028 female students,

  1. Eating Disorders and Body Image of Undergraduate Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ousley, Louise; Cordero, Elizabeth Diane; White, Sabina

    2008-01-01

    Eating disorders and body dissatisfaction among undergraduate men are less documented and researched than are eating disorders and body dissatisfaction among undergraduate women. Objective and Participants: In this study, the authors examined these issues in undergraduate men to identify similarities and differences between this population and…

  2. Alexithymia and eating disorders: a critical review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Alexithymia is characterized by difficulties identifying feelings and differentiating between feelings and bodily sensations, difficulties communicating feelings, and a concrete cognitive style focused on the external environment. Individuals with eating disorders have elevated levels of alexithymia, particularly difficulties identifying and describing their feelings. A number of theoretical models have suggested that individuals with eating disorders may find emotions unacceptable and/or frightening and may use their eating disorder symptoms (i.e., restricting food intake, bingeing, and/or purging) as a way to avoid or cope with their feelings. The current critical review synthesizes the literature on alexithymia and eating disorders and examines alexithymia levels across eating disorders (i.e., anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and eating disorder not otherwise specified), the role of alexithymia in binge eating disorder, and the influence of alexithymia on the development of eating disorders as well as treatment outcome. The clinical implications of the research conducted to date and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:24999402

  3. Overvaluation of Shape and Weight in Binge Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrabosky, Joshua I.; Masheb, Robin M.; White, Marney A.; Grilo, Carlos M.

    2007-01-01

    The excessive influence of shape or weight on self-evaluation--referred to as overvaluation--is considered by some a central feature across eating disorders but is not a diagnostic requirement for binge eating disorder (BED). This study examined shape/weight overvaluation in 399 consecutive patients with BED. Participants completed semistructured…

  4. Review of the prevalence and incidence of eating disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, HW; van Hoeken, D

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To review the literature on the incidence and prevalence of eating disorders. Methods: We searched Medline using several key terms relating to epidemiology and eating disorders and we checked the reference lists of the articles that we found. Special attention has been paid to methodologi

  5. Reliability of self-reported eating disorders : Optimizing population screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keski-Rahkonen, Anna; Sihvola, Elina; Raevuori, Anu; Kaukoranta, Jutta; Bulik, Cynthia M.; Hoek, Hans W.; Rissanen, Aila; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to assess whether short self-report eating disorder screening questions are useful population screening methods. Method: We screened the female participants (N = 2881) from the 1975-1079 birth cohorts of Finnish twins for eating disorders, using several sho

  6. Epidemiology of Eating Disorders : Incidence, Prevalence and Mortality Rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smink, Frederique R. E.; van Hoeken, Daphne; Hoek, Hans W.

    2012-01-01

    Eating disorders are relatively rare among the general population. This review discusses the literature on the incidence, prevalence and mortality rates of eating disorders. We searched online Medline/Pubmed, Embase and PsycINFO databases for articles published in English using several keyterms rela

  7. Positive Psychology in the Prevention of Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steck, Erin L.; Abrams, Laura M.; Phelps, LeAdelle

    2004-01-01

    Traditionally the identification of, and treatment for, eating disorders has been based on developmental psychopathology theory and research, thereby emphasizing risk factors and the elimination of maladaptive behaviors. This article seeks to reconceptualize the prevention of, and protective factors for, eating disordered behavior from the…

  8. Acculturation and Eating Disorder Symptoms in Adolescent Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowen, L. Kris; Hayward, Chris; Killen, Joel D.; Robinson, Thomas N.; Taylor, C. Barr

    1999-01-01

    Examined relationship between acculturation and eating-disorder symptoms in normative samples of 920 adolescents girls of high school age. Found that acculturation was positively associated with structured-interview defined partial syndrome eating disorders in Hispanic girls, but not in Asian or European-American girls. There was no relation…

  9. Review of the prevalence and incidence of eating disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, HW; van Hoeken, D

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To review the literature on the incidence and prevalence of eating disorders. Methods: We searched Medline using several key terms relating to epidemiology and eating disorders and we checked the reference lists of the articles that we found. Special attention has been paid to

  10. Are personality disturbances in anorexia nervosa related to emotion processing or eating disorder symptomatology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillipou, Andrea; Gurvich, Caroline; Castle, David Jonathan; Rossell, Susan Lee

    2015-01-01

    Anorexia Nervosa (AN) is a psychiatric illness associated with a number of personality disturbances. However, whether these personality characteristics are related to eating disorder symptomatology or emotion regulation is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate these relationships. Twenty-four individuals with AN and 25 age- and premorbid intelligence-matched controls completed the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire, and scores were correlated with measures of emotionality and negative mood states, and eating disorder symptomatology. AN was associated with increased scores on schizoid, borderline, avoidant, dependent, obsessive compulsive, negativistic and depressive personality dimensions, relative to controls. In AN, eating disorder symptomatology did not significantly correlate with scores on any personality dimension. However, a number of personality characteristics were found to correlate with negative mood states. The findings suggest that personality disturbances in AN are not related to disorder-specific symptoms, but are related to negative mood states.

  11. Child feeding perceptions among mothers with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeh-Sharvit, Shiri; Levy-Shiff, Rachel; Feldman, Talya; Ram, Anca; Gur, Eitan; Zubery, Eynat; Steiner, Evelyne; Latzer, Yael; Lock, James D

    2015-12-01

    Feeding and eating difficulties are documented among the offspring of mothers with eating disorders. Understanding the perspective of mothers with eating disorders is likely essential to develop parent-based early prevention programs for children of these mothers. In the present study, twenty-nine mothers who were diagnosed with an eating disorder prior to becoming mothers and who currently had toddler age children participated in a semi-structured interview examining maternal functioning and child feeding. The maternal perceptions that emerged from the interviews were sorted into central themes and subcategories using interpretive phenomenological analysis. Data indicate that mothers with eating disorders express preoccupation with their child's eating, shape and weight, and many dilemmas about child feeding. They also reported rarity of family meals and their toddlers' preliminary awareness of maternal symptoms. Maternal concerns regarding child nutrition, feeding and weight were reported as more intense in regards to daughters. These maternal perceptions illuminate the maternal psychological processes that underlie the feeding and eating problems of the children of mothers with lifetime eating disorders. Findings should be addressed in the evaluation, treatment, and research of adult and childhood eating disorders.

  12. Anxiety and depression symptoms in women with and without binge eating disorder enrolled in weight loss programs Sintomas de ansiedade e depressão em mulheres com e sem compulsão alimentar participantes de programas de redução de peso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Armentano Bittencourt

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: 1 To investigate the association between binge eating scores, anxiety and depression symptoms, and body mass index (BMI, and 2 to assess the presence of differences in severity of anxiety symptoms, severity of depression symptoms, and BMI in women with and without binge eating disorder. METHOD: The sample comprised 113 women aged between 22 and 60 years (39.35±10.85 enrolled in weight loss programs in Porto Alegre, southern Brazil. The following instruments were used: structured interview, Brazilian Economic Classification Criteria, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory, and Binge Eating Scale. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. RESULTS: A positive association was found between binge eating scores and the severity of anxiety symptoms (p OBJETIVOS: 1 Investigar a associação entre escores de compulsão alimentar, sintomas de ansiedade e de depressão e índice de massa corporal (IMC; e 2 verificar se existe diferença na intensidade dos sintomas de ansiedade, dos sintomas depressivos e no IMC em mulheres com e sem compulsão alimentar. MÉTODO: A amostra foi composta de 113 mulheres com idade entre 22 e 60 anos (39,35±10,85, participantes de programas de redução de peso na cidade de Porto Alegre, sul do Brasil. Foram aplicados os seguintes instrumentos: entrevista estruturada, Critérios de Classificação Econômica Brasil, Inventário de Ansiedade de Beck, Inventário de Depressão de Beck e Escala de Compulsão Alimentar Periódica. Os dados foram analisados utilizando-se estatística descritiva e inferencial. RESULTADOS: Houve associação positiva entre os escores de compulsão alimentar e a intensidade dos sintomas de ansiedade (p < 0,001 e de depressão (p < 0,001. Não foi observada associação significativa (p = 0,341 entre IMC e escores de compulsão alimentar. Houve diferença significativa entre mulheres com e sem compulsão alimentar com relação à intensidade dos sintomas

  13. Psychosocial Interventions in Depressive Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceyda Basogul

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the last ten years, improvements in effective psychosocial interventions in the prevention and treatment of depression are remarkable. The World Health Organization stated that major depression affects children, adults and the elderly and is the leading cause of approximately 12% of all disabilities around the World. Medical expenses, loss of workforce, suicide risk, the risk of relapse or recurrence are taken into account, depression is an issue that needs to be handled with utmost care for health care workers especially psychiatric nurses. The purpose of this literature review is to examine psychosocial interventions and effectiveness of these interventions for depressive disorders shows a gradual increase in prevalence in worlwide. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2015; 7(1: 1-15

  14. A Preliminary Examination of a Nonpurging Compensatory Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Heather A.; Holland, Lauren A.; Keel, Pamela K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate correlates of a compensatory eating disorder (CED) characterized by recurrent nonpurging compensatory behaviors in the absence of objectively large binge episodes among normal weight individuals who endorse undue influence of weight/shape on self-evaluation as possible indicators of clinical significance and distinctiveness. Method Women with CED (n=20), women with bulimia nervosa (BN) (n=20), and controls (n=20) completed an interview and questionnaires assessing eating disorder and general psychopathology and weight history. Results Compared to controls, women with CED reported significantly greater body image disturbance and disordered eating, higher anxiety proneness, increased perfectionism, and greater weight suppression. Compared to BN, CED was associated with significantly less body image disturbance, disordered eating, weight suppression, and lower likelihood of being overweight in childhood. However, CED and BN did not differ on anxiety proneness or perfectionism. Discussion CED merits further examination to determine whether it is a clinically significant and distinct eating disorder. PMID:24105678

  15. A meta-analysis of temperament in eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atiye, Minna; Miettunen, Jouko; Raevuori-Helkamaa, Anu

    2015-03-01

    Although suggested as an important contributor to the development and maintenance of eating disorders, temperament has not previously been studied adopting a meta-analytical approach. We therefore pooled data (N = 14 studies; N = 3315 cases, N = 3395 controls) on Cloninger's temperament traits (novelty seeking, harm avoidance, reward dependence and persistence) in anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), binge eating disorder (BED) and eating disorders not otherwise specified. Persistence was significantly higher than in the controls in all eating disorders except for BED the highest levels being observed in AN. Correspondingly, the highest effect sizes for harm avoidance were seen in AN. Novelty seeking was significantly elevated relative to the controls only in BN. Harm avoidance was significantly lower, and reward dependence was significantly higher in individuals who had recovered from AN than in those who remained ill. Future studies with a longitudinal design are needed to explore the temporal relationships between eating disorders and temperament traits.

  16. [Orthorexia nervosa. A new eating behavior disorder?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalina Zamora, M L; Bote Bonaechea, B; García Sánchez, F; Ríos Rial, B

    2005-01-01

    New eating behavior disorders such as bigorexia (muscle dysmorphia) and orthorexia are appearing in developed countries. These disorders have not been officially recognized so that they are not classified as independent entities. The term orthorexia comes from the Greek word orthos (straight, proper) and orexia (appetite). It is characterized by the pathological obsession for biologically pure food, which leads to important dietary restrictions. Orthorexic patients exclude foods from their diets that they consider to be impure because they have herbicides, pesticides or artificial substances and they worry in excess about the techniques and materials used in the food elaboration. This obsession leads to loss of social relationships and affective dissatisfactions which, in turn, favors obsessive concern about food. In orthorexia, that patient initially wants to improve his/her health, treat a disease or lose weight. Finally, the diet becomes the most important part of their lives. We present a clinical case that responds to the characteristics of orthorexia. The differential diagnosis with chronic delusional disorder, anorexia nervosa and obsessive-compulsive disorder is carried out.

  17. Food cravings, binge eating, and eating disorder psychopathology: Exploring the moderating roles of gender and race

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Ariana M.; Grilo, Carlos M.; Sinha, Rajita

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the moderating effects of gender and race on the relationships among food cravings, binge eating, and eating disorder psychopathology in a community sample. Methods Data were collected from a convenience sample of 320 adults (53% male; mean age 28.5±8.2 years; mean BMI 27.1±5.2 kg/m2; mean education 15.1±2.2 years; 64% white, 24% black, and 13% other race) participating in a cross-sectional study examining the interactions between stress, self-control and addiction. Participants completed a comprehensive assessment panel including a demographic questionnaire, the Food Craving Inventory, and Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire. Data were analyzed using multiple logistic regression for binge eating behavior and multiple linear regression for eating disorder psychopathology. Results Overall, food cravings demonstrated significant main effects for binge eating behavior (adjusted OR=2.65, peating disorder psychopathology (B=.47±.09, peating disorder psychopathology than males; there were no statistically significant differences by race. Conclusion These findings, based on a diverse sample recruited from the community, suggest that food cravings are associated with binge eating and eating disorder psychopathology and may represent an important target for interventions. PMID:26741258

  18. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and eating disorders across the lifespan: A systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Rivka L; Rawana, Jennine S

    2016-12-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and eating disorders are common and concerning mental health disorders. There is both empirical and theoretical support for an association between ADHD and eating disorders or disordered eating. This systematic review aims to summarize the extant literature on the comorbidity of ADHD and eating disorders across the lifespan, including the influences of sex, age, eating disorder diagnosis, and potential mediators. A total of 37 peer-reviewed studies on diagnosed ADHD and eating disturbances were identified through key research databases. Twenty-six studies supported a strong empirical association between ADHD and eating disorders or disordered eating. The systematic review findings suggest that children with ADHD are at risk for disordered eating, while adolescents, emerging adults, and adults are at risk for both eating disorders and disordered eating. Methodological considerations, future research, and clinical implications are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. StudentBodies-eating disorders: A randomized controlled trial of a coached online intervention for subclinical eating disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenine Saekow

    2015-11-01

    Results: Results indicate that for study completers, the intervention had large effects for reduction of eating-related psychopathology (d = 1.5, weight concerns (d = .7, and psychosocial impairment (d = .7. Those who completed it rated the program very acceptable. This pilot study suggests the potential efficacy of StudentBodies-Eating Disorders as a self-help intervention for subclinical eating disorders in a non-clinical setting.

  20. Are parents' anxiety and depression related to child fussy eating?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barse, Lisanne M; Cano, Sebastian Cardona; Jansen, Pauline W

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between parental anxiety and depression with child fussy eating-that is, consistent rejection of particular food items. Design This study was embedded in Generation R, a prospective cohort from fetal life onwards in the Netherlands. Setting Population-based. P......Objective To examine the association between parental anxiety and depression with child fussy eating-that is, consistent rejection of particular food items. Design This study was embedded in Generation R, a prospective cohort from fetal life onwards in the Netherlands. Setting Population......-based. Participants 4746 4-year-old children and their parents. Exposure Parental internalising problems (ie, symptoms of anxiety and depression) were assessed with the Brief Symptoms Inventory during pregnancy and the preschool period (child age 3 years). Main outcome measure The food fussiness scale of the Children......'s Eating Behaviour Questionnaire. Results Maternal anxiety during pregnancy and during the child's preschool period was related to higher food fussiness sum-scores in children. For instance, per point on the anxiety scale in pregnancy, children had on average a 1.02 higher sum-score (95% CI 0.59 to 1...

  1. Abdominoplasty improves quality of life, psychological distress, and eating disorder symptoms: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saariniemi, Kai M M; Salmi, Asko M; Peltoniemi, Hilkka H; Helle, Marjo H; Charpentier, Pia; Kuokkanen, Hannu O M

    2014-01-01

    Background. Only some studies provide sufficient data regarding the effects of nonpostbariatric (aesthetic) abdominoplasty on various aspects of quality of life. Nevertheless, when considering the effects on eating habits, publications are lacking. Therefore we decided to assess the effects of nonpostbariatric abdominoplasty on eating disorder symptoms, psychological distress, and quality of life. Materials and Methods. 64 consecutive women underwent nonpostbariatric abdominoplasty. Three outcome measures were completed: the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI), Raitasalo's modification of the Beck Depression Inventory (RBDI), and the 15D general quality of life questionnaire. Results. The mean age at baseline was 42 years and the mean body mass index (BMI) 26.4. Fifty-three (83%) women completed all the outcome measures with a mean follow-up time of 5 months. A significant improvement from baseline to follow-up was noted in women's overall quality of life, body satisfaction, effectiveness, sexual functioning, and self-esteem. The women were significantly less depressive and had significantly less drive for thinness as well as bulimia, and their overall risk of developing an eating disorder also decreased significantly. Conclusions. Abdominoplasty results in significantly improved quality of life, body satisfaction, effectiveness, sexual functioning, self-esteem, and mental health. The risk of developing an eating disorder is decreased significantly. This trial is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02151799.

  2. Abdominoplasty Improves Quality of Life, Psychological Distress, and Eating Disorder Symptoms: A Prospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai M. M. Saariniemi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Only some studies provide sufficient data regarding the effects of nonpostbariatric (aesthetic abdominoplasty on various aspects of quality of life. Nevertheless, when considering the effects on eating habits, publications are lacking. Therefore we decided to assess the effects of nonpostbariatric abdominoplasty on eating disorder symptoms, psychological distress, and quality of life. Materials and Methods. 64 consecutive women underwent nonpostbariatric abdominoplasty. Three outcome measures were completed: the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI, Raitasalo’s modification of the Beck Depression Inventory (RBDI, and the 15D general quality of life questionnaire. Results. The mean age at baseline was 42 years and the mean body mass index (BMI 26.4. Fifty-three (83% women completed all the outcome measures with a mean follow-up time of 5 months. A significant improvement from baseline to follow-up was noted in women’s overall quality of life, body satisfaction, effectiveness, sexual functioning, and self-esteem. The women were significantly less depressive and had significantly less drive for thinness as well as bulimia, and their overall risk of developing an eating disorder also decreased significantly. Conclusions. Abdominoplasty results in significantly improved quality of life, body satisfaction, effectiveness, sexual functioning, self-esteem, and mental health. The risk of developing an eating disorder is decreased significantly. This trial is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02151799.

  3. Yoga and eating disorders: is there a place for yoga in the prevention and treatment of eating disorders and disordered eating behaviours?

    OpenAIRE

    Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the question: what can the practice of yoga offer the field of eating disorders in terms of prevention and treatment? Regarding prevention, preliminary research suggests that yoga may be effective in decreasing risk factors, and increasing protective factors, for eating disorders. Yoga was also found to be helpful in a small number of treatment studies. However, findings are not consistent across studies, which are limited in number, and due to the preliminary nature of t...

  4. Autonomous motivation: a predictor of treatment outcome in bulimia-spectrum eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Sandra; Bruce, Kenneth R; Steiger, Howard; Zuroff, David C; Horowitz, Sarah; Anestin, Annelie S; Sycz, Lindsay

    2012-05-01

    Individuals with eating disorders are said to be highly ambivalent towards change and thus have difficulty maintaining a commitment to, and motivation for, treatment. Self-Determination Theory postulates that autonomous motivation for therapy exists when individuals view their participation as freely chosen. The present study was designed to ascertain whether or not autonomous motivation was associated with treatment response in individuals with bulimia-spectrum eating disorders (BSED). One hundred and fifty-five women with DSM-IV-TR BSED participated in multimodal group therapy and completed measures to assess motivation, eating and comorbid symptoms. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses demonstrated that higher levels of autonomous motivation at pretreatment predicted lower post-treatment scores on measures of eating preoccupations (shape, weight and eating concerns), binge eating, anxiety/depression, relationship to self and others and impulsivity. These results indicate that autonomous motivation may be an important predictor of outcome following treatment for BSED. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  5. Moderators of post-binge eating negative emotion in eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Young, Kyle P; Lavender, Jason M; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Crosby, Ross D; Engel, Scott G; Mitchell, James E; Crow, Scott; Peterson, Carol B; Le Grange, Daniel

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the impact of two variables on post-binge eating negative emotion in a combined sample of women with anorexia nervosa (AN; n = 47) and bulimia nervosa (BN; n = 121). Participants completed two weeks of an ecological momentary assessment protocol during which they provided multiple daily ratings of overall negative affect and guilt and reported eating disorder behaviors including binge eating and self-induced vomiting. The results indicate that both overall negative affect and guilt exhibited a statistically significantly decrease in the hour immediately following binge eating episodes. The decrease in guilt, but not overall negative affect, was moderated by eating disorder diagnosis and the tendency to engage in self-induced vomiting. Specifically, individuals with BN reported a greater reduction in guilt than those with AN, and individuals who did not typically engage in self-induced vomiting reported more decreases in guilt than those who typically engaged in self-induced vomiting. This study extends the existing literature on the relationship between negative affect and eating disorder behaviors, suggesting guilt as a potentially relevant facet of negative affect in the maintenance of binge eating. In addition, the findings indicate that two individual differences, eating disorder diagnosis and self-induced vomiting, may influence the trajectory of guilt following binge eating episodes.

  6. Cosmetic surgery in inpatients with eating disorders: attitudes and experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Janelle W; Schreyer, Colleen C; Sarwer, David B; Heinberg, Leslie J; Redgrave, Graham W; Guarda, Angela S

    2012-01-01

    Body image disturbance is frequent among individuals undergoing cosmetic surgery and core to the pathology of eating disorders (ED); however, there is little research examining cosmetic surgery in ED. This study examined body image related measures, ED behaviors, and depression as predictors of attitudes toward cosmetic surgery in 129 women with ED. Patients who had undergone surgery (n=16, 12%) were compared to those who had not. Having a purging diagnosis, linking success to appearance, and making physical appearance comparisons were predictive of more favorable cosmetic surgery attitudes. All of those who had undergone surgery had purging diagnoses and, on average, were older, had higher BMIs, and were more likely to make physical appearance comparisons and know someone who had undergone surgery. In ED, acceptance and pursuit of cosmetic surgery appears to be related to social group influences more than weight and shape disturbance, media influences, or mood.

  7. Pharmacological approaches to the management of binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownley, Kimberly A; Peat, Christine M; La Via, Maria; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2015-01-01

    In the USA, binge eating disorder (BED) is the most common eating disorder, with a lifetime prevalence of ~3.5 % in adult women, 2.0 % in adult men, and 1.6 % in adolescents. BED is characterized by frequent episodes of binge eating that are accompanied by a sense of loss of control over eating and result in marked psychological distress. BED is highly co-morbid with obesity and with depression and other psychiatric conditions, and it is associated with substantial role impairment. Currently, there are no US FDA-approved pharmacological treatments for BED. Animal and human studies implicate underlying dysregulation in dopamine, opioid, acetylcholine, and serotonin neurocircuitry within brain reward regions in the pathogenesis and maintenance of BED. To date, the efficacy of various agents that target these and other neurotransmitter systems involved in motivated feeding behavior, mood regulation, and impulse control have been investigated in the treatment of BED. Several antidepressant and anticonvulsant agents have demonstrated efficacy in reducing binge eating frequency, but only in limited cases have these effects resulted in patients achieving abstinence, which is the primary goal of treatment; they also range from less (fluvoxamine) to more (topiramate) effective in achieving weight loss that is both clinically meaningful and significantly greater than placebo. Collectively, the literature on pharmacological treatment approaches to BED is limited in that very few agents have been studied in multiple, confirmatory trials with adequate follow up, and almost none have been evaluated in large patient samples that are diverse with respect to age, sex, and ethnicity. In addition, prior trials have not adequately addressed, through study design, the high placebo response commonly observed in this patient population. Several novel agents are in various phases of testing, and recent animal studies focusing on glutamate-signaling circuits linking the amygdala to the

  8. The Relationship between Body Image Coping Strategy and Eating Disorders among Iranian Adolescent Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malihe Farid

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Due to physical and psychological changes during puberty, most common problem of young people is body image defined as degree of size, shape and general appearance. Wrong perception of body image and dissatisfaction with body image in people can lead to eating disorders and stress. Peace of mind is in fact a mental mechanism that people use it to reduce physical and emotional strains coping with stressful situations. The aim of this study was to determine the type of coping strategy of adolescent girls and its relationship with their eating disorders. Methods: This is study is a cross-sectional study in which 573 female adolescent of Karaj participated. Two-Stage Random Sampling was used in this study. In this study, to assess people who are at risk of eating disorder, the nutritional approach assessment questionnaire of EAT-26 was used, while Strategy Inventory Body Image Coping- BICSI questionnaire was used to determine the type of coping strategy. Results: In this study, the mean age of participants was 16.6 (±26/1 (19- 14 years. In this study, 23.7% of participants had an eating disorder. Mental image of an individual of his body had significant correlation with eating disorder (P= 0.000. Kruskal-Wallis test showed a significant relationship between the type of coping strategy adopted by adolescent girls and eating disorder score of them (P= 0.007. The relationship between coping strategy and body image and having or not having the eating disorder was determined by Chi-square test at the borderline level (P= 0.054. Conclusion: In this study, results showed that there is relationship between coping strategy of adolescent girls and the eating disorder score of adolescent girls. The highest score was assigned to getting involved with body image, followed by avoidance and rational acceptance. Since the use of inappropriate coping strategies is associated with negative results such as eating disorders and depression, it is expected

  9. The canadian eating disorder program survey - exploring intensive treatment programs for youth with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Mark; Strike, Melanie; Pinhas, Leora; Gomez, Rebecca; Elliott, April; Ferguson, Patricia; Gusella, Joanne

    2013-11-01

    To explore and describe philosophies and characteristics of intensive eating disorder (ED) treatment programs based in tertiary care institutions across Canada. A ninety-item survey examining ED services for adolescents was developed, piloted, and completed by 11 programs across Canada. Information pertaining to program characteristics and components, governance, staffing, referrals, assessments, therapeutic modalities in place, nutritional practices, and treatment protocols were collected. The results highlight the diversity of programming available but also the lack of a unified approach to intensive eating disorder treatment in youth. This report provides important baseline data that offers a framework that programs can use to come together to establish assessment and treatment protocols as well as a process for outcome evaluation. Continued collaboration will be essential moving forward to ensure Canadian youth, regardless of geographic location, receive the necessary treatment required to attain and sustain recovery.

  10. Eating disorders in Asian populations: a critique of current approaches to the study of culture, ethnicity, and eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Lillian Huang; Simmons, Angela M; Zane, Nolan W S

    2005-10-01

    There is increasing evidence that eating disorders are present among ethnically diverse populations, and researchers have suggested that investigations in this area may inform the field's understanding of how sociocultural factors are related to the development of eating disorders. Although it is generally accepted that sociocultural factors are key in eating disorder etiology, knowledge on how best to study these influences in diverse groups is still limited. In this article, the authors review how the research literature has explored relationships among culture, ethnicity, and eating disorders in Asian populations and critically examine strategies that have been used to investigate these issues across 1 ethnic/racial group. The methodological challenges encountered in these approaches are identified and considered in the provision of recommendations for future endeavors to improve the field's understanding of how culture is related to eating disorders.

  11. Disordered eating behaviors and body image in male athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Reistenbach Goltz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify disordered eating behaviors and body image dissatisfaction, as well as their relationship to body fat (BF, among male athletes in high risk sports for eating disorders. Methods: One hundred and fifty-six male athletes were divided into the following categories: weight-class sports, sports where leanness improves performance, and sports with aesthetic ideals. BF was assessed and three questionnaires were used: the Eating Attitudes Test; the Bulimic Investigatory Test, Edinburgh; the Body Shape Questionnaire. Results: Disordered eating behaviors and body image dissatisfaction were found in 43 (27.6% and 23 athletes (14.7%, respectively, and an association was detected between the two variables (p < 0.001. Athletes with and without disordered eating behaviors did not differ in %BF (11.0±5.2% and 9.8±4.0%, respectively; p = 0.106. However, athletes with body image dissatisfaction had higher %BF than those who were satisfied (12.6±5.9% and 9.7±3.9%, respectively; p = 0.034. There were no differences in BF, frequency of disordered eating behaviors, and body image dissatisfaction between sports categories. Conclusion: Nearly one-quarter of athletes showed disordered eating behaviors, which was associated with body image dissatisfaction. Athletes with higher %BF were more likely to be dissatisfied with body image. There was no difference in eating behavior and body image between athletes from different sports categories.

  12. Predictors of dieting and disordered eating behaviors from adolescence to young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loth, Katie A; MacLehose, Rich; Bucchianeri, Michaela; Crow, Scott; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2014-11-01

    To identify personal and socioenvironmental factors associated with the persistence of dieting or disordered eating from adolescence to young adulthood and factors associated with the initiation of dieting or disordered eating during young adulthood. Participants (n = 4,746) completed EAT-I surveys as adolescents; EAT-III surveys were completed 10 years later by 1,902 of the original participants (1,082 females and 820 males). Study results indicate that there are personal factors, including weight concerns, weight importance, depressive symptoms and body satisfaction, present during adolescence that are predictive of an individual's engagement in dieting or disordered eating behaviors 10 years later. For example, among both males and females, weight importance was found to be predictive of continued dieting and disordered eating from adolescence through young adulthood. For example, 26.1% of males with low levels of weight concern at baseline reported engaging in persistent disordered eating as compared with 60.4% of males with high levels of weight concern at baseline (prevalence difference: 34.3; 95% confidence interval: 10.5-58.1; p adolescence were found to be predictive of both persistent dieting and disordered eating from adolescence into young adulthood, as well as initiation of these behaviors during young adulthood. In particular, weight concerns and weight importance were found to be predictive in most models providing support for inclusion of these factors in adolescent health screening. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Parental and Child Characteristics Related to Early-Onset Disordered Eating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Pernille Stemann; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Micali, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    characteristics related to early-onset disordered eating. Systematic searches were conducted in PubMED/MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycInfo using the following search terms: eating disorder, disordered eating, problem eating, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating, child, preadolescent, and early onset. Studies...

  14. Characteristics measured by the Eating Disorder Inventory for children at risk and protective factors for disordered eating in adolescent girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanna Aila Gustafsson

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Sanna Aila Gustafsson1, Birgitta Edlund2, Lars Kjellin3, Claes Norring41Psychiatric Research Centre, School of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Örebro; 2Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, University of Uppsala; 3Psychiatric Research Centre, University of Örebro; 4Centre for Psychiatry Research, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, SwedenObjective: The aim of this study was to examine longitudinally the role of characteristics measured by the Eating Disorder Inventory-Child version (EDI-C to find early predictors that might constitute risk and protective factors in the development of disordered eating.Method: Participants were divided into three groups based on eating attitudes at T2: disordered eating (n = 49, intermediate eating concern (n = 260, and healthy eating attitudes (n = 120. EDI-C from T1 (four to five years earlier was then analyzed to find predictors of group classification at T2.Results: Drive for thinness and body dissatisfaction emerged as risk factors at T1, while drive for thinness, body dissatisfaction, and interoceptive awareness emerged as protective factors after controlling for initial eating concerns and body mass index.Discussion: Eating disorders should not be seen as a result of a premorbid personality type. Rather we should take a more social-psychological perspective to explain how individual and sociocultural factors work together in the development of these conditions. Keywords: eating disorders, EDI-C, risk factors, protective factors

  15. Personality, emotion-related variables, and media pressure predict eating disorders via disordered eating in Lebanese university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Ruiz, Maria Jose; El-Jor, Claire; Abi Kharma, Joelle; Bassil, Maya; Zeeni, Nadine

    2017-04-18

    Disordered eating behaviors are on the rise among youth. The present study investigates psychosocial and weight-related variables as predictors of eating disorders (ED) through disordered eating (DE) dimensions (namely restrained, external, and emotional eating) in Lebanese university students. The sample consisted of 244 undergraduates (143 female) aged from 18 to 31 years (M = 20.06; SD = 1.67). Using path analysis, two statistical models were built separately with restrained and emotional eating as dependent variables, and all possible direct and indirect pathways were tested for mediating effects. The variables tested for were media influence, perfectionism, trait emotional intelligence, and the Big Five dimensions. In the first model, media pressure, self-control, and extraversion predicted eating disorders via emotional eating. In the second model, media pressure and perfectionism predicted eating disorders via restrained eating. Findings from this study provide an understanding of the dynamics between DE, ED, and key personality, emotion-related, and social factors in youth. Lastly, implications and recommendations for future studies are advanced.

  16. Depressive Disorders: Treatments Bring New Hope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, Marilyn

    This booklet describes the symptoms, forms, causes, and treatment of depression, with particular focus on depression in children, adolescents, and older adults. Symptoms include: persistent sad or "empty" mood; feelings of hopelessness, guilt, or helplessness; loss of interest in ordinary activities; sleep disturbances; eating disturbances;…

  17. Activated depression: mixed bipolar disorder or agitated unipolar depression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swann, Alan C

    2013-08-01

    The combination of depression and activation presents clinical and diagnostic challenges. It can occur, in either bipolar disorder or major depressive disorder, as increased agitation as a dimension of depression. What is called agitation can consist of expressions of painful inner tension or as disinhibited goal-directed behavior and thought. In bipolar disorder, elements of depression can be combined with those of mania. In this case, the agitation, in addition to increased motor activity and painful inner tension, must include symptoms of mania that are related to goal-directed behavior or manic cognition. These diagnostic considerations are important, as activated depression potentially carries increased behavioral risk, especially for suicidal behavior, and optimal treatments for depressive episodes differ between bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder.

  18. Identification of Psychological Dysfunctions and Eating Disorders in Obese Women Seeking Weight Loss: Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maude Panchaud Cornut

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study is to analyse associations between eating behaviour and psychological dysfunctions in treatment-seeking obese patients and identify parameters for the development of diagnostic tools with regard to eating and psychological disorders. Design and Methods. Cross-sectional data were analysed from 138 obese women. Bulimic Investigatory Test of Edinburgh and Eating Disorder Inventory-2 assessed eating behaviours. Beck Depression Inventory II, Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, form Y, Rathus Assertiveness Schedule, and Marks and Mathews Fear Questionnaire assessed psychological profile. Results. 61% of patients showed moderate or major depressive symptoms and 77% showed symptoms of anxiety. Half of the participants presented with a low degree of assertiveness. No correlation was found between psychological profile and age or anthropometric measurements. The prevalence and severity of depression, anxiety, and assertiveness increased with the degree of eating disorders. The feeling of ineffectiveness explained a large degree of score variance. It explained 30 to 50% of the variability of assertiveness, phobias, anxiety, and depression. Conclusion. Psychological dysfunctions had a high prevalence and their severity is correlated with degree of eating disorders. The feeling of ineffectiveness constitutes the major predictor of the psychological profile and could open new ways to develop screening tools.

  19. An Investigation of Loss of Control Eating Disorder in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    and bulimia nervosa corroborate adolescent research by implicating similar factors in the emergence of disordered eating patterns (Fairburn et al...disordered women found that those with a diagnosis of BED at baseline remained the heaviest over time compared to women with bulimia nervosa (Fairburn...given the diagnosis of ED-NOS show traits similar to one of the primary eating disorders (anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa) and BED (Workgroup for

  20. A Latent Class Analysis to Empirically Describe Eating Disorders through Developmental Stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Sonja A.; Horton, Nicholas J.; Crosby, Ross D.; Micali, Nadia; Sonneville, Kendrin R.; Eddy, Kamryn; Field, Alison E.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The current standards for classifying eating disorders were primarily informed by adult, clinical study populations, while it is unknown whether an empirically based classification system can be supported across preadolescence through young adulthood. Using latent class analyses, we sought to empirically classify disordered eating in females from preadolescence to young adulthood, and assess the association between classes and adverse outcomes. Methods Latent class models were fit using observations from the 9,039 girls participating in the Growing Up Today Study, an on-going cohort following participants annually or biennially since 1996 when they were ages 9–14 years. Associations between classes and drug use, binge drinking, and depressive symptoms were assessed using generalized estimating equations. Results Across age groups, there was evidence of six classes: a large asymptomatic class, a class characterized by shape/weight concerns, a class characterized by overeating without loss of control, and three resembling full and subthreshold binge eating disorder, purging disorder, and bulimia nervosa. Relative prevalences of classes varied across developmental stages, with symptomatic classes increasing in prevalence with increasing age. Symptomatic classes were associated with concurrent and incident drug use, binge drinking, and high depressive symptoms. Discussion A classification system resembling broader definitions of DSM-5 diagnoses along with two further subclinical symptomatic classes may be a useful framework for studying disordered eating among adolescent and young adult females. PMID:24909947

  1. Genetics in eating disorders: extending the boundaries of research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Poyastro Pinheiro

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To review the recent literature relevant to genetic research in eating disorders and to discuss unique issues which are crucial for the development of a genetic research project in eating disorders in Brazil. METHOD: A computer literature review was conducted in the Medline database between 1984 and may 2005 with the search terms "eating disorders", "anorexia nervosa", "bulimia nervosa", "binge eating disorder", "family", "twin" and "molecular genetic" studies. RESULTS: Current research findings suggest a substantial influence of genetic factors on the liability to anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. Genetic research with admixed populations should take into consideration sample size, density of genotyping and population stratification. Through admixture mapping it is possible to study the genetic structure of admixed human populations to localize genes that underlie ethnic variation in diseases or traits of interest. CONCLUSIONS: The development of a major collaborative genetics initiative of eating disorders in Brazil and South America would represent a realistic possibility of studying the genetics of eating disorders in the context of inter ethnic groups, and also integrate a new perspective on the biological etiology of eating disorders.

  2. Neuroimaging and neuromodulation approaches to study eating behavior and prevent and treat eating disorders and obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Val-Laillet, D.; Aarts, E.; Weber, B.; Ferrari, M.; Quaresima, V.; Stoeckel, L.E.; Alonso-Alonso, M.; Audette, M.; Malbert, C.H.; Stice, E.

    2015-01-01

    Functional, molecular and genetic neuroimaging has highlighted the existence of brain anomalies and neural vulnerability factors related to obesity and eating disorders such as binge eating or anorexia nervosa. In particular, decreased basal metabolism in the prefrontal cortex and striatum as well a

  3. Eating Patterns and Disorders in a College Population: Are College Women's Eating Problems a New Phenomenon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse-Biber, Sharlene

    1989-01-01

    Analysis of questionnaires returned by 395 sophomores reveals that the eating difficulties of college women may be a problem that only partially resembles clinical eating disorders. They displayed the behavioral symptoms but not the psychological traits associated with anorexia and bulimia. Diagnosis and treatment issues, and sociocultural…

  4. Validity of the Eating Attitudes Test and the Eating Disorders Inventory in Bulimia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Janet; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Assessed criterion and concurrent validity of the Eating Attitudes Test and the Eating Disorder Inventory in 82 women with bulimia nervosa. Both tests demonstrated criterion validity by discriminating bulimia nervosa subjects from normals. Only weak support was found for concurrent validity within bulimia subjects. Recommends combination of…

  5. Cortisol responses on the dexamethasone suppression test among women with Bulimia-spectrum eating disorders: associations with clinical symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Kenneth R; Steiger, Howard; Israël, Mimi; Groleau, Patricia; Ng Ying Kin, N M K; Ouellette, Anne-Sophie; Sycz, Lindsay; Badawi, Ghislaine

    2012-08-07

    Evidence associates Bulimia Nervosa (BN) with altered functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, but the clinical implications of such alterations need to be better understood. We contrasted cortisol responses to the dexamethasone suppression test (DST) in bulimic and non-eating disordered women and examined relationships among DST cortisol responses, eating symptoms and co-morbid disturbances. Sixty women with Bulimia Spectrum (BS) Disorders (either BN or normal weight Eating Disorder NOS with regular binge eating or purging) and 54 non-eating disordered women of similar age and body mass index participated in a 0.5 mg DST, and completed interviews and questionnaires assessing eating symptoms and co-morbid psychopathology. Compared with the normal-eater group, the BS women demonstrated significantly less DST suppression. Among BS women, DST non-suppression was associated with more severe depression, anxiety and eating preoccupations. Our findings show BS women to show less DST suppression compared to normal eater women, and results link extent of non-suppression, in BS individuals, to severity of depression, anxiety and eating preoccupations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Longitudinal associations between parenting style and adolescent disordered eating behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubatsky, Max; Berge, Jerica; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2015-06-01

    The main purpose of this study was to identify the longitudinal association between specific parenting styles (authoritarian, authoritative, permissive, and neglectful) and adolescent disordered eating behaviors. The current study uses longitudinal data from a 5-year study to examine the associations between parenting style and disordered eating behaviors among adolescents. Data from adolescents (n = 2516) participating in Project EAT (Eating Among Teens), a population-based study from 31 Minnesota schools, were used in the analysis. Time 1 data were collected using in-class assessments of adolescents from Minneapolis/St. Paul schools, and Time 2 data were collected using mailed surveys 5 years later. General Linear Models were used to predict adolescent-reported disordered eating behaviors at Time 2 from adolescent-reported parenting style at Time 1. Adolescent boys and girls who had authoritarian mothers at Time 1 had a higher probability of extreme weight control behaviors 5 years later compared to adolescents with authoritative, permissive, or neglectful mothers. Adolescent girls with authoritarian mothers at Time 1 had a higher probability of engaging in binge-eating behaviors at Time 2 compared to adolescent girls with authoritative or permissive mothers. There were no significant associations between paternal parenting style and adolescent disordered eating behaviors. Although authoritarian parenting style served as a possible risk factor for disordered eating behaviors in adolescents, the findings were not conclusive. Future studies should investigate further the association between parenting style and weight control behaviors in adolescents.

  7. Comorbidity of mood and substance use disorders in patients with binge-eating disorder: Associations with personality disorder and eating disorder pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Daniel F; Grilo, Carlos M

    2015-08-01

    Binge-eating disorder (BED) is associated with elevated rates of mood and substance use disorders, but the significance of such comorbidity is ambiguous. We compared personality disorder and eating disorder psychopathology in four subgroups of BED patients: those with mood disorders, those with substance use disorders, those with both, and those with neither. Subjects were 347 patients who met DSM-IV research criteria for BED. Semistructured interviews evaluated lifetime DSM-IV axis I disorders, DSM-IV personality disorder features, and eating disorder psychopathology. Among these patients, 129 had co-occurring mood disorder, 34 had substance use disorder, 60 had both, and 124 had neither. Groups differed on personality disorder features, with those having mood disorder and both mood and substance use disorders showing the highest frequencies. Although groups did not differ in body mass index or binge eating frequency, they did differ on eating disorder psychopathology-with the groups having mood disorder and both comorbidities demonstrating higher eating, weight, and shape concerns. No differences were observed between groups with respect to ages of onset for specific eating behaviors, but some differences were observed for ages of disorder onset. Mood and substance use disorders co-occur frequently among patients with BED. Compared with a previous work, the additional comparison group (those with both mood and substance use disorders) and the control group (those with neither) afforded better discrimination regarding the significance of these comorbidities. Our findings suggest approaches to subtyping BED based on psychiatric comorbidity, and may also have implications for treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Prevalence and correlates of eating disorders in 875 patients with bipolar disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McElroy, Susan L.; Frye, Mark A.; Hellemann, Gerhard; Altshuler, Lori; Leverich, Gabriele S.; Suppes, Trisha; Keck, Paul E.; Nolen, Willem A.; Kupka, Ralph; Post, Robert M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Relatively little is known about the co-occurrence of bipolar and eating disorders. We therefore assessed the prevalence and clinical correlates of eating disorders in 875 patients with bipolar disorder. Method: 875 outpatients with DSM-IV bipolar I or II disorder were evaluated with stru

  9. Prevalence and correlates of eating disorders in 875 patients with bipolar disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McElroy, Susan L.; Frye, Mark A.; Hellemann, Gerhard; Altshuler, Lori; Leverich, Gabriele S.; Suppes, Trisha; Keck, Paul E.; Nolen, Willem A.; Kupka, Ralph; Post, Robert M.

    Objective: Relatively little is known about the co-occurrence of bipolar and eating disorders. We therefore assessed the prevalence and clinical correlates of eating disorders in 875 patients with bipolar disorder. Method: 875 outpatients with DSM-IV bipolar I or II disorder were evaluated with

  10. Chocolate craving and disordered eating. Beyond the gender divide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormes, Julia M; Orloff, Natalia C; Timko, C Alix

    2014-12-01

    Chocolate craving in women has previously been linked to disordered eating behaviors. A relatively higher prevalence of eating disorder pathology may account for the fact that chocolate craving is significantly more common in women in North America, compared to many other countries. While support for a causal role of disordered eating in the etiology of craving in women is growing, little is known about the extent to which food cravings are associated with disordered eating behaviors in men. This study was designed to systematically assess the impact of gender and chocolate craving on measures of attitudes to chocolate, responsiveness to food cues in the environment, body shape dissatisfaction, dietary restraint, and eating disorder and general pathology. Undergraduate men and women (n = 645, 37.2% male) were invited to complete self-report questionnaires assessing demographics, height and weight, food cravings, dietary attitudes and behaviors, along with eating disorder and general pathology. Data suggest that the relationship between chocolate craving and disordered eating behaviors in men is the opposite of what has previously been observed in women: compared to non-cravers, male chocolate cravers reported significantly more guilt related to craving, but were significantly less likely to diet and reported lower levels of dietary restraint, less frequent weight fluctuations, and fewer symptoms of eating disorders. Findings indicate that a positive relationship between disordered eating behaviors and chocolate craving may be unique to women (and potentially women in North America). Findings have important implications for our understanding of cultural and psychosocial factors involved in the etiology of food cravings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Chronic subordination stress induces hyperphagia and disrupts eating behavior in mice modeling binge-eating-like disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Maria eRazzoli; Valentina eSanghez; Alessandro eBartolomucci

    2015-01-01

    Background: Eating disorders are associated with physical morbidity and appear to have causal factors like stressful life events and negative affect. Binge eating disorder (BED) is characterized by eating in a discrete period of time a larger than normal amount of food, a sense of lack of control over eating, and marked distress. There are still unmet needs for the identification of mechanisms regulating excessive eating, which is in part due to the lack of appropriate animal models. We devel...

  12. Chronic Subordination Stress Induces Hyperphagia and Disrupts Eating Behavior in Mice Modeling Binge-Eating-Like Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Razzoli, Maria; Sanghez, Valentina; Bartolomucci, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Background: Eating disorders are associated with physical morbidity and appear to have causal factors like stressful life events and negative affect. Binge-eating disorder (BED) is characterized by eating in a discrete period of time a larger than normal amount of food, a sense of lack of control over eating, and marked distress. There are still unmet needs for the identification of mechanisms regulating excessive eating, which is in part due to the lack of appropriate animal models. We devel...

  13. Pathological organizations and psychic retreats in eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadish, Yael Adira

    2012-04-01

    A set of characteristic symptoms allow for the relatively straightforward diagnosis of eating disorders. Simultaneously and paradoxically, underlying the eating disorders are a wide variety of personality organizations/disorders, stretching from the neurotic to the borderline and narcissistic, and even to conditions approaching psychosis. This paper will argue that the inherent commonalities can be ascribed to pathological organizations of a similar nature and quality, operational across the spectrum of eating disorders and functioning in a particular, sadomasochistic way. The typical forms that eating disorders take are based on the specific ways that food and the body are used, that is, symptom manifestation. These distinctive symptom manifestations appear to be related to Steiner's (1982, 1993) notion of a psychic retreat. Pathological organizations and psychic retreats are latent until called upon either sporadically or continuously. When activated, these defensive structures operate like a complex psychic skeleton around which the unique psychodynamics of each patient become rearranged and thereby transformed.

  14. What's eating the internet? Content and perceived harm of pro-eating disorder websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steakley-Freeman, Diana M; Jarvis-Creasey, Zachary L; Wesselmann, Eric D

    2015-12-01

    The internet is a popular tool for information dissemination and community building, serving many purposes from social networking to support seeking. However, there may be a downside to using some online support communities. For individuals with eating disorders (EDs), it is possible that certain online communities may reinforce the negative social aspects that encourage these disorders, rather than positive aspects that would facilitate treatment and recovery. Previous research identified several linguistic themes present on pro-eating disorder websites in an attempt to better understand the web-based conversation in the pro-eating disorder movement. We hypothesized that differences in theme presentation may predict changes in perceived harm. The present study sought to understand the perceived harm, and presentation patterns of pro-eating disorder (Pro-ED) website content. We replicated and extended previous research by having laypersons code these websites' content using previously identified linguistic themes and rate perceived harm. Our data replicate and extend the previous research by finding the same associations between co-occurring themes, and investigating associated perceived harm. We found that themes of Sacrifice, Control, Deceit, and Solidarity were associated with the highest perceived harm scores. In addition, we suggest an initial conceptualization of the "Eating Disorder Lifestyle", and its associations with the themes of Isolation, Success, and Solidarity. This research may provide clinicians with information to better understand the potential influence these sites have on eating disorders.

  15. Characterization of Binge-Eating Behavior in Individuals With Binge-Eating Disorder in an Adult Population in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawaskar, Manjiri; Solo, Kirk; Valant, Jason; Schmitt, Emily; Nwankwo, Millicent; Herman, Barry K

    2016-10-27

    Characterize the frequency, duration, and severity of binge-eating behaviors in adults meeting DSM-5 criteria for binge-eating disorder (BED) in a large US community sample. A representative sample of US adults from the National Health and Wellness Survey was recruited from an online panel and asked to respond to an Internet survey (conducted in October 2013) that included questions designed to assess binge-eating behaviors in relation to DSM-5 BED diagnostic criteria. Of 22,397 respondents, 344 self-reported meeting DSM-5 BED criteria (BED respondents). Most BED respondents reported that binge-eating episodes had occurred for the past 7-12 months (61.0%), and 93.6% reported ≥ 2-3 binge-eating episodes/wk. All BED respondents reported that "extreme" (52.6%) or "great" (47.4%) distress levels were associated with binge-eating episodes. Among BED respondents who agreed to provide detailed binge-eating behavior data after being invited to respond to additional survey questions, 40.6% reported binge eating on average > 1 time/d, and 59.2% reported binge eating 2-3 times/d. For 44.5% of BED respondents, binge-eating duration was 31-60 minutes. BED respondents reported that they "very often" (36.6%) or "often" (34.0%) had urges to binge eat between 7-10 pm. "Feeling disgusted with oneself, depressed, or guilty afterward" was the most bothersome symptom of binge eating for BED respondents (extremely bothersome: 41.9%). Binge-eating frequency among BED respondents averaged once daily. Most BED respondents exhibited binge-eating behavior for 7-12 months, often with severe symptoms. These findings highlight the disease burden of BED and have potential implications for diagnosing and treating BED.

  16. Investigating Vulnerability for Developing Eating Disorders in a Multi-confessional Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doumit, Rita; Khazen, Georges; Katsounari, Ioanna; Kazandjian, Chant; Long, JoAnn; Zeeni, Nadine

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine the vulnerability to eating disorders (ED) among 949 Lebanese female young adults as well as its association with stress, anxiety, depression, body image dissatisfaction (BID), dysfunctional eating, body mass index, religious affiliation (Christian, Muslim, Druze or Other), religiosity and activity level. Results showed that anxiety had the greatest effect on increasing the predisposition to ED, followed by stress level, BID, depression and restrained eating. Affiliating as Christian was found to significantly decrease the vulnerability to developing an ED. Furthermore, the interaction of anxiety with intrinsic religiosity was found to have a protective role on reducing ED. The current study emphasized a buffering role of intrinsic religiosity against anxiety and ED vulnerability.

  17. Assessment and treatment of eating disorders in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mairs, Rebecca; Nicholls, Dasha

    2016-12-01

    Feeding and eating disorders (FEDs) are serious mental health disorders that cause impairments in physical health, development, cognition and psychosocial function and can go undetected for months or years. They are characterised by disturbed eating behaviour associated with concerns about weight and shape or by disinterest in food, phobic avoidance or avoidance due to sensory aspects of food. Restrictive forms of FEDs lead to significant weight loss requiring intervention. Without specific knowledge of these conditions, they can evade detection, delaying time to diagnosis and treatment and potentially influencing outcome. This review article focuses on the key factors involved in the psychiatric assessment and treatment of four feeding or eating disorders (EDs): anorexia nervosa, avoidant-restrictive food intake disorder, bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. They have been chosen for discussion as they are most likely to be encountered in both a psychiatric and paediatric setting. It emphasises the importance of a family-focused, developmentally appropriate and multidisciplinary approach to care. It does not address aspects of medical assessment and treatment. Other feeding or EDs not included in this article are pica, rumination disorder, other specified feeding and eating disorder and unspecified feeding and eating disorder.

  18. Family meal frequency among children and adolescents with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elran-Barak, Roni; Sztainer, Maya; Goldschmidt, Andrea B; Le Grange, Daniel

    2014-07-01

    Previous studies on family meals and disordered eating have mainly drawn their samples from the general population. The goal of the current study is to determine family meal frequency among children and adolescents with anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and feeding or eating disorder not elsewhere classified (FED-NEC) and to examine whether family meal frequency is associated with eating disorder psychopathology. Participants included 154 children and adolescents (M = 14.92 ± 2.62), who met criteria for AN (n = 60), BN (n = 32), or FED-NEC (n = 62). All participants completed the Eating Disorder Examination and the Family Meal Questionnaire prior to treatment at the University of Chicago Eating Disorders Program. AN and BN participants significantly differed in terms of family meal frequency. A majority of participants with AN (71.7%), compared with less than half (43.7%) of participants with BN, reported eating dinner with their family frequently (five or more times per week). Family meal frequency during dinner was significantly and negatively correlated with dietary restraints and eating concerns among participants with BN (r = -.381, r = -.366, p family meal frequency may be explained by their parents' relatively greater vigilance over eating, whereas families of BN patients may be less aware of eating disorder behaviors and hence less insistent upon family meals. Additionally, children and adolescents with AN may be more inhibited and withdrawn and therefore are perhaps more likely to stay at home and eat together with their families. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Patterns of Compensatory Behaviors and Disordered Eating in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaumberg, Katherine; Anderson, Lisa M.; Reilly, Erin; Anderson, Drew A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The current study investigated rates of endorsement of eating-related compensatory behaviors within a college sample. Participants: This sample included male and female students (N = 1,158). Methods: Participants completed the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q). The study defined 3 groups of students: those who did not…

  20. Rapid Response to Treatment for Binge Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilo, Carlos M.; Masheb, Robin M.; Wilson, Terence G.

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined rapid response among 108 patients with binge eating disorder (BED) who were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 16-week treatments: fluoxetine, placebo, cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) plus fluoxetine, or CBT plus placebo. Rapid response, defined as 65% or greater reduction in binge eating by the 4th treatment week, was determined…

  1. Eating Disorder Prevention Programs: A Meta-Analytic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Shaw, Heather

    2004-01-01

    This meta-analysis of eating disorder prevention programs found that intervention effects ranged from an absence of any effects to reductions in current and future eating pathology. Certain effects persisted as long as 2 years and were superior to minimal-intervention control conditions. Larger effects occurred for selected (vs. universal),…

  2. Eating disorders and disordered weight and shape control behaviors in sexual minority populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzo, Jerel P.; Blashill, Aaron J.; Brown, Tiffany A.; Argenal, Russell L.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review This review summarized trends and key findings from empirical studies conducted between 2011–2017 regarding eating disorders and disordered weight and shape control behaviors among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and other sexual minority (i.e., non-heterosexual) populations. Recent findings Recent research has examined disparities through sociocultural and minority stress approaches. Sexual minorities continue to demonstrate higher rates of disordered eating; disparities are more pronounced among males. Emerging data indicates elevated risk for disordered eating pathology among sexual minorities who are transgender or ethnic minorities. Dissonance-based eating disorder prevention programs may hold promise for sexual minority males. Summary Continued research must examine the intersections of sexual orientation, gender, and ethnic identities, given emergent data that eating disorder risk may be most prominent among specific subgroups. More research is needed within sexual minorities across the lifespan. There are still a lack of eating disorder treatment and prevention studies for sexual minorities. PMID:28660475

  3. [Validation of the Eating Attitudes Test as a screening instrument for eating disorders in general population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peláez-Fernández, María Angeles; Ruiz-Lázaro, Pedro Manuel; Labrador, Francisco Javier; Raich, Rosa María

    2014-02-20

    To validate the best cut-off point of the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-40), Spanish version, for the screening of eating disorders (ED) in the general population. This was a transversal cross-sectional study. The EAT-40 Spanish version was administered to a representative sample of 1.543 students, age range 12 to 21 years, in the Region of Madrid. Six hundred and two participants (probable cases and a random sample of controls) were interviewed. The best diagnostic prediction was obtained with a cut-off point of 21, with sensitivity: 88.2%; specificity: 62.1%; positive predictive value: 17.7%; negative predictive value: 62.1%. Use of a cut-off point of 21 is recommended in epidemiological studies of eating disorders in the Spanish general population. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  4. Late onset eating disorders in Spain: clinical characteristics and therapeutic implications

    OpenAIRE

    B. Bueno; Krug, Isabel; Bulik, C M; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Granero, Roser; Thornton, L.; Penelo, Eva; Menchón Magriñá, José Manuel; Sánchez, Isabel; Francisco J Tinahones; Fernández Aranda, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The literature on later age of onset (LAO) in women with eating disorders is scarce. We compared the severity of eating disorders, eating disorder subtype, and personality profiles in a clinical sample of consecutively assessed women with eating disorders with later age of onset (LAO, > = 25 years) to women with typical age of onset (TAO,

  5. Molecular epidemiology of major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyohara, Chikako; Yoshimasu, Kouichi

    2009-03-01

    Major depressive disorder causes significant morbidity, affecting people's ability to work, function in relationships, and engage in social activities. Moreover, major depressive disorder increases the risk of suicidal ideation, attempted suicide and death by completed suicide. There is evidence that chronic stress can cause major depressive disorder. As for genetic factors, only minor susceptibility genes have been reliably identified. The serotonin system provides a logical source of susceptibility genes for depression, because this system is the target of selective serotonin reuptake-inhibitor drugs that are effective in treating depression. The 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) transporter (5-HTT) has received particular attention because it is involved in the reuptake of serotonin at brain synapses. One common polymorphic variant of the 5-HTT-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR), which affects the promoter of the 5-HTT gene, causes reduced uptake of the neurotransmitter serotonin into the presynaptic cells in the brain. The authors discussed the relationship between genetic polymorphisms and major depressive disorder, with special emphasis on the 5-HTTTLPR polymorphism. As the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism was significantly associated with an increased risk of major depressive disorder, the 5-HTT gene may be a candidate for a major depressive disorder susceptibility gene. As major depressive disorder is a multifactorial disease, an improved understanding of the interplay of environmental and genetic polymorphisms at multiple loci may help identify individuals who are at increased risk for major depressive disorder. Hopefully, in the future we will be able to screen for major depressive disorder susceptibility by using specific biomarkers.

  6. [Binge eating disorder: Links with personality and emotionality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorard, G; Khorramian-Pour, M

    2017-04-01

    Our two objectives were: (1) to investigate the relationship between binge eating disorder, dimensions of personality (according to the Big Five model of Costa and McCrae) and those of emotionality in the "tripartite" model of emotions of Watson and Clark; (2) to evaluate the correspondence between the Binge Eating Scale (BES) and the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI-2) scores. Four self-administered questionnaires were completed on a shared doc website: the EDI-2, the BES, the BFI-Fr (Big Five Inventory-French version) and the EPN-31 (Positive and Negative Emotionality Scale). The analyses were conducted in a sample of 101 participants (36 men and 65 women), aged 20-59 years (mean age=35.28±9.76) from the general population. We found that 11% of the participants had moderate to severe binge eating disorder. Among them, nearly 4% were overweight and 4% were obese. The correlations analyses indicated that binge eating disorder was associated with two dimensions of personality, the neuroticism (P=0.001) and the consciousness (P=0.010), and with the emotions of joy (P=0.008), tenderness (P=0.036), fear (P=0.011), shame (Pbinge eating disorder get higher scores on EDI-2 subscales: search for thinness (P=0.001), bulimia (Pbinge eating disorder is associated with negative affectivity both as a personality dimension and as an emotional feeling. The patterns of associations, observed with the EDI scale, seem to confirm the good convergent validity of the Binge Eating Scale. Thus, like other eating disorders, emotional functioning should be a prime target for prevention and treatment. Copyright © 2016 L’Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Alexithymia in eating disorders: therapeutic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinna, Federica; Sanna, Lucia; Carpiniello, Bernardo

    2015-01-01

    A high percentage of individuals affected by eating disorders (ED) achieve incomplete recovery following treatment. In an attempt to improve treatment outcome, it is crucial that predictors of outcome are identified, and personalized care approaches established in line with new treatment targets, thus facilitating patient access to evidence-based treatments. Among the psychological factors proposed as predictors of outcome in ED, alexithymia is of outstanding interest. The objective of this paper is to undertake a systematic review of the literature relating to alexithymia, specifically in terms of the implications for treatment of ED. In particular, issues concerning the role of alexithymia as a predictor of outcome and as a factor to be taken into account in the choice of treatment will be addressed. The effect of treatments on alexithymia will also be considered. A search of all relevant literature published in English using PubMed, PsycINFO, and Scopus databases was carried out on the basis of the following keywords: alexithymia, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, eating disorders, and treatment; no time limits were imposed. Despite the clinical relevance of alexithymia, the number of studies published on the above cited aspects is somewhat limited, and these studies are largely heterogeneous and feature significant methodological weaknesses. Overall, data currently available mostly correlate higher levels of alexithymia with a less favorable outcome in ED. Accordingly, alexithymia is seen as a relevant treatment target with the aim of achieving recovery of these patients. Treatments focusing on improving alexithymic traits, and specifically those targeting emotions, seem to show greater efficacy, although alexithymia levels often remain high even after specific treatment. Further investigations are needed to overcome the methodological limitations of previous studies, to understand the actual impact of alexithymia on ED outcome, and to allow more precise

  8. Alexithymia in eating disorders: therapeutic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinna F

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Federica Pinna, Lucia Sanna, Bernardo Carpiniello Department of Public Health, Clinical and Molecular Medicine - Unit of Psychiatry, University of Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy Abstract: A high percentage of individuals affected by eating disorders (ED achieve incomplete recovery following treatment. In an attempt to improve treatment outcome, it is crucial that predictors of outcome are identified, and personalized care approaches established in line with new treatment targets, thus facilitating patient access to evidence-based treatments. Among the psychological factors proposed as predictors of outcome in ED, alexithymia is of outstanding interest. The objective of this paper is to undertake a systematic review of the literature relating to alexithymia, specifically in terms of the implications for treatment of ED. In particular, issues concerning the role of alexithymia as a predictor of outcome and as a factor to be taken into account in the choice of treatment will be addressed. The effect of treatments on alexithymia will also be considered. A search of all relevant literature published in English using PubMed, PsycINFO, and Scopus databases was carried out on the basis of the following keywords: alexithymia, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, eating disorders, and treatment; no time limits were imposed. Despite the clinical relevance of alexithymia, the number of studies published on the above cited aspects is somewhat limited, and these studies are largely heterogeneous and feature significant methodological weaknesses. Overall, data currently available mostly correlate higher levels of alexithymia with a less favorable outcome in ED. Accordingly, alexithymia is seen as a relevant treatment target with the aim of achieving recovery of these patients. Treatments focusing on improving alexithymic traits, and specifically those targeting emotions, seem to show greater efficacy, although alexithymia levels often remain high even after specific

  9. Intensive Outpatient Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Eating Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Dalle Grave

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to describe a novel model of intensive outpatient cognitive-behaviour therapy (CBT indicated for eating disorder patients who are having difficulty modifying their eating habits in response to conventional outpatient CBT. Intensive outpatient CBT is a manual based treatment derived by the CBT-Enhanced (CBT-E for eating disorders. The treatment has four features that distinguish it from the conventional outpatient CBT-E: (1 it is designed to be suitable for both adult and adolescent patients, (2 it is delivered by a multidisciplinary non-eclectic team trained in CBT, (3 there is assistance with eating, (4 there is a family therapy module for patients under the age of 18 years. Preliminary outcome of intensive outpatient CBT-E are encouraging. The treatment has been applied to 20 consecutive underweight eating disorder patients (age 18.2 ± 6.5 years; BMI 14.6 ± 1.5 kg/m2. Thirteen patients (65% concluded the treatment, five (25% were admitted at an eating disorder inpatient unit, and two (10% prematurely interrupted the treatment. Completers obtained significant weight regain and improvement of eating disorder and general psychopathology. Most of the improvements were maintained at six-month follow-up.

  10. Validation of the Disordered Eating Attitude Scale for adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marle S. Alvarenga

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To perform the psychometric evaluation of the Disordered Eating Attitude Scale (DEAS for adolescents. Methods Sample consisted of 1,119 Brazilian adolescents (12-18 years old; 59.6% female studying at technical schools in São Paulo state-Brazil, who answered an online survey with the DEAS, the Eating Attitude Test (EAT-26, and the Restraint Scale (RS. The internal consistency of the DEAS was assessed using Cronbach’s alpha. The convergent validity of DEAS was evaluated by means of Pearson’s coefficient correlation with EAT-26 and RS. The test-retest reliability was evaluated using a sub-sample of 61 adolescents. Known-groups validity was determined by comparing female student mean scores with scores of 33 female adolescents with eating disorders. Results The reliability of the DEAS was 0.79. EAT-26 and RS scores were positively correlated with DEAS scores (EAT: 0.78 for females and 0.59 for males, p < 0.001; RS: 0.63 for females and 0.48 for males, p < 0.001. The DEAS total and subscale scores differentiated students and patients with eating disorders (p < 0.001. The intra-class correlation coefficient for test-retest reliability was 0.87. Conclusion Results indicate that the DEAS adolescent version showed good internal consistency, convergent validity, known-groups validity, and test-retest reliability, suggesting its potential in identifying disordered eating attitudes among adolescents. It could also be helpful in identifying adolescents at risk from eating disorders, assisting in prevention programs.

  11. Eating disorders among university student-athletes | Van Zyl ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eating disorders among university student-athletes. ... the student-athletes felt that they did not receive any pressure from their coaches to lose weight. Healthy relationships between student-athletes and coaches, family, friends and teammates ...

  12. Sport and eating disorders - understanding and managing the risks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Currie, Alan

    2010-01-01

    There is strong and consistent evidence that eating disorders are prevalent in sport and especially in weight sensitive sports such as endurance, weight category and aesthetic sports as well as jumping events...

  13. Family functioning and risk factors for disordered eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyke, Jennifer; Matsen, Julie

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated whether any of seven factors of family dysfunction predicted five risk factors for developing eating disorders in young adult women. Participants completed demographic questions, the McMaster Family Assessment Device (Epstein, Baldwin, & Bishop, 1983) and the Setting Conditions for Anorexia Nervosa Scale (Slade & Dewey, 1986) online. Five stepwise multiple regressions evaluated whether FAD scores predicted any of the eating disorder risk factors. Unhealthy affective responsiveness predicted general dissatisfaction and social and personal anxiety, and unhealthy general functioning predicted adolescent problems. No FAD factors predicted perfectionism or weight control. These results confirm the importance of families' affective responsiveness and general functioning to the risk of developing eating disorders. However, the lack of relationship among problem-solving, communication, roles, affective involvement, or behavior control with any of the risk factors for eating disorders warrants further investigation.

  14. A desire for weight loss in season increases disordered eating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-02-06

    Feb 6, 2014 ... Wright HH, PhD, MSc, RD(SA), Senior Lecturer ... disordered eating behaviour than athletes who competed in ... who experience pressure from coaches and/or parents to conform ..... Low-carbohydrate, high-protein diets,.

  15. Increased Mortality in Bulimia Nervosa and Other Eating Disorders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Specker, Sheila; Peterson, Carol B; Eckert, Elke D; Swanson, Sonja A; Crow, Scott J; Mitchell, James E; Raymond, Nancy C

    2009-01-01

    .... The goal of this study was to determine whether anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and eating disorder not otherwise specified are associated with increased all-cause mortality or suicide mortality. Method...

  16. Assisted reproductive technology treatment in women with severe eating disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assens, Maria; Ebdrup, Ninna H; Pinborg, Anja

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This national retrospective cohort study investigates the prevalence of women with severe eating disorders in assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment compared with an age-matched background population without ART treatment. It assesses the frequency distribution of the firs...

  17. Factors associated with binge eating disorder in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoph Berg, Cecilie; Torgersen, Leila; Von Holle, Ann; Hamer, Robert M; Bulik, Cynthia M; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted

    2011-03-01

    To identify factors associated with incidence and course of broadly defined binge eating disorder (BED) in pregnancy. As a part of the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa), 45,644 women completed a questionnaire at approximately 18 weeks of gestation. Incidence of BED was significantly associated with lifetime sexual abuse, lifetime physical abuse, lifetime major depression, symptoms of anxiety and depression, low life satisfaction, low self-esteem, low partner relationship satisfaction, smoking, alcohol use, lack of social support, and several weight-related factors. Continuation was negatively associated with thoughts of being overweight before pregnancy. Remission was positively associated with thoughts of being overweight before pregnancy and negatively associated with overvaluation of weight. Onset of BED in pregnancy was associated with psychological, social and weight-related factors, as well as health behaviors and adverse life events. In women with prepregnancy BED, thoughts of being overweight before pregnancy and overvaluation of weight were associated with course of BED during pregnancy. Copyright © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. The effects of maternal eating disorders on offspring childhood and early adolescent psychiatric disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Micali, Nadia; De Stavola, Bianca; Ploubidis, George B.; Simonoff, Emily; Treasure, Janet

    2014-01-01

    ObjectiveThere is evidence that parental psychiatric disorders are associated with offspring psychiatric disorder. Very few small studies have investigated the effect of maternal eating disorders on offspring psychopathology throughout childhood and early adolescence. We aimed to investigate psychiatric disorders at age 7, 10, and 13 years in offspring of women with eating disorders prior to pregnancy and investigate the relative contribution of other psychiatric disorders.MethodWomen (N = 12...

  19. Why do eating disorders and obsessive-compulsive disorder co-occur?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, Lauren O; Forbush, Kelsie T

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to use an alternative, dimensionally based approach to understanding the reasons for comorbidity between eating disorders and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Participants from a representative community sample (N=407; 47% female) completed self-report measures of eating pathology, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, perfectionism, and neuroticism. Hierarchical multiple regression indicated that neuroticism and perfectionism completely mediated associations between most obsessive-compulsive and eating disorder symptoms. However, body dissatisfaction shared unique associations with checking, cleaning, and obsessive rituals that could not be explained by these personality traits. Results suggest that shared personality traits play a key role in the comorbidity between eating disorders characterized by binge eating and dietary restraint and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Future studies are needed to examine whether similar underlying neurocognitive processes that give rise to compulsive checking, cleaning, and obsessive rituals may also contribute to the development and maintenance of body checking in individuals diagnosed with eating disorders.

  20. Why Do Eating Disorders and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Co-Occur?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, Lauren O.; Forbush, Kelsie T.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use an alternative, dimensionally based approach to understanding the reasons for comorbidity between eating disorders and obsessive compulsive disorder. Participants from a representative community sample (N=407; 47% female) completed self-report measures of eating pathology, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, perfectionism, and neuroticism. Hierarchical multiple regression indicated that neuroticism and perfectionism completely mediated associations between most obsessive-compulsive and eating disorder symptoms. However, body dissatisfaction shared unique associations with checking, cleaning, and obsessive rituals that could not be explained by these personality traits. Results suggest that shared personality traits play a key role in the comorbidity between eating disorders characterized by binge eating and dietary restraint and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Future studies are needed to examine whether similar underlying neurocognitive processes that give rise to compulsive checking, cleaning, and obsessive rituals may also contribute to the development and maintenance of body checking in individuals diagnosed with eating disorders. PMID:23557823