Dennard, E Eliot; Richards, C Steven
The eating disorder literature has sought to understand the role of comorbid psychiatric diagnoses and coping in relation to eating disorders. The present research extends these findings by studying the relationships among depression, coping, and the entire continuum of disordered eating behaviors, with an emphasis on subthreshold eating disorders. 109 undergraduate females completed questionnaires to assess disordered eating symptoms, depressive symptoms, and the use of active and avoidant coping mechanisms. Hypotheses were tested using bivariate linear regression and multivariate linear regression. Results indicated that depression was a significant predictor of disordered eating symptoms after controlling for relationships between depression and coping. Although avoidant coping was positively associated with disordered eating, it was not a significant predictor after controlling for depression and coping. Previous research has found associations between depression and diagnosable eating disorders, and this research extends those findings to the entire continuum of disordered eating. Future research should continue to investigate the predictors and correlates of the disordered eating continuum using more diverse samples. Testing for mediation and moderation among these variables may also be a fruitful area of investigation. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
... of-control eating Women are more likely than men to have eating disorders. They usually start in the teenage years and often occur along with depression, anxiety disorders, and substance abuse. Eating disorders can ...
Mischoulon, David; Eddy, Kamryn T; Keshaviah, Aparna; Dinescu, Diana; Ross, Stephanie L; Kass, Andrea E; Franko, Debra L; Herzog, David B
We examined the course of major depressive disorder (MDD) and predictors of MDD recovery and relapse in a longitudinal sample of women with eating disorders (ED). 246 Boston-area women with DSM-IV anorexia nervosa-restricting (ANR; n=51), AN-binge/purge (ANBP; n=85), and bulimia nervosa (BN; n=110) were recruited between 1987 and 1991 and interviewed using the Eating Disorders Longitudinal Interval Follow-up Evaluation (LIFE-EAT-II) every 6-12 months for up to 12 years. 100 participants had MDD at study intake and 45 developed MDD during the study. Psychological functioning and treatment were assessed. Times to MDD onset (1 week-4.3 years), recovery (8 weeks-8.7 years), and relapse (1 week-5.2 years) varied. 70% recovered from MDD, but 65% subsequently relapsed. ANR patients were significantly less likely to recover from MDD than ANBP patients (p=0.029). Better psychological functioning and history of MDD were associated with higher chance of MDD recovery. Higher baseline depressive severity and full recovery from ED were associated with greater likelihood of MDD relapse; increased weight loss was somewhat protective. Adequate antidepressant treatment was given to 72% of patients with MDD and generally continued after MDD recovery. Time on antidepressants did not predict MDD recovery (p=0.27) or relapse (p=0.26). Small ED diagnostic subgroups; lack of non-ED control group. The course of MDD in EDs is protracted; MDD recovery may depend on ED type. Antidepressants did not impact likelihood of MDD recovery, nor protect against relapse, which may impact on treatment strategies for comorbid MDD and EDs. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Paans, N.P.G.; Bot, M.; Strien, T. van; Brouwer, I.A.; Visser, M.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.
Depressed persons have been found to present disturbances in eating styles, but it is unclear whether eating styles are different in subgroups of depressed patients. We studied the association between depressive disorder, severity, course and specific depressive symptom profiles and unhealthy eating
Paans, Nadine P G; Bot, Mariska; van Strien, Tatjana; Brouwer, Ingeborg A; Visser, Marjolein; Penninx, Brenda W J H
Depressed persons have been found to present disturbances in eating styles, but it is unclear whether eating styles are different in subgroups of depressed patients. We studied the association between depressive disorder, severity, course and specific depressive symptom profiles and unhealthy eating
Meltzer-Brody, Samantha; Zerwas, Stephanie; Leserman, Jane; Holle, Ann Von; Regis, Taylor; Bulik, Cynthia
Although the prevalence of perinatal depression (depression occurring during pregnancy and postpartum) is 10%, little is known about psychiatric comorbidity in these women. We examined the prevalence of comorbid eating disorders (ED) and trauma history in women with perinatal depression. A research questionnaire was administered to 158 consecutive patients seen in a perinatal psychiatry clinic during pregnancy (n=99) or postpartum (n=59). Measures included Structured Clinical Interview for DSM (SCID) IV-based questions for lifetime eating psychopathology and assessments of comorbid psychiatric illness including the State/Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), and Trauma Inventory. In this cohort, 37.1% reported a putative lifetime ED history; 10.1% reported anorexia nervosa (AN), 10.1% reported bulimia nervosa (BN), 10.1% reported ED not otherwise specified-purging subtype (EDNOS-P), and 7.0% reported binge eating disorder (BED). Women with BN reported more severe depression (EPDS score, 19.1, standard deviation [SD 4.3], p=0.02; PHQ-severity 14.5, SD 7.4, p=0.02) than the referent group of women with perinatal depression and no ED history (EPDS 13.3, SD=6.1; PHQ 9.0, SD=6.2). Women with AN were more likely to report sexual trauma history than the referent group (62.5% vs. 29.3%, pdepression and histories of physical and sexual trauma. Screening for histories of eating psychopathology is important in women with perinatal depression.
Faulconbridge, Lucy F.; Bechtel, Colleen F.
Three mental health problems commonly associated with obesity are major depression, binge eating disorder (BED), and Night Eating Syndrome (NES). Evidence from both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies support independent relationships between obesity and depression, and between obesity and binge eating. These problems are most prevalent in severely obese individuals (Class III obesity; a body mass index (BMI) of >40kgm2), many of whom seek bariatric surgery, and we briefly review whether the presence of pre-operative depression, BED or NES affects post-operative outcomes. Historically depressed individuals have been screened out of weight loss trials due to concerns of worsening mood with weight loss. Such practices have precluded the development of effective treatments for depressed, obese individuals, leaving large numbers of people without appropriate care. We present recent advances in this area, and attempt to answer whether depressed individuals can lose clinically significant amounts of weight, show improvements in mood, and adhere to the demands of a weight loss intervention. PMID:24678445
Guerdjikova, Anna I; McElroy, Susan L; Winstanley, Erin L; Nelson, Eric B; Mori, Nicole; McCoy, Jessica; Keck, Paul E; Hudson, James I
This study evaluated duloxetine in the treatment of binge eating disorder (BED) with comorbid current depressive disorders. In this 12-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 40 patients with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV-TR BED and a comorbid current depressive disorder received duloxetine (N = 20) or placebo (N = 20). The primary outcome measure was weekly binge eating day frequency. In the primary analysis, duloxetine (mean 78.7 mg/day) was superior to placebo in reducing weekly frequency of binge eating days (p = .04), binge eating episodes (p = .02), weight (p = .04), and Clinical Global Impression-Severity of Illness ratings for binge eating (p = .02) and depressive disorders (p = .01). Changes in body mass index and measures of eating pathology, depression, and anxiety did not differ between the two groups. Duloxetine may be effective for reducing binge eating, weight, and global severity of illness in BED with a comorbid current depressive disorder, but this finding needs confirmation in larger, placebo-controlled trials. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Paans, Nadine P G; Bot, Mariska; van Strien, Tatjana; Brouwer, Ingeborg A; Visser, Marjolein; Penninx, Brenda W J H
Depressed persons have been found to present disturbances in eating styles, but it is unclear whether eating styles are different in subgroups of depressed patients. We studied the association between depressive disorder, severity, course and specific depressive symptom profiles and unhealthy eating styles. Cross-sectional and course data from 1060 remitted depressed patients, 309 currently depressed patients and 381 healthy controls from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety were used. Depressive disorders (DSM-IV based psychiatric interview) and self-reported depressive symptoms (Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology) were related to emotional, external and restrained eating (Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire) using analyses of covariance and linear regression. Remitted and current depressive disorders were significantly associated with higher emotional eating (Cohen's d = 0.40 and 0.60 respectively, p eating (Cohen's d = 0.20, p = 0.001 and Cohen's d = 0.32, p eating styles between depression course groups were observed. Associations followed a dose-response association, with more emotional and external eating when depression was more severe (both p-values eating (p depressive symptoms, neuro-vegetative depressive symptoms contributed relatively more to emotional and external eating, while mood and anxious symptoms contributed relatively less to emotional and external eating. No depression associations were found with restrained eating. Intervention programs for depression should examine whether treating disordered eating specifically in those with neuro-vegetative, atypical depressive symptoms may help prevent or minimize adverse health consequences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
García-Villamisar, Domingo; Dattilo, John; Del Pozo, Araceli
Although perfectionism has long been established as an important risk factor for depressive mood and eating disorders, the mechanisms through which this temperamental predisposition mediates the relationship between depressive mood and eating disorder symptoms are still relatively unclear. In this study we hypothesized that both perfectionism dimensions, self-oriented perfectionism and socially prescribed perfectionism, would mediate the relationship between current symptoms of depression and eating disorders in a non-clinical sample of Spanish undergraduate females. Two hundred sixteen female undergraduate students of the University Complutense of Madrid (Spain) completed the Spanish versions of the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-40), the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (MPS), OBQ-44, and BDI-II and BAI. Results demonstrated the importance of socially prescribed perfectionism in mediation of the relationship between depressive mood and symptoms of eating disorders. Socially prescribed perfectionism mediates the relationship between depressive mood and eating disorder symptoms for female college students.
Brechan, Inge; Kvalem, Ingela Lundin
The purpose of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that the effect of body dissatisfaction on disordered eating behavior is mediated through self-esteem and depression. If the effect of body dissatisfaction on disordered eating can be explained by self-esteem and depression, treatment may benefit from focusing more on self-esteem and depression than body dissatisfaction. We also hypothesized body image importance to be associated with lower self-esteem, stronger symptoms of depression, and more disordered eating. The results showed that the effect of body dissatisfaction on disorder eating was completely mediated, whereas the effect of body image importance was partly mediated. Both self-esteem and depression were significant mediators. Body image importance and self-esteem had a direct effect on restrained eating and compensatory behavior. Depression had a direct effect on binge eating. This effect was significantly stronger among women. Depression also had a direct effect on restrained eating. This effect was positive among women, but negative among men. The results support emotion regulation and cognitive behavioral theories of eating disorders, indicating that self-esteem and depression are the most proximal factors, whereas the effect of body dissatisfaction is indirect. The results point out the importance of distinguishing between different symptoms of bulimia. Depression may cause binge eating, but compensatory behavior depends on self-esteem and body image importance. The results suggest that women may turn to both binge eating and restrained eating to escape awareness of negative emotions, whereas men focus on eating to a lesser extent than women. Existing treatment focuses on eating behavior first and mechanisms such as self-esteem and depression second. The results from this study suggest that an earlier focus on self-esteem and depression may be warranted in the treatment of disordered eating. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights
Grubb, H J; Sellers, M I; Waligroski, K
To test hypotheses that women suffering from some form of eating disorder would experience lower self-esteem and higher depression and that women with lower self-esteem and greater depression would rate their attractiveness lower and see themselves as heavier than less depressed individuals, 42 college undergraduate women were individually administered the Eating Disorders Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory, Coopersmith Self-esteem Inventory, and a Body Image/Attractiveness Perception Scale. A Pearson correlation indicated a substantial relation between scores on depression and scores on eating disorders, but nonsignificant values between self-esteem scores and scores on either eating disorders or on depression. Depression scores correlated significantly with rated body size, but not attractiveness, while self-esteem scores were significantly correlated with rated attractiveness, not body size. These results contradict literature on the relation between self-esteem and depression. Directions for additional research are discussed.
Ferreiro, Fatima; Seoane, Gloria; Senra, Carmen
There is evidence that females display higher levels of depressive symptoms and disordered eating than males from adolescence onward. This study examined whether different risk factors and their interaction with sex (moderator effect) prospectively predicted depressive symptoms and disordered eating in adolescents. A total of 415 female…
Bodell, Lindsay P; Hames, Jennifer L; Holm-Denoma, Jill M; Smith, April R; Gordon, Kathryn H; Joiner, Thomas E
The stress generation hypothesis posits that individuals actively contribute to stress in their lives. Although stress generation has been studied frequently in the context of depression, few studies have examined whether this stress generation process is unique to depression or whether it occurs in other disorders. Although evidence suggests that stress contributes to the development of eating disorders, it is unclear whether eating disorders contribute to subsequent stress. A prospective design was used to examine the influence of eating disorder symptoms on negative life stressors. Two hundred and ninety female undergraduates completed questionnaires at two time points that examined eating disorder, depressive and anxiety symptoms and the presence of negative life events. Regression analyses found that while eating disorder symptoms (i.e. bulimic symptoms and drive for thinness) were independent, significant predictors of negative life events, they did not predict negative life events above and beyond symptoms of depression. Limitations include the use of self-report measures and a college-based sample, which may limit generalizability of the results. Findings suggest that if stress generation is present in individuals with symptoms of eating disorders, it is likely attributable to symptoms of depression. Thus, it may be important for clinicians to target depressive symptoms in order to reduce the frequency of negative life stressors among individuals with eating disorders. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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Daniel Le Grange
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between body-related social comparison (BRSC and eating disorders (EDs by: (a comparing the degree of BRSC in adolescents with an ED, depressive disorder (DD, and no psychiatric history; and (b investigating whether BRSC is associated with ED symptoms after controlling for symptoms of depression and self-esteem. Participants were 75 girls, aged 12–18 (25 per diagnostic group. To assess BRSC, participants reported on a 5-point Likert scale how often they compare their body to others’. Participants also completed a diagnostic interview, Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2, Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II, and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE. Compared to adolescents with a DD and healthy adolescents, adolescents with an ED engaged in significantly more BRSC (p ≤ 0.001. Collapsing across groups, BRSC was significantly positively correlated with ED symptoms (p ≤ 0.01, and these associations remained even after controlling for two robust predictors of both ED symptoms and social comparison, namely BDI-II and RSE. In conclusion, BRSC seems to be strongly related to EDs. Treatment for adolescents with an ED may focus on reducing BRSC.
Hamel, Andrea E; Zaitsoff, Shannon L; Taylor, Andrew; Menna, Rosanne; Le Grange, Daniel
The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between body-related social comparison (BRSC) and eating disorders (EDs) by: (a) comparing the degree of BRSC in adolescents with an ED, depressive disorder (DD), and no psychiatric history; and (b) investigating whether BRSC is associated with ED symptoms after controlling for symptoms of depression and self-esteem. Participants were 75 girls, aged 12-18 (25 per diagnostic group). To assess BRSC, participants reported on a 5-point Likert scale how often they compare their body to others'. Participants also completed a diagnostic interview, Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2), Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE). Compared to adolescents with a DD and healthy adolescents, adolescents with an ED engaged in significantly more BRSC (p ≤ 0.001). Collapsing across groups, BRSC was significantly positively correlated with ED symptoms (p ≤ 0.01), and these associations remained even after controlling for two robust predictors of both ED symptoms and social comparison, namely BDI-II and RSE. In conclusion, BRSC seems to be strongly related to EDs. Treatment for adolescents with an ED may focus on reducing BRSC.
Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate comorbidity for MD in a large ED sample and both personality and anger as clinical characteristics of patients with ED and MD. We assessed 838 ED patients with psychiatric evaluations and psychometric questionnaires: Temperament and Character Inventory, Eating Disorder Inventory-2, Beck Depression Inventory, and State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory. 19.5% of ED patients were found to suffer from comorbid MD and 48.7% reported clinically significant depressive symptomatology: patients with Anorexia Binge-Purging and Bulimia Nervosa were more likely to be diagnosed with MD. Irritable mood was found in the 73% of patients with MD. High Harm Avoidance (HA and low Self-Directedness (SD predicted MD independently of severity of the ED symptomatology, several clinical variables, and ED diagnosis. Assessing both personality and depressive symptoms could be useful to provide effective treatments. Longitudinal studies are needed to investigate the pathogenetic role of HA and SD for ED and MD.
von Brachel, Ruth; Hötzel, Katrin; Hirschfeld, Gerrit; Rieger, Elizabeth; Schmidt, Ulrike; Kosfelder, Joachim; Hechler, Tanja; Schulte, Dietmar; Vocks, Silja
One of the main problems of Internet-delivered interventions for a range of disorders is the high dropout rate, yet little is known about the factors associated with this. We recently developed and tested a Web-based 6-session program to enhance motivation to change for women with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, or related subthreshold eating pathology. The aim of the present study was to identify predictors of dropout from this Web program. A total of 179 women took part in the study. We used survival analyses (Cox regression) to investigate the predictive effect of eating disorder pathology (assessed by the Eating Disorders Examination-Questionnaire; EDE-Q), depressive mood (Hopkins Symptom Checklist), motivation to change (University of Rhode Island Change Assessment Scale; URICA), and participants' age at dropout. To identify predictors, we used the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) method. The dropout rate was 50.8% (91/179) and was equally distributed across the 6 treatment sessions. The LASSO analysis revealed that higher scores on the Shape Concerns subscale of the EDE-Q, a higher frequency of binge eating episodes and vomiting, as well as higher depression scores significantly increased the probability of dropout. However, we did not find any effect of the URICA or age on dropout. Women with more severe eating disorder pathology and depressive mood had a higher likelihood of dropping out from a Web-based motivational enhancement program. Interventions such as ours need to address the specific needs of women with more severe eating disorder pathology and depressive mood and offer them additional support to prevent them from prematurely discontinuing treatment.
Hirschfeld, Gerrit; Rieger, Elizabeth; Schmidt, Ulrike; Kosfelder, Joachim; Hechler, Tanja; Schulte, Dietmar; Vocks, Silja
Background One of the main problems of Internet-delivered interventions for a range of disorders is the high dropout rate, yet little is known about the factors associated with this. We recently developed and tested a Web-based 6-session program to enhance motivation to change for women with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, or related subthreshold eating pathology. Objective The aim of the present study was to identify predictors of dropout from this Web program. Methods A total of 179 women took part in the study. We used survival analyses (Cox regression) to investigate the predictive effect of eating disorder pathology (assessed by the Eating Disorders Examination-Questionnaire; EDE-Q), depressive mood (Hopkins Symptom Checklist), motivation to change (University of Rhode Island Change Assessment Scale; URICA), and participants’ age at dropout. To identify predictors, we used the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) method. Results The dropout rate was 50.8% (91/179) and was equally distributed across the 6 treatment sessions. The LASSO analysis revealed that higher scores on the Shape Concerns subscale of the EDE-Q, a higher frequency of binge eating episodes and vomiting, as well as higher depression scores significantly increased the probability of dropout. However, we did not find any effect of the URICA or age on dropout. Conclusions Women with more severe eating disorder pathology and depressive mood had a higher likelihood of dropping out from a Web-based motivational enhancement program. Interventions such as ours need to address the specific needs of women with more severe eating disorder pathology and depressive mood and offer them additional support to prevent them from prematurely discontinuing treatment. PMID:24686856
Rodgers, Rachel F; Paxton, Susan J
Depressive and eating disorder symptoms are highly comorbid. To date, however, little is known regarding the efficacy of existing programs in decreasing concurrent eating disorder and depressive symptoms. We conducted a systematic review of selective and indicated controlled prevention and early intervention programs that assessed both eating disorder and depressive symptoms. We identified a total of 26 studies. The large majority of identified interventions (92%) were successful in decreasing eating disorder symptoms. However fewer than half (42%) were successful in decreasing both eating disorder and depressive symptoms. Intervention and participant characteristics did not predict success in decreasing depressive symptoms. Indicated prevention and early intervention programs targeting eating disorder symptoms are limited in their success in decreasing concurrent depressive symptoms. Further efforts to develop more efficient interventions that are successful in decreasing both eating disorder and depressive symptoms are warranted.
Valls, M; Callahan, S; Rousseau, A; Chabrol, H
The objective of the study was to evaluate the incidence of eating disorders, including not otherwise specified eating disorders (EDNOS) and subthreshold disorders, inappropriate compensatory behaviors (such as self-induced vomiting, strict dieting, fasting) along with depressive symptoms among young French adult males. The sample was composed of 458 young men in age ranging from 18 to 30 years (mean age=21.9±2.4). The average body mass index was 22.8±3. Participants completed two questionnaires: the Questionnaire for Eating Disorders Diagnoses (Q-EDD) assessing full-criteria eating disorder symptoms based on DSM-IV criteria (i.e. clinical eating disorders) and subthreshold disorders, and the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale (CES-D) assessing depressive symptoms. Out of the 458 surveyed respondents, eating disorders were reported by approximately 17% of the overall sample, with 1.5% meeting diagnostic criteria for serious clinical disorders, 3% meeting diagnostic criteria for EDNOS and 12% meeting diagnostic criteria for subthreshold disorders. Exercise bulimia represented 1% of the overall sample and binge-eating disorder 2%. The most frequent subthreshold disorder was subthreshold nonbinging bulimia (7%). Participants with eating disorders were equally divided between those desiring weight gain, those desiring weight loss and those wanting to keep their current weight. Participants without eating disorders were more likely to want to gain weight compared to participants with eating disorders (45.5% versus 30% respectively; Peating episodes (recurrent or not) were reported by 8% of young men, including 32% of participants with eating disorders and 3% of participants without eating disorder. Six percent reported repeated binging (at least twice a week for at least once a month). Inappropriate compensatory behaviors were mostly used by participants with eating disorders, except for excessive exercise (34% versus 35% for participants without
Allen, Karina L; Crosby, Ross D; Oddy, Wendy H; Byrne, Susan M
Adolescence is a period of developmental risk for eating disorders and eating disorder symptoms. This study aimed to describe the prevalence and trajectory of five core eating disorder behaviours (binge eating, purging, fasting, following strict dietary rules, and hard exercise for weight control) and a continuous index of dietary restraint and eating, weight and shape concerns, in a cohort of male and female adolescents followed from 14 to 20 years. It also aimed to determine the effect of early adolescent depressive symptoms on the prevalence and trajectory of these different eating disorder symptoms. Participants (N = 1,383; 49% male) were drawn from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study, a prospective cohort study that has followed participants from pre-birth to age 20 years. An adapted version of the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire was used to assess eating disorder symptoms at ages 14, 17 and 20 years. The Beck Depression Inventory for Youth was used to assess depressive symptoms at age 14. Longitudinal changes in the prevalence of eating disorder symptoms were tested using generalised estimating equations and linear mixed models. Symptom trajectories varied according to the eating disorder symptom studied, participant sex, and the presence of depressive symptoms in early adolescence. For males, eating disorder symptoms tended to be stable (for purging, fasting and hard exercise) or decreasing (for binge eating and global symptom scores) from 14 to 17 years, and then stable to 20 years. For females, fasting and global symptom scores increased from age 14 to peak in prevalence at age 17. Rates of binge eating in females were stable from age 14 to age 17 and increased significantly thereafter, whilst rates of purging and hard exercise increased from age 14 to age 17, and then remained elevated through to age 20. Depressive symptoms at age 14 impacted on eating disorder symptom trajectories in females, but not in males. Prevention
Miyake, Yoshie; Okamoto, Yuri; Jinnin, Ran; Shishida, Kazuhiro; Okamoto, Yasumasa
Eating disorders are characterized by aberrant patterns of eating behavior, including such symptoms as extreme restriction of food intake or binge eating, and severe disturbances in the perception of body shape and weight, as well as a drive for thinness and obsessive fears of becoming fat. Eating disorder is an important cause for physical and psychosocial morbidity in young women. Patients with eating disorders have a deficit in the cognitive process and functional abnormalities in the brain system. Recently, brain-imaging techniques have been used to identify specific brain areas that function abnormally in patients with eating disorders. We have discussed the clinical and cognitive aspects of eating disorders and summarized neuroimaging studies of eating disorders.
Mustelin, Linda; Raevuori, Anu; Kaprio, Jaakko; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna
The association between eating disorders and migraine remains unclear. We identified women with lifetime diagnoses of anorexia nervosa (AN) (N = 55) and bulimia nervosa (BN) (N = 60) and their co-twins from the FinnTwin16 cohort born in 1975-1979 (N = 2,825 women). Eating disorder and major depressive disorder (MDD) diagnoses were obtained from clinical interviews and data on migraine by self-report questionnaire. The women with eating disorders were compared with their unaffected co-twins and with unrelated women from the same birth cohorts. The prevalence of migraine was 12% in the general female population, but 22% for both AN and BN (odds ratio 2.0, p = .04). The prevalence of MDD was high in women with an eating disorder (42%). MDD was strongly associated with migraine (odds ratio 3.0, p eating disorders and migraine. The highest migraine prevalence (36%) was found in women with both an eating disorder and MDD. Pairwise twin analyses also supported the clustering of migraine, MDD and eating disorders. Women with a lifetime diagnosis of an eating disorder were twice as likely to report a history of migraine as unrelated women from the same cohort; this relationship was explained by comorbid MDD. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Rodgers, Rachel F.; Paxton, Susan J.; Chabrol, Henri
This study aimed to explore the role of depression as a moderator of sociocultural influences on eating disorder symptoms. A sample of 509 adolescents (56% female) completed self-report questionnaires assessing depression, body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, bulimic symptoms and sociocultural influences on appearance from family, peers and…
Gucciardi, Enza; Celasun, Nalan; Ahmad, Farah; Stewart, Donna E
Abstract Health Issue Eating disorders are an increasing public health problem among young women. Anorexia and bulimia may give rise to serious physical conditions such as hypothermia, hypotension, electrolyte imbalance, endocrine disorders, and kidney failure. Key Issues Eating disorders are primarily a problem among women. In Ontario in 1995, over 90% of reported hospitalized cases of anorexia and bulimia were women. In addition to eating disorders, preoccupation with weight, body image and...
Balzafiore, Danielle R; Rasgon, Natalie L; Yuen, Laura D; Shah, Saloni; Kim, Hyun; Goffin, Kathryn C; Miller, Shefali; Wang, Po W; Ketter, Terence A
Although eating disorders (EDs) are common in bipolar disorder (BD), little is known regarding their longitudinal consequences. We assessed prevalence, clinical correlates, and longitudinal depressive severity in BD patients with vs. without EDs. Outpatients referred to Stanford University BD Clinic during 2000-2011 were assessed with the Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program for BD (STEP-BD) affective disorders evaluation, and while receiving naturalistic treatment for up to 2 years, were monitored with the STEP-BD clinical monitoring form. Patients with vs. without lifetime EDs were compared with respect to prevalence, demographic and unfavorable illness characteristics/current mood symptoms and psychotropic use, and longitudinal depressive severity. Among 503 BD outpatients, 76 (15.1%) had lifetime EDs, which were associated with female gender, and higher rates of lifetime comorbid anxiety, alcohol/substance use, and personality disorders, childhood BD onset, episode accumulation (≥10 prior mood episodes), prior suicide attempt, current syndromal/subsyndromal depression, sadness, anxiety, and antidepressant use, and earlier BD onset age, and greater current overall BD severity. Among currently depressed patients, 29 with compared to 124 without lifetime EDs had significantly delayed depressive recovery. In contrast, among currently recovered (euthymic ≥8 weeks) patients, 10 with compared to 95 without lifetime EDs had only non-significantly hastened depressive recurrence. Primarily Caucasian, insured, suburban, American specialty clinic-referred sample limits generalizability. Small number of recovered patients with EDs limited statistical power to detect relationships between EDs and depressive recurrence. Further studies are warranted to explore the degree to which EDs impact longitudinal depressive illness burden in BD.
Full Text Available Background: This study was carried out to investigate the correlation of self-objectification, internalized weight bias and body image concern with depression and eating disorder Methods: A total of 200 female students with overweight and obesity were selected using convenience random sampling among female students with overweight and obesity referring to Shiraz sport clubs in 2013. They responded to Stigmatizing Situations Inventory (SSI, Trait Self- Objectification Questionnaire (TSOQ, Weight Bias Internalization Scale (WBIS, Body Image Concern Inventory (BICI, Center for Epidemiological Studies- Depression Scale (CES-D and Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale (EDDS. Data were analyzed by structural equation modeling (SEM. Results: Result showed that self-objectification, internalized weight bias and body image concern can mediate the relationship of weight-based objectifying experiences with depression and eating disorder. Conclusion: The findings of this study showed that fitness index of the proposed model can acceptably fit the data.
Fernandez-Aranda, Fernando; Pinheiro, Andrea Poyastro; Tozzi, Federica; Thornton, Laura M; Fichter, Manfred M; Halmi, Katherine A; Kaplan, Allan S; Klump, Kelly L; Strober, Michael; Woodside, D Blake; Crow, Scott; Mitchell, James; Rotondo, Alessandro; Keel, Pamela; Plotnicov, Katherine H; Berrettini, Wade H; Kaye, Walter H; Crawford, Steven F; Johnson, Craig; Brandt, Harry; La Via, Maria; Bulik, Cynthia M
Based on the well-documented association between eating disorders (EDs) and affective disorders, the patterns of comorbidity of EDs and major depressive disorder (MDD) were investigated. The temporal relation between EDs and MDD onset was analyzed to determine differences in the course and nature of MDD when experienced prior to versus after the onset of the ED. Lifetime MDD and depressive symptoms were assessed in 1371 women with a history of ED. The prevalence of MDD was first explored across ED subtypes, and ages of onset of MDD and EDs were compared. Depressive symptoms were examined in individuals who developed MDD before and after ED onset. The lifetime prevalence of MDD was 72.9%. Among those with lifetime MDD (n =963), 34.5% reported MDD onset before the onset of ED. Those who experienced MDD first reported greater psychomotor agitation (OR =1.53; 95%CI =1.14-2.06), and thoughts of own death (but not suicide attempts or ideation; OR =1.73; 95%CI =1.31-2.30). Among individuals who had MDD before ED, 26.5% had the MDD onset during the year before the onset of ED; 67% of individuals had the onset of both disorders within the same 3 year window. Clinicians treating individuals with new-onset ED or MDD should remain vigilant for the emergence of additional psychopathology, especially during the initial 3 year window following the onset of the first disorder.
McEvoy, Peter M; Burgess, Melissa M; Page, Andrew C; Nathan, Paula; Fursland, Anthea
Integrative models of psychopathology suggest that quality of interpersonal relationships is a key determinant of psychological well-being. However, there is a relative paucity of research evaluating the association between interpersonal problems and psychopathology within cognitive behavioural therapy. Partly, this may be due to lack of brief, well-validated, and easily interpretable measures of interpersonal problems that can be used within clinical settings. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the psychometric properties, factor invariance, and external validity of the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems 32 (IIP-32) across anxiety, depression, and eating disorders. Two treatment-seeking samples with principal anxiety and depressive disorders (AD sample, n = 504) and eating disorders (ED sample, n = 339) completed the IIP-32 along with measures of anxiety, depression, and eating disorder symptoms, as well as quality of life (QoL). The previously established eight-factor structure of the IIP-32 provided the best fit for both the AD and ED groups, and was robustly invariant across the two samples. The IIP-32 also demonstrated excellent external validity against well-validated measures of anxiety, depression, and eating disorder symptoms, as well as QoL. The IIP-32 provides a clinically useful measure of interpersonal problems across emotional and ED. © Commonwealth of Australia 2012.
Tanaka, Satoshi; Yoshida, Keizo; Katayama, Hiroto; Kohmura, Kunihiro; Kawano, Naoko; Imaeda, Miho; Kato, Saki; Ando, Masahiko; Aleksic, Branko; Nishioka, Kazuo; Ozaki, Norio
The authors investigated the association between personality and physical/mental status in malnourished patients with eating disorders. A total of 45 patients with anorexia nervosa, avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder, and other specified feeding or eating disorders were included and compared with 39 healthy controls. Personality characteristics and severity of depression were assessed using the Temperament and Character Inventory-125 and Beck?s Depression Inventory. Depression correlat...
Çelik, Selime; Kayar, Yusuf; Önem Akçakaya, Rabia; Türkyılmaz Uyar, Ece; Kalkan, Kübra; Yazısız, Veli; Aydın, Çiğdem; Yücel, Başak
It is reported that eating disorders and depression are more common in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In this study, we aimed to determine the prevalence of binge eating disorder (BED) in T2DM patients and examine the correlation of BED with level of depression and glycemic control. One hundred fifty-two T2DM patients aged between 18 and 75 years (81 females, 71 males) were evaluated via a Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorder, Clinical Version in terms of eating disorders. Disordered eating attitudes were determined using the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT) and level of depression was determined using the Beck Depression Scale. Patients who have BED and patients who do not were compared in terms of age, gender, body mass index, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels, depression and EAT scores. Eight of the patients included in the study (5.26%) were diagnosed with BED. In patients diagnosed with BED, depression and EAT scores were significantly high (PEAT scores and depression scores (r = +0.196, Pdisordered eating attitudes. Psychiatric treatments should be organized for patients diagnosed with BED by taking into consideration comorbid depression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Peat, Christine M.; Muehlenkamp, Jennifer J.
Objectification theory asserts that poor interoceptive awareness and features of anxiety, such as social anxiety, may be two potential mechanisms that place women at risk for both eating disorders and depression. Existing research supports this theory; however, few studies have examined the extent to which these two constructs may serve as…
Merrill, Ray M.; Aldana, Stephen G.; Greenlaw, Roger L.; Diehl, Hans A.
Background: The Coronary Health Improvement Project (CHIP) is designed to lower cardiovascular risk factors among a group of generally healthy individuals through health education. Purpose: This study will evaluate the efficacy of the CHIP intervention at improving eating, sleep, stress, and depressive disorders. Methods: A health education…
Matos,Maria Isabel R; Aranha,Luciana S; Faria,Alessandra N; Ferreira,Sandra R G; Bacaltchuck,Josué; Zanella,Maria Teresa
INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to assess the frequency of Binge Eating Disorder (BED) or Binge Eating episodes (BINGE), anxiety, depression and body image disturbances in severely obese patients seeking treatment for obesity. METHOD: We assessed 50 patients (10M and 40F) with Body Mass Index (BMI) between 40 and 81.7 Kg/m² (mean 52.2±9.2 Kg/m²) and aging from 18 to 56 years (mean 38.5±9.7). Used instruments: Questionnaire on Eating and Weight Patterns ¾ Rev...
Ranta, Klaus; Väänänen, Juha; Fröjd, Sari; Isomaa, Rasmus; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Marttunen, Mauri
Longitudinal associations between social phobia (SP), depression and eating disorders (EDs), and the impact of antecedent SP and depression on subsequent treatment seeking for EDs have rarely been explored in prospective adolescent population studies. We aimed to examine these associations in a large-scale follow-up study among middle adolescents. We surveyed 3278 Finnish adolescents with a mean age of 15 years for these disorders. Two years later, 2070 were reached and again surveyed for psychopathology and treatment seeking. Longitudinal associations between the self-reported disorders and treatment-seeking patterns for self-acknowledged ED symptoms were examined in multivariate analyses, controlling for SP/depression comorbidity and relevant socioeconomic covariates. Self-reported anorexia nervosa (AN) at age 15 years predicted self-reported depression at age 17 years. Furthermore, self-reported SP at age 15 years predicted not seeking treatment for bulimia nervosa (BN) symptoms, while self-reported depression at age 15 years predicted not seeking treatment for AN symptoms during the follow-up period. Adolescents with AN should be monitored for subsequent depression. Barriers caused by SP to help seeking for BN, and by depression for AN, should be acknowledged by healthcare professionals who encounter socially anxious and depressive adolescents, especially when they present with eating problems.
Ferreiro, Fátima; Wichstrøm, Lars; Seoane, Gloria; Senra, Carmen
Symptoms of depression and eating disorders increase during adolescence, particularly among girls, and they tend to co-occur. Despite this evidence, there is meager research on whether depression increases the risk of future eating pathology, or vice versa, and we do not know whether these processes are different for adolescent girls and boys. Accordingly, this study explored the prospective reciprocal associations between depressive symptoms and disordered eating at different time points from preadolescence to mid-adolescence and tested the moderator effect of gender on these associations. A community-based sample of Spanish youth (N = 942, 49 % female) was assessed at ages of approximately 10-11 (T1), 12-13 (T2), 14-15 (T3), and 16-17 (T4) years. The bidirectional relationships between depressive symptoms and disordered eating were estimated in an autoregressive cross-lagged model with latent variables. A unidirectional, age-specific association between depressive symptoms at T1 and disordered eating at T2 was found. No other significant cross-lagged effect emerged, but the stability of the constructs was considerable. Gender did not moderate any of the links examined. Regardless of gender, the transition from childhood to adolescence appears to be a key period when depressive symptoms foster the development of disordered eating. These findings suggest that early prevention and treatment of depression targeting both girls and boys may result in lower levels of depressive symptoms and disordered eating in adolescence.
... to control them. Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID) ARFID is a new term that some people think ... eating issues can also cause it. People with ARFID don't have anorexia or bulimia, but they ...
Kontić Olga; Vasiljević Nadja; Trišović Marija; Jorga Jagoda; Lakić Aneta; Jašović-Gašić Miroslava
Eating disorders are considered chronic diseases of civilization. The most studied and well known are anorexia and bulimia nervosa. Anorexia is considered one of the most common psychiatric problems of girls in puberty and adolescence. Due to high mortality and morbidity as well as the increasing expansion of these diseases, it is clear why the amount of research on these diseases is growing worldwide. Eating disorders lead to numerous medical complications, mostly due to late diagnosis...
Erikson, Martin G; Hansson, Berit; Lundblad, Suzanna
Possible selves are conceptions of our selves in future states. Previous findings indicated that women with anorexia nervosa tended to have more negative possible selves than a control group, even when rating future situations normally regarded in our society as desirable. The present study investigated whether this was a general pattern in women with eating disorders, relating findings on possible selves to depression. Possible selves concerning treatment were also included. Patients with anorexia nervosa (n = 19), bulimia nervosa (n = 29) or an eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) (n = 18) and a control group (n = 27) rated the valence of five possible selves on Likert's scales. Levels of depression were measured among the patients using the Beck Depression Inventory. The patients rated the valence of the possible selves significantly less positively and more negatively than did the control group. A strong correlation between valence and depression was found in patients with anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. No such correlation was found in patients with EDNOS. Possible selves concerning future treatment were rated even more negatively. The results indicate that, when compared to a non-patient group, eating disorder patients make more negative evaluations of possible selves usually seen as desirable. Depression may be a mediating factor in these evaluations for the anorexia and bulimia patients.
Allison, Kelly C.; Grilo, Carlos M.; Masheb, Robin M.; Stunkard, Albert J.
The authors compared eating patterns, disordered eating, features of eating disorders, and depressive symptoms in persons with binge eating disorder (BED; n = 177), with night eating syndrome (NES; n = 68), and in an overweight comparison group without BED or NES (comparison; n = 45). Participants completed semistructured interviews and several…
Watson, Hunna J; Egan, Sarah J; Limburg, Karina; Hoiles, Kimberley J
Given the importance of assessing depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation in adolescents with eating disorders (EDs), the aim was to provide normative data on the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) for female adolescents presenting for treatment of an ED. The data source was the Helping to Outline Paediatric Eating Disorders (HOPE) Project registry (N = 1000), a prospective, ongoing registry study comprising consecutive pediatric tertiary ED referrals. Females (N = 256; 12-17 years) with DSM-5 EDs completed the CDI at intake. Results on the CDI revealed a pattern of increasing depressive scores with age and higher scores among patients with anorexic spectrum disorders. The prevalence of suicidal ideation was high and had the same pattern as CDI scores. The mean score on the CDI in the sample was higher than community samples and clinical samples of adolescents with post-traumatic stress disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, and other clinical disorders. Females adolescents with EDs are at high-risk of depression and suicidal ideation. These data provide information about variation in CDI scores to guide clinicians in interpretation of scores. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available Eating disorders are considered chronic diseases of civilization. The most studied and well known are anorexia and bulimia nervosa. Anorexia is considered one of the most common psychiatric problems of girls in puberty and adolescence. Due to high mortality and morbidity as well as the increasing expansion of these diseases, it is clear why the amount of research on these diseases is growing worldwide. Eating disorders lead to numerous medical complications, mostly due to late diagnosis. The main characteristic of these diseases is changed behavior in the nutrition, either as an intentional restriction of food, i.e. extreme dieting, or overeating, i.e. binge eating. Extreme dieting, skipping meals, self-induced vomiting, excessive exercise, and misuse of laxatives and diuretics for the purpose of maintaining or reducing body weight are characteristic forms of compensatory behavior of patients with eating disorder. The most appropriate course of treatment is determined by evaluating the patient’s health condition, associated with behavior and eating habits, the experience of one’s own body, character traits of personality, and consequently the development and functioning of the individual. The final treatment plan is individual. Eating disorders are a growing medical problem even in this part of the world. Prevention should be planned in cooperation with different sectors so as to stop the epidemic of these diseases.
Full Text Available Suicide associated mortality rates are notable for eating disorders. Crude mortality rate associated with suicide, varies between 0% and 5.3% in patients with eating disorders. Prominent risk factors for suicidal behavior among these patients are subtype of the eating disorders, comorbid psychiatric diagnosis (e.g. depression, alcohol and substance abuse, personality disorders, ultrarapid drug metabolism, history of childhood abuse and particular family dynamics. In this article, suicidal behavior and associated factors in eating disorders are briefly reviewed.
Rodríguez-Cano, Teresa; Beato-Fernandez, Luis; Rojo-Moreno, Luis; Vaz-Leal, Francisco J
The aims were to see which temperament and character dimensions were associated with depression, mainly with its outcome at two-year follow up in eating disorders (EDs). Participants (N=151) were 44 Anorexia nervosa (AN), 55 Bulimia nervosa (BN) and 52 Eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS) patients. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), State and Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Rosenberg Self Esteem Questionnaire (RSE), Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI-2) and Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) were administered. Depression at the beginning (t0) was severe in 22% of the cases. Harm Avoidance and Novelty Seeking had an effect on depressed mood at t0, mediated by Ineffectiveness. Responsibility (SD1) was associated with scores on the BDI at two-year follow up (β=-0.37, 95% CI -2.6, -0.6, p<0.01). The evaluation of personality dimension in EDs has therapeutic and prognostic implications: To enhance self-efficacy and self-directness is crucial for good clinical outcome. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Andrews, B; Valentine, E R; Valentine, J D
The relation of sexual and physical abuse in childhood to subsequent depression and eating disorders was explored in a community sample of mothers and their teenage and young adult daughters respectively. It was hypothesized that age would be a moderating influence on diagnosis following abuse in that depression would be more common in the mothers and eating disorders more common in the daughters. Depression was more common in mothers than daughters, using Bedford College caseness criteria (Finlay-Jones, et al., 1980), but the difference decreased when Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC: Spitzer, Endicott & Robbins, 1978) were used. Bulimia was more common in the daughters using DSM-III criteria. Both physical and sexual abuse were associated with chronic and recurrent depression but not with single short episodes of depression in the mothers. However, the relationship of depression to abuse showed only a weak trend in the daughter sample. Both physical and sexual abuse were related to bulimia in the daughters, but not in the mothers, as only one mother had such a disorder.
Z = 0.62, respectively. It was shown that depression, anxiety, and absence of happiness had important roles in the process of weight reduction among applicants of weight loss. Conclusions: Anxiety and depression lead to over-eating and over-eating inturn reinforces both depression and anxiety.
Leonardo de Sousa Fortes
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the relationship between depressive symptoms and eating disorders in female adolescents. The sample included 371 girls ranging from 12 to 16 years of age in Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The study used the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26 and Major Depression Inventory (MDI to evaluate eating disorders and depressive symptoms, respectively. The linear regression model showed that 18% of the EAT-26 scores were influenced by MDI (F(1, 370 = 14.18; p = 0.001. Moreover, the findings indicated a statistically significant association between depressive symptoms and eating disorders (χ2 = 14.71; Wald = 12.90; p = 0.001. The authors concluded that depressive symptoms were related to eating disorders in female adolescents. Thus, girls with some level of depression showed a greater tendency to adopt disordered eating as a daily habit.
Background & Aim: Nowadays eating disorders are considered as one of the main psychological disorders. These types of disorder result in physical and mental health problems and affect the individuals’ quality of life. This study has aimed to survey eating disorders and its relation with depression and stress in medical students of Lorestan University of Medical Sciences. Methodology: In a descriptive study, 340 university students were chosen by the use of simple random sampling and als...
Ebneter, Daria S; Latner, Janet D
The aim of the current article was to compare stigmatizing attitudes toward eating disorders (EDs), including anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and binge eating disorder (BED), with stigma toward another weight-related condition (obesity) and a non-weight-related mental disorder (major depressive disorder [MDD]). Participants (N = 447) read five vignettes describing a woman with AN, BN, BED, obesity, or MDD and responded to questionnaires examining stigmatizing attitudes. The targets with EDs were blamed more for their condition than the targets with MDD, whereas persons with obesity were held more responsible for their condition than any other target. On the other hand, the target with MDD was perceived as more impaired than any other target. Lack of self-discipline was attributed more to the development of BED and obesity than to any other condition. Stigmatizing attitudes vary across mental health disorders, and future research should aim to specifically target stigmatizing beliefs to reduce and prevent discrimination toward mental health disorders and obesity.
Turner, Hannah; Marshall, Emily; Wood, Francesca; Stopa, Lusia; Waller, Glenn
Whilst studies have consistently identified early symptom reduction as an important predictor of treatment outcome, the impact of early change on common comorbid features has not been investigated. This study of CBT for eating disorders explored patterns of early change in eating pathology and longer-term change in personality pathology, anxiety and depression. It also explored the impact of early change in eating pathology on overall change in personality pathology, anxiety and depression. Participants were 179 adults diagnosed with eating disorders who were offered a course of CBT in an out-patient community eating disorders service in the UK. Patients completed a measure of eating disorder psychopathology at the start of treatment and following the 6th session. They also completed measures of personality disorder cognitions, anxiety and depression at the start and end of treatment. There were significant changes in eating pathology over the first six sessions of treatment. Significant improvements were also seen in personality disorder pathology, anxiety and depression by the end of therapy. Effect sizes were medium to large for both completer and intention to treat analyses. Early changes in eating pathology were associated with later changes in common comorbid features, with early reduction in restraint being a key predictor. These findings demonstrate that early symptom change can be achieved in CBT for eating disorders when delivered in routine clinical practice. Such change has long-term benefits that go beyond the domain of eating pathology, enhancing change in personality pathology, anxiety and depression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pistorio, Elisabetta; Luca, Maria; Luca, Antonina; Messina, Vincenzo; Calandra, Carmela
To correlate lipid metabolism and autonomic dysfunction with anxious-depressive spectrum and eating disorders. To propose the lipid index (LI) as a new possible biomarker. 95 patients and 60 controls were enrolled from the University Psychiatry Unit of Catania and from general practitioners (GPs). The patients were divided into four pathological groups: Anxiety, Depression, Anxious-Depressive Disorder and Eating Disorders [Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) official/appendix criteria]. The levels of the cholesterol, triglycerides and apolipoproteins A and B were determined. The LI, for each subject, was obtained through a mathematical operation on the values of the cholesterol and triglycerides levels compared with the maximum cut-off of the general population. The autonomic functioning was tested with Ewing battery tests. Particularly, the correlation between heart rate variability (HRV) and lipid metabolism has been investigated. Pathological and control groups, compared among each other, presented some peculiarities in the lipid metabolism and the autonomic dysfunction scores. In addition, a statistically significant correlation has been found between HRV and lipid metabolism. Lipid metabolism and autonomic functioning seem to be related to the discussed psychiatric disorders. LI, in addition, could represent a new possible biomarker to be considered.
Full Text Available Abstract Objective To correlate lipid metabolism and autonomic dysfunction with anxious-depressive spectrum and eating disorders. To propose the lipid index (LI as a new possible biomarker. Methods 95 patients and 60 controls were enrolled from the University Psychiatry Unit of Catania and from general practitioners (GPs. The patients were divided into four pathological groups: Anxiety, Depression, Anxious-Depressive Disorder and Eating Disorders [Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR official/appendix criteria]. The levels of the cholesterol, triglycerides and apolipoproteins A and B were determined. The LI, for each subject, was obtained through a mathematical operation on the values of the cholesterol and triglycerides levels compared with the maximum cut-off of the general population. The autonomic functioning was tested with Ewing battery tests. Particularly, the correlation between heart rate variability (HRV and lipid metabolism has been investigated. Results Pathological and control groups, compared among each other, presented some peculiarities in the lipid metabolism and the autonomic dysfunction scores. In addition, a statistically significant correlation has been found between HRV and lipid metabolism. Conclusions Lipid metabolism and autonomic functioning seem to be related to the discussed psychiatric disorders. LI, in addition, could represent a new possible biomarker to be considered.
Santos, Amanda Maihara Dos; Benute, Gláucia Rosana Guerra; Santos, Niraldo Oliveira Dos; Nomura, Roseli Mieko Yamamoto; de Lucia, Mara Cristina Souza; Francisco, Rossana Pulcineli Vieira
women who have inadequate nutrient intake are more likely to develop a risky pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to determine the presence of eating disorders and its association with anxiety and depression symptomatology in high-risk pregnancies. this is a cross-sectional and prospective study conducted at the tertiary university hospital in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. 913 pregnant women waiting for the Obstetrics' outpatient appointment were invited to participate in the study on their 2nd and 3rd trimester of pregnancy. Structured interviews were carried out and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Disorders and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale were applied. prevalence of eating disorder (ED) during pregnancy was 7.6% (n=69) (95% CI: 5.84% -9.28%), 0.1% (n=1) for anorexia nervosa; 0.7% (n=6) for bulimia nervosa; 1.1% (n=10) for binge eating disorder, and 5.7% (n=52) for pica. A statistically significant difference was found between the anxiety (pdepressive symptoms (pdepression symptoms during pregnancy highlights the need for specialist care for prevention, diagnosis and treatment. Given the importance of proper nutrition during pregnancy, both with regard to maternal health and fetal development, it is necessary to have specific predetermined evaluation protocols implemented by health care professionals for the diagnosis of ED during pregnancy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Schäflein, Eva; Wettach, Irmtraud; Smolka, Robert; Kuprion, Jürgen; Zipfel, Stephan; Teufel, Martin
We report on a 41-year-old female patient suffering from obesity, binge eating more than twice a week with loss of control, eating rapidly and feeling guilty after eating, dyspnoea and chronic pain in the whole body, especially in her arms, legs and in both ankles. Furthermore, subdued mood, loss of interest and pleasure, fatigue and impaired concentration could be recognized. In the past, weight increase had been observed when corticosteroids were given against exacerbations of sarcoidosis. In the case of our patient, the beginning of sarcoidosis and increase of weight and pain correlated with augmentation of depression and psychosocial stress. Dysfunctional behavioral features and multiple interactions between diseases could be observed. We diagnosed obesity, binge eating disorder, major depression, chronic pain disease with somatic and psychical components and sarcoidosis. The patient was treated in a multimodal therapy program including psychotherapy, pharmacotherapy and psychopharmacotherapy, nutritionist advice and therapeutic exercise. A weight loss of 7.9 kg (5.9 %), well-balanced diet, reduction of binge eating and of pain intensity, mood stabilization as well as perception and expression of emotions and coping strategies in chronic diseases were achieved. Interdisciplinary treatment of patients suffering from psychosomatic, somatic and mental diseases is crucial for a good outcome. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Fragkos, Konstantinos C; Frangos, Christos C
The objective of the present study was to assess factors predicting eating disorder risk in a sample of undergraduate students. A structured questionnaire was employed on a random sample (n = 1865) consisting of the following sections: demographics, SCOFF (Sick, Control, One stone, Fat, Food) questionnaire for screening eating disorders and the Achievement Anxiety Test and the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale. The students at risk for eating disorders (SCOFF score ≥2) were 39.7%. Eating disorder risk was more frequent in females, students with divorced parents, students who lived alone, students who were seeking a romantic relationship or were married, students who were at a post-secondary vocational institute/college (private-public) educational level and who were more likely to have marks under merit level. Also, the mean scores for the psychological factors of depression, stress and anxiety were higher in students with eating disorder risk. A logistic regression model was produced depicting that depression, stress, female gender, being married and searching for a romantic relationship were risk factors of having an eating disorder risk. The suggested psychological model examined with structural equation modelling signified the role of academic anxiety as an immediate precursor of general anxiety. Hence, college populations in Greece need organized infrastructures of nutrition health services and campaigns to assist in reducing the risk of eating disorders.
Christos C. Frangos
Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to assess factors predicting eating disorder risk in a sample of undergraduate students. A structured questionnaire was employed on a random sample (n = 1865 consisting of the following sections: demographics, SCOFF (Sick, Control, One stone, Fat, Food questionnaire for screening eating disorders and the Achievement Anxiety Test and the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale. The students at risk for eating disorders (SCOFF score ≥2 were 39.7%. Eating disorder risk was more frequent in females, students with divorced parents, students who lived alone, students who were seeking a romantic relationship or were married, students who were at a post-secondary vocational institute/college (private-public educational level and who were more likely to have marks under merit level. Also, the mean scores for the psychological factors of depression, stress and anxiety were higher in students with eating disorder risk. A logistic regression model was produced depicting that depression, stress, female gender, being married and searching for a romantic relationship were risk factors of having an eating disorder risk. The suggested psychological model examined with structural equation modelling signified the role of academic anxiety as an immediate precursor of general anxiety. Hence, college populations in Greece need organized infrastructures of nutrition health services and campaigns to assist in reducing the risk of eating disorders.
Baek, Ji Hyun; Kim, Kiwon; Hong, Jin Pyo; Cho, Maeng Je; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David; Chang, Sung Man; Kim, Ji Yeon; Cho, Hana; Jeon, Hong Jin
Eating disorders comorbid with depression are an established risk factor for suicide. In this study, we aimed to determine the effects of binge eating (BE) symptoms on suicidality and related clinical characteristics in major depressive disorder (MDD). A total of 817 community participants with MDD were included. We compared two groups (with and without lifetime BE symptoms). The MDD with BE group was subdivided into a frequent BE (FBE) subgroup (BE symptoms greater than twice weekly) and any BE (ABE) subgroup (BE symptoms greater than twice weekly). The MDD with BE group comprised 142 (17.38%) patients. The FBE and ABE subgroups comprised 75 (9.18%) and 67 (8.20%) patients, respectively. Comorbid alcohol use disorder, anxiety disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and history of suicide attempt were significantly more frequent in the MDD with BE group than MDD without BE group. Sexual trauma was also reported more frequently in MDD with BE group. No significant differences were observed between the ABE and FBE subgroups. Multivariate logistic regression revealed an association of suicide attempt with BE symptoms and sexual trauma. Structural equation modeling showed that sexual trauma increased BE (β = 0.337, P suicide attempt (β = 0.087, p = 0.011). BE symptoms were associated with suicide attempt in MDD after adjusting for other factors associated with suicidality. BE symptoms also moderated an association between suicide attempt and sexual trauma.
Wang, Shirley B; Borders, Ashley
Negative affect and maladaptive emotion regulation strategies are associated with eating-disorder (ED) psychopathology. Depressive rumination is a maladaptive cognitive style associated with the onset, maintenance, and severity of ED psychopathology among both clinical and nonclinical samples. However, although anger is also strongly associated with ED behaviors, the associations between angry rumination and ED psychopathology, as well as mechanisms of the relationships between rumination and ED psychopathology, remain largely unknown. The current study sought to examine the unique influences of trait depressive and angry rumination on ED psychopathology and whether trait negative urgency (i.e., responding rashly to negative affect) mediated these relationships. Study 1 sampled undergraduate students (N = 119) cross-sectionally and longitudinally (five months), and Study 2 sampled patients with eating disorders (N = 85). All participants completed questionnaires assessing angry rumination, depressive rumination, ED psychopathology, and negative urgency. Angry rumination had consistent indirect effects on ED psychopathology via negative urgency among both clinical and nonclinical samples. However, there was mixed support for the influence of depressive rumination: whereas depressive rumination showed total and indirect effects on ED psychopathology in Study 1 cross-sectional analyses, no total or indirect effects emerged in Study 1 longitudinal analyses or in Study 2. Associations between depressive rumination and ED psychopathology may reflect the strong overlap between angry and depressive rumination. Interventions targeting angry rumination and negative urgency may enhance prevention and treatment of disordered eating across eating disorder diagnosis and severity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hopwood, C J; Ansell, E B; Fehon, D C; Grilo, C M
Childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for eating disorder and negative/depressive affect appears to mediate this relation. However, the specific elements of eating- and body-related psychopathology that are influenced by various forms of childhood maltreatment remain unclear, and investigations among adolescents and men/boys have been limited. This study investigated the mediating role of negative affect/depression across multiple types of childhood maltreatment and eating disorder features in hospitalized adolescent boys and girls. Participants were 148 adolescent psychiatric inpatients who completed an assessment battery including measures of specific forms of childhood maltreatment (sexual, emotional, and physical abuse), negative/depressive affect, and eating disorder features (dietary restriction, binge eating, and body dissatisfaction). Findings suggest that for girls, negative/depressive affect significantly mediates the relationships between childhood maltreatment and eating disorder psychopathology, although effects varied somewhat across types of maltreatment and eating disorder features. Generalization of mediation effects to boys was limited.
Sienko, Rachel M; Saules, Karen K; Carr, Meagan M
This study tested the potential mediating role of Internalized Weight Bias (IWB) in the relationship between depressive symptoms (DEP-SX) and disordered eating behavior. In particular, we hypothesized that IWB may be an intervening variable in the well documented association between depression and disordered eating. College women (N=172) who were taking undergraduate psychology courses and who endorsed thinking they were overweight completed the Patient Health Questionnaire depression screener (PHQ-9), the Weight Bias Internalization Scale (WBIS), and the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q). Bootstrapping mediation analyses were conducted to explore the relationships between these variables. IWB was significantly correlated with eating disorder symptoms and DEP-SX, but not Body Mass Index. Mediation analyses supported a model in which IWB mediated the relationship between DEP-SX and disordered eating behavior. Results indicate that individuals with elevated DEP-SX may be likely to internalize weight bias, which may in turn lead to maladaptive approaches to eating and weight control, regardless of one's actual weight status. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wold, P N
Patients with Major Affective Disorder (MAD), Secondary Depression, Panic Disorder, and bulimia with and without MAD, were given the Eating Disorder Inventory, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the General Behavior Inventory at presentation. It was found that patients with MAD have a triad of eating disorder symptoms: a disturbance in interoceptive awareness, the sense of ineffectiveness, and a tendency toward bulimia. The data supported the concept that the sense of ineffectiveness is secon...
The path to an eating disorder (ED) always leads through a borderland, which, in this thesis, is referred to as disordered eating (DE) (Neumark-Sztainer, Wall, Eisenberg,Story, & Hannan, 2006; Waaddegaard, Thoning, & Petersson, 2003). In this borderland, people tend to make unhealthy eating choices, such as greatly reducing their food intake, self-inducing vomiting, or engaging in binge eating, but not to the extent that they would receive an ED diagnosis. Nevertheless, DE can have a ...
Lundgren, J D; Amsterdam, J; Newberg, A; Allison, K C; Wintering, N; Stunkard, A J
We examined serotonin transporter (SERT) binding affinity using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and night eating syndrome (NES). There are similarities between MDD and NES in affective symptoms, appetite disturbance, nighttime awakenings, and, particularly, response to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Six non-depressed patients with NES and seven patients with MDD underwent SPECT brain imaging with 123I-ADAM, a radiopharmaceutical agent selective for SERT sites. Uptake ratios of 123I-ADAM SERT binding were obtained for the midbrain, basal ganglia, and temporal lobe regions compared to the cerebellum reference region. Patients with NES had significantly greater SERT uptake ratios (effect size range 0.64-0.84) in the midbrain, right temporal lobe, and left temporal lobe regions than those with MDD whom we had previously studied. Pathophysiological differences in SERT uptake between patients with NES and MDD suggest these are distinct clinical syndromes.
Senna, Mohammed K; Ahmad, Hamada S; Fathi, Warda
Depression is a prominent feature in fibromyalgia syndrome. Patients with fibromyalgia syndrome who are obese, with poor sleep quality, and those who have recurrent episodes of binge eating are at greater risk to develop depression. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine the hypothesis that the relationship between obesity and depression in patients with primary fibromyalgia syndrome is mediated by poor sleep, binge eating disorder (BED), and weight and shape concern. This study included 131 patients with primary fibromyalgia syndrome. Participants completed the following questionnaires: Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Beck Depression Inventory-II, Eating Disorder questionnaire, and Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire. Body mass index (BMI) provided the primary indicator of obesity. Sobel test showed that the conditions for complete mediation were satisfied on the weight and shape concern as mediator between BMI and depression because the association between BMI and depression score became insignificant after controlling of weight and shape concern. However, since the association between BMI and depression remained significant after BED and poor sleep score were controlled, thus for both mediators, the conditions for partial mediation on the depression were satisfied. The findings suggest that in patients with primary fibromyalgia syndrome, weight and shape concern, BED, and poor sleep quality are important mediators of the relationship between obesity and depression. We suggest that a greater focus on these mediators in depression treatment may be indicated.
Matini, Diana; Ghanbari Jolfaei, Atefeh; Pazouki, Abdolreza; Pishgahroudsari, Mohadeseh; Ehtesham, Mehdi
Severe obesity is highly co-morbid with psychiatric disorders and may have effect on the quality of life. This study aimed to compare severity and prevalence rate of depression, anxiety and eating disorders and quality of life in severe obese patients before and 6 months after the gastric bypass surgery. This was a prospective observational study which conducted at Hazarat Rasool-Akram Hospital in Tehran, 2012. Questionnaires included demographic questions, eating disorder Inventory (EDI), The Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) for quality of life, Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I disorders (SCID-I) and Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD) and anxiety (HRSA). Participants were interviewed two times, before surgery and six months after, to determine changes of the disorders. Patients with the history of bariatric surgery, individuals younger than 18 year old and those who disagreed to join the study were excluded. In assessing the eating disorder inventory-3rd version (EDI-3), Significant reduction in drive for thinness (DT) (p= 0.010), bulimia (B) (pdepression in HRSD (p= 0.311), prevalence of depression (p= 0.189) and prevalence of general anxiety disorder according to SCID (p=0.167) did not differ significantly, at this period. Although weight loss after bariatric surgery improved the physical component of quality of life, this improvement did not affect the mental aspect of life, depression and anxiety and it seems that these psychopathologies need attention and treatment in addition to weight loss treatments in patients with obesity.
Rotenberg, Ken J; Costa, Paula; Trueman, Mark; Lattimore, Paul
The study tested the Reformulated Helplessness model that individuals who show combined internal locus of control, high stability and high globality attributions for negative life events are prone to depression. Thirty-six women (M=29 years-8 months of age) receiving clinical treatment for eating disorders completed: the Attribution Style Questionnaire, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Stirling Eating Disorder Scales. An HRA yielded a three-way interaction among the attributional dimensions on depressive symptoms. Plotting of the slopes showed that the attribution of negative life events to the combination of internal locus of control, high stability, and a high globality, was associated with the optimal level of depressive symptoms. The findings supported the Reformulated Helplessness as a model of depression. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hughes, Elizabeth K; Goldschmidt, Andrea B; Labuschagne, Zandre; Loeb, Katharine L; Sawyer, Susan M; Le Grange, Daniel
This study aimed to describe and compare the demographic and clinical characteristics of children and adolescents with an eating disorder (ED) and comorbid depression or anxiety. Data were drawn from intake assessments of children and adolescents at a specialist ED clinic. Demographic characteristics (e.g. age and gender) and clinical characteristics (e.g. body mass, binge eating and purging) were compared between 217 ED participants without comorbidity, 32 with comorbid anxiety, 86 with comorbid depression and 36 with comorbid anxiety and depression. The groups with comorbid depression had more complex and severe presentations compared with those with an ED and no comorbid disorder and those with comorbid anxiety alone, especially in regard to binge eating, purging, dietary restraint and weight/shape concerns. Depression and anxiety were differentially related to clinical characteristics of EDs. The findings have implications for understanding the relations between these disorders and their potential to impact outcome of ED treatments. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.
Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E; Ciao, Anna C; Accurso, Erin C; Pisetsky, Emily M; Peterson, Carol B; Byrne, Catherine E; Le Grange, Daniel
This study investigated the importance of the distinction between objective (OBE) and subjective binge eating (SBE) among 80 treatment-seeking adolescents with bulimia nervosa. We explored relationships among OBEs, SBEs, eating disorder (ED) symptomatology, depression, and self-esteem using two approaches. Group comparisons showed that OBE and SBE groups did not differ on ED symptoms or self-esteem; however, the SBE group had significantly greater depression. Examining continuous variables, OBEs (not SBEs) accounted for significant unique variance in global ED pathology, vomiting, and self-esteem. SBEs (not OBEs) accounted for significant unique variance in restraint and depression. Both OBEs and SBEs accounted for significant unique variance in eating concern; neither accounted for unique variance in weight/shape concern, laxative use, diuretic use, or driven exercise. Loss of control, rather than amount of food, may be most important in defining binge eating. Additionally, OBEs may indicate broader ED pathology, while SBEs may indicate restrictive/depressive symptomatology. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.
Allen, K L; Mori, T A; Beilin, L; Byrne, S M; Hickling, S; Oddy, W H
Relatively little is known about the dietary intake and nutritional status of community-based individuals with eating disorders. This research aimed to: (i) describe the dietary intake of population-based adolescents with an eating disorder and (ii) examine associations between eating disorder symptoms, fatty acid intake and depressive symptoms in adolescents with and without an eating disorder. Data were drawn from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study, a population-based cohort study that has followed participants from birth to young adulthood. This research utilised self-report data from the 17-year Raine Study assessment. Participants comprised 429 female adolescents who completed comprehensive questionnaire measures on dietary intake, eating disorder symptoms and depressive symptoms. Adolescents with an eating disorder (n = 66) reported a significantly lower intake of total fat, saturated fat, omega-6 fatty acid, starch, vitamin A and vitamin E compared to adolescents without an eating disorder (n = 363). Adolescents with an eating disorder and pronounced depressive symptoms (n = 23) also reported a significantly lower intake of polyunsaturated fat and omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acid than adolescents with an eating disorder but no marked depression (n = 43). In the eating disorder sample but not the control sample, omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acid correlated significantly and negatively with eating disorder symptoms and with depressive symptoms. Support is provided for a relationship between low omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acid intake and depressive symptoms in adolescents with eating disorders. Research is needed to examine the feasibility and effectiveness of fatty acid supplementation in this high-risk group. © 2012 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2012 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.
Silberg, Judy L.; Bulik, Cynthia M.
Objective: We investigated the role of genetic and environmental factors in the developmental association among symptoms of eating disorders, depression, and anxiety syndromes in 8-13-year-old and 14-17-year-old twin girls. Methods: Multivariate genetic models were fitted to child-reported longitudinal symptom data gathered from clinical interview…
Cimino, Silvia; Cerniglia, Luca; Paciello, Marinella
The present paper aims to longitudinally assess the emotional functioning of children of mothers with depression, anxiety, or eating disorders and of mothers with no psychological disorders and to evaluate the possible mediating role of fathers' psychological profiles on children's internalizing/externalizing functioning using SCID I, SCL-90/R and CBCL/1½-5. The results showed maternal psychopathology to be strongly related to children's maladaptive profiles. Children of mothers with depression and anxiety showed higher internalizing scores than children of other groups. These scores increased from T1 to T2. Children of mothers with eating disorders showed higher and increasing externalizing scores than children of other groups. The data showed that fathers' interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety and psychoticism significantly predicted internalizing problems of the children. Moreover, interpersonal sensitivity and psychoticism significantly predicted externalizing problems. Our results confirmed the impact of maternal psychopathology on maladaptive outcomes in their children, which suggests the importance of considering paternal psychological profiles.
Tseng, Mei-Chih Meg; Chang, Chin-Hao; Liao, Shih-Cheng; Chen, Hsi-Chung
To examine the differences of associated characteristics and prescription drug use between co-occurring unipolar and bipolar disorders in patients with eating disorders (EDs). Patients with EDs and major depressive episode (MDE) were recruited from psychiatric outpatient clinics. They were interviewed and completed self-administered measures assessing eating and general psychopathology. The prescribed drugs at the index outpatient visit were recorded. Clinical characteristics and prescription drugs of groups with major depressive disorder (ED-MDD), MDE with lifetime mania (ED-BP I), and MDE with lifetime hypomania (ED-BP II) were compared. Continuous variables between groups were compared using generalized linear regression with adjustments of age, gender, and ED subtype for pair-wise comparisons. Multivariate logistic regression with adjustments of age, gender, and ED subtype was employed to estimate adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals between groups. Two hundred and twenty-seven patients with EDs had a current MDE. Among them, 17.2% and 24.2% experienced associated manic and hypomanic episodes, respectively. Bipolar I and II patients displayed significantly poorer weight regulation, more severe impulsivity and emotional lability, and higher rates of co-occurring alcohol use disorders than ED-MDD patients. ED-BP I patients were found to have the lowest IQ, poorest working memory, and the most severe depression, suicidality and functional impairment among all patients. Patients with ED-BP II shared affect and behavioral dysregulations with ED-BP I, but had less severe degrees of cognitive and functional impairments than ED-BP I. Patients with ED-BP I were significantly less likely than those in the ED-MDD and ED-BP II groups to be on antidepressant monotherapy, but a great rate (27%) of ED-BP I individuals taking antidepressant monotherapy had potential risk of mood switch during the course of treatment. Our study identified discriminative features
Kim, O; Kim, M S; Kim, J; Lee, J E; Jung, H
Most studies regarding the relationship between binge eating disorder (BED) and depression have targeted obese populations. However, nurses, particularly female nurses, are one of the vocations that face these issues due to various reasons including high stress and shift work. This study investigated the prevalence of BED and the correlation between BED and severity of self-reported depressive symptoms among female nurses in South Korea. Participants were 7,267 female nurses, of which 502 had symptoms of BED. Using the propensity score matching (PSM) technique, 502 nurses with BED and 502 without BED were included in the analyses. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Spearman's correlation, and multivariable ordinal logistic regression analysis. The proportion of binge eating disorder was 6.90% among the nurses, and 81.3% of nurses displayed some levels of depressive symptoms. Multivariable ordinal logistic regression analysis revealed that age (40 years old and older), alcohol consumption (frequent drinkers), self-rated health, sleep problems, and stress were associated with self-reported depression symptoms. Overall, after adjusting for confounders, nurses with BED had 1.80 times the risk (95% CI = [1.41-2.30]; p-value depression symptoms. Korean female nurse showed a higher prevalence of both binge eating disorder and depressive symptoms, and the association between the two factors was proven in the study. Therefore, hospital management and health policy makers should be alarmed and agreed on both examining nurses on such problems and providing organized and systematic assistance.
Stice, Eric; Presnell, Katherine; Bearman, Sarah Kate
Used interview data from a community study to test whether early menarche partially accounts for increased depression, eating pathology, substance abuse, and comorbid psychopathology among adolescent girls. Found that menarche prior to 11.6 years related to elevated depression and substance abuse. Findings support assertion that early menarche is…
Full Text Available Binge Eating Disorder, characterized by frequent and persistent overeating episodes that are accompanied by feeling of loss of control over eating without regular compensatory behaviors and was identified in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition as a new eating disorder category. Binge Eating Disorder is the most common eating disorder among adults. Binge Eating Disorder is associated with significant morbidity, including medical complications related to obesity, eating disorder psychopathology, psychiatric comorbidity; reduced quality of life, and impaired social functioning. Current treatments of Binge Eating Disorder include pharmacotherapy, psychotherapy and bariatric surgery. In this review, the definition, epidemiology, etiology, clinical features, and also mainly treatment of Binge Eating Disorder are discussed.
... himself. Understanding Binge Eating If you gorged on chocolate during Halloween or ate so much pumpkin pie ... binge eating, doctors may prescribe medications along with therapy and nutrition advice. People with binge eating disorder ...
Micali, Nadia; Simonoff, Emily; Treasure, Janet
This study investigated the effect of past depression, past and current eating disorders (ED) on perinatal anxiety and depression in a large general population cohort of pregnant women, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Anxiety and depression were measured during and after pregnancy in 10,887 women using the Crown-Crisp Experiential Inventory and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Women were grouped according to depression and ED history: past ED with (n = 123) and without past depression (n = 50), pregnancy ED symptoms with (n = 77) and without past depression (n = 159), past depression only (n = 818) and controls (n = 9,660). We compared the course of depression and anxiety with linear mixed-effect regression models; and probable depressive and anxiety disorders using logistic regression. Women with both past depression and past/current ED had high anxiety and depression across time perinatally; this was most marked in the group with pregnancy ED symptoms and past depression (b coefficient:5.1 (95% CI: 4.1-6.1), p depressive and anxiety disorder compared to controls. At 8 months post-partum pregnancy ED symptoms and/or past depression conferred the highest risk for a probable depressive and anxiety disorder. Data were based on self-report. There was some selective attrition. Pregnancy ED symptoms and past depression have an additive effect in increasing the risk for depression and anxiety perinatally. Screening at risk women for anxiety and depression in the perinatal period might be beneficial. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Allison, Kelly C; Spaeth, Andrea; Hopkins, Christina M
Insomnia is related to an increased risk of eating disorders, while eating disorders are related to more disrupted sleep. Insomnia is also linked to poorer treatment outcomes for eating disorders. However, over the last decade, studies examining sleep and eating disorders have relied on surveys, with no objective measures of sleep for anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa, and only actigraphy data for binge eating disorder. Sleep disturbance is better defined for night eating syndrome, where sleep efficiency is reduced and melatonin release is delayed. Studies that include objectively measured sleep and metabolic parameters combined with psychiatric comorbidity data would help identify under what circumstances eating disorders and sleep disturbance produce an additive effect for symptom severity and for whom poor sleep would increase risk for an eating disorder. Cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia may be a helpful addition to treatment of those with both eating disorder and insomnia.
Deniz Tuncel; Fatma Özlem Orhan
Hunger is an awakening related biological impulse. The relationship between hunger and sleep is moderated by the control of homeostatic and circadian rhytms of the body. Abnormal eating behavior during sleep period could result from different causes. Abnormal eating during the main sleep period has been categorized as either night eating syndrome or sleep related eating disorder. Night eating syndrome (NES) is an eating disorder characterised by the clinical features of morning anorexia, even...
Udo, Tomoko; McKee, Sherry A; Grilo, Carlos M
The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) is often used to assess depression symptoms, but its factor structure and its clinical utility have not been evaluated in patients with binge eating disorder (BED) and obesity. A total of 882 treatment-seeking obese patients with BED were administered structured interviews (Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition Axis I Disorders) and completed self-report questionnaires. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported a brief 16-item BDI version with a three-factor structure (affective, attitudinal and somatic). Both 21- and 16-item versions showed excellent internal consistency (both α=0.89) and had significant correlation patterns with different aspects of eating disorder psychopathology; three factors showed significant but variable associations with eating disorder psychopathology. Area under the curves (AUC) for both BDI versions were significant in predicting major depressive disorder (MDD; AUC=0.773 [16-item], 73.5% sensitivity/70.2% specificity, AUC=0.769 [21-item], 79.5% sensitivity/64.1% specificity) and mood disorders (AUC=0.763 [16-item], 67.1% sensitivity/71.5% specificity, AUC=0.769 [21-item], 84.2% sensitivity/55.7% specificity). The 21-item BDI (cutoff score ≥16) showed higher negative predictive values (94.0% vs. 93.0% [MDD]; 92.4% vs. 88.3% [mood disorders]) than the brief 16-item BDI (cutoff score ≥13). Both BDI versions demonstrated moderate performance as a screening instrument for MDD/mood disorders in obese patients with BED. Advantages and disadvantages for both versions are discussed. A three-factor structure has potential to inform the conceptualization of depression features. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E.; Ciao, Anna C.; Accurso, Erin C.; Pisetsky, Emily M.; Peterson, Carol B.; Byrne, Catherine E.; Le Grange, Daniel
This study investigated the importance of the distinction between objective (OBE) and subjective binge eating (SBE) among 80 treatment-seeking adolescents with bulimia nervosa (BN). We explored relationships among OBEs, SBEs, eating disorder (ED) symptomatology, depression, and self-esteem using two approaches. Group comparisons showed that OBE and SBE groups did not differ on ED symptoms or self-esteem; however, the SBE group had significantly greater depression. Examining continuous variables, OBEs (not SBEs) accounted for significant unique variance in global ED pathology, vomiting, and self-esteem. SBEs (not OBEs) accounted for significant unique variance in restraint and depression. Both OBEs and SBEs accounted for significant unique variance in eating concern; neither accounted for unique variance in weight/shape concern, laxative use, diuretic use, or driven exercise. Loss of control, rather than amount of food, may be most important in defining binge eating. Additionally, OBEs may indicate broader ED pathology while SBEs may indicate restrictive/depressive symptomatology. PMID:24852114
Brausch, Amy M; Decker, Kristina M
The current study investigated risk factors for suicidal ideation in a community sample of 392 adolescents (males 51.9 %; females 48.1 %), while also evaluating self-esteem, perceived parent support, and perceived peer support as protective factors and potential moderators between suicidal ideation and the 3 risk factors. Disordered eating, depression, parent support, and peer support were found to be significant predictors of current suicidal ideation, but body satisfaction was not. The relationship between depression and suicidal ideation was significantly moderated by both self-esteem and parent support, while the relationship between disordered eating and suicidal ideation was significantly moderated by peer support. Results underscore the importance of examining protective factors for suicide risk, as they have the potential to reduce suicidal ideation in adolescents.
Srinivasan, T.N.; Suresh, T.R.; Jayaram, Vasantha; Fernandez, M. Peter
Data on the nature and extent of major eating disorders, anorexia nervosa and bulimia is lacking in non-white, native populations of the developing world, leaving a gap in understanding the determinants of these disorders. In a study on 210 medical students examined by a two-stage survey method, 31 subjects were found to have distress relating to their eating habits and body size not amounting to criterion-based diagnosis of eating disorders. The characteristics of this eating distress syndro...
Marchesi, Carlo; Ossola, Paolo; Tonna, Matteo; De Panfilis, Chiara
This study evaluates whether the difference in Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20 item (TAS-20) between patients with major depression (MD), panic disorder (PD), eating disorders (ED), and substance use disorders (SUD) and healthy controls persisted after controlling for the severity of anxiety and depression. Thirty-eight patients with MD, 58 with PD, 52 with ED, and 30 with SUD and 78 healthy controls (C) completed the TAS-20, the Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety (Ham-A), the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (Ham-D). The differences in TAS-20 scores observed between patient groups, regardless of the type of their disorders, and controls disappeared after controlling for the effect of anxiety and depression severity. In contrast, the differences in severity of anxiety and depression between patients and controls were still present, after excluding the effect of alexithymic levels. Our data suggest that alexithymic levels, as measured by the TAS-20, are modulated by the severity of symptoms, supporting the view that alexithymia can represent a state phenomenon in patients with MD, PD, ED and SUD, because the TAS-20 seems overly sensitive to a general distress syndrome, and it is more likely to measure negative affects rather than alexithymia itself. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Eating disorders (EDs), including anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge-eating disorder, constitute a class of common and deadly psychiatric disorders. While numerous studies in humans highlight the important role of neurobiological alterations in the development of ED-related behaviors, the precise neural substrate that mediates this risk is unknown. Historically, pharmacological interventions have played a limited role in the treatment of eating disorders, typically providing symptomatic relief of comorbid psychiatric issues, like depression and anxiety, in support of the standard nutritional and psychological treatments. To date there are no Food and Drug Administration-approved medications or procedures for anorexia nervosa, and only one Food and Drug Administration-approved medication each for bulimia nervosa (fluoxetine) and binge-eating disorder (lisdexamfetamine). While there is little primary interest in drug development for eating disorders, postmarket monitoring of medications and procedures approved for other indications has identified several novel treatment options for patients with eating disorders. In this review, I utilize searches of the PubMed and ClinicalTrials.gov databases to highlight emerging treatments in eating disorders.
Smith, Kathryn E; Mason, Tyler B; Crosby, Ross D; Cao, Li; Leonard, Rachel C; Wetterneck, Chad T; Smith, Brad E R; Farrell, Nicholas R; Riemann, Bradley C; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Moessner, Markus
Network analysis is an emerging approach in the study of psychopathology, yet few applications have been seen in eating disorders (EDs). Furthermore, little research exists regarding changes in network strength after interventions. Therefore the present study examined the network structures of ED and co-occurring depression and anxiety symptoms before and after treatment for EDs. Participants from residential or partial hospital ED treatment programs (N = 446) completed assessments upon admission and discharge. Networks were estimated using regularized Graphical Gaussian Models using 38 items from the Eating Disorders Examination-Questionnaire, Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology, and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. ED symptoms with high centrality indices included a desire to lose weight, guilt about eating, shape overvaluation, and wanting an empty stomach, while restlessness, self-esteem, lack of energy, and feeling overwhelmed bridged ED to depression and anxiety symptoms. Comparisons between admission and discharge networks indicated the global network strength did not change significantly, though symptom severity decreased. Participants with denser networks at admission evidenced less change in ED symptomatology during treatment. Findings suggest that symptoms related to shape and weight concerns and guilt are central ED symptoms, while physical symptoms, self-esteem, and feeling overwhelmed are links that may underlie comorbidities in EDs. Results provided some support for the validity of network approaches, in that admission networks conveyed prognostic information. However, the lack of correspondence between symptom reduction and change in network strength indicates that future research is needed to examine network dynamics in the context of intervention and relapse prevention.
Full Text Available According to International Classification of Diseases by World Health Organization, eating disorders are behavioural syndromes associated with physiological disturbances . Eating disorders include anorexia nervosa, atypical anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, atypical bulimia nervosa, overeating associated with other psychological disturbances and vomiting associated with other psychological disturbances . Maladaptive eating pattern and inadequate physical activity are seen in adolescents with eating disorders and obesity . Those with comorbid eating disorder and obesity have a poorer prognosis and are at higher risk for future medical problems.
Dunkley, David M.; Masheb, Robin M.; Grilo, Carlos M.
Objective We examined the mediating role of self-criticism in the relation between childhood maltreatment and both depressive symptoms and body dissatisfaction in patients with binge eating disorder (BED). Method Participants were 170 BED patients who completed measures of childhood maltreatment, self-criticism, self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and body dissatisfaction. Results Specific forms of childhood maltreatment (emotional abuse, sexual abuse) were significantly associated with body dissatisfaction. Path analyses demonstrated that self-criticism fully mediated the relation between emotional abuse and both depressive symptoms and body dissatisfaction. Specificity for the mediating role of self-criticism was demonstrated in comparison to other potential mediators (low self-esteem) and alternative competing mediation models. Conclusion These results highlight self-criticism as a potential mechanism through which certain forms of childhood maltreatment may be associated with depressive symptoms and body dissatisfaction in BED patients. PMID:20119938
Taylor, C. Barr; Kass, Andrea E.; Trockel, Mickey; Cunning, Darby; Weisman, Hannah; Bailey, Jakki; Sinton, Meghan; Aspen, Vandana; Schecthman, Kenneth; Jacobi, Corinna; Wilfley, Denise E.
Objective Eating disorders (EDs) are serious problems among college-age women and may be preventable. An indicated on-line eating disorder (ED) intervention, designed to reduce ED and comorbid pathology, was evaluated. Method 206 women (M age = 20 ± 1.8 years; 51% White/Caucasian, 11% African American, 10% Hispanic, 21% Asian/Asian American, 7% other) at very high risk for ED onset (i.e., with high weight/shape concerns plus a history of being teased, current or lifetime depression, and/or non-clinical levels of compensatory behaviors) were randomized to a 10-week, Internet-based, cognitive-behavioral intervention or wait-list control. Assessments included the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE to assess ED onset), EDE-Questionnaire, Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Disorders, and Beck Depression Inventory-II. Results ED attitudes and behaviors improved more in the intervention than control group (p = 0.02, d = 0.31); although ED onset rate was 27% lower, this difference was not significant (p = 0.28, NNT = 15). In the subgroup with highest shape concerns, ED onset rate was significantly lower in the intervention than control group (20% versus 42%, p = 0.025, NNT = 5). For the 27 individuals with depression at baseline, depressive symptomatology improved more in the intervention than control group (p = 0.016, d = 0.96); although ED onset rate was lower in the intervention than control group, this difference was not significant (25% versus 57%, NNT = 4). Conclusions An inexpensive, easily disseminated intervention might reduce ED onset among those at highest risk. Low adoption rates need to be addressed in future research. PMID:26795936
Taylor, C Barr; Kass, Andrea E; Trockel, Mickey; Cunning, Darby; Weisman, Hannah; Bailey, Jakki; Sinton, Meghan; Aspen, Vandana; Schecthman, Kenneth; Jacobi, Corinna; Wilfley, Denise E
Eating disorders (EDs) are serious problems among college-age women and may be preventable. An indicated online eating disorder (ED) intervention, designed to reduce ED and comorbid pathology, was evaluated. 206 women (M age = 20 ± 1.8 years; 51% White/Caucasian, 11% African American, 10% Hispanic, 21% Asian/Asian American, 7% other) at very high risk for ED onset (i.e., with high weight/shape concerns plus a history of being teased, current or lifetime depression, and/or nonclinical levels of compensatory behaviors) were randomized to a 10-week, Internet-based, cognitive-behavioral intervention or waitlist control. Assessments included the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE, to assess ED onset), EDE-Questionnaire, Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Disorders, and Beck Depression Inventory-II. ED attitudes and behaviors improved more in the intervention than control group (p = .02, d = 0.31); although ED onset rate was 27% lower, this difference was not significant (p = .28, NNT = 15). In the subgroup with highest shape concerns, ED onset rate was significantly lower in the intervention than control group (20% vs. 42%, p = .025, NNT = 5). For the 27 individuals with depression at baseline, depressive symptomatology improved more in the intervention than control group (p = .016, d = 0.96); although ED onset rate was lower in the intervention than control group, this difference was not significant (25% vs. 57%, NNT = 4). An inexpensive, easily disseminated intervention might reduce ED onset among those at highest risk. Low adoption rates need to be addressed in future research. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Dokras, Anuja; Stener-Victorin, Elisabeth; Yildiz, Bulent O; Li, Rong; Ottey, Sasha; Shah, Duru; Epperson, Neill; Teede, Helena
To formulate clinical consensus recommendations for screening depression, anxiety, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and disordered eating symptoms in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and review prevalence based on phenotypes and ethnicity, changes over time, etiology, and impact of treatment. Systematic reviews and preparation of position statement. Not applicable. Women with PCOS and controls screened using validated tools. None. Depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, disordered eating, and HRQoL scores. Several studies demonstrate that women with PCOS have an increased prevalence of higher depression and anxiety scores and higher odds of moderate and severe depressive and anxiety symptoms compared with controls. Obesity, hyperandrogenism, and fertility have a weak association with these symptoms. HRQoL scores are consistently reduced in PCOS, with infertility and weight concerns having the most significant impact. Some studies suggest an increased prevalence of disordered eating in women with PCOS compared with controls. The few studies that have evaluated the impact of PCOS-related treatments (lifestyle interventions and pharmacotherapy) show no detrimental effect or some improvement in depressive and anxiety symptoms and HRQoL scores. In women with PCOS, screening for depressive and anxiety symptoms should be offered at the time of diagnosis and screening for disordered eating should be considered. Further research is required across PCOS phenotypes, in longitudinal cohorts and on impact of therapy on depressive and anxiety syptoms, HRQOL, and disordered eating. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This study analyzed the prevalence of and association between symptoms of eating disorders and depression in female and male emerging adults with early-onset, long-duration type 1 diabetes and investigated how these symptoms are associated with metabolic control.In a nationwide population-based survey, 211 type 1 diabetes patients aged 18-21 years completed standardized questionnaires, including the SCOFF questionnaire for eating disorder symptoms and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9 for symptoms of depression and severity of depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 score. Multiple linear and logistic regression models were used to analyze the association between eating disorder and depressive symptoms and their associations with HbA1c.A total of 30.2% of the women and 9.5% of the men were screening positive for eating disorders. The mean PHQ-9 score (standard deviation was 5.3 (4.4 among women and 3.9 (3.6 among men. Screening positive for an eating disorder was associated with more severe depressive symptoms among women (βwomen 3.8, p<0.001. However, neither eating disorder symptoms nor severity of depressive symptoms were associated with HbA1c among women, while HbA1c increased with the severity of depressive symptoms among men (βmen 0.14, p=0.006.Because of the high prevalence of eating disorder and depressive symptoms, their interrelationship, and their associations with metabolic control, particularly among men, regular mental health screening is recommended for young adults with type 1 diabetes.
Berkman, Nancy D; Bulik, Cynthia M; Brownley, Kimberly A; Lohr, Kathleen N; Sedway, Jan A; Rooks, Adrienne; Gartlehner, Gerald
to 4 months after treatment; however, CBT is not associated with weight loss. Medications may play a role in treating BED patients. Further research addressing how best to achieve both abstinence from binge eating and weight loss in overweight patients is needed. Higher levels of depression and compulsivity were associated with poorer outcomes in AN; higher mortality was associated with concurrent alcohol and substance use disorders. Only depression was consistently associated with poorer outcomes in BN; BN was not associated with an increased risk of death. Because of sparse data, we could reach no conclusions concerning BED outcomes. No or only weak evidence addresses treatment or outcomes difference for these disorders. CONCLUSIONS The literature regarding treatment efficacy and outcomes for AN, BN, and BED is of highly variable quality. In future studies, researchers must attend to issues of statistical power, research design, standardized outcome measures, and sophistication and appropriateness of statistical methodology. PMID:17628126
Legenbauer, Tanja; Petrak, Frank; de Zwaan, Martina; Herpertz, Stephan
To investigate the influence of depressive and eating disorders on short- and long-term weight loss after surgical and non-surgical weight-reduction treatment. Covariations between the disorders were considered. In a longitudinal naturalistic study, current diagnoses at baseline and lifetime diagnoses of depressive and eating disorders were assessed in participants who were undertaking a very-low-calorie diet (n = 250) and in bariatric surgery patients (n = 153). Lifetime diagnosis of a mental disorder was defined as presence of a mental disorder only in the past. Body weight was measured at baseline, 1 year after baseline, and 4 years after baseline. Mental comorbidity was assessed through use of standardized interviews at baseline. A structural equation modeling procedure was applied to test the associations between course of weight and mental disorders. Analyses were based on the intention to treat samples. Missing values were replaced by use of multiple imputation procedures. Neither depression nor eating disorders were associated with weight changes at the 1-year follow-up, but a specific effect emerged for bariatric surgery patients after 4 years: depression (current and lifetime) predicted smaller body mass index loss, whereas lifetime diagnosis of eating disorder was associated with greater weight loss. Individuals who report depressive disorders prior to bariatric surgery should be monitored more closely in order to identify patients who would benefit from additional therapy with the goal of improving weight-loss outcome. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bächle, Christina; Lange, Karin; Stahl-Pehe, Anna; Castillo, Katty; Scheuing, Nicole; Holl, Reinhard W; Giani, Guido; Rosenbauer, Joachim
This study analyzed the prevalence of and association between symptoms of eating disorders and depression in female and male emerging adults with early-onset, long-duration type 1 diabetes and investigated how these symptoms are associated with metabolic control. In a nationwide population-based survey, 211 type 1 diabetes patients aged 18-21 years completed standardized questionnaires, including the SCOFF questionnaire for eating disorder symptoms and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) for symptoms of depression and severity of depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 score). Multiple linear and logistic regression models were used to analyze the association between eating disorder and depressive symptoms and their associations with HbA1c. A total of 30.2% of the women and 9.5% of the men were screening positive for eating disorders. The mean PHQ-9 score (standard deviation) was 5.3 (4.4) among women and 3.9 (3.6) among men. Screening positive for an eating disorder was associated with more severe depressive symptoms among women (βwomen 3.8, peating disorder symptoms nor severity of depressive symptoms were associated with HbA1c among women, while HbA1c increased with the severity of depressive symptoms among men (βmen 0.14, p=0.006). Because of the high prevalence of eating disorder and depressive symptoms, their interrelationship, and their associations with metabolic control, particularly among men, regular mental health screening is recommended for young adults with type 1 diabetes.
Mazzeo, Suzanne E.; Mitchell, Karen S.; Williams, Larry J.
This study evaluated structural equation models of the associations among family functioning, childhood abuse, depression, anxiety, alexithymia, and eating disorder symptomatology in a sample of 412 European American and 192 African American female undergraduates. Additionally, the specific roles of anxiety, depression, and alexithymia as…
Full Text Available Hunger is an awakening related biological impulse. The relationship between hunger and sleep is moderated by the control of homeostatic and circadian rhytms of the body. Abnormal eating behavior during sleep period could result from different causes. Abnormal eating during the main sleep period has been categorized as either night eating syndrome or sleep related eating disorder. Night eating syndrome (NES is an eating disorder characterised by the clinical features of morning anorexia, evening hyperphagia, and insomnia with awakenings followed by nocturnal food ingestion. Recently night eating syndrome, conceptualized as a delayed circadian intake of food. Sleep-related eating disorder, thought to represent a parasomnia and as such included within the revised International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD-2, and characterized by nocturnal partial arousals associated with recurrent episodes of involuntary food consumption and altered levels of consciousness. Whether, however, sleep-related eating disorder and night eating syndrome represent different diseases or are part of a continuum is still debated. This review summarizes their characteristics, treatment outcomes and differences between them.
Hansson, Erika; Daukantaitė, Daiva; Johnsson, Per
Using the person-oriented approach, we determined the relationships between four indicators (restraint and eating, shape, and weight concerns) of disordered eating (DE), as measured by the self-reported Eating Disorders Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q), to identify typical DE patterns. We then related these patterns to clinical EDE-Q cut-off scores and emotion dysregulation, depression, self-esteem, and two categories of DE behaviors (≥2 or ≤1 "yes" responses on the SCOFF questionnaire). Typical patterns of DE were identified in a community sample of 1,265 Swedish adolescents ( M age = 16.19, SD = 1.21; age range 13.5-19 years) using a cluster analysis. Separate analyses were performed for girls ( n = 689) and boys ( n = 576). The cluster analysis yielded a six-cluster solution for each gender. Four of the six clusters for girls and five for boys showed scores above the clinical cut-off on at least one of the four DE indicators. For girls, the two clusters that scored above the clinical cut-offs on all four DE indicators reported severe psychological problems, including high scores on emotion dysregulation and depression and low scores on self-esteem. In contrast, for boys, although two clusters reported above the clinical cut-off on all four indicators, only the cluster with exceedingly high scores on shape and weight concerns reported high emotion dysregulation and depression, and extremely low self-esteem. Furthermore, significantly more girls and boys in the most problematic DE clusters reported ≥2 "yes" responses on the SCOFF questionnaire (as opposed to ≤1 response), indicating clear signs of DE and severe psychological difficulties. We suspect that the various problematic DE patterns will require different paths back to a healthy diet. However, more research is needed to determine the developmental trajectories of these DE patterns and ensure more precise clinical cut-off scores, especially for boys. Comprehensive understanding
Mander, Johannes; Wittorf, Andreas; Teufel, Martin; Schlarb, Angelika; Hautzinger, Martin; Zipfel, Stephan; Sammet, Isa
The study aimed at constructing a time-efficient short version of the University of Rhode Island Change Assessment (URICA), and at exploring differences in the stages of change between patients with depression, somatoform disorders, and eating disorders across the course of therapy. The URICA and diverse outcome measures were administered to 253 patients in early-, middle-, and late stages of inpatient therapy. The factor structure of the short form of the URICA (URICA-S) was excellent as shown by (1) an exploratory factor analysis on a randomized one-half of the sample, (2) a confirmatory factor analysis on the other half of the sample, and (3) a stable factor structure over a 6-week interval. The resulting factors of the URICA-S were called precontemplation, contemplation, action, and maintenance. The internal consistencies of the URICA-S factors were sufficient to excellent. Supporting the criterion-related validity, the URICA-S predicted relevant outcome measures. Analyses of variance showed that the ratings on the action and the maintenance factors were differentially associated with outcome in patients with depression, somatoform disorders, and eating disorders. These findings implicate that a disorder-specific combination of action and relapse-prevention-oriented interventions might optimize outcome in inpatients with different psychiatric disorders. (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.
Brown, Jacqueline A.; Russell, Samantha; Rasor, Kaitlin
Depression is among the most common mental disorders in the United States. Its diagnosis is often related to impairment of functioning across several domains, including how an individual thinks, feels, and participates in daily activities. Although depression has a relatively high prevalence among adults, the rate is alarmingly higher among…
Peterhänsel, Carolin; Linde, Katja; Wagner, Birgit; Dietrich, Arne; Kersting, Anette
The present study subdivided personality types in a bariatric sample and investigated their impact on weight loss and psychopathology 6 and 12 months after surgery. One hundred thirty participants answered questionnaires on personality (NEO-FFI), 'locus of control' (IPC), depression severity (BDI-II), eating disorder psychopathology (EDE-Q), and health-related quality of life (HRQoL; SF-12). K-means cluster analyses were used to identify subtypes. Two subtypes emerged: an 'emotionally dysregulated/undercontrolled' cluster defined by high neuroticism and external orientation and a 'resilient/high functioning' cluster with the reverse pattern. Prior to surgery, the first subtype reported more eating disorder and depressive symptoms and less HRQoL. Differences persisted regarding depression and mental HRQoL until 12 months after surgery, except in the areas weight loss and eating disorders. Personality seems to influence the improvement or maintenance of psychiatric symptoms after bariatric surgery. Future research could elucidate whether adapted treatment programmes could have an influence on the improvement of procedure outcomes. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.
Wilksch, Simon M; Wade, Tracey D
To investigate if baseline depression moderated response to Media Smart, an 8-lesson school-based program previously found to achieve a long-term risk reduction effect in young adolescents. 540 Grade 8 students (M age = 13.62 years, SD = .37) from 4 schools participated with 11 classes receiving the Media Smart program (126 girls; 107 boys) and 13 comparison classes receiving their normal lessons (147 girls; 160 boys). Shape and weight concern, media internalization, body dissatisfaction, dieting, ineffectiveness, and perceived pressure were the outcome variables. Moderation was indicated by significant interaction effects for group (Media Smart; Control) × moderator (high depression; low depression) × time (post-program; 6-month follow-up; 2.5-year follow-up), with baseline entered as a covariate. Such effects were found for shape and weight concern, media internalization, body dissatisfaction, ineffectiveness and perceived pressure. Post-hoc testing found high depression Media Smart participants scored significantly lower than their control counterparts at post-program on shape and weight concern, media internalization and dieting, whereas low depression Media Smart participants scored significantly lower on shape and weight concern at 2.5-year follow-up. Media Smart achieved a reduction in eating disorder risk factors for high-depression participants and a reduced rate of growth in risk factor scores for low-depression participants. Trial registry name: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry. URL: http://www.anzctr.org.au. Registration identification number: ACTRN12608000545369. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Romero-Martínez, Ángel; Ruiz-Robledillo, Nicolás; Moya-Albiol, Luis
Caring for children diagnosed with a chronic psychological disorder such as an eating disorder (ED) can be used as a model of chronic stress. This kind of stress has been reported to have deleterious effects on caregivers' cognition, particularly in verbal declarative memory of women caregivers. Moreover, high depressive mood and variations in testosterone (T) levels moderate this cognitive decline. The purpose of this study was to characterize whether caregivers of individuals with EDs (n = 27) show declarative memory impairments compared to non-caregivers caregivers (n = 27), using for this purpose a standardized memory test (Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test). Its purpose was also to examine the role of depressive mood and T in memory decline. Results showed that ED caregivers presented high depressive mood, which was associated to worse verbal memory performance, especially in the case of women. In addition, all caregivers showed high T levels. Nonetheless, only in the case of women caregivers did T show a curvilinear relationship with verbal memory performance, meaning that the increases of T were associated to the improvement in verbal memory performance, but only up to a certain point, as after such point T continued to increase and memory performance decreased. Thus, chronic stress due to caregiving was associated to disturbances in mood and T levels, which in turn was associated to verbal memory decline. These findings should be taken into account in the implementation of intervention programs for helping ED caregivers cope with caregiving situations and to prevent the risk of a pronounced verbal memory decline.
Mitchell, James E; King, Wendy C; Courcoulas, Anita; Dakin, George; Elder, Katherine; Engel, Scott; Flum, David; Kalarchian, Melissa; Khandelwal, Saurabh; Pender, John; Pories, Walter; Wolfe, Bruce
To describe eating patterns, prevalence of problematic eating behaviors, and determine factors associated with binge eating disorder (BED), before bariatric surgery. Before surgery, 2,266 participants (median age 46 years; 78.6% female; 86.9% white; median body mass index 45.9 kg/m(2) ) of the Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery-2 (LABS-2) study completed eating behavior survey items in the self-administered LABS-2 Behavior form. Other measures included the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test, the LABS-2 Psychiatric and Emotional Test Survey, the Beck Depression Inventory, the Interpersonal Support Evaluation List-12, the Short Form-36 Health Survey, and Impact of Weight Quality of Life-Lite Survey. The majority (92.1%) of participants reported eating dinner regularly, whereas just over half (54.0%) reported eating breakfast regularly. Half of the participants reported eating at least four meals/week at restaurants; two meals/week were fast food. Loss of control eating was reported by 43.4%, night eating syndrome by 17.7%; 15.7% satisfied criteria for binge eating disorder (BED), 2% for bulimia nervosa. Factors that independently increased the odds of BED were being a college graduate, eating more times per day, taking medication for psychiatric or emotional problems, and having symptoms of alcohol use disorder, lower self-esteem and greater depressive symptoms. Before undergoing bariatric surgery a substantial proportion of patients report problematic eating behaviors. Several factors associated with BED were identified, most suggesting other mental health problems, including higher levels of depressive symptomotology. The strengths of this study include the large sample size, the multi-center design and use of standardized assessment practices. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Eating disorders are serious psychiatric conditions often demanding specialized psychiatric care. Several effective treatments have been developed and disseminated, but more needs to be done, as not all patients respond well to intervention, let alone achieve recovery. Obvious candidates such as eating disorder diagnosis, symptoms and psychiatric comorbidity have generally failed to explain variability in prognosis and outcome, warranting investigation of a wider range of relevant factors. Ac...
Stefańska, Ewa; Wendołowicz, Agnieszka; Cwalina, Urszula; Konarzewska, Beata; Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Ostrowska, Lucyna
The aim of the research was to assess the fatty acid content and atherogenicity of daily food rations in patients with recurrent depressive disorders in the aspect of risk of developing cardiovascular disease. The study included 126 persons (62 persons with diagnosed recurrent depressive disorders and 64 healthy volunteers). A 24-hour recall was used in the quantitative assessment of the diet. Anthropometric and chemical measurements as well as body composition analysis were used to assess the nutritional status. The diets of 40% of tested women and 55% of men were atherogenic, according to an assessment using Keys'index. The proportion between the PUFA and SFA content was 0.3 (women) and 0.2 (men) with recommended values of . 1. In the group of women there were no significant correlations between the selected clinical features of the illness and components of diet and biochemical data of nutritional status. It was only observed that a higher intensity of depressive symptoms had a significantly negative effect on the glucose concentration in the women's blood. It was also observed that in the group of women suffering from depression, the total consumption of fats and cholesterol content in the food decreased with age. No statistically significant correlations between the assessed variables were observed in the group of men taking part in the study. The improper energy structure and the composition of the subjects' food rations may contribute to the development of the cardiovascular system diseases in the future and make it difficult to maintain mental health at the same time.
Kamińska, Katarzyna; Rybakowski, Filip
Eating disorders--anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS) occur usually in young females. The significant pathogenic differences between patients who only restrict food, and patients with binge eating and compensatory behaviours, such as vomiting and purging were described. The prevalence of bipolar affective disorders--especially bipolar II and bipolar spectrum disorders (BS) may reach 5% in the general population. About half of the depressive episodes are associated with a "mild" bipolar disorder, and such a diagnosis is suggested by impulsivity and mood-instability. Previously, majority of research on the comorbidity between eating and affective disorders focused on depressive symptomatology, however difficulties in the reliable assessment of hypomania may obfuscate the estimation of the co-occurrence of eating disorders with BS. Epidemiological studies suggest the association between BS and eating disorders with binge episodes (bulimia nervosa, anorexia- bulimic type and EDNOS with binge episodes). Co-occurrence of such disorders with depressive symptoms probably suggests the diagnosis of BS, not recurrent depression. Bulimic behaviours, impulsivity and affective disorders might be related to the impairment of the serotonergic neurotransmission, which may result from the genetic vulnerability and early life trauma. Currently, the first-line pharmacological treatment of co-occurring eating disorders with binge episodes and BS are selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. However in some cases, the use of mood-stabilising agents as monotherapy or in combination with serotonergic drugs may be helpful.
Brausch, Amy M.; Gutierrez, Peter M.
There is much empirical literature on factors for adolescent suicide risk, but body image and disordered eating are rarely included in these models. In the current study, disordered eating and body image were examined as risk factors for suicide ideation since these factors are prevalent in adolescence, particularly for females. It was…
Schreiber-Gregory, Deanna N.; Lavender, Jason M.; Engel, Scott G.; Wonderlich, Steve A.; Crosby, Ross D.; Peterson, Carol B.; Simonich, Heather; Crow, Scott; Durkin, Nora; Mitchell, James E.
Objective The primary goal of this paper is to examine and clarify characteristics of binge eating in individuals with binge eating disorder (BED), particularly the duration of binge eating episodes, as well as potential differences between individuals with shorter compared to longer binge eating episodes. Method Two studies exploring binge eating characteristics in BED were conducted. Study 1 examined differences in clinical variables among individuals (N = 139) with BED who reported a short (binge duration. Study 2 utilized an ecological momentary assessment (EMA) design to examine the duration and temporal pattern of binge eating episodes in the natural environment in a separate sample of nine women with BED. Results Participants in Study 1 who were classified as having long duration binge eating episodes displayed greater symptoms of depression and lower self-esteem, but did not differ on other measures of eating disorder symptoms, compared to those with short duration binge eating episodes. In Study 2, the average binge episode duration was approximately 42 minutes, and binge eating episodes were most common during the early afternoon and evening hours, as well as more common on weekdays versus weekends. Discussion Past research on binge episode characteristics, particularly duration, has been limited to studies of binge eating episodes in BN. This study contributes to the existing literature on characteristics of binge eating in BED. PMID:23881639
Ramirez, Maria E.; McIntosh, David E.; Kruczek, Theresa
Eating disorders, once thought to be exclusively a disorder of the more affluent Western countries, are now spreading around the world. Despite the wealth of information on the prevalence of eating disorders in developed countries, epidemiological data for South America is scarce. The 26-item Eating Attitude Test (EAT-26) was used to explore the…
Sharan, Pratap; Sundar, A. Shyam
Eating disorders, especially anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa have been classically described in young females in Western population. Recent research shows that they are also seen in developing countries including India. The classification of eating disorders has been expanded to include recently described conditions like binge eating disorder. Eating disorders have a multifactorial etiology. Genetic factor appear to play a major role. Recent advances in neurobiology have improved our understanding of these conditions and may possibly help us develop more effective treatments in future. Premorbid personality appears to play an important role, with differential predisposition for individual disorders. The role of cultural factors in the etiology of these conditions is debated. Culture may have a pathoplastic effect leading to non-conforming presentations like the non fat-phobic form of anorexia nervosa, which are commonly reported in developing countries. With rapid cultural transformation, the classical forms of these conditions are being described throughout the world. Diagnostic criteria have been modified to accommodate for these myriad presentations. Treatment of eating disorders can be quite challenging, given the dearth of established treatments and poor motivation/insight in these conditions. Nutritional rehabilitation and psychotherapy remains the mainstay of treatment, while pharmacotherapy may be helpful in specific situations. PMID:26330646
Kravvariti, V; Gonidakis, Fr
groups of patients report more often than general population a lack of satisfaction from their sexual experiences. Other factors that are common to eating disorders and sexual dysfunction are personality traits, negative body-image, adverse childhood experiences, negative family climate and especially early traumatic experiences such as sexual abuse. Furthermore, comorbidity of eating disorders with depression may have a negative impact on the patient's sexual function. The treatment and improvement of sexual behavior is quite problematic when the patient is also suffering from an eating disorder. Eating Disorder patients are often very reluctant to discuss their sexual life with the therapist and to engage in any kind of therapeutic intervention. Comorbidity with a number of other disorders makes psychotherapy even more difficult for those patients. Furthermore, a considerable percentage of Anorexia Nervosa patients do not have any kind of sexual activity, at least until nutrition and weight are restored.
Atalayer, Deniz; Gibson, Charlisa; Konopacka, Alexandra; Geliebter, Allan
There is growing evidence supporting a multifactorial etiology that includes genetic, neurochemical, and physiological components for eating disorders above and beyond the more conventional theories based on psychological and sociocultural factors. Ghrelin is one of the key gut signals associated with appetite, and the only known circulating hormone that triggers a positive energy balance by stimulating food intake. This review summarizes recent findings and several conflicting reports on ghrelin in eating disorders. Understanding these findings and inconsistencies may help in developing new methods to prevent and treat patients with these disorders. PMID:22960103
Moriarty, Dick; Moriarty, Mary
Since sports can sometimes lend themselves to eating disorders, coaches and sports administrators must get involved in the detection and treatment of this problem. While no reliable studies or statistics exist on the incidence of anorexia nervosa and/or bulimia among athletes, some research suggests that such disorders occur frequently among…
Full Text Available James M Greenblatt1, Craig Sussman1, Mariko Jameson1, Lee Yuan1, Daniel A Hoffman2, Dan V Iosifescu31Comprehensive Psychiatric Resources, Waltham, MA, USA; 2Neuro-Therapy Clinic Inc, Denver, CO, USA; 3Mood and Anxiety Disorders Program, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY, USABackground: A retrospective chart review was undertaken in a private clinic to examine the clinical outcomes for patients with an eating disorder comorbid with depression or bipolar illness who underwent a referenced electroencephalographic (EEG database analysis to help guide medication selection.Method: We examined 33 charts for patients with the primary psychiatric diagnosis of an eating disorder and comorbid major depressive disorder or bipolar disorder who underwent a quantitative EEG database assessment to provide additional information for choices of medication. The current analysis includes data from 22 subjects who accepted treatments based on information from the referenced-EEG medication database. Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Clinical Global Impression-Severity, Clinical Global Impression-Improvement, and hospitalization data were examined for these patients.Results: Patients whose EEG data was used for clinical treatment reported significant decreases in associated depressive symptoms (HDRS scores, overall severity of illness (Clinical Global Impression-Severity, and overall clinical global improvement (Clinical Global Impression-Improvement. This cohort also reported fewer inpatient, residential, and partial hospitalization program days following referenced-EEG compared with the two-year period prior to treatment.Conclusion: These findings are consistent with previously reported data for patients with eating disorders and suggest the need for future studies using EEG data correlated with those from other patients with similar quantitative EEG features.Keywords: eating disorders, anorexia, bulimia, depression, referenced-EEG, chart review
Full Text Available Ignacio Jáuregui-LoberaBehavioral Sciences Institute and Pablo de Olavide University, Seville, SpainAbstract: Neuroimaging techniques have been useful tools for accurate investigation of brain structure and function in eating disorders. Computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography, single photon emission computed tomography, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and voxel-based morphometry have been the most relevant technologies in this regard. The purpose of this review is to update the existing data on neuroimaging in eating disorders. The main brain changes seem to be reversible to some extent after adequate weight restoration. Brain changes in bulimia nervosa seem to be less pronounced than in anorexia nervosa and are mainly due to chronic dietary restrictions. Different subtypes of eating disorders might be correlated with specific brain functional changes. Moreover, anorectic patients who binge/purge may have different functional brain changes compared with those who do not binge/purge. Functional changes in the brain might have prognostic value, and different changes with respect to the binding potential of 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A, and D2/D3 receptors may be persistent after recovering from an eating disorder.Keywords: neuroimaging, brain changes, brain receptors, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, eating disorders
Fabbri,Alessandra Donzelli; Deram,Sophie; Kerr,Daniel Shikanai; Cordás,Táki Athanássios
Background Ghrelin is a potent hormone with central and peripheral action. This hormone plays an important role in the regulation of appetite, food intake, and energy balance. Studies have suggested that ghrelin is involved with eating disorders (ED), particularly bingeing and purging. Genetic variants have also been studied to explain changes in eating behavior. Methods We conducted a literature review; we searched PubMed, Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO), and LILACS databases u...
Binge eating disorder is a common eating disorder that recently has received increasing attention. Goals in treating binge eating disorder typically include controlling binge eating and diminishing excess body weight. A variety of treatment approaches have been used, including diet/lifestyle modification, psychotherapy, and pharmacologic treatment. Diet and lifestyle interventions are somewhat effective in diminishing the binge eating behavior and lead to modest weight loss, but the weight ef...
Full Text Available Caring for children diagnosed with a chronic psychological disorder such as an eating disorder (ED can be used as a model of chronic stress. This kind of stress has been reported to have deleterious effects on caregivers’ cognition, particularly in verbal declarative memory of women caregivers. Moreover, high depressive mood and variations in testosterone (T levels moderate this cognitive decline. The purpose of this study was to characterize whether caregivers of individuals with EDs (n = 27 show declarative memory impairments compared to non-caregivers caregivers (n = 27, using for this purpose a standardized memory test (Rey’s Auditory Verbal Learning Test. Its purpose was also to examine the role of depressive mood and T in memory decline. Results showed that ED caregivers presented high depressive mood, which was associated to worse verbal memory performance, especially in the case of women. In addition, all caregivers showed high T levels. Nonetheless, only in the case of women caregivers did T show a curvilinear relationship with verbal memory performance, meaning that the increases of T were associated to the improvement in verbal memory performance, but only up to a certain point, as after such point T continued to increase and memory performance decreased. Thus, chronic stress due to caregiving was associated to disturbances in mood and T levels, which in turn was associated to verbal memory decline. These findings should be taken into account in the implementation of intervention programs for helping ED caregivers cope with caregiving situations and to prevent the risk of a pronounced verbal memory decline.
Giel, Katrin Elisabeth; Hermann-Werner, Anne; Mayer, Jochen; Diehl, Katharina; Schneider, Sven; Thiel, Ansgar; Zipfel, Stephan
We aimed to investigate eating disorder pathology in German elite adolescent athletes. Evidence suggests that eating disorder pathology is more common in adult elite sports, especially in female athletes and in sports emphasizing leanness. There is a scarcity of studies in elite adolescent athletes who are in a vulnerable developmental stage and are affected by general as well as sport-specific risk factors. Our data was derived from the German Young Olympic Athletes' Lifestyle and Health Management Study (GOAL) which conducted a survey in 1138 elite adolescent athletes. In this sample, we assessed body weight, weight control behavior, body acceptance and screened overall for core symptoms of eating disorders, depression and anxiety. We performed a tree analysis to identify high risk groups for eating disorder pathology. High risk groups comprised (a) athletes competing in weight dependent sports, and among athletes competing in disciplines other than weight dependent sports (b) athletes who are high on negative affectivity, (c) female athletes and (d) male athletes competing in endurance, technical or power sports. Athletes competing in weight dependent disciplines reported wide spread use of compensatory behaviors to influence body weight. Athletes reporting eating disorder pathology showed higher levels of depression and anxiety than athletes without eating disorder pathology. Increased psychosocial burden in athletes with eating disorder pathology suggests that eating disorder symptoms should not be accepted as an unproblematic and functional part of elite sports. The prevention and management of eating disorder pathology is especially important in weight dependent sports. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2016; 49:553-562). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Harvey, Kate; Rosselli, Francine; Wilson, G. Terence; DeBar, Lynn L.; Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.
Objective We sought to describe meal and snack frequencies of individuals with recurrent binge eating and examine the association between these eating patterns and clinical correlates. Method Data from 106 women with a minimum diagnosis of recurrent binge eating were utilized. Meal and snack frequencies were correlated with measures of weight, eating disorder features, and depression. Participants who ate breakfast every day (n=25) were compared with those who did not (n=81) on the same measures. Results Breakfast was the least, and dinner the most, commonly consumed meal. Evening snacking was the most common snacking occasion. Meal patterns were not significantly associated with clinical correlates; however, evening snacking was associated with binge eating. Discussion Our findings largely replicated those reported in earlier research. More research is needed to determine the role of breakfast consumption in binge eating. PMID:21661003
Roseann E. Peterson
. The associations between internalizing symptoms and food intake are best described as operating indirectly through a BED diagnosis. This suggests that symptoms of depression and anxiety influence whether one engages in binge eating, which influences kcal intake. Greater understanding of the mechanisms underlying the associations between mood, binge eating, and food intake will facilitate the development of more effective prevention and treatment strategies for both BED and obesity.
Thaler, Lea; Steiger, Howard
Eating disorders (EDs) are characterized by intense preoccupation with shape and weight and maladaptive eating practices. The complex of symptoms that characterize EDs often arise through the activation of latent genetic potentials by environmental exposures, and epigenetic mechanisms are believed to link environmental exposures to gene expression. This chapter provides an overview of genetic factors acting in the etiology of EDs. It then provides a background to the hypothesis that epigenetic mechanisms link stresses such as obstetric complications and childhood abuse as well as effects of malnutrition to eating disorders (EDs). The chapter then summarizes the emerging body of literature on epigenetics and EDs-mainly studies on DNA methylation in samples of anorexia and bulimia. The available evidence base suggests that an epigenetically informed perspective contributes in valuable ways to the understanding of why people develop EDs.
Schousboe, Birgitte Hartvig; Waaddegaard, Mette
Binge eating disorder kaldes også bulimi uden opkastning eller den tredje spiseforstyrrelse. Det er en udbredt, men mindre kendt spiseforstyrrelse end anoreksi og bulimi. Patienterne er ofte overvægtige og har ikke kompenserende adfærd over for overspisningen i form af opkastning eller brug af...
Davis, Haley; Attia, Evelyn
Medications are commonly prescribed in the treatment of eating disorders. In this review, we discuss relevant medications used for the treatment of bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder (BED), and anorexia nervosa. We focus on recent research developments, where applicable, in addition to discussing important findings from older studies to provide a complete synopsis of the current evidence base for eating disorder treatment using pharmacologic agents. Medications are generally useful for patients with bulimia nervosa and BED. For bulimia nervosa, antidepressant medications are the primary pharmacologic treatment and limited new research has been completed. For BED, lisdexamfetamine is reported to be generally well tolerated and effective, and is the first medication to be indicated by the US Food and Drug Administration for treatment of BED. For anorexia nervosa, there is limited evidence supporting benefits of medications. Second-generation antipsychotics, particularly olanzapine, appear to demonstrate some benefit for weight gain in anorexia nervosa, although are not advised as a stand-alone treatment. Transdermal administration of hormonal agents is also being explored for improving bone health in anorexia nervosa. Although pharmacotherapy has established utility in bulimia nervosa and BED, further research on medications for the treatment of eating disorders, particularly anorexia nervosa, is necessary.
Pike, Kathleen M.; Hoek, Hans W.; Dunne, Patricia E.
Purpose of review Culture has long been recognized as significant to the cause and expression of eating disorders. We reviewed the recent literature about recent trends in the occurrence of eating disorders in different cultures. Recent findings While historically, eating disorders were
Pike, Kathleen M.; Hoek, Hans W.; Dunne, Patricia E.
Purpose of review Culture has long been recognized as significant to the cause and expression of eating disorders. We reviewed the recent literature about recent trends in the occurrence of eating disorders in different cultures. Recent findings While historically, eating disorders were
Concurrent Improvement in Both Binge Eating and Depressive Symptoms with Naltrexone/Bupropion Therapy in Overweight or Obese Subjects with Major Depressive Disorder in an Open-Label, Uncontrolled Study.
Guerdjikova, Anna I; Walsh, Brandon; Shan, Kevin; Halseth, Amy E; Dunayevich, Eduardo; McElroy, Susan L
Binge eating disorder (BED) is associated with obesity and major depressive disorder (MDD). Naltrexone extended-release (ER)/bupropion ER (NB) is approved as an adjunct to diet and physical activity for chronic weight management. In a prospectively designed 24-week open-label, single-arm, single-site trial of 25 women with MDD and overweight/obesity, NB reduced weight and depressive symptoms. This post hoc analysis investigated the relationship between change in self-reported binge eating behavior (evaluated with the Binge Eating Scale [BES]) and changes in weight, control of eating, and depressive symptoms. At baseline, 91% of subjects had moderate or severe BES scores, suggesting BED. BES scores were significantly improved from week 4, and by week 24, 83% reported "little or no problem." Improvement in BES scores correlated with improvement in depressive symptoms and control of eating. NB may be effective in reducing binge eating symptoms associated with MDD and overweight/obesity. Evaluation of NB in BED appears warranted. Orexigen Therapeutics, Inc.
Alessandra Donzelli Fabbri
Full Text Available Background Ghrelin is a potent hormone with central and peripheral action. This hormone plays an important role in the regulation of appetite, food intake, and energy balance. Studies have suggested that ghrelin is involved with eating disorders (ED, particularly bingeing and purging. Genetic variants have also been studied to explain changes in eating behavior. Methods We conducted a literature review; we searched PubMed, Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO, and LILACS databases using the keywords “eating disorder”, “ghrelin”, “polymorphism”, “anorexia nervosa”, “bulimia nervosa”, “binge eating disorder”, and their combinations. We found 319 articles. Thirty-nine articles met the inclusion criteria. Results High levels of ghrelin were found in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN, especially in the purging subtype (AN-P. There was also a positive correlation between fasting ghrelin level and frequency of episodes of bingeing/purging in bulimia nervosa (BN and the frequency of bingeing in periodic binge eating disorder (BED. Some polymorphisms were associated with AN and BN. Conclusion Changes in ghrelin levels and its polymorphism may be involved in the pathogenesis of EDs; however, further studies should be conducted to clarify the associations.
Olivardia, R; Pope, H G; Mangweth, B; Hudson, J I
This study was designed to assess the characteristics of men with eating disorders in the community. The authors recruited 25 men meeting DSM-IV criteria for eating disorders and 25 comparison men through advertisements in college newspapers. A second comparison group comprised 33 women with bulimia nervosa who were recruited and interviewed with virtually identical methods. The men with eating disorders closely resembled the women with eating disorders but differed sharply from the comparison men in phenomenology of illness, rates of comorbid psychiatric disorders, and dissatisfaction with body image. Homosexuality did not appear to be a common feature of men with eating disorders in the community. Childhood physical and sexual abuse appeared slightly more common among the eating-disordered men than among the comparison men. Eating disorders, although less common in men than in women, appear to display strikingly similar features in affected individuals of the two genders.
Van Son, Gabrielle E.; Van Hoeken, Daphne; Bartelds, Aad I. M.; Van Furth, Eric F.; Hoek, Hans W.
The link between degree of urbanisation and a number of mental disorders is well established. Schizophrenia, psychosis and depression are known to occur more frequently in urban areas. In our primary care-based study of eating disorders, the incidence of bulimia nervosa showed a dose-response
Son, G.E. van; Hoeken, D. van; Bartelds, A.I.M.; Furth, E.F. van; Hoek, H.W.
The link between degree of urbanisation and a number of mental disorders is well established. Schizophrenia, psychosis and depression are known to occur more frequently in urban areas. In our primary care-based study of eating disorders, the incidence of bulimia nervosa showed a dose response
Ferreiro, Fatima; Seoane, Gloria; Senra, Carmen
The interplay between intrapersonal risk (low self-esteem, perfectionism and body dissatisfaction) and interpersonal protection (social support) appears relevant for delineating gender-specific pathways that lead to both depressive and eating psychopathology. The aims of this longitudinal study were to examine gender differences in the levels of…
Satherley, R; Howard, R; Higgs, S
To systematically review evidence concerning disordered eating practices in dietary-controlled gastrointestinal conditions. Three key questions were examined: a) are disordered eating practices a feature of GI disorders?; b) what abnormal eating practices are present in those with GI disorders?; and c) what factors are associated with the presence of disordered eating in those with GI disorders? By exploring these questions, we aim to develop a conceptual model of disordered eating development in GI disease. Five key databases, Web of Science with Conference Proceedings (1900-2014) and MEDLINE (1950-2014), PubMed, PsycINFO (1967-2014) and Google Scholar, were searched for papers relating to disordered eating practices in those with GI disorders. All papers were quality assessed before being included in the review. Nine papers were included in the review. The majority of papers reported that the prevalence of disordered eating behaviours is greater in populations with GI disorders than in populations of healthy controls. Disordered eating patterns in dietary-controlled GI disorders may be associated with both anxiety and GI symptoms. Evidence concerning the correlates of disordered eating was limited. The presence of disordered eating behaviours is greater in populations with GI disorders than in populations of healthy controls, but the direction of the relationship is not clear. Implications for further research are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Goebel-Fabbri, Ann E.
The problem of insulin restriction is an important women's health issue in type 1 diabetes. This behavior is associated with increased rates of diabetes complications and decreased quality of life. Clinical and technological research is greatly needed to improve treatment tools and strategies for this problem. In this commentary, the author describes the scope of the problem of eating disorders and diabetes, as well as offers ideas about ways technology may be applied to help solve this compl...
Castellini, Giovanni; Lo Sauro, Carolina; Rotella, Carlo M.; Faravelli, Carlo
Objective. Binge eating disorder is a serious, prevalent eating disorder that is associated with overweight. Zonisamide is an antiepileptic drug that can promote weight loss. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of zonisamide as augmentation to individual cognitive behavioral therapy in the treatment of binge eating disorder patients. Design: controlled open study. Participants: Twenty four threshold and subthreshold binge eating disorder patients were enrolled in the cognitive behavioral therapy treatment group, and 28 patients in the cognitive behavioral therapy plus zonisamide group. Measurements: At the beginning (T0), at the end (T1) of treatment, and one year after the end of treatment (T2), body mass index was measured and Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire, Binge Eating Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory were administered. Results. At T1 the cognitive behavioral therapy plus zonisamide group showed a higher mean reduction of body mass index, Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory, and Binge Eating Scale scores. At T2, the cognitive behavior therapy group regained weight, while the cognitive behavioral therapy plus zonisamide group reduced their body mass and showed a higher reduction in binge eating frequency and Binge Eating Scale, Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire Restraint, and State and Trait Anxiety Inventory scores. Conclusion. The zonisamide augmentation to individual cognitive behavior therapy can improve the treatment of binge eating disorder patients, reducing body weight and the number of binge eating episodes. These results are maintained one year after the end of treatment. PMID:20049147
Eddy, Kamryn T; Celio Doyle, Angela; Hoste, Renee Rienecke; Herzog, David B; le Grange, Daniel
To examine the frequency, type, and clinical severity of eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) in adolescents seeking treatment through an outpatient eating disorders service. Two hundred eighty-one consecutive referrals to an eating disorders program were assessed using the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE) and self-report measures of depression and self-esteem. The majority of adolescents presented with EDNOS (59.1%; n = 166) relative to anorexia nervosa (AN; 20.3%; n = 57) and bulimia nervosa (BN; 20.6%; n = 58). Most EDNOS youths could be described as subthreshold AN (SAN; 27.7%; n = 46), subthreshold BN (SBN; 19.9%; n = 33), EDNOS purging (27.7%; n = 46), or EDNOS bingeing (6.0%; n = 10); yet 31 (18.7%) could not be categorized as such (EDNOS "other"). Overall differences in eating disorder pathology, depressive symptoms, and self-esteem emerged between the EDNOS types, wherein adolescents with EDNOS bulimic variants (SBN, EDNOS purging, and EDNOS bingeing) had more pathology than youths with SAN or EDNOS "other." There were no differences in these variables between AN and SAN; in contrast, compared with BN, youths with EDNOS bulimic variants reported lower EDE scores and higher self-esteem, although there were no between-group differences in depression. As in adults with eating disorders, EDNOS predominates and is heterogeneous with regard to eating disorder pathology and associated features in an adolescent clinical sample. Lack of differences between AN and SAN suggests that the strict criteria for AN could be relaxed; differences between BN and EDNOS bulimic variants do not support their combination.
MacGregor, Michael Wm; Lamborn, Paige
Eating disorders are complex disorders that involve medical and psychological symptoms. Understanding the psychological factors associated with different eating disorders is important for assessment, diagnosis, and treatment. This study sought to determine on which of the 22 Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) scales patients with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) differed, and whether the PAI can be used to classify eating disorder subtypes. Because we were interested in both whether the PAI could be used to differentiate eating disorder subtypes from each other, as well as from other disorders, we also included a group of patients with major depression. The three eating disorder groups did differ significantly from each other, and from the patients with depression, on a number of the PAI scales. Only two PAI scales (Anxiety and Depression), however, exceeded a T-score of 70 for the patients with anorexia nervosa, no scales exceeded a T-score of 70 for the patients with bulimia nervosa or EDNOS, and only two exceeded a T-score of 70 for the patients with depression (Depression and Suicide). A discriminant function analysis revealed an overall correct classification between the groups of 81.6%. The PAI helps to understand the psychological factors associated with eating disorders and can be used to assist with assessment. Continued investigation using the PAI in an eating disordered population is supported.
O'Dea, Jennifer A
The ability to quickly and reliably assess mental health status would assist health workers, educators and youth workers to provide appropriate early intervention for adolescents. To investigate the validity of a simple self perception score out of ten by correlating the self perception scores of adolescents from a normal, community sample of adolescents with their scores on standardized mental health measures. Study group was 470 early adolescent students aged 11.0-14.5 years from grades 7 and 8 in two secondary schools. Self perception was self reported using a score of zero to ten points, and the scores were then correlated with scores on the Harter Self Perception Profile, Beck Junior Depression, Speilberger State and Trait Anxiety and the Eating Disorders Inventory. A High Risk group (self perception adolescents also had poor self esteem and risk for depression, anxiety, and eating disorders. Self perception scores correlated positively with self esteem and self concept subscales and it was negatively associated with depression, state and trait anxiety, and EDI scores. Of the 15.1% high risk adolescents in the overall sample, 78% scored below the group average on the mean of all Harter Self Concept scores; 70% scored above average for Beck Depression; 64% and 74% scored above average on Speilberger State/Trait Anxiety respectively; 80% scored higher than the average on the group mean EDI. A self perception score from zero to ten can be a simple and accurate way of gaining an initial insight into the current mental health status of adolescents.
Walsh, Judith M E; Wheat, Mary E; Freund, Karen
OBJECTIVE To describe how primary care clinicians can detect an eating disorder and identify and manage the associated medical complications. DESIGN A review of literature from 1994 to 1999 identified by a medlinesearch on epidemiology, diagnosis, and therapy of eating disorders, including anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Detection requires awareness of risk factors for, and symptoms and signs of, anorexia nervosa (e.g., participation in activities valuing thinness, family history of an eating disorder, amenorrhea, lanugo hair) and bulimia nervosa (e.g., unsuccessful attempts at weight loss, history of childhood sexual abuse, family history of depression, erosion of tooth enamel from vomiting, partoid gland swelling, and gastroesophageal reflux). Providers must also remain alert for disordered eating in female athletes (the female athlete triad) and disordered eating in diabetics. Treatment requires a multidisciplinary team including a primary care practitioner, nutritionist, and mental health professional. The role of the primary care practitioner is to help determine the need for hospitalization and to manage medical complications (e.g., arrhythmias, refeeding syndrome, osteoporosis, and electrolyte abnormalities such as hypokalemia). CONCLUSION Primary care providers have an important role in detecting and managing eating disorders. PMID:10940151
Full Text Available This article reviews several most important evolutionary mechanisms that underlie eating disorders. The first part clarifies evolutionary foundations of mental disorders and various mechanisms leading to their development. In the second part selective pressures and evolved adaptations causing contemporary epidemic of obesity as well as differences in dietary regimes and life-style between modern humans and their ancestors are described. Concerning eating disorders, a number of current evolutionary explanations of anorexia nervosa are presented together with their main weaknesses. Evolutionary explanations of eating disorders based on the reproductive suppression hypothesis and its variants derived from kin selection theory and the model of parental manipulation were elaborated. The sexual competition hypothesis of eating disorder, adapted to flee famine hypothesis as well as explanation based on the concept of social attention holding power and the need to belonging were also explained. The importance of evolutionary theory in modern conceptualization and research of eating disorders is emphasized.
Wolf, L M; Houdent, C
In most cases, obesity does not stem from a specific psychologic disturbance. Some obese people overeat, as do their family or their socio-professional peers, and this cannot be considered a pathologic behaviour. Many obese patients increase their energy intake when frustrated, anxious, or tired, like many normal individuals who enjoy a better weight regulation. But when obesity increases suddenly and/or severely in these circumstances, and in gross obesity, abnormal feeding behaviour is usually responsible: prandial or, more often extraprandial overeating (nibbling, gorging, binge eating, night eating, excess alcohol, carbohydrate craving). Serotoninergic mechanisms of the latter have focused wide interest. Conflicting situations and/or anxiety are usually a factor in child obesity. Deppreciated self-image and feelings of culpability, partly secondary to obesity itself and dietary failures often contribute to feeding disturbances, sometimes surreptitious, carrying a risk of vicious circle. But weight reduction itself, while improving self image, carries a risk of unmasking depressive tendencies, especially when too quick. Hence the importance of careful and comprehensive management.
... generally miserable or unhappy without really knowing why. Depression symptoms in children and teens Common signs and ... in normal activities, and avoidance of social interaction. Depression symptoms in older adults Depression is not a ...
Davidsen, Annika Helgadóttir; Lau, Marianne Engelbrecht
Researchers at the Stolpegaard Psychotherapy Centre are seeking to improve outcomes for patients with eating disorders by gathering their feedback on group psychotherapy sessions with the aim of optimising treatment.......Researchers at the Stolpegaard Psychotherapy Centre are seeking to improve outcomes for patients with eating disorders by gathering their feedback on group psychotherapy sessions with the aim of optimising treatment....
Slof-Op 't Landt, Margarita Cornelia Theodora
In this thesis, a series of studies on different aspects of the genetics of eating disorders is presented. The heritability of disordered eating behavior and attitudes in relation with body mass index (BMI) was evaluated in a large adolescent twin-family sample ascertained through the Netherlands
Wagener, Amy M.; Much, Kari
This article focuses on the complex nature of eating disorders, specifically highlighting their use as coping mechanisms for underlying emotional and psychological concerns. Case examples of college counseling center clients are discussed in order to illustrate common ways in which eating disorders are utilized by clients with varying…
Wilson, G. Terence; Fairburn, Christopher G.
Sees cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) as applicable to all eating disorders but most intensively studied in treatment of bulimia nervosa. Briefly reviews most commonly used cognitive treatments for eating disorders, provides critical evaluation of their effectiveness, and speculates about their mechanisms of action. Notes that CBT has not been…
Jáuregui Lobera, I; Bolaños Ríos, P; Garrido Casals, O
The aim of the study was to analyse the parental bonding profiles in patients with eating disorders (ED), as well as the relationship among the different styles of parenting and some psychological and psychopathological variables. In addition, the association between the perceived parental bonding and different coping strategies was analysed. Perception of parenting styles was analysed in a sample of 70 ED patients. The Parental Bonding Instrument, Self-Esteem Scale of Rosenberg, Coping Strategies Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory and Eating Disorders Inventory-2 were used. Kruskal-Wallis test (comparisons), Spearman correlation coefficients (association among different variables) and χ(2)-test (parental bonding profiles differences) were applied. The stereotyped style among ED patients is low care-high control during the first 16 years, and the same can be said about current styles of the mothers. Between 8.6% and 12.9% of the patients perceive their parents' styles as neglectful. The neglectful parenting is the style mainly involved in the specific ED symptoms as drive for thinness, body dissatisfaction and bulimia. In order to achieve a better balanced parents' role during the treatment, it would be necessary to improve the role of the mothers as caregivers, decreasing their role mainly based on the overprotection. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing.
Aloi, Matteo; Segura-García, Cristina
Low self-esteem and low self-directedness (SD) are considered a risk factor for the development of eating disorders (EDs). The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that low self-esteem and low SD lead to a higher risk for EDs through the mediation of anxiety and depression. Seventy-seven female teenagers answered the Eating Disorder Inventory 3 (EDI-3), the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale (IUS), the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised (TCI-R), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), and the State and Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R). To test the hypothesis, a structural equation model (SEM) was used. According to the EDI3-EDRC scores, 23/77 (29.9%) participants demonstrated positive results in the screening. Participants who had positive results in the screening had significantly higher scores on trait and state anxiety, depression, and IU, and lower means of self-esteem and SD. The SEM demonstrated good fit indices and all paths were significant in the predicted directions, confirming the hypothesized model. The current results confirm the role of self-esteem and SD in the development of an ED among adolescent females through the mediating action of IU, anxiety, and depression.
Claes, Laurence; Luyckx, Koen; Bijttebier, Patricia; Turner, Brianna; Ghandi, Amarendra; Smets, Jos; Norre, Jan; Van Assche, Leen; Verheyen, Els; Goris, Yvienne; Hoksbergen, Ingrid; Schoevaerts, Katrien
In the present study, we investigated the association between non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and problems in identity formation among patients with eating disorder (ED). NSSI is highly prevalent in ED, and problems with identity formation are characteristic of both NSSI and ED. Few studies, however, have investigated identity formation in patients with ED with and without NSSI while taking into account comorbid psychopathology (e.g. anxiety and depression). Therefore, we investigated the relationships between NSSI characteristics, identity confusion/synthesis, and anxiety/depression in 99 female patients with ED by means of self-report questionnaires. The results showed that 58.6% of the patients with ED engaged in at least one type of NSSI (most frequently cutting), with no significant differences in rates of NSSI or identity problems among ED subtypes. Presence, versatility and automatic negative reinforcement functions of NSSI were each significantly and positively related to identity confusion and negatively related to identity synthesis. Even after controlling for age, anxiety, and depression, lack of identity synthesis remained a significant predictor of NSSI in patients with ED. Given that NSSI may constitute an effort to deal with identity confusion/synthesis in patients with ED, therapists should take this developmental task into account while treating patients with ED with NSSI. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.
Koefoed, Maja Schølarth; Clausen, Loa; Rokkedal, Kristian
Objective In general eating disorder pathology in men shows more similarities than differences compared to women though with an overall lower level of pathology. In community studies men have been found to have more excessive exercise and more binge eating and in clinical populations men have been...... found to have more vomiting. Eating Disorder Examination (EDE) is “the golden standard” of diagnostic interviewing in eating disorder but analysis of gender differences in scores on the EDE have never been reported. The present study aim to explore gender differences on the EDE among adolescents...
Goodale, Kimberly R.; Watkins, Patti Lou; Cardinal, Bradley J.
Examined symptoms of muscle dysmorphia (MD), a variation of the eating disorders anorexia nervosa and bulimia, among college students. Surveys indicated that MD symptomatology appears in the general population and among both sexes. MD significantly related to eating disorder pathology and depression, and to some degree to impaired social support.…
Lundholm, Jean K; And Others
Identified items from Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI) that differentiated eating-disordered women (n=173) currently receiving treatment for bulimia from non-eating-disordered university women (n=265). Results identified a list of statements related to social withdrawal and depression that may be appropriate for use in assessing a…
King, M B
A total of 748 patients who attended four south London group practices were screened using the eating attitudes test; 1% of women had bulimia nervosa and a further 3% a partial syndrome eating disorder. Eating and weight control behaviour and psychiatric indicators for an eating disorder were analysed. Patients with bulimia nervosa and partial syndromes were remarkably similar. They were mainly women, from the middle to upper classes, in the normal weight range but having had considerable weight fluctuation in the past, more likely to have had a history of menstrual irregularity, often psychologically troubled, and tended to have more family psychopathology. PMID:3099893
... your mood. Chronic pain causes a number of problems that can lead to depression, such as trouble sleeping and stress. Disabling pain can cause low self-esteem due to work, legal or financial issues. Depression ...
Full Text Available Background: Eating Disorders (EDs are characterized by a persistent disturbance of eating or eating-related behavior that significantly impairs physical health or psychosocial functioning. EDs are caused by a complex interaction of genetic, biological, behavioral, psychological, and social factors. Their epidemiology is rising for the past decades, and EDs affect all races, social levels and both genders. Due to the long and expensive treatment, chronic course, and the fact that most of the sufferers do not realize the need for therapy or do not seek treatment, the demand on developing prevention programs, early detection and assessment is essential. Despite the fact, that many new EDs screening tools were developed already, there is a great lack of validated screening instruments, adapted to the Bulgarian conditions. Objects and methods: Our study aimed at eliciting a comprehensive battery for screening of not only specific ED pathology, but also some risk factors, such as negative body image, weight and depressive symptoms. The object of our study consisted of 201 females, aged 18 to 45 (mean 24.65. SCOOF- questionnaire, Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale (EDDS-5, Body Image Questionnaire-34 and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI were applied. Results: Our preliminary results show that approximately 45% of the tested subjects show some of the: negative body image, eating disorders’ clinical pathology, distorted eating patterns, subclinical eating disorders pathology, overweight/obesity, or depressive symptoms. Conclusion: Our ongoing efforts in area of research also are aimed at developing and refining strategies for preventing and treating ED among adolescents and adults.
Ximenes, Rosana; Couto, Geraldo; Sougey, Everton
To examine the prevalence of oral alterations related to eating disorders and associated factors. A cross-sectional study including 650 adolescents aged from 12 to 16 was carried out through self-report questionnaires (EAT-26; BITE and self-rating hamilton depression questionnaire, SRHDQ) and dental examination. Significant associations were observed in mucositis, cheilitis, hypertrophy of salivary glands, and dental erosions. The prevalence of adolescents at risk for eating disorders was of 33.1%, according to EAT-26 and 1.7% (high scores) and 36.5% (medium scores), in BITE, higher among 13-year-old females, with brothers, parents or responsible person who are illiterate, being the youngest child, living in a residence of at most two rooms and who showed depressive symptoms. All these factors showed significant relation to eating disorders. Presence of oral alterations is associated to symptoms of eating disorders, helping precocious detection of sub clinical cases.
Utzinger, Linsey M; Gowey, Marissa A; Zeller, Meg; Jenkins, Todd M; Engel, Scott G; Rofey, Dana L; Inge, Thomas H; Mitchell, James E
This study assessed loss of control (LOC) eating and eating disorders (EDs) in adolescents undergoing bariatric surgery for severe obesity. Preoperative baseline data from the Teen Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery (Teen-LABS) multisite observational study (n = 242; median BMI = 51 kg/m 2 ; mean age= 17; 76% female adolescents; 72% Caucasian) included anthropometric and self-report questionnaires, including the Questionnaire of Eating and Weight Patterns-Revised (QEWP-R), the Night Eating Questionnaire (NEQ), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II), and the Impact of Weight on Quality of Life-Kids (IWQOL-Kids) RESULTS: LOC eating (27%) was common and ED diagnoses included binge-eating disorder (7%), night eating syndrome (5%), and bulimia nervosa (1%). Compared to those without LOC eating, those with LOC eating reported greater depressive symptomatology and greater impairment in weight-related quality of life. Before undergoing bariatric surgery, adolescents with severe obesity present with problematic disordered eating behaviors and meet diagnostic criteria for EDs. LOC eating, in particular, was associated with several negative psychosocial factors. Findings highlight targets for assessment and intervention in adolescents before bariatric surgery. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.(Int J Eat Disord 2016; 49:947-952). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Sternheim, Lot C; Fisher, Martin; Harrison, Amy; Watling, Rosamond
BACKGROUND: Intolerance of Uncertainty (IU) is recognized for its contribution to various psychopathologies, in particular anxiety and depression. Studies highlight the relevance of IU for Eating Disorders (EDs) however, potential factors contributing to IU in EDs remain unstudied. METHODS: Three
Allan, Steven; Goss, Ken
To test for differences between diagnostic groups on the severity of eating disorder beliefs and behaviours, evaluate the clinical significance of such differences, and assess the extent to which these beliefs and behaviours may be present at clinically significant levels across eating disorder diagnoses. 136 adult women outpatients (aged 18-65, with a BMI over 15) were diagnosed with an eating disorder and completed the Stirling Eating Disorder Scale. The expected pattern of statistically significant differences was found between diagnostic groups on anorexic dietary beliefs and behaviours and bulimic dietary beliefs and behaviours. A high percentage of participants in each diagnostic group scored above the clinical cut-off on the eating disorder belief and behaviour measures and a very high percentage of participants in each group reported clinically significant levels of restricting beliefs. Transdiagnostic or functional analytic approaches to treatment planning may lead to more effective interventions than current, diagnostically-based, care pathways. The high prevalence of restricting beliefs reported suggested that this may need to be a key focus for intervention for the majority of individuals presenting with an eating disorder. © 2013.
Courtney, Elizabeth A; Gamboz, Julie; Johnson, Jeffrey G
Previous research has indicated that low self-esteem may be an important risk factor for the development of eating disorders. Few longitudinal studies have examined the relationships between low self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and eating disorders in adolescents. The present study investigated whether low self-esteem was associated with depressive symptoms and problematic eating behaviors. Measures of low self-esteem and problematic eating behaviors were administered to a sample of 197 adolescent primary-care patients. Depressive symptoms and problematic eating behaviors were assessed ten months later. Youths with low self-esteem were at greater risk for high levels of depressive symptoms and eating disorder symptoms. In addition, depressive symptoms mediated the association of low self-esteem with problematic eating behaviors.
Donofry, Shannon D; Roecklein, Kathryn A; Wildes, Jennifer E; Miller, Megan A; Erickson, Kirk I
Major depression and eating disorders (EDs) are highly co-morbid and may share liability. Impaired emotion regulation may represent a common etiological or maintaining mechanism. Research has demonstrated that depressed individuals and individuals with EDs exhibit impaired emotion regulation, with these impairments being associated with changes in brain structure and function. The goal of this review was to evaluate findings from neuroimaging studies of depression and EDs to determine whether there are overlapping alterations in the brain regions known to be involved in emotion regulation, evidence of which would aid in the diagnosis and treatment of these conditions. Our review of the literature suggests that depression and EDs exhibit common structural and functional alterations in brain regions involved in emotion regulation, including the amygdala, ventral striatum and nucleus accumbens, anterior cingulate cortex, insula, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. We present preliminary support for a shared etiological mechanism. Future studies should consider manipulating emotion regulation in a sample of individuals with depression and EDs to better characterize abnormalities in these brain circuits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tobiassen, Linn Graham
The aim of the present study was to examine the prevalence of eating disorder symptoms in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Additional aims were to assess whether having comorbid eating disorders could influence the treatment outcome for OCD, and if symptoms of eating disorders were reduced after treatment for OCD. The sample consisted of 93 patients with a primary diagnosis of OCD. The patients underwent assessment with the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale, Beck Depress...
Álvarez Ruiz, Eva M; Gutiérrez-Rojas, Luis
The comorbidity of bipolar disorder and eating disorders has not been studied in depth. In addition, clinical implications involved in the appearance of both disorders are very important. A systematic literature review of MEDLINE published up to September 2013 was performed, analyzing all the articles that studied the comorbidity of both conditions (bipolar disorder and eating disorders) and others research that studied the efficacy of pharmacological treatment and psychotherapy to improve these illnesses. In this review we found a high comorbidity of bipolar disorder and eating disorders, especially of bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. Studies show that lithium and topiramate are 2 of the more effective pharmacological agents in the treatment of both disorders. There are a lot of studies that show evidence of comorbidity of bipolar disorder and eating disorders. However, further research is needed on assessment and treatment when these conditions co-exist, as well as study into the biopsychological aspects to determine the comorbid aetiology. Copyright © 2014 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
Klump, K L; Kaye, W H; Strober, M
Data described earlier are clear in establishing a role for genes in the development of eating abnormalities. Estimates from the most rigorous studies suggest that more than 50% of the variance in eating disorders and disordered eating behaviors can be accounted for by genetic effects. These high estimates indicate a need for studies identifying the specific genes contributing to this large proportion of variance. Twin and family studies suggest that several heritable characteristics that are commonly comorbid with AN and BN may share genetic transmission with these disorders, including anxiety disorders or traits, body weight, and possibly major depression. Moreover, some developmental research suggests that the genes involved in ovarian hormones or the genes that these steroids affect also may be genetically linked to eating abnormalities. Molecular genetic research of these disorders is in its infant stages. However, promising areas for future research have already been identified (e.g., 5-HT2A receptor gene, UCP-2/UCP-3 gene, and estrogen receptor beta gene), and several large-scale linkage and association studies are underway. These studies likely will provide invaluable information regarding the appropriate phenotypes to be included in genetic studies and the genes with the most influence on the development of these disorders.
Donofry, Shannon D; Roecklein, Kathryn A; Rohan, Kelly J; Wildes, Jennifer E; Kamarck, Marissa L
Eating pathology in Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) may be more severe than hyperphagia during winter. Although research has documented elevated rates of subclinical binge eating in women with SAD, the prevalence and correlates of binge eating disorder (BED) in SAD remain largely uncharacterized. We examined the prevalence and correlates of binge eating, weekly binge eating with distress, and BED as defined by the DSM-IV-TR in SAD. We also tested whether binge eating exhibits a seasonal pattern among individuals with BED. Two samples were combined to form a sample of individuals with SAD (N=112). A third sample included non-depressed adults with clinical (n=12) and subclinical (n=11) BED. All participants completed the Questionnaire of Eating and Weight Patterns-Revised (QEWP-R) and modified Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (M-SPAQ). In the SAD sample, 26.5% reported binge eating, 11.6% met criteria for weekly binge eating with distress, and 8.9% met criteria for BED. Atypical symptom severity predicted binge eating and BED. In the BED sample, 30% endorsed seasonal worsening of mood, and 26% reported a winter pattern of binge eating. The spectrum of eating pathology in SAD includes symptoms of BED, which are associated with atypical depression symptoms, but typical depression symptoms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mason, Tyler B; Lavender, Jason M; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Crosby, Ross D; Joiner, Thomas E; Mitchell, James E; Crow, Scott J; Klein, Marjorie H; Le Grange, Daniel; Bardone-Cone, Anna M; Peterson, Carol B
The role of interpersonal factors has been proposed in various models of eating disorder (ED) psychopathology and treatment. We examined the independent and interactive contributions of two interpersonal-focused personality traits (i.e., social avoidance and insecure attachment) and reassurance seeking in relation to global ED psychopathology and depressive symptoms among women with bulimia nervosa (BN). Participants were 204 adult women with full or subclinical BN who completed a battery of self-report questionnaires. Hierarchical multiple OLS regressions including main effects and interaction terms were used to analyze the data. Main effects were found for social avoidance and insecure attachment in association with global ED psychopathology and depressive symptoms. In addition, two-way interactions between social avoidance and reassurance seeking were observed for both global ED psychopathology and depressive symptoms. In general, reassurance seeking strengthened the association between social avoidance and global ED psychopathology and depressive symptoms. These results demonstrate the importance of reassurance seeking in psychopathology among women with BN who display personality features characterized by social avoidance. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Mason, Tyler B.; Lavender, Jason M.; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Crosby, Ross D.; Joiner, Thomas E.; Mitchell, James E.; Crow, Scott J.; Klein, Marjorie H.; Le Grange, Daniel; Bardone-Cone, Anna M.; Peterson, Carol B.
Introduction The role of interpersonal factors has been proposed in various models of eating disorder (ED) psychopathology and treatment. We examined the independent and interactive contributions of two interpersonal-focused personality traits (i.e., social avoidance and insecure attachment) and reassurance seeking in relation to global ED psychopathology and depressive symptoms among women with bulimia nervosa (BN). Method Participants were 204 adult women with full or subclinical BN who completed a battery of self-report questionnaires. Hierarchical multiple OLS regressions including main effects and interaction terms were used to analyze the data. Results Main effects were found for social avoidance and insecure attachment in association with global ED psychopathology and depressive symptoms. In addition, two-way interactions between social avoidance and reassurance seeking were observed for both global ED psychopathology and depressive symptoms. In general, reassurance seeking strengthened the association between social avoidance and global ED psychopathology and depressive symptoms. Conclusion These results demonstrate the importance of reassurance seeking in psychopathology among women with BN who display personality features characterized by social avoidance. PMID:27234198
Fursland, Anthea; Watson, Hunna J
Eating disorders are common but underdiagnosed illnesses. Help-seeking for co-occurring issues, such as anxiety and depression, are common. To identify the prevalence of eating problems, using the SCOFF, and eating disorders when screening positive on the SCOFF (i.e., ≥2), among patients seeking help for anxiety and depression at a community-based mental health service. Patients (N = 260) consecutively referred and assessed for anxiety and depression treatment were administered the SCOFF screening questionnaire and a semi-structured standardized diagnostic interview during routine intake. 18.5% (48/260) scored ≥2 on the SCOFF, indicating eating problems. Of these, 41% (19/48) met criteria for an eating disorder. Thus, overall, 7.3% (19/260) of the sample met criteria for a DSM-IV eating disorder. Those scoring ≥2 on the SCOFF were more likely to: be female (p = 0.001), younger (p = 0.003), and have a history of self-harm (p eating disorders are a hidden phenomenon in general outpatient mental health. By using a standardized diagnostic interview to establish diagnosis rather than self- or staff-report, the study builds on limited previous findings. The naturalistic study setting shows that screening for eating disorders can be easily built into routine intake practice, and successfully identifies treatment need. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available Beatriz Jáuregui-Garrido1, Ignacio Jáuregui-Lobera2,31Department of Cardiology, University Hospital Virgen del Rocío, 2Behavioral Sciences Institute, 3Pablo de Olavide University, Seville, SpainAbstract: Eating disorders are usually associated with an increased risk of premature death with a wide range of rates and causes of mortality. “Sudden death” has been defined as the abrupt and unexpected occurrence of fatality for which no satisfactory explanation of the cause can be ascertained. In many cases of sudden death, autopsies do not clarify the main cause. Cardiovascular complications are usually involved in these deaths. The purpose of this review was to report an update of the existing literature data on the main findings with respect to sudden death in eating disorders by means of a search conducted in PubMed. The most relevant conclusion of this review seems to be that the main causes of sudden death in eating disorders are those related to cardiovascular complications. The predictive value of the increased QT interval dispersion as a marker of sudden acute ventricular arrhythmia and death has been demonstrated. Eating disorder patients with severe cardiovascular symptoms should be hospitalized. In general, with respect to sudden death in eating disorders, some findings (eg, long-term eating disorders, chronic hypokalemia, chronically low plasma albumin, and QT intervals >600 milliseconds must be taken into account, and it must be highlighted that during refeeding, the adverse effects of hypophosphatemia include cardiac failure. Monitoring vital signs and performing electrocardiograms and serial measurements of plasma potassium are relevant during the treatment of eating disorder patients.Keywords: sudden death, cardiovascular complications, refeeding syndrome, QT interval, hypokalemia
Paans, Nadine P G; Bot, Mariska; Brouwer, Ingeborg A; Visser, Marjolein; Roca, Miquel; Kohls, Elisabeth; Watkins, Ed; Penninx, Brenda W J H
Depression, one of the most prevalent and disabling disorders in Europe, is thought to be associated with unhealthy eating styles. As prevalence of depression and eating styles potentially differ across Europe, the current study aimed to investigate in a large, European sample, the associations of history of major depressive disorder and depression severity with unhealthy eating styles. Baseline data of the MooDFOOD prevention study was used. The current analysis included 990 participants of four European countries (The Netherlands, United Kingdom, Germany, Spain). Analyses of Covariance and linear regression analyses were performed with depression history or depression severity as determinants, and emotional, uncontrolled, and cognitive restrained eating (Three Factor Eating Questionnaire Revised, 18 item) as outcomes. Depression history and severity were associated with more emotional and uncontrolled eating and with less cognitive restrained eating. Mood, somatic, and cognitive symptom clusters were also associated with more emotional and uncontrolled eating, and with less cognitive restrained eating. The somatic depressive symptoms "increased appetite" and "increased weight" were more strongly associated to unhealthy eating styles compared to other symptoms. No differences in associations between depression and unhealthy eating were found between European countries. Our results suggest that depression is related to more unhealthy eating styles. Diminishing unhealthy eating styles in subthreshold depressed persons could potentially reduce adverse health consequences like weight gain, unhealthy dietary patterns and weight-related diseases. It is also possible that interventions that decrease depressive symptoms can lead to a decrease in unhealthy eating styles. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Amitabh Saha; Neha Sharma
This is a case of Eating Disorder, which is described in a teenage girl who presented with intractable vomiting, hydropneumothorax and pulmonary Koch′s. The patient′s initial presentation was markedpreoccupation with body shape and image, restrictive eating, which progressed to episodes of vomiting after every meal, and led to academic decline followed by amenorrhoea and deterioration of general medical condition. She was managed with nutritional restoration, ATT and Olanzapine with Fluoxetin...
Full Text Available This is a case of Eating Disorder, which is described in a teenage girl who presented with intractable vomiting, hydropneumothorax and pulmonary Koch′s. The patient′s initial presentation was markedpreoccupation with body shape and image, restrictive eating, which progressed to episodes of vomiting after every meal, and led to academic decline followed by amenorrhoea and deterioration of general medical condition. She was managed with nutritional restoration, ATT and Olanzapine with Fluoxetine, to which she responded poorly.
Haycraft, Emma; Blissett, Jackie
This study aimed to examine associations between symptoms of eating disorders and parenting style, in a non-clinical sample. One hundred and five mothers completed self-report measures of eating disorder symptoms and parenting style. Higher levels of eating disorder symptoms were associated with more authoritarian and permissive parenting styles. Authoritative parenting was not significantly related to eating disorder symptoms. The findings demonstrate that eating disorder symptoms in non-clinical individuals are related to less adaptive parenting styles. These findings have potential implications for clinicians working with mothers with eating disorders. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Peterson, Carol B.; Thuras, Paul; Ackard, Diann M.; Mitchell, James E.; Berg, Kelly; Sandager, Nora; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Pederson, Melissa W.; Crow, Scott J.
Objective The purpose of this investigation was to examine differences in personality dimensions among individuals with bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, non-binge eating obesity and a normal weight comparison group as well as to determine the extent to which these differences were independent of self-reported depressive symptoms. Method Personality dimensions were assessed using the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire in 36 patients with bulimia nervosa, 54 patients with binge eating disorder, 30 obese individuals who did not binge eat, and 77 normal weight comparison participants. Results Participants with bulimia nervosa reported higher scores on measures of stress reaction and negative emotionality compared to the other three groups, and lower well-being scores compared to the normal weight comparison and the obese samples. Patients with binge eating disorder scored lower on well-being and higher on harm avoidance than the normal weight comparison group. In addition, the bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder groups scored lower than the normal weight group on positive emotionality. When personality dimensions were re-analyzed using depression as a covariate, only stress reaction remained higher in the bulimia nervosa group compared to the other three groups and harm avoidance remained higher in the binge eating disorder than the normal weight comparison group. Conclusions The higher levels of stress reaction in the bulimia nervosa sample and harm avoidance in the binge eating disorder sample after controlling for depression indicate that these personality dimensions are potentially important in the etiology, maintenance, and treatment of these eating disorders. Although the extent to which observed group differences in well-being, positive emotionality and negative emotionality reflect personality traits, mood disorders, or both is unclear, these features clearly warrant further examination in understanding and treating bulimia nervosa and
Peterson, Carol B; Thuras, Paul; Ackard, Diann M; Mitchell, James E; Berg, Kelly; Sandager, Nora; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Pederson, Melissa W; Crow, Scott J
The purpose of this investigation was to examine differences in personality dimensions among individuals with bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, non-binge eating obesity, and a normal-weight comparison group as well as to determine the extent to which these differences were independent of self-reported depressive symptoms. Personality dimensions were assessed using the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire in 36 patients with bulimia nervosa, 54 patients with binge eating disorder, 30 obese individuals who did not binge eat, and 77 normal-weight comparison participants. Participants with bulimia nervosa reported higher scores on measures of stress reaction and negative emotionality compared to the other 3 groups and lower well-being scores compared to the normal-weight comparison and the obese samples. Patients with binge eating disorder scored lower on well-being and higher on harm avoidance than the normal-weight comparison group. In addition, the bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder groups scored lower than the normal-weight group on positive emotionality. When personality dimensions were reanalyzed using depression as a covariate, only stress reaction remained higher in the bulimia nervosa group compared to the other 3 groups and harm avoidance remained higher in the binge eating disorder than the normal-weight comparison group. The higher levels of stress reaction in the bulimia nervosa sample and harm avoidance in the binge eating disorder sample after controlling for depression indicate that these personality dimensions are potentially important in the etiology, maintenance, and treatment of these eating disorders. Although the extent to which observed group differences in well-being, positive emotionality, and negative emotionality reflect personality traits, mood disorders, or both, is unclear, these features clearly warrant further examination in understanding and treating bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder.
Simpson, H Blair; Wetterneck, Chad T; Cahill, Shawn P; Steinglass, Joanna E; Franklin, Martin E; Leonard, Rachel C; Weltzin, Theodore E; Riemann, Bradley C
Eating disorders and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) commonly co-occur, but there is little data for how to treat these complex cases. To address this gap, we examined the naturalistic outcome of 56 patients with both disorders, who received a multimodal treatment program designed to address both problems simultaneously. A residential treatment program developed a cognitive-behavioral approach for patients with both OCD and an eating disorder by integrating exposure and response prevention (ERP) treatment for OCD with ERP strategies targeting eating pathology. Patients also received a supervised eating plan, medication management, and social support. At admission and discharge, patients completed validated measures of OCD severity (the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale--Self Report [Y-BOCS-SR]), eating disorder severity (the Eating Disorders Examination-Questionnaire), and depressive severity (the Beck Depression Inventory II [BDI-II]). Body mass index (BMI) was also measured. Paired-sample t-tests examined change on these measures. Between 2006 and 2011, 56 individuals completed all study measures at admission and discharge. Mean length of stay was 57 days (SD = 27). Most (89%) were on psychiatric medications. Significant decreases were observed in OCD severity, eating disorder severity, and depression. Those with bulimia nervosa showed more improvement than those with anorexia nervosa. BMI significantly increased, primarily among those underweight at admission. Simultaneous treatment of OCD and eating disorders using a multimodal approach that emphasizes ERP techniques for both OCD and eating disorders can be an effective treatment strategy for these complex cases.
Shanmugam, Vaithehy; Jowett, Sophia; Meyer, Caroline
Within the clinical literature it is accepted that there is a strong connection between eating disorders and depression; however the nature of the casual relationship is somewhat unclear. Therefore the aim of the present study was to determine the prospective relationship between eating psychopathology and depressive symptoms among competitive British athletes. A total of 122 athletes completed the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire and the depression subscale of the Symptom Checklist-90R over a 6-month period. Partial correlations revealed that when controlling for baseline eating psychopathology, athletes' baseline depressive symptoms was not related to their eating psychopathology 6 months later. However, when controlling for baseline depressive symptoms, athletes' initial eating psychopathology was positively and significantly related to depressive symptoms 6 months later. Subsequent hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed athletes' initial levels of eating psychopathology significantly predicted depressive symptoms 6 months later. The current findings support the assertion that elevated eating psychopathology serves as a potential risk factor for the development of depression in athletes. Thus, National Governing Bodies, athletic clubs, sport organisations and universities need to recognise and be aware that exposure to the factors that increase the risk of eating disorders inadvertently serves to increase athletes' vulnerability for depression.
Casasnovas, C; Fernández-Aranda, F; Granero, R; Krug, I; Jiménez-Murcia, S; Bulik, C M; Vallejo-Ruiloba, J
The aim of this study was to understand the clinical impact of the motivational stage of change on the psychopathology and symptomatology of anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN) and eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS). The participants were 218 eating disorder (ED) patients (58 AN, 95 BN and 65 EDNOS), consecutively admitted to our hospital. All patients fulfilled DSM-IV criteria for these disorders. Assessment measures included the Eating Disorders Inventory (EDI), Bulimic Investigation Test Edinburgh (BITE), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), four analogue scales of motivational stage, as well as a number of other clinical and psychopathological indices. Our results indicated higher motivation for change in BN than in AN and EDNOS patients (p EDNOS (p EDNOS patients are most resistant to change and the younger these patients are, the less likely they are to be motivated to change their disturbed eating behaviour. 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association
... wanting to go to parties or out for dinner) What Is Bulimia? Instead of starving themselves, people who have bulimia nervosa (say: boo-LEE-mee-uh nur-VOH-suh) will binge and purge . That means they will binge (that is, eat a huge amount of food, like a tub ...
Yi, Chun-Xia; Heppner, Kristy; Tschöp, Matthias H.
Ghrelin is the only known circulating hormone that acts on peripheral and central targets to increase food intake and promote adiposity. The present review focuses on the possible clinical relevance of ghrelin in the regulation of human feeding behavior in individuals with obesity and other eating
Donofry, Shannon D.; Roecklein, Kathryn A.; Rohan, Kelly J.; Wildes, Jennifer E.; Kamarck, Marissa L.
Eating pathology in Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) may be more severe than hyperphagia during winter. Although research has documented elevated rates of subclinical binge eating in women with SAD, the prevalence and correlates of BED in SAD remain largely uncharacterized. We examined the prevalence and correlates of binge eating, weekly binge eating with distress, and BED as defined by the DSM-IV-TR in SAD. We also tested whether binge eating exhibits a seasonal pattern among individuals with BED. Two samples were combined to form a sample of individuals with SAD (N = 112). A third sample included non-depressed adults with clinical (n=12) and subclinical (n=11) BED. All participants completed the Questionnaire of Eating and Weight Patterns-Revised (QEWP-R) and modified Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (M-SPAQ). In the SAD sample, 26.5% reported binge eating, 11.6% met criteria for weekly binge eating with distress, and 8.9% met criteria for BED. Atypical symptom severity predicted binge eating and BED. In the BED sample, 30% endorsed seasonal worsening of mood, and 26% reported a winter pattern of binge eating. The spectrum of eating pathology in SAD includes symptoms of BED, which are associated with atypical depression symptoms, but typical depression symptoms. PMID:24680872
Podfigurna-Stopa, Agnieszka; Czyzyk, Adam; Katulski, Krzysztof; Smolarczyk, Roman; Grymowicz, Monika; Maciejewska-Jeske, Marzena; Meczekalski, Blazej
Eating disorders (EDs) are disturbances that seriously endanger the physical health and often the lives of sufferers and affect their psychosocial functioning. EDs are usually thought of as problems afflicting teenagers. However, the incidence in older women has increased in recent decades. These cases may represent either late-onset disease or, more likely, a continuation of a lifelong disorder. The DSM-5 classification differentiates 4 categories of eating disorder: anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge-eating disorders and other specified feeding and eating disorders. The weight loss and malnutrition resulting from EDs have widespread negative consequences for physical, mental and social health. The main risk factors for developing long-term consequences are the degree of weight loss and the chronicity of the illness. Most of the cardiac, neurological, pulmonary, gastric, haematological and dermatological complications of EDs are reversible with weight restoration. EDs are serious illnesses and they should never be neglected or treated only as a manifestation of the fashion for dieting or a woman's wish to achieve an imposed standard feminine figure. Additionally, EDs are associated with high risk of morbidity and mortality. The literature concerning EDs in older, postmenopausal women is very limited. The main aim of this paper is to ascertain the epidemiology and prognosis of EDs in older women, and to review their diagnosis and management. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Reas, Deborah L.; Grilo, Carlos M.
Introduction This study evaluated controlled treatment studies of pharmacotherapy for binge eating disorder (BED). Areas Covered The primary focus of the review was on phase II and III controlled trials testing medications for BED. A total of 46 studies were considered and 26 were reviewed in detail. BED outcomes included binge-eating remission, binge-eating frequency, associated eating-disorder psychopathology, associated depression, and weight loss. Expert Opinion Data from controlled trials suggests that certain medications are superior to placebo for stopping binge-eating and for producing faster reductions in binge eating, and - to varying degrees - for reducing associated eating-disorder psychopathology, depression, and weight loss over the short-term. Almost no data exist regarding longer-term effects of medication for BED. Except for topiramate, which reduces both binge eating and weight, weight loss is minimal with medications tested for BED. Psychological interventions and the combination of medication with psychological interventions produce binge-eating outcomes that are superior to medication-only approaches. Combining medications with psychological interventions does not significantly enhance binge-eating outcomes, although the addition of certain medications enhances weight losses achieved with cognitive-behavioral therapy and behavioral weight loss, albeit modestly. PMID:24460483
Krentz, Adrienne; Chew, Judy; Arthur, Nancy
The purpose of this study was to characterize the psychological processes of recovery from binge eating disorder (BED). A model was developed by asking the research question, "What is the experience of recovery for women with BED?" Unstructured interviews were conducted with six women who met the DSM-IV criteria for BED, and who were recovered…
Muuss, Rolf E.
Examines anorexia nervosa, an eating disorder seen with increasing frequency, especially among adolescent girls. Presents five theories about causation, discusses early characteristics, typical family patterns, physical and medical characteristics, social adjustment problems, and society's contribution to anorexia. Describes course of the…
Nagel, K. L.; Jones, Karen H.
School prevention programs for teenage eating disorders should emphasize nutrition education (knowledge, attitudes, behavior) and living skills (self-concept, coping). Secondary prevention involves identifying early warning signs and places for referral; tertiary prevention creates a supportive school environment for recoverers with teachers as…
Patrick, Julie Hicks; Stahl, Sarah T.; Sundaram, Murali
The majority of our knowledge about eating disorders derives from adolescent and young adult samples; knowledge regarding disordered eating in middle and later adulthood is limited. We examined the associations among known predictors of eating disorders for younger adults in an age-diverse sample and within the context of psychological distress.…
regarding the abnormality of reproductive hormone function ... This paper reviews the existing literature on males with eating disorders in an ... through the work of Gerald Russell.7 The term “bulimia” is .... a critical time for adolescents, as an eating disorder could po- ..... Gender Related Aspects of Eating Disorders: A Guide.
Bould, Helen; Koupil, Ilona; Dalman, Christina; DeStavola, Bianca; Lewis, Glyn; Magnusson, Cecilia
To investigate which parental mental illnesses are associated with eating disorders in their offspring. We used data from a record-linkage cohort study of 158,679 children aged 12-24 years at the end of follow-up, resident in Stockholm County from 2001 to 2007, to investigate whether different parental mental illnesses are risk factors for eating disorders in their offspring. The outcome measure was diagnosis of any eating disorder, either from an ICD or DSM-IV code, or inferred from an appointment at a specialist eating disorder clinic. Mental illness in parents is a risk factor for eating disorders in female offspring (Adjusted Hazard Ratio (AHR) 1.57 (95% CI 1.42, 1.92), p eating disorders is increased if there is a parental diagnosis of bipolar affective disorder (AHR 2.28 (95% CI 1.39, 3.72), p = 0.004), personality disorder (AHR 1.57 (95% CI 1.01, 2.44), p = 0.043) or anxiety/depression (AHR 1.57 (95% CI 1.32, 1.86), p disorder (AHR 1.25 (95% CI 0.74, 2.13), p = 0.40). There is no support for a relationship between parental substance misuse and eating disorders in children (AHR 1.08 (95% CI 0.82, 1.43), p = 0.57). Parental mental illness, specifically parental anxiety, depression, bipolar affective disorder, and personality disorders, are risk factors for eating disorders in their offspring. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Kristeller, Jean L; Wolever, Ruth Q
This paper reviews the conceptual foundation of mindfulness-based eating awareness training (MB-EAT). It provides an overview of key therapeutic components as well as a brief review of current research. MB-EAT is a group intervention that was developed for treatment of binge eating disorder (BED) and related issues. BED is marked by emotional, behavioral and physiological disregulation in relation to food intake and self-identity. MB-EAT involves training in mindfulness meditation and guided mindfulness practices that are designed to address the core issues of BED: controlling responses to varying emotional states; making conscious food choices; developing an awareness of hunger and satiety cues; and cultivating self-acceptance. Evidence to date supports the value of MB-EAT in decreasing binge episodes, improving one's sense of self-control with regard to eating, and diminishing depressive symptoms.
Full Text Available Norbert Dahmen, Julia Becht, Alice Engel, Monika Thommes, Peter TonnPsychiatry Department, University of Mainz, GermanyAbstract: Narcoleptic patients suffer frequently from obesity and type II diabetes. Most patients show a deficit in the energy balance regulating orexinergic system. Nevertheless, it is not known, why narcoleptic patients tend to be obese. We examined 116 narcoleptic patients and 80 controls with the structured interview for anorectic and bulimic eating disorders (SIAB to test the hypothesis that typical or atypical eating attacks or eating disorders may be more frequent in narcoleptic patients. No difference in the current prevalence of eating disorders bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, or anorexia nervosa was found, nor was the frequency of eating attacks higher in the narcolepsy group. We conclude that present eating disorders and eating attacks as defined in DSM IV are not the reason for the observed differences in body composition. Additional factors, such as basal metabolic rates and lifestyle factors need to be considered.Keywords: narcolepsy, eating disorder, SIAB, bulimia, anorexia, eating attack
Walker, Morgan; Thornton, Laura; De Choudhury, Munmun; Teevan, Jaime; Bulik, Cynthia M; Levinson, Cheri A; Zerwas, Stephanie
Disordered eating behavior-dieting, laxative use, fasting, binge eating-is common in college-aged women (11%-20%). A documented increase in the number of young women experiencing eating psychopathology has been blamed on the rise of engagement with social media sites such as Facebook. We predicted that college-aged women's Facebook intensity (e.g., the amount of time spent on Facebook, number of Facebook friends, and integration of Facebook into daily life), online physical appearance comparison (i.e., comparing one's appearance to others' on social media), and online "fat talk" (i.e., talking negatively about one's body) would be positively associated with their disordered eating behavior. In an online survey, 128 college-aged women (81.3% Caucasian, 6.7% Asian, 9.0% African-American, and 3.0% Other) completed items, which measured their disordered eating, Facebook intensity, online physical appearance comparison, online fat talk, body mass index, depression, anxiety, perfectionism, impulsivity, and self-efficacy. In regression analyses, Facebook intensity, online physical appearance comparison, and online fat talk were significantly and uniquely associated with disordered eating and explained a large percentage of the variance in disordered eating (60%) in conjunction with covariates. However, greater Facebook intensity was associated with decreased disordered eating behavior, whereas both online physical appearance comparison and online fat talk were associated with greater disordered eating. College-aged women who endorsed greater Facebook intensity were less likely to struggle with disordered eating when online physical appearance comparison was accounted for statistically. Facebook intensity may carry both risks and benefits for disordered eating. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Eating disorders involve serious disturbances in eating behavior, such as extreme and unhealthy reduction of food intake or severe overeating, as well as feelings of distress or extreme concern about body shape or weight. Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are the two main types of eating disorders. Eating disorders frequently co-occur with…
Michalska, Aneta; Szejko, Natalia; Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Wojnar, Marcin
The aim of this paper was to characterise nonspecific eating disorders (other than anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa). The Medline database was searched for articles on nonspecific eating disorders. The following disorders were described: binge eating disorder (BED), pica, rumination disorder, avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder, night eating syndrome (NES), sleep-related eating disorder (SRED), bigorexia, orthorexia, focusing on diagnosis, symptoms, assessment, comorbidities, clinical implications and treatment. All of the included disorders may have dangerous consequences, both somatic and psychological. They are often comorbid with other psychiatric disorders. Approximately a few percent of general population can be diagnosed with each disorder, from 0.5-4.7% (SRED) to about 7% (orthorexia). With the growing literature on the subject and changes in DSM-5, clinicians recognise and treat those disorders more often. More studies have to be conducted in order to differentiate disorders and treat or prevent them appropriately.
Maria Isabel R Matos
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to assess the frequency of Binge Eating Disorder (BED or Binge Eating episodes (BINGE, anxiety, depression and body image disturbances in severely obese patients seeking treatment for obesity. METHOD: We assessed 50 patients (10M and 40F with Body Mass Index (BMI between 40 and 81.7 Kg/m² (mean 52.2±9.2 Kg/m² and aging from 18 to 56 years (mean 38.5±9.7. Used instruments: Questionnaire on Eating and Weight Patterns ¾ Revised (QEWP-R for BED or BINGE assessment, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI for depressive symptoms, State - Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-TRAIT and STAI-STATE for anxiety and Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ for body image assessments. RESULTS: In this population BED and BINGE frequencies were 36% and 54%, respectively. Symptoms of depression were detected in 100% while severe symptomatology was found in 84% of the cases. The frequency of anxiety as a trait was 70%, as a state, 54% and 76% of all patients reported discomfort regarding body image. The frequency of BED was higher in patients with higher anxiety scores as a personality trait (>40 but not as a state (46% vs. 13%; p140 in the BSQ assessment. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate a high frequency of binge eating episodes, severe depressive symptoms, anxiety and concern with body image in grade III obesity patients.INTRODUÇÃO: O objetivo desse trabalho é avaliar a freqüência de transtorno da compulsão alimentar periódica (TCAP, episódios de compulsão alimentar periódica (CAP, ansiedade, depressão e distúrbios na imagem corporal em pacientes com obesidade grau III que procuram tratamento para obesidade. MÉTODO: Foram avaliados 50 pacientes (10M e 40F com Índice de Massa Corporal (IMC de 40 a 81,7 Kg/m² (média =52,2±9,2 Kg/m² e idade entre 18 e 56 anos (média de 38,5±9,7. Instrumentos utilizados: Questionário sobre Padrões de Alimentação e Peso ("Questionnaire on Eating and Weight Patterns - Revised" - QEWP
Vázquez-Velázquez, Verónica; Kaufer-Horwitz, Martha; Méndez, Juan Pablo; García-García, Eduardo; Reidl-Martínez, Lucy María
Associations of eating behaviors and psychological profile between mothers and daughters with eating disorders exist, but it is important to dissect the influence of the mother in each specific disorder since all eating disorders must be seen or treated not as one entity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association of eating behavior and psychological profile between mothers and daughters with different eating disorders and a control group. The study group included young girls with anorexia nervosa (AN, n = 30), bulimia nervosa (BN, n = 30), binge eating disorder (BED, n = 19), and a control group of women (Non-ED, n = 54) together with their mothers. BMI was calculated for dyads and Eating Disorder Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Toronto Alexithymia Scale and Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire were applied. The differences between dyads were tested by Student's t test and Pearson's correlation was used to study the association between BMI, variables of eating behavior and psychological profile in each dyad. The study found significant inverse correlations between the AN dyad; some correlations between the BN dyad, and the highest positive correlations exist in BED dyad, especially in eating behavior. Finally, between the control dyads, low but significant correlations were found in the majority of cases. The study concluded that the associations between mothers and daughters with distinct eating disorders varied depending on the specific diagnosis of the daughter, indicating it is necessary to analyze them individually, given that there may be different implications for treatment.
Strien, T. van; Konttinen, H.M.; Homberg, J.R.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Winkens, L.H.H.
Depression is often associated with weight gain but underlying mechanisms are unclear. This study assessed whether three psychological eating styles (emotional eating, external eating and restrained eating) act as mediators between depression and weight gain. We used structural equation modelling to
Full Text Available Background. Symptoms of celiac disease negatively impact social activities and emotional state. Aim was to investigate the prevalence of altered eating behaviour in celiac patients. Methods. Celiac patients and controls completed a dietary interview and the Binge Eating Staircases, Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI-2, Eating Attitudes Test, Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale, State Trait Anxiety Inventory Forma Y (STAI-Y1 and STAI-Y2, and Symptom Check List (SCL-90. Results. One hundred celiac adults and 100 controls were not statistically different for gender, age, and physical activity. STAI-Y1 and STAI-Y2, Somatization, Interpersonal, Sensitivity, and Anxiety scores of the SLC-90 were higher in CD patients than controls. EDI-2 was different in pulse thinness, social insecurity, perfectionism, inadequacy, ascetisms, and interpersonal diffidence between CD and HC women, whilst only in interceptive awareness between CD and HC men. A higher EAT-26 score was associated with the CD group dependently with gastrointestinal symptoms. The EAT26 demonstrated association between indices of diet-related disorders in both CD and the feminine gender after controlling for anxiety and depression. Conclusion. CD itself and not gastrointestinal related symptoms or psychological factors may contribute pathological eating behavior in celiac adults. Eating disorders appear to be more frequent in young celiac women than in CD men and in HC.
Sayed Shahabuddin Hoseini
Full Text Available Night eating syndrome is a common disorder in eating behaviors that occurs in close relation to the night time sleep cycle. Although eating disorders are common in society, night eating syndrome has been left neglected by health care professionals. In this report we present a case of eating disorder that exhibits some novel features of night eating syndrome. Our case was a progressed type of eating disorder which may increase awareness among physicians about sleep-related eating disorders.
Fortes, Leonardo de Sousa; Filgueiras, Juliana Fernandes; Oliveira, Fernanda da Costa; Almeida, Sebastião Sousa; Ferreira, Maria Elisa Caputo
The objective was to construct an etiological model of disordered eating behaviors in Brazilian adolescent girls. A total of 1,358 adolescent girls from four cities participated. The study used psychometric scales to assess disordered eating behaviors, body dissatisfaction, media pressure, self-esteem, mood, depressive symptoms, and perfectionism. Weight, height, and skinfolds were measured to calculate body mass index (BMI) and percent body fat (%F). Structural equation modeling explained 76% of variance in disordered eating behaviors (F(9, 1,351) = 74.50; p = 0.001). The findings indicate that body dissatisfaction mediated the relationship between media pressures, self-esteem, mood, BMI, %F, and disordered eating behaviors (F(9, 1,351) = 59.89; p = 0.001). Although depressive symptoms were not related to body dissatisfaction, the model indicated a direct relationship with disordered eating behaviors (F(2, 1,356) = 23.98; p = 0.001). In conclusion, only perfectionism failed to fit the etiological model of disordered eating behaviors in Brazilian adolescent girls.
Melin, Anna; Torstveit, Monica Klungland; Burke, Louise; Marks, Saul; Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn
Disordered eating behavior (DE) and eating disorders (EDs) are of great concern because of their associations with physical and mental health risks and, in the case of athletes, impaired performance. The syndrome originally known as the Female Athlete Triad, which focused on the interaction of energy availability, reproductive function, and bone health in female athletes, has recently been expanded to recognize that Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S) has a broader range of negative effects on body systems with functional impairments in both male and female athletes. Athletes in leanness-demanding sports have an increased risk for RED-S and for developing EDs/DE. Special risk factors in aquatic sports related to weight and body composition management include the wearing of skimpy and tight-fitting bathing suits, and in the case of diving and synchronized swimming, the involvement of subjective judgments of performance. The reported prevalence of DE and EDs in athletic populations, including athletes from aquatic sports, ranges from 18 to 45% in female athletes and from 0 to 28% in male athletes. To prevent EDs, aquatic athletes should practice healthy eating behavior at all periods of development pathway, and coaches and members of the athletes' health care team should be able to recognize early symptoms indicating risk for energy deficiency, DE, and EDs. Coaches and leaders must accept that DE/EDs can be a problem in aquatic disciplines and that openness regarding this challenge is important.
Breland, Jessica Y; Donalson, Rosemary; Dinh, Julie; Nevedal, Andrea; Maguen, Shira
Disordered eating, which includes subclinical and clinical maladaptive eating behaviors, is common among women, including those served by the Veterans Health Administration (VA). We used qualitative methods to determine whether and how women veterans want to receive treatment for disordered eating. Women veterans participated in one of seven focus groups/interviews and completed in-person demographic and psychological questionnaires. We used thematic analysis of focus groups/interviews to understand preferences for disordered eating treatment. Participants (n = 20) were mostly women of color (55%); mean age was 48 (SD = 15) and 65% had significant psychological symptoms. Few participants described being assessed for disordered eating, but all thought VA should provide treatment for disordered eating. Through thematic analysis, we identified six preferences: 1) treatment for disordered eating should be provided in groups, 2) treatment for disordered eating should provide concrete skills to facilitate the transition out of structured military environments, 3) treatment for disordered eating should address the relationship between eating and mental health, 4) disordered eating can be treated with mindfulness and cognitive-behavioral therapy, 5) disordered eating treatment providers should be experienced and take an interactive approach to care, but can come from diverse disciplines, and 6) referrals to treatment for disordered eating should be open ended, occur early, and allow for ongoing, flexible access to treatment. Women veterans are interested in treatment for disordered eating. Preferred treatments align with existing treatments, could be offered in conjunction with weight loss or primary care services, and should provide social support and interactive learning. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Eating disorders are severe and disabling mental disorders. The scientific study of eating disorders has expanded dramatically over the past few decades, and provided significant understanding of eating disorders and their treatments. Those significant advances notwithstanding, there is scant knowledge about key processes that are crucial to clinical improvement. The lack of understanding mechanisms that cause, maintain and change eating disorders, currently is the biggest problem facing the science of eating disorders. It hampers the development of really effective interventions that could be fine-tuned to target the mechanisms of change and, therefore, the development of more effective treatments. It is argued here that the science of eating disorders and eating disorder treatment could benefit tremendously from pure experimental studies into its mechanisms of change, that is, experimental psychopathology (EPP). To illustrate why eating disorders need more EPP research, some key symptoms - restriction of intake, binge eating and body overvaluation - will be discussed. EPP studies challenge some generally accepted views and offer a fresh new look at key symptoms. This will, consequently, better inform eating disorder treatments. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Brownley, Kimberly A.; Berkman, Nancy D.; Peat, Christine M.; Lohr, Kathleen N.; Cullen, Katherine E.; Bann, Carla M.; Bulik, Cynthia M.
Background The best treatment options for binge-eating disorder are unclear. Purpose To summarize evidence about the benefits and harms of psychological and pharmacologic therapies for adults with binge-eating disorder. Data Sources English-language publications in EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, Academic OneFile, CINAHL, and ClinicalTrials.gov through 18 November 2015, and in MEDLINE through 12 May 2016. Study Selection 9 waitlist-controlled psychological trials and 25 placebo-controlled trials that evaluated pharmacologic (n = 19) or combination (n = 6) treatment. All were randomized trials with low or medium risk of bias. Data Extraction 2 reviewers independently extracted trial data, assessed risk of bias, and graded strength of evidence. Data Synthesis Therapist-led cognitive behavioral therapy, lisdexamfetamine, and second-generation antidepressants (SGAs) decreased binge-eating frequency and increased binge-eating abstinence (relative risk, 4.95 [95% CI, 3.06 to 8.00], 2.61 [CI, 2.04 to 3.33], and 1.67 [CI, 1.24 to 2.26], respectively). Lisdexamfetamine (mean difference [MD], −6.50 [CI, −8.82 to −4.18]) and SGAs (MD, −3.84 [CI, −6.55 to −1.13]) reduced binge-eating–related obsessions and compulsions, and SGAs reduced symptoms of depression (MD, −1.97 [CI, −3.67 to −0.28]). Headache, gastrointestinal upset, sleep disturbance, and sympathetic nervous system arousal occurred more frequently with lisdexamfetamine than placebo (relative risk range, 1.63 to 4.28). Other forms of cognitive behavioral therapy and topiramate also increased abstinence and reduced binge-eating frequency and related psychopathology. Topiramate reduced weight and increased sympathetic nervous system arousal, and lisdexamfetamine reduced weight and appetite. Limitations Most study participants were overweight or obese white women aged 20 to 40 years. Many treatments were examined only in single studies. Outcomes were measured inconsistently across trials and rarely
Gianini, Loren M; White, Marney A; Masheb, Robin M
The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship among emotional regulation, emotional overeating, and general eating pathology in a treatment seeking sample of adults with Binge Eating Disorder (BED). The sample was composed of 326 adults (248 women, 78 men) who were obese and met DSM-IV-TR criteria for BED. Prior to treatment, participants completed the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS), Emotional Overeating Questionnaire (EOQ), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q) as part of a larger assessment battery. A series of hierarchical regression analyses indicated that difficulties with emotion regulation accounted for unique variance in both emotional overeating and general eating pathology above and beyond sex and negative affect. Emotion regulation may play a significant role in the maintenance of emotional overeating and eating pathology in obese adults with BED. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lydecker, Janet A.; Grilo, Carlos M.
Objective A limited literature suggests an association between maternal eating disorders and child feeding difficulties, and notes maternal concern about inadvertently transmitting eating disorders. Thus, parents may be an important target for eating-disorder research to guide the development of clinical programs. Methods The current study examined differences in child eating-disorder behaviors and parental feeding practices between a sample of parents (42 fathers, 130 mothers) exhibiting core features of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge-eating disorder, or purging disorder, and a matched sample of parents (n=172) reporting no eating-disorder characteristics. Results Parents with eating-disorder psychopathology were significantly more likely than parents without eating-disorder characteristics to report child binge-eating and compulsive exercise. Parents with eating-disorder psychopathology reported greater perceived feeding responsibility, greater concern about their child’s weight, and more monitoring of their child’s eating than parents without eating-disorder characteristics; however, they did not differ significantly in restriction of their child’s diet and pressure-to-eat. Child body mass index z-scores did not differ between parents with versus without eating-disorder characteristics. Conclusion Our findings suggest some important differences between parents with and without core eating-disorder psychopathology, which could augment clinical interventions for patients with eating disorders who are parents, or could guide pediatric eating-disorder prevention efforts. However, because our study was cross-sectional, findings could indicate increased awareness of or sensitivity to eating-disorder behaviors rather than a psychosocial cause of those behaviors. Longitudinal research and controlled trials examining prevention and intervention can clarify and address these clinical concerns. PMID:27302549
Zickgraf, Hana F; Franklin, Martin E; Rozin, Paul
One presentation of Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID) is characterized by picky eating, i.e., selective eating based on the sensory properties of food. The present study has two aims. The first is to describe distress and impairment in individuals with ARFID secondary to picky eating. The second is to determine whether eating behaviors hypothesized to be specific to picky eating can differentiate picky eaters with and without ARFID from typical eaters (e.g., individuals not reporting picky or disordered eating) and individuals who strongly endorse attitudes associated with anorexia and bulimia (eating disordered attitudes). Participants were recruited from Amazon's Mechanical Turk ( N = 325) and an online support group for adult picky eaters ( N = 81). Participants were grouped based on endorsement of picky eating, ARFID symptoms, and elevated eating disordered attitudes on the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26). The resulting four eating behavior groups were compared on measures of distress and impairment (e.g., anxiety/depression and, obsessive compulsive disorder symptoms, eating-related quality of life) and on measures of eating behaviors associated with picky eating (e.g., food neophobia, inflexibility about preparation and presentation of preferred foods, sensitivity to sensory stimuli, and eating from a very narrow range of foods). The groups were compared using one way ANOVA with post-hoc Tamhane's T2 tests. On measures of distress and impairment, participants with ARFID reported higher scores than both typical eaters and picky eaters without ARFID, and comparable scores to those with disordered eating attitudes. Three of four measures of picky eating behavior, eating inflexibility, food neophobia, and eating from a range of 20 or fewer foods, distinguished picky eaters with and without ARFID form typical eaters and those with disordered eating attitudes. Picky eaters with ARFID reported greater food neophobia and eating inflexibility
Toro, Josep; Guerrero, Marta; Sentis, Joan; Castro, Josefina; Puértolas, Carles
To study the prevalence of symptoms of eating disorders and risk eating behaviours and the relationship between life at a dance school and the risk of developing an eating disorder (ED) in an adolescent population of Spanish dance students. Questionnaires were used to assess attitudes to eating, cultural influences on the body shape model, eating disorders (DSM-IV) and risk factors for eating disorders in 76 adolescent dance students (age 12-17 years) at the Barcelona Theatre Institute. Subjects were compared with a community sample of 453 female adolescents. To study the relationship between ED and characteristics of this particular school, an original questionnaire was administered to 105 students at the school aged from 12 to 21 years. The prevalence of eating disorders and several risk attitudes and behaviours were similar in the dance students and the female adolescents from the general population. Students at risk of eating disorders perceived greater pressure from coaches concerning eating, appearance, weight and artistic performance; they felt less satisfied with their weight and weighed themselves more often; they avoided performing so as not to exhibit their body in public, disliked comparing their body with their peers and believed that audiences paid a great deal of attention to their bodies. In contrast, Body Mass Index (BMI) had hardly any influence on these experiences. Depressive symptoms were associated almost exclusively with experience of stressors and aversive situations. Dance school students do not necessarily present a greater risk of ED than other girls of the same age. The risk of ED may be associated with greater pressure from coaches, with attitudes related to the ED itself, or with depressive symptoms, rather than with the BMI.
Munn-Chernoff, Melissa A; Grant, Julia D; Agrawal, Arpana; Koren, Rachel; Glowinski, Anne L; Bucholz, Kathleen K; Madden, Pamela A F; Heath, Andrew C; Duncan, Alexis E
Although prior studies have demonstrated that depression is associated with an overeating-binge eating dimension (OE-BE) phenotypically, little research has investigated whether familial factors contribute to the co-occurrence of these phenotypes, especially in community samples with multiple racial/ethnic groups. We examined the extent to which familial (i.e., genetic and shared environmental) influences overlapped between Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and OE-BE in a population-based sample and whether these influences were similar across racial/ethnic groups. Participants included 3,226 European American (EA) and 550 African American (AA) young adult women from the Missouri Adolescent Female Twin Study. An adaptation of the Semi-Structured Assessment for the Genetics of Alcoholism (SSAGA) was administered to assess lifetime DSM-IV MDD and OE-BE. Quantitative genetic modeling was used to estimate familial influences between both phenotypes; all models controlled for age. The best-fitting model, which combined racial/ethnic groups, found that additive genetic influences accounted for 44% (95% CI: 34%, 53%) of the MDD variance and 40% (25%, 54%) for OE-BE, with the remaining variances due to non-shared environmental influences. Genetic overlap was substantial (rg = .61 [.39, .85]); non-shared environmental influences on MDD and OE-BE overlapped weakly (re = .26 [.09, .42]). Results suggest that common familial influences underlie MDD and OE-BE, and the magnitude of familial influences contributing to the comorbidity between MDD and OE-BE is similar between EA and AA women. If racial/ethnic differences truly exist, then larger sample sizes may be needed to fully elucidate familial risk for comorbid MDD and OE-BE across these groups. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Díaz-Marsá, Marina; Alberdi-Páramo, Iñigo; Niell-Galmés, Lluis
Eating disorders (EDs) are a series of differentiated nosological entities sharing the common link of a continuous alteration in food intake or in food intake-related behavior. Within this classification, the following disorders are noteworthy: anorexia nerviosa (AN) and bulimia nerviosa (BN). Anorexia nervosa is a chronic disorder characterized mainly by negative or decreased food intake accompanied by a distortion of body image and intense accompanying fear of weight gain. The estimated vital prevalence of this disorder in adolescence is approximately 0.5%-1%.1 The primary feature of BN is the presence of binge eating accompanied by compensatory behavior (in the form of intense exercise and the use of laxatives and diuretics, etc.). The prevalence of BN is estimated to be between 2% and 4% in young women, and it generally starts at somewhat later stages than AN. It is believed that biological, psychological, and environmental factors, as well as genetic vulnerability, influence the pathogenesis of EDs. A variety of therapies exist, both biological and psychological, whose effectiveness is supported by the scientific literature. Nonetheless, we find these therapies only partially effective and new targets as well as new treatments should be sought. Although the etiopathogenesis of EDs is unclear, some of the neurobiological dysfunction found suggests that diet and nutrient supplementation could be relevant in their treatment. We review in this article new treatments focusing on nutritional deficits.
Chaki, Biswajit; Pal, Sangita; Bandyopadhyay, Amit
Eating disorders are a range maladaptive eating behaviours characterized by highly restrictive and unhealthy food intake patterns that lead to variety of psychiatric, physiological and health complications such as depression, anxiety, and personality disorders etc. Many of these psychological eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa have been recognized as disease by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM IV) of American psychiatric association. How...
Full Text Available Carrie J McAdams,1,2 Whitney Smith1 1University of Texas at Southwestern Medical Center, 2Department of Psychiatry, Texas Health Presbyterian Hospital of Dallas, Dallas, TX, USA Abstract: Eating disorders are complex and serious psychiatric illnesses whose etiology includes psychological, biological, and social factors. Treatment of eating disorders is challenging as there are few evidence-based treatments and limited understanding of the mechanisms that result in sustained recovery. In the last 20 years, we have begun to identify neural pathways that are altered in eating disorders. Consideration of how these pathways may contribute to an eating disorder can provide an understanding of expected responses to treatments. Eating disorder behaviors include restrictive eating, compulsive overeating, and purging behaviors after eating. Eating disorders are associated with changes in many neural systems. In this targeted review, we focus on three cognitive processes associated with neurocircuitry differences in subjects with eating disorders such as reward, decision-making, and social behavior. We briefly examine how each of these systems function in healthy people, using Neurosynth meta-analysis to identify key regions commonly implicated in these circuits. We review the evidence for disruptions of these regions and systems in eating disorders. Finally, we describe psychiatric and psychological treatments that are likely to function by impacting these regions. Keywords: anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, social cognition, reward processing, decision-making
Smink, Frederique R. E.; van Hoeken, Daphne; Hoek, Hans W.
Purpose of reviewTo review the recent literature about the epidemiology, course, and outcome of eating disorders in accordance with the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5).Recent findingsThe residual category eating disorder not otherwise specified'
Raevuori, Anu; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna; Hoek, Hans W.
Purpose of review Research in eating disorders in males has been active lately compared to the past. This review aims to provide an overview of the recently published studies of eating disorders in males. Recent findings Publication of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th
Smink, Frederique R. E.; van Hoeken, Daphne; Hoek, Hans W.
Purpose of reviewTo review the recent literature about the epidemiology, course, and outcome of eating disorders in accordance with the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5).Recent findingsThe residual category eating disorder not otherwise specified'
Full Text Available Eating disorders are some of the most severe and destructive of all psychological conditions. They are associated with restricted capacities in cognitive, emotional, physical, and spiritual development. This paper provides an examination of the practical application of Christian spirituality as a force for recovery from an eating disorder. Specifically, it expounds the transformative potential in the spiritual qualities of hope, trust, acceptance, surrender, and courage underpinning engagement with evidence-based therapeutic models of care in eating disorder recovery.
This thesis deals with nutritional therapy for eating disorders. It explores whether nutritional therapy has an irreplaceable role in treatment of these disorders or whether nutritional therapy has a marginal effect. I describe general issues of eating disorders in a theoretical part of my thesis such as etiology, epidemiology, therapy and nutrition therapy. I composed educational handout about eating in a practical part of my thesis containing fundamental dietary recommendations, menu for un...
Murphy, Rebecca; Straebler, Suzanne; Cooper, Zafra; Fairburn, Christopher G.
Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is the leading evidence-based treatment for bulimia nervosa. A new ?enhanced? version of the treatment appears to be more potent and has the added advantage of being suitable for all eating disorders, including anorexia nervosa and eating disorder not otherwise specified. This article reviews the evidence supporting CBT in the treatment of eating disorders and provides an account of the ?transdiagnostic? theory that underpins the enhanced form of the treatme...
Jenkinson, Paul M; Taylor, Lauren; Laws, Keith R
An impairment of the ability to sense the physiological condition of the body - interoception - has long been proposed as central to the onset and maintenance of eating disorders. More recent attention to this topic has generally indicated the presence of interoceptive deficits in individuals with an eating disorder diagnosis; however, possible links with specific diagnosis, BMI, age, illness duration, depression, and alexithymia remain unclear from individual studies. This meta-analysis aimed to provide a necessary quantitative overview of self-reported interoceptive deficits in eating disorder populations, and the relationship between these deficits and the previously mentioned factors. Using a random effects model, our meta-analysis assessed the magnitude of differences in interoceptive abilities as measured using the Eating Disorder Inventory in 41 samples comparing people with eating disorders (n = 4308) and healthy controls (n = 3459). Follow-up and moderator analysis was conducted, using group comparisons and meta-regressions. We report a large pooled effect size of 1.62 for eating disorders with some variation between diagnostic groups. Further moderator analysis showed that BMI, age and alexithymia were significant predictors of overall effect size. This meta-analysis is the first to confirm that large interoceptive deficits occur in a variety of eating disorders and crucially, in those who have recovered. These deficits may be useful in identifying and distinguishing eating disorders. Future research needs to consider both objective and subjective measures of interoception across different types of eating disorders and may fruitfully examine interoception as a possible endophenotype and target for treatment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tomotake, Masahito; Ohmori, Tetsuro
The present review focused on the personality profiles of patients with eating disorders. Studies using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R Personality Disorder showed high rates of diagnostic co-occurrence between eating disorders and personality disorders. The most commonly observed were histrionic, obsessive-compulsive, avoidant, dependent and borderline personality disorders. Studies using the Cloninger’s personality theory suggested that high Harm Avoidance might be relevant ...
Preti, Antonio; Usai, Ambra; Miotto, Paola; Petretto, Donatella Rita; Masala, Carmelo
Fashion models are thought to be at an elevated risk for eating disorders, but few methodologically rigorous studies have explored this assumption. We have investigated the prevalence of eating disorders in a group of 55 fashion models born in Sardinia, Italy, comparing them with a group of 110 girls of the same age and of comparable social and cultural backgrounds. The study was based on questionnaires and face-to-face interviews, to reduce the bias due to symptom under-reporting and to social desirability responding. When compared on three well-validated self-report questionnaires (the EAT, BITE, BAT), the models and controls did not differ significantly. However, in a detailed interview (the Eating Disorder Examination), models reported significantly more symptoms of eating disorders than controls, and a higher prevalence of partial syndromes of eating disorders was found in models than in controls. A body mass index below 18 was found for 34 models (54.5%) as compared with 14 controls (12.7%). Three models (5%) and no controls reported an earlier clinical diagnosis of anorexia nervosa. Further studies will be necessary to establish whether the slight excess of partial syndromes of eating disorders among fashion models was a consequence of the requirement in the profession to maintain a slim figure or if the fashion modeling profession is preferably chosen by girls already oriented towards symptoms of eating disorders, since the pressure to be thin imposed by this profession can be more easily accepted by people predisposed to eating disorders.
Hayaki, Jumi; Free, Sarah
Deficits in emotion regulation are known to characterize disordered eating patterns including binge eating, purging, and dietary restraint, though much of this work has been conducted exclusively on women. Eating expectancies, or expectations regarding reinforcement from food and eating, constitute one cognitive mechanism that is thought to serve as a proximal influence on eating behavior. Previous research shows that eating to manage negative affect (a negative eating expectancy) is associated with eating pathology in women, but less is known about eating as a reward or for pleasure (a positive eating expectancy). In addition, no prior work has examined eating expectancies among men. This study examines the role of emotion regulation and eating expectancies on disordered eating in women and men. Participants were 121 female and 80 male undergraduates who completed self-report measures of emotion regulation, eating expectancies, and disordered eating. In women, body mass index (BMI), emotion regulation, and eating to manage negative affect directly predicted disordered eating in the final multivariate model, whereas eating for pleasure or reward was inversely associated with disordered eating. However, in men, emotion regulation predicted disordered eating, but not when eating expectancies were added to the model. In the final model, only BMI and eating to manage negative affect contributed significantly to the variance in disordered eating. These findings suggest that some correlates of eating pathology, particularly eating expectancies, may vary by gender. Future research should continue to examine gender differences in the explanatory mechanisms underlying disordered eating. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lähteenmäki, Sini; Saarni, Suoma; Suokas, Jaana; Saarni, Samuli; Perälä, Jonna; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Suvisaari, Jaana
This study investigated the epidemiology of eating disorders in a population-based sample of young adults. A mental health questionnaire was sent to a nationally representative two-stage cluster sample of 1863 Finns aged 20-35 years. All screen-positives and a random sample of screen-negatives were invited to participate in a Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I) interview. Case records from all lifetime mental health treatments were also obtained and were used to complement the diagnostic assessment. The lifetime prevalence of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, eating disorder not otherwise specified and any eating disorder among women were 2.1%, 2.3%, 2.0% and 6.0%, respectively, while there was only one man with an eating disorder. Unlike other mental disorders, they are associated with high education. Of women diagnosed with lifetime eating disorder, 67.9% had at least one comorbid Axis I psychiatric disorder, most commonly depressive disorder. While 79.3% of women with lifetime eating disorder had had a treatment contact, only one third of persons with current eating disorder had a current treatment contact. Women whose eating disorder had remitted still experienced more psychological distress and had lower psychosocial functioning that women without lifetime Axis I disorders. Eating disorders are the fourth largest group of mental disorders among young women. They tend to be comorbid, often remain untreated and are associated with residual symptoms after the remission of eating disorder symptoms.
Smith, April R; Forrest, Lauren N; Velkoff, Elizabeth A; Ribeiro, Jessica D; Franklin, Joseph
The current study tested whether people with and without eating disorders (EDs) varied in their implicit attitudes toward ED-relevant stimuli. Additionally, the study tested whether implicit evaluations of ED-relevant stimuli predicted ED symptoms and behaviors over a 4-week interval. Participants were people without EDs (N = 85) and people seeking treatment for EDs (N = 92). All participants completed self-report questionnaires and a version of the affect misattribution procedure (AMP) at baseline. The AMP indexed implicit evaluations of average body stimuli, eating stimuli, and ED-symptom stimuli. Participants with EDs completed weekly follow-up measures of ED symptoms and behaviors for 4 weeks. Contrary to predictions, the anorexia nervosa (AN) group did not differ from the no ED group on implicit attitudes toward ED-symptom stimuli, and the bulimia nervosa (BN) group had less positive implicit attitudes toward ED-symptom stimuli relative to the no ED group. In line with predictions, people with AN and BN had more negative implicit attitudes toward average body and eating stimuli relative to the no ED group. In addition, among the ED group more negative implicit attitudes toward eating stimuli predicted ED symptoms and behaviors 4 weeks later, over and above baseline ED symptoms and behaviors. Taken together, implicit evaluations of eating stimuli differentiated people with AN and BN from people without EDs and longitudinally predicted ED symptoms and behaviors. Interventions that increase implicit liking of eating-related stimuli may reduce ED behaviors. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available The treatment guideline draws on several international guidelines: (iPractice Guidelines of the American Psychiatric Association (APAfor the Treatment of Patients with Major Depressive Disorder, SecondEdition;(ii Clinical Guidelines for the Treatment of DepressiveDisorders by the Canadian Psychiatric Association and the CanadianNetwork for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT;(iiiNational Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE guidelines;(iv RoyalAustralian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists Clinical PracticeGuidelines Team for Depression (RANZCAP;(v Texas MedicationAlgorithm Project (TMAP Guidelines;(vi World Federation ofSocieties of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP Treatment Guideline forUnipolar Depressive Disorder;and (vii British Association forPsychopharmacology Guidelines.[7
Katie M O'Brien
Full Text Available Anorexia and bulimia nervosa may have long-term effects on overall and reproductive health. We studied predictors of self-reported eating disorders and associations with later health events. We estimated odds ratios (ORs for these associations in 47,759 participants from the Sister Study. Two percent (n = 967 of participants reported a history of an eating disorder. Risk factors included being non-Hispanic white, having well-educated parents, recent birth cohort (OR = 2.16, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.01-2.32 per decade, and having a sister with an eating disorder (OR = 3.68, CI: 1.92-7.02. As adults, women who had experienced eating disorders were more likely to smoke, to be underweight, to have had depression, to have had a later first birth, to have experienced bleeding or nausea during pregnancy, or to have had a miscarriage or induced abortion. In this descriptive analysis, we identified predictors of and possible long-term health consequences of eating disorders. Eating disorders may have become more common over time. Interventions should focus on prevention and mitigation of long-term adverse health effects.
Full Text Available Obesity and depression represent a growing health concern worldwide. For many years, basic science and medicine have considered obesity as a metabolic illness, while depression was classified a psychiatric disorder. Despite accumulating evidence suggesting that obesity and depression may share commonalities though, the causal link between eating and mood disorders remains to be fully understood. This etiology is highly complex, consisting of multiple environmental and genetic risk factors that interact with each other. In this review, we sought to summarize the preclinical and clinical evidence supporting a common etiology for eating and mood disorders, with a particular emphasis on signaling pathways involved in the maintenance of energy balance and mood stability, among which orexigenic and anorexigenic neuropeptides, metabolic factors, stress responsive hormones, cytokines and neurotrophic factors.
Eiber, R; Vera, L; Mirabel-Sarron, C; Guelfi, J-D
Eating disorder patients evidenced very often a low self-esteem. Self-esteem in eating disorder patients is excessively based on body dissatisfaction. In eating disorders there seems to be a link between body image dissatisfaction and social anxiety. We hypothesised: self-esteem would be as low in eating disorder patients as in social phobia patients; self-esteem would be lower in eating disorder patients with social phobia than in patients with social phobia alone; self-esteem would be lower in eating disorder patients with depressive cognitions than in social phobia patients with depressive cognitions; self-esteem could have different characteristics in the two disorders; self-esteem would be as low in anorexia as in bulimia; 103 eating disorder patients (33 restrictive anorectics, 34 anorectics-bulimics, 36 bulimics) and 26 social phobia patients diagnosed according to DSM IV and ICD-10 criteria have been investigated by the Self-Esteem Inventory of Coopersmith, the Assertiveness Schedule of Rathus, the Fear Survey Schedule of Wolpe (FSS III) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Patients were free of medication and presented no episode of major depression according to DSM IV criteria. Evaluations took place before any psychotherapy. Self-esteem in eating disorder patients is reduced at the same level as in social phobia patients; 86.1% of the total sample and 84.5% of the eating disorder patients have a very low self-esteem (score 33 in the SEI). Eating disorder patients have significantly higher scores in the Social (p=0.016) and Professional (p=0.0225) sub-scales of the SEI than social phobia patients. Eating disorder patients show higher scores on the Assertiveness Schedule of Rathus (p=0.0013) than social phobia patients. Eating disorder patients disclose higher scores on the BDI (p=0.0003) but eating disorder patients with depressive cognitions do not differ from social phobia patients with depressive cognitions in the level of self-esteem. The FSS III
Claes, Laurence; Bijttebier, Patricia; Mitchell, James E; de Zwaan, Martina; Mueller, Astrid
The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between compulsive buying (CB), eating disorder symptoms, and temperament (controlling for depression) in a sample of female students. We assessed 211 female undergraduate students using the Compulsive Buying Scale, the Eating Disorder Inventory, the Behavioral Inhibition System and Behavioral Activation System scales, the Adult Temperament Questionnaire, and the Physical Health Questionnaire-Depression. The results show a positive association between CB and the Eating Disorder Inventory-II drive for thinness and bulimia subscales. Both CB and eating disorder symptoms were related to low levels of effortful control. Finally, CB was also related to high levels of Behavioral Activation Scale reactivity (impulsivity), whereas eating disorder symptoms (especially drive for thinness) were more strongly related to high levels of Behavioral Inhibition Scale reactivity (anxiety). The implications of these findings for the treatment of CB and eating disorder symptoms will be discussed. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
van Strien, Tatjana; Konttinen, Hanna; Homberg, Judith R; Engels, Rutger C M E; Winkens, Laura H H
Depression is often associated with weight gain but underlying mechanisms are unclear. This study assessed whether three psychological eating styles (emotional eating, external eating and restrained eating) act as mediators between depression and weight gain. We used structural equation modelling to test the hypothesized mediation models in a sample of 298 fathers and 294 mothers by assessing self-reported eating styles (Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire), depressive feelings (Depressive Mood List) and body mass index (BMI) at baseline and BMI after five years. In the model with emotional eating we also assessed the moderation effect of 5-HTTLPR genotype in a sub-sample of 520 Caucasians. All analyses were performed separately for the two sexes. Although the overall effect of depression on weight gain was statistically non-significant in both sexes, there was a causal chain between depression, emotional eating and weight gain in the mothers. Depressive symptoms were related to higher emotional eating and emotional eating predicted greater increases in BMI independently of depression. Moreover, the indirect effect (via emotional eating) of depression on BMI change was significant (Beta = 0.18, P = 0.026). This mediation effect was found to be independent of 5-HTTLPR genotype. No such mediation effect was found for the fathers. Further, external eating and restrained eating did not act as mediators between depression and weight gain in either sex. The finding that emotional eating acted as mediator between depression and weight gain in the mothers suggests that obesity interventions should take emotional eating into account. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bernardi, Fabiana; Harb, Ana Beatriz Cauduro; Levandovski, Rosa Maria; Hidalgo, Maria Paz Loayza
Este artigo tem como objetivo revisar aspectos relacionados a transtornos alimentares e suas relações com as alterações no ritmo circadiano. Realizou-se uma busca sistematizada das informações nas bases de dados PubMed usando os seguintes descritores: eating disorders, circadian rhythm, night eating syndrome, binge eating disorder e sleep patterns. Os transtornos alimentares, como a síndrome do comer noturno e o transtorno da compulsão alimentar periódica, têm sido considerados e relacionados...
Full Text Available Eating disorders should be understood in a multidimensional perspective, emphasizing a biopsicossocial context. In these pathologies it`s the body, in the first instance, that reveals the disease, being in this way the target of the conflict, revealing a disturbed body experience and as a consequence a weak conception of their personal body image. The body image is conceptualised as a subjective image that the individuals form in their own mind, about their body, in relation with differ- ent contexts of life. The intent of the studies is to comprehend the level of body image disturbance, which have concluded that in the majority of the cases, significant changes on perceptive capacity of the patients do not exist. In this way it`s important to study in a more effective and qualitative way the affective and personal factors. The authors pretend with this bibliographic revision, make a research of body image assessment to the Eating Disorders (Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa, and to reflect which are the best ones to adapt for Portuguese reality.
Full Text Available The research aims to establish the main characteristics of subjects prone to compulsive overeating (experimental group, EG, and the differences between them and the girls who are not prone to any kind of eating disorders (control group, CG. The results of the research are in accordance with the expectations. Girls from the EG exhibit personality characteristics which are signifficantly different from the girls in the CG. These characteristics may be either possible predispositions for development of overeating, or they may already be the consequences of the girls' struggles with overeating and their perception of being overweight. The responses given by the girls from the EG confirm the generaly accepted characteristics of overeating individuals. It can be said that the girls from the ES show the pre-clinical picture of overeating, while some of them have already developed the clinical picture. The results of the research strongly support the view that overeating must be defined as a form of eating disorder just as important as anorexia and bulimia nervosa.
Larsen, Pernille Stemann; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Micali, Nadia; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo
After participating in this activity, learners should be better able to: Evaluate the evidence regarding parental and child characteristics related to early-onset disordered eating. Eating disorders are rare in children, but disordered eating is common. Understanding the phenomenology of disordered eating in childhood can aid prevention of full-blown eating disorders. The purpose of this review is to systematically extract and synthesize the evidence on parental and child characteristics related to early-onset disordered eating. Systematic searches were conducted in PubMED/MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycInfo using the following search terms: eating disorder, disordered eating, problem eating, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating, child, preadolescent, and early onset. Studies published from 1990 to 2013 addressing parental and child characteristics of disordered eating in children aged 6 to 12 years were eligible for inclusion. The search was restricted to studies with cross-sectional, case-control, or longitudinal designs, studies in English, and with abstracts available. Forty-four studies fit these criteria. Most studies were based on community samples with a cross-sectional design. The included studies varied considerably in size, instruments used to assess early-onset disordered eating, and parental and child characteristics investigated. Important determinants included the following: higher body weight, previously reported disordered eating, body dissatisfaction, depression, parental disordered eating, and parental comments/concerns about child's weight and eating. The findings were inconsistent for sex, age, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, self-esteem/worth, and parental body weight. In conclusion, characteristics related to early-onset disordered eating have mainly been explored with a cross-sectional design. Full understanding of causal pathways will require good-quality longitudinal studies designed to address the influence of parental eating
Full Text Available Objective: Extensive research has implicated identification with characters in mass media in the emergence of disordered eating behavior in adolescents. We explored the possible influence of the models offered by television (TV on adolescents’ body image, body uneasiness, eating-disordered behavior, depression, and anxiety. Methods: Three hundred and one adolescents (aged 14-19 from southern Italy participated. They completed a questionnaire on media exposure and body dissatisfaction, the Eating Disorder Inventory-2, the Body Uneasiness Test, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory – Form Y. Results: The main factors contributing to females’ eating-disordered behaviors were their own desires to be similar to TV characters, the amount of reality and entertainment TV they watched, and the discrepancy between their perceptions of their bodies and those of TV characters. Friends’ desire to be similar to TV characters contributed most to depression, anxiety, body uneasiness, and eating disorders for both males and females. Conclusion: Our data confirm that extensive watching of reality and entertainment TV correlates with eating-disordered behavior among females. Moreover, the well-known negative effects of the media on adolescents’ eating-disordered behaviors may also be indirectly transmitted by friends who share identification with TV characters.
Barcaccia, Barbara; Balestrini, Viviana; Saliani, Angelo M; Baiocco, Roberto; Mancini, Francesco; Schneider, Barry H
Extensive research has implicated identification with characters in mass media in the emergence of disordered eating behavior in adolescents. We explored the possible influence of the models offered by television (TV) on adolescents' body image, body uneasiness, eating-disordered behavior, depression, and anxiety. Three hundred and one adolescents (aged 14-19) from southern Italy participated. They completed a questionnaire on media exposure and body dissatisfaction, the Eating Disorder Inventory-2, the Body Uneasiness Test, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory - Form Y. The main factors contributing to females' eating-disordered behaviors were their own desires to be similar to TV characters, the amount of reality and entertainment TV they watched, and the discrepancy between their perceptions of their bodies and those of TV characters. Friends' desire to be similar to TV characters contributed most to depression, anxiety, body uneasiness, and eating disorders for both males and females. Our data confirm that extensive watching of reality and entertainment TV correlates with eating-disordered behavior among females. Moreover, the well-known negative effects of the media on adolescents' eating-disordered behaviors may also be indirectly transmitted by friends who share identification with TV characters.
Describes bulimia, a disorder involving binge eating and purging increasingly prevalent in young women. Reviews the literature and describes symptoms, etiological factors, and treatment considerations and approaches for the disorder. (Author)
... of the American Dietetic Association. 2011:111:1236. Gabbard GO, ed. Evidence-based psychological treatments for eating disorders. In: Gabbard's Treatments of Psychiatric Disorders. 5th ed. Arlington, Va.: ...
Radziwiłłowicz, Wioletta; Czarniak, Katarzyna
Objectives: Studies of development psychopathology and psychia try have shown that personality variables are greatly associated with eating disorders. Sociotropy and autonomy may be features that facilitate the occurrence and persistence of the eating disturbances. Theoretical framework for own research was mainly the A. Beck’s concept of autonomy and sociotropy. The aim of the study was to answer the research question whether a person suffering from an eating disorder is characterized by ...
Davidsen, Annika Helgadóttir; Poulsen, Stig; Lindschou, Jane
-generated allocation sequence concealed to the investigators. One-hundred and 59 adult participants, diagnosed with bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, or eating disorder not otherwise specified according to DSM-IV, were included. Eighty participants were allocated to the experimental group, and 79 participants...
Binge eating disorder (BED), a chronic condition characterized by eating disorder psychopathology and physical and social disability, represents a significant public health problem. Guided self-help (GSH) treatments for BED appear promising and may be more readily disseminable to mental health care providers, accessible to patients, and…
In this review we synthesised current literature on the psychopharmacological management of eating disorders (EDs) in children and adolescents (C&As). We focus specifically on anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED). The treatment of EDs is determined by physical and ...
Tromp, Marilou Dp; Donners, Anouk Amt; Garssen, Johan; Verster, Joris C
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between eating disorders, body mass index (BMI), sleep disorders, and daytime functioning. DESIGN: Survey. SETTING: The Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS: N=574 Dutch young adults (18-35 years old). MEASUREMENTS: Participants completed a survey on eating and sleep
Derenne, Jennifer L.; Beresin, Eugene V.
Objective: Eating disorders, including obesity, are a major public health problem today. Throughout history, body image has been determined by various factors, including politics and media. Exposure to mass media (television, movies, magazines, Internet) is correlated with obesity and negative body image, which may lead to disordered eating. The…
Madsen, Ida Ringsborg; Hørder, Kirsten; Støving, René Klinkby
Eating disorder during pregnancy is associated with a diversity of adverse outcomes and is of potential danger to both mother and child. There is, however, a tendency for remission of the eating disorder during pregnancy with improvement of symptoms such as restrictive dieting, binging and purgin...
Papp, Ildikó; Szumska, Irena; Túry, Ferenc
The binge eating disorder is a relatively new type of eating disorders, which was first described in 1992, and became a distinct nosological entity in the system of DSM-5 in 2013. Its central symptom is the binge, which is not followed by compensatory behaviours as in bulimia nervosa. Therefore, the patients are generally obese. The prevalence of the disorder is 1-3% in the general population, but much higher in help-seeking obese subjects. The two main goals of the therapy is body weight reduction, and the cessation of binges. In the pharmacotherapy of binge eating disorder the antidepressants are recommended mainly in the case of unsuccessful psychotherapy, and in treating comorbid depression. In the field of psychotherapy data are available mainly on the effectiveness of cognitive behavioural therapy, dialectic behaviour therapy, behavioural weight loss, and interpersonal therapy. Effectivity studies on new therapeutic methods and treatment combinations are needed as well as long term follow-up studies.
Sousa, Paula; Bastos, Ana Pinto; Venâncio, Carla; Vaz, Ana Rita; Brandão, Isabel; Costa, José Maia; Machado, Paulo; Conceição, Eva
Depressive symptoms have been reported as prevalent after bariatric surgery. This study aims to analyze the role of weight, eating behaviors and body image in depressive symptomatology in bariatric surgery patients assessed post-operatively. This is a cross-sectional study including 52 bariatric surgery patients assessed post-operatively with a follow-up time ranging from 22 to 132 months. Psychological assessment included a clinical interview (Eating Disorder Examination) to assess eating disorders psychopathology, and three self-report measures: Outcome Questionnaire 45--general distress; Beck Depression Inventory--depressive symptoms; and Body Shape Questionnaire--body image. Our data show that depressive symptoms after surgery are associated with loss of control over eating, increased concerns with body image, and body mass index regain. Multiple linear regressions was tested including these variables and showed that body mass index regain after surgery, loss of control over eating and concerns with body image significantly explained 50% of the variance of post-operative depressive symptoms, being the concern with body image the most significant variable: greater dissatisfaction with body image was associated with more depressive symptoms. The results of this study showed that a subgroup of patients presents a significant weight gain after bariatric surgery, which is associated with episodes of loss of control over eating, concerns with body image and depressive symptoms. These results stress the relevance of body image concerns after surgery and the importance of clinically addressing these issues to optimize psychological functioning after bariatric surgery.
Zerwas, Stephanie; Larsen, Janne Tidselbak; Petersen, Liselotte; Thornton, Laura M; Quaranta, Michela; Koch, Susanne Vinkel; Pisetsky, David; Mortensen, Preben Bo; Bulik, Cynthia M
Identifying factors associated with risk for eating disorders is important for clarifying etiology and for enhancing early detection of eating disorders in primary care. We hypothesized that autoimmune and autoinflammatory diseases would be associated with eating disorders in children and adolescents and that family history of these illnesses would be associated with eating disorders in probands. In this large, nationwide, population-based cohort study of all children and adolescents born in Denmark between 1989 and 2006 and managed until 2012, Danish medical registers captured all inpatient and outpatient diagnoses of eating disorders and autoimmune and autoinflammatory diseases. The study population included 930 977 individuals (48.7% girls). Cox proportional hazards regression models and logistic regression were applied to evaluate associations. We found significantly higher hazards of eating disorders for children and adolescents with autoimmune or autoinflammatory diseases: 36% higher hazard for anorexia nervosa, 73% for bulimia nervosa, and 72% for an eating disorder not otherwise specified. The association was particularly strong in boys. Parental autoimmune or autoinflammatory disease history was associated with significantly increased odds for anorexia nervosa (odds ratio [OR] = 1.13, confidence interval [CI] = 1.01-1.25), bulimia nervosa (OR = 1.29; CI = 1.08-1.55) and for an eating disorder not otherwise specified (OR = 1.27; CI = 1.13-1.44). Autoimmune and autoinflammatory diseases are associated with increased risk for eating disorders. Ultimately, understanding the role of immune system disturbance for the etiology and pathogenesis of eating disorders could point toward novel treatment targets. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Lahortiga-Ramos, Francisca; De Irala-Estévez, Jokin; Cano-Prous, Adrián; Gual-García, Pilar; Martínez-González, Miguel Angel; Cervera-Enguix, Salvador
To estimate the overall annual incidence and age group distribution of eating disorders in a representative sample of adolescent female residents of Navarra, Spain. We studied a representative sample of 2734 adolescent Navarran females between 13 and 22 years of age who were free of any eating disorder at the start of our study. Eighteen months into the study, we visited the established centers and the eating attitudes test (EAT-40) and eating disorder inventory (EDI) Questionnaires were administered to the entire study population. We obtained a final response of 92%. All adolescents whose EAT score was over 21 points and a randomized sample of those who scored 21 or below, were interviewed. Any person meeting the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for Anorexia Nervosa (AN), Bulimia Nervosa (BN) or eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) was considered a case. We detected 90 new cases of eating disorders. Taking into consideration the randomly selected group whose EAT score was 21 points or below, we estimated the overall weighted incidence of eating disorders to be 4.8% (95% CI: 2.8-6.8), after 18 months of observation, in which EDNOS predominated with an incidence of 4.2% (95% CI: 2.0-6.3). The incidence of AN was 0.3% (95% CI: 0.2-0.5), while that of BN was also found to be 0.3% (95% CI: 0.2-0.5). The highest incidence was observed in the group of adolescents between 15 and 16 years of age. The overall incidence of ED in a cohort of 2509 adolescents after 18 months of follow-up was 4.8% (95% CI: 2.8-6.8), with EDNOS outweighing the other diagnoses. The majority of new cases of eating disorders were diagnosed between ages 15 and 16.
Full Text Available ... Disorder (3 items) Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders (9 items) Panic Disorder (1 item) Post-Traumatic Stress ... Disorder (3 items) Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders (9 items) Panic Disorder (1 item) Post-Traumatic Stress ...
Full Text Available ... Autism (13 items) Bipolar Disorder (2 items) Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders (9 ... Autism (13 items) Bipolar Disorder (2 items) Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders (9 ...
Full Text Available ... Autism (13 items) Bipolar Disorder (2 items) Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders ( ... Autism (13 items) Bipolar Disorder (2 items) Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders ( ...
Full Text Available ... Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders (9 items) Panic Disorder (1 item) Post- ... Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders (9 items) Panic Disorder (1 item) Post- ...
... health illnesses Alcoholism, substance abuse, and addictive behavior Anxiety disorders Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder Bipolar disorder (manic depressive illness) Borderline personality disorder Depression Eating disorders Post-traumatic ...
Field, Alison E; Sonneville, Kendrin R; Micali, Nadia; Crosby, Ross D; Swanson, Sonja A; Laird, Nan M; Treasure, Janet; Solmi, Francesca; Horton, Nicholas J
Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa (BN) are rare, but eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS) are relatively common among female participants. Our objective was to evaluate whether BN and subtypes of EDNOS are predictive of developing adverse outcomes. This study comprised a prospective analysis of 8594 female participants from the ongoing Growing Up Today Study. Questionnaires were sent annually from 1996 through 2001, then biennially through 2007 and 2008. Participants who were 9 to 15 years of age in 1996 and completed at least 2 consecutive questionnaires between 1996 and 2008 were included in the analyses. Participants were classified as having BN (≥ weekly binge eating and purging), binge eating disorder (BED; ≥ weekly binge eating, infrequent purging), purging disorder (PD; ≥ weekly purging, infrequent binge eating), other EDNOS (binge eating and/or purging monthly), or nondisordered. BN affected ∼1% of adolescent girls; 2% to 3% had PD and another 2% to 3% had BED. Girls with BED were almost twice as likely as their nondisordered peers to become overweight or obese (odds ratio [OR]: 1.9 [95% confidence interval: 1.0-3.5]) or develop high depressive symptoms (OR: 2.3 [95% confidence interval: 1.0-5.0]). Female participants with PD had a significantly increased risk of starting to use drugs (OR: 1.7) and starting to binge drink frequently (OR: 1.8). PD and BED are common and predict a range of adverse outcomes. Primary care clinicians should be made aware of these disorders, which may be underrepresented in eating disorder clinic samples. Efforts to prevent eating disorders should focus on cases of subthreshold severity.
Kessing, Lars Vedel; Hansen, Hanne Vibe; Demyttenaere, Koen
of the patients (40-80%) had erroneous views as to the effect of antidepressants. Older patients (over 40 years of age) consistently had a more negative view of the doctor-patient relationship, more erroneous ideas concerning the effect of antidepressants and a more negative view of antidepressants in general....... Moreover, their partners agreed on these negative views. Women had a more negative view of the doctor-patient relationship than men, and patients with a depressive disorder had a more negative view of antidepressants than patients with bipolar disorder. The number of psychiatric hospitalizations......BACKGROUND: There is increasing evidence that attitudes and beliefs are important in predicting adherence to treatment and medication in depressive and bipolar disorders. However, these attitudes have received little study in patients whose disorders were sufficiently severe to require...
Harney, Megan B.; Fitzsimmons-Crafr, Ellen E.; Maldonado, Christine R.; Bardone-Cone, Anna M.
The purpose of this study was to examine a collection of negative affect symptoms in relation to stages of eating disorder recovery. Depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, loneliness, and perceived stress are known to be present in individuals with eating disorders; however, less is known about the presence of such constructs throughout the recovery process. Does this negative affect fog continue to linger in individuals who have recovered from an eating disorder? Female participants seen at some point for an eating disorder at a primary care clinic were categorized into one of three groups using a stringent definition of eating disorder recovery based on physical, behavioral, and psychological criteria: active eating disorder (n =53), partially recovered (n =15; psychological criteria not met), and fully recovered (n =20; all recovery criteria met). Additionally, data were obtained from 67 female controls who had no history of an eating disorder. Self-report data indicated that controls and women fully recovered from an eating disorder scored significantly lower than partially recovered and active eating disorder groups in perceived stress, depression, and anxiety. Controls and the fully recovered group were statistically indistinguishable from each other in these domains, as were the partially recovered and active eating disorder groups, suggesting an interesting divide depending on whether psychological criteria (e.g., normative levels of weight/shape concern) were met. In contrast, controls and fully recovered and partially recovered groups all reported feeling significantly less lonely relative to those with an active eating disorder suggesting that improved perceptions of interpersonal, social support may act as a stepping stone toward more comprehensive eating disorder recovery. Future research may want to longitudinally determine if an increase in actual or perceived social support facilitates the movement toward full recovery and whether this, in turn, has
Harney, Megan B; Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E; Maldonado, Christine R; Bardone-Cone, Anna M
The purpose of this study was to examine a collection of negative affect symptoms in relation to stages of eating disorder recovery. Depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, loneliness, and perceived stress are known to be present in individuals with eating disorders; however, less is known about the presence of such constructs throughout the recovery process. Does this negative affect fog continue to linger in individuals who have recovered from an eating disorder? Female participants seen at some point for an eating disorder at a primary care clinic were categorized into one of three groups using a stringent definition of eating disorder recovery based on physical, behavioral, and psychological criteria: active eating disorder (n=53), partially recovered (n=15; psychological criteria not met), and fully recovered (n=20; all recovery criteria met). Additionally, data were obtained from 67 female controls who had no history of an eating disorder. Self-report data indicated that controls and women fully recovered from an eating disorder scored significantly lower than partially recovered and active eating disorder groups in perceived stress, depression, and anxiety. Controls and the fully recovered group were statistically indistinguishable from each other in these domains, as were the partially recovered and active eating disorder groups, suggesting an interesting divide depending on whether psychological criteria (e.g., normative levels of weight/shape concern) were met. In contrast, controls and fully recovered and partially recovered groups all reported feeling significantly less lonely relative to those with an active eating disorder suggesting that improved perceptions of interpersonal functioning and social support may act as a stepping stone toward more comprehensive eating disorder recovery. Future research may want to longitudinally determine if an increase in actual or perceived social support facilitates the movement toward full recovery and whether this
Warren, M P; Voussoughian, F; Geer, E B; Hyle, E P; Adberg, C L; Ramos, R H
Because the exact etiology of functional, or idiopathic, hypothalamic amenorrhea (FHA) is still unknown, FHA remains a diagnosis of exclusion. The disorder may be stress induced. However, mounting evidence points to a metabolic/nutritional insult that may be the primary causal factor. We explored the thyroid, hormonal, dietary, behavior, and leptin changes that occur in FHA, as they provide a clue to the etiology of this disorder. Fourteen cycling control and amenorrheic nonathletic subjects were matched for age, weight, and height. The amenorrheic subjects denied eating disorders; only after further, detailed questioning did we uncover a higher incidence of anorexia and bulimia in this group. The amenorrheic subjects demonstrated scores of abnormal eating twice those found in normal subjects (P < 0.05), particularly bulimic type behavior (P < 0.01). They also expended more calories in aerobic activity per day and had higher fiber intakes (P < 0.05); lower body fat percentage (P < 0.05); and reduced levels of free T4 (P < 0.05), free T3 (P < 0.05), and total T4 (P < 0.05), without a significant change in rT3 or TSH. Cortisol averaged higher in the amenorrheics, but not significantly, whereas leptin values were significantly lower (P < 0.05). Bone mineral density was significantly lower in the wrist (P < 0.05), with a trend to lower BMD in the spine (P < 0.08). Scores of emotional distress and depression did not differ between groups. The alterations in eating patterns, leptin levels, and thyroid function present in subjects with FHA suggest altered nutritional status and the suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis or the alteration of feedback set-points in women with FHA. Both lower leptin and thyroid levels parallel changes seen with caloric restriction. Nutritional issues, particularly dysfunctional eating patterns and changes in thyroid metabolism, and/or leptin effects may also have a role in the metabolic signals suppressing GnRH secretion and
Full Text Available Gabriela Morgado de Oliveira Coelho,1 Ainá Innocencio da Silva Gomes,2 Beatriz Gonçalves Ribeiro,2 Eliane de Abreu Soares11Nutrition Institute, Rio de Janeiro State University, Maracanã, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; 2Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Macaé Campus, Granja dos Cavaleiros, Macaé, BrazilAbstract: Eating disorders are serious mental diseases that frequently appear in female athletes. They are abnormal eating behaviors that can be diagnosed only by strict criteria. Disordered eating, although also characterized as abnormal eating behavior, does not include all the criteria for diagnosing eating disorders and is therefore a way to recognize the problem in its early stages. It is important to identify factors to avoid clinical progression in this high-risk population. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to discuss critical information for the prevention of eating disorders in female athletes. This review discusses the major correlates for the development of an eating disorder. We also discuss which athletes are possibly at highest risk for eating disorders, including those from lean sports and female adolescent athletes. There is an urgent need for the demystification of myths surrounding body weight and performance in sports. This review includes studies that tested different prevention programs' effectiveness, and the majority showed positive results. Educational programs are the best method for primary prevention of eating disorders. For secondary prevention, early identification is essential and should be performed by preparticipation exams, the recognition of dietary markers, and the use of validated self-report questionnaires or clinical interviews. In addition, more randomized clinical trials are needed with athletes from multiple sports in order for the most reliable recommendations to be made and for some sporting regulations to be changed.Keywords: nutrition, disordered eating, sport, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa
Arzu Onal Sonmez
Full Text Available Eating disorders are relatively common and serious disorders in adolescent and pre-adolescent age. The aim of this review is to update new findings related with mostly seen feeding and eating disorders in child and adolescents. The article focuses specifically on anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2017; 9(3.000: 301-316
HALMI, KATHERINE A.
The treatment of eating disorders is based on a multimodal model, recognizing that these disorders do not have a single cause or a predictable course. The treatment strategy is determined by the severity of illness and the specific eating disorder diagnosis. For the treatment of anorexia nervosa, the key elements are medical management, behavioral therapy, cognitive therapy and family therapy, while pharmacotherapy is at best an adjunct to other therapies. In bulimia nervosa...
Roberto, Christina A.; Grilo, Carlos M.; Masheb, Robin M.; White, Marney A.
Objective This study aimed to compare bulimia nervosa (BN), binge eating disorder (BED), and purging disorder (PD) on clinically significant variables and examine the utility of once versus twice-weekly diagnostic thresholds for disturbed eating behaviors. Method 234 women with BN, BED, or PD were identified through self-report measures via an online survey and categorized based on either once-weekly or twice-weekly disturbed eating behaviors. Results BN emerged as a more severe disorder than BED and PD. The three groups differed significantly in self-reported restraint and disinhibition and the BN and BED groups reported higher levels of depression than PD. For BN, those engaging in behaviors twice-weekly versus once-weekly were more symptomatic. Discussion The BN, BED, and PD groups differed in clinically meaningful ways. Future research need to clarify the relationship between mood disturbances and eating behaviors. Reducing the twice-weekly behavior threshold for BN would capture individuals with clinically significant eating disorders, though the twice-weekly threshold may provide important information about disorder severity for both BN and BED. PMID:19862702
Horesh, N; Sommerfeld, E; Wolf, M; Zubery, E; Zalsman, G
Mother-daughter relationship was the focus of studies on the development of eating disorders (ED) for many years. This study aimed to examine the association between the father-daughter relationship and ED and depressive symptoms. Fifty-three women diagnosed with ED were compared to a psychiatric control group (n=26) and to healthy participants (n=60) regarding their perception of their fathers and the relationship with them. Assessments were done using the Parental Bonding Instrument, the Eating Disorders Questionnaire, the Body Shape Questionnaire, the Eating Attitude Test, and the Beck Depression Inventory as well as narrative-based methods. Fathers' negative attributes were significantly associated with ED and depressive symptom. Two profiles of father-daughter relationship were found, the "caring and benevolent" relationship and the "overprotective and avoidant" one. In the latter, patients displayed significantly higher levels of food-restraint, more concerns about eating and about their body shape and appearance, and higher levels of depression. Negative perception of the father's parenting style as well as the quality of the relationship with him are crucial for the understanding of the development and persistence of ED. Therapeutic programs for ED should focus not only on the relationship with the mother but must also address the relationship with the father. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Perpiñá, Conxa; Roncero, María; Belloch, Amparo; Sánchez-Reales, Sergio
The aims of this study were, first, to examine the structure and validity of the Eating-related Intrusive Thoughts Inventory (INPIAS), a self-report questionnaire designed to assess eating disorders related to intrusive thoughts (EDITs), and second, to explore the existence of a continuum ranging from normal to abnormal thought intrusions related to eating, weight, and shape. Participants were 574 (408 women) nonclinical community individuals. Analyses revealed that EDITs can be clustered into three sets: appearance-dieting, need to exercise, and thoughts-impulses related to eating disorders. EDITs' consequences showed a two-factor structure: emotional consequences/personal meaning and thought-action fusion responsibility; and four factors of strategies: "anxiety," suppression, obsessive-compulsive rituals, and distraction. The sample was then divided according to reported restrained eating. The High dietary restraint group reported a higher frequency of EDITs, whereas differences in the other factors were mediated by depression, anxiety, and obsessionality. The results suggest that eating disorder-related cognitions are experienced by nonclinical individuals, and distributed on a continuum.
Zerwas, Stephanie; Larsen, Janne Tidselbak; Petersen, Liselotte
higher hazards of eating disorders for children and adolescents with autoimmune or autoinflammatory diseases: 36% higher hazard for anorexia nervosa, 73% for bulimia nervosa, and 72% for an eating disorder not otherwise specified. The association was particularly strong in boys. Parental autoimmune...... or autoinflammatory disease history was associated with significantly increased odds for anorexia nervosa (odds ratio [OR] = 1.13, confidence interval [CI] = 1.01-1.25), bulimia nervosa (OR = 1.29; CI = 1.08-1.55) and for an eating disorder not otherwise specified (OR = 1.27; CI = 1.13-1.44). CONCLUSIONS: Autoimmune...
Eichen, Dawn M; Matheson, Brittany E; Appleton-Knapp, Sara L; Boutelle, Kerri N
Recent research has highlighted executive function and neurocognitive deficits among individuals with eating and weight disorders, identifying a potential target for treatment. Treatments targeting executive function for eating and weight disorders are emerging. This review aims to summarize the recent literature evaluating neurocognitive/executive function-oriented treatments for eating and weight disorders and highlights additional work needed in this area. Cognitive remediation therapy (CRT) for anorexia nervosa has been the most extensively studied neurocognitive treatment for eating disorders. Results demonstrate that CRT improves executive function and may aid in the reduction of eating disorder symptomatology. Computer training programs targeting modifying attention and increasing inhibition are targeting reduction of binge eating and weight loss with modest success. Neurocognitive treatments are emerging and show initial promise for eating and weight disorders. Further research is necessary to determine whether these treatments can be used as stand-alone treatments or whether they need to be used as an adjunct to or in conjunction with other evidence-based treatments to improve outcomes.
Kenny, Therese E; Van Wijk, Megan; Singleton, Christopher; Carter, Jacqueline C
Although studies on sleep difficulties in binge eating disorder (BED) have produced inconsistent findings, research has linked poor sleep to the presence of related concerns (e.g., obesity, anxiety, and depression). To clarify the relationship between BED and sleep problems, this study aimed to compare insomnia symptoms in individuals with BED and those with no history of an eating disorder (NED). An adult community sample of individuals with BED (N = 68) and NED (N = 78) completed measures of insomnia, depression and anxiety, and eating disorder symptoms. Individuals with BED reported significantly greater insomnia symptoms than the NED group. The relationship between BED and insomnia symptoms was partially mediated by anxiety. Depression fully mediated the positive association between insomnia symptom severity and binge frequency in the BED group. These findings suggest that depression, anxiety, and sleep are important constructs to consider in BED development and presentation. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.
Full Text Available Twin studies of eating disorders (anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating are reviewed. Historically, eating disorders (ED was viewed as a disorders primarily inﬂuenced by sociocultural factors, however, over the past decade, this perception has been challenged. Twin studies demonstrate that genetic factors significantly influence the risk for ED and substantially contribute to the observed association between ED and other disorders and personal traits (major depression, anxiety disorders, substance use disorders, perfectionism. Among environmental factors nonshared (unique environment plays the main role, except of early puberty.
van Hoeken, Daphne; Burns, Jonathan K.; Hoek, Hans W.
Purpose of reviewThis is the first review of studies on the epidemiology of eating disorders on the African continent.Recent findingsThe majority of articles found through our search did not assess formal diagnoses, but only screened for eating attitudes and behaviors. Only four studies - including
van Hoeken, Daphne; Burns, Jonathan K.; Hoek, Hans W.
Purpose of reviewThis is the first review of studies on the epidemiology of eating disorders on the African continent.Recent findingsThe majority of articles found through our search did not assess formal diagnoses, but only screened for eating attitudes and behaviors. Only four studies - including
Burckes-Miller, Mardie E.; Black, David R.
A review of research regarding athletes' eating habits suggests that they may practice eating disorder habits and poor weight management behaviors as well as have poor attitudes and knowledge regarding nutrition, indicating their immediate need for appropriate education about the possible detrimental effects of such practices. (CB)
Kuipers, Greet S; van Loenhout, Zara; van der Ark, L Andries; Bekker, Marrie H J
To investigate the relationships of attachment security and mentalization with core and co-morbid symptoms in eating disorder patients. We compared 51 eating disorder patients at the start of intensive treatment and 20 healthy controls on attachment, mentalization, eating disorder symptoms, depression, anxiety, personality disorders, psycho-neuroticism, autonomy problems and self-injurious behavior, using the Adult Attachment Interview, the SCID-I and II and several questionnaires. Compared with the controls, the eating disorder patients showed a higher prevalence of insecure attachment; eating disorder patients more often than controls received the AAI classification Unresolved for loss or abuse. They also had a lower level of mentalization and more autonomy problems. In the patient group eating disorder symptoms, depression, anxiety, psycho-neuroticism and autonomy problems were neither related to attachment security nor to mentalization; self-injurious behavior was associated with lesser attachment security and lower mentalization; borderline personality disorder was related to lower mentalization. In the control group no relations were found between attachment, mentalization and psychopathologic variables. Eating disorder patients' low level of mentalization suggests the usefulness of Mentalization Based Treatment techniques for eating disorder treatment, especially in case of self-injurious behavior and/or co-morbid borderline personality disorder.
Brody, Michelle L; Masheb, Robin M; Grilo, Carlos M
The current study examined the treatment preferences of obese patients with binge eating disorder (BED). Participants were 103 consecutive patients with BED who responded to advertisements for treatment studies looking for persons who wanted to "stop binge eating and lose weight." In addition to completing comprehensive assessment batteries, participants were provided descriptions of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and behavioral weight loss therapy (BWL) after which they were asked to choose and rate their preferred treatment. Sixty-three percent of participants stated they preferred CBT. Treatment preferences were not associated with (1) histories of obesity, dieting, binge eating, or weight cycling, (2) current obesity or eating disorder features, or (3) psychological features such as depression or self-esteem levels. In contrast, participants' stated treatment preferences were aligned with their perception of their primary problem (eating disorder vs. obesity) and their primary goals for treatment (stop binge eating vs. lose weight). The patients who preferred CBT based their treatment selection more on their problem perception than on their primary treatment goal, whereas the patients who preferred BWL selected treatment based more on their primary treatment goal (weight loss) than on their problem perception. Obese patients with BED express treatment preferences that are not associated with variability in their clinical characteristics but are aligned with their perception of their primary problem and with their primary goals for treatment. Copyright 2005 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc
Binge eating disorder (BED) is the most common eating disorder, with an estimated lifetime prevalence of 2.6% among U.S. adults, yet often goes unrecognized. In the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), BED is defined by recurrent episodes of binge eating (eating in a discrete period of time an amount of food larger than most people would eat in a similar amount of time under similar circumstances and a sense of lack of control over eating during the episode), occurring on average at least once a week for 3 months, and associated with marked distress. It can affect both men and women, regardless if they are at normal weight, overweight, or obese, and regardless of their ethnic or racial group. Psychiatric comorbidities are very common, with 79% of adults with BED also experiencing anxiety disorders, mood disorders, impulse control disorders, or substance use disorders; almost 50% of persons with BED have ≥ 3 psychiatric comorbidities. Multiple neurobiological explanations have been proffered for BED, including dysregulation in reward center and impulse control circuitry, with potentially related disturbances in dopamine neurotransmission and endogenous μ-opioid signaling. Additionally, there is interplay between genetic influences and environmental stressors. Psychological treatments such as cognitive behavioral interventions have been recommended as first line and are supported by meta-analytic reviews. Unfortunately, routine medication treatments for anxiety and depression do not necessarily ameliorate the symptoms of BED; however, at present, there is one approved agent for the treatment of moderate to severe BED-lisdexamfetamine, a stimulant that was originally approved for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
Smink, Frédérique R E; van Hoeken, Daphne; Hoek, Hans W
To review the recent literature about the epidemiology, course, and outcome of eating disorders in accordance with the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). The residual category 'eating disorder not otherwise specified' (EDNOS) was the most common DSM-IV eating disorder diagnosis in both clinical and community samples. Several studies have confirmed that the DSM-5 criteria for eating disorders effectively reduce the proportion of EDNOS diagnoses. The lifetime prevalence of DSM-5 anorexia nervosa among women might be up to 4%, and of bulimia nervosa 2%. In a cross-national survey, the average lifetime prevalence of binge eating disorder (BED) was 2%. Both anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are associated with increased mortality. Data on long-term outcome, including mortality, are limited for BED. Follow-up studies of BED are scarce; remission rates in randomized controlled trials ranged from 19 to 65% across studies. On a community level, 5-year recovery rates for DSM-5 anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are 69 and 55%, respectively; little is known about the course and outcome of BED in the community. Applying the DSM-5 criteria effectively reduces the frequency of the residual diagnosis EDNOS, by lowering the threshold for anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, and adding BED as a specified eating disorder. Course and outcome studies of both anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa show that no significant differences exist between DSM-5 and DSM-IV definitions.
Zaider, Talia I.; Johnson, Jeffrey G.; Cockell, Sarah J.
Conducted a prospective longitudinal study to investigate whether anxiety, depressive, personality, or substance abuse disorders increase risk for onset of bulimia nervosa (BN) or binge eating disorder (BED) during adolescence. Findings for 201 adolescents suggest that adolescents with chronic depressive symptoms may be at elevated risk for the…
Enten, Roni S; Golan, Moria
Our objective was to investigate the association between parenting style and eating disorder symptoms in patients treated in an intensive outpatient center for eating disorders. The study design is a cross-sectional survey set in a community-based facility for eating disorders. Participants included 53 families, including 32 with a child meeting the DSM-IV criteria for anorexia nervosa, 18 for bulimia nervosa, and 3 diagnosed ED-NOS. Data was collected using the Parental Authority Questionnaire (PAQ), the Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2) and the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26). Significant, negative correlations were found between drive for thinness scores and body dissatisfaction scores and the patient's perception of the father as authoritative. Total patient EDI score was significantly and positively correlated with patient's perception of the father as authoritarian and inversely correlated with her perception of him as authoritative. These results emphasize the importance of fathers' role in the eating disorder pathology, a relatively untapped area of research.
Full Text Available Objective. Arguing that additional symptoms should be added to the criteria for atypical depression. Method. Published research articles on atypical depression are reviewed. Results. (1 The original studies upon which the criteria for atypical depression were based cited fatigue, insomnia, pain, and loss of weight as characteristic symptoms. (2 Several studies of DSM depressive criteria found patients with atypical depression to exhibit high levels of insomnia, fatigue, and loss of appetite/weight. (3 Several studies have found atypical depression to be comorbid with headaches, bulimia, and body image issues. (4 Most probands who report atypical depression meet criteria for “somatic depression,” defined as depression associated with several of disordered eating, poor body image, headaches, fatigue, and insomnia. The gender difference in prevalence of atypical depression results from its overlap with somatic depression. Somatic depression is associated with psychosocial measures related to gender, linking it with the descriptions of atypical depression as “reactive” appearing in the studies upon which the original criteria for atypical depression were based. Conclusion. Insomnia, disordered eating, poor body image, and aches/pains should be added as criteria for atypical depression matching criteria for somatic depression defining a reactive depressive disorder possibly distinct from endogenous melancholic depression.
Silverstein, Brett; Angst, Jules
Objective. Arguing that additional symptoms should be added to the criteria for atypical depression. Method. Published research articles on atypical depression are reviewed. Results. (1) The original studies upon which the criteria for atypical depression were based cited fatigue, insomnia, pain, and loss of weight as characteristic symptoms. (2) Several studies of DSM depressive criteria found patients with atypical depression to exhibit high levels of insomnia, fatigue, and loss of appetite/weight. (3) Several studies have found atypical depression to be comorbid with headaches, bulimia, and body image issues. (4) Most probands who report atypical depression meet criteria for "somatic depression," defined as depression associated with several of disordered eating, poor body image, headaches, fatigue, and insomnia. The gender difference in prevalence of atypical depression results from its overlap with somatic depression. Somatic depression is associated with psychosocial measures related to gender, linking it with the descriptions of atypical depression as "reactive" appearing in the studies upon which the original criteria for atypical depression were based. Conclusion. Insomnia, disordered eating, poor body image, and aches/pains should be added as criteria for atypical depression matching criteria for somatic depression defining a reactive depressive disorder possibly distinct from endogenous melancholic depression.
Tasca, Giorgio A
Prominent models of eating disorders tend to focus on cognitive and behavioral features, but tend not to consider important developmental issues related to affect regulation, interpersonal style, self concept, and mentalization-all of which are well conceptualized within attachment theory. Higher levels of attachment insecurity across diagnoses are related to greater eating disorder symptoms. Low parental care and early trauma may lead to attachment insecurity that then might lead to greater eating disorder symptoms. The association between insecure attachment and eating disorder severity is likely mediated by affect dysregulation and perfectionism. Recent research using the Adult Attachment Interview highlights the importance of reflective functioning in predicting treatment response and therapeutic processes, and on the utility of therapies that increase mentalization. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Vanesa Carina Góngora
Full Text Available The interest for the systematic study of personality disorder in patients with eating disorders starts in 1980 with the edition of the DSM III multiaxial classification system. Since then, several publications have been focused on the prevalence and the effect on treatment of personality disorders in bulimic and anorexic patients. These researches showed inconsistent results due to conceptual and methodological divergences. In this paper, the more relevant findings of these studies are presented and the possible sources of discrepancy are analyzed. In general, there is a moderate comorbidity between personality disorders and eating disorders. The most frequent disorders are borderline, histrionic, obsessive-compulsive, dependent and avoidant personality disorders. Borderline and histrionic personality disorders are more frequently associated with bulimia, whereas avoidant and obsessive- compulsive personality disorders are more characteristic of anorexia nervosa. Nevertheless, the effect of the relationship between eating disorders and personality disorders in treatment remains uncertain, giving raise to several controversies and researches.
Schousboe, Birgitte Hartvig
Mennesker med Binge Eating Disorder indtager større mængder mad uden at være sultne. Overspisningen kan dulme svære følelser, men medfører typisk ekstremt ubehag og skam. Mennesker, der lider af spiseforstyrrelsen Binge Eating Disorder (i daglig tale kaldet BED), har ofte problemer med overvægt, og...
Amianto, Federico; Ercole, Roberta; Marzola, Enrica; Abbate Daga, Giovanni; Fassino, Secondo
The present study explores how parents' personality clusters relate to their eating disordered daughters' personality and psychopathology. Mothers and fathers were tested with the Temperament Character Inventory. Their daughters were assessed with the following: Temperament and Character Inventory, Eating Disorder Inventory-2, Symptom Checklist-90, Parental Bonding Instrument, Attachment Style Questionnaire, and Family Assessment Device. Daughters' personality traits and psychopathology scores were compared between clusters. Daughters' features were related to those of their parents. Explosive/adventurous mothers were found to relate to their daughters' borderline personality profile and more severe interoceptive awareness. Mothers' immaturity was correlated to their daughters' higher character immaturity, inadequacy, and depressive feelings. Fathers who were explosive/methodic correlated with their daughters' character immaturity, severe eating, and general psychopathology. Fathers' character immaturity only marginally related to their daughters' specific features. Both parents' temperament clusters and mothers' character clusters related to patients' personality and eating psychopathology. The cluster approach to personality-related dynamics of families with an individual affected by an eating disorder expands the knowledge on the relationship between parents' characteristics and daughters' illness, suggesting complex and unique relationships correlating parents' personality traits to their daughters' disorder. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Alvarenga, M S; Koritar, P; Pisciolaro, F; Mancini, M; Cordás, T A; Scagliusi, F B
The objective was to compare eating attitudes, conceptualized as beliefs, thoughts, feelings, behaviors and relationship with food, of anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED) patients and a group of obese (OBS) without eating disorders (ED). Female patients from an Eating Disorder (ED) Unit with AN (n=42), BN (n=52) and BED (n=53) and from an obesity service (n=37) in Brazil answered the Disordered Eating Attitude Scale (DEAS) which evaluate eating attitudes with 5 subscales: relationship with food, concerns about food and weight gain, restrictive and compensatory practices, feelings toward eating, and idea of normal eating. OBS patients were recruited among those without ED symptoms according to the Binge Eating Scale and the Questionnaire on Eating and Weight Patterns. ANOVA was used to compare body mass index and age between groups. Bonferroni test was used to analyze multiple comparisons among groups. AN and BN patients presented more dysfunctional eating attitudes and OBS patients less dysfunctional (peating." BED patients were worst than OBS for "Relationship with food" and as dysfunctional as AN patients - besides their behavior could be considered the opposite. Differences and similarities support a therapeutic individualized approach for ED and obese patients, call attention for the theoretical differences between obesity and ED, and suggest more research focused on eating attitudes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nash, J.; Skinner, T. C.
There is some debate in the literature as to whether there is an increased risk of developing eating disorders in individuals with type 1 diabetes. This review located 12 empirical studies of eating pathology in females with type 1 diabetes. Review of these papers indicates...... that there is no evidence for an increase in the rates of anorexia or bulimia, in females with type 1 diabetes. However, the data do suggest that eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS) are more prevalent in individuals with type 1 diabetes. Key features of these articles are reviewed and discussed....
Anderson, Lisa M; Reilly, Erin E; Schaumberg, Katherine; Dmochowski, Sasha; Anderson, Drew A
Mindful eating and intuitive eating are promoted as means to circumvent potentially maladaptive dietary restraint while maintaining a healthy weight. Although theoretically related, no studies have examined the correlations between intuitive eating, mindful eating, and restraint in the same sample. This study sought to examine these constructs and their correlations with body mass index (BMI), eating-disordered behaviors, and meal consumption in a college sample. Participants (N = 125) completed a laboratory taste-test meal and measures of each eating-related construct using the EDDS, IES, MEQ, and TFEQ-Restraint Subscale. Mindful eating, intuitive eating, and restraint were not strongly correlated. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated that restraint and intuitive eating accounted for significant variance in disordered eating and BMI. Elevated restraint was associated with increased BMI and disordered eating; elevated intuitive eating was associated with decreased BMI and disordered eating. Mindful eating did not correlate with any outcome variables. Follow-up analyses suggested that specific intuitive eating subscales accounted for unique variance in the relation between intuitive eating and disordered eating. Intuitive eating was the only construct that was significantly associated with meal consumption. Intuitive eating and restraint appear to be only weakly correlated, and each is differentially associated with meal consumption. Mindful eating does not appear to relate to outcome variables.
Agnieszka Maria Bień
Full Text Available Introduction. Nutrition is one of the fundamental human needs, which allows for the proper functioning of the body. Nowadays, people are increasingly turning attention to the type and quantity of food intake, in order to preserve health and slim. Rigorous adherence to the principles of nutrition only healthy meals can lead to disorder orthorexia nervosa, which can lead to many complications (such as weight loss, vitamin deficiencies and mineral, hormonal disorders, psychological problems. The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of eating disorders such orthorexia nervosa in women of childbearing age and to check whether there is a relationship between the occurrence of eating disorders and a global orientation of life of respondents. Material and method. The study included 280 women aged between 18 and 35 years old who voluntarily joined the study. The study used the questionnaire technique, consisting of the author's questionnaire and standardized research tools (ORTO-15 Questionnaire, the SCOFF Eating Disorders Questionnaire and the Sense of Coherence Scale SOC-29. Results. After conducting these studies found an association between the occurrence of eating disorders such as orthorexia nervosa to religion, and between type of eating disorder anorexia and bulimia and marital status, and body mass index (BMI. It was also shown that the lower the overall level of sense of coherence and its components is more common in individuals at risk of developing anorexia or bulimia. Conclusion. There is a relationship between the occurrence of eating disorders such as orthorexia nervosa to religion. There is a relationship between the occurrence of eating disorders such as anorexia and bulimia marital status and body mass index of women.
Mustelin, L; Hedman, A M; Thornton, L M; Kuja-Halkola, R; Keski-Rahkonen, A; Cantor-Graae, E; Almqvist, C; Birgegård, A; Lichtenstein, P; Mortensen, P B; Pedersen, C B; Bulik, C M
The risk of certain psychiatric disorders is elevated among immigrants. To date, no population studies on immigrant health have addressed eating disorders. We examined whether risk of eating disorders in first- and second-generation immigrants differs from native-born Danes and Swedes. All individuals born 1984-2002 (Danish cohort) and 1989-1999 (Swedish cohort) and residing in the respective country on their 10th birthday were included. They were followed up for the development of eating disorders based on out-patient and in-patient data. The risks of all eating disorder types were lower among first-generation immigrants compared to the native populations: Incidence-rate ratio (95% confidence interval) was 0.39 (0.29, 0.51) for anorexia nervosa, 0.60 (0.42, 0.83) for bulimia nervosa, and 0.62 (0.47, 0.79) for other eating disorders in Denmark and 0.27 (0.21, 0.34) for anorexia nervosa, 0.30 (0.18, 0.51) for bulimia nervosa, and 0.39 (0.32, 0.47) for other eating disorders in Sweden. Likewise, second-generation immigrants by both parents were at lower risk, whereas those with only one foreign-born parent were not. The decreased risk of eating disorders among immigrants is opposite to what has been observed for other psychiatric disorders, particularly schizophrenia. Possible explanations include buffering sociocultural factors and underdetection in health care. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Gerbasi, Margaret E.; Richards, Lauren K.; Thomas, Jennifer J.; Agnew-Blais, Jessica C.; Thompson-Brenner, Heather; Gilman, Stephen E.; Becker, Anne E.
Objective The increasing global health burden imposed by eating disorders warrants close examination of social exposures associated with globalization that potentially elevate risk during the critical developmental period of adolescence in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The study aim was to investigate the association of peer influence and perceived social norms with adolescent eating pathology in Fiji, a LMIC undergoing rapid social change. Method We measured peer influence on eating concerns (with the Inventory of Peer Influence on Eating Concerns; IPIEC), perceived peer norms associated with disordered eating and body concerns, perceived community cultural norms, and individual cultural orientations in a representative sample of school-going ethnic Fijian adolescent girls (n=523). We then developed a multivariable linear regression model to examine their relation to eating pathology (measured by the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire; EDE-Q). Results We found independent and statistically significant associations between both IPIEC scores and our proxy for perceived social norms specific to disordered eating (both p disordered eating may elevate risk for disordered eating in Fiji, during the critical developmental period of adolescence. Replication and extension of these research findings in other populations undergoing rapid social transition—and where globalization is also influencing local social norms—may enrich etiologic models and inform strategies to mitigate risk. PMID:25139374
Gerbasi, Margaret E; Richards, Lauren K; Thomas, Jennifer J; Agnew-Blais, Jessica C; Thompson-Brenner, Heather; Gilman, Stephen E; Becker, Anne E
The increasing global health burden imposed by eating disorders warrants close examination of social exposures associated with globalization that potentially elevate risk during the critical developmental period of adolescence in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The study aim was to investigate the association of peer influence and perceived social norms with adolescent eating pathology in Fiji, a LMIC undergoing rapid social change. We measured peer influence on eating concerns (with the Inventory of Peer Influence on Eating Concerns; IPIEC), perceived peer norms associated with disordered eating and body concerns, perceived community cultural norms, and individual cultural orientations in a representative sample of school-going ethnic Fijian adolescent girls (n = 523). We then developed a multivariable linear regression model to examine their relation to eating pathology (measured by the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire; EDE-Q). We found independent and statistically significant associations between both IPIEC scores and our proxy for perceived social norms specific to disordered eating (both p peer influence as well as perceived social norms relevant to disordered eating may elevate risk for disordered eating in Fiji, during the critical developmental period of adolescence. Replication and extension of these research findings in other populations undergoing rapid social transition--and where globalization is also influencing local social norms--may enrich etiologic models and inform strategies to mitigate risk. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Larsen, Pernille Stemann; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Micali, Nadia
the following: higher body weight, previously reported disordered eating, body dissatisfaction, depression, parental disordered eating, and parental comments/concerns about child's weight and eating. The findings were inconsistent for sex, age, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, self-esteem/worth, and parental......-four studies fit these criteria. Most studies were based on community samples with a cross-sectional design. The included studies varied considerably in size, instruments used to assess early-onset disordered eating, and parental and child characteristics investigated. Important determinants included...
Verri, A P; Verticale, M S; Vallero, E; Bellone, S; Nespoli, L
The media, mainly TV, play a significant social and cultural role and may affect the prevalence and incidence of eating disorders such as bulimia and anorexia nervosa. Their influence acts mainly by favoring a tall and thin body as the only fashionable for female adolescents: your social success depends primarily and totally by your physical appearance and you can, (and must), shape your body as you like better. Our research aims t analyze the attitude of adolescent people toward the TV and to investigate on: 1) time spent watching TV programs; 2) the influence of TV on the personal choices of goods to buy; 3) the ideal body images; 4) choice of TV programs. Sixty-seven healthy adolescents (36 F-31 M) were included in our study as controls together with 24 female adolescents with eating disorders (DCA) diagnosed according to the DSM-IV and EAT/26 criteria. Our results show a psychological dependence of DCA adolescents from the TV (longer period of time spent watching TV programs, buying attitudes more influenced by TV advertising). The thin and tall body image is preferred by the DCA girls as well as by the controls; however the body appearance and proportions have a predominant and utmost importance only for the eating disorder females. The masculine subjects instead have a preference for a female and masculine opulent body appearance. To prevent the observed increase in prevalence and incidence of eating disorders among adolescents, it is appropriate to control the messages, myths and false hood propagated by media, TV in particular.
Cartwright, Martina M
Eating disorders are maladaptive eating behaviors that typically develop in adolescence and early adulthood. Psychiatric maladies and comorbid conditions, especially insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, frequently co-exist with eating disorders. Serious medical complications affecting all organs and tissues can develop and result in numerous emergent hospitalizations. This article reviews the pathophysiologies of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and orthorexia nervosa and discusses the complexities associated with the treatment of medical complications seen in these patients.
Alfonsson, Sven; Parling, Thomas; Ghaderi, Ata
The aim of the present study was to assess whether behavioral activation (BA) is an efficacious treatment for decreasing eating disorder symptoms in patients with obesity and binge eating disorder (BED). Ninety-six patients with severe obesity and BED were randomized to either 10 sessions of group BA or wait-list control. The study was conducted at an obesity clinic in a regular hospital setting. The treatment improved some aspects of disordered eating and had a positive effect on depressive symptoms but there was no significant difference between the groups regarding binge eating and most other symptoms. Improved mood but lack of effect on binge eating suggests that dysfunctional eating (including BED) is maintained by other mechanisms than low activation and negative mood. However, future studies need to investigate whether effects of BA on binge eating might emerge later than at post-assessment, as in interpersonal psychotherapy for bulimia nervosa. © The Author(s) 2014.
The primary objective of this review of literature was to examine the relationship of eating disorders and disordered eating among female collegiate athletes. Since the institution of Title IX in 1972, the Educational Amendment to the Civil Rights Act of 1964, female participation in sports has been consistently rising at all levels of…
Schaumberg, Katherine; Welch, Elisabeth; Breithaupt, Lauren; Hübel, Christopher; Baker, Jessica H; Munn-Chernoff, Melissa A; Yilmaz, Zeynep; Ehrlich, Stefan; Mustelin, Linda; Ghaderi, Ata; Hardaway, Andrew J; Bulik-Sullivan, Emily C; Hedman, Anna M; Jangmo, Andreas; Nilsson, Ida A K; Wiklund, Camilla; Yao, Shuyang; Seidel, Maria; Bulik, Cynthia M
In 2015, the Academy for Eating Disorders collaborated with international patient, advocacy, and parent organizations to craft the 'Nine Truths About Eating Disorders'. This document has been translated into over 30 languages and has been distributed globally to replace outdated and erroneous stereotypes about eating disorders with factual information. In this paper, we review the state of the science supporting the 'Nine Truths'. The literature supporting each of the 'Nine Truths' was reviewed, summarized and richly annotated. Most of the 'Nine Truths' arise from well-established foundations in the scientific literature. Additional evidence is required to further substantiate some of the assertions in the document. Future investigations are needed in all areas to deepen our understanding of eating disorders, their causes and their treatments. The 'Nine Truths About Eating Disorders' is a guiding document to accelerate global dissemination of accurate and evidence-informed information about eating disorders. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.
Maguen, Shira; Hebenstreit, Claire; Li, Yongmei; Dinh, Julie V; Donalson, Rosemary; Dalton, Sarah; Rubin, Emma; Masheb, Robin
To develop a primary care eating disorder screen with greater accuracy and greater potential for generalizability, compared to existing screens. Cross-sectional survey to assess discriminative accuracy of a new screen, Screen for Disordered Eating (SDE), compared to Eating Disorders Screen for Primary Care (EDS-PC) and SCOFF screener, using prevalence rates of Binge Eating Disorder (BED), Bulimia Nervosa (BN), Anorexia Nervosa (AN), and Any Eating Disorder (AED), as measured by the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q). The SDE correctly classified 87.2% (CI: 74.3%-95.2%) of BED cases, all cases of BN and AN, and 90.5% (CI: 80.4%-96.4%) of AED cases. Sensitivity estimates were higher than the SCOFF, which correctly identified 69.6% (CI: 54.2%-82.3%) of BED, 77.8% (CI: 40.0%-97.2%) of BN, 37.5% (CI: 8.52%-75.5%) of AN, and 66.1% (CI: 53%-77.7%) of AED. While the EDS-PC had slightly higher sensitivity than the SDE, the SDE had better specificity. The SDE outperformed the SCOFF in classifying true cases, the EDS-PC in classifying true non-cases, and the EDS-PC in distinguishing cases from non-cases. The SDE is the first screen, inclusive of BED, valid for detecting eating disorders in primary care. Findings have broad implications to address eating disorder screening in primary care settings. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Lazarevich, Irina; Irigoyen Camacho, María Esther; Velázquez-Alva, María Del Consuelo; Zepeda Zepeda, Marco
Depressive symptoms are often associated with obesity, and emotional eating may play a considerable role in weight gain. This study aimed to examine the association among depression symptoms, emotional eating, and body mass index (BMI) in Mexican college students; and to assess emotional eating as mediator between depressive symptoms and BMI. A total of 1453 students at a public university in Mexico City completed the scale Self-Efficacy in Emotion- and Stress- Related Eating of the Eating and Appraisal Due to Emotions and Stress Questionnaire (EADES) to assess emotional eating, and the scale created by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies (CES-D) to identify depressive symptoms. Weight and height were measured to calculate BMI. Structural equation models (SEM) were used to assess emotional eating as mediator between depressive symptoms and BMI by sex. Depressive symptoms were associated with emotional eating in both men (Beta = -0.33, p obesity prevention and treatment strategies applied to young adults. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nagel, Deborah L.; Black, David R.; Leverenz, Larry J.; Coster, Daniel C.
Objective: To develop a screening test to detect female college athletes with eating disorders/disordered eating (ED/ DE). No validated eating disorder screening tests specifically for athletes have been available. Design and Setting: In this cross-sectional study, subjects from a large midwestern university completed 3 objective tests and a structured diagnostic interview. Measurements: A new test, developed and pilot tested by the researchers (Athletic Milieu Direct Questionnaire, AMDQ), and 2 tests normed for the general population (Eating Disorder Inventory-2, Bulimia Test-Revised) were used to identify ED/DE athletes. A structured, validated, diagnostic interview (Eating Disorder Examination, version 12.OD) was used to determine which test was most effective in screening female college athletes. Subjects: Subjects included 149 female athletes, ages 18 to 25 years, from 11 Division I and select club sports. Results: ED/DE subjects (35%) were found in almost every sport. Of the ED/DE subjects, 65% exhibited disordered eating, 25% were bulimic, 8% were classified as eating disordered not otherwise specified (NOS), and 2% were anorexic. The AMDQ more accurately identified ED/DE than any test or combination of items. The AMDQ produced superior results on 7 of 9 epidemiologic analyses; sensitivity was 80% and specificity was 77%, meaning that it correctly classified approximately 4 of every 5 persons who were truly exhibiting an eating disorder or disordered eating. Conclusions: We recommend that the AMDQ subsets, which met statistical criteria, be used to screen for ED/DE to enable early identification of athletes at the disordered eating or NOS stage and to initiate interventions before the disorder progresses. PMID:16558658
Full Text Available Laura A Berner,1 Kelly C Allison2 1Department of Psychology, Drexel University, 2Department of Psychiatry, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: Night eating syndrome (NES is a form of disordered eating associated with evening hyperphagia (overeating at night and nocturnal ingestions (waking at night to eat. As with other forms of disordered eating, cognitive and behavioral treatment modalities may be effective in reducing NES symptoms. This review presents evidence for a variety of behavioral treatment approaches, including behavioral therapy, phototherapy, behavioral weight loss treatment, and cognitive-behavioral therapy. A more detailed overview of cognitive-behavioral therapy for NES is provided. All of these studies have been case studies or included small samples, and all but one have been uncontrolled, but the outcomes of many of these approaches are promising. Larger randomized controlled trials are warranted to advance NES treatment literature. With the inclusion of NES in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5 as a “Feeding or Eating Disorder Not Elsewhere Classified,” more sophisticated, empirically-supported, behaviorally-based treatment approaches are much needed. Keywords: night eating syndrome, cognitive-behavioral treatment, phototherapy, behavioral weight loss, behavior therapy
Full Text Available Marilou DP Tromp,1 Anouk AMT Donners,1 Johan Garssen,1,2 Joris C Verster1,31Division of Pharmacology, Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands; 2Nutricia Research, Utrecht, the Netherlands; 3Center for Human Psychopharmacology, Swinburne University, Melbourne, VIC, AustraliaObjective: To investigate the relationship between eating disorders, body mass index (BMI, sleep disorders, and daytime functioning.Design: Survey.Setting: The Netherlands.Participants: N=574 Dutch young adults (18–35 years old.Measurements: Participants completed a survey on eating and sleep habits including the Eating Disorder Screen for Primary care (ESP and SLEEP-50 questionnaire subscales for sleep apnea, insomnia, circadian rhythm disorder (CRD, and daytime functioning. SLEEP-50 outcomes of participants who screened negative (≤2 and positive (>2 on the ESP were compared. In addition, SLEEP-50 scores of groups of participants with different ESP scores (0–4 and different BMI groups (ie, underweight, healthy weight, overweight, and obese were compared using nonparametric statistics.Results: Almost 12% (n=67 of participants screened positive for having an eating disorder. Relative to participants without eating disorders, participants who screened positive for eating disorders reported significantly higher scores on sleep apnea (3.7 versus 2.9, P=0.012, insomnia (7.7 versus 5.5, P<0.0001, CRD (2.9 versus 2.3, P=0.011, and impairment of daytime functioning (8.8 versus 5.8, P=0.0001. ESP scores were associated with insomnia (r=0.117, P=0.005, sleep apnea (r=0.118, P=0.004, sleep quality (r=−0.104, P=0.012, and daytime functioning (r=0.225, P<0.0001, but not with CRD (r=0.066, P=0.112. BMI correlated significantly with ESP scores (r=0.172, P<0.0001 and scores on sleep apnea (r=0.171, P<0.0001. When controlling for BMI, the partial correlation between ESP and sleep apnea remained significant (r=0.10, P=0.015.Conclusion
Tseng, Mei-Chih Meg; Chang, Chin-Hao; Chen, Kuan-Yu; Liao, Shih-Cheng; Chen, Hsi-Chung
To investigate the prevalence and correlates of bipolar disorders in patients with eating disorders (EDs), and to examine differences in effects between major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder on these patients. Sequential attendees were invited to participate in a two-phase survey for EDs at the general psychiatric outpatient clinics. Patients diagnosed with EDs (n=288) and controls of comparable age, sex, and educational level (n=81) were invited to receive structured interviews for psychiatric co-morbidities, suicide risks, and functional level. All participants also completed several self-administered questionnaires assessing general and eating-related pathology and impulsivity. Characteristics were compared between the control, ED-only, ED with major depressive disorder, and ED with bipolar disorder groups. Patients with all ED subtypes had significantly higher rates of major depressive disorder (range, 41.3-66.7%) and bipolar disorder (range, 16.7-49.3%) than controls did. Compared to patients with only EDs, patients with comorbid bipolar disorder and those with comorbid major depressive disorder had significantly increased suicidality and functional impairments. Moreover, the group with comorbid bipolar disorder had increased risks of weight dysregulation, more impulsive behaviors, and higher rates of psychiatric comorbidities. Participants were selected in a tertiary center of a non-Western country and the sample size of individuals with bipolar disorder in some ED subtypes was small. Bipolar disorders were common in patients with EDs. Careful differentiation between bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder in patients with EDs may help predict associated psychopathology and provide accurate treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Korinth, Anne; Schiess, Sonja; Westenhoefer, Joachim
Sometimes the suspicion is put forward that nutrition students show more disordered eating patterns, which may be among the motivating factors to study nutrition. At the same time, it is not clear whether the students' increasing knowledge about diet and nutrition is associated with a more healthy eating behaviour or with an unhealthy obsession with food choices. Cross-sectional comparison of nutrition students from German universities during the first year of their studies (n 123) and during higher semesters (n 96), with a control group from other study programmes (n 68 and n 46, respectively). Dietary restraint, disinhibition, the tendency towards orthorexia nervosa and healthy food choices were assessed using a questionnaire. Nutrition students showed higher levels of dietary restraint than the control group. Disinhibition and orthorexia nervosa did not differ between nutrition students and controls. Orthorexic tendencies were lower in the more advanced nutrition students. Healthy food choices did not differ among students in the first year. More advanced nutrition students showed healthier food choices, whereas the corresponding controls showed slightly more unhealthy food choices. Nutrition students, more than other students, tend to restrict their food intake in order to control their weight, but they do not have more disturbed or disordered eating patterns than other students. Moreover, during the course of their studies, they adopt slightly more healthy food choices and decrease their tendency to be obsessive in their eating behaviour.
Froreich, Franzisca V; Vartanian, Lenny R; Zawadzki, Matthew J; Grisham, Jessica R; Touyz, Stephen W
Unfulfilled basic psychological needs have been associated with disordered eating behaviours, but the mechanisms underlying that associations are not well understood. This study examined a two-stage path model linking basic psychological need satisfaction to disordered eating behaviours via issues of control. Female university students (N = 323; M age = 19.61), community participants (N = 371; M age = 29.75), and women who self-reported having been diagnosed with an eating disorder (ED; N = 41; M age = 23.88) completed measures of psychological need satisfaction (i.e., autonomy and competence), issues of control (i.e., feelings of ineffectiveness and fear of losing self-control [FLC]), and ED pathology. Path analysis revealed that unsatisfied needs of autonomy and competence were indirectly related to disordered eating behaviours through feelings of ineffectiveness and FLC. The results indicate that issues of control might be one of the mechanisms through which lack of psychological need satisfaction is associated with disordered eating. Although the model was constructed using cross-sectional data, these findings suggest potential targets for prevention and treatment efforts aimed at reducing disordered eating in young females. Our results indicate that young women with chronically unfulfilled basic psychological needs might be vulnerable to developing disordered eating behaviours. The observed patterns suggest that persistent experience of need frustration may engender an internal sense of ineffectiveness and lack of control, which then compels individuals to engage in disordered eating behaviours in an attempt to regain autonomy and competence. Interventions for eating disorders may be most effective when emphasizing the promotion of people's needs for autonomy and competence. Limitations The model was constructed using cross-sectional data. Future experimental and longitudinal studies are needed to confirm the temporal sequence from basic
Pengpid, Supa; Peltzer, Karl
Since there is a lack of information on eating disorders attitudes in Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), the aim of this study was to explore the prevalence of eating disorder attitude and its relation to mental distress among university student populations in Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand and Vietnam. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey and anthropometric measurement were conducted with undergraduate university students that were randomly recruited. The Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) was utilized to determine the prevalence of disordered eating attitudes. The sample included 3148 university students, with a mean age of 20.5 years, SD = 1.6. Using the EAT-26, 11.5% of the students across all countries were classified as being at risk for an eating disorder, ranging from below 10% in Indonesia, Thailand and Vietnam to 13.8% in Malaysia and 20.6% in Myanmar. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, sociodemographic factors (wealthier subjective economic status, and living in a lower middle income country), underweight and overweight body weight perception, psychological factors (depression symptoms and pathological internet use), and being obese were associated with eating disorder risk. Relatively high rates of eating disorder risk were found. This result calls for increased awareness, understanding of eating disorders and related risk factors and interventions in university students in ASEAN. Level V, descriptive cross-sectional survey.
Hepworth, Natasha S
The objective of this study was to investigate potential benefits of a Mindful Eating Group as an adjunct to long-term treatment for a variety of eating disorders. Individuals (N = 33) attending treatment at an outpatient treatment facility participated in the 10-week intervention designed to enhance awareness around hunger and satiety cues. Disordered eating symptoms were assessed pre- and post-intervention using the EAT-26. Significant reductions were found on all subscales of the EAT-26 with large effect sizes. No significant differences were identified between eating disorder diagnoses. Results suggest potential benefits of an adjunct mindfulness group intervention when treating a variety of eating disorders. Limitations are discussed.
Wesselhöft, Rikke Thaarup
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a frequent and painful mental disorder considered among the five leading causes of disability in Western countries by the World Health Organization. MDD occurs at all ages, but childhood onset MDD has a more severe course with longer depressive episodes, more suicidality, and more frequent hospitalization, than later onset MDD. Childhood seems to be a window of opportunity for prevention of mental disorders, and subsequently prevention of MDD onset in childhood is recommended. Feasible prevention targets either individuals who present early signs of a given disorder but have not reached diagnostic threshold (indicated prevention) or individuals who are at increased risk for a disorder due to risk factor exposure (selective prevention). Indicated prevention is rational also for depressive disorders, because subthreshold depression (SD) in adults is found to be a precursor to MDD. The purpose of this thesis was to provide information necessary for the prevention of MDD onset in childhood. First, we examined whether the literature supports that SD is a MDD precursor also in children (systematic review). Second, we explored the risk that gender might constitute for pre-pubertal and post-pubertal onset MDD (register study). Third, we estimated the prevalence of SD and MDD in a large-scale pre-pubertal sample, and compared the clinical features of SD and MDD and potential risk factors (population-based study). The systematic review of the literature showed that SD in children and adolescents presents analogous comorbidity and symptom patterns (including self-harm symptoms). It also supports that SD is a precursor to MDD in children and adolescents causing poor outcomes like psychopathology, functional impairment and high use of health service. In the register study of Danish children and adolescents, we found a higher incidence of clinical MDD for girls after puberty compared to boys. Before puberty however, we demonstrated that boys
van Hoeken, Daphne; Burns, Jonathan K; Hoek, Hans W
This is the first review of studies on the epidemiology of eating disorders on the African continent. The majority of articles found through our search did not assess formal diagnoses, but only screened for eating attitudes and behaviors. Only four studies - including only one recent study - provided specific epidemiological data on anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and/or eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS). No cases of anorexia nervosa according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-IV criteria were found among a total of 1476 (young) females. The combined point-prevalence rate of bulimia nervosa is 0.87% (95% CI 0.22-1.51) and of EDNOS is 4.45% (95% CI 2.74-6.16) in young women in Africa. The epidemiological study of eating disorders in Africa is still in its infancy. Over time in total four studies providing epidemiological data on specific, formally assessed eating disorders were found. No cases of anorexia nervosa were reported in African epidemiological studies, which concurs with the very low prevalence rates of anorexia nervosa in Latin Americans and in African Americans in the USA. With the DSM-5 criteria for anorexia nervosa, some women in the African studies would have fulfilled the criteria for anorexia nervosa. The prevalence rate of bulimia nervosa in women in Africa is within the range reported for western populations, as well as African Americans and Latin Americans.
Full Text Available A sample of female undergraduates completed a packet of questionnaires consisting of the Arizona Life History Battery, a modified version of the Eating Disorders Inventory, the Behavioral Regulation scales from the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function, and two measures of Female Intrasexual Competitiveness that distinguished between competition for mates and competition for status. As predicted, Executive Functions completely mediated the relation between Slow Life History Strategy and Disordered Eating Behavior. Surprisingly, however, the relation between Female Intrasexual Competitiveness (competition for mates and competition for status and Disordered Eating Behavior was completely spurious, with executive functions serving as a common cause underlying the inhibition of both Disordered Eating Behavior and Female Intrasexual Competitiveness. The protective function of Slow Life History Strategy with respect to Disordered Eating Behavior apparently resides in a higher degree of Behavioral Regulation, a type of Executive Function. The enhanced Behavioral Regulation or self-control, of individuals with a Slow Life History Strategy is also protective against hazardously escalated levels of Female Intrasexual Competitiveness.
Hernández-Muñoz, Sandra; Camarena-Medellin, Beatriz
The serotoninergic system has been implicated in mood and appetite regulation, and the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) is a commonly studied candidate gene for eating disorders. However, most studies have focused on a single polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) in SLC6A4. We present the studies published on the association between eating disorders (ED) and 5-HTTLPR polymorphism in anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS). Search of databases: MEDLINE, ISI, and PubMed for SLC6A4 and ED. From a review of 37 original articles, it was suggested that carriers of S allele is a risk factor for eating disorders, especially for AN. However, BN did not show any association. Also, BMI, impulsivity, anxiety, depression, and age of onset have been associated with S allele in ED patients. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to compare some psychological and psychopathological variables usually associated with different types of patients with eating disorders (ED. A total of 22 variables (psychological, psychopathological and specifically related to TCA were analyzed in three groups of patients with anorexia nervosa (AN, bulimia nervosa (BN and eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS. Method: The sample consisted of 76 patients diagnosed with ED (mean age 20.13 ± 6.28 years; 69 women and 7 men. The following questionnaires were administered: Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale (SES, Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R, Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI, Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ, Body Appreciation Scale (BAS, Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI-2 and Body Image Quality of Life Inventory (BIQLI-SP. Results: Generally no significant differences between groups, except for the variables related to the BSQ and EDI-2 questionnaires, were found. The study of the correlations among the different variables specifically related to eating disorders and others, showed differences between groups. Conclusions: The present study shows few differences with respect to psychopathological symptoms among the different types of ED. Bearing in mind future studies, it would be interesting to use a bigger sample size, to include more men, and to distinguish between restricted/purging types of ED.
Mayara Freitas Monteiro
Full Text Available Objective: To describe the prevalence of eating disorders symptoms among classical ballet dancers. Methods: This is an analytical, observational, cross-sectional study, conducted in 2009, that investigated eating disorder symptoms using the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26 and Bulimic Investigatory Test, Edinburgh (BITE. The body image of the study population was assessed by the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ. In addition, the anthropometric assessment was performed – measurement of weight, height and skin folds, calculation of body mass index (BMI and body fat percentage. Results: Of all the 139 emale adolescents assessed, 4.4% (n=6 had nutrition problems and 23% (n=23 presented abnormal values of body fat. The analysis of the EAT concluded that 12.3% (n=17 of the girls presented positive results for anorexia nervosa (AN. The BITE results showed that 13.7% (n=19 ofthe girls had unusual eating habits and 6.5% (n=9 presented subclinical bulimia nervosa (BN. As for severity, 3.6% (n=5 of the girls presented clinically significant results and 1.4% (n=2 were diagnosed with high severity. Concerning the results of the BSQ, 15.7% (n=21 of the girls were slightly concerned about body image; 5.2% (n=7 were moderately worried, and 6.7% (n=9 were severely concerned about it. Conclusion: This study did not diagnose the occurrence of eating disorders but found symptoms of AN (Anorexia Nervosa and BN (Bulimia Nervosa. Its main purpose was to alert about the prevalence of the possible development of eating disorders due to the influences of the environment where the teenagers are inserted – under a model defined by the classic ballet dance and the psychological turmoil of adolescence. doi:10.5020/18061230.2013.p396
Turton, Robert; Chami, Rayane; Treasure, Janet
The objective of this paper is to review the role that hedonic factors, emotions and self-regulation systems have over eating behaviours from animal models to humans. Evidence has been found to suggest that for some high-risk individuals, obesity/binge eating may develop as an impulsive reaction to negative emotions that over time becomes a compulsive habit. Animal models highlight the neural mechanisms that might underlie this process and suggest similarities with substance use disorders. Emotional difficulties and neurobiological factors have a role in the aetiology of eating and weight disorders. Precise treatments targeted at these mechanisms may be of help for people who have difficulties with compulsive overeating.
Hrabosky, Joshua I; Grilo, Carlos M
The current study examined body image concerns and eating disordered behaviors in a community sample of Black and Hispanic women. In addition, this study explored whether there are ethnic differences in the correlates or in the prediction of body image concerns. Participants were 120 (67 Black and 53 Hispanic) women who responded to advertisements to participate in a study of women and health. Participants completed a battery of established self-report measures to assess body image, eating disordered behaviors, and associated psychological domains. Black and Hispanic women did not differ significantly in their self-reports of body image, eating disordered behaviors, or associated psychological measures. Comparisons performed separately within both ethnic groups revealed significant differences by weight status, with a general graded patterning of greater concerns in obese than overweight than average weight groups. In terms of predicting body image, multiple regression analyses testing a number of variables, including BMI, performed separately for Black and Hispanic women revealed that eating concern and depressive affect were significant predictors of body image concern for both groups. Overall, Black and Hispanic women differed little in their self-reports of body image, eating-disordered features, and depressive affect. Higher weight was associated with a general pattern of increased body image concerns and features of eating disorders in both groups and with binge eating in Black women. Eating concerns and depressive affect emerged as significant independent predictors of body image for both ethnic groups.
To determine the prevalence of binge eating disorder (BED) and night eating syndrome (NES) among applicants to the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) study. The Eating Disorders Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q) and the Night Eating Questionnaire (NEQ) were used to screen patients. Phone int...
Norbert Dahmen; Julia Becht; Alice Engel; Monika Thommes; Peter Tonn
Norbert Dahmen, Julia Becht, Alice Engel, Monika Thommes, Peter TonnPsychiatry Department, University of Mainz, GermanyAbstract: Narcoleptic patients suffer frequently from obesity and type II diabetes. Most patients show a deficit in the energy balance regulating orexinergic system. Nevertheless, it is not known, why narcoleptic patients tend to be obese. We examined 116 narcoleptic patients and 80 controls with the structured interview for anorectic and bulimic eating disorders (SIAB) to te...
Spence, S A; Taylor, D G; Hirsch, S R
Secondary causes of depression are legion, and must always be considered in patients presenting with features atypical of primary idiopathic depressive disorder. The case described is that of a middle-aged woman presenting initially with a major depressive disorder who was subsequently found to have a craniopharyngioma, leading to a revised diagnosis of mood disorder due to the tumour. Some features of the presentation might have led to earlier diagnosis had their localizing significance been recognized. Diencephalic lesions should always be considered in patients presenting with the hypersomnic-hyperphagic variant of depressive disorder. Images Figure 1 PMID:8544149
Szalai, Tamás Dömötör
Attachment dysfunctions determine borderline personality disorder, which is a frequent background factor of multi-impulsivity; however, the relationship between attachment and multi-impulsive eating disorders is almost unexplored. To compare attachment features of multi-impulsive and classical eating disorder patients with individuals without eating disorders, and to test attachment as a predictor of multi-impulsivity. A cross-sectional survey (148 females, mean age: 30.9 years) investigated maternal, paternal and adult attachment, depression, anxiety, eating disorder and multi-impulsive symptoms in these groups. Altogether 41.3% of the individuals without eating disorders, 17.6% of classical and 11.8% of multi-impulsive eating disorder patients had secure attachment. Multi-impulsive patients had the most severe eating disorder symptoms (F (2) = 17.733) and the lowest paternal care (F (2) = 3.443). Preoccupied and fearful attachment explained 14.5% of multi-impulsive symptoms; however, with adjustment for depression only latter one remained the predictor of multi-impulsivity (t = 5.166, peating disorder patients from the aspects of both symptoms and attachment. Handling their negative moods may hold therapeutic potentials. Longitudinal studies are required to investigate the therapeutic value of paternal care, attachment preoccupation and fearfulness. Orv Hetil. 2017; 158(27): 1058-1066.
Holland, Lauren A; Brown, Tiffany A; Keel, Pamela K
The current study sought to compare different features of unhealthy exercise on associations with disordered eating and their ability to identify individuals with eating disorders. A secondary aim of the study was to compare prevalence and overlap of different aspects of unhealthy exercise and potential differences in their gender distribution. Cross-sectional epidemiological study. A community-based sample of men (n=592) and women (n=1468) completed surveys of health and eating patterns, including questions regarding exercise habits and eating disorder symptoms. Compulsive and compensatory features of exercise were the best predictors of disordered eating and eating disorder diagnoses compared to exercise that was excessive in quantity. Further, compulsive and compensatory aspects of unhealthy exercise represented overlapping, yet distinct qualities in both men and women. Including the compulsive quality among the defining features of unhealthy exercise may improve identification of eating disorders, particularly in men. Results suggest that the compensatory aspect of unhealthy exercise is not adequately captured by the compulsive aspect of unhealthy exercise. Thus, interventions that target unhealthy exercise behaviors among high-risk individuals, such as athletes, may benefit from addressing both the compulsive and compensatory aspects of unhealthy exercise. Future prospective longitudinal studies will aid in determining the direction of the association between these features of unhealthy exercise and the onset of eating pathology.
Mangweth-Matzek, Barbara; Kummer, Kai K; Pope, Harrison G
Few studies have assessed symptoms of eating disorders in older men. We administered anonymous questionnaires to 470 men, aged 40-75 years, in and around Innsbruck, Austria, to assess eating behavior, body image, and exercise activities. We defined current eating disorder symptoms (EDS) as (1) BMI men, 32 (6.8%) reported one of the four eating disorder symptoms. The 32 men with eating disorder symptoms, compared to the 438 men with normal eating, showed significantly greater pathology on scales assessing eating behavior, exercise addiction, satisfaction with body shape, and weight. However, the EDE-Q cutoff score for eating disturbance identified only three (9%) of the EDS men. Symptoms of disordered eating, sometimes involving purging via excessive exercise, do occur in older men, and may be missed by conventional instruments. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.(Int J Eat Disord 2016; 49:953-957). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Pringle, A; Harmer, C J; Cooper, M J
Biases in emotional processing and cognitions about the self are thought to play a role in the maintenance of eating disorders (EDs). However, little is known about whether these difficulties exist pre-morbidly and how they might contribute to risk. Female dieters (n=82) completed a battery of tasks designed to assess the processing of social cues (facial emotion recognition), cognitions about the self [Self-Schema Processing Task (SSPT)] and ED-specific cognitions about eating, weight and shape (emotional Stroop). The 26-item Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26; Garner et al. 1982) was used to assess subclinical ED symptoms; this was used as an index of vulnerability within this at-risk group. Regression analyses showed that biases in the processing of both neutral and angry faces were predictive of our measure of vulnerability (EAT-26). In the self-schema task, biases in the processing of negative self descriptors previously found to be common in EDs predicted vulnerability. Biases in the processing of shape-related words on the Stroop task were also predictive; however, these biases were more important in dieters who also displayed biases in the self-schema task. We were also able to demonstrate that these biases are specific and separable from more general negative biases that could be attributed to depressive symptoms. These results suggest that specific biases in the processing of social cues, cognitions about the self, and also about eating, weight and shape information, may be important in understanding risk and preventing relapse in EDs.
Bauer, Stephanie; Kindermann, Sally Sophie; Moessner, Markus
Eating disorders are severe mental illnesses that are challenging to treat and often follow a chronic course. They are associated with immense impairment on the psychological, physical, interpersonal, and social level as well as signifi cant direct and indirect cost. Therefore, prevention and early intervention are of utmost importance. Based on a qualitative literature review, we summarized the empirical evidence for the effi cacy of universal and selective prevention of eating disorders. Programs available in German and/or English were included in the review. In addition to research on effi cacy and effectiveness, the areas of implementation, dissemination, and reach were identifi ed as key issues for future studies. Furthermore, more research is needed on the relationship of cost, benefi t, and risks of eating disorder prevention.
Davidsen, Annika Helgadóttir; Hoyt, William T.; Poulsen, Stig Bernt
Purpose: The aim was to examine duration of illness and body mass index as possible moderators of the relationship between eating disorder severity and functional impairment, as well as psychological distress as a possible mediator of this relationship. Methods: The study included 159 patients...... was measured with the Sheehan Disability Scale, and psychological distress was measured with the Symptom Check List-90-R. Duration of illness and body mass index were assessed clinically. Results: Duration of illness significantly moderated the relationship between eating disorder severity and functional...... impairment; the relationship was strongest for patients with a shorter duration of illness. Psychological distress partly mediated the relationship between eating disorder severity and functional impairment. Duration of illness significantly moderated the relationship between psychological distress...
Mitchell, Karen S; Rasmusson, Ann; Bartlett, Brooke; Gerber, Megan R
Eating disorders (EDs) remain understudied among veterans, possibly due to the perception that primarily male population does not suffer from EDs. However, previous research suggests that male and female veterans do experience EDs. The high rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and obesity observed among veterans may make this group vulnerable to disordered eating. Retrospective chart review was used to obtain data from 492 female veterans who were presented to a women's primary care center at a large, urban VA medical center between 2007 and 2009. A total of 2.8% of this sample had been diagnosed with an ED. In bivariate analyses, presence of PTSD and depression were significantly associated with having an ED diagnosis. However, when these two disorders were included in a multivariate model controlling for age, only depression diagnosis and lower age were significantly related to ED status. In sum, the rate of EDs in this sample is comparable to prevalence estimates of EDs in the general population. Current findings underscore the importance of assessing for EDs among VA patients and the need for further research among veterans. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
The past few years have seen a steep increase in journal articles relating to feeding and eating disorders in children, making a succinct overview timely. The relevance of this review is enhanced by the recent publication of revised feeding and eating disorder diagnostic criteria in DSM-5. These have significant implications for younger patients, in particular through the inclusion of the new diagnostic category Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID). It is likely that this will encourage increased research interest in this field. Recent publications included in this article cover a broad range of topics relevant to childhood feeding and eating disorders, to include: presentation, diagnosis and classification; epidemiology; risk factors; assessment measures; treatment, prognosis and outcome. The area of feeding and eating disorders in children remains relatively under-researched, with significant gaps in knowledge about epidemiology, course and prognosis as well as a limited evidence base for treatment. However, important and promising avenues are increasingly being explored. In relation to clinical practice, there is now a much better recognition of these disorders and a greater awareness of their complexity, severity and potential impact in both the short and the longer term if not appropriately managed.
syndrome eating disorders in adulthood ( Kotler , Cohen, Davies, Pine, & Walsh, 2001). For this reason, early identification of pathological overeating...eating (Iancu, Cohen, Ben Yehuda, & Kotler , 2006; Schmidt, Jiwany, & Treasure, 1993). Such research indicates that alexithymia may be a stable trait...CT: Yale University. Iancu, I., Cohen, E., Ben Yehuda, Y., & Kotler , M. (2006). Treatmetn of eating disorders improves eating symptoms but not
Richards, P Scott; Berrett, Michael E; Hardman, Randy K; Eggett, Dennis L
Spiritual interventions are rarely used in contemporary treatment programs and little empirical evidence is available concerning their effectiveness. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a spiritual group intervention for eating disorder inpatients. We compared the effectiveness of a Spirituality group with Cognitive and Emotional Support groups using a randomized, control group design. Participants were 122 women receiving inpatient eating disorder treatment. Patients in the Spirituality group tended to score significantly lower on psychological disturbance and eating disorder symptoms at the conclusion of treatment compared to patients in the other groups, and higher on spiritual well-being. On weekly outcome measures, patients in the Spirituality group improved significantly more quickly during the first four weeks of treatment. This study provides preliminary evidence that attending to eating disorder patients' spiritual growth and well-being during inpatient treatment may help reduce depression and anxiety, relationship distress, social role conflict, and eating disorder symptoms.
Lewis, Stephen P; Klauninger, Laura; Marcincinova, Ivana
Pro eating disorder websites often contain celebrity-focused content (e.g., images) used as thinspiration to engage in unhealthy eating disorder behaviours. The current study was conducted to examine whether news media stories covering eating disorder disclosures of celebrities corresponded with increases in Internet searches for pro eating disorder material. Results indicated that search volumes for pro eating disorder terms spiked in the month immediately following such news coverage but only for particularly high-profile celebrities. Hence, there may be utility in providing recovery-oriented resources within the search results for pro-eating disorder Internet searches and within news stories of this nature.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The bi-relationships between psychological stress, negative affect and disordered eating has been well studied in western culture, while tri-relationship among them, i.e. how some of those factors influence these bi-relationships, has rarely been studied. However, there has been little related study in the different Chinese culture. This study was conducted to investigate the bi-relationships and tri-relationship between psychological stress, negative affect, and disordered eating attitudes and behaviors in young Chinese women. METHODOLOGY: A total of 245 young Chinese policewomen employed to carry out health and safety checks at the 2010 Shanghai World Expo were recruited in this study. The Chinese version of the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10, Beck Depression Inventory Revised (BDI-II, Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI, and Eating Attitude Test (EAT-26 were administered to all participants. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The total scores of PSS-10, BDI-II and BAI were all highly correlated with that of EAT-26. The PSS-10 score significantly correlated with both BDI-II and BAI scores. There was no statistically significant direct effect from perceived stress to disordered eating (-0.012, 95%CI: -.038~0.006, p=0.357, however, the indirect effects from PSS-10 via affect factors were statistically significant, e.g. the estimated mediation effects from PSS to EAT-26 via depression and anxiety were 0.036 (95%CI: 0.022~0.044, p<0.001 and 0.015 (95%CI: 0.005~0.023, p<0.01, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Perceived stress and negative affects of depression and anxiety were demonstrated to be strongly associated with disordered eating. Negative affect mediated the relationship between perceived stress and disordered eating. The findings suggest that effective interventions and preventative programmes for disordered eating should pay more attention to depression and anxiety among the young Chinese female population.
Tomotake, Masahito; Ohmori, Tetsuro
The present review focused on the personality profiles of patients with eating disorders. Studies using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R Personality Disorder showed high rates of diagnostic co-occurrence between eating disorders and personality disorders. The most commonly observed were histrionic, obsessive-compulsive, avoidant, dependent and borderline personality disorders. Studies using the Cloninger's personality theory suggested that high Harm Avoidance might be relevant to the pathology of anorexia nervosa and high Novelty Seeking and Harm Avoidance to bulimia nervosa. Moreover, high Self-Directedness was suggested to be associated with favorable outcome in bulimia nervosa. The assessment of personality in a cross-sectional study, however, might be influenced by the various states of the illness. Therefore, a sophisticated longitudinal study will be required to advance this area of research.
According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V), binge eating disorder (BED) is an eating disorder characterized by repetitive episodes of uncontrolled and excessive food consumption (binge eating), in a short period of time, without the inappropriate compensatory behaviors for limiting weight gain. BED is a stable condition that is associated with elevated psychiatric comorbidity, including depression and anxiety. A large body of evidence supports a co...
Martín, J; Padierna, A; Loroño, A; Muñoz, P; Quintana, J M
The aims of this study were to analyse the quality of life (QoL) of a broad sample of patients with eating disorders (ED) and to identify potential factors that predict QoL. This prospective cohort study involved 528 patients diagnosed with ED and treated over a 15-year period in the Eating Disorders Outpatient Clinic. Information on sociodemographic and clinical data were gathered. Patients completed five self-administered instruments: the Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26); the Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale (EDDS); the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS); the Short-Form 12 (SF-12); and the Quality of Life in ED-short form (HeRQoLED-s). Descriptive, univariate analyses and multivariate linear regression models were applied to identify factors associated with QoL. Predictive variables for a low level of QoL in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) included antidepressant treatment (P=0.009), substance abuse disorder, (P=0.03) and other organic comorbidities (Peating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS), they included anxiolytic treatment (P=0.003), having circulatory disease (P=0.001), more years since start of ED treatment (P=0.03) and living alone (P<0.0001). We found a significant difference in QoL between the diagnostic ED groups. With regard to the variables predicting QoL in ED patients, the findings of this study suggest that organic or psychiatric comorbidities and some data of social normality might be more relevant to QoL in ED than age, type of compensatory behaviour, BMI or number of visits to hospital emergency department. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.
Body composition, disordered eating and menstrual regularity in a group of South African ... e between body composition and disordered eating in irregular vs normal menstruating athletes. ... measured by air displacement plethysmography.
Linardon, Jake; Phillipou, Andrea; Castle, David; Newton, Richard; Harrison, Philippa; Cistullo, Leonardo L; Griffiths, Scott; Hindle, Annemarie; Brennan, Leah
Although widely discussed in theories of eating disorders, the experience of "feeling fat" in this population has received little research attention. This study tested the unique relationships between feeling fat and measures of problematic eating behaviours and attitudes. Data were analysed from individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN; n = 123) and bulimia nervosa (BN; n = 51). Correlations revealed considerable unshared variance between feeling fat and shape and weight over-evaluation and depressive symptoms. Moreover, when over-evaluation and depressive symptoms were controlled, feeling fat predicted unique variance in restraint and eating concerns. Findings offer some support for the idea that feeling fat is a distinct and important component of body image concerns in eating disorders. Further research that develops a standardized measure of feeling fat is required. Further research that examines whether feeling fat is an important treatment mechanism is also needed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Borowsky, Hannah M.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Bucchianeri, Michaela M.; Piran, Niva; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne
Using data from a community-based sample (Project EAT-III), this study (N = 1241; mean age = 25.2) examined the relationship of feminist identity with body image and disordered eating. Feminist-identified women reported significantly higher body satisfaction than non-feminist women and women who did not identify as feminists but held feminist beliefs. However, feminist-identified women did not differ from non-feminist women in disordered eating. Women holding feminist beliefs and non-feminist women did not differ in body satisfaction. Our findings suggest that self-identification as a feminist may promote positive body image in young adult women, but may be insufficient to change behaviors. PMID:26694553
Borowsky, Hannah M; Eisenberg, Marla E; Bucchianeri, Michaela M; Piran, Niva; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne
Using data from a community-based sample (Project EAT-III), this study (N = 1241; mean age = 25.2) examined the relationship of feminist identity with body image and disordered eating. Feminist-identified women reported significantly higher body satisfaction than non-feminist women and women who did not identify as feminists but held feminist beliefs. However, feminist-identified women did not differ from non-feminist women in disordered eating. Women holding feminist beliefs and non-feminist women did not differ in body satisfaction. Our findings suggest that self-identification as a feminist may promote positive body image in young adult women, but may be insufficient to change behaviors.
Jones, Candace; Pearce, Brad; Barrera, Ingrid; Mummert, Amanda
Fetal programming describes the process by which environmental stimuli impact fetal development to influence disease development later in life. Our analysis summarizes evidence for the role of fetal programming in eating disorder etiology through review of studies demonstrating specific obstetric complications and later eating risk of anorexia or bulimia. Using Pubmed, we found thirteen studies investigating obstetric factors and eating disorder risk published between 1999 and 2016. We then discuss modifiable maternal risk factors, including nutrition and stress, that influence anorexia or bulimia risk of their offspring. Translation of these findings applies to preventative strategies by health organizations and physicians to provide optimal health for mothers and their children to prevent development of medical and psychiatric illnesses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Medeiros, Gustavo C; Seger, Liliana; Grant, Jon E; Tavares, Hermano
It is estimated that between 1.7 and 2.6 million people have had intermittent explosive disorder (IED) during their life in the United States alone. Co-occurring psychiatric disorders are very common in IED, being major depressive disorder arguably the most common. The objective of this study was to examine the clinical correlates of IED and depressive manifestations in 74 treatment-seeking subjects. After controlling for confounders, there were associations between major depressive disorder and severity of depressive symptoms, and (a) higher assault scores, (b) more severe hostile behavior and (c) worse social adjustment. Management of depressive symptoms may be an important for IED treatment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Park, Emma C; Waller, Glenn; Gannon, Kenneth
The personality disorders are commonly comorbid with the eating disorders. Personality disorder pathology is often suggested to impair the treatment of axis 1 disorders, including the eating disorders. This study examined whether personality disorder cognitions reduce the impact of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for eating disorders, in terms of treatment dropout and change in eating disorder attitudes in the early stages of treatment. Participants were individuals with a diagnosed eating disorder, presenting for individual outpatient CBT. They completed measures of personality disorder cognitions and eating disorder attitudes at sessions one and six of CBT. Drop-out rates prior to session six were recorded. CBT had a relatively rapid onset of action, with a significant reduction in eating disorder attitudes over the first six sessions. Eating disorder attitudes were most strongly associated with cognitions related to anxiety-based personality disorders (avoidant, obsessive-compulsive and dependent). Individuals who dropped out of treatment prematurely had significantly higher levels of dependent personality disorder cognitions than those who remained in treatment. For those who remained in treatment, higher levels of avoidant, histrionic and borderline personality disorder cognitions were associated with a greater change in global eating disorder attitudes. CBT's action and retention of patients might be improved by consideration of such personality disorder cognitions when formulating and treating the eating disorders.
Dingemans, Alexandra E; Visser, Hiske; Paul, Linda; van Furth, Eric F
Executive functions play an important role in problem-solving and self-control. Set-shifting is an aspect of executive functioning and represents cognitive flexibility. The inability to control eating in Binge Eating Disorder (BED) may imply deficits in set-shifting which could be exacerbated by negative mood and depressive symptoms. The aim of the study was to test whether there is a causal relationship between set-shifting ability, changes in mood and loss of control over eating in BED. Seventy-five participants diagnosed with BED were randomly assigned to a negative or neutral mood induction. Set-shifting abilities, depressive symptoms, current mood and loss of control over eating were assessed. Having depressive symptoms and poorer set-shifting abilities resulted in a more negative mood after a negative mood induction, whereas this was not observed in the neutral mood induction. Post-hoc analyses revealed that individuals with poorer set-shifting abilities and more changes in negative mood, experienced more feelings of loss of control over eating than individuals whose set-shifting abilities were better and whose mood did not change. The results suggest that both depressive symptoms and deficits in set-shifting abilities may decrease an individual's ability to handle negative affect and increase loss of control over eating in individuals with BED. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Riva, G; Bacchetta, M; Baruffi, M; Defrance, C; Gatti, F; Galimberti, C; Nugues, P; Ferretti, G S; Tonci, A
Virtual Reality Environments for Psychoneurophysiological Assessment and Rehabilitation (VREPAR) are two European Community funded projects (Telematics for health-HC 1053/HC 1055-http://www.psicologia.net) whose aim is (a) to develop a PC based virtual reality system (PC-VRS) for the medical market that can be marketed at a price that is accessible to its possible endusers (hospitals, universities, and research centres) and that would have the modular, connectability and interoperability characteristics that the existing systems lack; and (b) to develop three hardware/software modules for the application of the PC-VRS in psychoneurophysiological assessment and rehabilitation. The chosen development areas are eating disorders (bulimia, anorexia, and obesity), movement disorders (Parkinson's disease and torsion dystonia), and stroke disorders (unilateral neglect and hemiparesis). In particular, the VREPAR 2 project is now testing the eating disorders module on a clinical sample.
Cowdrey, Felicity A; Park, Rebecca J
Anorexia nervosa has been associated with high levels of ruminative thoughts about eating, shape and weight as well as avoidance of emotion and experience. This study examined the associations between disorder-specific rumination, mindfulness, experiential avoidance and eating disorder symptoms. A sample of healthy females (n=228) completed a battery of on-line self-report measures. A hierarchical regression analysis revealed that ruminative brooding on eating, weight and shape concerns was uniquely associated with eating disorder symptoms, above and beyond anxiety and depression symptoms. In a small group (n=42) of individuals with a history of anorexia nervosa, only reflection on eating weight and shape was able to predict eating disorder symptoms when controlling for depression and anxiety. The results suggest that rumination (both brooding and reflection) on eating, weight and shape concerns may be a process which exacerbates eating disorder symptoms. Examining rumination may improve understanding of the cognitive processes which underpin anorexia nervosa and this may in turn aid the development of novel strategies to augment existing interventions. Replication in a larger clinical sample is warranted. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
... Med J 1995; 85: 588-590. Eating disorders, especially anorexia nervosa, have .... body image there did not appear to be any distortion, and she claimed to .... it has been noted that fatness is tolerated rather than accepted by young Chinese.
Winkler, Laura Vad; Christiansen, Erik; Lichtenstein, Mia Beck
to general population norm data and to investigate potential differences between ED diagnostic groups. A systematic review of the current literature was conducted using a keyword-based search in PubMed and PsychInfo. The search covered anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), eating disorders...
Gredysa, Dana M.; Altman, Myra; Wilfley, Denise E.
Binge eating disorder (BED) is the most prevalent eating disorder in adults, and individuals with BED report greater general and specific psychopathology than non-eating disordered individuals. The current paper reviews research on psychological treatments for BED, including the rationale and empirical support for cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), dialectical behavior therapy (DBT), behavioral weight loss (BWL), and other treatments warranting further study. Research supports the effectiveness of CBT and IPT for the treatment of BED, particularly for those with higher eating disorder and general psychopathology. Guided self-help CBT has shown efficacy for BED without additional pathology. DBT has shown some promise as a treatment for BED, but requires further study to determine its long-term efficacy. Predictors and moderators of treatment response, such as weight and shape concerns, are highlighted and a stepped-care model proposed. Future directions include expanding the adoption of efficacious treatments in clinical practice, testing adapted treatments in diverse samples (e.g., minorities and youth), improving treatment outcomes for nonresponders, and developing efficient and cost-effective stepped-care models. PMID:22707016
Abbate-Daga, Giovanni; Quaranta, Michela; Marzola, Enrica; Cazzaniga, Giovanna; Amianto, Federico; Fassino, Secondo
Eating Disorders (ED) are often severe illnesses entailing a heavy burden for families. Family therapy is recommended for young patients, but only a few studies have investigated therapeutic interventions with families tailored also to adult and longstanding patients. We recruited 87 families with daughters affected by an ED, aiming to assess the…
Hamilton, Kristin L.
Maladaptive eating behaviors are a growing phenomenon which has captured the interest of not only health and psychology professionals, but also the general public. This paper examines the various types of treatment and counseling approaches for treating anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. Definitions for both disorders are provided, followed by…
Halmi, Katherine A.
Background: Etiological hypotheses of eating disorders, anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa have not produced informative research for predictably effective treatment. Methods: The rationale for applying a model of allostasis, a dysregulation of reward circuits with activation of brain and hormonal stress responses to maintain apparent stability,…
Full Text Available Zeynep Yilmaz,1 J Andrew Hardaway,1 Cynthia M Bulik1–3 1Department of Psychiatry, 2Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; 3Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden Abstract: Eating disorders (EDs are serious psychiatric conditions influenced by biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors. A better understanding of the genetics of these complex traits and the development of more sophisticated molecular biology tools have advanced our understanding of the etiology of EDs. The aim of this review is to critically evaluate the literature on the genetic research conducted on three major EDs: anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder. We will first review the diagnostic criteria, clinical features, prevalence, and prognosis of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder, followed by a review of family, twin, and adoption studies. We then review the history of genetic studies of EDs covering linkage analysis, candidate-gene association studies, genome-wide association studies, and the study of rare variants in EDs. Our review also incorporates a translational perspective by covering animal models of ED-related phenotypes. Finally, we review the nascent field of epigenetics of EDs and a look forward to future directions for ED genetic research. Keywords: anorexia nervosa, binge eating disorder, bulimia nervosa, animal models, genome-wide association studies, high-throughput sequencing
Favazza, Armando R.; And Others
Presents evidence from literature review, patient interviews, responses to Self-Harm Behavior Survey, and case reports that patients with eating disorders are at high risk for self-mutilation. In lieu of dual diagnosis, postulates that combination of self-mutilation, anorexia, bulimia, and other symptoms may be manifestations of impulse control…
Eiber, R; Mirabel-Sarron, C; Urdapilleta, I
Cognitions are of crucial importance in the -aetiology and the maintenance of eating disorders. Dysfunctional cognitions in eating disorders are related to body image, self-esteem and feeding. The aim of this paper is to review the actual knowledge in this area. First, we will display -cognitive models in eating disorders. Cognitive factors in -eating disorders are logical errors, cognitive slippage and conceptual complexity. Eating disorder patients seem to have a deficient cognitive development. Some cognitive models stipulate that eating disorder patients may develop organised cognitive structures schemas concerning the issues of weight and its implications for the self. These schemas can account for the persistence and for the understanding the "choice of the eating disorder symptomatology. Cognitive pheno-mena of interest are self-schema, weight-related schema and weight-related self-schema. The maintenance model of ano-rexia nervosa argued that, initially there is an extreme need to control eating which is supported by low self-esteem. The maintenance of the disorder is reinforced by three mechanisms: dietary restriction enhances the sense of being in control; aspects of starvation encourage further dietary restriction; concerns about shape and weight encourage restriction. The development and maintenance of bulimic symptomatology are explained by placing a high value on attaining an idealised weight and body shape accompanied by inaccurate beliefs. The cognitive model of specific family of origin experiences puts forward the development of -maladaptative expectancies for eating and thinness. Second, we discuss distortions in information processing. a) In feeding laboratories, bulimics show a wide range of caloric intake and a disruption of circadian feeding patterns. In overeating bulimics, large meals occurred mainly during afternoon and evening with high fat and carbohydrate intake, but the majority of meals were of normal size and frequency. Responsivity
Talleyrand, Regine M.
There is little attention devoted to studying eating disorder symptoms in racially and ethnically diverse groups despite the fact that the prevalence rates among women of color for eating disorder symptoms are similar to those of European American women. This article reviews research related to eating disorders in women of color, including a…
Peck, Lisa D.; Lightsey, Owen Richard
Among 261 undergraduate women, increased severity of eating disorders along a continuum was associated with decreased self-esteem, increased perfectionism, and increased scores on 7 subscales of the Eating Disorders Inventory-2. Women with eating disorders differed from both symptomatic women and asymptomatic women on all variables, whereas…
Shelton, Virginia L.; Valkyrie, Karena T.
Eating disorders are compulsive behaviors that can consume a person's life to the point of becoming life threatening. Previous research found stress associated with eating disorders. College can be a stressful time. If stress predicted precursor behaviors to eating disorders, then counselors would have a better chance to help students sooner. This…
de Bruin, A.P.; Bakker, F.C.; Oudejans, R.R.D.
Objectives: To examine the relationships between disordered eating in female gymnasts and dancers and their perspective towards achievement in sport and dance, respectively. With an emphasis on outperforming others (ego involvement), more disordered eating was expected than when personal progress
Masuda, Akihiko; Price, Matthew; Latzman, Robert D
Psychological flexibility and mindfulness are two related, but distinct, regulation processes that have been shown to be at the core of psychological wellbeing. The current study investigated whether these two processes independently moderated the association between disordered eating cognitions and psychological distress as well as the relation between disordered eating cognitions and disordered eating behaviors. Non-clinical, ethnically diverse college undergraduates completed a web-based survey. Of 278 participants (nfemale=208; nmale=70) aged 18-24 years old, disordered eating cognitions, mindfulness, and psychological flexibility were related to psychological distress after controlling for gender, ethnicity, and body mass index. Disordered eating cognitions and mindfulness accounted for unique variance in disordered eating behaviors. Finally, mindfulness was found to moderate the association between disordered eating cognitions and disordered eating behaviors.
Lydecker, Janet A; Grilo, Carlos M
This study examined differences in clinical presentation of men and women with binge-eating disorder (BED) who participated in treatment research at a medical-school based program. Participants were 682 adults (n = 182 men, n = 500 women) with DSM-IV-defined BED. Doctoral-level research clinicians assessed eating-disorder psychopathology, including BED diagnosis, using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Disorders (SCID) and Eating Disorder Examination (EDE) interview. Research clinicians measured height and weight and participants completed a battery of established self-report measures. Men had significantly higher body mass index (BMI) than women; women had significantly higher eating-disorder psychopathology (EDE scales and global score) and depression than men. Differences in eating-disorder psychopathology and depression remained higher for women than men after adjusting for race/ethnicity and BMI. Frequency of binge-eating episodes, subjective binge-eating episodes, and overeating episodes did not differ significantly by sex. Women had younger ages of onset for dieting and binge-eating behaviors than men but ages of onset for obesity and BED did not significantly differ between men and women. There are some sex differences in clinical presentation and age-of-onset timeline of adults with BED. Men and women develop obesity and BED (at diagnostic threshold) around the same age but women begin dieting and binge-eating behaviors earlier than men. At presentation for treatment for BED, men and women did not differ in binge-eating frequency and although men and women differed significantly on BMI and eating-disorder psychopathology, the magnitude of these differences was quite modest. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Chao, Ariana M; White, Marney A; Grilo, Carlos M
To examine eating-disorder psychopathology and depressive symptoms by smoking status (never, former, or current smoker) in persons with binge eating disorder (BED) and bulimia nervosa (BN). Participants were 575 adult volunteers from the community (mean age=36.0±12years and BMI=32.9±9.5kg/m(2); 80% white; 88% female) who were classified with BED (n=410) or BN (n=165). Participants completed a battery of questionnaires, including items about current and historical cigarette smoking, the Eating Disorder Examination -Questionnaire, and the Beck Depression Inventory. Among those with BED, depressive symptoms were significantly higher in current smokers than former or never smokers (p=.001). There were no significant differences in depressive symptoms by smoking status in participants with BN and no differences in eating-disorder psychopathology by smoking status in either the BED or BN groups. In this non-clinical group of community volunteers, we found that smoking history or status was not associated with eating disorder psychopathology in participants classified with BED and BN but was significantly associated with depressive symptoms in participants with BED. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Chao, Ariana; White, Marney A.; Grilo, Carlos M.
Objective To examine eating disorder psychopathology and depressive symptoms by smoking status (never, former, or current smoker) in persons with binge eating disorder (BED) and bulimia nervosa (BN). Methods Participants were 575 adult volunteers from the community (mean age=36.0±12 years and BMI=32.9±9.5 kg/m2; 80% white; 88% female) who were classified with BED (n=410) or BN (n=165). Participants completed a battery of questionnaires, including items about current and historical cigarette smoking, the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire, and the Beck Depression Inventory. Results Among those with BED, depressive symptoms were significantly higher in current smokers than former or never smokers (p=.001). There were no significant differences in depressive symptoms by smoking status in participants with BN and no differences in eating disorder psychopathology by smoking status in either the BED or BN groups. Discussion In this non-clinical group of community volunteers, we found that smoking history or status was not associated with eating disorder psychopathology in participants classified with BED and BN but was significantly associated with depressive symptoms in participants with BED. PMID:26741260
Melin, Anna; Torstveit, Monica Klungland; Burke, Louise
availability, reproductive function and bone health in female athletes, has recently been expanded to recognise that Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S) has a broader range of negative effects on body systems with functional impairments in both male and female athletes. Athletes in leanness......-demanding sports have an increased risk for RED-S and for developing EDs/DE. Special risk factors in aquatic sports related to weight and body composition management include the wearing of skimpy and tight-fitting bathing suits, and in the case of diving and synchronized swimming, the involvement of subjective...... judgements of performance. The reported prevalence of DE and EDs in athletic populations including athletes from aquatic sports ranges from 18-45 % in female athletes and 0-28 % in male athletes. To prevent EDs, aquatic athletes should practice healthy eating behaviour at all periods of development pathway...
Tomori, M; Rus-Makovec, M
In a representative sample of 4700 Slovene high school students, we examined their eating behavior and its correlations with some psychosocial and psychological characteristics with the aim of identifying the main risk factors for disordered eating. Using a questionnaire which also included Zung's Self-rating Depression Scale and Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale, we compared girls (n = 2507) and boys (n = 2193) with regard to their satisfaction with their body weight, weight-reducing activities, and frequency of binge eating. We assessed their family relationships, abuse of alcohol and other psychoactive drugs, suicidal ideation, and suicidal tendences, as well as their level of depression and self-esteem. The results showed significant differences between girls and boys, between groups of those who were satisfied and those who were dissatisfied with their body weight, and also between groups which indulged in frequent binge eating and those which did not. Within a general population of adolescents, there is a substantial number of subjects with disordered eating behavior, some part of whom are at high risk for eating disorders.
Aloi, Matteo; Rania, Marianna; Caroleo, Mariarita; De Fazio, Pasquale; Segura-García, Cristina
This study aims to evaluate the theory of mind ability in a sample of obese patients with and without binge eating disorder (BED) and to explore the correlations between emotional and clinical assessments. Overall, 20 non-BED, 16 under-threshold BED and 22 BED obese patients completed a battery of tests assessing social cognition and eating disorder psychopathology. Binge eating disorder, non-BED and under-threshold-BED obese patients showed similar ability to recognise others' emotions, but BED obese patients exhibited a deficit in recognising their own emotions as demonstrated by more impaired levels of alexithymia and interoceptive awareness and were more depressed. High positive correlations were evident between binging, depression, interoceptive awareness and alexithymia. Binge eating disorder patients have a comparable ability to understand others' emotions but a more impaired capacity to understand and code their own emotions compared with non-BED obese patients. This impairment is highly correlated with depression. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.
Wagner, Allison F; Stefano, Emily C; Cicero, David C; Latner, Janet D; Mond, Jonathan M
This study examined whether gender moderates the associations between eating disorder features and quality-of-life impairment and whether eating disorder features can explain gender differences in quality of life in a sample of undergraduate students. The SF-12 Physical and Mental Component Summary Scales were used to measure health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and the Eating Disorders Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) was used to quantify eating disorder behaviors and cognitions. These self-report forms were completed by undergraduate men and women (n = 709). Gender was a significant predictor of mental HRQoL, such that women in this sample reported poorer mental HRQoL than men. Eating disorder cognitions were the strongest predictor of undergraduate students' mental and physical HRQoL, while binge eating negatively predicted their physical HRQoL only. Gender was not found to moderate the associations between eating disorder features and HRQoL, and eating disorder cognitions were found to mediate the association between gender and mental HRQoL such that a proportion of the difference between undergraduate men and women's mental HRQoL was attributable to eating disorder cognitions. This study provided further evidence of the significant impact of eating disorder features, particularly eating disorder cognitions, on HRQoL. The finding that gender did not moderate the relationships between eating disorder features and HRQoL indicates the importance of investigating these features in both men and women in future research.
Rodríguez Lazo, María; Hernández Camacho, Juan Diego; Bolaños Ríos, Patricia; Ruiz-Prieto, Inmaculada; Jáuregui Lobera, Ignacio
factors related to food, shape, weight and exercise, transmitted from parents to children, and media sociocultural factors, such as social networks, also influence the development of Eating Disorders (ED). to analyse the influence of family eating habits and the parents perception about the influence of social networks on the development and maintenance of ED. 30 parents of ED patients participated voluntarily in this study fulfilling a series of questionnaires, as well as reporting their weight and height. it is observed an underestimation of weight in the case of overweight (33.33%) and obesity (35%) without considering the fact of going on diet in the future (χ2 = 11.31; p habits seem to be more relevant (e.g. snacking, intake of a single dish) (p eating habits of ED patients' families improve by means of the nutrition education included in the treatment. Relatives do not perceive adequately the risk of the social networks in their children, which might contribute to the maintenance and future relapses of ED. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Behar A, Rosa; Manzo G, Rodrigo; Casanova Z, Dunny
Low self-assertion has been noted as an important feature among patients with eating disorders. To verify, in a female population, if assertiveness is related or has a predictive capacity for the development of eating disorders. An structured clinical interview, the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-40) and the Rathus Assertiveness Scale (RAS) were administered to 62 patients that fulfilled the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for eating disorders and to 120 female students without eating problems. Patients with eating disorders ranked significantly higher on the EAT-40 and its factors (p assertiveness on the RAS (p Assertiveness measured by RAS and its factors was inversely related to EAT-40 and its items (r= -0.21). The predictive capability of the lack of self-assertion in the development of an eating disorder reached 53%, when patients with eating disorders and subjects at risk were considered together and compared to students without such disorder. Lack of assertiveness is a significant trait in patients with eating disorders; it may worsen its outcome and even perpetuate symptoms. Low self-assertion may be considered a predictive factor in the development of an eating disorder and must be managed from a preventive or therapeutic point of view.
Goldschmidt, Andrea B.; Le Grange, Daniel; Powers, Pauline; Crow, Scott J.; Hill, Laura L.; Peterson, Carol B.; Crosby, Ross D.; Mitchell, Jim E.
Although normal-weight individuals comprise a substantial minority of the binge eating disorder (BED) population, little is known about their clinical presentation. This study sought to investigate the nature and severity of eating disturbances in normal-weight adults with BED. We compared 281 normal-weight (n = 86) and obese (n = 195) treatment-seeking adults with BED (mean age = 31.0; s.d. = 10.8) on a range of current and past eating disorder symptoms using ANOVA and χ2 analyses. After con...
McElroy, Susan L
Binge-eating disorder (BED) is the most common eating disorder and is associated with poor physical and mental health outcomes. Psychological and behavioral interventions have been a mainstay of treatment for BED, but as understanding of this disorder has grown, pharmacologic agents have become promising treatment options for some patients. At this time, only one drug-the stimulant prodrug lisdexamfetamine-is approved for the treatment of BED. Numerous classes of medications including antidepressants, anticonvulsants, and antiobesity drugs have been explored as off-label treatments for BED with variable success. Although not all patients with BED may be suitable candidates for pharmacotherapy, all patients should be considered for and educated about pharmacologic treatment options. © Copyright 2017 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.
Hogan, Marjorie J; Strasburger, Victor C
Adolescence is a time of tremendous change in physical appearance. Many adolescents report dissatisfaction with their body shape and size. Forming one's body image is a complex process, influenced by family, peers, and media messages. Increasing evidence shows that the combination of ubiquitous ads for foods and emphasis on female beauty and thinness in both advertising and programming leads to confusion and dissatisfaction for many young people. Sociocultural factors, specifically media exposure, play an important role in the development of disordered body image. Of significant concern, studies have revealed a link between media exposure and the likelihood of having symptoms of disordered eating or a frank eating disorder. Pediatricians and other adults must work to promote media education and make media healthier for young people. More research is needed to identify the most vulnerable children and adolescents.
Díaz-Marsa, M; Lozano, C; Herranz, A S; Asensio-Vegas, M J; Martín, O; Revert, L; Saiz-Ruiz, J; Carrasco, J L
This work describes the rational bases justifying the use of acute tryptophan depletion technique in eating disorders (ED) and the methods and design used in our studies. Tryptophan depletion technique has been described and used in previous studies safely and makes it possible to evaluate the brain serotonin activity. Therefore it is used in the investigation of hypotheses on serotonergic deficiency in eating disorders. Furthermore, and given the relationship of the dysfunctions of serotonin activity with impulsive symptoms, the technique may be useful in biological differentiation of different subtypes, that is restrictive and bulimic, of ED. 57 female patients with DSM-IV eating disorders and 20 female controls were investigated with the tryptophan depletion test. A tryptophan-free amino acid solution was administered orally after a two-day low tryptophan diet to patients and controls. Free plasma tryptophan was measured at two and five hours following administration of the drink. Eating and emotional responses were measured with specific scales for five hours following the depletion. A study of the basic characteristics of the personality and impulsivity traits was also done. Relationship of the response to the test with the different clinical subtypes and with the temperamental and impulsive characteristics of the patients was studied. The test was effective in considerably reducing plasma tryptophan in five hours from baseline levels (76%) in the global sample. The test was well tolerated and no severe adverse effects were reported. Two patients withdrew from the test due to gastric intolerance. The tryptophan depletion test could be of value to study involvement of serotonin deficits in the symptomatology and pathophysiology of eating disorders.
Full Text Available The study aimed to evaluate oral health in women with eating disorders. The clinical study covered 30 patients aged 14-36 years suffering from diagnosed eating disorders and treated in closed psychiatric institutions. The control group comprised 30 healthy women at the mean age corresponding to that of the patient group. No relationships were confirmed between eating disorders and the intensity of dental caries. Eating disorders contribute to increased loss of dental hard tissues. In women suffering from eating disorders non-specific lesions in oral cavity are more common than in healthy women.
O'Brien, Amy; Watson, Hunna J; Hoiles, Kimberley J; Egan, Sarah J; Anderson, Rebecca A; Hamilton, Matthew J; Shu, Chloe; McCormack, Julie
The factor structure of the eating disorder examination (EDE) has never been tested in a clinical pediatric sample, and no normative data exist. The factor structure of an adapted EDE was examined in a clinical sample of 665 females aged 9-17 years with anorexia nervosa spectrum (70%), bulimia nervosa spectrum (12%), purging disorder (3%), and unspecified feeding and eating disorders (15%). The original four-factor model was a good fit in a confirmatory factor analysis as well a higher order model with three dimensions of restraint, eating concern, and combined weight concern/shape concern. Normative data are reported for clinicians to identify the percentiles in which their patients' score. The findings support dimensions of restraint, eating concern, weight concern, and shape concern in a clinical pediatric sample. This supports the factorial validity of the EDE, and the norms may assist clinicians to evaluate symptoms in females under 18 years. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Bou Khalil, Rami; Bou-Orm, Ibrahim R; Tabet, Yara; Souaiby, Lama; Azouri, Hayat
Eating disorders (ED) are prevalent mental illnesses composed mainly of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorders. Anxiety disorders are another set of mental illnesses, with phobic disorder (PD) being the most prevalent disorder. ED and PD are highly comorbid. The aim of this study is to assess, in 131 individuals attending an outpatient clinic for different health issues, the level of fear related to situations generating avoidance such as in social anxiety and specific phobias according to the fear questionnaire (FQ), the level of disgust according to the disgust scale (DS-R) and the vulnerability towards ED according to the SCOFF scale to demonstrate that high levels of both fear and disgust increase the vulnerability towards ED. The study demonstrated that the level of disgust increased when fear increases (r = 0.377, p phobia) as well as to social anxiety (p = 0.01), independently from having a depressive or another anxiety disorder. In the multivariate analysis, a history of psychiatric consultation has been the only significantly different parameter between individuals with or without vulnerability towards ED (p = 0.0439). Accordingly, fear and disgust are negative emotions that seem to be clinically associated which better explains the comorbidity of ED with PD. Level III. Evidence obtained from well-designed cohort or case-control analytic studies, preferably from more than one center or research group.
Gibbs, Elise L.; Kass, Andrea E.; Eichen, Dawn M.; Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E.; Trockel, Mickey; Wilfley, Denise E.; Taylor, C. Barr
Objective To examine the misuse of ADHD-specific stimulants in a college population at high risk for or with clinical or subclinical eating disorders. Participants 448 college-age women ages 18–25 at high risk for or with a clinical or subclinical eating disorder. Methods Participants completed assessments of stimulant misuse and psychopathology from September 2009 - June 2010. Results Greater eating disorder pathology, objective binge eating, purging, eating disorder-related clinical impairment, depressive symptoms, perceived stress, and trait anxiety were associated with an increased likelihood of stimulant misuse. Subjective binge eating, excessive exercise, and dietary restraint were not associated with stimulant misuse. Conclusions ADHD-specific stimulant misuse is associated with eating disorder and comorbid pathology among individuals at high risk for or with clinical or subclinical eating disorders. Screening for stimulant misuse and eating disorder pathology may improve identification of college-age women who may be engaging in maladaptive behaviors and inform prevention efforts. PMID:26822019
Żuchowicz, Paulina; Jasionowska, Justyna; Gałecki, Piotr; Talarowska, Monika
Contemporary research studies regarding autobiographical memory (AM) indicate that its deficits have a significant impact on the development of mental disorders. We find particularly many reports regarding the comorbidity of AM deficits and depressive disorders. The characteristic feature of AM in the people suffering from depressive disorders is the presence of overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM), i.e. the reminiscences which contain a summary of many emotion-laden situations, yet without significant detail. This type of reminiscences is observed in the patients with depressive disorders and the ones susceptible to the disease but not experiencing presently an episode of depression, as well as the ones being in the phase of disease remission. In recent years, the interest in the significance of negative thinking processes, such as ruminations, as risk factors in the development of depression has been growing. It is emphasized that they are significantly associated with the occurrence of OGM. Research shows that people suffering from OGM and characterised by a rumination-based style of processing experience a greater number of depressive episodes. There are also research studies which confirm that the activities aimed at reducing the number of ruminations influence an improvement of the detail level of reminiscences. These data may serve as valuable therapeutic advice in depression disorders. The aim of the paper is to present results of contemporary research regarding mutual interrelations between autobiographical memory dysfunctions and the occurrence of symptoms of depression and its course.
Supporting someone with an eating disorder: a systematic review of caregiver experiences of eating disorder treatment and a qualitative exploration of burnout management within eating disorder services
Aims: Eating disorder recovery is often supported by caregivers and mental health professionals. This research portfolio focuses on the experiences of supporting someone with an eating disorder from the perspective of the caregivers and also mental health professionals. The aims of this research portfolio are: Firstly, to systematically review the published qualitative literature relating to the experiences of caregivers supporting someone during eating disorder treatment; and ...
Kobayashi, Nobuyuki; Takano, Masahiro
Sleep-related eating disorder is characterized by parasomnia with recurrent episodes of nocturnal eating or drinking during the main sleep period. Several drugs, including atypical antipsychotics, induce sleep-related eating disorder. However, aripiprazole has not previously been associated with sleep-related eating disorder. A 41-year-old Japanese man visited our clinic complaining of depression. The patient was treated with sertraline, which was titrated up to 100 mg for 4 weeks. A sleep inducer and an anxiolytic were coadministered. His depressive mood slightly improved, but it continued for an additional 4 months. Subsequently, aripiprazole (3 mg) was added as an adjunctive therapy. After 3 weeks, the patient's mother found that the patient woke up and ate food at night. The next morning, the patient was amnesic for this event, felt full, and wondered why the bags of food were empty. This episode lasted for 2 days. The patient gained 5 kg during these 3 weeks. After the aripiprazole dose was reduced to 1.5 mg, the patient's nocturnal eating episodes rapidly and completely disappeared. To the best of our knowledge, this is first report of sleep-related eating disorder induced by aripiprazole, and it indicates that this disorder should be considered a possible side effect of aripiprazole. Although aripiprazole is used mainly in patients with schizophrenia, its recently documented use as an adjunctive therapy in patients with depression might induce hitherto unknown side effects.
Sala, L; Martinotti, G; Carenti, M L; Romo, L; Oumaya, M; Pham-Scottez, A; Rouillon, F; Gorwood, P; Janiri, L
There is some evidence that eating disorders (ED) and Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) share common clinical features and that ADHD might contribute to the severity of eating disorders. A greater understanding of how the presence of comorbid ADHD may affect the psychopathological framework of eating disorder seems of primary importance. The aim of our study was to evaluate rates of ADHD in three ED subgroups of inpatients: anorexia nervosa restricting type (AN-R), anorexia nervosa binge-eating/purging type (AN-BP) and bulimia nervosa (BN). The secondary aim was the evaluation of the associated psychological characteristics. The sample consisted of 73 females inpatients (mean age 28.07 ± 7.30), all with longstanding histories of eating disorder (ED). The presence of a diagnosis of ADHD was evaluated in a clinical interview based on DSM-IV-TR criteria. The following psychometric instruments were used: the eating attitude test (EAT-40), the Bulimic Investigatory Test, Edinburgh (BITE), the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI-2), the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS), the Brown Attention Deficit Disorder Scale (BADDS), the Hamilton scales for Anxiety (HAM-A) and Depression (HAM-D), and the Barrat Impulsivity Scale (BIS-10). Among the three ED subgroups, 13 patients reported comorbidity with ADHD; three in the AN-R subtype, nine in the AN-BP and one in the BN. The remaining 60 patients (n = 34 AN-R; n = 19 AN-BP; n = 7 BN) presented only a diagnosis of ED. The EAT (p = 0.04) and HAM-A (p = 0.02) mean scores were significantly higher in patients with comorbid ADHD. In our study the comorbidity between ADHD and ED appeared to be frequent, particularly among patients with AN-BP. ED inpatients with higher level of anxiety and more abnormal eating attitudes and bulimic symptoms should be assessed for potentially associated ADHD.
Yamaguchi, N; Kobayashi, J; Tachikawa, H; Sato, S; Hori, M; Suzuki, T; Shiraishi, H
We examined parental, personality, and symptomatological characteristics in relation to suicide attempts among eating disorder patients. Fifty-one eating disorder inpatients, divided into two groups according to lifetime suicide attempts, and 107 non-psychiatric subjects were compared on the following variables: Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI), Global Clinical Score (GCS), Eating Disorder Inventory-91 (EDI-91), Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT), clinical and personality characteristics, and family backgrounds. Suicidal patients reported significantly higher overprotection by both parents than non-suicidal patients and non-psychiatric subjects. Suicidal patients had a more prevalent history of child abuse, affective instability, unstable self-image, avoidance of abandonment, maladaptive perfectionism, personality disorder, and mood disorder. There were no differences in symptomatological factors or the severity of the eating disorders. The results suggest that high overprotection is associated with suicidal behaviour in eating disorder patients. The association between overprotective parenting and personality characteristics, and methods of suicide prevention are discussed briefly.
Quiles Marcos, Yolanda; Terol Cantero, Ma Carmen; Romero Escobar, Cristina; Pagán Acosta, Gonzalo
The current study is based on the framework of the Self-Regulatory Model of Illness (SRM). The aim of this work was to examine perception of illness in eating disorder (ED) patients and investigate whether illness perception is related to psychosocial adaptation in these patients. A total of 98 female ED patients completed the specific eating disorders Spanish version of the Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQ-R) and a range of adjustment variables including the Psychosocial Adjustment to Illness Scale (PAIS) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD). ED patients reported a moderate number of physical symptoms, and perceived their illness as controllable, treatable, highly distressing, as a chronic condition and with serious consequences. Emotional representation was the most significant dimension related to emotional adjustment. Illness identity and cure dimensions were the most significant dimensions associated with psychosocial adaptation. This study shows that patients' illness perceptions are related to illness adaptation. Illness identity was associated with emotional and psychosocial adjustment, and having faith that treatment may control the illness was related to positive benefits for ED. These results suggest that a psychological intervention, which addresses patients' illness representations, may assist in their adjustment to ED. 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association
Full Text Available Jiri Koutek, Jana Kocourkova, Iva Dudova Department of Child Psychiatry, Charles University Second Faculty of Medicine, University Hospital Motol, Prague, Czech Republic Abstract: Comorbid psychopathology, including self-harm and suicidal behavior, is often found in patients with eating disorders. To better understand the reasons for high comorbid psychopathology among eating disorders, self-harm, and suicidal behavior, we examined this comorbidity in female patients hospitalized with eating disorders. In a sample of 47 girls admitted for anorexia nervosa, atypical anorexia nervosa, and bulimia nervosa, 72% had depressive symptoms, 11% had obsessive-compulsive symptoms, 9% had anxiety disorder, 23% had substance abuse, and 57% had disharmonious personality development. Suicidal behavior was present in 60% of patients and self-harm in 49%. Association was found between self-harm and suicidality. In all, 68% of girls with eating disorders had a positive score in the Children’s Depression Inventory questionnaire and 62% of them in the Child Adolescent Suicidal Potential Index questionnaire. Clinical examination of girls with eating disorders should focus on identifying the risk of suicidal behavior and self-harm. Keywords: eating disorders, child, adolescent, self-harm, suicidal behavior
Watson, Hunna J; Allen, Karina; Fursland, Anthea; Byrne, Susan M; Nathan, Paula R
Quality of life (QOL) is the degree of enjoyment and satisfaction experienced in life, and embraces emotional well-being, physical health, economic and living circumstances, and work satisfaction. QOL recovery with eating disorder treatment has received sparse attention, and until now, no study has investigated QOL recovery with enhanced cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT-E). Patients (n = 196) admitted to a specialist eating disorders outpatient programme and receiving CBT-E completed measures of QOL, eating disorder psychopathology, depression, anxiety and self-esteem, before and after treatment. QOL at intake was compared with community norms, and QOL below the norm was predicted from sociodemographic and clinical correlates with logistic regression. Baseline QOL below the norm was associated with depression and anxiety Axis I comorbidity, and severity of depressive symptoms. Predictors of post-treatment QOL were baseline QOL and level of depressive symptoms and self-esteem at post-treatment. CBT-E was associated with gains in QOL over the course of treatment, in addition to eating disorder symptom relief. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.
Powers, Margaret A; Richter, Sara A; Ackard, Diann M; Cronemeyer, Catherine
Through focus groups, we examined the development and maintenance of an eating disorder in 16 females with type 1 diabetes and an eating disorder. The quotes and qualitative data summaries provide rich insights into understanding why those with type 1 diabetes are at increased risk for eating disorders. Content analyses revealed five themes pertinent to the dual diagnosis (feeling different, difficulty with control/coping, body image, feelings, and quality of life) of which four themes were relevant to eating disorder development. Findings support early identification of those at risk and inform interventions to mitigate development of an eating disorder. © The Author(s) 2015.
Shisslak, Catherine M.; And Others
Summarizes current understanding of anorexia nervosa and bulimia (clinical symptoms and outcome, prevalence and risk factors), offering suggestions for the primary prevention of these disorders at the individual, family, and community levels, and emphasizing prevention in the schools. (Author/KS)
Lavender, Jason M.; De Young, Kyle P.; Anestis, Michael D.; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Crosby, Ross D.; Engel, Scott G.; Mitchell, James E.; Crow, Scott J.; Peterson, Carol B.; Le Grange, Daniel
This study examined the unique associations between eating disorder symptoms and two emotion-related constructs (affective lability and anxiousness) assessed via distinct methodologies in anorexia nervosa (AN). Women (N=116) with full or subthreshold AN completed baseline emotion and eating disorder assessments, followed by two weeks of ecological momentary assessment (EMA). Hierarchical regressions were used to examine unique contributions of baseline and EMA measures of affective lability and anxiousness in accounting for variance in baseline eating disorder symptoms and EMA dietary restriction, controlling for age, body mass index, depression, and AN diagnostic subtype. Only EMA affective lability was uniquely associated with baseline eating disorder symptoms and EMA dietary restriction. Anxiousness was uniquely associated with baseline eating disorder symptoms regardless of assessment method; neither of the anxiousness measures was uniquely associated with EMA dietary restriction. Affective lability and anxiousness account for variance in global eating disorder symptomatology; AN treatments targeting these emotion-related constructs may prove useful. PMID:23880601
Mason, Tyler B; Lavender, Jason M; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Crosby, Ross D; Engel, Scott G; Strauman, Timothy J; Mitchell, James E; Crow, Scott J; Le Grange, Daniel; Klein, Marjorie H; Smith, Tracey L; Peterson, Carol B
This study examined self-discrepancy, a construct of theoretical relevance to eating disorder (ED) psychopathology, across different types of EDs. Individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN; n = 112), bulimia nervosa (BN; n = 72), and binge eating disorder (BED; n = 199) completed semi-structured interviews assessing specific types of self-discrepancies. Results revealed that actual:ideal (A:I) discrepancy was positively associated with AN, actual:ought (A:O) discrepancy was positively associated with BN and BED, and self-discrepancies did not differentiate BN from BED. Across diagnoses, A:O discrepancy was positively associated with severity of purging, binge eating, and global ED psychopathology. Further, there were significant interactions between diagnosis and A:O discrepancy for global ED psychopathology and between diagnosis and A:I discrepancy for binge eating and driven exercise. These results support the importance of self-discrepancy as a potential causal and maintenance variable in EDs that differentiates among different types of EDs and symptom severity. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.
Talleyrand, Regine M.
Given the recent focus on eating disorders in children, it is imperative that counselors consider eating concerns that affect children of all racial and ethnic groups and hence are effective in working with this population. The author discusses risk factors that potentially contribute to eating disorders in African American girls given their…
Schaffner, Angela D.; Buchanan, Linda Paulk
This study examined the current issues relevant to implementing evidence-based practices in the context of outpatient treatment for eating disorders. The study also examined the effectiveness of an outpatient treatment program for eating disorders among a group of 196 patients presenting with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, or eating disorder…
The Eating Disorder Inventory and the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire's cognitive dietary restraint subscale were used to measure disordered eating behaviour. Body composition was measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Estimated energy availability (estEA) was determined from a three-day diet and ...
Gempeler Rueda, Juanita
Abstract This article reviews the available literature on binge-eating disorder, currently included in the DSM IV as an Eating Disorder NOS. Its inclusion in the DSM V is under discussion. Conceptualization of this disorder is examined, as well as implications for clinical interventions from a cognitive-behavioral perspective. Resumen El presente artículo tiene por objeto revisar la bibliografía actualizada disponible sobre el tema del trastorno por atracones de la alimentación, que hasta ...
Tao, Z L; Liu, Y
Several studies have examined the underlying psychopathology in overuse of the Internet, including depression, social anxiety, and substance dependence. A relationship between these psychological disorders appears to exist. No links have been established between Internet dependence and eating disorders. Fifty-four Internet dependents were compared with a control group concerning symptomatic aspects of eating disorders and psychological characteristics related to eating disorders. They all belonged to 1199 respondents of Chinese secondary school and college students between the ages of 12 and 25 years old. A Mann-Whitney U-test was used to determine the difference between Internet dependent groups and non-Internet dependent groups concerning Eating Attitudes Test and Eating Disorder Inventory scores. Females and male Internet dependents rated themselves with significantly higher symptomatic aspects of eating disorders than control groups. Female and male Internet dependents showed significantly higher psychological characteristics related to eating disorders than control groups. A relationship between Internet dependence and eating disorders appears to exist.
Hoddy, Kristin K; Kroeger, Cynthia M; Trepanowski, John F; Barnosky, Adrienne R; Bhutani, Surabhi; Varady, Krista A
Alternate day fasting (ADF; ad libitum intake "feed day" alternated with 75% restriction "fast day"), is effective for weight loss, but the safety of the diet has been questioned. Accordingly, this study examined occurrences of adverse events and eating disorder symptoms during ADF. Obese subjects (n = 59) participated in an 8-week ADF protocol where food was provided on the fast day. Body weight decreased (P Bad breath doubled from baseline (14%) to post-treatment (29%), though not significantly. Depression and binge eating decreased (P effects on eating disorder symptoms.
Calzo, Jerel P.; Horton, Nicholas J.; Sonneville, Kendrin R.; Swanson, Sonja; Crosby, Ross D.; Micali, Nadia; Eddy, Kamryn T.; Field, Alison E.
Objective Research on the manifestations and health correlates of eating disorder symptoms among males is lacking. This study identified patterns of appearance concerns and eating disorder behaviors from adolescence through young adulthood and their health correlates. Method Participants were 7,067 males from the prospective Growing Up Today Study. Surveys from 1999–2007 (spanning ages 13–26 years) provided repeated measures data on: muscularity and leanness concerns; eating disorder behaviors (purging, overeating, binge eating, use of muscle-building products); and health correlates (obesity, non-marijuana drug use, binge drinking, and depressive symptoms). Results Latent class analyses of observations at ages 13–15, 16–18, 19–22, and 23–26 identified one large Asymptomatic class and four symptomatic patterns: Body Image Disturbance (high appearance concerns, low eating disorder behaviors; 1.0%–6.0% per age period); Binge Eating/Purging (binge eating and purging, use of muscle-building products, low appearance concerns; 0.1%–2.5%); Mostly Asymptomatic (low levels of muscularity concern, product use, and overeating; 3.5%–5.0%); and Muscularity Concerns (high muscularity concerns and use of products; 0.6%–1.0%). The Body Image Disturbance class was associated with high estimated prevalence of depressive symptoms. Males in the Binge Eating/Purging and Muscularity Concerns classes had high prevalence of binge drinking and drug use. Despite exhibiting modestly greater appearance concerns and eating disorder behaviors than the Asymptomatic class, being in the Mostly Asymptomatic class was prospectively associated with adverse health outcomes. Conclusion Results underscore the importance of measuring concerns about leanness, muscularity, and use of muscle-building products when assessing eating disorder presentations among males in research and clinical settings. PMID:27453083
Full Text Available
Background: Our aim was to study the relationship between hormonal disturbances and psychopathology in Eating Disorders (ED.
Methods: Forty-nine women diagnosed as Eating Disorders according to DSM-IV were subjected to control plasma levels of TSH, FT3, FT4, LH, FSH, 17beta-estradiol, prolactin, cortisol, DHEAS, GH and IGF-1. They were also administered by SCL-90R, BAT, DES II questionnaires. We applied multivariate regression models.
Results: Our results highlight a statistically significant relation between LH, FSH and prolactin decreased levels, mood and thought disturbances (subscales 3, 5, 7, 8 and 9 of SCL-90r which are associated to Body Attitude ( BAT total scale and Dissociative Experiences (DES II total scale.
Conclusions: Decreased sexual hormones levels could have a role in ED psychological disturbances, not inquired yet
Lee, Darrin J; Elias, Gavin J B; Lozano, Andres M
Eating disorders and obesity adversely affect individuals both medically and psychologically, leading to reduced life expectancy and poor quality of life. While there exist a number of treatments for anorexia, morbid obesity and bulimia, many patients do not respond favorably to current behavioral, medical or bariatric surgical management. Neuromodulation has been postulated as a potential treatment for eating disorders and obesity. In particular, deep brain stimulation and transcranial non-invasive brain stimulation have been studied for these indications across a variety of brain targets. Here, we review the neurobiology behind eating and eating disorders as well as the current status of preclinical and clinical neuromodulation trials for eating disorders and obesity.
Winkens, L.H.H.; van Strien, T.; Brouwer, I.A.; Penninx, Brenda; Visser, Marjolein; Lähteenmäki, Liisa
OBJECTIVE: To examine associations of mindful eating domains with depressive symptoms and depression in three European countries. Moderation by change in appetite-with increased appetite as marker for depression with atypical features - was also tested. METHODS: Data were collected in Denmark (n =
Winkens, L.H.H.; van Strien, T.; Brouwer, I.A.; Penninx, Brenda; Visser, Marjolein; Lähteenmäki, Liisa
OBJECTIVE: To examine associations of mindful eating domains with depressive symptoms and depression in three European countries. Moderation by change in appetite-with increased appetite as marker for depression with atypical features - was also tested. METHODS: Data were collected in Denmark (n =
Winkens, L.H.H.; Strien, T. van; Brouwer, I.A.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Visser, M.; Lähteenmäki, L.
Objective: To examine associations of mindful eating domains with depressive symptoms and depression in three European countries. Moderation by change in appetite - with increased appetite as marker for depression with atypical features - was also tested. Methods: Data were collected in Denmark
Song, Youn Joo; Lee, Jung-Hyun; Jung, Young-Chul
Recent studies suggest that chewing and spitting out food may be associated with severe eating-related pathology. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between chewing and spitting, and other symptoms of eating disorders. We hypothesized that patients who chew and spit as a compensatory behavior have more severe eating-related pathology than patients who have never engaged in chewing and spitting behavior. We divided 359 patients with eating disorders into two groups according to whether they engaged in chewing and spitting as a compensatory behavior to lose weight or not. After comparing eating-related pathology between the two groups, we examined factors associated with pathologic eating behaviors using logistic regression analysis. Among our 359 participants, 24.5% reported having engaged in chewing and spitting as a compensatory behavior. The chewing and spitting (CHSP+) group showed more severe eating disorder symptoms and suicidal behaviors. This group also had significantly higher scores on subscales that measured drive for thinness, bulimia, and impulse regulation on the EDI-2, Food Craving Questionnaire, Body Shape Questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Anxiety Inventory, and Maudsley Obsessive Compulsive Inventory. Chewing and spitting is a common compensatory behavior among patients with eating disorders and is associated with more-pathologic eating behaviors and higher scores on psychometric tests. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Thome, Jennifer; Espelage, Dorothy L
Researchers have long been interested in the coping styles of individuals who display disordered eating characteristics. Recently, exercise has been recognized as both a behavior and coping strategy that might be present among individuals with disordered eating. The present study evaluates the role of exercise as both a coping mechanism and as a health behavior in relation to eating pathology and other measures of psychological health in a nonclinical university population. Female (n=235) and male (n=86) undergraduate students completed questionnaires that assessed exercise behavior, coping strategies, eating attitudes, self-esteem, life satisfaction, affect, depression, and anxiety. The results indicate that the relations among exercise, coping, and eating pathology is complex. Exercise was related to positive psychological health in males, whereas exercise in females was associated with both positive and negative psychological health. For women with high Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) scores, exercise was significantly associated with negative affect, and a trend existed in this group such that exercise was associated with higher levels of depression and anxiety. Conversely, for women with low EAT scores, exercise was associated with positive affect. This suggests that exercise might be differentially associated with mental health based on the presence or absence of eating pathology.
Myers, Laura L.; Wiman, Allison M.
In 1994, binge eating disorder (BED) was introduced as a disorder requiring further study in the "American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders", fourth edition ("DSM-IV"). It is now listed as a distinct eating disorder in the "DSM-5", along with bulimia nervosa and anorexia…
Soh, Nerissa Li-Wey; Touyz, Stephen; Dobbins, Timothy A; Surgenor, Lois J; Clarke, Simon; Kohn, Michael R; Lee, Ee Lian; Leow, Vincent; Rieger, Elizabeth; Ung, Ken Eng Khean; Walter, Garry
To investigate eating disorder psychopathology, restraint and eating concern in young women with and without an eating disorder from two different ethnic groups in Australia and Singapore. The relationship of Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire Global, Restraint and Eating Concern scores to cultural orientation and sociocultural factors was analysed in 154 women with and without an eating disorder. Participants were from the following backgrounds: North European Australian, East Asian Australian, Singaporean Chinese and North European expatriates in Singapore. Women with eating disorders had similar psychopathology across the cultural groups. Among controls, Singaporean Chinese reported significantly greater overall eating disorder psychopathology than other cultural groups and greater restraint than North European Australians/expatriates. Eating concern was not associated with cultural group overall or acculturation to Western culture. Dissatisfaction with family functioning, socioeconomic status and education level were not significantly associated with any of the eating disorder measures. In eating disorder psychopathology, the specific symptom of eating concern may transcend cultural influences.
Godart, N; Radon, L; Curt, F; Duclos, J; Perdereau, F; Lang, F; Venisse, J L; Halfon, O; Bizouard, P; Loas, G; Corcos, M; Jeammet, Ph; Flament, M F
In a clinical population, we estimated the frequency of mood disorders among 271 patients suffering from Anorexia Nervosa (AN) and Bulimia Nervosa (BN) in comparison to a control group matched for age and gender. The frequency of mood disorders was measured using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), DSM-IV version. Mood disorders were more frequent among eating disorder (ED) patients than among controls, with a global prevalence of the order of 80% for each ED group. The majority of the mood disorders comorbid with ED were depressive disorders (MDD and dysthymia). The relative chronology of onset of these disorders was equivocal, because mood disorders in some cases preceded and in others followed the onset of the eating disorders. Our sample was characterized by patients with severe ED and high comorbidities, and thus do not represent the entire population of AN or BN. This also may have resulted in an overestimation of prevalence. Mood disorders appear significantly more frequently in patients seeking care for ED than in controls. These results have implications for the assessment and treatment of ED patients, and for the aetio-pathogenesis of these disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Szalai, Tamás Dömötör; Czeglédi, Edit
Many studies confirm the relationship between attachment disturbances and (the severity of) eating disorders, however among them only one Hungarian study can be found. The exact predisposing traits of attachment and the strength of relationship is still uncleared. Our aim was to explore these aspects. Study was based on a cross-sectional nationally representative survey, called "Hungarostudy 2013" (N = 2000, 46.9% males, mean age 46.9 years, SD = 18.24 years). Measures: Sociodemographic and self-reported anthropometric data (weight and height), short Hungarian version of Relationship Scale Questionnaire, SCOFF questionnaire and short Hungarian version of Beck Depression Inventory. The frequency of risk for eating disorders (anorexia or bulimia nervosa) was 3.9% (N = 76) among the respondents (N = 1860). Attachment anxiety was significantly higher in the risk for eating disorders group (t (1888) = -3.939, p eating disorders after adjusting for the potential background variables (OR = 1.09, p = 0.040). Detachment was not a significant predictor of risk for eating disorders (OR = 0.98, p = 0.515). Younger age (OR = 0.97, p cross-sectional predictors of risk for eating disorders. The explained variance of the model was 10.7%. The study supported, that higher attachment anxiety is associated with the increased risk of eating disorders, with a possible therapeutic relevance. Assessment of attachment's further aspects and creating multivariable models are required for more thorough understanding and optimising of intervention points.
Klomek, Anat Brunstein; Lev-Wiesel, Rachel; Shellac, Evia; Hadas, Arik; Berger, Uri; Horwitz, Mira; Fennig, Silvana
The aim of the current study is to examine the association between self disclosure and self-injurious behaviors among adolescent patients diagnosed with an eating disorder. Sixty three female patients who fulfilled the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria of eating disorders were included (i.e. anorexia, bulimia, binge eating disorder and eating disorders not otherwise specified). Participants' age ranged from 11.5 to 20 years (M = 15.42, SD = 1.82). Participants completed self- report questionnaires about eating disorders, self-disclosure, self-injurious behaviors (FASM) and depression (BDI-II) RESULTS: 82.5% of the sample endorsed severe self-injurious behaviors. A moderate negative relationship was found between general disclosure to parents and self-injurious behaviors indicating that patients who generally self-disclose to their parents (on different topics, apart from suicidal ideation) engage less frequently in self-injurious behaviors. In addition, the more patients self-disclose their suicidal ideation to others, the more they tend to self-injure. Self-disclosure to parents on any topic may buffer against self-injurious behaviors and therefore it is important to work with adolescents suffering from eating disorders on effective self disclosure. In addition, self-disclosure about suicidal ideation to others by adolescents suffering from eating disorders should always be taken seriously, since it may be related to self-injurious behaviors.
Full Text Available Background: Friends are important role models for the formation of social norms and behaviour comparisons, particularly in children. This study examined the similarities between pre-adolescent children’s own eating behaviours with the eating behaviours of those in their friendship group. It also evaluated whether symptoms of anxiety and depression were related to eating behaviours in this age group. Methods: Three hundred and forty three children (mean age 8.75 years completed questionnaires designed to measure dietary restraint, emotional eating and external eating, as well as general and social anxiety, and symptoms of depression. Children also provided details about their friendship groups. Results: Pre-adolescents’ dietary restraint was positively predicted by the dietary restraint of members of their friendship groups, and their individual levels of anxiety and depression. The levels of general anxiety exhibited by pre-adolescents predicted emotional and external eating behaviours. Younger children were significantly more likely to report higher levels of emotional and external eating than older children, and boys were more likely to report more external eating behaviours than girls. Conclusions: These results suggest that greater dieting behaviours in pre-adolescents are related to their friends’ reports of greater dieting behaviours. In contrast, greater levels of eating governed by emotions, and eating in response to external hunger cues, are related to greater symptoms of anxiety in pre-adolescent children. Such findings underline the importance of friends’ social influences on dieting behaviours in this age group and highlight the value of targeting healthy eating and eating disorder prevention interventions at pre-adolescents.
Grilo, Carlos M.; Ivezaj, Valentina; White, Marney A.
Objective This study tested the new DSM-5 severity criterion for binge eating disorder (BED) based on frequency of binge-eating in a clinical sample. This study also tested overvaluation of shape/weight as an alternative severity specifier. Method Participants were 834 treatment-seeking adults diagnosed with DSM-5 BED using semistructured diagnostic and eating-disorder interviews. Participants sub-grouped based on DSM-5 severity levels and on overvaluation of shape/weight were compared on demographic and clinical variables. Results Based on DSM-5 severity definitions, 331 (39.7%) participants were categorized as mild, 395 (47.5%) as moderate, 83 (10.0%) as severe, and 25 (3.0%) as extreme. Analyses comparing three (mild, moderate, and severe/extreme) severity groups revealed no significant differences in demographic variables or body mass index (BMI). Analyses revealed significantly higher eating-disorder psychopathology in the severe/extreme than moderate and mild groups and higher depression in moderate and severe/extreme groups than the mild group; effect sizes were small. Participants characterized with overvaluation (N = 449; 54%) versus without overvaluation (N = 384; 46%) did not differ significantly in age, sex, BMI, or binge-eating frequency, but had significantly greater eating-disorder psychopathology and depression. The robustly greater eating-disorder psychopathology and depression levels (medium-to-large effect sizes) in the overvaluation group was observed without attenuation of effect sizes after adjusting for ethnicity/race and binge-eating severity/frequency. Conclusions Our findings provide support for overvaluation of shape/weight as a severity specifier for BED as it provides stronger information about the severity of homogeneous groupings of patients than the DSM-5 rating based on binge-eating. PMID:26114779
This thesis concerns addictive substance abuse in women suffering from eating disorders. In the theoretical part it defines the term eating disorder itself and furthermore briefly works with the cause of these disorders, patients' personality and commonly associating complicating diagnoses. Afterwards it defines the term addiction and illustrates some of the possible influences on development. Then it characterises commonly abused substances and their relation with eating disorders. The empir...
MacGregor, Michael Wm; Lamborn, Paige
Background Eating disorders are complex disorders that involve medical and psychological symptoms. Understanding the psychological factors associated with different eating disorders is important for assessment, diagnosis, and treatment. Methods This study sought to determine on which of the 22 Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) scales patients with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) differed, and whether the PAI can be used to classify e...
... for eating patterns and beliefs that might signal unhealthy behavior, as well as peer pressure that may ... or other sources that promote anorexia as a lifestyle choice, rather than an eating disorder. Promote a ...
van Dyck, Zoé; Hilbert, Anja
Der Essstörungen im Kindesalter-Fragebogen (Eating Disorders in Youth-Questionnaire; EDY-Q) ist ein aus 14 Items bestehendes Instrument zur Erfassung von restriktiven Essproblemen bei 8-13-jährigen Kindern im Selbstbericht. Die Items basieren auf den Kriterien der Störung mit Vermeidung oder Einschränkung der Nahrungseinschränkung (Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder; ARFID), definiert im Diagnostischen und Statistischen Manual Psychischer Störungen, 5. Auflage (DSM-5; American Psychiat...
Crow, Scott J; Peterson, Carol B; Swanson, Sonja A; Raymond, Nancy C; Specker, Sheila; Eckert, Elke D; Mitchell, James E
Anorexia nervosa has been consistently associated with increased mortality, but whether this is true for other types of eating disorders is unclear. The goal of this study was to determine whether anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and eating disorder not otherwise specified are associated with increased all-cause mortality or suicide mortality. Using computerized record linkage to the National Death Index, the authors conducted a longitudinal assessment of mortality over 8 to 25 years in 1,885 individuals with anorexia nervosa (N=177), bulimia nervosa (N=906), or eating disorder not otherwise specified (N=802) who presented for treatment at a specialized eating disorders clinic in an academic medical center. Crude mortality rates were 4.0% for anorexia nervosa, 3.9% for bulimia nervosa, and 5.2% for eating disorder not otherwise specified. All-cause standardized mortality ratios were significantly elevated for bulimia nervosa and eating disorder not otherwise specified; suicide standardized mortality ratios were elevated for bulimia nervosa and eating disorder not otherwise specified. Individuals with eating disorder not otherwise specified, which is sometimes viewed as a "less severe" eating disorder, had elevated mortality risks, similar to those found in anorexia nervosa. This study also demonstrated an increased risk of suicide across eating disorder diagnoses.
Kennedy, Grace A; Wick, Madeline R; Keel, Pamela K
Avoidant-restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID) is a current diagnosis in the "Feeding and Eating Disorders" section of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (fifth edition) and captures a heterogeneous presentation of eating disturbances. In recent years, ARFID has been studied primarily within the context of eating disorders despite having historical roots as a feeding disorder. The following review examines ARFID's similarities with and differences from feeding disorders and eating disorders, focusing on research published within the last three years. Implications of this differentiation for treatment are discussed.
Fogarty, Sarah; Smith, Caroline A; Hay, Phillipa
This systematic review critically appraises the role of complementary and alternative medicine in the treatment of those with an eating disorder. Sixteen studies were included in the review. The results of this review show that the role of complementary and alternative medicine in the treatment of those with an eating disorder is unclear and further studies should be conducted. A potential role was found for massage and bright light therapy for depression in those with Bulimia Nervosa and a potential role for acupuncture and relaxation therapy, in the treatment of State Anxiety, for those with an eating disorder. The role of these complementary therapies in treating eating disorders should only be provided as an adjunctive treatment only. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available There have been many cases of burn patients who also suffer from psychiatric problems, including eating disorders. We present a case of a 38-year-old female with an eating disorder and depression who became light-headed and fell, spilling boiling water from a kettle on herself at home sustaining partial thickness and full thickness burns over 5% of her total body surface area: left buttock and right thigh and calf. Eating disorders (in the present case, anorexia nervosa cause emaciation and malnutrition, and consent for hospitalization from the patient and/or family is often difficult. During the medical treatment of burns for these patients, consideration not only of physical symptoms caused by malnutrition but also the psychiatric issues is required. Therefore, multifaceted and complex care must be given to burn patients with eating disorders.
Mitchell, James E; Redlin, Jennifer; Wonderlich, Steve; Crosby, Ross; Faber, Ron; Miltenberger, Ray; Smyth, Joshua; Stickney, Marci; Gosnell, Blake; Burgard, Melissa; Lancaster, Kathy
Compulsive buying has received increased research attention in the last decade. The disorder has high rates of comorbidity for other disorders, including eating disorders. This study explored the possible relationship between compulsive buying and eating disorders. Twenty women who scored in the pathological range on a measure of compulsive buying and 20 controls were recruited via the media. Various measures of psychopathology and eating disorder symptoms were administered to both groups. Compulsive buyers were significantly more likely to have a higher lifetime history of substance abuse or dependence. No differences existed between normal controls and compulsive buyers in prevalence of current or lifetime eating disorders, nor were there differences in scores of eating-related psychopathology. This work failed to demonstrate an increased risk for eating disorder in compulsive buyers, although a higher rate of substance dependence or abuse and higher scores on pathological personality dimension scales were seen.
Lavender, Jason M; Brown, Tiffany A; Murray, Stuart B
There is growing recognition that eating disorder (ED) symptoms, particularly those of a muscularity-oriented nature, are more common in men than previously understood. The purpose of the current review is to describe contemporary directions and implications of research on traditional and muscularity-oriented ED symptoms among males. Evidence indicates that ED symptoms occur in a substantial minority of men. Importantly, recent research has focused on muscularity-oriented body image and disordered eating in males, demonstrating the prevalence, correlates, and consequences of maladaptive muscularity-oriented attitudes and behaviors. A growing number of assessments are available to measure these constructs in males, and preliminary treatment considerations have begun to be addressed in the literature. Research on male EDs and body image is increasingly focusing on muscularity-oriented manifestations. Continued empirical work will be critical to improve our understanding of the onset, maintenance, and treatment of muscularity-oriented disordered eating in males.
Goel, Neha J; Sadeh-Sharvit, Shiri; Flatt, Rachael E; Trockel, Mickey; Balantekin, Katherine N; Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E; Monterubio, Grace E; Firebaugh, Marie-Laure; Jacobi, Corinna; Wilfley, Denise E; Taylor, C Barr
To identify the correlates of suicidal ideation (SI) in a large sample of college women with eating disorders (EDs). A total of 690 female college students from 28 US colleges who screened positive for an ED, with the exception of anorexia nervosa, were assessed for SI. Univariate logistic regression analyses were performed to determine independent correlates of SI. Measures included: ED psychopathology, ED behaviors (i.e., binge eating, vomiting, laxatives, compulsive exercise), current co-morbid psychopathology (i.e., depression, anxiety, insomnia), weight/shape concerns, ED-related clinical impairment, and body mass index (BMI). All significant variables were included in a backward binary multivariate logistic regression model to determine which variables were most strongly associated with SI. A total of 25.6% of the sample reported SI. All variables examined were significantly independently associated with SI, with the exception of compulsive exercise. Depression, anxiety, and vomiting remained as significant correlates of SI in the multivariate logistic regression model. ED screening on college campuses should assess for suicidality, and prevention and treatment efforts should target vomiting and co-morbid depression and anxiety symptoms to reduce risk of SI for high-risk individuals. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Goldschmidt, Andrea B; Le Grange, Daniel; Powers, Pauline; Crow, Scott J; Hill, Laura L; Peterson, Carol B; Crosby, Ross D; Mitchell, Jim E
Although normal-weight individuals comprise a substantial minority of the binge eating disorder (BED) population, little is known about their clinical presentation. This study sought to investigate the nature and severity of eating disturbances in normal-weight adults with BED. We compared 281 normal-weight (n = 86) and obese (n = 195) treatment-seeking adults with BED (mean age = 31.0; s.d. = 10.8) on a range of current and past eating disorder symptoms using ANOVA and χ(2) analyses. After controlling for age and sex, normal-weight participants reported more frequent use of a range of healthy and unhealthy weight control behaviors compared to their obese peers, including eating fewer meals and snacks per day; exercising and skipping meals more frequently in the past month; and avoiding certain foods for weight control. They also endorsed more frequent attempts at dieting in the past year, and feeling more frequently distressed about their binge eating, at a trend level. There were no group differences in binge eating frequency in the past month, age at onset of binge eating, overvaluation of shape/weight, or likelihood of having used certain weight control behaviors (e.g., vomiting, laxative use) or having sought treatment for an eating disorder in the past. Based on our findings, normal-weight individuals appear to be a behaviorally distinct subset of the BED population with significantly greater usage of both healthy and unhealthy weight control behaviors compared to their obese peers. These results refute the notion that distress and impairment in BED are simply a result of comorbid obesity.
De Caro, Elide Francesca; Di Blas, Lisa
The present longitudinal study is aimed at analyzing how adolescents change their dysfunctional attitudes towards their body and eating behaviors in relation to personality characteristics across a six-month time span. Via multiple regression analyses we investigated whether MMPI-A Obsessiveness, Low Self-Esteem, Depression, Family Problems and Concern for health are temporal antecedents of EDI-2 eating disorders, and vice versa. Our main findings revealed a bidirectio...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Families of people with eating disorders are often caught up in rule bound eating and safety behaviours that characterise the illness. The main aim of this study was to develop a valid and specific scale to measure family accommodation in the context of having a relative with an eating disorder. Methods A new scale, the Accommodation and Enabling Scale for Eating Disorders (AESED, was jointly generated by professionals and expert carers through qualitative analysis. In the first stage, this instrument was given to 201 family members of relatives diagnosed with an eating disorder, with additional self-report measures including the Experience of Caregiving Inventory (ECI, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS and the Family Questionnaire (FQ. In the second stage, the sensitivity of the AESED to change was tested in a pre-and-post design study with a new sample of 116 caregivers, using a DVDs-distance skills training for caregivers. Results A 33 item instrument was derived consisting of five factors: Avoidance and Modifying Routine, Reassurance Seeking, Meal Ritual, Control of Family and Turning a Blind Eye, which together explained 60.1% of the variance. This scale had good psychometric properties in terms of Cronbach's alpha which ranged from 0.77 to 0.92. Regarding the convergent validity, most of the AESED subscales was moderately supported by correlations with anxiety (HADS; r = 0.24 to 0.48 and depression levels (HADS; r = 0.17 to 0.47, negative caregiving (ECI; r = 0.18 to 0.45, and expressed emotion levels (FQ; r = 0.17 to 0.51. Pre-post intervention assessments showed that the overall AESED scale (d = 0.38 and the avoidance and modifying routine (d = 0.52, meal ritual (d = 0.27 and control of the family (d = 0.49 subscales were sensitive to change. Conclusion Internal consistency was good and initial validity of the scale was adequate, it was able to discriminate differences between clinical variables, however
Derenne, Jennifer L; Beresin, Eugene V
Eating disorders, including obesity, are a major public health problem today. Throughout history, body image has been determined by various factors, including politics and media. Exposure to mass media (television, movies, magazines, Internet) is correlated with obesity and negative body image, which may lead to disordered eating. The authors attempt to explain the historical context of the problem and explore potential avenues for change. The authors review changes in ideal female body type throughout history, comment on current attitudes toward shape and weight in both men and women, and outline interventions aimed at increasing healthy habits and fostering self-esteem in youth. Throughout history, the ideal of beauty has been difficult to achieve and has been shaped by social context. Current mass media is ubiquitous and powerful, leading to increased body dissatisfaction among both men and women. Parents need to limit children's exposure to media, promote healthy eating and moderate physical activity, and encourage participation in activities that increase mastery and self-esteem. Funding for high-quality, visible advertising campaigns promoting healthy life styles may increase awareness.
Conviser, Jenny H; Fisher, Sheehan D; McColley, Susanna A
Pediatric chronic illnesses (CI) can affect a child's mental health. Chronic illnesses with treatment regimens that specify a therapeutic diet may place the child at increased risk for disordered eating and specific eating disorders (ED). The aim of this review is to examine the relation between diet-treated CI and disordered eating and to determine the order of onset to infer directionality. Diet-treated CI is hypothesized to precede and to be associated with disordered eating. A comprehensive search of empirical articles that examine the relation between diet-treated CI (diabetes, cystic fibrosis, celiac disease, gastrointestinal disorders, and inflammatory bowel diseases) and disordered eating was conducted in Medline and PsycINFO using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. A table of the sample's characteristics, ED measures, major pertinent findings, and the onset of CI in relation to ED were provided. Diet-treated CI was associated with disordered eating and ED. Diet-treated CI had onset prior to disordered eating in most studies, except for inflammatory bowel diseases. Disordered eating and unhealthy weight management practices put children at risk for poor medical outcomes. Interventions for diet-treated CI require a focus on diet and weight, but may increase the risk for disordered eating. Future research is needed to elucidate the mechanisms that transform standard treatment practices into pathological eating, including characteristics and behaviors of the child, parents/care providers, family, and treatment providers. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Talbot, Lisa S; Maguen, Shira; Epel, Elissa S; Metzler, Thomas J; Neylan, Thomas C
The present study investigated the relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and emotional eating in a sample of medically healthy and medication-free adults. Participants with PTSD (n = 44) and control participants free of lifetime psychiatric history (n = 49) completed a measure of emotional eating. Emotional eating is the tendency to eat or overeat in response to negative emotions. PTSD participants exhibited greater emotional eating than control participants (η(2) = .20) and emotional eating increased with higher PTSD symptom severity (R(2) = .11). Results supported the stress-eating-obesity model whereby emotional eating is a maladaptive response to stressors. Over time, this could lead to weight gain, particularly abdominal stores, and contribute to higher risk for comorbid medical disorders. Findings suggest the importance of future longitudinal research to understand whether emotional eating contributes to the high rates of obesity, diabetes, and heart disease in PTSD. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.
Torres-McGehee, Toni M; Green, James M; Leaver-Dunn, Deidre; Leeper, James D; Bishop, Phillip A; Richardson, Mark T
Eating knowledge, nutritional knowledge, and psychological changes among female collegiate dancers were examined before and after a 4-wk. team-centered program on sport nutrition, exercise, and disordered eating consequences. Collegiate female dancers from two NCAA Division I institutions participated in a control (n = 19; M age = 19.1 yr., SD = 1.0) or intervention (n = 21; M age = 19.2 yr., SD = 1.2) group. Measures were administered to both groups before and after intervention to assess eating disorders, depression, and nutritional and disordered eating knowledge. There was a statistically significant increase in scores on nutritional and overall eating disorder knowledge in the intervention group compared to the control group. Mean scores on depression, drive for thinness, body dissatisfaction, and maturity fears decreased in the intervention group.
Bubl, E.; Tebartz Van Elst, L.; Ebert, D.
Background. Reduced dopaminergic transmission has been implicated in the pathophysiology of major depression. Furthermore, dopaminergic neurotransmission plays an important role in the physiology of visual contrast sensitivity (CS). To test the hypothesis that altered dopaminergic neurotransmissi...
Spettigue, Wendy; Henderson, Katherine A
This paper provides a review of the role of the media in the development, maintenance, prevention, and treatment of eating disorders. The literature on gambling in youth on the internet was reviewed. It explores: (1) the role of the media in providing a social context for the development of eating disorders, (2) the role of the media in the etiology of eating disorder pathology, (3) the ways in which the media is used by patients suffering from eating disorders, and (4) the role that awareness of the media can have in the treatment and prevention of eating disorders. This review demonstrates that the media does contribute to the development of eating disorders. This review highlights the need for media literacy and media activism to help change the current normative body discontent of women in the Western world.
Baldofski, Sabrina; Tigges, Wolfgang; Herbig, Beate; Jurowich, Christian; Kaiser, Stefan; Stroh, Christine; de Zwaan, Martina; Dietrich, Arne; Rudolph, Almut; Hilbert, Anja
Binge-eating disorder (BED) as a distinct eating disorder category and night eating syndrome (NES) as a form of Other Specified Feeding or Eating Disorders were recently included in the 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). This study sought to investigate the prevalence of BED and NES and associations with various forms of nonnormative eating behavior and psychopathology in prebariatric patients. Within a consecutive multicenter registry study, patients in 6 bariatric surgery centers in Germany were recruited. Overall, 233 prebariatric patients were assessed using the Eating Disorder Examination and self-report questionnaires. Assessment was unrelated to clinical procedures. Diagnostic criteria for full-syndrome BED and NES were currently met by 4.3% and 8.2% of prebariatric patients, respectively. In addition, 8.6% and 6.9% of patients met subsyndromal BED and NES criteria, respectively. Co-morbid BED and NES diagnoses were present in 3.9% of patients. In comparison to patients without any eating disorder symptoms, patients with BED and NES reported greater emotional eating, eating in the absence of hunger, and more symptoms of food addiction. Moreover, differences between patients with BED and NES emerged with more objective binge-eating episodes and higher levels of eating concern, weight concern, and global eating disorder psychopathology in patients with BED. BED and NES were shown to be prevalent among prebariatric patients, with some degree of overlap between diagnoses. Associations with nonnormative eating behavior and psychopathology point to their clinical significance and discriminant validity. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Debate continues regarding the nosological status of binge eating disorder (BED and the specific diagnostic criteria, including whether, like anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, it should be characterized by body image disturbances in addition to abnormal eating behaviour. The aims of this article are: a to concisely review the main points of the literature that has developed on diagnosis and treatment (especially pharmacological of BED and b to present the results of an original research on body image in obese patients with BED. The study was aimed to verify the following hypothesis: in persons with obesity, BED is associated with greater body uneasiness independently of some possible modulating factors. We studied a clinical sample of 159 (89 females and 70 males adult obese patients who fulfilled DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria for BED matched to 159 non-BED obese patients for gender, ethnicity, BMI class, age, weight, stature, onset age of obesity, education level, and marital status. We used the Body Uneasiness Test (BUT, a valuable multidimensional tool for the clinical assessment of body uneasiness in subjects suffering from eating disorders and/or obesity. Obese patients with BED reported higher scores than non-BED patients in the General Severity Index (BUT-A GSI and in every BUT-A subscale. All differences were statistically significant in both sexes. As expected women obtained higher scores than men. According to some other studies, our findings suggest that a negative body image should be included among diagnostic criteria for BED. Consequently, treatment should be focused not simply on eating behaviour and outcome studies should evaluate changes of body image as well.
Presents a prose-poetry tale which examines the use of writing as a pathway out of an eating disorder. Highlights the need for persons with an eating problem to find their own voice and describe their experiences in their own words rather than the restrictive narrative of an eating problem. Stresses the value of eliciting reflective, as well as…
Beals, Katherine A.; Brey, Rebecca A.; Gonyou, Julianna B.
Examines three disorders that can affect female athletes who focus on succeeding athletically and achieving a prescribed body weight: disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. The paper presents prevention and treatment suggestions for athletes with eating disorders, focusing on primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention. Recommends that…
The study deals with eating disorders. It tries to bring the most comprehensive overview of the two majority eating disorders, anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, respectively. Both diseases have a lot in common, but also some of its specifics which are pointed out in the study. The study is conceived to make the reader in the early chapters acquainted with the various eating disorders according to international diagnostic criteria. Then there is a brief history, epidemiology and etiology a...
Machado, Paulo P. P.; Machado, Bárbara César; Gonçalves, Sónia; Hoek, Hans W.
Objective: Eating Disorders Not Otherwise Specified (EDNOS) represent the most common eating disorder diagnosed in specialized treatment settings. The purpose of the current study is to assess the prevalence of EDNOS in a nationwide community sample. Method: Participants were 2028 female students, aged 12 to 23, attending public schools in the 9th to 12th grades in Portugal. Participants completed the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire in Stage 1 of the study. In Stage 2, we selected a...
Fairburn, Christopher G.; Rothwell, Emily R.
ABSTRACT Objective Smartphone applications (apps) are proliferating and health?related apps are particularly popular. The aim of this study was to identify, characterize, and evaluate the clinical utility of apps designed either for people with eating disorders or for eating disorder professionals. Method A search of the major app stores identified 805 potentially relevant apps, of which 39 were primarily designed for people with eating disorders and five for professionals. Results The apps f...
Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this study was to compare the prevalence of comorbid eating disorders in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD and other common anxiety disorders. Method. 179 patients from the same geographical area with a diagnosis of OCD or an anxiety disorder were divided into two groups based on their primary diagnosis. The prevalence of a comorbid eating disorder was calculated in both groups. Results. There was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of comorbid eating disorders between the OCD and other anxiety disorders group. Conclusions. These results suggest that the prevalence of comorbid eating disorders does not differ in anxiety disorders when compared with OCD. However, in both groups, it remains statistically higher than that of the general population.
Nicholls, W; Devonport, T J; Blake, M
There is utility in understanding the antecedents of binge eating (BE), with a view to explaining poorer weight loss treatment responses in this subgroup. A systematic review was completed according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines with the aim of exploring associations between emotions and eating behaviour in a population affected by obesity and binge eating disorder (BED). A comprehensive literature search of four electronic databases (2004-2014) yielded 15 studies for inclusion. Included studies performed poorly on data quality analysis with respect to controlling for confounding variables, and sample size. Included papers largely focused on negative emotions as antecedents of BE; depression was consistently associated with a BED-obese classification and BE. Negative mood, sadness, tension and instability of emotions were found to be antecedents of BE in an adult BED-obese sample. However, findings were mixed regarding the role of stress, anger and positive emotions within the BED-obese population. Recommendations are presented for the identification of BED, and ecologically valid experimental designs that further understanding of the complex and varied emotions that associate with BE. The implications of these and other limitations for both researchers and practitioners are discussed. The paper concludes with recommendations for future research alongside suggestions for practitioners. © 2015 World Obesity. © 2015 World Obesity.
Saul, Jennifer S; Rodgers, Rachel F
The proliferation of social media and rapid increase in the use of the Internet by adolescents generates new dynamics and new risks for the development and maintenance of eating disorders. Here, the authors review different types of online content and how they are relevant to eating disorders within different theoretic frameworks, before examining the empirical evidence for the risks posed by online content in the development and maintenance of eating disorders. They describe pro-eating disorder content specifically and examine the research related to it, before considering its implications, and considering directions for future research, and prevention and intervention strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hamilton, Matthew J; Watson, Hunna J; Egan, Sarah J; Hoiles, Kimberley J; Harper, Emily; McCormack, Julie; Shu, Chloe; Forbes, David A
To examine the prevalence and importance of psychological, behavioural, and situational correlates of impending psychiatric inpatient admissions in children and adolescents with eating disorders. The sample consisted of 285 patients (8-17 years, M = 14.4, SD = 1.49) with DSM-5 eating disorders assessed between 2006 and 2013 from the Helping to Outline Pediatric Eating Disorders (HOPE) Project. The sample was split into two groups, those with (n = 38) and without (n = 247) impending psychiatric admission; Discriminant function analysis was used to examine correlates. The prevalence of impending psychiatric admission was 13.3%. Suicidal ideation provided the greatest discriminating power, followed by eating pathology, depressive symptoms, anxiety, multiple methods of weight control, binge eating, and family functioning. Earlier recognition of comorbid symptoms in eating disorders in the community may reduce the number of young people with eating disorders who present needing critical psychiatric care. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Assari, Shervin; DeFreitas, Mariana R
The aim of this study is to explore ethnic variations in psychosocial and health correlates of eating disorders in the United States, Specifically, we compared associations between gender, socioeconomic status (SES), body mass index (BMI), physical and mental self-rated health (SRH), and major depressive disorder (MDD) with eating disorders (EDs) across 10 different ethnic groups in the United States. Data was obtained from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (CPES), a national household probability sample collected in 2001⁻2003. Data for this study included a sample of 17,729 individuals with the following ethnic profile: 520 Vietnamese, 508 Filipino, 600 Chinese, 656 Other Asian, 577 Cuban, 495 Puerto Rican, 1442 Mexican, 1106 Other Hispanic, 4746 African American, and 7587 Non-Latino Whites. Gender, SES (education and income), BMI, SRH, MDD, and presence of EDs were measured across different ethnic groups. Logistic regression analysis was conducted for each ethnic group with lifetime EDs as the main outcome. Ethnic group varied in psychosocial and health correlates of EDs. In most ethnic groups, gender and SES were not associated with EDs. In almost all ethnic groups, EDs were associated with MDD and BMI. EDs were found to be associated with SRH in half of the ethnic groups studied. The associations between gender, SES, BMI, SRH, MDD, and EDs vary across different ethnic groups. These differences must be considered in further studies and in clinical practice in order to improve our approach towards diagnosis and treatment of EDs.
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to explore ethnic variations in psychosocial and health correlates of eating disorders in the United States, Specifically, we compared associations between gender, socioeconomic status (SES, body mass index (BMI, physical and mental self-rated health (SRH, and major depressive disorder (MDD with eating disorders (EDs across 10 different ethnic groups in the United States. Data was obtained from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (CPES, a national household probability sample collected in 2001–2003. Data for this study included a sample of 17,729 individuals with the following ethnic profile: 520 Vietnamese, 508 Filipino, 600 Chinese, 656 Other Asian, 577 Cuban, 495 Puerto Rican, 1442 Mexican, 1106 Other Hispanic, 4746 African American, and 7587 Non-Latino Whites. Gender, SES (education and income, BMI, SRH, MDD, and presence of EDs were measured across different ethnic groups. Logistic regression analysis was conducted for each ethnic group with lifetime EDs as the main outcome. Ethnic group varied in psychosocial and health correlates of EDs. In most ethnic groups, gender and SES were not associated with EDs. In almost all ethnic groups, EDs were associated with MDD and BMI. EDs were found to be associated with SRH in half of the ethnic groups studied. The associations between gender, SES, BMI, SRH, MDD, and EDs vary across different ethnic groups. These differences must be considered in further studies and in clinical practice in order to improve our approach towards diagnosis and treatment of EDs.
Minnick, Alyssa M; Cachelin, Fary M; Durvasula, Ramani S
Little is known about personality disorders (PD) and comorbidities among Latinas with eating disorders (ED). The dysregulation and chronicity of PDs can complicate and augment the symptomatology of EDs. This set of analyses provides a preliminary examination of PD and psychopathology in a sample of Latina women with ED. Participants (N = 34) were administered the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, Eating Disorders Examination, and Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III to assess personality pathology, and questionnaires (Beck Depression Inventory-II and Brief Symptom Inventory) to assess psychological functioning. Results indicated the most common clinically significant trait in the sample was depressive personality (50% of the sample had a score of 75 or higher on this trait). For Bulimia Nervosa (BN) and Binge Eating Disorder (BED), avoidant (41%) and depressive (65%) personalities, respectively, were the most common clinically significant traits. Anxiety disorders were the most common psychiatric diagnoses, and 52.9% of the sample reported both clinically significant PD traits and other major psychopathology. There were no significant differences between the BED and BN groups on prevalence of PD traits and psychopathology. This pilot study highlights the need for further examination of PD and psychopathology in Latinas with ED. Unlike previous research with White women, we found no differences on PD and psychopathology between BED and BN, and the most prevalent PDs among Latinas were different than White women. Personality and psychological functioning should be assessed in all patients with ED, with ongoing research focused on identifying patterns in understudied groups such as Latinas, a practice that may improve treatment for this underserved population.
Lydecker, Janet A; Shea, Megan; Grilo, Carlos M
Purging disorder (PD) is characterized by recurrent purging without objectively large binge-eating episodes. PD has received relatively little attention, and questions remain about the clinical significance of "purging" by exercise that is driven or compulsive (i.e., as extreme compensatory or weight-control behavior). The little available research suggests that individuals who use exercise as a compensatory behavior might have less eating-disorder psychopathology than those who purge by vomiting or laxatives, but those studies have had smaller sample sizes, defined PD using low-frequency thresholds, and defined exercise without weight-compensatory or driven elements. Participants (N = 2,017) completed a web-based survey with established measures of eating-disorder psychopathology, depression, and physical activity. Participants were categorized (regular compensatory driven exercise, PD-E, n = 297; regular compensatory vomiting/laxatives, PD-VL, n = 59; broadly defined anorexia nervosa, AN, n = 20; and no eating-disordered behaviors, NED, n = 1,658) and compared. PD-E, PD-VL, and AN had higher eating-disorder psychopathology and physical activity than NED but did not significantly differ from each other on most domains. PD-VL and AN had higher depression than PD-E, which was higher than NED. Findings suggest that among participants with regularly compensatory behaviors without binge eating, those who use exercise alone have similar levels of associated eating-disorder psychopathology as those who use vomiting/laxatives, although they have lower depression levels and overall frequency of purging. Findings provide further support for the clinical significance of PD. Clinicians and researchers should recognize the severity of driven exercise as a compensatory behavior, and the need for further epidemiological and treatment research. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Bień, Agnieszka; Pieczykolan, Agnieszka
Bień Agnieszka, Pieczykolan Agnieszka. Eating disorders among women of childbearing age. Journal of Education, Health and Sport. 2017;7(3):381-391. eISSN 2391-8306. DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.344548 http://ojs.ukw.edu.pl/index.php/johs/article/view/4289 The journal has had 7 points in Ministry of Science and Higher Education parametric evaluation. Part B item 1223 (26.01.2017). 1223 Journal of Education, Health and Sport eISSN 2391-8306 7 © Th...
van Dyck, Zoé; Herbert, Beate M; Happ, Christian; Kleveman, Gillian V; Vögele, Claus
Intuitive eating has been described to represent an adaptive eating behaviour that is characterised by eating in response to physiological hunger and satiety cues, rather than situational and emotional stimuli. The Intuitive Eating Scale-2 (IES-2) has been developed to measure such attitudes and behaviours on four subscales: unconditional permission to eat (UPE), eating for physical rather than emotional reasons (EPR), reliance on internal hunger and satiety cues (RHSC), and body-food choice congruence (B-FCC). The present study aimed at validating the psychometric properties of the German translation of the IES-2 in a large German-speaking sample. A second objective was to assess levels of intuitive eating in participants with an eating disorder diagnosis (anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, or binge eating disorder). The proposed factor structure of the IES-2 could be confirmed for the German translation of the questionnaire. The total score and most subscale scores were negatively related to eating disorder symptomatology, problems in appetite and emotional awareness, body dissatisfaction, and self-objectification. Women with eating disorders had significantly lower values on all IES-2 subscale scores and the total score than women without an eating disorder diagnosis. Women with a binge eating disorder (BED) diagnosis had higher scores on the UPE subscale compared to participants with anorexia nervosa (AN) or bulimia nervosa (BN), and those diagnosed with AN had higher scores on the EPR subscale than individuals with BN or BED. We conclude that the German IES-2 constitutes a useful self-report instrument for the assessment of intuitive eating in German-speaking samples. Further studies are warranted to evaluate psychometric properties of the IES-2 in different samples, and to investigate its application in a clinical setting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Grilo, Carlos M.; Crosby, Ross D.; Peterson, Carol B.; Masheb, Robin M.; White, Marney A.; Crow, Scott J.; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Mitchell, James E.
Despite the widespread use of the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE) as a primary assessment instrument in studies of eating and weight disorders, little is known about the psychometric aspects of this interview measure. The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the factor structure of the EDE interview in a large series of patients with binge-eating disorder (BED). Participants were 688 treatment-seeking patients with BED who were reliably administered the EDE interview by trained research clinicians at three research centers. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) performed on EDE interview data from a random split-half of the study group suggested a brief 7-item 3-factor structure. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) performed on the second randomly selected half of the study group supported this brief 3-factor structure of the EDE interview. The three factors were interpreted as Dietary Restraint, Shape/Weight Overvaluation, and Body Dissatisfaction. In this series of patients with BED, factor analysis of the EDE interview did not replicate the original subscales but revealed an alternative factor structure. Future research must further evaluate the psychometric properties, including the factor structure, of the EDE interview in this and other eating-disordered groups. The implications of these factor analytic findings for understanding and assessing the specific psychopathology of patients with BED are discussed. PMID:19798064
Masuda, Akihiko; Price, Matthew; Latzman, Robert D.
Psychological flexibility and mindfulness are two related, but distinct, regulation processes that have been shown to be at the core of psychological wellbeing. The current study investigated whether these two processes independently moderated the association between disordered eating cognitions and psychological distress as well as the relation between disordered eating cognitions and disordered eating behaviors. Non-clinical, ethnically diverse college undergraduates completed a web-based s...
The clinical application of fMRI data in a single-patient diagnostic conundrum: Classifying brain response to experimental pain to distinguish between gastrointestinal, depressive and eating disorder symptoms.
Strigo, Irina A; Murray, Stuart B; Simmons, Alan N; Bernard, Rebecca S; Huang, Jeannie S; Kaye, Walter H
Patients with eating disorders (EDs) often present with psychiatric comorbidity, and functional and/or organic gastrointestinal (GI) symptomatology. Such multidiagnostic presentations can complicate diagnostic practice and treatment delivery. Here we describe an adolescent patient who presented with mixed ED, depressive, and GI symptomatology, who had received multiple contrasting diagnoses throughout treatment. We used a novel machine learning approach to classify (i) the patient's functional brain imaging during an experimental pain paradigm, and (ii) patient self-report psychological measures, to categorize the diagnostic phenotype most closely approximated by the patient. Specifically, we found that the patient's response to pain anticipation and experience within the insula and anterior cingulate cortices, and patient self-report data, were most consistent with patients with GI pain. This work is the first to demonstrate the possibility of using imaging data, alongside supervised learning models, for purposes of single patient classification in those with ED symptomatology, where diagnostic comorbidity is common. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lydecker, Janet A; Grilo, Carlos M
This study examined racial/ethnic differences in demographic variables and the clinical presentation of treatment-seeking adults with binge eating disorder (BED) who participated in treatment research at a medical school-based program. Participants were 775 (n = 195 men, n = 560 women) treatment-seeking adults with DSM-IV-defined BED who self-identified as Black (n = 121), Hispanic (n = 54), or White (n = 580). Doctoral-level research clinicians assessed participants for BED and for eating disorder psychopathology using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Disorders and the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE) interview, and measured height and weight. Participants also completed established self-report measures. Black participants had a greater proportion of women than White participants and White participants had higher education than Black and Hispanic participants. Black participants had higher body mass index (BMI) and reported more frequent binge eating episodes than White participants but eating-disorder psychopathology (EDE scales and Global Severity) did not significantly differ across racial/ethnic groups. Black participants had lower levels of depression than Hispanic and White participants. These differences in clinical presentation remained unchanged after adjusting for age, education, sex, and BMI. White participants had younger ages of onset for dieting, binge eating, and obesity, but not BED, than Black and Hispanic participants. There are some racial/ethnic differences in the developmental trajectories and clinical presentation of treatment-seeking adults with BED that remain unchanged after adjusting for demographic differences. Black participants presented for treatment with higher BMI and binge eating frequency than White participants and with lower depression than White and Hispanic groups, but associated eating disorder psychopathology levels were similar across racial/ethnic groups. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Grilo, Carlos M.; Ivezaj, Valentina; White, Marney A.
Research has examined various aspects of the diagnostic criteria for binge-eating disorder (BED) but has yet to evaluate the DSM-5 severity criterion. This study examined the DSM-5 severity criterion for BED based on binge-eating frequency and tested an alternative severity specifier based on overvaluation of shape/weight. 338 community volunteers categorized with DSM-5 BED completed a battery of self-report instruments. Participants were categorized first using DSM-5 severity levels and second by shape/weight overvaluation and were compared on clinical variables. 264 (78.1%) participants were categorized as mild, 67 (19.8%) as moderate, 6 (1.8%) as severe, and 1 (0.3%) as extreme. Analyses comparing mild and moderate severity groups revealed no significant differences in demographic variables or BMI; moderate severity group had greater eating-disorder psychopathology (small effect-sizes) but not depression than mild group. Participants with overvaluation (N=196; 60.1%) versus without (N=130; 39.9%) did not differ significantly in age, sex, BMI, or binge-eating frequency. Overvaluation group had significantly greater eating-disorder psychopathology and depression than non-overvaluation group. The greater eating-disorder and depression levels (medium-to-large effect-sizes) persisted after adjusting for ethnicity/race and binge-eating severity/frequency, without attenuation of effect-sizes. Findings from this non-clinical community sample provide support for overvaluation of shape/weight as a specifier for BED as it provides stronger information about severity than the DSM-5 rating based on binge-eating. Future research should include treatment-seeking patients with BED to test the utility of DSM-5 severity specifiers and include broader clinical validators. PMID:25701802
Chen, Jue; Wang, Zhen; Guo, Boliang; Arcelus, Jon; Zhang, Haiyin; Jia, Xiuzhen; Xu, Yong; Qiu, Jianyin; Xiao, Zeping; Yang, Min
The bi-relationships between psychological stress, negative affect and disordered eating has been well studied in western culture, while tri-relationship among them, i.e. how some of those factors influence these bi-relationships, has rarely been studied. However, there has been little related study in the different Chinese culture. This study was conducted to investigate the bi-relationships and tri-relationship between psychological stress, negative affect, and disordered eating attitudes and behaviors in young Chinese women. A total of 245 young Chinese policewomen employed to carry out health and safety checks at the 2010 Shanghai World Expo were recruited in this study. The Chinese version of the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10), Beck Depression Inventory Revised (BDI-II), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and Eating Attitude Test (EAT-26) were administered to all participants. The total scores of PSS-10, BDI-II and BAI were all highly correlated with that of EAT-26. The PSS-10 score significantly correlated with both BDI-II and BAI scores. There was no statistically significant direct effect from perceived stress to disordered eating (-0.012, 95%CI: -.038~0.006, p=0.357), however, the indirect effects from PSS-10 via affect factors were statistically significant, e.g. the estimated mediation effects from PSS to EAT-26 via depression and anxiety were 0.036 (95%CI: 0.022~0.044, peffective interventions and preventative programmes for disordered eating should pay more attention to depression and anxiety among the young Chinese female population.
Micali, Nadia; Solmi, Francesca; Horton, Nicholas J; Crosby, Ross D; Eddy, Kamryn T; Calzo, Jerel P; Sonneville, Kendrin R; Swanson, Sonja A; Field, Alison E
To investigate whether anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), binge eating disorder (BED), and other specified feeding and eating disorders (OSFED), including purging disorder (PD), subthreshold BN, and BED at ages 14 and 16 years, are prospectively associated with later depression, anxiety disorders, alcohol and substance use, and self-harm. Eating disorders were ascertained at ages 14 and 16 years in 6,140 youth at age 14 (58% of those eligible) and 5,069 at age 16 (52% of those eligible) as part of the prospective Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Outcomes (depression, anxiety disorders, binge drinking, drug use, deliberate self-harm, weight status) were measured using interviews and questionnaires about 2 years after predictors. Generalized estimating equation models adjusting for gender, socio-demographic variables, and prior outcome were used to examine prospective associations between eating disorders and each outcome. All eating disorders were predictive of later anxiety disorders. AN, BN, BED, PD, and OSFED were prospectively associated with depression (respectively AN: odds ratio [OR] = 1.39, 95% CI = 1.00-1.94; BN: OR = 3.39, 95% CI = 1.25-9.20; BED: OR = 2.00, 95% CI = 1.06-3.75; and PD: OR = 2.56, 95% CI = 1.38-4.74). All eating disorders but AN predicted drug use and deliberate self-harm (BN: OR = 5.72, 95% CI = 2.22-14.72; PD: OR = 4.88, 95% CI = 2.78-8.57; subthreshold BN: OR = 3.97, 95% CI = 1.44-10.98; and subthreshold BED: OR = 2.32, 95% CI = 1.43-3.75). Although BED and BN predicted obesity (respectively OR = 3.58, 95% CI = 1.06-12.14 and OR = 6.42, 95% CI = 1.69-24.30), AN was prospectively associated with underweight. Adolescent eating disorders, including subthreshold presentations, predict negative outcomes, including mental health disorders, substance use, deliberate self-harm, and weight outcomes. This study highlights the high public health and clinical burden of eating disorders
Micali, Nadia; Solmi, Francesca; Horton, Nicholas J.; Crosby, Ross D.; Eddy, Kamryn T.; Calzo, Jerel P.; Sonneville, Kendrin R.; Swanson, Sonja A.; Field, Alison E.
Objective To investigate whether anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), binge eating disorder (BED), and other specified feeding and eating disorders (OSFED), including purging disorder (PD), subthreshold BN, and BED at ages 14 and 16, are prospectively associated with later depression, anxiety disorders, alcohol and substance use, and self-harm. Method Eating disorders were ascertained at 14 and 16 years of age in 6,140 youth at age 14 (58% of those eligible) and 5,069 at age 16 (52% of those eligible) as part of the prospective Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Outcomes (depression, anxiety disorders, binge drinking, drug use, deliberate self-harm, weight status) were measured using interviews and questionnaires about 2 years following predictors. Generalized estimating equation models adjusting for gender, socio-demographic variables, and prior outcome were used to examine prospective associations between eating disorders and each outcome. Results All eating disorders were predictive of later anxiety disorders. AN, BN, BED, PD, and OSFED were prospectively associated with depression (respectively AN: odds ratio [OR]=1.39 [95% CIs: 1.00-1.94]; BN: OR=3.39[1.25-9.20]; BED: OR=2.00 [1.06-3.75]; PD: OR=2.56 [1.38-4.74]). All eating disorders but AN predicted drug use and deliberate self-harm (BN: OR=5.72[2.22-14.72], PD: OR=4.88[2.78-8.57], subthreshold BN: OR=3.97[1.44-10.98], subthreshold BED: OR=2.32[1.43-3.75]). Whilst BED and BN predicted obesity (respectively OR=3.58 [1.06-12.14] and OR=6.42 [1.69-24.30]), AN was prospectively associated with underweight. Conclusions Adolescent eating disorders, including subthreshold presentations, predict negative outcomes, including mental health disorders, substance use, deliberate self-harm, and weight outcomes. This study highlights the high public health and clinical burden of eating disorders among adolescents. PMID:26210334
Mayhew, Alexandra J; Pigeyre, Marie; Couturier, Jennifer; Meyre, David
Eating disorders (ED) including anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and binge eating disorder (BED) affect up to 5% of the population in Western countries. Risk factors for developing an ED include personality traits, family environment, gender, age, ethnicity, and culture. Despite being moderately to highly heritable with estimates ranging from 28 to 83%, no genetic risk factors have been conclusively identified. Our objective was to explore evolutionary theories of EDs to provide a new perspective on research into novel biological mechanisms and genetic causes of EDs. We developed a framework that explains the possible interactions between genetic risk and cultural influences in the development of ED. The framework includes three genetic predisposition categories (people with mainly AN restrictive gene variants, people with mainly BED variants, and people with gene variants predisposing to both diseases) and a binary variable of either the presence or absence of pressure to be thin. We propose novel theories to explain the overlapping characteristics of the subtypes of AN (binge/purge and restrictive), BN, and BED. For instance, mutations/structural gene variants in the same gene causing opposite effects or mutations in nearby genes resulting in partial disequilibrium for the genes causing AN (restrictive) and BED may explain the overlap of phenotypes seen in AN (binge/purge). © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Full Text Available Introduction: Topiramate was serendipitously synthesized in 1979 during research aimed at developing a fructose-1,6-diphosphatase inhibitor that might be used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Some investigators have suggested it might be used in the treatment of binge eating disorder (BED. The aim of this review was to evaluate current knowledge and opinions on this topic. Materials and methods: We conducted a search of five electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, Nice, Cochrane, Cinahl using the search strategy ‘‘topiramate’’ AND ‘‘binge’’, ‘‘binge eating disorder.’’ No time limits were applied, and only reports of randomized controlled trials were included in our analysis. Results: In clinical studies, topiramate use has been associated with significant weight loss mediated by reductions in the frequency of bingeing episodes. The most common side effects of the drug are paresthesias, but nephrolithiasis, oligohydrosis, and dizziness have also been described. Conclusions: Available data are limited, but the literature we reviewed suggests that topiramate can be useful in the medical treatment of BED, reducing both body weight and binge episodes. Side effects are not negligible. Before topiramate can be regarded as a good tool for the treatment of BED, further data must be obtained from longer, methodologically correct studies of larger populations.
Seidenfeld, Marjorie E Kaplan; Sosin, Elyse; Rickert, Vaughn I
Adequate nutrition is essential during adolescence, since growth and development during this period play key roles in achieving normal adult size and reproductive capacity. This article briefly reviews recommended caloric intake; the healthy balance of carbohydrates, fat and protein; and the appropriate dietary intake of iron, folic acid and calcium for the adolescent. A major potential obstacle to good nutrition for an adolescent is the development of an eating disorder such as anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa. Anorexia nervosa, characterized by severe underweight, fear of gaining weight, and low self-esteem and amenorrhea, is associated with many physiological and psychological complications with which the provider must be familiar. Similarly, bulimia nervosa, which presents with eating binges followed by compensatory behaviors such as vomiting, diet pill abuse and overexercise, may be harder to detect, but can also have devastating consequences, both physically and emotionally, for a young person. Both of these disorders are best treated by a multidisciplinary team of specialists to address the medical, psychological, and nutritional components of these illnesses.
Stice, Eric; Shaw, Heather
Understanding factors that contribute to eating disorders, which affect 13% of females, is critical to developing effective prevention and treatment programs. In this paper, we summarize results from prospective studies that identified factors predicting onset and persistence of eating disorders and core symptom dimensions. Next, implications for intervention targets for prevention, and treatment interventions from the risk- and maintenance-factor findings are discussed. Third, given that evidence suggests eating disorders are highly heritable, implying biological risk and maintenance factors for eating disorders, we offer working hypotheses about biological factors that might contribute to eating disorders, based on extant risk factor findings, theory, and cross-sectional studies. Finally, potentially fruitful directions for future research are presented. We suggest that it would be useful for experimental therapeutics trials to evaluate the effects of reducing the risk factors on future onset of eating pathology and on reducing maintenance factors on the risk for persistence of eating pathology, and encourage researchers to utilize prospective high-risk studies so that knowledge regarding potential intervention targets for prevention and treatment interventions for eating disorders can be advanced. Using the most rigorous research designs should help improve the efficacy of prevention and treatment interventions for eating disorders.
Studies from recent decades indicate that the ideal of thinness can be discerned in a growing dissatisfaction with weight and an increase of the prevalence of disordered eating at an earlier age of onset. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of disordered eating (above the cutoff point of 30 on the EAT-40) among a normal population of school students in Israel. The study sample was composed of Israeli (Jewish) adolescents in grades 7 to 12 from four schools. Of 326 students approached (181 females and 142 males), 323 completed the self-report EAT-40 and a structured questionnaire that provided socio-demographic and other information. 41.5% of adolescents were not satisfied with their weight and 45.3% want to lose weight. A third of the sample engages in dieting behavior frequently; 6.1% of the adolescents have pathologic EAT-40 scores, with about three times as many girls as boys exhibiting disordered eating; 8.2% of the girls and 2.8% of the males show disordered eating (Ø=0.115, p times more with pathologic EAT scores than those who are satisfied with their weight (Ø=0.220; p times more pathologic EAT scores among adolescents who wish to lose weight than among those who do not wish to reduce their weight (Ø=0.237; p EAT scores were found among adolescents from different ethnic backgrounds or levels of religious observance. The prevalence of disordered eating among adolescents in Israel is higher than other countries in general, and among males in particular. There is a need for increased efforts to detect adolescents at risk for developing eating disorders, with the assistance of clinical tools. In addition an educational policy for disordered eating prevention should be instituted.
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a serious health problem and will be the second leading cause of burden of disease worldwide by 2030. To be able to prevent MDD, insight into risk factors for the onset of MDD is of clear importance. On the other hand, if onset of MDD has occurred, one may argue
Full Text Available Eating disorders are quite common in clinical practice and can include out-of-control behaviours and thoughts that powerfully reinforce unhealthy eating patterns. They include anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa and Binge Eating Disorder. We conducted a trial on 102 patients (89 females and 13 males to investigate the efficacy of “DCD method” (appropriate dietary education associated to New-Electrosculpture on patients with obesity and eating disorders. The study underlines the efficacy of “DCD method”, especially when supported by behavioural therapy, in obese and overweight patients.
O. A. Gladyshev
Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate clinical features of hyperphagia reactions, their significance in attraction abnormities within eating disorders and treatment options for these conditions with escitalopram.Material and methods. Mental state of 39 women (age 19-50 years with psychogenic overeating and obesity (body mass index of 30 to 53 kg/m2 was studied. Patients were admitted to the Institute of Nutrition of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences. Diagnostic criteria for International Classification of Diseases, 10th edition, as well as Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS and Ferreri Anxiety Rating Diagram (FARD were used for syndrome qualifications. Patient Global Impression of Change was also studied using a 4-point scale of results (excellent, good, fair, and negative.Results. Clinical features of hyperphagic reactions were found. Escitalopram treatment course was completed with excellent and good results in 80% of patients. 50%-reduction in HADS score for anxiety was found in 74% of patients, for depression – in 63%, and for Ferreri scale – in 68% of patients. Escitalopram promoted more intensive body weight loss: 11% vs 8% of baseline weight in active and control groups, respectively. Adverse events occurred only in 7 (36% patients; they were transient and did not require therapy discontinuation.Conclusion: Significant differences of premanifest disorders were often observed in patients history. Escitalopram in these patients showed efficacy in improvement of both mental and somatic symptoms of anxiety. It decreased dependence on food as a factor mitigating affect and stress, thus provided better results in body weight reduction.
O. A. Gladyshev
Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate clinical features of hyperphagia reactions, their significance in attraction abnormities within eating disorders and treatment options for these conditions with escitalopram.Material and methods. Mental state of 39 women (age 19-50 years with psychogenic overeating and obesity (body mass index of 30 to 53 kg/m2 was studied. Patients were admitted to the Institute of Nutrition of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences. Diagnostic criteria for International Classification of Diseases, 10th edition, as well as Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS and Ferreri Anxiety Rating Diagram (FARD were used for syndrome qualifications. Patient Global Impression of Change was also studied using a 4-point scale of results (excellent, good, fair, and negative.Results. Clinical features of hyperphagic reactions were found. Escitalopram treatment course was completed with excellent and good results in 80% of patients. 50%-reduction in HADS score for anxiety was found in 74% of patients, for depression – in 63%, and for Ferreri scale – in 68% of patients. Escitalopram promoted more intensive body weight loss: 11% vs 8% of baseline weight in active and control groups, respectively. Adverse events occurred only in 7 (36% patients; they were transient and did not require therapy discontinuation.Conclusion: Significant differences of premanifest disorders were often observed in patients history. Escitalopram in these patients showed efficacy in improvement of both mental and somatic symptoms of anxiety. It decreased dependence on food as a factor mitigating affect and stress, thus provided better results in body weight reduction.
Castellini, Giovanni; Mannucci, Edoardo; Lo Sauro, Carolina; Benni, Laura; Lazzeretti, Lisa; Ravaldi, Claudia; Rotella, Carlo M; Faravelli, Carlo; Ricca, Valdo
Different studies considered the mechanisms involved in the maintenance of binge eating in bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED), suggesting different pathways. The present 3-year follow-up study evaluated the relationships between psychopathological variables, and objective and subjective binge eating episodes in the two syndromes. 85 BN and 133 BED patients were studied. Objective and subjective binge eating, and psychopathological data were collected in a face-to-face interview, and by means of different self-reported questionnaires. The same assessment was repeated at baseline (T0), at the end of an individual cognitive-behavioral treatment (T1), and 3 years after the end of treatment (T2). At baseline, BN and BED patients showed different emotions associated with binge eating: anger/frustration for BN and depression for BED patients. Objective binge eating frequency reduction across time was associated with lower impulsivity and shape concern in BN patients, and with lower emotional eating and depressive symptoms in BED patients. Lower subjective binge eating frequency at baseline predicted recovery, in both BN and BED patients. Recovery was associated with lower impulsivity and body shape concern at baseline for BN patients, and lower depression and emotional eating for BED patients. Eating psychopathology, psychiatric comorbidity, impulsivity and emotional eating have a different pattern of association with objective and subjective binge eating in BN and BED patients, and they act as different moderators of treatment. A different target of intervention for these two syndromes might be taken into account, and subjective binge eating deserves an accurate assessment. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Alvarez-Rayón, G; Mancilla-Díaz, J M; Vázquez-Arévalo, R; Unikel-Santoncini, C; Caballero-Romo, A; Mercado-Corona, D
To evaluate the psychometric properties of the Mexican version of the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-40) in clinical and control populations in Mexico City. 276 female patients with eating disorders [52 with anorexia nervosa (AN), 102 with bulimia nervosa (BN) and 122 with eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS)] and a comparison group of 280 normal control female subjects completed the EAT. The EAT had an adequate level of internal consistency in the clinical sample (Cronbach's alpha=0.90). Total score was significantly correlated with criterion group membership (r=0.77, pBulimia, 3) Drive of thinness, 4) Food preoccupation and 5) Perceived social pressure. This study provides evidence that the Mexican version of the EAT is an economical, reliable and potentially useful instrument for research in this field.
Allen, Karina L; Byrne, Susan M; Crosby, Ross D
Binge eating disorder and purging disorder have gained recognition as distinct eating disorder diagnoses, but risk factors for these conditions have not yet been established. This study aimed to evaluate a prospective, mediational model of risk for the full range of binge eating and purging eating disorders, with attention to possible diagnostic differences. Specific aims were to determine, first, whether eating, weight and shape concerns at age 14 would mediate the relationship between parent-perceived childhood overweight at age 10 and a binge eating or purging eating disorder between age 15 and 20, and, second, whether this mediational model would differ across bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, and purging disorder. Participants (N = 1,160; 51 % female) were drawn from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study, which has followed children from pre-birth to age 20. Eating disorders were assessed via self-report questionnaires when participants were aged 14, 17 and 20. There were 146 participants (82 % female) with a binge eating or purging eating disorder with onset between age 15 and 20 [bulimia nervosa = 81 (86 % female), binge eating disorder = 43 (74 % female), purging disorder = 22 (77 % female)]. Simple mediation analysis with bootstrapping was used to test the hypothesized model of risk, with early adolescent eating, weight and shape concerns positioned as a mediator between parent-perceived childhood overweight and later onset of a binge eating or purging eating disorder. Subsequently, a conditional process model (a moderated mediation model) was specified to determine if model pathways differed significantly by eating disorder diagnosis. In the simple mediation model, there was a significant indirect effect of parent-perceived childhood overweight on risk for a binge eating or purging eating disorder in late adolescence, mediated by eating, weight and shape concerns in early adolescence. In the conditional process model
Pinto, Catarina; Ferreira, Cláudia; Mendes, Ana Laura; Trindade, Inês A
Feelings of social safeness and connectedness have been associated with adaptive emotion regulation processes and well-being indicators. Further, literature has demonstrated that interpersonal experiences play an important role in the etiology and maintenance of body and eating psychopathology. However, the study of the role of social variables and emotion regulation processes in the engagement in inflexible eating rules and eating psychopathology is still in its early stages. The current study aims to fill some gaps within the literature and explore the mediator role of body appreciation and inflexible eating rules in the link between social safeness and disordered eating. Participants were 253 women, aged between 18 and 50 years old, who completed a series of online self-report measures. Results from the tested path analysis model showed that social safeness holds a significant effect on eating psychopathology, through the mechanisms of body appreciation and inflexible eating rules. Also, results suggested that women who present higher levels of social safeness tend to present a more positive and respectful attitude towards their body and decreased adoption of inflexible eating rules, which seem to explain lower levels of disordered eating behaviours. These findings seem to present empirical support for the development of intervention programs that promote a positive, affectionate and healthy relationship with one's body image, in order to prevent the inflexible adherence to eating rules and disordered eating behaviours.
Ouwens, Machteld A; van Strien, Tatjana; van Leeuwe, Jan F J
Emotional and external eating appear to co-occur and both have been shown to correlate to neuroticism, especially depression. However, there is evidence suggesting that emotional and external eating are independent constructs. In this study we revisited the relation between depression, emotional, and external eating. Using structural equation modelling, we examined whether depression, emotional and external eating are directly related and also indirectly related through the intervening concepts alexithymia and impulsivity. Participants were 549 females concerned about their weight. They filled out instruments on emotional and external eating, depression, alexithymia, and impulse regulation. The relational structure between the model variables was explored for one half of the participants and this solution was checked using the other half. Our data showed a moderate relationship between emotional and external eating. Depression was positively and directly associated with emotional eating, but not with external eating. In addition, depression was indirectly related to emotional eating through both alexithymia and impulsivity. A significant relation was found between impulsivity and external eating. Results suggest potential mediating pathways between depression and emotional eating, while no relation appeared to exist between depression and external eating. Emotional and external eating would appear to be different constructs.
Full Text Available In the last ten years, improvements in effective psychosocial interventions in the prevention and treatment of depression are remarkable. The World Health Organization stated that major depression affects children, adults and the elderly and is the leading cause of approximately 12% of all disabilities around the World. Medical expenses, loss of workforce, suicide risk, the risk of relapse or recurrence are taken into account, depression is an issue that needs to be handled with utmost care for health care workers especially psychiatric nurses. The purpose of this literature review is to examine psychosocial interventions and effectiveness of these interventions for depressive disorders shows a gradual increase in prevalence in worlwide. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2015; 7(1: 1-15
clinical eating disorders (i.e. anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa) ... studies have reported a higher prevalence of DE and menstrual disorders in female ... sity volunteered to take part in this descriptive, cross-sectional study which was ...
Abd El-Azeem Taha, Azza Ali; Abu-Zaid, Hany Ahmed; El-Sayed Desouky, Dalia
Eating disorders are a common health problem among adolescents, and females are especially vulnerable to them. There is lack of information on the prevalence of eating disorders in Saudi Arabia. The current study aimed to investigate the prevalence of eating disorders among female undergraduate university students in Taif city, Saudi Arabia. The study was undertaken in the female section at Taif university from November 1, 2016 to March 30, 2017. Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) was used to determine the prevalence of eating disorders. The questionnaire was distributed among undergraduate students and their anthropometric measurements were assessed after obtaining their consent. The sample included 1200 university students with a median age of 21 years (range 17-33). Nonparametric tests were used to assess relationship between variables. Chi-squared test was used to compare items of the disordered eating attitudes and behaviors between positive and negative EAT respondents. Using the cutoff score of 20 on EAT-26 test, 35.4% of the students were classified at risk for eating disorders. Medical and obese students achieved the highest significant EAT scores. A high prevalence of eating disorders was found among females at Taif university, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Our findings call for prevention of these disorders and we recommend establishing a national screening program among Saudi university female students for early detection and management of these problems. © 2018 The Author(s). This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Larsen, Kristine Instefjord
Masteroppgave - Norges idrettshøgskole, 2013 In today`s society there is an increased focus on having a healthy lifestyle and a good health. For some people, the attempt to achieve good health turns into an obsession which again may lead to an eating disorder. In recent years a new term is noticed, called orthorexia nervosa. Orthorexia is about being obsessed with healthy eating. Today there is a lot of research and literature about eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa ...
Hilbert, Anja; Hoek, Hans W.; Schmidt, Ricarda
Purpose of review: The current systematic review sought to compare available evidence-based clinical treatment guidelines for all specific eating disorders. Recent findings: Nine evidence-based clinical treatment guidelines for eating disorders were located through a systematic search. The
Wechsler, Lisa S.; Riggs, Shelley A.; Stabb, Sally D.; Marshall, David M.
The current study examined patterns of association among mutuality, self-silencing, and disordered eating in an ethnically diverse sample of college women (N = 149). Partner mutuality and overall self-silencing were negatively correlated and together were associated with six disordered eating indices. All four self-silencing subscales were…
Eating disorders are generally associated with westernised white populations. Isolated cases of anorexia nervosa have been described in blacks in Africa. A series of cases is presented documenting the existence of eating disorders in young black South African women. This has implications in terms of both conceptualising ...
Stice, Eric; Fisher, Melissa; Martinez, Erin
The authors conducted 4 studies investigating the reliability and validity of the Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale (HDDS; E. Stice, C. F. Telch, & S. L. Rizvi, 2000), a brief self-report measure for diagnosing anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder. Study 1 found that the HDDS showed criterion validity with interview-based…
Meyer, Tiffany A.; Gast, Julie
Peer influence has been found to be correlated with a host of harmful health behaviors. However, little research has been conducted investigating the relationship between peer influence and disordered eating. The present study surveyed 6th-, 7th-, and 8th-grade girls and boys using the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI) and Inventory of Peer…
Johnson, L B; Boyd, L D; Rainchuso, L; Rothman, A; Mayer, B
The aim of this study was to assess the oral health knowledge among professionals who specialize in treating eating disorders, and identify to what extent their education, and training addresses oral health care delivery, and recommendations for individuals with eating disorders. Participants for this study were licensed behavioural and medical providers specializing in eating disorder treatment (n = 107), and recruited through professional eating disorder organizations. Participants completed an anonymous, online questionnaire (33 items) assessing level of oral health-related education, knowledge and treatment recommendations within the participant's respective eating disorder discipline. The majority of respondents (85%) were formally trained in eating disorders, and of those trained, 64.4% were not satisfied with the level of oral health education during formal education, and 19.5% report no oral health education. Respondents consider their knowledge of risk of oral disease for their clients/patients as average or above (84%), and ranked tooth erosion as the greatest reason for oral care (63%) while dry mouth led in the rankings for least significant reason for oral care (33%). Referral for oral care was found to be more common after reports of complication (55%). According to these findings, eating disorder professionals regard oral health care for their clients as significant, and may be unaware of associated oral risk factors, current oral care standards and long-term oral effects of disordered eating apart from enamel erosion. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Alexithymia is characterized by difficulties identifying feelings and differentiating between feelings and bodily sensations, difficulties communicating feelings, and a concrete cognitive style focused on the external environment. Individuals with eating disorders have elevated levels of alexithymia, particularly difficulties identifying and describing their feelings. A number of theoretical models have suggested that individuals with eating disorders may find emotions unacceptable and/or frightening and may use their eating disorder symptoms (i.e., restricting food intake, bingeing, and/or purging) as a way to avoid or cope with their feelings. The current critical review synthesizes the literature on alexithymia and eating disorders and examines alexithymia levels across eating disorders (i.e., anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and eating disorder not otherwise specified), the role of alexithymia in binge eating disorder, and the influence of alexithymia on the development of eating disorders as well as treatment outcome. The clinical implications of the research conducted to date and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:24999402
Smink, Frederique R. E.; van Hoeken, Daphne; Hoek, Hans W.
Eating disorders are relatively rare among the general population. This review discusses the literature on the incidence, prevalence and mortality rates of eating disorders. We searched online Medline/Pubmed, Embase and PsycINFO databases for articles published in English using several keyterms
Keski-Rahkonen, Anna; Sihvola, Elina; Raevuori, Anu; Kaukoranta, Jutta; Bulik, Cynthia M.; Hoek, Hans W.; Rissanen, Aila; Kaprio, Jaakko
Objective: The objective of this study was to assess whether short self-report eating disorder screening questions are useful population screening methods. Method: We screened the female participants (N = 2881) from the 1975-1079 birth cohorts of Finnish twins for eating disorders, using several
Hoek, HW; van Hoeken, D
Objective: To review the literature on the incidence and prevalence of eating disorders. Methods: We searched Medline using several key terms relating to epidemiology and eating disorders and we checked the reference lists of the articles that we found. Special attention has been paid to
Introduction: A systematic review was undertaken to identify any psychological predictors of treatment dropout for individuals diagnosed with an eating disorder, to help inform psychological therapy and reduce attrition. An empirical study was conducted to understand developmental psychological mechanisms at play in the aetiology and maintenance of eating disordered symptomology by assessing reflective functioning and attachment from a trans-diagnostic perspective. Method...
Ousley, Louise; Cordero, Elizabeth Diane; White, Sabina
Eating disorders and body dissatisfaction among undergraduate men are less documented and researched than are eating disorders and body dissatisfaction among undergraduate women. Objective and Participants: In this study, the authors examined these issues in undergraduate men to identify similarities and differences between this population and…
Bloodworth, Andrew; McNamee, Mike; Tan, Jacinta
Participation in elite sport, and in particular those sports with special demands in terms of weight and shape, is associated with a higher risk for eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa [Sundgot-Borgen, J., & Torstveit, M. K. (2010). Aspects of disord