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Sample records for depression ces-d scale

  1. Factorial and Discriminant Validity of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D) Scale.

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    Orme, John G.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Examined the factorial and discriminant validity of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D) scale for 116 parents participating in family support programs. Factorial validity was adequate, and results indicated a moderate correlation between the CES-D and self-esteem and state anxiety. However, a high correlation was obtained…

  2. Use of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) Scale in Korea.

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    Cho, M J; Kim, K H

    1998-05-01

    We translated the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) Scale into Korean, paying careful attention to culturally different modes of expression of depressive feelings and thoughts. The final translated version (CES-D-K) was administered to 164 psychiatric patients and 464 normal subjects residing in the community. Reliability, validity, and the optimal cutoff point of this scale were estimated, including ROC analysis. The CES-D-K was reliable and valid for the Korean population. Two optimal cutoff points were suggested: 24/25, the point which best corresponded to the clinical diagnosis of depression, and 20/21, which most effectively detects and covers depressive symptoms during screening. The higher cutoff points than those in Western countries may be due to different ways of expression affect, especially the suppression of positive affect, in cultures based on Confucian ethics.

  3. Validating a shortened depression scale (10 item CES-D among HIV-positive people in British Columbia, Canada.

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    Wendy Zhang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To establish the reliability and validity of a shortened (10-item depression scale used among HIV-positive patients enrolled in the Drug Treatment Program in British Columbia, Canada. METHODS: The 10-item CES-D (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale was examined among 563 participants who initiated antiretroviral therapy (ART between August 1, 1996 and June 30, 2002. Internal consistency of the scale was measured by Cronbach's alpha. Using the original CES-D 20 as primary criteria, comparisons were made using the Kappa statistic. Predictive accuracy of CES-D 10 was assessed by calculating sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive values and negative predictive values. Factor analysis was also performed to determine if the CES-D 10 contained the same factors of positive and negative affect found in the original development of the CES-D. RESULTS: The correlation between the original and the shortened scale is very high (Spearman correlation coefficient  =0.97 (P<0.001. Internal consistency reliability coefficients of the CES-D 10 were satisfactory (Cronbach α=0.88. The CES-D 10 showed comparable accuracy to the original CES-D 20 in classifying participants with depressive symptoms (Kappa=0.82, P<0.001. Sensitivity of CES-D 10 was 91%; specificity was 92%; and positive predictive value was 92%. Factor analysis demonstrates that CES-D 10 contains the same underlying factors of positive and negative affect found in the original development of the CES-D 20. CONCLUSION: The 10-item CES-D is a comparable tool to measure depressive symptoms among HIV-positive research participants.

  4. Factor Structure and Psychometric Properties of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) in Older Populations with and without Cognitive Impairment

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    Ros, L.; Latorre, J. M.; Aguilar, M. J.; Serrano, J. P.; Navarro, B.; Ricarte, J. J.

    2011-01-01

    The CES-D is widely used for the assessment of depressive symptoms in the adult population. However, few studies have been performed to assess the utility of this scale in an older population with cognitive impairment. The factor structure of the Spanish version of the CES-D was examined in an observational, cross sectional study in 623 older…

  5. Measurement equivalence of the CES-D 8 depression-scale among the ageing population in eleven European countries.

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    Missinne, Sarah; Vandeviver, Christophe; Van de Velde, Sarah; Bracke, Piet

    2014-07-01

    Depression is one of the most prevalent mental disorders in later life. However, despite considerable research attention, great confusion remains regarding the association between ageing and depression. There is doubt as to whether a depression scale performs identically for different age groups and countries. Although measurement equivalence is a crucial prerequisite for valid comparisons across age groups and countries, it has not been established for the eight-item version of the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D8). Using multi-group confirmatory factor analysis, we assess configural, metric, and scalar measurement equivalence across two age groups (50-64 years of age and 65 or older) in eleven European countries, employing data from the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement (SHARE). Results indicate that the construct of depression is comparable across age and country groups, allowing the substantive interpretation of correlates and mean levels of depressive symptoms.

  6. A longitudinal evaluation of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale (CES-D in a Rheumatoid Arthritis Population using Rasch Analysis

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    Tennant Alan

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to test the internal validity of the total Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D scale using Rasch analysis in a rheumatoid arthritis (RA population. Methods CES-D was administered to 157 patients with RA over three time points within a 12 month period. Rasch analysis was applied using RUMM2020 software to assess the overall fit of the model, the response scale used, individual item fit, differential item functioning (DIF and person separation. Results Pooled data across three time points was shown to fit the Rasch model with removal of seven items from the original 20-item CES-D scale. It was necessary to rescore the response format from four to three categories in order to improve the scale's fit. Two items demonstrated some DIF for age and gender but were retained within the 13-item CES-D scale. A new cut point for depression score of 9 was found to correspond to the original cut point score of 16 in the full CES-D scale. Conclusion This Rasch analysis of the CES-D in a longstanding RA cohort resulted in the construction of a modified 13-item scale with good internal validity. Further validation of the modified scale is recommended particularly in relation to the new cut point for depression.

  7. The evaluation of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) scale : Depressed and Positive Affect in cancer patients and healthy reference subjects

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    Schroevers, MJ; Sanderman, R; van Sonderen, E; Ranchor, AV

    2000-01-01

    This study examined the reliability and validity of a two-factor structure of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) scale. The study was conducted in a large group of cancer patients (n = 475) and a matched reference group (n = 255). Both groups filled in a questionnaire at two

  8. Validation of the Turkish version of the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

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    Lehmann, Vicky; Makine, Ceylan; Karşıdağ, Cagatay

    2011-01-01

    group of patients. Aim of the present study was to investigate the psychometric properties of the Turkish version of the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: A sample of 151 Turkish outpatients with type 2 diabetes completed the CES......-D, the World Health Organization-Five Well-Being Index (WHO-5), and the Problem Areas in Diabetes scale (PAID). Explanatory factor analyses, various correlations and Cronbach's alpha were investigated to test the validity and reliability of the CES-D in Turkish diabetes outpatients. RESULTS: The original four....... Future studies should investigate its sensitivity and specificity as well as test-retest reliability....

  9. Validation of the turkish version of the centre for epidemiologic studies depression scale (ces-d in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

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    Karşıdağ Kubilay

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depression is a common co-morbid health problem in patients with diabetes that is underrecognised. Current international guidelines recommend screening for depression in patients with diabetes. Yet, few depression screening instruments have been validated for use in this particular group of patients. Aim of the present study was to investigate the psychometric properties of the Turkish version of the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods A sample of 151 Turkish outpatients with type 2 diabetes completed the CES-D, the World Health Organization-Five Well-Being Index (WHO-5, and the Problem Areas in Diabetes scale (PAID. Explanatory factor analyses, various correlations and Cronbach's alpha were investigated to test the validity and reliability of the CES-D in Turkish diabetes outpatients. Results The original four-factor structure proposed by Radloff was not confirmed. Explanatory factor analyses revealed a two-factor structure representing two subscales: (1 depressed mood combined with somatic symptoms of depression and (2 positive affect. However, one item showed insufficient factor loadings. Cronbach's alpha of the total score was high (0.88, as were split-half coefficients (0.77-0.90. The correlation of the CES-D with the WHO-5 was the strongest (r = -0.70, and supported concurrent validity. Conclusion The CES-D appears to be a valid measure for the assessment of depression in Turkish diabetes patients. Future studies should investigate its sensitivity and specificity as well as test-retest reliability.

  10. The Factor Structure, Predictors, and Percentile Norms of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D Scale in the Dutch-speaking Adult Population of Belgium

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    Qian Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Center of Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D is a commonly used self-report scale to measure depressive symptoms in the general population. In the present study, the Dutch version of the CES-D was administered to a sample of 837 Dutch-speaking adults of Belgium to examine the factor structure of the scale. Using confirmatory factory analysis (CFA, four first-order models and two second-order models were tested, and the second-order factor model with three pairs of correlated error terms provided the best fit to the data. Second, five socio-demographic variables (age, gender, education level, relation status, and family history of depression were included as covariates to the second-order factor model to explore the associations between background characteristics and the latent factor depression using a multiple indicators and multiple causes (MIMIC approach. Age had a significantly negative effect on depression, but the effect was not substantial. Female gender, lower education level, being single or widowed, and having a family history of depression were found to be significant predictors of higher levels of depression symptomatology. Finally, percentile norms on the CES-D raw scores were provided for subgroups of gender by education level for the general Dutch-speaking adult population of Belgium.

  11. An assessment of the measurement equivalence of English and French versions of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D Scale in systemic sclerosis.

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    Vanessa C Delisle

    Full Text Available Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D Scale scores in English- and French-speaking Canadian systemic sclerosis (SSc patients are commonly pooled in analyses, but no studies have evaluated the metric equivalence of the English and French CES-D. The study objective was to examine the metric equivalence of the CES-D in English- and French-speaking SSc patients.The CES-D was completed by 1007 English-speaking and 248 French-speaking patients from the Canadian Scleroderma Research Group Registry. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA was used to assess the factor structure in both samples. The Multiple-Indicator Multiple-Cause (MIMIC model was utilized to assess differential item functioning (DIF.A two-factor model (Positive and Negative affect showed excellent fit in both samples. Statistically significant, but small-magnitude, DIF was found for 3 of 20 CES-D items, including items 3 (Blues, 10 (Fearful, and 11 (Sleep. Prior to accounting for DIF, French-speaking patients had 0.08 of a standard deviation (SD lower latent scores for the Positive factor (95% confidence interval [CI]-0.25 to 0.08 and 0.09 SD higher scores (95% CI-0.07 to 0.24 for the Negative factor than English-speaking patients. After DIF correction, there was no change on the Positive factor and a non-significant increase of 0.04 SD on the Negative factor for French-speaking patients (difference = 0.13 SD, 95% CI-0.03 to 0.28.The English and French versions of the CES-D, despite minor DIF on several items, are substantively equivalent and can be used in studies that combine data from English- and French-speaking Canadian SSc patients.

  12. Cross-language measurement equivalence of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D scale in systemic sclerosis: a comparison of Canadian and Dutch patients.

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    Linda Kwakkenbos

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Increasingly, medical research involves patients who complete outcomes in different languages. This occurs in countries with more than one common language, such as Canada (French/English or the United States (Spanish/English, as well as in international multi-centre collaborations, which are utilized frequently in rare diseases such as systemic sclerosis (SSc. In order to pool or compare outcomes, instruments should be measurement equivalent (invariant across cultural or linguistic groups. This study provides an example of how to assess cross-language measurement equivalence by comparing the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D scale between English-speaking Canadian and Dutch SSc patients. METHODS: The CES-D was completed by 922 English-speaking Canadian and 213 Dutch SSc patients. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA was used to assess the factor structure in both samples. The Multiple-Indicator Multiple-Cause (MIMIC model was utilized to assess the amount of differential item functioning (DIF. RESULTS: A two-factor model (positive and negative affect showed excellent fit in both samples. Statistically significant, but small-magnitude, DIF was found for 3 of 20 items on the CES-D. The English-speaking Canadian sample endorsed more feeling-related symptoms, whereas the Dutch sample endorsed more somatic/retarded activity symptoms. The overall estimate in depression scores between English and Dutch was not influenced substantively by DIF. CONCLUSIONS: CES-D scores from English-speaking Canadian and Dutch SSc patients can be compared and pooled without concern that measurement differences may substantively influence results. The importance of assessing cross-language measurement equivalence in rheumatology studies prior to pooling outcomes obtained in different languages should be emphasized.

  13. Factorial validity and invariance of the center for epidemiologic studies depression (CES-D) scale in a sample of black and white adolescent girls.

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    Hales, Derek P; Dishman, Rod K; Motl, Robert W; Addy, Cheryl L; Pfeiffer, Karin A; Pate, Russell R

    2006-01-01

    Meaningful comparison of depression symptoms requires that the measurement instrument has equivalent measurement properties among racial and ethnic groups. We tested the factorial validity and invariance of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D) Scale among Black (n=610) and White (n=452) adolescent girls in the 12th grade. The invariance analyses were conducted by using LISREL 8.70 with maximum likelihood estimation and Satorra-Bentler scaled chi-square statistics and standard errors. The hypothesized second-order model (first-order factors: depressed affect, somatic and retarded activity, interpersonal, and positive affect; second-order factor: depression) demonstrated good overall fit in both groups. Comparison of nested models supported the between-group invariance of the overall factor structure, first- and second-order factor loadings, first-order factor variances, and the second-order factor variance. Item uniquenesses were not invariant. Our results support the hypothesis that a meaningful comparison of composite CES-D scores can be made between Black and White girls in the 12th grade.

  14. Validity of Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D scale in a sample of Iraq and Afghanistan Veterans

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    Ana R Quiñones

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Optimal depression screening necessitates measurement tools that are valid across varied populations and in the presence of comorbidities. Methods: This study assessed the test properties of two versions of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale against psychiatric diagnoses established by the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview among a clinical sample of US Veterans deployed during Operations Enduring Freedom, Iraqi Freedom, and New Dawn. Participants (N = 359 recruited from two Department of Veterans Affairs hospitals completed a clinical interview, structured diagnostic interview, and self-reported measures. Results: Based on diagnostic interview and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th Edition criteria, 29.5% of the sample met diagnostic criteria for major depressive disorder and 26.5% met diagnostic criteria for post-traumatic stress disorder. Both Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression-20 and Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression-10 scales performed well and almost identically against the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview-major depressive disorder in identifying Veterans with major depressive disorder (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression-20 area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve 91%; Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression-10 area under the ROC curve 90%. Overall, higher cut points for the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scales performed better in correctly identifying true positives and true negatives for major depressive disorder (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression-20 cut point 18+ sensitivity 92% specificity 72%; Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression-10 cut point 10+ sensitivity 92% specificity 69%. Conclusions: The specificity of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scales was poor among Veterans with co-occurring post-traumatic stress disorder (13% and 16%. Veterans with post

  15. [Confirmatory factor analysis of the short French version of the Center for Epidemiological Studies of Depression Scale (CES-D10) in adolescents].

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    Cartierre, N; Coulon, N; Demerval, R

    2011-09-01

    Screening depressivity among adolescents is a key public health priority. In order to measure the severity of depressive symptomatology, a four-dimensional 20 items scale called "Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale" (CES-D) was developed. A shorter 10-item version was developed and validated (Andresen et al.). For this brief version, several authors supported a two-factor structure - Negative and Positive affect - but the relationship between the two reversed-worded items of the Positive affect factor could be better accounted for by correlated errors. The aim of this study is triple: firstly to test a French version of the CES-D10 among adolescents; secondly to test the relevance of a one-dimensional structure by considering error correlation for Positive affect items; finally to examine the extent to which this structural model is invariant across gender. The sample was composed of 269 French middle school adolescents (139 girls and 130 boys, mean age: 13.8, SD=0.65). Confirmatory Factorial Analyses (CFA) using the LISREL 8.52 were conducted in order to assess the adjustment to the data of three factor models: a one-factor model, a two-factor model (Positive and Negative affect) and a one-factor model with specification of correlated errors between the two reverse-worded items. Then, multigroup analysis was conducted to test the scale invariance for girls and boys. Internal consistency of the CES-D10 was satisfying for the adolescent sample (α=0.75). The best fitting model is the one-factor model with correlated errors between the two items of the previous Positive affect factor (χ(2)/dl=2.50; GFI=0.939; CFI=0.894; RMSEA=0.076). This model presented a better statistical fit to the data than the one-factor model without error correlation: χ(2)(diff) (1)=22.14, pfactor model with correlated errors was analyzed across separate samples of girls and boys. The model explains the data somewhat better for boys than for girls. The model's overall χ(2

  16. Association between the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D and mortality in a community sample: An artifact of the somatic complaints factor?

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    Jeremy W. Pettit

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available La mayoría de las investigaciones sobre la asociación entre la depresión y la mortalidad no han examinado distintos grupos de síntomas depresivos. Este estudio ex post facto examinó que aspectos de la depresión explican su asociación con la mortalidad. La Escala de Depresión del Centro de Estudios Epidemiológicos (CES-D fue administrada a 3.867 residentes comunitarios. El riesgo de mortalidad como función del estado depresivo y de cada uno de los 4 factores de la CES-D fue estimado con el modelo de azar proporcional de Cox. Los participantes deprimidos (CES-D > 16 tuvieron un riesgo elevado de mortalidad (HR 1,23, 95% CI 1,03-1,49 después de la corrección de variables sociodemográficos. Quejas somáticas fue el único factor que predijo la mortalidad (HR 1,19, 95% CI 1,03-1,38. Después de excluir Quejas somáticas, la CES-D no predijo la mortalidad (HR 0,98, 95% CI 0,79-1,21. La asociación entre los síntomas depresivos de la CES-D y la mortalidad parece ser una función del factor Quejas somáticas. Es posible que la asociación entre los síntomas depresivos no somáticos y la mortalidad no sea tan robusta como indican los hallazgos anteriores.

  17. Avaliação da sintomatologia depressiva de mulheres no climatério com a escala de rastreamento populacional para depressão CES-D Depressive symptoms in climacteric women evaluated by the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale

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    Rita de Cássia Leite Fernandes

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a sintomatologia depressiva em mulheres climatéricas com a escala de depressão CES-D (Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, do National Institute of Mental Health (EUA. MÉTODO: Estudo transversal com 151 mulheres entre 40 e 65 anos de idade, usuárias de serviço de ginecologia geral em unidade de atenção básica à saúde no Rio de Janeiro. Aplicou-se a escala CES-D e um questionário estruturado para a obtenção de dados sociodemográficos, clínicos e ginecológicos. O nível de corte > 15 pontos na CES-D foi considerado como indicativo de quadro depressivo. RESULTADOS: A média de pontuação da amostra foi de 9,2 pontos (desvio padrão = 9,0. Os itens mais pontuados da escala foram relativos à insônia, tristeza e desânimo. Não houve associação significativa entre os escores e o período climatérico, características sociodemográficas, clínicas ou ginecológicas, exceto para as mulheres com presença de sintomas psíquicos, histórico depressivo pregresso e uso atual de antidepressivos (p = 0,000. Entre as 32 mulheres (21% com pontuação > 15 na CES-D, 72% referiram episódio depressivo pregresso. Dentre as participantes sem histórico depressivo, as perimenopáusicas apresentaram escores > 15 com maior freqüência. CONCLUSÃO: Essa casuística, oriunda de serviço não-especializado em menopausa ou saúde mental, revelou baixas pontuações médias na escala de sintomas depressivos CES-D, e o item insônia foi o mais pontuado. O histórico de depressão foi fator de associação com a alta pontuação na escala, mas não a fase climatérica em que a mulher se encontrava. A maior freqüência de pontuação acima do nível de corte nas mulheres sem histórico depressivo pregresso que estavam na perimenopausa sugere a maior vulnerabilidade, nessa fase, a episódios depressivos novos.INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to evaluate depressive symptoms in

  18. Test of item-response bias in the CES-D scale. experience from the New Haven EPESE study.

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    Cole, S R; Kawachi, I; Maller, S J; Berkman, L F

    2000-03-01

    We present results of item-response bias analyses of the exogenous variables age, gender, and race for all items from the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) scale using data (N = 2340) from the New Haven component of the Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly (EPESE). The proportional odds of blacks responding higher on the CES-D items "people are unfriendly" and "people dislike me" were 2.29 (95% confidence interval: 1.74, 3.02) and 2.96 (95% confidence interval: 2.15, 4.07) times that of whites matched on overall depressive symptoms, respectively. In addition, the proportional odds of women responding higher on the CES-D item "crying spells" were 2.14 (95% confidence interval: 1.60, 2.82) times that of men matched on overall depressive symptoms. Our data indicate the CES-D would have greater validity among this diverse group of older men and women after removal of the crying item and two interpersonal items.

  19. Curtailment and Stochastic Curtailment to Shorten the CES-D

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    Finkelman, Matthew D.; Smits, Niels; Kim, Wonsuk; Riley, Barth

    2012-01-01

    The Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D) scale is a well-known self-report instrument that is used to measure depressive symptomatology. Respondents who take the full-length version of the CES-D are administered a total of 20 items. This article investigates the use of curtailment and stochastic curtailment (SC), two sequential…

  20. The CES-D as a Measure of Psychological Distress Among International Students: Measurement and Structural Invariance Across Gender.

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    Suh, Hanna; van Nuenen, Marieke; Rice, Kenneth G

    2017-10-01

    Detecting psychological distress among international students can be challenging given diverse languages, cultural backgrounds, and lack of refined measurement properties of measures tailored to international students. Despite the challenges, ensuring that a psychological distress measure works effectively has considerable potential value for assessment purposes. The current study evaluates the measurement properties of a short 10-item version of Radloff's Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Grounded in long-standing evidence on gender differences in depressive symptoms, specific attention was given to examining measurement invariance of the CES-D Short-form across women and men. Based on a large, two-cohort sample of international students ( N = 468), and through multiple analyses evaluating factor structure and measurement invariance, we derived an even briefer, seven-item single-factor form of the CES-D (CES-D Short-form International) that can be used with international students.

  1. Correlations between the BDI and CES-D in a Sample of Adolescent Mothers.

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    Wilcox, Holly; Field, Tiffany; Prodromidis, Margarita; Scafidi, Frank

    1998-01-01

    The adequacy of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression (CES-D) as screening instruments for adolescent depression is examined. Both are correlated with the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children, a clinical measure. BDI correlates more highly with Major Depression subscale, CES-D to Dysthymia…

  2. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale is an adequate screening instrument for depression and anxiety disorder in adults with congential heart disease.

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    Moon, Ju Ryoung; Huh, June; Song, Jinyoung; Kang, I-Seok; Park, Seung Woo; Chang, Sung-A; Yang, Ji-Hyuk; Jun, Tae-Gook

    2017-09-05

    The Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) is an instrument that is commonly used to screen for depression in patients with chronic disease, but the characteristics of the CES-D in adults with congenital heart disease (CHD) have not yet been studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the criterion validities and the predictive powers of the CES-D for depression and anxiety disorders in adults with CHD. Two hundred patients were screened with the CES-D and secondarily interviewed with a diagnostic instrument, i.e., the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Instrument. The sensitivity and specificity values of the CES-D were calculated by cross-tabulation at different cutoff scores. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to assess the optimal cutoff point for each disorder and to assess the predictive power of the instrument. The CES-D exhibited satisfactory criterion validities for depression and for all combinations of depression and/or anxiety. With a desired sensitivity of at least 80%, the optimal cutoff scores were 18. The predictive power of the CES-D in the patients was best for major depression and dysthymia (area under the ROC curve: 0.92) followed by the score for any combination of depression and/or anxiety (0.88). The use of CES-D to simultaneously screen for both depression and anxiety disorders may be useful in adults with CHD. CESDEP 212. Registered 2 March 2014 (retrospectively registered).

  3. Screening for depression among community-dwelling elders: Usefulness of the center for epidemiologic studies depression scale

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    Sebind Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Though common, depressive disorders often remain undetected in late life. Aim: To examine the usefulness of Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D for identifying depression among older people. Settings and Design: Community resident older people (aged 65 years or more, were evaluated by clinicians trained in psychiatry, as part of a cross-sectional study of late-life depression. Assessments were done in the community. Methods and Material: The participants were assigned ICD-10 diagnoses and assessed using Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS and CES-D. A short version of CES-D with 10 items, translated to the local language Malayalam, was used. Statistical Analysis: The sensitivity and specificity of CES-D was evaluated against ICD-10 clinical diagnosis of depression. The correlation of CES-D and MADRS was assessed using Pearson correlation coefficient. Results: 220 consenting adults from 3 wards of the Panchayath were assessed. On analysis of the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curve of CES-D scores in relation to clinical diagnosis, the large Area Under Curve (AUC showed efficient screening and a cut off score of 4 in CES-D had a sensitivity of 97.7% and a specificity of 79.1% for depression. There was also good correlation between the MADRS and CES-D scores (0.838. Conclusion: CES-D is a short simple scale which can be used by health care professionals for detecting depression in older people in primary care settings.

  4. A Reexamination of the Factor Structure of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale: Is a One-Factor Model Plausible?

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    Edwards, Michael C.; Cheavens, Jennifer S.; Heiy, Jane E.; Cukrowicz, Kelly C.

    2010-01-01

    The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) is one of the most widely used measures of depressive symptoms in research today. The original psychometric work in support of the CES-D (Radloff, 1977) described a 4-factor model underlying the 20 items on the scale. Despite a long history of evidence supporting this structure,…

  5. Measuring somatic symptoms with the CES-D to assess depression in cancer patients after treatment : Comparison among patients with oral/oropharyngeal, gynecological, colorectal, and breast cancer

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    van Wilgen, C.P.; Dijkstra, P.U.; Stewart, R.E.; Ranchor, A.V.; Roodenburg, J.L.N.

    2006-01-01

    There is a high prevalence of depression after cancer treatment. In the literature, several authors have raised questions about assessing somatic symptoms to explore depression after cancer treatment. These somatic sequelae are a consequence of cancer treatment and should cause higher depression

  6. Measuring somatic symptoms with the CES-D to assess depression in cancer patients after treatment : Comparison among patients with oral/oropharyngeal, gynecological, colorectal, and breast cancer

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    van Wilgen, C.P.; Dijkstra, P.U.; Stewart, R.E.; Ranchor, A.V.; Roodenburg, J.L.N.

    2006-01-01

    There is a high prevalence of depression after cancer treatment. In the literature, several authors have raised questions about assessing somatic symptoms to explore depression after cancer treatment. These somatic sequelae are a consequence of cancer treatment and should cause higher depression rat

  7. 高校男护生抑郁情况及影响因素的初步分析%An evaluation of status of depression using CES-D and analysis of its influencing factors among male nursing undergraduates

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    徐英; 祁娟; 张丕德

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解高校男护理本科生的抑郁情况,并与全国城市同龄人群常模进行比较并初步探讨可能的影响因素,为相关心理干预方法的提出提供依据.方法 采用两阶段抽样的方法抽取两所高校102名男护生作为研究对象,利用流调中心抑郁量表(CES-D)测量抑郁发生情况,同时利用自拟的调查问卷探讨可能的影响因素.结果 男护生的抑郁发生率为14.0%,CES-D得分(11.00±6.37)分,与全国城市同龄人群水平相当.单因素分析提示来自农村、人际关系较差、感觉就业前景较差、自己的兴趣、爱好、需求、想法等得不到父母亲的关注是抑郁发生的危险因素;迸一步进行多因素分析提示,感觉就业前景较差及自己的兴趣、爱好、需求、想法等得不到父母亲的关注是抑郁发生的独立危险因素.结论 针对男护生,需要从家庭和就业前景两方面着手进一步改善其心理健康状况,为护理事业的发展储备合格的力量.%Objective To understand the status of depression and compare with the same age group of Chinese norms of CES-D in urban areas and analyze its potential influencing factors among male nursing undergraduates.Methods In this cross-sectional study,the CES-D and self-made questionnaire were administrated to 102 male nursing undergraduates from two schools of nursing through two-stage random sampling.Results The prevalence of depression was 14.0%,and the score of nursing undergraduates was (11.00±6.37) points,which had no significant difference from the scores of the same age group of Chinese norms in urban areas.Univariate analysis showed that coming from countryside,worse interpersonal relationship,worse career prospect,getting no attention from parents had some significant association with depression.Multivariate analysis showed that worse career prospect and getting no attention from parents associated with lower CES-D scores.Condusions For male nursing

  8. Psychometric Limitations of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale for Assessing Depressive Symptoms among Adults with HIV/AIDS: A Rasch Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caryl L. Gay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression (CES-D scale is a widely used measure of depressive symptoms, but its psychometric properties have not been adequately evaluated among adults with HIV/AIDS. This study used an item response theory approach (Rasch analysis to evaluate the CES-D’s validity and reliability in relation to key demographic and clinical variables in adults with HIV/AIDS. A convenience sample of 347 adults with HIV/AIDS (231 males, 93 females, and 23 transgenders; age range 22–77 years completed the CES-D. A Rasch model application was used to analyze the CES-D’s rating scale functioning, internal scale validity, person-response validity, person-separation validity, internal consistency, differential item functioning (DIF, and differential test functioning. CES-D scores were generally high and associated with several demographic and clinical variables. The CES-D distinguished 3 distinct levels of depression and had acceptable internal consistency but lacked unidimensionality, five items demonstrated poor fit to the model, 15% of the respondents demonstrated poor fit, and eight items demonstrated DIF related to gender, race, or AIDS diagnosis. Removal of misfitting items resulted in minimal improvement in the CES-D’s substantive and structural validity. CES-D scores should be interpreted with caution in adults with HIV/AIDS, particularly when comparing scores across gender and racial groups.

  9. The center for epidemiologic studies depression scale: a review with a theoretical and empirical examination of item content and factor structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Nicholas Carleton

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D; Radloff, 1977 is a commonly used freely available self-report measure of depressive symptoms. Despite its popularity, several recent investigations have called into question the robustness and suitability of the commonly used 4-factor 20-item CES-D model. The goal of the current study was to address these concerns by confirming the factorial validity of the CES-D. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Differential item functioning estimates were used to examine sex biases in item responses, and confirmatory factor analyses were used to assess prior CES-D factor structures and new models heeding current theoretical and empirical considerations. Data used for the analyses included undergraduate (n = 948; 74% women, community (n = 254; 71% women, rehabilitation (n = 522; 53% women, clinical (n =84; 77% women, and National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES; n = 2814; 56% women samples. Differential item functioning identified an item as inflating CES-D scores in women. Comprehensive comparison of the several models supported a novel, psychometrically robust, and unbiased 3-factor 14-item solution, with factors (i.e., negative affect, anhedonia, and somatic symptoms that are more in line with current diagnostic criteria for depression. CONCLUSIONS: Researchers and practitioners may benefit from using the novel factor structure of the CES-D and from being cautious in interpreting results from the originally proposed scale. Comprehensive results, implications, and future research directions are discussed.

  10. The Psychometric Properties of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale in Chinese Primary Care Patients: Factor Structure, Construct Validity, Reliability, Sensitivity and Responsiveness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weng Yee Chin

    Full Text Available The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D is a commonly used instrument to measure depressive symptomatology. Despite this, the evidence for its psychometric properties remains poorly established in Chinese populations. The aim of this study was to validate the use of the CES-D in Chinese primary care patients by examining factor structure, construct validity, reliability, sensitivity and responsiveness.The psychometric properties were assessed amongst a sample of 3686 Chinese adult primary care patients in Hong Kong. Three competing factor structure models were examined using confirmatory factor analysis. The original CES-D four-structure model had adequate fit, however the data was better fit into a bi-factor model. For the internal construct validity, corrected item-total correlations were 0.4 for most items. The convergent validity was assessed by examining the correlations between the CES-D, the Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ-9 and the Short Form-12 Health Survey (version 2 Mental Component Summary (SF-12 v2 MCS. The CES-D had a strong correlation with the PHQ-9 (coefficient: 0.78 and SF-12 v2 MCS (coefficient: -0.75. Internal consistency was assessed by McDonald's omega hierarchical (ωH. The ωH value for the general depression factor was 0.855. The ωH values for "somatic", "depressed affect", "positive affect" and "interpersonal problems" were 0.434, 0.038, 0.738 and 0.730, respectively. For the two-week test-retest reliability, the intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.91. The CES-D was sensitive in detecting differences between known groups, with the AUC >0.7. Internal responsiveness of the CES-D to detect positive and negative changes was satisfactory (with p value 0.2. The CES-D was externally responsive, with the AUC>0.7.The CES-D appears to be a valid, reliable, sensitive and responsive instrument for screening and monitoring depressive symptoms in adult Chinese primary care patients. In its original

  11. The center for epidemiologic studies depression scale: support for a bifactor model with a dominant general factor and a specific factor for positive affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Rapson; McLaren, Suzanne

    2015-06-01

    For the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) ratings, the study examined support for a bifactor model, and also the internal consistency reliability and external validity of the factors in this model. Participants (N = 1,178) were older adults from the general community who completed the CES-D. Confirmatory factor analysis of their ratings indicated support for the bifactor model. For this model, the general factor explained most of the covariance in the scores of the CES-D items for Depressed Affect, Somatic Symptoms and Retarded Activity, and Interpersonal Difficulties items. Most of the covariance in the scores of the Positive Affect (PA) scale was explained by its own specific factor. Additional analyses showed support for internal consistencies and external validities of general factors based on all the CES-D items, and when PA items were excluded, and also the PA-specific factor. The findings support the use of a total CES-D score without the PA items and also the concurrent use of the PA scale score. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Cross-language measurement equivalence of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) scale in systemic sclerosis: a comparison of Canadian and Dutch patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwakkenbos, L.; Arthurs, E.; Hoogen, F.H.J. van den; Hudson, M.; Lankveld, W.G. van; Baron, M.; Ende, C.H.M. van den; Thombs, B.D.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Increasingly, medical research involves patients who complete outcomes in different languages. This occurs in countries with more than one common language, such as Canada (French/English) or the United States (Spanish/English), as well as in international multi-centre collaborations, whi

  13. Longitudinal Invariance of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale among Girls and Boys in Middle School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motl, Robert W.; Dishman, Rod K.; Birnbaum, Amanda S.; Lytle, Leslie A.

    2005-01-01

    This study tested the longitudinal factorial invariance of a theoretically consistent, higher-order model for Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D) scores among adolescent girls and boys in middle school. Data were collected from 2,416 adolescents who completed a survey containing the CES-D in the fall of 1998, spring of 1999, and…

  14. Interferon-induced depression in patients with hepatitis C: an epidemiologic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Pereira Jorge de Medeiros

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective To assess the incidence rate and severity of depressive symptoms in different time points (12, 24 and 48 weeks in Brazilian patients with HCV treated with PEG IFN plus ribavirin. Methods We conducted an observational prospective study using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D. Results Fifty patients were included. The assessments with either scale showed the highest score of depressive symptoms in the 24th week of treatment; the mean BDI score before treatment was 6.5 ± 5.3 and the mean CES-D was 10.9 ± 7.8. After 24 weeks, the mean BDI was 16.1 ± 10.2 and mean CES-D was 18.6 ± 13.0; 46% were diagnosed with depression according to combined BDI and CES-D scores. The somatic/psychomotor subscales were highly correlated with overall scale scores . Subjects with history of substance and alcohol abuse had higher risk for IFN-induced depression. Conclusion Treatment with PEG IFN was associated with a high incidence rate of depressive symptoms in this sample of Brazilian patients, as measured by CES-D and BDI. Alcohol and substance abuse increase the risk of PEG IFN-induced depression.

  15. Relations between Suicidal Ideation and Dimensions of Depressive Symptoms in High-School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabrol, Henri; Rodgers, Rachel; Rousseau, Amelie

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the link between the different dimensions of depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation in adolescents. A sample of 1057 adolescents completed the CES-D (Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale) and three additional items measuring suicidal ideation. The four dimensions of depressive symptoms on the…

  16. Validation of a cutoff point for the short version of the Depression Scale of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies in older Mexican adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarón Salinas-Rodríguez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To identify a valid cutoff point associated with Center for Epidemiologic Studies, Depression Scale (CES-D of seven items, which allows the classification of older adults according to presence/absence of clinically significant depressive symptoms. Materials and methods. Screening study with 229 older adults residing in two states of Mexico (Morelos and Tlaxcala, which were part of the sample from the National Survey of Health and Nutrition, 2012. We estimated the sensitivity and specificity associated with the selected cutoff points using the diagnostic criteria of ICD-10 (International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision and DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition. Results. The cutoff point estimated was CES-D=5. According to the ICD-10 sensitivity and specificity were 83.3 and 90.2%, and ROC was 87%. Using DSM-IV, the values were 85, 83.2, and 84%, respectively. Conclusions. The short version of the CES-D can be used as a screening test to identify probable cases of older adults with clinically significant depressive symptoms.

  17. [Validation of a cutoff point for the short version of the Depression Scale of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies in older Mexican adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas-Rodríguez, Aarón; Manrique-Espinoza, Betty; Acosta-Castillo, Gilberto Isaac; Franco-Núñez, Aurora; Rosas-Carrasco, Oscar; Gutiérrez-Robledo, Luis Miguel; Sosa-Ortiz, Ana Luisa

    2014-01-01

    To identify a valid cutoff point associated with Center for Epidemiologic Studies, Depression Scale (CES-D) of seven items, which allows the classification of older adults according to presence/absence of clinically significant depressive symptoms. Screening study with 229 older adults residing in two states of Mexico (Morelos and Tlaxcala), which were part of the sample from the National Survey of Health and Nutrition, 2012. We estimated the sensitivity and specificity associated with the selected cutoff points using the diagnostic criteria of ICD-10 (International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision) and DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition). The cutoff point estimated was CES-D=5. According to the ICD-10 sensitivity and specificity were 83.3 and 90.2%, and ROC was 87%. Using DSM-IV, the values were 85, 83.2, and 84%, respectively. The short version of the CES-D can be used as a screening test to identify probable cases of older adults with clinically significant depressive symptoms.

  18. Aplicación de la Escala de Depresión del Center of Epidemiological Studies en adolescentes de la Ciudad de México Application of the revised version of the Center of Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale in adolescent students from Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina González-Forteza

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Probar la validez de constructo, concurrente y externa, y la consistencia interna de la Escala de Depresión del Center for Epidemiologic Studies (CES-D-R en adolescentes. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal con dos cohortes de estudiantes de secundaria del DF. El cuestionario incluyó la CES-D-R y otras escalas sobre problemas relacionados con suicidio, violencia, exposición a oportunidades y consumo de drogas. La participación fue voluntaria y anónima. RESULTADOS: Se incluyó a 1 549 estudiantes (edad promedio, 14 años; DE=1.2. La escala mostró una estructura de seis factores (varianza explicada, 55%, consistencia interna excelente (a=0.93, discriminación significativa entre puntajes extremos (z=-3.695, pOBJECTIVE: To assess the internal consistency, as well as the construct, concurrent and external consistency of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D-R in Mexican adolescents. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The data are from two samples of middle-school students from Mexico City. The questionnaire included the CES-D-R and other scales for suicide problems, peer and family violence, and drug use. RESULTS: The sample included 1 549 students (mean age 14 years, SD=1.2. The CES-D-R showed a six-factor structure (explained variance, 55% with an excellent internal consistency (a=0.93, a significant discriminative power for opposite scores (z=-3.695, p<0.001, and a positive significant correlation with the Roberts Suicidal Ideation Scale (r=0.685, p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: The CES-D-R has excellent psychometric characteristics for Mexican adolescents and therefore is deemed as an adequate tool for the assessment of depressive symptoms in large samples to detect mental health needs and design preventive interventions.

  19. Depressive symptoms in community-dwelling persons aged ≥60 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    orphaned children. ... population of mixed ethnicity >65 years old living in Cape Town in 1987 .... The relationship between depressive symptoms and ... CES-D 10 scale [6-7]. Reliability 0.90[6]. Validity 0.84[7]. Cognition. Short Memory Scale – 6 item[8-9] .... prevalence, and should be considered in terms of the findings from.

  20. Using equity theory to examine the difference between burnout and depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, AB; Schaufeli, WB; Demerouti, E; Janssen, PPM; Brouwer, J

    2000-01-01

    This study among a sample of 154 Dutch teachers examines the discriminant validity of burnout and depression, as measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), respectively. Confirmatory factor analyses show that burnout can be stat

  1. Using equity theory to examine the difference between burnout and depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, AB; Schaufeli, WB; Demerouti, E; Janssen, PPM; Brouwer, J

    2000-01-01

    This study among a sample of 154 Dutch teachers examines the discriminant validity of burnout and depression, as measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), respectively. Confirmatory factor analyses show that burnout can be stat

  2. Organic solvent exposure and depressive symptoms among licensed pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Miriam; Starks, Sarah E; Sanderson, Wayne T; Kamel, Freya; Hoppin, Jane A; Gerr, Fred

    2017-07-12

    Although organic solvents are often used in agricultural operations, neurotoxic effects of solvent exposure have not been extensively studied among farmers. The current analysis examined associations between questionnaire-based metrics of organic solvent exposure and depressive symptoms among farmers. Results from 692 male Agricultural Health Study participants were analyzed. Solvent type and exposure duration were assessed by questionnaire. An "ever-use" variable and years of use categories were constructed for exposure to gasoline, paint/lacquer thinner, petroleum distillates, and any solvent. Depressive symptoms were ascertained with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D); scores were analyzed separately as continuous (0-60) and dichotomous (exposure and CES-D score. Forty-one percent of the sample reported some solvent exposure. The mean CES-D score was 6.5 (SD 6.4; median 5; range 0-44); 92% of the sample had a score below 16. After adjusting for covariates, statistically significant associations were observed between ever-use of any solvent, long duration of any solvent exposure, ever-use of gasoline, ever-use of petroleum distillates, and short duration of petroleum distillate exposure and continuous CES-D score (p exposure and the dichotomized CES-D variable. Solvent exposures were associated with depressive symptoms among farmers. Efforts to limit exposure to organic solvents may reduce the risk of depressive symptoms among farmers.

  3. Prevalence of Depressive Symptoms and Related Factors in Japanese Employees: A Comparative Study between Surveys from 2007 and 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahito Fushimi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of depressive symptoms and their related factors in Japan. The results were analyzed to identify the relationship between high scores on the CES-D, sociodemographic status, and employment-related variables. Methods. Employees in Akita prefecture completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D during a survey period between November and December 2010. The cutoff point for the CES-D scores was 16 or above (high scorers. Results. Data from 1,476 employees indicated that 44.2% had high scores on the CES-D. Sociodemographic and occupation-related factors associated with a high risk of depression were being female, young age, fewer hours of sleep on weekdays, and working over 8 hours per day, whereas drinking alcohol one to two days per week, albeit only in men, was significantly associated with a low risk of depression. The present results were consistent with the results of a previous survey completed in 2007; however, the present results regarding job categories and smoking behavior were not significantly associated with depression and thus were inconsistent with the 2007 survey data. Conclusions. These results can be useful as benchmark values for the CES-D and might help predict depressive disorders.

  4. The mediation effect of emotional eating between depression and body mass index in the two European countries Denmark and Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Strien, Tatjana; Winkens, Laura; Toft, Madeleine Broman;

    2016-01-01

    is contingent on 1) change in appetite and 2) gender. Mediation and moderated mediation was assessed with Hayes’ PROCESS macro in SPSS. Emotional eating (DEBQ: Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire), depressive symptoms (CES-D: Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale), change in appetite, weight...

  5. The mediation effect of emotional eating between depression and body mass index in the two European countries Denmark and Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Strien, Tatjana; Winkens, Laura; Toft, Madeleine Broman

    2016-01-01

    is contingent on 1) change in appetite and 2) gender. Mediation and moderated mediation was assessed with Hayes’ PROCESS macro in SPSS. Emotional eating (DEBQ: Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire), depressive symptoms (CES-D: Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale), change in appetite, weight...

  6. Depression and its relationship with poor exercise capacity, BODE index and muscle wasting in COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-shair, Khaled; Dockry, Rachel; Mallia-Milanes, Brendan

    2009-01-01

    walk distance (6MWD), St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) and MRC dyspnoea and Borg scales. RESULTS: The CES-D and BASDEC scales detected almost similar prevalence rates of depression (21% vs 17%) with a Kappa coefficient of 0.68, p... affect some of the characteristics of depressed patients rather than the prevalence rate of depression. Depression was associated with poor exercise performance and BODE index in COPD.......BACKGROUND: The prevalence of depression in stable COPD patients varies markedly, possibly because of use of different scales. We aimed to assess depression using 2 different depression scales and to examine the association between depression and poor exercise performance, BODE index and muscle...

  7. Factorial Structure of the CES-D among American Indian Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Rhonda Wiegman; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined factor structure of Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale among American Indian adolescents attending boarding school. Found that Depressed and Somatic factors were highly correlated and should be collapsed into one factor. No differences in factor structure were found by gender. (Author/NB)

  8. Does Depressive Symptomatology Influence Teenage Patients and Their Mothers' Experience of Doctor-Patient Relationship in Two Balkan Countries?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vaitsa Giannouli; Stanislava Stoyanova

    2014-01-01

    ... of the doctor-patient relationship. In Greece during February-May 2013, 196 mothers and their teenage children (suffering from acute or chronic illnesses) completed two questionnaires: the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D) and a series of questions on a Likert scale from the Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire (PS...

  9. Psychometric comparison of single-item, short, and comprehensive depression screening measures in Korean young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee-Ju; Abraham, Ivo

    2016-04-01

    Integrating long depression-screening instruments into routine clinical practice and research studies is often impractical, necessitating short-item if not single-item measures with comparable psychometric properties. To examine whether single-item or short depression-screening measures are comparable to a comprehensive screening measure in reliability (i.e., internal consistency and test-retest reliability) and validity (i.e., convergent, concurrent, and predictive validity) in Korean young adults within a Classical Testing Theory framework. A total of 458 students from six nursing colleges in South Korea completed three depression measures: the 20-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression screening instrument (CES-D; comprehensive measure); the five-item Profile of Mood States-Brief depression subscale (POMS-B depression subscale; short measure); a single-item Likert measure; and a single-item numeric rating scale. Internal consistency reliability was tested by Cronbach's alpha and item-total correlations; test-retest reliability by intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC); convergent validity by correlation with the CES-D; concurrent validity by the correlation with perceived stress level and sleep quality; and predictive validity by receiver operating characteristic curve to predict the two groups with different depression levels. The POMS-B depression subscale was comparable to the comprehensive CES-D scale in internal consistency reliability (alpha=.85); test-retest reliability (ICC=.76); and convergent (r=.81 with CES-D), concurrent (r=.64 with perceived stress level, r=.34 with sleep quality), and predictive validity (area under the curve=.88). The two single-item options were not comparable to the comprehensive CES-D. The short POMS-B depression subscale shows an acceptable balance between practical clinical and research needs and psychometric quality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Normalization Procedure for the Baptista Depression Scale - Adult Version (EBADEP-A: Transferring of Norms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Oliveira Gomes

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Regarding the standardization of psychological instruments, that is, the construction of referential interpretations of a test, we can find different procedures performed both by Classical Test Theory and the Theory of Item Response. Especially in this case (IRT, we can admit a test as a norm, in order to use its standardization and transfer the cut-off point to another instrument. Based on this information, the present study aimed to provide a cutoff score for the Baptista Depression Scale - Adult Version (EBADEP-A through procedures of norms-transfer based on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies – Depression Scale (CES-D. The EBADEP-A presented good distribution and ability to discriminate depressive symptoms, and the sample, consisting of Brazilian College students, received a cutoff score of 32 points. It is emphasized that this is an exploratory and preliminary study, and it we suggest further analyzes to be performed with clinical samples for which results can be corroborated or confronted.

  11. Ethnic Variation in the Cross-sectional Association between Domains of Depressive Symptoms and Clinical Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin eAssari

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe degree by which depressive symptoms and clinical depression reflect each other may vary across populations. The present study compared Blacks and Whites for the magnitude of the cross-sectional associations between various domains of depressive symptoms and endorsement of clinical disorders of depression. MethodsData came from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL, 2001–2003. We included 3,570 Black (African Americans, and 891 Non-Hispanic Whites. Predictors were positive affect, negative affect, and interpersonal problems measured using the 12-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D. Outcomes were lifetime MDD, lifetime MDE, 12 month MDE, 30 days MDE, and 30 days MDDH based on the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI. Logistic regression models were applied in the pooled sample, as well as Blacks and Whites.ResultsRegarding CES-D, Blacks had lower total scores, positive affect, negative affect, and interpersonal problems compared to Whites (p < 0.05 for all comparisons. Blacks also had lower odds of meeting criteria for lifetime MDD and MDE, 12 month MDE, and 30 days MDE and MDDH (p < 0.05 for all comparisons. For most depressive diagnoses, ethnicity showed a positive and significant interaction with the negative affect and interpersonal domains, suggesting stronger associations for Blacks compared to Whites. CES-D total and CES-D positive affect did not interact with ethnicity on CIDI based diagnoses.ConclusionStronger associations between multiple domains of depressive symptoms and clinical MDD may be due to higher severity of depression among Blacks, when they endorse the disorder. This finding may explain some of previously observed ethnic differences in social, psychological, and medical correlates of depressive symptoms and clinical depression in the general population as well as clinical settings.

  12. Depressive symptoms and risk of uterine leiomyomata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Lauren A; Li, Se; Palmer, Julie R; Rosenberg, Lynn

    2015-05-01

    Uterine leiomyomata (UL) are a major source of gynecologic morbidity and the primary indication for hysterectomy. Depression can cause dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, which may affect the synthesis of reproductive hormones involved in UL pathogenesis. We assessed the association between depressive symptoms and UL among 15,963 premenopausal women. Data were derived from the Black Women's Health Study, a prospective cohort study. In 1999 and 2005, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) was used to ascertain depressive symptoms. On biennial follow-up questionnaires from 1999 through 2011, women reported physician-diagnosed depression, antidepressant use, and UL diagnoses. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using multivariable Cox regression. There were 4722 incident UL cases diagnosed by ultrasound (n=3793) or surgery (n=929) during 131,262 person-years of follow-up. Relative to baseline CES-D scores<16, IRRs were 1.05 (95% CI, 0.98-1.13) for CES-D scores 16-24 and 1.16 (95% CI, 1.06-1.27) for CES-D scores≥25 (P-trend=.001). IRRs for current and past physician-diagnosed depression relative to no depression were 1.15 (95% CI, 0.98-1.34) and 1.25 (95% CI, 1.13-1.39), respectively. Results persisted after further control for antidepressant use. IRRs for current and past use of antidepressants (any indication) relative to never use were 1.11 (95% CI, 0.97-1.28) and 1.32 (95% CI, 1.14-1.52), respectively. In this cohort of black women, greater depressive symptoms were associated with UL, independent of antidepressant use, supporting the hypothesis that dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis increases UL risk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Internet administration of the Edinburgh Depression Scale.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spek, V.; Nyklicek, I.; Cuijpers, P.; Pop, V.

    2008-01-01

    Background Internet-based screening for depression is becoming increasingly important. The aim of this study is to validate the Edinburgh Depression Scale (EDS) for internet administration. Methods In 407 participants (64% women; 36% men) with subthreshold depression (mean age = 55 years; S.D. = 4.9

  14. 自我效能感、应付方式和犯罪青少年抑郁的相关研究%Depression and Its Relation to General Self-efficacy and Coping Styles in Delinquent Teenagers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王才康

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To explore the characteristic of depression and its relationship with general self-efficacy and coping styles in delinquent teenagers. Methods: 228 delinquent teenagers in jail completed a battery of questionnaires consisted of General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES), Short Coping Style Scale (SCSS), and Center for Epidemiological, Depression Scale (CES-D).Results: Mean scores of depression of delinquent teenagers were found to be highly elevated. A total of 52.6% of the subjects showed depression. Depression as assessed by CES-D was found to correlate with General self-efficacy (r=-0.162) and Negative Coping Styles (r=0.177). No significant relationship was found between Positive Coping Styles and depression. Conclusion: Depression of delinquent teenagers was related to low self-efficacy and negative coping styles.

  15. Rating scales in general practice depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Per; Paykel, Eugene; Sireling, Lester

    2015-01-01

    within major depressive disorder. The CID was compared to the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D17). METHODS: 146 patients from a previous study in general practice with the CID were investigated. The item response theory model established by Rasch was used to investigate the scalability (a scale......׳s psychometric adequacy) of the subscales, and principal component analysis was used to identify subsyndromes with the symptoms of major depression according to DSM-5 or ICD-10. RESULTS: Whereas the HAM-D17 was found not to have an acceptable scalability, the three brief CID subscales for depression (six items......), anxiety (five items), and apathy (five items) all had an acceptable scalability. Within the major depressive symptoms, principal component analysis identified the CID items of hypersomnia, increased appetite or weight gain as defining the subsyndrome of atypical depression. In total 29 patients...

  16. The effects of a tailored cardiac rehabilitation program on depressive symptoms in women: A randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckie, Theresa M; Beckstead, Jason W; Schocken, Douglas D; Evans, Mary E; Fletcher, Gerald F

    2011-01-01

    Depression is known to co-occur with coronary heart disease (CHD). Depression may also inhibit the effectiveness of cardiac rehabilitation (CR) programs by decreasing adherence. Higher prevalence of depression in women may place them at increased risk for non-adherence. To assess the impact of a modified, stage-of-change-matched, gender-tailored CR program for reducing depressive symptoms among women with CHD. A two-group randomized clinical trial compared depressive symptoms of women in a traditional 12-week CR program to those completing a tailored program that included motivational interviewing guided by the Transtheoretical Model of behavior change. Women in the experimental group also participated in a gender-tailored exercise protocol that excluded men. The Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D) Scale was administered to 225 women at baseline, post-intervention, and at 6-month follow-up. Analysis of Variance was used to compare changes in depression scores over time. Baseline CES-D scores were 17.3 and 16.5 for the tailored and traditional groups, respectively. Post-intervention mean scores were 11.0 and 14.3; 6-month follow-up scores were 13.0 and 15.2, respectively. A significant group by time interaction was found for CES-D scores (F(2, 446)=4.42, p=.013). Follow-up tests revealed that the CES-D scores for the traditional group did not differ over time (F(2, 446)=2.00, p=.137). By contrast, the tailored group showed significantly decreased CES-D scores from baseline to post-test (F(1, 223)=50.34, pmaximizing adherence. Future studies should explore the mechanism by which such programs produce benefits. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met and adulthood chronic stress interact to affect depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Rong; Brummett, Beverly H; Babyak, Michael A; Siegler, Ilene C; Williams, Redford B

    2013-02-01

    BDNF Val66Met by chronic stress interaction has been studied using childhood stress as a moderator, but has not been widely studied using chronic stress in adulthood. Two independent samples were used: Duke-CG (238 Caucasians) and MESA (5524 Caucasians, African Americans and Hispanics). Chronic stress in Duke-CG was operationalized as having primary caregiving responsibility for a spouse or relative with diagnosed Alzheimer's disease or other major dementia; chronic stress in MESA was defined using chronic burden score constructed from self-reported problems of health (self and someone close), job, finance and relationships. CES-D scale was the measure of depression in both samples. The BDNF Val66Met by adulthood chronic stress interaction predicting CES-D was examined using linear regression, adjusted for covariates. The main effect of BDNF Val66Met genotype on CES-D scores was non-significant (ps > 0.607) but the adulthood chronic stress indicator was significant (ps adulthood chronic stress interaction was also significant (ps adulthood on CES-D scores was significantly larger in Val/Val genotype individuals than Met carriers. We found in two independent samples that depression levels increased significantly more as a function of adulthood chronic stress Val/Val genotype carriers than Met carriers. Individuals with the Val/Val genotype and chronic stress exposure could be targeted for interventions designed to reduce risk of depression if this finding is confirmed in future studies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Influence of the interaction between the serotonin 1A receptor C-1019G polymorphism and negative life stressors on the development of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ha Kyoung; Kim, Seog Ju; Lee, Yu Jin; Lee, Heon-Jeong; Kang, Seung-Gul; Choi, Jung-Eun; Yun, Kyu-Wol; Lim, Weon-Jeong

    2011-01-01

    The current study aimed to investigate the interaction between the serotonin 1A receptor gene (HTR1A) C-1019G polymorphism and recent negative life stressors on depression in a Korean community sample. The HTR1A C-1019G polymorphism was genotyped in 416 community-dwelling Koreans (156 males, 260 females; 44.37 ± 14.67 years old). Lifetime and current major depressive episodes were diagnosed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. The Center for Epidemiological Studies for Depression Scale (CES-D) was self-applied and face-to-face interviews investigating negative life stressors within the last 6 months were also performed. The results indicated that there were significant interactions between the C-1019G polymorphism and negative life stressors on CES-D scores (p = 0.02) as well as on current major depressive episodes (p = 0.002), but not on past major depressive episodes. G carriers alone had higher CES-D scores and more frequently experienced major depressive episodes after stressors. The interaction between the C-1019G polymorphism in HTR1A and recent negative life stressors accounted for current major depressive episodes and depressive symptoms. Our findings suggest that people with this gene variant may be more susceptible to developing depression especially after negative life stressors. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Weight status and depressive symptoms in 18 year-old Greek adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliki Matziou

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Depressive symptoms in adolescence have been a subject of considerable controversy in terms of their nature, severity and identification. The aim of the study was to investigate the possible association between weight status and depressive symptoms among 18 year-old Greek adolescents. A cross-sectional study design was used. The study population consisted of 200 students of the University of Athens who fulfilled the following criteria: age 18 years, absence of clinical depression, no history of hospitalization in a mental institution, no history of alcohol abuse. Weight status was assessed by Body Mass Index (BMI (kg/m2 and calculated from weight and height measurements. Severity of depressive symptoms was assessed by Centre for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D. In univariate analysis, CES-D score was significantly associated with adolescents’ gender and BMI. The multivariate analysis showed that CES-D score was negatively related to BMI even after controlling the confounding effect of gender (P=0.018, B=-0.378. Depressive symptoms are related to weight status of adolescents.

  20. The relationship between acculturation factors and symptoms of depression: a cross-sectional study with immigrants living in Athens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonidakis, Fragiskos; Korakakis, Panagiotis; Ploumpidis, Dimitris; Karapavlou, Dafni-Alexandra; Rogakou, Efi; Madianos, Michael G

    2011-09-01

    The process of acculturation observed in immigrants is part of an adjustment to the values and norms of a new society, and possibly the loss of norms of the society of origin. Acculturation has been linked to stress-related psychological disorders such as depression. The present study investigates the relationship between three acculturation domains (everyday life behaviors, wishful orientation/nostos, and ethnic identity) and symptoms of depression in a sample of foreign immigrants living in Athens, Greece. The sample consisted of 317 immigrants who visited two non-governmental organization polyclinics. All participants were interviewed using the Immigrant Acculturation Scale (IAS) and the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). The results showed that 133 (42%) out of the 317 interviewees were in a depressive state (CES-D > 15). The main finding was that high CES-D scores were related to low scores in the IAS Everyday Life and Wishful Orientation factors, while no relationship was found between depressive symptomatology and the IAS Identity factor. Short duration of stay in Greece, lack of steady job, and lack of residence permit were also related to high CES-D scores. In conclusion, adaptation to mainstream culture daily behaviors as well as the wish to integrate with individuals from the mainstream culture and settle permanently in the new country could be seen as part of an adaptive mechanism that protects the individual from experiencing depressive symptomatology.

  1. Internet administration of the Edinburgh Depression Scale.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spek, V.; Nyklicek, I.; Cuijpers, P.; Pop, V.

    2008-01-01

    .001). A major limitation is that the study was conducted without a control group of healthy subjects. Conclusion The psychometric properties of the internet-administered EDS are comparable to those of the paper and pencil EDS. Keywords: Edinburgh Depression Scale; Psychometric properties; Internet

  2. Concurrent Validity of the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory Depression Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Joel O.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Compared two new measures of depression (Millon Multiaxial Inventory Dysthymia and Major Depression subscales) with two established instruments: Beck Depression Inventory, a self-report measure which emphasizes the cognitive-affective aspects of depression, and Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, an interview measure that emphasizes somatic…

  3. Development of an Interview-Based Geriatric Depression Rating Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamison, Christine; Scogin, Forrest

    1992-01-01

    Developed interview-based Geriatric Depression Rating Scale (GDRS) and administered 35-item GDRS to 68 older adults with range of affective disturbance. Found scale to have internal consistency and split-half reliability comparable to those of Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression and Geriatric Depression Scale. Concurrent validity, construct…

  4. Prepregnancy Depressive Symptoms and Preterm Birth in the Black Women’s Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Ghasi S.; Wise, Lauren A.; Rich-Edwards, Janet W.; Stampfer, Meir J.; Rosenberg, Lynn

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE To examine the association between prepregnancy depressive symptoms and preterm birth. METHODS The present study is a prospective investigation of prepregnancy depressive symptoms—measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D)—and risk of preterm birth reported in the Black Women’s Health Study. With data on 2,627 singleton births (175 spontaneous and 163 medically-indicated preterm births and 2,289 term births), we used generalized estimating equation models to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) adjusted for potential confounders. RESULTS Relative to mothers with CES-D scores <16, the multivariable ORs of spontaneous preterm birth for mothers with CES-D scores of 16-22, 23-32, and ≥33 were 1.17 (95% CI=0.78-1.80), 1.20 (95% CI=0.69-2.10), and 2.00 (95% CI=0.94-4.25), respectively (P-trend=0.09). There was little evidence of an association between prepregnancy depressive symptoms and medically-indicated preterm birth. CONCLUSIONS Our data provide some evidence of an increased risk of spontaneous preterm birth among women with high prepregnancy depressive symptoms. PMID:20006271

  5. Depressive Symptoms, Age at Diagnosis and A Clinically Defined Metabolic Syndrome as Independent Correlates of Glycemic Control in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Andreoulakis

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The findings concerning the association of metabolic syndrome (MetS and depression with glycemic control are controversial. Recently, age at type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM diagnosis has attracted particular attention but the relevant findings are limited. This study aimed to further assess the association between age at T2DM diagnosis, depressive symptoms and MetS with glycemic control in T2DM patients. Methods: In 116 T2DM patients we assessed disease-related and MetS-related variables as well as depressive symptom severity (Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale - CES-D. Glycemic control, as assessed by glycated hemoglobin (HBA1c levels, was the dependent variable. Results: Suboptimal HBA1c levels, i.e. 7% (53 mmol/mol or higher, were found in 35.3% of the patients. Elevated CES-D scores indicative of clinically relevant depressive symptoms (CES-D?16 or possible major depression (CES-D>23 where found in 31.9% and 11.2% of the patients, respectively. Younger age at T2DM diagnosis (p=0.004, greater treatment intensity (p=0.009, higher levels of depressive symptoms (p=0.011 and the presence of a clinically defined MetS (p=0.012 were the variables independently associated with glycemic control in multiple regression analysis after adjusting for sex, education, marital status, family history of diabetes and disease duration. Conclusion: In T2DM patients, the linear association found between depressive symptom severity and glycemic control points to the need of depressive symptoms being timely addressed. Younger age at T2DM onset may also be an important correlate of suboptimal glycemic control, independent of disease duration. Finally, classification of MetS in T2DM by clinical severity might help delineate its impact on glycemic control.

  6. Short sleep as an environmental exposure: a preliminary study associating 5-HTTLPR genotype to self-reported sleep duration and depressed mood in first-year university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carskadon, Mary A; Sharkey, Katherine M; Knopik, Valerie S; McGeary, John E

    2012-06-01

    This study examined whether the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism in the SLC6A4 gene is associated with self-reported symptoms of depressed mood in first-year university students with a persistent pattern of short sleep. Students provided DNA samples and completed on-line sleep diaries and a mood scale during the first semester. A priori phenotypes for nocturnal sleep and mood scores were compared for the distribution of genotypes. Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island. A sample of 135 first-year students, 54 male, 71 Caucasian, mean age 18.1 (± 0.5) yr. None. Students completed on-line sleep diaries daily across the first term (21-64 days; mean = 51 days ± 11) and Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D) mood scale after 8 wk. DNA was genotyped for the triallelic 5-HTTLPR polymorphism. Low-expressing S and L(G)polymorphisms were designated S', and high-expressing L(A) was designated L'. Phenotype groups were identified from a combination of CES-D (median split: high > 12; low students. FOUR PHENOTYPE GROUPS WERE COMPARED: 40 students with shorter TST/high CES-D; 34 with shorter TST/low CES-D; 29 with longer TST/high CES-D; 32 with longer TST/low CES-D. Female:male distribution did not vary across phenotype groups (chi-square = 1.39; df = 3; P = 0.71). S'S' participants (n = 23) were overrepresented in the shorter TST/high CES-D group (chi- square = 15.04; df = 6; P < 0.02). This association was sustained after removing participants with preexisting evidence of depressed mood (chi-square = 12.90; df = 6; P = 0.045). These data indicate that young adults who reported shorter nocturnal sleep and higher depressed mood are more likely than others to carry a variant of the SLC6A4 gene associated with low expression of the serotonin transporter.

  7. Validation of brief screening tools for depressive and alcohol use disorders among TB and HIV patients in primary care in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Vikram

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was conducted to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy and determine the optimum cut-off scores for clinical use of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale (CES-D and Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT against a reference psychiatric diagnostic interview, in TB and anti-retroviral therapy (ART patients in primary care in Zambia. Methods This was a cross-sectional study in 16 primary level care clinics. Consecutive sampling was used to select 649 participants who started TB treatment or ART in the preceding month. Participants were first interviewed using the CES-D and AUDIT, and subsequently with a psychiatric diagnostic interview for current major depressive disorder (MDD and alcohol use disorders (AUDs using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI. The diagnostic accuracy was calculated using the Area Under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve (AUROC. The optimum cut-off scores for clinical use were calculated using sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV. Results The CES-D and AUDIT had high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.84; 0.98 respectively. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that the four-factor CES-D model was not a good fit for the data (Tucker-Lewis Fit Index (TLI = 0.86; standardized root-mean square residual (SRMR = 0.06 while the two-factor AUDIT model fitted the data well (TFI = 0.99; SRMR = 0.04. Both the CES-D and AUDIT demonstrated good discriminatory ability in detecting MINI-defined current MDDs and AUDs (AUROC for CES-D = 0.78; AUDIT = 0.98 for women and 0.75 for men. The optimum CES-D cut-off score in screening for current MDD was 22 (sensitivity 73%, PPV 76% while that of the AUDIT in screening for AUD was 24 for women (sensitivity 60%, PPV 60%, and 20 for men (sensitivity 55%, PPV 50%. Conclusions The CES-D and AUDIT showed high discriminatory ability in measuring MINI-defined current MDD and AUD respectively. They are

  8. March of the Living, a Holocaust Educational Tour: An Assessment of Anxiety and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nager, Alan L; Pham, Phung; Grajower, Sarah N; Gold, Jeffrey I

    2016-06-01

    March of the Living (MOTL) is a 2-week international educational tour for high school seniors to learn about the Holocaust by visiting concentration/deaths camps and other Jewish historical sites in Poland, culminating in a week-long excursion in Israel. Although the trip is primarily educational, there is recent research evidence to suggest that attendees may suffer from a variety of mental health sequelae. To determine symptoms of anxiety and depression, 196 Los Angeles delegation participants voluntarily completed the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, composed of a trait anxiety scale (i.e., STAI-T) and a state anxiety scale (i.e., STAI-S), and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Pre-MOTL, students completed an initial background questionnaire along with the STAI-T, STAI-S, and the CES-D. At end-Poland and end-Israel, the STAI-S and CES-D were administered again. Results demonstrated that depression scores increased during end-Poland and returned to baseline; however, anxiety scores mildly increased end-Poland and rose slightly more and persisted through end-Israel.

  9. Associations between depressive symptoms and insulin resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriaanse, M C; Dekker, J M; Nijpels, G

    2006-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The association between depression and insulin resistance has been investigated in only a few studies, with contradictory results reported. The aim of this study was to determine whether the association between symptoms of depression and insulin resistance varies across glucose...... established type 2 diabetes mellitus. Main outcome measures were insulin resistance defined by the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and symptoms of depression using the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). RESULTS: In the total sample, we found a weak.......942). The association between depressive symptoms and insulin resistance was similar for men and women. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: We found only weak associations between depressive symptoms and insulin resistance, which did not differ among different glucose metabolism subgroups or between men and women....

  10. Validation of the Edinburgh Depression Scale during pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergink, Veerle; Kooistra, Libbe; Lambregtse-van den Berg, Mijke P.; Wijnen, Henny; Bunevicius, Robertas; van Baar, Anneloes; Pop, Victor

    2011-01-01

    Background: Untreated depression during pregnancy may have adverse outcomes for the mother and her child. Screening for depression in the general pregnant population is thus recommended. The Edinburgh Depression Scale (EDS) is widely used for postpartum depression screening. There is no consensus on

  11. Reliability and validity of the Chinese version of the depressive cognition scale among the older people%中文版抑郁认知量表在老年人群中应用的信效度研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭丽娜; 刘永闯; 刘堃

    2016-01-01

    目的 探讨中文版抑郁认知量表(the depressive cognition scale,DCS)在老年人群中运用的信效度.方法 运用一般资料调查表、中文版DCS和流调中心抑郁量表(the center for epidemio-logical studies depression scale,CES-D)对辽宁省锦州市社区老年人以及老年住院患者共570例进行调查,运用SPSS 21.0进行数据统计分析.结果 中文版DCS条目-总分相关系数在0.65 ~ 0.84(P<0.01)范围内,平均为0.77.内容效度指数为0.88;探索性因子分析提取1个公因子,方差贡献率为59.72%;效标关联效度检验显示,中文版DCS各条目得分及总分与CES-D各维度得分及总分呈正相关(r=0.24~0.82,均P<0.01);以CES-D为金标准,中文版DCS的灵敏度为84.7%,特异度为90.7%.条目内部相关系数范围在0.40~0.73之间(均P<0.01);内部一致性Cronbachα为0.90,重测信度为0.92,95%CI=0.86~0.95,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论 中文版DCS信效度良好,可用于评估老年人抑郁认知状况.%Objective To test the reliability and validity of the Chinese Version of the Depressive Cognition Scale (DCS) among the older people.Methods The sample consisted of 570 old people,collected by a demographic questionnaire,the Chinese version of DCS,and the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D),then all the data was analyzed by SPSS 21.0.Results The item-to-total correlation coefficients of DCS ranged from 0.65 to 0.84 (P<0.01),and the average coefficient was 0.77.The content validity index(CVI) was 0.88.The result of exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was that one factor explained 59.72% of the total variances,and the concurrent validity between DCS and CES-D was positive related (r=0.24-0.82,P<0.01).Regarding CES-D as the gold standard,the sensitivity was 84.7% and the specificity was 90.7%.The inter-item correlation coefficients of DCS ranged from 0.40 to 0.73 (P<0.01);the Cronbach α was 0.82,and the retest reliability

  12. Symptoms of depression in people with impaired glucose metabolism or Type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriaanse, M C; Dekker, J M; Heine, R. J.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the prevalence and risk factors of depressive symptoms, comparing subjects with normal glucose metabolism (NGM), impaired glucose metabolism (IGM) or Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Cross-sectional data from a population-based cohort study conducted...... among 550 residents (276 men and 274 women) of the Hoorn region, the Netherlands. Levels of depressive symptoms were measured using the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D score > or = 16). Glucose metabolism status was determined by means of fasting and post-load glucose levels...

  13. The association between stressful life events and depressive symptoms among Cypriot university students: a cross-sectional descriptive correlational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokratous, Sokratis; Merkouris, Anastasios; Middleton, Nicos; Karanikola, Maria

    2013-12-05

    Previous findings suggest that stressful life events have a causal relationship with depressive symptoms. However, to date little is known concerning the contribution of the number and severity of recent stressful life events on the prevalence of depressive symptoms among university students. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of depressive symptoms and its association with the number and the severity of self-reported stressful life events among university students in Cyprus. A descriptive correlational design with cross sectional comparison was used. The CES-D scale was applied for the assessment of depressive symptoms and the LESS instrument for stressful life events. Both scales were completed anonymously and voluntarily by 1.500 students (response rate 85%). The prevalence of mild to moderate depressive symptoms [CES-D score between 16 and 21] and of clinically significant depressive symptoms [CES-D score ≥ 22] were 18.8% and 25.3% respectively. There were statistically significant differences in clinically significant depressive symptoms by gender, with higher rates among women (x(2) = 8.53, df = 1, p = 0.003). Higher scores on the LESS scale were associated with more frequent reports of clinical depressive symptoms (x(2) = 70.63, df = 4, p 351, OR = 3.03 95% CI: 1.66, 5.39) were more likely to manifest clinical depressive symptoms. The high frequency of occurrence of depressive symptoms among Cypriot university students, as well as the strong association with stressful life events, highlights the need for psychological empowerment strategies towards students by institutional counseling services.

  14. Association between Depressive Symptoms and Metabolic Syndrome in Police Officers: Results from Two Cross-Sectional Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Tara A.; Knox, Sarah S.; Fekedulegn, Desta; Barbosa-Leiker, Celestina; Violanti, John M.; Andrew, Michael E.; Burchfiel, Cecil M.

    2012-01-01

    Policing is one of the most dangerous and stressful occupations and such stress can have deleterious effects on health. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between depressive symptoms and metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) in male and female police officers from two study populations, Buffalo, NY and Spokane, WA. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D) scale. MetSyn was defined using the 2005 AHA/NHBLI guidelines. Analysis of covariance was used to describe differences in number of MetSyn components across depressive symptom categories. The number of MetSyn components increased significantly across categories of CES-D for Spokane men only (p-trend = 0.003). For each 5-unit increase in CES-D score, odds increased by 47.6% for having hypertriglyceridemia, by 51.8% for having hypertension, and by 56.7% for having glucose intolerance. Exploring this association is important since both are predictors of future chronic health problems and the results could be helpful in developing future gender-specific prevention and intervention efforts among police officers. PMID:22315628

  15. Association between Depressive Symptoms and Metabolic Syndrome in Police Officers: Results from Two Cross-Sectional Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara A. Hartley

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Policing is one of the most dangerous and stressful occupations and such stress can have deleterious effects on health. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between depressive symptoms and metabolic syndrome (MetSyn in male and female police officers from two study populations, Buffalo, NY and Spokane, WA. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D scale. MetSyn was defined using the 2005 AHA/NHBLI guidelines. Analysis of covariance was used to describe differences in number of MetSyn components across depressive symptom categories. The number of MetSyn components increased significantly across categories of CES-D for Spokane men only (p-trend = 0.003. For each 5-unit increase in CES-D score, odds increased by 47.6% for having hypertriglyceridemia, by 51.8% for having hypertension, and by 56.7% for having glucose intolerance. Exploring this association is important since both are predictors of future chronic health problems and the results could be helpful in developing future gender-specific prevention and intervention efforts among police officers.

  16. Activities on Facebook reveal the depressive state of users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sungkyu; Lee, Sang Won; Kwak, Jinah; Cha, Meeyoung; Jeong, Bumseok

    2013-10-01

    As online social media have become prominent, much effort has been spent on identifying users with depressive symptoms in order to aim at early diagnosis, treatment, and even prevention by using various online social media. In this paper, we focused on Facebook to discern any correlations between the platform's features and users' depressive symptoms. This work may be helpful in trying to reach and detect large numbers of depressed individuals more easily. Our goal was to develop a Web application and identify depressive symptom-related features from users of Facebook, a popular social networking platform. 55 Facebook users (male=40, female=15, mean age 24.43, SD 3.90) were recruited through advertisement fliers distributed to students in a large university in Korea. Using EmotionDiary, the Facebook application we developed, we evaluated depressive symptoms using the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression (CES-D) scale. We also provided tips and facts about depression to participants and measured their responses using EmotionDiary. To identify the Facebook features related to depression, correlation analyses were performed between CES-D and participants' responses to tips and facts or Facebook social features. Last, we interviewed depressed participants (CES-D≥25) to assess their depressive symptoms by a psychiatrist. Facebook activities had predictive power in distinguishing depressed and nondepressed individuals. Participants' response to tips and facts, which can be explained by the number of app tips viewed and app points, had a positive correlation (P=.04 for both cases), whereas the number of friends and location tags had a negative correlation with the CES-D scale (P=.08 and P=.045 respectively). Furthermore, in finding group differences in Facebook social activities, app tips viewed and app points resulted in significant differences (P=.01 and P=.03 respectively) between probably depressed and nondepressed individuals. Our results using Emotion

  17. Clinical and psychometric validation of the psychotic depression assessment scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Søren Dinesen; Pedersen, Christina H; Uggerby, Peter

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent studies have indicated that the 11-item Psychotic Depression Assessment Scale (PDAS), consisting of the 6-item melancholia subscale (HAM-D6) of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and 5 psychosis items from the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), is a valid measure for the ...

  18. Mental health (GHQ12; CES-D and attitudes towards the value of work among inmates of a semi-open prison and the long-term unemployed in Luxembourg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Bihan Etienne

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim To analyse the relationships between mental health and employment commitment among prisoners and the long-term unemployed (LTU trying to return to work. Method Fifty-two of 62 male inmates of a semi-open prison (Givenich Penitentiary Centre, the only such unit in Luxembourg, and 69 LTU registered at the Luxembourg Employment Administration completed a questionnaire exploring: 1 mental health (measured by means of scales GHQ12 and CES-D; 2 employment commitment; 3 availability of a support network, self-esteem, empowerment; and 4 socio-demographic characteristics. Results Compared with LTU, inmates were younger, more had work experience (54.9% vs 26.1%, and more were educated to only a low level (71.1% vs 58.0%. The link between employment commitment and mental health in the LTU was the opposite of that seen among the prisoners: the more significant the perceived importance of employment, the worse the mental health (GHQ12 p = 0.003; CES-D p Conclusion The two groups clearly need professional support. Future research should further investigate the link between different forms of professional help and mental health. Randomized controlled trials could be carried out in both groups, with interventions to improve work commitment for prisoners and to help with getting a job for LTU. For those LTU who value employment but cannot find it, the best help may be psychological support.

  19. Depression and Rural Environment are Associated With Poor Oral Health Among Pregnant Women in Northern Appalachia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Daniel W; Hayes, Sarah E; Randall, Cameron L; Polk, Deborah E; Neiswanger, Kathy; Shaffer, John R; Weyant, Robert J; Foxman, Betsy; Kao, Elizabeth; Crout, Richard J; Chapman, Stella; Brown, Linda J; Maurer, Jennifer L; Marazita, Mary L

    2016-01-01

    Both oral health problems and depression among pregnant women contribute to maternal-infant health outcomes. Little is known, however, about the potential effects of clinically significant depression on the oral health status of pregnant women. The purpose of the present study was to determine the influence of clinically significant depression and rural- or urban-dwelling status on oral health outcomes among pregnant women. Pregnant women (N = 685) in rural (i.e., West Virginia) and urban (i.e., Pittsburgh, PA) areas of northern Appalachia were assessed by calibrated examiners regarding gingivitis, oral hygiene, and DMFT (decayed, missing, and filled teeth), completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D) and provided demographics. Participants were categorized based on clinically significant depressive symptoms (CES-D ≥ 16) and rural/urban domicile. Women with depression and those living in rural areas had worse oral health on all three indices than their non-depressed and urban counterparts. Depression, particularly among women in rural areas, affects certain oral health indices and represents a modifiable target for intervention. Moreover, treatments designed specifically for rural populations may be of particular utility. Women who are pregnant or planning to become pregnant may benefit from regular depression screenings from their dental and medical health care providers.

  20. Muscle fatigability and depressive symptoms in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Patrick J; Badreddine, Dala; Roose, Steven P; Rutherford, Bret; Ayonayon, Hilsa N; Yaffe, Kristine; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Goodpaster, Bret

    2017-02-15

    Fatigability is the degree to which performance decreases during a specific activity of a given intensity and duration. Depression is known to heighten subjective fatigue, but whether its association with physical fatigability is unknown. Further, whether fatigability is a precursor or risk factor for the development of subsequent depressive symptoms is also unclear. Data are from the Health Aging and Body Composition Study with fatigability assessed using isokinetic dynamometry of the knee extensors at year 3, and depressive symptoms ascertained longitudinally using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) scale. The relationship between fatigability and depressive symptoms was evaluated using linear and Cox regression models. There was a significant cross-sectional association between fatigability and depressive symptomatology (β = -0.06, p = 0.02), after adjusting for demographic variables, medical comorbidities, cognition, gait speed, and physical activity levels. Greater fatigability was associated with greater adjusted scores on the 10-item CES-D (F2, 1695  = 38.65, p John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Measuring depression in women around menopausal age. Towards a validation of the Edinburgh Depression Scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becht, M.C.; van Erp, C.F.; Teeuwisse, T.M.; van Heck, G.L.; van Son, M.J.; Pop, V.J.M.

    2001-01-01

    Background: The relationship between menopause and depression is still rather unclear. Studies using different methodology especially those lacking a clear definition of depression are hardly comparable. Since the Edinburgh Depression Scale (EDS) is not influenced by (menopause-related) somatic symp

  2. A twin-study of genetic contributions to morningness-eveningness and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomey, Rosemary; Panizzon, Matthew S; Kremen, William S; Franz, Carol E; Lyons, Michael J

    2015-04-01

    Circadian rhythms are associated with the preference for sleep-wake timing, also known as morningness-eveningness (ME). Both circadian rhythms and ME are influenced by genetic factors. Studies show an association between eveningness and depression. This study investigates the heritability of ME and whether ME and depression share common genetic influences. Study participants (n = 1237) were from the Vietnam Era Twin Study of Aging, a longitudinal study of aging with a baseline in midlife. Participants received the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ) and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) Scale as part of an extensive neurocognitive and psychosocial assessment. MEQ correlations between members of twin pairs were 0.41 (95% CI 0.31-0.49) for monozygotic (MZ) twins and 0.28 for dizygotic (DZ) twins (95% CI 0.19-0.41). CES-D correlations were 0.38 (95% CI 0.28-0.46) for MZ twins and 0.24 (95% CI 0.14-0.36) for DZ twins. Greater eveningness (i.e. lower MEQ scores) was significantly related to more depression symptoms (phenotypic correlation = -0.15 (95% CI -0.21 to -0.09). In the best fitting model, the heritability estimates are 0.42 for the MEQ and 0.37 for the CES-D. A significant genetic correlation of -0.21 indicated that ME and depression share a significant amount of their underlying genetic variance. The genetic covariance between ME and depression accounted for 59.1% of the phenotypic correlation. Of the CES-D sub-scales, Depressed Mood and Interpersonal Difficulties were significantly heritable, while only Well-Being had a significant genetic correlation with ME. ME and depression are both heritable (ME 0.42, depression 0.37) and share common genetic factors, suggesting an overlap in etiology and the relevance of circadian rhythms to depression. Further study of this relationship may help elucidate etiological factors in depression and targets for treatment.

  3. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Geriatric Depression Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Kathryn Betts; Matto, Holly C.; Sanders, Sara

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: The Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) is widely used in clinical and research settings to screen older adults for depressive symptoms. Although several exploratory factor analytic structures have been proposed for the scale, no independent confirmation has been made available that would enable investigators to confidently identify scores…

  4. Effect of aerobic exercise during pregnancy on antenatal depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Rafie MM

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Mervat M El-Rafie,1 Ghada M Khafagy,2 Marwa G Gamal31Department of Public Health, 2Department of Family Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt; 3Family Health Unit, Ministry of Health, Cairo, EgyptBackground: Antenatal depression is not uncommon and is associated with a greater risk of negative pregnancy outcomes.Aim: Exploring the effect of exercise in preventing and treating antenatal depression.Methods: This was a prospective interventional controlled study carried out in 100 pregnant women treated at the Ain-Shams Family Medicine Center and Maadi Outpatient Clinic, Cairo, Egypt. The participants were divided into two groups (n=50 in the exercise group and n=50 in the control group. The exercise group regularly attended supervised sessions for 12 weeks. The activities in each session included walking, aerobic exercise, stretching, and relaxation. The control group completed their usual antenatal care. The Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D was used to assess depression symptoms at the first interview and immediately after the 12-week intervention.Results: Compared to the control group, the exercise group showed significantly improved depressive symptoms as measured with the CES-D after the 12-week intervention on the CES-D (P=0.001. Within groups, the exercise group demonstrated a significant improvement of depressive symptoms from baseline to intervention completion, while the control group demonstrated no significant changes over time.Conclusion: Exercise during pregnancy was positively associated with reduced depressive symptoms.Keywords: antenatal depression, pregnant women, exercise

  5. Anthroposophic therapy for chronic depression: a four-year prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willich Stefan N

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depressive disorders are common, cause considerable disability, and do not always respond to standard therapy (psychotherapy, antidepressants. Anthroposophic treatment for depression differs from ordinary treatment in the use of artistic and physical therapies and special medication. We studied clinical outcomes of anthroposophic therapy for depression. Methods 97 outpatients from 42 medical practices in Germany participated in a prospective cohort study. Patients were aged 20–69 years and were referred to anthroposophic therapies (art, eurythmy movement exercises, or rhythmical massage or started physician-provided anthroposophic therapy (counselling, medication for depression: depressed mood, at least two of six further depressive symptoms, minimum duration six months, Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, German version (CES-D, range 0–60 points of at least 24 points. Outcomes were CES-D (primary outcome and SF-36 after 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 48 months. Data were collected from July 1998 to March 2005. Results Median number of art/eurythmy/massage sessions was 14 (interquartile range 12–22, median therapy duration was 137 (91–212 days. All outcomes improved significantly between baseline and all subsequent follow-ups. Improvements from baseline to 12 months were: CES-D from mean (standard deviation 34.77 (8.21 to 19.55 (13.12 (p Conclusion In outpatients with chronic depression, anthroposophic therapies were followed by long-term clinical improvement. Although the pre-post design of the present study does not allow for conclusions about comparative effectiveness, study findings suggest that the anthroposophic approach, with its recourse to non-verbal and artistic exercising therapies can be useful for patients motivated for such therapies.

  6. Development and Validation of a Screening Scale for Depression in Korea: The Lee and Rhee Depression Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Seon Hee; Rhee, Min Kyu; Kang, Rhee Hun; Lee, Hwa Young; Ham, Byung Joo; Lee, Young Sun; Lee, Min Soo

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to develop a culturally sensitive instrument that addressed how individuals express and experience depression to detect this disorder in Koreans. We also assessed the validity, reliability, and diagnostic utility of this scale (Lee and Rhee Depression Scale; LRDS). Methods The sample consisted of 3,697 normal adults selected from 12 administrative districts (Do) and 448 Korean patients diagnosed with depression using the Structured Clinical Interview for DS...

  7. Depressive symptoms are not associated with leukocyte telomere length: findings from the Nova Scotia Health Survey (NSHS95, a population-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan A Shaffer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Premature shortening of leukocyte telomere length has been proposed as a novel mechanism by which depression may confer increased risk of adverse cardiovascular events. Prior studies demonstrating associations of depression and depressive symptoms with shorter leukocyte telomere length were small, included selected psychiatric outpatients, were based on convenience samples, and/or adjusted for a limited number of possible confounding factors. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We examined the associations of depressive symptoms, probable depressive disorder, and specific depressive symptom clusters, as assessed by the Center for Epidemiological Studies--Depression (CES-D scale, with leukocyte telomere length, measured by using a real-time PCR method, in 2,225 apparently healthy participants from the 1995 Nova Scotia Health Survey population-based study. The mean age was 48.2 ± 18.9 years; 49.9% of participants were female; and the mean CES-D score was 7.4 ± 7.9. The mean telomere length was 5,301 ± 587 base pairs. In an unadjusted model, depressive symptoms were significantly associated with longer leukocyte telomere length (B = 27.6 base pairs per standard deviation increase in CES-D, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.1-52.1, p = 0.027. This association was no longer significant after adjustment for age and sex (B = 9.5, 95% CI = -14.6-33.6, p = 0.44 or after further adjustment for body mass index, Framingham risk score and previous history of ischemic heart disease (all p's ≥ 0.37. Neither probable depressive disorder nor specific depressive symptom clusters were independently associated with leukocyte telomere length. CONCLUSIONS: Concurrent depressive symptoms were not associated with leukocyte telomere length in a large, representative, population-based study.

  8. Influencia de los sucesos vitales y el apoyo social en una intervención psicoeducativa para mujeres con depresión The influence of life events and social support in a psycho-educational intervention for women with depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Asunción Lara

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar la influencia del apoyo social y los sucesos vitales sobre los síntomas de depresión: pretratamiento, postratamiento (15-30 días y seguimiento (cuatro meses, en una intervención psicoeducativa para depresión. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se seleccionaron 254 mujeres con síntomas de depresión, de entre quienes solicitaron atención para dichos síntomas, en tres centros comunitarios de salud mental y un centro de salud de la Secretaría de Salud, en la Ciudad de México, entre enero de 1998 y diciembre de 2000. La intervención había mostrado previamente su eficacia en reducir los síntomas de depresión. Dichos síntomas se evaluaron con la Escala de Depresión del Centro de Estudios Epidemiológicos (CES-D, y los sucesos vitales y el apoyo social con escalas específicas para estos aspectos. Se realizaron análisis de regresión jerárquica para probar los diversos modelos. RESULTADOS: Modelo 1: efecto de sucesos vitales, apoyo social y variables sociodemográficas (edad, escolaridad, ingreso y ocupación sobre CES-D pretratamiento. El modelo fue significativo (pOBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of social support and adverse life events on depression symptoms, before and after therapy (15-30 days and during follow-up (4 months of a psycho-educational intervention for depression. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study population consisted of 254 women with depression symptoms selected among those seeking treatment for their symptoms in three community mental health centers and in one Ministry of Health center, all of them in Mexico City, between January 1998 and December 2000. The intervention has been proved effective previously in reducing depression symptoms. Symptoms were assessed using Radloff's CES-D scale, while specifically designed scales were used for events and social support. Hierarchical regression analyses were carried out to test various models. RESULTS: Model 1: effect of variables: life events, social support

  9. Association between frequency of fried food consumption and resilience to depression in Japanese company workers: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Eisho; Nishi, Daisuke; Matsuoka, Yutaka J

    2016-09-15

    Long-chain n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3/n-6 PUFA) play important roles in emotional regulation. We previously reported an association between fish consumption, which is major source of LC n-3 PUFA, and resilience to depression, where resilience is the ability to cope with stress in the face of adversity. Although the traditional Japanese dietary pattern of high fish consumption is associated with low depressive symptoms, the current Japanese diet pattern has become westernized. Westernized diets contain excessive amounts of LC n-6 PUFA due to high intake of vegetable oils commonly used in fried food and are associated with risk of depression. The aim of this study was to examine the association between frequency of fried food consumption and resilience to depression. Participants were 715 Japanese company workers. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) was used to measure depressive symptoms, and the 14-item Resilience Scale (RS-14) was used to measure resilience. Frequency of fish and fried food consumption was assessed using a self-report questionnaire based on the Food Frequency Questionnaire. Regression analyses using Preacher and Hayes' bootstrap script were used to adjust for demographic factors, frequency of physical exercise, and fish consumption. Significant associations were identified between frequency of fried food consumption and total CES-D score (path c, B = 0.72; P food consumption and total RS-14 score (path a, B = -1.73, P food consumption and total CES-D score was not significant when we controlled for RS-14 score. Bootstrapping results showed that there was a significant positive indirect association between frequency of fried food and CESD score through RS-14 (95 % bias-corrected and accelerated confidence interval = 0.34 to 0.92). Frequency of fried food consumption was associated with lower resilience to depression. Further nutritional interventional studies to increase resilience and

  10. The relationship between immigration and depression in South Africa: evidence from the first South African National Income Dynamics Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Andrew; Labys, Charlotte A; Burns, Jonathan K

    2014-12-01

    Few studies have examined depression among immigrants in post-apartheid South Africa, and factors that strengthen the relationship between immigration and depression. The first wave of the National Income Dynamics Study was used to investigate links between immigration and depression (n = 15,205). Depression symptoms were assessed using a 10-item version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) Scale. Immigrants in South Africa had fewer depressive symptoms (CES-D ≥ 10) than locally-born participants (17.1 vs. 32.4%, F = 13.5, p < 0.01). Multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression analyses found that among immigrant populations, younger age (adjusted OR 1.03, 95% CI 1.01-1.05) and black African ethnicity (adjusted OR 3.72, 95% CI 1.29-10.7) were associated with higher depression. Younger age was associated with lower depression among locally-born study participants (adjusted OR 0.98, 95% CI 0.97-0.98). The varying relationship between certain demographic factors, depression and the different mental health challenges among these groups requires closer attention.

  11. Depression in France and Brazil: factorial structure of the 17-item Hamilton Depression Scale in inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleck, Marcelo Pio de Almeida; Chaves, Márcia Lorena Fagundes; Poirier-Littré, Marie France; Bourdel, Marie Chantal; Loo, Henri; Guelfi, Julien Daniel

    2004-02-01

    Among various research strategies for depression, the cross-cultural approach is a useful tool to investigate depressive disorders. The Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression was applied to 130 depressed inpatients in France and Brazil. Items were factorized by principal component analysis with Varimax rotation using the Kaiser or simulation method for factor sorting. Three factors were obtained in France, and four in Brazil. The first factor includes the core symptoms of depression in both samples. Qualitative and quantitative differences appeared in the anxiety factor between Brazilian and French samples. Insomnia items appeared as another factor for both groups. A limitation of this study is that it was conducted with small inpatient samples. Principal component analysis of the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression for depressive inpatients in these two countries showed a similar structure. Differences observed were in the way anxiety items were distributed.

  12. Symptoms of depression and diabetes-specific emotional distress are associated with a negative appraisal of insulin therapy in insulin-naïve patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. A study from the European Depression in Diabetes [EDID] Research Consortium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makine, Ceylan; Karşidağ, C; Kadioğlu, P

    2009-01-01

    -report questionnaire was used to obtain demographic and clinical data. Main instruments were the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, (CES-D), the Problem Areas In Diabetes scale (PAID) and the Insulin Treatment Appraisal Scale (ITAS). RESULTS: Analysis of variance revealed that patients with a higher...... diabetes patients, higher levels of depression and diabetes-distress tend to be associated with more negative beliefs about insulin. Whether these negative attitudes translate into postponing initiation of insulin therapy needs to be tested in longitudinal research....

  13. RELATIONSHIP OF COGNITIVE BEHAVIORAL THERAPY EFFECTS AND HOMEWORK IN AN INDICATED PREVENTION OF DEPRESSION INTERVENTION FOR NON-PROFESSIONAL CAREGIVERS (.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, Patricia; Vázquez, Fernando L; Hermida, Elisabet; Díaz, Olga; Torres, Ángela

    2015-06-01

    Activities designed to be performed outside of the intervention are considered an essential aspect of the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy. However, these have received little attention in interventions aimed at individuals with subclinical depressive symptoms who do not yet meet diagnostic criteria for depression (indicated prevention). In this study, the completion of tasks given as homework and their relationship with post-treatment depressive symptoms was with relation to an indicated prevention of depression intervention. Eighty-nine female non-professional caregivers recruited from an official registry completed an intervention involving 11 homework tasks. Tasks performed were recorded and depressive symptoms were assessed with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Among caregivers, 80.9% completed 9-11 tasks. The number of tasks performed was associated with post-treatment depressive symptoms, with 9 being optimal for clinically significant improvement. These findings highlight the relationship between homework and post-treatment depressive symptoms.

  14. Cognition in type 2 diabetes: Association with vascular risk factors, complications of diabetes and depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iype Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : The role of variables like duration of diabetes, diabetic control and microvascular complications in the causation of cognitive decline in patients with type 2 diabetes is not well studied. The contribution of hypertension to the cognitive decline in nondemented diabetic patients is unclear. Aims: We wanted to see if cognition in patients with type 2 diabetes is associated with the duration of diabetes, control of diabetes, complications of diabetes, vascular risk factors, or depression. We also looked at association of noncompliance with cognition, and depression. Settings and Design: We recruited ambulant patients with type 2 diabetes who are 55 years or more in age from the weekly diabetic clinic. We excluded patients with past history of stroke. Methods and Material: We selected the time taken for the Trial A test, delayed recall on ten-word list from Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer′s Disease (CERAD, Rowland Universal Dementia Assessment Scale (RUDAS and Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (CES-D screening instrument to assess these patients. Statistical Analysis Used: We utilized mean, standard deviation, Chi-square test and Pearson′s correlation for statistical analysis. We considered P < 0.05 to be significant. Results: RUDAS scores inversely correlated ( r = -0.360 with CES-D scores ( P = 0.002. Scores of the screening instrument for depression, the CES-D was associated with the duration of diabetes mellitus ( P = 0.018, fasting blood glucose ( P = 0.029 as well as with 2-hour post prandial blood glucose ( P = 0.017. Conclusions: There is correlation between depression and global cognitive score. Depression seems to be associated with duration of diabetes and control of diabetes.

  15. Rating scales measuring the severity of psychotic depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, S D; Rothschild, A J; Flint, A J

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Unipolar psychotic depression (PD) is a severe and debilitating syndrome, which requires intensive monitoring. The objective of this study was to provide an overview of the rating scales used to assess illness severity in PD. METHOD: Selective review of publications reporting results...... into the following categories: (i) rating scales predominantly covering depressive symptoms, (ii) rating scales predominantly covering psychotic symptoms, (iii) rating scales covering delusions, and (iv) rating scales covering PD. For the vast majority of the scales, the clinical and psychometric validity had...... not been tested empirically. The only exception from this general tendency was the 11-item Psychotic Depression Assessment Scale (PDAS), which was developed specifically to assess the severity of PD. CONCLUSION: In PD, the PDAS represents the only empirically derived rating scale for the measurement...

  16. The Validity of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the Geriatric Depression Scale in Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Mondolo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We assessed the concurrent validity of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS and the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS against the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (Ham-D in patients with Parkinson’ disease (PD. Forty-six non-demented PD patients were assessed by a neurologist on the Ham-D. Patients also completed four mood rating scales: the HADS, the GDS, the VAS and the Face Scale. For the HADS and the GDS, Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC curves were obtained and the positive and negative predictive values (PPV, NPV were calculated for different cut-off scores. Maximum discrimination between depressed and non-depressed PD patients was reached at a cut-off score of 10/11 for both the HADS and the GDS. At the same cut-off score of 10/11 for both the HADS and the GDS, the high sensitivity and NPV make these scales appropriate screening instruments for depression in PD. A high specificity and PPV, which is necessary for a diagnostic test, was reached at a cut-off score of 12/13 for the GDS and at a cut-off score of 11/12 for the HADS. The results indicate the validity of using the HADS and the GDS to screen for depressive symptoms and to diagnose depressive illness in PD.

  17. [Relations between anxious, depressive and borderline symptomatology and frequency of cannabis use and dependence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabrol, H; Duconge, E; Roura, C; Casas, C

    2004-01-01

    The aims of this paper is to study the relations between anxious, depressive and borderline symptomatology and cannabis use and dependence in adolescents and young adults. A convenient sample of 212 subjects composed of high-school and college students from Toulouse, France (85 boys, 127 girls; mean age=18.3 1.8 Years) completed questionnaires assessing the patterns of cannabis use, age of first use, the symptoms of dependence using a questionnaire derived from the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, and the anxious, depressive and borderline symptomatology using the STAI-YA (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory; Spielberger et al., 1970), the CES-D (Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale; Radloff, 1977) and the BPI (Borderline Personality Inventory; Leichsenring, 1999), respectively; 54% of subjects reported having used cannabis once during the last 6 Months (45.3% of girls and 66.6% of boys, p=0.002). Frequency of use was higher in boys: eg, 61% of boys used cannabis at least almost daily versus 31% of girls (pcannabis dependence (p=0.003). BPI, CES-D and STAI-YA scores were compared between non-users and users and between non-dependent and dependent users: the only significant differences were that BPI scores were higher in users versus non-users and in dependent users versus non-dependent users; CES-D and STAI-YA scores did not distinguished users from non-users and dependent users from non-dependent users. BPI and CES-D scores were correlated with the length of cannabis use (Pearson r=0.19 and r=0.19, respectively, pcannabis use, we entered age, sex, CES-D, STAI-YA and BPI scores. This model accounted for 23% of the variance of the frequency of use (F5,206=14.4, pcannabis use given the high proportion of daily users. The consequence may be that responses to mood questionnaire express both the acute effect of cannabis consumption and the chronic effect that might be different: the acute euphoriant effect of cannabis may mask a chronic

  18. Measurement invariance of the depressive symptoms scale during adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Brunet, Jennifer; Sabiston, Catherine M.; Chaiton, Michael; Low, Nancy CP; Contreras, Gisèle; Barnett, Tracie A.,; O’Loughlin, Jennifer L

    2014-01-01

    Background This study examined (1) the factor structure of a depressive symptoms scale (DSS), (2) the sex and longitudinal invariance of the DSS, and (3) the predictive validity of the DSS scale during adolescence in terms of predicting depression and anxiety symptoms in early adulthood. Methods Data were drawn from the Nicotine Dependence in Teens (NDIT) study, an ongoing prospective cohort study of 1,293 adolescents. Results The analytical sample included 527 participants who provided compl...

  19. Oxidative stress, anti-oxidants and the cross-sectional and longitudinal association with depressive symptoms: results from the CARDIA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, C N; Penninx, B W J H; Bot, M; Odegaard, A O; Gross, M D; Matthews, K A; Jacobs, D R

    2016-02-23

    Depression may be accompanied by increased oxidative stress and decreased circulating anti-oxidants. This study examines the association between depressive symptoms, F2-isoprostanes and carotenoids in a US community sample. The study includes 3009 participants (mean age 40.3, 54.2% female) from CARDIA (Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults). Cross-sectional analyses were performed on data from the year 15 examination (2000-2001) including subjects whose depressive symptoms were assessed with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and had measurements of plasma F2-isoprostanes (gas chromatography/mass spectrometry) or serum carotenoids (high-performance liquid chromatography). Carotenoids zeaxanthin/lutein, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, α-carotene, β-carotene were standardized and summed. Longitudinal analyses were conducted using the data from other examinations at 5-year intervals. Cross-lagged analyses investigated whether CES-D predicted F2-isoprostanes or carotenoids at the following exam, and vice versa. Regression analyses were controlled for sociodemographics, health and lifestyle factors. F2-isoprostanes were higher in subjects with depressive symptoms (CES-D ⩾ 16) after adjustment for sociodemographics (55.7 vs 52.0 pg ml(-1); Cohen's d = 0.14, P depression predicts subsequent F2-isoprostane and carotenoid levels. Neither F2-isoprostanes nor carotenoids predicted subsequent depression. In conclusion, depressive symptoms were cross-sectionally and longitudinally associated with increased F2-isoprostanes and decreased carotenoids. The association with F2-isoprostanes can largely be explained by lifestyle factors, but lower carotenoids were independently associated with depressive symptoms.

  20. No relation between folate and homocysteine levels and depression in early pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Hiroko; Suganuma, Nobuhiko; Hayashi, Ayako; Hirowatari, Yumiko; Hirowatari, Tsuneharu; Ohsawa, Masami

    2010-12-01

    The objective in this study was to evaluate the association between folate and homocysteine (Hcy) levels and depressive symptoms in early pregnancy. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 86 pregnant women in the first trimester. A Japanese version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) scale was used to screen for depression. Non-fasting blood samples were collected from the women to measure folate and Hcy levels. Fifty-three (61.6%) women scored at or above a clinical cut-off of 16, and were classified with depression. In logistic regression analyses, no significant associations were observed between the incidence of depression in the first trimester and elevated Hcy and deficiencies of serum folate, folate intake, vitamin B6 intake and vitamin B12 intake. Folate and Hcy concentrations, and folate consumption, may not be protective against depression in early pregnancy.

  1. Validade da escala de depressão do Center for Epidemiological Studies entre idosos brasileiros Validity of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale among Brazilian elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samila Sather Tavares Batistoni

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Obter validade interna, de construto e de critério para a escala Center for Epidemiological Studies - Depression, em idosos. MÉTODOS: O instrumento foi aplicado a 903 idosos residentes em Juiz de Fora, Estado de Minas Gerais, entre os anos de 2002-2003. Os resultados foram comparados com a versão brasileira da Geriatric Depression Scale, aplicado a uma subamostra de 446 respondentes. A consistência interna das duas escalas foi aferida pelo coeficiente alfa de Cronbach, calculado para os itens em sua totalidade e para os itens de cada fator obtido para o instrumento avaliado. Para avaliar a validade de construto, seus 20 itens foram submetidos à análise fatorial exploratória a fim de conhecer o padrão de variação conjunta dos itens e a variância explicada por cada fator. RESULTADOS: O instrumento revelou índices satisfatórios de validade interna (alfa=0,860, sensibilidade (74,6% e especificidade (73,6%, para nota de corte >11. Entretanto, apontou freqüência relativamente alta de falsos positivos em comparação à Geriatric Depression Scale: de 33,8% vs. 15%. A análise fatorial exploratória do instrumento gerou estrutura fatorial com três fatores: afetos negativos, dificuldades de iniciar comportamentos e afetos positivos. CONCLUSÕES: O instrumento mostrou-se psicometricamente adequado para uso entre idosos. Entretanto, estudos adicionais de natureza longitudinal e transversal, desenvolvidos em diferentes contextos, poderão esclarecer os efeitos de variáveis somáticas e situacionais sobre os resultados desse instrumento em pessoas idosas.OBJECTIVE: To obtain internal construct and criteria validity for the Center of Epidemiological Studies - Depression scale in elderly people. METHODS: The instrument was applied to 903 elderly living in a city in southeastern Brazil, between 2002 and 2003. Results were compared with the Brazilian version of the CES-D applied to a sub-sample of 446 participants. Internal consistency

  2. The association of Internet addiction symptoms with anxiety, depression and self-esteem among adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Cheng-Fang; Chou, Wen-Jiun; Liu, Tai-Ling; Yang, Pinchen; Hu, Huei-Fan

    2014-10-01

    The aims of this study were to examine the associations of the severity of Internet addiction symptoms with various dimensions of anxiety (physical anxiety symptoms, harm avoidance, social anxiety, and separation/panic) and depression symptoms (depressed affect, somatic symptoms, interpersonal problems, and positive affect) and self-esteem among adolescents diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in Taiwan. A total of 287 adolescents aged between 11 and 18 years who had been diagnosed with ADHD participated in this study. Their severity of Internet addiction symptoms was assessed using the Chen Internet Addiction Scale. Anxiety and depression symptoms and self-esteem were assessed using the Taiwanese version of the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC-T), the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), respectively. The association between the severity of Internet addiction symptoms and anxiety and depression symptoms and self-esteem were examined using multiple regression analyses. The results indicated that higher physical symptoms and lower harm avoidance scores on the MASC-T, higher somatic discomfort/retarded activity scores on the CES-D, and lower self-esteem scores on the RSES were significantly associated with more severe Internet addiction symptoms. Prevention and intervention programs for Internet addiction in adolescents with ADHD should take anxiety, depression, and self-esteem into consideration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Prevalence and correlates of depression among college nursing students in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ying; Chi, Xinli; Chen, Shaofeng; Qi, Juan; Zhang, Pide; Yang, Yi

    2014-06-01

    This study aims to assess the prevalence of depression and examine potential risk factors correlated to depression among nursing college students in China. Between September and November 2012, a total of 763 college nursing students were randomly selected to participate in a survey, which included the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). The result showed that 22.9% (95% CI: 20.0%-25.9%) of participants reported high score on the CES-D (16 or above). Risk factors significantly associated with depression in the univariate analysis were academic performance, academic stress, interest in majors, occupational future, interpersonal relationship, frequency of exercise, self-reported health status, social support, educational level of father, relationship with parents and making decisions without interference by parents. Backward multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that lower academic stress, and better occupational future were strongly related to lower risk of depression, followed by active use of social support, full making decision power, better relationship with father and higher self-reported health status. The findings suggested that in order to prevent depression among college nursing students, school- and family-based strategies should be developed and implemented.

  4. Association between depression, patient scar assessment and burn-specific health in hospitalized burn patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Young Sook; Chung, Hyun Soo; Kwon, Boeun; Kim, Giyon

    2012-06-01

    Depression is one of the most common psychological problems arising after a burn, but its relationship with patient scar assessment and burn-specific health are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to identify the incidence of in-hospital symptoms of depression, compare level of patient scar assessment, and burn-specific health by depression cutoff point, and identify the relationship between depression and these variables. In a cross-sectional descriptive study, 113 burn patients from two inpatient burn centers were divided into two groups based on the cutoff point of the Korean Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (Korean CES-D): ≥25 or Patient Scar Assessment Scale and Korean Burn-Specific Health Scale-Brief (BSHS-B-K) were used to identify associations with depression. Incidence of severe, definite depression as assessed by a score of 25 or above on the Korean CES-D was approximately 50% on an average at 60.9 days after injury. Burn patients with the Korean CES-D≥25 had significantly higher total mean patient scar assessment scores (43.34±11.49 vs. 36.84±9.56, t=3.265, p=.001), and lower burn-specific health subscale scores compared to patients with Korean CES-DPatient Scar Assessment, ranging from r=.196 to .335 except scar color. Depression was significantly correlated with all subscales of the BSHS-B-K, range from r=-.320 to -.725. Results indicate that incidence of symptoms of depression is relatively high, and depressed burn patients report worse burn scar or sensation and lower levels of burn-specific health. Early, timely recognition and management of depression in these patients are warranted. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  5. Characteristics of depression in Parkinson's disease: evaluating with Zung's Self-Rating Depression Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, Fumio; Oishi, Kenichi; Sekiguchi, Kenji; Kuga, Atsushi; Kobessho, Hiroshi; Shirafuji, Toshihiko; Higuchi, Masatsugu; Ishihara, Hiroyuki

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to elucidate characteristics of depression in Parkinson's disease (PD). Fifty-eight PD patients were evaluated with Zung's Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) and the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS). Scores for "suicidal ideation" on the SDS correlated with posture and gait disturbances on the UPDRS. Twenty-six patients with spinocerebellar degeneration (SCD) were also evaluated with the SDS. SDS scores for "indecisiveness" and "constipation" were significantly higher in PD patients than SCD patients. Our results suggest that depression is common in disabled persons but PD patients might have a characteristic clinical presentation.

  6. The Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale: Psychometric Properties in Depressed Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Gregory M.; Park, Jong-Hyo; Essex, Marilyn J.; Klein, Marjorie H.; Silva, Susan G.; Hoyle, Rick H.; Curry, John F.; Feeny, Norah C.; Kennard, Betsy; Kratochvil, Christopher J.; Pathak, Sanjeev; Reinecke, Mark A.; Rosenberg, David R.; Weller, Elizabeth B.; March, John S.

    2009-01-01

    The psychometric properties and factor structure of the Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale were examined in a sample of 422 male and female adolescents (ages 12-17) with current major depressive disorder. The scale demonstrated high internal consistency ([alpha] = 0.93) and correlated significantly with self-report and interview-based measures of…

  7. Rasch Analysis of the Geriatric Depression Scale--Short Form

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Karl S.; Green, Kathy E.; Cox, Enid O.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine scale dimensionality, reliability, invariance, targeting, continuity, cutoff scores, and diagnostic use of the Geriatric Depression Scale-Short Form (GDS-SF) over time with a sample of 177 English-speaking U.S. elders. Design and Methods: An item response theory, Rasch analysis, was conducted with…

  8. Rasch Analysis of the Geriatric Depression Scale--Short Form

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Karl S.; Green, Kathy E.; Cox, Enid O.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine scale dimensionality, reliability, invariance, targeting, continuity, cutoff scores, and diagnostic use of the Geriatric Depression Scale-Short Form (GDS-SF) over time with a sample of 177 English-speaking U.S. elders. Design and Methods: An item response theory, Rasch analysis, was conducted with…

  9. Shared genetic factors in migraine and depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stam, A H.; de Vries, B; Janssens, A C.J.W.; Vanmolkot, K R.J.; Aulchenko, Y S.; Henneman, P; Oostra, B A.; Frants, R R.; van den Maagdenberg, A M.J.M.; Ferrari, M D.; van Duijn, C M.; Terwindt, G M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the co-occurrence of migraine and depression and assess whether shared genetic factors may underlie both diseases. Methods: Subjects were 2,652 participants of the Erasmus Rucphen Family genetic isolate study. Migraine was diagnosed using a validated 3-stage screening method that included a telephone interview. Symptoms of depression were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale and the depression subscale of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-D). The contribution of shared genetic factors in migraine and depression was investigated by comparing heritability estimates for migraine with and without adjustment for symptoms of depression, and by comparing the heritability scores of depression between migraineurs and controls. Results: We identified 360 migraine cases: 209 had migraine without aura (MO) and 151 had migraine with aura (MA). Odds ratios for depression in patients with migraine were 1.29 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.98–1.70) for MO and 1.70 (95% CI 1.28–2.24) for MA. Heritability estimates were significant for all migraine (0.56), MO (0.77), and MA (0.96), and decreased after adjustment for symptoms of depression or use of antidepressant medication, in particular for MA. Comparison of the heritability scores for depression between patients with migraine and controls showed a genetic correlation between HADS-D score and MA. Conclusions: There is a bidirectional association between depression and migraine, in particular migraine with aura, which can be explained, at least partly, by shared genetic factors. GLOSSARY CES-D = Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale; CI = confidence interval; ERF = Erasmus Rucphen Family; HADS-D = Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; IHS = International Headache Society; MA = migraine with aura; MO = migraine without aura; OR = odds ratio. PMID:20071666

  10. Amyloid-associated Depression: A Prodromal Depression of Alzheimer’s disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was designed to characterize plasma Abeta40/Abeta42 ratio and cognitive function in the elderly with and without depression.We evaluated 995 homebound elders in a cross-sectional study. Subjects were defined as depressed if they had a Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D)...

  11. Attitude scale and general health questionnaire subscales predict depression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Amrollah; Afshar, Hamid; Doost, Hamid Taher Neshat; Mousavi, Seyed Ghafur; Moolavi, Hoseyn

    2012-01-01

    According to Beck theory, dysfunctional attitude has a central role in emergence of depression. The aim of this study was to determine contributions of dysfunctional attitude and general health index to depression. In this case-control study, two groups of subjects participated. The first group consisted of 65 patients with major depression and dysthymic disorder, who were recruited from Noor and Navab Safavi Psychiatry Clinics in Isfahan. The control group was consisted of 65 non-patient individuals who were accompanied or relatives of the patients and was matched with them based on age, sex and education. Both groups completed 26-item Dysfunctional Attitude Scale (DAS-26) and 28-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28). Logistic regression and correlation methods were applied for statistical analysis. Logistic regression analysis showed that by an increase of one level in categorized DAS-26 scores and one score in the physical symptoms, anxiety, social dysfunction and depression subscales of GHQ-28 the risk of depression increase by 6.8, 1.6, 1.9, 3.7, 4.78 times, respectively. Capability of dysfunctional attitude and general health subscales to predict depression supports the Beck's cognitive diathesis stress theory of depression that dysfunctional attitude may be a predisposing risk factor for depression.

  12. Does alleviating poverty affect mothers' depressive symptoms? A quasi-experimental investigation of Mexico's Oportunidades programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, Emily J; Fernald, Lia C H; Weber, Ann; Flynn, Emily P; VanderWeele, Tyler J

    2011-12-01

    Depression is a major cause of disability, particularly among women; poverty heightens the risk for depression. Beyond its direct effects, maternal depression can harm children's health and development. This study aimed to assess the effects of a large-scale anti-poverty programme in Mexico (Oportunidades) on maternal depressive symptoms. In 2003, 5050 women living in rural communities who had participated in Oportunidades since its inception were assessed and compared with a group of 1293 women from matched communities, whose families had received no exposure to Oportunidades at the time of assessment but were later enrolled. Self-reported depressive symptoms were measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Ordinary least squares regressions were used to evaluate the treatment effect of programme participation on depression while adjusting for covariates and clustering at the community level. Women in the treatment group had lower depressive symptoms than those in the comparison group (unadjusted mean CES-D scores: 16.9 ± 9.8 vs 18.6 ± 10.2). In multivariable analyses, programme participation was associated with lower depression whilst controlling for maternal age, education and household demographic, ethnicity and socio-economic variables [β= -1.7 points, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) -2.46 to -0.96, P Oportunidades did not target maternal mental health directly, we found modest but clinically meaningful effects on depressive symptoms. Our design permits stronger causal inference than observational studies that have linked poverty and depressive symptoms. Our results emphasize that the well-being of individuals is responsive to macro-level economic policies and programmes.

  13. Inpatients with major depressive disorder: Psychometric properties of the new Multidimensional Depression Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darharaj, Mohammad; Habibi, Mojtaba; Power, Michael J; Farzadian, Farzaneh; Rahimi, Maesoumeh; Kholghi, Habibeh; Kazemitabar, Maryam

    2016-12-01

    The New Multi-dimensional Depression Scale (NMDS) is one of the most comprehensive scales that measures depression symptoms in four domains, including emotional, cognitive, somatic, and interpersonal. This study aimed to evaluate the factor structure and psychometric properties of the NMDS in a group of Iranian inpatients with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). At first, the scale was translated into Persian and used as part of a battery consisting of the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), Oxford Happiness Inventory (OHI), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and Short Form Health Survey (SF-36). The battery was administered to 271 inpatients with MDD (90 men and 181 women) aged from 18 to 60 who had been referred to psychiatric hospitals in Tehran, Iran. Confirmatory factor analysis of the Persian version of the NMDS upheld its original four-factor structure. Moreover, the results showed its good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha coefficient ranging from 0.70 for the emotional subscale to 0.83 for the interpersonal subscale). In addition, the NMDS scores were correlated with other constructs in empirically and theoretically expected ways, which provides evidence for the convergent (positive significant relationships with anxiety and cognitive and somatic-affective symptoms of depression) and divergent (negative significant relationships with happiness and mental health and physical health) validity of the scale. These findings supported the Persian version of the NMDS as a reliable and valid measure for the assessment of depression symptoms in patients with MDD.

  14. Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS: A Tool for Assessment of Depression in Elderly

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    Vandana A. Kakrani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: India is in the process of rapid demographic progression of increased life expectancy and aging with geriatric population of 7.2 percent which is estimated to rise to 20 percent in 2050. With increasing geriatric population elderly with dementia and associated depressive illness are expected to rise in number to almost an epidemic. Among the morbidity encountered in elderly, depressive disorders are common. Aim & Objectives: The present study was conducted with the objective to assess the extent and degree of depression in elderly, and study some correlates associated with depression in them. Material & Methods: The study was carried out at geriatric clinic of Dr. D. Y. Patil Medical College, Pune under the guidance of department of community medicine. Methodology:The randomly selected elderly above the age of 60 years attending the clinic and willing to participate in study were administered the questionnaire of Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS, scores were given, based on which the subjects were categorized as mild, moderate and severe. Those with score >5 were considered as suggestive of depression and some factors studied were analysed to find out their association with depression. Results: It was revealed that the proportion of elderly having depression was 52.4% with 84.6% of depressed in age group of 76-80 years. Moderate to severe type was more commonly seen in illiterate; however some degree of depression was present in all elderly irrespective of literacy status. Moderate to severe type was seen more commonly in elderly living in nuclear families (23.8%, and living alone (33.3%. Thus more than half of elderly studied were having depression, and it was observed that as the age advanced the degree of depression significantly increased. Some of the factors studied like low education status, poor economic status, nuclear family status, single status, loneliness, were associated with depression. The GDS Scale can be considered as

  15. Depressive symptoms and inductive reasoning performance: findings from the ACTIVE reasoning training intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisi, Jeanine M; Franchetti, Mary Kathryn; Rebok, George W; Spira, Adam P; Carlson, Michelle C; Willis, Sherry L; Gross, Alden L

    2014-12-01

    Within the context of the Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly study (ACTIVE; Ball et al., 2002; Jobe et al., 2001; Willis et al., 2006), we examined the longitudinal association of baseline depressive symptoms on inductive reasoning performance over a 10-year period between the reasoning training and control conditions (N = 1,375). At baseline, 322 participants (23%) reported elevated depressive symptoms, defined by a score ≥9 on the 12-item version of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D; Mirowsky & Ross, 2003; Radloff, 1977). Differences in baseline depressive status were not associated with immediate posttraining gains or with subsequent annual change in reasoning performance, suggesting that the presence of elevated baseline depressive symptoms does not impact the ability to benefit from reasoning training.

  16. Depression and posttraumatic stress disorder among HIV-infected Gambians on antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Kevin; Togun, Toyin; Klis, Sandor; Menten, Joris; Colebunders, Robert

    2012-10-01

    Mood disorders are more frequent among people with HIV infection than among non-HIV-infected individuals of the same age, socioeconomic status, and HIV risks. They have been associated with worse adherence and clinical outcomes, yet remain underdiagnosed and undertreated in sub-Saharan Africa. We explored the relationship between mood disorders using the 10-item depression scale of the Centers for Epidemiological Studies (CES-D10) and the 22-item Impact of Events Scale-Revised (IES-R) for posttraumatic stress disorder, and a range of demographic and HIV-related variables among 252 consecutive subjects on antiretroviral therapy (ART). The study was conducted in the Genito-Urinary Medicine Clinic of the Medical Research Council's Gambia Unit. These screening tests were positive in 7% and 30%, respectively, of the patients, with higher scores (more depression or more post-traumatic stress) associated with female gender, more advanced WHO clinical stage, and lower Karnofsky Perfomance Scale rating. Higher CES-D10 scores were also seen among those on their second ART regimen. No relationship was seen with age, time on ART, viral load, or CD4 cell count. Compared to an earlier study at the same site in subjects prior to starting ART, the prevalence of depression in those stabilized on ART was dramatically reduced (by 34%, from 41%) while that of PTSD dropped less (by 13%, from 43%). Integrating the CES-D10 or a similar instrument into patient preparation for ART is recommended in order to identify those who may benefit from further mental health investigations, specific therapy, or closer follow-up during early ART.

  17. Relationships Among Performance Anxiety, Agari Experience, and Depressive Tendencies in Japanese Music Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannai, Kurara; Kase, Takayoshi; Endo, Shintaro; Oishi, Kazou

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships among anxiety prior to actual performance (music performance anxiety, MPA), mental and physical negative responses during performance (agari), and depressive tendencies in Japanese college students majoring in music. Participants were 171 music majors (33 males, 138 females, 20.6±1.7 yrs). They rated the degree of self-perceived MPA before their performance on a scale ranging from 0-100%. The Features of Agari Experience Questionnaire was used to assess agari response levels during standard performances, and the Japanese version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CESD) was used to measure depressive tendencies. Path analysis showed that MPA levels were positively related to agari scores, which were positively related to CES-D scores. Mediation analysis found a significant indirect effect of MPA scores on CES-D scores via the agari scores. These results suggest that MPA first occurs before an actual music performance and evokes agari, which in turn may cause an increase in depressive tendencies.

  18. Discriminant possibilities of the Hamilton depression scale: ROC analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novović Zdenka

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to compare discrimination power of original and reconstructed version of Hamilton’s depression scale in separation of depressive vs. anxious patients and to suggest some possibilities which offer ROC analysis. The subjects of the study were 119 patients of Psychiatric clinic in Novi Sad. 67 of them were diagnosed with some of the forms of affective disorders and 52 with an anxious-phobic diagnosis. Results of ROC analysis suggest that both instruments can be used in distinguishing depressive from anxious patients, but reconstructed version shows greater sensitivity and specificity with optimal cut-off score. It also has more significant AUC, which refers to probability of prediction on the basis of the whole spectrum of the results. These data is commented in relation with current debates, between unitaristic and pluralistic oriented authors, about the nature of the anxious-depression relationship.

  19. The Hamilton depression scale. Evaluation of objectivity using logistic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bech, P; Allerup, P; Gram, L F; Reisby, N; Rosenberg, R; Jacobsen, O; Nagy, A

    1981-03-01

    The consistency of the Hamilton Depression Scale (HDS) as a measure of the severity of depressive states has been examined when the scale was used weekly during a trial when imipramine. By use of logistic models (Rasch) the consistency of the HDS has been considered across patient-variables as age, sex, plasma levels of imipramine, and diagnosis. The results showed that the original 17-item HDS was without adequate consistency, i.e. the total score of the sample of items was no one-dimensional measure of depressive states. However, a melancholia subscale of the HDS contained items the total of which can be used to compare patients quantitatively, although in some part of the analysis one of these items showed ceiling effect. It was concluded that the melancholia subscale (containing the items depressed mood, guilt, work and interests, retardation, psychic anxiety, and general somatic symptoms) can form the basis for further improvements in the field of quantitative rating scales for depressive states.

  20. Biomarkers of systemic inflammation and depression and fatigue in moderate clinically stable COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Dave

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction COPD is an inflammatory disease with major co-morbidities. It has recently been suggested that depression may be the result of systemic inflammation. We aimed to explore the association between systemic inflammation and symptoms of depression and fatigue in patients with mainly moderate and clinically stable COPD using a range of inflammatory biomarkers, 2 depression and 2 fatigue scales. Method We assessed 120 patients with moderate COPD (FEV1% 52, men 62%, age 66. Depression was assessed using the BASDEC and CES-D scales. Fatigue was assessed using the Manchester COPD-fatigue scale (MCFS and the Borg scale before and after 6MWT. We measured systemic TNF-α, CRP, TNF-α-R1, TNF-α-R2 and IL-6. Results A multivariate linear model of all biomarkers showed that TNF-α only had a positive correlation with BASDEC depression score (p = 0.007. TNF-α remained positively correlated with depression (p = 0.024 after further adjusting for TNF-α-R1, TNF-α-R2, 6MWD, FEV1%, and pack-years. Even after adding the MCFS score, body mass and body composition to the model TNF-α was still associated with the BASDEC score (p = 0.044. Furthermore, patients with higher TNF-α level (> 3 pg/ml, n = 7 had higher mean CES-D depression score than the rest of the sample (p = 0.03. Borg fatigue score at baseline were weakly correlated with TNF-α and CRP, and with TNF-α only after 6MWT. Patients with higher TNF-α had more fatigue after 6MWD (p = 0.054. Conclusion This study indicates a possible association between TNF-α and two frequent and major co-morbidities in COPD; i.e., depression and fatigue.

  1. Mokken scaling analysis of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale in individuals with cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosco, Theodore D; Doyle, Frank; Watson, Roger; Ward, Mark; McGee, Hannah

    2012-01-01

    The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) is a prolifically used scale of anxiety and depression. The original bidimensional anxiety-depression latent structure of the HADS has come under significant scrutiny, with previous studies revealing one-, two-, three- and four-dimensional structures. The current study examines the latent structure of the HADS using a non-parametric item response theory method. Using data conglomerated from four independent studies of cardiovascular disease employing the HADS (n=893), Mokken scaling procedure was conducted to assess the latent structure of the HADS. A single scale consisting of 12 of 14 HADS items was revealed, indicating a unidimensional latent HADS structure. The HADS was initially intended to measure mutually exclusive levels of anxiety and depression; however, the current study indicates that a single dimension of general psychological distress is captured. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A Reliability Generalization Study of the Geriatric Depression Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieffer, Kevin M.; Reese, Robert J.

    2002-01-01

    Conducted a reliability generalization study of the Geriatric Depression Scale (T. Brink and others, 1982). Results from this investigation of 338 studies shows that the average score reliability across studies was 0.8482 and identifies the most important predictors of score reliability. (SLD)

  3. Does alleviating poverty affect mothers’ depressive symptoms? A quasi-experimental investigation of Mexico’s Oportunidades programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, Emily J; Fernald, Lia CH; Weber, Ann; Flynn, Emily P; VanderWeele, Tyler J

    2011-01-01

    Background Depression is a major cause of disability, particularly among women; poverty heightens the risk for depression. Beyond its direct effects, maternal depression can harm children’s health and development. This study aimed to assess the effects of a large-scale anti-poverty programme in Mexico (Oportunidades) on maternal depressive symptoms. Methods In 2003, 5050 women living in rural communities who had participated in Oportunidades since its inception were assessed and compared with a group of 1293 women from matched communities, whose families had received no exposure to Oportunidades at the time of assessment but were later enrolled. Self-reported depressive symptoms were measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Ordinary least squares regressions were used to evaluate the treatment effect of programme participation on depression while adjusting for covariates and clustering at the community level. Results Women in the treatment group had lower depressive symptoms than those in the comparison group (unadjusted mean CES-D scores: 16.9 ± 9.8 vs 18.6 ± 10.2). In multivariable analyses, programme participation was associated with lower depression whilst controlling for maternal age, education and household demographic, ethnicity and socio-economic variables [β = −1.7 points, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) −2.46 to −0.96, P Oportunidades did not target maternal mental health directly, we found modest but clinically meaningful effects on depressive symptoms. Our design permits stronger causal inference than observational studies that have linked poverty and depressive symptoms. Our results emphasize that the well-being of individuals is responsive to macro-level economic policies and programmes. PMID:21737404

  4. Impacts of Child Development Accounts on maternal depressive symptoms: evidence from a randomized statewide policy experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jin; Sherraden, Michael; Purnell, Jason Q

    2014-07-01

    This study examines the impact of Child Development Accounts (CDAs)-asset-building accounts created for children at birth-on the depressive symptoms of mothers in a statewide randomized experiment conducted in the United States. The experiment identified the primary caregivers of children born in Oklahoma during 2007, and 2704 of the caregivers completed a baseline interview before random assignment to the treatment (n = 1358) or the control group (n = 1346). To treatment participants, the experiment offered CDAs built on the existing Oklahoma 529 College Savings Plan. The baseline and follow-up surveys measured the participants' depressive symptoms with a shortened version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). In models that control for baseline CES-D scores, the mean follow-up score of treatment mothers is .17 lower than that of control mothers (p psychological well-being. Findings also suggest that CDAs' impacts on maternal depressive symptoms may be partially mediated through children's social-emotional development.

  5. DEPRESSION AND FUNCTIONING IN RELATION TO HEALTH CARE USE IN SICKLE CELL DISEASE1,2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Merida M.; Gil, Karen M.; Floyd, Marnita Y.; Abrams, Mary

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to investigate depression and health care use in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD). Forty-four adults with SCD were interviewed and data from 43 participants, both with (n = 11) and without (n = 32) depression, were used for further analyses. Data from one potential subject were excluded on the basis of diagnosis. The full evaluation included the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R Disorders (SCID) and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies–Depression Scale (CES-D), as well as measures of psychosocial and behavioral functioning. Good between-instrument agreement was found between the self-report and interview-based measures of depression. However, the functioning data did not entirely support the use of a more stringent cutoff score on the CES-D. Findings suggest that the purpose of the evaluation should be factored into the decision-making process when determining which cutoff score should be utilized (i.e. what is the cost–benefit ratio for false-positives vs. false-negatives). A series of hierarchical regression analyses supported the finding that disease severity alone does not explain the level of functioning displayed by patients. More importantly, the patient’s perceived functioning was the best indicator of health care use within a 1-year period. Furthermore, specific interventions that target negative thinking and distorted cognitions, as well as provide psychoeducation, such as cognitive–behavioral therapy, need to be further explored within this population. PMID:10962708

  6. Depression and functioning in relation to health care use in sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, M M; Gil, K M; Floyd, M Y; Abrams, M

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to investigate depression and health care use in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD). Forty-four adults with SCD were interviewed and data from 43 participants, both with (n = 11) and without (n = 32) depression, were used for further analyses. Data from one potential subject were excluded on the basis of diagnosis. The full evaluation included the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R Disorders (SCID) and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies--Depression Scale (CES-D), as well as measures of psychosocial and behavioral functioning. Good between-instrument agreement was found between the self-report and interview-based measures of depression. However, the functioning data did not entirely support the use of a more stringent cutoff score on the CES-D. Findings suggest that the purpose of the evaluation should be factored into the decision-making process when determining which cutoff score should be utilized (i.e. what is the cost-benefit ratio for false-positives vs. false-negatives). A series of hierarchical regression analyses supported the finding that disease severity alone does not explain the level of functioning displayed by patients. More importantly, the patient's perceived functioning was the best indicator of health care use within a 1-year period. Furthermore, specific interventions that target negative thinking and distorted cognitions, as well as provide psychoeducation, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy, need to be further explored within this population.

  7. A systematically tested intervention for managing reactive depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Carol E; Leenerts, Mary Hobbs; Gajewski, Byron J

    2003-01-01

    Patients and family caregivers repeatedly experience reactive depression that leads to medication errors, mismanagement of chronic disease, and poor self-care. These problems place them at high-risk for malnutrition, infection, heart diseases, and psychiatric sequelae. A secondary data analysis compared findings across a series of studies to evaluate the acceptability, effectiveness, and cost of a therapeutic writing intervention to reduce reactive depression, a common and frequently recurring adverse symptom. Secondary analysis of data from the series of studies was conducted. Data came from patients requiring lifelong, daily central intravenous catheter infusion of home total parenteral nutrition necessitated by nonmalignant bowel disease and their family caregivers who assist with this complex home care. Variables combined across the studies were pre- and postintervention scores from the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D), the number of weeks patients wrote in their diaries (adherence), and the written content in the diaries. Content analysis was used to analyze written data. The intervention materials and nurses' time spent were averaged across studies to determine costs. The weighted average baseline CES-D scores across studies for patients (17.94) and caregivers (15.75) showed the presence of depression. After journal writing had been used for an average of 10.4 weeks across studies, the effect sizes of the between (d =.27) and within (d =.65) patient group scores indicated moderate to large improvement in depression. Themes from written diaries showed that missing out on activities, financial worries, strain related to the severe illness, and the complexity of home care were related to depression across the studies. The intervention was acceptable to participants, effective for managing reactive depression, and low in cost. The next steps will address testing for the longitudinal effects of the intervention.

  8. Exploratory Study of the Diagnostic Abilities of the Baptista Depression Scale Adult Version (EBADEP-A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makilim Nunes Baptista

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study’s objective was to analyze the diagnostic capabilities of a depression screening scale. For that, this scale was administered along with two diagnostic instruments, namely, the structured clinical interview from the DSM-IV (SCID-CV and the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D, which are considered to be the gold standard for diagnosing depressive disorders. Participants were 22 subjects diagnosed by psychiatrists with Major Depressive Disorder. The EBADEP-A correctly identified cases of depression, showing a high correlation with the HAM-D, which indicates the scale correctly captures most depressive symptoms, even though it was initially used as a depression-screening tool.

  9. An e-mail delivered CBT for sleep-health program for college students: effects on sleep quality and depression symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trockel, Mickey; Manber, Rachel; Chang, Vickie; Thurston, Alexandra; Taylor, Craig Barr; Tailor, Craig Barr

    2011-06-15

    We examined the effects of a cognitive behavioral self-help program (Refresh) to improve sleep, on sleep quality and symptoms of depression among first-year college students. Students in one residence hall (n = 48) participated in Refresh and students in another residence hall (n = 53) participated in a program of equal length (Breathe) designed to improve mood and increase resilience to stress. Both programs were delivered by e-mail in 8 weekly PDF files. Of these, 19 Refresh program participants and 15 Breathe program participants reported poor sleep quality at baseline (scores ≥ 5 on the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index [PSQI]). Participants completed the PSQI and the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D) at baseline and post-intervention. Among students with poor sleep (PSQI > 5) at baseline, participation in Refresh was associated with greater improvements in sleep quality and greater reduction in depressive symptoms than participation in Breathe. Among students with high sleep quality at baseline there was no difference in baseline to post-intervention changes in sleep (PSQI) or depressive symptom severity (CES-D). A cognitive behavioral sleep improvement program delivered by e-mail may be a cost effective way for students with poor sleep quality to improve their sleep and reduce depressive symptoms. An important remaining question is whether improving sleep will also reduce risk for future depression.

  10. [Relationship between depressive symptoms, hopelessness and suicidal ideation among 1547 high school students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabrol, H; Choquet, M

    2009-10-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the incidence of depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation, and to test the mediating role of hopelessness between depressive symptoms and the wish to kill oneself. A random sample of 1547 high school students from the department of Haute-Garonne, France, (854 girls, mean age=16.9+/-1.5; 693 boys, mean age=17.4+/-1.5) completed a questionnaire assessing cannabis use, the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D) completed by the three items subscale measuring suicidal ideation proposed by Garrison et al. (1991) ("I felt life was not worth living"; "I felt like hurting myself"; "I felt like killing myself"). The measure of hopelessness was based on a single item, "I felt life was not worth living". At least occasional wish to kill oneself were reported by 13% of boys and 14% of girls (NS). The mean CES-D score for girls was significantly higher than for boys (20.3+/-10.7 versus 16.7+/-9.9; pdepressive symptomatology (phopelessness as mediator between depressive symptoms and the wish to kill oneself, multiple regression analyses were performed separately by gender. To establish mediation, three regression equations should be estimated and the four following conditions must hold: First, the independent variable (CES-D scores) must affect the mediator in the first equation; second, the independent variable must affect the dependent variable (the wish to kill oneself) in the second equation; third, the mediator must affect the dependent variable in the third equation regressing the dependent variable on both the independent variable and on the mediator; fourth, the effect of the independent variable on the dependent variable must be less in the third equation than in the second. Among girls, in the first equation, CES-D score explained 35% of the variance of hopelessness (beta=0.59, t=21.5, phopelessness scores explained 32% of the variance in the wish to kill oneself. Hopelessness was the main predictor (beta=0

  11. Endothelial dysfunction is associated with a greater depressive symptom score in a general elderly population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Sloten, T T; Schram, Miranda T; Adriaanse, M C

    2014-01-01

    , in a population-based cohort study, the association between ED, LGI and OxS on the one hand and depressive symptoms on the other. METHOD: We used data from the Hoorn Study and determined biomarkers of ED [flow-mediated dilatation (FMD), von Willebrand factor, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1...... were quantified by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) questionnaire (n = 493; age 68 years; 49.9% female). Regression analyses were performed with the use of biomarker Z scores. Adjustments were made for age, sex and glucose metabolism status (cohort stratification variables...... of circulating biomarkers and FMD, was independently associated with depressive symptoms. This study supports the hypothesis that ED plays an important role in the pathobiology of depression....

  12. Correlates of Psychological Distress and Major Depressive Disorder Among African American Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Karen D; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Watkins, Daphne C; Chatters, Linda M

    2011-05-01

    This study examines the demographic correlates of depressive symptoms, serious psychological distress (SPD), and major depressive disorder (MDD; 12-month and lifetime prevalence) among a national sample of African American men. Analysis of the National Survey of American Life (NSAL) data set provides first-time substantiation of important demographic differences in depressive symptoms (measured by the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale [CES-D]), SPD (measured by the K6), and 12-month and lifetime MDD among African American men. Findings illuminate the heterogeneity within the African American male population. Findings also demonstrate the need for additional research focusing on within-group differences and a comprehensive research and mental health promotion agenda that recognizes the importance of improving access to education and employment and promoting healthy coping behaviors, while acknowledging the larger social context in which African American men live.

  13. Assessing depression related severity and functional impairment: the Overall Depression Severity and Impairment Scale (ODSIS.

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    Masaya Ito

    Full Text Available The Overall Depression Severity and Impairment Scale (ODSIS is a brief, five-item measure for assessing the frequency and intensity of depressive symptoms, as well as functional impairments in pleasurable activities, work or school, and interpersonal relationships due to depression. Although this scale is expected to be useful in various psychiatric and mental health settings, the reliability, validity, and interpretability have not yet been fully examined. This study was designed to examine the reliability, factorial, convergent, and discriminant validity of a Japanese version of the ODSIS, as well as its ability to distinguish between individuals with and without a major depressive disorder diagnosis.From a pool of registrants at an internet survey company, 2830 non-clinical and clinical participants were selected randomly (619 with major depressive disorder, 619 with panic disorder, 576 with social anxiety disorder, 645 with obsessive-compulsive disorder, and 371 non-clinical panelists. Participants were asked to respond to the ODSIS and conventional measures of depression, functional impairment, anxiety, neuroticism, satisfaction with life, and emotion regulation.Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis of three split subsamples indicated the unidimensional factor structure of ODSIS. Multi-group confirmatory factor analysis showed invariance of factor loadings between non-clinical and clinical subsamples. The ODSIS also showed excellent internal consistency and test-retest intraclass correlation coefficients. Convergence and discriminance of the ODSIS with various measures were in line with our expectations. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses showed that the ODSIS was able to detect a major depressive syndrome accurately.This study supports the reliability and validity of ODSIS in a non-western population, which can be interpreted as demonstrating cross-cultural validity.

  14. Measuring Depression Over Time . . . or not? : Lack of Unidimensionality and Longitudinal Measurement Invariance in Four Common Rating Scales of Depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fried, Eiko I.; van Borkulo, Claudia D.; Epskamp, Sacha; Schoevers, Robert A.; Tuerlinckx, Francis; Borsboom, Denny

    2016-01-01

    In depression research, symptoms are routinely assessed via rating scales and added to construct sum-scores. These scores are used as a proxy for depression severity in cross-sectional research, and differences in sum-scores over time are taken to reflect changes in an underlying depression construc

  15. Measuring depression over time . . . Or not? : Lack of unidimensionality and longitudinal measurement invariance in four common rating scales of depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fried, E.I.; van Borkulo, C.D.; Epskamp, S.; Schoevers, R.A.; Tuerlinckx, F.; Borsboom, D.

    2016-01-01

    In depression research, symptoms are routinely assessed via rating scales and added to construct sum-scores. These scores are used as a proxy for depression severity in cross-sectional research, and differences in sum-scores over time are taken to reflect changes in an underlying depression construc

  16. Measuring Depression Over Time ... or not? Lack of Unidimensionality and Longitudinal Measurement Invariance in Four Common Rating Scales of Depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fried, Eiko I.; van Borkulo, Claudia D.; Epskamp, Sacha; Schoevers, Robert A.; Tuerlinckx, Francis; Borsboom, Denny

    2016-01-01

    In depression research, symptoms are routinely assessed via rating scales and added to construct sum-scores. These scores are used as a proxy for depression severity in cross-sectional research, and differences in sum-scores over time are taken to reflect changes in an underlying depression construc

  17. Construct validity of the Depression and Somatic Symptoms Scale: evaluation by Mokken scale analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Ya-Hsin; Lee, Chin-Pang; Liu, Chia-Yih; Hung, Ching-I

    2017-01-01

    Objective Previous studies of the Depression and Somatic Symptoms Scale (DSSS), a free scale, have been based on the classical test theory, and the construct validity and dimensionality of the DSSS are as yet uncertain. The aim of this study was to use Mokken scale analysis (MSA) to assess the dimensionality of the DSSS. Methods A sample of 214 psychiatric outpatients with mood and anxiety disorders were enrolled at a medical center in Taiwan (age: mean [SD] =38.3 [10.5] years; 63.1% female) and asked to complete the DSSS. MSA was used to assess the dimensionality of the DSSS. Results All 22 items of the DSSS formed a moderate unidimensional scale (Hs=0.403), supporting its construct validity. The DSSS was divided into 4 subscales (Hs ranged from 0.35 to 0.67), including a general somatic scale (GSS), melancholic scale (MS), muscular pain scale (MPS), and chest symptom scale (CSS). The GSS is a weak reliable Mokken scale; the other 3 scales are strong reliable Mokken scales. Conclusion The DSSS is a psychometrically sound measure of depression and somatic symptoms in adult psychiatric outpatients with depression or anxiety. The summed score of the DSSS and its 4 subscales are valid statistics. Further research is required for replication of the 4 subscales of the DSSS. PMID:28182138

  18. Depressive Symptoms Prior to Pregnancy and Infant Low Birth Weight in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Andrew; Labys, Charlotte A; Burns, Jonathan K

    2015-10-01

    Despite improvements in service delivery and patient management, low birth weight among infants has been a persistent challenge in South Africa. The study aimed to explore the relationship between depression before pregnancy and the low birth weight (LBW) of infants in post-apartheid South Africa. This study utilized data from Waves 1 and 2 of the South African National Income Dynamics Study, the main outcome being a dichotomous measure of child LBW (<2500 g) drawn from the Wave 2 child questionnaire. Depressive symptoms of non-pregnant women was the main predictor drawn from the Wave 1 adult questionnaire. Depressive symptoms were screened using the 10-item four-point Likert version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) instrument. A total score of 10 or greater on the CES-D indicates a positive screen for depressive symptoms. An adjusted logistic regression model was used to examine the relationship between women's depression before pregnancy and infant LBW. A sample size of 651 women in Wave 1 was linked to 672 newborns in Wave 2. The results of the adjusted logistic regression model indicated depressive symptoms (CES-D ≥ 10) prior to pregnancy were associated with infant LBW (adjusted OR 2.84, 95 % CI 1.08-7.46). Another significant covariate in the model was multiple childbirths. Our finding indicates that women's depressive symptoms prior to pregnancy are associated with the low birth weight of newborns and suggests that this association may not be limited to depression present during the ante-natal phase.

  19. Non-work-related personal events contribute to depressive symptoms in Japanese discretionary workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogami, Ayumi; Muto, Takashi; Haruyama, Yasuo; Yoshikawa, Toru

    2013-08-01

    In Japan, the number of workers with depressive symptoms has increased recently, and long working hours are considered one of the main contributing factors. Currently, the number of workers engaging in discretionary work is small but is expected to increase, as a diverse method of employment is believed to contribute to workers' well-being. However, the factors related to discretionary workers' depressive symptoms are unclear. This study aimed to identify the factors associated with depressive symptoms in discretionary workers. The subjects were 240 male discretionary workers in a Japanese insurance company. A cross-sectional study was performed using a questionnaire that includes demographic characteristics, living and working conditions, work-related and non-work-related stressful events, and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Depressive symptoms were assessed as more than 16 points on the CES-D. Multiple logistic regression models were employed to estimate odd ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of depressive symptoms in relation to possible factors. Thirty-six subjects (15.5%) showed depressive symptoms. The depressive symptoms were significantly related to age (p = 0.04), presence of child(ren) (p = 0.02), and length of employment (p = 0.01), but unrelated to working hours. Subjects who reported "financial matters" (OR = 4.50, 95% CI = 1.89-10.72) and "own event" such as divorce or illness (OR = 2.93, 95% CI = 1.13-7.61) were more likely to show depressive symptoms. In conclusion, mental health measures for discretionary workers should focus on addressing financial difficulties and consultations and assistance in personal health and family issues.

  20. Assessing Latina/o Undergraduates' Depressive Symptomatology: Comparisons of the Beck Depression Inventory-II, the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale, and the Self-Report Depression Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloria, Alberta M.; Castellanos, Jeanett; Kanagui-Munoz, Marlen; Rico, Melissa A.

    2012-01-01

    The use of depression scales as screening tools at university and college centers is increasing and thus, the question of whether scales are culturally valid for different student groups is increasingly more relevant with increased severity of depression for students and changing student demographics. As such, this study examined the reliability…

  1. Depression Subscale of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale applied preoperatively in spinal surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asdrubal Falavigna

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the accuracy of the Depression Subscale of Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-D in spine surgery, comparing it to Beck Depression Inventory (BDI. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, the HADS-D and the BDI were applied to patients undergoing spine surgery for lumbar (n=139 or cervical spondylosis (n=17. Spearman correlation tests for HADS-D and BDI were applied. The internal consistency of HADS-D was estimated by Cronbach's alpha coefficient. RESULTS: According to the BDI, the prevalence of depression was of 28.8% (n=45. The Spearman r coefficient between HADS-D and BDI was 0.714 (p10, there was a sensitivity of 71.1%, specificity of 95.4%, and positive likelihood-ratio of 15.78. CONCLUSIONS: HADS-D showed a strong correlation with BDI and good reliability. HADS-D is a good alternative for screening depression and assessing its severity.

  2. Prevalence and Correlates of Clinically Significant Depressive Symptoms in an Urban Hospital Emergency Department

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichmann, William M.; Safren, Steven A.; Losina, Elena; Arbelaez, Christian; Walensky, Rochelle P.

    2010-01-01

    Background: In hospital settings, depression is an underdetected, undertreated, but prevalent and interfering illness that is associated with significant disability, morbidity, and mortality. A general hospital emergency department (ED) setting may be well suited to identify individuals with clinically significant depressive symptoms, facilitating their referral and treatment. Method: Cross-sectional data of adult ED patients in a general hospital enrolling in a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) screening study between February 2007 and March 2008 were analyzed. Data included demographic factors, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), alcohol and substance use history, sexual risk taking, and brief medical history. The primary outcome was a dichotomous measure of self-reported clinically significant depressive symptoms. Patients who scored ≥ 16 on the CES-D were considered to screen positive for depressive symptoms. Results: Of the 3,262 patients enrolled in the screening trial, 2,588 (79%) completed the survey between February 2007 and March 2008. Among these, 1,945 (75%) completed the psychosocial assessment battery; 596 (31%) survey completers screened positive for clinically significant depressive symptoms. In a multivariable model, female sex (RR = 1.36; 95% CI, 1.16–1.57), being unemployed (RR = 1.61; 95% CI, 1.32–1.93), and lower annual income (RR from 1.73 to 2.24) were associated with increased rates of clinically significant depressive symptoms (CES-D score ≥ 16). Clinically significant depressive symptoms were more often present in patients who screened positive for alcohol dependence (RR = 1.48; 95% CI, 1.19–1.78), individuals reporting current smoking (RR = 1.39; 95% CI, 1.17–1.62), those with a prior psychiatric disorder diagnosis (RR = 2.20; 95% CI, 1.80–2.57) or history of hypertension (RR = 1.47; 95% CI, 1.18–1.79), and those who reported ever having sex with an HIV-infected partner (RR = 1.58; 95% CI, 1.08

  3. The trajectories and correlation between physical limitation and depression in elderly residents of Beijing, 1992-2009.

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    Xia Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Physical limitation and psychological distress have been reported to be related, but studies describing the change of instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs and depression syndrome over time or exploring the link pattern for their development are limited. The study was to assess distinctive patterns for the development of physical limitation and depression and to explore their correlation to form a proper prevention strategy. METHODS: Dual trajectory analysis was conducted using data from the Beijing Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA 1992-2009 hosted by Xuanwu hospital for subjects with full information on depression and physical limitation for all available visits. Physical limitation was measured by the Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL scale and depression by the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale (CES-D. The covariates were gender, age at baseline and number of chronic conditions. RESULTS: Three heterogeneous trajectories for physical limitation and two distinct groups for an increase in depression were detected. Among them, 10.13% of subjects experienced an increase in physical limitation, while 13.22% demonstrated a high, stable level of depressive mood. In all, 80.4% of the subjects enjoyed a relatively low, stable level of IADL and CES-D scores. People in the late increase group for IADL score were more likely to have depressive mood when adjusted for gender, age and number of chronic conditions (OR=3.900, 95%CI=1.347-11.290. CONCLUSIONS: The development of physical limitation among the elderly may significantly increase the risk for depressive symptoms.

  4. Construct validity of the Depression and Somatic Symptoms Scale: evaluation by Mokken scale analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chou YH

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ya-Hsin Chou,1 Chin-Pang Lee,1,2 Chia-Yih Liu,1,2 Ching-I Hung1,2 1Department of Psychiatry, Chang-Gung Memorial Hospital at Linkou, 2School of Medicine, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taoyuan, Taiwan Objective: Previous studies of the Depression and Somatic Symptoms Scale (DSSS, a free scale, have been based on the classical test theory, and the construct validity and dimensionality of the DSSS are as yet uncertain. The aim of this study was to use Mokken scale analysis (MSA to assess the dimensionality of the DSSS.Methods: A sample of 214 psychiatric outpatients with mood and anxiety disorders were enrolled at a medical center in Taiwan (age: mean [SD] =38.3 [10.5] years; 63.1% female and asked to complete the DSSS. MSA was used to assess the dimensionality of the DSSS.Results: All 22 items of the DSSS formed a moderate unidimensional scale (Hs=0.403, supporting its construct validity. The DSSS was divided into 4 subscales (Hs ranged from 0.35 to 0.67, including a general somatic scale (GSS, melancholic scale (MS, muscular pain scale (MPS, and chest symptom scale (CSS. The GSS is a weak reliable Mokken scale; the other 3 scales are strong reliable Mokken scales.Conclusion: The DSSS is a psychometrically sound measure of depression and somatic symptoms in adult psychiatric outpatients with depression or anxiety. The summed score of the DSSS and its 4 subscales are valid statistics. Further research is required for replication of the 4 subscales of the DSSS. Keywords: depression, somatization, Mokken scale analysis, item response theory, construct validity

  5. Self-reported upper extremity health status correlates with depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ring, David; Kadzielski, John; Fabian, Lauren; Zurakowski, David; Malhotra, Leah R; Jupiter, Jesse B

    2006-09-01

    The Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) questionnaire is the most widely used upper extremity-specific health-status measure. The DASH score often demonstrates greater variability than would be expected on the basis of objective pathology. This variability may be related to psychosocial factors. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the correlation between the DASH score and psychological factors for specific diagnoses with relatively limited variation in objective pathology. Two hundred and thirty-five patients with a single, common, discrete hand problem known to have limited variations in objective pathology completed the DASH questionnaire, the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised (EPQ-R) to assess neuroticism, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D) scale to quantify depressive symptoms, and the Pain Anxiety Symptoms Scale (PASS). Forty-five patients had carpal tunnel syndrome, forty-four had de Quervain tenosynovitis, forty-eight had lateral elbow pain, and seventy-one had a single trigger finger. In addition, twenty-seven patients were evaluated six weeks after a nonoperatively treated fracture of the distal part of the radius. Relationships between psychosocial factors and the DASH score were determined. A significant positive correlation between the DASH score and depression was noted for all diagnoses (r = 0.38 to 0.52; p Quervain tendinitis, r = 0.46; lateral elbow pain, r = 0.42; and trigger finger, r = 0.24) (p < 0.05 for all). The DASH score was not correlated with neuroticism for any diagnosis. There was a highly significant effect of depression (as measured with the CES-D score) on the DASH score for all diagnoses. Both the CES-D score (F = 62.68, p < 0.0001) and gender (F = 11.36, p < 0.001) were independent predictors of the DASH score. Self-reported upper extremity-specific health status as measured with the DASH score correlates with depression and pain anxiety but not neuroticism. These data

  6. Leisure Time Physical Activity in Relation to Depressive Symptoms in the Black Women’s Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Lauren A.; Adams-Campbell, Lucile L.; Palmer, Julie R.; Rosenberg, Lynn

    2007-01-01

    Background A growing body of evidence suggests that physical activity might reduce the risk of depressive symptoms, but there are limited data on Black women. Purpose The objective was to evaluate the association between leisure time physical activity and depressive symptoms in U.S. Black women. Methods Participants included 35,224 women ages 21 to 69 from the Black Women’s Health Study, a follow-up study of African American women in which data are collected biennially by mail questionnaire. Women answered questions on past and current exercise levels at baseline (1995) and follow-up (1997). The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) was used to measure depressive symptoms in 1999. Women who reported a diagnosis of depression before 1999 were excluded. We used multivariate logistic regression models to compute odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for physical activity in relation to depressive symptoms (CES-D score ≥ 16) with control for potential confounders. Results Adult vigorous physical activity was inversely associated with depressive symptoms. Women who reported vigorous exercise both in high school (≥ 5 hr per week) and adulthood (≥ 2 hr per week) had the lowest odds of depressive symptoms (OR = 0.76, 95% CI = 0.71–0.82) relative to never active women; the OR was 0.90 for women who were active in high school but not adulthood (95% CI = 0.85–0.96) and 0.83 for women who were inactive in high school but became active in adulthood (95% CI = 0.77–0.91). Although walking for exercise was not associated with risk of depressive symptoms overall, there was evidence of a weak inverse relation among obese women (Body Mass Index ≥ 30). Conclusions Leisure time vigorous physical activity was associated with a reduced odds of depressive symptoms in U.S. Black women. PMID:16827631

  7. Does Depressive Symptomatology Influence Teenage Patients and Their Mothers’ Experience of Doctor-Patient Relationship in Two Balkan Countries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaitsa Giannouli

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Doctor-patient relationship is considered to be a special relationship and a keystone of medical care. A fundamental factor in this sort of relationship is the communication, which is strictly examined between the two involving parts, without taking into consideration in the case of children and teenagers the possible influence of their parents. The mothers more often accompany their children to the doctor and they become a third part of the doctor-patient relationship. In Greece during February-May 2013, 196 mothers and their teenage children (suffering from acute or chronic illnesses completed two questionnaires: the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D and a series of questions on a Likert scale from the Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire (PSQ about the experienced satisfaction with the characteristics of this communication. In Bulgaria during July-August 2013, 60 mothers and their children completed the same questionnaires. The results revealed an unexpected finding only for the Greek sample - the quality of relationship between doctor and patient (for both Greek mothers and adolescents was negatively associated with their scores on CES-D (i.e. low level of depression together with low satisfaction derived from the relationship with the doctor, while no differences were found between the participants’ groups (mothers, children, acute or chronic disease. This surprising finding of high depression-high satisfaction was not found in the Bulgarian sample and therefore needs further investigation.

  8. Screening Internet forum participants for depression symptoms by assembling and enhancing multiple NLP methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmen, Christian; Hsiung, Robert C; Wetter, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    Depression is a disease that can dramatically lower quality of life. Symptoms of depression can range from temporary sadness to suicide. Embarrassment, shyness, and the stigma of depression are some of the factors preventing people from getting help for their problems. Contemporary social media technologies like Internet forums or micro-blogs give people the opportunity to talk about their feelings in a confidential anonymous environment. However, many participants in such networks may not recognize the severity of their depression and their need for professional help. Our approach is to develop a method that detects symptoms of depression in free text, such as posts in Internet forums, chat rooms and the like. This could help people appreciate the significance of their depression and realize they need to seek help. In this work Natural Language Processing methods are used to break the textual information into its grammatical units. Further analysis involves detection of depression symptoms and their frequency with the help of words known as indicators of depression and their synonyms. Finally, similar to common paper-based depression scales, e.g., the CES-D, that information is incorporated into a single depression score. In this evaluation study, our depressive mood detection system, DepreSD (Depression Symptom Detection), had an average precision of 0.84 (range 0.72-1.0 depending on the specific measure) and an average F measure of 0.79 (range 0.72-0.9).

  9. Can money buy happiness? Depressive symptoms in an affluent older population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, C G; Reed, D M; Gildengorin, G L

    1998-01-01

    To determine if the inverse association between depressive symptoms and income reported in predominantly low- and middle-income older populations is present in a more affluent population of older adults and to determine if this pattern is independent of other known correlates of depressive symptoms such as medical problems, physical disability, and social support. Cross-sectional analysis within a prospective cohort study. An ongoing, community-based cohort study conducted by an independent research institution in an affluent Northern California county. A total of 1948 randomly selected, noninstitutionalized county residents 55 years of age and older who completed the baseline questionnaire and physical performance tests. The outcome measure was high level of depressive symptoms (score > or = 16) using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale (CES-D). The prevalence of high levels of depressive symptoms (CES-D score > or = 16) was lower than in most other population-based samples using an identical CES-D scale. In age-adjusted, sex-specific analyses, increasing income level was associated significantly with lower levels of depressive symptoms, but the nature of the relationship appeared quadratic rather than linear (Men: odds ratio (OR) income .80, 95% confidence interval (CI) .68-.94; income2 OR 1.006, 95% CI 1.001-1.011. Women: OR income .80, 95% CI .69-.91; income2 OR 1.007, 95% CI 1.002-1.011). In multivariate regression analyses including potential confounding risk factors, the magnitude of the association between depressive symptoms and income decreased and was not statistically significant when measures of health conditions, physical disability, and social support were included in the model (Men: OR income .90, 95% CI .75-1.06; income2 OR 1.003, 95% CI .998-1.009. Women: OR income .90, 95% CI .78-1.05; income2 OR 1.003, 95% CI .998-1.008). These findings suggest that poor health, physical disability, and social isolation are the major factors

  10. Reliability, validity and psychometric properties of the Greek translation of the Major Depression Inventory

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    Tsiptsios I

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Major Depression Inventory (MDI is a brief self-rating scale for the assessment of depression. It is reported to be valid because it is based on the universe of symptoms of DSM-IV and ICD-10 depression. The aim of the current preliminary study was to assess the reliability, validity and psychometric properties of the Greek translation of the MDI. Methods 30 depressed patients of mean age 23.41 (± 5.77 years, and 68 controls patients of mean age 25.08 (± 11.42 years, entered the study. In 18 of them, the instrument was re-applied 1–2 days later and the Translation and Back Translation made. Clinical diagnosis was reached with the use of the SCAN v.2.0 and the International Personality Disorders Examination (IPDE. The Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression (CES-D and the Zung Depression Rating Scale (ZDRS were applied for cross-validation purposes. Statistical analysis included ANOVA, the Spearman Product Moment Correlation Coefficient, Principal Components Analysis and the calculation of Cronbach's α. Results Sensitivity and specificity were 0.86 and 0.94, respectively, at 26/27. Cronbach's α for the total scale was equal to 0.89. The Spearman's rho between MDI and CES-D was 0.86 and between MDI and ZDRS was 0.76. The factor analysis revealed two factors but the first accounted for 54% of variance while the second only for 9%. The test-retest reliability was excellent (Spearman's rho between 0.53 and 0.96 for individual items and 0.89 for total score. Conclusion The current study provided preliminary evidence concerning the reliability and validity of the Greek translation of the MDI. Its properties are similar to those reported in the international literature, but further research is necessary.

  11. A literature review of the application of the Geriatric Depression Scale, Depression Anxiety Stress Scales and Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist to community nursing cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jacqui; Annells, Merilyn

    2009-04-01

    To explore through literature review the appropriateness of three common tools for use by community nurses to screen war veteran and war widow(er) clients for depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder. War veterans and, to a lesser extent, war widow(er)s, are prone to mental health challenges, especially depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder. Community nurses do not accurately identify such people with depression and related disorders although they are well positioned to do so. The use of valid and reliable self-report tools is one method of improving nurses' identification of people with actual or potential mental health difficulties for referral to a general practitioner or mental health practitioner for diagnostic assessment and treatment. The Geriatric Depression Scale, Depression Anxiety Stress Scales and Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist are frequently recommended for mental health screening but the appropriateness of using the tools for screening war veteran and war widow(er) community nursing clients who are often aged and have functional impairment, is unknown. Systematic review. Current literature informs that the Geriatric Depression Scale accurately predicts a diagnosis of depression in community nursing cohorts. The three Depression Anxiety Stress Scales subscales of depression, anxiety and stress are valid; however, no studies were identified that compared the performance of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales in predicting diagnoses of depression or anxiety. The Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist predicts post-traumatic stress disorder in community cohorts although no studies meeting the selection criteria included male participants. This review provides recommendations for the use of the Geriatric Depression Scale, Depression Anxiety Stress Scales and The Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist based on examination of the published evidence for the application of these screening tools in samples

  12. Thurstone's Scaling Model Applied to the Assessment of Self-Reported Depressive Severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Joan

    1994-01-01

    Thurstone's scaling based on judgments of 527 students and 37 clinical faculty members was applied to the Beck Depression Inventory, the Zung Depression Scale, and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory and fitted the observed data well. A psychological continuum was derived for severity of depression. (SLD)

  13. Quality of Life in Depression Scale (QLDS – development of the scale and Polish adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majkowicz, Mikołaj

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of this study was to adapt the Quality of Life in Depression Scale to Polish conditions. The scale determines the quality of life, defined in terms of the concept of needs, and focuses on patients with depressive disorders. Since its basic version has been developed, the tool was adapted in many countries, also outside Europe.Method. The adaptation procedure included the translation of the original version into Polish, followed by the English retranslation, and was performed by four independent, qualified translators. The final Polish version was verified during a pilot study.Results. This pilot study confirmed high reliability of the Polish version of Quality of Life in Depression Scale.Conclusion. The Quality of Life in Depression Scale (QLDS can be considered an interesting tool in view of its broad theoretical background, and a simple procedure to complete during a clinical evaluation. The use of a specialist translation procedure, and the results of our pilot study suggest that the QLDS can be used in further research, both when evaluating a clinical population and when dealing with individual patients.

  14. The Techniques for Overcoming Depression Questionnaire: Mokken Scale Analysis, Reliability, and Concurrent Validity in Depressed Cardiac Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedland, Kenneth E; Lemos, Mariantonia; Doyle, Frank; Steinmeyer, Brian C; Csik, Iris; Carney, Robert M

    2017-02-01

    The Techniques for Overcoming Depression (TOD) questionnaire assesses the frequency with which patients being treated for depression use cognitive-behavioral techniques in daily life. This study examined its latent structure, reliability and concurrent validity in depressed cardiac patients. The TOD was administered at the initial and final treatment sessions in three trials of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) (n = 260) for depression in cardiac patients. Mokken scaling was used to determine its dimensionality. The TOD is unidimensional in depressed cardiac patients, both at the initial evaluation (H = .46) and the end of treatment (H = .47). It is sensitive to change and the total score correlates with therapist ratings of the patient's socialization to CBT (r=.40, povercoming depression in cardiac patients. Studies of the TOD in other depressed patient populations are needed.

  15. Dimensionality and scale properties of the Edinburgh Depression Scale (EDS) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Cock, Evi S A; Emons, Wilco H M; Nefs, Giesje

    2011-01-01

    Scale (EDS) is a widely used method for screening depression. However, there is still debate about the dimensionality of the test. Furthermore, the EDS was originally developed to screen for depression in postpartum women. Empirical evidence that the EDS has comparable measurement properties in both......BACKGROUND: Depression is a common complication in type 2 diabetes (DM2), affecting 10-30% of patients. Since depression is underrecognized and undertreated, it is important that reliable and validated depression screening tools are available for use in patients with DM2. The Edinburgh Depression...... to laugh or enjoy) and sleeping problems were the most informative indicators for being able to differentiate between the diagnostic groups of mild and severe depression. CONCLUSIONS: The EDS constitutes a sound scale for measuring an attribute of general depression. Persons can be reliably measured using...

  16. Depression among Couples in the United States in the Context of Intimate Partner Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaeth, Patrice A. C.; Ramisetty-Mikler, Suhasini; Caetano, Raul

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between intimate partner violence and depression. A multicluster random household sample of U.S. couples was interviewed as part of a five-year national longitudinal study (response rate = 72%). Depression was assessed with the CES-D. The multivariate analyses for men showed that the odds of depression did not…

  17. 状态特质抑郁问卷中文版在大学生中的信效度%Reliability and validity of the Chinese version of State-Trait Depression Scale in college students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷智慧; 徐蕊; 邓森碧; 罗跃嘉

    2011-01-01

    Objective : To assess the reliability and validity of the Chinese version of State-Trait Depression Scale ( STDEP) in college students in China. Methods : Totally 1654 freshmen had been chosen by convenience sampling to finish the scale. The internal consistency reliability and construct validity were evaluated. Score differences between gender, major and family background were analyzed. The criterion-related validity was also evaluated through correlating STDEP with Beck Depression Inventory ( BDI) , Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale ( CES-D) and Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. Results: The STDEP consisted of state clepression (S-DEP) and trait depression ( T-DEP) . The Cronbach α coefficient for S-DEP and T-DEP were both above 0. 9. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that the fit indices of two sub-scales for RMSEA were 0. 08and 0. 06.and the CFI. NFI and IFI were also above 0. 9. The correlations between two sub-scales and BDI, CES-D were significant (0. 66 ~ 0. 80) ( P < 0. 01) . Male ( n = 498 ) had significantly higher scores in T-DEP than female (n =1156) [ (28. 8 ±8. 1) vs. (27. 8 ±7. 4) , P=O. 012] . And the rural students had higher scores in both SDEP and T-DEP than urban students [ 29. 4 ±7. 3) vs. ( 27. 5 ±7. 6) , ( 29. 5 ±7. 5 ) vs. ( 27. 2 ± 7. 6) ; Ps <0. 001 ] . Conclusion: The Chinese version of STDEP has good psychometrics properties and can be used in Chinese colleges.%目的:考察状态特质抑郁问卷(State-Trait Depression Scale,STDEP)中文版在我国大学生群体中的适用性.方法:对16项版的STDEP进行翻译和回译,建立其中文版本.方便选取北京师范大学大一新生1654名,施测STDEP来分析问卷的内部一致性信度、结构效度和效标效度,并比较不同性别、专业、来源地受试的STDEP评分差异;从所有受试中随机抽取1312名完成贝克抑郁问卷(Beck Depression Inventory,BDI)、流调中心用抑郁量表(Center for Epidemiologic Studies

  18. Validity of the Revised Children's Anxiety and Depression Scale for youth with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Lindsey; Renno, Patricia; Storch, Eric A; Ehrenreich-May, Jill; Lewin, Adam B; Arnold, Elysse; Lin, Enjey; Wood, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    High rates of anxiety and depression are reported among youth with autism spectrum disorders. These conditions are generally assessed using measures validated for typically developing youth. Few studies have investigated their validity for autism spectrum disorders, which is crucial for accurate assessment and the provision of proper treatment. The Revised Children's Anxiety and Depression Scale was evaluated with 67 youth with autism spectrum disorders to examine its utility in measuring anxiety and depression in this population. Parents and children (aged 11-15 years) referred to a multisite intervention study completed the Pediatric Anxiety Rating Scale, Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children, Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule, Child Behavior Checklist, and Revised Children's Anxiety and Depression Scale. Results suggest acceptable internal consistency of the Revised Children's Anxiety and Depression Scale. Modest convergent validity was found among the Revised Children's Anxiety and Depression Scale and other standardized measures of anxiety and depression. There were stronger correlations between Revised Children's Anxiety and Depression Scale Total scores and subscales of measures expected to correlate significantly than those not expected to correlate. One exception was a significant association between the Revised Children's Anxiety and Depression Scale and Child Behavior Checklist Attention subscale, calling into question the divergent validity in separating anxiety from attention problems. Overall, results suggest preliminary support for the Revised Children's Anxiety and Depression Scale in youth with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders.

  19. Evaluation of a computer-adaptive test for the assessment of depression (D-CAT) in clinical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fliege, Herbert; Becker, Janine; Walter, Otto B; Rose, Matthias; Bjorner, Jakob B; Klapp, Burghard F

    2009-01-01

    In the past, a German Computerized Adaptive Test, based on Item Response Theory (IRT), was developed for purposes of assessing the construct depression [Computer-adaptive test for depression (D-CAT)]. This study aims at testing the feasibility and validity of the real computer-adaptive application.The D-CAT, supplied by a bank of 64 items, was administered on personal digital assistants (PDAs) to 423 consecutive patients suffering from psychosomatic and other medical conditions (78 with depression). Items were adaptively administered until a predetermined reliability (r > or = 0.90) was attained. For validation purposes, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D) scale, and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were administered. Another sample of 114 patients was evaluated using standardized diagnostic interviews [Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI)].The D-CAT was quickly completed (mean 74 seconds), well accepted by the patients and reliable after an average administration of only six items. In 95% of the cases, 10 items or less were needed for a reliable score estimate. Correlations between the D-CAT and the HADS, CES-D, and BDI ranged between r = 0.68 and r = 0.77. The D-CAT distinguished between diagnostic groups as well as established questionnaires do.The D-CAT proved an efficient, well accepted and reliable tool. Discriminative power was comparable to other depression measures, whereby the CAT is shorter and more precise. Item usage raises questions of balancing the item selection for content in the future.

  20. No association between dietary patterns and depressive symptoms among a community-dwelling population in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugawara Norio

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies of the associations between diet and depression have primarily focused on single nutrients or foods. Recently, dietary patterns representing a combination of foods have attracted more interest than individual nutrient. The objective of this study was to examine the association between dietary patterns and depressive symptoms among a community-dwelling population in Japan. Methods We examined the association between dietary patterns and the risk of depression among 791 Japanese community-dwelling individuals. Diet was assessed with a validated brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire (BDHQ. Dietary patterns from 52 predefined food groups [energy-adjusted food (g/d] were extracted by principal component analysis. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D with a cut-off point of 16 was used to assess the prevalence of depression. Results A total of 97 subjects (12.3% were classified as having depression. Four dietary patterns were identified: “Healthy”, “Western”, “Bread and confectionery”, and “Alcohol and accompanying” dietary patterns. After adjusting for potential confounders, the dietary patterns were not related to the risk of depression. Conclusions The present study failed to find associations between dietary patterns and the risk of depression. However, the interpretation of our results was hampered by the lack of certain data, including employment physical activity and longitudinal observations. Potential associations between dietary patterns and depressive symptoms were not completely ruled out. Future research exploring dietary patterns and depressive symptoms is warranted.

  1. Confirmatory factor analysis of the portuguese Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21

    OpenAIRE

    Apóstolo,João Luís Alves; Tanner,Barry Allen; Arfken,Cynthia Lee

    2012-01-01

    To determine which of three published models best characterizes the factor structure of the Portuguese version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21 and to assess its validity and reliability. Confirmatory factor analysis of Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 for 1,297 adult, primary care outpatients (66.7% female, Mage = 48.57 years) comparing 3 models. The relationship between the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21 and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule was analyzed. The co...

  2. The role of food-related shopping and preparation practices in diet quality and association with depressive symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Madeleine Broman; Pedersen, Susanne; Stancu, Catalin

    2016-01-01

    symptoms were measured using the CES-D 20 scale. Quality of diet was based on intake frequencies of seven food categories. Impulse buying tendency, food-related practices on eating food on-the-go, storing foods at home, cooking skills, food choice motives and meal patterns were measured using multi......-item instruments. Data was analysed by using cluster analysis, confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling. Results: The results confirmed that impulse buying and eating food on-the-go had a negative association with overall quality of diet, as well as a positive association with depressive......Purpose: Depression has become a major public health concern. Previous research indicates that depression is associated with diet quality and irregularity of meals. Yet, very few studies have addressed the role of food provisioning related behaviours, such as buying, storing and preparing food...

  3. Development of a Geriatric Scale of Hopelessness: Implications for Counseling and Intervention with the Depressed Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, P. S.

    1984-01-01

    Evaluated hopelessness, depression, and self-esteem among depressed elderly people (N=78) and developed a Geriatric Hopelessness Scale (GHS). As predicted, elderly subjects who scored high on the GHS showed significantly higher depression and lower self-esteem scores. (JAC)

  4. Development of a Geriatric Scale of Hopelessness: Implications for Counseling and Intervention with the Depressed Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, P. S.

    1984-01-01

    Evaluated hopelessness, depression, and self-esteem among depressed elderly people (N=78) and developed a Geriatric Hopelessness Scale (GHS). As predicted, elderly subjects who scored high on the GHS showed significantly higher depression and lower self-esteem scores. (JAC)

  5. Direct and Indirect Effects of Five Factor Personality and Gender on Depressive Symptoms Mediated by Perceived Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Song E; Kim, Han-Na; Cho, Juhee; Kwon, Min-Jung; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho; Shin, Hocheol; Kim, Hyung-Lae

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate associations among five factor personality traits, perceived stress, and depressive symptoms and to examine the roles of personality and perceived stress in the relationship between gender and depressive symptoms. The participants (N = 3,950) were part of a cohort study for health screening and examination at the Kangbuk Samsung Hospital. Personality was measured with the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R). Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Perceived stress level was evaluated with a self-reported stress questionnaire developed for the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A higher degree of neuroticism and lower degrees of extraversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness were significantly associated with greater perceived stress and depressive symptoms. Neuroticism and extraversion had significant direct and indirect effects (via stress as a mediator) on depressive symptoms in both genders. Agreeableness and conscientiousness had indirect effects on depression symptoms in both genders. Multiple mediation models were used to examine the mediational roles of each personality factor and perceived stress in the link between gender and depressive symptoms. Four of the personality factors (except openness) were significant mediators, along with stress, on the relationship between gender and depressive symptoms. Our findings suggest that the links between personality factors and depressive symptoms are mediated by perceived stress. As such, personality is an important factor to consider when examining the link between gender and depression.

  6. Direct and Indirect Effects of Five Factor Personality and Gender on Depressive Symptoms Mediated by Perceived Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song E Kim

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate associations among five factor personality traits, perceived stress, and depressive symptoms and to examine the roles of personality and perceived stress in the relationship between gender and depressive symptoms. The participants (N = 3,950 were part of a cohort study for health screening and examination at the Kangbuk Samsung Hospital. Personality was measured with the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D. Perceived stress level was evaluated with a self-reported stress questionnaire developed for the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A higher degree of neuroticism and lower degrees of extraversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness were significantly associated with greater perceived stress and depressive symptoms. Neuroticism and extraversion had significant direct and indirect effects (via stress as a mediator on depressive symptoms in both genders. Agreeableness and conscientiousness had indirect effects on depression symptoms in both genders. Multiple mediation models were used to examine the mediational roles of each personality factor and perceived stress in the link between gender and depressive symptoms. Four of the personality factors (except openness were significant mediators, along with stress, on the relationship between gender and depressive symptoms. Our findings suggest that the links between personality factors and depressive symptoms are mediated by perceived stress. As such, personality is an important factor to consider when examining the link between gender and depression.

  7. Association between dietary patterns and depressive symptoms over time: a 10-year follow-up study of the GAZEL cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnès Le Port

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Data on the association between dietary patterns and depression are scarce. The objective of this study was to examine the longitudinal association between dietary patterns and depressive symptoms assessed repeatedly over 10 years in the French occupational GAZEL cohort. METHODS: A total of 9,272 men and 3,132 women, aged 45-60 years in 1998, completed a 35-item Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ at baseline. Dietary patterns were derived by Principal Component Analysis. Depressive symptoms were assessed by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (CES-D in 1999, 2002, 2005 and 2008. The main outcome measure was the repeated measures of CES-D. Longitudinal analyses were performed with logistic regression based on generalized estimating equations. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The highest quartile of low-fat, western, high snack and high fat-sweet diets in men and low-fat and high snack diets in women were associated with higher likelihood of depressive symptoms at the start of the follow-up compared to the lowest quartile (OR between 1.16 and 1.50. Conversely, the highest quartile of traditional diet (characterized by fish and fruit consumption was associated with a lower likelihood of depressive symptoms in women compared to the lowest quartile, with OR = 0.63 [95%CI, 0.50 to 0.80], as the healthy pattern (characterized by vegetables consumption with OR = 0.72 [95%CI, 0.63 to 0.83] and OR = 0.75 [95%CI, 0.61 to 0.93] in men and women, respectively. However, there was probably a reverse causality effect for the healthy pattern. CONCLUSION: This longitudinal study shows that several dietary patterns are associated with depressive symptoms and these associations track over time.

  8. The use of Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale to identify postnatal depression symptoms at well child visit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvestri Maria

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives 1 to evaluate the role of the pediatrician in detecting postnatal depression (PD symptoms by the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS; 2 to detect factors increasing the risk of PD and, 3 to assess the importance of scores gained from fathers' questionnaire. Methods we surveyed 1122 mothers and 499 fathers who were assessed using the EPDS during the first well-child visit. After 5 weeks, high scoring parents, completed a second EPDS. High scoring parents were examined by a psychiatrist who had to confirm the PD diagnosis. Results 26.6% of mothers and 12.6% of fathers at the first visit, 19.0% of mothers and 9.1% of fathers at the second visit, gained scores signaling the risk of PD. Four mothers and two fathers had confirmed PD diagnosis. Younger maternal age, non-Italian nationality and low socio-economic condition were related to higher EPDS scores. Conclusion PD is common in the average population. Using a simple and standardized instrument, pediatricians are able to detect parents with higher risk of suffering from PD.

  9. In Systemic Sclerosis, Anxiety and Depression Assessed by Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale Are Independently Associated with Disability and Psychological Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Del Rosso

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Anxious and depressive symptoms are frequent in Systemic Sclerosis (SSc. Our objective is to assess their prevalence and association with district and global disability and psychological variables. Methods. 119 SSc patients were assessed by Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS. Clinical depression and anxiety were defined for HADS score cutoff ≥8. Patients were assessed for psychological symptoms (RSES, COPE-NIV, hand (HAMIS, CHFDS, fist closure, and hand opening and face disability (MHISS, mouth opening, global disability, and fatigue (HAQ, FACIT. Results. Both depression and anxiety in SSc are 36%. Depressive patients with comorbid anxiety have higher HADS-D score than patients with depression only (. HADS-A and -D are positively correlated with global disability, hands and mouth disability, fatigue, self-esteem and avoidance coping strategy, and, only HADS-A, also with social support (. By multiple regression, HADS-D is independently associated with FACIT-F (, RSES (, and MHISS total score (, together explaining 50% of variance. HADS-A is independently associated with RSES (, COPE-NIV SA (, COPE-NIV SS (, FACIT-F (, and MHISS mouth opening (, explaining 41% of variance. Conclusions. In SSc depression and anxiety correlate to local and global disabilities and psychological characteristics. Depressive patients with comorbid anxiety have higher level of depressive symptoms.

  10. THE VALIDITY OF THE HAMILTON DEPRESSION RATING SCALE AS A SCREENING AND DIAGNOSTIC INSTRUMENT FOR DEPRESSION IN PATIENTS WITH EPILEPSY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koraliya S. Todorova

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the concurrent validity of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD-17 against ICD-10 criteria for depressive disorder and its performance as a screening and diagnostic tool for depression in patients with epilepsy (PWE.Subjects and Methods: One hundred and six PWE underwent clinical psychiatric examination followed by evaluation on HAMD-17. ICD-10 criteria for comorbid depressive disorder were applied. Internal consistency was assessed using Cronbach’s α. A “receiver operating characteristics” (ROC curve was obtained and the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values (PPV, NPV were calculated for different cut-off points of the HAMD-17.Results: Internal consistency measured by Cronbach’s α was 0.74. Maximal discrimination between depressed and non depressed was obtained at a cut-off score of 8/9 (sensitivity 0.93, specificity 0.98. High sensitivity and NPV at the same cut-off score (sensitivity 0.93, NPV 1.0 show the screening properties, and high specificity and PPV at cut-offs 9/10, the diagnostic properties of the instrument. The area under the ROC curve (AUC=0.746 indicates the concurrent validity of the HAMD-17 score with the ICD-10 criteria for depressive disorder.Conclusion: The validity of the HAMD-17 against ICD-10 criteria for depressive disorder in PWE in our study is fair. The concurrent administration of diagnostic criteria can ascertain the presence of core symptoms of depression.

  11. Dimensionality of the hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS) in cardiac patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emons, Wilco H M; Sijtsma, Klaas; Pedersen, Susanne S.

    2012-01-01

    The hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS) measures anxiety and depressive symptoms and is widely used in clinical and nonclinical populations. However, there is some debate about the number of dimensions represented by the HADS. In a sample of 534 Dutch cardiac patients, this study examined...... items each were found to be structurally sound and reliable. These scales covered the two key attributes of anxiety and (anhedonic) depression. The findings suggest that the HADS may be reduced to a 10-item questionnaire comprising two 5-item scales measuring anxiety and depressive symptoms....

  12. Childhood poverty and depressive symptoms for older adults in Mexico: a life-course analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Jacqueline M; Wong, Rebeca

    2013-09-01

    This study applies life-course theories of latent (direct), pathway (indirect) and conditional effects in an analysis of childhood poverty on later-life depressive symptoms among older adults in Mexico. Data are from the 2001 Mexican Health and Aging Study (MHAS), a nationally representative sample of older adults born before 1951 (n = 8696). Respondents had a mean of 3.6 past-week depressive symptoms and 71% had no household sanitation facilities before age 10; this measure served as a proxy for childhood poverty. Childhood poverty is significantly related to scores on an adapted 9-item CES-D scale in the full model (b = 0.27, p poverty reduction and gains in education.

  13. Relationship between School Factors and Depression in Middle School Students%初中生抑郁情绪与学校因素的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阳德华

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To study the role of school factors in depression of middle school students. Methods: CES-D, Teacher-Student Relationship Questionnaire, Scale for Assessing Peer and Study Achievement Questionnaire were administered to 500 students (grade 1 to grade 3) from three middle schools in Nanchong, Sichuan. Results: Depression was significantly correlated with teacher-student relationship and peer relationship. Chinese achievement was significantly correlated with loneliness and helplessness, despair and worthlessness, feeling of ability failing and bad moods, but not with physiological symptoms. Mathematical achievement was significantly related to despair and worthlessness, but not to loneliness and helplessness, feeling of ability failing and bad moods, or physiological symptoms. Regression analysis revealed negative emotion, positive emotion, support-help and Chinese achievement were significant predictors for depression of students. Conclusion: Better teacher-student relationship and peer relationship helped to reduce depression of middle school students.

  14. Reliability and preliminary evidence of validity of a Farsi version of the depression anxiety stress scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayani, Ali Asghar

    2010-08-01

    The internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and construct validity of the Farsi version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales were examined, with a sample of 306 undergraduate students (123 men, 183 women) ranging from 18 to 51 years of age (M age = 25.4, SD = 6.1). Participants completed the Satisfaction with Life Scale, Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale, and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales. The findings confirmed the preliminary reliabilities and preliminary construct validity of the Farsi translation of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales.

  15. Depressants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Depressants KidsHealth > For Teens > Depressants A A A What's ... How Can Someone Quit? Avoiding Depressants What Are Depressants? Depressants are drugs that calm nerves and relax ...

  16. VALIDITY OF THE GHQ AND SCL ANXIETY AND DEPRESSION SCALES - A COMPARATIVE-STUDY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KOETER, MWJ

    1992-01-01

    This article presents the results of a comparison between the validity of the SCL anxiety, phobic anxiety and depression scales and the GHQ-28 anxiety-/insomnia and severe depression scales in a psychiatric outpatient population. Validity was studied at a categorical level with DSM-III diagnosis, an

  17. Excellent reliability of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-21) in Indonesia after training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Istriana, E.; Kurnia, A.; Weijers, A.; Hidayat, T.; Pinxten, W.J.L.; Jong, C.A.J. de; Schellekens, A.F.A.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) is the most widely used depression rating scale worldwide. Reliability of HDRS has been reported mainly from Western countries. The current study tested the reliability of HDRS ratings among psychiatric residents in Indonesia, before and afte

  18. Screening for Depression after Cardiac Events Using the Beck Depression Inventory-II and the Geriatric Depression Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Gail D.; Hubley, Anita M.

    2007-01-01

    Despite findings that depression is a risk factor for heart disease and for death following cardiac events and that depressed cardiac patients experience significantly reduced quality of life and are less likely to follow treatment regimens, depression is neither adequately identified nor treated in cardiac patients. Recent calls in the literature…

  19. The structure of the Montgomery-Åsberg depression rating scale over the course of treatment for depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilty, Lena C; Robinson, Jennifer J; Rolland, Jean-Pierre; Fruyt, Filip De; Rouillon, Frédéric; Bagby, R Michael

    2013-09-01

    The Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) is a widely used clinician-rated measure of depressive severity. Empirical support for the factor structure of the MADRS is mixed; further, the comparison of MADRS scores within and between patients requires the demonstration of consistent instrument properties. The objective of the current investigation was to evaluate MADRS factor structure as well as MADRS factorial invariance across time and gender. The MADRS was administered to 821 depressed outpatients participating in a large-scale effectiveness study of combined pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy for depression. Treatment outcome did not differ across treatment groups. Factor structure and invariance was evaluated via confirmatory factor analysis. A four-factor model consisting of Sadness, Negative Thoughts, Detachment and Neurovegetative symptoms demonstrated a good fit to the data. This four-factor structure was invariant across time and gender. A hierarchical model, in which these four factors served as indicators of a general depression factor, was also supported. A limitation of the current study is the lack of comprehensive characterization of patient clinical features; results need to be replicated in more severely depressed or treatment refractory patients. Overall, evidence supported the use of the MADRS total score as well as subscales focused on affective, cognitive, social and somatic aspects of depression in male and female outpatients. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Depressive Symptoms on the Geriatric Depression Scale and Suicide Deaths in Older Middle-aged Men: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Sang-Wook

    2016-05-01

    Prospective evaluations of the associations between depressive symptoms and suicide deaths have been mainly performed in high-risk populations, such as individuals with psychiatric disorders or histories of self-harm. The purpose of this study was to prospectively examine whether more severe depressive symptoms assessed using the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) were associated with a greater risk of death from suicide in a general-risk population. A total of 113 478 men from the Korean Veterans Health Study (mean age, 58.9 years) who participated in a postal survey in 2004 were followed up for suicide mortality until 2010. Over 6.4 years of follow-up, 400 men died by suicide (56.7 deaths per 100 000 person-years). More severe depressive symptoms were associated with greater risk of suicide death (p for trend depression were 2.18 for mild depression, 2.13 for moderate depression, 3.33 for severe depression, and 3.67 for extreme depression. After adjusting for potential confounders, men with a potential depressive disorder had an approximate 90% higher mortality from suicide (adjusted HR, 1.92; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.38 to 2.68; pdepression. Each five-point increase in the GDS score was associated with a higher risk of death by suicide (adjusted HR, 1.22; pDepressive symptoms assessed using the GDS were found to be a strong independent predictor of future suicide. However, the estimate of relative risk was weaker than would be expected based on retrospective psychological autopsy studies.

  1. 脑卒中后抑郁状态的心理护理干预%The Effect of Psychologic Nursing on Post - stroke Depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of psychologic nursing on the rehabilitation for post-stroke depression(PSD) patients. Method 62 patients of 98 PSD patients were divided into 31couples. According to age, sex, course of illness and statge of illness, the patients were divided into rehabilitation nursing ( interference group) and routine nursing ( control group) with CES - D ( Center of epidemi ological survey - depression Scale ) and CNFD ( Criterion of nervous function defect). Every couple was compared with each other. Result The score of two groups before treatment was not obviously different(p> 0. 05). Two scores in two groups after treatment were obviously better than those of before treatment. Two scores of interference group were significantly higher compared with control group ( p < 0. 05). Conclusion Interference of psychologic nursing is effective in treating post - stroke depression.

  2. Impact of anxiety and depressive symptoms on perceptions of stigma in persons living with HIV disease in rural versus urban North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costelloe, Stephanie; Kemppainen, Jeanne; Brion, John; MacKain, Sally; Reid, Paula; Frampton, Art; Rigsbee, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    This analysis examined the relationships between HIV-related stigma, depression, and anxiety in rural and urban sites. Participants were HIV-positive urban (n = 100) and rural (n = 100) adult residents of a US southern state, drawn from a sample for a larger international study of self-esteem and self-compassion. Measures included demographic and health information, the HIV Stigma Scale, the Center for Epidemiology Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), and the Symptom Checklist 90 Revised (SCL-R-90) anxiety scale. Independent sample t-tests showed no significant differences between urban/rural groups on measures of HIV-related stigma, anxiety, or depression, except that rural participants reported greater disclosure concerns (t = 2.11, df = 196, p = .036). Both groups indicated high levels of depression and anxiety relative to published norms and clinically relevant cut-off scores. Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted for the HIV Stigma Scale including its four subscales and total stigma scores. Block 1 (control) contained health and demographic variables known to predict HIV-related stigma. Block 2 included the CES-D and the SCL-R-90, and Block 3 was urban/rural location. Mental health symptom scores contributed a significant amount to explained variance in total stigma scores (5.5%, FΔ = 6.020, p stigma (4.8%, FΔ = 5.035, p disclosure concerns. Urban/rural location made significant additional contributions to the variance for total stigma (1.7%, FΔ = 3.899, p disclosure concerns (2.6%, FΔ = 5.446, p stigma or negative self-image. Depression scores consistently and significantly predicted perceived stigma total and subscale scores. Findings suggest that mental health symptoms and urban/rural location play important roles in perceived stigma, and treatment implications are presented.

  3. Readability: an important issue impacting healthcare for women with postpartum depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logsdon, M Cynthia; Hutti, Marianne H

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the reading level of depression-screening instruments commonly used in postpartum depression (PPD) and evaluate the reading level of prevalent consumer pamphlets and books on PPD. Descriptive study evaluating the reading level of four PPD instruments (the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, The Center for Epidemiologic Symptoms of Depression, the Postpartum Depression Screening Scale, and the Beck Depression Inventory-II), five pamphlets from grassroots organizations, and seven consumer books using the Fry Readability Graph. The readability of the postpartum screening instruments varied, but all were at or below the recommended 6th grade reading level. CES-D had the lowest reading level (grade 2). The readability of the consumer publications also varied, but all had a higher reading level than the recommended 6th grade level, some at the college reading level. Readability is an important consideration in the choice of depression-screening instruments and written materials for consumers. Nurses using any of the four postpartum screening instruments studied can feel confident that women who can read will be able to read them. The readability of a book, pamphlet, or instrument should be of concern to nurses who work with women during the postpartum period.

  4. Attitude scale and general health questionnaire subscales predict depression?

    OpenAIRE

    Amrollah Ebrahimi; Hamid Afshar; Hamid Taher Neshat Doost; Seyed Ghafur Mousavi; Hoseyn Moolavi

    2012-01-01

    Background: According to Beck theory, dysfunctional attitude has a central role in emergence of depression. The aim of this study was to determine contributions of dysfunctional attitude and general health index to depression. Methods: In this case-control study, two groups of subjects participated. The first group consisted of 65 patients with major depression and dysthymic disorder, who were recruited from Noor and Navab Safavi Psychiatry Clinics in Isfa-han. The control group was consi...

  5. Is the geriatric depression scale a reliable screening tool for depressive symptoms in elderly patients with cognitive impairment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debruyne, Hans; Van Buggenhout, Michael; Le Bastard, Nathalie; Aries, Marcel; Audenaert, Kurt; De Deyn, Peter Paul; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan

    2009-06-01

    To determine the reliability of the 30-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-30) for the screening of depressive symptoms in dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) using the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia (CSDD) as the 'gold standard'. Diagnosed according to strictly applied clinical diagnostic criteria, patients with MCI (n = 156) and probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) (n = 247) were included. GDS-30, CSDD, Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Global Deterioration Scale were assessed in all patients at inclusion. The AD group was divided in three subgroups: mild AD (MMSE>or=18) (n = 117), moderate AD (MMSEor=10) (n = 89) and severe AD (MMSEdepressive symptoms in MCI but not in AD patients. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Recollections of parental rejection, self-criticism and depression in suicidality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Rui C; Besser, Avi; Blatt, Sidney J

    2013-01-01

    The present study examines whether self-criticism and depressive symptoms mediate the relationship between recollections of parental rejection and suicidality. A community sample of 200 Portuguese adults completed, in counterbalanced order, a socio-demographic questionnaire, the short form of the Inventory for Assessing Memories of Parental Rearing Behaviour (EMBU), the Depressive Experiences Questionnaire (DEQ), the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), and reports of any suicide intention and/or ideation and suicide attempts. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) indicated that recollections of parental rejection are significantly associated with depressive symptoms and suicidality. Recollections of parental rejection are indirectly associated with depressive symptoms and suicidality through self-criticism. The association between self-criticism and suicidality is mediated by depressive symptoms. In addition to a significant direct association between recollections of parental rejection and suicidality, the final model indicated that recollections of parental rejection are significantly associated with self-criticism. That same self-criticism is significantly associated with depressive symptoms which, in turn, are significantly associated with suicidality. Individuals with recollections of parental rejection are at greater risk for suicide ideation and behavior, possibly because such experiences predispose them to intense self-criticism which is a risk factor for depression associated with suicidal ideation and behavior.

  7. Depressed mood and speech in Chilean mothers of 5½-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Katy M; Su, Jing; Kaciroti, Niko; Castillo, Marcela; Millan, Rebeca; Rule, Heather; Lozoff, Besty

    2010-01-01

    Previous research on maternal speech and depression has focused almost exclusively on how depressed mothers talk to their infants and toddlers in the U.S. and U.K., two English-speaking countries. This study considered how depressed Spanish-speaking mothers from a Latin American country talk about their preschool-age children. Five-minute speech samples were provided by 178 Chilean mothers who were asked to talk about their 5½-year-old children to a project psychologist. Maternal depressive symptomatology was measured by the Spanish-language version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). In multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA), higher maternal depressed mood showed statistically significant associations with the following maternal speech characteristics: more criticisms, less laughter, fewer medium pauses, less positive satisfaction with the child's behavior or characteristics, a rating of a negative overall relationship with the child, and more crying (suggestive trend). A structural equation model confirmed these findings and found an indirect effect between laughter and criticisms: mothers with higher depressed mood who laughed less criticized their children less. The findings illustrate that depressed mood adversely affects how a group of Chilean mothers speak about their children.

  8. Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations and Depressive Symptoms among Young Adult Men and Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A. Polak

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available There has been an increased interest in the role of vitamin D in depression; however, there have been few studies conducted in younger population groups. Our aim was to investigate the association between vitamin D status and depressive symptoms in a non-clinical young adult sample living in Dunedin, New Zealand. A cross-sectional sample of 615 young adults completed a questionnaire including demographics and the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D. Height, weight and a blood sample for 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] was obtained. Serum 25(OHD was used to predict depression scores, adjusting for potential confounders including time spent outdoors for 13 consecutive days, BMI, age, sex and ethnicity. Prevalence of low vitamin D was high even in this age group, and serum 25(OHD was negatively associated with depression symptoms before and after adjustment. When investigating the relationship between the presence versus absence of depressive symptoms and quartiles of 25(OHD, participants in the lowest quartile were more likely to report depressive symptoms compared with those in the highest quartile. Although our findings suggest that vitamin D is a predictor of depression symptomatology, even when controlling for time spent outdoors, a randomised controlled trial in this young adult target group is needed to confirm the association.

  9. Rates and risks for co-morbid depression in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pouwer, F; Beekman, Aartjan T F; Nijpels, G

    2003-01-01

    factors of co-morbid depression in a community-based sample of older adults, comparing Type 2 diabetic patients with healthy control subjects. METHODS: A large (n=3107) community-based study in Dutch adults (55-85 years of age) was conducted. Pervasive depression was defined as a CES-D score greater than...

  10. The Relationship between Neuroticism, Hopelessness, and Depression in Older Korean Immigrants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bum Jung Kim

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the relationship between neuroticism, hopelessness, and depression among older Korean immigrants. To extend this line of research, this study aimed to examine the effects of neuroticism and hopelessness in predicting depression among older Korean immigrants.Data for this study came from a survey of 220 first generation Korean immigrants aged 65 years or older in Los Angeles County in 2012. Data were collected by face-to-face interviews with trained social workers using a structured questionnaire translated into Korean. All interviews were conducted in Korean. The neuroticism sub-scale of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire was used to assess neuroticism (EPQN. Hopelessness was measured by the Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS. Depression was measured by the 20-item Center of Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D scale.The study found that age (β = .26, p< .01, gender (β = -.13, p< .01, income (β = -.13, p< .01, neuroticism (β = .51, p< .01, and hopelessness (β = .15, p< .01 were significant predictors of depression.The study provides preventive strategies that would help in the development of depression-reduction services or programs for the population, especially for those living with neuroticism and hopelessness.

  11. Psychometric Evaluation of the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale in Adults with Functional Limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrock, Carolyn J; Bekhet, Abir; Zauszniewski, Jaclene A

    2016-01-01

    Enjoyment is an important construct for understanding physical activity participation, and it has not been examined in adults with functional limitations. This secondary analysis reported the reliability and validity of the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PACES) in a convenience sample of 40 adults with functional limitations. The participants completed the PACES, Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), and the Late Life Function and Disability Instrument (LLFDI) prior to beginning a 12-week feasibility dance intervention study. Results indicated reliability as Cronbach's alpha was .95 and mean inter-item correlation was .52. To further support reliability, homogeneity of the instrument was evaluated using item-to-total scale correlations. Homogeneity was supported as all items had corrected item-to-total correlations greater than .30. For validity, the PACES was significantly related to only the Physical Function component of the LLFDI (r = .38, p = .02), but not the CES-D. Exploratory factor analysis revealed a 3-factor structure that accounted for 73.76% of the variance. This feasibility intervention dance study represented the first attempt to examine the psychometric properties of the PACES in adults with functional limitations. The findings demonstrate support for the scale's reliability and validity among adults with functional limitations. Results are informative as further psychometric testing of the PACES is recommended using randomized clinical trials with larger sample sizes. Enjoyment for physical activity is an important construct for understanding physical activity participation in adults with functional limitations.

  12. The development and initial validation of the Terminally Ill Grief or Depression Scale (TIGDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periyakoil, Vyjeyanthi S; Kraemer, Helena C; Noda, Art; Moos, Rudolf; Hallenbeck, James; Webster, Maria; Yesavage, Jerome A

    2005-01-01

    Patients often experience 'preparatory-grief' as they cope with the dying process. Some may be depressed. The Terminally Ill Grief or Depression Scale (TIGDS), comprising grief and depression sub-scales, is a new self-report measure designed to differentiate between preparatory-grief and depression in adult inpatients. The initial 100-item inventory was assembled based on literature review, interviews with clinicians and dying patients and then shortened to 42 items based on consensus expert opinion. Validity and reliability were tested in a sample of 55 terminally ill adults. The consensus clinical opinion was used as the gold standard to differentiate between preparatory grief and depression. The intra-class correlation coefficient was high (it was calculated to estimate the test-retest reliability for the 47 patients who had completed the TIGDS twice--retest was administered 2 to 7 days after the initial test), ranging from 0.86 (grief) to 0.97 (depression). The validity of TIGDS was assessed using a receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, comparing the first test with the clinical criterion. The first and only variable and cut-point was the depression score (chi-square = 18.4, p depression = 3 cutoff score. The construct validity of the TIGDS was tested by comparing with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). The TIGDS depression subscale showed strong convergent validity and the TIGDS grief subscale showed strong discriminant validity with the HADS total score.

  13. Internet-based survey of factors associated with subjective feeling of insomnia, depression, and low health-related quality of life among Japanese adults with sleep difficulty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aritake, Sayaka; Asaoka, Shoichi; Kagimura, Tatsuo; Shimura, Akiyoshi; Futenma, Kunihiro; Komada, Yoko; Inoue, Yuichi

    2015-04-01

    This study was conducted to determine what symptom components or conditions of insomnia are related to subjective feelings of insomnia, low health-related quality of life (HRQOL), or depression. Data from 7,027 Japanese adults obtained using an Internet-based questionnaire survey was analyzed to examine associations between demographic variables and each sleep difficulty symptom item on the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) with the presence/absence of subjective insomnia and scores on the Short Form-8 (SF-8) and Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Prevalence of subjective insomnia was 12.2% (n = 860). Discriminant function analysis revealed that item scores for sleep quality, sleep latency, and sleep medication use on the PSQI and CES-D showed relatively high discriminant function coefficients for identifying positivity for the subjective feeling of insomnia. Among respondents with subjective insomnia, a low SF-8 physical component summary score was associated with higher age, depressive state, and PSQI items for sleep difficulty and daytime dysfunction, whereas a low SF-8 mental component summary score was associated with depressive state, PSQI sleep latency, sleeping medication use, and daytime dysfunction. Depressive state was significantly associated with sleep latency, sleeping medication use, and daytime dysfunction. Among insomnia symptom components, disturbed sleep quality and sleep onset insomnia may be specifically associated with subjective feelings of the disorder. The existence of a depressive state could be significantly associated with not only subjective insomnia but also mental and physical QOL. Our results also suggest that different components of sleep difficulty, as measured by the PSQI, might be associated with mental and physical QOL and depressive status.

  14. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD) as a screening instrument in tinnitus evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zöger, Sigyn; Svedlund, Jan; Holgers, Kajsa-Mia

    2004-09-01

    The identification of anxiety and depressive disorders in tinnitus patients is important from a therapeutic point of view. We have addressed this question by investigating the screening performance of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD) in a consecutive series of tinnitus patients (n = 82) without severe socially disabling hearing loss referred to an audiological clinic. The structured clinical interview for DSM-III criteria was used as the gold standard. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to compare the screening abilities of the HAD subscales for anxiety and depression and the total HAD Scale. The ROC analysis showed that the HAD Scale was better at detecting depression than anxiety disorders in tinnitus patients. The optimal cut-off score for the subscales was > or = 5 when we were screening for any anxiety or depressive disorder as well as for major depression. The performance of the HAD depression subscale was superior, especially when we were screening for major depression only (sensitivity 1.00; specificity 0.75). The findings of the study suggest that the HAD Scale is more useful for screening for depression than for anxiety disorders in tinnitus patients

  15. Using sickness absence records to predict future depression in a working population: prospective findings from the GAZEL cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchior, Maria; Ferrie, Jane E; Alexanderson, Kristina; Goldberg, Marcel; Kivimaki, Mika; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Vahtera, Jussi; Westerlund, Hugo; Zins, Marie; Head, Jenny

    2009-08-01

    We tested the hypothesis that sickness absence from work predicts workers' risk of later depression. Study participants (n = 7391) belonged to the French GAZEL cohort of employees of the national gas and electricity company. Sickness absence data (1996-1999) were obtained from company records. Participants' depression in 1996 and 1999 was assessed with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D) scale. The analyses were controlled for baseline age, gender, marital status, occupational grade, tobacco smoking status, alcohol consumption, subthreshold depressive symptoms, and work stress. Among workers who were free of depression in 1996, 13% had depression in 1999. Compared with workers with no sickness absence during the study period, those with sickness absence were more likely to be depressed at follow-up (for 1 period of sickness absence, fully adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.53, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.28, 1.82; for 2 or more periods, fully adjusted OR = 1.95, 95% CI = 1.61, 2.36). Future depression was predicted both by psychiatric and nonpsychiatric sickness absence (fully adjusted OR = 3.79 [95% CI = 2.81, 5.10] and 1.41 [95% CI = 1.21, 1.65], respectively). Sickness absence records may help identify workers vulnerable to future depression.

  16. Depressão em trabalhadores de linhas elétricas de alta tensão Depression in high voltage power line workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suerda Fortaleza de Souza

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar a associação entre desequilíbrio esforços-recompensas no trabalho e sintomas depressivos em trabalhadores de linhas elétricas de alta tensão. MÉTODOS: Estudo de corte transversal realizado em 158 trabalhadores de uma empresa de energia elétrica no Nordeste do Brasil. As dimensões do modelo esforço-recompensa (ERI constituíram as variáveis independentes principais e a variável resposta foi depressão, medida pela escala Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D. Os dados foram analisados com técnicas de regressão logística múltipla. RESULTADOS: Trabalhadores no grupo de baixa recompensa apresentaram prevalência de depressão 6,2 vezes maior em relação àqueles no grupo de alta recompensa. A prevalência de depressão foi 3,3 vezes maior entre os trabalhadores em condição de desequilíbrio esforço-recompensa do que entre aqueles em situação de equilíbrio. CONCLUSÕES: A prevalência de depressão estava fortemente associada às dimensões de esforços e recompensas presentes no trabalho dos eletricitários.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between effort-reward imbalance and depressive symptoms among workers in high voltage power lines. METHODS: A cross-sectional study among 158 workers from an electric power company in Northeast Brazil. The main independent variables were the Effort-Reward Imbalance Model (ERI dimensions and the main dependent variable was the prevalence of depression, as measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D scale. Data were analyzed by multiple logistic regression techniques. RESULTS: The group of low reward workers presented a depression prevalence rate 6.2 times greater than those in the high reward group. The depression prevalence rate was 3.3 greater in workers in the situation of imbalanced effort-reward than in those in effort-reward equilibrium. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of depression was strongly associated with psychosocial

  17. The Simplified Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS for Antenatal Depression: Is It a Valid Measure for Pre-Screening?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sea Kyung Choi, Jung Jin Kim, Yong Gyu Park, Hyun Sun Ko, In Yang Park, Jong Chul Shin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The identification of antenatal depression is critical but poorly conducted. The aim of this study was to construct a simplified depression survey scale and to verify its efficacy as a pre-screening for antenatal depression. A total of 494 pregnant women in the third trimester of gestation who had received antenatal care at Seoul St. Mary's Hospital from July 2009 to June 2010 were included. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS questionnaire was completed by them. The subjects were randomly divided into two groups: 250 of training set and 244 of validation set. We designed a simplified questionnaire comprising two items of EPDS using the training set. We then validated its efficacy with the training set and reaffirmed the results with the validation set. The sum of item 5 (scare or panic and item 8 (sadness or misery explained 75.5% of the total score of the EPDS (AUC = 0.947. Using a score of 3 as a cut-off value of the simplified scale, sensitivity was 92.4% and specificity was 86.3%. The positive and negative predictive values were 56.2% and 98.4%, retrospectively. This study suggests that the simplified EPDS can be an efficient instrument to rule out depression during pregnancy.

  18. Evaluation of the Cardiac Depression Visual Analogue Scale in a medical and non-medical sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Benedetto, Mirella; Sheehan, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Comorbid depression and medical illness is associated with a number of adverse health outcomes such as lower medication adherence and higher rates of subsequent mortality. Reliable and valid psychological measures capable of detecting a range of depressive symptoms found in medical settings are needed. The Cardiac Depression Visual Analogue Scale (CDVAS) is a recently developed, brief six-item measure originally designed to assess the range and severity of depressive symptoms within a cardiac population. The current study aimed to further investigate the psychometric properties of the CDVAS in a general and medical sample. The sample consisted of 117 participants, whose mean age was 40.0 years (SD = 19.0, range 18-84). Participants completed the CDVAS, the Cardiac Depression Scale (CDS), the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) and a demographic and health questionnaire. The CDVAS was found to have adequate internal reliability (α = .76), strong concurrent validity with the CDS (r = .89) and the depression sub-scale of the DASS (r = .70), strong discriminant validity and strong predictive validity. The principal components analysis revealed that the CDVAS measured only one component, providing further support for the construct validity of the scale. Results of the current study indicate that the CDVAS is a short, simple, valid and reliable measure of depressive symptoms suitable for use in a general and medical sample.

  19. Depression and anxiety in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: prevalence rates based on a comparison of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS and the hospital, Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Covic Tanya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While it is recognised that depression is prevalent in Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA, recent studies have also highlighted significant levels of anxiety in RA patients. This study compared two commonly used scales, the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, in relation to their measurement range and cut points to consider the relative prevalence of both constructs, and if prevalence rates may be due to scale-specific case definition. Methods Patients meeting the criteria for RA were recruited in Leeds, UK and Sydney, Australia and asked to complete a survey that included both scales. The data was analysed using the Rasch measurement model. Results A total of 169 RA patients were assessed, with a repeat subsample, resulting in 323 cases for analysis. Both scales met Rasch model expectations. Using the 'possible+probable' cut point from the HADS, 58.3% had neither anxiety nor depression; 13.5% had anxiety only; 6.4% depression only and 21.8% had both 'possible+probable' anxiety and depression. Cut points for depression were comparable across the two scales while a lower cut point for anxiety in the DASS was required to equate prevalence. Conclusions This study provides further support for high prevalence of depression and anxiety in RA. It also shows that while these two scales provide a good indication of possible depression and anxiety, the estimates of prevalence so derived could vary, particularly for anxiety. These findings are discussed in terms of comparisons across studies and selection of scales for clinical use.

  20. Association of major depressive episode with negative outcomes of tuberculosis treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Ugarte-Gil

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB persists an important contributor to the burden of diseases in developing countries. TB control success is based on the patient's compliance to the treatment. Depressive disorders have been negatively associated with compliance of therapeutic schemes for chronic diseases. This study aimed to estimate the significance and magnitude of major depressive episode as a hazard factor for negative outcomes (NO, including abandon or death in patients receiving TB treatment. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A longitudinal study was conducted to evaluate the association of major depressive episode (MDE, as measured by a 5-item version of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D with NO to TB treatment. Patients with confirmed TB were enrolled before the start of TB treatment. Baseline measurements included socio-demographic variables as well as the CES-D, which was also applied every month until the end of the treatment. Death and treatment default were assessed monthly. Survivor function (SF for NO according to MDE status (CES-D≥6 at baseline (MDEb was estimated. Cox's Regression was performed for bivariate analyses as well as for the multivariate model. A total of 325 patients accepted to participate in the study, of which 34 where excluded for diagnosis of MDR-TB. NO was observed in 24 patients (8.2%; 109 (37% presented MDEb. Statistically significant difference was found on the SF of patients with and without MDEb (0.85 vs. 0.96, p-value = 0.002. The hazard ratio for NO, controlled for age, sex, marital status and instruction level was 3.54 (95%CI 1.43-8.75; p-value = 0.006. CONCLUSION: The presence of MDE at baseline is associated to NO of TB treatment. Targeting detection and treatment of MDE may improve TB treatment outcomes.

  1. The Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D) and the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Scale (MADRS). A psychometric re-analysis of the European Genome-Based Therapeutic Drugs for Depression Study using Rasch analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Per; Allerup, Peter; Larsen, Erik Roj

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this re-analysis of the European Genome-Based Therapeutic Drugs for Depression Study (GENDEP) was to psychometrically test the unidimensionality of the full Montgomery Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS10) and the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D17) versus their respective...... 2030 had to be supplemented with the Friedman two-way analysis of variance by ranks. The HAM-D6 but not the MADRS5 was accepted. It was therefore concluded that the HAM-D6 is a psychometrically valid outcome scale to measure change in clinical trials of antidepressants....

  2. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DEPRESSION AND ANXIETY - CONSTRUCTION OF A PROTOTYPICAL ANXIETY AND DEPRESSION SCALE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KOETER, MWJ; VANDENBRINK, W

    1992-01-01

    The question of the relationship between anxiety and depression remains to be solved. The fact that clinical pictures show substantial overlap makes it difficult, using conventional instruments, to distinguish between the co-occurrence of anxiety and depression and overlap in definitions and measure

  3. Depressive Symptoms, Depletion, or Developmental Change? Withdrawal, Apathy, and Lack of Vigor in the Geriatric Depressive Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Kathryn Betts

    2001-01-01

    This study has dual goals of confirming the existence of a "Withdrawal/Apathy/[Lack of] Vigor" (WAV) dimension of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) and determining if it is descriptive of either depletion or disengagement-related change in older adults. High endorsement rates suggest WAV may be congruent with disengagement or depletion and may…

  4. Dietary taurine intake, nutrients intake, dietary habits and life stress by depression in Korean female college students: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji-Yeon; You, Jeong-Soon; Chang, Kyung-Ja

    2010-08-24

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the dietary taurine intake, nutrients intake, dietary habits and life stress by depression in Korean female college students. In this study, research data were collected in March 2009 and 65 patients with depression and 65 controls without depression participated. The CES-D (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression) scale was used for depression measure and controls were matched for age. A 3-day recall method was used for dietary assessment (2 weekdays and 1 weekend day). Average height, weight and body mass index (BMI) were 161.3+/-0.5 cm, 55.3+/-1.0 kg and 21.2+/-0.4 kg/m2 for depression patients and those of control group were 161.4+/-0.7 cm, 53.1+/-0.8 kg and 20.3+/-0.2 kg/m2, respectively. Average dietary taurine intakes of depression patients and control group were 89.1 and 88.0 mg/day, respectively. There was no significant difference in dietary taurine intake between depression patients and control group. The average intakes of vitamin A (pnutrition status. Also depression patients have higher life stress score.Therefore, continuous nutrition education and counselling for good dietary habits and balanced nutrition status are needed to prevent depression in Korean college students.

  5. Sex-specific sleep patterns among university students in Lebanon: impact on depression and academic performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabrita CS

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Colette S Kabrita,1 Theresa A Hajjar-Muça,2 1Department of Sciences, 2Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Faculty of Natural and Applied Sciences, Notre Dame University – Louaize, Zouk Mosbeh, Lebanon Abstract: Good sleep quality and quantity are fundamental to the maintenance of normal physiological processes. Changes in sleep patterns are commonly observed among young adults and are shown to impact neurocognitive, academic, and psychological well-being. Given the scarcity of sleep information about Lebanon and acknowledging the sex differences in various sleep dimensions, we conducted a study that aimed at assessing sex differences in sleep habits among university students in Lebanon in relation to psychoacademic status. A total of 540 students (50.6% females completed a questionnaire that inquired about sociodemographics and evaluated sleep quality and depression using the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI and Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D, respectively. The mean PSQI global score (6.57±3.49 indicated poor sleep, with no significant differences between men and women. The sleep/wake rhythm was delayed on weekends for both sexes. Females exhibited earlier bedtimes and rise times and longer sleep durations on both weekdays and weekends. However, unlike males females showed a greater phase delay in wake times than bedtimes on weekends (149 minutes vs 74 minutes, respectively. In all, 70.9% of females suffered from depressive symptoms, which was a significantly higher proportion compared with 58.5% of males (P<0.01. Based on the mean cumulative self-reported grade point average (GPA, the academic performance of females was significantly better than that of males (2.8±0.61 vs 2.65±0.61, P<0.05, respectively. Depression, as scored by CES-D, in females was significantly negatively correlated with the cumulative GPA (r=-0.278, P<0.01, earlier wake time (r=-0.168, P<0.05, and average sleep duration (r=-0

  6. Use of Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale in a North American population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, A; Gang, P; Cole, K; Rutsky, M; Reese, L; Weisbord, J A

    1993-05-01

    1. The authors mailed the Edinburgh Post-natal Depression Scale to 308 women at six weeks postpartum. 2. It was completed and return by 185 women (60.0%). 3. Thirty-two of them (17.4%) scored 12 and above, the threshold reported to identify most women with postpartum depressive disorder.

  7. The Behavioral Activation for Depression Scale-Short Form: Development and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manos, Rachel C.; Kanter, Jonathan W.; Luo, Wen

    2011-01-01

    Following a landmark component analysis of cognitive therapy by Jacobson and colleagues (1996), there has been renewed interest in behavioral activation (BA) treatments for depression. The Behavioral Activation for Depression Scale (BADS) was developed to measure when and how clients become activated over the course of BA treatment. Multiple…

  8. The Behavioral Activation for Depression Scale-Short Form: Development and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manos, Rachel C.; Kanter, Jonathan W.; Luo, Wen

    2011-01-01

    Following a landmark component analysis of cognitive therapy by Jacobson and colleagues (1996), there has been renewed interest in behavioral activation (BA) treatments for depression. The Behavioral Activation for Depression Scale (BADS) was developed to measure when and how clients become activated over the course of BA treatment. Multiple…

  9. Psychometric evaluation of the Major Depression Inventory (MDI) as depression severity scale using the LEAD (Longitudinal Expert Assessment of All Data) as index of validity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Per; Timmerby, N; Martiny, K

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Major Depression Inventory (MDI) was developed to cover the universe of depressive symptoms in DSM-IV major depression as well as in ICD-10 mild, moderate, and severe depression. The objective of this study was to evaluate the standardization of the MDI as a depression severity......-IV major depression. The conventional VAS scores for no, mild, moderate, and severe depression were used for the standardization of the MDI. RESULTS: The inter-correlation for the MDI with the clinician ratings (VAS, MES, HAM-D17 and HAM-D6) increased over the rating weeks in terms of Pearson coefficients....... After nine weeks of therapy the coefficient ranged from 0.74 to 0.83. Using the clinician-rated VAS depression severity scale, the conventional MDI cut-off scores for no or doubtful depression, and for mild, moderate and severe depression were confirmed. CONCLUSIONS: Using the VAS as index of external...

  10. Association between Excessive Use of Mobile Phone and Insomnia and Depression among Japanese Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Haruka; Nishida, Tomoko; Tsuji, Akiyo; Sakakibara, Hisataka

    2017-06-29

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between mobile phone use and insomnia and depression in adolescents. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 295 high school students aged 15-19 in Japan. Insomnia and depression were assessed using Athene Insomnia Scales (AIS) and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), respectively. Mobile phones were owned by 98.6% of students; 58.6% used mobile phones for over 2 h per day and 10.5% used them for over 5 h per day. Overall mobile phone use of over 5 h per day was associated with shorter sleep duration and insomnia (OR: 3.89 [[95% CI: 1.21-12.49]), but not with depression. Mobile phone use of 2 h or more per day for social network services (OR: 3.63 [[1.20-10.98]) and online chats (OR: 3.14 [[1.42-6.95]), respectively, was associated with a higher risk of depression. Mobile phone overuse can be linked to unhealthy sleep habits and insomnia. Moreover, mobile phone overuse for social network services and online chats may contribute more to depression than the use for internet searching, playing games or viewing videos.

  11. Longitudinal Causal Inference of Cognitive Function and Depressive Symptoms in Elderly People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Yao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractObjective: the association between depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale [CES-D] and subsequent cognitive function (Mini-Mental State Examination [MMSE] is equivocal in literature. To examine the causal relationship between them, we use longitudinal data on MMSE and CESD and causal inference to illustrate the relationship between two health outcomes.Method:  Data were obtained from the Hispanic Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly. Participants included 3050 noninstitutionalized Mexican Americans aged 65 and older followed from 1993-2001. Cognitive function and depressive symptoms were assessed using the MMSE and CESD at baseline and at 2, 5, and 7 years of follow-up. Independent variables were sociodemographics, CESD, medical conditions. Marginal structural causal models were employed to evaluate the extent to which cognitive function depend not only on depressive symptoms measured at a single point in time but also on an individual’s entire depressive symptoms history. Discussion: our results indicate that if intervention to reduce 1 points of depressive symptoms were made at two years prior to assessing cognitive function, they would result in average improvement in cognitive function of 0.12, 95% CI [0.06, 0.18],P<.0001. Conclusion: The results suggest that health intervention of depressive symptoms would be useful in prevention of cognitive impair.  

  12. Maternal depression and socio-economic status moderate the parenting style/child obesity association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topham, Glade L; Page, Melanie C; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Rutledge, Julie M; Kennedy, Tay S; Shriver, Lenka; Harrist, Amanda W

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to test the moderating influence of two risk factors, maternal depression and socio-economic status (SES), on the association between authoritarian and permissive parenting styles and child obesity. Correlational, cross-sectional study. Parenting style was measured with the Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire (PSDQ). Maternal depression was measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). BMI-for-age percentile was used to categorize children by weight status (children with BMI-for-age > or = 95th percentile were classified as obese). SES was computed from parent education and occupational status using the four-factor Hollingshead index. Rural public schools in a mid-western state in the USA. One hundred and seventy-six mothers of first-grade children (ninety-one boys, eighty-five girls) enrolled in rural public schools. Both maternal depression and SES were found to moderate the permissive parenting style/child obesity association, but not the authoritarian/child obesity association. For depressed mothers, but not for non-depressed mothers, more permissive parenting was predictive of child obesity. Similarly more permissive parenting was predictive of child obesity among higher SES mothers, but not for lower SES mothers. Maternal depression and SES interact with permissive parenting style to predict child obesity. Future research should examine the relationship among these variables using a longitudinal design.

  13. The Relationship between Neuroticism, Hopelessness, and Depression in Older Korean Immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bum Jung; Linton, Kristen; Cho, Sean; Ha, Jung-Hwa

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the relationship between neuroticism, hopelessness, and depression among older Korean immigrants. To extend this line of research, this study aimed to examine the effects of neuroticism and hopelessness in predicting depression among older Korean immigrants. Data for this study came from a survey of 220 first generation Korean immigrants aged 65 years or older in Los Angeles County in 2012. Data were collected by face-to-face interviews with trained social workers using a structured questionnaire translated into Korean. All interviews were conducted in Korean. The neuroticism sub-scale of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire was used to assess neuroticism (EPQN). Hopelessness was measured by the Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS). Depression was measured by the 20-item Center of Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D) scale. The study found that age (β = .26, phopelessness (β = .15, pdepression. The study provides preventive strategies that would help in the development of depression-reduction services or programs for the population, especially for those living with neuroticism and hopelessness.

  14. Efficacy of aripiprazole augmentation in Japanese patients with major depressive disorder: a subgroup analysis and Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale and Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression item analyses of the Aripiprazole Depression Multicenter Efficacy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Norio; Otsubo, Tempei; Kato, Masaki; Higuchi, Teruhiko; Ono, Hiroaki; Kamijima, Kunitoshi

    2015-01-01

    Results from this randomized, placebo-controlled study of aripiprazole augmentation to antidepressant therapy (ADT) in Japanese patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) (the Aripiprazole Depression Multicenter Efficacy [ADMIRE] study) revealed that aripiprazole augmentation was superior to ADT alone and was well tolerated. In subgroup analyses, we investigated the influence of demographic- and disease-related factors on the observed responses. We also examined how individual symptom improvement was related to overall improvement in MDD. Data from the ADMIRE study were analyzed. Subgroup analyses were performed on the primary outcome measures: the mean change in the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) total score from the end of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI)/serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) treatment to the end of the randomized treatment. Changes in the MADRS total scores were consistently greater with aripiprazole than placebo in each of the subgroups. Efficacy was not related to sex, age, number of adequate ADT trials in the current episode, MDD diagnosis, number of depressive episodes, duration of the current episode, age at first depressive episode, time since the first depressive episode, type of SSRI/SNRI, or severity at the end of SSRI/SNRI treatment phase. Compared to placebo, aripiprazole resulted in significant and rapid improvement on seven of the 10 MADRS items, including sadness. These post-hoc analyses indicated that aripiprazole was effective for a variety of Japanese patients with MDD who had exhibited inadequate responses to ADT. Additionally, we suggest that aripiprazole significantly and rapidly improved the core depressive symptoms. © 2014 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2014 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  15. Adaptation to Portuguese of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales (DASS)

    OpenAIRE

    Apóstolo,João Luís Alves; Mendes,Aida Cruz; Azeredo,Zaida Aguiar

    2006-01-01

    Objective: to adapt to Portuguese, of Portugal, the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales, a 21-item short scale (DASS 21), designed to measure depression, anxiety and stress. Method: After translation and back-translation with the help of experts, the DASS 21 was administered to patients in external psychiatry consults (N=101), and its internal consistency, construct validity and concurrent validity were measured. Results: The DASS 21 properties certify its quality to measure emotional state...

  16. Perceived discrimination and depression among new migrants to Hong Kong: the moderating role of social support and neighborhood collective efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Kee-Lee

    2012-04-01

    Although it is well known that perceived discrimination is a risk factor contributing to depressive symptoms among immigrants, most previous studies (1) did not distinguish between discrimination based on immigrant status and race and (2) used cross-sectional data. To address these limitations, the present study examined whether perceived discrimination affects depressive symptomatology in a representative sample of newly arrived immigrants from Mainland China to Hong Kong using longitudinal data over a period of one year. A representative sample of 347 migrants aged 18 and older were interviewed face to face in 2007 and 2008. The 20-item Center for Epidemiology Studies of Depression (CES-D) scale was used to measure depressive symptoms and a series of sociodemographic questions (age, gender, marital status, education, and personal income), stress due to perceived discrimination, social support, and neighborhood collective efficacy were also included. Perceived discrimination was significantly associated with depressive symptoms one year later, after adjusting for depressive symptoms at baseline assessment, sociodemographic characteristics, social support, and neighborhood collective efficacy. Moreover, both social support and neighborhood collective efficacy moderated the effect of perceived discrimination on depressive symptoms. Perceived discrimination is a common experience for new Mainland immigrants to Hong Kong, and it predicts depressive symptoms. Therefore, interventions that reduce discrimination and strengthen social support and neighborhood collective efficacy should be designed and implemented to improve the mental health of new immigrants in Hong Kong. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Induced abortion is not associated with a higher likelihood of depression in Curaçao women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boersma, Adriana A; van den Berg, Desirée; van Lunsen, Rik H W; Laan, Ellen T M

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the risk of developing a depression after induced abortion. A prospective cohort study conducted in Curaçao which involved 92 women having an induced abortion and 37 women delivering after an unplanned or unwanted pregnancy, who served as controls. All participants completed the Center of Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D) scale before and two to three weeks after the abortion or delivery. Following the abortion, significantly fewer women were at risk of depression (30%) as compared to when still pregnant (60%). Mean depression scores were significantly lower after- than before the procedure. The likelihood of depression post-abortum (30%) was similar to that after delivery of an unplanned/unwanted child (22%). Even though women in the abortion group more often reported having suffered from depression in the past than controls, they were not at greater risk of depression after their pregnancy had ended. Curaçao women's risk of developing a depression following an (early) induced abortion is not greater than that after carrying to term an unplanned/unwanted pregnancy. We recommend that the results of this study be taken into account in case the Curaçao government should consider legalisation of induced abortion in the near future.

  18. [The actor effect and the partner effect of self-esteem and mother-adolescent communication on depression in mothers and adolescents in Kirogi families according to adolescent' development stage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Eun Kyung; Shin, Sung Hee

    2010-10-01

    This study was conducted to compare the level of depression, self-esteem and mother-adolescent (M-A) communication perceived by both mothers and adolescents between the early adolescent (E-A) group and the late adolescent (L-A) group; and to examine the actor effect and the partner effect of self-esteem and M-A communication on depression in mothers and adolescents. Participants were 107 Kirogi families who resided in the Midwest region of the U. S. Data were collected from September, 2008 to March, 2009 using the scales of Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D), Self-esteem and Parent-Adolescent Communication Inventory. Mothers in E-A group reported higher scores on depression than mothers in L-A group. Adolescents in L-A group reported higher scores on depression and lower scores on self-esteem than adolescents in E-A group. In the E-A group, mothers' self-esteem had big actor effect on mothers' depression and partner effect on adolescents' depression. In the L-A group, self-esteem of mothers and adolescents had actor effect on their depression respectively without partner effect. M-A communication of mothers influences mothers' depression negatively and adolescents' depression positively. In both group, M-A communication influences their depression with mediating effect of self-esteem. To promote Kirogi families' mental health, programs for mothers and adolescents should be developed differently according to adolescents' development stage.

  19. Testing a German Adaption of the Entrapment Scale and Assessing the Relation to Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Trachsel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The construct of entrapment is used in evolutionary theory to explain the etiology of depression. The perception of entrapment can emerge when defeated individuals want to escape but are incapable. Studies have shown relationships of entrapment to depression, and suicidal tendencies. The aim of this study was a psychometric evaluation and validation of the Entrapment Scale in German (ES-D. 540 normal subjects completed the ES-D along with other measures of depressive symptoms, hopelessness, and distress. Good reliability and validity of the ES-D was demonstrated. Further, whereas entrapment originally has been regarded as a two-dimensional construct, our analyses supported a single-factor model. Entrapment explained variance in depressive symptoms beyond that explained by stress and hopelessness supporting the relevance of the construct for depression research. These findings are discussed with regard to their theoretical implications as well as to the future use of the entrapment scale in clinical research and practice.

  20. The Symptom Checklist-core depression (SCL-CD6) scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnusson Hanson, Linda L; Westerlund, Hugo; Leineweber, Constanze

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: Major depressive disorders are common, with substantial impact on individuals/society. Brief scales for depression severity, based on a small number of characteristics all of which are necessary for diagnosis, have been recommended in self-reported versions for clinical work or research when...... aiming to quickly and accurately measure depression. We have examined psychometric properties of a brief 6-item version of the Symptom Checklist (SCL), the Symptom Checklist core depression scale (SCL-CD6) and aimed to identify a cut-point for epidemiological research. METHODS: The psychometric...... evaluation of the SCL-CD6 was mainly performed by a Mokken analysis of unidimensionality in a random sample of 1476 residents in the Stockholm County, aged 18-64 years. The standardization of SCL-CD6 was based on ROC analysis, using the Major Depression Inventory as index of validity. Predictive validity...

  1. Measurement-based Treatment of Residual Symptoms Using Clinically Useful Depression Outcome Scale: Korean Validation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Sang Won; Han, Changsu; Ko, Young-Hoon; Yoon, Seo Young; Pae, Chi-Un; Choi, Joonho; Park, Yong Chon; Kim, Jong-Woo; Yoon, Ho-Kyoung; Ko, Seung-Duk; Patkar, Ashwin A.; Zimmerman, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Objective This study was aimed at evaluating the diagnostic validity of the Korean version of the Clinically Useful Depression Outcome Scale (CUDOS) with varying follow-up in a typical clinical setting in multiple centers. Methods In total, 891 psychiatric outpatients were enrolled at the time of their intake appointment. Current diagnostic characteristics were examined using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (41% major depressive disorder). The CUDOS was measured and compared with three clinician rating scales and four self-report scales. Results The CUDOS showed excellent results for internal consistency (Cronbach’s α, 0.91), test-retest reliability (patients at intake, r=0.81; depressed patients in ongoing treatment, r=0.89), and convergent and discriminant validity (measures of depression, r=0.80; measures of anxiety and somatization, r=0.42). The CUDOS had a high ability to discriminate between different levels of depression severity based on the rating of Clinical Global Impression for depression severity and the diagnostic classification of major depression, minor depression, and non-depression. The ability of the CUDOS to identify patients with major depression was high (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve=0.867). A score of 20 as the optimal cutoff point was suggested when screening for major depression using the CUDOS (sensitivity=89.9%, specificity=69.5%). The CUDOS was sensitive to change after antidepressant treatment: patients with greater improvement showed a greater decrease in CUDOS scores (pKorean version of the CUDOS is a very useful measurement for research and for clinical practice. PMID:28138107

  2. Effort-reward imbalance and depression in Japanese medical residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, Yumi; Wada, Koji; Tsutsumi, Akizumi; Ishikawa, Hiroyasu; Aratake, Yutaka; Watanabe, Mayumi; Katoh, Noritada; Aizawa, Yoshiharu; Tanaka, Katsutoshi

    2008-01-01

    The effort-reward imbalance is an important psychosocial factor which is related to poor health among employees. However, there are few studies that have evaluated effort-reward imbalance among medical residents. The present study was done to determine the association between psychosocial factors at work as defined by the effort-reward imbalance model and depression among Japanese medical residents. We distributed a questionnaire to 227 medical residents at 16 teaching hospitals in Japan at the end of August 2005. We asked participants to answer questions which included demographic information, depressive symptoms, effort-reward imbalance, over-commitment and social support. Depression was evaluated using the Japanese version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D) scale. The effort-reward imbalance and over-commitment were assessed by the Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) questionnaire which Siegrist developed. Social support was determined on a visual analog scale. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the associations between effort-reward imbalance and depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms were found in 35 (29.2%) 1st-year residents and 21 (27.6%) 2nd-year residents. The effort-reward ratio >1 (OR, 8.83; 95% CI, 2.87-27.12) and low social support score (OR, 2.77, 95% CI, 1.36-5.64) were associated with depressive symptoms among medical residents. Effort-reward imbalance was independently related to depression among Japanese medical residents. The present study suggests that balancing between effort and reward at work is important for medical residents' mental health.

  3. 老年人抑郁症状与认知功能的关系分析%The relationship between the depressive symptoms and congnitive funcion of eldrly patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅文农; 施和勋

    2008-01-01

    Objective To analyze depressive symptoms and its relationship with cognitive function of elderly patients in mental hospital.Methods To investigate 221 cases of elderly patients aged more than 60 years old selected from Yiwu third people's hospital and were screened by Chinese version of center of epidemiological survey depression scale (CES-D) and Chinese version of mini-mental states examination (MMSE).Results (1)153 cases (69.2%) of elderly patients suffer from definite depression symptoms.(2) The depressive symptoms of elderly patients,with different age,sex,educational level,have no significant difference.(3)The depressive symptoms have relationship with their cognitive function impairment on elder patients.Conclusion Routine screening for depressive symptoms and cognitive function is necessary for elderly patient with depressive or cognitive function impairment.%目的 了解老年抑郁症状与认知功能的关系.方法 应用中文版抑郁量表(CES-D)和简易智能状态检查量表(MMSE),对浙江省义乌市第三人民医院门诊的221例老年患者(年龄≥60岁)进行问卷调查,并予以分析.结果 (1)153例(69.2%)老年患者有抑郁症状;(2)不同年龄、性别、教育水平的老年患者抑郁症状差异无统计学意义.(3)有抑郁症状的老年人认知功能损害程度较明显.结论 抑郁症状与认知障碍呈正相关.

  4. Depressive symptoms among immigrant and Canadian born mothers of preterm infants at neonatal intensive care discharge: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ballantyne Marilyn

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mothers of preterm infants are considered at higher risk for depressive symptoms, higher than for mothers of healthy term infants. Predictors of depressive symptoms in mothers of preterm infants are not yet well established. Immigrant mothers of term infants have higher prevalence of depressive symptoms than Canadian born mothers but the relative prevalence for immigrant mothers of preterm infants is unknown. This study had two aims: (i to investigate the prevalence of depressive symptoms in immigrant as compared to Canadian born mothers of preterm infants, and (ii to determine what factors are associated with depressive symptoms in mothers of preterm infants. Methods This is a multi-site, cross sectional study of mothers whose preterm infants required hospitalization in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU. Consecutive eligible mothers (N = 291 were recruited during the week prior to their infant’s NICU discharge. Mothers completed a self-administered questionnaire booklet of validated psychosocial/cultural measures including the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D, Parental Stressor Scale:NICU, General Functioning Subscale of the McMaster Family Assessment Device, Social Support Index, and Vancouver Index of Acculturation; and demographic characteristics questions. Infant characteristics included gestational age, birth weight, sex, singleton/multiple birth, and Score for Neonatal Acute Physiology-II. Results Immigrant mothers (N = 107, when compared to Canadian born mothers (N = 184, reported more depressive symptoms, poorer family functioning, less social support, and less mainstream acculturation. Hierarchical regression for a subsample of 271 mothers indicated that single parent status, high stress, poorer family functioning, and less social support were associated with increased depressive symptoms and accounted for 39% of the variance on the CES-D. Immigrant status did not contribute

  5. Impact of a private sector living wage intervention on depressive symptoms among apparel workers in the Dominican Republic: a quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmaster, Katharine B; Landefeld, John C; Rehkopf, David H; Lahiff, Maureen; Sokal-Gutierrez, Karen; Adler-Milstein, Sarah; Fernald, Lia C H

    2015-08-03

    Poverty reduction interventions through cash transfers and microcredit have had mixed effects on mental health. In this quasi-experimental study, we evaluate the effect of a living wage intervention on depressive symptoms of apparel factory workers in the Dominican Republic. Two apparel factories in the Dominican Republic. The final sample consisted of 204 hourly wage workers from the intervention (99) and comparison (105) factories. In 2010, an apparel factory began a living wage intervention including a 350% wage increase and significant workplace improvements. The wage increase was plausibly exogenous because workers were not aware of the living wage when applying for jobs and expected to be paid the usual minimum wage. These individuals were compared with workers at a similar local factory paying minimum wage, 15-16 months postintervention. Workers' depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D). Ordinary least squares and Poisson regressions were used to evaluate treatment effect of the intervention, adjusted for covariates. Intervention factory workers had fewer depressive symptoms than comparison factory workers (unadjusted mean CES-D scores: 10.6 ± 9.3 vs 14.7 ± 11.6, p = 0.007). These results were sustained when controlling for covariates (β = -5.4, 95% CI -8.5 to -2.3, p = 0.001). In adjusted analyses using the standard CES-D clinical cut-off of 16, workers at the intervention factory had a 47% reduced risk of clinically significant levels of depressive symptoms compared with workers at the comparison factory (23% vs 40%). Policymakers have long grappled with how best to improve mental health among populations in low-income and middle-income countries. We find that providing a living wage and workplace improvements to improve income and well-being in a disadvantaged population is associated with reduced depressive symptoms. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where

  6. A study of remitted and treatment-resistant depression using MMPI and including pessimism and optimism scales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masatoshi Suzuki

    Full Text Available The psychological aspects of treatment-resistant and remitted depression are not well documented.We administered the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI to patients with treatment-resistant depression (n = 34, remitted depression (n = 25, acute depression (n = 21, and healthy controls (n = 64. Pessimism and optimism were also evaluated by MMPI.ANOVA and post-hoc tests demonstrated that patients with treatment-resistant and acute depression showed similarly high scores for frequent scale (F, hypochondriasis, depression, conversion hysteria, psychopathic device, paranoia, psychasthenia and schizophrenia on the MMPI compared with normal controls. Patients with treatment-resistant depression, but not acute depression registered high on the scale for cannot say answer. Using Student's t-test, patients with remitted depression registered higher on depression and social introversion scales, compared with normal controls. For pessimism and optimism, patients with treatment-resistant depression demonstrated similar changes to acutely depressed patients. Remitted depression patients showed lower optimism than normal controls by Student's t-test, even though these patients were deemed recovered from depression using HAM-D.The patients with remitted depression and treatment-resistant depression showed subtle alterations on the MMPI, which may explain the hidden psychological features in these cohorts.

  7. A study of remitted and treatment-resistant depression using MMPI and including pessimism and optimism scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Masatoshi; Takahashi, Michio; Muneoka, Katsumasa; Sato, Koichi; Hashimoto, Kenji; Shirayama, Yukihiko

    2014-01-01

    The psychological aspects of treatment-resistant and remitted depression are not well documented. We administered the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) to patients with treatment-resistant depression (n = 34), remitted depression (n = 25), acute depression (n = 21), and healthy controls (n = 64). Pessimism and optimism were also evaluated by MMPI. ANOVA and post-hoc tests demonstrated that patients with treatment-resistant and acute depression showed similarly high scores for frequent scale (F), hypochondriasis, depression, conversion hysteria, psychopathic device, paranoia, psychasthenia and schizophrenia on the MMPI compared with normal controls. Patients with treatment-resistant depression, but not acute depression registered high on the scale for cannot say answer. Using Student's t-test, patients with remitted depression registered higher on depression and social introversion scales, compared with normal controls. For pessimism and optimism, patients with treatment-resistant depression demonstrated similar changes to acutely depressed patients. Remitted depression patients showed lower optimism than normal controls by Student's t-test, even though these patients were deemed recovered from depression using HAM-D. The patients with remitted depression and treatment-resistant depression showed subtle alterations on the MMPI, which may explain the hidden psychological features in these cohorts.

  8. The Major Depressive Disorder Hierarchy: Rasch Analysis of 6 items of the Hamilton Depression Scale Covering the Continuum of Depressive Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Melancholic features of depression (MFD) seem to be a unidimensional group of signs and symptoms. However, little importance has been given to the evaluation of what features are related to a more severe disorder. That is, what are the MFD that appear only in the most depressed patients. We aim to demonstrate how each MFD is related to the severity of the major depressive disorder. Methods We evaluated both the Hamilton depression rating scale (HDRS-17) and its 6-item melancholic subscale (HAM-D6) in 291 depressed inpatients using Rasch analysis, which computes the severity of each MFD. Overall measures of model fit were mean (±SD) of items and persons residual = 0 (±1); low χ2 value; p>0.01. Results For the HDRS-17 model fit, mean (±SD) of item residuals = 0.35 (±1.4); mean (±SD) of person residuals = -0.15 (±1.09); χ2 = 309.74; p<0.00001. For the HAM-D6 model fit, mean (±SD) of item residuals = 0.5 (±0.86); mean (±SD) of person residuals = 0.15 (±0.91); χ2 = 56.13; p = 0.196. MFD ordered by crescent severity were depressed mood, work and activities, somatic symptoms, psychic anxiety, guilt feelings, and psychomotor retardation. Conclusions Depressed mood is less severe, while guilt feelings and psychomotor retardation are more severe MFD in a psychiatric hospitalization. Understanding depression as a continuum of symptoms can improve the understanding of the disorder and may improve its perspective of treatment. PMID:28114341

  9. Confirmatory factor analysis of the Portuguese Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apóstolo, João Luís Alves; Tanner, Barry Allen; Arfken, Cynthia Lee

    2012-01-01

    To determine which of three published models best characterizes the factor structure of the Portuguese version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21 and to assess its validity and reliability. Confirmatory factor analysis of Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 for 1,297 adult, primary care outpatients (66.7% female, Mage = 48.57 years) comparing 3 models. The relationship between the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21 and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule was analyzed. The correlated 3-factor model fit the data best. The scale demonstrated good internal consistency, with alpha scores of the subscales ranging from 0.836 to 0.897. Correlation with the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule was positive and moderate with the negative affect scale; it was negative and limited with the positive affect. These findings support the correlated 3-factor structure. The test demonstrated adequate reliability and construct validity, which supports its use for screening in primary care settings with Portuguese speakers.

  10. Association Between Self-Esteem and Depressive Symptoms Is Stronger Among Black than White Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin

    2017-08-01

    Although poor self-esteem is a core component of depression, we still do not know if racial and ethnic groups differ in the magnitude of this link. This study compared Black and White older adults on the association between self-esteem and depressive symptoms. With a cross-sectional design, this study enrolled 1493 older individuals (age 66 or more) from the 2001 Religion, Aging, and Health Survey, a nationally representative study in the United States. Participants were either Blacks (n = 734) or Whites (n = 759). Depressive symptoms and self-esteem were measured using brief measures of the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale (CES-D) and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, respectively. Demographics, socioeconomics, and self-rated health (SRH) were covariates and self-identified race was the moderator. Linear regression models were used for data analysis. Low self-esteem was associated with more depressive symptoms (B = 0.17, 95 % CI 0.15-0.28), above and beyond all covariates. We found a significant and positive interaction between race (Black) and poor self-esteem on depressive symptoms (B = 0.34, 95 % CI 0.17-0.36), suggesting a stronger association between self-esteem and depressive symptoms among Blacks compared to Whites. Although low self-esteem is associated with higher depressive symptoms in both Whites and Blacks (p self-esteem and high depressive symptoms are more closely associated among Blacks than Whites. It is not clear whether depression leaves a larger scar on self-esteem for Blacks, or Blacks are more vulnerable to the effect of low self-esteem on depression.

  11. Associations between maternal depressive symptoms and child feeding practices in a cross-sectional study of low-income mothers and their young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulding, Alison N; Rosenblum, Katherine L; Miller, Alison L; Peterson, Karen E; Chen, Yu-Pu; Kaciroti, Niko; Lumeng, Julie C

    2014-06-16

    Maternal depression may influence feeding practices important in determining child eating behaviors and weight. However, the association between maternal depressive symptoms and feeding practices has been inconsistent, and most prior studies used self-report questionnaires alone to characterize feeding. The purpose of this study was to identify feeding practices associated with maternal depressive symptoms using multiple methodologies, and to test the hypothesis that maternal depressive symptoms are associated with less responsive feeding practices. In this cross-sectional, observational study, participants (n = 295) included low-income mothers and their 4- to 8-year-old children. Maternal feeding practices were assessed via interviewer-administered questionnaires, semi-structured narrative interviews, and videotaped observations in home and laboratory settings. Maternal depressive symptoms were measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale (CES-D). Regression analyses examined associations between elevated depressive symptoms (CES-D score ≥16) and measures of maternal feeding practices, adjusting for: child sex, food fussiness, number of older siblings; and maternal age, body mass index (BMI), education, race/ethnicity, single parent status, perceived child weight, and concern about child weight. Thirty-one percent of mothers reported depressive symptoms above the screening cutoff. Mothers with elevated depressive symptoms reported more pressuring of children to eat (β = 0.29; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.03, 0.54) and more overall demandingness (β = 0.16; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.29), and expressed lower authority in child feeding during semi-structured narrative interview (Odds Ratio (OR) for low authority: 2.82; 95% CI: 1.55, 5.12). In homes of mothers with elevated depressive symptoms, the television was more likely audible during meals (OR: 1.91; 95% CI: 1.05, 3.48) and mothers were less likely to eat with children (OR: 0.48; 95% CI: 0

  12. Child Maltreatment and Social Connectedness Among Formerly Institutionalized Females: Links With Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Delft, Ivanka; Finkenauer, Catrin; Verbruggen, Janna

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to examine the effects of child maltreatment subtypes (physical abuse, sexual abuse, neglect, and exposure to domestic violence) and cumulative child maltreatment on depressive symptoms in adulthood, and examine the protective effects of social connectedness in a sample of formerly institutionalized females. The sample consisted of 124 females who were institutionalized in a Dutch juvenile justice institution during adolescence and were followed-up when they were on average 32 years old. Information about child maltreatment was extracted from treatment files. Retrospective data on social connectedness in young adulthood were established during interviews using a Life History Calendar. Relationship quality at follow-up was assessed with items derived from the Rochester Youth Development Study. The Center for Epidemiological Studies Scale for Depression (CES-D) was used to measure depressive symptoms in adulthood. Results showed that 85.5% of the females experienced child maltreatment, and co-occurrence of subtypes was high. Cumulative child maltreatment increased the risk of depression in adulthood. Furthermore, social connectedness, that is, more employment over time and the quality of the romantic relationship at follow-up, protected against the development of depression. However, social connectedness did not buffer the effect of maltreatment on depression. Our findings indicate that treatment of these girls should focus on improving the social-emotional development to promote positive interpersonal relationships and include educational and vocational components to guide these girls toward increased opportunities on the labor market.

  13. Decomposing socioeconomic inequalities in depressive symptoms among the elderly in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjian Xu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accelerated population ageing brings about unprecedented challenges to the health system in China. This study aimed to measure the prevalence and the income-related inequality of depressive symptoms, and also identify the determinants of depressive symptom inequality among the elderly in China. Methods Data were drawn from the second wave of the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS. Depressive symptoms were assessed with a 10-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies–Depression Scale (CES-D, which was preselected in CHARLS. The concentration index was used to measure the magnitude of income-related inequality in depressive symptoms. A decomposition analysis, based on the logit model, was employed to quantify the contribution of each determinant to total inequality. Results More than 32.55% of the elderly in China had depressive symptoms. Women had a higher prevalence of depressive symptoms than men. The overall concentration index of depressive symptoms was -0.0645 among the elderly, indicating that depressive symptoms are more concentrated among the elderly who lived in economically disadvantaged situations, favoring the rich. Income was found to have the largest percentage of contribution to overall inequality, followed by residents’ location and educational attainment. Conclusion The prevalence of depressive symptoms in the elderly was considerably high in China. There was also a pro-rich inequality in depressive symptoms amongst elderly Chinese. It is suggested that some form of policy and intervention strategies, such as establishing the urban-rural integrated medical insurance scheme, enhancing the medical assistance system, and promoting health education programs, is required to alleviate inequitable distribution of depressive symptoms.

  14. Prevalence and Prognostic Value of Depression and Anxiety in Patients with Diabetic Foot Ulcers and Possibilities of their Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udovichenko, Oleg V; Maximova, N V; Amosova, M V; Yunilaynen, O A; Berseneva, E A; Starostina, E G

    2017-01-01

    Depression and anxiety can potentially influence treatment results of diabetic complications. Of our study was to explore: (1) prevalence of these disorders in patients with diabetic foot ulcers (DFU); (2) possible risk factors of depression and anxiety; (3) possible links between ulcer treatment results and depression/anxiety status. 285 outpatients with diabetes and foot or leg ulcers were tested for depression and anxiety with self-report scales: CES-D and the anxiety subscale from HADS. Ulcer treatment results, incidence of new ulcers and number of hospital admissions were assessed after 1.5 years of follow-up. Depression was detected in 110 patients (39%), anxiety in 103 (36%). Females had depression and anxiety more often than males (48% and 46% vs. 27% and 25% respectively). A combined score based on diabetes duration, insulin treatment, history of myocardial infarction, history of foot ulcers and recent foot surgery was higher in patients with than without depression (3.0 vs. 2.0, p=0.02). Every of these or other potential risk factors alone was not associated with depression or anxiety. Patients with depression did not demonstrate poorer prognosis except higher mortality in subgroup of severely depressed patients without ulcer history. For anxiety we got similar results as its presence strongly correlated with depression. The overall prevalence of depression and anxiety in DFU patients is compatible with other diabetic populations. Various parameters of ulcer severity and duration did not influence the probability of depression and anxiety occurrence. Depression in general was not associated with poorer ulcer treatment results. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  15. Depression and its inlfuencing factors among caregivers of adult leukemia patients%成人白血病患者照顾者抑郁水平及其影响因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹蕾; 董晓欣; 柳春波; 孙彩虹; 冯志仙

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the depression level and the influencing factors among caregivers of adult leukemia patients, and to provide evidence for clinicians to implement individualized intervention. Method: Totally 207 adult leukemia patients and their primary caregivers were recruited by convenience sampling method in ifve tertiary grade A hospitals in Hangzhou and Ningbo, and were investigated using Center for Epidemiological Survey, Depression Scale (CES-D). Results: The depression level among caregivers of adult leukemia patients was high with the average CES-D score of (20.36±14.22). Totally 113 caregivers (54.59%) were depressive patients or might be depressed patients (CES-D score16 points).The main inlfuencing factors of caregiver depression scores were the patients' education background and the caregivers' education background, age, family monthly income, care time and having helpers or not. Conclusions: This study suggests that the depression among primary caregivers of adult leukemia patients is so serious that the medical staff should pay more attention to these population.%目的:调查成人白血病患者主要照顾者的抑郁水平及其影响因素,为临床医护人员实施个性化干预提供依据。方法:采用中文版抑郁自评量表(CES-D),便利抽取浙江省杭、甬两地5家三级甲等医院血液科收治的207例成人白血病患者主要照顾者进行问卷调查。结果:成人白血病患者主要照顾者群体抑郁水平较高,照顾者CES-D得分为(20.36±14.22)分,可能抑郁及抑郁者(CES-D得分≥16分)113名(54.59%);回归分析结果显示,照顾者抑郁得分受患者文化程度、照顾者文化程度、照顾者家庭月收入、照顾时间、有无协助者、照顾者年龄的影响。结论:成人白血病患者主要照顾者抑郁情况严重,应引起医务工作者的高度重视。

  16. Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... overview URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003213.htm Depression - overview To use the sharing features on this ... older adults Major depression Persistent depressive disorder Postpartum depression Premenstrual ... Review Date 1/4/2016 Updated by: Timothy Rogge, ...

  17. Modeling risk for child abuse and harsh parenting in families with depressed and substance-abusing parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Michelle L; Lawrence, Hannah R; Milletich, Robert J; Hollis, Brittany F; Henson, James M

    2015-05-01

    Children with substance abusing parents are at considerable risk for child maltreatment. The current study applied an actor-partner interdependence model to examine how father only (n=52) and dual couple (n=33) substance use disorder, as well as their depressive symptomology influenced parents' own (actor effects) and the partner's (partner effects) overreactivity in disciplinary interactions with their children, as well as their risk for child maltreatment. Parents completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D; Radloff, 1977), the overreactivity subscale from the Parenting Scale (Arnold, O'Leary, Wolff, & Acker, 1993), and the Brief Child Abuse Potential Inventory (Ondersma, Chaffin, Mullins, & LeBreton, 2005). Results of multigroup structural equation models revealed that a parent's own report of depressive symptoms predicted their risk for child maltreatment in both father SUD and dual SUD couples. Similarly, a parent's report of their own depressive symptoms predicted their overreactivity in disciplinary encounters both in father SUD and dual SUD couples. In all models, partners' depressive symptoms did not predict their partner's risk for child maltreatment or overreactivity. Findings underscore the importance of a parent's own level of depressive symptoms in their risk for child maltreatment and for engaging in overreactivity during disciplinary episodes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. How much orientation towards the host culture is healthy? Acculturation style as risk enhancement for depressive symptoms in immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Katharina; del Pozo, Melina A; Großhennig, Anika; Sieberer, Marcel; Graef-Calliess, Iris T

    2015-08-01

    As the specific acculturative tasks and challenges involved in the migration process can lead to an increased risk for depressive symptoms, the study was designed to gain further insight into the interrelation between acculturation styles and mental health. A total of n = 90 patients with different ethnic backgrounds from an outpatient consultation service for immigrants at the Hannover Medical School were investigated by the Hannover Migration and Mental Health Interview (HMMH), the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and the Frankfurt Acculturation Scale (FRAKK). The majority of the subjects (84.4%) had a clinically significant depression. The extent of depressive symptoms was determined by the selected acculturation style (1) (F = 3.29, p = .025): Subjects with integration as acculturation style showed less depressive symptoms than subjects with assimilation as acculturation style. Furthermore, subjects with segregation as acculturation style also showed less depressive symptoms than subjects with assimilation. The results suggest that even when undergoing extreme emotional distress, eventually leading to mental disorder, integration, as an acculturation style, seems to serve as a protective resource and possibly prevents further decline. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. The role of basic health insurance on depression: an epidemiological cohort study of a randomized community sample in Northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Donghua

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little research has focused on the relationship between health insurance and mental health in the community. The objective of this study is to determine how the basic health insurance system influences depression in Northwest China. Methods Participants were selected from 32 communities in two northwestern Chinese cities through a three-stage random sampling. Three waves of interviews were completed in April 2006, December 2006, and January 2008. The baseline survey was completed by 4,079 participants. Subsequently, 2,220 participants completed the first follow-up, and 1,888 completed the second follow-up. Depression symptoms were measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D. Results A total of 40.0% of participants had at least one form of health insurance. The percentages of participants with severe depressive symptoms in the three waves were 21.7%, 22.0%, and 17.6%. Depressive symptoms were found to be more severe among participants without health insurance in the follow-up surveys. After adjusting for confounders, participants without health insurance were found to experience a higher risk of developing severe depressive symptoms than participants with health insurance (7 months: OR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.09-1.82; p = 0.01; 20 months: OR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.37-2.61; p  Conclusion A lack of basic health insurance can dramatically increase the risk of depression based on northwestern Chinese community samples.

  20. Factor analysis of the hospital anxiety and depression scale among a Huntington's disease population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dale, Maria; Maltby, John; Martucci, Rossana

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Depression and anxiety are common in Huntington's disease, a genetic neurodegenerative disorder. There is a need for measurement tools of mood to be validated within a Huntington's disease population. The current study aimed to analyze the factor structure of the Hospital Anxiety......, with two group factors, comprising four depression and four anxiety items, provided the best fit of the data. The salience of loadings on the bifactor model suggested that loadings were high on the general factor (accounting for 64% of the variance) and low on the group factors (21% for anxiety and 15......% for depression). CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that eight items from the scale perform well among the sample. Consistent with recent developments in modeling the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, a bifactor interpretation for an eight-item version outperformed other extant models. Our findings provide...

  1. Reproductive Tract Infections-A Main Factor Influencing Women's Mental Status: Comparison on Depression and Anxiety between Naxi Women with and without RTIs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-dong CAI; Shi-zhong WU; Lin LUO

    2007-01-01

    Objectives 1) To explore the relationship between RTIs and mental status of Naxi women; 2) to compare the differences of depression & anxiety between Naxi women who have and not have RTIs; and 3) to put forward some suggestions for improving Naxi women's reproductive health in psychological point of view.Methods A cross-sectional survey was adopted, 280 married Naxi female volunteers who aged above 20 years old were selected by cluster random sampling from the two selected villages of Lugufu Township of Yanyuan county in Sichuan. Two selfreporting scales, CES-D and SAS were used for assessment of depression and anxiety of the subjects.Results The facts of mental status of Sichuan Naxi women brook no optimism. Among 280 Naxi reproductive age women who were investigated in current study, only 74 (26.4%) have no depression symptoms, and 116 (41.4%) have no anxiety symptoms.For the study population, the average total scores (TS) of CES-D was 20.1, and the average total index scores (TIS) of SAS was 50.2, and both of them were above a minimum value doubted to have symptoms. There were big differences of both average TS of CES-D and TIS of SAS between Naxi women who have and not have RTIs.Further analysis revealed that RTI was a main risk factor influencing women's mental status (OR=16.043 for depression, and OR=12.954 for anxiety). In addition, Naxi women's depression and anxiety were related to order births (≤2, OR=3.149, 95%CI: 1.228, 8.076), sex debut was younger (≤17, OR=3.043, 95% CI: 1.895, 4.884),and multiple pregnancy (≥3, OR=2.728, 95% CI: 1.990, 4.173), etc.Conclusion For improving Naxi women's mental status, a pressing matter of the moment is for local medical persons to gain the knowledge about mental health and the diagnosis and treatment levels of psychological disorders. At the same time,psychological counselling should become a main activity of reproductive health services.

  2. A study on construction, validation and determination of normalization of adolescents depression scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadijeh Babakhani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to construct, to validate and to determine normalization factors associated with adolescents depression scale. The study is performed among 750 randomly selected guided and high school students, 364 male and 386 female, who live in city of Zanjan, Iran. Validity of Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, Validity of Simpson-Angus Scale (SAS and divergence validity of the Coopersmith self- esteem coefficients are 0.72, 0.37 and -0.71, respectively. Result suggests that adolescents’ depression test is a reliable and valid tool for assessing depression, with utility in both research and clinical settings, counseling centers. In addition, the results of correlation test indicate there are some meaningful differences between depression levels of female and male students. In fact, our survey indicates that female students have more depression than male students do (F-value = 33.06, Sig. = 0.000. In addition, there are some meaningful differences between depression levels in various educational levels (F-value = 8.59, Sig. = 0.000. However, the study does not find sufficient evidence to believe there is any meaningful correlation between educational backgrounds and gender.

  3. A pilot study of depression among older people in Rawalpindi, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qadir, Farah; Haqqani, Sabahat; Khalid, Amna; Huma, Zille; Medhin, Girmay

    2014-06-28

    Depression is common among elderly in developed countries and it is more pronounced in institutional settings. In Pakistan there is a lack of empirical data on depression among this segment of the population particularly with reference to their living arrangements.The objectives of the present study are to report the magnitude of depression among elderly having two different residential arrangements and to examine the association of depression and its established demographic factors. Data were collected from 141 respondents. 108 were community residents (m = 57 and f = 51) and 33 were living in the care homes (m = 29 and f = 4).Prevalence of depression as assessed by Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) among community and Care Homes (CHs) participants was 31.5 percent and 60.6 percent, respectively.On Centre of Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), 42.6 percent of the community and 69.7 percent of the CH respondents were deemed depressed. Before adjusting for any other potential risk factors the odds of being depressed was significantly increased if the study participants were living in CH, relatively older, female, not currently married, had low educational level, had lower Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores, and reported lower perceived emotional and practical support. In a partially adjusted logistic regression model an increased risk of depression was not confounded by any of the above mentioned risk factors.However, the risk associated was not significant when it was adjusted for social support. The findings of the current study are consistent with previous research and throws light on the dire need for interventions to address mental health needs of Pakistani elderly.Implications for improving the mental health status of elderly are also presented.

  4. Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Veddel; Bukh, Jens Otto Drachmann

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of depression is not clearly established, but estimated to 3-4% in a Danish questionnaire study. Lifetime's prevalences of 12-17% are reported in other community samples. In the current diagnostic system depression is defined categorically and operationally. It has been argued......, that these diagnostic criteria represent an oversimplification, which has blurred the concept of depression. We suggest a greater emphasis on the depressed mood as the core symptom of depression, which may increase the specificity of the diagnosis. Furthermore, basic principles for the treatment of depression...

  5. Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Veddel; Bukh, Jens Drachmann

    2014-01-01

    , that these diagnostic criteria represent an oversimplification, which has blurred the concept of depression. We suggest a greater emphasis on the depressed mood as the core symptom of depression, which may increase the specificity of the diagnosis. Furthermore, basic principles for the treatment of depression......The prevalence of depression is not clearly established, but estimated to 3-4% in a Danish questionnaire study. Lifetime's prevalences of 12-17% are reported in other community samples. In the current diagnostic system depression is defined categorically and operationally. It has been argued...

  6. U-shaped relationship between depression and body mass index in the Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J-H; Park, S K; Ryoo, J-H; Oh, C-M; Choi, J-M; McIntyre, R S; Mansur, R B; Kim, H; Hales, S; Jung, J Y

    2017-06-03

    Although a number of studies have examined the relationship between depression and obesity, it is still insufficient to establish the specific pattern of relationship between depression and body mass index (BMI) categories. Thus, this study was aimed to investigate the relationship between depression and BMI categories. A cross-sectional study was conducted for a cohort of 159,390 Korean based on Kangbuk Samsung Health Study (KSHS). Study participants were classified into 5 groups by Asian-specific cut-off of BMI (18.5, 23, 25 and 30kg/m(2)). The presence of depression was determined by Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scales (CES-D)≥16 and≥25. The adjusted odd ratios (ORs) for depression were evaluated by multiple logistic regression analysis, in which independent variable was 5 categories of BMI and dependent variable was depression. Subgroup analysis was conducted by gender and age. When normal group was set as a reference, the adjusted ORs for depression formed U-shaped pattern of relationship with BMI categories [underweight: 1.31 (1.14-1.50), overweight: 0.94 (0.85-1.04), obese group: 1.01 (0.91-1.12), severe obese group: 1.28 (1.05-1.54)]. This pattern of relationship was more prominent in female and young age group than male and elderly subgroup. BMI level with the lowest likelihood of depression was 18.5kg/m(2) to 25kg/m(2) in women and 23kg/m(2) to 25kg/m(2) in men. There was a U-shaped relationship between depression and BMI categories. This finding suggests that both underweight and severe obesity are associated with the increased risk for depression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Activity loss and depression in age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovner, Barry W; Casten, Robin J

    2002-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most frequent cause of severe vision loss in older persons and is associated with high rates of disability and depression. The authors evaluated 51 patients with bilateral AMD to investigate the interrelationships of disease severity, disability, and depression and focused on loss of valued activities as an emblematic disabling consequence of AMD. They characterized depression by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D) score, a syndromal state based on the CES-D, and as a level of distress (Index of Affective Suffering; IAS). Thirty subjects (58.8%) had loss of a valued, discretionary activity. They had worse visual acuity and more depressive symptoms and were represented in higher IAS levels than other subjects. Visual acuity was significantly correlated with IAS levels, but not with CES-D scores or syndromal depression. A regression model demonstrated that activity loss mediated the relationship between visual acuity and IAS level. Affective distress occurs in AMD, largely to the extent that valued activities are relinquished because of vision loss. IAS levels best illuminated this relationship, suggesting the value of this dimension of affective functioning in studies of the consequences of chronic disease.

  8. Correlation between dietary zinc intakes and its serum levels with depression scales in young female students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amani, Reza; Saeidi, Somaye; Nazari, Zahra; Nematpour, Sorour

    2010-11-01

    It has been suggested that mood disorders and depressive status may be accompanied by lowered zinc status in the body, and adequate consumption of zinc increases a general perceived well-being. The main objective of this study was to assess the correlation between serum zinc concentrations and dietary zinc intakes with depression scores in university female students. In the first phase, Beck's depression questionnaire was applied in a random sampling of 308 selected 20-25-year-old female students (one third of total students in Ahvaz Jondi-Shapour University of Medical Sciences Golestan dormitories) to assess the major depressive disorder (MDD) scales. Then, in the second phase, 23 students who identified as having moderate and severe depression were selected as the case group, and 23 healthy age matched were chosen as the controls. Each of them completed a 12-item semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire containing the main food sources of zinc in the usual dietary patterns and also a 24-h food recall questionnaire to assure the daily zinc intakes. Daily zinc intakes were obtained by multiplying each portion size by its zinc content using food tables. A 5-ml blood sample was taken for further serum zinc status using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry technique. Pearson's r was used to show the correlation between quantitative variables. Both daily zinc intake and serum zinc concentrations of MDD group were about two thirds of healthy index (p Depressed individuals used to eat lower servings of red meats and chicken as the main food sources of zinc in students' usual diets (p students (r = 0.55; p students(r = -0.65; p depressed female students, dietary zinc intake is correlated to its serum concentrations; however, the serum zinc levels are inversely correlated to depression scales. Consumption of the main dietary sources of zinc such as red meats and chicken should be encouraged in young depressed girls.

  9. Prevention of anxiety and depression in the age group of 75 years and over: a randomised controlled trial testing the feasibility and effectiveness of a generic stepped care programme among elderly community residents at high risk of developing anxiety and depression versus usual care [ISRCTN26474556

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Oppen Patricia

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In frail elderly, the effects of depression and anxiety are deep encroaching. Indicated prevention studies, aimed at subjects with subthreshold disorder, have shown that well designed interventions are capable of reducing the incidence of depression and anxiety. In this randomised prevention trial for elderly, living in the community and suffering from subthreshold depression and anxiety, a stepped care programme was put together to be tested versus usual (GP care. Methods/design Design: randomised controlled trial. (See figure 1: organisation chart together with two other projects, this project is part of a national consortium that investigates the prevention of anxiety and depressive disorders in later life using a stepped care programme. The three projects have their own particular focus. This project is aimed at elderly living in the community. Inclusion: subjects with a high risk for depression and anxiety without clinical evidence of these syndromes. The participants are 75 years of age and over and have subthreshold symptoms of depression and or anxiety: they score above the cut-off point on the self-report Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D scale, but the criteria for a major depressive disorder or anxiety disorder (panic disorder, agoraphobia, social phobia, generalized anxiety disorder according to a validated interview, the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI are not fulfilled. Outcomes: primary outcome: incidence of a depressive or anxiety disorder over a period of two years (MINI; secondary outcome: a positive influence of the intervention, a stepped care programme, on symptoms of depression and anxiety and on quality of life as assessed with the CES D, the HADS A and the SF36 respectively (i.e. stabilisation or improvement of symptoms [see table 1]. Measurements: Take place at baseline and at 3, 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 months. Trained independent evaluators assess depression and

  10. Depressants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... judgment and mental functioning nausea and vomiting memory loss (depressants can cause users to have no memory of events that happened while they were under the influence) Long-Term Effects When people misuse depressants over a long ...

  11. Reliability and validity of the Japanese version of the Resilience Scale and its short version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kondo Maki

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The clinical relevance of resilience has received considerable attention in recent years. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the reliability and validity of the Japanese version of the Resilience Scale (RS and short version of the RS (RS-14. Findings The original English version of RS was translated to Japanese and the Japanese version was confirmed by back-translation. Participants were 430 nursing and university psychology students. The RS, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES, Social Support Questionnaire (SSQ, Perceived Stress Scale (PSS, and Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS were administered. Internal consistency, convergent validity and factor loadings were assessed at initial assessment. Test-retest reliability was assessed using data collected from 107 students at 3 months after baseline. Mean score on the RS was 111.19. Cronbach's alpha coefficients for the RS and RS-14 were 0.90 and 0.88, respectively. The test-retest correlation coefficients for the RS and RS-14 were 0.83 and 0.84, respectively. Both the RS and RS-14 were negatively correlated with the CES-D and SDS, and positively correlated with the RSES, SSQ and PSS (all p Conclusions This study demonstrates that the Japanese version of RS has psychometric properties with high degrees of internal consistency, high test-retest reliability, and relatively low concurrent validity. RS-14 was equivalent to the RS in internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and concurrent validity. Low scores on the RS, a positive correlation between the RS and perceived stress, and a relatively low correlation between the RS and depressive symptoms in this study suggest that validity of the Japanese version of the RS might be relatively low compared with the original English version.

  12. Multi-scale motility amplitude associated with suicidal thoughts in major depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Premananda Indic

    Full Text Available Major depression occurs at high prevalence in the general population, often starts in juvenile years, recurs over a lifetime, and is strongly associated with disability and suicide. Searches for biological markers in depression may have been hindered by assuming that depression is a unitary and relatively homogeneous disorder, mainly of mood, rather than addressing particular, clinically crucial features or diagnostic subtypes. Many studies have implicated quantitative alterations of motility rhythms in depressed human subjects. Since a candidate feature of great public-health significance is the unusually high risk of suicidal behavior in depressive disorders, we studied correlations between a measure (vulnerability index [VI] derived from multi-scale characteristics of daily-motility rhythms in depressed subjects (n = 36 monitored with noninvasive, wrist-worn, electronic actigraphs and their self-assessed level of suicidal thinking operationalized as a wish to die. Patient-subjects had a stable clinical diagnosis of bipolar-I, bipolar-II, or unipolar major depression (n = 12 of each type. VI was associated inversely with suicidal thinking (r = -0.61 with all subjects and r = -0.73 with bipolar disorder subjects; both p<0.0001 and distinguished patients with bipolar versus unipolar major depression with a sensitivity of 91.7% and a specificity of 79.2%. VI may be a useful biomarker of characteristic features of major depression, contribute to differentiating bipolar and unipolar depression, and help to detect risk of suicide. An objective biomarker of suicide-risk could be advantageous when patients are unwilling or unable to share suicidal thinking with clinicians.

  13. Workplace Discrimination and Depressive Symptoms: A Study of Multi-Ethnic Hospital Employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Wizdom Powell; Gillen, Marion; Yen, Irene H

    2010-03-01

    Workplace discrimination reports have recently increased in the U.S. Few studies have examined racial/ethnic differences and the mental health consequences of this exposure. We examined the association between self-reported workplace discrimination and depressive symptoms among a multi-ethnic sample of hospital employees. Data came from the prospective case-control Gradients of Occupational Health in Hospital Workers (GROW) study (N = 664). We used the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) to assess depressive symptoms and measured the occurrence, types, and frequency of workplace discrimination. African Americans were more likely than other racial/ethnic employees to report frequent and multiple types of discrimination exposure. Multivariate relationships were examined while controlling for socio-demographic factors, job strain, and general social stressors. After adjustment, workplace discrimination occurrence and frequency were positively associated with depressive symptoms. The positive association between workplace discrimination and depressive symptoms was similar across racial and ethnic groups. Reducing workplace discrimination may improve psychosocial functioning among racial/ethnic minority hospital employees at greatest risk of exposure.

  14. Depression of Family Caregivers Is Associated with Disagreements on Life-Sustaining Preferences for Treating Patients with Dementia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Fen Tsai

    Full Text Available Family caregivers may not agree with patients with dementia regarding attitudes toward end-of-life preferences, and the effects of this type of disagreement are not well understood. This study sought to identify such a disagreement and its predictors.A cross-sectional sample of 84 family caregivers and patients with dementia was recruited from memory clinics. We used the Mini-Mental State Examination, Neuropsychiatric Inventory, Clinical Dementia Rating, and Katz index of independence in activities of daily living to assess patient symptoms, functions, and severity of dementia. Caregivers completed questionnaires on perceived patient end-of-life care preferences, caregiver end-of-life care preferences for patients, Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI, Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D, and knowledge of clinical complications of advanced dementia.The self-disclosure rates of patient preferences were 34.5% for tube feeding, 39.3% for cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and 45.2% for mechanical ventilation. For patients who had disclosed preferences, the disagreement rate between them and their caregivers was 48.3% for tube feeding, 48.5% for cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and 60.3% for mechanical ventilation. Caregiver depression (i.e., CES-D ≥16 was associated with disagreements on cardiopulmonary resuscitation (adjusted odds ratio (aOR = 6.6, 95% CI = 1.4-31.1, P = 0.01 and mechanical ventilation (aOR = 14, 95% CI = 2.2-87.2, P = 0.005 preferences.The preferences of end-of-life issues differed greatly between dementia patients and their caregivers. Depression in caregivers is associated with such discrepancy.

  15. A reliability generalization meta-analysis of coefficient alpha for the Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassar, Matt; Bradley, Greg

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to use a meta-analytic method known as reliability generalization to investigate the score reliability for a popular depression measure: The Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale. We used the technique to provide an aggregate estimate of coefficient alpha across empirical studies that have employed the measure over time and across populations. Furthermore, we identified sample and demographic characteristics associated with variance in coefficient alpha. We discuss conditions associated with variability in coefficient alpha and alert researchers and practitioners to appropriate uses of the scale based on common reliability benchmarks.

  16. Striatal dopaminergic activity (FDOPA-PET) associated with cognitive items of a depression scale (MADRS) in Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koerts, Janneke; Leenders, Klaus L.; Koning, Marthe; Portman, Axel T.; van Beilen, Marije

    2007-01-01

    Motor symptoms form the hallmark of Parkinson's disease (PD), although other features such as depression are often present. Currently-used depression rating scales measure affective and somatic symptoms. These somatic symptoms of depression can also be core PD symptoms, suggesting an overlap of symp

  17. Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS: validation in a Greek general hospital sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patapis Paulos

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS has been used in several languages to assess anxiety and depression in general hospital patients with good results. Methods The HADS was administered to 521 participants (275 controls and 246 inpatients and outpatients of the Internal Medicine and Surgical Departments in 'Attikon' General Hospital in Athens. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI were used as 'gold standards' for depression and anxiety respectively. Results The HADS presented high internal consistency; Cronbach's α cofficient was 0.884 (0.829 for anxiety and 0.840 for depression and stability (test-retest intraclass correlation coefficient 0.944. Factor analysis showed a two-factor structure. The HADS showed high concurrent validity; the correlations of the scale and its subscales with the BDI and the STAI were high (0.722 – 0.749. Conclusion The Greek version of HADS showed good psychometric properties and could serve as a useful tool for clinicians to assess anxiety and depression in general hospital patients.

  18. Confirmatory factor analysis of the portuguese Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21 Análisis factorial confirmatoria de la versión portuguesa de la Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 Análise fatorial confirmatória da versão portuguesa da Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21

    OpenAIRE

    João Luís Alves Apóstolo; Barry Allen Tanner; Cynthia Lee Arfken

    2012-01-01

    To determine which of three published models best characterizes the factor structure of the Portuguese version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21 and to assess its validity and reliability. Confirmatory factor analysis of Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 for 1,297 adult, primary care outpatients (66.7% female, Mage = 48.57 years) comparing 3 models. The relationship between the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21 and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule was analyzed. The co...

  19. Individual and socioeconomic contextual effects on depressive symptom in Korea: multilevel analysis of cross-sectional nationwide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Whan; Park, Jae-Hyun

    2015-02-01

    This study was aimed to examine the relationship between individual, socioeconomic context and depressive symptom among Korean population. Data were the Korean Community Health Survey (KCHS), a nationwide survey collected from 253 local communities including 230,715 adults aged 19 yr or over. To identify depressive symptom, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (CES-D) was used. This study employed multilevel logistic regression to analyze the hierarchical data that included individual and community level variables. The results of this study showed that people in the highest level of community income had a higher risk of depressive symptom compared with people in the lowest (OR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.4-1.9). In a chi-square test for trend, the prevalence of depressive symptom was significantly increased with increased level of community income among all groups of the family income (P<0.001). Moreover a significant interaction was found between household income and community mean income (OR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.97-0.99). Among individual level variables, age, sex, education, income, living alone, and the number of illnesses were associated with depressive symptom. This study identified that the level of community income has an inverse association, and its effect is especially stronger among low income individuals.

  20. Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cizza, G; Ravn, Pernille; Chrousos, G P

    2001-01-01

    Existing studies of the relationship between depression and osteoporosis have been heterogeneous in their design and use of diagnostic instruments for depression, which might have contributed to the different results on the comorbidity of these two conditions. Nevertheless, these studies reveal...... a strong association between depression and osteoporosis. Endocrine factors such as depression-induced hypersecretion of corticotropin-releasing hormone and hypercortisolism, hypogonadism, growth hormone deficiency and increased concentration of circulating interleukin 6, might play a crucial role...... in the bone loss observed in subjects suffering from major depression....

  1. Rehabilitation effects of walking and baduanjin to the perimenopausal syndrome with depression%步行与八段锦对围绝经期综合征伴抑郁症状的康复效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马素慧; 窦娜; 陈长香; 赵雅宁

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To research and compare the rehabilitation effects of walking and baduanjin on perimenopausal syndrome with depression, and find non-drug therapy to treat perimenopausal syndrome effectively.Method: Assessed at Kupperman score≥16 (means heavier than moderate perimenopausal syndrome) and center for epidemiologic studies depression scale (CES-D)≥20(means depression), 145 perimenopausal women from Xishan Road Community in Tangshan city, 45-55 years' old, were randomly divided into 3 groups based on their serial number. 50 persons in control group(with no exercise), 46 in walking group and 49 in haduanjin group.Evaluations were taken with Kupperman score and CES-D after 3-month training.Result: Compared to control group, the differences of Kupperman scores and CES-D scores in baduanjin group and walking group all were significant(P<0.01). Compared with walking group, the CES-D score of haduanjin group improved(P<0.01). According to the single items scores of Kupperman, both in walking and haduanjin group hectic fever, sweating, insomnia, fuss,depress, fatigue, muscle and joint pain released(P<0.05),and the effect of baduanjin on insomnia, fuss, depress, and palpitation was better than that of walking.Conclusion:Walking and haduanjin could alleviate perimenopausal syndromes effectively, and baduanjin could suit adapts to peri-menopausal women's health more.%目的:观察并比较步行与八段锦等运动训练治疗围绝经期综合征伴抑郁的康复效果,寻找非药物治疗围绝经期综合征的有效途径.方法:用Kupperma评分法和流行病学调查--抑郁量表(CES-D)对唐山市西山道社区围绝经期妇女进行筛查,选取Kupperman评分≥16分(即围绝经期综合征中度以上)以及CES-D评分≥20分(即存在抑郁症状)患者145例,年龄45-55岁之间;按数字排序随机分对照组50例,步行组46例和八段锦组49例,训练3个月后对三组用改良Kupper-ma量表和CES-D量表进行评价.结果:训

  2. Efficacy of an internet-based self-help intervention to reduce co-occurring alcohol misuse and depression symptoms in adults: study protocol of a three-arm randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaub, Michael P; Blankers, Matthijs; Lehr, Dirk; Boss, Leif; Riper, Heleen; Dekker, Jack; Goudriaan, Anna E; Maier, Larissa J; Haug, Severin; Amann, Manuel; Dey, Michelle; Wenger, Andreas; Ebert, David D

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In the general population, alcohol use disorder and depression more often occur together than any other combination of a mental illness with a substance use disorder. It is important to have a cost-effective intervention that is able to reach at-risk individuals in the early stages of developing alcohol use disorders and depression disorders. Methods and analysis This paper presents the protocol for a 3-arm multicentre randomised controlled trial (RCT) to test the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of the combined internet-based self-help intervention Take Care of You (TCOY) to reduce alcohol misuse and depression symptoms in comparison with a waiting list control group and a comparable intervention focusing on problematic alcohol use only. The active interventions consist of modules designed to reduce alcohol use, based on the principles of motivational interviewing and methods of cognitive behavioural therapy, together with additional modules in the combined study arm to reduce symptoms of depression. Data will be collected at baseline, as well as at 3 and 6 months postrandomisation. The primary outcome is the quantity of alcohol used in the past 7 days. A number of secondary outcome measures will be studied. These include the Centre of Epidemiologic Studies of Depression Scale (CES-D) and a combined measure with the criteria of values below the cut-off for severe alcohol use disorder and for CES-D. Data analysis will follow the intention-to-treat principle using (generalised) linear mixed models. In order to investigate the interventions’ cost-utility and cost-effectiveness, a full economic evaluation will be performed. Ethics and dissemination This RCT will be executed in compliance with the Helsinki Declaration and has been approved by 2 local Ethics Committees. Results will be reported at conferences and in peer-reviewed publications. Participant-friendly summaries of trial findings will be published on the TCOY websites. Trial registration

  3. Psychometric properties of the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 in older primary care patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloster, Andrew T; Rhoades, Howard M; Novy, Diane; Klotsche, Jens; Senior, Ashley; Kunik, Mark; Wilson, Nancy; Stanley, Melinda A

    2008-10-01

    The Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS) was designed to efficiently measure the core symptoms of anxiety and depression and has demonstrated positive psychometric properties in adult samples of anxiety and depression patients and student samples. Despite these findings, the psychometric properties of the DASS remain untested in older adults, for whom the identification of efficient measures of these constructs is especially important. To determine the psychometric properties of the DASS 21-item version in older adults, we analyzed data from 222 medical patients seeking treatment to manage worry. Consistent with younger samples, a three-factor structure best fit the data. Results also indicated good internal consistency, excellent convergent validity, and good discriminative validity, especially for the Depression scale. Receiver operating curve analyses indicated that the DASS-21 predicted the diagnostic presence of generalized anxiety disorder and depression as well as other commonly used measures. These data suggest that the DASS may be used with older adults in lieu of multiple scales designed to measure similar constructs, thereby reducing participant burden and facilitating assessment in settings with limited assessment resources.

  4. Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale in patients with tinnitus and hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomaa, Mohammed Abdel Motaal; Elmagd, Manal Hassan Abo; Elbadry, Mohammed Mohammed; Kader, Rafeek Mohammed Abdel

    2014-08-01

    The study was proposed to evaluate co-morbid depression, anxiety and stress associated with tinnitus patients. The study was done on 196 subjects: 100 patients suffering from subjective tinnitus associated with hearing loss (tinnitus group), 45 patients suffering from hearing loss only (hearing loss group) and 50 healthy subjects not suffering from tinnitus or hearing loss (control group); the age ranges from 20 to 60 years old. The studied sample was subjected to full ear, nose and throat examinations and audiological evaluation. Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) was developed by Levibond H and Levibond F to assess three self-report scales designed to measure the negative emotional status of depression, anxiety and stress. All patients and control group were evaluated by DASS. (1) Depression: males were affected more than females. All patients over 60 years were affected by depression. The duration of tinnitus seems correlating with the severity of depression. Only 2 patients (4.3 %) of the hearing loss group suffer from depression. (2) Anxiety: 90 % of males suffer from anxiety as compared to 83.3 % females. The age group 20-29 years old suffers more than other age groups. Only 4 patients (8.7 %) of hearing loss group suffer from anxiety. (3) Stress: females seem to be affected by the stress (76.7 %) more than males (67.5). Patients in age group 30-39 suffer the most from the disease. There is a direct correlation between duration of tinnitus and severity of stress. No one of the hearing loss group suffers from stress. In conclusion, depression, anxiety and stress should be taken into consideration in the treatment of patients suffering from tinnitus.

  5. Effects of five-minute internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy and simplified emotion-focused mindfulness on depressive symptoms: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, Remi; Sekizawa, Yoichi; So, Mirai; Yamaguchi, Sosei; Shimizu, Eiji

    2017-03-04

    Notwithstanding a high expectation for internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy (iCBT) for reducing depressive symptoms, many of iCBT programs have limitations such as temporary effects and high drop-out rates, possibly due to their complexity. We examined the effects of a free, simplified, 5-minute iCBT program by comparing it with a simplified emotion-focused mindfulness (sEFM) exercise and with a waiting list control group. A total of 974 participants, who were recruited using the website of a market research company, were randomly assigned to the iCBT group, the sEFM group, and the control group. Those in the intervention arms performed each exercise for 5 weeks. The primary outcome measure was the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale (CES-D) at postintervention. Secondary outcome measures were the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 scale (GAD-7). Intention-to-treat analyses were conducted. During postintervention assessment, there were no significant differences between the intervention arms and the control group in the CES-D, although the difference between the iCBT arm and control group was close to significance (p = 0.05) in favor of iCBT. There was a significant difference in the PHQ-9 in favor of the sEFM group compared with the control group. There were no significant differences in outcome measures between the three groups at the 6-week follow-up. Although both iCBT and sEFM have the potential to temporarily reduce depressive symptoms, substantial improvements are required to enhance and maintain their effects. This trial is registered with the UMIN Clinical Trial Registry (UMIN-CTR) (ID: UMIN000015097 ) on 1 October 2014.

  6. Evening preference is related to the incidence of depressive states independent of sleep-wake conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Shingo; Hida, Akiko; Watanabe, Makiko; Enomoto, Minori; Aritake-Okada, Sayaka; Moriguchi, Yoshiya; Kamei, Yuichi; Mishima, Kazuo

    2010-10-01

    Although evening preference has recently been identified as a risk factor for depression, it has not been substantiated whether evening preference is a direct risk factor for depressive states, or if it is associated secondarily through other factors, such as delayed sleep timing and shortened sleep duration. The objective of this study is to investigate associations in Japanese adult subjects between evening preference and incidence of depressive states, adjusting for various sleep parameters related to depressive states. The Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ), the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) were administered to 1170 individuals (493 males/677 females; mean and range 38.5 and 20-59 yrs) to assess their diurnal preferences, sleeping states, and presence of depression symptoms. Subjects were classified into five chronotypes based on MEQ scores. Evening preference was associated with delayed sleep timing, shortened sleep duration, deteriorated subjective sleep quality, and worsened daytime sleepiness. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the extreme evening type (odds ratio [OR] = 1.926, p = .018) was associated with increased incidence of depressive states and that the extreme morning type (OR = 0.342, p = .038) was associated with the decreased incidence of depressive states, independent of sleep parameters, such as nocturnal awakening (OR = 1.844, p quality (OR = 2.471, p < .001), and daytime sleepiness (OR = 1.895, p = .001). However, no significant associations were observed between the incidence of depressive states and sleep duration, sleep timing, and sleep debt (levels of insufficient sleep). Although the findings of this study do not demonstrate a causative relationship between evening preference and depression, they do suggest the presence of functional associations between mood adjustment and biological clock systems that

  7. Metabolically healthy obesity and depressive symptoms: 16-year follow-up of the Gazel cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinnouho, Guy-Marino; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Gueguen, Alice; Matta, Joane; Lemogne, Cedric; Goldberg, Marcel; Zins, Marie; Czernichow, Sébastien

    2017-01-01

    The health correlates of the metabolically healthy obese (MHO) phenotype, particularly in relation to depressive symptoms remains unclear. Accordingly, we examined the risk of depressive symptoms in this phenotype using a 16-year follow-up prospective study. A sample of 14 475 participants (75% men), aged 44-59 years in 1996, was drawn from the Gazel cohort. Obesity was defined as body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 kg/m2 and metabolic health as having none of the self-reported following cardiovascular risk factors: hypertension, type 2 diabetes and dyslipidemia. Depressive symptoms were assessed by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) scale in 1996, 1999, 2002, 2005, 2008 and 2012. Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) were used to estimate the risk of depressive symptoms during a follow-up of 16 years. In multivariate analyses, metabolically unhealthy normal weight [Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.37; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.25-1.51], overweight [1.44 (1.31-1.59)] and obese [1.30 (1.10-1.54)] but not MHO participants [1.04 (0.81-1.32)] had higher risk of depressive symptoms at the start of follow-up compared to metabolically healthy normal weight individuals. Depressive symptoms decreased over time in metabolically healthy normal weight individuals [0.52 (0.50-0.55)], this decrease was less marked only in metabolically unhealthy obese participants [1.22 (1.07-1.40)]. Compared to MHO participants, metabolically unhealthy obese individuals were at increased risk of depression at the start of follow-up, but with a similar reduction of this risk over time. Poor metabolic health, irrespective of BMI was associated with greater depressive symptoms at the start of follow-up, whereas a poorer course of depressive symptoms over time was observed only in those with both obesity and poor metabolic health.

  8. Predictive accuracy of Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale assessment during pregnancy for the risk of developing postpartum depressive symptoms : a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, J. L.; Beijers, C.; van Pampus, M. G.; Verbeek, T.; Stolk, R. P.; Milgrom, J.; Bockting, C. L. H.; Burger, H.

    2014-01-01

    ObjectiveTo investigate whether the 10-item Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) administered antenatally is accurate in predicting postpartum depressive symptoms, and whether a two-item EPDS has similar predictive accuracy. DesignProspective cohort study. SettingObstetric care in the Netherl

  9. Independent and co-morbid HIV infection and Meth use disorders on oxidative stress markers in the cerebrospinal fluid and depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panee, Jun; Pang, Xiaosha; Munsaka, Sody; Berry, Marla J; Chang, Linda

    2015-03-01

    Both HIV infection and Methamphetamine (Meth) use disorders are associated with greater depressive symptoms and oxidative stress; whether the two conditions would show additive or interactive effects on the severity of depressive symptoms, and whether this is related to the level of oxidative stress in the CNS is unknown. 123 participants were evaluated, which included 41 HIV-seronegative subjects without substance use disorders (Control), 25 with recent (Meth use disorders (Meth), 34 HIV-seropositive subjects without substance use disorders (HIV) and 23 HIV+Meth subjects. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D), and oxidative stress markers were evaluated with glutathione (GSH), 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE), and activities of gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Compared with Controls, HIV subjects had higher levels of HNE (+350%) and GGT (+27%), and lower level of GSH (-34%), while Meth users had higher levels of GPx activity (+23%) and GSH (+30 %). GGT correlated with GPx, and with age, across all subjects (p Meth and HIV+Meth groups. HIV and Meth use had an interactive effects on depressive symptoms, but did not show additive or interactive effects on oxidative stress. The differential relationship between depressive symptoms and oxidative stress response amongst the four groups suggest that depressive symptoms in these groups are mediated through different mechanisms which are not always related to oxidative stress.

  10. Psychosocial and organizational work environment of nurse managers and self-reported depressive symptoms: Cross-sectional analysis from a cohort of nurse managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Nourry

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The association between depressive symptoms and psycho‑organisational work environment has been established in the literature. Some studies have evaluated depressive symptoms in healthcare workers, but little research has been carried out among nurse managers. The aim of the study is to evaluate the depressive symptoms prevalence among nurse managers' population and work environment factors. Material and Methods: A descriptive correlational research design was used. Data were collected from 296 nurse managers in five hospitals in the eastern area of France between 2007 and 2008. Health outcomes were evaluated by measuring depressive symptoms (CES-D scale, the exposure data by assessing psycho‑organisational work environment with effort-reward imbalance-model of Siegrist. Multiple logistic regressions were used to describe the strength of the association between depressive symptoms and effort-reward imbalance adjusted for personal and occupational characteristics of the nurse managers. Results: Among the nurse managers, a third had depressive symptoms, and 18% presented an effort-reward imbalance (ratio: ≥ 1. A significant association was found between depressive symptoms and effort-reward imbalance (OR = 10.81, 95% CI: 5.1-23, p < 10-3, and with esteem as a reward (OR = 3.21, 95% CI: 1.6-6.3, p < 10-2. Conclusion: In view of the hierarchical situation of nurse managers and their primary roles in hospitals, it is necessaryto take prevention measures to improve their work environment and health.

  11. Co-effect of Demand-control-support Model and Effort-reward Imbalance Model on Depression Risk Estimation in Humans:Findings from Henan Province of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Shan Fa; NAKATA Akinori; GU Gui Zhen; SWANSON Naomi G; ZHOU Wen Hui; HE Li Hua; WANG Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the co-effect of Demand-control-support (DCS) model and Effort-reward Imbalance (ERI) model on the risk estimation of depression in humans in comparison with the effects when they are used respectively. Methods A total of 3 632 males and 1 706 females from 13 factories and companies in Henan province were recruited in this cross-sectional study. Perceived job stress was evaluated with the Job Content Questionnaire and Effort-Reward Imbalance Questionnaire (Chinese version). Depressive symptoms were assessed by using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Results DC (demands/job control ratio) and ERI were shown to be independently associated with depressive symptoms. The outcome of low social support and overcommitment were similar. High DC and low social support (SS), high ERI and high overcommitment, and high DC and high ERI posed greater risks of depressive symptoms than each of them did alone. ERI model and SS model seem to be effective in estimating the risk of depressive symptoms if they are used respectively. Conclusion The DC had better performance when it was used in combination with low SS. The effect on physical demands was better than on psychological demands. The combination of DCS and ERI models could improve the risk estimate of depressive symptoms in humans.

  12. Rasch analysis of the hospital anxiety and depression scale (hads for use in motor neurone disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaw Pamela J

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS is commonly used to assess symptoms of anxiety and depression in motor neurone disease (MND. The measure has never been specifically validated for use within this population, despite questions raised about the scale's validity. This study seeks to analyse the construct validity of the HADS in MND by fitting its data to the Rasch model. Methods The scale was administered to 298 patients with MND. Scale assessment included model fit, differential item functioning (DIF, unidimensionality, local dependency and category threshold analysis. Results Rasch analyses were carried out on the HADS total score as well as depression and anxiety subscales (HADS-T, D and A respectively. After removing one item from both of the seven item scales, it was possible to produce modified HADS-A and HADS-D scales which fit the Rasch model. An 11-item higher-order HADS-T total scale was found to fit the Rasch model following the removal of one further item. Conclusion Our results suggest that a modified HADS-A and HADS-D are unidimensional, free of DIF and have good fit to the Rasch model in this population. As such they are suitable for use in MND clinics or research. The use of the modified HADS-T as a higher-order measure of psychological distress was supported by our data. Revised cut-off points are given for the modified HADS-A and HADS-D subscales.

  13. Screening for depressive symptoms in adolescents at school: New validity evidences on the short form of the Reynolds Depression Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aritio-Solana, Rebeca; Inchausti, Félix; Chocarro de Luis, Edurne; Lucas Molina, Beatriz; Pérez de Albéniz, Alicia

    2017-01-01

    The main purpose of the present study was to assess the depressive symptomatology and to gather new validity evidences of the Reynolds Depression Scale-Short form (RADS-SF) in a representative sample of youths. The sample consisted of 2914 adolescents with a mean age of 15.85 years (SD = 1.68). We calculated the descriptive statistics and internal consistency of the RADS-SF scores. Also, confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) at the item level and successive multigroup CFAs to test measurement invariance, were conducted. Latent mean differences across gender and educational level groups were estimated, and finally, we studied the sources of validity evidences with other external variables. The level of internal consistency of the RADS-SF Total score by means of Ordinal alpha was .89. Results from CFAs showed that the one-dimensional model displayed appropriate goodness of-fit indices with CFI value over .95, and RMSEA value under .08. In addition, the results support the strong measurement invariance of the RADS-SF scores across gender and age. When latent means were compared, statistically significant differences were found by gender and age. Females scored 0.347 over than males in Depression latent variable, whereas older adolescents scored 0.111 higher than the younger group. In addition, the RADS-SF score was associated with the RADS scores. The results suggest that the RADS-SF could be used as an efficient screening test to assess self-reported depressive symptoms in adolescents from the general population. PMID:28222193

  14. Measurement invariance of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21 across medical student genders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Peyman; Nozari, Farnoosh; Ahrari, Forooghosadat; Bagheri, Zahra

    2017-03-30

    This study aimed to assess whether male and female Iranian medical students perceived the meaning of the items in the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21 consistently. A convenience sample of 783 preclinical medical students from the first to sixth semester was invited to this cross-sectional study. Of the 477 respondents, 238 were male and 239 were female. All participants completed the Persian version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21. The graded response model was used to assess measurement invariance of the instrument across the gender groups. Categorical confirmatory factor analysis was used to evaluate the construct validity of the measure. Moreover, internal consistency was assessed via Cronbach's Alpha. Statistically significant differential item functioning was flagged for just item 6 in the depression subscales (c(2)=6.5, df=1, p=0.011). However, removing or retaining the item 6 in the stress subscale did not change our findings significantly, when we compared stress scores across two genders. The results of categorical confirmatory factor analysis supported the fit of the three-factor model of Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21. Moreover, Cronbach's alpha was greater than 0.7 in depression, anxiety and stress subscales. This study revealed that Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21 is an invariant measure across male and female medical students. Hence, this reliable and valid instrument can be used for meaningful comparison of distress scores between medical student genders. Gender comparisons of medical students' psychological profiles provide a better insight into gender influences on the outcome of medical education and medical practice.

  15. Psychometric Properties of an Arabic Version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussa, Miriam Taouk; Lovibond, Peter; Laube, Roy; Megahead, Hamido A.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To translate and evaluate the psychometric properties of an Arabic-language version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS). Method: The items were translated, back translated, refined, and tested in an Australian immigrant sample (N = 220). Results: Confirmatory factor analysis showed that the Arabic DASS discriminates between…

  16. Measurement Invariance of the Reynolds Depression Adolescent Scale across Gender and Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo; Wells, Craig; Paino, Mercedes; Lemos-Giraldez, Serafin; Villazon-Garcia, Ursula; Sierra, Susana; Garcia-Portilla Gonzalez, Ma Paz; Bobes, Julio; Muniz, Jose

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of the present study was to examine measurement invariance of the Reynolds Depression Adolescent Scale (RADS) (Reynolds, 1987) across gender and age in a representative sample of nonclinical adolescents. The sample was composed of 1,659 participants, 801 males (48.3%), with a mean age of 15.9 years (SD = 1.2). Confirmatory…

  17. Validation of Geriatric Depression Scale--5 Scores among Sedentary Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquez, David X.; McAuley, Edward; Motl, Robert W.; Elavsky, Steriani; Konopack, James F.; Jerome, Gerald J.; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the validity of Geriatric Depression Scale--5 (GDS-5) scores among older sedentary adults based on its structural properties and relationship with external criteria. Participants from two samples (Ns = 185 and 93; M ages = 66 and 67 years) completed baseline assessments as part of randomized controlled exercise trials.…

  18. A Brief Version of the Geriatric Depression Scale for the Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Sheung-Tak; Chan, Alfred C. M.

    2004-01-01

    Elderly persons (N=310) attending outpatient psychiatric clinics were given an interview on the 30-item Geriatric Depression Scale (T. L. Brink et al., 1982; J. A. Yesavage et al., 1983) and received an independent psychiatric evaluation. A 3-step binary logistic regression showed that 2 items measuring positive affect and 2 others measuring…

  19. Mid-life socioeconomic status, depressive symptomatology and general cognitive status among older adults: inter-relationships and temporal effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiao, Chi; Weng, Li-Jen

    2016-04-20

    Few longitudinal studies have analyzed how socioeconomic status (SES) influences both depressive and cognitive development over an individual's life course. This study investigates the change trajectories of both depressive symptomatology and general cognitive status, as well as their associations over time, focusing on the effects of mid-life SES. Data were obtained from the Taiwan Longitudinal Study on Aging (1993-2007), a nationally representative cohort study of older adults in Taiwan. The short form of the Center of Epidemiological Studies-Depression (CES-D) scale that measures depressive symptomatology in two domains (negative affect and lack of positive affect) was used. General cognitive status was assessed using the brief Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire scale. Assessments of the subjects' mid-life SES included measurement of the participant's education and occupation. Analyses were conducted by the parallel latent growth curve modeling. The participants' initial levels of depressive symptomatology and general cognitive status were significantly and negatively correlated; furthermore, any changes in these two outcomes were also correlated over time. The initial assessment of general cognitive status significantly contributed to any advancement towards more severe depressive symptomatology over time, particularly when this occurred in a negative manner. Furthermore, a mid-life SES advantage resulted in a significant reduction in late-life depressive symptomatology and also produced a slower decline in general cognitive status during later life. In contrast, lower mid-life SES exacerbated depressive symptomatology during old age, both at the initial assessment and in terms of the change over time. In addition, female gender was significantly associated with lower general cognitive status and more severe depressive symptomatology in negative affect. These findings suggest a complex and longitudinal association between depressive symptomatology and

  20. Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pouwer, Frans

    2017-01-01

    There is ample evidence that depression is000  a common comorbid health issue in people with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Reviews have also concluded that depression in diabetes is associated with higher HbA1c levels, less optimal self-care behaviours, lower quality of life, incident vascular...... complications and higher mortality rates. However, longitudinal studies into the course of depression in people with type 1 diabetes remain scarce. In this issue of Diabetologia, Kampling and colleagues (doi: 10.1007/s00125-016-4123-0 ) report the 5 year trajectories of depression in adults with newly diagnosed...... type 1 diabetes (mean age, 28 years). Their baseline results showed that shortly after the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes a major depressive episode was diagnosed in approximately 6% of participants, while 8% suffered from an anxiety disorder. The longitudinal depression data showed that, in a 5 year...

  1. [The ICD-10 Symptom Rating (ISR): validation of the depression scale in a clinical sample].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Wolfram Alexis; Loew, Thomas; von Heymann, Friedrich; Stadtmüller, Godehard; Georgi, Alexander; Tischinger, Michael; Strom, Frederik; Mutschler, Friederike; Tritt, Karin

    2015-06-01

    The ICD-10 Symptom Rating (ISR) 1 measures the severity of psychiatric disorders with 29 items on 5 subscales as comprehensively as possible. The following syndromes are measured: Depressive syndrome, anxiety syndrome, obsessive-compulsive syndrome, Somatoform syndrome, eating disorder syndrome as well as additional items that cover various mental syndromes, and an overall score. The study reports findings on the validity and sensitivity to change of the depression subscale (ISR-D). In a clinical sample of N=949 inpatients with depression spectrum disorders the convergent validity was determined by correlation with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) 3 and the subscale "depression" of the Symptom-Checklist-90-R (SCL-90-R) 4. The high correlation between the different instruments confirms the validity of the ISR-Depression Scale. The sensitivity to change of the ISR seems higher than that of the BDI and the SCL-90. Because of its economy and the good psychometric properties the ISR is recommended for use in clinical samples.

  2. A Psychometric Analysis of the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scales--Parent Version in a School Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebesutani, Chad; Chorpita, Bruce F.; Higa-McMillan, Charmaine K.; Nakamura, Brad J.; Regan, Jennifer; Lynch, Roxanna E.

    2011-01-01

    The Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale--Parent Version (RCADS-P) is a parent-report questionnaire of youth anxiety and depression with scales corresponding to the "DSM" diagnoses of separation anxiety disorder, social phobia, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and major depressive…

  3. A Psychometric Analysis of the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scales--Parent Version in a School Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebesutani, Chad; Chorpita, Bruce F.; Higa-McMillan, Charmaine K.; Nakamura, Brad J.; Regan, Jennifer; Lynch, Roxanna E.

    2011-01-01

    The Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale--Parent Version (RCADS-P) is a parent-report questionnaire of youth anxiety and depression with scales corresponding to the "DSM" diagnoses of separation anxiety disorder, social phobia, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and major depressive…

  4. Depression, obesity, and metabolic syndrome: prevalence and risks of comorbidity in a population-based representative sample of Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olvera, Rene L; Williamson, Douglas E; Fisher-Hoch, Susan P; Vatcheva, Kristina P; McCormick, Joseph B

    2015-10-01

    We examined the prevalence of depression, obesity, and metabolic syndrome and associations between them in a population-based representative cohort of Mexican Americans living on the United States-Mexico border. The sample in this cross-sectional analysis consisted of 1,768 Mexican American adults (≥ 18 years of age) assessed between the years 2004 and 2010, with whom we tested our central hypothesis of a significant relationship between obesity and depression. Depression was measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale (CES-D) with a cutoff score of ≥ 16 for depression and a cutoff score of ≥ 27 for severe depression. We categorized body mass index (BMI) values as obese (≥ 30kg/m(2)) and later subdivided the obese subjects into obese (30-39 kg/m(2)[inclusive]) and morbidly obese (≥ 40 kg/m(2)). Metabolic syndrome was defined using the American Heart Association definition requiring at least 3 of the following: increased waist circumference, elevated triglycerides, reduced high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, elevated blood pressure, and elevated fasting glucose. Weighted data were analyzed to establish prevalence of depression, obesity, and metabolic syndrome. Univariate and multivariable weighted regression models were used to test potential associations between these disorders. Using weighted prevalence, we observed high rates of depression (30%), obesity (52%), and metabolic syndrome (45%). Univariate models revealed female gender (P = .0004), low education (P = .003), low HDL level (P = .009), and increased waist circumference (P = .03) were associated with depression. Female gender (P = .01), low education (P = .003), and morbid obesity (P = .002) were risk factors for severe depression and remained significant in multivariable models. In this large cohort of Mexican Americans, obesity, female gender, and low education were identified risk factors for depression. These indicators may serve as targets for early

  5. Quality of life and depression in multiple sclerosis patients: longitudinal results of the BetaPlus study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzilli, Carlo; Schweikert, Bernd; Ecari, Ugo; Oentrich, Wolfgang; Bugge, Jörg-Peter

    2012-11-01

    Enhancing quality of life (QoL) is an important objective of disease-modifying therapies in multiple sclerosis (MS). Strategies to substantiate the effect on QoL and depression have been suggested, including injection devices and nursing support. This study assesses QoL and depression in MS patients treated with interferon beta-1b (IFNB-1b) and evaluates the impact of different elements of a patient support programme and of coping strategies on QoL and depression. A prospective, observational, 2-year cohort study was conducted. MS patients were eligible if they had previously switched to IFNB-1b. Data were collected every 6 months. For the measurement of QoL the Functional Assessment of MS (FAMS) was used. Depression symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D); coping strategies were assessed using the 66-item version of Ways of Coping Questionnaire. A total of 1,077 patients were recruited into the study. Seven hundred (65 %) patients completed the study. Within the subgroup completing questionnaires on QoL (N = 472) and depression (N = 363), QoL increased (110.4 vs. 115.8, p QoL and depressions, the use of the autoinjector Betaject(®) over time showed a positive association with QoL (p = 0.049). The support from a nurse was positively associated with lower depressive symptoms (p = 0.039). The coping strategies 'planful problem-solving' and 'positive reappraisal' were associated with higher QoL and lower depressive symptoms. Patients on IFNB-1b treatment who were included in the patient support programme and completed the study showed an improvement in QoL. Moreover, compared to baseline the proportion of depressive patients decreased. Coping strategies as well as supportive elements such as autoinjectors and nurses had a significant impact on QoL and depression. However, the study had the general limitations of a non-controlled design.

  6. Standardized clinical outcome rating scale for depression for use in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Mark; Posternak, Michael A; Chelminski, Iwona; Friedman, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The integration of research into clinical practice to conduct effectiveness studies faces multiple obstacles. One obstacle is the burden of completing research measures of outcome. A simple, reliable, and valid measure that could be rated at every visit, incorporated into a clinician's progress note, and reflect the DSM-IV definition of a major depressive episode (including partial and full remission from the episode) would enhance the ability to conduct effectiveness research. The goal of the present study was to examine the reliability and validity of such a measure. Three hundred and three psychiatric outpatients who were being treated for a DSM-IV major depressive episode were rated on the Standardized Clinical Outcome Rating for Depression (SCOR-D), 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale, and the Global Assessment of Functioning. We examined the correlation between the SCOR-D and the other measures, and conducted an analyses of variance to compare mean values on these measures for each rating point on the SCOR-D. The inter-rater reliability of the SCOR-D dimensional ratings and categorical determination of remission were high. The SCOR-D was highly correlated with the other scales, and there were significant differences on the other measures of depression severity between each adjacent rating level of the SCOR-D. The SCOR-D is a brief standardized outcome measure linked to the DSM-IV approach toward defining remission that can be incorporated into routine clinical practice without adding undue burden to the treating clinician with some evidence of reliability and validity. This measure could make it more feasible to conduct effectiveness studies in clinical practice.

  7. The validity of self-rating depression scales in patients with chronic widespread pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amris, Kirstine; Omerovic, Emina; Danneskiold-Samsøe, Bente

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Assessment of depression in chronic pain patients by self-rating questionnaires developed and validated for use in normal and/or psychiatric populations is common. The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Major Depression Inventory (MDI) in a sample...... of females with chronic widespread pain (CWP). METHOD: A total of 263 females diagnosed with CWP and referred for rehabilitation completed the MDI as part of the baseline evaluation. Rasch analysis was applied to this dataset. Rasch measurement models allow detailed analyses of an instrument's rating scale...

  8. Depression, Sex and Gender Roles in Older Adult Populations: The International Mobility in Aging Study (IMIAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vafaei, Afshin; Ahmed, Tamer; Freire, Aline do N Falcão; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria; Guerra, Ricardo O

    2016-01-01

    To assess the associations between gender roles and depression in older men and women and whether gender roles are independent risk factors for depression. International cross-sectional study of adults between 65 and 74 years old (n = 1,967). Depression was defined by a score of 16 or over in the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). A validated 12-item Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) was used to classify participants in gender roles (Masculine, Feminine, Androgynous, and Undifferentiated) using research site medians of femininity and masculinity as cut-off points. Poisson regressions were fitted to estimate the prevalence ratios (PR) of depression for each gender role compared to the masculine role, adjusting for sex, sufficiency of income, education, marital status, self-rated health, and chronic conditions. Among men, 31.2% were androgynous, 26% were masculine, 14.4% were feminine, and 28.4% were undifferentiated; among women, the corresponding percentages were 32.7%, 14.9%, 27%, and 25.4%. Both in men and in women, depressive symptoms (CES-D≥16) were more prevalent in those endorsing the undifferentiated type, compared to masculine, feminine or androgynous groups. However, after adjusting for potential confounders, compared to the masculine group only those endorsing the androgynous role were 28% less likely to suffer from depression: PR of 0.72 (95% CI: 0.55-0.93). In fully adjusted models, prevalence rates of depression were not different from masculine participants in the two other gender groups of feminine and undifferentiated. Androgynous roles were associated with lower rates of depression in older adults, independently of being a man or a woman.

  9. Depression, Sex and Gender Roles in Older Adult Populations: The International Mobility in Aging Study (IMIAS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Vafaei

    Full Text Available To assess the associations between gender roles and depression in older men and women and whether gender roles are independent risk factors for depression.International cross-sectional study of adults between 65 and 74 years old (n = 1,967. Depression was defined by a score of 16 or over in the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D. A validated 12-item Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI was used to classify participants in gender roles (Masculine, Feminine, Androgynous, and Undifferentiated using research site medians of femininity and masculinity as cut-off points. Poisson regressions were fitted to estimate the prevalence ratios (PR of depression for each gender role compared to the masculine role, adjusting for sex, sufficiency of income, education, marital status, self-rated health, and chronic conditions.Among men, 31.2% were androgynous, 26% were masculine, 14.4% were feminine, and 28.4% were undifferentiated; among women, the corresponding percentages were 32.7%, 14.9%, 27%, and 25.4%. Both in men and in women, depressive symptoms (CES-D≥16 were more prevalent in those endorsing the undifferentiated type, compared to masculine, feminine or androgynous groups. However, after adjusting for potential confounders, compared to the masculine group only those endorsing the androgynous role were 28% less likely to suffer from depression: PR of 0.72 (95% CI: 0.55-0.93. In fully adjusted models, prevalence rates of depression were not different from masculine participants in the two other gender groups of feminine and undifferentiated.Androgynous roles were associated with lower rates of depression in older adults, independently of being a man or a woman.

  10. Relationship between Physical Disability and Depression by Gender: A Panel Regression Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Jin-Won; Kwon, Young Dae; Park, Jumin; Oh, In-Hwan; Kim, Jinseok

    2016-01-01

    Depression in persons with physical disabilities may be more common than in the general population. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between physical disability and depression by gender among adults, using a large, nationally representative sample. This study used data from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging, Wave one through four, and ran a series of random effect panel regression models to test the relationship between physical disability status and depression by gender. We tested the moderating effect of gender on the relationship between disability status and depression level by examining the significance of the cross-product term between disability status and gender. After controlling for self-rated health, marital status, employment status, education, and age, subjects who were female or diagnosed as having any disability presented higher levels of depression scores. Further, the difference in terms of their depression level measured by Center for Epidemiologic Studies Short Depression Scale (CES-D 10) scores between those who were diagnosed as having any disability and those who were not was greater for females than for their male counterparts. This study reaffirmed that disability is the risk factor of depression, using longitudinal data. In addition, female gender is the effect modifier rather than the risk factor. The effect of gender in the non-disability group, mostly composed of older persons, is limited. On the contrary, the female disability group showed more depressive symptoms than the male disability group. The gender difference in the disability group and the role of culture on these differences need further research.

  11. Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strock, Margaret

    Approximately ten percent of the population suffers from a depressive illness each year. Although the economic cost is high, the cost in human suffering is immeasurable. To help educate the population about this disorder, this paper presents a definition of depression and its common manifestations. The symptoms that people often experience are…

  12. Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jon O. J.

    2013-01-01

    Nyhederne er fulde af historier om depression. Overskrifter som: ’Danskerne propper sig med lykkepiller’ eller ‘depression er stadigvæk tabu’ går tit igen i dagspressen. Men hvor er nuancerne, og hvorfor gider vi læse de samme historier igen og igen? Måske er det fordi, vores egne forestillinger er...

  13. 10-year trajectories of depressive symptoms and risk of dementia: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, Saira Saeed; Wolters, Frank J; Swanson, Sonja A; Koudstaal, Peter J; Hofman, Albert; Tiemeier, Henning; Ikram, M Arfan

    2016-07-01

    Late-life depressive symptoms have been extensively studied for their relationship with incident dementia, but have been typically assessed at a single timepoint. Such an approach neglects the course of depression, which, given its remitting and relapsing nature, might provide further insights into the complex association of depression with dementia. We therefore repeatedly measured depressive symptoms in a population of adults over a decade to study the subsequent risk of dementia. Our study was embedded in the Rotterdam Study, a population-based study of adults aged 55 years or older in Rotterdam (Netherlands), ongoing since 1990. The cohort is monitored continuously for major events by data linkage between the study database and general practitioners. We examined a cohort of participants who were free from dementia, but had data for depressive symptoms from at least one examination round in 1993-95, 1997-99, or 2002-04. We assessed depressive symptoms with the validated Dutch version of the Center for Epidemiology Depression Scale (CES-D) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Depression. We used these data to identify 11-year trajectories of depressive symptoms by latent class trajectory modelling. We screened participants for dementia at each examination round and followed up participants for 10 years for incident dementia by latent trajectory from the third examination round to 2014. We calculated hazard ratios (HR) for dementia by assigned trajectory using two Cox proportional hazards models (model 1 adjusted for age and sex only, and model 2 adjusted additionally for APOEɛ4 carrier status, educational level, body-mass index, smoking, alcohol consumption, cognitive score, use of antidepressants, and prevalent disease status at baseline). We repeated the analyses censoring for incident stroke, restricting to Alzheimer's disease as an outcome, and accounting for mortality as a competing risk for dementia. From 1993-2004, we obtained data for depressive

  14. Evaluation of the Edinburgh Post Natal Depression Scale using Rasch analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tennant Alan

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS is a 10 item self-rating post-natal depression scale which has seen widespread use in epidemiological and clinical studies. Concern has been raised over the validity of the EPDS as a single summed scale, with suggestions that it measures two separate aspects, one of depressive feelings, the other of anxiety. Methods As part of a larger cross-sectional study conducted in Melbourne, Australia, a community sample (324 women, ranging in age from 18 to 44 years: mean = 32 yrs, SD = 4.6, was obtained by inviting primiparous women to participate voluntarily in this study. Data from the EPDS were fitted to the Rasch measurement model and tested for appropriate category ordering, for item bias through Differential Item Functioning (DIF analysis, and for unidimensionality through tests of the assumption of local independence. Results Rasch analysis of the data from the ten item scale initially demonstrated a lack of fit to the model with a significant Item-Trait Interaction total chi-square (chi Square = 82.8, df = 40; p Conclusion The results of this study suggest that EPDS, in its original 10 item form, is not a viable scale for the unidimensional measurement of depression. Rasch analysis suggests that a revised eight item version (EPDS-8 would provide a more psychometrically robust scale. The revised cut points of 7/8 and 9/10 for the EPDS-8 show high levels of agreement with the original case identification for the EPDS-10.

  15. Depression, Stress and Body Fat are Associated with Binge Eating in a Community Sample of African American and Hispanic Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamus-Leach, Heather J.; Wilson, Penny L.; O’Connor, Daniel P.; Rhode, Paula C.; Mama, Scherezade K.; Lee, Rebecca E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among depressive symptoms, stress and severity of binge eating symptoms in a community sample of African American and Hispanic or Latina women. Method Women (African American n=127, Hispanic or Latina n=44) completed measures of body composition, stress, depression, and binge eating. Results Scores on a depressive symptom scale indicated that 24.0% of participants exhibited clinically significant levels of depressive symptoms. Mean binge eating scores were below the threshold for clinically diagnosed binge eating (12.99±7.90). Mean stressful event scores were 25.86±14.26 and the average stress impact score was 78.36±55.43. Linear regression models found that body composition, stress impact score, and being classified as having clinically significant levels of depression, were associated with severity of binge eating symptoms. Conclusion Higher levels of percent body fat, a CES-D score ≥16 and higher WSI-Impact scores were associated with greater severity of binge eating symptoms. PMID:23760851

  16. Dimensionality and scale properties of the Edinburgh Depression Scale (EDS in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: the DiaDDzoB study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pop Victor JM

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depression is a common complication in type 2 diabetes (DM2, affecting 10-30% of patients. Since depression is underrecognized and undertreated, it is important that reliable and validated depression screening tools are available for use in patients with DM2. The Edinburgh Depression Scale (EDS is a widely used method for screening depression. However, there is still debate about the dimensionality of the test. Furthermore, the EDS was originally developed to screen for depression in postpartum women. Empirical evidence that the EDS has comparable measurement properties in both males and females suffering from diabetes is lacking however. Methods In a large sample (N = 1,656 of diabetes patients, we examined: (1 dimensionality; (2 gender-related item bias; and (3 the screening properties of the EDS using factor analysis and item response theory. Results We found evidence that the ten EDS items constitute a scale that is essentially one dimensional and has adequate measurement properties. Three items showed differential item functioning (DIF, two of them showed substantial DIF. However, at the scale level, DIF had no practical impact. Anhedonia (the inability to be able to laugh or enjoy and sleeping problems were the most informative indicators for being able to differentiate between the diagnostic groups of mild and severe depression. Conclusions The EDS constitutes a sound scale for measuring an attribute of general depression. Persons can be reliably measured using the sum score. Screening rules for mild and severe depression are applicable to both males and females.

  17. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale: translation and validation for a Greek sample

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    Kogevinas Manolis

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS is an important screening instrument that is used routinely with mothers during the postpartum period for early identification of postnatal depression. The purpose of this study was to validate the Greek version of EPDS along with sensitivity, specificity and predictive values. Methods 120 mothers within 12 weeks postpartum were recruited from the perinatal care registers of the Maternity Departments of 4 Hospitals of Heraklion municipality, Greece. EPDS and Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II surveys were administered in random order to the mothers. Each mother was diagnosed with depression according to the validated Greek version of BDI-II. The psychometric measurements that were performed included: two independent samples t-tests, One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA, reliability coefficients, Explanatory factor analysis using a Varimax rotation and Principal Components Method. Confirmatory analysis -known as structural equation modelling- of principal components was conducted by LISREL (Linear Structural Relations. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis was carried out to evaluate the global functioning of the scale. Results 8 (6.7% of the mothers were diagnosed with major postnatal depression, 14 (11.7% with moderate and 38 (31.7% with mild depression on the basis of BDI-II scores. The internal consistency of the EPDS Greek version -using Chronbach's alpha coefficient- was found 0.804 and that of Guttman split-half coefficient 0.742. Our findings confirm the multidimensionality of EPDS, demonstrating a two-factor structure which contained subscales reflecting depressive symptoms and anxiety. The Confirmatory Factor analysis demonstrated that the two factor model offered a very good fit to our data. The area under ROC curve AUC was found 0.7470 and the logistic estimate for the threshold score of 8/9 fitted the model sensitivity at 76.7% and model specificity at 68

  18. Effect of Health Comparisons on Functional Health and Depressive Symptoms - Results of a Population-Based Longitudinal Study of Older Adults in Germany.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Hajek

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of health comparisons on functional health and depressive symptoms in a longitudinal approach. Gender differences were examined.The German Ageing Survey (DEAS is a nationwide, representative longitudinal study of community dwelling individuals living in Germany aged 40 and older. The surveys in 2008 and 2011 were used, with n = 3,983 respondents taking part in both waves. Health comparisons were quantified by the question "How would you rate your health compared with other people your age" (Much better; somewhat better; the same; somewhat worse, much worse. Functional health was assessed by the subscale "physical functioning" of the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36 and depressive symptoms were measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D.Adjusting for sociodemographic factors, self-assessed health, social network, self-efficacy and optimism, and morbidity, fixed effects regressions revealed that functional health decreased significantly and considerably with negative health comparisons in the total sample (transitions from 'the same' to 'much worse': β = -11.8, predominantly in men. The effects of negative health comparisons (transitions from 'the same' to 'much worse': β = 4.8 on depressive symptoms were comparable (in terms of significance to the effects on functional health, with stronger effects in women. Positive comparisons did not affect functional health and depressive symptoms.Our findings underline the relevance of negative health comparisons on functional health (men and depressive symptoms (women. Comparison effects are asymmetric and mostly upwards.

  19. Factor analysis of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale from a large cancer population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Adam B; Selby, Peter J; Velikova, Galina; Stark, Dan; Wright, E Penny; Gould, Ann; Cull, Ann

    2002-06-01

    The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) is widely used as a tool for assessing psychological distress in patients and non-clinical groups. Previous studies have demonstrated conflicting results regarding the factor structure of the questionnaire for different groups of patients, and the general population. This study investigated the factor structure of the HADS in a large heterogeneous cancer population of 1474 patients. It also sought to investigate emerging evidence that the HADS conforms to the tripartite model of anxiety and depression (Clark & Watson, 1993), and to test the proposal that detection rates for clinical cases of anxiety and depression could be enhanced by partialling out the effects of higher order factors from the HADS (Dunbar et al., 2000). The results demonstrated a two-factor structure corresponding to the Anxiety and Depression subscales of the questionnaire. The factor structure remained stable for different subgroups of the sample, for males and females, as well as for different age groups, and a subgroup of metastatic cancer patients. The two factors were highly correlated (r =.52) and subsequent secondary factor analyses demonstrated a single higher order factor corresponding to psychological distress or negative affectivity. We concluded that the HADS comprises two factors corresponding to anhedonia and autonomic anxiety, which share a common variance with a primary factor namely psychological distress, and that the subscales of the HADS, rather than the residual scores (e.g. Dunbar et al., 2000) were more effective at detecting clinical cases of anxiety and depression.

  20. Reliability and validity of Anxiety and Depression Hospital Scales (HADS: Iranian patients with anxiety and depression disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaviani H

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Iranian researchers and scientists in the fields of psychiatry and psychology undoubtedly need to spend more time and make considerable efforts to prepare and validate Persian versions of measurements. The present study was designed to validate HADS in Iranian clinically anxious and depressed patients compared to normal population."n"n Methods: 261 anxious and depressed patients referred to the inpatient clinic of Rouzbeh Psychiatric Hospital, Tehran, and 261 healthy volunteers (matched for their sex were tested using HADS, and two additional clinical tools, ie., BDI & BAI. Then the patients were interviewed by a psychiatrist or a psychologist (using DSM IV checklist and rated for their anxiety and depression severity levels based on a 10-point scale from 1 to 10. BDI and BAI were regarded as objective device providing other external criteria to examine validity further. Moreover, to assess reliability 10% of the patients (n= 27 were randomly selected and re-tested after three days."n"n Results: Findings showed that all measures and their subscales proved to be valid and reliable with good internal consistencies in Iranian depressed and anxious patients. This study provides clinicians and researchers with

  1. Generating an efficient version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale in an urban obstetrical population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollan, Jackie K; Wisniewski, Stephen R; Luther, James F; Eng, Heather F; Dills, John Louis; Sit, Dorothy; Ciolino, Jody D; Wisner, Katherine L

    2017-01-15

    Postpartum depression incurs significant burden and suffering. We investigated the latent structure of the most commonly used screening measure, the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) in women (N=15,172) and tested its predictive validity for the diagnosis of depression as determined with a structured clinical interview. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, Receiver Operating Characteristic curves, and logistic regression analyses were conducted. A seven-item one factor scale (items 1, 2, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10) emerged with a Goodness of Index Fit Index (GFI) =.96, relative to the ten-item two factor version of the EPDS (GFI =.94). The seven-item EPDS achieved good sensitivity and specificity in predicting the 10-item EPDS, with a cut point score of 4 on the seven item EPDS to predict a 10-item EPDS score of 10 or more (sensitivity =95%, specificity =91%). The seven and 10-item EPDS showed a similar ability to predict a diagnoses of depression (area under the ROC curve=.795 for the 10-item, .770 for the seven-item EPDS). Logistic regression analyses showed similar predictive ability between the seven- and 10-item scales in predicting scores higher than 18 on the clinical interview LIMITATIONS: The sample represents women from one Midwest medical center and the EPDS was measured via phone. The seven-item one factor version of the EPDS is an efficient and effective measure of depression severity on par with the two factor 10-item version of the EPDS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. 冗思反应量表中文版在抑郁障碍患者中的运用结果分析%Reliability and validity of the Chinese version of rumination response scale in depressed patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芹; 朱熊兆; 蚁金瑶; 蔡琳; 钟明洁; 张逸; 唐秋萍

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine the reliability and validity of the Chinese version of the Rumination Response Scale(RRS-C) in Depressed patients. Methods A sample of 212 depressed patients was tested. The RRS-C's coefficient of Cronbach's α mean inter-item correlation coefficient and score - factor correlation coefficient were examined. Using confirmatory factor analysis, the three-factor Model was tested. Results The Cronbach's o coefficient of the RRS-C was 0. 88. The Cronbach's o coefficients of 3 factors were among 0. 67~0. 84. The mean inter-item correlation coefficient of the RRS-C was 0. 26. The intra-class correlation coefficients of RRS-C's three factors ranged from 0. 71-0. 94. The intra-class correlation coefficients of the 3 factors ranged from 0. 29~0. 32. The CFI = 0. 913, GFI = 0.905, χ2<2, RSMEA = 0. 072, and all of them met the criteria standards for adequacy of fit. Conclusions The Chinese Version of Rumination Response Scale was of good reliability and validity in depression patients, which serves as an excellent measuring tool for assessing rumination in Chinese depression patients.%目的 评价冗思反应量表中文版(RRS-C)在抑郁障碍患者中的信、效度.方法 212例抑郁障碍患者完成了RRS-C和流调中心抑郁量表(CES- D),分析RRS-C的Cronbach'sα系数、条目间平均相关系数、总分和各因子的相关系数,并采用验证性因子分析考察其三因子结构.结果 RRS-C总量表的Cronbach's α系数为0.88,三因子的Cronbach's α系数在0.67~0.84;总量表的条目间平均相关系数为0.26,量表总分和各因子间的相关系数在0.71~0.94,各因子条目间平均相关系数在0.29~0.32;验证性因子分析指标(CFI=0.913;GFI=0.905;x2/v<2;RSMEA=0.072)均符合测量学要求.结论 RRS-C在抑郁障碍患者中有良好的信、效度,可应用于我国抑郁障碍患者冗思特征的测评.

  3. Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Different people have different symptoms. Some symptoms of depression include: Persistent sad, anxious, or “empty” mood Feelings of hopelessness or pessimism Feelings of guilt, worthlessness, or helplessness ...

  4. Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... caring for children and aging parents, abuse, and poverty may trigger depression in some people. Medical illness – ... federal government website managed by the Office on Women’s Health in the Office of the Assistant Secretary ...

  5. Overeducation and depressive symptoms: diminishing mental health returns to education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracke, Piet; Pattyn, Elise; von dem Knesebeck, Olaf

    2013-11-01

    In general, well-educated people enjoy better mental health than those with less education. As a result, some wonder whether there are limits to the mental health benefits of education. Inspired by the literature on the expansion of tertiary education, this article explores marginal mental health returns to education and studies the mental health status of overeducated people. To enhance the validity of the findings we use two indicators of educational attainment - years of education and ISCED97 categories - and two objective indicators of overeducation (the realised matches method and the job analyst method) in a sample of the working population of 25 European countries (unweighted sample N = 19,089). Depression is measured using an eight-item version of the CES-D scale. We find diminishing mental health returns to education. In addition, overeducated people report more depression symptoms. Both findings hold irrespective of the indicators used. The results must be interpreted in the light of the enduring expansion of education, as our findings show that the discussion of the relevance of the human capital perspective, and the diploma disease view on the relationship between education and modern society, is not obsolete. © 2013 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2013 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Impact of terrorism on health and Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale screening in medical students, Karachi, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasim, Sara; Khan, Mahjabeen; Aziz, Sina

    2014-03-01

    To determine the association of terrorism with psychiatric morbidity by Hospital Anxiety Depression scale among medical students in Karachi, Pakistan. The questionnaire based cross-sectional survey was conducted from February to March 2011 and comprised students of the Institute of Physical and Medical Rehabilitation and the Dow Medical College, Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi. The study tool was a validated Hospital Anxiety Depression scale questionnaire. The data was analysed on SPSS 16. Factor analysis was performed to check which factors had the most influence. Overall there were 1036 respondents. The impact of terrorism on physical, social and mental health was 40 (3.9%), 178 (17.2%) and 818 (79%) respectively. There was an association of terrorism in 980 (84.6%) respondents with psychiatric morbidity. There was an association of terrorism with psychiatric morbidity in majority of respondents. The significant risk factors were age, gender, physical, mental and social health and the desire to live in Pakistan.

  7. Depression Anxiety and Stress Scales (DASS-21): psychometric analysis across four racial groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Peter J

    2007-09-01

    Growing cross-cultural awareness has led researchers to examine frequently used research instruments and assessment tools in racially diverse populations. The present study was conducted to assess the psychometric characteristics of the 21-item version of the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scales (DASS-21) among different racial groups. The DASS-21 was chosen because it appears to be a reliable and easy to administer measure, ideal for both clinical and research purposes. Results suggest that the internal consistency, and convergent and divergent validity of the DASS-21 are similar across racial groups. Multigroup CFA, however, indicated that item loadings were invariant, while scale covariances were not invariant. This suggests that, although the items may load similarly on the depression, anxiety and stress constructs, these constructs may be differentially inter-related across groups. Implications for application in clinical practice are discussed.

  8. Income inequality, socioeconomic deprivation and depressive symptoms among older adults in Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Alfredo Fernández-Niño

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Depression is the second most common mental disorder in older adults (OA worldwide. The ways in which depression is influenced by the social determinants of health - specifically, by socioeconomic deprivation, income inequality and social capital - have been analyzed with only partially conclusive results thus far. The objective of our study was to estimate the association of income inequality and socioeconomic deprivation at the locality, municipal and state levels with the prevalence of depressive symptoms among OA in Mexico. METHODS: Cross-sectional study based on a nationally representative sample of 8,874 OA aged 60 and over. We applied the brief seven-item version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D to determine the presence of depressive symptoms. Additionally, to select the principal context variables, we used the Deprivation Index of the National Population Council of Mexico at the locality, municipal and state levels, and the Gini Index at the municipal and state levels. Finally, we estimated the association of income inequality and socioeconomic deprivation with the presence of depressive symptoms using a multilevel logistic regression model. RESULTS: Socioeconomic deprivation at the locality (OR = 1.28; p<0.10 and municipal levels (OR = 1.16; p<0.01 correlated significantly with the presence of depressive symptoms, while income inequality did not. CONCLUSIONS: The results of our study confirm that the social determinants of health are relevant to the mental health of OA. Further research is required, however, to identify which are the specific socioeconomic deprivation components at the locality and municipal levels that correlate with depression in this population group.

  9. Community Resilience, Psychological Resilience, and Depressive Symptoms: An Examination of the Mississippi Gulf Coast 10 Years After Hurricane Katrina and 5 Years After the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joohee; Blackmon, Bret J; Cochran, David M; Kar, Bandana; Rehner, Timothy A; Gunnell, Mauri Stubbs

    2017-08-30

    This study examined the role of community resilience and psychological resilience on depressive symptoms in areas on the Mississippi Gulf Coast that have experienced multiple disasters. Survey administration took place in the spring of 2015 to a spatially stratified, random sample of households. This analysis included a total of 294 subjects who lived in 1 of the 3 counties of the Mississippi Gulf Coast at the time of both Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in 2010. The survey included the Communities Advancing Resilience Toolkit (CART) scale, the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC 10), and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). There was a significant inverse relationship between psychological resilience and depressive symptoms and a significant positive relationship between community resilience and psychological resilience. The results also revealed that community resilience was indirectly related to depressive symptoms through the mediating variable of psychological resilience. These findings highlight the importance of psychological resilience in long-term disaster recovery and imply that long-term recovery efforts should address factors associated with both psychological and community resilience to improve mental health outcomes. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;page 1 of 8).

  10. Depression and quality of life of hemodialysis patients living in a poor region of Brazil Depressão e qualidade de vida entre pacientes em hemodiálise de uma região pobre do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Santos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the correlation between depression and quality of life (QOL of patients in hemodialysis (HD. METHOD: One hundred and sixty six patients over 18 years of age who had been in HD for at least three months and had no history of transplant. QOL was assessed using the SF-36. To categorize depression, a score > 10 was used on the 10-item version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D. Comparisons between depressed and nondepressed patients were performed using the chi-square test, Student's t-test, and Mann-Whitney test. Multiple regression was performed to assess the predictive variables of patients' QOL. RESULTS: Symptoms of depression were found in 13 (7.8% patients. The only variable that differed among depressed patients was QOL. Depressed patients presented lower scores in vitality (40.7 vs. 57.3; p = 0.010, role-emotional (25.6 vs. 62.5; p = 0.006, and mental health (50.1 vs. 65.4; p = 0.023. Regression analysis demonstrated that depression was a predictor of role-emotional (OR = 0.981, CI = 0.967-0.996; p = 0.010 and mental health (OR = 0.970, CI = 0.946-0.996; p = 0.022. CONCLUSION: Depressed patients experience a poor QOL because, in addition to their chronically affected physical aspects, they also feel limited in the mental dimensions, which usually have the highest score among non-depressed HD patients.OBJETIVO: Determinar a correlação entre depressão e qualidade de vida (QV de pacientes submetidos à hemodiálise (HD. MÉTODO: Foram estudados 166 pacientes com idade superior a 18 anos, em HD por pelo menos três meses e sem transplante prévio. O nível de QV foi medido pelo questionário SF-36. Para categorizar depressão foi utilizada a versão de 10 itens do Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D; escore > 10. As comparações entre pacientes com e sem depressão foram realizadas pelos testes do qui-quadrado, t de Student e Mann-Whitney. Regressão múltipla foi

  11. Rasch model analysis of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales (DASS)

    OpenAIRE

    Tennant Alan; Shea Tracey L; Pallant Julie F

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background There is a growing awareness of the need for easily administered, psychometrically sound screening tools to identify individuals with elevated levels of psychological distress. Although support has been found for the psychometric properties of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales (DASS) using classical test theory approaches it has not been subjected to Rasch analysis. The aim of this study was to use Rasch analysis to assess the psychometric properties of the DASS-21...

  12. The association between occupational stress and depressive symptoms and the mediating role of psychological capital among Chinese university teachers: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xue; Yang, Yi-Long; Wang, Yang; Liu, Li; Wang, Shu; Wang, Lie

    2014-11-30

    Depression is a major public health problem that affects both individuals and society. Previous studies report that university teachers are particularly susceptible to high levels of occupational stress and depressive symptoms. The aims of this study were to explore the association between occupational stress and depressive symptoms in a group of university teachers, and assess the mediating role of psychological capital between these variables. A cross-sectional study was performed between November 2013 and January 2014. Teachers from six universities were randomly sampled in Shenyang. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, effort-reward imbalance scale, and psychological capital questionnaire (PCQ-24), as well as questions about demographic and working factors, were administered in questionnaires distributed to 1,500 university teachers. Completed questionnaires were received from 1,210 participants. Hierarchical linear regression analysis was used to examine the mediating role of psychological capital. In the present study, 58.9% (95% CI (Confidence Intervals): 56.1% to 61.7%) of university teachers had a CES-D score equal to or above the cut-off of 16. Both effort-reward ratio (ERR) and scores of over-commitment were positively associated with depressive symptoms, whereas psychological capital was negatively associated with depressive symptoms among university teachers. Psychological capital partially mediated the relationship between occupational stress and depressive symptoms. Among Chinese university teachers, occupational stress may be a risk factor for depressive symptoms, whereas psychological capital might be protective against depressive symptoms. Our results suggest that college administrators could support the development of psychological capital in their staff to alleviate depressive symptoms.

  13. The improved Clinical Global Impression Scale (iCGI: development and validation in depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadouri Alane

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Clinical Global Impression scale (CGI is frequently used in medical care and clinical research because of its face validity and practicability. This study proposes to improve the reliability of the Clinical Global Impression (CGI scale in depressive disorders by the use of a semi-standardized interview, a new response format, and a Delphi procedure. Methods Thirty patients hospitalised for a major depressive episode were filmed at T1 (first week in hospital and at T2 (2 weeks later during a 5' specific interview. The Hamilton Depressive Rating Scale and the Symptom Check List were also rated. Eleven psychiatrists rated these videos using either the usual CGI response format or an improved response format, with or without a Delphi procedure. Results The new response format slightly improved (but not significantly the interrater agreement, the Delphi procedure did not. The best results were obtained when ratings by 4 independent raters were averaged. In this situation, intraclass correlation coefficients were about 0.9. Conclusion The Clinical Global Impression is a useful approach in psychiatry since it apprehends patients in their entirety. This study shows that it is possible to quantify such impressions with a high level of interrater agreement.

  14. The Effects of Donepezil on 15-Item Geriatric Depression Scale Structure in Patients with Alzheimer Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngsoon Yang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: In Alzheimer disease (AD, depression is among the most common accompanying neuropsychiatric symptoms and has different clinical manifestations when compared with early-life depression. In patients with drug-naïve AD, we tried to explore the structure of the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS15 and the effect of donepezil on these substructures. Methods: GDS15, cognitive function, and activities of daily living function tests were administered to 412 patients with probable AD who had not been medicated before visiting the hospital. Using principal component analysis, three factors were identified. The patients with AD who received only donepezil were retrospectively analyzed and we compared the change of cognition and GDS15 subgroup after donepezil medication. Results: Our study identified three factors and revealed that the GDS15 may be comprised of a heterogeneous scale. The Barthel index was significantly correlated with factor 1 (positively and factor 2 (negatively. The Korean version of the MMSE (K-MMSE was significantly correlated with factor 2 and factor 3. Compared to the baseline state, K-MMSE and GDS15 showed significant improvement after taking donepezil. Among GDS15 subgroups, factor 2 and factor 3 showed significant improvement after donepezil treatment. Conclusions: These results suggest that the GDS15 may be comprised of a heterogeneous scale and donepezil differentially affects the GDS15 subgroup in AD.

  15. The Effects of Donepezil on 15-Item Geriatric Depression Scale Structure in Patients with Alzheimer Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Youngsoon; Kwak, Yong Tae

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims In Alzheimer disease (AD), depression is among the most common accompanying neuropsychiatric symptoms and has different clinical manifestations when compared with early-life depression. In patients with drug-naïve AD, we tried to explore the structure of the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS15) and the effect of donepezil on these substructures. Methods GDS15, cognitive function, and activities of daily living function tests were administered to 412 patients with probable AD who had not been medicated before visiting the hospital. Using principal component analysis, three factors were identified. The patients with AD who received only donepezil were retrospectively analyzed and we compared the change of cognition and GDS15 subgroup after donepezil medication. Results Our study identified three factors and revealed that the GDS15 may be comprised of a heterogeneous scale. The Barthel index was significantly correlated with factor 1 (positively) and factor 2 (negatively). The Korean version of the MMSE (K-MMSE) was significantly correlated with factor 2 and factor 3. Compared to the baseline state, K-MMSE and GDS15 showed significant improvement after taking donepezil. Among GDS15 subgroups, factor 2 and factor 3 showed significant improvement after donepezil treatment. Conclusions These results suggest that the GDS15 may be comprised of a heterogeneous scale and donepezil differentially affects the GDS15 subgroup in AD.

  16. Validation of the depression anxiety stress scales (DASS) 21 as a screening instrument for depression and anxiety in a rural community-based cohort of northern Vietnamese women

    OpenAIRE

    Tran Thach Duc; Tran Tuan; Fisher Jane

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Depression and anxiety are recognised increasingly as serious public health problems among women in low- and lower-middle income countries. The aim of this study was to validate the 21-item Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS21) for use in screening for these common mental disorders among rural women with young children in the North of Vietnam. Methods The DASS-21 was translated from English to Vietnamese, culturally verified, back-translated and administered to wome...

  17. The Validity of the Different Versions of the Hamilton Depression Scale in Separating Remission Rates of Placebo and Antidepressants in Clinical Trials of Major Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyle, Phillip Raphael; Lemming, Ole; Timmerby, Nina

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Our objectivewas to validate the different versions of the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D) both psychometrically (scalability) and clinically in discriminating antidepressants from placebo in terms of remission rates in an 8-week clinical trial in the acute treatment of major depression...... in the longer HAM-D versions indicated smaller discriminating validity over placebo. The HAM-D6 indicated a dose effect on remission for vortioxetine in both moderate and severe major depression. The brief HAM-D6 was thus found superior to HAM-D17, HAM-D21, and HAM-D24 both in terms of scalability...

  18. Dimensional approach to symptom factors of major depressive disorder in Koreans, using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale: the Clinical Research Center for Depression of South Korea study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seon-Cheol; Jang, Eun Young; Kim, Daeho; Jun, Tae-Youn; Lee, Min-Soo; Kim, Jae-Min; Kim, Jung-Bum; Jo, Sun-Jin; Park, Yong Chon

    2015-01-01

    Although major depressive disorder (MDD) has a variety of symptoms beyond the affective dimensions, the factor structure and contents of comprehensive psychiatric symptoms of this disorder have rarely been explored using the 18-item Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS). We aimed to identify the factor structure of the 18-item BPRS in Korean MDD patients. A total of 258 MDD patients were recruited from a multicenter sample of the Clinical Research Center for Depression of South Korea study. Psychometric scales were used to assess overall psychiatric symptoms (BPRS), depression (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale), anxiety (Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale), global severity (Clinical Global Impression of Severity Scale), suicidal ideation (Scale for Suicide Ideation), functioning (Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale), and quality of life (World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment-abbreviated version). Common factor analysis with oblique rotation was used to yield factor structure. A four-factor structure was designed and interpreted by the symptom dimensions to reflect mood disturbance, positive symptoms/apathy, bipolarity, and thought distortion/mannerism. These individual factors were also significantly correlated with clinical variables. The findings of this study support the view that the BPRS may be a promising measuring tool for the initial assessment of MDD patients. In addition, the four-factor structure of the BPRS may be useful in understanding the mood and psychotic characteristics of these patients.

  19. Dimensional approach to symptom factors of major depressive disorder in Koreans, using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale: The Clinical Research Center for Depression of South Korea Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seon-Cheol Park

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although major depressive disorder (MDD has a variety of symptoms beyond the affective dimensions, the factor structure and contents of comprehensive psychiatric symptoms of this disorder have rarely been explored using the 18-item Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS. We aimed to identify the factor structure of the 18-item BPRS in Korean MDD patients. A total of 258 MDD patients were recruited from a multicenter sample of the Clinical Research Center for Depression of South Korea study. Psychometric scales were used to assess overall psychiatric symptoms (BPRS, depression (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, anxiety (Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, global severity (Clinical Global Impression of Severity Scale, suicidal ideation (Scale for Suicide Ideation, functioning (Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale, and quality of life (World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment-abbreviated version. Common factor analysis with oblique rotation was used to yield factor structure. A four-factor structure was designed and interpreted by the symptom dimensions to reflect mood disturbance, positive symptoms/apathy, bipolarity, and thought distortion/mannerism. These individual factors were also significantly correlated with clinical variables. The findings of this study support the view that the BPRS may be a promising measuring tool for the initial assessment of MDD patients. In addition, the four-factor structure of the BPRS may be useful in understanding the mood and psychotic characteristics of these patients.

  20. Problems in Cross-Cultural Use of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale: "No Butterflies in the Desert"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maters, G.A.; Sanderman, R.; Kim, A.Y.; Coyne, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) is widely used to screen for anxiety and depression. A large literature is citable in support of its validity, but difficulties are increasingly being identified, such as inexplicably discrepant optimal cutpoints and inconsistent factor-stru

  1. Problems in Cross-Cultural Use of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale : "No Butterflies in the Desert"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maters, Gemma A.; Sanderman, Robbert; Kim, Aimee Y.; Coyne, James C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) is widely used to screen for anxiety and depression. A large literature is citable in support of its validity, but difficulties are increasingly being identified, such as inexplicably discrepant optimal cutpoints and inconsistent factor-str

  2. Problems in Cross-Cultural Use of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale: "No Butterflies in the Desert"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maters, G.A.; Sanderman, Robbert; Kim, A.Y.; Coyne, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) is widely used to screen for anxiety and depression. A large literature is citable in support of its validity, but difficulties are increasingly being identified, such as inexplicably discrepant optimal cutpoints and inconsistent factor-stru

  3. A validation study of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) in different groups of Dutch subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spinhoven, P; Ormel, J; Sloekers, PPA; Kempen, GIJM; Speckens, AEM; VanHemert, AM; van Hemert, A.M.

    Background. Research on the dimensional structure and reliability of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and its relationship with age is scarce. Moreover, its efficacy in determining the presence of depression in different patient groups has been questioned. Methods. Psychometric

  4. Diagnostic accuracy of the original 30-item and shortened versions of the Geriatric Depression Scale in nursing home patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongenelis, K; Eisses, AMH; Gerritsen, DL; Beekman, ATF; Kluiter, H; Ribbe, MW

    2005-01-01

    Objective To determine the diagnostic accuracy of the 30-item and shortened versions of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) in diagnosing depression in older nursing home patients. Method Three hundred and thirty-three older nursing home patients participated in a prospective cross-sectional study

  5. Diagnostic accuracy of the original 30-item and shortened versions of the Geriatric Depression Scale in nursing home patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongenelis, K; Eisses, AMH; Gerritsen, DL; Beekman, ATF; Kluiter, H; Ribbe, MW

    2005-01-01

    Objective To determine the diagnostic accuracy of the 30-item and shortened versions of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) in diagnosing depression in older nursing home patients. Method Three hundred and thirty-three older nursing home patients participated in a prospective cross-sectional study

  6. Validity of the definite and semidefinite questionnaire version of the Hamilton Depression Scale, the Hamilton subscale and the Melancholia Scale. Part I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper Bent; Bech, Per

    2011-01-01

    -reporting versions (definitely and semidefinitely anchored) corresponding to the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD), the Hamilton Subscale (HAM6), and the Bech-Rafaelsen Melancholia Scale (MES) were compared to each other and the clinician-rated version. The unidimensional property of the sum score in each scale...

  7. Performance of the Visual Analogue Scale of Happiness and of the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia in the Tremembé Epidemiological Study, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina G. César

    Full Text Available Depression is a major growing public health problem. Many population studies have found a significant relationship between depression and the presence of cognitive disorders. OBJECTIVE: To establish the correlation between the Visual Analogue Scale of Happiness and the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia in the population aged 60 years or over in the city of Tremembé, state of São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: An epidemiological survey involving home visits was carried out in the city of Tremembé. The sample was randomly selected by drawing 20% of the population aged 60 years or older from each of the city's census sectors. In this single-phase study, the assessment included clinical history, physical and neurological examination, cognitive evaluation, and application of both the Cornell Scale and the Analogue Scale of Happiness for psychiatric symptoms. The presence of depressive symptoms was defined as scores greater than or equal to 8 points on the Cornell Scale. RESULTS: A total of 623 subjects were evaluated and of these 251 (40.3% had clinically significant depressive symptoms on the Cornell Scale, with a significant association with female gender (p<0.001 and with lower education (p=0.012. One hundred and thirty-six participants (21.8% chose the unhappiness faces, with a significant association with age (p<0.001, female gender (p=0.020 and low socioeconomic status (p=0.012. Although there was a statistically significant association on the correlation test, the correlation was not high (rho=0.47. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of depressive symptoms was high in this sample and the Visual Analogue Scale of Happiness and Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia should not be used as similar alternatives for evaluating the presence of depressive symptoms, at least in populations with low educational level.

  8. The Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale: A systematic review and reliability generalization meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piqueras, Jose A; Martín-Vivar, María; Sandin, Bonifacio; San Luis, Concepción; Pineda, David

    2017-08-15

    Anxiety and depression are among the most common mental disorders during childhood and adolescence. Among the instruments for the brief screening assessment of symptoms of anxiety and depression, the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale (RCADS) is one of the more widely used. Previous studies have demonstrated the reliability of the RCADS for different assessment settings and different versions. The aims of this study were to examine the mean reliability of the RCADS and the influence of the moderators on the RCADS reliability. We searched in EBSCO, PsycINFO, Google Scholar, Web of Science, and NCBI databases and other articles manually from lists of references of extracted articles. A total of 146 studies were included in our meta-analysis. The RCADS showed robust internal consistency reliability in different assessment settings, countries, and languages. We only found that reliability of the RCADS was significantly moderated by the version of RCADS. However, these differences in reliability between different versions of the RCADS were slight and can be due to the number of items. We did not examine factor structure, factorial invariance across gender, age, or country, and test-retest reliability of the RCADS. The RCADS is a reliable instrument for cross-cultural use, with the advantage of providing more information with a low number of items in the assessment of both anxiety and depression symptoms in children and adolescents. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Factor structure of the Japanese version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale in the postpartum period.

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    Chika Kubota

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS is a widely used screening tool for postpartum depression (PPD. Although the reliability and validity of EPDS in Japanese has been confirmed and the prevalence of PPD is found to be about the same as Western countries, the factor structure of the Japanese version of EPDS has not been elucidated yet. METHODS: 690 Japanese mothers completed all items of the EPDS at 1 month postpartum. We divided them randomly into two sample sets. The first sample set (n = 345 was used for exploratory factor analysis, and the second sample set was used (n = 345 for confirmatory factor analysis. RESULTS: The result of exploratory factor analysis indicated a three-factor model consisting of anxiety, depression and anhedonia. The results of confirmatory factor analysis suggested that the anxiety and anhedonia factors existed for EPDS in a sample of Japanese women at 1 month postpartum. The depression factor varies by the models of acceptable fit. CONCLUSIONS: We examined EPDS scores. As a result, "anxiety" and "anhedonia" exist for EPDS among postpartum women in Japan as already reported in Western countries. Cross-cultural research is needed for future research.

  10. The association of depressive symptoms with inflammatory factors and adipokines in middle-aged and older Chinese.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An Pan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies in Western populations find that depression is associated with inflammation and obesity. The present study aimed to evaluate the relation of depressive symptoms with inflammatory factors and adipose-derived adipokines in middle-aged and older Chinese. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Data were from 3289 community residents aged 50-70 from Beijing and Shanghai who participated in the Nutrition and Health of Aging Population in China project. Depressive symptoms were defined as a Center for Epidemiological Studies of Depression Scale (CES-D score of 16 or higher. Plasma concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP, interleukin-6 (IL-6, adiponectin, resistin, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1 and retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4 were measured. Of the 3289 participants, 312 (9.5% suffered from current depressive symptoms. IL-6 level was higher in participants with depressive symptoms compared to their counterparts in the crude analyses (1.17 vs. 1.05 pg/mL, p = 0.023 and this association lost statistical significance after multiple adjustments (1.13 vs. 1.10 pg/mL, p = 0.520. Depressive symptoms were not associated with increased mean levels of any other inflammatory factors or adipokines in the unadjusted or adjusted analyses. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We found no evidence that depressive symptoms were associated with inflammatory factors and adipokines in the middle-aged and older Chinese populations. Prospective studies and studies in clinically diagnosed patients are needed to confirm our results and clarify the relation of depression with inflammatory factors and adipokines.

  11. Newborn right-holding is related to depressive symptoms in bottle-feeding mothers but not in breastfeeding mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnot, Julien; Vauclair, Jacques; Bréjard, Vincent

    2008-09-01

    This study examines the relationships between infant holding preferences and maternal depression according to the newborn feeding mode. Links between depression and infant holding biases have been observed in mothers [Vauclair, J., Scola, C. (in press). Dépression, alexithymie et latéralisation dans la façon de porter un nouveau-né [Infant holding biases in relation to depression, alexithymia and laterality]. Annales Médico-psychologiques; Weatherill, R. P., Almerigi, J. B., Levendosky, A. A., Bogat, G. A., von Eye, A., & Harris, L. J. (2004). Is maternal depression related to side of infant holding? International Journal of Behavioral Development, 28, 421-427] but the fact that breastfeeding has never been studied in relation to these two factors is surprising as breastfeeding has some influence on depression (e.g., [Mezzacappa, E. S., Guethlein, W., Vaz, N., & Bagiella, E. (2000). A preliminary study of breast-feeding and maternal symptomatology. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 22, 71-79]) and must also affect holding biases. Mothers who just gave birth (N=100) were tested few days after delivery. Measures of handedness, infant holding-side preferences, and level of depressive symptoms expressed by mothers (assessed with the CES-D scale) were collected via questionnaires. Asymmetries in emotional perception were assessed via a Chimeric Figure Task and a Dichotic Listening Task. Results showed that breastfeeding (1) reduced left-side bias for holding newborns and (2) was associated with lowest levels of depressive symptoms. Moreover, holding biases were related to maternal depression in bottle-feeding but not in breastfeeding mothers, namely that holding on the right-side while bottle-feeding was associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms. These results were not due to hemispheric specialization as auditory and visual asymmetries were similar between breastfeeding and bottle-feeding mothers. The discussion emphasizes the striking role of the early

  12. Usefulness of a single-item measure of depression to predict mortality: the GAZEL prospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefèvre, Thomas; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Stringhini, Silvia; Dugravot, Aline; Lemogne, Cédric; Consoli, Silla M.; Goldberg, Marcel; Zins, Marie

    2012-01-01

    Background: It remains unknown whether short measures of depression perform as well as long measures in predicting adverse outcomes such as mortality. The present study aims to examine the predictive value of a single-item measure of depression for mortality. Methods: A total of 14 185 participants of the GAZEL cohort completed the 20-item Center-for-Epidemiologic-Studies-Depression (CES-D) scale in 1996. One of these items (I felt depressed) was used as a single-item measure of depression. All-cause mortality data were available until 30 September 2009, a mean follow-up period of 12.7 years with a total of 650 deaths. Results: In Cox regression model adjusted for baseline socio-demographic characteristics, a one-unit increase in the single-item score (range 0–3) was associated with a 25% higher risk of all-cause mortality (95% CI: 13–37%, P < 0.001). Further adjustment for health-related behaviours and physical chronic diseases reduced this risk by 36% and 8%, respectively. After adjustment for all these variables, every one-unit increase in the single-item score predicted a 15% increased risk of death (95% CI: 5–27%, P < 0.01). There is also an evidence of a dose–reponse relationship between reponse scores on the single-item measure of depression and mortality. Conclusion: This study shows that a single-item measure of depression is associated with an increased risk of death. Given its simplicity and ease of administration, a very simple single-item measure of depression might be useful for identifying middle-aged adults at risk for elevated depressive symptoms in large epidemiological studies and clinical settings. PMID:21840893

  13. Sensitivity to changes during antidepressant treatment: a comparison of unidimensional subscales of the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (IDS-C) and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) in patients with mild major, minor or subsyndromal depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmreich, Isabella; Wagner, Stefanie; Mergl, Roland; Allgaier, Antje-Kathrin; Hautzinger, Martin; Henkel, Verena; Hegerl, Ulrich; Tadić, André

    2012-06-01

    In the efficacy evaluation of antidepressant treatments, the total score of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) is still regarded as the 'gold standard'. We previously had shown that the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (IDS) was more sensitive to detect depressive symptom changes than the HAMD17 (Helmreich et al. 2011). Furthermore, studies suggest that the unidimensional subscales of the HAMD, which capture the core depressive symptoms, outperform the full HAMD regarding the detection of antidepressant treatment effects. The aim of the present study was to compare several unidimensional subscales of the HAMD and the IDS regarding their sensitivity to changes in depression symptoms in a sample of patients with mild major, minor or subsyndromal depression (MIND). Biweekly IDS-C28 and HAMD17 data from 287 patients of a 10-week randomised, placebo-controlled trial comparing the effectiveness of sertraline and cognitive-behavioural group therapy in patients with MIND were converted to subscale scores and analysed during the antidepressant treatment course. We investigated sensitivity to depressive change for all scales from assessment-to-assessment, in relation to depression severity level and placebo-verum differences. The subscales performed similarly during the treatment course, with slight advantages for some subscales in detecting treatment effects depending on the treatment modality and on the items included. Most changes in depressive symptomatology were detected by the IDS short scale, but regarding the effect sizes, it performed worse than most subscales. Unidimensional subscales are a time- and cost-saving option in judging drug therapy outcomes, especially in antidepressant treatment efficacy studies. However, subscales do not cover all facets of depression (e.g. atypical symptoms, sleep disturbances), which might be important for comprehensively understanding the nature of the disease depression. Therefore, the cost-to-benefit ratio must be

  14. Beside the Geriatric Depression Scale: the WHO-Five Well-being Index as a valid screening tool for depression in nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allgaier, Antje-Kathrin; Kramer, Dietmar; Saravo, Barbara; Mergl, Roland; Fejtkova, Sabina; Hegerl, Ulrich

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the study was to compare criterion validities of the WHO-Five Well-being Index (WHO-5) and the Geriatric Depression Scale 15-item version (GDS-15) and 4-item version (GDS-4) as screening instruments for depression in nursing home residents. Data from 92 residents aged 65-97 years without severe cognitive impairment (Mini Mental State Examination ≥15) were analysed. Criterion validities of the WHO-5, the GDS-15 and the GDS-4 were assessed against diagnoses of major and minor depression provided by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. Subanalyses were performed for major and minor depression. Areas under the receiver operating curve (AUCs) as well as sensitivities and specificities at optimal cut-off points were computed. Prevalence of depressive disorder was 28.3%. The AUC value of the WHO-5 (0.90) was similar to that of the GDS-15 (0.82). Sensitivity of the WHO-5 (0.92) at its optimal cut-off of ≤12 was significantly higher than that of the GDS-15 (0.69) at its optimal cut-off of ≥7. The WHO-5 was equally sensitive for the subgroups of major and minor depression (0.92), whereas the GDS-15 was sensitive only for major depression (0.85), but not for minor depression (0.54). For specificity, there was no significant difference between WHO-5 (0.79) and GDS-15 (0.88), but both instruments outperformed the GDS-4 (0.53). The WHO-5 demonstrated high sensitivity for major and minor depression. Being shorter than the GDS-15 and superior to the GDS-4, the WHO-5 is a promising screening tool that could help physicians improve low recognition rates of depression in nursing home residents. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Validation of an Arabic translation of the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkby, Russel; Al Saif, Abdulaziz; el-din Mohamed, Gamal

    2005-01-01

    Depression is a common condition in primary care medicine in all population groups. We wanted to validate an Arabic translation Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale for Arabic speakers as it has been validated in a number of other languages. The hospital translation service translated the English version into Arabic, which was verified by back translation. This version was tested in a pilot study with 40 bilingual Arabic-English clinicians and Arabic linguistic experts. Revised questions were subjected to another translation-back translation and the final version tested in a clinical trial with 240 consenting bilingual English-Arabic speakers. The subjects were randomly assigned to answer either the English or Arabic version of the Zung questionnaire first, ensuring that subjects had no access to previous answers when answering the questionnaire in the other language. The scores obtained were tested for agreement using the kappa statistic. We found substantial agreement between the scores obtained from the two questionnaires. The kappa measurement of agreement was 0.652 (95% confidence interval, 0.571-0.732) We believe the Arabic translation of the English Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale is valid and reliable, and will be useful to practitioners who would like to use this tool in Arabic-speaking patients.

  16. The time has come to stop rotations for the identification of structures in the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D17)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Per; Csillag, Claudio; Hellström, Lone;

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To use principal component analysis (PCA) to test the hypothesis that the items of the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D17) have been selected to reflect depression disability, whereas some of the items are specific for sub-typing depression into typical vs. atypical depression. Method:...

  17. Use of a smartphone application to screen for depression and suicide in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Seung-Ho; Woo, Young Sup; Hong, Jeong-Wan; Yoon, Bo-Hyun; Hwang, Tae-Yeon; Kim, Moon-Doo; Lee, Sang-Yeol; Bahk, Won-Myong

    2017-05-01

    This is a cross-sectional study using a free depression and suicide screening smartphone application, which contains the data from the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression (CES-D) and a Suicide Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised (SBQ-R). The free application was downloaded worldwide from Apple's App Store and Android Market, and the participants who downloaded the application were actively measured. The subjects totaled 208,683 men and women. 72.6% of the subjects were females, and 81.4% of the subjects were aged between 10 and 29years. In total, 25.7% of the participants were recorded CES-D positive, and there were differences among the groups based on sex (χ2=1065.82, psmartphone application may be a useful tool for screening depression and suicide. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [Which route leads from chronic back pain to depression? A path analysis on direct and indirect effects using the cognitive mediators catastrophizing and helplessness/hopelessness in a general population sample].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahland, R A; Kohlmann, T; Hasenbring, M; Feng, Y-S; Schmidt, C O

    2012-12-01

    Chronic pain and depression are highly comorbid; however, the longitudinal link is only partially understood. This study examined direct and indirect effects of chronic back pain on depression using path analysis in a general population sample, focussing on cognitive mediator variables. Analyses are based on 413 participants (aged 18-75 years) in a population-based postal survey on back pain who reported chronic back pain at baseline. Follow-up data were collected after 1 year. Depression was measured with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Fear-avoidance-beliefs (FABQ), catastrophizing and helplessness/hopelessness (KRSS) were considered as cognitive mediators. Data were analyzed using path analysis. Chronic back pain had no direct effect on depression at follow-up when controlling for cognitive mediators. A mediating effect emerged for helplessness/hopelessness but not for catastrophizing or fear-avoidance beliefs. These results support the cognitive mediation hypothesis which assumes that psychological variables mediate the association between pain and depression. The importance of helplessness/hopelessness is of relevance for the treatment of patients with chronic back pain.

  19. Cross-cultural validation of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kui; Shi, Hai-Song; Geng, Fu-Lei; Zou, Lai-Quan; Tan, Shu-Ping; Wang, Yi; Neumann, David L; Shum, David H K; Chan, Raymond C K

    2016-05-01

    The gap between the demand and delivery of mental health services in mainland China can be reduced by validating freely available and psychometrically sound psychological instruments. The present research examined the Chinese version of the 21-item Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21). Study 1 administered the DASS-21 to 1,815 Chinese college students and found internal consistency indices (Cronbach's alpha) of .83, .80, and .82 for the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress subscales, respectively, and .92 for the total DASS total. Test-retest reliability over a 6-month interval was .39 to .46 for each of the 3 subscales and .46 for the total DASS. Moderate convergent validity of the Depression and Anxiety subscales was demonstrated via significant correlations with the Chinese Beck Depression Inventory (r = .51 at Time 1 and r = .64 at Time 2) and the Chinese State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (r = .41), respectively. Confirmatory factor analyses supported the original 3-factor model with 1 minor change (nonnormed fit index [NNFI] = .964, comparative fit index [CFI] = .968, and root mean square error of approximation [RMSEA] = .079). Study 2 examined the clinical utility of the Chinese DASS-21 in 166 patients with schizophrenia and 90 matched healthy controls. Patients had higher Depression and Anxiety but not Stress subscale scores than healthy controls. A discriminant function composed of the linear combination of 3 subscale scores correctly discriminated 69.92% of participants, which again supported the potential clinical utility of the DASS in mainland China. Taken together, findings in these studies support the cross-cultural validity of the DASS-21 in China. (PsycINFO Database Record

  20. The impact of education, country, race and ethnicity on the self-report of postpartum depression using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Florio, A.; Putnam, K.; Altemus, M.; Apter, G.; Bergink, V.; Bilszta, J.; Brock, R.; Buist, A.; Deligiannidis, K. M.; Devouche, E.; Epperson, C. N.; Guille, C.; Kim, D.; Lichtenstein, P.; Magnusson, P. K. E.; Martinez, P.; Munk-Olsen, T.; Newport, J.; Payne, J.; Penninx, B. W.; O’Hara, M.; Robertson-Blackmore, E.; Roza, S. J.; Sharkey, K. M.; Stuart, S.; Tiemeier, H.; Viktorin, A.; Schmidt, P. J.; Sullivan, P. F.; Stowe, Z. N.; Wisner, K. L.; Jones, I.; Rubinow, D. R.; Meltzer-Brody, S.

    2017-01-01

    Background Universal screening for postpartum depression is recommended in many countries. Knowledge of whether the disclosure of depressive symptoms in the postpartum period differs across cultures could improve detection and provide new insights into the pathogenesis. Moreover, it is a necessary step to evaluate the universal use of screening instruments in research and clinical practice. In the current study we sought to assess whether the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), the most widely used screening tool for postpartum depression, measures the same underlying construct across cultural groups in a large international dataset. Method Ordinal regression and measurement invariance were used to explore the association between culture, operationalized as education, ethnicity/race and continent, and endorsement of depressive symptoms using the EPDS on 8209 new mothers from Europe and the USA. Results Education, but not ethnicity/race, influenced the reporting of postpartum depression [difference between robust comparative fit indexes (Δ*CFI) 0.01), but not between European countries (Δ*CFI depression that women of different educational backgrounds may manifest. The increasing cultural heterogeneity of societies together with the tendency towards globalization requires a culturally sensitive approach to patients, research and policies, that takes into account, beyond rhetoric, the context of a person’s experiences and the context in which the research is conducted. PMID:27866476

  1. Detection of Mental Disorders Other Than Depression with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale in a Sample of Pregnant Women in Northern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Sifuentes-Alvarez, Antonio; Salas-Martinez, Carlos

    2016-05-18

    We sought to evaluate the capacity of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) in discriminating mental disorders other than depression in pregnant women in northern Mexico. Three hundred pregnant women attending prenatal consultations in a public hospital in Durango City, Mexico submitted a validated EPDS and were examined for mental disorders other than depression using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders - 4(th) Ed. (DSM-IV) criteria. Sensitivity and specificity of cut-off points of the EPDS, and positive and negative predictive values were calculated. Of the 300 pregnant women studied, 21 had mental disorders other than depression by the DSM-IV criteria. The best EPDS score for screening mental disorders other than depression was 8/9. This threshold showed a sensitivity of 52.4%, a specificity of 67.0%, a positive predictive value of 11.5%, a negative predictive value of 95.4%, and an area under the curve of 0.643 (95% confidence interval: 0.52-0.76). The EPDS can be considered for screening mental disorders other than depression in Mexican pregnant women whenever a cut-off score of 8/9 is used. However, the tool showed small power to separate pregnant women with and without mental disorders other than depression.

  2. The Kimberley assessment of depression of older Indigenous Australians: prevalence of depressive disorders, risk factors and validation of the KICA-dep scale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo P Almeida

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to develop a culturally acceptable and valid scale to assess depressive symptoms in older Indigenous Australians, to determine the prevalence of depressive disorders in the older Kimberley community, and to investigate the sociodemographic, lifestyle and clinical factors associated with depression in this population. METHODS: Cross-sectional survey of adults aged 45 years or over from six remote Indigenous communities in the Kimberley and 30% of those living in Derby, Western Australia. The 11 linguistic and culturally sensitive items of the Kimberley Indigenous Cognitive Assessment of Depression (KICA-dep scale were derived from the signs and symptoms required to establish the diagnosis of a depressive episode according to the DSM-IV-TR and ICD-10 criteria, and their frequency was rated on a 4-point scale ranging from 'never' to 'all the time' (range of scores: 0 to 33. The diagnosis of depressive disorder was established after a face-to-face assessment with a consultant psychiatrist. Other measures included sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, and clinical history. RESULTS: The study included 250 participants aged 46 to 89 years (mean±SD = 60.9±10.7, of whom 143 (57.2% were women. The internal reliability of the KICA-dep was 0.88 and the cut-point 7/8 (non-case/case was associated with 78% sensitivity and 82% specificity for the diagnosis of a depressive disorder. The point-prevalence of a depressive disorder in this population was 7.7%; 4.0% for men and 10.4% for women. Heart problems were associated with increased odds of depression (odds ratio = 3.3, 95% confidence interval = 1.2,8.8. CONCLUSIONS: The KICA-dep has robust psychometric properties and can be used with confidence as a screening tool for depression among older Indigenous Australians. Depressive disorders are common in this population, possibly because of increased stressors and health morbidities.

  3. Large-Scale Hypoconnectivity Between Resting-State Functional Networks in Unmedicated Adolescent Major Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacchet, Matthew D; Ho, Tiffany C; Connolly, Colm G; Tymofiyeva, Olga; Lewinn, Kaja Z; Han, Laura Km; Blom, Eva H; Tapert, Susan F; Max, Jeffrey E; Frank, Guido Kw; Paulus, Martin P; Simmons, Alan N; Gotlib, Ian H; Yang, Tony T

    2016-11-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) often emerges during adolescence, a critical period of brain development. Recent resting-state fMRI studies of adults suggest that MDD is associated with abnormalities within and between resting-state networks (RSNs). Here we tested whether adolescent MDD is characterized by abnormalities in interactions among RSNs. Participants were 55 unmedicated adolescents diagnosed with MDD and 56 matched healthy controls. Functional connectivity was mapped using resting-state fMRI. We used the network-based statistic (NBS) to compare large-scale connectivity between groups and also compared the groups on graph metrics. We further assessed whether group differences identified using nodes defined from functionally defined RSNs were also evident when using anatomically defined nodes. In addition, we examined relations between network abnormalities and depression severity and duration. Finally, we compared intranetwork connectivity between groups and assessed the replication of previously reported MDD-related abnormalities in connectivity. The NBS indicated that, compared with controls, depressed adolescents exhibited reduced connectivity (pdepression was significantly correlated with reduced connectivity in this set of network interactions (p=0.020, corrected), specifically with reduced connectivity between components of the dorsal attention network. The dorsal attention network was also characterized by reduced intranetwork connectivity in the MDD group. Finally, we replicated previously reported abnormal connectivity in individuals with MDD. In summary, adolescents with MDD show hypoconnectivity between large-scale brain networks compared with healthy controls. Given that connectivity among these networks typically increases during adolescent neurodevelopment, these results suggest that adolescent depression is associated with abnormalities in neural systems that are still developing during this critical period.

  4. PSYCHOMETRIC PROPERTY OF FATIGUE SEVERITY SCALE AND CORRELATION WITH DEPRESSION AND QUALITY OF LIFE IN CIRRHOTICS

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    Danusa ROSSI

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Fatigue is a common complaint in cirrhotic patients and may be considered a debilitating symptom with negative impact on quality of life. Research on its etiology and treatment has been hampered by the lack of relevant and reproducible measures of fatigue. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the psychometric properties of the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS in cirrhotic patients and to correlate with depressive symptomatology and quality of life. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with a convenience sample of 106 cirrhotic patients, aged between 18 and 70 years, both genders, literate, pre and post liver transplantation in outpatient follow-up. Internal consistency, reproducibility, discriminant validity, criterion validity, construct validity, responsiveness criterion, depressive symptomatology and quality of life were evaluated through questionnaires between January and October 2015. RESULTS: The mean age was 54.75±9.9 years, 65.1% male and 32.1% of the sample had cirrhosis due to hepatitis C virus. The mean FSS score was 4.74±1.64. Cronbach’s alpha was 0.93, and the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient was 0.905 (95% CI: 0.813-0.952. For discriminant validity, FSS differentiated scores from different groups (P=0.009 and presented a correlation with the Modified Fatigue Impact Scale (r=0.606, P=0.002. FSS correlated significantly and positively with depressive symptomatology and correlated negatively with the SF-36 domains for construct validity. For responsiveness, no significant changes were observed in the fatigue scores in the pre and post-liver transplantation periods (P=0.327. CONCLUSION: FSS showed good psychometric performance in the evaluation of fatigue in patients with cirrhosis. Fatigue presented a strong correlation with depressive symptomatology and quality of life.

  5. Efficacy and cost-effectiveness of a web-based intervention with mobile phone support to treat depressive symptoms in adults with diabetes mellitus type 1 and type 2: design of a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobis, Stephanie; Lehr, Dirk; Ebert, David Daniel; Berking, Matthias; Heber, Elena; Baumeister, Harald; Becker, Annette; Snoek, Frank; Riper, Heleen

    2013-11-15

    A diagnosis of diabetes mellitus types 1 or 2 doubles the odds of a comorbid depressive disorder. The combined diseases have a wide range of adverse outcomes, such as a lower quality of life, poorer diabetes outcomes and increased healthcare utilisation. Diabetes patients with depression can be treated effectively with psychotherapy, but access to psychological care is limited. In this study we will examine the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of a newly developed web-based intervention (GET.ON Mood Enhancer Diabetes) for people with diabetes and comorbid depressive symptoms. A two-arm randomised controlled trial will be conducted. Adults with diabetes (type 1 or type 2) with increased depression scores (> 22 on the German version of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D)) will be included. Eligible participants will be recruited through advertisement in diabetes patient journals and via a large-scale German health insurance company. The participants will be randomly assigned to either a 6-week minimally guided web-based self-help program or an online psychoeducation program on depression. The study will include 260 participants, which will enable us to detect a statistically significant difference with a group effect size of d = 0.35 at a power of 80% and a significance level of p = 0.05. The primary outcome measure will be the level of depression as assessed by the CES-D. The secondary outcome measures will be: diabetes-specific emotional distress, glycaemic control, self-management behaviour and the participants' satisfaction with the intervention. Online self-assessments will be collected at baseline and after a 2 months period, with additional follow-up measurements 6 and 12 months after randomisation. The data will be analysed on an intention-to-treat basis and per protocol. In addition, we will conduct an economic evaluation from a societal perspective. If this intervention is shown to be cost-effective, it has considerable potential

  6. Depressive symptoms and SES among the mid-aged and elderly in China: evidence from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study national baseline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Xiaoyan; Sun, Xiaoting; Strauss, John; Zhang, Peng; Zhao, Yaohui

    2014-11-01

    We examine the prevalence of depressive symptoms among the mid-aged and elderly in China and examine relationships between depression and current SES factors such as gender, age, education and income (per capita expenditures). In addition, we explore associations of depressive symptoms with measures of early childhood health, recent family deaths and current chronic health conditions. We use data from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) national baseline, fielded in 2011/12, which contains the ten question version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale (CES-D) for 17,343 respondents aged 45 and older. We fill a major gap by using the CHARLS data to explore the general patterns of depression and risk factors among the Chinese elderly nationwide, which has never been possible before. We find that depressive symptoms are significantly associated with own education and per capita expenditure, and the associations are robust to the inclusion of highly disaggregated community fixed effects and to the addition of several other risk factors. Factors such as good general health during childhood are negatively associated with later depression. There exist strong gender differences, with females having higher depression scores. Being a recent widow or widower is associated with more depressive symptoms, as is having a series of chronic health problems, notably having moderate or severe pain, disability or problems with measures of physical functioning. Adding the chronic health problems to the specification greatly reduces the SES associations with depressive symptoms, suggesting that part of the pathways behind these associations are through these chronic health factors.

  7. Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarron, Robert M; Vanderlip, Erik R; Rado, Jeffrey

    2016-10-04

    This issue provides a clinical overview of depression, focusing on screening, diagnosis, treatment, and practice improvement. The content of In the Clinic is drawn from the clinical information and education resources of the American College of Physicians (ACP), including MKSAP (Medical Knowledge and Self-Assessment Program). Annals of Internal Medicine editors develop In the Clinic in collaboration with the ACP's Medical Education and Publishing divisions and with the assistance of additional science writers and physician writers.

  8. Adaptation to Portuguese of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales (DASS) Adaptación para la lengua portuguesa de la Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) Adaptação para a língua portuguesa da Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS)

    OpenAIRE

    João Luís Alves Apóstolo; Aida Cruz Mendes; Zaida Aguiar Azeredo

    2006-01-01

    Objective: to adapt to Portuguese, of Portugal, the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales, a 21-item short scale (DASS 21), designed to measure depression, anxiety and stress. Method: After translation and back-translation with the help of experts, the DASS 21 was administered to patients in external psychiatry consults (N=101), and its internal consistency, construct validity and concurrent validity were measured. Results: The DASS 21 properties certify its quality to measure emotional state...

  9. Creation and validation of the Cognitive and Behavioral Response to Stress Scale in a depression trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, Adam S; Schueller, Stephen M; Lattie, Emily G; Mohr, David C

    2015-12-30

    The Cognitive and Behavioral Response to Stress Scale (CB-RSS) is a self-report measure of the use and helpfulness of several cognitive and behavioral skills. Unlike other measures that focus on language specific to terms used in therapy, the CB-RSS was intended to tap the strategies in ways that might be understandable to those who had not undergone therapy. The measure was included in a clinical trial of cognitive-behavioral therapy for depression and completed by 325 participants at baseline and end of treatment (18 weeks). Psychometric properties of the scale were assessed through iterative exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. These analyses identified two subscales, cognitive and behavioral skills, each with high reliability. Validity was addressed by investigating relationships with depression symptoms, positive affect, perceived stress, and coping self-efficacy. End of treatment scores predicted changes in all outcomes, with the largest relationships between baseline CB-RSS scales and coping self-efficacy. These findings suggest that the CB-RSS is a useful tool to measure cognitive and behavioral skills both at baseline (prior to treatment) as well as during the course of treatment.

  10. Reactivity to smartphone-based ecological momentary assessment of depressive symptoms (MoodMonitor: protocol of a randomised controlled trial

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    Wouter van Ballegooijen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ecological momentary assessment (EMA of mental health symptoms may influence the symptoms that it measures, i.e. assessment reactivity. In the field of depression, EMA reactivity has received little attention. We aim to investigate whether EMA of depressive symptoms induces assessment reactivity. Reactivity will be operationalised as an effect of EMA on depressive symptoms measured by a retrospective questionnaire, and, secondly, as a change in response rate and variance of the EMA ratings. Methods This study is a 12-week randomised controlled trial comprising three groups: group 1 carries out EMA of mood and completes a retrospective questionnaire, group 2 carries out EMA of how energetic they feel and completes a retrospective questionnaire, group 3 is the control group, which completes only the retrospective questionnaire. The retrospective questionnaire (Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale; CES-D assesses depressive symptoms and is administered at baseline, 6 weeks after baseline and 12 weeks after baseline. We aim to recruit 160 participants who experience mild to moderate depressive symptoms, defined as a Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9 score of 5 to 15. This study is powered to detect a small between-groups effect, where no clinically relevant effect is defined as the effect size margin −0.25< d <0.25. Discussion To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate whether self-rated EMA of depressive symptoms could induce assessment reactivity among mildly depressed individuals. Trial registration Netherlands Trial Register NTR5803. Registered 12 April 2016. http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/admin/rctview.asp?TC=5803 .

  11. The self-stigma of depression scale: Translation and validation of the Arabic version

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    Hussain Ahmed Darraj

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Self-stigma may feature strongly and be detrimental for people with depression, but the understanding of its nature and prevalence is limited by the lack of psychometrically validated measures. This study is aimed to validate the Arabic version self-stigma of depression scale (SSDS among adolescents. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study involved 100 adolescents randomly selected. The analyses include face validation, factor analysis, and reliability testing. A test–retest was conducted within a 2-week interval. Results: The mean score for self-stigma of depression among study participants was 68.9 (Standard deviation = 8.76 median equal to 71 and range was 47. Descriptive analysis showed that the percentage of those who scored below the mean score (41.7% is shown less than those who scored above the mean score (58.3%. Preliminary construct validation analysis confirmed that factor analysis was appropriate for the Arabic-translated version of the SSDS. Furthermore, the factor analysis showed similar factor loadings to the original English version. The total internal consistency of the translated version, which was measured by Cronbach's alphas ranged from 0.70 to 0.77 for the four subscales and 0.84 for the total scale. Test–retest reliability was assessed in 65 respondents after 2 weeks. Cronbach's alphas ranged from 0.70 to 0.77 for the four subscales and 0.84 for the total scale. Conclusions: Face validity, construct validity, and reliability analysis were found satisfactory for the Arabic-translated version of the SSDS. The Arabic-translated version of the SSDS was found valid and reliable to be used in future studies, with comparable properties to the original version and to previous studies.

  12. Psychometric Properties of the Beck Scale for Depression (Beck Depression Inventory BDI-II)--A Study on a Sample of Students in the State of Kuwait Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahem, Ahmed Mohammed Faleh

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to identify the psychometric properties of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) the Arabized version by Gharib (2000); the study sample consisted of 500 male and female students from the Kuwaiti universities by 250 males and 250 females on whom the BDI-II scale was applied twice; the psychometric characteristics such as the…

  13. Race, depressive symptoms, and all-cause mortality in the United States

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    Shervin eAssari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Despite the well-established association between baseline depressive symptoms and risk of all cause-mortality, limited information exists on racial differences in the residual effects of baseline depressive symptoms above and beyond socio-economic status (SES and physical health on this link. The current study compared Blacks and Whites for the residual effects of depressive symptoms over SES and health on risk of long-term all-cause mortality in the United States. Methods: Data came from the Americans’ Changing Lives Study, a nationally representative longitudinal cohort of U.S. adults with up to 25 years of follow up. The study followed 3,361 Blacks or Whites for all-cause mortality between 1986 and 2011. The main predictor of interest was baseline depressive symptoms measured at 1986 using an 11- item Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale (CES-D. Covariates included baseline demographics (age and gender, SES (education and income, and health [chronic medical conditions (CMC, self-rated health, and body mass index (BMI] measured at 1986. Race (Black versus White was the focal moderator. We ran a series of Cox proportional hazard models, in the pooled sample and also stratified by race. Results: In the pooled sample, higher depressive symptoms at baseline were associated with higher risk of all-cause mortality except when the CMC, SRH, and BMI were added to the model. In this later model, race interacted with baseline depressive symptoms, suggesting a larger effect of depressive symptoms on mortality among Whites compared to Blacks. Among Whites, depressive symptoms were associated with increased risk of mortality, after controlling for SES, but not after controlling for health (CMC, SRH and BMI as well. Among Blacks, depressive symptoms were not associated with mortality before that health was introduced to the model. After controlling for health, baseline depressive symptoms showed an inverse association with all

  14. Validation of the Rasch-based Depression Screening in a large scale German general population sample

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    Norra Christine

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study aimed at presenting normative data for both parallel forms of the "Rasch-based Depression Screening (DESC", to examine its Rasch model conformity and convergent and divergent validity based on a representative sample of the German general population. Methods The sample was selected with the assistance of a demographic consulting company applying a face to face interview (N = 2509; mean age = 49.4, SD = 18.2; 55.8% women. Adherence to Rasch model assumptions was determined with analysis of Rasch model fit (infit and outfit, unidimensionality, local independence (principal component factor analysis of the residuals, PCFAR and differential item functioning (DIF with regard to participants' age and gender. Norm values were calculated. Convergent and divergent validity was determined through intercorrelations with the depression and anxiety subscales of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-D and HADS-A. Results Fit statistics were below critical values (rDESC-I = .61 and rDESC-II = .60, whereas correlations with HADS-A were rDESC-I = .62 and rDESC-II = .60. Conclusions This study provided further support for the psychometric quality of the DESC. Both forms of the DESC adhered to Rasch model assumptions and showed intercorrelations with HADS subscales that are in line with the literature. The presented normative data offer important advancements for the interpretation of the questionnaire scores and enhance its usefulness for clinical and research applications.

  15. [Three new observational scales for use in Dutch nursing homes: scales from the Resident Assessment Instrument for Activities of Daily Living, cognition and depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, D.; Ooms, M; Steverink, N.; Frijters, D.; Bezemer, D.; Ribbe, M

    2004-01-01

    The reliability and validity of three MDS scales for ADL, cognition and depression are described. The scales consist of items of the Minimum Data Set of the Resident Assessment Instrument and are available just after an MDS assessment. Data collection took place in nine Dutch nursing homes (N = 227)

  16. Symptom profiles of subsyndromal depression in disease clusters of diabetes, excess weight, and progressive cerebrovascular conditions: a promising new type of finding from a reliable innovation to estimate exhaustively specified multiple indicators–multiple causes (MIMIC models

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    Francoeur RB

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Richard B Francoeur School of Social Work, Adelphi University, Garden City, NY, USA Abstract: Addressing subsyndromal depression in cerebrovascular conditions, diabetes, and obesity reduces morbidity and risk of major depression. However, depression may be masked because self-reported symptoms may not reveal dysphoric (sad mood. In this study, the first wave (2,812 elders from the New Haven Epidemiological Study of the Elderly (EPESE was used. These population-weighted data combined a stratified, systematic, clustered random sample from independent residences and a census of senior housing. Physical conditions included progressive cerebrovascular disease (CVD; hypertension, silent CVD, stroke, and vascular cognitive impairment [VCI] and co-occurring excess weight and/or diabetes. These conditions and interactions (clusters simultaneously predicted 20 depression items and a latent trait of depression in participants with subsyndromal (including subthreshold depression (11≤ Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale [CES-D] score ≤27. The option for maximum likelihood estimation with standard errors that are robust to non-normality and non-independence in complex random samples (MLR in Mplus and an innovation created by the author were used for estimating unbiased effects from latent trait models with exhaustive specification. Symptom profiles reveal masked depression in 1 older males, related to the metabolic syndrome (hypertension–overweight–diabetes; silent CVD–overweight; and silent CVD–diabetes and 2 older females or the full sample, related to several diabetes and/or overweight clusters that involve stroke or VCI. Several other disease clusters are equivocal regarding masked depression; a couple do emphasize dysphoric mood. Replicating findings could identify subgroups for cost-effective screening of subsyndromal depression. Keywords: depression, diabetes, overweight, cerebrovascular disease, hypertension, metabolic

  17. Comparative study of occurrence of depression in the third age in closed and open structures of elderly care according to the Hamilton depression scale

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    Georgia Zintrou

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Depression is a serious mental disorder that is a leading cause of morbidity in the elderly and affects the daily lives of the elderly leading to the marginalization and stigmatization. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of depression in the elderly, both in the community and in closed structures and identify possible differences between these two groups. Material and Method: The studied population consisted of 200 elderly people. One hundred of them came from closed structure care (nursing home and the remaining 100 by Open Care Centres (KAPI. For data collection, a specially designed questionnaire that included demographic data, information about their health and their daily habits and Depression Scale Hamilton, were used. Results: The majority of the sample (50.5% was men. Depressive symptomatology was showed by 44% (31% mild and 13% moderate. The men of the nursing home had greater depression than men of KAPI and showed a greater percentage of women (27.3 % mild and 12.1 % moderate, with women of the nursing home outweighing the percentages of those in KAPI. Depressive symptomatology exhibited by widowers, people with multiple pathology and those who did not exercise, with rates of 61.5%, 34.6% and 73.1% respectively. Big difference appeared between closed and open structure, where the elderly in nursing home seemed to show greater depression by 53%, versus 35% of those in KAPI. Conclusions: Gender, marital status, presence of pathology, exercise and living in closed structures of care, seem to influence the occurrence of depression in the elderly.

  18. Depression and Cognitive Impairment Are Associated with Low Education and Literacy Status and Smoking but Not Caffeine Consumption in Urban African Americans and White Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuczmarski, Andrew V; Cotugna, Nancy; Mason, Marc A; Evans, Michele K; Zonderman, Alan B

    2015-03-01

    Background: Recent research has linked caffeine consumption with a lower risk for depression and cognitive decline. However, no studies have examined the relationship in an African American compared to a white, socioeconomically diverse representative urban sample. Methods: Data from a cross-sectional study were used to determine the associations of caffeine use with depressive symptomatology and cognition in a sample of 1,724 participants in the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span (HANDLS) study. The United States Department of Agriculture's Automated Multiple Pass Method was used by trained interviewers to collect two, in-person 24-hour dietary recalls. Depressive symptoms and global cognition were assessed using two well-validated measures: the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depressive Scale (CES-D) and Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), respectively. Usual caffeine intake was based on both recalls. Data were analyzed with t- and chi-square tests, correlation analysis, and ordinal logistic regression. Results: African Americans consumed significantly less caffeine than did whites (89.0±3.2 and 244.0±8.7 mg respectively). Caffeine consumption was not associated with depressive symptomatology or global cognition. Age, less than 5th grade literacy, and less than high school education were significantly associated with both depressive symptoms and cognitive function. Smokers had a 43% greater risk for depression but only a 3% higher risk for cognitive impairment. Conclusion: The low level of dietary caffeine intake in combination with smoking among HANDLS study participants may have influenced the lack of association with depressive symptomatology or global cognition. For this sample, low literacy and education appear more highly associated with depressive symptoms and cognitive function than caffeine intake.

  19. A Longitudinal Relationship between Depressive Symptoms and Development of Metabolic Syndrome: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Womack, Veronica Y.; De Chavez, Peter John; Albrecht, Sandra S.; Durant, Nefertiti; Loucks, Eric B.; Puterman, Eli; Redmond, Nicole; Siddique, Juned; Williams, David R.; Carnethon, Mercedes R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Despite variability in the burden of elevated depressive symptoms by sex and race and differences in the incidence of metabolic syndrome, few prior studies describe the longitudinal association of depressive symptoms with metabolic syndrome in a diverse cohort. We tested whether baseline and time-varying depressive symptoms were associated with metabolic syndrome incidence in black and white men and women from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study. Methods Participants reported depressive symptoms using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) Scale at 4 examinations between 1995 and 2010. At those same examinations, metabolic syndrome was determined. Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine associations of depressive symptoms on development of metabolic syndrome in 3,208 participants without metabolic syndrome at baseline. Results Over 15 years, the incidence rate of metabolic syndrome (per 10,000 person-years) varied by race and sex with the highest rate in black women (279.2), followed by white men (241.9), black men (204.4) and white women (125.3). Depressive symptoms (per SD higher) were associated with incident metabolic syndrome in white men (hazard ratio [HR]=1.25, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.08, 1.45) and white women (HR=1.17, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.37) following adjustment for demographic characteristics and health behaviors. There was no significant association between depression and metabolic syndrome among black men or black women. Conclusion Higher depressive symptoms contribute modestly to the onset of metabolic syndrome among white adults. PMID:27490849

  20. The Diagnostic Apathia Scale predicts a dose-remission relationship of T-PEMF in treatment-resistant depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Per; Lunde, Marianne; Lauritzen, Lise

    2014-01-01

    of fatigue, concentration and memory problems, lack of interests, difficulties in making decisions, and sleep problems. We evaluated 65 patients with therapy-resistant depression. In total, 34 of these patients received placebo T-PEMF in the afternoon and active T-PEMF in the morning, that is, one daily dose....... The remaining 31 patients received active T-PEMF twice daily. Duration of treatment was 8 weeks in both groups. The Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D17) and the Bech-Rafaelsen Melancholia Scale (MES) were used to measure remission. We also focused on the Diagnostic Apathia Scale, which is based on a mixture...

  1. The incidence and predictors of depressive and anxiety symptoms in older adults with vision impairment: a longitudinal prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heesterbeek, Thomas J; van der Aa, Hilde P A; van Rens, Ger H M B; Twisk, Johannes W R; van Nispen, Ruth M A

    2017-07-01

    Depression and anxiety are highly prevalent in older adults with vision impairment. Because symptoms of depression and anxiety appear to fluctuate, it is important to identify patients who are at risk of developing these symptoms for early diagnosis and treatment. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the incidence of subthreshold depression and anxiety, and to investigate predictors of developing symptoms of depression and anxiety in older adults with vision impairment who had no subthreshold depression or anxiety at baseline. A longitudinal prospective cohort study with a follow-up of 24 months in 540 older adults with vision impairment (mean age 75 years, 56% female, 48% macular degeneration, 15% glaucoma) from outpatient low-vision rehabilitation organisations was performed. The cumulative incidences of subthreshold depression and anxiety were calculated and linear mixed models with maximum likelihood estimation were used to determine two prediction models. Main outcome measures were: fluctuations in (i) depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, CES-D) and (ii) anxiety symptoms (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Anxiety subscale, HADS-A). The annual cumulative incidences of subthreshold depression and anxiety were 21.3% (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 18.7-23.9%) and 9.5% (95% CI 7.4-11.6%), respectively. Risk factors for developing depressive symptoms were: living alone, having just enough money to cover expenses, having macular degeneration, having problems with adaptation to vision loss, reduced health related quality of life, and experiencing symptoms of anxiety. For developing anxiety symptoms, a relatively younger age, experiencing symptoms of depression, not living alone and experiencing hindrance at work proved to be risk factors. This study shows that the incidence of subthreshold depression and anxiety in older adults with vision impairment is twice as high compared with older adults in general and

  2. Factor structure and reliability of the depression, anxiety and stress scales in a large Portuguese community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos-Raposo, José; Fernandes, Helder Miguel; Teixeira, Carla M

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the factor structure and reliability of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales (DASS-21) in a large Portuguese community sample. Participants were 1020 adults (585 women and 435 men), with a mean age of 36.74 (SD = 11.90) years. All scales revealed good reliability, with Cronbach's alpha values between .80 (anxiety) and .84 (depression). The internal consistency of the total score was .92. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the best-fitting model (*CFI = .940, *RMSEA = .038) consisted of a latent component of general psychological distress (or negative affectivity) plus orthogonal depression, anxiety and stress factors. The Portuguese version of the DASS-21 showed good psychometric properties (factorial validity and reliability) and thus can be used as a reliable and valid instrument for measuring depression, anxiety and stress symptoms.

  3. Migration and depressive symptoms in migrant-sending areas: findings from the survey of internal migration and health in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yao; Hu, Peifeng; Treiman, Donald J

    2012-08-01

    China has experienced large-scale internal migration and growing mental health disorders. Limited research has examined the relationship between the two processes. We examined the association between labor out-migration and depressive symptoms of family members left behind in migrant-sending areas. We conducted a multistage probability sample survey of Chinese adults in 2008 ("Internal Migration and Health in China"), including 787 people in rural migrant-sending areas. To study whether adults in out-migrant households were more likely to experience depressive symptoms (CES-D) than were adults in non-migrant households, we used multivariate regressions and adjusted for a wide range of confounding factors and for the complex sampling design. Adults in households with labor out-migrants were more likely to report depressive symptoms than those in households without out-migrants, presumably a result of the absence of family members. However, monetary remittances from labor migrants buffered the mental health costs of out-migration. Labor out-migration has important consequences for the mental health in migrant-sending communities. There is an urgent need to address the psychological costs of migration and to promote regular remittances.

  4. Validation of a Portuguese version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale for Children (CES-DC

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    Camila Carvalho

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Depression is one of the most common mental disorders in children, and in adolescents, as in adults. Once its occurrence during childhood and adolescence leads to serious consequences in adulthood, its early detection is an important goal. Self-report instruments have a key role on accessing thoughts, feelings and behaviors in an easily, reliably and validly way. The aim of the current study is to assess psychometric properties (reliability and validity of the Portuguese translation of the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale for Children (CES-DC. Methods: A school-based sample of 417 adolescents aged 12–18 years (M = 15,20, SD = 1,72 was involved in this study. Translation and Back Translation was made. To study convergent and divergent validity there were used the Portuguese versions of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS 21, of the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI, and of the Students' Life Satisfaction Scale (SLSS which measure, respectively, negative emotional states (depression, anxiety and stress, depressive symptoms and global life satisfaction. Results: Factor analysis revealed three factors (mood, interpersonal relationships and happiness that explain 54% of the variance. The results show that the scale has an excellent internal consistency (α = 0,90, good temporal stability (r = 0,72 as an adequate convergent and divergent validity. Results showed that depressive symptoms varied in function of age and gender. Conclusions: The results of the present study provide initial adequate validity and reliability of the CES-DC. Nevertheless some limitations to this study, the results suggest that CES-DC can be a useful questionnaire in the assessment of depressive symptoms in Portuguese adolescents.

  5. Factorial Validity and Internal Consistency of Malaysian Adapted Depression Anxiety Stress Scale - 21 in an Adolescent Sample

    OpenAIRE

    Hairul Anuar Hashim; Freddy Golok; Rosmatunisah Ali

    2011-01-01

    Background: Psychometrically sound measurement instrument is a fundamental requirement across broad range of research areas. In negative affect research, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS) has been identified as a psychometrically sound instrument to measure depression, anxiety and stress, especially the 21-item version. However, its psychometric properties in adolescents have been less consistent. Objectives: Thus, the present study sought to examine the factorial validity and internal c...

  6. Evaluating the psychometric properties of the attitudes towards depression and its treatments scale in an Australian sample

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    Di Benedetto M

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Fadia Isaac1, Kenneth Mark Greenwood2, Mirella Di Benedetto31Cairnmillar Institute School of Psychology Counselling and Psychotherapy, Camberwell, Victoria, Australia; 2School of Psychology and Social Science Faculty of Computing, Health and Science, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, Western Australia, Australia; 3School of Health Sciences, Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology University, Bundoora, Victoria, AustraliaBackground: Individuals’ attitudes towards depression and its treatments may influence their likelihood of seeking professional help and adherence to treatment when depressed. Objective measures, such as the Attitudes Towards Depression and its Treatments scale (ATDT, have been developed to assess such attitudes. The aims of this research were to test the reliability and validity of ATDT on an Australian sample who were not depressed during the study or who had previously been depressed, to explore the attitudes of the Australian public towards depression, and to compare these attitudes to those of a Canadian sample of people with depression.Methods: A sample of 63 males and 140 females (mean age = 32.2 years, SD = 12.9 years from Melbourne, Australia took part in this study. Fourteen of the males and 52 of the female participants (mean age = 35.4 years, SD = 13.2 years stated that they had been previously diagnosed with depression.Results: The attitudes of the Australian sample and the subset of that sample who had previously experienced depression differed from those of the Canadian outpatient sample: they were less ashamed of depression, more likely to take antidepressants and consider psychotherapy, and more likely to seek help from professionals or significant others in their lives. However, those in the Australian sample were more likely to report that antidepressants made them lose control, and they were less willing to consider electric shock as a treatment option for their depression. The internal reliability as

  7. The Study of Relationship between Depressive Symptoms and Perfectionism Personality in College Students%完美主义人格与大学生抑郁症产生的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙莉娟

    2014-01-01

    The Chinese version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale and the Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale were applied to test 740 Chinese college students,the collected statistic data was analyzed by covariance analysis and spearman correlation analysis.A conclusion was drawn that the occurrence of depressive symptoms and perfectionist personality are related in these college students:the two factors of CM and DA are closely related to the occurrence of the depressive symptom.Therefore,the policies made for early interventions of depressive symptoms should be spe-cially developed on them.%采用中文版抑郁量表(CES-D)和中文版弗罗斯特多维完美主义心理量表(FMPS)对740名大学生进行了测试,将所得数据进行协方差和 spearman 相关性分析,得出大学生完美主义人格与抑郁症产生的相关性结论,即担心错误和行动的疑虑是与抑郁症的产生密切相关的两个因素,应以此为基础有针对性地制定抑郁症早期干预措施。

  8. The impact of intimate partner violence, substance use, and HIV on depressive symptoms among abused low-income urban women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illangasekare, Samantha L; Burke, Jessica G; McDonnell, Karen A; Gielen, Andrea C

    2013-09-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV), substance use, and HIV are often co-occuring health problems affecting low-income urban women, and have been described as connected epidemics making up a "syndemic." Research suggests that each issue separately is associated with depressive symptoms, but no studies have examined the combined effect of IPV, substance use and HIV on women's depression. Interviews were conducted with 96 women recruited from community health clinics serving low-income women in an urban U.S. city. All women were over 17, not pregnant, English-speaking, without private insurance and had experienced physical IPV in the past year. Women were primarily African American (82%) and 82% were receiving income assistance. Twenty seven percent were HIV-positive, and 27% had used heroin or cocaine in the past 6 months. Based on the Centers for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D ), 73% were depressed. Women who experienced severe IPV in the past 6 months were compared to women who experienced no IPV or psychological IPV only in the past 6 months; those who experienced severe IPV were 5.3 times more likely to be depressed, controlling for HIV status, drug use, age, and relationship status. Women who experienced severe IPV, were HIV-positive, and used drugs (7.3% of sample) were 7.98 times as likely to be depressed as women without these characteristics. These findings confirm that severe IPV is significantly associated with depression among urban abused women. Furthermore, this research suggests that the syndemic effect of IPV, substance use, and HIV could be even more detrimental to women's mental health. Health practitioners and researchers should be aware of the combined impact of the IPV, substance use, and HIV syndemic and consider how they can address the mental health needs of urban women.

  9. Trajectory Pathways for Depressive Symptoms and Their Associated Factors in a Chinese Primary Care Cohort by Growth Mixture Modelling.

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    Weng Yee Chin

    Full Text Available The naturalistic course for patients suffering from depressive disorders can be quite varied. Whilst some remit with little or no intervention, others may suffer a more prolonged course of symptoms. The aim of this study was to identify trajectory patterns for depressive symptoms in a Chinese primary care cohort and their associated factors.A 12-month cohort study was conducted. Patients recruited from 59 primary care clinics across Hong Kong were screened for depressive symptoms using the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D and monitored over 12 months using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 items (PHQ-9 administered at 12, 26 and 52 weeks. 721 subjects were included for growth mixture modelling analysis. Using Akaike Information Criterion, Bayesian Information Criterion, Entropy and Lo-Mendell-Rubin adjusted likelihood ratio test, a seven-class trajectory path model was identified. Over 12 months, three trajectory groups showed improvement in depressive symptoms, three remained static, whilst one deteriorated. A mild severity of depressive symptoms with gradual improvement was the most prevalent trajectory identified. Multivariate, multinomial regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with each trajectory. Risk factors associated with chronicity included: female gender; not married; not in active employment; presence of multiple chronic disease co-morbidities; poor self-rated general health; and infrequent health service use.Whilst many primary care patients may initially present with a similar severity of depressive symptoms, their course over 12 months can be quite heterogeneous. Although most primary care patients improve naturalistically over 12 months, many do not remit and it is important for doctors to be able to identify those who are at risk of chronicity. Regular follow-up and greater treatment attention is recommended for patients at risk of chronicity.

  10. A Korean validation study of the Clinically Useful Anxiety Outcome Scale: Comorbidity and differentiation of anxiety and depressive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Sang Won; Han, Changsu; Ko, Young-Hoon; Yoon, Seoyoung; Pae, Chi-Un; Choi, Joonho; Kim, Jae-Min; Yoon, Ho-Kyoung; Lee, Hoseon; Patkar, Ashwin A; Zimmerman, Mark

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Korean version of the Clinically Useful Anxiety Outcome Scale (CUXOS) and to examine the current diagnostic comorbidity and differential severity of anxiety symptoms between major depressive disorder (MDD) and anxiety disorders. In total, 838 psychiatric outpatients were analyzed at their intake appointment. Diagnostic characteristics were examined using the structured clinical interview from the DSM-IV because the DSM5 was not available at the start of the study. The CUXOS score was measured and compared with that of 3 clinician rating scales and 4 self-report scales. The CUXOS showed excellent results for internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.90), test-retest reliability (r = 0.74), and discriminant and convergent validity. The CUXOS significantly discriminated between different levels of anxiety severity, and the measure was sensitive to change after treatment. Approximately 45% of patients with MDD were additionally diagnosed with anxiety disorders while 55% of patients with anxiety disorders additionally reported an MDD. There was a significant difference in CUXOS scores between diagnostic categories (MDD only, anxiety only, both disorders, and no MDD or anxiety disorder). The CUXOS scores differed significantly between all categories of depression (major, minor, and non-depression) except for the comparison between minor depression and non-depression groups. The Korean version of the CUXOS is a reliable and valid measure of the severity of anxiety symptoms. The use of the CUXOS could broaden the understanding of coexisting and differentiating characteristics of anxiety and depression.

  11. Validation of the depression anxiety stress scales (DASS 21 as a screening instrument for depression and anxiety in a rural community-based cohort of northern Vietnamese women

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    Tran Thach Duc

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depression and anxiety are recognised increasingly as serious public health problems among women in low- and lower-middle income countries. The aim of this study was to validate the 21-item Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS21 for use in screening for these common mental disorders among rural women with young children in the North of Vietnam. Methods The DASS-21 was translated from English to Vietnamese, culturally verified, back-translated and administered to women who also completed, separately, a psychiatrist-administered Structured Clinical Interview for DSM IV Axis 1 diagnoses of depressive and anxiety disorders. The sample was a community-based representative cohort of adult women with young children living in Ha Nam Province in northern Viet Nam. Cronbach’s alpha, Exploratory Factor Analyses (EFA and Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC analyses were performed to identify the psychometric properties of the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress subscales and the overall scale. Results Complete data were available for 221 women. The internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha of each sub-scale and the overall scale were high, ranging from 0.70 for the Stress subscale to 0.88 for the overall scale, but EFA indicated that the 21 items all loaded on one factor. Scores on each of the three sub-scales, and the combinations of two or three of them were able to detect the common mental disorders of depression and anxiety in women with a sensitivity of 79.1% and a specificity of 77.0% at the optimal cut off of >33. However, they did not distinguish between those experiencing only depression or only anxiety. Conclusions The total score of the 21 items of the DASS21-Vietnamese validation appears to be comprehensible and sensitive to detecting common mental disorders in women with young children in primary health care in rural northern Vietnam and therefore might also be useful to screen for these conditions in other resource

  12. 应用胰岛素治疗的2型糖尿病患者抑郁现状分析%Analysis of the depression in type 2 diabetes treated by insulin

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    巫海娣; 崔焱; 胡艳; 陈吉海; 顾刘宝; 王洁; 娄青林; 莫永珍

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prevalence and risk factors of depression in type 2 diabetic patients treated with insulin. Methods 261 patients with type 2 diabetes were encluded, and 84 patients were treated with insulin. Center for Epidemiologic studies Depression Scale (CES-D) was used to assess depression. The clinical data and biochemical markers were collected, including height, weight, diabetic course, clinical metabolic indicators and so on. Logistic regression was conducted with SPSS15.0. Results Of 84 type 2 diabetic patients treated with insulin therapy, 24 showed depressive symptom. The prevalence of depression and score of CES-D were higher in type 2 diabetic patients with insulin therapy than those without insulin therapy. HbA1c, diploma and age were the independent risk factors of depressive symptom in type 2 diabetic patients treated with insulin. Conclusions The prevalence of depression is higher in type 2 diabetic patients with insulin therapy than those without insulin therapy. Clinical physicians should pay more attention to the risk factors of depression and implement interventions as early as possible.%目的 调查应用胰岛素治疗的T2DM患者抑郁现状并分析其抑郁发生的危险因素.方法 以261例T2DM患者为研究对象,要求所有患者完成流调用抑郁调查量表(Center for Epidemiologic studies DepressionScale,CES-D),同时收集患者的一般临床资料,包括身高、体质量、周运动时间、病程及临床代谢指标等.用多因素非条件logistic回归对抑郁发生的危险因素进行分析.结果 在应用胰岛素治疗的84例T2DM患者中,有24例存在抑郁症状,且使用胰岛素治疗者的抑郁得分及抑郁症状发生率均高于非胰岛素治疗者.教育程度、糖化血红蛋白、年龄是使用胰岛素治疗患者存在抑郁症状的独立危险因素.结论 使用胰岛素治疗者的抑郁发生率较不使用胰岛素治疗者高,临床工作者应重视抑郁发生的危险因素并进行早期干预.

  13. Symptom profiles of subsyndromal depression in disease clusters of diabetes, excess weight, and progressive cerebrovascular conditions: a promising new type of finding from a reliable innovation to estimate exhaustively specified multiple indicators–multiple causes (MIMIC) models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francoeur, Richard B

    2016-01-01

    Addressing subsyndromal depression in cerebrovascular conditions, diabetes, and obesity reduces morbidity and risk of major depression. However, depression may be masked because self-reported symptoms may not reveal dysphoric (sad) mood. In this study, the first wave (2,812 elders) from the New Haven Epidemiological Study of the Elderly (EPESE) was used. These population-weighted data combined a stratified, systematic, clustered random sample from independent residences and a census of senior housing. Physical conditions included progressive cerebrovascular disease (CVD; hypertension, silent CVD, stroke, and vascular cognitive impairment [VCI]) and co-occurring excess weight and/or diabetes. These conditions and interactions (clusters) simultaneously predicted 20 depression items and a latent trait of depression in participants with subsyndromal (including subthreshold) depression (11≤ Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale [CES-D] score ≤27). The option for maximum likelihood estimation with standard errors that are robust to non-normality and non-independence in complex random samples (MLR) in Mplus and an innovation created by the author were used for estimating unbiased effects from latent trait models with exhaustive specification. Symptom profiles reveal masked depression in 1) older males, related to the metabolic syndrome (hypertension–overweight–diabetes; silent CVD–overweight; and silent CVD–diabetes) and 2) older females or the full sample, related to several diabetes and/or overweight clusters that involve stroke or VCI. Several other disease clusters are equivocal regarding masked depression; a couple do emphasize dysphoric mood. Replicating findings could identify subgroups for cost-effective screening of subsyndromal depression. PMID:28003768

  14. The validity of dysthymia to predict clinical depressive symptoms as measured by the Hamilton Depression Scale at the 5-year follow-up of patients with first episode depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Per; Kessing, Lars Vedel; Bukh, Jens Drachmann

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In long-term follow-up studies on depression, the Eysenck Neuroticism Scale (ENS) at the score level of dysthymia has been found to be valid at predicting poor outcome. AIMS: The ENS dysthymia level was compared with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) level to predict the prevalence......, and HAM-D from 2005-2007. At 5-year follow-up from 2011-2013, the participants were re-assessed by HAM-D. The HAM-D was used to measure depressive symptoms at the 5-year follow-up. The Mokken analysis was used to indicate scalability of the BDI and ENS. RESULTS: A total of 185 participants were available...... as measured by the two self-rating scales ENS and BDI can be considered part of a 'double depression' in patients with first episode depression, implying an existence of depressive symptoms at the 5-year follow-up. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Evaluation of dysthymia or neuroticism is important to perform, even...

  15. [Influences of Oral Health Behaviors, Depression and Stress on Periodontal Disease in Pregnant Women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hae Jin; Lee, Hae Jung; Cho, Soo Hyun

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the influences of oral health behaviors, depression, and stress on periodontal disease in pregnant women. The participants in this study were 129 pregnant women. Data were collected using questionnaires which included individual characteristics, oral health care behaviors, the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale (CES-D), a global measure of perceived stress, and pregnancy stress. A dentist measured periodontal probing depth and classified stages of periodontal disease according to the Community Periodontal Index (CPI). Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation, and multiple regression. Periodontal disease had significant correlations with oral health care behaviors (r=-.56, pperiodontal disease for these pregnant women were being in the 2nd (β=.27, pdisease (β=.20, p=.002), performing higher oral health behaviors (β=-.30, pperiodontal disease is essential for pregnant women who are in 2nd or 3rd trimester and have pregnancy induced diseases. Enhancing oral health care behaviors and reducing perceived stress are indicated as effective strategies to reduce periodontal disease in pregnant women.

  16. Rasch model analysis of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales (DASS

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    Tennant Alan

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a growing awareness of the need for easily administered, psychometrically sound screening tools to identify individuals with elevated levels of psychological distress. Although support has been found for the psychometric properties of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales (DASS using classical test theory approaches it has not been subjected to Rasch analysis. The aim of this study was to use Rasch analysis to assess the psychometric properties of the DASS-21 scales, using two different administration modes. Methods The DASS-21 was administered to 420 participants with half the sample responding to a web-based version and the other half completing a traditional pencil-and-paper version. Conformity of DASS-21 scales to a Rasch partial credit model was assessed using the RUMM2020 software. Results To achieve adequate model fit it was necessary to remove one item from each of the DASS-21 subscales. The reduced scales showed adequate internal consistency reliability, unidimensionality and freedom from differential item functioning for sex, age and mode of administration. Analysis of all DASS-21 items combined did not support its use as a measure of general psychological distress. A scale combining the anxiety and stress items showed satisfactory fit to the Rasch model after removal of three items. Conclusion The results provide support for the measurement properties, internal consistency reliability, and unidimensionality of three slightly modified DASS-21 scales, across two different administration methods. The further use of Rasch analysis on the DASS-21 in larger and broader samples is recommended to confirm the findings of the current study.

  17. Insight in bipolar disorder: a comparison between mania, depression and euthymia using the Insight Scale for Affective Disorders

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    Rafael de Assis da Silva

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate whether having general insight into bipolar disorder and its symptoms is affected by the mood state of the patient, using the Insight Scale for Affective Disorders, a hetero-application scale for people with mood disorders.Methods: Ninety-five patients with bipolar disorder were evaluated and divided into different groups according to the mood state presented during assessment (i.e., euthymia, mania and depression. Sociodemographic and clinical data (Hamilton Depression Scale, Young Mania Rating Scale, and Clinical Global Impressions Scale were recorded. Insight was evaluated using the Insight Scale for Affective Disorders.Results: Patients with bipolar disorder in mania show less insight about their condition than patients in depression or euthymia, and less insight about their symptoms than patients with depression, with the exception of awareness of weight change.Conclusions: Loss of insight during mania may have important implications for treatment compliance and adherence and needs to be taken into account in the clinical management of people with bipolar disorder.

  18. Brief Treatment of Co-Occurring Post Traumatic Stress and Depressive Symptoms By Use of Accelerated Resolution Therapy (ART®

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    Kevin eKip

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This uncontrolled prospective cohort study evaluated the use of Accelerated Resolution Therapy (ART for treatment of comorbid symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD and major depressive disorder (MDD. Twenty-eight adult subjects, mean age of 41 years (79% female, 36% Hispanic, received a mean of 3.7 + 1.1 ART treatment sessions (range 1-5. ART is a new exposure-based psychotherapy that makes use of eye movements. Subjects completed a range of self-report psychological measures before and after treatment with ART including the 17-item PCL-C checklist (symptoms of PTSD and 20-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D. For the PCL-C, the pre-ART mean (+ standard deviation was 62.5 (8.8 with mean reductions of -29.6 (12.5, -30.1 (13.1, and -31.4 (14.04 at post-ART, 2-month, and 4-month follow up, respectively (p<0.0001 for comparisons to Pre-ART score. Compared to pre-ART status, this corresponded to standardized effect sizes of 2.37, 2.30, and 3.01, respectively. For the CES-D, the pre-ART mean was 35.1 (8.8 with mean reductions of -20.6 (11.0, -18.1 (11.5, and -15.6 (14.4 at post-ART, 2-month, and 4-month follow up, respectively (p<0.0001 compared to Pre-ART score. This corresponded to standardized effect sizes of 1.88, 1.58, and 1.09, respectively. Strong correlations were observed at 2-month and 4-month follow-up for post-treatment changes in PTSD and depression symptom scores (r=0.79, r=0.76, respectively, p<0.0002. No serious treatment-related adverse effects were reported. In summary, ART appears to be a promising brief, safe, and effective treatment for adults with clinically significant comorbid symptoms of PTSD and depression. Future controlled and mechanistic studies with this emerging therapy are warranted, particularly given its short treatment duration, and in light of current heightened emphasis on health care cost constraints.

  19. Relationship between depression anxiety stress scale (DASS) and urinary hydroxyproline and proline concentrations in hospital workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Keou Won; Kim, Soo Jeong; Park, Jae Beom; Lee, Kyung Jong

    2011-01-01

    Although increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) is caused by stress accelerates collagen degradation, there was no data on the relationship between stress and urinary hydroxyproline (Hyp) and proline (Pro), a good marker of collagen degradation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between depression, anxiety, and stress (DAS) and concentrations of urinary Hyp and Pro. 97 hospital employees aged 20 to 58 were asked to fill out comprehensive self-administrated questionnaires containing information about their medical history, lifestyle, length of the work year, shift-work and DAS. depression anxiety stress scale (DASS) was applied to evaluate chronic mental disorders. Urine samples were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with double derivatization for the assay of hydroxyproline and proline. The mean value of Hyp and Pro concentration in all subjects was 194.1 ± 113.4 μmol/g and 568.2 ± 310.7 μmol/g. DASS values and urinary Pro concentrations were differentiated by sex (female > male, p others, p stress (Adjusted r2 = 0.051) and anxiety and job (Adjusted r2 = 0.199), respectively. We found that stress and anxiety were correlated with urinary Hyp and Pro concentrations. To identifying a definite correlation, further study in large populations will be needed.

  20. Clinical utility of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) for an outpatient fibromyalgia education program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Seungree; Tin, Diane; Bain, Lorna; Thorne, J Carter; Ginsburg, Liane

    2014-05-01

    This paper examines the clinical utility of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) in the context of evaluating the Fibromyalgia Outpatient Education Program at Southlake Regional Health Centre (Newmarket, Canada). A pre-test/post-test design was implemented for data analysis. A total of 232 patients' data were obtained through retrospective patient chart review. Complete pre-post data were available for 70 patients and qualitative analysis was done for 12 patients. Main outcome measures included HADS and Arthritis Self-Efficacy (ASE) scores. At the end of the education program, subgroups of patients (high attendance, high exercise habit, low medication) experienced significant improvement on HADS-depression and ASE scores. Linear regression analysis found that HADS pre-program scores explain far more variance in HADS post-test scores than ASE pre-program scores explain in ASE post-program scores; more variance in ASE post-program scores was explained by other variables. In contrast to the quantitative analysis of the Anxiety subscale of HADS, patients in the focus group indicated that their anxiety level decreased through attending the education program. These findings suggest that HADS is an appropriate tool for evaluating fibromyalgia and related patient education programs. Moreover, patient education programs have positive effects on enhancing patients' psychological well-being and self-confidence in controlling fibromyalgia-related symptoms.

  1. The accuracy of diagnosis of major depression in patients with Parkinson's disease: a comparative study among the UPDRS, the geriatric depression scale and the Beck depression inventory A precisão do diagnóstico de depressão na doença de Parkinson: um estudo comparativo entre a UPDRS, a escala geriátrica de depressão e o inventário de depressão de Beck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Tumas

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the accuracy of diagnosis of major depression in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD using the UPDRS, the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS15 and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI. METHOD: 50 consecutive patients with PD were evaluated. The diagnosis of major depression was made according to the DSM-IV criteria. RESULTS: We found a 24% prevalence of major depression. All depression scales were highly correlated but UPDRS depression item had the lowest diagnostic value. The GDS15 had the more appropriate "receiver operating characteristics" curve. The best cut-off scores for screening depression were 17/18 for BDI and 8/9 for GDS15. We did not find any correlation between the level of depression and intensity of motor symptoms, functional capacity and duration of the disease. CONCLUSION: GDS15 is better than the BDI and the UPDRS for screening depression in PD and depression is not related to the degree of parkinsonian symptoms.OBJETIVO: Avaliar a precisão do diagnóstico de depressão em pacientes com doença de Parkinson avaliados pela UPDRS, pela Escala Geriátrica de Depressão com 15 itens (EGD15 e pelo Inventário de Depressão de Beck (IDB. MÉTODO: 50 pacientes com DP foram avaliados. O diagnóstico de depressão maior foi feito segundo os critérios do DSM-IV. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de depressão foi 24%. As escalas de depressão tiveram elevada correlação entre si. A UPDRS apresentou a menor sensibilidade para o diagnóstico. A EGD15 mostrou uma curva ROC mais apropriada que o IDB. Os melhores escores-de-corte para diagnóstico de depressão foram 17/18 para o IDB e 8/9 para a EGD15. Não houve correlação entre os níveis de depressão e a intensidade do parkinsonismo, a capacidade funcional ou a duração da doença. CONCLUSÃO: A EGD15 é melhor que o IDB para diagnosticar depressão na DP. A depressão não está relacionada à gravidade dos sintomas parkinsonianos.

  2. Fifty years with the Hamilton scales for anxiety and depression. A tribute to Max Hamilton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, P

    2009-01-01

    From the moment Max Hamilton started his psychiatric education, he considered psychometrics to be a scientific discipline on a par with biochemistry or pharmacology in clinical research. His clinimetric skills were in operation in the 1950s when randomised clinical trials were established...... as the method for the evaluation of the clinical effects of psychotropic drugs. Inspired by Eysenck, Hamilton took the long route around factor analysis in order to qualify his scales for anxiety (HAM-A) and depression (HAM-D) as scientific tools. From the moment when, 50 years ago, Hamilton published his first...... placebo-controlled trial with an experimental anti-anxiety drug, he realized the dialectic problem in using the total score on HAM-A as a sufficient statistic for the measurement of outcome. This dialectic problem has been investigated for more than 50 years with different types of factor analyses without...

  3. A psychometric validation analysis of Eysenck’s Neuroticism and Extraversion Scales in a sample of first time depressed patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Stine Bjerrum; Bech, Per; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2015-01-01

    Eysenck and Eysenck identified the two-factor structure of personality, namely neuroticism and extraversion which has been widely used in clinical psychiatry, and generated much research on the psychometric properties of the scales. Using a classical psychometric approach the neuroticism...... and extraversion scales have shown robust psychometric properties. The present study used both classical psychometric and item response theory (IRT) analyses to evaluate the neuroticism and extraversion scales and improve scalability of the instrument neuroticism and extraversion. A first time depressed sample...... symptoms related to interpersonal sensitivity were identified. For the extraversion scale a shorter and psychometrically more robust version was identified together with a short introversion scale. Clinically discriminant validity was analysed using correlations. The correlation between depression (Ham...

  4. Chilean experimental version of the State-Trait Depression Questionnaire (ST-DEP: Trait sub-scale (T-DEP

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    Pablo Vera-Villarroel

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This instrumental study presents the first validity and reliability data for the Trait subscale (T-DEP of the Chilean experimental version of the State and Trait Depression Inventory (ST-DEP: Euthymia and Dysthymia. The data were obtained from a sample of 300 university students. The internal consistency values for the TDEP were high (.90. The test-retest values from eight weeks time interval (fifty six days were elevated (.78. A factorial analysis of the principal components revealed a principal factor for all of the constructed items in this experimental version of the TDEP. The last, promax rotation showed two clear main factors similar in size: negative affectivity (Dysthymia and positive affectivity (Euthymia. The convergent validity indexes for the Beck Depression Inventory and the Zung Self Rating Depression Scale, were also high, with indexes ranging from .64 to .71. The correlation between State- Trait Anxiety Inventory and the depression scales used in this study was high (between .63 and .78, once again indicating the usual overlapping between anxiety and depression seen in most depression inventories.

  5. Concordance of Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) to assess increased risk of depression among postpartum women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yawn, Barbara P; Pace, Wilson; Wollan, Peter C; Bertram, Susan; Kurland, Margary; Graham, Deborah; Dietrich, Allen

    2009-01-01

    To compare the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) as screening tools for postpartum depression. This study population included the first 500 women to enroll and return their packets during an ongoing study of postpartum depression. The primary outcome of this study was to find rates of concordance and discordance in the EPDS and PHQ-9 categories of "normal" and "increased risk for major depressive disorder." Overall, 97% of eligible women enrolled and 70% returned the packets that included the EPDS and PHQ-9. Four hundred eighty-one of the first 500 packets had complete data, with elevated EPDS or PHQ-9 scores in 138 and 132 women, respectively. Concordance of the EPDS and PHQ-9 were present in 399 women (83%): 326 (67.8%) had "normal" score on both, and 73 (15.2%) had elevated scores for both. Discordant scores in 82 women included 17 with elevated PHQ-9 scores but normal EPDS scores and 65 with elevated EPDS scores and PHQ-9 scores 30 and low education level were predictive of discordant scores, using EPDS and PHQ-9 scores of > or =10 as elevated (odds ratio, 1.9 and P = .02; and odds ratio, 2.3 and P = .01, respectively). PHQ-9 scores of 5 to 9 have been referred to as consistent with "mild depressive symptoms" and appropriate for "watchful waiting" and repeat PHQ-9 at follow-up. Using this follow-up approach would require re-evaluation of 120 (25%) of the women screened. Postpartum depression screening is feasible in primary care practices, and for most women the EPDS and PHQ-9 scores were concordant. Further work is required to identify reasons for the 17% discordant scores as well as to provide definitive recommendations for PHQ-9 scores of 5 to 9.

  6. Reliability and validity of the Ethiopian version of the hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS in HIV infected patients.

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    Ayalu Aklilu Reda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS is a widely used instrument for evaluating psychological distress from anxiety and depression. HADS has not yet been validated in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability and validity of the Amharic (Ethiopian language version of HADs among HIV infected patients. METHODS: The translated scale was administered to 302 HIV/AIDS patients on follow up for and taking anti-retroviral treatment. Consistency assessment was conducted using Cronbach's alpha, test-retest reliability using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC. Construct validity was examined using principal components analysis (PCA. Parallel analysis, Kaiser's criterion and the scree test were used for factor extraction. RESULTS: The internal consistency was 0.78 for the anxiety, 0.76 for depression subscales and 0.87 for the full scale of HADS. The intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC was 80%, 86%, and 84% for the anxiety and depression subscales, and total score respectively. PCA revealed a one dimensional scale. CONCLUSION: This preliminary validation study of the Ethiopian version of the HADs indicates that it has promising acceptability, reliability and validity. The adopted scale has a single underlying dimension as indicated by Razavi's model. The HADS can be used to examine psychological distress in HIV infected patients. Findings are discussed and recommendations made.

  7. Predictive value to depressive symptoms of dysfunctional attitudes in college students: A multi-wave longitudinal study%功能失调性态度对大学生抑郁症状的预测作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱熊兆; 蔡琳; 蚁金瑶; 姚树桥; 罗英姿

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the predictive role of dysfunctional attitudes in the development of depressive symptoms. Methods: Totally 644 college students were selected by convenient sampling. They were assessed with the the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale ( DAS-A) . the Chinese version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and the Academic, Social Hassles Scale for Students ( GASHSS) . Then CES-D and GASHSS were completed once a month in the subsequent six months. The hierarchical lineal modeling ( HLM) was used in the data analysis. Results: Dysfunctional attitudes showed significant main effects on depressive symptoms ( b = 1. 24. F = 27. 61. P < 0. 001) . Dysfunctional attitudes and stress showed a significant interaction on depressive symptoms (b = 0. 02. F = 8. 28. P < 0. 01), and higher levels of stress were associated with greater increases in depressive symptoms. Conclusion: Dysfunctional attitudes may be a significant predictor of depressive symptoms, and individuals with higher levels of dysfunctional attitudes are at greater risks of having depressive symptoms following the occurrence of negative life events.%目的:探讨功能失调性态度对大学生抑郁症状发生的预测作用.方法:采用方便取样,选取湖南省长沙市某两所高校大一至大三的学生644名.用功能失调性态度问卷(DAS-A),流调中心用抑郁量表(CES-D)、学生日常社会和学业事件量表(GASHSS)进行基线评定,用CES-D和GASHSS进行每月1次共6次的追踪测查.采用多层线性模型对数据进行统计分析.结果:功能失调性态度水平对追踪过程中抑郁症状水平的主效应显著(b=1.24,P<0.001),功能失调性态度水平与应激性生活事件水平对追踪过程中抑郁症状水平的交互作用显著(b=0.02,P<0.01),随着生活事件应激强度的增加,其抑郁症状明显增加.结论:功能失调性态度可能是抑郁症状的一个预测因子,高水平功能失调性态度的个

  8. The Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale-Short Version: Scale Reduction via Exploratory Bifactor Modeling of the Broad Anxiety Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebesutani, Chad; Reise, Steven P.; Chorpita, Bruce F.; Ale, Chelsea; Regan, Jennifer; Young, John; Higa-McMillan, Charmaine; Weisz, John R.

    2012-01-01

    Using a school-based (N = 1,060) and clinic-referred (N = 303) youth sample, the authors developed a 25-item shortened version of the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale (RCADS) using Schmid-Leiman exploratory bifactor analysis to reduce client burden and administration time and thus improve the transportability characteristics of this…

  9. The impact of neighborhood quality, perceived stress, and social support on depressive symptoms during pregnancy in African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giurgescu, Carmen; Misra, Dawn P; Sealy-Jefferson, Shawnita; Caldwell, Cleopatra H; Templin, Thomas N; Slaughter-Acey, Jaime C; Osypuk, Theresa L

    2015-04-01

    Living in a lower-quality neighborhood is associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms in the general population as well as among pregnant and postpartum women. However, little is known of the important pathways by which this association occurs. We proposed a model in which perceived stress and social support mediated the effects of neighborhood quality on depressive symptoms during pregnancy (measured by the 20-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression, CES-D, scale) in a sample of 1383 African American women from the Detroit metropolitan area interviewed during their delivery hospitalization. Using structural equation modeling (SEM), we built a latent variable of neighborhood quality using 4 measures (neighborhood disorder, neighborhood safety/danger, walking environment, overall rating). We then tested two SEM mediation models. We found that lower neighborhood quality was associated with higher prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy (standardized total effect = .16, p = .011). We found that perceived stress partially mediated the neighborhood quality association with depressive symptoms. Although the association of social support with depressive symptoms was negligible, social support mediated associations of neighborhood quality with perceived stress [standardized path coefficient = .38 (.02), p = .009]. Our results point to the need for public health, health care, as well as non-health related interventions (e.g. crime prevention programs) to decrease overall exposure to stressors, as well as stress levels of women living in poor quality neighborhoods. Interventions that increase the levels of social support of women during pregnancy are also needed for their potential to decrease stress and ultimately improve mental health at this important time in the life course. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Validation of the Turkish Version of the Problem Areas in Diabetes Scale

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    Elisabeth M. J. Huis In ‘T Veld

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Problem Areas in Diabetes (PAID scale is a widely used self-report measure that can facilitate detection of diabetes-specific emotional distress in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to assess the factor structure and validity of the Turkish version of the PAID. A validation study was conducted among 154 patients with insulin-naïve type 2 diabetes. Participants completed the PAID, Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D, Insulin Treatment Appraisal Scale (ITAS, and World Health Organization-Five Well-Being Index (WHO-5 questionnaires. Exploratory factor analyses yielded a 2-factor structure, identifying a 15-item “diabetes distress” factor and a 5-item “support-related issues” factor. The total PAID-score and the two dimensions were associated with higher levels of depression and poor emotional well-being. In the present study, the Turkish version of the PAID had satisfactory psychometric properties, however, the factorial structure was found to differ from factor solutions from other countries.

  11. Cross-cultural adaptation into Punjabi of the English version of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale

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    Taylor Rod S

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We wanted to use a Punjabi version of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS to enable non-English speaking patients to participate in a clinical trial. The aim of the study was to translate and validate the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale into Punjabi. Methods The HADS was translated into Punjabi by a multidisciplinary team, verified against the original version, and administered to 73 bilingual patients attending an outpatient clinic. Results One sample t-tests and the Bland-Altman plots demonstrated acceptable linguistic agreement between the two versions of the HADS. Spearman's rank-order correlation coefficients (p Conclusion The Punjabi HADS is an acceptable, reliable and valid measure of anxiety and depression among physically ill Punjabi speaking people in the United Kingdom.

  12. Dealing with missing data in a multi-question depression scale: a comparison of imputation methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Heather

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Missing data present a challenge to many research projects. The problem is often pronounced in studies utilizing self-report scales, and literature addressing different strategies for dealing with missing data in such circumstances is scarce. The objective of this study was to compare six different imputation techniques for dealing with missing data in the Zung Self-reported Depression scale (SDS. Methods 1580 participants from a surgical outcomes study completed the SDS. The SDS is a 20 question scale that respondents complete by circling a value of 1 to 4 for each question. The sum of the responses is calculated and respondents are classified as exhibiting depressive symptoms when their total score is over 40. Missing values were simulated by randomly selecting questions whose values were then deleted (a missing completely at random simulation. Additionally, a missing at random and missing not at random simulation were completed. Six imputation methods were then considered; 1 multiple imputation, 2 single regression, 3 individual mean, 4 overall mean, 5 participant's preceding response, and 6 random selection of a value from 1 to 4. For each method, the imputed mean SDS score and standard deviation were compared to the population statistics. The Spearman correlation coefficient, percent misclassified and the Kappa statistic were also calculated. Results When 10% of values are missing, all the imputation methods except random selection produce Kappa statistics greater than 0.80 indicating 'near perfect' agreement. MI produces the most valid imputed values with a high Kappa statistic (0.89, although both single regression and individual mean imputation also produced favorable results. As the percent of missing information increased to 30%, or when unbalanced missing data were introduced, MI maintained a high Kappa statistic. The individual mean and single regression method produced Kappas in the 'substantial agreement' range

  13. Does the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale (RCADS) measure anxiety symptoms consistently across adolescence? The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathyssek, Christina M.; Olino, Thomas M.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C.; Van Oort, Floor V. A.

    We assessed if the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale (RCADS) measures anxiety symptoms similarly across age groups within adolescence. This is crucial for valid comparison of anxiety levels between different age groups. Anxiety symptoms were assessed biennially in a representative

  14. Does the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale (RCADS) measure anxiety symptoms consistently across adolescence? The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathyssek, Christina M.; Olino, Thomas M.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C.; Van Oort, Floor V. A.

    2013-01-01

    We assessed if the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale (RCADS) measures anxiety symptoms similarly across age groups within adolescence. This is crucial for valid comparison of anxiety levels between different age groups. Anxiety symptoms were assessed biennially in a representative populatio

  15. Does the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale (RCADS) measure anxiety symptoms consistently across adolescence? The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M. Mathyssek (Christina); T.M. Olino (Thomas); C.A. Hartman; J. Ormel (Johan Hans); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); F.V.A. van Oort (Floor)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractWe assessed if the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale (RCADS) measures anxiety symptoms similarly across age groups within adolescence. This is crucial for valid comparison of anxiety levels between different age groups. Anxiety symptoms were assessed biennially in a representati

  16. Can a one-item mood scale do the trick? Predicting relapse over 5.5-years in recurrent depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijsbergen, Gerard D.; Bockting, Claudi L. H.; Berking, Matthias; Koeter, Maarten W.J.; Schene, Aart H.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To examine whether a simple Visual Analogue Mood Scale (VAMS) is able to predict time to relapse over 5.5-years. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 187 remitted recurrently depressed out-patients were interviewed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I) a

  17. The Short Version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21): Factor Structure in a Young Adolescent Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Marianna

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the factor structure of the short form of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21; Lovibond & Lovibond, 1995b) in a young adolescent sample. A group of 484 high school students ("Mean" age = 13.62 years, Min = 11.83, Max = 15.67 years, 52 % boys) completed the DASS-21. Several models were tested using Confirmatory Factor…

  18. The Consequences of Perfectionism Scale: Factorial Structure and Relationships with Perfectionism, Performance Perfectionism, Affect, and Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeber, Joachim; Hoyle, Azina; Last, Freyja

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the Consequences of Perfectionism Scale (COPS) and its relationships with perfectionism, performance perfectionism, affect, and depressive symptoms in 202 university students using confirmatory factor analysis, correlations, and regression analyses. Results suggest that the COPS is a reliable and valid measure of positive…

  19. The Consequences of Perfectionism Scale: Factorial structure and relationships with perfectionism, performance perfectionism, affect, and depressive symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Stoeber, Joachim; Hoyle, Alison J.; Last, Freyja

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the Consequences of Perfectionism Scale (COPS) and its relationships with perfectionism, performance perfectionism, affect, and depressive symptoms in 202 university students using confirmatory factor analysis, correlations, and regression analyses. Results suggest that the COPS is a reliable and valid measure of positive and negative consequences of perfectionism.

  20. A new clinical rating scale for work absence and productivity: validation in patients with major depressive disorder

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    Yatham Lakshmi N

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD is highest in working age people and depression causes significant impairment in occupational functioning. Work productivity and work absence should be incorporated into clinical assessments but currently available scales may not be optimized for clinical use. This study seeks to validate the Lam Employment Absence and Productivity Scale (LEAPS, a 10-item self-report questionnaire that takes 3-5 minutes to complete. Methods The study sample consisted of consecutive patients attending a Mood Disorders outpatient clinic who were in full- or part-time paid work. All patients met DSM-IV criteria for MDD and completed during their intake assessment the LEAPS, the self-rated version of the Quick Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-SR, the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS and the Health and Work Performance Questionnaire (HPQ. Standard psychometric analyses for validation were conducted. Results A total of 234 patients with MDD completed the assessments. The LEAPS displayed excellent internal consistency as assessed by Cronbach's alpha of 0.89. External validity was assessed by comparing the LEAPS to the other clinical and work functioning scales. The LEAPS total score was significantly correlated with the SDS work disability score (r = 0.63, p Conclusion The LEAPS displays good internal and external validity in a population of patients with MDD attending an outpatient clinic, which suggests that it may be a clinically useful tool to assess and monitor work functioning and productivity in depressed patients.

  1. Construction and validation of a patient- and user-friendly nursing home version of the Geriatric Depression Scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongenelis, K.; Gerritsen, D. L.; Beekman, A. T. F.; Eisses, A. M. H.; Kluiter, H.; Ribbe, M. W.

    Objective To construct a patient- and user-friendly shortened version of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) that is especially suitable for nursing home patients. Methods The study was carried out on two different data bases including 23 Dutch nursing homes. Data on the GDS (n = 410), the Mini

  2. Construction and validation of a patient- and user-friendly nursing home version of the Geriatric Depression Scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongenelis, K.; Gerritsen, D. L.; Beekman, A. T. F.; Eisses, A. M. H.; Kluiter, H.; Ribbe, M. W.

    2007-01-01

    Objective To construct a patient- and user-friendly shortened version of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) that is especially suitable for nursing home patients. Methods The study was carried out on two different data bases including 23 Dutch nursing homes. Data on the GDS (n = 410), the Mini Men

  3. Investigation in climacteric symptoms and depression of gynaecology outpatients and inpatients%妇科门诊和住院患者更年期症状与抑郁的调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张媛园; 周彩峰; 付文君

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the climacteric symptoms and depressive related factors of climacteric females in gynecology outpatients and inpatients,to provide evidence for effective health promotion.Methods 416 climacteric women were investigated by using improved menopause Kuppermen Scales and Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D).The results underwent analysis.Results There were 93.99% of patients suffering from climacteric syndrome,49.52% with depression symptom.The main factors of climacteric syndrome were eating breakfast according to the timetable every day,nutritionally balanced diet,controlling of salt intake,regular body exercises and to maintain a proper body weight.Factors related to depression symptoms were sore breasts,constipation,dry skin,lower abdominal pain.The correlation between climacteric syndrome and depressive symptom was significant.Conclusions The main influencing factor of climacteric syndrome was healthy lifestyle.The climacteric syndrome increases the risk of depressive symptoms.%目的 调查女性更年期症状与抑郁的影响因素,为促进健康提供依据.方法 采用改良更年期Kupperman评分量表和流行病学调查用抑郁自评量表(center for epidemiological studiesdepression,CES-D),对416例更年期女性进行调查,并对结果进行分析.结果 更年期综合征的发生率高达93.99%,抑郁发生率达49.52%.按时每天吃早餐、营养平衡的饮食、控制盐分摄入、定期锻炼身体及维持适当体质量,这5项健康生活因素是更年期综合征的主要影响因素.乳房疼痛、便秘、皮肤干燥、下腹部疼痛,这4项抑郁相关症状因素和更年期女性抑郁存在显著相关.更年期综合征和抑郁症状之间存在显著相关.结论 健康的生活方式是更年期症状的主要影响因素,更年期症状增加了抑郁症状的发生危险.

  4. Comparison of Depression and Anxiety between Unmarried Female Youth in Two Groups of Induced Abortion and None-Induced Abortion in Yibin City of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi-zhong WU; Lin LUO; Wei-dong CAI; Lun ZHANG; Qi-fu FAN

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To explore the risk factors influencing the mental status of unmarried female youth.Methods A cross-sectional survey and a qualitative interview were adopted. 1 200unmarried female volunteers (600 with IA) who aged 15-29 years in Yibin city were investigated, and 8 focus group discussions (FGDs) and 8 in-depth interviews were conducted. Except the investigation of subject's personal information, econ-socio status,sexual behavior, contraception and reproductive health problems they face, two selfreporting scales, CES-D and SAS were used for assessment of depression and anxiety of the subjects.Results 1) Depression and anxiety among unmarried female youth investigated in current study are relatively common. Proportions of the females with depression and anxiety to the total sample are 27.4% and 33.4%, respectively; 2) Depression and anxiety of the females with IA are more serious than that of the female without IA.Proportions of unmarried females with IA have depression and anxiety to the total unmarried females with IA are 3.45 times and 2.61 times that of unmarried females without IA have depression and anxiety to the total unmarried females without IA,respectively; 3) IA is one of the key risk factors influencing depression and anxiety of unmarried female youth. Other risk factors are lack on basic knowledge about sex/STD/HIV/AIDS, reproductive tract infections, relatively lower income, age at sex debut is relatively younger, etc. In addition, multiple sex partners and repeat pregnancies were risk factors influencing anxiety of unmarried female youth.Conclusion Depession and anxiety was more popular in unmarried females with IA.Intervention for improving mental health of unmarried females should be developred.

  5. Validation of the Arab Youth Mental Health scale as a screening tool for depression/anxiety in Lebanese children

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    Nakkash Rima

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early detection of common mental disorders, such as depression and anxiety, among children and adolescents requires the use of validated, culturally sensitive, and developmentally appropriate screening instruments. The Arab region has a high proportion of youth, yet Arabic-language screening instruments for mental disorders among this age group are virtually absent. Methods We carried out construct and clinical validation on the recently-developed Arab Youth Mental Health (AYMH scale as a screening tool for depression/anxiety. The scale was administered with 10-14 year old children attending a social service center in Beirut, Lebanon (N = 153. The clinical assessment was conducted by a child and adolescent clinical psychiatrist employing the DSM IV criteria. We tested the scale's sensitivity, specificity, and internal consistency. Results Scale scores were generally significantly associated with how participants responded to standard questions on health, mental health, and happiness, indicating good construct validity. The results revealed that the scale exhibited good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.86 and specificity (79%. However, it exhibited moderate sensitivity for girls (71% and poor sensitivity for boys (50%. Conclusions The AYMH scale is useful as a screening tool for general mental health states and a valid screening instrument for common mental disorders among girls. It is not a valid instrument for detecting depression and anxiety among boys in an Arab culture.

  6. Study of the stress-cognition vulnerability models of depression in Chinese undergraduates%抑郁应激-认知易感性模型在中国大学生中的构建与验证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹涛; 陈静; 黄列玉; 邹钰

    2011-01-01

    Objective To test the validity of the stress-cognition vulnerability-model of depression in Chinese undergraduates.Methods 647 undergraduate students finished the Chinese version of 6 scales in time one.Cognitive Style Questionnaire(CSQ),Response Styles Questionnaire(RSQ-SF),Self-Esteem Questionnaire(SEQ),Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale(DAS),General Social and Academic Hassles Scale for Students(GSASHS),Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale(CES-DA)follow-up assessment in 1 month later,the General Social and Academic Hassles Scale for Students(GSASHS)scale and Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D)scale were completed.Then,vulnerability factors for depression symptoms were used to predict depression symptoms by Multiple Hierarchical Regression(MHR).Path analysis and structural equation model(SEM)were used to explore integrated vulnerability-stress model of depression in Chinese undergraduates.Results Vulnerability-stress interaction was entered into regression equation.The results showed that the vulnerability-stress interaction provided incremental predictive validity to depressive.Symptoms path analysis showed that negative cognition→rumination→depression was a important pathways to cause depression(β=-0.31,P<0.01).The structural equation model for integrated vulnerability-stress model of depression analysis indicated the fit index:GFI =0.95,CFI=0.94,IFI=0.94,RMSEA=0.085.Conclusion A cognition vulnerability-stress medels of depression in Chinese undergraduates was provided and to be confirmed.The rumination was a important mediated variable.%目的 在中国大学生人群中对抑郁的应激-认知易感性模型进行初步构建和实证分析.方法 647名大学生完成测验,测查量表为学生日常生活和学习应激量表(GSASHS)和流调中心用抑郁量表(CES-D),认知方式问卷(CSQ)、功能失调态度量表(DAS)、反应方式问卷(RSQ.SF)、自尊问卷(SEQ),1月后进行追踪测查.结果 认知易感

  7. Psychometric Properties and Diagnostic Accuracy of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale in a Sample of Iranian Women

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    Gholam Reza Kheirabadi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS has been used as a reliable screening tool for postpartum depression in many countries. This study aimed to assess the psychometric properties and diagnostic accuracy of the EPDS in a sample of Iranian women.Methods: Using stratified sampling 262 postpartum women (2 weeks-3 months after delivery were selected from urban and rural health center in the city of Isfahan. They were interviewed using EPDS and Hamilton depression rating scale (HDRS. Data were assessed using factor analysis, diagnosis analysis of receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve, Cronbach's alpha and Pearson correlation coefficient.Results: The age of then participants ranged 18-45 years (26.6±5.1. Based on a cut-off point of >13 for HDRS, 18.3% of the participants. The overall reliability (Cronbach's alpha of EPDS was 0.79. There was a significant correlation (r2=0.60, P value<0.01 between EPDS and HDRS. Two factor analysis showed that anhedonia and depression were two explanatory factors. At a cut-off point12 the sensitivity of the questionnaire was 78% (95% CI: 73%-83% and its specificity was 75% (95% CI: 72%-78%. Conclusion: The Persian version of the EPDS showed appropriate psychometric properties diagnostic accuracy index. It can be used by health system professionals for detection, assessment and treatment for mothers with post partum depression.

  8. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) as screening instruments for depression in patients with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, Tim J; Friedrich, Michael; Johansen, Christoffer; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Faller, Herman; Koch, Uwe; Brähler, Elmar; Härter, Martin; Keller, Monika; Schulz, Holger; Wegscheider, Karl; Weis, Joachim; Mehnert, Anja

    2017-06-27

    Depression screening in patients with cancer is recommended by major clinical guidelines, although the evidence on individual screening tools is limited for this population. Here, the authors assess and compare the diagnostic accuracy of 2 established screening instruments: the depression modules of the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-D), in a representative sample of patients with cancer. This multicenter study was conducted with a proportional, stratified, random sample of 2141 patients with cancer across all major tumor sites and treatment settings. The PHQ-9 and HADS-D were assessed and compared in terms of diagnostic accuracy and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition diagnosis of major depressive disorder using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview for Oncology as the criterion standard. The diagnostic accuracy of the PHQ-9 and HADS-D was fair for diagnosing major depressive disorder, with areas under the ROC curves of 0.78 (95% confidence interval, 0.76-0.79) and 0.75 (95% confidence interval, 0.74-0.77), respectively. The 2 questionnaires did not differ significantly in their areas under the ROC curves (P = .15). The PHQ-9 with a cutoff score ≥7 had the best screening performance, with a sensitivity of 83% (95% confidence interval, 78%-89%) and a specificity of 61% (95% confidence interval, 59%-63%). The American Society of Clinical Oncology guideline screening algorithm had a sensitivity of 44% (95% confidence interval, 36%-51%) and a specificity of 84% (95% confidence interval, 83%-85%). In patients with cancer, the screening performance of both the PHQ-9 and the HADS-D was limited compared with a standardized diagnostic interview. Costs and benefits of routinely screening all patients with cancer should be weighed carefully. Cancer 2017. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  9. Screening for depression and anxiety among older Chinese immigrants living in Western countries: The use of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) and the Geriatric Anxiety Inventory (GAI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaoping; Haralambous, Betty; Pachana, Nancy A; Bryant, Christina; LoGiudice, Dina; Goh, Anita; Dow, Briony

    2016-03-01

    Depression and anxiety are two common mental health problems among older people. There is evidence that using well-validated screening tools can improve detection of depression and anxiety among this group. The review explored the use of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) and the Geriatric Anxiety Inventory (GAI) for screening depression and anxiety among older Chinese immigrants, one of the largest and fastest growing groups of older immigrants in Western society. It focused on the GDS and GAI because both are designed specifically for older people. Online literature searches were conducted in MEDLINE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO. A narrative approach was used to review included papers. A total of 21 articles were included. There were limited data on anxiety among older Chinese immigrants, with only one unpublished report identified. There were 13 studies (20 articles) using the GDS with this group. Results of these studies indicated that the GDS is a reliable tool in this population; however, there was limited validity data. Two versions of the GDS-15 have been used with older Chinese immigrants, including the standard GDS-15 and Mui's GDS-15. Prevalence of depression ranged between 20% and 30% in most reviewed studies. Results of this review have practical implications for clinicians in their use of these tools with older Chinese immigrants in Western countries, such as the different GDS versions. It also suggests a number of directions for future research, such as the inclusion of clinical samples and consideration of the diversity within this group. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  10. Missed opportunity to screen and diagnose PTSD and depression among deploying shipboard US military personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Braden R.; Michael, Nelson L.; Scott, Paul T.

    2016-01-01

    Background Depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are significant risks for suicide and other adverse events among US military personnel, but prevalence data among ship-assigned personnel at the onset of deployment are unknown. Aims To determine the prevalence of shipboard personnel who screen positive for PTSD and/or major depressive disorder (MDD) at the onset of deployment, and also those who reported these diagnoses made by a physician or healthcare professional in the year prior to deployment. Method Active-duty ship-assigned personnel (N = 2078) completed anonymous assessments at the beginning of deployment. Depression was measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D; score of ≥22), and PTSD was assessed using the PTSD Checklist–Civilian Version (PCL-C; both score and symptom criteria were used). Results In total, 7.3% (n = 151 of 2076) screened positive for PTSD and 22% (n = 461 of 2078) for MDD at deployment onset. Only 6% and 15% of those who screened positive for PTSD or MDD, respectively, had been diagnosed by a healthcare professional in the past year. Conclusions Missed opportunities for mental healthcare among screen-positive shipboard personnel reduce the benefits associated with early identification and linkage to care. Improved methods of mental health screening that promote early recognition and referral to care may mitigate psychiatric events in theatre. Declaration of interest This work was performed as part of the official duties of the authors as military service members or employees of the US Government. Copyright and usage This work was prepared by military service members or employees of the US Government as part of their official duties. As such, copyright protection is not available for this work (Title 17, USC, §105). PMID:27713833

  11. 青少年抑郁综合认知模型及其性别差异%A Study of the Integrated Cognitive Model of Depression for Adolescents and Its Gender Difference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔丽霞; 史光远; 张玉静; 于园

    2012-01-01

    Over the past 40 years Beck's cognitive theory of depression has emerged as one of the major cognitive theories to explain depressive phenomena (Oei & Dingle, 2008). It has been proposed that two levels of cognitions, that is, dysfunctional attitudes and automatic thoughts, contribute to the development and maintenance of depression. However, little empirical research has been carried out to specify and examine the differential roles of dysfunctional attitudes and automatic thoughts in the development of depression. In a comprehensive review Oei and Kwon (2007) creatively proposed the Integrated Cognitive model of depression (ICM) to test the differential roles of dysfunctional attitudes and automatic thoughts. Whereas ICM has been studied in western adult populations, the research examining this model in adolescents or non-western population lagged far behind. Longitudinal cross-cultural evidence are needed to evaluate the validity of the ICM in Chinese adolescents. With the two-wave panel data we hypothesized that in the relationship between adolescents' negative life events experienced between Timel and Time2 (ASLEC2) and changes in the severity of depressive symptoms (CES-D2-CES-D1) dysfunctional attitudes measured at Timel(DASl) served as a cognitive moderator and the frequency of automatic thoughts between Timel and Time2 (ATQ2-ATQ1) as a cognitive mediator. That was dysfunctional attitudes was a mediated moderator. Additionally the model did not exclude the possibility that either negative life events or dysfunctional attitudes might have some direct influences on automatic thoughts and depressive symptoms and was called Integrated Cognitive Model of Depression for Adolescents (ICM-A). As a contrast we also tested the integrated cognitive model (ICM) and the symptom model (SM). Participants were 613 Chinese junior high school students. All participants completed the Adolescent Life Events Questionnaire (ASLEC), Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale (DAS), Automatic

  12. Health-related quality of life, depression, and self-esteem in adolescents with leprosy-affected parents: results of a cross-sectional study in Nepal

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    Yamaguchi Nobuko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease that has an impact on the Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQOL of sufferers as well as their children. To date, no study has investigated the effects of parental leprosy on the well-being of adolescent children. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Lalitpur and Kathmandu districts of Nepal. Adolescents with leprosy-affected parents (n = 102; aged 11–17 years and those with parents unaffected by leprosy (n = 115; 11–17 years were investigated. Self-reported data from adolescents were collected using the Kinder Lebensqualität Fragebogen (KINDLR questionnaire to assess HRQOL, the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D, and the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale (RSES. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA was used to compare scores between the two groups. Multiple regression analysis was conducted to explore the determinants of HRQOL for adolescents with leprosy-affected parents. Results ANCOVA revealed that the KINDLR and RSES scores were significantly lower among adolescents with leprosy-affected parents compared with unaffected parents. However, the scores of “Friends” and “School” subscales of KINDLR were similar between the two groups. The CES-D score was significantly higher among adolescents with leprosy-affected parents than for adolescents with unaffected parents. The KINDLR scores for adolescents with both parents affected (n = 41 were significantly lower than the scores for those with one parent affected (n = 61. Multiple regression analysis revealed that adolescents with leprosy-affected parents who had higher levels of depressive symptoms were more likely to have lower KINDLR scores. A similar result was seen for adolescents where both parents had leprosy. Conclusions Adolescents with leprosy-affected parents had higher levels of depressive symptoms, lower levels of self-esteem, and lower HRQOL compared with adolescents whose

  13. Health-related quality of life, depression, and self-esteem in adolescents with leprosy-affected parents: results of a cross-sectional study in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Nobuko; Poudel, Krishna C; Jimba, Masamine

    2013-01-10

    Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease that has an impact on the Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) of sufferers as well as their children. To date, no study has investigated the effects of parental leprosy on the well-being of adolescent children. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Lalitpur and Kathmandu districts of Nepal. Adolescents with leprosy-affected parents (n = 102; aged 11-17 years) and those with parents unaffected by leprosy (n = 115; 11-17 years) were investigated. Self-reported data from adolescents were collected using the Kinder Lebensqualität Fragebogen (KINDLR) questionnaire to assess HRQOL, the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D), and the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale (RSES). Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to compare scores between the two groups. Multiple regression analysis was conducted to explore the determinants of HRQOL for adolescents with leprosy-affected parents. ANCOVA revealed that the KINDLR and RSES scores were significantly lower among adolescents with leprosy-affected parents compared with unaffected parents. However, the scores of "Friends" and "School" subscales of KINDLR were similar between the two groups. The CES-D score was significantly higher among adolescents with leprosy-affected parents than for adolescents with unaffected parents. The KINDLR scores for adolescents with both parents affected (n = 41) were significantly lower than the scores for those with one parent affected (n = 61). Multiple regression analysis revealed that adolescents with leprosy-affected parents who had higher levels of depressive symptoms were more likely to have lower KINDLR scores. A similar result was seen for adolescents where both parents had leprosy. Adolescents with leprosy-affected parents had higher levels of depressive symptoms, lower levels of self-esteem, and lower HRQOL compared with adolescents whose parents were unaffected by leprosy. Thus, mental health support

  14. Factorial Validity and Internal Consistency of Malaysian Adapted Depression Anxiety Stress Scale - 21 in an Adolescent Sample

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    Hairul Anuar Hashim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Psychometrically sound measurement instrument is a fundamental requirement across broad range of research areas. In negative affect research, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS has been identified as a psychometrically sound instrument to measure depression, anxiety and stress, especially the 21-item version. However, its psychometric properties in adolescents have been less consistent. Objectives: Thus, the present study sought to examine the factorial validity and internal consistency of the adapted 21-item version of DASS in Malaysian adolescents. Method: Using cross-sectional study design, DASS-21 was administered to 750 Malaysian adolescents (Mean age = 13.40 ± 0.49. The data were then analyzed using Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA, in which the original DASS-21 factor structure (depression-stress-anxiety was compared to 8 other alternative models.Results: CFA results revealed a weak support for DASS-21 as a differentiated measure of depression, anxiety and stress in Malaysian adolescents. Extremely high latent factors intercorrelations were observed in the model reflecting original DASS factor structure. On the other hand, despite the best overall fit of a 4-factor model consisting of depression, anxiety, and stress, as well as a general negative affect factor, individual factor loadings for the specific factors were uninterpretable. Although model fit of 1-factor model was inferior when compared the other competing models, this model (1-factor exhibit reasonable model fit. Conclusion: We concluded that the use of Malaysian adapted DASS-21 as a differentiated measure stress, anxiety, and depression in Malaysian adolescent should proceed with caution and further refinement of the scale is necessary before a concrete conclusion can be made.

  15. The Italian version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21: Factor structure and psychometric properties on community and clinical samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottesi, Gioia; Ghisi, Marta; Altoè, Gianmarco; Conforti, Erica; Melli, Gabriele; Sica, Claudio

    2015-07-01

    The Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21 (DASS-21) is the short version of a self-report measure that was originally developed to provide maximum differentiation between depressive and anxious symptoms. Despite encouraging evidence, the factor structure and other features of the DASS-21 are yet to be firmly established. A community sample of 417 participants and two clinical groups (32 depressive patients and 25 anxious patients) completed the Italian version of the DASS-21 along with several measures of psychopathology. Confirmatory factor analyses suggested that the DASS-21 is a measure of general distress plus three additional orthogonal dimensions (anxiety, depression, and stress). The internal consistency and temporal stability of the measure were good; each DASS-21 scale correlated more strongly with a measure of a similar construct, demonstrating good convergent and divergent validity. Lastly, the DASS-21 demonstrated good criterion-oriented validity. The validity of the Italian DASS-21 and its utility, both for community and clinical individuals, are supported. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Measurement of self, experienced, and perceived HIV/AIDS stigma using parallel scales in Chennai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelaya, Carla E; Sivaram, Sudha; Johnson, Sethulakshmi C; Srikrishnan, A K; Suniti, Solomon; Celentano, David D

    2012-01-01

    HIV/AIDS stigma can severely compromise the quality of life of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) by reducing access and quality of care, adherence to therapy, and disclosure of HIV status, thereby potentially increasing transmission. The objective of this study was to develop and psychometrically test three parallel scales measuring self, experienced, and perceived stigma among PLHA (n=188) in Chennai, India. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA), which was used to facilitate item reduction and assess construct validity, confirmed the presence of three underlying theoretical domains. The final number of items and Cronbach's Alpha for each scale were: 8 items, Alpha of 0.84, for self stigma; 7 items, Alpha of 0.86, for experienced stigma; and 7 items, Alpha of 0.83, for perceived stigma. External validity was ascertained by confirming a significant positive association between the measure of each type of stigma and depression (measured using CES-D), using structural equation modeling (SEM). Therefore, scales were parsimonious, reliable, and were found to be valid measures of HIV/AIDS stigma. Using these validated scales, researchers can accurately collect data to inform the design of stigma reduction programs and interventions and enable subsequent evaluation of their effectiveness.

  17. Using Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) on patients with epilepsy: Confirmatory factor analysis and Rasch models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chung-Ying; Pakpour, Amir H

    2017-02-01

    The problems of mood disorders are critical in people with epilepsy. Therefore, there is a need to validate a useful tool for the population. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) has been used on the population, and showed that it is a satisfactory screening tool. However, more evidence on its construct validity is needed. A total of 1041 people with epilepsy were recruited in this study, and each completed the HADS. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and Rasch analysis were used to understand the construct validity of the HADS. In addition, internal consistency was tested using Cronbachs' α, person separation reliability, and item separation reliability. Ordering of the response descriptors and the differential item functioning (DIF) were examined using the Rasch models. The HADS showed that 55.3% of our participants had anxiety; 56.0% had depression based on its cutoffs. CFA and Rasch analyses both showed the satisfactory construct validity of the HADS; the internal consistency was also acceptable (α=0.82 in anxiety and 0.79 in depression; person separation reliability=0.82 in anxiety and 0.73 in depression; item separation reliability=0.98 in anxiety and 0.91 in depression). The difficulties of the four-point Likert scale used in the HADS were monotonically increased, which indicates no disordering response categories. No DIF items across male and female patients and across types of epilepsy were displayed in the HADS. The HADS has promising psychometric properties on construct validity in people with epilepsy. Moreover, the additive item score is supported for calculating the cutoff. Copyright © 2016 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Utility of MMPI-2-RF Scale Scores in the Differential Diagnosis of Schizophrenia and Major Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tayla T C; Graham, John R; Arbisi, Paul A

    2017-04-07

    This study was designed to determine whether scores on selected Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) scales could be used to differentiate between individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia (SCZ) and major depressive disorder (MDD). The sample was drawn from 2 psychiatric inpatient hospitals and included data from 199 individuals with SCZ and 808 individuals with MDD. A series of multivariate analyses of variance, analyses of variance, and odds ratios were calculated to determine which MMPI-2-RF scales provide the best differentiation between individuals presenting with these 2 disorders. Results indicated scales assessing internalizing dysfunction, including Emotional/Internalizing Dysfunction (EID), Restructured Clinical Scales Demoralization (RCd), Low Positive Emotions (RC2), Suicidal/Death Ideation (SUI), and Self Doubt (SFD) best discriminated MDD from SCZ. Scales assessing thought dysfunction, incluidng Thought Dysfunction (THD), Restructured Clinical Scales Ideas of Persecution (RC6) and Aberrant Experiences (RC8), and Psychoticism-Revised (PSYC-r) were demonstrated to best identify SCZ. Comparisons of the examined MMPI-2-RF scales to MMPI-2 scales assessing similar constructs suggested scales from the MMPI-2-RF perform similarly to their MMPI-2 counterparts in detecting MDD or SCZ, but might have increased ability to discriminate SCZ from other conditions. Overall, results of this study suggest that scores on the examined MMPI-2-RF scales provide important information about the differential diagnosis of MDD and SCZ to clinicians working in inpatient settings.

  19. Cost-effectiveness of integrated care for elderly depressed patients in the PRISM-E study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley-Exley, Elizabeth; Domino, Marisa Elena; Maxwell, James; Levkoff, Sue Ellen

    2009-12-01

    One proposed strategy to improve outcomes associated with depression and other behavioral health disorders in primary care settings is to strengthen collaboration between primary care and specialty mental health care through integrated care (IC). We compare the cost-effectiveness of IC in primary care to enhanced specialty referral (ESR) for elders with behavioral health disorders from the Primary Care Research in Substance Abuse and Mental Health study, which was a randomized trial conducted between 2000 and 2002, using a societal perspective. The IC model had a behavioral health professional co-located in the primary care setting, and the primary care provider continued involvement in the mental health/substance abuse care of the patient. The comparison model, enhanced specialty referral (ESR), required referral to a behavioral health provider outside the primary care setting, and the behavioral health provider had primary responsibility for the mental health/substance abuse needs of the patient. Costs and clinical outcomes for 840 elders with depression were analyzed using incremental cost-effectiveness ratios, the net benefits framework, cost-effectiveness planes, and acceptability curves. Outcomes were measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and converted to depression-free days and Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALY). A variation on depression free days was proposed as an improvement on current methods. Separate analyses were conducted for Veteran's Affairs (n=365; n=175 in IC and n=190 in ESR) and non-Veteran's Affairs (n=475; n=242 in IC and n=233 in ESR) settings. ESR participants in the non-VA sample exhibited lower average CES-D scores (i.e., an improvement in depressive symptoms) than did IC participants (beta = 2.8, p 0.05). Mean costs were $D6,338 for VA IC participants; $7,007 for VA ESR participants; $3,657 for non-VA IC participants; and $3,673 for non-VA ESR participants. Although the cost-effectiveness planes

  20. The study of depressive symptoms in elderly Veterans in Fuzhou Military areas%福州地区军队干休所老干部抑郁症状调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王善钻; 夏向南

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解福州地区军队离退休老干部的抑郁症状检出率及其相关的影响因素.方法 采用整群抽样与分层抽样相结合的方法,选取福州地区14所军队干休所离退休老干部作为调查对象,以流调用抑郁自评量表(CES-D)为评定工具,采取面对面调查方式,调查老干部抑郁症状的检出率.结果 共调查500例,CES-D平均得分为(5.56±7.01)分,总分≥16分者44例,抑郁症状总体检出率为8.8%.单因素分析显示,婚姻状况、居住方式(独居)、吸烟史、需要生活照料者等分别对抑郁症状的发生率有显著影响,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);年龄、性别、文化程度、饮酒史及抑郁症状发生率比较差异无统计学意义.结论 福州地区军队离退休老干部抑郁症状检出率较高,并受多种因素影响,应该引起关注,重视老干部的心理健康.%Objective To study the prevalence of depressive symptoms and its influencing factors in elderly Veterans in Fuzhou Military areas. Methods Five hundreds elderly Veterans were sampled in stratified cluster sampling,and the Center for Epidemiology Scale(CES-D)and scales correlated were used to assess their emotional conditions,as well as the prevalence rate of depression. Results The average score of CES-D was (5.56±7.01) and the prevalence of depressive symptoms was 8.8%. Single factor analysis revealed that marriage,the mode of habitation,smoking history and the need of caretakers had significant effects on the prevalence of depressive symptoms(P<0.05). However,dipressive symptoms had no connection with sex,age,education degree or drinking history. Conclusions The prevalence rate of depressive symptoms was relatively high in elderly Veterans in Fuzhou Military areas and was influenced by multiple factors. We should pay more attention to the mental health of elderly Veterans.

  1. Validation of the Behavioral Activation for Depression Scale (BADS)-Psychometric properties of the long and short form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhr, Kristina; Hautzinger, Martin; Krisch, Katharina; Berking, Matthias; Ebert, David Daniel

    2016-04-01

    With the development of the Behavioral Activation for Depression Scale (BADS) by Kanter, et al. [1], different behavioral aspects of depression like activation, rumination or avoidance, and functional impairment can be measured. The long and the short versions of the BADS, however, show differences in the quality of psychometric properties. We wanted to validate the short and long forms of the BADS. We therefore evaluated the factor structure, the psychometric properties, and the construct validity of the long version and the subscales in a clinically depressed German sample (n=258) in study 1. In study 2, we explored the factor structure and the psychometric properties of the short version of the BADS in a subsyndromal sample with elevated depressive symptoms (n=406). In study 1, our results replicated the four factor solution of the BADS-25 original version and showed good psychometric properties. However, with regard to the BADS-9 only the French factor solution of the short BADS-9 demonstrated acceptable fit with low internal consistency of the subscale Avoidance. Thus, only the total score of the short form can be recommended.

  2. Factor structure and dimensionality of the two depression scales in STAR*D using level 1 datasets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, P; Fava, M; Trivedi, M H

    2011-01-01

    ). METHODS: The first treatment step (Level 1) in the STAR*D study provided a dataset of 4041 outpatients with DSM-IV nonpsychotic major depression. The HAM-D(17) and IDS-C(30) were evaluated by principal component analysis (PCA) without rotation. Mokken analysis tested the unidimensionality of the IDS-C(6......), which corresponds to the unidimensional HAM-D(6.) RESULTS: For both the HAM-D(17) and IDS-C(30), PCA identified a bi-directional factor contrasting the depressive symptoms versus the neurovegetative symptoms. The HAM-D(6) and the corresponding IDS-C(6) symptoms all emerged in the depression factor. Both...... the HAM-D(6) and IDS-C(6) were found to be unidimensional scales, i.e., their total scores are each a sufficient statistic for the measurement of depressive states. LIMITATIONS: STAR*D used only one medication in Level 1. CONCLUSIONS: The unidimensional HAM-D(6) and IDS-C(6) should be used when evaluating...

  3. The Toronto Hospital Alertness Test scale: relationship to daytime sleepiness, fatigue, and symptoms of depression and anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahid A

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Azmeh Shahid,1–5 Sharon A Chung,1,2,5 Lance Maresky,1 Affan Danish,1 Arina Bingeliene,1,4,5 Jianhua Shen,1 Colin M Shapiro1–5 1Sleep Research Laboratory, Department of Psychiatry, University Health Network, University of Toronto, 2Youthdale Treatment Centres, 3Youthdale Child and Adolescent Sleep Centre, 4Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, 5Department of Psychiatry, Toronto Western Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, ON, Canada Objective: The Toronto Hospital Alertness Test (THAT scale was designed to measure alertness, defined as the capacity of the mind to respond appropriately to external and internal stimuli. The present study’s aim is to determine normative values of alertness on the THAT and to explore the relationship among excessive daytime sleepiness, fatigue, depressive symptoms, and alertness. Methods: Normative data were collected from 60 healthy males and females. To explore the relationship among alertness, daytime sleepiness, fatigue, depression, and anxiety, data were collected from charts of sleep clinic patients. All study subjects completed measures for fatigue, sleepiness, depressive symptoms, and anxiety. Results: The average score on the THAT was 34.9±7.2 (range 22–50 for the control group. The cutoff score for the THAT, indicative of clinically significant reduced alertness, was determined to be ≤20.5 (mean –2 SD. THAT alertness scores were found to be modestly, significantly, and negatively correlated with fatigue levels (r=–0.39, P<0.001, depressive symptoms (r=–0.53, P<0.001, and anxiety symptoms (r=–0.41, P<0.001. No correlations were found between alertness levels and daytime sleepiness. Regression analyses revealed a significant model (F=19.9, P<0.001, adjusted R2=0.35 with depressive symptoms (P<0.001 and fatigue (P=0.006 emerging as the only significant predictors of scores on the THAT. Conclusion: The findings of this study support that sleepiness is not the same as

  4. Sex-specific sleep patterns among university students in Lebanon: impact on depression and academic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabrita, Colette S; Hajjar-Muça, Theresa A

    2016-01-01

    Good sleep quality and quantity are fundamental to the maintenance of normal physiological processes. Changes in sleep patterns are commonly observed among young adults and are shown to impact neurocognitive, academic, and psychological well-being. Given the scarcity of sleep information about Lebanon and acknowledging the sex differences in various sleep dimensions, we conducted a study that aimed at assessing sex differences in sleep habits among university students in Lebanon in relation to psychoacademic status. A total of 540 students (50.6% females) completed a questionnaire that inquired about sociodemographics and evaluated sleep quality and depression using the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), respectively. The mean PSQI global score (6.57±3.49) indicated poor sleep, with no significant differences between men and women. The sleep/wake rhythm was delayed on weekends for both sexes. Females exhibited earlier bedtimes and rise times and longer sleep durations on both weekdays and weekends. However, unlike males females showed a greater phase delay in wake times than bedtimes on weekends (149 minutes vs 74 minutes, respectively). In all, 70.9% of females suffered from depressive symptoms, which was a significantly higher proportion compared with 58.5% of males (Pacademic performance of females was significantly better than that of males (2.8±0.61 vs 2.65±0.61, Psex differences in sleep timing, such as bedtime/rise time and nocturnal sleep duration, rather than sleep quality exist among Lebanese university students. Sex-specific sleep patterns have differential impact on psychological and academic well-being.

  5. Psychometric evaluation of the Signs of Depression Scale with a revised scoring mechanism in stroke patients with communicative impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Mariska J; de Man-van Ginkel, Janneke M; Hafsteinsdóttir, Thóra B; Schuurmans, Marieke J

    2017-05-01

    To investigate (1) the diagnostic value of the Signs of Depression Scale (SODS) in a Likert scale format and (2) whether the Likert scale improves the diagnostic value compared with the original dichotomous scale. Cross-sectional multicentre study. One general and one university hospital in the Netherlands. A total of 116 consecutive hospitalized stroke patients, of whom 53 were patients with communicative impairment. Depression was diagnosed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) administered to the patients' relatives. The Barthel Index (BI) was used as an external validator. The correlation between the CIDI and the SODS-Likert or the SODS was small ( rb = 0.18), and the correlation between the Barthel Index and the SODS-Likert ( rs = -0.30) or the SODS ( rs = -0.33) was moderate. For both instruments, the discriminatory power for diagnosing depression when compared with the CIDI was best at a cut-off score of ⩾2. The internal consistency of the SODS-Likert was acceptable (α = 0.69) and slightly higher than that of the SODS (α = 0.57). The inter-rater reliability of the SODS-Likert and the SODS was acceptable (intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) 0.66 and ICC 0.80, respectively). The clinical utility was rated good. The diagnostic value of the SODS did not improve using a Likert scale format. However, the diagnostic value of the original dichotomous SODS is reasonable for the initial mood assessment of stroke patients with communicative impairment.

  6. Validity and test–retest reliability of the Persian version of the Montgomery–Asberg Depression Rating Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadpanah M

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Mohammad Ahmadpanah,1 Meisam Sheikhbabaei,1 Mohammad Haghighi,1 Fatemeh Roham,1 Leila Jahangard,1 Amineh Akhondi,2 Dena Sadeghi Bahmani,3 Hafez Bajoghli,4 Edith Holsboer-Trachsler,3 Serge Brand3,5 1Behavioral Disorders and Substances Abuse Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran; 2Hamadan Educational Organization, Ministry of Education, Hamadan, Iran; 3Center for Affective, Stress, and Sleep Disorders, Psychiatric Clinics of the University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; 4Iranian National Center for Addiction Studies (INCAS, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 5Department of Sport, Exercise and Health Science, Sport Science Section, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland Background and aims: The Montgomery–Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS is an expert’s rating tool to assess the severity and symptoms of depression. The aim of the present two studies was to validate the Persian version of the MADRS and determine its test–retest reliability in patients diagnosed with major depressive disorders (MDD. Methods: In study 1, the translated MADRS and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS were applied to 210 patients diagnosed with MDD and 100 healthy adults. In study 2,200 patients diagnosed with MDD were assessed with the MADRS in face-to-face interviews. Thereafter, 100 patients were assessed 3–14 days later, again via face-to-face-interviews, while the other 100 patients were assessed 3–14 days later via a telephone interview. Results: Study 1: The MADRS and HDRS scores between patients with MDD and healthy controls differed significantly. Agreement between scoring of the MADRS and HDRS was high (r=0.95. Study 2: The intraclass correlation coefficient (test–retest reliability was r=0.944 for the face-to-face interviews, and r=0.959 for the telephone interviews. Conclusion: The present data suggest that the Persian MADRS has high validity and excellent test–retest reliability over

  7. Adaptation to Portuguese of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales (DASS Adaptación para la lengua portuguesa de la Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS Adaptação para a língua portuguesa da Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Luís Alves Apóstolo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to adapt to Portuguese, of Portugal, the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales, a 21-item short scale (DASS 21, designed to measure depression, anxiety and stress. Method: After translation and back-translation with the help of experts, the DASS 21 was administered to patients in external psychiatry consults (N=101, and its internal consistency, construct validity and concurrent validity were measured. Results: The DASS 21 properties certify its quality to measure emotional states. The instrument reveals good internal consistency. Factorial analysis shows that the two-factor structure is more adequate. The first factor groups most of the items that theoretically assess anxiety and stress, and the second groups most of the items that assess depression, explaining, on the whole, 58.54% of total variance. The strong positive correlation between the DASS 21 and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (HAD confirms the hypothesis regarding the criterion validity, however, revealing fragilities as to the divergence between theoretically different constructs.Objetivo: adaptar a la lengua portuguesa, de Portugal, la Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale, versión corta de 21 ítems, (DASS-21, que permite evaluar depresión, ansiedad y estrés. Método: Después de haber sido traducida y retrovertida, con la ayuda de peritos, la DASS-21 fue administrada a enfermos en consulta externa de psiquiatría (N=101, y fue evaluada la consistencia interna, la validez de constructo y la validez concurrente. Resultados: Las propiedades de la DASS-21 atestiguan su calidad para evaluar estados emocionales. El instrumento reveló buena consistencia interna. El análisis factorial muestra que la estructura de dos factores es la más ajustada. El primer factor agrupa la mayoría de los ítems que teóricamente evalúan ansiedad y estrés, y el segundo agrupa la mayoría de los ítems que evalúan depresión, explicando en su conjunto el 58,54% de la variaci

  8. Attentional bias to emotional faces on individuals in the remitted phase of recurrent depression: an eye-tracking study%复发性抑郁缓解期个体对情绪面孔注意偏向的眼动研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐西良; 刘明矾

    2015-01-01

    目的 通过分析眼动指标来探讨复发性抑郁缓解期个体对情绪面孔图片的注意偏向.方法 流调用抑郁自评量表(Center for epidemiologic studies depression scale,CES-D)筛选正常个体24人和抑郁情绪个体21人,汉密尔顿抑郁量表(Hamilton depression scale-17,HAMD-17)筛选复发性抑郁缓解期个体24人,通过分析被试的眼动指标来探讨复发性抑郁缓解期个体的注意偏向机制.结果 复发性抑郁缓解组对高兴面孔首视点持续时间偏向分数[(52.60±0.06)%]显著小于抑郁情绪组[(59.26±0.09)%]和正常组[(53.27±0.07)%],差异有统计学意义(F(1.66)=12.32,7.23,P<0.05).复发性抑郁缓解组对悲伤面孔的总注视时间偏向分数[(59.17±0.08)%]大于正常组[(49.67±0.07)%],差异有统计学意义(Ff1..)=4.29,P<0.05).结论 复发性抑郁缓解组被试对悲伤面孔和高兴面孔都没有表现出最初的定向偏向;复发性抑郁缓解组对悲伤面孔表现出最初的注意逃避和总体的注意维持.%Objective To explore the attentional bias to emotional faces on individuals in the remitted phase of recurrent depression through eye-tracking study.Methods Center for epidemiologic studies depression scale (CES-D) and Hamilton depression scale (HAMD) were used to the diagnosis of 24 normal individuals and 21 depressed individuals and 24 individuals in the remitted phase of recurrent depression.Emotion face pictures were chosen as experiment material and discuss the mechanism of the attentional bias of individuals in the remitted phase of recurrent depression through the analysis of eye movement index.Results First fixation duration bias score on happy expression picture of individuals in the remitted phase of recurrent depression((52.60±0.06) %) was less than normal controls ((59.26±0.09) %) and the depression group((53.27±0.07)%),(F(1.66)=12.32,7.23,P<0.05).Gaze Duration Bias score on sad expression picture of individuals in the

  9. Depressed Mood and Sleep Quality in College Students:Mediating Effect of Rumination%大学生孤独对抑郁和睡眠质量的影响:沉思的中介

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜荣萍; 陈世民

    2014-01-01

    To explore the mediate effect of Rumination on loneliness and depressed mood and sleep quality in col-lege students. Method:The surveys,which contained the UCLA loneliness Scale,the Ruminative Response Scale (RRS),CES - D and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index were distributed to 700 college students. Result:Rumina-tion partially mediates the loneliness and depressed mood and sleep quality. Conclusion:Rumination is the impor-tant influence mechanism of loneliness and poor health quality.%本文探讨大学生沉思在孤独与抑郁情绪和睡眠质量之间的中介作用。采用 UCLA 孤独量表、沉思反应量表(RRS)、流调中心用抑郁量表(CES - D)和匹茨堡睡眠质量指数量表(PSQI)对700名大学生进行施测。根据测量结果,认为沉思在孤独与抑郁情绪和睡眠质量之间起到部分中介作用,沉思是孤独与消极健康状况的重要影响机制。

  10. Psychometric properties of responses by clinicians and older adults to a 6-item Hebrew version of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D6)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bachner, Yaacov G; O'Rourke, Norm; Goldfracht, Margalit

    2013-01-01

    The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) is commonly used as a screening instrument, as a continuous measure of change in depressive symptoms over time, and as a means to compare the relative efficacy of treatments. Among several abridged versions, the 6-item HAM-D6 is used most widely in lar...... degree because of its good psychometric properties. The current study compares both self-report and clinician-rated versions of the Hebrew version of this scale....

  11. Contribution to the validation of the Kutcher Adolescent Depression Scale (KADS-6 in a Portuguese population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sónia Quintão

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The KADS-6 is a self-report assessment instrument known for its ease application in assessing depression in young people. This study aimed to contribute to the validation of the Portuguese version of this tool and analyze its psychometric characteristics in comparison with other self-report instruments for depression in adolescents, in Portugal. Two samples were collected, a non-clinical group of in school youth (n=773; 52.4% male and a clinical sample (n=134 youth; 44% male. Comparisons also used the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II and the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI. Results: The factor analysis revealed the unidimensionality of the measure. The KADS-6 demonstrated good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha in both clinical (.74 and school (.80 samples. Its convergent validity with the BDI-II and CDI was r=.44; r=.61, respectively in the clinical sample and r=.60; r=.57 in the school sample. The KADS-6, a short and time efficient instrument, showed good psychometric characteristics in terms of internal consistency and convergent validity in comparison with the BDI-II and the CDI. Given its ease of use and scoring, the KADS-6 could be considered for use in both school and clinical settings when addressing adolescent depression.

  12. Therapeutic Effect of Early Intervention with Electro-Acupuncture and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy on Mild Depression of 30 Cases%电针联合认知行为疗法早期干预轻度抑郁状态30例疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨学琴; 张文悦; 马文昊; 郭天蔚; 秦丽娜; 杨昕婧; 王思涵; 图娅

    2012-01-01

    目的 观察电针联合认知行为疗法早期干预轻度抑郁状态的临床疗效.方法 将90例轻度抑郁状态患者随机分为心理组、电针组、综合组各30例,心理组采用认知行为疗法进行心理干预,每周1次;电针组选取百会、印堂为主穴进行电针治疗,每周2次;综合组同时采用认知行为疗法及电针治疗,疗程均为8周.治疗前后分别采用汉密尔顿抑郁量表(H AMD)、抑郁自评量表(CES-D)对各组患者进行评价,并比较临床疗效.结果 综合组总有效率为93.33%,明显优于心理组(总有效率68.97%)以及电针组(总有效率79.31%),差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).各组患者治疗后HAMD、CES-D评分较治疗前明显下降,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01),治疗后综合组与心理组、电针组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 电针联合认知行为疗法是轻度抑郁状态较优化的干预治疗方案.%Objective To observe the therapeutic effect of early intervention with electro-acupuncture (EA) and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) on mild depression. Methods Ninety mild depression patients were randomized into CBT group, EA group and combined treatment group, with 30 in each. CBT group was intervented with cognitive behavioral therapy, once a week. EA group was given electro-acupuncture at Baihui (GV 20), Yintang (EX-HN3), twice a week. Combined treatment group was given both treatment of CBT group and EA group. The treatment course lasted for 8 weeks. The therapeutic effect was observed and compared before and after the treatment according to Hamilton Depression Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD) and Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Results The total effective rate of the combined treatment group was 93. 33%, which was superior to 68. 97% of CBT group and 79. 31% of EA group (P<0. 05). After treatment, the average scores of HAMD and CES-D decreased significantly in the three groups (P<0. 01

  13. Biofeedback assisted control of respiratory sinus arrhythmia as a biobehavioral intervention for depressive symptoms in patients after cardiac surgery: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patron, Elisabetta; Messerotti Benvenuti, Simone; Favretto, Giuseppe; Valfrè, Carlo; Bonfà, Carlotta; Gasparotto, Renata; Palomba, Daniela

    2013-03-01

    The current study investigated whether biofeedback training aimed at increasing respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), a measure of cardiac vagal modulation, can reduce depressive symptoms in patients after cardiac surgery. This randomized controlled study enrolled 26 patients after first-time cardiac surgery. The patients were randomly assigned to an RSA-biofeedback group (N = 13) or to a treatment as usual group (N = 13). The biofeedback training consisted of five 45 min sessions designed to increase RSA. The outcome was assessed as changes in RSA and in the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies of Depression (CES-D) values from pre- to post-training. Both groups were comparable for demographic and biomedical characteristics. RSA increased significantly in patients who underwent RSA-biofeedback compared to controls. Moreover, the CES-D scores were reduced significantly from pre- to post-training in the RSA-biofeedback group compared to the controls. Changes in RSA were inversely related to changes in CES-D scores from pre- to post-training. These findings extend the effectiveness of RSA-biofeedback for increasing vagal modulation as well as for reducing depressive symptoms in post-surgical patients. Overall, the current study also suggests that this biobehavioral intervention may add to the efficacy of postoperative risk reduction programs and rehabilitation protocols in cardiac surgery patients.

  14. 贝克抑郁量表第2版中文版在大一学生中的试用%Application of Chinese Version of Beck Depression Inventory-Ⅱ to Chinese First-year College Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨文辉; 吴多进; 彭芳

    2012-01-01

    目的:评估贝克抑郁量表第2版(BDI-Ⅱ)中文版在我国大一学生中的信度和效度.方法:972名大一学生完成BDI-Ⅱ中文版和流调中心用抑郁量表(CES-D)的测试,并随机抽取65名大学生1周后完成BDI-Ⅱ的重测.结果:BDI-Ⅱ中文版的Cronbach α系数为0.85,各条目间的相关系数在0.08~0.39之间,各条目与BDI-Ⅱ总分的相关系数在0.34~0.57之间,重测相关系数为0.73(Ps<0.05);BDI-Ⅱ总分与CES-D总分呈正相关(r=0.70,P<0.01).认知-情感和躯体症状2因子结构模型的验证性因素分析各指标为IFI=0.967 、CFI=0.967、x2/df=3.820、RMSEA=0.054.结论:贝克抑郁量表第2版中文版在大一学生中具有良好的信度和效度,能够作为我国大一学生抑郁症状筛查的自评工具.%Objective: To examine the reliability and validity of the Chinese version of Beck Depression Inventory-Ⅱ (BDI-Ⅱ) of Chinese first-year college students. Methods: A convenient sample of 972 college students in their first year completed the Chinese version of BDI-Ⅱ and the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), and 65 students received the retest of the BDI-Ⅱ after 1 week. Results: The Cronb-ch alpha coefficient of BDI-Ⅱ was 0.85. The intercorrelations of 21 items ranged from 0.08 to 0.39, and item-total correlations ranged from 0.34 to 0.57 (Ps<0.05). The test-retest coefficient was 0.73 (P<0.01). BDI-Ⅱ total score was related with the CES-D total score (r=0.70, P<0.01). The goodness-of-fit indices of confirmatory factor analysis were found (IFI=0.967, CFI=0.967, x2/df=3.820, RMSEA=0.054) for the two-factor structure model of cognitive-affective and somatic depressive symptoms. Conclusion: The Chinese version of Beck Depression Inventory-Ⅱ shows good reliability and validity, and could be reliably used as a self-administer inven-tory to assess depressive symptoms for Chinese first-year college students.

  15. www.common-metrics.org: a web application to estimate scores from different patient-reported outcome measures on a common scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Felix Fischer

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, a growing number of Item-Response Theory (IRT models has been published, which allow estimation of a common latent variable from data derived by different Patient Reported Outcomes (PROs. When using data from different PROs, direct estimation of the latent variable has some advantages over the use of sum score conversion tables. It requires substantial proficiency in the field of psychometrics to fit such models using contemporary IRT software. We developed a web application ( http://www.common-metrics.org , which allows estimation of latent variable scores more easily using IRT models calibrating different measures on instrument independent scales. Results Currently, the application allows estimation using six different IRT models for Depression, Anxiety, and Physical Function. Based on published item parameters, users of the application can directly estimate latent trait estimates using expected a posteriori (EAP for sum scores as well as for specific response patterns, Bayes modal (MAP, Weighted likelihood estimation (WLE and Maximum likelihood (ML methods and under three different prior distributions. The obtained estimates can be downloaded and analyzed using standard statistical software. Conclusions This application enhances the usability of IRT modeling for researchers by allowing comparison of the latent trait estimates over different PROs, such as the Patient Health Questionnaire Depression (PHQ-9 and Anxiety (GAD-7 scales, the Center of Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, PROMIS Anxiety and Depression Short Forms and others. Advantages of this approach include comparability of data derived with different measures and tolerance against missing values. The validity of the underlying models needs to be investigated in the future.

  16. www.common-metrics.org: a web application to estimate scores from different patient-reported outcome measures on a common scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, H Felix; Rose, Matthias

    2016-10-19

    Recently, a growing number of Item-Response Theory (IRT) models has been published, which allow estimation of a common latent variable from data derived by different Patient Reported Outcomes (PROs). When using data from different PROs, direct estimation of the latent variable has some advantages over the use of sum score conversion tables. It requires substantial proficiency in the field of psychometrics to fit such models using contemporary IRT software. We developed a web application ( http://www.common-metrics.org ), which allows estimation of latent variable scores more easily using IRT models calibrating different measures on instrument independent scales. Currently, the application allows estimation using six different IRT models for Depression, Anxiety, and Physical Function. Based on published item parameters, users of the application can directly estimate latent trait estimates using expected a posteriori (EAP) for sum scores as well as for specific response patterns, Bayes modal (MAP), Weighted likelihood estimation (WLE) and Maximum likelihood (ML) methods and under three different prior distributions. The obtained estimates can be downloaded and analyzed using standard statistical software. This application enhances the usability of IRT modeling for researchers by allowing comparison of the latent trait estimates over different PROs, such as the Patient Health Questionnaire Depression (PHQ-9) and Anxiety (GAD-7) scales, the Center of Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), PROMIS Anxiety and Depression Short Forms and others. Advantages of this approach include comparability of data derived with different measures and tolerance against missing values. The validity of the underlying models needs to be investigated in the future.

  17. Elaboração e validação da Escala de Depressão para Idosos Elaboration and validation of the Depression Scale for the Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Giavoni

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi desenvolver e validar a Escala de Depressão para Idosos (EDI. Foi elaborado um modelo teórico explicativo da depressão, composto por três categorias: cognitiva, afetiva e somático-motora. Os itens elaborados foram submetidos à análise semântica e de juizes. O instrumento piloto foi aplicado a 340 sujeitos, sendo 88% do sexo feminino, com ensino fundamental completo (67,9% e idade média de 63,74 (DP = 6,87 anos. A amostra respondeu também ao Inventário de Depressão de Beck (BDI. Para a validação da escala, foram realizadas análises fatoriais e análise da consistência interna dos itens (alfa de Cronbach. Regressões múltiplas avaliaram o poder de predição dos fatores da EDI sobre o escore final do BDI. A validação da escala demonstrou que a EDI é composta por dois fatores: cognitivo-afetivo e somático-motor, que explicam 53% do BDI (validade convergente. Pode-se afirmar, portanto, que a EDI é formada por fatores que avaliam diferentes aspectos do constructo depressão (validade fatorial, os quais apresentam índices de consistência interna dentro dos padrões psicométricos.The objective of this study was to develop and validate the Depression Scale for the Elderly. An explanatory theoretical model was developed for depression, consisting of three categories: cognitive, affective, and somato-motor. The items elaborated thusly were submitted to semantic analysis and judges. The pilot instrument was applied to 340 subjects, 88% of whom were females, mostly with complete primary education (67.9%, and a mean age of 63.74 (SD = 6.87 years. The sample also responded to the Beck Depression Index (BDI. Validation of the scale was based on factor analyses (Principal Axis Factoring and analysis of the items' internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha. Multiple regressions evaluated the predictive power of the factors in the depression scale for the elderly on the final BDI score. Scale validation

  18. Relationship Between Depression and Related Factors of Parents with Disabled Children%精神发育迟滞儿童父母抑郁及相关因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张奕; 易春丽

    2011-01-01

    目的:考察精神发育迟滞儿童父母的抑郁状况及其相关因素.方法:对157名精神发育迟滞儿童和青少年的父母采用应对策略问卷、照顾负担问卷、日常照料压力问卷、修订版家庭支持量表、一般自我效能感量表、罗森伯格自尊量表、流调中心用抑郁量表进行测评,对130名正常儿童父母采用流调中心用抑郁量表进行测评.结果:精神发育迟滞儿童及青少年父母的抑郁检出率为26.11%,其抑郁分数显著高于正常儿童父母.抑郁和照顾负担中的所有维度(时间负担、发展负担、身体负担、社会负担、情绪负担)都有显著正相关;抑郁和情绪中心解决策略倾向有显著正相关,和问题中心解决策略倾向有显著负相关;抑郁和家庭月收入有显著负相关;抑郁和日常照料压力有显著正相关,和自我效能及自尊有显著负相关.多元回归结果表明,对精神发育迟滞儿童及青少年父母抑郁总分贡献最大的因素是:照顾负担总分、问题中心应对策略、自尊和月收入.结论:精神发育迟滞儿童父母的抑郁水平显著高于正常儿童父母,照顾负担、应对策略、自尊水平和月收入与抑郁的形成有密切关联.%Objective: To explore the depression level of parents with intellectual disabled children and relevant factors with their depression. Methods: 157 parents of intellectual disabled children or adolescents filled in the Ways of Cope Scale, Caregiver Burden Inventory Scale, Daily Caregiving Stress Scale, Modified Family Support Scale, General Perceived Self-efficacy Scale, Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale and CES-D. 130 parents of normal children filled in the CES-D. Results: The depression detection rate of parents with intellectual disabled children was as high as 26.11%; their depression scores were significantly higher than those of the parents with normal children. Depression was positively correlated to all the dimensions of

  19. Detecting depressive and anxiety disorders in distressed patients in primary care; comparative diagnostic accuracy of the Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verhaak Peter FM

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depressive and anxiety disorders often go unrecognized in distressed primary care patients, despite the overtly psychosocial nature of their demand for help. This is especially problematic in more severe disorders needing specific treatment (e.g. antidepressant pharmacotherapy or specialized cognitive behavioural therapy. The use of a screening tool to detect (more severe depressive and anxiety disorders may be useful not to overlook such disorders. We examined the accuracy with which the Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS are able to detect (more severe depressive and anxiety disorders in distressed patients, and which cut-off points should be used. Methods Seventy general practitioners (GPs included 295 patients on sick leave due to psychological problems. They excluded patients with recognized depressive or anxiety disorders. Patients completed the 4DSQ and HADS. Standardized diagnoses of DSM-IV defined depressive and anxiety disorders were established with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC analyses were performed to obtain sensitivity and specificity values for a range of scores, and area under the curve (AUC values as a measure of diagnostic accuracy. Results With respect to the detection of any depressive or anxiety disorder (180 patients, 61%, the 4DSQ and HADS scales yielded comparable results with AUC values between 0.745 and 0.815. Also with respect to the detection of moderate or severe depressive disorder, the 4DSQ and HADS depression scales performed comparably (AUC 0.780 and 0.739, p 0.165. With respect to the detection of panic disorder, agoraphobia and social phobia, the 4DSQ anxiety scale performed significantly better than the HADS anxiety scale (AUC 0.852 versus 0.757, p 0.001. The recommended cut-off points of both HADS scales appeared to be too low while those of the 4DSQ anxiety

  20. Validity of the Revised Children's Anxiety and Depression Scale for Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Lindsey; Renno, Patricia; Storch, Eric A.; Ehrenreich-May, Jill; Lewin, Adam B.; Arnold, Elysse; Lin, Enjey; Wood, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    High rates of anxiety and depression are reported among youth with autism spectrum disorders. These conditions are generally assessed using measures validated for typically developing youth. Few studies have investigated their validity for autism spectrum disorders, which is crucial for accurate assessment and the provision of proper treatment.…

  1. Validity of the Revised Children's Anxiety and Depression Scale for Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Lindsey; Renno, Patricia; Storch, Eric A.; Ehrenreich-May, Jill; Lewin, Adam B.; Arnold, Elysse; Lin, Enjey; Wood, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    High rates of anxiety and depression are reported among youth with autism spectrum disorders. These conditions are generally assessed using measures validated for typically developing youth. Few studies have investigated their validity for autism spectrum disorders, which is crucial for accurate assessment and the provision of proper treatment.…

  2. GABAA-benzodiazepine receptor availability in smokers and nonsmokers: relationship to subsyndromal anxiety and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esterlis, Irina; Cosgrove, Kelly P; Batis, Jeffery C; Bois, Frederic; Kloczynski, Tracy A; Stiklus, Stephanie M; Perry, Edward; Tamagnan, Gilles D; Seibyl, John P; Makuch, Robert; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; O'Malley, Stephanie; Staley, Julie K

    2009-12-01

    Many smokers experience subsyndromal anxiety symptoms while smoking and during acute abstinence, which may contribute to relapse. We hypothesized that cortical gamma aminobutyric acid(A)-benzodiazepine receptor (GABA(A)-BZR) availability in smokers and nonsmokers might be related to the expression of subsyndromal anxiety, depressive, and pain symptoms. Cortical GABA(A)-BZRs were imaged in 15 smokers (8 men and 7 women), and 15 healthy age and sex-matched nonsmokers, and 4 abstinent tobacco smokers (3 men; 1 woman) using [(123)I]iomazenil and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Anxiety and depressive symptoms were measured using the Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Index (STAI) and the Center for Epidemiology Scale for Depressive Symptoms (CES-D). The cold pressor task was administered to assess pain tolerance and sensitivity. The relationship between cortical GABA(A)-BZR availability, smoking status, and subsyndromal depression and anxiety symptoms, as well as pain tolerance and sensitivity, were evaluated. Surprisingly, there were no statistically significant differences in overall GABA(A)-BZR availability between smokers and nonsmokers or between active and abstinent smokers; however, cortical GABA(A)-BZR availability negatively correlated with subsyndromal state anxiety symptoms in nonsmokers but not in smokers. In nonsmokers, the correlation was seen across many brain areas with state anxiety [parietal (r = -0.47, P = 0.03), frontal (r = -0.46, P = 0.03), anterior cingulate (r = -0.47, P = 0.04), temporal (r = -0.47, P = 0.03), occipital (r = -0.43, P = 0.05) cortices, and cerebellum (r = -0.46, P = 0.04)], trait anxiety [parietal (r = -0.72, P = 0.02), frontal (r = -0.72, P = 0.02), and occipital (r = -0.65, P = 0.04) cortices] and depressive symptoms [parietal (r = -0.68; P = 0.02), frontal (r = -0.65; P = 0.03), anterior cingulate (r = -0.61; P = 0.04), and temporal (r = -0.66; P = 0.02) cortices]. The finding that a similar relationship

  3. Validation of a cutoff for the Depression Scale of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies, Brief Version (CESD-7.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarón Salinas-Rodríguez

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the Depression Scale of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies, Brief Version (CESD-7 psychometric properties in Mexican adult population, and validate a cutoff for classifying subjects according to the presence / absence of clinically significant depressive symptoms (CSDS. Materials and methods. Screening cross-sectional study with a subsample of 301 adult residents of the Morelos state in Mexico, originally interviewed for the National Survey of Health and Nutrition 2012. Sensitivity and specificity of the selected cutoff were estimated using as reference the diagnostic criteria of ICD-10 and DSM-IV. Results. The cutoff point estimated was CESD-7=9. Using the ICD-10 the sensitivity and specificity were 90.2 and 86%, and ROC was 88%. Using DSM-IV, the values were 80.4, 89.6, and 85%, respectively. Conclusions. The short version of the CESD-7 has good psychometric properties and can be used as a screening test to identify probable cases of subjects with clinically significant depressive symptoms.

  4. [Accuracy and diagnostic utility of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD) in a sample of obese Mexican patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Alvarenga, Juan Carlos; Vázquez-Velázquez, Verónica; Arcila-Martínez, Denise; Sierra-Ovando, Angel Ernesto; González-Barranco, Jorge; Salín-Pascual, Rafael J

    2002-01-01

    The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD) have been used in Mexico in drug abusers, burned patients, older people, with renal insufficiency and high-risk pregnant women. The aim of this study was to determine reproducibility and accuracy of the questionnaire in a sample of obese subjects. A group of 75 obese patients (BMI > 27) without diabetes mellitus were invited to participated in the study. Diagnosis of anxiety or depression was made by an structured interview based on the DSM-IV criteria, and they were requested to complete the HAD. All subjects were randomized for the manoeuvre sequence. Sensibility specificity, positive predictive value and negative value, and unweighted kappa coefficient (for concordance) were calculated for the two procedures. The questionnaire reproducibility was assessed buy test-retest with other 25 independent subjects. Internal validity was estimated by alpha Cronbach, Guttman and intraclass correlation coefficients. Mean age was 39.7 +/- 11.5 years and BMI 39.1 +/- 9.6. The best cut off point for anxiety was 8 points (Kappa 0.68) and for depression 7 points (Kappa 0.73). Mean age for test-retest was 39.2 +/- 14.5 years and BMI 45.3 +/- 14.6. The alpha-Cronbach was 0.84 for the first tes. and 0.86 for the second. Intraclass coefficient correlation was 0.946. The HAD is applicable for obese subjects, it is reproducible and concordant with a structured interview.

  5. Items of the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale Associated With Response to Paroxetine Treatment in Patients With Major Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Tetsu; Sato, Yasushi; Nakagami, Taku; Tsuchimine, Shoko; Kaneda, Ayako; Kaneko, Sunao; Nakamura, Kazuhiko; Yasui-Furukori, Norio

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the association between the severity of each symptom evaluated by the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) at baseline and responsiveness to treatment in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) to identify the items that predict treatment response. The patients received a diagnosis of MDD if they had a score greater than 20 points on the MADRS. Following admission, 120 patients were enrolled in the study, and 89 patients completed the study. For the first week, a 20-mg/d dose of paroxetine was administered; thereafter, the dose was increased to 40 mg/d. The MADRS was applied at baseline and after 1, 2, 4, and 6 weeks. We defined responders as patients with improvements in their MADRS scores of more than 50% after 6 weeks of treatment. A multiple regression analysis of MADRS scores at 6 weeks was performed to identify patients who responded to treatment. There was a significant difference between responders and nonresponders in the reported sadness (RS) score for all MADRS items. In the multiple logistic regression analysis, only the RS and concentration difficulties (C) scores showed a significant association with treatment response. Based on the results of χ tests, RS score cutoff values of 2/3 and 3/4 revealed significant differences in the responder rate. None of the cutoff values for the C score revealed significant differences. The RS score was significantly associated with responsiveness to paroxetine treatment for MDD, with higher RS scores predicting poor responses to treatment.

  6. Factor structure of the Athens Insomnia Scale and its associations with demographic characteristics and depression in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Cheng-Fang; King, Bryan H; Chang, Yu-Ping

    2010-03-01

    The eight-item Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS-8) is an instrument that has been used frequently to assess insomnia problems. Previous research on adults has found that the AIS-8 functioned as a sole component. This study aimed to examine the prevalence rates of insomnia problems on the AIS-8, the factor structure of the AIS-8 in adolescents and its associations with demographic characteristics and depression in adolescents. A total of 8319 adolescent students (4334 girls and 3985 boys, mean age = 14.7 years, standard deviation = 1.7 years) in southern Taiwan were recruited into this study and completed the AIS-8. We performed an exploratory factor analysis to examine the factor structure of the AIS-8, and used the parallel analysis for making decisions regarding factor retention. We also used multiple regression analysis models to determine the associations between insomnia and demographic characteristics and depression. The results found that a high proportion of adolescents had insomnia problems as measured by the AIS-8. The AIS-8 was composed of two different factors when used among a large adolescent population, including insomnia symptoms (factor 1) and subjective sleep and daytime distress (factor 2). While being male, being younger, and having depression were associated positively with the severity of insomnia symptoms (factor 1), being older, living in urban areas, and having depression were associated positively with the severity of subjective sleep and daytime distress (factor 2). Clinicians and researchers should consider the different meanings of the two factors of the AIS-8 when using this tool to assess insomnia problems in adolescents.

  7. 医学院校学生抑郁情绪状况调查%Survey on depression emotion among students from medical universities/colleges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于林露; 谭曦; 李扬; 陈凌昔; 陈璐; 孔军辉

    2015-01-01

    目的 调查医学院校大学生抑郁情绪的发生情况. 方法 采取整群抽样方法,分别于2010年10月及2013年10月,采用流调中心用抑郁量表( CES-D)对北京市某医科大学在校学生进行调查. 结果 2010年调查411名大学生,有抑郁情绪233名(56.69%),2013年调查810名大学生,有抑郁情绪263名(32.47%),2013年医学生抑郁情绪发生率低于2010年(P<0.001). 2010年男生抑郁情绪发生率高于女生(P<0.05);2010年及2013年独生子女抑郁情绪发生率低于非独生子女(P<0.05),来自乡村的医学生抑郁情绪发生率高于来自城市的医学生(P<0.05). 结论 医学院校大学生抑郁情绪发生率较高,应加强对大学生心理健康教育工作,促进大学生心理健康.%Objective To investigate the incidence of depression emotion among students from medical universities/colleges. Methods The cluster sampling method was adopted to a survey which was conducted in the students from a medical university in Beijing in October 2010 and October 2013 with Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale(CES-D).Results Four hundred and eleven university students were enrolled in the survey in 2010,of whom 233 had depression emotion(56.69%).Eight hundred and ten university students were enrolled in the survey in 2013,of whom 263 had depression emotion(32.47%).The incidence of depression emotion in the medical students in 2013 was lower than that in 2010(P<0.001).The incidence of depression emotion in the male students was higher than that in the female students in 2010(P<0.05).Lower incidence of depression emotion was observed in the students from only child family compared to the students from non-only child family(P<0.05).The incidence of depression emotion in the medical students from rural areas was higher than that in the medical students from cities( P<0.05).Conclusion The incidence of depression emotion of students from medical universities/colleges is high.The psychological health

  8. The Diagnostic Apathia Scale predicts the ability to return to work following depression or anxiety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellström, Lc; Eplov, Lf; Nordentoft, M

    2014-01-01

    , tiredness/fatigue, insomnia, and reduced ability to work and engage in personal interests. The scale was analysed for psychometric validity (scalability) and for its ability to predict RTW. Finally, the predictive validity of the Diagnostic Apathia Scale regarding RTW was compared with scales measuring...

  9. Confirmatory factor analysis of the portuguese Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21 Análisis factorial confirmatoria de la versión portuguesa de la Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 Análise fatorial confirmatória da versão portuguesa da Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Luís Alves Apóstolo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available To determine which of three published models best characterizes the factor structure of the Portuguese version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21 and to assess its validity and reliability. Confirmatory factor analysis of Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 for 1,297 adult, primary care outpatients (66.7% female, Mage = 48.57 years comparing 3 models. The relationship between the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21 and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule was analyzed. The correlated 3-factor model fit the data best. The scale demonstrated good internal consistency, with alpha scores of the subscales ranging from 0.836 to 0.897. Correlation with the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule was positive and moderate with the negative affect scale; it was negative and limited with the positive affect. These findings support the correlated 3-factor structure. The test demonstrated adequate reliability and construct validity, which supports its use for screening in primary care settings with Portuguese speakers.El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar cual de los tres modelos publicados mejor caracteriza la estructura factorial de la versión portuguesa de la Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21 y evaluar su validez y confiabilidad. Se compararon los tres modelos a través de análisis factorial confirmatoria de la DASS-21, aplicada el 1.297 pacientes adultos, del servicio de atención básica (66,7% mujeres; edad Media=48,57 años. La relación entre la DASS-21 y la Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS también fue analizada. El modelo de tres factores correlacionados se ajusta mejor a los datos. La escala presentó buena consistencia interna con valores alfa observados en las subescalas, variando de 0,836 a 0,897. La correlación con la PANAS fue positiva y comedida con la escala de afecto negativa, y negativa y limitada con la escala de afecto positivo. Esos resultados corroboran la estructura de tres factores. La

  10. The relationship between psychosocial problems including depression and behavioural trends among middle-aged menopausal women in a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oi, N; Ohi, K

    2013-12-01

    We investigated the association of psychosocial problems, menopausal symptoms such as hot flushes, and trends of smoking and use of cosmetics in our previous study. In this follow-up study, we researched psychiatric disorders and psychosocial problems in menopausal women. We designed a cohort study with 577 Japanese women aged 30-64 years. Subjects were selected randomly from among women who visited the department of gender-specific medicine at Tokyo Women's Medical University East Medical Center between June 2010 and September 2011. We analysed trends such as smoking, using cosmetics, and menopausal symptoms and their association with the first lifetime episode of severe depression and anxiety using structured clinical interviews for the DSM-IV (structured clinical interview for DSM-IV, outpatient version [SCID]), the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Significant associations were observed between hot flushes, smoking and the frequency of using cosmetics. Furthermore, the trends in cosmetic use and smoking affected not only psychosocial problems, but also physical problems. Younger women suffered from psychosocial problems more than twice the rate of post-menopausal women. Those who reported their first severe depression episode were also affected by severe anxiety disorders and physical problems. By self-checking the frequency of using cosmetics is up to date knowledge of psychosocial mood problems and improving women's quality of life. © 2013 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  11. 视觉艺术工作者人格特征与生活满意度和抑郁情绪的关系%Relation of personality to life satisfaction and depression in visual artists

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘雁清; 王可欣; 张冠男; 周奕欣; 周明洁

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the linear and nonlinear relation of personality to life satisfaction and de-pression in visual artists.Methods:Totally 132 visual artists were recruited,most of them focused on painting, sculpture and photography.The Mini International Personality Item Pool-Five-Factor Model Measure (Mini-IPIP), the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS)and the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) were adopted to all subjects.Results:The Mini-IPIP "neuroticism"scores had positive predictability to CES-D scores (β=0.41),while the scores of "agreeableness","conscientiousness"and "extraversion"had negative pre-dictability to CES-D scores(β=-0.27,-0.23,-0.19).Only "conscientiousness"scores had positive predictabil-ity (β = 0.25 ) to SWLS scores in terms of linear relationship between personality traits and life satisfaction.Meanwhile,both'neuroticism'and "conscientiousness"scores had U curve relationship with SWLS scores (β=0.32,0.22)after linear effects were controlled.Conclusion:It suggests that personality traits in visual artists could explain depression symptoms and life satisfaction.However,pattern between personality and life satis-faction may be more complex.%目的:检验视觉艺术工作者的人格特征与生活满意度、抑郁情绪的线性关系,并考察可能存在的非线性关系模式。方法:选取北京市宋庄艺术区视觉艺术工作者132人,其主要从事绘画、雕塑、摄影等艺术创作。采用大五人格测量问卷(Mini-IPIP)、生活满意度量表(SWLS)和流调中心抑郁量表(CES-D)进行施测。结果:视觉艺术工作者的神经质对抑郁有正向预测(β=0.41),宜人性、严谨性和外向性对抑郁存在负向预测(β=-0.27、-0.23、-0.19);在人格特质与生活满意度的线性关系模式中,仅严谨性对生活满意度存在正向预测(β=0.25)。控制了线性关系的影响之后,神经质和严谨性与

  12. 抑郁相关人格维度与人格特质的关系及其对抑郁的影响%Correlation between depression-related personality dimensions and personality traits and its effects on depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉桃; 吴岚; 张生丛; 唐秋萍

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the correlation between the higher-order personality dimension(neuroticism) and the lower-order personality traits (alexithymia,dependence,self-criticism,perfectionism) in the sample of university students,and explore the effect of the higher-order personality dimension and lower-order personality traits to depression in the same sample.Methods A convenient sample of 563 university students from the two Universities College in Hunan province.These students were assessed with Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D),Depressive Experiences Questionnaire (DEQ),The twenty-item Toronto Alexithymia Scales (TAS-20),Frost multidimensional perfectionism scale (FMPS) and neuroticism subscale in EPQ.Results (1) There were significant relationships between the total score of CES-D,each depressive symptoms and 10 personality factors,such as neuroticism,doubts about action and so on (The coefficients ranged from 0.105 to 0.569,P <0.05 or P<0.01).(2)Factor analysis and multiple linear regression on the neurotic showed that doubts about action,concerned over mistakes,difficulties identifying feelings (DIF),difficulties describing feelings (DDF),dependency,self-criticism and neuroticism belonged to the factor 1 (the factor load coefficients ranged from 0.574 to 0.775).(3) Neuroticism can explained 32.3 % variance of depression (R 2adj =0.323),after 6 personality factors entered the regression equation,such as difficulties describing feelings (DDF),parental criticism and so on,the explained variance of depression increased to 43.2% (R2adj =0.432).Conclusion There are overlapping and interaction between personality traits which include self-criticism,dependency,difficulties describing feelings(DDF),difficulties identifying feelings (DIF),concerned over the mistakes and neuroticism personality dimensions.The depressed affect are effectively pr