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Sample records for depression anxiety disorders

  1. Anxiety Disorders and Depression in Older Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Hek (Karin)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractAnxiety disorders and depression are common and complex disorders. Despite decades of research, their etiology is largely unknown. Study of the occurrence and determinants, i.e. the epidemiology of anxiety disorders and depression, helps unravel their etiology. This thesis examines the e

  2. Anxiety Disorders and Depression in Older Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Hek (Karin)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractAnxiety disorders and depression are common and complex disorders. Despite decades of research, their etiology is largely unknown. Study of the occurrence and determinants, i.e. the epidemiology of anxiety disorders and depression, helps unravel their etiology. This thesis examines the e

  3. Anxiety Disorders and Depression in Older Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Hek (Karin)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractAnxiety disorders and depression are common and complex disorders. Despite decades of research, their etiology is largely unknown. Study of the occurrence and determinants, i.e. the epidemiology of anxiety disorders and depression, helps unravel their etiology. This thesis examines the

  4. Perfectionism in pediatric anxiety and depressive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affrunti, Nicholas W; Woodruff-Borden, Janet

    2014-09-01

    Although perfectionism has been identified as a factor in many psychiatric disorders across the life span, it is relatively understudied in pediatric anxiety and depressive disorders. Furthermore, there exists little cohesion among previous research, restricting the conclusions that can be made across studies. In this review, research associating perfectionism with pediatric anxiety and depression is examined and a framework is presented synthesizing research to date. We focus on detailing the current understanding of how perfectionism develops and interacts with other developmental features characteristic of anxiety and depression in children and potential pathways that result in anxiety and depressive disorders. This includes: how perfectionism is measured in children, comparisons with relevant adult literature, the development of perfectionism in children and adolescents, mediators and moderators of the link between perfectionism and anxiety and depression, and the role of perfectionism in treatment and prevention of these disorders. We also present research detailing perfectionism across cultures. Findings from these studies are beginning to implicate perfectionism as an underlying process that may contribute broadly to the development of anxiety and depression in a pediatric population. Throughout the review, difficulties, limitations, and gaps in the current understanding are presented while offering suggestions for future research.

  5. Are Anxiety and Depression the Same Disorder?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carey, Stephen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The issue of co-morbidity in Anxiety and Depression as disorders leads to questions about the integrity of their present taxonomies in mental health diagnostics. At face value the two appear to have discrete differences, yet nonetheless demonstrate a high co-morbidity rate and shared symptoms implying pathological similarities rather than that of chance. Reviewing evidence from behavioural, neural, and biological sources that elaborate on the aspects of these two constructs, helps to illustrate the nature of these apparent differences and similarities. Integrating evidence from the anxiety and depression literature with the pathological process best illustrated by the burnout theory, alongside with support from the neurobiology of anxiety and stress, presents a proposition of a basic and natural anxiety pathology that when excessive, may result in the symptoms psychology has come to know as representative of anxiety and depressive disorders.

  6. Paraprofessionals for anxiety and depressive disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Boer, PCAM; Wiersma, D; Russo, S; van den Bosch, RJ

    2005-01-01

    Background The established mental health care system does not have the resources to meet the extensive need for care of those with anxiety and depressive disorders. Paraprofessionals partially replacing professionals may be cost-effective. Objectives To investigate the effectiveness of any kind of p

  7. Objective Sleep in Pediatric Anxiety Disorders and Major Depressive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Erika E.; Bertocci, Michele A.; Gregory, Alice M.; Ryan, Neal D.; Axelson, David A.; Birmaher, Boris; Dahl, Ronald E.

    2008-01-01

    A study to examine sleep problems encountered in anxiety and depressive disorders among children and adolescents is conducted. Results indicated subjective and objective sleep problems in children and adolescents with anxiety disorders and need to be kept in mind when treating young anxious people.

  8. Objective Sleep in Pediatric Anxiety Disorders and Major Depressive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Erika E.; Bertocci, Michele A.; Gregory, Alice M.; Ryan, Neal D.; Axelson, David A.; Birmaher, Boris; Dahl, Ronald E.

    2008-01-01

    A study to examine sleep problems encountered in anxiety and depressive disorders among children and adolescents is conducted. Results indicated subjective and objective sleep problems in children and adolescents with anxiety disorders and need to be kept in mind when treating young anxious people.

  9. Clinical relevance of comorbidity in anxiety disorders : A report from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmeijer-Sevink, Mieke Klein; Batelaan, Neeltje M.; van Megen, Harold J. G. M.; Penninx, Brenda W.; Cath, Danielle C.; van den Hout, Marcel A.; van Balkom, Anton J. L. M.

    Background: To study the clinical relevance of type of comorbidity and number of comorbid disorders in anxiety disorders. Four groups were compared according to sociodemographic-, vulnerability- and clinical factors: single anxiety disorder, anxiety-anxiety comorbidity, anxiety-depressive

  10. Clinical relevance of comorbidity in anxiety disorders : A report from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmeijer-Sevink, Mieke Klein; Batelaan, Neeltje M.; van Megen, Harold J. G. M.; Penninx, Brenda W.; Cath, Danielle C.; van den Hout, Marcel A.; van Balkom, Anton J. L. M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: To study the clinical relevance of type of comorbidity and number of comorbid disorders in anxiety disorders. Four groups were compared according to sociodemographic-, vulnerability- and clinical factors: single anxiety disorder, anxiety-anxiety comorbidity, anxiety-depressive comorbidit

  11. Clinical relevance of comorbidity in anxiety disorders : A report from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmeijer-Sevink, Mieke Klein; Batelaan, Neeltje M.; van Megen, Harold J. G. M.; Penninx, Brenda W.; Cath, Danielle C.; van den Hout, Marcel A.; van Balkom, Anton J. L. M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: To study the clinical relevance of type of comorbidity and number of comorbid disorders in anxiety disorders. Four groups were compared according to sociodemographic-, vulnerability- and clinical factors: single anxiety disorder, anxiety-anxiety comorbidity, anxiety-depressive comorbidit

  12. Seasonality in depressive and anxiety symptoms among primary care patients and in patients with depressive and anxiety disorders; results from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Winthorst Wim H; Post Wendy J; Meesters Ybe; Penninx Brenda WHJ; Nolen Willem A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Little is known about seasonality of specific depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms in different patient populations. This study aims to assess seasonal variation of depressive and anxiety symptoms in a primary care population and across participants who were classified in diagnostic groups 1) healthy controls 2) patients with a major depressive disorder, 3) patients with any anxiety disorder and 4) patients with a major depression and any anxiety disorder. Methods Data...

  13. Antidepressant use and salivary cortisol in depressive and anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manthey, Leonie; Leeds, Caroline; Giltay, Erik J.; van Veen, Tineke; Vreeburg, Sophie A.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Zitman, Frans G.

    Antidepressants are an effective treatment for depressive and anxiety disorders. Those disorders are frequently accompanied by heightened cortisol levels. Antidepressants may affect hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis functioning, the alteration of which could be partially responsible for treatment

  14. Antidepressant use and salivary cortisol in depressive and anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manthey, Leonie; Leeds, Caroline; Giltay, Erik J.; van Veen, Tineke; Vreeburg, Sophie A.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Zitman, Frans G.

    2011-01-01

    Antidepressants are an effective treatment for depressive and anxiety disorders. Those disorders are frequently accompanied by heightened cortisol levels. Antidepressants may affect hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis functioning, the alteration of which could be partially responsible for treatment

  15. Prevalence of depressive and anxiety disorders in Chinese gastroenterological outpatients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Jing; He, Yan-Ling; Ma, Hong; Liu, Zhe-Ning; Jia, Fu-Jun; Zhang, Ling; Zhang, Lan

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the prevalence and physicians’ detection rate of depressive and anxiety disorders in gastrointestinal (GI) outpatients across China. METHODS: A hospital-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in the GI outpatient departments of 13 general hospitals. A total of 1995 GI outpatients were recruited and screened with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). The physicians of the GI departments performed routine clinical diagnosis and management without knowing the HADS score results. Subjects with HADS scores ≥ 8 were subsequently interviewed by psychiatrists using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) to make further diagnoses. RESULTS: There were 1059 patients with HADS score ≥ 8 and 674 (63.64%) of them undertook the MINI interview by psychiatrists. Based on the criteria of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edition), the adjusted current prevalence for depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, and comorbidity of both disorders in the GI outpatients was 14.39%, 9.42% and 4.66%, respectively. Prevalence of depressive disorders with suicidal problems [suicide attempt or suicide-related ideation prior or current; module C (suicide) of MINI score ≥ 1] was 5.84% in women and 1.64% in men. The GI physicians’ detection rate of depressive and anxiety disorders accounted for 4.14%. CONCLUSION: While the prevalence of depressive and anxiety disorders is high in Chinese GI outpatients, the detection rate of depressive and anxiety disorders by physicians is low. PMID:22654455

  16. Automaticity in Anxiety Disorders and Major Depressive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teachman, Bethany A.; Joormann, Jutta; Steinman, Shari; Gotlib, Ian H.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we examine the nature of automatic cognitive processing in anxiety disorders and Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). Rather than viewing automaticity as a unitary construct, we follow a social cognition perspective (Bargh, 1994) that argues for four theoretically independent features of automaticity: unconscious (processing of emotional stimuli occurs outside awareness), efficient (processing emotional meaning uses minimal attentional resources), unintentional (no goal is needed to engage in processing emotional meaning), and uncontrollable (limited ability to avoid, alter or terminate processing emotional stimuli). Our review of the literature suggests that most anxiety disorders are characterized by uncontrollable, and likely also unconscious and unintentional, biased processing of threat-relevant information. In contrast, MDD is most clearly typified by uncontrollable, but not unconscious or unintentional, processing of negative information. For the anxiety disorders and for MDD, there is not sufficient evidence to draw firm conclusions about efficiency of processing, though early indications are that neither anxiety disorders nor MDD are characterized by this feature. Clinical and theoretical implications of these findings are discussed and directions for future research are offered. In particular, it is clear that paradigms that more directly delineate the different features of automaticity are required to gain a more comprehensive and systematic understanding of the importance of automatic processing in emotion dysregulation. PMID:22858684

  17. The relationship between interpersonal sensitivity, anxiety disorders and major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Kay; Boyce, Philip; Brownhill, Suzanne

    2004-04-01

    While interpersonal sensitivity, as rated by the Interpersonal Sensitivity Measure (IPSM) has previously been found to be an efficient predictor of depression, there has been less interest in the relationship between the IPSM and anxiety disorders. This study examines the performance of the IPSM in discriminating between cases and non-cases of the various anxiety disorders. The contribution of depression and the perception of parental environment, to any relationships found, are also examined. A cohort of 156 men and women has been assessed at 5-yearly intervals since baseline in 1978, in their last year of teacher training. In this fourth wave of follow-up, subjects completed a series of self-report questionnaires, including the IPSM, and scales measuring neuroticism and trait depression. Perceived parental environment, measured at baseline, was also included. DSM-III-R major depression and anxiety disorders were generated using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. The IPSM subscales were moderately stable over time. 'Timidity' was associated with agoraphobia and simple phobia, and 'separation anxiety' with agoraphobia, panic disorder and generalised anxiety disorder. 'Separation anxiety' and 'timidity' showed differential gender effects for simple phobia. 'Fragile inner self' and 'separation anxiety' were associated with subjects with a history of repeated episodes of major depression, and the former, with perception of poor parental care. The IPSM was not available for inclusion prior to the 1988 wave. While the IPSM subscales were consistently correlated with neuroticism, they displayed differential associations with specific anxiety disorders, episodes of major depression and early parental environment. These findings offer greater understanding of mechanisms concerning the relationship of vulnerability to anxiety disorders and depression.

  18. Anxiety and Depression Symptoms in Children with Asperger Syndrome Compared with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Depressive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Subin; Park, Min-Hyeon; Kim, Hyo Jin; Yoo, Hee Jeong

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine (a) anxiety and depression symptoms in children with Asperger syndrome (AS) compared to children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and children with depressive disorder; (b) parental anxiety and depressive symptoms in the three groups; and (c) the association between the anxiety and…

  19. Anxiety and Depression Symptoms in Children with Asperger Syndrome Compared with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Depressive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Subin; Park, Min-Hyeon; Kim, Hyo Jin; Yoo, Hee Jeong

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine (a) anxiety and depression symptoms in children with Asperger syndrome (AS) compared to children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and children with depressive disorder; (b) parental anxiety and depressive symptoms in the three groups; and (c) the association between the anxiety and…

  20. Ethnic inequality in diagnosis with depression and anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Carol Hj; Duck, Isabelle M; Sibley, Chris G

    2017-04-28

    This study explored ethnic disparities in self-reported diagnosis of depression or an anxiety disorder by a doctor, relative to scores on the screening measure for these same forms of mental illness in a probability sample of New Zealand adults. 15,822 participants responded to the 2014/15 New Zealand Attitudes and Values Study (NZAVS) longitudinal panel. Participants completed the Kessler-6 scale (a screening measure of non-specific psychological distress over the last month) and reported whether a doctor had diagnosed them with depression or an anxiety disorder any time in the last five years. Māori, Pacific and Asian New Zealanders were more likely to score in the 'at risk' range of the Kessler-6 scale, indicating an increased likelihood of depression or anxiety, relative to European New Zealanders. However, European New Zealanders reported the highest rate of actual diagnosis with depression or anxiety in the previous five-year period. There is an ethnic inequality in diagnosis received in the last five years relative to population-level screening risk for depression and anxiety disorders over the last month. Māori, Pacific and Asian New Zealanders are more likely to be under-diagnosed with depression and anxiety disorders relative to European New Zealanders. This inequality may reflect ethnic group differences in access to, expectations from and style of communication with, medical professionals.

  1. Prevalence of depressive and anxiety disorders in Chinese gastroenterological outpatients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Jing Li; Yan-Ling He; Hong Ma; Zhe-Ning Liu; Fu-Jun Jia; Ling Zhang; Lan Zhang

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the prevalence and physicians'detection rate of depressive and anxiety disorders in gastrointestinal (GI) outpatients across China.METHODS:A hospital-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in the GI outpatient departments of 13general hospitals.A total of 1995 GI outpatients were recruited and screened with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS).The physicians of the GI departments performed routine clinical diagnosis and management without knowing the HADS score results.SubJects with HADS scores ≥ 8 were subsequently interviewed by psychiatrists using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) to make further diagnoses.RESULTS:There were 1059 patients with HADS score ≥ 8 and 674 (63.64%) of them undertook the MINI interview by psychiatrists.Based on the criteria of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edition),the adjusted current prevalence for depressive disorders,anxiety disorders,and comorbidity of both disorders in the GI outpatients was 14.39%,9.42% and 4.66%,respectively.Prevalence of depressive disorders with suicidal problems [suicide attempt or suicide-related ideation prior or current; module C (suicide) of MINI score ≥ 1] was 5.84% in women and 1.64% in men.The GI physicians' detection rate of depressive and anxiety disorders accounted for 4.14%.CONCLUSION:While the prevalence of depressive and anxiety disorders is high in Chinese GI outpatients,the detection rate of depressive and anxiety disorders by physicians is low.

  2. ANXIETY AND DEPRESSION: ADVANCES IN MANAGEMENT OF DISORDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aakruti Kaikini*, Swati Dhande, Kalpana Patil and Vilasrao Kadam

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety and depression is basically a disorder of the present modern world and its prevalence is seen increasing day by day. According to WHO, anxiety and depression will be the second largest cause of disability worldwide by year 2020. The major problem associated with this disorder is that common masses are unaware about this disorder and hence less than 25% of those affected have access to appropriate treatments. The medications currently used for treatment of this disorder are based on the earlier theories of anxiety and depression. These medications have many side effects as well as are associated with tolerance and dependence on prolonged usage. This article mainly focuses on the new theory involved in neurobiology of this disorder and drugs which can be developed on basis of the same.

  3. Disorder-specific cognitive profiles in major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Hendriks, S.M.; Licht, C.M.M.; Spijker, J; Beekman, A T F; Hardeveld, F.; de Graaf, R.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: This investigation examines differences in cognitive profiles in subjects with major depressive disorder (MDD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Methods: Data were used from subjects with current MDD (n = 655), GAD (n = 107) and comorbid MDD/GAD (n = 266) diagnosis from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA). The Composite Interview Diagnostic Instrument was used to diagnose MDD and GAD. Cognitive profiles were measured using the Leiden Index of Depression S...

  4. Seasonality in depressive and anxiety symptoms among primary care patients and in patients with depressive and anxiety disorders; results from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winthorst Wim H

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about seasonality of specific depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms in different patient populations. This study aims to assess seasonal variation of depressive and anxiety symptoms in a primary care population and across participants who were classified in diagnostic groups 1 healthy controls 2 patients with a major depressive disorder, 3 patients with any anxiety disorder and 4 patients with a major depression and any anxiety disorder. Methods Data were used from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA. First, in 5549 patients from the NESDA primary care recruitment population the Kessler-10 screening questionnaire was used and data were analyzed across season in a multilevel linear model. Second, in 1090 subjects classified into four groups according to psychiatric status according to the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, overall depressive symptoms and atypical versus melancholic features were assessed with the Inventory of Depressive Symptoms. Anxiety and fear were assessed with the Beck Anxiety Inventory and the Fear questionnaire. Symptom levels across season were analyzed in a linear regression model. Results In the primary care population the severity of depressive and anxiety symptoms did not show a seasonal pattern. In the diagnostic groups healthy controls and patients with any anxiety disorder, but not patients with a major depressive disorder, showed a small rise in depressive symptoms in winter. Atypical and melancholic symptoms were both elevated in winter. No seasonal pattern for anxiety symptoms was found. There was a small gender related seasonal effect for fear symptoms. Conclusions Seasonal differences in severity or type of depressive and anxiety symptoms, as measured with a general screening instrument and symptom questionnaires, were absent or small in effect size in a primary care population and in patient populations with a major depressive disorder and

  5. Seasonality in depressive and anxiety symptoms among primary care patients and in patients with depressive and anxiety disorders; results from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winthorst, Wim H; Post, Wendy J; Meesters, Ybe; Penninx, Brenda W H J; Nolen, Willem A

    2011-12-19

    Little is known about seasonality of specific depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms in different patient populations. This study aims to assess seasonal variation of depressive and anxiety symptoms in a primary care population and across participants who were classified in diagnostic groups 1) healthy controls 2) patients with a major depressive disorder, 3) patients with any anxiety disorder and 4) patients with a major depression and any anxiety disorder. Data were used from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA). First, in 5549 patients from the NESDA primary care recruitment population the Kessler-10 screening questionnaire was used and data were analyzed across season in a multilevel linear model. Second, in 1090 subjects classified into four groups according to psychiatric status according to the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, overall depressive symptoms and atypical versus melancholic features were assessed with the Inventory of Depressive Symptoms. Anxiety and fear were assessed with the Beck Anxiety Inventory and the Fear questionnaire. Symptom levels across season were analyzed in a linear regression model. In the primary care population the severity of depressive and anxiety symptoms did not show a seasonal pattern. In the diagnostic groups healthy controls and patients with any anxiety disorder, but not patients with a major depressive disorder, showed a small rise in depressive symptoms in winter. Atypical and melancholic symptoms were both elevated in winter. No seasonal pattern for anxiety symptoms was found. There was a small gender related seasonal effect for fear symptoms. Seasonal differences in severity or type of depressive and anxiety symptoms, as measured with a general screening instrument and symptom questionnaires, were absent or small in effect size in a primary care population and in patient populations with a major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders.

  6. Comorbid Depressive Disorders in Anxiety-Disordered Youth: Demographic, Clinical, and Family Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Kelly A.; Podell, Jennifer L.; Benjamin, Courtney L.; Kendall, Philip C.

    2010-01-01

    Research indicates that depression and anxiety are highly comorbid in youth. Little is known, however, about the clinical and family characteristics of youth with principal anxiety disorders and comorbid depressive diagnoses. The present study examined the demographic, clinical, and family characteristics of 200 anxiety-disordered children and…

  7. Anxiety and depressive symptoms and medical illness among adults with anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niles, Andrea N; Dour, Halina J; Stanton, Annette L; Roy-Byrne, Peter P; Stein, Murray B; Sullivan, Greer; Sherbourne, Cathy D; Rose, Raphael D; Craske, Michelle G

    2015-02-01

    Anxiety is linked to a number of medical conditions, yet few studies have examined how symptom severity relates to medical comorbidity. The current study assessed associations between severity of anxiety and depression and the presence of medical conditions in adults diagnosed with anxiety disorders. Nine-hundred eighty-nine patients diagnosed with panic, generalized anxiety, social anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorders reported on the severity of anxiety and depressive symptoms and on diagnoses of 11 medical conditions. Severity of anxiety and depressive symptoms was strongly associated with having more medical conditions over and above control variables, and the association was as strong as that between BMI and disease. Odds of having asthma, heart disease, back problems, ulcer, migraine headache and eyesight difficulties also increased as anxiety and depressive symptom severity increased. Anxiety symptoms were independently associated with ulcer, whereas depressive symptoms were independently associated with heart disease, migraine, and eyesight difficulties. These findings add to a growing body of research linking anxiety disorders with physical health problems and indicate that anxiety and depressive symptoms deserve greater attention in their association with disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Alcohol use disorders and the course of depressive and anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschloo, Lynn; Vogelzangs, Nicole; van den Brink, Wim; Smit, Johannes H.; Veltman, Dick J.; Beekman, Aartjan T. F.; Penninx, Brenda

    2012-01-01

    Background Inconsistent findings have been reported on the role of comorbid alcohol use disorders as risk factors for a persistent course of depressive and anxiety disorders. Aims To determine whether the course of depressive and/or anxiety disorders is conditional on the type (abuse or dependence)

  9. Exercise, yoga, and meditation for depressive and anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Sy Atezaz; Antonacci, Diana J; Bloch, Richard M

    2010-04-15

    Anxiety and depression are among the most common conditions cited by those seeking treatment with complementary and alternative therapies, such as exercise, meditation, tai chi, qigong, and yoga. The use of these therapies is increasing. Several studies of exercise and yoga have demonstrated therapeutic effectiveness superior to no-activity controls and comparable with established depression and anxiety treatments (e.g., cognitive behavior therapy, sertraline, imipramine). High-energy exercise (i.e., weekly expenditure of at least 17.5 kcal per kg) and frequent aerobic exercise (i.e., at least three to five times per week) reduce symptoms of depression more than less frequent or lower-energy exercise. Mindful meditation and exercise have positive effects as adjunctive treatments for depressive disorders, although some studies show multiple methodological weaknesses. For anxiety disorders, exercise and yoga have also shown positive effects, but there are far less data on the effects of exercise on anxiety than for exercise on depression. Tai chi, qigong, and meditation have not shown effectiveness as alternative treatments for depression and anxiety.

  10. Are Worry and Rumination Specific Pathways Linking Neuroticism and Symptoms of Anxiety and Depression in Patients with Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Major Depressive Disorder and Mixed Anxiety-Depressive Disorder?

    OpenAIRE

    Hipólito Merino; Carmen Senra; Fátima Ferreiro

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the relationships between neuroticism (higher-order vulnerability factor), the cognitive styles of worry, brooding and reflection (second-order vulnerability factors) and symptoms of anxiety and depression in three groups of patients: patients with Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD), with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and with Mixed Anxiety-Depressive Disorder (MADD). One hundred and thirty four patients completed a battery of questionnaires including measures of neuroti...

  11. Pain and the onset of depressive and anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerrits, Marloes M. J. G.; van Oppen, Patricia; van Marwijk, Harm W. J.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; van der Horst, Henritte E.

    2014-01-01

    Patients with pain may be at increased risk of developing a first episode of depressive or anxiety disorder. Insight into possible associations between specific pain characteristics and such a development could help clinicians to improve prevention and treatment strategies. The objectives of this st

  12. Physical function as predictor for the persistence of depressive and anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Milligen, Bianca A.; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Smit, Johannes H.; Penninx, Brenda

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Depressive and anxiety disorders often involve a chronic course. This study examined whether objective physical function is a predictor for the persistence of depressive and anxiety disorders. Method: The study sample consisted of 1206 persons with depressive and anxiety disorders at b

  13. Longitudinal associations of multiple physical symptoms with recurrence of depressive and anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra-Kersten, Sandra M. A.; Sitnikova, Kate; Terluin, Berend; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Twisk, Jos W. R.; van Marwijk, Harm W. J.; van der Horst, Henriette E.; van der Wouden, Johannes C.

    Objective: To examine longitudinal associations of multiple physical symptoms with recurrence of depressive and anxiety disorders. Methods: Follow-up data of 584 participants with remitted depressive or anxiety disorders were used from the Netherlands Study of Depressive and Anxiety disorders.

  14. Physical function as predictor for the persistence of depressive and anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Milligen, Bianca A.; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Smit, Johannes H.; Penninx, Brenda

    Introduction: Depressive and anxiety disorders often involve a chronic course. This study examined whether objective physical function is a predictor for the persistence of depressive and anxiety disorders. Method: The study sample consisted of 1206 persons with depressive and anxiety disorders at

  15. Relationships among depression, anxiety, anxiety sensitivity, and perceived social support in adolescents with conversion disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Savaş; Bilgiç, Ayhan; Akça, Ömer Faruk; Türkoğlu, Serhat; Hergüner, Sabri

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the relationships of depression, anxiety, anxiety sensitivity, and perceived social support with conversion symptoms in adolescents with conversion disorder (CD). Fifty outpatients, aged 8-18 years, who had been diagnosed with CD and members of a control group were assessed using the psychological questionnaires. Compared with controls, adolescents with CD scored higher on the Child Depression Inventory (CDI), Screen for Child Anxiety-related Emotional Disorders (SCARED), Childhood Anxiety Sensitivity Index (CASI) total, CASI physical and cognitive subscales, and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support family subscale. Multiple regression analysis showed that CDI, CASI total, and CASI cognitive scores predicted the Somatoform Dissociation Questionnaire (SDQ) scores and that CDI and CASI total scores predicted the Children's Somatization Inventory (CSI) scores of subjects. This study suggest that adolescents with CD had poor psychosocial well-being, and depression, global anxiety sensitivity and anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns are related to conversion symptoms.

  16. Prospective mental imagery in patients with major depressive disorder or anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morina, N.; Deeprose, C.; Pusowski, C.; Schmid, M.; Holmes, E.A.

    2011-01-01

    Prospective negative cognitions are suggested to play an important role in maintaining anxiety disorders and major depressive disorder (MDD). However, little is known about positive prospective mental imagery. This study investigated differences in prospective mental imagery among 27 patients with

  17. Depressive and anxiety disorders and risk of subclinical atherosclerosis Findings from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seldenrijk, Adrie; Vogelzangs, Nicole; van Hout, Hein P. J.; van Marwijk, Harm W. J.; Diamant, Michaela; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Current evidence regarding the association between psychopathology and subclinical atherosclerosis show inconsistent results. The present study examined whether subclinical atherosclerosis was more prevalent in a large cohort of persons with depressive or anxiety disorders as compared to

  18. Disorder-specific cognitive profiles in major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, S.M.; Licht, C.M.; Spijker, J.; Beekman, A.T.; Hardeveld, F.; Graaf, R. de; Penninx, B.W.J.H.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This investigation examines differences in cognitive profiles in subjects with major depressive disorder (MDD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). METHODS: Data were used from subjects with current MDD (n = 655), GAD (n = 107) and comorbid MDD/GAD (n = 266) diagnosis from the

  19. Disorder-specific cognitive profiles in major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, Sanne M.; Licht, Carmilla M. M.; Spijker, Jan; Beekman, Aartjan T. F.; Hardeveld, Florian; de Graaf, Ron; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: This investigation examines differences in cognitive profiles in subjects with major depressive disorder (MDD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Methods: Data were used from subjects with current MDD (n = 655), GAD (n = 107) and comorbid MDD/GAD (n = 266) diagnosis from the Netherl

  20. Disorder-specific cognitive profiles in major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, Sanne M.; Licht, Carmilla M. M.; Spijker, Jan; Beekman, Aartjan T. F.; Hardeveld, Florian; de Graaf, Ron; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: This investigation examines differences in cognitive profiles in subjects with major depressive disorder (MDD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Methods: Data were used from subjects with current MDD (n = 655), GAD (n = 107) and comorbid MDD/GAD (n = 266) diagnosis from the

  1. Plasticity-augmented psychotherapy for refractory depressive and anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kwang-Yeon; Kim, Yong-Ku

    2016-10-03

    Psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy have been the mainstays of treatment for depression and anxiety disorders during the last century. However, treatment response has not improved in the last few decades, with only half of all patients responding satisfactorily to typical antidepressants. To fulfill the needs of the remaining patients, new treatments with better efficacy are in demand. The addition of psychotherapy to antidepressant treatment has been shown to be superior to pharmacotherapy alone. However, the time costs of psychotherapy limit its use for clinicians and patients. Advancements in neuroscience have contributed to an improved understanding of the pathogenesis of depressive and anxiety disorders. In particular, recent advances in the field of fear conditioning have provided valuable insight into the treatment of refractory depressive and anxiety disorders. In this review, we studied the reconsolidation-updating paradigm and the concept of epigenetic modification, which has been shown to permanently attenuate remote fear memory. This has implications for drug-augmented, e.g. antidepressant and valproic acid, psychotherapy. Future research on more sophisticated psychotherapy techniques will increase the desirability of this treatment modality for both clinicians and patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Health functioning impairments associated with posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety disorders, and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayfert, Claudia; Dums, Aricca R; Ferguson, Robert J; Hegel, Mark T

    2002-04-01

    Although anxiety disorders have been associated with impairments in self-reported health functioning, the relative effect of various anxiety disorders has not been studied. We compared health functioning of patients with a principal diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), panic disorder (PD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), and major depressive disorder (MDD). Patients with PTSD and MDD were equally impaired on overall mental health functioning, and both were significantly worse than patients with PD and GAD. PTSD was associated with significantly worse physical health functioning relative to PD, GAD, and MDD. Hierarchical regression showed that the association of PTSD with physical health functioning was unique and was not caused by the effects of age, depression, or comorbid anxiety disorders. Both PTSD and comorbid anxiety accounted for unique variance in mental functioning. These results highlight the association of PTSD with impaired physical and mental functioning and suggest that effective treatment of PTSD may affect overall health.

  3. Validity of the Revised Children's Anxiety and Depression Scale for youth with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Lindsey; Renno, Patricia; Storch, Eric A; Ehrenreich-May, Jill; Lewin, Adam B; Arnold, Elysse; Lin, Enjey; Wood, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    High rates of anxiety and depression are reported among youth with autism spectrum disorders. These conditions are generally assessed using measures validated for typically developing youth. Few studies have investigated their validity for autism spectrum disorders, which is crucial for accurate assessment and the provision of proper treatment. The Revised Children's Anxiety and Depression Scale was evaluated with 67 youth with autism spectrum disorders to examine its utility in measuring anxiety and depression in this population. Parents and children (aged 11-15 years) referred to a multisite intervention study completed the Pediatric Anxiety Rating Scale, Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children, Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule, Child Behavior Checklist, and Revised Children's Anxiety and Depression Scale. Results suggest acceptable internal consistency of the Revised Children's Anxiety and Depression Scale. Modest convergent validity was found among the Revised Children's Anxiety and Depression Scale and other standardized measures of anxiety and depression. There were stronger correlations between Revised Children's Anxiety and Depression Scale Total scores and subscales of measures expected to correlate significantly than those not expected to correlate. One exception was a significant association between the Revised Children's Anxiety and Depression Scale and Child Behavior Checklist Attention subscale, calling into question the divergent validity in separating anxiety from attention problems. Overall, results suggest preliminary support for the Revised Children's Anxiety and Depression Scale in youth with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders.

  4. Escitalopram for the treatment of major depression and anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höschl, Cyril; Svestka, Jaromír

    2008-04-01

    Escitalopram is the S-enantiomer of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) citalopram, which contains equal amounts of the S- and R-forms in a racemic mixture. Escitalopram is the most selective SSRI, with almost no significant affinity to other tested receptors. It has been demonstrated that it is escitalopram that carries the therapeutic potential of citalopram, and has statistically superior and clinically relevant properties compared with citalopram. Escitalopram is at least as effective in the treatment of depression and anxiety as other SSRIs, as well as venlafaxine, bupropion and duloxetine. Owing to multiple metabolic degrading pathways, the clinically relevant interactions of escitalopram with other drugs are minimal. Compared with other antidepressants, escitalopram is generally better tolerated, its onset of action is relatively fast, and its use may have cost-effectiveness and cost-utility advantages. Escitalopram is an effective first-line option in the management of patients with major depression, including severe forms, and various anxiety disorders.

  5. The relationship between generalized anxiety disorder, depression and mortality in old age.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holwerda, T.J.; Schoevers, R.A.; Dekker, J.J.M.; Deeg, D.J.H.; Jonker, C.; Beekman, A.T.F.

    2007-01-01

    after adjustment for the different variables. Conclusions In elderly persons depression increases the risk of death in men. Neither generalized anxiety nor mixed anxiety-depression are associated with excess mortality. Generalized anxiety disorder may even predict less mortality in depressive elderl

  6. Depression and Anxiety Symptoms in Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders without Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strang, John F.; Kenworthy, Lauren; Daniolos, Peter; Case, Laura; Wills, Meagan C.; Martin, Alex; Wallace, Gregory L.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that rates of depression and anxiety symptoms are elevated among individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) of various ages and IQs and that depression/anxiety symptoms are associated with higher IQ and fewer ASD symptoms. In this study which examined correlates of depression and anxiety symptoms in the full…

  7. Depression and Anxiety Symptoms in Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders without Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strang, John F.; Kenworthy, Lauren; Daniolos, Peter; Case, Laura; Wills, Meagan C.; Martin, Alex; Wallace, Gregory L.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that rates of depression and anxiety symptoms are elevated among individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) of various ages and IQs and that depression/anxiety symptoms are associated with higher IQ and fewer ASD symptoms. In this study which examined correlates of depression and anxiety symptoms in the full…

  8. DEPRESSIVE AND ANXIETY DISORDERS AND THE ASSOCIATION WITH OBESITY, PHYSICAL, AND SOCIAL ACTIVITIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, Leonore M.; Fokkema, Marjolein; van Straten, Annemieke; Lamers, Femke; Cuijpers, Pim; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: There is evidence of more obesity among persons with depressive and depressive and anxiety disorders. However, the nature and the underlying mechanisms of the association are still unclear. This study examines the association between depressive and anxiety disorders and obesity, physical

  9. DEPRESSIVE AND ANXIETY DISORDERS AND THE ASSOCIATION WITH OBESITY, PHYSICAL, AND SOCIAL ACTIVITIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, Leonore M.; Fokkema, Marjolein; van Straten, Annemieke; Lamers, Femke; Cuijpers, Pim; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: There is evidence of more obesity among persons with depressive and depressive and anxiety disorders. However, the nature and the underlying mechanisms of the association are still unclear. This study examines the association between depressive and anxiety disorders and obesity, physical

  10. Impact of dissociation on treatment of depressive and anxiety spectrum disorders with and without personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasko, Jan; Grambal, Ales; Kasalova, Petra; Kamardova, Dana; Ociskova, Marie; Holubova, Michaela; Vrbova, Kristyna; Sigmundova, Zuzana; Latalova, Klara; Slepecky, Milos; Zatkova, Marta

    2016-01-01

    The central goal of the study was to analyze the impact of dissociation on the treatment effectiveness in patients with anxiety/neurotic spectrum and depressive disorders with or without comorbid personality disorders. The research sample consisted of inpatients who were hospitalized in the psychiatric department and met the ICD-10 criteria for diagnosis of depressive disorder, panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, mixed anxiety-depressive disorder, agoraphobia, social phobia, obsessive compulsive disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, adjustment disorders, dissociative/conversion disorders, somatoform disorder, or other anxiety/neurotic spectrum disorder. The participants completed these measures at the start and end of the therapeutic program - Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Anxiety Inventory, a subjective version of Clinical Global Impression-Severity, Sheehan Patient-Related Anxiety Scale, and Dissociative Experience Scale. A total of 840 patients with anxiety or depressive spectrum disorders, who were resistant to pharmacological treatment on an outpatient basis and were referred for hospitalization for the 6-week complex therapeutic program, were enrolled in this study. Of them, 606 were statistically analyzed. Data from the remaining 234 (27.86%) patients were not used because of various reasons (103 prematurely finished the program, 131 did not fill in most of the questionnaires). The patients' mean ratings on all measurements were significantly reduced during the treatment. Also, 67.5% reached at least minimal improvement (42.4% showed moderate and more improvement, 35.3% of the patients reached remission). The patients without comorbid personality disorder improved more significantly in the reduction of depressive symptoms than those with comorbid personality disorder. However, there were no significant differences in change in anxiety levels and severity of the mental issues between the patients with and without personality disorders. Higher

  11. Classification of anxiety and depressive disorders: problems and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, G; Anderson, T M; Slade, T; Sunderland, M

    2008-01-01

    The American Psychiatric Association and the World Health Organization have begun to revise their classifications of mental disorders. Four issues related to these revisions are discussed in this study: the structure of the classifications, the relationship between categories and dimensions, the sensitivity of categorical thresholds to definitions, and maximizing the utility and validity of the diagnostic process. There is now sufficient evidence to consider replacing the present groupings of disorders with an empirically based structure that reflects the actual similarities among disorders. For example, perhaps the present depression and anxiety disorders would be best grouped as internalizing disorders. Most mental disorders exist on a severity dimension. The reliability and validity of the classification might be improved if we accepted the dimensional nature of disorders while retaining the use of categorical diagnoses to enhance clinical utility. Definitions of the thresholds that define categories are very susceptible to detail. In International Classification of Diseases-11(ICD-11) and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-V (DSM-V), disorders about which there is agreement should be identically defined, and disorders in which there is disagreement should be defined differently, so that research can identify which definition is more valid. The present diagnostic criteria are too complex to have acceptable clinical utility. We propose a reduced criterion set that can be remembered by clinicians and an enhanced criterion set for use with decision support tools.

  12. Neural temporal dynamics of stress in comorbid major depressive disorder and social anxiety disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waugh Christian E

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite advances in neurobiological research on Major Depressive Disorder and Social Anxiety Disorder, little is known about the neural functioning of individuals with comorbid depression/social anxiety. We examined the timing of neural responses to social stress in individuals with major depression and/or social anxiety. We hypothesized that having social anxiety would be associated with earlier responses to stress, having major depression would be associated with sustained responses to stress, and that comorbid participants would exhibit both of these response patterns. Methods Participants were females diagnosed with pure depression (n = 12, pure social anxiety (n = 16, comorbid depression/social anxiety (n = 17, or as never having had any Axis-I disorder (control; n = 17. Blood oxygenation-level dependent activity (BOLD was assessed with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. To induce social stress, participants prepared a speech that was ostensibly to be evaluated by a third party. Results Whereas being diagnosed with depression was associated with a resurgence of activation in the medial frontal cortex late in the stressor, having social anxiety was associated with a vigilance-avoidance activation pattern in the occipital cortex and insula. Comorbid participants exhibited activation patterns that generally overlapped with the non-comorbid groups, with the exception of an intermediate level of activation, between the level of activation of the pure depression and social anxiety groups, in the middle and posterior cingulate cortex. Conclusions These findings advance our understanding of the neural underpinnings of major depression and social anxiety, and of their comorbidity. Future research should elucidate more precisely the behavioral correlates of these patterns of brain activation.

  13. Quality of life impairment in depression and anxiety disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Pande

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Most common mental disorders (CMDs such as anxiety disorders and depressive disorders run a persistent and long course. This results in significant impairment of quality of life (QOL of patients and their families. Evidence-based psychosocial interventions using findings in our own socio-cultural context would help clinicians in holistic management. Objectives: To document illness profile, treatment satisfaction, and QOL in various domains of life in study population and normal controls. Study Design: Cross-sectional analytical study of patients group and their normal family members as a comparison group. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 consecutive patients of depressive disorders and anxiety disorders (ICD-10 clinical diagnosis attending outpatient clinic of the medical college hospital and their age- and gender-matched relatives as the control group were recruited. Socio-demographic profile was documented along with illness parameters: Severity of illness, treatment satisfaction, and QOL was measured using semi- structured interview, HAM, Beck′s depression Inventory, and WHO-QOL scale. Results: The study group measured significantly low on QOL than the comparison group. The two groups differed significantly on the paired " t" test of significance and the variation had a genuine assignable cause. Notwithstanding some variables having a confounding effect and the limitations of a cross-sectional study, the study was conclusive in demonstrating statistically significant impairment of QOL of patients with CMDs, making a strong case for clinicians to pay attention to holistic management of patients. The study has generated QOL data on a small but significant normative population which may serve purpose in future QOL studies.

  14. Headache, anxiety and depressive disorders: the HADAS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beghi, Ettore; Bussone, Gennaro; D'Amico, Domenico; Cortelli, Pietro; Cevoli, Sabina; Manzoni, Gian Camillo; Torelli, Paola; Tonini, Maria Clara; Allais, Giovanni; De Simone, Roberto; D'Onofrio, Florindo; Genco, Sergio; Moschiano, Franca; Beghi, Massimiliano; Salvi, Sara

    2010-04-01

    The objective of this paper was to assess prevalence and characteristics of anxiety and depression in migraine without aura and tension-type headache, either isolated or in combination. Although the association between headache and psychiatric disorders is undisputed, patients with migraine and/or tension-type headache have been frequently investigated in different settings and using different tests, which prevents meaningful comparisons. Psychiatric comorbidity was tested through structured interview and the MINI inventory in 158 adults with migraine without aura and in 216 persons with tension-type headache or migraine plus tension-type headache. 49 patients reported psychiatric disorders: migraine 10.9%, tension-type headache 12.8%, and migraine plus tension-type headache 21.4%. The MINI detected a depressive episode in 59.9, 67.0, and 69.6% of cases. Values were 18.4, 19.3, and 18.4% for anxiety, 12.7, 5.5, and 14.2%, for panic disorder and 2.3, 1.1 and 9.4% (p = 0.009) for obsessive-compulsive disorder. Multivariate analysis showed panic disorder prevailing in migraine compared with the other groups (OR 2.9; 95% CI 1.2-7.0). The association was higher (OR 6.3; 95% CI 1.4-28.5) when migraine (with or without tension-type headache) was compared to pure tension-type headache. This also applied to obsessive-compulsive disorder (OR 4.8; 95% CI 1.1-20.9) in migraine plus tension-type headache. Psychopathology of primary headache can reflect shared risk factors, pathophysiologic mechanisms, and disease burden.

  15. Long-term work disability and absenteeism in anxiety and depressive disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, S.M.; Spijker, J.; Licht, C.M.; Hardeveld, F.; Graaf, R. de; Batelaan, N.M.; Penninx, B.W.; Beekman, A.T.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This longitudinal study aims to compare long-term work disability and absenteeism between anxiety and depressive disorders focusing on the effects of different course trajectories (remission, recurrence and chronic course) and specific symptom dimensions (anxiety arousal, avoidance behav

  16. Metabolic risk factors in depressive and anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reedt Dortland, Arianne Klaartje Beraldine van

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to clarify which aspects of depression and anxiety are related to an increased metabolic risk, and which factors contribute to these associations. Taken together, our findings indicate that people with more severe symptoms of depression and anxiety are at particular risk

  17. Metabolic risk factors in depressive and anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reedt Dortland, Arianne Klaartje Beraldine van

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to clarify which aspects of depression and anxiety are related to an increased metabolic risk, and which factors contribute to these associations. Taken together, our findings indicate that people with more severe symptoms of depression and anxiety are at particular risk o

  18. Metabolic risk factors in depressive and anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reedt Dortland, Arianne Klaartje Beraldine van

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to clarify which aspects of depression and anxiety are related to an increased metabolic risk, and which factors contribute to these associations. Taken together, our findings indicate that people with more severe symptoms of depression and anxiety are at particular risk o

  19. Exposure to maternal pre- and postnatal depression and anxiety symptoms: risk for major depression, anxiety disorders, and conduct disorder in adolescent offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasheen, Cristie; Richardson, Gale A; Kim, Kevin H; Larkby, Cynthia A; Swartz, Holly A; Day, Nancy L

    2013-11-01

    This study evaluated whether exposure to maternal pre- or postnatal depression or anxiety symptoms predicted psychopathology in adolescent offspring. Growth mixture modeling was used to identify trajectories of pre- and postnatal depression and anxiety symptoms in 577 women of low socioeconomic status selected from a prenatal clinic. Logistic regression models indicated that maternal pre- and postnatal depression trajectory exposure was not associated with offspring major depression, anxiety, or conduct disorder, but exposure to the high depression trajectory was associated with lower anxiety symptoms in males. Exposure to medium and high pre- and postnatal anxiety was associated with the risk of conduct disorder among offspring. Male offspring exposed to medium and high pre- and postnatal anxiety had higher odds of conduct disorder than did males with low exposure levels. Females exposed to medium or high pre- and postnatal anxiety were less likely to meet conduct disorder criteria than were females with lower exposure. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to examine the effect of pre- and postnatal anxiety trajectories on the risk of conduct disorder in offspring. These results suggest new directions for investigating the etiology of conduct disorder with a novel target for intervention.

  20. Anxiety and depressive disorders in people with epilepsy: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Amelia J; Sharpe, Louise; Hunt, Caroline; Gandy, Milena

    2017-06-01

    Comorbid anxiety and depressive disorders in people with epilepsy (PWE) are highly prevalent and associated with various adverse outcomes. However, the prevalence of anxiety disorders in PWE across studies is highly variable. Our aim was to estimate the prevalence and moderating factors of anxiety and depressive disorders in PWE. Following prospective registration (PROSPERO; CRD42015027101), electronic databases were searched for studies that reported the prevalence of both anxiety and depressive disorders in samples of PWE up until July 2016. Data extracted included the prevalence of anxiety and depressive disorders, and moderators of interest (e.g., method of diagnosis, prevalence of drug-resistant epilepsy). Meta-analysis of the overall pooled prevalence of anxiety and depressive disorders was conducted. The search yielded 8,636 unique articles, with 27 studies meeting final inclusion criteria (3,221 PWE). The pooled prevalence of anxiety and depressive disorders was 20.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] 15.3-26.0%) and 22.9% (95% CI 18.2-28.4%), respectively. Method of diagnosis significantly moderated anxiety disorder prevalence (Q statistic with one degree of freedom [Q1 ] = 36.29, p < 0.0001); the prevalence of anxiety disorders based on unstructured clinician assessment was 8.1% (95% CI 5.7-11.4%), compared to a prevalence of 27.3% (95% CI 22.1-33.3%) based on a structured clinical interview. There were no significant moderators of depressive disorder diagnosis. Findings suggest the prevalence of anxiety and depressive disorders in PWE are equivalent, and variability in prevalence of anxiety disorders across studies can be attributed partly to the method of diagnosis. These findings also challenge widely held assumptions that psychiatric comorbidity is more common in people with drug-resistant epilepsy. Future research should aim to improve the detection and management of these comorbidities in PWE, particularly anxiety disorders, which have remained

  1. A Korean validation study of the Clinically Useful Anxiety Outcome Scale: Comorbidity and differentiation of anxiety and depressive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Sang Won; Han, Changsu; Ko, Young-Hoon; Yoon, Seoyoung; Pae, Chi-Un; Choi, Joonho; Kim, Jae-Min; Yoon, Ho-Kyoung; Lee, Hoseon; Patkar, Ashwin A; Zimmerman, Mark

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Korean version of the Clinically Useful Anxiety Outcome Scale (CUXOS) and to examine the current diagnostic comorbidity and differential severity of anxiety symptoms between major depressive disorder (MDD) and anxiety disorders. In total, 838 psychiatric outpatients were analyzed at their intake appointment. Diagnostic characteristics were examined using the structured clinical interview from the DSM-IV because the DSM5 was not available at the start of the study. The CUXOS score was measured and compared with that of 3 clinician rating scales and 4 self-report scales. The CUXOS showed excellent results for internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.90), test-retest reliability (r = 0.74), and discriminant and convergent validity. The CUXOS significantly discriminated between different levels of anxiety severity, and the measure was sensitive to change after treatment. Approximately 45% of patients with MDD were additionally diagnosed with anxiety disorders while 55% of patients with anxiety disorders additionally reported an MDD. There was a significant difference in CUXOS scores between diagnostic categories (MDD only, anxiety only, both disorders, and no MDD or anxiety disorder). The CUXOS scores differed significantly between all categories of depression (major, minor, and non-depression) except for the comparison between minor depression and non-depression groups. The Korean version of the CUXOS is a reliable and valid measure of the severity of anxiety symptoms. The use of the CUXOS could broaden the understanding of coexisting and differentiating characteristics of anxiety and depression.

  2. The network structure of major depressive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder and somatic symptomatology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekhuis, E.; Schoevers, R. A.; van Borkulo, C. D.; Rosmalen, J. G. M.; Boschloo, L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Major depressive disorder (MDD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) often co-occur with somatic symptomatology. Little is known about the contributions of individual symptoms to this association and more insight into their relationships could help to identify symptoms that are central

  3. The network structure of major depressive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder and somatic symptomatology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekhuis, E.; Schoevers, R. A.; van Borkulo, C. D.; Rosmalen, J. G. M.; Boschloo, L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Major depressive disorder (MDD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) often co-occur with somatic symptomatology. Little is known about the contributions of individual symptoms to this association and more insight into their relationships could help to identify symptoms that are central

  4. The network structure of major depressive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder and somatic symptomatology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekhuis, E.; Schoevers, R.A.; van Borkulo, C.D.; Rosmalen, J.G.M.; Boschloo, L.

    2016-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) often co-occur with somatic symptomatology. Little is known about the contributions of individual symptoms to this association and more insight into their relationships could help to identify symptoms that are central in the proc

  5. Are Worry and Rumination Specific Pathways Linking Neuroticism and Symptoms of Anxiety and Depression in Patients with Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Major Depressive Disorder and Mixed Anxiety-Depressive Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, Hipólito; Senra, Carmen; Ferreiro, Fátima

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the relationships between neuroticism (higher-order vulnerability factor), the cognitive styles of worry, brooding and reflection (second-order vulnerability factors) and symptoms of anxiety and depression in three groups of patients: patients with Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD), with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and with Mixed Anxiety-Depressive Disorder (MADD). One hundred and thirty four patients completed a battery of questionnaires including measures of neuroticism, worry, rumination (brooding and reflection), anxiety and depression. Multiple mediation analyses indicate that worry may act as a mediating mechanism linking neuroticism and anxiety symptoms in the three diagnostic groups, whereas brooding-rumination may play a mediating role between neuroticism and depressive symptoms in patients with MDD and MADD and, with less certainty, in patients with GAD. Overall, our findings suggest that neuroticism may increase the risk of anxious and depressive symptoms via specific links involving either worry or brooding, respectively, and that both worry and brooding may operate in the three groups examined, irrespectively of whether anxiety or depression are the main emotions or whether they coexist without any clear predominance; consequently, we hypothesize the existence of "specific transdiagnostic" mechanisms.

  6. Are Worry and Rumination Specific Pathways Linking Neuroticism and Symptoms of Anxiety and Depression in Patients with Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Major Depressive Disorder and Mixed Anxiety-Depressive Disorder?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hipólito Merino

    Full Text Available This study examines the relationships between neuroticism (higher-order vulnerability factor, the cognitive styles of worry, brooding and reflection (second-order vulnerability factors and symptoms of anxiety and depression in three groups of patients: patients with Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD, with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD and with Mixed Anxiety-Depressive Disorder (MADD. One hundred and thirty four patients completed a battery of questionnaires including measures of neuroticism, worry, rumination (brooding and reflection, anxiety and depression. Multiple mediation analyses indicate that worry may act as a mediating mechanism linking neuroticism and anxiety symptoms in the three diagnostic groups, whereas brooding-rumination may play a mediating role between neuroticism and depressive symptoms in patients with MDD and MADD and, with less certainty, in patients with GAD. Overall, our findings suggest that neuroticism may increase the risk of anxious and depressive symptoms via specific links involving either worry or brooding, respectively, and that both worry and brooding may operate in the three groups examined, irrespectively of whether anxiety or depression are the main emotions or whether they coexist without any clear predominance; consequently, we hypothesize the existence of "specific transdiagnostic" mechanisms.

  7. Are Worry and Rumination Specific Pathways Linking Neuroticism and Symptoms of Anxiety and Depression in Patients with Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Major Depressive Disorder and Mixed Anxiety-Depressive Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, Hipólito; Ferreiro, Fátima

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the relationships between neuroticism (higher-order vulnerability factor), the cognitive styles of worry, brooding and reflection (second-order vulnerability factors) and symptoms of anxiety and depression in three groups of patients: patients with Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD), with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and with Mixed Anxiety-Depressive Disorder (MADD). One hundred and thirty four patients completed a battery of questionnaires including measures of neuroticism, worry, rumination (brooding and reflection), anxiety and depression. Multiple mediation analyses indicate that worry may act as a mediating mechanism linking neuroticism and anxiety symptoms in the three diagnostic groups, whereas brooding-rumination may play a mediating role between neuroticism and depressive symptoms in patients with MDD and MADD and, with less certainty, in patients with GAD. Overall, our findings suggest that neuroticism may increase the risk of anxious and depressive symptoms via specific links involving either worry or brooding, respectively, and that both worry and brooding may operate in the three groups examined, irrespectively of whether anxiety or depression are the main emotions or whether they coexist without any clear predominance; consequently, we hypothesize the existence of "specific transdiagnostic" mechanisms. PMID:27243462

  8. Comorbidity of PTSD in anxiety and depressive disorders: prevalence and shared risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinhoven, Philip; Penninx, Brenda W; van Hemert, Albert M; de Rooij, Mark; Elzinga, Bernet M

    2014-08-01

    The present study aims to assess comorbidity of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in anxiety and depressive disorders and to determine whether childhood trauma types and other putative independent risk factors for comorbid PTSD are unique to PTSD or shared with anxiety and depressive disorders. The sample of 2402 adults aged 18-65 included healthy controls, persons with a prior history of affective disorders, and persons with a current affective disorder. These individuals were assessed at baseline (T0) and 2 (T2) and 4 years (T4) later. At each wave, DSM-IV-TR based anxiety and depressive disorder, neuroticism, extraversion, and symptom severity were assessed. Childhood trauma was measured at T0 with an interview and at T4 with a questionnaire, and PTSD was measured with a standardized interview at T4. Prevalence of 5-year recency PTSD among anxiety and depressive disorders was 9.2%, and comorbidity, in particular with major depression, was high (84.4%). Comorbidity was associated with female gender, all types of childhood trauma, neuroticism, (low) extraversion, and symptom severity. Multivariable significant risk factors (i.e., female gender and child sexual and physical abuse) were shared among anxiety and depressive disorders. Our results support a shared vulnerability model for comorbidity of anxiety and depressive disorders with PTSD. Routine assessment of PTSD in patients with anxiety and depressive disorders seems warranted.

  9. Differential associations of specific depressive and anxiety disorders with somatic symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekhuis, Ella; Boschloo, Lynn; Rosmalen, Judith G M; Schoevers, Robert A

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have shown that depressive and anxiety disorders are strongly related to somatic symptoms, but much is unclear about the specificity of this association. This study examines the associations of specific depressive and anxiety disorders with somatic symptoms, and whether t

  10. Comorbid anxiety disorders in late-life depression : results of a cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veen, D.C.; van Zelst, W. H.; Schoevers, R. A.; Comijs, H. C.; Oude Voshaar, Richard

    Background: Comorbid anxiety disorders are common in late-life depression and negatively impact treatment outcome. This study aimed to examine personality characteristics as well as early and recent life-events as possible determinants of comorbid anxiety disorders in late-life depression, taking

  11. Comorbid anxiety disorders in late-life depression: results of a cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, D.C. van der; Zelst, W.H. van; Schoevers, R.A.; Comijs, H.C.; Oude Voshaar, R.C.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Comorbid anxiety disorders are common in late-life depression and negatively impact treatment outcome. This study aimed to examine personality characteristics as well as early and recent life-events as possible determinants of comorbid anxiety disorders in late-life depression, taking

  12. Impact of childhood life events and trauma on the course of depressive and anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovens, J. G. F. M.; Giltay, E. J.; Wiersma, J. E.; Spinhoven, P.; Penninx, B. W. J. H.; Zitman, F. G.

    2012-01-01

    Hovens JGFM, Giltay EJ, Wiersma JE, Spinhoven P, Penninx BWJH, Zitman FG. Impact of childhood life events and trauma on the course of depressive and anxiety disorders. Objective: Data on the impact of childhood life events and childhood trauma on the clinical course of depressive and anxiety disorde

  13. Sleep disturbances and reduced work functioning in depressive or anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Mill, Josine G.; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Hoogendijk, Witte J. G.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: We aimed to examine the associations between sleep disturbances and work functioning in an epidemiologic cohort study in subjects with or without depressive or anxiety disorders. Methods: There were 707 subjects included in our analyses with depressive or anxiety disorders and 728

  14. Sleep disturbances and reduced work functioning in depressive or anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Mill, Josine G.; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Hoogendijk, Witte J. G.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: We aimed to examine the associations between sleep disturbances and work functioning in an epidemiologic cohort study in subjects with or without depressive or anxiety disorders. Methods: There were 707 subjects included in our analyses with depressive or anxiety disorders and 728 subjec

  15. Differential associations of specific depressive and anxiety disorders with somatic symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekhuis, Ella; Boschloo, Lynn; Rosmalen, Judith G M; Schoevers, Robert A

    OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have shown that depressive and anxiety disorders are strongly related to somatic symptoms, but much is unclear about the specificity of this association. This study examines the associations of specific depressive and anxiety disorders with somatic symptoms, and whether

  16. Work functioning in persons with depressive and anxiety disorders : The role of specific psychopathological characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plaisier, I.; Beekman, A.T.F.; de Graaf, R.; Smit, J. H.; van Dyck, R.; Penninx, Brenda

    Background: Depressive and anxiety disorders affect work functioning and cause high labour costs. Aims: To examine and compare psychopathological characteristics of depressive and anxiety disorders in their effect on work functioning. Method: In 1876 working participants of the Netherlands Study of

  17. Comorbid anxiety disorders in late-life depression : results of a cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veen, D.C.; van Zelst, W. H.; Schoevers, R. A.; Comijs, H. C.; Oude Voshaar, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Background: Comorbid anxiety disorders are common in late-life depression and negatively impact treatment outcome. This study aimed to examine personality characteristics as well as early and recent life-events as possible determinants of comorbid anxiety disorders in late-life depression, taking pr

  18. Work functioning in persons with depressive and anxiety disorders : The role of specific psychopathological characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plaisier, I.; Beekman, A.T.F.; de Graaf, R.; Smit, J. H.; van Dyck, R.; Penninx, Brenda

    2010-01-01

    Background: Depressive and anxiety disorders affect work functioning and cause high labour costs. Aims: To examine and compare psychopathological characteristics of depressive and anxiety disorders in their effect on work functioning. Method: In 1876 working participants of the Netherlands Study of

  19. Associations of anxiety disorders, depressive disorders and body weight with hypertension during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkel, Susanne; Einsle, Franziska; Pieper, Lars; Höfler, Michael; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Martini, Julia

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to prospectively examine the relationships between maternal DSM-IV-TR anxiety disorders, depressive disorders, and body mass index (BMI) with arterial hypertension and blood pressure during pregnancy. In the Maternal Anxiety in Relation to Infant Development (MARI) study, N = 306 women were enrolled in early pregnancy and repeatedly assessed during peripartum period. DSM-IV-TR anxiety and depressive disorders prior to pregnancy, lifetime anxiety/depression liability, and BMI during early pregnancy were assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview for Women (CIDI-V). Based on their prepregnancy status, all participants were assigned to one of the following initial diagnostic groups: no anxiety nor depressive disorder (no AD), pure depressive disorder (pure D), pure anxiety disorder (pure A), and comorbid anxiety and depressive disorder (comorbid AD). Blood pressure measurements were derived from medical records. Arterial hypertension during pregnancy was defined by at least two blood pressure values ≥140 mmHg systolic and/or ≥90 mmHg diastolic. N = 283 women with at least four documented blood pressure measurements during pregnancy were included in the analyses. In this sample, N = 47 women (16.6 %) were identified with arterial hypertension during pregnancy. Women with comorbid AD (reference group: no AD) had a significantly higher blood pressure after adjustment for age, parity, smoking, occupation, household income, and education (systolic: linear regression coefficient [β] = 3.0, 95 % confidence interval [CI] = 0.2-5.7; diastolic, β = 2.3, 95 % CI = 0.1-4.4). Anxiety liability was associated with an increased risk of hypertension (odds ratio [OR] = 1.1, 95 % CI = 1.0-1.3) and a higher systolic blood pressure (β = 0.4, 95 % CI = 0.0-0.7). The adjusted interaction model revealed a significant interaction between the diagnostic group pure A and BMI for

  20. Headache and anxiety-depressive disorder comorbidity: the HADAS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beghi, E; Allais, G; Cortelli, P; D'Amico, D; De Simone, R; d'Onofrio, F; Genco, S; Manzoni, G C; Moschiano, F; Tonini, M C; Torelli, P; Quartaroli, M; Roncolato, M; Salvi, S; Bussone, G

    2007-05-01

    Psychiatric comorbidity (prevalence and types) was tested in a naturalistic sample of adult patients with pure migraine without aura, and in two control groups of patients, one experiencing pure tension-type headache and the other combined migraine and tension-type headaches. The study population included 374 patients (158, 110 and 106) from nine Italian secondary and tertiary centres. Psychiatric comorbidity was recorded through structured interview and also screened with the Mini International Neuropsychiatry Interview (MINI). Only anxiety and depression were investigated. Psychiatric disorders were reported by 49 patients (14.6%; 10.9% of patients with migraine, 12.8% of those with tension-type headache and 21.4% of those with combined migraine and tension-type headaches). The MINI interview detected a depressive episode in 59.9% of patients with migraine, 68.3% of patients with tension-type headache and 69.6% of patients with combined migraine and tension-type headaches. Depression subtypes were significantly different across groups (p=0.03). Anxiety (mostly generalised) was reported by 18.4% of patients with migraine, 19.3% of patients with tension-type headache, and 18.4% of patients with combined migraine and tension-type headaches. The values for panic disturbance were 12.7, 5.5 and 14.2, and those for obsessive-compulsive disorders were 2.3, 1.1 and 9.4% (p=0.009). Based on these results, psychopathology of primary headache can be a reflection of the burden of the disease rather than a hallmark of a specific headache category.

  1. Association of temporomandibular disorder symptoms with anxiety and depression in Portuguese college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minghelli, Beatriz; Morgado, Marcos; Caro, Tatiana

    2014-06-01

    We investigated the prevalence of temporomandibular disorder (TMD) and its association with anxiety and depression among 1,493 Portuguese college students (age 17-69 years) at Piaget Institute. The assessment instruments were the Fonseca Anamnestic Questionnaire and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. TMD was present in 633 (42.4%) students, and anxiety or depression was present in 456 (30.5%) students. Regarding the association of TMD with anxiety and depression, 280 of the 633 students (61.4%) with TMD symptoms also had signs of anxiety or depression (P students without signs of anxiety or depression, students with such signs had an odds ratio of 3.1 (95% confidence interval: 2.42-3.84; P College students from various fields of study and regions of Portugal had a high prevalence of TMD, which was significantly associated with anxiety and depression.

  2. Hemoglobin levels in persons with depressive and/or anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lever-van Milligen, Bianca A; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Smit, Johannes H; Penninx, Brenda W J H

    2014-04-01

    Both low and high hemoglobin levels lead to more physical diseases, and both are linked to mortality. Low hemoglobin, often classified as anemia, has also been linked to more depressive symptoms, but whether both hemoglobin extremes are associated with depressive disorder and potentially also with anxiety disorder has not been examined before. This study examines to which extent hemoglobin levels are associated with depression and anxiety disorders in a large cohort. The study sample consisted of 2920 persons from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety. Hemoglobin levels were determined after venipuncture. Depressive and anxiety disorders were determined according to a DSM-IV-based psychiatric interview. Clinical psychiatric characteristics included the severity of depression and anxiety, the duration of symptoms, the age of onset and the antidepressant use. Higher hemoglobin levels were found in those with current depressive and/or anxiety disorders after sociodemographic adjustment and both higher, and lower hemoglobin levels were found in persons with higher depression and anxiety severity. However, after full adjustment for sociodemographics, disease indicators and lifestyle, associations were no longer significant. This cohort study showed that there is no independent association between depressive and/or anxiety disorders and hemoglobin levels or anemia status. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Comorbidity of anxiety disorders in major depressive disorder: A clinical trial to evaluate neuropsychological deficit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ixchel Herrera-Guzmán

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Various clinical aspects of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD are related to the neuropsychological impairments characteristic of this illness. The aim of this study was to determine the relation between certain clinical variables of MDD - in particular the presence of comorbid anxiety disorders - and the neuropsychological performance of patients with MDD selected for a clinical trial. Methods: Using cluster analyses, we generated two groups of patients: one group with Major Depressive Disorder and a Comorbid Anxiety Disorder (MDDAD, and the other with Pure Major Depressive Disorder (PMDD. Both groups were assessed clinically and neuropsychologically before and after 24 weeks of pharmacological treatment. Neuropsychological performance prior to treatment was comparable in the two groups. Results: After treatment, both groups showed cognitive improvement in attention tasks, memory, and executive functions Conclusions: The PMDD group obtained greater neurocognitive benefits from the antidepressive treatment than the MDDAD group.

  4. Efficacy of vilazodone on anxiety symptoms in patients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thase, Michael E; Chen, Dalei; Edwards, John; Ruth, Adam

    2014-11-01

    Anxiety symptoms are prevalent in patients with major depressive disorder. A post-hoc analysis of two phase III trials was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of vilazodone on depression-related anxiety. Using the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD17) Anxiety/Somatization subscale, patients were classified as anxious or nonanxious. Improvements in depressive symptoms were based on least squares mean changes in HAMD17 and Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale total scores. Anxiety symptoms in the anxious subgroup were evaluated using Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAMA) total and subscale (Psychic Anxiety, Somatic Anxiety) scores, HAMD17 Anxiety/Somatization subscale and item (Psychic Anxiety, Somatic Anxiety) scores, and the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale Inner Tension item score. Most of the pooled study population [82.0% (708/863)] was classified with anxious depression. After 8 weeks of treatment, least squares mean differences between vilazodone and placebo for changes in HAMA total and HAMD17 Anxiety/Somatization subscale scores were -1.82 (95% confidence interval -2.81 to -0.83; Pmajor depressive disorder who exhibit somatic and/or psychic symptoms of anxiety.

  5. Anxiety and disruptive behavior mediate pathways from attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder to depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Arunima; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Verhulst, Frank C; Ormel, Johan; Hartman, Catharina A

    2014-02-01

    The progression to depression in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is not clearly understood. To clarify this relationship, we tested the following hypotheses in a population-based study: (1) children with ADHD have a higher risk of developing depression than children without ADHD; (2) the pathway from ADHD to depression is mediated (partly) through anxiety and disruptive behavior disorders; and (3) mediation through anxiety is more prevalent in girls, and mediation through disruptive behavior disorders is more prevalent in boys. From October 2008 to September 2010, the Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used to assess ADHD, major depressive episodes, anxiety disorders, and disruptive behavior disorders in 1,584 participants from the TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS) cohort. Cox regression was used to model the effects of ADHD, anxiety, and disruptive behaviors on depression. Risk of and pathways to depression were studied in both children with ADHD and children with subthreshold ADHD. Comorbid depression was present in 36% of children with a diagnosis of ADHD, 24% of children with subthreshold ADHD, and 14% of children with no ADHD. Anxiety and disruptive behaviors mediated 32% of depression in ADHD. Pathways through anxiety and disruptive behavior disorders were independent of gender. Disruptive behavior disorder was a stronger mediator than anxiety for both genders (all P disruptive behavior disorders are present in a child with ADHD. © Copyright 2014 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  6. Impact of dissociation on treatment of depressive and anxiety spectrum disorders with and without personality disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasko J

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Jan Prasko,1 Ales Grambal,1 Petra Kasalova,1 Dana Kamardova,1 Marie Ociskova,1 Michaela Holubova,1,2 Kristyna Vrbova,1 Zuzana Sigmundova,1 Klara Latalova,1 Milos Slepecky,3 Marta Zatkova3 1Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacky University in Olomouc, University Hospital Olomouc, Olomouc, 2Psychiatric Department, Hospital Liberec, Liberec, Czech Republic; 3Department of Psychology Sciences, Faculty of Social Science and Health Care, Constantine the Philosopher University in Nitra, Nitra, Slovak Republic Objective: The central goal of the study was to analyze the impact of dissociation on the treatment effectiveness in patients with anxiety/neurotic spectrum and depressive disorders with or without comorbid personality disorders.Methods: The research sample consisted of inpatients who were hospitalized in the psychiatric department and met the ICD-10 criteria for diagnosis of depressive disorder, panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, mixed anxiety–depressive disorder, agoraphobia, social phobia, obsessive compulsive disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, adjustment disorders, dissociative/conversion disorders, somatoform disorder, or other anxiety/neurotic spectrum disorder. The participants completed these measures at the start and end of the therapeutic program – Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Anxiety Inventory, a subjective version of Clinical Global Impression-Severity, Sheehan Patient-Related Anxiety Scale, and Dissociative Experience Scale.Results: A total of 840 patients with anxiety or depressive spectrum disorders, who were resistant to pharmacological treatment on an outpatient basis and were referred for hospitalization for the 6-week complex therapeutic program, were enrolled in this study. Of them, 606 were statistically analyzed. Data from the remaining 234 (27.86% patients were not used because of various reasons (103 prematurely finished the program, 131 did not fill in most of the

  7. Cardiovascular disease in persons with depressive and anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogelzangs, Nicole; Seldenrijk, Adrie; Beekman, Aartjan T. F.; van Hout, Hein P. J.; de Jonge, Peter; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Associations between depression, and possibly anxiety, with cardiovascular disease have been established in the general population and among heart patients. This study examined whether cardiovascular disease was more prevalent among a large cohort of depressed and/or anxious persons. In

  8. Cardiovascular disease in persons with depressive and anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogelzangs, Nicole; Seldenrijk, Adrie; Beekman, Aartjan T. F.; van Hout, Hein P. J.; de Jonge, Peter; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    Background: Associations between depression, and possibly anxiety, with cardiovascular disease have been established in the general population and among heart patients. This study examined whether cardiovascular disease was more prevalent among a large cohort of depressed and/or anxious persons. In

  9. Depressive and Anxiety Disorders in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Patients without Major Neuropsychiatric Manifestations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yueyin; Cheng, Yuqi; Li, Shu; Lai, Aiyun; Xie, Zhongqi; Xu, Xinyu; Lu, Zhaoping

    2016-01-01

    Depressive and anxiety disorders are frequently observed in patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE). However, the underlying mechanisms are still unknown. We conducted this survey to understand the prevalence of depression and anxiety in SLE patients without major neuropsychiatric manifestations (non-NPSLE) and to explore the relationship between emotional disorders, symptoms, autoantibodies, disease activity, and treatments in SLE. 176 SLE patients were included, and SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD), and Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAMA) were recorded to evaluate their disease activity and emotional status. We found that depressive and anxiety disorders were common among SLE patients: 121 (68.8%) patients were in depression status while 14 (8.0%) patients could be diagnosed with depression. Accordingly, 101 (57.4%) were in anxiety status and 21 (11.9%) could be diagnosed with anxiety. Depression was associated with disease activity, and anxiety was associated with anti-P0 antibody, while both of them were associated with proteinuria. HAMA and HAMD scores were in strong positive correlation and they were independent risk factors of each other. We concluded that the high prevalence of depression and anxiety and the association between depression and SLE disease activity might reveal the covert damage of central nervous system in SLE. The role of anti-P0 antibody in SLE patients with emotional disorders warrants more researches. PMID:27747246

  10. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for treatment of major depressive disorder with comorbid generalized anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Daniela; Tavakoli, Sason

    2015-08-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has shown promising results in treating individuals with behavioral disorders such as major depressive disorder (MDD), posttraumatic stress disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and social anxiety disorder. A number of applications of rTMS to different regions of the left and right prefrontal cortex have been used to treat these disorders, but no study of treatment for MDD with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) has been conducted with application of rTMS to both the left and right prefrontal cortex. We hypothesized that applying low-frequency rTMS to the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) before applying it to the left DLPFC for the treatment of depression would be anxiolytic in patients with MDD with GAD. Thirteen adult patients with comorbid MDD and GAD received treatment with rTMS in an outpatient setting. The number of treatments ranged from 24 to 36 over 5 to 6 weeks. Response was defined as a ≥ 50% reduction in symptoms from baseline, and remission was defined as a score of depressive symptoms on the 21-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D-21). At the end of the treatment period, for the GAD-7 scale, 11 out of 13 (84.6%) patients' anxiety symptoms were in remission, achieving a score of depressive symptoms. In this small pilot study of 13 patients with comorbid MDD and GAD, significant improvement in anxiety symptoms along with depressive symptoms was achieved in a majority of patients after bilateral rTMS application.

  11. Systematic review of factors associated with depression and anxiety disorders among older adults with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagna, Atami; Gallo, Joseph J; Pontone, Gregory M

    2014-07-01

    Depression and anxiety disorders have a substantial impact on the quality of life, the functioning and mortality of older adults with Parkinson's disease (PD). The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the factors associated with the prevalence of depression and anxiety disorders among individuals with PD aged 60 years and older. Following a literature search in PubMed, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and EMBASE, 5 articles met the inclusion criteria (adults aged 60 years and older, individuals with PD, and with depression and anxiety disorders, and English-language peer reviewed articles) and were included in this review. These studies were conducted in the U.S (n = 3), in Italy (n = 1) and the U.K (n = 1). Findings indicated that autonomic symptoms, motor fluctuations, severity and frequency of symptoms, staging of the disease, and PD onset and duration were associated with the prevalence of depression and anxiety disorders among older adults suffering from PD. Despite the limited number of studies included in the review, depression and anxiety disorders are often unrecognized and untreated and the comorbidity greatly exacerbates PD symptoms. The identification of factors associated with the development of depression and anxiety disorders could help in designing preventive interventions that would decrease the risk and burden of depression and anxiety disorders among older adults with PD.

  12. Comorbidity and risk indicators for alcohol use disorders among persons with anxiety and/or depressive disorders: findings from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Boschloo; N. Vogelzangs; J.H. Smit; W. van den Brink; D.J. Veltman; A.T.F. Beekman; B.W.J.H. Penninx

    2011-01-01

    This study examines comorbidity of alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence as well as its risk indicators among anxious and/or depressed persons, also considering temporal sequencing of disorders. Baseline data from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA) were used, including 2329 perso

  13. Sleep Duration, but Not Insomnia, Predicts the 2-Year Course of Depressive and Anxiety Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Mill, Josine G.; Vogelzangs, Nicole; van Someren, Eus J. W.; Hoogendijk, Witte J. G.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine the predictive role of insomnia and sleep duration on the 2-year course of depressive and anxiety disorders. Method: This study is a secondary data analysis based on data from the baseline (2004-2007) and 2-year assessment of the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety. Par

  14. Objective physical functioning in patients with depressive and/or anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Milligen, Bianca A.; Lamers, Femke; de Hoop, Guus T.; Smit, Johannes H.; Penninx, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    Background: Poorer physical function in patients with depressive or anxiety disorders has been reported, but is often measured by self-reports which may be biased by mood. This study examined the association between depression and anxiety and physical function using objective measures in a large coh

  15. Objective physical functioning in patients with depressive and/or anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Milligen, Bianca A.; Lamers, Femke; de Hoop, Guus T.; Smit, Johannes H.; Penninx, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    Background: Poorer physical function in patients with depressive or anxiety disorders has been reported, but is often measured by self-reports which may be biased by mood. This study examined the association between depression and anxiety and physical function using objective measures in a large coh

  16. Suicide in late-life depression with and without comorbid anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Voshaar, Richard; Veen, D. C. van der; Hunt, I.; Kapur, N.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Comorbid anxiety in depression increases the risk of suicidal ideation and behavior, although data on death by suicide are scarce. We compared characteristics of depressed elderly patients with and without anxiety disorders who died by suicide. METHODS: From a 16-year clinical survey of a

  17. Depression and Anxiety as Possible Mediators of the Association between Smoking and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunau, Gilat L.; Ratner, Pamela A.; Hossain, Shahadut; Johnson, Joy L.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the association between depression and anxiety and adolescents' smoking status, and to determine whether depression or anxiety mediate the association between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and smoking. A cross-sectional survey of tobacco use was conducted in regional school districts…

  18. Sleep duration, but not insomnia, predicts the 2-year course of depressive and anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Mill, Josine G; Vogelzangs, Nicole; van Someren, Eus J W; Hoogendijk, Witte J G; Penninx, Brenda W J H

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the predictive role of insomnia and sleep duration on the 2-year course of depressive and anxiety disorders. METHOD: This study is a secondary data analysis based on data from the baseline (2004-2007) and 2-year assessment of the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety. Par

  19. Major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder and response to treatment in hepatitis C patients in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MM, Bassiony; A, Yousef; U, Youssef; GM, Salah El-Deen; M, Abdelghani; H, Al-Gohari; E, Fouad; MM, El-Shafaey

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence and associated correlates of major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder in hepatitis C virus patients before and after treatment and to investigate the relationship between major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder and treatment response. A total of 116 consecutive hepatitis C virus patients from hepatitis C virus treatment center in Zagazig city, Egypt, were included in the study and divided into treated group (N = 58) and untreated group (N = 58). All hepatitis C virus patients were screened for major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder using hospital anxiety and depression scale, and those who screened positive were interviewed to confirm the diagnosis of major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder using DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria. These measures were done at baseline and after 12 weeks of treatment or observation. At baseline, 3.5% and 12.1% of hepatitis C virus patients (treated group) had major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder, respectively. After 12 weeks of treatment 37.9% of hepatitis C virus patients (treated group) had major depressive disorder and 46.6% had generalized anxiety disorder. There was a significant statistical difference between hospital anxiety and depression scale scores for depression (3.3 ± 2.3 vs. 6.4 ± 3.2, t = 9.6, p = 0.001) and for anxiety (4.6 ± 2.4 vs. 7.3 ± 3.0, t = 10.2, p = 0.001) before and after treatment. There was also significant statistical difference between treated group and untreated group regarding hospital anxiety and depression scale scores after treatment and observation (depression, treated group 6.4 ± 3.2 vs. untreated group 4.0 ± 2.4, t = 3.7, p = 0.001; anxiety, treated group 7.3 ± 3.0 vs. untreated group 4.5 ± 2.3, t = 4.4, p = 0.001). There was no association between major depressive disorder

  20. Treatment for Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research & Practice News Blog Posts Depression and Anxiety Journal Insights E-Newsletter Clinical Practice Reviews, Teaching Tools and Other Resources Clinical ... Anxiety disorders and depression are treatable, and the vast majority ...

  1. Anxiety-depressive disorders among irritable bowel syndrome patients in Guilan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modabbernia Mohamad-Jafar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychiatric disorders are common in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS patients. The prevalence of psychiatric disorders in IBS patients varies in different cultures. We conducted this study to determine the prevalence of psychiatric disorders Methods In a cross-sectional study, 256 IBS patients were selected (using the criteria of Rome III and evaluated for psychiatric disorders. In the first phase, subjects were screened using the General Health Questionnaire 28 (GHQ28. In the second phase, those who had scores ≥ 23 were assessed through semi-structured psychiatric interviews. Results Thirty out of 256 subjects had no significant psychiatric symptoms after performing GHQ28. In further psychiatric evaluation of the remaining subjects (226 who suffered from some degree of a psychiatric problem, 36 were diagnosed without Anxiety/Depressive disorder. Thus 66 subjects (25.8% were known as a group without any significant psychiatric problem. A total of 190 subjects (74.2% with anxiety-depressive problems were diagnosed; 89 were suffering from pure anxiety disorders, 41 were suffering from depressive disorders and 60 had co-morbid anxiety-depressive disorders. When comparing anxiety-depressive patients (n = 190 with normal subjects (n = 66, gender (P = 0.016, occupation (P = 0.002 and intensity of IBS (P Conclusion The high prevalence of anxiety-depressive disorders in this study indicates the necessity of psychiatric assessment, early diagnosis and treatment of the patients with IBS. It may improve management of the patients suffering from IBS.

  2. Role of Comorbid Depression and Co-Occurring Depressive Symptoms in Outcomes for Anxiety-Disordered Youth Treated with Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Kelly A.; Kendall, Philip C.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the role of comorbid depressive disorders (major depressive disorder or dysthymic disorder) and co-occurring depressive symptoms in treatment outcome and maintenance for youth (N = 72, aged 7-14) treated with cognitive-behavioral therapy for a principal anxiety disorder (generalized anxiety disorder, separation anxiety…

  3. Role of Comorbid Depression and Co-Occurring Depressive Symptoms in Outcomes for Anxiety-Disordered Youth Treated with Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Kelly A.; Kendall, Philip C.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the role of comorbid depressive disorders (major depressive disorder or dysthymic disorder) and co-occurring depressive symptoms in treatment outcome and maintenance for youth (N = 72, aged 7-14) treated with cognitive-behavioral therapy for a principal anxiety disorder (generalized anxiety disorder, separation anxiety…

  4. Maternal anxiety versus depressive disorders: specific relations to infants' crying, feeding and sleeping problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzoldt, J; Wittchen, H-U; Einsle, F; Martini, J

    2016-03-01

    Maternal depression has been associated with excessive infant crying, feeding and sleeping problems, but the specificity of maternal depression, as compared with maternal anxiety remains unclear and manifest disorders prior to pregnancy have been widely neglected. In this prospective longitudinal study, the specific associations of maternal anxiety and depressive disorders prior to, during and after pregnancy and infants' crying, feeding and sleeping problems were investigated in the context of maternal parity. In the Maternal Anxiety in Relation to Infant Development (MARI) Study, n = 306 primiparous and multiparous women were repeatedly interviewed from early pregnancy until 16 months post partum with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview for Women (CIDI-V) to assess DSM-IV anxiety and depressive disorders. Information on excessive infant crying, feeding and sleeping problems was obtained from n = 286 mothers during postpartum period via questionnaire and interview (Baby-DIPS). Findings from this study revealed syndrome-specific risk constellations for maternal anxiety and depressive disorders as early as prior to pregnancy: Excessive infant crying (10.1%) was specifically associated with maternal anxiety disorders, especially in infants of younger and lower educated first-time mothers. Feeding problems (36.4%) were predicted by maternal anxiety (and comorbid depressive) disorders in primiparous mothers and infants with lower birth weight. Infant sleeping problems (12.2%) were related to maternal depressive (and comorbid anxiety) disorders irrespective of maternal parity. Primiparous mothers with anxiety disorders may be more prone to anxious misinterpretations of crying and feeding situations leading to an escalation of mother-infant interactions. The relation between maternal depressive and infant sleeping problems may be better explained by a transmission of unsettled maternal sleep to the fetus during pregnancy or a lack of daily

  5. Effects of postpartum anxiety disorders and depression on maternal self-confidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reck, Corinna; Noe, Daniela; Gerstenlauer, Jakob; Stehle, Eva

    2012-04-01

    Low maternal self-confidence may damage the early mother-infant relationship and negatively influence infant development. The goal of this study was to test whether a current and previous history of DSM-IV anxiety and depressive disorders is associated with maternal self-confidence two weeks after delivery. Postpartum anxiety disorder and depression was diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria in a community sample of 798 women. The data showed a significant link between current postpartum anxiety and depressive disorders and maternal self-confidence. Furthermore, women with a depression or anxiety disorder in their previous psychiatric history scored lower in maternal self-confidence. There is a need for appropriate preventive programmes to promote maternal self-confidence. With such programmes it is possible to prevent infant developmental disorders which might result from reduced feelings of maternal self-confidence and associated maternal interaction behaviour.

  6. Locus of Control Fails to Mediate between Stress and Anxiety and Depression in Parents of Children with a Developmental Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlyn-Wright, Sarah; Draghi-Lorenz, Riccardo; Ellis, Jason

    2007-01-01

    Stress, anxiety and depression are raised amongst parents of children with a developmental disorder. However, the processes by which stress leads to depression and anxiety are poorly understood. In a cross-sectional survey, levels of parental stress, depression and anxiety were compared between parents of children with an autistic disorder,…

  7. Childhood Anxiety/Withdrawal, Adolescent Parent-Child Attachment and Later Risk of Depression and Anxiety Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, I. S.; Horwood, L. J.; Fergusson, D. M.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has shown that children with high levels of early anxiety/withdrawal are at increased risk of later anxiety and depression. It has also been found that positive parent-child attachment reduces the risk of these disorders. The aim of this paper was to examine the extent to which...... positive parent-child attachment acted to mitigate the risk of later internalising disorders amongst children with high levels of early anxiety/withdrawal using data from a 30 years longitudinal study of a New Zealand birth cohort. The findings of this study showed that: (a) increasing rates of early...... anxiety/withdrawal were associated with an increased risk of later anxiety and depression; (b) positive parent-child attachment in adolescence was associated with a decline in the risk of later anxiety and depression; and (c) these associations persisted even after controlling for confounding factors...

  8. The relationship between acculturation strategies and depressive and anxiety disorders in Turkish migrants in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ünlü Ince, Burçin; Fassaert, Thijs; de Wit, Matty A S; Cuijpers, Pim; Smit, Jan; Ruwaard, Jeroen; Riper, Heleen

    2014-09-05

    Turkish migrants in the Netherlands have a high prevalence of depressive and/or anxiety disorders. Acculturation has been shown to be related to higher levels of psychological distress, although it is not clear whether this also holds for depressive and anxiety disorders in Turkish migrants. This study aims to clarify the relationship between acculturation strategies (integration, assimilation, separation and marginalization) and the prevalence of depressive and anxiety disorders as well as utilisation of GP care among Turkish migrants. Existing data from an epidemiological study conducted among Dutch, Turkish and Moroccan inhabitants of Amsterdam were re-examined. Four scales of acculturation strategies were created in combination with the bi-dimensional approach of acculturation by factor analysis. The Lowlands Acculturation Scale and the Composite International Diagnostic Interview were used to assess acculturation and mood and anxiety disorders. Socio-demographic variables, depressive, anxiety and co-morbidity of both disorders and the use of health care services were associated with the four acculturation strategies by means of Chi-Squared and Likelihood tests. Three two-step logistic regression analyses were performed to control for possible, confounding variables. The sample consisted of 210 Turkish migrants. Significant associations were found between the acculturation strategies and age (p acculturation strategies and depressive disorders (p = .049): integration was associated with a lower risk of depression, separation with a higher risk. Using the axis separately, participation in Dutch society showed a significant relationship with a decreased risk of depressive, anxiety and co-morbidity of both disorders (OR = .15; 95% CI: .024 - .98). Non-participation showed no significant association. No association was found between the acculturation strategies and uptake of GP care. Turkish migrants who integrate may have a lower risk of developing a

  9. [Relationship of Anxiety and Depression in the Development of Mixed Anxiety/Depression Disorder. An Experimental Study of Comorbidity Mechanisms (Review)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galyamina, A G; Kovalenko, I L; Smagin, D A; Kudryavtseva, N N

    2016-01-01

    As clinical practice and experimental studies show, symptoms of depression and anxiety often accompany each other. It is well known that combination of anxiety and depression in patients is treated more slowly, requires large doses of drugs, increases the likelihood of suicide and often leads to relapse. Furthermore, antidepressants and anxiolytics exert its therapeutic effect in limited cases even in monopolar anxiety or depression state. In this review of literature and our own data the relationship of anxiety and depression is analyzed. It has been shown with using the model of mixed anxiety/depression disorder caused by chronic social defeat stress, that the anxiety and depression are changed under the influence of psychotropic drugs independently.

  10. Serotonin pathway polymorphisms and the treatment of major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helton, Sarah G; Lohoff, Falk W

    2015-01-01

    While antidepressants are widely used to treat major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders, only half of the patients will respond to antidepressant treatment and only a third of patients will experience a remission of symptoms. Identification of genetic biomarkers that predict antidepressant treatment response could thus greatly improve current clinical practice by providing guidance on which drug to use for which patient. Most antidepressant drugs for the treatment of depression and anxiety disorders have effects on the serotonergic neurotransmitter system; thus, genetic polymorphisms in the genes involved in this pathway represent logical candidates for investigation. This article reviews recent findings on the pharmacogenetics of antidepressant drugs with a focus on serotonergic pathway polymorphisms and discusses future clinical applications.

  11. The impact of perfectionism and anxiety traits on action monitoring in major depressive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrijvers, D.L.; Bruijn, E.R.A. de; Destoop, M.; Hulstijn, W.; Sabbe, B.G.C.C.

    2010-01-01

    Perfectionism and anxiety features are involved in the clinical presentation and neurobiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). In MDD, cognitive control mechanisms such as action monitoring can adequately be investigated applying electrophysiological registrations of the error-related negativity

  12. Depressive and anxiety disorders : Associated with losing or gaining weight over 2 years?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, Leonore M.; van Straten, Annemieke; Lamers, Femke; Cuijpers, Pim; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study examines to what extent different depressive and anxiety disorders and clinical characteristics are associated with subsequent weight change, while controlling for baseline weight, sociodemographics, health status, psychotropic medication use and (un)healthy lifestyle factors

  13. The impact of perfectionism and anxiety traits on action monitoring in major depressive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrijvers, D.L.; Bruijn, E.R.A. de; Destoop, M.; Hulstijn, W.; Sabbe, B.G.C.C.

    2010-01-01

    Perfectionism and anxiety features are involved in the clinical presentation and neurobiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). In MDD, cognitive control mechanisms such as action monitoring can adequately be investigated applying electrophysiological registrations of the error-related negativity

  14. The overlap between anxiety, depression, and obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Guy M

    2015-09-01

    The anxiety disorders include generalized anxiety disorder, specific phobia, social phobia, agoraphobia, and panic disorder. In addition to the specific symptoms of these disorders, there may be a common experience of anxiety and even dysphoria across the conditions, and of course recourse to the same drug or choice of drugs for treatment. This overlap probably occurs because of universal dimensions of distress or negative affectivity, a shared genetic predisposition, and a common neurobiology Evidence of shared genes is still based mainly on twin studies, but the shared neurobiology can be investigated directly by the investigation of emotional or cognitive bias either behaviorally or using functional brain imaging. This intermediate phenotype can then provide a substrate for understanding and developing medicines and psychological treatments.

  15. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Correlates of Emotional Word Encoding and Recognition in Depression and Anxiety Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tol, Marie-Jose; Demenescu, Liliana R.; van der Wee, Nic J. A.; Kortekaas, Rudle; Nielen, Marjan M. A.; Den Boer, J. A.; Renken, Remco J.; van Buchem, Mark A.; Zitman, Frans G.; Aleman, Andre; Veltman, Dick J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Major depressive disorder (MDD), panic disorder, and social anxiety disorder are among the most prevalent and frequently co-occurring psychiatric disorders in adults and may be characterized by a common deficiency in processing of emotional information. Methods: We used functional magnet

  16. Childhood Anxiety/Withdrawal, Adolescent Parent-Child Attachment and Later Risk of Depression and Anxiety Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, Ida Skytte; Horwood, L. John; Fergusson, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has shown that children with high levels of early anxiety/withdrawal are at increased risk of later anxiety and depression. It has also been found that positive parent-child attachment reduces the risk of these disorders. The aim of this paper was to examine the extent to which positive parent-child attachment acted to mitigate…

  17. Childhood Anxiety/Withdrawal, Adolescent Parent-Child Attachment and Later Risk of Depression and Anxiety Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, Ida Skytte; Horwood, L. John; Fergusson, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has shown that children with high levels of early anxiety/withdrawal are at increased risk of later anxiety and depression. It has also been found that positive parent-child attachment reduces the risk of these disorders. The aim of this paper was to examine the extent to which positive parent-child attachment acted to mitigate…

  18. Are sleep disturbances risk factors for anxiety, depressive and addictive disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillin, J C

    1998-01-01

    This paper reviews recent literature which suggests that sleep disturbance in members of the general population, whether or not they have ever had a formal psychiatric disorder, is a risk factor for the onset of a formal psychiatric diagnosis at a later time. Based upon the current literature, the strongest link is between subjective insomnia, lasting at least 2 weeks, and the later onset of depression. Less well-established data suggest that lifetime reports of at least 2 weeks of insomnia, hypersomnia, or both hypersomnia and insomnia, are risk factors for the later development of depression, anxiety disorders or substance abuse. More tentatively, preliminary data suggest that increasing subjective sleep disturbance may signal a relapse in remitted depressed patients. Sleep disturbances are common manifestations of major depressive and anxiety disorders. Therefore, sleep complaints may be among the most robust prodromal symptoms reflecting partial depressive or anxiety disorders, which eventually declare themselves as full-blown clinical episodes.

  19. Role of anxiety and depressive disorders in the genesis of psychosomatic disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Anatolyevich Shatenshtein

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients and methods. The results of clinical and psychodiagnostic examination using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI were analyzed in 210 therapeutic inpatients from 4 groups of psychosomatic diseases (coronary heart disease, hypertensive disease, duodenal ulcer disease, asthma, and bronchitis with an asthmatic component and 3 groups of diseases in whose genesis the psychosomatic mechanisms (pneumonia, gastritis, renal diseases played a lesser role. Healthy individuals (n=38 served as a control group. The correlation coefficients between the first scale reflecting the number of somatic complaints and the magnitude of their hypochondriacal fixation and the second one characterizing the degree of anxiety and depressive disorders were calculated within each disease group. Results. In psychosomatic diseases, the correlation coefficients between the first and second MMPI scales proved to be insignificant and substantially lower than those in the healthy individuals. This suggests that in such patients, a larger number of somatic complaints and their enhanced hypochondriacal fixation alleviate anxiety and depressive disorders, which may be regarded as an indication that there is psychosomatic defense that lessens anxiety due to a somatic disease. In somatic diseases that are not referring to as psychosomatic ones, the correlation coefficient between the first and second scales is highly significant and considerably higher than that in the healthy individuals and particularly higher than in the group of psychosomatic diseases. In the patients of these groups, an increase in anxiety and depression aggravates autonomic dysregulation reflecting in the larger number of hypochondriacal complaints. This direct relationship between autonomic functions and the level of anxiety and depression may be a risk factor for developing these disorders.

  20. Serotonin-Related Gene Variants in Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome and Depressive or Anxiety Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Grzesiak

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To assess the association of six polymorphisms in serotonin-related genes with depressive or anxiety disorders in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS. Methods. The lifetime prevalence of depressive and anxiety disorders was assessed in 95 IBS patients (85% women using the Munich version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI. IBS was diagnosed according to the Rome III criteria. SCL6A4 HTTLPR polymorphism (rs4795541 was determined using PCR-based method. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in HTR1A (rs6295, HTR2A (rs6313 and rs6311, HTR2C (rs6318, and TPH1 (rs1800532 were detected by minisequencing method. Results. IBS patients with depressive disorders were characterized by higher frequency of 5-HTTLPR L allele in comparison to IBS patients with anxiety disorders. The lower frequency of 1438 A allele in HTR2A was found in IBS patients with depressive disorders in comparison to IBS patients without mental disorders. The lower G allele frequency in HTR2C rs6318 polymorphism among IBS patients with anxiety disorders was also observed. Conclusions. Our results provide further evidence for the involvement of SLC6A4 rs4795541 and HTR2A rs6311 polymorphisms in the pathophysiology of depressive disorders in IBS patients. The new findings indicate that HTR2C rs6318 polymorphism may be associated with the susceptibility to anxiety disorders in IBS patients.

  1. Comorbidity between depression and anxiety in patients with temporomandibular disorders according to the research diagnostic criteria for temporomandibular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Shoshana; Emodi-Perlman, Alona; Goldsmith, Carole; Friedman-Rubin, Pessia; Winocur, Ephraim

    2015-01-01

    To examine the extent of depression, anxiety, somatization, and comorbidity between depression and anxiety in patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMD) by adding the Symptom Checklist-90 Revised self-report questionnaire for anxiety to the Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD. A total of 207 Israeli TMD patients were included in this retrospective study. Data included levels of depression, anxiety, somatization, and comorbidity in the study group as a whole, in chronic pain TMD patients compared to acute pain TMD patients, and in chronic pain TMD patients according to their Graded Chronic Pain Scale score. Spearman correlation was used to assess the level of correlation between depression, anxiety, and somatization. Fisher exact test or Pearson chi-square test was used to compare the categorical variables. When depression, anxiety, somatization, and comorbidity were analyzed in a multidimensional approach, there were statistically significant differences between subgroups as to depression and somatization only. No statistically significant differences were found as to anxiety and comorbidity. Multidimensional assessment enabled differentiation between findings of depression, anxiety, somatization, and comorbidity in subgroups of TMD patients. The findings of no statistically significant differences between subgroups of TMD patients as to anxiety and comorbidity support previous studies on TMD and anxiety, which suggest a less significant role of anxiety in chronic TMD patients as compared to depression and somatization.

  2. Generalized anxiety disorder prevalence and comorbidity with depression in coronary heart disease: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, Phillip J; Cosh, Suzanne M

    2013-12-01

    Generalized anxiety disorder prevalence and comorbidity with depression in coronary heart disease patients remain unquantified. Systematic searching of Medline, Embase, SCOPUS and PsycINFO databases revealed 1025 unique citations. Aggregate generalized anxiety disorder prevalence (12 studies, N = 3485) was 10.94 per cent (95% confidence interval: 7.8-13.99) and 13.52 per cent (95% confidence interval: 8.39-18.66) employing Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria (random effects). Lifetime generalized anxiety disorder prevalence was 25.80 per cent (95% confidence interval: 20.84-30.77). In seven studies, modest correlation was evident between generalized anxiety disorder and depression, Fisher's Z = .30 (95% confidence interval: .19-.42), suggesting that each psychiatric disorder is best conceptualized as contributing unique variance to coronary heart disease prognosis.

  3. The relationship between the severity of asthma and comorbidites with anxiety and depressive disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valença Alexandre M

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: There is evidence that asthma is associated with increased frequency of psychiatric symptoms and mental disorders. Our aim was to assess the frequency of anxiety and depressive disorders in a sample of asthmatic outpatients and observe if there is any relationship between this comorbidity and the severity of asthma. METHOD: Sixty-two consecutive patients of two outpatient asthma clinics located in university hospitals were evaluated. Psychiatric diagnoses were assessed with the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview 4.4 Version. RESULTS: Twenty-seven patients (43.5% met criteria for at least one psychiatric diagnosis. The most frequent diagnoses were major depression (24%, generalized anxiety disorder (20.9% and panic disorder/agoraphobia spectrum disorders (17.7%. We found no significant differences in the prevalence of anxiety disorders and depression between the groups with mild/moderate and severe asthma. Despite the high frequency of depression and anxiety disorders, only 4 (6.5% patients were under psychiatric treatment and 13 (20.9% patients were taking benzodiazepines. Twelve of 15 (80% patients who reported present use of psychotropic medication were not under psychiatric treatment at the moment of the study. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support the high morbidity of anxiety and depressive disorders in asthmatic patients, independent of the severity of asthma.

  4. Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Anxiety Disorders KidsHealth > For Teens > Anxiety Disorders A A ... Do en español Trastornos de ansiedad What Is Anxiety? Liam had always looked out for his younger ...

  5. Childhood life events and childhood trauma in adult patients with depressive, anxiety and comorbid disorders vs. controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovens, J. G. F. M.; Wiersma, J. E.; Giltay, E. J.; van Oppen, P.; Spinhoven, P.; Penninx, B. W. J. H.; Zitman, F. G.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the association between childhood life events, childhood trauma and the presence of anxiety, depressive or comorbid anxiety and depressive disorders in adulthood. Method: Data are from 1931 adult participants in the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA). Child

  6. Secondary depression in severe anxiety disorders: a population-based cohort study in Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Sandra M; Petersen, Liselotte; Mattheisen, Manuel; Mors, Ole; Mortensen, Preben B; Laursen, Thomas M

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Depression and anxiety disorders are highly comorbid conditions and a worldwide disease burden; however, large-scale studies delineating their association are scarce. In this retrospective study, we aimed to assess the effect of severe anxiety disorders on the risk and course of depression. Methods We did a population-based cohort study with prospectively gathered data in Denmark using data from three Danish population registers: The Danish Civil Registration System, the Danish Psychiatric Central Register, and the Danish National Hospital Registry. We selected the cohort from people born in Denmark between Jan 1, 1955, and Dec 31, 2002, who we followed up from Jan 1, 1994, to Dec 31, 2012. The cohort was restricted to individuals with known parents. First, we investigated the effect of specific anxiety diagnoses on risk of single depressive episodes and recurrent depressive disorder. Second, we investigated the effect of comorbid anxiety on risk of readmission for depression, adjusting for sex, age, calendar year, parental age, place at residence at time of birth, and the interaction of age with sex. Findings We included 3 380 059 individuals in our study cohort. The adjusted incidence rate ratio (IRR) for single depressive episodes was 3·0 (95% CI 2·8–3·1, pdepressive disorder was 5·0 (4·8–5·2) in patients with severe anxiety disorders compared with the general population. Compared with control individuals, the offspring of parents with anxiety disorders were more likely to be diagnosed with single depressive episodes (1·9, 1·8–2·0) or recurrent depressive disorder (2·1, 1·9–2·2). Comorbid anxiety increased the readmission rates in both patients with single depressive episodes and patients with recurrent depressive disorder. Interpretation Severe anxiety constitutes a significant risk factor for depression. Focusing on specific anxiety disorders might help to identify individuals at risk of depression, thereby providing new

  7. examining the relationship between anxiety disorders and depression

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    ... may select cer- tain environmental elements and overlook others in their effort to prove that they ... behaviours may be worsened. In patients with post-traumatic stress dis- order (PTSD), feelings of ... of suicide in the longer term (especial- ly with panic ... Table I. Neurobiology of general anxiety disorders. Neuroanatomy.

  8. Seasonality in depressive and anxiety symptoms among primary care patients and in patients with depressive and anxiety disorders; results from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winthorst, Wim H.; Post, Wendy J.; Meesters, Ybe; Penninx, Brenda W. H. J.; Nolen, Willem A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Little is known about seasonality of specific depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms in different patient populations. This study aims to assess seasonal variation of depressive and anxiety symptoms in a primary care population and across participants who were classified in diagnostic

  9. Patterns of co-morbidity with anxiety disorders in Chinese women with recurrent major depression

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Y; Shi, S; Yang, F.; Gao, J.; Li,Youhui; M. Tao; Wang, G.; Zhang, K; Gao, C.; Liu, L.; Li, Kan; Li, Keqing; Liu, Y.; Wang, Xumei; Zhang, J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Studies conducted in Europe and the USA have shown that co-morbidity between major depressive disorder (MDD) and anxiety disorders is associated with various MDD-related features, including clinical symptoms, degree of familial aggregation and socio-economic status. However, few studies have investigated whether these patterns of association vary across different co-morbid anxiety disorders. Here, using a large cohort of Chinese women with recurrent MDD, we examine the prevalence a...

  10. Risk of developing major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders among adolescents and adults with atopic dermatitis: a nationwide longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chih-Ming; Hsu, Ju-Wei; Huang, Kai-Lin; Bai, Ya-Mei; Su, Tung-Ping; Li, Cheng-Ta; Yang, Albert C; Chang, Wen-Han; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Tsai, Shih-Jen; Chen, Mu-Hong

    2015-06-01

    Previous cross-sectional studies have suggested a comorbid association between atopic dermatitis (AD) and depressive disorder as well as anxiety disorders, but the temporal relationship was not determined. Using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database, 8208 AD patients aged 12 and older without psychiatric history and age-/sex-matched (1:1) controls between 1998 and 2008 were enrolled in our study and followed to the end of 2011. Subjects who developed major depression, any depressive disorder, and anxiety disorders during the follow-up were identified. The Cox regression analysis after adjusting for demographic data and atopic comorbidities demonstrated that patients with AD had an elevated risk of developing major depression (hazard ratio [HR]: 6.56, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.64-11.84), any depressive disorder (HR: 5.44, 95% CI: 3.99-7.44), and anxiety disorders (HR: 3.57, 95% CI: 2.55-4.98). Stratified by age group, both adolescents and adults with AD were prone to developing major depression (HR: 4.26, 95% CI: 1.39-13.13; HR: 7.56, 95% CI: 3.75-15.23), any depressive disorder (HR: 4.38, 95% CI: 2.09-9.18; HR: 5.66, 95% CI: 4.01-7.99), and anxiety disorders (HR: 5.40, 95% CI: 2.02-14.39; HR: 3.36, 95% CI: 2.38-4.80). AD in both adolescence and adulthood increased the risk of developing major depression, any depressive disorder, and anxiety disorders in later life. Further studies would be required to clarify the possible underlying mechanism between AD and depression as well as anxiety disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The Genetics of Stress-Related Disorders: PTSD, Depression, and Anxiety Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoller, Jordan W

    2016-01-01

    Research into the causes of psychopathology has largely focused on two broad etiologic factors: genetic vulnerability and environmental stressors. An important role for familial/heritable factors in the etiology of a broad range of psychiatric disorders was established well before the modern era of genomic research. This review focuses on the genetic basis of three disorder categories-posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depressive disorder (MDD), and the anxiety disorders-for which environmental stressors and stress responses are understood to be central to pathogenesis. Each of these disorders aggregates in families and is moderately heritable. More recently, molecular genetic approaches, including genome-wide studies of genetic variation, have been applied to identify specific risk variants. In this review, I summarize evidence for genetic contributions to PTSD, MDD, and the anxiety disorders including genetic epidemiology, the role of common genetic variation, the role of rare and structural variation, and the role of gene-environment interaction. Available data suggest that stress-related disorders are highly complex and polygenic and, despite substantial progress in other areas of psychiatric genetics, few risk loci have been identified for these disorders. Progress in this area will likely require analysis of much larger sample sizes than have been reported to date. The phenotypic complexity and genetic overlap among these disorders present further challenges. The review concludes with a discussion of prospects for clinical translation of genetic findings and future directions for research.

  12. Anxiety sensitivity and subjective social status in relation to anxiety and depressive symptoms and disorders among Latinos in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvolensky, Michael J; Bakhshaie, Jafar; Garza, Monica; Valdivieso, Jeanette; Ortiz, Mayra; Bogiaizian, Daniel; Robles, Zuzuky; Vujanovic, Anka

    2015-05-01

    The present investigation examined the interactive effects of anxiety sensitivity and subjective social status in relation to anxiety and depressive symptoms and psychopathology among 143 Latinos (85.7% female; Mage=39.0, SD=10.9; 97.2% used Spanish as their first language) who attended a community-based primary healthcare clinic. Results indicated that the interaction between anxiety sensitivity and subjective social status was significantly associated with number of mood and anxiety disorders, panic, social anxiety, and depressive symptoms. The form of the significant interactions indicated that individuals reporting co-occurring higher levels of anxiety sensitivity and lower levels of subjective social status evidenced the greatest levels of psychopathology and panic, social anxiety, and depressive symptoms. The present findings suggest that there is merit in focusing further scientific attention on the interplay between anxiety sensitivity and subjective social status in regard to understanding, and thus, better intervening to reduce anxiety/depressive vulnerability among Latinos in primary care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Anxiety and Depressed Mood Decline Following Smoking Abstinence in Adult Smokers with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covey, Lirio S; Hu, Mei-Chen; Winhusen, Theresa; Lima, Jennifer; Berlin, Ivan; Nunes, Edward

    2015-12-01

    A preponderance of relevant research has indicated reduction in anxiety and depressive symptoms following smoking abstinence. This secondary analysis investigated whether the phenomenon extends to smokers with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The study setting was an 11-Week double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial of osmotic release oral system methylphenidate (OROS-MPH) as a cessation aid when added to nicotine patch and counseling. Participants were 255 adult smokers with ADHD. The study outcomes are: anxiety (Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI)) and depressed mood (Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI)) measured one Week and six Weeks after a target quit day (TQD). The main predictor is point-prevalence abstinence measured at Weeks 1 and 6 after TQD. Covariates are treatment (OROS-MPH vs placebo), past major depression, past anxiety disorder, number of cigarettes smoked daily, demographics (age, gender, education, marital status) and baseline scores on the BAI, BDI, and the DSM-IV ADHD Rating Scale. Abstinence was significantly associated with lower anxiety ratings throughout the post-quit period (panxiety (pAnxiety and depression ratings at baseline predicted increased ratings of corresponding measures during the post-quit period. Stopping smoking yielded reductions in anxiety and depressed mood in smokers with ADHD treated with nicotine patch and counseling. Treatment with OROS-MPH yielded mood reductions in delayed manner. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The role of depression in perceived parenting style among patients with anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fentz, Hanne N; Arendt, Mikkel; O'Toole, Mia S; Rosenberg, Nicole K; Hougaard, Esben

    2011-12-01

    Despite a long tradition of research on the relationship between parenting style and anxiety disorders, few studies have taken the effect of comorbid depression into account. This study investigated perceived parenting in 504 outpatients with panic disorder/agoraphobia, social phobia or obsessive-compulsive disorder, and in 210 psychology students. The anxiety group reported both parents as less caring and their fathers as more controlling than did the student group. However, these between-group differences disappeared when taking self-reported depressive symptoms into consideration. Also no differences in parental style were found between the three diagnostic anxiety groups, when depressive symptoms were taken into account. Self-reported depressive symptoms were more consistently associated with negatively perceived parenting style than with self-reported anxiety symptoms in both the anxiety group and the student group. Results do not support theories of parental control as a specific risk factor for anxiety disorders, but they are in accordance with prior findings showing an association between depression and perceived lack of parental care. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The impact of childhood adversities on anxiety and depressive disorders in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marackova, Marketa; Prasko, Jan; Matousek, Stanislav; Latalova, Klara; Hruby, Radovan; Holubova, Michaela; Slepecky, Milos; Vrbova, Kristyna; Grambal, Ales

    2016-12-01

    The childhood adversities model is generally accepted as a predictor of adult psychopathology vulnerability. It stems from child development theories, but the question remains as of how well solid research supports it. The aim of this article is to give a review of the studies concerning childhood adversities and their impact on the development of anxiety disorders and major depressive disorder in adulthood. A computerized search of the MEDLINE database of publications up to 31 March 2016 was done, using the keywords "childhood adversities, abuse, maltreatment, bullying" and "anxiety disorders, depressive disorder". No backward time constraints were used. Non-original studies, conference abstracts, books and book chapters, commentaries, and dissertations were excluded. The influence of childhood adversities on later age psychopathology is examined in five categories: the negative family atmosphere, abuse, loss of a close person, the social difficulties, and problems at school (including, most importantly bullying). The majority of studies confirmed the connection between childhood adversities and anxiety and depression disorders in adulthood. The character of the adversities is not, apparently, a specific predictor for a concrete psychopathology. Multiple adversities are more frequently connected with depressive and anxiety disorders in adulthood, cumulating together in broader adverse context. Childhood adversities were found to increase vulnerability to the distress, depression, fear and anxiety later in the life. However, specific correlations between a given childhood adversity and a specific form of depression or anxiety disorder were either not found or weak. This is in line with the generally accepted view considering each of these factors a non-specific stressor increasing vulnerability to mood and affect disorders later in life.

  16. The effect of comorbid major depressive disorder or bipolar disorder on cognitive behavioral therapy for social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fracalanza, Katie; McCabe, Randi E; Taylor, Valerie H; Antony, Martin M

    2014-06-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD) commonly co-occur in individuals with social anxiety disorder (SAD), yet whether these comorbidities influence the outcomes of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for SAD is unclear. The present study examined the degree to which individuals with SAD and comorbid MDD (SAD+MDD; n=76), comorbid BD (SAD+BD; n=19), a comorbid anxiety disorder (SAD+ANX; n=27), or no comorbid diagnoses (SAD+NCO; n=41) benefitted from CBT for SAD. Individuals were screened using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV and then completed the Social Phobia Inventory and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales before and after 12-weeks of group CBT for SAD. At pretreatment the SAD+MDD and SAD+BD groups reported higher social anxiety symptoms than the SAD+ANX and SAD+NCO groups. All groups reported large and significant improvement in social anxiety with CBT. However, at posttreatment the SAD+MDD and SAD+BD groups continued to have higher social anxiety symptoms than the SAD+NCO group, and the SAD+ANX group did not differ in social anxiety symptoms from any group. The sample also showed small and statistically significant improvement in depressive symptoms with CBT for SAD. Information about medication was not collected in the present study, and we did not assess the long-term effects of CBT. Our results suggest that CBT for SAD is an effective treatment even in the presence of comorbid mood disorders in the short-term, although extending the course of treatment may be helpful for this population and should be investigated in future research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of Depression, Anxiety, and Stress in Adolescents and Young Adults with Auditory Neuropathy Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashanth Prabhu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the severity of stress, anxiety, and depression using Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS in adolescents and young adults with auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD. DASS was administered to 20 individuals with auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder. The effect of gender on severity of anxiety, stress, and depression on DASS scores was determined. It was attempted to determine the correlation of severity of anxiety, stress, and depression with the reported onset of the problem, degree of hearing loss, and speech identification scores. The results of the study showed that individuals with ANSD had a moderate degree of depression and anxiety. The results also showed that the symptoms were more seen in females than in males. Correlation analysis revealed that DASS scores correlated with the reported onset of condition and speech identification scores (SIS and the degree of hearing loss showed no correlation. The study concludes that individuals with ANSD experience depression and anxiety and this could be because of the inadequate management options available for individuals with ANSD. Thus, there is a need to develop appropriate management strategies for individuals with ANSD and provide appropriate referral for management of psychological issues.

  18. The role of negative emotionality and impulsivity in depressive/anxiety disorders and alcohol dependence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschloo, L.; Vogelzangs, N.; van den Brink, W.; Smit, J. H.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Penninx, Brenda

    2013-01-01

    Background. Much is still unclear about the role of personality in the structure of common psychiatric disorders such as depressive/anxiety disorders and alcohol dependence. This study will therefore examine whether various traits of negative emotionality and impulsivity showed shared or specific as

  19. Recurrent suicide attempts in patients with depressive and anxiety disorders: The role of borderline personality traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stringer, Barbara; Meijel, Berno van; Eikelenboom, M.; Koekkoek, B.; Licht, C.; Kerkhof, A.J.; Penninx, B.W.; Beekman, A.T.

    2013-01-01

    Background The presence of a comorbid borderline personality disorder (BPD) may be associated with an increase of suicidal behaviors in patients with depressive and anxiety disorders. The aim of this study is to examine the role of borderline personality traits on recurrent suicide attempts. Method

  20. Sleep in depression and anxiety disorders: A population-based study of elderly persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.F. van den Berg (Julia); H.J. Luijendijk (Hendrika); J.H.M. Tulen (Joke); A. Hofman (Albert); A.K. Neven (Arie); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractObjective: Sleep disturbance is common in psychiatric disorders. However, the relationships of core parameters in sleep research, such as total sleep time (TST), with depression and anxiety disorders are unclear and have rarely been investigated in large population-based studies. Method:

  1. Treatment inadequacy in primary and specialized care patients with depressive and/or anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bet, Pierre M.; Hugtenburg, Jacqueline G.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; van Balkom, Anton; Nolen, Willem A.; Hoogendijk, Witte J. G.

    2013-01-01

    All guidelines on major depressive disorder (MDD) and anxiety disorders recommend pharmacotherapy and/or psychological treatment for moderate to severe disease. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate treatment inadequacy, both pharmacological and psychological, in a large naturalis

  2. Recurrent suicide attempts in patients with depressive and anxiety disorders : The role of borderline personality traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stringer, Barbara; van Meijel, Berno; Eikelenboom, Merijn; Koekkoek, Bauke; Licht, Carmilla M. M.; Kerkhof, Ad J. F. M.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Beekman, Aartjan T. F.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The presence of a comorbid borderline personality disorder (BPD) may be associated with an increase of suicidal behaviors in patients with depressive and anxiety disorders. The aim of this study is to examine the role of borderline personality traits on recurrent suicide attempts.

  3. Recurrent suicide attempts in patients with depressive and anxiety disorders : The role of borderline personality traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stringer, Barbara; van Meijel, Berno; Eikelenboom, Merijn; Koekkoek, Bauke; Licht, Carmilla M. M.; Kerkhof, Ad J. F. M.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Beekman, Aartjan T. F.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The presence of a comorbid borderline personality disorder (BPD) may be associated with an increase of suicidal behaviors in patients with depressive and anxiety disorders. The aim of this study is to examine the role of borderline personality traits on recurrent suicide attempts. Method

  4. Sleep in depression and anxiety disorders: A population-based study of elderly persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.F. van den Berg (Julia); H.J. Luijendijk (Hendrika); J.H.M. Tulen (Joke); A. Hofman (Albert); A.K. Neven (Arie); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractObjective: Sleep disturbance is common in psychiatric disorders. However, the relationships of core parameters in sleep research, such as total sleep time (TST), with depression and anxiety disorders are unclear and have rarely been investigated in large population-based studies. Method:

  5. Validity of the Revised Children's Anxiety and Depression Scale for Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Lindsey; Renno, Patricia; Storch, Eric A.; Ehrenreich-May, Jill; Lewin, Adam B.; Arnold, Elysse; Lin, Enjey; Wood, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    High rates of anxiety and depression are reported among youth with autism spectrum disorders. These conditions are generally assessed using measures validated for typically developing youth. Few studies have investigated their validity for autism spectrum disorders, which is crucial for accurate assessment and the provision of proper treatment.…

  6. Pilot Study: Fluvoxamine Treatment for Depression and Anxiety Disorders in Children and Adolescents with Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gothelf, Doron; Rubinstein, Maly; Shemesh, Eyal; Miller, Orit; Farbstein, Ilana; Klein, Anat; Weizman, Abraham; Apter, Alan; Yaniv, Isaac

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the safety, tolerability, and benefit of fluvoxamine for the treatment of major depressive disorder or anxiety disorders in children and adolescents with cancer. Method: The study was conducted from 2001 to 2004 at a pediatric hematology-oncology center. Fifteen children and adolescents with cancer were treated with…

  7. Validity of the Revised Children's Anxiety and Depression Scale for Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Lindsey; Renno, Patricia; Storch, Eric A.; Ehrenreich-May, Jill; Lewin, Adam B.; Arnold, Elysse; Lin, Enjey; Wood, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    High rates of anxiety and depression are reported among youth with autism spectrum disorders. These conditions are generally assessed using measures validated for typically developing youth. Few studies have investigated their validity for autism spectrum disorders, which is crucial for accurate assessment and the provision of proper treatment.…

  8. Recurrent suicide attempts in patients with depressive and anxiety disorders : The role of borderline personality traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stringer, Barbara; van Meijel, Berno; Eikelenboom, Merijn; Koekkoek, Bauke; Licht, Carmilla M. M.; Kerkhof, Ad J. F. M.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Beekman, Aartjan T. F.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The presence of a comorbid borderline personality disorder (BPD) may be associated with an increase of suicidal behaviors in patients with depressive and anxiety disorders. The aim of this study is to examine the role of borderline personality traits on recurrent suicide attempts. Method

  9. Relapse prevention and residual symptoms: a closer analysis of placebo-controlled continuation studies with escitalopram in major depressive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Per; Lönn, Sara L; Overø, Kerstin F

    2010-01-01

    -Severity of Illness scores and relapse status in 4 studies published from 2005 to 2007, 1 each in major depressive disorder (MDD), generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), were analyzed using mixed-effects model repeated measures as a function of Montgomery...

  10. Effects of exercise on anxiety and depression disorders: review of meta- analyses and neurobiological mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, Mirko; Helmich, Ingo; Machado, Sergio; Nardi, Antonio E; Arias-Carrion, Oscar; Budde, Henning

    2014-01-01

    Anxiety and depression are the most frequently diagnosed psychological diseases showing a high co-morbidity. They have a severe impact on the lives of the persons concerned. Many meta-analytical studies suggested a positive anxiolytic and depression-reducing effect of exercise programs. The aim of the present article is to synthesize metaanalyses on the effects of exercise on anxiety and depression and to describe average effect sizes. For this purpose 37 meta-analyses were included reporting 50 effect sizes for anxiety scores of 42,264 participants and depression scores of 48,207 persons. The average documented anxiolytic effect of exercise in these reviews was small, 0.34. In contrast, the effect of exercise on depression was significantly higher and at a moderate level, 0.56. Data of randomized controlled trials suggest higher sizes for the effect of exercise on anxiety and depression leading to increases up to moderate and large effects, respectively. Additionally, exercise seems to be more beneficial for patients compared to participants within a non-clinical, normal range of psychological disease. Especially for the effect of exercise on anxiety, more high quality meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials are needed. Finally, possible neurobiological explanations are suggested for the positive effect of exercise on psychological disorders like anxiety and depression.

  11. Anxiety and depressive disorders in elderly with chronic dizziness of vestibular origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érica Toledo Piza Peluso

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Dizziness is one of the most prevalent symptoms in the elderly. Anxiety and depression are common in dizzy adult patients, but there is scarce information about comorbidity between vestibular disturbances and psychiatric disorders in the aged. OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of anxiety and depression disorders in elderly with chronic dizziness of vestibular origin. METHODS: Transversal study that used the Brazilian version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview 2.1 to assess anxiety and depressive disorders in elderly patients (≥60 years old with chronic dizziness. RESULTS: Most of the 44 patients included in the study were female (88.6% with a mean age of 71 years (±7.5, 68.1% had experienced dizziness for 1 year or more. The most prevalent diagnosis was benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (52.3%. The prevalence of generalized anxiety disorder and specific phobias during life were 29.5% and 22.7%, respectively, and, in the last 12 months, 18.2% and 15.9%. There was no patient with panic disorder, agoraphobia or social phobia. The prevalence of depressive disorder during life was 45.4%, and, in the last 12 months, were 11.3%. CONCLUSION: Aged patients with chronic dizziness had high prevalence of some mental disorders.

  12. Stress system dysregulation in pediatric generalized anxiety disorder associated with comorbid depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funke, R; Eichler, A; Distler, J; Golub, Y; Kratz, O; Moll, G H

    2016-12-16

    Because chronic stress is an important risk factor for anxiety states and depressive disorders, we studied hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and sympathetic system activity via changes in cortisol and alpha amylase activity levels in pediatric generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) patients (n = 26) with comorbid depression and a healthy comparison group (n = 26). Morning plasma cortisol and diurnal profiles of salivary cortisol and salivary alpha amylase (sAA) activity were assessed, also reactivity of HPA-axis, sAA activity, and heart rate following a psychosocial stressor (Trier Social Stress Test for children). GAD patients with comorbid depression showed increased morning plasma and salivary cortisol levels, ameliorating throughout in-patient treatment, and higher sAA activity in their diurnal profile. Both HPA and sympathetic activity positively correlated with the severity of anxiety and depression. We also demonstrated a blunted HPA and sympathetic response to acute stress in patients. This pattern of neuroendocrine and sympathetic changes seems to be distinct from the one previously reported in pediatric patients with only social anxiety or depressive disorders. We propose morning plasma and saliva cortisol levels as potential physiological indicators for supporting the evaluation of symptoms' severity and treatment progress in children with GAD and comorbid depressive disorder.

  13. Gut emotions - mechanisms of action of probiotics as novel therapeutic targets for depression and anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slyepchenko, Anastasiya; Carvalho, Andre F; Cha, Danielle S; Kasper, Siegfried; McIntyre, Roger S

    2014-01-01

    A priority clinical and research agenda in mood and anxiety disorders is to identify determinants that influence illness trajectory and outcome. Over the past decade, studies have demonstrated a bidirectional relationship between the gut microbiome and brain function (i.e., the microbiota-gut-brain axis). Probiotic treatments and developmental analysis of the microbiome may provide potential treatments and preventative measures for depressive and anxiety disorders. This systematic literature review aims to identify original studies linking the gut microbiota to major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders. Furthermore, this review searched for original reports focusing on possible therapeutic and preventative effects of probiotics for these debilitating conditions. Accumulating data indicate that the gut microbiota communicates with the CNS through neural, endocrine and immune pathways. Studies in germ-free animals indicate that the microbiota is involved in the regulation of the stress response (e.g., hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis) and in CNS development at critical stages. Probiotics attenuate anxiety and depressive-like behaviors in experimental animal models. Notwithstanding some inconsistencies and methodological limitations across trials, clinical studies suggest that probiotics may mitigate anxiety symptoms. However, future studies should investigate the anxiolytic and antidepressant effects of probiotics in more phenotypically homogeneous populations. In conclusion, the emerging concept of a gut microbiota-brain axis suggests that the modulation of the gut microbiota may provide a novel therapeutic target for the treatment and/or prevention of mood and anxiety disorders.

  14. Depression and a sense of coherence in case of people with anxiety disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Kurowska

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Anxiety and depressive disorders belong to the most prevalent mental diseases. Concomitance of anx‑ iety and depression is very strongly correlated with increased sense of guilt, low self-esteem and hopelessness, which significantly contributes to worse social functioning. The sense of coherence (SOC is a factor which influences the ability to cope with stress and is inseparably related with health. A high level of SOC makes people more self-confi‑ dent and gives them strength to fight with the disease. Aim: Defining the correlation between the level of the sense of coherence and the level of depression in people treated for anxiety disorders, as a determinant having an influence on maintaining the optimal health. Material and methods: The research was carried out among 96 patients treated in the Anxiety and Affective Disorders Ward in Bydgoszcz. The sense of coherence was assessed using Antonovsky’s Orientation to Life Questionnaire (SOC-29 and the level of depression was assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory. Results: People suffering from anxiety disorders have a low level of the sense of coherence and a high level of depression. A strong negative correlation was found between the level of the sense of coherence and the level of depression: with a lower level of the sense of coherence the level of depression grows and vice versa. Conclusions: The obtained results may significantly affect the level of understanding and accepting the people with anxiety disor‑ ders. Determining the level of the sense of coherence and the level of depression may have a significant impact on therapy and may be used as a determinant in prediction and planning of the care for the patient.

  15. Discovery of serum biomarkers predicting development of a subsequent depressive episode in social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottschalk, M G; Cooper, J D; Chan, M K; Bot, M; Penninx, B W J H; Bahn, S

    2015-08-01

    Although social anxiety disorder (SAD) is strongly associated with the subsequent development of a depressive disorder (major depressive disorder or dysthymia), no underlying biological risk factors are known. We aimed to identify biomarkers which predict depressive episodes in SAD patients over a 2-year follow-up period. One hundred sixty-five multiplexed immunoassay analytes were investigated in blood serum of 143 SAD patients without co-morbid depressive disorders, recruited within the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA). Predictive performance of identified biomarkers, clinical variables and self-report inventories was assessed using receiver operating characteristics curves (ROC) and represented by the area under the ROC curve (AUC). Stepwise logistic regression resulted in the selection of four serum analytes (AXL receptor tyrosine kinase, vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, vitronectin, collagen IV) and four additional variables (Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology, Beck Anxiety Inventory somatic subscale, depressive disorder lifetime diagnosis, BMI) as optimal set of patient parameters. When combined, an AUC of 0.86 was achieved for the identification of SAD individuals who later developed a depressive disorder. Throughout our analyses, biomarkers yielded superior discriminative performance compared to clinical variables and self-report inventories alone. We report the discovery of a serum marker panel with good predictive performance to identify SAD individuals prone to develop subsequent depressive episodes in a naturalistic cohort design. Furthermore, we emphasise the importance to combine biological markers, clinical variables and self-report inventories for disease course predictions in psychiatry. Following replication in independent cohorts, validated biomarkers could help to identify SAD patients at risk of developing a depressive disorder, thus facilitating early intervention.

  16. Disordered gambling and co-morbidity of psychiatric disorders among college students: an examination of problem drinking, anxiety and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ryan J; Usdan, Stuart; Cremeens, Jennifer; Vail-Smith, Karen

    2014-06-01

    We assessed the occurrence of co-morbid psychiatric disorders (i.e., problem drinking, anxiety, and depression) among college students who met the threshold for disordered gambling. The participants included a large sample of undergraduate students (n = 1,430) who were enrolled in an introductory health course at a large, southeastern university in Spring 2011 and completed an online assessment that included scales to assess disordered gambling, problem drinking, anxiety, and depression. We calculated screening scores, computed prevalence rates for each disorder, and calculated Pearson correlations and Chi square tests to examine correlations and co-morbid relationships between the four disorders. Analyses indicated that all disorders were significantly associated (p college students who experience disordered gambling (and other psychiatric disorders) are at increased risk of experiencing co-occurring disorders, it might be useful for college health professionals to concurrently screen and intervene for co-occurring disorders.

  17. Elevated Appraisals of the Negative Impact of Naturally Occurring Life Events: A Risk Factor for Depressive and Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espejo, Emmanuel Peter; Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia A.

    2012-01-01

    The tendency to appraise naturally occurring life events (LEs) as having high negative impact may be a predisposing factor for the development of depression and anxiety disorders. In the current study, appraisals of the negative impact of recent LEs were examined in relationship to depressive and anxiety disorders in a sample of 653 adolescents…

  18. Elevated Appraisals of the Negative Impact of Naturally Occurring Life Events: A Risk Factor for Depressive and Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espejo, Emmanuel Peter; Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia A.

    2012-01-01

    The tendency to appraise naturally occurring life events (LEs) as having high negative impact may be a predisposing factor for the development of depression and anxiety disorders. In the current study, appraisals of the negative impact of recent LEs were examined in relationship to depressive and anxiety disorders in a sample of 653 adolescents…

  19. Implicit associations in social anxiety disorder: the effects of comorbid depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Judy; Morrison, Amanda S; Heimberg, Richard G; Goldin, Philippe R; Gross, James J

    2014-08-01

    Implicit associations of the self to concepts like "calm" have been shown to be weaker in persons with social anxiety than in non-anxious healthy controls. However, other implicit self associations, such as those to acceptance or rejection, have been less studied in social anxiety, and none of this work has been conducted with clinical samples. Furthermore, the importance of depression in these relationships has not been well investigated. We addressed these issues by administering two Implicit Association Tests (IATs; Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwartz, 1998), one examining the implicit association of self/other to anxiety/calmness and the other examining the association of self/other to rejection/acceptance, to individuals with generalized social anxiety disorder (SAD, n=85), individuals with generalized SAD and a current or past diagnosis of major depressive disorder or current dysthymic disorder (n=47), and non-anxious, non-depressed healthy controls (n=44). The SAD and SAD-depression groups showed weaker implicit self-calmness associations than healthy controls, with the comorbid group showing the weakest self-calmness associations. The SAD-depression group showed the weakest implicit self-acceptance associations; no difference was found between non-depressed individuals with SAD and healthy controls. Post hoc analyses revealed that differences appeared to be driven by those with current depression. The SAD-only and SAD-depression groups did not differ in self-reported (explicit) social anxiety. The implications of these findings for the understanding of SAD-depression comorbidity and for the treatment of SAD are considered. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Gender differences in major depressive disorder : Results from the Netherlands study of depression and anxiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuch, Jerome J. J.; Roest, Annelieke M.; Nolen, Willem A.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; de Jonge, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although an overall gender difference in prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) has been well established, several questions concerning gender differences in the clinical manifestation of depression remain. This study aims to identify gender differences in psychopathology, treatme

  1. Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Rachel G.

    2009-01-01

    Because of their high prevalence and their negative long-term consequences, child anxiety disorders have become an important focus of interest. Whether pathological anxiety and normal fear are similar processes continues to be controversial. Comparative studies of child anxiety disorders are scarce, but there is some support for the current…

  2. Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Rachel G.

    2009-01-01

    Because of their high prevalence and their negative long-term consequences, child anxiety disorders have become an important focus of interest. Whether pathological anxiety and normal fear are similar processes continues to be controversial. Comparative studies of child anxiety disorders are scarce, but there is some support for the current…

  3. Circulating C19 steroids and progesterone metabolites in women with acute depression and anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Martin; Řípová, Daniela; Mohr, Pavel; Kratochvílová, Zuzana; Velíková, Marta; Dušková, Michaela; Bičíková, Marie; Stárka, Luboslav

    2016-06-01

    Depression and anxiety disorders are highly prevalent in women. Although several studies have reported altered circulating steroids accompanying various mental disturbances, knowledge about alterations in the peripheral steroid pattern in such pathologies is incomplete. Therefore, we attempted to add to this knowledge using the simultaneous quantification of circulating steroids by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in groups of premenopausal women in the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle (22 women with depression, 17 with anxiety disorders, 17 healthy controls). In addition to age-adjusted analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) followed by multiple comparisons, we developed models to successfully discriminate these groups from each other on the basis of steroid levels. Women with depression showed a reduced sulfoconjugation of steroids as well as lower levels of 7α-, 7β- and 16α-hydroxy-metabolites of C19 Δ5 steroids. Women with depression have significantly lower circulating levels of 5α/β-reduced pregnane steroids (with exception of free isopregnanolone) than women with anxiety or controls. Finally, our data indicate higher levels of estrogens in women with anxiety disorders when compared to women with depression.

  4. Impact of Comorbid Depressive Disorders on Subjective and Physiological Responses to Emotion in Generalized Anxiety Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeley, Saren H; Mennin, Douglas S; Aldao, Amelia; McLaughlin, Katie A; Rottenberg, Jonathan; Fresco, David M

    2016-06-01

    Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and unipolar depressive disorders (UDD) have been shown to differ from each other in dimensions of affective functioning despite their high rates of comorbidity. We showed emotional film clips to a community sample (n = 170) with GAD, GAD with secondary UDD, or no diagnosis. Groups had comparable subjective responses to the clips, but the GAD group had significantly lower heart rate variability (HRV) during fear and after sadness, compared to controls. While HRV in the GAD and control groups rose in response to the sadness and happiness clips, it returned to baseline levels afterwards in the GAD group, potentially indicating lesser ability to sustain attention on emotional stimuli. HRV in the GAD + UDD group changed only in response to sadness, but was otherwise unvarying between timepoints. Though preliminary, these findings suggest comorbid UDD as a potential moderator of emotional responding in GAD.

  5. Anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craske, Michelle G; Stein, Murray B; Eley, Thalia C; Milad, Mohammed R; Holmes, Andrew; Rapee, Ronald M; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich

    2017-05-04

    Anxiety disorders constitute the largest group of mental disorders in most western societies and are a leading cause of disability. The essential features of anxiety disorders are excessive and enduring fear, anxiety or avoidance of perceived threats, and can also include panic attacks. Although the neurobiology of individual anxiety disorders is largely unknown, some generalizations have been identified for most disorders, such as alterations in the limbic system, dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and genetic factors. In addition, general risk factors for anxiety disorders include female sex and a family history of anxiety, although disorder-specific risk factors have also been identified. The diagnostic criteria for anxiety disorders varies for the individual disorders, but are generally similar across the two most common classification systems: the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) and the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Edition (ICD-10). Despite their public health significance, the vast majority of anxiety disorders remain undetected and untreated by health care systems, even in economically advanced countries. If untreated, these disorders are usually chronic with waxing and waning symptoms. Impairments associated with anxiety disorders range from limitations in role functioning to severe disabilities, such as the patient being unable to leave their home.

  6. Depression and Anxiety Disorders among Patients with Psoriasis: A Hospital-Based Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Golpour

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Psoriasis is a common, genetically determined inflammatory and proliferative disease of the skin. Psychological stress can exacerbate the disease. This study sought to investigate the depression and anxiety disorders among patients with psoriasis and control group. Method. In this hospital-based case-control study, One hundred patients with psoriasis (case referred to the dermatology department and 100 patients with otolaryngology problems and dermatological healthy volunteers (control who referred to the Otolaryngology Department of Bouali Sina Hospital in Sari, Iran, in 2007 were studied. Demographic characteristics were recorded. Beck Depression Inventory and Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Scale I-II were administered to the patients in both groups. Data were analyzed using SPSS statistical software and descriptive statistical tests. Results. From One-hundred patients in each group, 44 (45% were men. Depression score was 67% and 12% in psoriatic patients and control, respectively. The Beck depression scores of patients with psoriasis were significantly higher than scores of the control group (<0.05. Based on Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Scale, anxiety was found in 45% of patients in case group and 18% of controls. Conclusion. The results revealed that psoriatic patients reported significantly higher degrees of depression and anxiety than controls. In addition, psoriatic women were more depressed than psoriatic men.

  7. Prevalence of depression, anxiety, adjustment disorders, and somatoform disorders in patients with age-related macular degeneration in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Louis; Spiess, Alexandra; Kostev, Karel

    2017-01-01

    Aims: The purpose of this study was to analyze the prevalence of depression, anxiety, adjustment disorders, and somatoform disorders in patients diagnosed with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in Germany. Methods: This study included 7,580 patients between the ages of 40 and 90 diagnosed with AMD between January 2011 and December 2014 in 1,072 primary care practices (index date). The last follow-up was in July 2016. We also included 7,580 controls without AMD, which were matched (1:1) to the AMD cases by age, sex, type of health insurance (private or statutory), physician, and Charlson comorbidity score as a generic marker of comorbidity. The outcome of the study was the prevalence of depression, anxiety, adjustment disorders, and somatoform disorders recorded in the database between the index date and the end of follow-up. Results: The mean age among subjects was 75.7 years (SD=10.1 years), 34.0% were men, and 7.8% had private health insurance coverage. The Charlson comorbidity index was 2.0 (SD=1.8). Depression was the most frequent disease (33.7% in AMD patients versus 27.3% in controls), followed by somatoform disorders (19.6% and 16.7%), adjustment disorders (14.8% and 10.5%), and anxiety disorders (11.7% and 8.2%). Depression (OR=1.37, 95% CI: 1.27–1.47), anxiety (OR=1.50, 95% CI: 1.35–1.67), adjustment disorders (OR=1.50, 95% CI: 1.36–1.65), and somatoform disorders (OR=1.22, 95% CI: 1.12–1.32) were all positively associated with AMD. Conclusion: Overall, a significant association was found between AMD and depression, anxiety, adjustment disorders, and somatoform disorders.

  8. Anxiety, Depression, and Irritability in Children with Autism Relative to Other Neuropsychiatric Disorders and Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.; Murray, Michael J.; Ahuja, Meesha; Smith, Laura A.

    2011-01-01

    Maternal ratings of anxiety, depression, and irritability were analyzed in 1390 children (6-16 years of age), including 233 children with high functioning autism (HFA, IQ greater than or equal to 80), 117 children with low functioning autism (LFA, IQ less than 80), 187 typical children, and 853 children with other disorders. As a group, children…

  9. CHILDHOOD MALTREATMENT AND THE COURSE OF DEPRESSIVE AND ANXIETY DISORDERS : THE CONTRIBUTION OF PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovens, Jacqueline G. F. M.; Giltay, Erik J.; van Hemert, Albert M.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    BackgroundWe investigated the effect of childhood maltreatment on predicting the 4-year course of depressive and anxiety disorders and the possible mediating role of personality characteristics in the association between childhood maltreatment and illness course.MethodsLongitudinal data in a large

  10. Consensus statement on panic disorder from the International Consensus Group on Depression and Anxiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ballenger, JC; Lecrubier, Y; Nutt, DJ; Baldwin, DS; den Boer, JA; Kasper, S; Shear, MK

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To provide primary care clinicians with a better understanding of management issues in panic disorder and guide clinical practice with recommendations for appropriate pharmacotherapy. Participants: The 4 members of the International Consensus Group on Depression and Anxiety were James C.

  11. Interaction Effects between Maternal Lifetime Depressive/Anxiety Disorders and Correlates of Children's Externalizing Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piche, Genevieve; Bergeron, Lise; Cyr, Mireille; Berthiaume, Claude

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the interaction effects between mother's lifetime depressive/anxiety disorders and psychosocial correlates of 6 to 11 year-old children's self-reported externalizing symptoms in the Quebec Child Mental Health Survey. A representative subsample of 1,490 Quebec children aged 6 to 11 years was selected from the original sample. We…

  12. Salivary testosterone : Associations with depression, anxiety disorders, and antidepressant use in a large cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giltay, Erik J.; Enter, Dorien; Zitman, Frans G.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; van Pelt, Johannes; Spinhoven, Phillip; Roelofs, Karin

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Low circulating levels of testosterone have been associated with major depression, but there is more limited evidence for differences in patients with anxiety disorders. The use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and other antidepressants is associated with sexual side eff

  13. Salivary testosterone: associations with depression, anxiety disorders, and antidepressant use in a large cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giltay, E.J.; Enter, D.; Zitman, F.G.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Pelt, J. van; Spinhoven, P.; Roelofs, K.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Low circulating levels of testosterone have been associated with major depression, but there is more limited evidence for differences in patients with anxiety disorders. The use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and other antidepressants is associated with sexual side effe

  14. Emotional scars : impact of childhood trauma on depressive and anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovens, Jacqueline Gerarda Francisca Maria

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to investigate the effect of childhood trauma and childhood life-events on the development and course of depressive and anxiety disorders, and to identify risk factors contributing to these associations. In brief, our findings indicate that childhood trauma is an important

  15. The association between depression and anxiety disorders following facial trauma--a comparative study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Islam, Shofiq

    2010-01-01

    Although the surgical care provided for patients who have sustained a maxillofacial injury has advanced in recent years, psychological disorders may develop. Anxiety and depression may be a cause of significant morbidity in these patients. Such problems are often unrecognised and untreated.

  16. Current and Remitted Depression and Anxiety Disorders as Risk Factors for Medication Nonadherence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bet, Pierre M.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; van Laer, Stag D.; Hoogendijk, Witte J. G.; Hugtenburg, Jacqueline G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the impact of current and remitted depression and anxiety disorders and sociodemographic and other related factors on medication nonadherence in a large cohort study. Method: The Medication Adherence Rating Scale was used to assess medication nonadherence of 1,890 medicatio

  17. CHILDHOOD MALTREATMENT AND THE COURSE OF DEPRESSIVE AND ANXIETY DISORDERS : THE CONTRIBUTION OF PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovens, Jacqueline G. F. M.; Giltay, Erik J.; van Hemert, Albert M.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    2016-01-01

    BackgroundWe investigated the effect of childhood maltreatment on predicting the 4-year course of depressive and anxiety disorders and the possible mediating role of personality characteristics in the association between childhood maltreatment and illness course.MethodsLongitudinal data in a large s

  18. Linking "Big" Personality Traits to Anxiety, Depressive, and Substance Use Disorders: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotov, Roman; Gamez, Wakiza; Schmidt, Frank; Watson, David

    2010-01-01

    We performed a quantitative review of associations between the higher order personality traits in the Big Three and Big Five models (i.e., neuroticism, extraversion, disinhibition, conscientiousness, agreeableness, and openness) and specific depressive, anxiety, and substance use disorders (SUD) in adults. This approach resulted in 66…

  19. Salivary testosterone : Associations with depression, anxiety disorders, and antidepressant use in a large cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giltay, Erik J.; Enter, Dorien; Zitman, Frans G.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; van Pelt, Johannes; Spinhoven, Phillip; Roelofs, Karin

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Low circulating levels of testosterone have been associated with major depression, but there is more limited evidence for differences in patients with anxiety disorders. The use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and other antidepressants is associated with sexual side eff

  20. Disability in anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, Sanne M; Spijker, Jan; Licht, Carmilla M M; Beekman, Aartjan T F; Hardeveld, Florian; de Graaf, Ron; Batelaan, Neeltje M; Penninx, Brenda W J H

    2014-09-01

    This study compares disability levels between different anxiety disorders and healthy controls. We further investigate the role of anxiety arousal and avoidance behaviour in disability, and whether differences in these symptom patterns contribute to disability differences between anxiety disorders. Data were from 1826 subjects from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA). The Composite Interview Diagnostic Instrument was used to diagnose anxiety disorders. The World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II was used to measure disability in six domains (cognition, mobility, selfcare, social interaction, life activities, participation). Severity of anxiety arousal and avoidance behaviour symptoms was measured using the Beck Anxiety Inventory and the Fear Questionnaire. All anxiety disorders were associated with higher disability. Disability was generally highest in multiple anxiety disorder (e.g. mean disability in cognition=33.7) and social anxiety disorder (mean=32.7), followed by generalized anxiety disorder (mean=27.2) and panic disorder with agoraphobia (mean=26.3), and lowest in panic disorder without agoraphobia (mean=22.1). Anxiety arousal was more associated with disability in life activities (B=8.5, panxiety disorders were not completely explained by anxiety arousal and avoidance behaviour. The cross-sectional study design precludes any causal interpretations. In order to examine the full range of comorbidity among anxiety, a greater range of anxiety disorders would have been preferable. Disability is highest in social anxiety disorder and multiple anxiety disorder. Both anxiety arousal and avoidance behaviour are associated with higher disability levels but do not fully explain the differences across anxiety disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Heightened reward learning under stress in generalized anxiety disorder: a predictor of depression resistance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Bethany H; Rottenberg, Jonathan

    2015-02-01

    Stress-induced anhedonia is associated with depression vulnerability (Bogdan & Pizzagalli, 2006). We investigated stress-induced deficits in reward learning in a depression-vulnerable group with analogue generalized anxiety disorder (GAD, n = 34), and never-depressed healthy controls (n = 41). Utilizing a computerized signal detection task, reward learning was assessed under stressor and neutral conditions. Controls displayed intact reward learning in the neutral condition, and the expected stress-induced blunting. The GAD group as a whole also showed intact reward learning in the neutral condition. When GAD subjects were analyzed as a function of prior depression history, never-depressed GAD subjects showed heightened reward learning in the stressor condition. Better reward learning under stress among GAD subjects predicted lower depression symptoms 1 month later. Robust reward learning under stress may indicate depression resistance among anxious individuals.

  2. Treatment inadequacy in primary and specialized care patients with depressive and/or anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bet, Pierre M; Hugtenburg, Jacqueline G; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Balkom, Anton van; Nolen, Willem A; Hoogendijk, Witte J G

    2013-12-15

    All guidelines on major depressive disorder (MDD) and anxiety disorders recommend pharmacotherapy and/or psychological treatment for moderate to severe disease. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate treatment inadequacy, both pharmacological and psychological, in a large naturalistic cohort of subjects with MDD and anxiety disorders from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety. All subjects with a current 6-month diagnosis were included (n=1662). Demographic data, clinical features and actual medication use were assessed in face-to-face interviews. In moderate to severe MDD, 43% of the subjects were not treated sufficiently with antidepressants or psychological treatment. In primary health care patients, this undertreatment was 70%. In moderate to severe anxiety disorders, 44% of the subjects were not treated sufficiently with antidepressants, benzodiazepines or psychological treatment. Among antidepressant users with moderate to severe MDD, 21% of the pharmacotherapy was inadequate with respect to drug choice, dose and every day use. Undertreatment and pharmacotherapeutic inadequacy are common in moderate to severe MDD and anxiety disorders. Both are more pronounced in primary care than in specialized care. This may be partly due to differences in disease recognition and help seeking behaviour. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The joint structure of major depression, anxiety disorders, and trait negative affect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudson W. de Carvalho

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dimensional models of psychopathology demonstrate that two correlated factors of fear and distress account for the covariation among depressive and anxiety disorders. Nevertheless, these models tend to exclude variables relevant to psychopathology, such as temperament traits. This study examined the joint structure of DSM-IV-based major depression and anxiety disorders along with trait negative affect in a representative sample of adult individuals residing in the cities of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Methods: The sample consisted of 3,728 individuals who were administered sections D (phobic, anxiety and panic disorders and E (depressive disorders of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 2.1 and a validated version of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule. Data were analyzed using correlational and structural equation modeling. Results: Lifetime prevalence ranged from 2.4% for panic disorder to 23.2% for major depression. Most target variables were moderately correlated. A two-factor model specifying correlated fear and distress factors was retained and confirmed for models including only diagnostic variables and diagnostic variables along with trait negative affect. Conclusions: This study provides support for characterization of internalizing psychopathology and trait negative affect in terms of correlated dimensions of distress and fear. These results have potential implications for psychiatric taxonomy and for understanding the relationship between temperament and psychopathology.

  4. Operating characteristics of depression and anxiety disorder phenotype dimensions and trait neuroticism : A theoretical examination of the fear and distress disorders from the Netherlands study of depression and anxiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tully, Phillip J.; Wardenaar, Klaas J.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The receiver operating characteristics (ROC) of anhedonic depression and anxious arousal to detect the distress- (major depression, dysthymia, generalized anxiety disorder) and fear-disorder clusters (i.e. panic disorder, agoraphobia, social phobia) have not been reported in a large samp

  5. AGOMELATINE IN THE TREATMENT OF ANXIETY AND DEPRESSIVE DISORDERS IN PATIENTS WITH ISCHEMIC HEART DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Yu. Shimohina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the World Health Organization, anxiety and depressive disorders will be the second  leading cause of disability by 2020. The review is devoted to the modern concepts of the pathophysiology of depression in patients with ischemic heart  disease (IHD and to the possibilities of antidepressant therapy. The paper presents analysis of international and domestic researches devoted to efficiency and safety of agomelatine in patients both  with chronic IHD and with unstable angina and acute  myocardial infarction. The review also discusses different points of view, indicating the need for further  studies to evaluate the short and long term effects of antidepressants in patients with IHD in combination with anxiety and depressive disorders.

  6. Explanations of educational differences in major depression and generalised anxiety disorder in the Irish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chazelle, Emilie; Lemogne, Cédric; Morgan, Karen; Kelleher, Cecily C; Chastang, Jean-François; Niedhammer, Isabelle

    2011-11-01

    Social inequalities in mental disorders have been described, but studies that explain these inequalities are lacking, especially those using diagnostic interviews. This study investigates the contribution of various explanatory factors to the association between educational level and major depression and generalised anxiety disorder in Irish men and women. The study population comprised a national random sample of 5771 women and 4207 men aged 18 or more in Ireland (SLÁN 2007 survey). Major depression and generalised anxiety disorder were measured using a standardised diagnostic interview (CIDI-SF). Four groups of explanatory factors were explored: material, psychosocial, and behavioural factors, and chronic disease. For both genders, low educational level increased the risk of both mental disorders. Material factors, especially no private health insurance, but also no car, housing tenure, insufficient food budget, and unemployment (for men), made the highest contribution (stronger for men than for women) in explaining the association between education and both mental disorders. Psychosocial (especially formal social participation, social support and marital status) and behavioural factors (smoking and physical activity for both genders, and alcohol and drug use for men) and chronic disease made low independent contributions in explaining the association between education and both mental disorders. Given the cross-sectional study design, no causal conclusion could be drawn. Targeting various material, psychosocial, and behavioural factors, as well as chronic diseases may help to reduce educational differences in depression and anxiety in the general population. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Anxiety and depressive disorders among patients with esophageal cancer in Taiwan: a nationwide population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Li-Yu; Ku, Fan-Chen; Wang, Yen-Po; Shen, Cheng-Che; Hu, Yu-Wen; Yeh, Chiu-Mei; Chen, Pan-Ming; Chiang, Huey-Ling; Lu, Ti; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Teng, Chung-Jen; Liu, Chia-Jen

    2015-03-01

    The comorbidity of depression with anxiety disorders is associated with poorer treatment outcomes, worse quality of life, poorer adherence to treatment, and greater suicide risk in cancer patients. To assess the risk of comorbid anxiety and depressive disorders after the diagnosis of esophageal cancer compared with a matched cohort by using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD). We conducted a retrospective study of 28,454 patients (14,227 patients with esophageal cancer and 14,227 matched patients) who were selected from the NHIRD. Patients were observed for a maximum of 12 years to determine the incidence of new-onset anxiety and depressive disorders for which antidepressants had been prescribed. A Cox regression analysis was performed to identify the risk factors associated with anxiety and depressive disorders in esophageal cancer patients. The cumulative incidence of anxiety and depressive disorders in the esophageal cancer patients was significantly higher than that in the matched cohort (P anxiety and depressive disorders among the patients with esophageal cancer included cirrhosis, cerebrovascular disease, and surgical treatment. Esophageal cancer may be a prominent risk factor for anxiety and depressive disorders. Based on our data, we suggest that attention should be focused on esophageal cancer patients with comorbid cirrhosis and cerebrovascular disease and those who have received surgical interventions.

  8. Common mental disorders associated with 2-year diabetes incidence : The Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atlantis, Evan; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Cashman, Kara; Penninx, Brenda J. W. H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Few prospective cohort studies describe the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus associated with depression or anxiety. The aim of this study was to determine the 2-year diabetes incidence and pattern of explanatory factors associated with depressive and/or anxiety disorders. Methods: A pros

  9. The specificity of childhood adversities and negative life events across the life span to anxiety and depressive disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spinhoven, Philip; Elzinga, Bernet M.; Hovens, Jacqueline G. F. M.; Roelofs, Karin; Zitman, Frans G.; van Oppen, Patricia; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Although several studies have shown that life adversities play an important role in the etiology and maintenance of both depressive and anxiety disorders, little is known about the relative specificity of several types of life adversities to different forms of depressive and anxiety diso

  10. The Development of a Transdiagnostic, Cognitive Behavioral Group Intervention for Childhood Anxiety Disorders and Co-Occurring Depression Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenreich-May, Jill; Bilek, Emily L.

    2012-01-01

    Anxiety and depression are highly prevalent and frequently comorbid classes of disorder associated with significant impairment in youth. While current transdiagnostic protocols address a range of potential anxiety and depression symptoms among adult and adolescent populations, there are few similar treatment options for school-aged children with…

  11. The Development of a Transdiagnostic, Cognitive Behavioral Group Intervention for Childhood Anxiety Disorders and Co-Occurring Depression Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenreich-May, Jill; Bilek, Emily L.

    2012-01-01

    Anxiety and depression are highly prevalent and frequently comorbid classes of disorder associated with significant impairment in youth. While current transdiagnostic protocols address a range of potential anxiety and depression symptoms among adult and adolescent populations, there are few similar treatment options for school-aged children with…

  12. A study in male and female 5-HT transporter knockout rats : An animal model for anxiety and depression disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olivier, J D A; Van Der Hart, M G C; Van Swelm, R P L; Dederen, P J; Homberg, J R; Cremers, T; Deen, P M T; Cuppen, E; Cools, A R; Ellenbroek, B A

    2008-01-01

    Human studies have shown that a reduction of 5-HT transporter (SERT) increases the vulnerability for anxiety and depression. Moreover, women are more vulnerable to develop depression and anxiety disorders than men. For that reason we hypothesized that homozygous 5-HT transporter knockout rat (SERT-/

  13. A study in male and female 5-HT transporter knockout rats: an animal model for anxiety and depression disorders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olivier, J.; Van Der Hart, M.G.C.; Van Swelm, R.P.L.; Dederen, P.J.; Homberg, J.R.; Cremers, T.; Deen, P.M.T.; Cuppen, E.; Cools, A.R.; Ellenbroek, B.A.

    2008-01-01

    Human studies have shown that a reduction of 5-HT transporter (SERT) increases the vulnerability for anxiety and depression. Moreover, women are more vulnerable to develop depression and anxiety disorders than men. For that reason we hypothesized that homozygous 5-HT transporter knockout rat (SERT(-

  14. Which physician and practice characteristics are associated with adherence to evidence-based guidelines for depressive and anxiety disorders?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smolders, M.; Laurant, M.G.H.; Verhaak, P.; Prins, M.; Marwijk, H. van; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Wensing, M.J.P.; Grol, R.P.T.M.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Research on quality of care for depressive and anxiety disorders has reported low rates of adherence to evidence-based depression and anxiety guidelines. To improve this care, we need a better understanding of the factors determining guideline adherence. OBJECTIVE: To investigate how

  15. Which Physician and Practice Characteristics are Associated With Adherence to Evidence-Based Guidelines for Depressive and Anxiety Disorders?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smolders, Mirrian; Laurant, Miranda; Verhaak, Peter; Prins, Marijn; van Marwijk, Harm; Penninx, Brenda; Wensing, Michel; Grol, Richard

    Background: Research on quality of care for depressive and anxiety disorders has reported low rates of adherence to evidence-based depression and anxiety guidelines. To improve this care, we need a better understanding of the factors determining guideline adherence. Objective: To investigate how

  16. Amygdala activation during emotional face processing in adolescents with affective disorders: the role of underlying depression and anxiety symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bulk, Bianca G.; Meens, Paul H. F.; van Lang, Natasja D. J.; de Voogd, E. L.; van der Wee, Nic J. A.; Rombouts, Serge A. R. B.; Crone, Eveline A.; Vermeiren, Robert R. J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Depressive and anxiety disorders are often first diagnosed during adolescence and it is known that they persist into adulthood. Previous studies often tried to dissociate depressive and anxiety disorders, but high comorbidity makes this difficult and maybe even impossible. The goal of this study was to use neuroimaging to test what the unique contribution is of depression and anxiety symptomatology on emotional processing and amygdala activation, and to compare the results with a healthy control group. We included 25 adolescents with depressive and/or anxiety disorders and 26 healthy adolescents. Participants performed an emotional face processing task while in the MRI scanner. We were particularly interested in the relation between depression/anxiety symptomatology and patterns of amygdala activation. There were no significant differences in activation patterns between the control group and the clinical group on whole brain level and ROI level. However, we found that dimensional scores on an anxiety but not a depression subscale significantly predicted brain activation in the right amygdala when processing fearful, happy and neutral faces. These results suggest that anxiety symptoms are a better predictor for differentiating activation patterns in the amygdala than depression symptoms. Although the current study includes a relatively large sample of treatment naïve adolescents with depression/anxiety disorders, results might be influenced by differences between studies in recruitment strategies or methodology. Future research should include larger samples with a more equal distribution of adolescents with a clinical diagnosis of depression and/or anxiety. To conclude, this study shows that abnormal amygdala responses to emotional faces in depression and anxiety seems to be more dependent on anxiety symptoms than on depression symptoms, and thereby highlights the need for more research to better characterize clinical groups in future studies. PMID:24926249

  17. Amygdala activation during emotional face processing in adolescents with affective disorders: the role of underlying depression and anxiety symptoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca G Van Den Bulk

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractDepressive and anxiety disorders are often first diagnosed during adolescence and it is known that they persist into adulthood. Previous studies often tried to dissociate depressive and anxiety disorders, but high comorbidity makes this difficult and maybe even impossible. The goal of this study was to use neuroimaging to test what the unique contribution is of depression and anxiety symptomatology on emotional processing and amygdala activation, and to compare the results with a healthy control group. We included 25 adolescents with depressive and/or anxiety disorders and 26 healthy adolescents. Participants performed an emotional face processing task while in the MRI scanner. We were particularly interested in the relation between depression/anxiety symptomatology and patterns of amygdala activation. There were no significant differences in activation patterns between the control group and the clinical group on whole brain level and ROI level. However, we found that dimensional scores on an anxiety but not a depression subscale significantly predicted brain activation in the right amygdala when processing fearful, happy and neutral faces. These results suggest that anxiety symptoms are a better predictor for differentiating activation patterns in the amygdala than depression symptoms. Although the current study includes a relatively large sample of treatment naïve adolescents with depression/anxiety disorders, results might be influenced by differences between studies in recruitment strategies or methodology. Future research should include larger samples with a more equal distribution of adolescents with a clinical diagnosis of depression and/or anxiety. To conclude, this study shows that abnormal amygdala responses to emotional faces in depression and anxiety seems to be more dependent on anxiety symptoms than on depression symptoms, and thereby highlights the need for more research to better characterize clinical groups in future

  18. Association between latent toxoplasmosis and major depression, generalised anxiety disorder and panic disorder in human adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Shawn D; Brown, Bruce L; Berrett, Andrew; Erickson, Lance D; Hedges, Dawson W

    2014-08-01

    Latent infection with the apicomplexan Toxoplasma gondii (Nicolle et Manceaux, 1908) has been associated with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and self-harm behaviour. However, the potential relationship between T. gondii immunoglobulin G antibody (IgG) seropositivity and generalised-anxiety disorder (GAD) and panic disorder (PD) has not been investigated. The associations between serum reactivity to T. gondii and major depressive disorder (MDD), GAD and PD were evaluated in a total sample of 1 846 adult participants between the ages of 20 and 39 years from the United States Center for Disease Control's National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Approximately 16% of the overall sample was seropositive for T. gondii and 7% of the sample met criteria for MDD, 2% for GAD and 2% for PD. There were no significant associations between T. gondii IgG seroprevalence and MDD (OR = 0.484, 95% CI = 0.186-1.258), GAD (OR = 0.737, 95% CI = 0.218-2.490) or PD (OR = 0.683, 95% CI = 0.206-2.270) controlling for sex, ethnicity, poverty-to-income ratio and educational attainment. However, limited evidence suggested a possible association between absolute antibody titres for T. gondii and GAD and PD but not MDD. Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence was not associated with MDD, GAD or PD within the context of the limitations of this study, although there may be an association of T. gondii serointensity with and GAD and PD, which requires further study.

  19. Race and Ethnic Group Differences in Comorbid Major Depressive Disorder, Generalized Anxiety Disorder, and Chronic Medical Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Daphne C; Assari, Shervin; Johnson-Lawrence, Vicki

    2015-09-01

    This study tested whether race and ethnic group differences exist for lifetime major depressive disorder and/or general anxiety disorder with one or more chronic medical conditions. Data from the National Survey of American Life, which included 3570 African American, 1438 Caribbean Black, and 891 non-Hispanic White adults were analyzed. Outcomes included at least one and multiple chronic medical conditions, from a list of 14 medical conditions (e.g., arthritis, cancer, diabetes, kidney disease, stroke, heart disease, etc.). Logistic regressions were fitted to data to determine how the association between major depressive disorder, general anxiety disorder, and one or more chronic medical conditions vary across race and ethnicity. Lifetime major depressive disorder (but not lifetime general anxiety disorder) was associated with at least one chronic medical condition among African Americans and Caribbean Blacks, but not non-Hispanic Whites. Lifetime major depressive disorder was similarly associated with multiple chronic medical conditions among African Americans, Caribbean Blacks, and non-Hispanic Whites. For Caribbean Blacks, stronger associations were found between major depressive disorder and general anxiety disorder with one or more chronic medical conditions compared to African Americans and non-Hispanic Whites. Findings suggest that race and ethnicity may shape the links between comorbid psychiatric disorders and chronic medical conditions. Mental health screening of individuals with chronic medical conditions in primary health-care settings may benefit from tailoring based on race and ethnicity. More research is needed to understand why associations between physical and mental health vary among race and ethnic groups.

  20. Follow-up study on health care use of patients with somatoform, anxiety and depressive disorders in primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assendelft Willem JJ

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Better management of affective and somatoform disorders may reduce consultation rates in primary care. Somatoform disorders are highly prevalent in primary care and co-morbidity with affective disorders is substantial, but it is as yet unclear which portion of the health care use may be ascribed to each disorder. Our objective was to investigate the use of primary care for undifferentiated somatoform disorders, other somatoform disorders, anxiety and depressive disorders prospectively. Methods In eight family practices 1046 consulting patients (25–79 yrs were screened and a stratified sample of 473 was interviewed. Somatoform disorders, anxiety and depressive disorders were diagnosed (DSM IV using SCAN 2.1. The electronic records of 400 participants regarding somatic diseases, medication and healthcare use were available through their family physicians (FP. Results In the follow-up year patients with psychiatric disorders had more face-to-face contacts with the FP than patients who had no psychiatric disorder: average 7–10 versus 5. The impact on the use of primary care by patients with somatoform disorders was comparable to patients with depressive or anxiety disorders. Undifferentiated somatoform disorders had an independent impact on the use of primary care after adjustment for anxiety and depressive disorders, resulting in 30% more consultations (IRR 1.3 (95% CI: 1.1–1.7. Anxiety disorders had no independent effect. Conclusion Health care planning should focus on the recognition and treatment of somatoform as well as affective disorders.

  1. [Anxiety-depressive disorders and paroxysmal atrial fibrillation: the psychosomatic aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marilov, V V; Artem'eva, M S; Iurovskaia, I I

    2013-01-01

    One hundred and forty-five patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation were examined to evaluate the effectiveness of the correction of physical state in the course of complex (somatotropic and psychotropic) therapy. Personality characteristics of patients with arrhythmias, the structure and severity of stress and anxiety-depressive disorders preceding the manifestation of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation were studied. Patients were examined at baseline and at the 21st day of therapy using clinical and instrumental methods (Holter ECG monitoring) and psychometric scales (the Beck Depression Inventory, the Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale, the Hamilton Depression Rating scale, the Hamilton Anxiety Rating scale). The complex treatment of patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation with SSRI antidepressants (paroxetine, fluvoxamine, sertraline) allowed to rapidly reduce neurotic anxiety depressive disorders. There was a significant positive trend in the course and frequency of paroxysms of atrial fibrillation on 21st day of treatment. These remedies help to reduce the duration of arrhythmia's attack which has already begun facilitating its relief. After 3-5 months of such regular complex pharmacotherapy, paroxysms of atrial fibrillation were completely stopped in 10.3% of patients. The follow-up investigation 18 months later showed that patients with certain personality traits and the positive dynamics of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation under a complex (somatotropic and psychotropic) treatment can develop cardiophobia' attacks in recurrent significant stress situations. Side-effects of the drugs were not significant and did not require discontinuation of the treatment.

  2. Anxiety and Shame as Risk Factors for Depression, Suicidality, and Functional Impairment in Body Dysmorphic Disorder and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingarden, Hilary; Renshaw, Keith D; Wilhelm, Sabine; Tangney, June P; DiMauro, Jennifer

    2016-11-01

    Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) are associated with elevated depression, suicidality, functional impairment, and days housebound, yet little research has identified risk factors for these outcomes. Using path analysis, the present study examined anxiety and shame as risk factors for these outcomes across Internet-recruited self-report groups (BDD [n = 114], OCD [n = 114], and healthy control [HC; n = 133]). Paths from anxiety and shame to outcomes were similar and mostly significant across BDD and OCD, compared to non-significant paths for HCs, with one exception: the path from shame to depression was significant in the BDD group (b = 0.32) but non-significant in the OCD group (b = 0.07). Findings underscore similarities in BDD and OCD, supporting their reclassification into the same Obsessive Compulsive Related Disorders category. Results emphasize the importance of targeting shame, in addition to anxiety, in treatments for BDD and OCD.

  3. Patients with Rosacea Have Increased Risk of Depression and Anxiety Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeberg, Alexander; Hansen, Peter Riis; Gislason, Gunnar Hilmar

    2016-01-01

    1.82-1.96) and IRR 2.04 (95% CI 1.96-2.12)] and anxiety disorders [IRR 1.80 (95% CI 1.75-1.86) and IRR 1.98 (95% CI 1.91-2.05)]. CONCLUSIONS: Rosacea was associated with a disease severity-dependent, increased risk of depression and anxiety disorders. The findings may call for increased awareness......BACKGROUND: Rosacea is a chronic skin condition that affects self-esteem and quality of life. However, data on depression and anxiety in patients with rosacea are scarce. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between rosacea and new-onset depression and anxiety...... disorders. METHODS: Data on all Danish citizens aged ≥18 years between January 1, 1997, and December 31, 2011, were linked at individual level in nationwide registers. Incidence rates per 1,000 person-years were calculated, and crude and adjusted incidence rate ratios (IRRs) with 95% confidence intervals...

  4. Risk factors and course patterns of anxiety and depressive disorders during pregnancy and after delivery: a prospective-longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Julia; Petzoldt, Johanna; Einsle, Franziska; Beesdo-Baum, Katja; Höfler, Michael; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich

    2015-04-01

    Peripartum anxiety and depressive disorders are associated with adverse consequences for mother and child. Thus, it is important to examine risk factors, correlates and course patterns of anxiety and depressive disorders during pregnancy and after delivery. In the prospective-longitudinal Maternal Anxiety in Relation to Infant Development (MARI) Study, n=306 expectant mothers were recruited from gynaecological outpatient settings in Germany and completed up to seven waves of assessment from early pregnancy until 16 months postpartum. Anxiety and depressive disorders and potential risk factors/correlates were assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview for Women (CIDI-V), medical records and additional questionnaires. Although peripartum anxiety and depressive disorders appeared to be persistent in some women, others reported major changes with heterogeneous courses and shifts between diagnoses and contents. There was a considerable amount of incident disorders. Strongest predictors for peripartum anxiety and depressive disorders were anxiety and depressive disorders prior to pregnancy, but psychosocial (e.g. maternal education), individual (e.g. low self-esteem), and interpersonal (e.g. partnership satisfaction, social support) factors were also related. Knowing the aims of the study, some participants may have been more encouraged to report particular symptoms, but if so, this points to the importance of a comprehensive assessment in perinatal care. Peripartum time is a sensitive period for a considerable incidence or persistence/recurrence of anxiety and depressive disorders albeit the course may be rather heterogeneous. Interventional studies are needed to examine whether an alteration of associated factors could help to prevent peripartum anxiety and depressive disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Insomnia and Sleep Duration in a Large Cohort of Patients With Major Depressive Disorder and Anxiety Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Mill, Josine G.; Hoogendijk, Witte J. G.; Vogelzangs, Nicole; van Dyck, Richard; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    Objective: Disturbed sleep has a high impact on daily functioning and has been correlated with psychopathology. We investigated the extent to which insomnia and sleep duration were associated with both current and remitted depressive and anxiety disorders in a large-scale epidemiologic study, taking

  6. Insomnia and Sleep Duration in a Large Cohort of Patients With Major Depressive Disorder and Anxiety Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Mill, Josine G.; Hoogendijk, Witte J. G.; Vogelzangs, Nicole; van Dyck, Richard; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Disturbed sleep has a high impact on daily functioning and has been correlated with psychopathology. We investigated the extent to which insomnia and sleep duration were associated with both current and remitted depressive and anxiety disorders in a large-scale epidemiologic study, taking

  7. Insomnia and Sleep Duration in a Large Cohort of Patients With Major Depressive Disorder and Anxiety Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Mill, Josine G.; Hoogendijk, Witte J. G.; Vogelzangs, Nicole; van Dyck, Richard; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Disturbed sleep has a high impact on daily functioning and has been correlated with psychopathology. We investigated the extent to which insomnia and sleep duration were associated with both current and remitted depressive and anxiety disorders in a large-scale epidemiologic study, taking

  8. A literature review of the application of the Geriatric Depression Scale, Depression Anxiety Stress Scales and Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist to community nursing cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jacqui; Annells, Merilyn

    2009-04-01

    To explore through literature review the appropriateness of three common tools for use by community nurses to screen war veteran and war widow(er) clients for depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder. War veterans and, to a lesser extent, war widow(er)s, are prone to mental health challenges, especially depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder. Community nurses do not accurately identify such people with depression and related disorders although they are well positioned to do so. The use of valid and reliable self-report tools is one method of improving nurses' identification of people with actual or potential mental health difficulties for referral to a general practitioner or mental health practitioner for diagnostic assessment and treatment. The Geriatric Depression Scale, Depression Anxiety Stress Scales and Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist are frequently recommended for mental health screening but the appropriateness of using the tools for screening war veteran and war widow(er) community nursing clients who are often aged and have functional impairment, is unknown. Systematic review. Current literature informs that the Geriatric Depression Scale accurately predicts a diagnosis of depression in community nursing cohorts. The three Depression Anxiety Stress Scales subscales of depression, anxiety and stress are valid; however, no studies were identified that compared the performance of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales in predicting diagnoses of depression or anxiety. The Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist predicts post-traumatic stress disorder in community cohorts although no studies meeting the selection criteria included male participants. This review provides recommendations for the use of the Geriatric Depression Scale, Depression Anxiety Stress Scales and The Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist based on examination of the published evidence for the application of these screening tools in samples

  9. The association between hypertension and depression and anxiety disorders: results from a nationally-representative sample of South African adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Grimsrud

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Growing evidence suggests high levels of comorbidity between hypertension and mental illness but there are few data from low- and middle-income countries. We examined the association between hypertension and depression and anxiety in South Africa. METHODS: Data come from a nationally-representative survey of adults (n = 4351. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used to measure DSM-IV mental disorders during the previous 12-months. The relationships between self-reported hypertension and anxiety disorders, depressive disorders and comorbid anxiety-depression were assessed after adjustment for participant characteristics including experience of trauma and other chronic physical conditions. RESULTS: Overall 16.7% reported a previous medical diagnosis of hypertension, and 8.1% and 4.9% were found to have a 12-month anxiety or depressive disorder, respectively. In adjusted analyses, hypertension diagnosis was associated with 12-month anxiety disorders [Odds ratio (OR = 1.55, 95% Confidence interval (CI = 1.10-2.18] but not 12-month depressive disorders or 12-month comorbid anxiety-depression. Hypertension in the absence of other chronic physical conditions was not associated with any of the 12-month mental health outcomes (p-values all <0.05, while being diagnosed with both hypertension and another chronic physical condition were associated with 12-month anxiety disorders (OR = 2.25, 95% CI = 1.46-3.45, but not 12-month depressive disorders or comorbid anxiety-depression. CONCLUSIONS: These are the first population-based estimates to demonstrate an association between hypertension and mental disorders in sub-Saharan Africa. Further investigation is needed into role of traumatic life events in the aetiology of hypertension as well as the temporality of the association between hypertension and mental disorders.

  10. Anxiety disorders, physical illnesses, and health care utilization in older male veterans with Parkinson disease and comorbid depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Salah U; Amspoker, Amber B; Calleo, Jessica S; Kunik, Mark E; Marsh, Laura

    2012-12-01

    This study examined the rates of anxiety and depressive disorders, physical illnesses, and health service use in male patients 55 years or older with a diagnosis of Parkinson disease who were seen at least twice at the 10 medical centers in the Veterans Affairs Healthcare Network of the South Central region of the United States. Of the 273 male patients diagnosed between October 1, 1997, and September 30, 2009, 62 (22.7%) had a depressive disorder. The overall prevalence of anxiety disorders was 12.8%; patients with comorbid depression had a 5-fold greater prevalence of anxiety disorders than those without depression (35.5% vs 6.2%, Panxiety disorders and several physical illnesses, to be using antipsychotic and dementia medicines, and to have increased health service utilization than those without depression.

  11. Predictors of persistence of comorbid generalized anxiety disorder among veterans with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Dinesh; Fortney, John C; Pyne, Jeffrey M; Wetherell, Julie L

    2011-11-01

    A limited number of randomized clinical trials show that efficacious pharmacologic treatments exist for comorbid major depressive disorder (MDD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). The aims of this effectiveness study were to describe the impact of a depression care management intervention on the persistence of comorbid GAD symptoms in a sample of primary care patients with MDD and to identify risk factors for persistent GAD. Data were collected from April 2003 to September 2005 for the Telemedicine-Enhanced Antidepressant Management (TEAM) study, a multisite, randomized effectiveness trial targeting US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) primary care patients with depression. Veterans aged 26.59-88.36 years received either the TEAM intervention or usual care in small VA community-based outpatient clinics. The TEAM care management intervention focused on optimizing antidepressant therapy through patient education and activation, symptom monitoring, adherence promotion, and side-effect management. Veterans who screened positive for MDD using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (based on DSM-IV criteria) and who met the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview criteria (maintaining consistency with DSM-IV-TR) for comorbid GAD at baseline were selected for the present study (N = 168). The primary outcome was persistence of GAD at 6 months and 12 months. All predictors available in the TEAM study data that were described in the literature to be associated with influencing GAD outcomes were examined. Persistence of depression was the strongest predictor of persistence of comorbid GAD at both 6 months (OR = 5.75; 95% CI, 2.38-13.86; P < .05) and 12 months (OR = 15.56; 95% CI, 6.10-39.68; P < .05). Although the TEAM intervention significantly reduced depression symptom severity, it was not significantly associated with GAD persistence. Insomnia was a significant protective factor for persistence of GAD at 6 months (OR = 0.66; 95% CI, 0.44-0.99; P < .05). Early

  12. Anxiety/depression and orofacial myofacial disorders as factors associated with TMD in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Aparecida Pizolato

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate factors associated with temporomandibular disorder (TMD in children. TMD clinical signs were evaluated using the Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD (RDC/TMD; axis I, and subjective symptoms were evaluated using a structured questionnaire. Eighty-two children were selected, 40 with TMD (19 boys and 21 girls, mean age 9.84 ± 1.53 and 9.71 ± 1.30 years, respectively and 42 without TMD (21 boys and 21 girls, mean age 10.27 ± 1.63 and 9.9 ± 1.37 years, respectively. Intra- and extra-oral examinations were carried out to determine the myofunctional characteristics of the masticatory system. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS was used to assess anxiety and depression. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and bivariate analysis followed by multiple logistic regression (α = 0.05. In bivariate analysis, the variables of open lips, anxiety, and depression had a p value < 0.15 and were entered into the multivariate logistic regression model. The most significant predictor factors were the presence of open lips (odds ratio = 5.42, p = 0.034 and anxiety (odds ratio = 18.59, p < 0.001. Thus, anxiety levels and open lips were associated with TMD in children. Owing to the cross-sectional design of the present study, the associations observed may have a bidirectional relationship.

  13. The importance of new antidepressants in the treatment of anxiety/depressive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerner, R J; Möller, H J

    1999-07-01

    Patients suffering from anxiety and depression are often seen in clinical practice. In accordance with the diagnostic criteria of DSM-III/IV and ICD-10, respectively, there may be various combinations of symptoms and degrees of severity. The symptoms of these patients may range from subthreshold anxiety or depression to a combination of anxiety and depressive disorders. Besides giving an extensive survey of diagnostic problems and the epidemiological incidence of such combinations, pharmacotherapeutic approaches are critically reviewed. Metaanalyses have shown that various serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) are equivalent, if not superior, to tricyclic antidepressants (TCA) in their anti-anxiety effectiveness. Hence, SSRI may be considered a therapy of choice, not least on account of very few adverse effects and good tolerance. More recent antidepressants are under scrutiny for their anti-anxiety efficacy. Citalopram, venlafaxine and, because of its established sedative action, nefazodone seem to be particularly suited to fill a possible therapeutic gap and to provide agitated patients with an alternative to TCA.

  14. Fear acquisition and extinction in offspring of mothers with anxiety and depressive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Allison M; Peters, Rosie-Mae; Forrest, Kylee E; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    Maternal anxiety and depression are significant risk factors for the development of these disorders in offspring. The pathways through which risk is conferred remain unclear. This study examined fear acquisition and extinction in 26 children at high risk for emotional disorders by virtue of maternal psychopathology (n=14 with a mother with a principal anxiety disorder and n=12 with a mother with a principal unipolar depressive disorder) and 31 low risk controls using a discriminative Pavlovian conditioning procedure. Participants, aged between 7 and 14 years, completed 16 trials of discriminative conditioning of two geometric figures, with (CS+) and without (CS-) an aversive tone (US), followed by 8 extinction trials (4×CS+, 4×CS-). In the context of comparable discriminative conditioning, children of anxious mothers showed larger skin conductance responses during extinction to the CS+ compared to the CS-, and to both CSs from the first to the second block of extinction trials, in comparison with low risk controls. Compared to low risk controls, children of depressed mothers showed smaller skin conductance responses to the CS+ than the CS- during acquisition. These findings suggest distinct psychophysiological premorbid risk markers in offspring of anxious and depressed mothers.

  15. Fear acquisition and extinction in offspring of mothers with anxiety and depressive disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison M. Waters

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Maternal anxiety and depression are significant risk factors for the development of these disorders in offspring. The pathways through which risk is conferred remain unclear. This study examined fear acquisition and extinction in 26 children at high risk for emotional disorders by virtue of maternal psychopathology (n = 14 with a mother with a principal anxiety disorder and n = 12 with a mother with a principal unipolar depressive disorder and 31 low risk controls using a discriminative Pavlovian conditioning procedure. Participants, aged between 7 and 14 years, completed 16 trials of discriminative conditioning of two geometric figures, with (CS+ and without (CS− an aversive tone (US, followed by 8 extinction trials (4 × CS+, 4 × CS−. In the context of comparable discriminative conditioning, children of anxious mothers showed larger skin conductance responses during extinction to the CS+ compared to the CS−, and to both CSs from the first to the second block of extinction trials, in comparison with low risk controls. Compared to low risk controls, children of depressed mothers showed smaller skin conductance responses to the CS+ than the CS− during acquisition. These findings suggest distinct psychophysiological premorbid risk markers in offspring of anxious and depressed mothers.

  16. Predictor Variables and Screening Protocol for Depressive and Anxiety Disorders in Cancer Outpatients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Polidoro Lima

    Full Text Available Cancer patients are at increased risk of persistent depressive and anxiety symptoms and disorders compared to the general population. However, these issues are not always identified, which may worsen the prognosis and increase morbidity and mortality. Therefore, the objectives of this study are to identify predictor variables (demographic and clinical for the development of mood and anxiety disorders in cancer outpatients and to propose a probabilistic screening protocol considering these variables and certain standardized screening instruments.A total of 1,385 adults, of both genders, receiving outpatient cancer care were evaluated using a questionnaire and screening instruments. Thereafter, 400 of these subjects responded to the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (SCID-IV by telephone to confirm or rule out the presence of a Current Major Depressive Episode (CMDE or Anxiety Disorder (AD.Of the patients surveyed, 64% met the criteria for CMDE and 41% for AD. Female gender was found to be a risk factor for both disorders, and the presence of previous psychiatric history and marital status (divorced and widowed were risk factors for anxiety disorders. When scoring above the recommended cutoff score, the screening instruments also indicated a risk of the studied disorders. Based on these findings, a screening protocol and nomograms were created for the quantification, combination and probabilistic estimate of risk, with accuracy indicators >0.68.The prevalence rates for the disorders under study are extremely high in cancer patients. The use of the proposed protocol and nomogram can facilitate rapid and wide screening, thus refining triage and supporting the establishment of criteria for referral to mental health professionals, so that patients can be properly diagnosed and treated.

  17. Adult attachment, emotion dysregulation, and symptoms of depression and generalized anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marganska, Anna; Gallagher, Michelle; Miranda, Regina

    2013-01-01

    Differences in attachment style have been linked to both emotion regulation and psychological functioning, but the emotion regulatory mechanism through which attachment style might impact symptoms of depression and anxiety is unclear. The present study examined the explanatory role of emotion dysregulation in the relation between adult attachment style and symptoms of depression and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) in a sample of 284 adults. Secure attachment was associated with lower depression and GAD symptoms and lower emotion dysregulation, whereas insecure attachment styles were generally associated with higher depression and GAD scores and higher emotion dysregulation. Perceived inability to generate effective emotion regulation strategies mediated the relation between insecure attachment and both depression and GAD symptoms. Nonacceptance of negative emotions and inability to control impulsive behaviors emerged as additional mediators of the relation between insecure attachment styles and GAD symptoms. The differential contribution of attachment style and emotion regulation to the prediction of depression and GAD symptoms may reflect differences in vulnerability to depression and GAD.

  18. Anxiety and Depression Symptomatology in Migraine: Retrospective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anxiety and Depression Symptomatology in Migraine: Retrospective Review of 257 ... Nigerian Journal of Psychiatry ... Objectives: To determine the prevalence of depressive and anxiety symptoms/disorders among patients with migraine ...

  19. Risks of major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders among Thais with alcohol use disorders and illicit drug use: findings from the 2008 Thai National Mental Health survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suttajit, Sirijit; Kittirattanapaiboon, Phunnapa; Junsirimongkol, Boonsiri; Likhitsathian, Surinporn; Srisurapanont, Manit

    2012-12-01

    Little is known about the risks of mood and anxiety disorders among Asians with alcohol use disorders and the effect of illicit drug use in this population. All participants from the 2008 Thai National Mental Health survey (N=17,140) were assessed for current major depressive disorder, anxiety disorders, and alcohol use disorders by using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) and were interviewed for illicit drug use within one year prior to their assessment. Logistic regression modeling was used to determine (a) whether alcohol use disorders were associated with major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders and (b) whether the use of illicit drugs increased these associations. Sex, age, marital status, region, and educational level were found to be significantly associated with major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders and were taken into account in the regression analysis. Compared with the general population, individuals with alcohol use disorders alone had significantly increased risks of major depressive disorder (OR 2.49, 95%CI 1.76-3.53 in men and OR 4.09, 95%CI 2.31-7.26 in women) and anxiety disorders (OR 2.21, 95%CI 1.46-3.36 in men and OR 4.34, 95%CI 2.35-8.03 in women). The risks became higher among individuals with both alcohol use disorders and illicit drug use (OR 3.62, 95% CI 1.64-8.01 in men and OR 11.53, 95%CI 1.32-100.65 in women for major depressive disorder, and OR 3.20, 95%CI 1.36-7.51 in men and OR 13.10, 95%CI 1.48-115.60 in women for anxiety disorders). In conclusion, alcohol use disorders were significantly associated with major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders. Illicit drug use was an important factor in increasing these associations, especially in women. Screening for depression, anxiety, and illicit drug use should be done in individuals with alcohol use disorders.

  20. Comorbidity and mixed anxiety-depressive disorders: is there epidemiologic evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittchen, H U; Essau, C A

    1993-01-01

    Recent epidemiologic studies (i.e., studies conducted since 1980) have consistently demonstrated, on the basis of standardized diagnostic assessments, that there is a substantial overlap between different types of anxiety and depressive disorders. The current literature, however, discusses this issue primarily within the concept of comorbidity and there are some controversies about the existence of a separate disorder of mixed anxiety-depression (MAD). MAD can be defined by the presence of mixed symptoms of depression and anxiety that are below the diagnostic threshold for either one of these diagnoses. Since MAD has not been included in any of the current official classification systems, its prevalence, risk factors, course, and outcome have not been studied specifically in any of the recent epidemiologic studies even though MAD is thought to be very important, especially in primary care settings. This paper reviews recent epidemiologic studies and presents data from the Munich Follow-Up Study, which has found a prevalence of about 1% for MAD as defined by the ICD-10. Despite the lack of clear diagnostic criteria for MAD, there are some indications that: (1) this disorder might be frequent in primary care settings, and (2) patients with MAD frequently demonstrate subjective suffering, show impairment in personal and occupational functioning, and have high health service utilization rates. Current empirical evidence is still insufficient for deciding a suitable classificatory solution for this problem.

  1. Anxiety, depression, and quality of life in Iranian mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kousha, Maryam; Attar, Hoda Alizadeh; Shoar, Zohreh

    2016-09-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is being more recognized and diagnosed in developing as well as developed countries. We aimed to investigate the frequency of anxiety, depression, and quality of life in mothers of children with ASD in Iranian families. We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional study on demographic data and mental health characteristics of 127 mothers of children with ASD. Mothers of children with ASD had high levels of anxiety (72.4%), depression (49.6%), and low scores of health-related quality of life (HRQOL). There was strong association between the child's age and the severity of mother's depression and QOL. Duration since diagnosis of ASD positively correlated with maternal depression. Anxiety, depression, and low HRQOL are more common in Iranian mothers with autistic children in our study. Our findings have implications for further investigation in mental health status of mothers of children with ASD, and providing educational support and interventional strategies may improve the mental health status of the entire family.

  2. The Relationship between Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist (PCL) Symptom Endorsement and Self-Reported Symptoms of Anxiety and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    syndromal ” presentation of PTSD where criterion B was met and either criterion C or D but not both. Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) symptoms were...disorders. Patient health questionnaire. JAMA 282: 1737-1744. 21. Sheehan DV, Harnett- Sheehan K, Raj BA (1996) The measurement of disability. Int Clin...depressive disorders. Med Care 26: 775- 789. 23. Coyne JC, Thompson R (2007) Posttraumatic stress syndromes : Useful or negative Heuristics? J Anxiety Disord

  3. Personality and changes in comorbidity patterns among anxiety and depressive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinhoven, Philip; de Rooij, Mark; Heiser, Willem; Smit, Jan H; Penninx, Brenda W J H

    2012-11-01

    This prospective study examined the prognostic value of the Big Five personality model for changes in comorbidity patterns of emotional disorders both from a person- and trait-centered perspective. Moreover, it is investigated whether the predictive effect of personality can be attributed to symptom severity at baseline. We followed a cohort of 2566 persons (18-65 years) recruited in primary and specialized mental health care during two years. Personality dimensions at baseline were assessed with the NEO-FFI. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.)-based diagnostic interviews with the CIDI allowed assessment of changes in comorbidity patterns of anxiety and depressive disorders over two years. Data were analyzed with latent class analysis (LCA) and latent transition analysis (LTA). LCA identified a four-class latent comorbidity class solution (Few Disorders, Fear Disorders, Distress Disorders, and Comorbid Fear and Distress Disorders) and a five-class latent personality class solution (High Resilients, Medium Resilients, Low Overcontrollers, Medium Overcontrollers, and High Overcontrollers). LTA showed that the likelihood of remaining in the same latent class was larger than that of transitioning to a less severe comorbidity class. Also, after correcting for symptom severity, medium and high Overcontrollers as well as participants with lower levels of conscientiousness were less likely to transition to a less severe comorbidity class. In particular, the individual trait of conscientiousness may be less dependent on current levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms and be a key pathoplastic or even predisposing variable in anxiety and depression and needs more theoretical and empirical study.

  4. The phenotypic and genetic structure of depression and anxiety disorder symptoms in childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waszczuk, Monika A; Zavos, Helena M S; Gregory, Alice M; Eley, Thalia C

    2014-08-01

    The DSM-5 classifies mood and anxiety disorders as separate conditions. However, some studies in adults find a unidimensional internalizing factor that underpins anxiety and depression, while others support a bidimensional model where symptoms segregate into distress (depression and generalized anxiety) and fear factors (phobia subscales). However, little is known about the phenotypic and genetic structure of internalizing psychopathology in children and adolescents. To investigate the phenotypic associations between depression and anxiety disorder symptom subscales and to test the genetic structures underlying these symptoms (DSM-5-related, unidimensional and bidimensional) across 3 developmental stages: childhood, adolescence, and early adulthood. Two population-based prospective longitudinal twin/sibling studies conducted in the United Kingdom. The child sample included 578 twins (mean age, approximately 8 and 10 years at waves 1 and 2, respectively). The adolescent and early adulthood sample included 2619 twins/siblings at 3 waves (mean age, 15, 17, and 20 years at each wave). Self-report symptoms of depression and anxiety disorders. Phenotypically, when controlling for other anxiety subscales, depression symptoms were only associated with generalized anxiety disorder symptoms in childhood (r = 0.20-0.21); this association broadened to panic and social phobia symptoms in adolescence (r = 0.17-0.24 and r = 0.14-0.16, respectively) and all anxiety subscales in young adulthood (r = 0.06-0.19). The genetic associations were in line with phenotypic results. In childhood, anxiety subscales were influenced by a single genetic factor that did not contribute to genetic variance in depression symptoms, suggesting largely independent genetic influences on anxiety and depression. In adolescence, genetic influences were significantly shared between depression and all anxiety subscales in agreement with DSM-5 conceptualization. In young adulthood, a genetic

  5. Maternal bonding in mothers with postpartum anxiety disorder: the crucial role of subclinical depressive symptoms and maternal avoidance behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tietz, A; Zietlow, A-L; Reck, C

    2014-10-01

    Hardly any research has examined the link between postpartum anxiety disorder and maternal bonding. This study examined if postpartum anxiety disorder and maternal bonding are related in the postpartum period. Thereby, subclinical depressive symptoms and specific aspects of an anxious symptomatology were also taken into consideration. The German sample of N = 78 mother-infant dyads is composed of n = 30 mothers with postpartum anxiety disorders but without major or minor depression according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV (DSM-IV) and n = 48 healthy mothers. Subjects were interviewed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Disorders at an average infant age of M = 4.1 months. Moreover, mothers filled out the Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire-16. The Anxiety Cognitions Questionnaire, the Body Sensations Questionnaire and the Mobility Inventory were chosen to assess different aspects of anxious symptomatology. To control for concurrent subclinical depressive symptoms, we used the German Edinburgh-Postnatal-Depression Scale. Mothers with postpartum anxiety disorder reported significantly lower bonding than healthy mothers. However, in a linear regression analysis, concurrent subclinical depressive symptoms and avoidance of anxiety-related situations in company explained 27 % of the overall variance in maternal bonding. The perceived lower bonding of mothers with anxiety disorder could be due to aspects of a concurrent subclinical depressive symptomatology. This notion emphasizes the need to target even mild depressive symptoms in the treatment of postpartum anxiety disorders. The outcomes also underline that the severity of anxious symptomatology, reflected by avoidance behaviour in company, puts the mother-infant bond at risk.

  6. Post-traumatic stress disorder, depression and generalised anxiety disorder in adolescents after a natural disaster: a study of comorbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastia Binaya

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information on mental health sequel in adolescents following natural disasters from developing countries is scant. Method Around one year after a super-cyclone, proportion of adolescents exhibiting post-traumatic psychiatric symptoms, prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD, major depression and generalized anxiety disorder, comorbidity and impairment of performance in school were studied in Orissa, India. Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview for children and adolescents was used for evaluation and diagnosis. The criteria for diagnoses were based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders – IV. Results Post-disaster psychiatric presentation in adolescents was a conglomeration of PTSD, depression and anxiety symptoms. The prevalences of PTSD, major depressive disorder and generalised anxiety disorder were 26.9%, 17.6% and 12.0% respectively. Proportion of adolescents with any diagnosis was 37.9%. Comorbidity was found in 39.0% of adolescents with a psychiatric diagnosis. Adolescents from middle socioeconomic status were more affected. There were gender differences in the presentation of the symptoms rather than on the prevalence of diagnoses. Prolonged periods of helplessness and lack of adequate post-disaster psychological support were perceived as probable influencing factors, as well as the severity of the disaster. Conclusion The findings of the study highlight the continuing need for identification and intervention for post-disaster psychiatric morbidities in adolescent victims in developing countries.

  7. Common rather than unique aspects of repetitive negative thinking are related to depressive and anxiety disorders and symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinhoven, Philip; Drost, Jolijn; van Hemert, Bert; Penninx, Brenda W

    2015-06-01

    Repetitive Negative Thinking (RNT) is assumed to be a transdiagnostic factor in depressive and anxiety disorders. We hypothesized that an underlying common dimension of RNT will be more strongly associated with each of the anxiety and depressive disorders, with comorbidity among disorders and with symptom severity than unique aspects of rumination and worry. In a cross-sectional study, 2143 adults diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria completed questionnaires for content-independent RNT, rumination and worry. 84% of the shared variance of worry and rumination overlapped with content-independent RNT. The common dimension of RNT was significantly associated with each of the depressive and anxiety disorders, comorbidity among emotional disorders and the common core of depressive, anxiety and avoidance symptoms. The unique portion of rumination showed a significant relationship with Major Depressive Disorder and depressive comorbidity and the unique portion of worry with Generalized Anxiety Disorder. These findings are particularly relevant for clinical practice as generic interventions to reduce RNT are currently being tested. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Dynamics of cortisol in depression and anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, Gerthe

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis, we provide evidence in research on endophenotypes of psychopathology that it is fruitful not to take the clinical picture central, but the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis as a core stress system underlying psychopathophysiology in stress-related disorders. Homeostatic syste

  9. Dynamics of cortisol in depression and anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, Gerthe

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis, we provide evidence in research on endophenotypes of psychopathology that it is fruitful not to take the clinical picture central, but the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis as a core stress system underlying psychopathophysiology in stress-related disorders. Homeostatic syste

  10. Spatial affect learning restricted in major depression relative to anxiety disorders and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollan, Jackie K; Norris, Catherine J; Hoxha, Denada; Irick, John Stockton; Hawkley, Louise C; Cacioppo, John T

    2014-01-01

    Detecting and learning the location of unpleasant or pleasant scenarios, or spatial affect learning, is an essential skill that safeguards well-being (Crawford & Cacioppo, 2002). Potentially altered by psychiatric illness, this skill has yet to be measured in adults with and without major depressive disorder (MDD) and anxiety disorders (AD). This study enrolled 199 adults diagnosed with MDD and AD (n=53), MDD (n=47), AD (n=54), and no disorders (n=45). Measures included clinical interviews, self-reports, and a validated spatial affect task using affective pictures (IAPS; Lang, Bradley, & Cuthbert, 2005). Participants with MDD showed impaired spatial affect learning of negative stimuli and irrelevant learning of pleasant pictures compared with non-depressed adults. Adults with MDD may use a "GOOD is UP" heuristic reflected by their impaired learning of the opposite correlation (i.e., "BAD is UP") and performance in the pleasant version of the task.

  11. The Relationship Between Multiple Sex Partners and Anxiety, Depression, and Substance Dependence Disorders: A Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Charlotte; Bell, Melanie L.; Dickson, Nigel; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Caspi, Avshalom

    2013-01-01

    Changes in sexual behavior have resulted in longer periods of multiple serial or concurrent relationships. This study investigated the effects of multiple heterosexual partners on mental health, specifically, whether higher numbers of partners were linked to later anxiety, depression, and substance dependency. Data from the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study, a prospective, longitudinal study of a birth cohort born in 1972–1973 in Dunedin, New Zealand were used. The relationship between numbers of sex partners over three age periods (18–20, 21–25, and 26–32 years) and diagnoses of anxiety, depression, and substance dependence disorder at 21, 26, and 32 years were examined, using logistic regression. Interaction by gender was examined. Adjustment was made for prior mental health status. There was no significant association between number of sex partners and later anxiety and depression. Increasing numbers of sex partners were associated with increasing risk of substance dependence disorder at all three ages. The association was stronger for women and remained after adjusting for prior disorder. For women reporting 2.5 or more partners per year, compared to 0–1 partners, the adjusted odd ratios (and 95 % CIs) were 9.6 (4.4–20.9), 7.3 (2.5–21.3), and 17.5 (3.5–88.1) at 21, 26, and 32 years, respectively. Analyses using new cases of these disorders showed similar patterns. This study established a strong association between number of sex partners and later substance disorder, especially for women, which persisted beyond prior substance use and mental health problems more generally. The reasons for this association deserve investigation. PMID:23400516

  12. The relationship between multiple sex partners and anxiety, depression, and substance dependence disorders: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramrakha, Sandhya; Paul, Charlotte; Bell, Melanie L; Dickson, Nigel; Moffitt, Terrie E; Caspi, Avshalom

    2013-07-01

    Changes in sexual behavior have resulted in longer periods of multiple serial or concurrent relationships. This study investigated the effects of multiple heterosexual partners on mental health, specifically, whether higher numbers of partners were linked to later anxiety, depression, and substance dependency. Data from the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study, a prospective, longitudinal study of a birth cohort born in 1972-1973 in Dunedin, New Zealand were used. The relationship between numbers of sex partners over three age periods (18-20, 21-25, and 26-32 years) and diagnoses of anxiety, depression, and substance dependence disorder at 21, 26, and 32 years were examined, using logistic regression. Interaction by gender was examined. Adjustment was made for prior mental health status. There was no significant association between number of sex partners and later anxiety and depression. Increasing numbers of sex partners were associated with increasing risk of substance dependence disorder at all three ages. The association was stronger for women and remained after adjusting for prior disorder. For women reporting 2.5 or more partners per year, compared to 0-1 partners, the adjusted odd ratios (and 95 % CIs) were 9.6 (4.4-20.9), 7.3 (2.5-21.3), and 17.5 (3.5-88.1) at 21, 26, and 32 years, respectively. Analyses using new cases of these disorders showed similar patterns. This study established a strong association between number of sex partners and later substance disorder, especially for women, which persisted beyond prior substance use and mental health problems more generally. The reasons for this association deserve investigation.

  13. The Temporal Course of Anxiety Sensitivity in Outpatients with Anxiety and Mood Disorders: Relationships with Behavioral Inhibition and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosellini, Anthony J.; Fairholme, Christopher P.; Brown, Timothy A.

    2011-01-01

    The present study evaluated the temporal course of three dimensions of anxiety sensitivity (AS; concerns over physical symptoms, mental incapacitation, and social embarrassment) and their relationships with behavioral inhibition (BI) and depression (DEP) in 606 outpatients with anxiety and mood disorders. A semi-structured interview and self-report questionnaires were administered on three occasions over a two-year period. All three constructs decreased over the study period and AS temporally functioned more similar to DEP than BI. Cross-sectional and temporal correlations supported the discriminant validity of AS from BI. As expected, initial levels of BI predicted less improvement in all AS dimensions. In contrast, higher initial levels of mental incapacitation AS were associated with greater improvement in DEP. Our results are discussed in regard to the measurement of AS in clinical samples, conceptualizations of AS as a lower-order vulnerability, and prognostic implications of directional paths between BI and AS and AS and DEP. PMID:21377316

  14. Depression and anxiety among coronary heart disease patients: can affect dimensions and theory inform diagnostic disorder-based screening?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, Phillip J; Penninx, Brenda W

    2012-04-01

    To examine the association between low positive affect, somatic anxiety and general distress with affective disorders, anxious misery, and visceral fear among coronary heart disease patients. Patients awaiting a coronary revascularization procedure (N = 158; 20.9% female; median age = 65, interquartile range 58-73) underwent structured interview with the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Patients completed a brief version of the Mood and Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire (i.e., Anxiety Depression Distress Inventory-27) and a measure of Type D personality. Somatic anxiety scores yielded an area under the curve (AUC) = .784 and 75.0% sensitivity and 68.5% specificity in relation to panic disorder. Low positive affect yielded AUC = .811 and 70.4% sensitivity and 77.1% specificity for major depression. General distress yielded AUC = .795 and 75.0% sensitivity and 72.5% specificity for generalized anxiety disorder. No affective dimension was optimally associated with the anxious misery or visceral fear cluster. Trait negative affect was not a suitable screener for any disorder. The Anxiety Depression Distress Inventory-27 dimensions of low positive affect and somatic anxiety provided optimal detection of depression and panic disorder, respectively, as hypothesized, supporting discriminant validity. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Risk of anxiety and depressive disorders in patients with myocardial infarction: A nationwide population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Hsin-Pei; Chien, Wu-Chien; Cheng, Wei-Tung; Chung, Chi-Hsiang; Cheng, Shu-Meng; Tzeng, Wen-Chii

    2016-08-01

    Anxiety and depressive symptoms are associated with adverse cardiovascular events after an acute myocardial infarction (MI). However, most studies focusing on anxiety or depression have used rating scales or self-report methods rather than clinical diagnosis. This study aimed to investigate the association between psychiatrist-diagnosed psychiatric disorders and cardiovascular prognosis.We sampled data from the National Health Insurance Research Database; 1396 patients with MI were recruited as the study cohort and 13,960 patients without MI were recruited as the comparison cohort. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to examine the effect of MI on the risk of anxiety and depressive disorders.During the first 2 years of follow-up, patients with MI exhibited a significantly higher risk of anxiety disorders (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 5.06, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.61-5.54) and depressive disorders (adjusted HR = 7.23, 95% CI: 4.88-10.88) than those without MI did. Greater risk for anxiety and depressive disorders was observed among women and patients aged 45 to 64 years following an acute MI. Patients with post-MI anxiety had a 9.37-fold (95% CI: 4.45-19.70) higher risk of recurrent MI than those without MI did after adjustment for age, sex, socioeconomic status, and comorbidities.This nationwide population-based cohort study provides evidence that MI increases the risk of anxiety and depressive disorders during the first 2 years post-MI, and post-MI anxiety disorders are associated with a higher risk of recurrent MI.

  16. Internalizing Disorders and Leukocyte Telomere Erosion: A Prospective Study of Depression, Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalev, Idan; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Braithwaite, Antony W.; Danese, Andrea; Fleming, Nicholas I.; Goldman-Mellor, Sidra; Harrington, HonaLee; Houts, Renate M.; Israel, Salomon; Poulton, Richie; Robertson, Stephen P.; Sugden, Karen; Williams, Benjamin; Caspi, Avshalom

    2013-01-01

    There is evidence that persistent psychiatric disorders lead to age-related disease and premature mortality. Telomere length has emerged as a promising biomarker in studies that test the hypothesis that internalizing psychiatric disorders are associated with accumulating cellular damage. We tested the association between the persistence of internalizing disorders (depression, generalized anxiety disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder) and leukocyte telomere length (LTL) in the prospective-longitudinal Dunedin Study (N=1037). Analyses showed that the persistence of internalizing disorders across repeated assessments from ages 11 to 38 years predicted shorter LTL at age 38 years in a dose-response manner, specifically in men (β= −.137, 95% CI: −.232, −.042, p=.005). This association was not accounted for by alternative explanatory factors, including childhood maltreatment, tobacco smoking, substance dependence, psychiatric medication use, poor physical health, or low socioeconomic status. Additional analyses using DNA from blood collected at two time points (ages 26 and 38 years) showed that LTL erosion was accelerated among men who were diagnosed with internalizing disorder in the interim (β= −.111, 95% CI: −.184, −.037, p=.003). No significant associations were found among women in any analysis, highlighting potential sex differences in internalizing-related telomere biology. These findings point to a potential mechanism linking internalizing disorders to accelerated biological aging in the first half of the life course, particularly in men. Because internalizing disorders are treatable, the findings suggest the hypothesis that treating psychiatric disorders in the first half of the life course may reduce the population burden of age-related disease, and extend health expectancy. PMID:24419039

  17. Shame and guilt in social anxiety disorder: effects of cognitive behavior therapy and association with social anxiety and depressive symptoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Hedman

    Full Text Available Social anxiety disorder (SAD, characterized by fear of being scrutinized by others, has features that that are closely linked to the concept of shame. Despite this, it remains to be investigated whether shame is elevated in persons with SAD, and if cognitive behavior therapy (CBT for SAD could reduce shame experience. In the present study, we focused on internal shame, i.e. the type of shame that pertains to how we judge ourselves. Although guilt is distinctly different from shame, we also viewed it as important to investigate its role in SAD as the two emotions are highly correlated. The aim of this study was to investigate: (I if persons with SAD differ from healthy controls on shame and guilt, (II if shame, guilt, depressive symptoms, and social anxiety are associated in persons with SAD, and (III if CBT can reduce internal shame in patients with SAD. Firstly, we conducted a case-control study comparing a sample with SAD (n = 67 with two samples of healthy controls, a main sample (n = 72 and a replication sample (n = 22. Secondly, all participants with SAD were treated with CBT and shame, measured with the Test of Self-Conscious affect, was assessed before and after treatment. The results showed that shame was elevated in person with SAD compared to the control replication sample, but not to the main control sample. In addition, shame, social anxiety, and depressive symptoms were significantly associated among participants with SAD. After CBT, participants with SAD had significantly reduced their shame (Cohen's d = 0.44. Guilt was unrelated to social anxiety. We conclude that shame and social anxiety are associated and that it is likely that persons with SAD are more prone to experience shame than persons without SAD. Also, CBT is associated with shame reduction in the treatment of SAD.

  18. Internet Gaming Disorder Explains Unique Variance in Psychological Distress and Disability After Controlling for Comorbid Depression, OCD, ADHD, and Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearcy, Benjamin T D; McEvoy, Peter M; Roberts, Lynne D

    2017-02-01

    This study extends knowledge about the relationship of Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) to other established mental disorders by exploring comorbidities with anxiety, depression, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), and assessing whether IGD accounts for unique variance in distress and disability. An online survey was completed by a convenience sample that engages in Internet gaming (N = 404). Participants meeting criteria for IGD based on the Personal Internet Gaming Disorder Evaluation-9 (PIE-9) reported higher comorbidity with depression, OCD, ADHD, and anxiety compared with those who did not meet the IGD criteria. IGD explained a small proportion of unique variance in distress (1%) and disability (3%). IGD accounted for a larger proportion of unique variance in disability than anxiety and ADHD, and a similar proportion to depression. Replications with clinical samples using longitudinal designs and structured diagnostic interviews are required.

  19. Coexisting geriatric anxiety and depressive disorders may increase the risk of ischemic heart disease mortality-a nationwide longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wei Hung; Lee, I Hui; Chen, Wei Tseng; Chen, Po See; Yang, Yen Kuang; Chen, Kao Chin

    2016-12-14

    In the elderly, the risk of mortality because of physical illnesses related to anxiety disorders varies with potential confounding influences, including comorbidity with depressive disorders. Our study aimed to explore (i) whether anxiety disorders increase the risk of mortality in the elderly, and (ii) whether the risk of mortality mediated by anxiety and depressive disorders differs between physical illnesses. Our longitudinal cohort study included subjects aged over 60 years from the National Health Insurance Research Database. One thousand and eighty-six subjects with anxiety disorders and 50 554 control subjects without anxiety disorders were included. Propensity score-matched cohorts were analyzed. Rate ratios (RRs) were calculated for the risk of mortality associated with different physical illnesses with comorbidities of either anxiety disorders only or both anxiety and depressive disorders. The risk of mortality in patients with anxiety disorders was significantly higher than controls, and was even higher when subjects had both anxiety and depressive disorder comorbidities. Furthermore, the co-occurrence of anxiety and depressive disorders increased the risk of mortality in elderly patients with ischemic heart diseases (RR = 1.60; 95% CI: 1.14-2.24). Coexisting anxiety and depressive disorders could increase the risk of mortality in elderly patients with ischemic heart diseases. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Qualitative changes in symptomatology as an effect of treatment with escitalopram in generalized anxiety disorder and major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecrubier, Yves; Dolberg, Ornah T; Andersen, Henning F; Weiller, Emmauelle

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the similarities and differences between patients with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) versus Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) versus MDD with anxiety symptoms. Data were analysed from all randomized double-blind clinical studies with escitalopram that measured symptoms using either Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA) or Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). The contribution of each item of a scale to the total score was calculated before and after treatment, in remitters. Most single items of the HAMA contribute nearly equally in patients with GAD. In patients with MDD, four symptoms (i.e. anxious mood, tension, insomnia and concentration) contribute to most to the HAMA total score. In patients with GAD, three symptoms (tension, sleep and concentration) contribute two-thirds of the MADRS total score. In contrast, most MADRS items contribute equally to the total score in patients with MDD. After treatment to remission, the profile of residual symptoms MDD or GAD was similar to the symptom profile before treatment. Anxiety symptoms are very common in patients with MDD or GAD, and the symptomatic pattern is similar. In both disorders, the symptomatic pattern of residual symptoms is similar to the pattern of symptoms before treatment.

  1. Excessive mood elevation and behavioral activation with antidepressant treatment of juvenile depressive and anxiety disorders: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offidani, Emanuela; Fava, Giovanni A; Tomba, Elena; Baldessarini, Ross J

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence, characteristics and implications of excessive arousal-activation in children and adolescents treated with antidepressants for specific illnesses have not been systematically examined. We compared reports of antidepressant trials (n = 6,767 subjects) in juvenile depressive (n = 17) and anxiety disorders (n = 25) for consensus-based indications of psychopathological mood elevation or behavioral activation. Rates of excessive arousal-activation during treatment with antidepressants were at least as high in juvenile anxiety (13.8%) as depressive (9.79%) disorders, and much lower with placebos (5.22 vs. 1.10%, respectively; both p antidepressant/placebo risk ratio for such reactions in paired comparisons was 3.50 (12.9/3.69%), and the meta-analytically pooled rate ratio was 1.7 (95% confidence interval: 1.2-2.2; both p ≤ 0.001). Overall rates for 'mania or hypomania', specifically, were 8.19% with and 0.17% without antidepressant treatment, with large drug/placebo risk ratios among depressive (10.4/0.45%) and anxiety (1.98/0.00%) disorder patients. Risks of excessive mood elevation during antidepressant treatment, including mania-hypomania, were much greater than with placebo, and similar in juvenile anxiety and depressive disorders. Excessive arousal-activation in children or adolescents treated with antidepressants for anxiety as well as depressive disorders calls for particular caution and monitoring for potential risk of future bipolar disorder. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Peripartum changes in social support among women with and without anxiety and depressive disorders prior to pregnancy: a prospective-longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asselmann, E; Wittchen, H-U; Erler, L; Martini, J

    2016-12-01

    This study aims to prospectively examine peripartum changes in social support in women with and without anxiety and depressive disorders prior to pregnancy. Data come from the Maternal Anxiety in Relation to Infant Development (MARI) Study, a prospective-longitudinal investigation among n = 306 expectant mothers. DSM-IV anxiety and depressive disorders were assessed in early pregnancy using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview for Women (CIDI-V). Social support was assessed with the Social Support Questionnaire during pregnancy as well as 4 and 16 months postpartum. Perceived social support in the total sample declined from prepartum to postpartum. Levels of prepartum and postpartum social support were lower in women with comorbid anxiety and depressive disorders compared to those with pure depressive disorder(s), pure anxiety disorder(s), or comorbid anxiety and depressive disorders prior to pregnancy. Moreover, social support more strongly declined from prepartum to postpartum in women with comorbid anxiety and depressive disorders compared to those without anxiety and depressive disorder prior to pregnancy. Findings suggest that women with a previous history of comorbid anxiety and depressive disorders are at particular risk for deficient social support during pregnancy and after delivery and might thus profit from targeted early interventions.

  3. Line bisection performance in patients with generalized anxiety disorder and treatment-resistant depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei HE, Hao CHAI, Yingchun ZHANG, Shaohua YU, Wei CHEN, Wei WANG

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives The line bisection error to the left of the true center has been interpreted as a relative right hemisphere activation, which might relate to the subject's emotional state. Considering that patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD or treatment-resistant depression (TRD often have negative emotions, we hypothesized that these patients would bisect lines significantly leftward. Methods We tried the line bisection task in the right-handed healthy volunteers (n = 56, GAD (n = 47 and TRD outpatients (n = 52. Subjects also completed the Zuckerman - Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire, the Zuckerman Sensation Seeking Scales, and the Plutchik-van Praag Depression Inventory. Results GAD patients scored highest on the Neuroticism-Anxiety trait, TRD patients scored highest on depression, and both patients scored lower on the Sociability trait. Patients with GAD also bisected lines significantly leftward compared to the healthy subjects. The Frequency of the bisection error was negatively correlated with Disinhibition-Seeking in the healthy subjects, and with Total sensation-seeking and Experience-Seeking in GAD patients, while the Magnitude of the line bisection error was negatively correlated with depression in TRD patients. Conclusions The study suggests a stronger right hemispheric activation, a weaker left activation, or both in the GAD, instead of TRD patients.

  4. The role of pharmacogenetics in the treatment of depression and anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schosser, Alexandra; Kasper, Siegfried

    2009-11-01

    Although effective treatment for mood and anxiety disorders have been available for more than 40 years, 30-50% of depressed patients and 25% of patients with anxiety disorder do not respond sufficiently to first-line treatment with antidepressants. Genetic factors are supposed to play a major role in both variation of treatment response and incidence of adverse effects to medication. So far, candidate genes of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic pathways of antidepressants have been investigated, and associations between several candidate genes and response to antidepressants are reported. Two functional polymorphisms of the serotonin transporter gene, 5-HTTLPR and STin2 have been investigated in a large number of pharmacogenetic studies of depression; other candidate genes include serotonin receptor genes, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, P-glycoprotein (located in the blood-brain barrier), G-proteins, TPH1 and TPH2, MAOA, the noradrenaline transporter gene, FKBP5, or cytochrome P450 (CYP450) genes. CYP450 genes play a major role in the metabolism of a substantial part of psychotropics, including antidepressants, and the first estimates of dosage adjustments for antidepressants have been provided based on metabolizer status. Genome-wide association studies that use large numbers of single-nucleotide polymorphisms to screen the entire genome for alleles that influence a trait are now feasible, and the results of the first genome-wide association studies of antidepressant treatment outcome will soon be available. The current review not only updates pharmacogenetic research in depression but also focuses on antidepressant treatment response in anxiety disorders.

  5. Major depressive disorder, suicidal behaviour, bipolar disorder, and generalised anxiety disorder among emerging adults with and without chronic health conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, M A

    2016-10-01

    Despite the considerable physical, emotional and social change that occurs during emerging adulthood, there is little research that examines the association between having a chronic health condition and mental disorder during this developmental period. The aims of this study were to examine the sex-specific prevalence of lifetime mental disorder in an epidemiological sample of emerging adults aged 15-30 years with and without chronic health conditions; quantify the association between chronic health conditions and mental disorder, adjusting for sociodemographic and health factors; and, examine potential moderating and mediating effects of sex, level of disability and pain. Data come from the Canadian Community Health Survey-Mental Health. Respondents were 15-30 years of age (n = 5947) and self-reported whether they had a chronic health condition. Chronic health conditions were classified as: respiratory, musculoskeletal/connective tissue, cardiovascular, neurological and endocrine/digestive. The World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview 3.0 was used to assess the presence of mental disorder (major depressive disorder, suicidal behaviour, bipolar disorder and generalised anxiety disorder). Lifetime prevalence of mental disorder was significantly higher for individuals with chronic health conditions compared with healthy controls. Substantial heterogeneity in the prevalence of mental disorder was found in males, but not in females. Logistic regression models adjusting for several sociodemographic and health factors showed that the individuals with chronic health conditions were at elevated risk for mental disorder. There was no evidence that the level of disability or pain moderated the associations between chronic health conditions and mental disorder. Sex was found to moderate the association between musculoskeletal/connective tissue conditions and bipolar disorder (β = 1.71, p = 0.002). Exploratory analyses suggest that the levels of

  6. Examining fear and stress as mediators between disorder perceptions and personal health, depression, and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Danielle

    2012-11-01

    Research examining the effect of neighborhoods on personal health has often focused on neighborhood disorder, or visual cues in neighborhoods perceived as personally threatening or noxious. Neighborhood disorderliness is thought to elevate individuals' fear of crime, thereby negatively impacting personal and mental health. Unfortunately, the pathways between disorder, fear of crime, and health have yet to be established. This study examines the pathways between neighborhood disorder, fear of crime, and three health outcomes. Using the Community, Crime and Health Survey, this study employs structural equation modeling to examine how general (being afraid of walking alone) and offense-specific fear of crime (being afraid of specific crimes) mediate the relationship between individuals' disorder perceptions and self-rated health, depression and anxiety. Results show that fear of crime does mediate the relationship between disorder perceptions, self-rated health and depression, though the mediating pathways are weak. This study suggests that the disorder-fear of crime-health nexus should be re-examined theoretically.

  7. Prevalence of depression, anxiety and stress disorders in elderly people residing in Khoy, Iran (2014-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Towhid Babazadeh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Psychiatric disorders such as depression, stress, and anxiety are factors that affect the quality of life, suicide and many physical problems, and socioeconomic in elders. Considering the importance of the issue and increasing the number of elderly people in this County, researchers decided to investigate the levels of stress, anxiety, and depression in the elderly health centers of Khoy, Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was done on 383 elderly people referred to health centers in Khoy County. A random cluster sampling was used in this study where each health care is considered as a cluster. The Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scale 21 (DASS-21 standard questionnaire was used for data collection. The SPSS software was used for all computations. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistic, t-test, and one-way ANOVA. P < 0.050 was determined to be significant. Results: The results of this study showed that 1.3% of the elderly people suffer from very severe stress, 1.3% from severe depression, and 3.1% from severe anxiety. Likewise, the comparison between anxiety, stress, and depression disorders with demographic variables showed that there is a significant association between these disorders and sex, education, marital status, medical condition, as well as their housing conditions (P < 0.050. Conclusion: The results of this study indicated anxiety disorders, depression, and stress prevail among the elderly. In addition, some factors such as education, housing, medical condition, and marital status had significant effects on anxiety disorders, depression, and stress. Therefore, more attention is deserved in these aspects. Moreover, appropriate measures need to be taken to improve the mental health of elderly people.

  8. Anxiety disorders and inflammation in a large adult cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogelzangs, N.; Beekman, A. T. F.; de Jonge, P.; Penninx, Brenda

    2013-01-01

    Although anxiety disorders, like depression, are increasingly being associated with metabolic and cardiovascular burden, in contrast with depression, the role of inflammation in anxiety has sparsely been examined. This large cohort study examines the association between anxiety disorders and anxiety

  9. Association between Anxiety Disorders and Heart Rate Variability in The Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Licht, Carmilla M. M.; de Geus, Eco J. C.; van Dyck, Richard; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether patients with different types of anxiety disorder (panic disorder, social phobia, generalized anxiety disorder) have higher heart rate and lower heart rate variability compared with healthy controls in a sample that was sufficiently powered to examine the confounding

  10. Association between Anxiety Disorders and Heart Rate Variability in The Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Licht, Carmilla M. M.; de Geus, Eco J. C.; van Dyck, Richard; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    Objective: To determine whether patients with different types of anxiety disorder (panic disorder, social phobia, generalized anxiety disorder) have higher heart rate and lower heart rate variability compared with healthy controls in a sample that was sufficiently powered to examine the confounding

  11. Validity of the Revised Children's Anxiety and Depression Scale for Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Lindsey; Renno, Patricia; Storch, Eric A.; Ehrenreich-May, Jill; Lewin, Adam B.; Arnold, Elysse; Lin, Enjey; Wood, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    High rates of anxiety and depression are reported among youth with autism spectrum disorders. These conditions are generally assessed using measures validated for typically developing youth. Few studies have investigated their validity for autism spectrum disorders, which is crucial for accurate assessment and the provision of proper treatment.…

  12. Relapse prevention and residual symptoms: a closer analysis of placebo-controlled continuation studies with escitalopram in major depressive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Per; Lönn, Sara L; Overø, Kerstin F

    2010-01-01

    -Severity of Illness scores and relapse status in 4 studies published from 2005 to 2007, 1 each in major depressive disorder (MDD), generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), were analyzed using mixed-effects model repeated measures as a function of Montgomery......-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) scores on items 1, 3, and 7 at randomization. RESULTS: All studies showed a statistically significant (P needed to treat approximately 4. Patients with residual symptoms (MADRS score...... > 0) and without residual symptoms (MADRS score = 0) at the start of continuation treatment were defined by how patients scored on 3 core items of the MADRS: depressed mood (observed), inner or psychic tension, and lassitude. At randomization, patients with a residual symptom were globally more ill...

  13. Pregabalin augmentation of antidepressants in older patients with comorbid depression and generalized anxiety disorder-an open-label study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaiskos, Dimitrios; Pappa, Dimitra; Tzavellas, Elias; Siarkos, Kostas; Katirtzoglou, Everina; Papadimitriou, George N; Politis, Antonios

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this 12-week open-label study was to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of pregabalin as an adjunctive treatment to antidepressants in older patients suffering from depression and comorbid generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). The initial sample of this open-label study consisted of 94 older patients fulfilling criteria for depression with comorbid GAD who were treated with antidepressants. Twenty of them who had received antidepressant monotherapy for an adequate time and shown partial response to the antidepressant prescribed, in terms of either anxiety or depressive symptomatology, followed the next phase. During the 12-week study period, pregabalin was gradually added to the previously prescribed antidepressant, reaching 225 mg/day over 4 weeks. Depression and anxiety scores as well as side effects were monitored. Within groups, differences of depression and anxiety scores at baseline and during the following 12 weeks of treatment were estimated with repeated-measure analysis of variance. A statistical significant reduction in depression scores was observed after the 4th week of treatment (p anxiety scores, a statistically significant improvement was noted between the 2nd and 4th weeks (p anxiety and depressive symptomatology significantly improved, and minimal side effects were observed. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Mothers with depression, anxiety or eating disorders: outcomes on their children and the role of paternal psychological profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimino, Silvia; Cerniglia, Luca; Paciello, Marinella

    2015-04-01

    The present paper aims to longitudinally assess the emotional functioning of children of mothers with depression, anxiety, or eating disorders and of mothers with no psychological disorders and to evaluate the possible mediating role of fathers' psychological profiles on children's internalizing/externalizing functioning using SCID I, SCL-90/R and CBCL/1½-5. The results showed maternal psychopathology to be strongly related to children's maladaptive profiles. Children of mothers with depression and anxiety showed higher internalizing scores than children of other groups. These scores increased from T1 to T2. Children of mothers with eating disorders showed higher and increasing externalizing scores than children of other groups. The data showed that fathers' interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety and psychoticism significantly predicted internalizing problems of the children. Moreover, interpersonal sensitivity and psychoticism significantly predicted externalizing problems. Our results confirmed the impact of maternal psychopathology on maladaptive outcomes in their children, which suggests the importance of considering paternal psychological profiles.

  15. Combined detection of depression and anxiety in epilepsy patients using the Neurological Disorders Depression Inventory for Epilepsy and the World Health Organization well-being index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Christian Pilebæk; Amiri, Moshgan

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To validate the Danish version of the Neurological Disorders Depression Inventory for Epilepsy (NDDI-E), and compare it with the World Health Organization index for psychological well-being (WHO-5) as screening tests for depression and anxiety in epilepsy patients. METHODS: Epilepsy...... there are 17% false positives. CONCLUSION: NDDI-E in Danish is valid and slightly better than WHO-5 in the detection of depression in epilepsy patients. WHO-5 is valid for the detection of anxiety disorders. Combined use of NDDI-E and WHO-5 is recommended, since 95% of all epilepsy patients with depression and....../or anxiety disorder are identified with only a modest number of false positives....

  16. Assessing eating disorder risk: the pivotal role of achievement anxiety, depression and female gender in non-clinical samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragkos, Konstantinos C; Frangos, Christos C

    2013-03-12

    The objective of the present study was to assess factors predicting eating disorder risk in a sample of undergraduate students. A structured questionnaire was employed on a random sample (n = 1865) consisting of the following sections: demographics, SCOFF (Sick, Control, One stone, Fat, Food) questionnaire for screening eating disorders and the Achievement Anxiety Test and the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale. The students at risk for eating disorders (SCOFF score ≥2) were 39.7%. Eating disorder risk was more frequent in females, students with divorced parents, students who lived alone, students who were seeking a romantic relationship or were married, students who were at a post-secondary vocational institute/college (private-public) educational level and who were more likely to have marks under merit level. Also, the mean scores for the psychological factors of depression, stress and anxiety were higher in students with eating disorder risk. A logistic regression model was produced depicting that depression, stress, female gender, being married and searching for a romantic relationship were risk factors of having an eating disorder risk. The suggested psychological model examined with structural equation modelling signified the role of academic anxiety as an immediate precursor of general anxiety. Hence, college populations in Greece need organized infrastructures of nutrition health services and campaigns to assist in reducing the risk of eating disorders.

  17. Assessing Eating Disorder Risk: The Pivotal Role of Achievement Anxiety, Depression and Female Gender in Non-Clinical Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos C. Frangos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to assess factors predicting eating disorder risk in a sample of undergraduate students. A structured questionnaire was employed on a random sample (n = 1865 consisting of the following sections: demographics, SCOFF (Sick, Control, One stone, Fat, Food questionnaire for screening eating disorders and the Achievement Anxiety Test and the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale. The students at risk for eating disorders (SCOFF score ≥2 were 39.7%. Eating disorder risk was more frequent in females, students with divorced parents, students who lived alone, students who were seeking a romantic relationship or were married, students who were at a post-secondary vocational institute/college (private-public educational level and who were more likely to have marks under merit level. Also, the mean scores for the psychological factors of depression, stress and anxiety were higher in students with eating disorder risk. A logistic regression model was produced depicting that depression, stress, female gender, being married and searching for a romantic relationship were risk factors of having an eating disorder risk. The suggested psychological model examined with structural equation modelling signified the role of academic anxiety as an immediate precursor of general anxiety. Hence, college populations in Greece need organized infrastructures of nutrition health services and campaigns to assist in reducing the risk of eating disorders.

  18. Reliability and validity of Anxiety and Depression Hospital Scales (HADS: Iranian patients with anxiety and depression disorders

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    Kaviani H

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Iranian researchers and scientists in the fields of psychiatry and psychology undoubtedly need to spend more time and make considerable efforts to prepare and validate Persian versions of measurements. The present study was designed to validate HADS in Iranian clinically anxious and depressed patients compared to normal population."n"n Methods: 261 anxious and depressed patients referred to the inpatient clinic of Rouzbeh Psychiatric Hospital, Tehran, and 261 healthy volunteers (matched for their sex were tested using HADS, and two additional clinical tools, ie., BDI & BAI. Then the patients were interviewed by a psychiatrist or a psychologist (using DSM IV checklist and rated for their anxiety and depression severity levels based on a 10-point scale from 1 to 10. BDI and BAI were regarded as objective device providing other external criteria to examine validity further. Moreover, to assess reliability 10% of the patients (n= 27 were randomly selected and re-tested after three days."n"n Results: Findings showed that all measures and their subscales proved to be valid and reliable with good internal consistencies in Iranian depressed and anxious patients. This study provides clinicians and researchers with

  19. Detecting depressive and anxiety disorders in distressed patients in primary care; comparative diagnostic accuracy of the Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS

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    Verhaak Peter FM

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depressive and anxiety disorders often go unrecognized in distressed primary care patients, despite the overtly psychosocial nature of their demand for help. This is especially problematic in more severe disorders needing specific treatment (e.g. antidepressant pharmacotherapy or specialized cognitive behavioural therapy. The use of a screening tool to detect (more severe depressive and anxiety disorders may be useful not to overlook such disorders. We examined the accuracy with which the Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS are able to detect (more severe depressive and anxiety disorders in distressed patients, and which cut-off points should be used. Methods Seventy general practitioners (GPs included 295 patients on sick leave due to psychological problems. They excluded patients with recognized depressive or anxiety disorders. Patients completed the 4DSQ and HADS. Standardized diagnoses of DSM-IV defined depressive and anxiety disorders were established with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC analyses were performed to obtain sensitivity and specificity values for a range of scores, and area under the curve (AUC values as a measure of diagnostic accuracy. Results With respect to the detection of any depressive or anxiety disorder (180 patients, 61%, the 4DSQ and HADS scales yielded comparable results with AUC values between 0.745 and 0.815. Also with respect to the detection of moderate or severe depressive disorder, the 4DSQ and HADS depression scales performed comparably (AUC 0.780 and 0.739, p 0.165. With respect to the detection of panic disorder, agoraphobia and social phobia, the 4DSQ anxiety scale performed significantly better than the HADS anxiety scale (AUC 0.852 versus 0.757, p 0.001. The recommended cut-off points of both HADS scales appeared to be too low while those of the 4DSQ anxiety

  20. Prevalence of depressive and anxiety disorders in dialysis patients with chronic kidney disease

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    Andrzej Kokoszka

    2016-05-01

    A very high rate of prevalence of depressive disorders in dialysis patients was confirmed in the Polish population when a clinical structured interview was applied. It indicates that routine screening for depressive disorders in these patients is necessary.

  1. Transdiagnostic Treatment of Co-occurrence of Anxiety and Depressive Disorders based on Repetitive Negative Thinking: A Case Series

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    Mehdi Akbari

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available  Objective: The transdiagnostic cognitive behavioral treatments for treating the coexistence of anxiety and mood disorders received useful empirical supports in the recent years. However, these treatments still have moderate efficacy. Following the improvements and developments in transdiagnostic protocols and considering the importance of repetitive negative thinking as a core transdiagnostic factor in emotional disorders, this study examined a new form of transdiagnostic treatment based on Repetitive Negative Thinking (TTRNT of co-occurrence of anxiety and depressive disorders.  Methods:Treatment efficacy was assessed using single case series with multiple baselines. Three patients meeting the criteria for co-occurrence of anxiety and depressive disorders were selected using the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for DSM-IV. The patients were treated individually for 12 weekly sessions. Participants completed the standardized outcome measures during the baseline, treatment and one-month follow-up. Results:At post-treatment, all participants showed significant clinical changes on a range of standardized outcome measures, and these gains were largely maintained through the one-month follow-up both in the principle and co-principal diagnosis. Conclusions:Although the results of this preliminary investigation indicated that TTRNT could be a time effective and efficient treatment for individuals with co-occurrence of anxiety and depressive disorders, further controlled clinical trials are necessary to examine this new treatment approach.

  2. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale is an adequate screening instrument for depression and anxiety disorder in adults with congential heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Ju Ryoung; Huh, June; Song, Jinyoung; Kang, I-Seok; Park, Seung Woo; Chang, Sung-A; Yang, Ji-Hyuk; Jun, Tae-Gook

    2017-09-05

    The Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) is an instrument that is commonly used to screen for depression in patients with chronic disease, but the characteristics of the CES-D in adults with congenital heart disease (CHD) have not yet been studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the criterion validities and the predictive powers of the CES-D for depression and anxiety disorders in adults with CHD. Two hundred patients were screened with the CES-D and secondarily interviewed with a diagnostic instrument, i.e., the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Instrument. The sensitivity and specificity values of the CES-D were calculated by cross-tabulation at different cutoff scores. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to assess the optimal cutoff point for each disorder and to assess the predictive power of the instrument. The CES-D exhibited satisfactory criterion validities for depression and for all combinations of depression and/or anxiety. With a desired sensitivity of at least 80%, the optimal cutoff scores were 18. The predictive power of the CES-D in the patients was best for major depression and dysthymia (area under the ROC curve: 0.92) followed by the score for any combination of depression and/or anxiety (0.88). The use of CES-D to simultaneously screen for both depression and anxiety disorders may be useful in adults with CHD. CESDEP 212. Registered 2 March 2014 (retrospectively registered).

  3. The Effect of Neurofeedback Training on Anxiety and Depression in Students with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorders

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    Jamal Ashoori*

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Neurofeedback training method, as a relatively new therapy method, is being used for treatment of diseases and disorders. This research aimed to investigate the effect of neurofeedback training on anxiety and depression in students with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Materials and Methods: This was a semi-experimental study with a pre-test and post-test design. The statistical population included all the elementary students with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, referred to counseling centers of Pakdasht city in 2015 academic year. Totally, 40 students were selected through the available sampling method and randomly assigned to two groups (each group had 20 person. The experimental group was educated with 12 sessions of 60 minutes by neurofeedback method. For data collection, the questionnaires of Cattell anxiety and Beck depression were used. Data was analyzed using SPSS-19 software and multivariate analysis of covariance (MONCOVA method. Results: The results showed that the mean and standard deviation of anxiety and depression before the intervention in the neurofeedback group were respectively 46.63±4.22 and 37.61±5.83; but after the intervention, the mean and standard deviation of anxiety and depression in the neurofeedback group become 35.09±3.81 and 25.78±3.64, respectively. In addition, the result showed that neurofeedback training method significantly led to the decrease of anxiety and depression in students with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (P <0.001. Conclusions: Regarding the results of this research, it is suggested that therapists and clinical psychologists use neurofeedback training for decreasing anxiety and depression in students with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

  4. [State and trait anxiety level and increase of depression among mothers of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and conduct disorder. pilot study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolafnczyk, Tomasz; Wolafnczyk, Tomasz; Kolakowski, Artur; Pisula, Agnieszka; Liwska, Monika; Zlotkowska, Malgorzata; Srebnicki, Tomasz; Bryliska, Anita

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate anxiety level (as a trait and as a state) and the intensity of depressive symptoms in mothers of children with hyperkinetic disorder (HD) and with and without comorbid conduct disorder (CD); to determine the relationship between the intensity of anxiety and depression and intensity of symptoms of HD. Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and STAI questionnaire to measure state-trait anxiety were filled by 24 mothers of children with HD and 26 mothers of children without HD. Mothers of children with HD were also asked to complete the Conners Questionnaire for Parents and Teachers (IOWA). Teachers were asked to complete the Conners Questionnaire for Teachers (RCTS). 75% of HD subjects had a comorbid CD, in comparison with 19.2 % in the control group. No significant differences were found between the mothers of children with HD and the control group in the results of BDI scale and STAI questionnaire in anxiety state and anxiety trait subscales. The difference was found between mothers of children with CD and without CD in anxiety-state subscale in STAI questionnaire. No correlations were found between the number of depressive symptoms, anxiety as a state and as a trait and the results of Conners IOWA and RCTS. The presence of HD in children does not correlate with the level of depression and anxiety in their mothers. There is a relationship between the presence of CD in children and elevated levels of state anxiety in their mothers.

  5. Doomed for Disorder? High Incidence of Mood and Anxiety Disorders in Offspring of Depressed and Anxious Patients : A Prospective Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havinga, Petra J.; Boschloo, Lynn; Bloemen, Annelene J. P.; Nauta, Maaike H.; de Vries, Sybolt O; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Schoevers, Robert A.; Hartman, Catharina A.

    Objective: Early recognition of individuals at risk for depressive and anxiety disorders is key in influencing onset and course of these disorders. Parental history is a potent risk factor for the development of these disorders in offspring. However, knowledge about the magnitude of this risk is

  6. Operating characteristics of depression and anxiety disorder phenotype dimensions and trait neuroticism: a theoretical examination of the fear and distress disorders from the Netherlands study of depression and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, Phillip J; Wardenaar, Klaas J; Penninx, Brenda W J H

    2015-03-15

    The receiver operating characteristics (ROC) of anhedonic depression and anxious arousal to detect the distress- (major depression, dysthymia, generalized anxiety disorder) and fear-disorder clusters (i.e. panic disorder, agoraphobia, social phobia) have not been reported in a large sample. A sample of 2981 persons underwent structured psychiatric interview; n=652 were without lifetime depression and anxiety disorder history. Participants also completed a neuroticism scale (Revised NEO Five Factor Inventory [NEO-FFI]), and the 30-item short adaptation of the Mood and Anxiety Symptoms Questionnaire (MASQ-D30) measuring anhedonic depression, anxious arousal and general distress. Maximal sensitivity and specificity was determined by the Youden Index and the area-under-the-curve (AUC) in ROC analysis. A total of 2624 completed all measures (age M=42.4 years±13.1, 1760 females [67.1%]), including 1060 (40.4%) persons who met criteria for a distress-disorder, and 973 (37.1%) who met criteria for a fear-disorder. The general distress dimension provided the highest ROC values in the detection of the distress-disorders (AUC=.814, sensitivity=71.95%, specificity=76.34%, positive predictive value=67.33, negative predictive value=80.07). None of the measures provided suitable operating characteristics in the detection of the fear-disorders with specificity values anxiety disorders may lead to inflated positive- and negative predictive values. The MASQ-D30 general distress dimension showed clinically suitable operating characteristics in the detection of distress-disorders. Neither neuroticism nor the MASQ-D30 dimensions provided suitable operating characteristics in the detection of the fear-disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Association of help-seeking behavior with depression and anxiety disorders among gastroenterological patients in Saudi Arabia

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    Fahad D Alosaimi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: There is a high prevalence of depression and anxiety disorders among gastroenterological outpatients. Relatively few studies have been done on the help-seeking behavior among those who suffer from gastrointestinal symptoms with or without psychiatric disorders. We aimed to characterize the help-seeking behavior of gastroenterological outpatients and to evaluate if this behavior is linked to the presence of depression and anxiety. Patients and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in gastroenterology clinics in four hospitals in Riyadh between February and September 2013. A self-administrated questionnaire was developed and administered to patients. Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9 and Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7 questionnaires were used to diagnose depression and anxiety, respectively. Results: A total of 440 patients completed the study questionnaire. The average age was 36.0 ± 12.8 years and 69% of the patients were males. Complaints included abdominal pain (58%, heartburn (29%, diarrhea or constipation (25%, appetite or weight changes (22%, and nausea or vomiting (16%. Depression was diagnosed in 36%, while anxiety was diagnosed in 28% of the patients. The first intervention was use of medications (68% and undergoing endoscopy (16%, while few patients initially used herbs or Islamic incantation (7.5%. This first intervention was done primarily (59% in private sector hospitals rather than government sector hospitals (36%. The rates of depression and anxiety in our patients were higher among those who suffered from multiple complaints for longer durations and with less satisfaction with the offered services. Conclusion: Depression and anxiety are common comorbidities in gastroenterological outpatient population, especially those who have a chronic course of multiple gastrointestinal complaints.

  8. Are Generalized Anxiety and Depression Symptoms Associated with Social Competence in Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Krista Haley Smith; Iarocci, Grace

    2017-02-20

    Generalized anxiety and depression symptoms may be associated with poorer social outcomes among children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) without intellectual disability. The goal of this study was to examine whether generalized anxiety and depression symptoms were associated with social competence after accounting for IQ, age, and gender in typically developing children and in children with ASD. Results indicated that for the TD group, generalized anxiety and depression accounted for 38% of the variance in social competence and for children with ASD, they accounted for 29% of the variance in social competence. However, only depression accounted for a significant amount of the variance. The findings underscore the importance of assessing the social impact of internalizing symptoms in children with ASD.

  9. THE COMPARATIVE STUDY OF EVENT RELATED POTENTIALS IN PATIENTS WITH OBSESSIVE COMPULSIVE DISORDER, DEPRESSION AND ANXIETY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Zeping; CHEN Xingshi; ZHANG Mingdao; LOU Feiying; CHEN Jue

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the variations of contingent negative variations (CNV), P300 and mismatch negativity (MMN) in patients with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), depression and anxiety. Methods: Event- related potentials CNV, P300 and MMN were recorded in 31 patients with OCD by Nicolet Spirit Instrument, and were compared with that of 20 depression controls (DC) and 17 anxiety controls (AC) and 28 normal controls (NC). Results: A significant difference of CNV among 4 subject groups was found in both post- imperative negative variation (PINV) and amplitudes (M1) (P < 0.01 ) (emergence of PINV were 45%,60%, 35%, and 4% in OCD, DC, AC and NC groups respectively). Compared with NC group, DC and AC groups showed decreased M1 amplitude ( P < 0.01). A significant difference of P300 among 4 groups was found in both latencies (Cz/N2) and P3 and nontarget - P2 amplitudes (P < 0.05 ~ 0.01). The delayed MMN latencies of OCD and DC were similar to that of P300 changes. Conclusions: CNV, P300 and MMN are useful tools for assessing the brain malfunction of OCD, DC and AC, and its clinical application are suggested. The characteristics ERPs of those patients might be useful indexes in distinguishing OCD from DC and AC patients.

  10. Systematic review and meta-analysis of transdiagnostic psychological treatments for anxiety and depressive disorders in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newby, Jill M; McKinnon, Anna; Kuyken, Willem; Gilbody, Simon; Dalgleish, Tim

    2015-08-01

    A broad array of transdiagnostic psychological treatments for depressive and anxiety disorders have been evaluated, but existing reviews of this literature are restricted to face-to-face cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) protocols. The current meta-analysis focused on studies evaluating clinician-guided internet/computerised or face-to-face manualised transdiagnostic treatments, to examine their effects on anxiety, depression and quality of life (QOL). Results from 50 studies showed that transdiagnostic treatments are efficacious, with large overall mean uncontrolled effects (pre- to post-treatment) for anxiety and depression (gs=.85 and .91 respectively), and medium for QOL (g=.69). Uncontrolled effect sizes were stable at follow-up. Results from 24 RCTs that met inclusion criteria showed that transdiagnostic treatments outperformed control conditions on all outcome measures (controlled ESs: gs=.65, .80, and .46 for anxiety, depression and QOL respectively), with the smallest differences found compared to treatment-as-usual (TAU) control conditions. RCT quality was generally poor, and heterogeneity was high. Examination of the high heterogeneity revealed that CBT protocols were more effective than mindfulness/acceptance protocols for anxiety (uncontrolled ESs: gs=.88 and .61 respectively), but not depression. Treatment delivery format influenced outcomes for anxiety (uncontrolled ESs: group: g=.70, individual: g=.97, computer/internet: g=.96) and depression (uncontrolled ESs: group: g=.89, individual: g=.86, computer/internet: g=.96). Preliminary evidence from 4 comparisons with disorder-specific treatments suggests that transdiagnostic treatments are as effective for reducing anxiety, and may be superior for reducing depression. These findings show that transdiagnostic psychological treatments are efficacious, but higher quality research studies are needed to explore the sources of heterogeneity amongst treatment effects.

  11. Repeated exposure to socioeconomic disadvantage and health selection as life course pathways to mid-life depressive and anxiety disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Stansfeld, Stephen A.; Clark, Charlotte; Rodgers, Bryan; Caldwell, Tanya; Power, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Background Socioeconomic position (SEP) in childhood and adulthood influences the risk of adult psychiatric disorder. This paper investigates first how cumulative childhood manual SEP influences the risk for mid-life depressive and anxiety disorders and secondly the effects of health selection based on psychological disorder in childhood and psychological distress in early adulthood on mid-life social position. Methods 9,377 participants of the 1958 Birth Cohort were followed up at 45 years w...

  12. Stress, anxiety, and depression among parents of children with autism spectrum disorder in Oman: a case–control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Farsi OA

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Omar A Al-Farsi,1 Yahya M Al-Farsi,1,2 Marwan M Al-Sharbati,3 Samir H Al-Adawi31Department of Family Medicine and Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman; 2Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA; 3Department of Behavioural Medicine, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman Abstract: Previous studies carried out in Euro-American populations have unequivocally indicated that psychological disorders of the CASD (caregivers of children with autism spectrum disorder are marked with high levels of stress, anxiety, and depression. This finding has been attributed to the reaction of having to care for a child with neurodevelopmental disorders. While there have been reports on autism spectrum disorder in Arab/Islamic countries such as Oman, there is no study from this region, to our knowledge, reporting the performance of indices of stress, anxiety, and depression among CASD. This study aimed to examine whether there is variation in the performance of indices of stress, depression, and anxiety explored via Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale 21 among CASD, caregivers of children with intellectual disabilities, and caregivers of typically developing children. All indices of stress, depression, and anxiety were higher in CASD compared to other caregivers in the control group. This study corroborates with other studies carried out in other populations that caring for children impacts the mental health status of caregivers. Therefore, there are strong grounds to contemplate the mechanism to help such a vulnerable group of family caregivers. Keywords: stress, anxiety, depression, caregivers, autism, Oman

  13. How people evaluate others with social anxiety disorder: A comparison to depression and general mental illness stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kristin N; Jeon, Andrew B; Blenner, Jordan A; Wiener, Richard L; Hope, Debra A

    2015-03-01

    Despite the availability of effective interventions, most individuals with social anxiety disorder do not seek treatment. Given their fear of negative evaluation, socially anxious individuals might be especially susceptible to stigma concerns, a recognized barrier for mental health treatment. However, very little is known about the stigma specific to social anxiety disorder. In a design similar to Feldman and Crandall (2007), university undergraduate students read vignettes about target individuals with a generic mental illness label, major depressive disorder, and social anxiety disorder. Subjects rated each of 3 people in the vignettes on social distance and 17 dimensions including dangerousness, heritability and prevalence of the disorder, and gender ratio. Results indicated that being male and not having experience with mental health treatment was associated with somewhat greater preferred social distance. Multiple regression analyses revealed that being embarrassed by the disorder and dangerousness predicted social distance across all 3 vignettes. The vignette for social anxiety disorder had the most complex model and included work impairment, more common among women, and more avoidable. These results have implications for understanding the specific aspects of the stigma associated with social anxiety disorder. Public service messages to reduce stigma should focus on more accurate information about dangerousness and mental illness, given this is an established aspect of mental illness stigma. More nuanced messages about social anxiety might be best incorporated into the treatment referral process and as part of treatment. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Generalized Anxiety Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Anxiety, anxiety disorders, anxious, behavior therapy, GAD, generalized anxiety disorder, mental health neuroses, mood disorders, psychiatric disorder, psychotherapy Family Health, Men, Seniors, Women January 1996 Copyright © American Academy of Family PhysiciansThis ...

  15. Physical activity patterns of people affected by depressive and anxiety disorders as measured by accelerometers: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björg Helgadóttir

    Full Text Available Exercise can relieve both depressive and anxiety disorders and it is therefore of importance to establish movement patterns of mildly to moderately affected sufferers to estimate the treatment potential. The aim is to describe the physical activity patterns of people affected by mild to moderate depressive and/or anxiety symptoms using objective measures of physical activity.The design of the study was cross-sectional using data from 165 people aged 18-65 years, with mild to moderate depressive and/or anxiety disorder symptoms (scoring ≥ 10 on the PHQ-9. Diagnoses were made using Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI and symptom severity was measured with the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS. The participants wore accelerometers for a week to evaluate physical activity patterns.No statistically significant differences were detected between different diagnoses, though depressed participants tended to be less active and more sedentary. Only one-fifth of the sample followed public health guidelines regarding physical activity. Each one point increase in MADRS was associated with a 2.4 minute reduction in light physical activity, independent of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and sedentary time. MADRS was positively associated with number of sedentary bouts.The physical activity pattern of people with depressive and/or anxiety disorders was characterized by large amounts of sedentary time and low fulfillment of physical activity guidelines. There is therefore a large treatment potential for this group by increasing exercise. The results suggest that instead of focusing exclusively on high intensity exercise for treating depressive and anxiety disorders, health care providers might encourage patients to reduce sedentary time by increasing light physical activity and decreasing the number of sedentary bouts, though further studies are needed that can determine directionality.

  16. Number needed to treat to harm for discontinuation due to adverse events in the treatment of bipolar depression, major depressive disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder with atypical antipsychotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Keming; Kemp, David E; Fein, Elizabeth; Wang, Zuowei; Fang, Yiru; Ganocy, Stephen J; Calabrese, Joseph R

    2011-08-01

    To estimate the number needed to treat to harm (NNTH) for discontinuation due to adverse events with atypical antipsychotics relative to placebo during the treatment of bipolar depression, major depressive disorder (MDD), and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). English-language literature published and cited in MEDLINE from January 1966 to May 2009 was searched with the terms antipsychotic, atypical antipsychotic, generic and brand names of atypical antipsychotics, safety, tolerability, discontinuation due to adverse events, somnolence, sedation, weight gain, akathisia, or extrapyramidal side effect; and bipolar depression, major depressive disorder, or generalized anxiety disorder; and randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. This search was augmented with a manual search. Studies with a cumulative sample of ≥ 100 patients were included. The NNTHs for discontinuation due to adverse events, somnolence, sedation, ≥ 7% weight gain, and akathisia relative to placebo were estimated with 95% confidence intervals to reflect the magnitude of variance. Five studies in bipolar depression, 10 studies in MDD, and 4 studies in GAD were identified. Aripiprazole and olanzapine have been studied in bipolar depression and refractory MDD. Only quetiapine extended release (quetiapine-XR) has been studied in 3 psychiatric conditions with different fixed dosing schedules. For aripiprazole, the mean NNTH for discontinuation due to adverse events was 14 in bipolar depression, but was not significantly different from placebo in MDD. For olanzapine, the mean NNTHs were 24 in bipolar depression and 9 in MDD. The risk for discontinuation due to adverse events during quetiapine-XR treatment appeared to be associated with dose. For quetiapine-XR 300 mg/d, the NNTHs for discontinuation due to adverse events were 9 for bipolar depression, 8 for refractory MDD, 9 for MDD, and 5 for GAD. At the same dose of quetiapine-XR, patients with GAD appeared to have a lower tolerability than

  17. Influence of visual acuity on anxiety, panic and depression disorders among young and middle age adults in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprinzi, Paul D; Codey, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    Previous research, albeit limited, has demonstrated an association of visual acuity with depression and anxiety. However, these studies are limited in that they have focused on older adults, used a convenient sample, and/or used a subjective assessment of visual function. As a result, the purpose of this study was to examine the association of objectively-measured visual acuity with depression and anxiety (and panic disorder) among a national sample of young- and middle-age U.S. adults (20-39 years). Using data from the 2003-2004 NHANES (n=602), the presence of anxiety, depression, and panic disorders was assessed from a diagnostic interview. Visual acuity was assessed from a vision exam using the Nidek Auto Lensmeter Model (LM-990A) and expressed as LogMAR units. After adjusting for age, gender, race-ethnicity, body mass index, mean arterial pressure, cotinine, diabetes, and physical activity, visual acuity was not associated with panic disorder (p=0.71) or depression disorder (p=0.20), but for every 0.1 LogMAR unit change in vision, participants had a 14% (OR=1.14; p=0.04) higher odds of having an anxiety disorder. The main limitation of this study was the cross-sectional design. Young- and middle-age U.S. adults with worse visual function are at increased odds of having an anxiety disorder. Strategies to prevent and treat anxiety among those with worse visual function are needed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Safety behaviors and sleep effort predict sleep disturbance and fatigue in an outpatient sample with anxiety and depressive disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairholme, Christopher P.; Manber, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Objective Theoretical and empirical support for the role of dysfunctional beliefs, safety behaviors, and increased sleep effort in the maintenance of insomnia has begun to accumulate. It is not yet known how these factors predict sleep disturbance and fatigue occurring in the context of anxiety and mood disorders. It was hypothesized that these three insomnia-specific cognitive–behavioral factors would be uniquely associated with insomnia and fatigue among patients with emotional disorders after adjusting for current symptoms of anxiety and depression and trait levels of neuroticism and extraversion. Methods Outpatients with a current anxiety or mood disorder (N = 63) completed self-report measures including the Dysfunctional Beliefs About Sleep Scale (DBAS), Sleep-Related Safety Behaviors Questionnaire (SRBQ), Glasgow Sleep Effort Scale (GSES), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), NEO Five-Factor Inventory (FFI), and the 21-item Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS). Multivariate path analysis was used to evaluate study hypotheses. Results SRBQ (B = .60, p anxiety and depressive disorders with disturbed sleep. PMID:24529043

  19. Mechanical prosthetic valve disease is related with an increase in depression and anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turker, Yasemin; Ongel, Kurtulus; Ozaydin, Mehmet; Turker, Yasin; Yildirim Bas, Funda; Akkaya, Mehmet

    2015-02-01

    Patients with organic disease can present with psychiatric symptoms. We hypothesized that since patients with prosthetic heart valve require frequent hospital followup and are at higher risk for complications, the incidence of depression and anxiety is higher in these patients. This cross-sectional study prospectively studied 98 consecutive patients with mechanical prosthetic heart valve. All patients fulfilled prosthetic heart valve evaluation form, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAS). Complete blood count, basic metabolic panel and echocardiogram results were collected for all the patients. Using the BDI, there were 26 patients (27%) with no depression, 20 (20%) with mild depression, 38 (39%) with moderate, 4 (4%) with severe and 10 (10%) patients with very severe depression. Avarege score was 18.3±11.4 on BDI and 19.1±11.1 on HAS. The depression level was positively associated with prothrombin time (p les than 0.001) and international normalized ratio (INR) level (p les than 0.001). Hamilton Anxiety Scale was significantly correlated with comorbidities (r: 0.344; p=0.002), blood transfusion (r: 0.370; p les than 0.001), obesity (r: 0.319; p=0.007) and Beck Depression Scale was correlated with comorbidities (r: 0.328; p=0.002), in patients with prosthetic heart valve disease. Patients with prosthetic heart valve have higher prevalence of depression and higher scores of anxiety and depression. Early recognition and appropriate treatment of depression and anxiety may decrease the morbidity in prosthetic heart valve disease. Besides, use of new oral anticoagulant agents that do not need INR check, could decrease anxiety and depression in the future.

  20. Impact of Childhood Life Events and Childhood Trauma on the Onset and Recurrence of Depressive and Anxiety Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovens, Jacqueline G. F. M.; Giltay, Erik J.; Spinhoven, Philip; van Hemert, Albert M.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of childhood life events and childhood trauma on the onset and recurrence of depressive and/or anxiety disorders over a 2-year period in participants without current psychopathology at baseline. Method: Longitudinal data in a large sample of participants without

  1. Association of smoking and nicotine dependence with severity and course of symptoms in patients with depressive or anxiety disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jamal, Mumtaz; Van der Does, A. J. Willem; Cuijpers, Pim; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Previous research has indicated a strong association of smoking with depression and anxiety disorders, but the direction of the relationship is uncertain. Most research has been done in general population samples. We investigated the effect of smoking and nicotine dependence on the sever

  2. Association of Depressive and Anxiety Disorders With Diagnosed Versus Undiagnosed Diabetes : An Epidemiological Study of 90,686 Participants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meurs, Maaike; Roest, Annelieke M.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; Stolk, Ronald P.; de Jonge, Peter; Rosmalen, Judith G. M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare the odds of depressive and anxiety disorders for participants with diagnosed diabetes, participants with diabetes but unaware of this, and participants without diabetes. Such knowledge might improve etiological insight into psychopathology in diabetes. Methods Data of 90,686

  3. Association of smoking and nicotine dependence with severity and course of symptoms in patients with depressive or anxiety disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jamal, Mumtaz; Van der Does, A. J. Willem; Cuijpers, Pim; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Previous research has indicated a strong association of smoking with depression and anxiety disorders, but the direction of the relationship is uncertain. Most research has been done in general population samples. We investigated the effect of smoking and nicotine dependence on the sever

  4. Association of Depressive and Anxiety Disorders With Diagnosed Versus Undiagnosed Diabetes : An Epidemiological Study of 90,686 Participants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meurs, Maaike; Roest, Annelieke M.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; Stolk, Ronald P.; de Jonge, Peter; Rosmalen, Judith G. M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare the odds of depressive and anxiety disorders for participants with diagnosed diabetes, participants with diabetes but unaware of this, and participants without diabetes. Such knowledge might improve etiological insight into psychopathology in diabetes. Methods Data of 90,686 par

  5. Cognitive-Behavioral Psychotherapy for Anxiety and Depressive Disorders in Children and Adolescents: An Evidence-Based Medicine Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, Scott N.; March, John S.; Brent, David; Albano, Anne Marie; Weersing, V. Robin; Curry, John

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To review the literature on the cognitive-behavioral treatment of children and adolescents with anxiety and depressive disorders within the conceptual framework of evidence-based medicine. Method: The psychiatric and psychological literature was systematically searched for controlled trials applying cognitive-behavioral treatment to…

  6. Maternal criticism and adolescent depressive and generalized anxiety disorder symptoms: a 6-year longitudinal community study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelemans, Stefanie A; Hale, William W; Branje, Susan J T; Hawk, Skyler T; Meeus, Wim H J

    2014-01-01

    This 6-year longitudinal study examined the direction of effects (i.e., parent effects, child effects, or reciprocal effects) between maternal criticism and adolescent depressive and Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) symptoms, including adolescents' perceptions of criticism as a potential mediator. Consistent with recent empirical findings on associations between parenting and adolescent internalizing symptoms, we hypothesized stronger child effects than parent effects. A community sample of 497 adolescents (M age = 13.03 at T1, 57 % boys) reported annually on their depressive and GAD symptoms as well as their perceptions of parental criticism. Their mothers (M age = 44.41 at T1) also reported annually on their own critical behavior toward their adolescent. As expected, cross-lagged panel models demonstrated stronger child effects (i.e., adolescent psychopathology predicting maternal criticism) than parent effects (i.e., maternal criticism predicting adolescent psychopathology) for both adolescent depressive and GAD symptoms, including adolescent perceived criticism as a significant mediator. Our results emphasize the importance of considering (1) potential bidirectional influences over time, contrary to a focus on parent effects on adolescent mental health, as well as (2) adolescent perceptions of parenting as an important potential mediator in associations between aspects of the parent-adolescent relationship and adolescent internalizing psychopathological symptoms.

  7. Cognitive tolerability following successful long term treatment of major depression and anxiety disorders with SSRi antidepressants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovic, Dina; Vieta, Eduard; Fornaro, Michele; Perugi, Giulio

    2015-03-01

    The present study aims to evaluate cognitive tolerability profile of SSRIs in long-term treatment. The secondary aim is to explore differences of side effects profile between patients with major depression (MD) and anxiety disorders (AD). Sixty-seven consecutive patients, successfully treated with SSRIs in monotherapy for at least six months for MD or AD, were assessed for side effects, with a special focus on cognition. Over 20% of MD and AD patients in long term treatment with SSRIs reported cognitive symptoms including fatigue, inattentiveness, lack of concentration, memory impairment and apathy. Recall memory impairment, attention deficit and somnolence were most frequently rated as moderate or severe. There were no significant differences in SSRI cognitive side effects profile between MD and AD patients. Subjective measure of cognitive functioning, limited sample size, lack of a control group. A large proportion of depressed and anxious patients treated successfully with SSRIs for over six months reported cognitive, affective, motivational symptoms. These symptoms are likely to represent SSRI side effects rather than residual depressive symptomatology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. [Anxiety, Depression and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Refugees - A Systematic Review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindert, Jutta; von Ehrenstein, Ondine S; Wehrwein, Annette; Brähler, Elmar; Schäfer, Ingo

    2017-05-03

    Anxiety, depression and posttraumatic stress disorder are the main psychopathological symptoms shown by refugees. We conducted a systematic review. First, we identified key-words for a systematic search in PUBMED. We included original articles since 2009 with 1) a non-clinical sample of refugees, 2) refugees living at maximum 5 years in the host country, 4) with the outcomes anxiety, depression, and PTSD and 5) a sample with >100 participants. Then we read titles, abstracts and fulltexts. We identified 1 877 studies. Based on this screening procedure, we included in our review 15 studies. 52% of the refugees are from Africa (Somalia, Congo, Rwanda, Liberia, Sierra-Leon and Togo), 33% from Asia (Syria, Bhutan, Vietnam, Cambodia, Iraq) and 16% are from more than one continent. In those studies n=6 769 refugees participated in the studies. The number of participants varied from n=117 to n=1,422 (Median: n=366 refugees). Prevalence rates for PTBS varied from 5-71% (mean prevalence rate: 32%) rates for depression varied from 11-54% (mean prevalence rate: 35%). Sensitivity analyses suggest that refugees, which come from countries with intense human rights violations according to the Political Terror Scale, have an increased rate of psychopathological symptoms. Heterogeneity of prevalence rate is related both 1) to methodological and 2) to difference in the refugee populations according to the human rights violations in the countries of origin of refugees. It is necessary to include further databases in a systematic review. There is an urgent need for representative studies on refugees needs for psychosocial and medical care, especially for those refugees coming from countries with intense human rights violations. Psychosocial and medical services for these refugees are urgently needed to enhance and enable a perspective in the host country Germany. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. The comorbidity of anxiety and depressive symptoms in older adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michielsen, Marieke; Comijs, Hannie C; Semeijn, Evert J; Beekman, Aartjan T F; Deeg, Dorly J H; Sandra Kooij, J J

    2013-06-01

    Comorbidity between Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and depression and anxiety disorders in children and young to middle-aged adults has been well documented in the literature. Yet, it is still unknown whether this comorbidity persists into later life. The aim of this study is therefore to examine the comorbidity of anxiety and depressive symptoms among older adults with ADHD. This is examined both using cross-sectional and longitudinal data. Data were used from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (LASA). Participants were examined in three measurement cycles, covering six years. They were asked about depressive and anxiety symptoms. To diagnose ADHD, the DIVA 2.0, a diagnostic interview was administered among a subsample (N=231, age 60-94). In addition to the ADHD diagnosis, the association between the sum score of ADHD symptoms and anxiety and depressive symptoms was examined. Data were analyzed by means of linear regression analyses and linear mixed models. Both ADHD diagnosis and more ADHD symptoms were associated with more anxiety and depressive symptoms cross-sectionally as well as longitudinally. The longitudinal analyses showed that respondents with higher scores of ADHD symptoms reported an increase of depressive symptoms over six years whereas respondents with fewer ADHD symptoms remained stable. The ADHD diagnosis is based on the DSM-IVcriteria, which were developed for children, and have not yet been validated in (older) adults. It appears that the association between ADHD and anxiety/depression remains in place with aging. This suggests that, in clinical practice, directing attention to both in concert may be fruitful. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Prevalence and predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety, depression, and burnout in Pakistani earthquake recovery workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehring, Thomas; Razik, Saiqa; Emmelkamp, Paul M G

    2011-01-30

    Past research has shown a substantial prevalence of emotional disorders in professionals involved in rescue and/or relief operations following natural disasters, including earthquakes. However, no published study to date has investigated whether disaster rehabilitation and reconstruction workers involved in later phases of the earthquake response are also affected by emotional problems. A nearly complete sample of earthquake rehabilitation and reconstruction workers (N=267) involved in the response to the 2005 earthquake in Northern Pakistan filled in a set of self-report questionnaires assessing emotional problems and predictor variables approximately 24 months after the earthquake. Most participants had experienced the disaster themselves and suffered from a number of stressors during and shortly after the acute earthquake phase. A substantial subgroup of participants reported clinically relevant levels of emotional disorders, especially earthquake-related posttraumatic stress disorder (42.6%), as well as depression and anxiety (approx. 20%). Levels of burnout were low. Symptom levels of posttraumatic stress disorder were associated with the severity of the earthquake experience, past traumas, work-related stressors, low social support, and female gender. The results document a high prevalence of emotional problems in earthquake rehabilitation and recovery workers.

  11. Sex Differences in Serum Markers of Major Depressive Disorder in the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Jordan M.; Cooper, Jason D.; Bot, Mariska; Guest, Paul C.; Lamers, Femke; Weickert, Cynthia S.

    2016-01-01

    Women have a consistently higher prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) than men. Hypotheses implicating hypothalamic-pituitary -adrenal, -gonadal, and -thyroid axes, immune response, genetic factors, and neurotransmitters have emerged to explain this difference. However, more evidence for these hypotheses is needed and new explanations must be explored. Here, we investigated sex differences in MDD markers using multiplex immunoassay measurements of 171 serum molecules in individuals enrolled in the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NMDD = 231; Ncontrol = 365). We found 28 sex-dependent markers of MDD, as quantified by a significant interaction between sex and log2-transformed analyte concentration in a logistic regression with diagnosis (MDD/control) as the outcome variable (ptrefoil factor 3, cystatin-C, fetuin-A, β2-microglobulin, CD5L, FASLG receptor, and tumor necrosis factor receptor 2. Furthermore, only male MDD could be classified with an accuracy greater than chance using the measured serum analytes (area under the ROC curve = 0.63). These findings may have consequences for the generalization of inflammatory hypotheses of depression to males and females and have important implications for the development of diagnostic biomarker tests for MDD. More studies are needed to validate these results, investigate a broader range of biological pathways, and integrate this data with brain imaging, genetic, and other relevant data. PMID:27232630

  12. Is there an association between anxiety/depression and temporomandibular disorders in college students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calixtre, Letícia Bojikian; Grüninger, Bruno Leonardo da Silva; Chaves, Thais Cristina; Oliveira, Ana Beatriz de

    2014-01-01

    Considering the high incidence of Temporomandibular Disorders (TMD) in the population aged 15-30 years and the fact that students are exposed to stressful psychosocial factors, the purposes of this study were: to verify clinical symptoms and jaw functionality in college students with TMD according to the anxiety/depression (A/D) level and to evaluate the correlation between A/D and functionality, maximum mouth opening (MMO) and pain and muscle activity. Nineteen students with TMD diagnosed according to the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders underwent two assessments during an academic semester. The evaluations were based on questionnaires (MFIQ - Mandibular Function Impairment Questionnaire; HADS - Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), clinical measurements (MMO without pain, MMO and assisted MMO; palpation of joint and masticatory muscles), and electromyography. The HADS scores obtained in the two assessments were used to classify all data as either "high" or "low" A/D. Data normality, differences and correlations were tested with the Shapiro-Wilk test, Student's t-test (or the Wilcoxon test), and Spearman test, respectively. The alpha level was set at 0.05. None of the clinical variables were significantly different when comparing low and high A/D data. In low A/D there was a significant correlation between HADS score and: MFIQ (P=0.005, r=0.61), and MMO without pain (P=0.01, r=-0.55). Variation in A/D level did not change clinical symptoms or jaw functionality in college students with TMD. Apparently, there is a correlation between TMJ functionality and A/D level, which should be further investigated, taking into account the source of the TMD and including subjects with greater functional limitation.

  13. Is there an association between anxiety/depression and temporomandibular disorders in college students?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Bojikian CALIXTRE

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Considering the high incidence of Temporomandibular Disorders (TMD in the population aged 15-30 years and the fact that students are exposed to stressful psychosocial factors, the purposes of this study were: to verify clinical symptoms and jaw functionality in college students with TMD according to the anxiety/depression (A/D level and to evaluate the correlation between A/D and functionality, maximum mouth opening (MMO and pain and muscle activity. Material and Methods: Nineteen students with TMD diagnosed according to the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders underwent two assessments during an academic semester. The evaluations were based on questionnaires (MFIQ - Mandibular Function Impairment Questionnaire; HADS - Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, clinical measurements (MMO without pain, MMO and assisted MMO; palpation of joint and masticatory muscles, and electromyography. The HADS scores obtained in the two assessments were used to classify all data as either "high" or "low" A/D. Data normality, differences and correlations were tested with the Shapiro-Wilk test, Student's t-test (or the Wilcoxon test, and Spearman test, respectively. The alpha level was set at 0.05. Results: None of the clinical variables were significantly different when comparing low and high A/D data. In low A/D there was a significant correlation between HADS score and: MFIQ (P=0.005, r=0.61, and MMO without pain (P=0.01, r=-0.55. Conclusions: Variation in A/D level did not change clinical symptoms or jaw functionality in college students with TMD. Apparently, there is a correlation between TMJ functionality and A/D level, which should be further investigated, taking into account the source of the TMD and including subjects with greater functional limitation.

  14. Depression Begets Depression: Comparing the Predictive Utility of Depression and Anxiety Symptoms to Later Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Kate; Feng, Xin; Hipwell, Alison; Klostermann, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Background: The high comorbidity between depressive and anxiety disorders, especially among females, has called into question the independence of these two symptom groups. It is possible that childhood anxiety typically precedes depression in girls. Comparing of the predictive utility of symptoms of anxiety with the predictive utility of symptoms…

  15. Evaluation and Management of Behavioral Health Disorders in Women: An Overview of Major Depression, Bipolar Disorder, Anxiety Disorders, and Sleep in the Primary Care Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitelson, Elizabeth; McGibbon, Cheryl

    2016-06-01

    Providers of obstetric and gynecologic care are often the most commonly seen medical providers for adult women, providing primary and reproductive care. Even where psychiatric care is readily available, obstetricians/gynecologists are frequently the front line for recognition, education, and initial management of many mental health problems. In settings where psychiatric treatment is a more scarce resource, obstetricians/gynecologists often are responsible for ongoing treatment of these disorders. This review focuses on the impact of the female reproductive life cycle on the presentation and management of some of the most common behavioral health problems in women: major depression, bipolar disorder, anxiety disorders, and primary sleep disorders.

  16. Plasma insulin-like growth factor I levels are higher in depressive and anxiety disorders, but lower in antidepressant medication users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bot, Mariska; Milaneschi, Yuri; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Drent, Madeleine L

    2016-06-01

    It has been postulated that many peripheral and (neuro)biological systems are involved in psychiatric disorders such as depression. Some studies found associations of depression and antidepressant treatment with insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I) - a pleiotropic hormone affecting neuronal growth, survival and plasticity - but evidence is mixed. We therefore studied whether depressive and anxiety disorders were associated with plasma IGF-I, and explored the role of antidepressant medication in this association in a large observational study. The sample consisted of 2714 participants enrolled in The Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety, classified as healthy controls (n=602), antidepressant users (76 remitted and 571 with current depressive and/or anxiety disorder(s), n=647), persons having remitted depressive and/or anxiety disorder(s) without antidepressant use (n=502), and persons having current depressive and/or anxiety disorder(s) without antidepressant use (n=963). Associations with IGF-I concentrations were studied and adjusted for socio-demographic, health, and lifestyle variables. Relative to healthy controls, antidepressant-free individuals with current disorders had significantly higher IGF-I levels (Cohen's d=0.08, p=0.006), whereas antidepressant-free individuals with remitted disorders had a trend towards higher IGF-I levels (d=0.06, p=0.09). Associations were evident for depressive and for anxiety disorders. In contrast, antidepressant users had significantly lower IGF-I levels compared to healthy controls (d=-0.08, p=0.028). Our findings suggests that antidepressant medication use modifies the association between depressive/anxiety disorders and plasma IGF-I. These results corroborate with findings of some previous small-scale case-control and intervention studies. The higher IGF-I levels related to depression and anxiety might point to a compensatory mechanism to counterbalance the impaired neurogenesis, although future studies are needed to

  17. Associations between compulsive buying and substance dependence/abuse, major depressive episodes, and generalized anxiety disorder among men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chenshu; Brook, Judith S; Leukefeld, Carl G; Brook, David W

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the associations between compulsive buying and substance dependence/abuse, major depressive episodes, and generalized anxiety disorder at the mean age of 43. Participants came from a community-based random sample of residents in 2 New York counties in 1975 (N = 548). The participants were followed from adolescence to early midlife. The mean age of participants at the most recent interview was 43.0 (standard deviation = 2.8). Of the participants, 55% were females. Over 90% of the participants were Caucasian. The prevalence of substance dependence/abuse, major depressive episodes, and generalized anxiety disorder (during the past 5 years before the interviews) was 6.6, 13.7, and 11.5%, respectively. Logistic regression analyses showed that compulsive buying was significantly associated with substance dependence/abuse (adjusted odds ratio = 1.60), major depressive episodes (adjusted odds ratio = 1.70), and generalized anxiety disorder (adjusted odds ratio = 1.63), despite controlling for substance dependence/abuse, major depressive episodes, and generalized anxiety disorder, respectively, at the mean age of 37, and demographic factors. Since the study sample is limited to predominantly Caucasian participants (over 90%) with a close association to a small geographic area, the findings may not be generalizable to racial/ethnic minority groups or individuals living in other parts of the country. Nevertheless, it is important that clinicians treating substance dependence/abuse, major depressive episodes, and generalized anxiety disorder consider the role of compulsive buying.

  18. Valerian for anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyasaka, L S; Atallah, A N; Soares, B G O

    2006-10-18

    Anxiety disorders are very common mental health problems in the general population and in primary care settings. Herbal medicines are popular and used worldwide and might be considered as a treatment option for anxiety if shown to be effective and safe. To investigate the effectiveness and safety of valerian for treating anxiety disorders. Electronic searches: The Cochrane Collaboration Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis Cochrane Controlled Trials Register (CCDANCTR-Studies and CCDANCTR-References) searched on 04/08/2006, MEDLINE, Lilacs. References of all identified studies were inspected for additional studies. First authors of each included study, manufacturers of valerian products, and experts in the field were contacted for information regarding unpublished trials. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-randomised trials of valerian extract of any dose, regime, or method of administration, for people with any primary diagnosis of general anxiety disorder, anxiety neurosis, chronic anxiety status, or any other disorder in which anxiety is the primary symptom (panic disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, social phobia, agoraphobia, other types of phobia, postraumatic stress disorder). Effectiveness was measured using clinical outcome measures and other scales for anxiety symptoms. Two review authors independently applied inclusion criteria, extracted and entered data, and performed the trial quality assessments. Where disagreements occurred, the third review author was consulted. Methodological quality of included trials was assessed using Cochrane Handbook criteria. For dichotomous outcomes, relative risk (RR) was calculated, and for continuous outcomes, the weighted mean difference (WMD) was calculated, with their respective 95% confidence intervals. One RCT involving 36 patients wih generalised anxiety disorder was eligible for inclusion. This was a 4 week pilot study of valerian, diazepam and placebo. There were no significant differences between the

  19. A follow-up study of posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety, and depression in Australian victims of domestic violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertin, P; Mohr, P B

    2001-12-01

    Although posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety, and depression are acknowledged consequences of domestic violence, little information is available on the course of recovery over time and factors that may mediate positive outcome. Fifty-nine women were assessed for the presence of PTSD and levels of anxiety and depression at time of shelter residence and again one year later. Results at follow-up indicated a significant reduction in the incidence of PTSD, although a substantial number of women continued to report a range of posttrauma symptoms. There were also significant reductions in the levels of anxiety and depression over the 12-month period. Findings indicated the particular importance of safety and the presence of social support as prerequisites for recovery.

  20. Peripartum changes in partnership quality among women with and without anxiety and depressive disorders prior to pregnancy: a prospective-longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asselmann, E; Wittchen, H-U; Petzoldt, J; Martini, J

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to prospectively examine peripartum changes in partnership characteristics among women with and without anxiety and depressive disorders prior to pregnancy. In the prospective-longitudinal Maternal Anxiety in Relation to Infant Development (MARI) study, n = 306 expectant mothers completed up to seven waves of assessment from early pregnancy until 16 months postpartum. Lifetime anxiety and depressive disorders according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) were evaluated at baseline using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview for Women (CIDI-V, Martini et al. 2009). Partnership characteristics were assessed during pregnancy as well as 4 and 16 months postpartum using the Partnership Questionnaire (Hahlweg 1996). Linear regressions were applied to test associations between diagnostic status prior to pregnancy and peripartum partnership characteristics. Compared to women without anxiety and depressive disorders prior to pregnancy, women with comorbid anxiety and depressive disorders reported less tenderness during pregnancy, less postpartum tenderness, satisfaction, and overall partnership quality as well as a lower decrease in communication from pre- to postpartum. Women with pure depressive disorders and comorbid anxiety and depressive disorders prior to pregnancy indicated a higher increase in quarreling from pre- to postpartum. Findings suggest that women with depressive (and comorbid anxiety) disorders prior to pregnancy are at elevated risk for an unfavorable peripartum partnership development and might thus profit from targeted family interventions during this period.

  1. Use of dihydro-isobenzofuran in combination with serotonin reuptake inhibitors for CNS disease e.g. depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder, obsessive compulsory disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    NOVELTY - For treatment of a CNS disease in a patient, dihydro-isobenzofuran compound (I) in combination with serotonin reuptake inhibitor, is used. USE - For treatment of CNS disease (claimed) including depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder, obsessive compulsory disorder, post traumatic stress...

  2. Doxepin (Depression, Anxiety)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doxepin is used to treat depression and anxiety. Doxepin is in a class of medications called tricyclic antidepressants. It works by increasing the amounts of certain natural substances in the brain ...

  3. Theory of mind in social anxiety disorder, depression, and comorbid conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, Dustin; Wilson, Gillian; Roes, Meighen; Rnic, Katerina; Harkness, Kate Leslie

    2016-01-01

    Social anxiety disorder is characterized by marked interpersonal impairment, particularly when presenting with comorbid major depression. However, the foundational social-cognitive skills that underlie interpersonal impairment in comorbid and non-comorbid manifestations of SAD has to date received very little empirical investigation. In a sample of 119 young adults, the current study examined differences in theory of mind (ToM), defined as the ability to decode and reason about others' mental states, across four groups: (a) non-comorbid SAD; (b) non-comorbid Lifetime MDD; (c) comorbid SAD and Lifetime MDD; and (d) healthy control. The non-comorbid SAD group was significantly less accurate at decoding mental states than the non-comorbid MDD and control groups. Further, both the comorbid and non-comorbid SAD groups made significantly more 'excessive' ToM reasoning errors than the non-comorbid MDD group, suggesting a pattern of over-mentalizing. Findings are discussed in terms of their implications for understanding the social cognitive foundations of social anxiety.

  4. Anxiety, depression, and insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larzelere, Michele M; Wiseman, Pamela

    2002-06-01

    Evidence for alternative treatments for depression, anxiety, and insomnia are reviewed in this article. Treatment of depression with St. John's wort, L-tryptophan, 5-hydroxytryptophan, S-adenosylmethionine, dehydroepiandosterone, folate, exercise, acupuncture, and meditation are examined. Evidence for the efficacy of kava kava, exercise, relaxation therapies, and acupuncture in treatment anxiety is reviewed. The use of valerian, melatonin, chamomile, passionflower, exercise, acupuncture, and behavioral therapies (i.e., sleep restriction, stimulus control, relaxation, and sleep hygiene) for insomnia is discussed.

  5. Antidepressant Regulatory Warnings, Prescription Patterns, Suicidality and Other Aggressive Behaviors in Major Depressive Disorder and Anxiety Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Saurabh; Gersing, Kenneth Ronald; Erkanli, Alaattin; Burt, Tal

    2016-06-01

    In 2004 the Food and Drug Administration issued a warning on the risk of suicidality in children and adolescents receiving antidepressants. This was followed by reports of changes in antidepressant prescription patterns, suicidality and other aggressive behaviors, but debate is continuing regarding the nature and magnitude of these changes. We examined a large physician database for impact of the warning on antidepressant prescriptions, suicidality and other aggressive behaviors in major depressive disorder (MDD) and anxiety disorders in adult and pediatric patients. We analyzed electronic database covering over 100,000 patients, treated in Pre- (before 2003) and Post- (after 2004) warning periods. We compared strength of the association between the measures and the time period with two tests. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to ascertain the unique effect of each parameter. Of 10,089 MDD (61.0 %) and anxiety disorders (39.0 %) patients, 65.2 % received antidepressant prescription and 16.1 % were pediatric patients. In post-warning period, there was a greater reduction in adult versus pediatric antidepressant prescription rates. Logistic modeling showed greater likelihood of antidepressant prescription in MDD as compared with anxiety disorders in post-warning period. Pediatric patients were more likely than adults to receive fluoxetine during the post-warning period. There was an overall reduction in suicidality and other aggressive behaviors in the post-warning period. Regulatory warnings may have had an impact on antidepressant benefit/risk assessment and consequent utilization, therapeutic effects, and adverse events. Our observations suggest that psychiatrists may heed regulatory warnings, but may also exert professional independence and discrimination in their application.

  6. Common mental disorders associated with 2-year diabetes incidence: the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlantis, Evan; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Cashman, Kara; Penninx, Brenda J W H

    2012-10-01

    Few prospective cohort studies describe the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus associated with depression or anxiety. The aim of this study was to determine the 2-year diabetes incidence and pattern of explanatory factors associated with depressive and/or anxiety disorders. A prospective cohort of 2981 participants (aged 18-65 years, 66% women) recruited in the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA) from community, primary care and outpatient psychiatric clinics were followed-up for two years. Complete data were analyzed from 2460 participants without baseline diabetes. Lifetime or current (past 6-month) depressive and/or anxiety disorders at baseline were assessed using the Composite Interview Diagnostic Instrument (CIDI) and classified by the DSM-IV. Diabetes was classified by either self-report, medications, or fasting plasma glucose ≥ 7.0 mmol/L. Baseline covariates included age, gender, lifestyle factors, and medical conditions. Odds ratios (OR [95% confidence intervals]) for diabetes were determined using exact logistic regression. The unadjusted 2-year diabetes incidence was 0.2% (1/571), 1.1% (6/548), and 1.8% (24/1340) for no, remitted, and current depressive and/or anxiety disorders, respectively. In comparison to those without psychopathology, current depressive and/or anxiety disorders was associated with diabetes incidence in unadjusted (OR 10.4 [1.7, 429.0]) and age-adjusted (OR 11.9 (1.9, 423.0]) analyses. The strength of this association (beta coefficient) was slightly changed after further adjustments for impaired fasting glucose (11.4%), high triglycerides (-7.8%), and lifestyle cumulative risk score (-5.0%), in contrast to other covariates when assessed in separate models. The low incidence of diabetes resulted in considerable uncertainty for the odds ratios and low statistical power that limited covariate adjustments. The relative odds of developing diabetes within two years was increased for persons with current depressive and

  7. Sleep disorders, depression, anxiety and satisfaction with life among young adults: a survey of university students in Auckland, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaranayake, Chinthaka B; Arroll, Bruce; Fernando, Antonio T

    2014-08-01

    Sleep symptoms, depression and anxiety often coexist and tertiary students are a population group that are increasingly recognised to be at risk. However the rates of these conditions in the New Zealand population are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to determine the rates of sleep disorders, depression and anxiety, and identify correlations between satisfactions with life among university students in Auckland. Auckland Sleep Questionnaire (ASQ) was administered to undergraduate students from six schools of The University of Auckland. The different types of sleep disorders were calculated for the students who reported a significant sleep problem lasting more than 1 month. The rate of depression, anxiety and substance use as well as the satisfaction with life scale scores were also calculated for the whole cohort. A total of 1933 students were invited to participate and 66.8% completed the questionnaire. The median age was 20 years (range 16-38) and women represented 63.9% of the total group. A total of 39.4% of the students surveyed reported having significant sleep symptoms lasting longer than 1 month. The most prevalent causes for sleep symptoms were depression and anxiety. Delayed sleep phase disorder was found in 24.9% of students and parasomnias were reported by 12.4%. Depression and anxiety were present in 17.3% and 19.7% of the total group respectively, and 7.3% of students had thoughts of "being better off dead" or self-harm. A total of 15.5% students were found to have a CAGE score greater than or equal to 2 and 9.3% reported using recreational drugs in the last 3 months. Moderate negative correlations between SWLS scores and depression and anxiety were found (r=-0.45 and r=-0.37 respectively). A large number of university students are suffering from significant sleep symptoms. Mood disorders, substance use, and circadian rhythm disorders can greatly contribute to sleep difficulties in this population group. The study also showed that harmful

  8. Anxiety, Alexithymia, and Depression as Mediators of the Association between Childhood Abuse and Eating Disordered Behavior in African American and European American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzeo, Suzanne E.; Mitchell, Karen S.; Williams, Larry J.

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated structural equation models of the associations among family functioning, childhood abuse, depression, anxiety, alexithymia, and eating disorder symptomatology in a sample of 412 European American and 192 African American female undergraduates. Additionally, the specific roles of anxiety, depression, and alexithymia as…

  9. Transdiagnostic versus disorder-specific internet-delivered cognitive behaviour therapy for anxiety and depression in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newby, Jill M; Mewton, Louise; Andrews, Gavin

    2017-03-01

    Disorder-specific and transdiagnostic internet cognitive behaviour therapy (iCBT) programs are effective for anxiety and depression, but no studies have compared their effectiveness in primary care. Patient characteristics, adherence and effectiveness of Transdiagnostic iCBT (n=1005) were compared to disorder-specific programs for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) (n=738) and depression (n=366) in a naturalistic non-randomised comparison study. Patients completed their iCBT program in primary care. The PHQ-9 (depression), GAD-7 (generalized anxiety), K-10 (distress), and the WHODAS-II (disability) were measured at pre- and post-treatment. Patients in the Transdiagnostic program had higher comorbidity rates and baseline distress. All programs were associated with medium to large within-group effect sizes for improving anxiety, depression and distress between pre- and post-treatment (d's=0.64-1.39). Controlling for baseline group differences in severity, we found small effect sizes favoring the Transdiagnostic program over the GAD program in reducing PHQ-9 (d=0.44, 95%CI: 0.34-0.53), K-10 (d=0.21, 95%CI: 0.16-0.35) and WHODAS scores (d=0.20, 95%CI: 0.10-0.29), and small effect sizes favoring the Transdiagnostic program over the Depression program in reducing GAD-7 scores (d=0.48, 95%CI: 0.36-0.60). A smaller proportion of patients completed the Transdiagnostic program (44.9%) compared to the depression (51.6%) and GAD (49.2%) programs, which was attributable to baseline differences in age and symptom severity. Both Transdiagnostic iCBT and disorder-specific iCBT programs are effective in primary care, but there appears to be small effects favoring Transdiagnostic iCBT. Methods to increase adherence are needed to optimize the benefits to patients, and these findings await replication in a RCT. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Self-stigma in borderline personality disorder – cross-sectional comparison with schizophrenia spectrum disorder, major depressive disorder, and anxiety disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grambal A

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ales Grambal,1 Jan Prasko,1 Dana Kamaradova,1 Klara Latalova,1 Michaela Holubova,1,2 Marketa Marackova,1 Marie Ociskova,1 Milos Slepecky3 1Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Department of Psychiatry, Palacky University Olomouc, University Hospital Olomouc, Olomouc, 2Department of Psychiatry, Hospital Liberec, Liberec, Czech Republic; 3Faculty of Social Science and Health Care, Department of Psychology Sciences, Constantine the Philosopher University, Nitra, Slovak Republic Introduction: Self-stigma arises from one’s acceptance of societal prejudices and is common in psychiatric patients. This investigation compares the self-stigma of a sample of patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD, schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SCH, major depressive disorder (MDD, bipolar affective disorder (BAD, and anxiety disorders (AD and explores of the self-stigma with the subjective and objective measures of the severity of the disorder and demographic factors. Methods: The total of 184 inpatients admitted to the psychotherapeutic department diagnosed with BPD, SCH, MDD, BAP, and AD were compared on the internalized stigma of mental illness (ISMI scale. The ISMI-total score was correlated with the subjective and objective evaluation of the disorder severity (clinical global impression, and clinical and demographic factors. Results: The self-stigma levels were statistically significantly different among the diagnostic groups (BPD 71.15±14.74; SCH 63.2±13.27; MDD 64.09±12.2; BAD 62.0±14.21; AD 57.62±15.85; one-way analysis of variance: F=8.698, df=183; P<0.005. However after applying the Bonferroni’s multiple comparison test, the only significant difference was between the BPD patients and the patients with AD (P<0.001. Stepwise regression analysis showed that the strongest factors connected with the higher level of self-stigma were being without partner, the number of hospitalization, and the severity of the disorder. Conclusion: The BPD patients

  11. Criteria of validity for animal models of psychiatric disorders: focus on anxiety disorders and depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belzung Catherine

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Animal models of psychiatric disorders are usually discussed with regard to three criteria first elaborated by Willner; face, predictive and construct validity. Here, we draw the history of these concepts and then try to redraw and refine these criteria, using the framework of the diathesis model of depression that has been proposed by several authors. We thus propose a set of five major criteria (with sub-categories for some of them; homological validity (including species validity and strain validity, pathogenic validity (including ontopathogenic validity and triggering validity, mechanistic validity, face validity (including ethological and biomarker validity and predictive validity (including induction and remission validity. Homological validity requires that an adequate species and strain be chosen: considering species validity, primates will be considered to have a higher score than drosophila, and considering strains, a high stress reactivity in a strain scores higher than a low stress reactivity in another strain. Pathological validity corresponds to the fact that, in order to shape pathological characteristics, the organism has been manipulated both during the developmental period (for example, maternal separation: ontopathogenic validity and during adulthood (for example, stress: triggering validity. Mechanistic validity corresponds to the fact that the cognitive (for example, cognitive bias or biological mechanisms (such as dysfunction of the hormonal stress axis regulation underlying the disorder are identical in both humans and animals. Face validity corresponds to the observable behavioral (ethological validity or biological (biomarker validity outcomes: for example anhedonic behavior (ethological validity or elevated corticosterone (biomarker validity. Finally, predictive validity corresponds to the identity of the relationship between the triggering factor and the outcome (induction validity and between the effects of

  12. Comorbid generalized anxiety disorder and its association with quality of life in patients with major depressive disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yongjie; Cao, Zhongqiang; Yang, Mei; Xi, Xiaoyan; Guo, Yiyang; Fang, Maosheng; Cheng, Lijuan; Du, Yukai

    2017-01-01

    The comorbidity of major depressive disorder (MDD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is common and often predicts poorer outcomes than either disorder alone. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of comorbid GAD and its association with quality of life (QOL) among MDD patients. A total of 1225 psychiatric outpatients were screened using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Those who scored ≥8 on the HADS were interviewed using DSM-IV criteria by two senior psychiatrists. Patients diagnosed with MDD were further assessed using the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire, Social Support Rating Scale, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and World Health Organization QOL Scale, brief version (WHOQOL-BREF). Ultimately, 667 patients were diagnosed with MDD, of 71.7% of whom had GAD. Compared to those with MDD alone, comorbid patients had lower scores on the physical (38.64 ± 10.35 vs.36.54 ± 12.32, P = 0.026) and psychological (35.54 ± 12.98 vs. 30.61 ± 14.66, P WHOQOL-BREF. The association between comorbid GAD and poor QOL on the two domains remained statistically significant in the multiple linear regression (unstandardized coefficients: −1.97 and −4.65, P < 0.001). In conclusion, the prevalence of comorbid GAD in MDD patients is high, and co-occurring GAD may exacerbate impaired physical and psychological QOL in Chinese MDD patients. PMID:28098176

  13. Personality disorders in heart failure patients requiring psychiatric management: comorbidity detections from a routine depression and anxiety screening protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, Phillip J; Selkow, Terina

    2014-12-30

    Several international guidelines recommend routine depression screening in cardiac disease populations. No previous study has determined the prevalence and comorbidities of personality disorders in patients presenting for psychiatric treatment after these screening initiatives. In the first stage 404 heart failure (HF) patients were routinely screened and 73 underwent structured interview when either of the following criteria were met: (a) Patient Health Questionnaire ≥10; (b) Generalized Anxiety Disorder Questionnaire ≥7); (c) Response to one item panic-screener. Or (d) Suicidality. Patients with personality disorders were compared to the positive-screen patients on psychiatric comorbidities. The most common personality disorders were avoidant (8.2%), borderline (6.8%) and obsessive compulsive (4.1%), other personality disorders were prevalent in less than Personality disorder patients had significantly greater risk of major depression (risk ratio (RR) 1.2; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-13.3), generalized anxiety disorder (RR 3.2; 95% CI 1.0-10.0), social phobia (RR 3.8; 95% CI 1.3-11.5) and alcohol abuse/dependence (RR 3.2; 95% 1.0-9.5). The findings that HF patients with personality disorders presented with complex psychiatric comorbidity suggest that pathways facilitating the integration of psychiatric services into cardiology settings are warranted when routine depression screening is in place.

  14. Computer therapy for the anxiety and depressive disorders is effective, acceptable and practical health care: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin Andrews

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Depression and anxiety disorders are common and treatable with cognitive behavior therapy (CBT, but access to this therapy is limited. OBJECTIVE: Review evidence that computerized CBT for the anxiety and depressive disorders is acceptable to patients and effective in the short and longer term. METHOD: Systematic reviews and data bases were searched for randomized controlled trials of computerized cognitive behavior therapy versus a treatment or control condition in people who met diagnostic criteria for major depression, panic disorder, social phobia or generalized anxiety disorder. Number randomized, superiority of treatment versus control (Hedges g on primary outcome measure, risk of bias, length of follow up, patient adherence and satisfaction were extracted. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 22 studies of comparisons with a control group were identified. The mean effect size superiority was 0.88 (NNT 2.13, and the benefit was evident across all four disorders. Improvement from computerized CBT was maintained for a median of 26 weeks follow-up. Acceptability, as indicated by adherence and satisfaction, was good. Research probity was good and bias risk low. Effect sizes were non-significantly higher in comparisons with waitlist than with active treatment control conditions. Five studies comparing computerized CBT with traditional face-to-face CBT were identified, and both modes of treatment appeared equally beneficial. CONCLUSIONS: Computerized CBT for anxiety and depressive disorders, especially via the internet, has the capacity to provide effective acceptable and practical health care for those who might otherwise remain untreated. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12610000030077.

  15. Primary care physicians' perspective on the management of anxiety and depressive disorders: a cross-sectional survey in Emilia Romagna Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casini, Federica; Sighinolfi, Cecilia; Tedesco, Paola; Bandieri, Pier Venanzio; Bologna, Maria; Colombini, Niccolò; Curcetti, Clara; Magnani, Michele; Morini, Mara; Serio, Alberto; Tarricone, Ilaria; Berardi, Domenico; Menchetti, Marco

    2013-06-07

    Evidences from literature suggest that Primary Care Physicians' (PCPs) knowledge and attitude about psychological and pharmacological treatments of anxiety and depressive disorders could influence their clinical practice. The aim of the study is double: 1) to assess PCPs' opinions about antidepressants (ADs) and psychotherapy for the management of anxiety and depressive disorders; 2) to evaluate the influence of PCPs' gender, age, duration of clinical practice, and office location on their opinions and attitudes. This cross-sectional multicentre survey involved 816 PCPs working in four Local Health Units of the Emilia Romagna Region. Participating PCPs were asked to complete a questionnaire during educational meetings between October 2006 and December 2008. The response rate was 65.1%. Eighty-five percent of PCPs agreed on the effectiveness of ADs for depressive disorder whereas lower agreement emerged for anxiety disorder and on psychotherapy for both anxiety and depression. Forty percent of PCPs reported to feel "very/extremely confident" in recognizing depression and 20.0% felt equally confident in treating it with pharmacotherapy. Considering anxiety disorder, these proportions increased. Female PCPs and those located in the rural/mountain areas reported to adopt more psycho-educational support compared to male and suburban colleagues. Our results suggest that an effort should be made to better disseminate recent evidences about the management of anxiety and depressive disorders in Primary Care. In particular, the importance of psychological interventions and the role of drugs for anxiety disorder should be addressed.

  16. Depressive, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorders at six years after occupational injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Wei-Shan; Shiao, Judith Shu-Chu; Liao, Shih-Cheng; Kuo, Chun-Ya; Chen, Chih-Chieh; Guo, Yue Leon

    2017-01-02

    The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence rates of depressive, anxiety and PTSDs, and the risk factors for psychological symptoms at 6 years after occupational injury. This longitudinal study followed workers who were occupationally injured in 2009. Psychological symptoms and return to work were assessed at 3 and 12 months after injury. Injured workers who had completed the initial questionnaire survey at 3 or 12 months after injury were recruited. A self-administered questionnaire was mailed to the participants. For workers with high Brief Symptom Rating Scale and Post-traumatic Symptom Checklist scores, an in-depth psychiatric evaluation was performed using the Mini-international Neuropsychiatric Interview. A total of 570 workers completed the questionnaire (response rate, 28.7%). Among them, 243 (42.6%) had high psychological symptom scores and were invited for a phone interview; 135 (55.6%) completed the interview. The estimated rates of major depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)/partial PTSD were 9.2 and 7.2%, respectively, and both these rates were higher at 6 years after injury than at 12 months after injury (2.0 and 5.1%). After adjustment for family and social factors, the risk factors for high psychological scores were length of hospitalization immediately after injury, affected physical appearance, repeated occupational injuries, unemployment, and number of quit jobs after the injury. At 6 years after occupational injury, the re-emergence of psychiatric disorders was observed. Relevant factors for poor psychological health were severity of injury and instability of work. Periodic monitoring of psychological and physical health and economic stability are warranted.

  17. ANXIETY AND DEPRESSION IN INTERNAL MEDICINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Fedotova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of anxiety and depression in internal medicine is discussed. Diagnosis of these disorders in general practitioner every day practice is surveyed. Possibilities of anxiety and depression treatment are highlight. Modern psychopharmacotherapy is focused, especially antidepressants usage.

  18. Anxiety Disorders: Support Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Awards Research & Practice News Blog Posts Depression and Anxiety Journal Insights E-Newsletter Clinical Practice Reviews, Teaching ... Member Community Professional Main navigation Understand the Facts Anxiety Tips to Mange Anxiety and Stress Symptoms Myths ...

  19. Self-stigma in borderline personality disorder - cross-sectional comparison with schizophrenia spectrum disorder, major depressive disorder, and anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grambal, Ales; Prasko, Jan; Kamaradova, Dana; Latalova, Klara; Holubova, Michaela; Marackova, Marketa; Ociskova, Marie; Slepecky, Milos

    2016-01-01

    Self-stigma arises from one's acceptance of societal prejudices and is common in psychiatric patients. This investigation compares the self-stigma of a sample of patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD), schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SCH), major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar affective disorder (BAD), and anxiety disorders (AD) and explores of the self-stigma with the subjective and objective measures of the severity of the disorder and demographic factors. The total of 184 inpatients admitted to the psychotherapeutic department diagnosed with BPD, SCH, MDD, BAP, and AD were compared on the internalized stigma of mental illness (ISMI) scale. The ISMI-total score was correlated with the subjective and objective evaluation of the disorder severity (clinical global impression), and clinical and demographic factors. The self-stigma levels were statistically significantly different among the diagnostic groups (BPD 71.15±14.74; SCH 63.2±13.27; MDD 64.09±12.2; BAD 62.0±14.21; AD 57.62±15.85; one-way analysis of variance: F=8.698, df=183; Pmultiple comparison test, the only significant difference was between the BPD patients and the patients with AD (Pdisorder. The BPD patients suffer from a higher level of self-stigma compared to patients with AD. In practice, it is necessary to address the reduction of self-stigma by using specific treatment strategies, such as cognitive therapy.

  20. Parenting stress and postpartum depression/anxiety in mothers with personality disorders: indications for differential intervention priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsauer, Brigitte; Mühlhan, Christine; Mueller, Jessica; Schulte-Markwort, Michael

    2016-06-01

    To date, parenting stress has rarely been examined in clinical samples of mothers with postpartum comorbid Axis-I disorders and Axis-II personality disorders (PD). Previous research has shown important links between maternal psychopathology and the development of child psychopathology. For these reasons, a clinical sample (N = 54) of mothers with various PD and comorbid depression/anxiety disorders were compared in this study. The clinical sample was divided into three groups based on PD: without PD, other PD, and borderline PD (BPD), and then matched according to depression/anxiety diagnoses and age. Parenting stress index (PSI, Abidin, 1995) scores were compared between these subsamples and to a nonclinical control group. No significant differences were found between mothers with various PD on global PSI scores. However, further examination of the PSI subscale scores revealed that PD were linked to an impaired sense of competence and positive reinforcement in relation to parenting. Compared to mothers with other PD, mothers with BPD had significantly more interpersonal issues. Compared to the nonclinical controls, clinically referred mothers had significantly higher PSI global and subscale scores, with notable PD-specific exceptions. These results illustrate the need for more differentiated treatment options for mothers with postpartum depression and/or anxiety disorders with PD to prevent later development of psychopathology in children of these mothers.

  1. Maternal self-confidence postpartum and at pre-school age: the role of depression, anxiety disorders, maternal attachment insecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zietlow, Anna-Lena; Schlüter, Myriam Kim; Nonnenmacher, Nora; Müller, Mitho; Reck, Corinna

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of maternal postpartum depression and/or anxiety disorders according to DMS-IV on maternal self-confidence throughout infancy and early childhood. Exploratively, associations between maternal attachment insecurity and maternal self-confidence at pre-school age were examined. The sample (N = 54) of this prospective longitudinal study was comprised of n = 27 women with postpartum depression and/or anxiety disorders according to DSM-IV criteria and n = 27 healthy women without present or history of mental health disorders or psychotherapy. Data was collected in the postpartum period (M = 60.08 days) and at pre-school age (M = 4.7 years). Subjects were recruited between 2004 and 2011 in South Germany. Data revealed a significant difference in maternal self-confidence between clinical and control group at child's pre-school age: Women with postpartum depression and/or anxiety disorder scored lower on maternal self-confidence than healthy controls, but only if they had current SCID-diagnoses or partly remitted symptoms. According to explorative analyses maternal attachment insecurity turned out to be the strongest predictor of maternal self-confidence at pre-school age besides maternal mental health status. The results emphasize the impact of attachment insecurity and maternal mental health regarding maternal self-confidence leading to potential adverse long-term consequences for the mother-child relationship. Attachment based interventions taking maternal self-confidence into account are needed.

  2. Analyzing prefrontal cortex hemoglobin concentration exchange spectrum in patients with major depressive disorder combined with anxiety and obsession through near-infrared spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓敏

    2014-01-01

    Objective Exploring the characteristics of prefrontal cortex activation in patients of major depressive disorder(MDD)combined with anxiety and obsession through functional near-infrared spectroscopy(fN IRS).Methods Prefrontal cortex hemoglobin concentration exchange of30 MDD patients combined with anxiety and obsession was detected by fN IRS under voice fluency task(VFT),then psychological assessment was made using Hanmilton Depression Scale(HAMD),Hamilton Anxiety Scale

  3. [Depression and Anxiety Disorders and Associated Factors in the Adolescent Colombian Population, 2015 National Mental Health Survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos; Bohórquez, Adriana; Tamayo Martínez, Nathalie; Rondón, Martín; Bautista, Nubia; Rengifo, Herney; Medina Rico, Mauricio

    2016-12-01

    There was a prevalence of mental disorders of 17% in adolescents in the past year. These tended to be chronic and their appearance at this age is associated with a worse prognosis than those in adulthood. To determine the prevalence and mental factors associated with major depression and anxiety disorders. Data were obtained from the IV National Mental Health Survey representing 5 regions. A structured computerised survey was conducted using the Computer Assisted Personal Interview-Composite International Diagnostic Interview-Adolescent Version (CAPI-CIDI-A), focused on the most common depression and anxiety disorders. It included a sample of 1754 adolescents between 12 and 17 years old. The prevalence of any disorder at some point in life was 7.2% (95%CI, 5.8-8.9). The most common disorder corresponded to social phobia manifested sometime in life in 4.8% (95%CI, 3.7-6.2). Less frequent were panic disorder in girls (0.2%; 95% CI, 0.1-1.0) and other bipolar disorders in boys (0.2%; 95%CI, 0.1-0.7). Among the associated factors of suffering from any disorder were, being female (OR=2.1), having little family support (OR=2.0), having witnessed at least one traumatic event (OR=2.6), and having had a previous suicide attempt (OR=3.4). Participation in at least one group was a protective factor (OR=0.5). Mental disorders of anxiety and depression represent a major burden of disease for Colombia. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  4. [Depression and Anxiety Disorders and Associated Factors in the Adult Colombian Population, 2015 National Mental Health Survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos; Tamayo Martínez, Nathalie; Bohórquez, Adriana; Rondón, Martín; Medina Rico, Mauricio; Rengifo, Hernet; Bautisa, Nubia

    2016-12-01

    Mental disorders are the first causes of disability adjusted life years (DALY), contributing with the 7.4%. This value increases as the DALYs of the transmittable diseases decrease. To determine the prevalence and associated factors of the major depressive and anxious disorders. Data obtained from the IV Mental Health Survey with representation from 5 regions. A computerised interview was conducted, focusing on the most frequent anxiety and depressive disorders, using the CIDI CAPI 3.0. A sample of 10,870 adults over 18 years old was obtained. The lifetime prevalence of any of these disorders is 10.1% (95% CI: 8.8-11.5) in the population between 18 and 44 years, and of 7.7% (95% CI: 6.5-9.1) in those older than 45 years. The prevalence in the last 12 months was 5.1% (95% CI: 4.3-6.0) in the younger group, and 2.3% (95% CI: 1.8-3.0) in the older group. Of the people with evaluated mental disorders, 17.6% (95% CI: 13.1-23.4) had 2 or more disorders, a comorbidity that is more common in the female population (20.4%, 95% CI: 14.2-28.3) than in males (13.5%, 95% CI: 7.9-22.0). Major depressive disorder is the most prevalent of the disorders, with a lifetime prevalence of 4.3% (95% CI: 3.7-5.0). After adjusting in a multivariate model, being divorced or widowed (OR=1.3), previous suicide attempt (OR=3.3), and having 6 or more features of border-line personality, were associated with an increased risk of presenting with any of the studied disorders. Anxiety and depressive mental disorders are an important health burden in Colombia. Copyright © 2016. Publicado por Elsevier España.

  5. Depressive and anxiety symptom trajectories from school age through young adulthood in samples with autism spectrum disorder and developmental delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotham, Katherine; Brunwasser, Steven M; Lord, Catherine

    2015-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to model growth in anxiety and depressive symptoms from late school age through young adulthood in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and controls with developmental delay (DD), and to assess relationships among internalizing growth patterns, participant characteristics, baseline predictors, and distal outcomes. Data were collected between ages 6 and 24 years in 165 participants (n = 109 with ASD; n = 56 with nonspectrum DD), most of whom received diagnostic evaluations in both childhood and early adulthood. Questionnaires were collected approximately every 3 to 6 months between ages 9 and 24 years. Parent-rated Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), Adult Behavior Checklist (ABCL), and Developmental Behaviour Checklist anxiety- and depression-related subscale distributions were modeled with mixed-effects Poisson models, covarying diagnosis, age, verbal IQ (VIQ), gender, and significant 2- and 3-way interactions. Anxiety was positively associated with VIQ, and controlling for VIQ, both anxiety and depressive symptoms were greater in ASD than nonspectrum participants. Female gender predicted greater increases over time in anxiety and depressive symptoms for both diagnostic groups. Lower maternal education was associated with increasing internalizing symptoms in a subset of less verbal individuals with ASD. In exploratory post hoc analyses, internalizing symptoms were associated with poorer emotional regulation in school age, and with lower life satisfaction and greater social difficulties in early adulthood. Findings support previous claims that individuals with ASD are at particular risk for affect- and anxiety-specific problems. Although symptom levels in females increase at a faster rate throughout adolescence, males with ASD appear to have elevated levels of depressive symptoms in school age that are maintained into young adulthood. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by

  6. The effect of methylphenidate on anxiety and depression symptoms in patients with Asperger syndrome and comorbid attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubchik, Pavel; Rapaport, Michal; Weizman, Abraham

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the response of anxiety and depression symptoms to methylphenidate (MPH) treatment in patients with Asperger syndrome (AS) combined with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A group of 12 patients with AS/ADHD, aged 8-18 years, received 12 weeks of MPH treatment. The severities of ADHD, anxiety, and depression symptoms were assessed by means of the ADHD Rating Scale (ADHD-RS), Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders, and the Children's Depression Inventory. The severity of ADHD and depression symptoms was reduced significantly (PADHD-RS and Children's Depression Inventory scores (r=0.59, P=0.039). MPH treatment may be safe, tolerable, and effective in alleviating depression and school-related anxiety symptoms in patients with AS and ADHD.

  7. Correlative study of peripheral ATP1A1 gene expression level to anxiety severity score on major depressive disorder patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jingjie; Guo, Xu; Du, Yi; Han, Yu; Wang, Yongzhi; Li, Li; Qian, Jialin; Li, Mingzhen; Wu, Huijuan; Golden, Teresa; Wu, Ning

    2016-11-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) frequently co-occurs with other psychiatric problems. Our previous study showed that ATP1A1 gene expression level was significantly decreased in MDD patients. This research explores the potential correlations between the ATP1A1 expression level reduction and MDD patients' clinical manifestation. All participant patients were diagnosed by Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders - 4th edition (DSM-IV). Hamilton rating scale for depression (HAM-D) and anxiety (HAM-A) were applied to group patients into different categories. ATP1A1 expression level was measured by reverse transcript real-time polymerase chain reaction. ATP1A1 expression levels of all MDD subgroups showed significant reduction compared to the control group (p0.05). ATP1A1 expression level reduction is related to MDD anxiety score, which may be an explanation for the clinical manifestations and the underlining physiological mechanisms.

  8. Prospective Longitudinal Associations between Persistent Sleep Problems in Childhood and Anxiety and Depression Disorders in Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Alice M.; Caspi, Avshalom; Eley, Thalia C.; Moffitt, Terrie E.; O'Connor, Thomas G.; Poulton, Richie

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the associations between persistent childhood sleep problems and adulthood anxiety and depression. Parents of 943 children (52% male) participating in the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study provided information on their children's sleep and internalizing problems at ages 5, 7, and 9…

  9. Impact of pain on the course of depressive and anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerrits, Marloes M. J. G.; Vogelzangs, Nicole; van Oppen, Patricia; van Marwijk, Harm W. J.; van der Horst, Henriette; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    2012-01-01

    The combination of pain and depression or anxiety is commonly seen in clinical practice. Little is known about the influence of pain on psychopathology over time, as previous studies have been mainly crosssectional. The objectives of this study are to determine the impact of pain on the course of de

  10. HEALTH-CARE COSTS ASSOCIATED WITH DEPRESSIVE AND ANXIETY DISORDERS IN PRIMARY-CARE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SIMON, G; ORMEL, J; VONKORFF, M; BARLOW, W

    Objective: The authors examined the overall health care costs associated with depression and anxiety among primary care patients. Method: Of 2,110 consecutive primary care patients in a health maintenance organization, 1,962 were screened with the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. A stratified

  11. Anxiety and Depression in Adolescents With Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, Karen Ling; Lam, David; Tsui, Sarah; Ngan, Mary; Tsang, Brian; Lai, Tai Sum; Lam, Siu Man

    2016-02-01

    The present study examined anxiety and depression in adolescents with epilepsy and the association of these disorders with seizure-related and sociodemographic variables. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was administered to 140 children with epilepsy and 50 children with asthma aged 10 to 18 years attending mainstream schools. Adolescents with epilepsy had significantly higher scores on the depression subscale than those with asthma (5.2 ± 3.3 vs 4.2 ± 3.2, P = .032). Anxiety subscale scores and the frequency of anxiety and depression in both the epilepsy and asthma groups were not statistically significant. In the epilepsy group, 32.8% had anxiety and 22.1% had depression. Factors associated with anxiety were older age at the time of the study and polytherapy (2 or more antiepileptic drugs). Adolescents who had been seizure-free for 12 months or more at time of the study were less likely to experience anxiety. Factors associated with depression were medical comorbidities, female gender, frequent seizures, and younger age of seizure onset. A common risk factor for both anxiety and depression was the duration of epilepsy. Anxiety and depression were also highly associated with each other. Affective disorders are common in epilepsy and screening for psychiatric symptoms is required.

  12. Meta-analysis of supplemental treatment for depressive and anxiety disorders in patients being treated for alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Jennifer D J; Kushner, Matt G; Lee, Susanne S; Reardon, Sean M; Maurer, Eric W

    2011-01-01

    Approximately half of those receiving treatment for an alcohol use disorder (AUD) also suffer with an anxiety or depressive (internalizing) disorder. Because all internalizing disorders mark a poor alcohol treatment outcome, it seems reasonable to supplement AUD treatment with a psychiatric intervention when these disorders co-occur with AUD. However, this conclusion may be faulty given that the various possible interrelationships between AUD and internalizing disorders do not uniformly imply a high therapeutic yield from this approach. Unfortunately, the studies conducted to date have been too few and too small to resolve this important clinical issue with confidence. Therefore, we used a meta-analytic method to synthesize the effects from published randomized controlled trials examining the impact of supplementing AUD treatment with a psychiatric treatment for co-occurring internalizing disorder (N = 15). We found a pooled effect size (d) of .32 for internalizing outcomes and .22 for a composite of alcohol outcomes; however, the alcohol outcomes effect sizes were greater than this for some specific outcome domains. Subgroups that differed in terms of internalizing outcomes included treatment type (medication vs. cognitive behavioral therapy) and treatment focus (anxiety vs. depression). There was also a trend for the studies with better internalizing disorder outcomes to have better alcohol outcomes. These results indicate that clinical outcomes (both psychiatric and alcohol-related) could be somewhat improved by supplementing AUD treatment with psychiatric treatment for co-occurring internalizing disorder.

  13. Depression, anxiety and 6-year risk of cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seldenrijk, Adrie; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Batelaan, Neeltje M.; Wieman, Iris; van Schaik, Digna J. F.; Penninx, Brenda J. W. H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Depression and anxiety are considered etiological factors in cardiovascular disease (ND), though their relative contribution and differentiation by clinical characteristics have not been studied intensively. We examined 6-year associations between depressive and anxiety disorders, clinica

  14. Amygdala Function and 5-HTT Gene Variants in Adolescent Anxiety and Major Depressive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Jennifer Y. F.; Goldman, David; Buzas, Beata; Fromm, Stephen J.; Guyer, Amanda E.; Hodgkinson, Colin; Monk, Christopher S.; Nelson, Eric E.; Shen, Pei-Hong; Pine, Daniel S.; Ernst, Monique

    2009-01-01

    Background Associations between a functional polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene and amygdala activation have been found in healthy, depressed, and anxious adults. This study explored these gene–brain associations in adolescents by examining predictive effects of serotonin transporter gene variants (S and LG allele carriers vs. LA allele homozygotes) and their interaction with diagnosis (healthy vs. patients) on amygdala responses to emotional faces. Methods Functional magnetic resonance data were collected from 33 healthy adolescents (mean age: 13.71, 55% female) and 31 medication-free adolescents with current anxiety or depressive disorders (or both; mean age: 13.58, 56% female) while viewing fearful, angry, happy, and neutral facial expressions under varying attention states. Results A significant three-way genotype-by-diagnosis-by-face-emotion interaction characterized right amygdala activity while subjects monitored internal fear levels. This interaction was decomposed to map differential gene–brain associations in healthy and affected adolescents. First, consistent with healthy adult data, healthy adolescents with at least one copy of the S or LG allele showed stronger amygdala responses to fearful faces than healthy adolescents without these alleles. Second, patients with two copies of the LA allele exhibited greater amygdala responses to fearful faces relative to patients with S or LG alleles. Third, although weaker, genotype differences on amygdala responses in patients extended to happy faces. All effects were restricted to the fear-monitoring attention state. Conclusions S/LG alleles in healthy adolescents, as in healthy adults, predict enhanced amygdala activation to fearful faces. Contrary findings of increased activation in patients with LALA relative to the S or LG alleles require further exploration. PMID:18950748

  15. Effect of emotion regulation training on depression, anxiety, and stress among mothers of children with mental disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Jenaabadi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Not only mental disorders do affect patients’ efficiency, but also they have adverse impacts on families of suffered patients through disrupting their performance. This study aimed to compare the effect of emotion regulation training based on Gross process model and Linehan's dialectical behavior therapy in depression, anxiety, and stress among mothers of children with mental disorders. This was a quasi-experimental study designed as pretest-posttest with a control group. 27 mothers of children with depression and anxiety disorders who admitted to the rehabilitation centers and clinics was selected. They were allocated to three groups including the emotion regulation training based on the Gross’s model, the Linehan’s dialectical behavior therapy, and the control group. The experimental groups were trained during 8 sessions of 120-150 min. However, the control group received no such interventions. Using the lovibond and lovibond depression, anxiety, and stress scale. The results indicated that there were no significant differences between the mothers placed in the experimental groups; however, compared to the control group, significant decreases in the measured variables were observed in the experimental groups. The emotion regulation training program can be considered as a part of intervention programs conducted at counseling centers and public hospitals for mothers of children with special needs in order to promote mental health and decrease the emotional pain and suffering in the involved family members.

  16. Proteasome modulator 9 gene SNPs, responsible for anti-depressant response, are in linkage with generalized anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gragnoli, Claudia

    2014-09-01

    Proteasome modulator 9 (PSMD9) gene single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs1043307/rs2514259 (E197G) is associated with significant clinical response to the anti-depressant desipramine. PSMD9 SNP rs74421874 [intervening sequence (IVS) 3 + nt460 G>A], rs3825172 (IVS3 + nt437 C>T) and rs1043307/rs2514259 (E197G A>G) are all linked to type 2 diabetes (T2D), maturity-onset-diabetes-of the young 3 (MODY3), obesity and waist circumference, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, T2D-macrovascular and T2D-microvascular disease, T2D-neuropathy, T2D-carpal tunnel syndrome, T2D-nephropathy, T2D-retinopathy, non-diabetic retinopathy and depression. PSMD9 rs149556654 rare SNP (N166S A>G) and the variant S143G A>G also contribute to T2D. PSMD9 is located in the chromosome 12q24 locus, which per se is in linkage with depression, bipolar disorder and anxiety. In the present study, we wanted to determine whether PSMD9 is linked to general anxiety disorder in Italian T2D families. Two-hundred Italian T2D families were phenotyped for generalized anxiety disorder, using the diagnostic criteria of DSM-IV. When the diagnosis was unavailable or unclear, the trait was reported as unknown. The 200 Italians families were tested for the PSMD9 T2D risk SNPs rs74421874 (IVS3 + nt460 G>A), rs3825172 (IVS3 +nt437 T>C) and for the T2D risk and anti-depressant response SNP rs1043307/rs2514259 (E197G A>G) for evidence of linkage with generalized anxiety disorder. Non-parametric linkage analysis was executed via Merlin software. One-thousand simulation tests were performed to exclude results due to random chance. In our study, the PSMD9 gene SNPs rs74421874, rs3825172, and rs1043307/rs2514259 result in linkage to generalized anxiety disorder. This is the first report describing PSMD9 gene SNPs in linkage to generalized anxiety disorder in T2D families.

  17. Anxiety and disruptive behavior mediate pathways from attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder to depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roy, Arunima; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Verhulst, Frank C; Ormel, Johan; Hartman, Catharina A

    Objective: The progression to depression in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is not clearly understood. To clarify this relationship, we tested the following hypotheses in a population-based study: (1) children with ADHD have a higher risk of developing depression than

  18. Sleep duration, but not insomnia, predicts the 2-year course of depressive and anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. van Mill; N. Vogelzangs (Nicole); E.J.W. van Someren (Eus); W.J.G. Hoogendijk (Witte); B.W.J.H. Penninx (Brenda)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To examine the predictive role of insomnia andsleep duration on the 2-year course of depressive andanxiety disorders. Method: This study is a secondary data analysis based ondata from the baseline (2004-2007) and 2-year assessmentof the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxi

  19. Hemoglobin levels in persons with depressive and/or anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lever-van Milligen, Bianca A.; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Smit, Johannes H.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Both low and high hemoglobin levels lead to more physical diseases, and both are linked to mortality. Low hemoglobin, often classified as anemia, has also been linked to more depressive symptoms, but whether both hemoglobin extremes are associated with depressive disorder and potentially

  20. Synergistic effects of pain intensity and anxiety sensitivity in relation to anxiety and depressive symptoms and disorders among economically disadvantaged latinos in a community-based primary care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, Ricardo Valdés; Bakhshaie, Jafar; Walker, Rheeda L; Viana, Andres G; Garza, Monica; Ochoa-Perez, Melissa; Paulus, Daniel J; Robles, Zuzuky; Valdivieso, Jeanette; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2016-10-01

    The present investigation examined the interactive effects of anxiety sensitivity and pain intensity in relation to anxious arousal, social anxiety, and depressive symptoms and disorders among 203 Latino adults with an annual income of less than $30,000 (84.4% female; Mage=38.9, SD=11.3 and 98.6% used Spanish as their first language) who attended a community-based primary healthcare clinic. As expected, the interaction between anxiety sensitivity and pain intensity was significantly related to increased anxious arousal, social anxiety, and depressive symptoms as well as number of depressive/anxiety disorder diagnoses. The form of the significant interactions indicated that participants reporting co-occurring higher levels of anxiety sensitivity and pain intensity evinced the greatest levels of anxious arousal, social anxiety, and depressive symptoms as well as higher levels of depressive and anxiety disorders. These data provide novel empirical evidence suggesting that there is clinically-relevant interplay between anxiety sensitivity and pain intensity in regard to a relatively wide array of anxiety and depressive variables among Latinos in a primary care medical setting.

  1. Effects of baseline problematic alcohol and drug use on internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy outcomes for depression, panic disorder and social anxiety disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikael Gajecki

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Patients' problematic substance use prevalence and effects were explored in relation to internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy (ICBT outcomes for depression, panic disorder and social anxiety disorder. METHODS: At baseline and treatment conclusion, 1601 ICBT patients were assessed with self-rated measures for alcohol and drug use (AUDIT/DUDIT, depressive symptoms (MADRS-S, panic disorder symptoms (PDSS-SR and social anxiety symptoms (LSAS-SR. RESULTS: Problematic substance use (AUDIT ≥ 8 for men, ≥ 6 for women; DUDIT ≥ 1 occurred among 32.4% of the patients; 24.1% only alcohol, 4.6% only drugs, and 3.7% combined alcohol and drug use. Hazardous alcohol use and probable alcohol dependence negatively affected panic disorder outcomes, and hazardous drug use led to worse social anxiety outcomes. Depression outcomes were not affected by substance use. Treatment adherence was negatively affected by problematic drug use among men and 25-34 year olds; combined substance use negatively affected adherence for women and 35-64 year olds. CONCLUSION: Problematic substance use does not preclude ICBT treatment but can worsen outcomes, particularly problematic alcohol use for panic disorder patients and hazardous drug use for social anxiety patients. ICBT clinicians should exercise particular caution when treating men and younger patients with problematic drug use, and women or older patients with combined substance use.

  2. Effects of baseline problematic alcohol and drug use on internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy outcomes for depression, panic disorder and social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajecki, Mikael; Berman, Anne H; Sinadinovic, Kristina; Andersson, Claes; Ljótsson, Brjánn; Hedman, Erik; Rück, Christian; Lindefors, Nils

    2014-01-01

    Patients' problematic substance use prevalence and effects were explored in relation to internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy (ICBT) outcomes for depression, panic disorder and social anxiety disorder. At baseline and treatment conclusion, 1601 ICBT patients were assessed with self-rated measures for alcohol and drug use (AUDIT/DUDIT), depressive symptoms (MADRS-S), panic disorder symptoms (PDSS-SR) and social anxiety symptoms (LSAS-SR). Problematic substance use (AUDIT ≥ 8 for men, ≥ 6 for women; DUDIT ≥ 1) occurred among 32.4% of the patients; 24.1% only alcohol, 4.6% only drugs, and 3.7% combined alcohol and drug use. Hazardous alcohol use and probable alcohol dependence negatively affected panic disorder outcomes, and hazardous drug use led to worse social anxiety outcomes. Depression outcomes were not affected by substance use. Treatment adherence was negatively affected by problematic drug use among men and 25-34 year olds; combined substance use negatively affected adherence for women and 35-64 year olds. Problematic substance use does not preclude ICBT treatment but can worsen outcomes, particularly problematic alcohol use for panic disorder patients and hazardous drug use for social anxiety patients. ICBT clinicians should exercise particular caution when treating men and younger patients with problematic drug use, and women or older patients with combined substance use.

  3. Gray Matter Abnormalities in Non-comorbid Medication-naive Patients with Major Depressive Disorder or Social Anxiety Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Youjin; Chen, Lizhou; Zhang, Wenjing; Xiao, Yuan; Shah, Chandan; Zhu, Hongru; Yuan, Minlan; Sun, Huaiqiang; Yue, Qiang; Jia, Zhiyun; Zhang, Wei; Kuang, Weihong; Gong, Qiyong; Lui, Su

    2017-07-01

    An overlap of clinical symptoms between major depressive disorder (MDD) and social anxiety disorder (SAD) suggests that the two disorders exhibit similar brain mechanisms. However, few studies have directly compared the brain structures of the two disorders. The aim of this study was to assess the gray matter volume (GMV) and cortical thickness alterations between non-comorbid medication-naive MDD patients and SAD patients. High-resolution T1-weighted images were acquired from 37 non-comorbid MDD patients, 24 non-comorbid SAD patients and 41 healthy controls (HCs). Voxel-based morphometry analysis of the GMV (corrected with a false discovery rate of psuperior parietal cortex; and cortical thinning in the left lateral OFC and bilateral rostral middle frontal cortex. In addition, MDD patients specifically showed a greater thickness in the left fusiform gyrus and right lateral occipital cortex and a thinner thickness in the bilateral lingual and left cuneus. SAD patients specifically showed a thinner cortical thickness in the right precentral cortex. Our results indicate that MDD and SAD share common patterns of gray matter abnormalities in the orbitofrontal-striatal-thalamic circuit, salience network and dorsal attention network. These consistent structural differences in the two patient groups may contribute to the broad spectrum of emotional, cognitive and behavioral disturbances observed in MDD patients and SAD patients. In addition, we found disorder-specific involvement of the visual processing regions in MDD and the precentral cortex in SAD. These findings provide new evidence regarding the shared and specific neuropathological mechanisms that underlie MDD and SAD. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Anxiety Disorders: Support Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disorder Specific Phobias Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Depression Bipolar Disorder Suicide and Prevention Stress Related Illnesses Myth-Conceptions Find ...

  5. Treatment for Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disorder Specific Phobias Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Depression Bipolar Disorder Suicide and Prevention Stress Related Illnesses Myth-Conceptions Find ...

  6. Self-stigma in borderline personality disorder – cross-sectional comparison with schizophrenia spectrum disorder, major depressive disorder, and anxiety disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grambal, Ales; Prasko, Jan; Kamaradova, Dana; Latalova, Klara; Holubova, Michaela; Marackova, Marketa; Ociskova, Marie; Slepecky, Milos

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Self-stigma arises from one’s acceptance of societal prejudices and is common in psychiatric patients. This investigation compares the self-stigma of a sample of patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD), schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SCH), major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar affective disorder (BAD), and anxiety disorders (AD) and explores of the self-stigma with the subjective and objective measures of the severity of the disorder and demographic factors. Methods The total of 184 inpatients admitted to the psychotherapeutic department diagnosed with BPD, SCH, MDD, BAP, and AD were compared on the internalized stigma of mental illness (ISMI) scale. The ISMI-total score was correlated with the subjective and objective evaluation of the disorder severity (clinical global impression), and clinical and demographic factors. Results The self-stigma levels were statistically significantly different among the diagnostic groups (BPD 71.15±14.74; SCH 63.2±13.27; MDD 64.09±12.2; BAD 62.0±14.21; AD 57.62±15.85; one-way analysis of variance: F=8.698, df=183; P<0.005). However after applying the Bonferroni’s multiple comparison test, the only significant difference was between the BPD patients and the patients with AD (P<0.001). Stepwise regression analysis showed that the strongest factors connected with the higher level of self-stigma were being without partner, the number of hospitalization, and the severity of the disorder. Conclusion The BPD patients suffer from a higher level of self-stigma compared to patients with AD. In practice, it is necessary to address the reduction of self-stigma by using specific treatment strategies, such as cognitive therapy. PMID:27703362

  7. Disorder-specific versus transdiagnostic and clinician-guided versus self-guided treatment for major depressive disorder and comorbid anxiety disorders: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titov, N; Dear, B F; Staples, L G; Terides, M D; Karin, E; Sheehan, J; Johnston, L; Gandy, M; Fogliati, V J; Wootton, B M; McEvoy, P M

    2015-10-01

    Disorder-specific cognitive behavior therapy (DS-CBT) is effective at treating major depressive disorder (MDD) while transdiagnostic CBT (TD-CBT) addresses both principal and comorbid disorders by targeting underlying and common symptoms. The relative benefits of these two models of therapy have not been determined. Participants with MDD (n=290) were randomly allocated to receive an internet delivered TD-CBT or DS-CBT intervention delivered in either clinician-guided (CG-CBT) or self-guided (SG-CBT) formats. Large reductions in symptoms of MDD (Cohen's d≥1.44; avg. reduction≥45%) and moderate-to-large reductions in symptoms of comorbid generalised anxiety disorder (Cohen's d≥1.08; avg. reduction≥43%), social anxiety disorder (Cohen's d≥0.65; avg. reduction≥29%) and panic disorder (Cohen's d≥0.45; avg. reduction≥31%) were found. No marked or consistent differences were observed across the four conditions, highlighting the efficacy of different forms of CBT at treating MDD and comorbid disorders.

  8. Manic symptoms in patients with depressive and/or anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Belinda; Penninx, Brenda; Zitman, Frans G.; Nolen, Willem A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Previous studies found that patients with depressive disorders frequently have lifetime manic symptoms or even an unrecognized bipolar disorder and that these patients have more severe illness. In this study we investigated whether the presence of significant manic symptoms among patient

  9. Disability in anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, S.M.; Spijker, J.; Licht, C.M.M.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Hardeveld, F.; Graaf, R. de; Batelaan, N.M.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study compares disability levels between different anxiety disorders and healthy controls. We further investigate the role of anxiety arousal and avoidance behaviour in disability, and whether differences in these symptom patterns contribute to disability differences between anxiety

  10. Disability in anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, S.M.; Spijker, J.; Licht, C.M.; Beekman, A.T.; Hardeveld, F.; Graaf, R. de; Batelaan, N.M.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study compares disability levels between different anxiety disorders and healthy controls. We further investigate the role of anxiety arousal and avoidance behaviour in disability, and whether differences in these symptom patterns contribute to disability differences between anxiety

  11. The validity of screening instruments for posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and other anxiety symptoms in Tajikistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollander, Anna-Clara; Ekblad, Solvig; Mukhamadiev, Davron; Muminova, Reykhan

    2007-11-01

    Armed conflicts and violations of human rights have a large and long-lasting impact on the mental health of affected individuals. In Tajikistan's civil war, 1992-1997, out of a total population of 6.5 million, about 60,000 were killed and 700,000 became refugees. Little has been done to explore the mental health consequences of this war. The purpose of the present pilot study was to validate 1 screening instrument for PTSD and 1 for depression and anxiety symptoms in a Tajik outpatient population. The sample for the study totaled 75. The appropriate cutoff values were determined empirically. The validity of the instruments was high. In conclusion, the use of validated screening instruments was a feasible way to explore the prevalence of PTSD, depression, and other anxiety symptoms in a Tajikistan context.

  12. Heritability of major depressive and comorbid anxiety disorders in multi-generational families at high risk for depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guffanti, Guia; Gameroff, Marc J; Warner, Virginia; Talati, Ardesheer; Glatt, Charles E; Wickramaratne, Priya; Weissman, Myrna M

    2016-12-01

    Family studies have shown that MDD is highly transmittable but have not studied its heritability. Twin studies show heritability of about 40% and do not include anxiety disorders. We assessed heritability of MDD and comorbid anxiety disorders in a multigenerational study of family members at high risk for MDD. In addition, we tested the hypothesis that examined clinical subtypes of MDD defined by early and late age of onset would be under relatively stronger genetic control than broadly defined DSM-IV MDD. The first generation with moderate to severe MDD was recruited from an ambulatory psychiatric treatment setting, and their descendants in the second, third, and fourth generation, were interviewed by clinicians up to six times during a 30-year period. Lifetime rates of MDD and anxiety disorders were collected for 545 participants from 65 multigenerational families. The heritability (h(2) ) of MDD in this high risk sample was estimated at 67%. Anxiety and sequential comorbidity of anxiety disorders and MDD revealed h(2) of 49% and 53%, respectively, and strong positive genetic correlation (rhog  = 0.92, P = 7.3 × 10(-7) ). Early onset MDD did not appear to be under greater genetic control than broadly defined DSM-IV MDD. Individuals who are direct descendants of subjects ascertained for moderate to severe MDD have strong genetic vulnerability to develop anxiety or MDD. Our findings support family based studies as appropriate and useful design to understand the heritability of common disorders such as MDD. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. ANXIETY DISORDERS: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arya Ashwani

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety disorders are a highly prevalent and disabling class of psychiatric disorders. Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent and associated with substantial distress, morbidity and mortality. Recent epidemiological studies of anxiety disorders provided evidence of their high frequency in the general population worldwide. Anxiety disorders afflict an estimated 15.7 million people in the United States each year. Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent in adults with females showing higher preponderance of 2:1 as compared to males. Anxiety disorders are a group of mental disorders characterized by various combinations of key features - Irritability, fear, Insomnia, Nervousness, Tachycardia, Inability to concentrate, poor coping skills, Palpitation, Sweating, Agoraphobia and Social Withdrawal. The anxiety disorders, including panic disorder (PD, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD, social anxiety disorder (SAD, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, are among the disabling medical disorders. The neurobiology of anxiety disorders is not fully understood, but several different biologic abnormalities have been implicated in their etiology. The GABA, NE and 5HT systems play crucial roles in mediating the affective circuitry underlying the highly related clinical disorders of anxiety. Anxiety is a common psychiatric condition characterized by unnecessary aggression, poor quality of life, fear, worry, avoidance, and compulsive rituals that are associated with significant distress.

  14. Personality disorders, but not cancer severity or treatment type, are risk factors for later generalised anxiety disorder and major depressive disorder in non metastatic breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne, Anne-Laure; Brunault, Paul; Huguet, Grégoire; Suzanne, Isabelle; Senon, Jean-Louis; Body, Gilles; Rusch, Emmanuel; Magnin, Guillaume; Voyer, Mélanie; Réveillère, Christian; Camus, Vincent

    2016-02-28

    This study aimed to determine whether personality disorders were associated with later Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) or Generalised Anxiety Disorder (GAD) in breast cancer patients. This longitudinal and multicentric study included 120 French non-metastatic breast cancer patients. After cancer diagnosis (T1) and 7 months after diagnosis (T3), we assessed MDD and GAD (Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview 5.0). We assessed personality disorders 3 months after diagnosis (VKP). We used multiple logistic regression analysis to determine what were the factors associated with GAD and MDD at T3. At T3, prevalence rate was 10.8% for MDD and 19.2% for GAD. GAD at T3 was significantly and independently associated with GAD at T1 and with existence of a personality disorder, no matter the cluster type. MDD at T3 was significantly and independently associated with MDD at T1 and with the existence of a cluster C personality disorder. Initial cancer severity and the type of treatment used were not associated with GAD or MDD at T3. Breast cancer patients with personality disorders are at higher risk for GAD and MDD at the end of treatment. Patients with GAD should be screened for personality disorders. Specific interventions for patients with personality disorders could prevent psychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Sub-threshold depression and antidepressants use in a community sample: searching anxiety and finding bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carta, Mauro G; Tondo, Leonardo; Balestrieri, Matteo; Caraci, Filippo; Dell'osso, Liliana; Di Sciascio, Guido; Faravelli, Carlo; Hardoy, Maria Carolina; Lecca, Maria E; Moro, Maria Francesca; Bhat, Krishna M; Casacchia, Massimo; Drago, Filippo

    2011-10-10

    To determine the use of antidepressants (ADs) in people with sub-threshold depression (SD); the lifetime prevalence of mania and hypomania in SD and the link between ADs use, bipolarity and anxiety disorders in SD. community survey. samples randomly drawn, after stratification from the adult population of municipal records. 4999 people from seven areas within six Italian regions. Tools: Questionnaire on psychotropic drug consumption, prescription; Structured Clinical Interview NP for DSM-IV modified (ANTAS); Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D); Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ); Short Form Health Survey (SF-12). SD definition: HAM-D > 10 without lifetime diagnosis of Depressive Episode (DE). SD point prevalence is 5.0%. The lifetime prevalence of mania and hypomania episodes in SD is 7.3%. Benzodiazepines (BDZ) consumption in SD is 24.1%, followed by ADs (19.7%). In SD, positive for MDQ and comorbidity with Panic Disorder (PD) or Generalized Anxiety Disorders (GAD) are associated with ADs use, whereas the association between a positive MDQ and ADs use, without a diagnosis of PD or GAD, is not significant. Only in people with DE the well-being (SF-12) is higher among those using first-line antidepressants compared to those not using any medication. In people with SD no significant differences were found in terms of SF-12 score according to drug use. This study suggests caution in prescribing ADs to people with SD. In people with concomitant anxiety disorders and SD, it should be mandatory to perform a well-designed assessment and evaluate the presence of previous manic or hypomanic symptoms prior to prescribing ADs.

  16. Sub-threshold depression and antidepressants use in a community sample: searching anxiety and finding bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardoy Maria

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine the use of antidepressants (ADs in people with sub-threshold depression (SD; the lifetime prevalence of mania and hypomania in SD and the link between ADs use, bipolarity and anxiety disorders in SD. Methods Study design: community survey. Study population: samples randomly drawn, after stratification from the adult population of municipal records. Sample size: 4999 people from seven areas within six Italian regions. Tools: Questionnaire on psychotropic drug consumption, prescription; Structured Clinical Interview NP for DSM-IV modified (ANTAS; Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D; Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ; Short Form Health Survey (SF-12. SD definition: HAM-D > 10 without lifetime diagnosis of Depressive Episode (DE. Results SD point prevalence is 5.0%. The lifetime prevalence of mania and hypomania episodes in SD is 7.3%. Benzodiazepines (BDZ consumption in SD is 24.1%, followed by ADs (19.7%. In SD, positive for MDQ and comorbidity with Panic Disorder (PD or Generalized Anxiety Disorders (GAD are associated with ADs use, whereas the association between a positive MDQ and ADs use, without a diagnosis of PD or GAD, is not significant. Only in people with DE the well-being (SF-12 is higher among those using first-line antidepressants compared to those not using any medication. In people with SD no significant differences were found in terms of SF-12 score according to drug use. Conclusions This study suggests caution in prescribing ADs to people with SD. In people with concomitant anxiety disorders and SD, it should be mandatory to perform a well-designed assessment and evaluate the presence of previous manic or hypomanic symptoms prior to prescribing ADs.

  17. The prevalence of depression and anxiety disorders in indigenous people of the Americas: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisely, Steve; Alichniewicz, Karolina Katarzyna; Black, Emma B; Siskind, Dan; Spurling, Geoffrey; Toombs, Maree

    2017-01-01

    Indigenous populations are considered at higher risk of psychiatric disorder but many studies do not include direct comparisons with similar non-Indigenous controls. We undertook a meta-analysis of studies that compared the prevalence of depression and anxiety disorders in Indigenous populations in the Americas with those of non-Indigenous groups with similar socio-demographic features (Registration number: CRD42015025854). A systematic search of PubMed, Medline, PsycInfo, PsycArticles, ScienceDirect, EMBASE, and article bibliographies was performed. We included comparisons of lifetime rates and prevalence of up to 12 months. We found 19 studies (n = 250, 959) from Latin America, Canada and the US. There were no differences between Indigenous and similar non-Indigenous groups in the 12-month prevalence of depressive, generalised anxiety and panic disorders. However, Indigenous people were at greater risk of PTSD. For lifetime prevalence, rates of generalised anxiety, panic and all the depressive disorders were significantly lower in Indigenous participants, whilst PTSD (on adjusted analyses) and social phobia were significantly higher. Results were similar for sub-analyses of Latin America, Canada and the US, and sensitivity analyses by study quality or setting (e.g. health, community etc.). Risk factors for psychiatric illness may therefore be a complex interaction of biological, educational, economic and socio-cultural factors that may vary between disorders. Accordingly, interventions should reflect that the association between disadvantage and psychiatric illness is rarely due to one factor. However, it is also possible that assessment tools don't accurately measure psychiatric symptoms in Indigenous populations and that further cross-cultural validation of diagnostic instruments may be needed too. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Hair cortisol concentrations and cortisol stress reactivity in generalized anxiety disorder, major depression and their comorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steudte-Schmiedgen, Susann; Wichmann, Susann; Stalder, Tobias; Hilbert, Kevin; Muehlhan, Markus; Lueken, Ulrike; Beesdo-Baum, Katja

    2017-01-01

    Studies investigating cortisol secretion in patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) have reported heterogeneous findings. Further, current knowledge on the specificity of endocrine changes for GAD and/or comorbid major depression (MD) is limited. Hence, the current study investigated long-term integrated cortisol secretion, as indexed by hair cortisol concentrations (HCC), and experimentally-induced cortisol stress reactivity in relation to GAD, MD and their comorbidity. Carefully characterized groups of 17 GAD patients including 8 with comorbid MD (GAD-MD), 12 MD patients and 21 healthy controls were recruited. Alongside psychometric data, HCC (N = 43) and salivary cortisol stress reactivity in response to the Trier Social Stress Test (N = 45) were determined. Findings revealed that MD patients exhibited lower HCC compared to controls and GAD patients, with no differences between the latter two groups. Interestingly, when the GAD group was separated into two groups based on MD comorbidity, lower HCC in MD patients were found compared to controls and GAD-noMD patients, but did not show differences when compared to GAD-MD patients. No HCC differences were seen between GAD-MD or GAD-noMD patients and healthy controls. No TSST group differences emerged. Our findings suggest MD to be related to long-term attenuation in cortisol secretion. While no group differences emerged between patients with GAD, neither with nor without MD, and controls, the current results provide tentative evidence that MD determines long-term endocrine changes, with pure GAD showing a distinct pattern. Future studies are needed to confirm our findings in larger samples of pure and comorbid groups.

  19. Gender, Anxiety, and Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplin, Tara M.; Gillham, Jane E.; Seligman, Martin E. P.

    2009-01-01

    Does anxiety lead to depression more for girls than for boys? This study prospectively examines gender differences in the relationship between anxiety and depressive symptoms in early adolescence. One hundred thirteen 11- to 14-year-old middle school students complete questionnaires assessing depressive symptoms and three dimensions of anxiety (worry and oversensitivity, social concerns and concentration, and physiological anxiety) as well as total anxiety symptoms at an initial assessment and 1 year later. Total anxiety and worry and oversensitivity symptoms are found to predict later depressive symptoms more strongly for girls than for boys. There is a similar pattern of results for social concerns and concentration symptoms, although this does not reach statistical significance. Physiological anxiety predicts later depressive symptoms for both boys and girls. These findings highlight the importance of anxiety for the development of depression in adolescence, particularly worry and oversensitivity among girls. PMID:19756209

  20. The Relative Influence of Childhood Sexual Abuse and Other Family Background Risk Factors on Adult Adversities in Female Outpatients Treated for Anxiety Disorders and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleikis, Dawn E.; Mykletun, Arnstein; Dahl, Alv A.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: This study from Norway examines the relative influence of child sexual abuse (CSA) and family background risk factors (FBRF) on the risk for current mental disorders and the quality of current intimate relationships in women with CSA treated for anxiety disorders and/or depression. Women with these disorders frequently seek treatment,…

  1. Auricular Acupuncture Versus Progressive Muscle Relaxation in Patients with Anxiety Disorders or Major Depressive Disorder: A Prospective Parallel Group Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas de Lorent

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Although acupuncture treatment is increasingly in demand among psychiatric patients, to date no studies have investigated the effectiveness of auricular acupuncture (AA in treating anxiety disorders or major depressive disorder. Thus, this study aimed to compare the effectiveness of AA versus progressive muscle relaxation (PMR, a standardized and accepted relaxation method. We examined 162 patients with a primary diagnosis of anxiety disorder or major depressive disorder, and each patient chose between treatment with AA, executed according to the National Acupuncture Detoxification Association protocol, and treatment with PMR. Each group had treatments twice a week for 4 weeks. Before and after treatment, each participant rated four items on a visual analog scale: anxiety, tension, anger/aggression, and mood. Statistical analyses were performed with the original visual analog scale scores and the Change-Intensity Index, an appropriate indicator of the difference between two values of a variable. Our results show that treatment with AA significantly decreased tension, anxiety, and anger/aggression throughout the 4 weeks, but did not elevate mood. Between AA and PMR, no statistically significant differences were found at any time. Thus, we suggest that both AA and PMR may be useful, equally-effective additional interventions in the treatment of the above-mentioned disorders.

  2. Auricular Acupuncture Versus Progressive Muscle Relaxation in Patients with Anxiety Disorders or Major Depressive Disorder: A Prospective Parallel Group Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lorent, Lukas; Agorastos, Agorastos; Yassouridis, Alexander; Kellner, Michael; Muhtz, Christoph

    2016-08-01

    Although acupuncture treatment is increasingly in demand among psychiatric patients, to date no studies have investigated the effectiveness of auricular acupuncture (AA) in treating anxiety disorders or major depressive disorder. Thus, this study aimed to compare the effectiveness of AA versus progressive muscle relaxation (PMR), a standardized and accepted relaxation method. We examined 162 patients with a primary diagnosis of anxiety disorder or major depressive disorder, and each patient chose between treatment with AA, executed according to the National Acupuncture Detoxification Association protocol, and treatment with PMR. Each group had treatments twice a week for 4 weeks. Before and after treatment, each participant rated four items on a visual analog scale: anxiety, tension, anger/aggression, and mood. Statistical analyses were performed with the original visual analog scale scores and the Change-Intensity Index, an appropriate indicator of the difference between two values of a variable. Our results show that treatment with AA significantly decreased tension, anxiety, and anger/aggression throughout the 4 weeks, but did not elevate mood. Between AA and PMR, no statistically significant differences were found at any time. Thus, we suggest that both AA and PMR may be useful, equally-effective additional interventions in the treatment of the above-mentioned disorders.

  3. CBT for eating disorders: The impact of early changes in eating pathology on later changes in personality pathology, anxiety and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Hannah; Marshall, Emily; Wood, Francesca; Stopa, Lusia; Waller, Glenn

    2016-02-01

    Whilst studies have consistently identified early symptom reduction as an important predictor of treatment outcome, the impact of early change on common comorbid features has not been investigated. This study of CBT for eating disorders explored patterns of early change in eating pathology and longer-term change in personality pathology, anxiety and depression. It also explored the impact of early change in eating pathology on overall change in personality pathology, anxiety and depression. Participants were 179 adults diagnosed with eating disorders who were offered a course of CBT in an out-patient community eating disorders service in the UK. Patients completed a measure of eating disorder psychopathology at the start of treatment and following the 6th session. They also completed measures of personality disorder cognitions, anxiety and depression at the start and end of treatment. There were significant changes in eating pathology over the first six sessions of treatment. Significant improvements were also seen in personality disorder pathology, anxiety and depression by the end of therapy. Effect sizes were medium to large for both completer and intention to treat analyses. Early changes in eating pathology were associated with later changes in common comorbid features, with early reduction in restraint being a key predictor. These findings demonstrate that early symptom change can be achieved in CBT for eating disorders when delivered in routine clinical practice. Such change has long-term benefits that go beyond the domain of eating pathology, enhancing change in personality pathology, anxiety and depression.

  4. Social anxiety disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to participate in social functions. Social anxiety disorder affects the ability to function in work and relationships. ... Alcohol or other drug use may occur with social anxiety disorder. Loneliness and social isolation may occur.

  5. Illness anxiety disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001236.htm Illness anxiety disorder To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Illness anxiety disorder (IAD) is a preoccupation that physical symptoms ...

  6. Somatisation as a risk factor for incident depression and anxiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra-Kersten, Sandra M. A.; Sitnikova, Kate; van Marwijk, Harm W. J.; Gerrits, Marloes M. J. G.; van der Wouden, Johannes C.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; van der Horst, Henrieette E.; Leone, Stephanie S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: In this study, we aimed to examine somatisation as a risk factor for the onset of depressive and anxiety disorders. Methods: 4-year follow-up data from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA), a multisite cohort study of the course of depression and anxiety, was analysed.

  7. Somatisation as a risk factor for incident depression and anxiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra-Kersten, Sandra M. A.; Sitnikova, Kate; van Marwijk, Harm W. J.; Gerrits, Marloes M. J. G.; van der Wouden, Johannes C.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; van der Horst, Henrieette E.; Leone, Stephanie S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: In this study, we aimed to examine somatisation as a risk factor for the onset of depressive and anxiety disorders. Methods: 4-year follow-up data from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA), a multisite cohort study of the course of depression and anxiety, was analysed.

  8. Anxiety and depressive disorders are associated with delusional-like experiences: a replication study based on a National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, James; Varghese, Daniel; McGrath, John

    2012-01-01

    Objectives There is growing evidence that delusional-like experiences (DLE) are associated with common mental disorders. In particular, a National Mental Health Survey conducted in Australia during 2007 reported an association between DLE and both anxiety disorder and major depressive disorder (MDD). However, the previous study did not examine this association with respect to subtypes of anxiety disorder nor with severity of MDD. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between DLE and both anxiety disorder and MDD in more detail based on an independent population sample. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Subjects were drawn from the Australian Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing 1997 using a stratified multistage area sampling of persons living in private dwellings in all States and Territories of Australia. Participants Approximately 13 600 private dwellings were initially selected with one person aged 18 years or older from each dwelling invited to participate. In total, 10 641 individuals participated in the survey. Primary and secondary outcome measures The Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used to identify individuals with DLE and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder, Fourth Edition (DSM IV) lifetime diagnoses of anxiety disorders and MDD. The influence of various anxiety disorders and MDD on DLE was assessed with logistic regression. Results Having a lifetime diagnosis of either any anxiety disorder or MDD was significantly associated with the endorsement of DLE. The association was found for each of the main anxiety disorders when examined separately. There was a dose–response relationship between increasing severity of MDD and higher odds of DLE endorsement. Conclusions DLE are associated with a wide range of anxiety disorders and are more prevalent in those with MDD. Understanding the relationship between DLE, anxiety disorders and depression may provide insights into shared pathways that underpin

  9. Impact of Monochorionicity and Twin to Twin Transfusion Syndrome on Prenatal Attachment, Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauquier-Maccotta, Berengere; Chalouhi, Gihad E; Picquet, Anne-Laure; Carrier, Aude; Bussières, Laurence; Golse, Bernard; Ville, Yves

    2016-01-01

    Monochronioric (MC) twin pregnancies are considered as high-risk pregnancies with potential complications requiring in-utero interventions. We aimed to assess prenatal attachment, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depressive symptoms in MC pregnancies complicated with Twin-To-Twin-transfusion syndrome (TTTS) in comparison to uncomplicated monochorionic (UMC) and dichorionic pregnancies (DC). Auto-questionnaires were filled out at diagnosis of TTTS and at successive milestones. Prenatal attachment, PTSD, anxiety and perinatal depression were evaluated respectively by the Prenatal Attachment Inventory (PAI) completed for each twin, the Post-traumatic Checklist Scale (PCLS), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and the Edinburgh Perinatal Depression Scale (EPDS). There was no significant difference in the PAI scores between the two twins. In the DC and UMC groups, PAI scores increased throughout pregnancy, whilst it didn't for TTTS group. TTTS and DC had a similar prenatal attachment while MC mothers expressed a significantly higher attachment to their fetuses and expressed it earlier. At the announcement of TTTS, 72% of the patients present a score over the threshold at the EPDS Scale, with a higher score for TTTS than for DC (p = 0.005), and UMC (p = 0.007) at the same GA. 30% of mothers in TTTS group have PTSD during pregnancy. 50% of TTTS- patients present an anxiety score over the threshold (STAI-Scale), with a score significantly higher in TTTS than in UMC (pPTSD, high level of anxiety and an alteration of the prenatal attachment. These results should guide the psychological support provided to these patients.

  10. Randomised controlled trial of tailored interventions to improve the management of anxiety and depressive disorders in primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terluin Berend

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anxiety and depressive disorders are highly prevalent disorders and are mostly treated in primary care. The management of these disorders by general practitioners is not always consistent with prevailing guidelines because of a variety of factors. Designing implementation strategies tailored to prospectively identified barriers could lead to more guideline-recommended care. Although tailoring of implementation strategies is promoted in practice, little is known about the effect on improving the quality of care for the early recognition, diagnosis, and stepped care treatment allocation in patients with anxiety or depressive disorders in general practice. This study examines whether the tailored strategy supplemented with training and feedback is more effective than providing training and feedback alone. Methods In this cluster randomised controlled trial, a total of 22 general practices will be assigned to one of two conditions: (1 training, feedback, and tailored interventions and (2 training and feedback. The primary outcome measure is the proportion of patients who have been recognised to have anxiety and/or depressive disorder. The secondary outcome measures in patients are severity of anxiety and depressive symptoms, level of functioning, expectation towards and experience with care, quality of life, and economic costs. Measures are taken after the start of the intervention at baseline and at three- and six-month follow-ups. Secondary outcome measures in general practitioners are adherence to guideline-recommended care in care that has been delivered, the proportion of antidepressant prescriptions, and number of referrals to specialised mental healthcare facilities. Data will be gathered from the electronic medical patient records from the patients included in the study. In a process evaluation, the identification of barriers to change and the relations between prospectively identified barriers and improvement

  11. Cognitive behavioral therapy for post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, or anxiety disorders in women and girls living with female genital mutilation: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelufosi, Adegoke; Edet, Bassey; Arikpo, Dachi; Aquaisua, Ememobong; Meremikwu, Martin M

    2017-02-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM) is associated with psychological consequences such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PSTD), depression, and anxiety disorders. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), an empirically supported form of psychotherapy, may be an effective treatment for these psychological sequelae of FGM. To assess the effectiveness of CBT among individuals living with any type of FGM and diagnosed to have PTSD, depression, or anxiety disorders. CENTRAL, Medline, African Index Medicus, SCOPUS, PILOTS, POPLINE, PsycINFO, WHOLIS, LILACS, ERIC, NYAM Library, CINAHL, Web of Science were searched from inception up to August 10, 2015. Both randomized and nonrandomized studies comparing the efficacy of CBT to other forms of interventions for PTSD, depression, or anxiety disorders in individuals with FGM, were systematically reviewed. We did not identify any studies with eligible design that addressed the objective of the review. There are no included studies. Future studies need to look beyond establishing the prevalence and correlates of FGM to conducting well-designed, randomized controlled studies or well-designed interventional observational studies for the management of the psychological consequences of women and girls living with FGM. CRD42015024458. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. The World Health Organization retains copyright and all other rights in the manuscript of this article as submitted for publication.

  12. Pregabalin for the treatment of patients with generalized anxiety disorder with inadequate treatment response to antidepressants and severe depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, José M; Álvarez, Enrique; Carrasco, José L; Pérez Páramo, María; López-Gómez, Vanessa

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of pregabalin in patients with resistant generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and severe depressive symptoms, we carried out a post-hoc analysis of a multicenter, prospective, and observational 6-month study. We included patients who were at least 18 years old, fulfilled the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed. (DSM-IV) criteria for GAD, showed inadequate responses to previous courses of antidepressant treatment, had Montgomery-Asberg Rating Scale scores of at least 35, had not received pregabalin previously, and were prescribed pregabalin upon entry into this study. We included 1815 patients fulfilling the DSM-IV criteria for GAD, and 133 (7.3%) fulfilled the selection criteria for these analyses. Ninety-seven percent of the patients received pregabalin (mean dose: 222 mg/day) in combination with other psychotropics. The Hamilton Anxiety Scale total score was reduced by a mean of 20.3 points (95% confidence interval, 22.1-18.4) (57.2% reduction) at month 6. Pregabalin also ameliorated comorbid depressive symptoms, with a reduction in the mean score of the Montgomery-Asberg Rating Scale of 22.3 points (95% confidence interval, 24.2-20.4) (56.6% reduction). Our results suggest that pregabalin, as part of a combination regimen with antidepressants and/or benzodiazepines, might be effective for the treatment of patients with GAD who have shown inadequate response to previous antidepressants and have severe depressive symptoms.

  13. Anxiety and disruptive behavior mediate pathways from attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder to depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Roy (Arunima); A.J. Oldehinkel (Albertine); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); J. Ormel (Johan); C.A. Hartman (Catharina)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractObjective: The progression to depression in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is not clearly understood. To clarify this relationship, we tested the following hypotheses in a population-based study: (1) children with ADHD have a higher risk of developing

  14. Anxiety and disruptive behavior mediate pathways from attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder to depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Roy (Arunima); A.J. Oldehinkel (Albertine); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); J. Ormel (Johan); C.A. Hartman (Catharina)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractObjective: The progression to depression in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is not clearly understood. To clarify this relationship, we tested the following hypotheses in a population-based study: (1) children with ADHD have a higher risk of developing depre

  15. Depression, anxiety and panic disorders in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients: correlations with tobacco use, disease severity and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascal, Oana Irinel; Trofor, Antigona Carmen; Lotrean, Lucia Maria; Filipeanu, Dumitru; Trofor, Letitia

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study is to assess anxiety, depression and panic disorders among patients diagnosed with COPD and to investigate their correlation with disease severity, quality of life as well as tobacco use. An observational study was performed between January and September 2014 among 60 patients diagnosed with COPD. COPD staging according to GOLD criteria, while anxiety and depression were assessed using Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and panic attacks were evaluated based on ICD 10 criteria. Almost 40% of the sample were smokers, the medium packs-years was 34.3 and the medium Fagerstrom score was 7.5. Overall, mean Modified Medical Research Council Dyspnea Scale (mMRC) was 2.86, mean COPD Assessment Test (CAT) score was 21.75 and study participants had 1.93 COPD exacerbations/year. Mean distribution of anxiety and depression symptoms scores among COPD subjects was 10.65 ± 3.5 and 9.93 ± 3.8, respectively. Smokers and ex-smokers had similar scores with regard to anxiety, depression or the presence of panic attacks. The results of the bivariate correlations indicated associations between anxiety, depression, panic attacks and disease severity, as well as poor quality of life of patients with COPD, regardless of their current tobacco use status. In conclusion, the results of this study indicate that anxiety, depression and panic attacks were constant characteristics among COPD patients- regardless of their current tobacco use.

  16. Validity of the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) in detecting depressive and anxiety disorders among high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baksheev, Gennady Nickolaevich; Robinson, Jo; Cosgrave, Elizabeth Mary; Baker, Kathryn; Yung, Alison Ruth

    2011-05-15

    Despite the common use of the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) with adolescents, there is limited data supporting its validity with this population. The aims of the study were to investigate the psychometric properties of the GHQ-12 among high school students, to validate the GHQ-12 against the gold standard of a diagnostic interview, and to suggest a threshold score for detecting depressive and anxiety disorders. Six hundred and fifty-four high school students from years 10 to 12 (ages 15-18) completed the GHQ-12 (Likert scored) and the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV-Test Revision (DSM-IV-TR). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were plotted. The mean GHQ-12 score for the total sample was 9.9 (S.D.=5.4). Results from the ROC curve indicated that the GHQ-12 performed better than chance at identifying depressive and anxiety disorders (area under the curve (AUC)=0.781). A GHQ-12 threshold score of 9/10 for males and 10/11 for females was found to be optimal. Given the significant proportion of mental illness among high school students, there may be a need to introduce screening for mental illnesses as part of the school curriculum. This can assist with the early identification and enable low stigma preventive intervention within the school environment.

  17. anxiety disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacey A. Hofflich

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Los síntomas somáticos en niños han sido asociados con trastornos de interiorización, especialmente de ansiedad. Sin embargo, pocos estudios han examinado los síntomas somáticos precisos en trastornos de ansiedad específicos. Desde este estudio cuasi-experimental se examinan el tipo y la frecuencia de síntomas somáticos en niños (n = 178; rango de edad 7–14 años con trastorno generalizado de ansiedad (TAG, fobia social (FS, ansiedad de separación (AS y sin ningún trastorno de ansiedad. Los niños y sus padres, que acudieron en busca de tratamiento, completaron una entrevista diagnóstica estructurada, los niños completaron además la Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC (March, Parker, Sullivan, Stallings, y Conners. Los niños diagnosticados con un trastorno de ansiedad informaron de síntomas somáticos más frecuentes que aquellos sin trastorno de ansiedad, pero los síntomas somáticos no difirieron entre los principales grupos de trastornos de ansiedad. Los niños con trastornos de ansiedad y depresivos comórbidos manifestaron síntomas somáticos más frecuentemente que aquellos sin trastornos comórbidos. Se discuten los resultados en términos de los síntomas somáticos como a criterios dentro del sistema diagnóstico, y b parte del proceso de evitación.

  18. The association between medically unexplained physical symptoms and health care use over two years and the influence of depressive and anxiety disorders and personality traits: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Boeft, Madelon; Twisk, Jos W R; Terluin, Berend; Penninx, Brenda W J H; van Marwijk, Harm W J; Numans, Mattijs E; van der Wouden, Johannes C; van der Horst, Henriette E

    2016-03-22

    Medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS) are highly prevalent and are associated with frequent health care use (HCU). MUPS frequently co-occur with psychiatric disorders. With this study we examined the longitudinal association between MUPS and HCU over 2 years and the influence of depressive and anxiety disorders and personality traits on this association. We analysed follow-up data from 2045 to 2981 participants from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA), a multisite cohort study. The study population included participants with a current depressive and/or anxiety disorder, participants with a lifetime risk and/or subthreshold symptoms for depressive and/or anxiety disorders and healthy controls. HCU, measured with the Trimbos and iMTA questionnaire on Costs associated with Psychiatric illness (TIC-P), was operationalized as the number of used medical services and the number of associated contacts. MUPS were measured with the Four Dimensional Symptoms Questionnaire, depressive and anxiety disorders with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and personality traits with the NEO Five-Factory Inventory. Measurements were taken at baseline, 1 and 2 years follow-up. We used generalized estimating equations (GEE), using HCU at all three measurements as (multivariate) outcome. GEE also takes into account the dependency of observations within participants. MUPS were positively associated with HCU over 2 years (medical services: RR 1.020, 95 % CI 1.017-1.022; contacts: RR 1.037, 95 % CI 1.030-1.044). Neuroticism and depression had the strongest influence on the associations. After adjustment for these factors, the associations between MUPS and HCU weakened, but remained significant (services: RR 1.011, 95 % CI 1.008-1.014; contacts: RR 1.023, 95 % CI 1.015-1.032). Our results show that MUPS were positively associated with HCU over 2 years, even after adjusting for depressive and anxiety disorders and personality traits.

  19. Associations between Parental Anxiety/Depression and Child Behavior Problems Related to Autism Spectrum Disorders: The Roles of Parenting Stress and Parenting Self-Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debra L. Rezendes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Parents of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs have been shown to experience increases in stress, depression, and anxiety, which are also associated with child behavior problems related to ASDs. Literature-examining potential mechanisms that underlie the relationship of child behavior problems and parental anxiety/depression in this population are scarce. The current study sought to examine the roles of parenting stress and parenting self-efficacy as mediators between child behavior problems and parental anxiety/depression. Using a sample of 134 mothers, these potential mediators were tested. Hypotheses were supported, indicating that parenting stress mediated the relationship between child behavior problems and decreased parenting self-efficacy, and decreased parenting self-efficacy in turn partially mediated the relationship between parenting stress and increased depression/anxiety.

  20. The association of Internet addiction symptoms with anxiety, depression and self-esteem among adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Cheng-Fang; Chou, Wen-Jiun; Liu, Tai-Ling; Yang, Pinchen; Hu, Huei-Fan

    2014-10-01

    The aims of this study were to examine the associations of the severity of Internet addiction symptoms with various dimensions of anxiety (physical anxiety symptoms, harm avoidance, social anxiety, and separation/panic) and depression symptoms (depressed affect, somatic symptoms, interpersonal problems, and positive affect) and self-esteem among adolescents diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in Taiwan. A total of 287 adolescents aged between 11 and 18 years who had been diagnosed with ADHD participated in this study. Their severity of Internet addiction symptoms was assessed using the Chen Internet Addiction Scale. Anxiety and depression symptoms and self-esteem were assessed using the Taiwanese version of the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC-T), the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), respectively. The association between the severity of Internet addiction symptoms and anxiety and depression symptoms and self-esteem were examined using multiple regression analyses. The results indicated that higher physical symptoms and lower harm avoidance scores on the MASC-T, higher somatic discomfort/retarded activity scores on the CES-D, and lower self-esteem scores on the RSES were significantly associated with more severe Internet addiction symptoms. Prevention and intervention programs for Internet addiction in adolescents with ADHD should take anxiety, depression, and self-esteem into consideration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Clinical utility of a single-item test for DSM-5 alcohol use disorder among outpatients with anxiety and depressive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoli, Francesco; Crocamo, Cristina; Biagi, Enrico; Di Carlo, Francesco; Parma, Francesca; Madeddu, Fabio; Capuzzi, Enrico; Colmegna, Fabrizia; Clerici, Massimo; Carrà, Giuseppe

    2016-08-01

    There is a lack of studies testing accuracy of fast screening methods for alcohol use disorder in mental health settings. We aimed at estimating clinical utility of a standard single-item test for case finding and screening of DSM-5 alcohol use disorder among individuals suffering from anxiety and mood disorders. We recruited adults consecutively referred, in a 12-month period, to an outpatient clinic for anxiety and depressive disorders. We assessed the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) single-item test, using the Mini- International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), plus an additional item of Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) for craving, as reference standard to diagnose a current DSM-5 alcohol use disorder. We estimated sensitivity and specificity of the single-item test, as well as positive and negative Clinical Utility Indexes (CUIs). 242 subjects with anxiety and mood disorders were included. The NIAAA single-item test showed high sensitivity (91.9%) and specificity (91.2%) for DSM-5 alcohol use disorder. The positive CUI was 0.601, whereas the negative one was 0.898, with excellent values also accounting for main individual characteristics (age, gender, diagnosis, psychological distress levels, smoking status). Testing for relevant indexes, we found an excellent clinical utility of the NIAAA single-item test for screening true negative cases. Our findings support a routine use of reliable methods for rapid screening in similar mental health settings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Insomnia, excessive sleepiness, excessive fatigue, anxiety, depression and shift work disorder in nurses having less than 11 hours in-between shifts.

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    Maria Fagerbakke Eldevik

    Full Text Available STUDY OBJECTIVE: To assess if less than 11 hours off work between work shifts (quick returns was related to insomnia, sleepiness, fatigue, anxiety, depression and shift work disorder among nurses. METHODS: A questionnaire including established instruments measuring insomnia (Bergen Insomnia Scale, sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale, fatigue (Fatigue Questionnaire, anxiety/depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and shift work disorder was administered. Among the 1990 Norwegian nurses who participated in the study; 264 nurses had no quick returns, 724 had 1-30 quick returns and 892 had more than 30 quick returns during the past year. 110 nurses did not report the number of quick returns during the past year. The prevalence of insomnia, excessive sleepiness, excessive fatigue, anxiety, depression and shift work disorder was calculated within the three groups of nurses. Crude and adjusted logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the relation between quick returns and such complaints. RESULTS: We found a significant positive association between quick returns and insomnia, excessive sleepiness, excessive fatigue and shift work disorder. Anxiety and depression were not related to working quick returns. CONCLUSIONS: There is a health hazard associated with quick returns. Further research should aim to investigate if workplace strategies aimed at reducing the number of quick returns may reduce complaints among workers.

  3. A case control study on psychiatric disorders in Hashimoto disease and euthyroid goitre: not only depressive but also anxiety disorders are associated with thyroid autoimmunity

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    Carbone Fiora

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To evaluate the association between mood and anxiety disorders in Hashimoto disease and Euthyroid Goitre in a case control study. Methods Cases included 19 subjects with Hashimoto disease in euthyroid phase, 19 subjects with euthyroid goitre, 2 control groups each of 76 subjects matched (4/1 according to age and sex drawn from the data base of a community based sample. Psychiatric diagnoses were formulated using the International Composite Diagnostic Interview Simplified, according to DSM-IV criteria. All subjects underwent a complete thyroid evaluation including physical examination, thyroid echography and measure of serum free T4 (FT4, free T3 (FT3, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH and anti-thyroid peroxidase autoantibodies (anti-TPO. Results: Subjects with Hashimoto disease showed higher frequencies of lifetime Depressive Episode (OR = 6.6, C.L. 95% 1.2–25.7, Generalized Anxiety Disorders (OR = 4,9 Cl 95% 1.5–25.4 and Social Phobia (OR = 20.0, CL 95% 2.3–153.3 whilst no differences were found between subjects with goitre and controls. Conclusion The study seems to confirm that risk for depressive disorders in subjects with thyroiditis is independent of the thyroid function detected by routine tests and indicates that not only mood but also anxiety disorders may be associated with Hashimoto disease.

  4. Annual Research Review: Transdiagnostic neuroscience of child and adolescent mental disorders--differentiating decision making in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, depression, and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J S; Cortese, Samuele; Fairchild, Graeme; Stringaris, Argyris

    2016-03-01

    Ineffective decision making is a major source of everyday functional impairment and reduced quality of life for young people with mental disorders. However, very little is known about what distinguishes decision making by individuals with different disorders or the neuropsychological processes or brain systems underlying these. This is the focus of the current review. We first propose a neuroeconomic model of the decision-making process with separate stages for the prechoice evaluation of expected utility of future options; choice execution and postchoice management; the appraisal of outcome against expectation; and the updating of value estimates to guide future decisions. According to the proposed model, decision making is mediated by neuropsychological processes operating within three domains: (a) self-referential processes involved in autobiographical reflection on past, and prospection about future, experiences; (b) executive functions, such as working memory, inhibition, and planning, that regulate the implementation of decisions; and (c) processes involved in value estimation and outcome appraisal and learning. These processes are underpinned by the interplay of multiple brain networks, especially medial and lateralized cortical components of the default mode network, dorsal corticostriatal circuits underpinning higher order cognitive and behavioral control, and ventral frontostriatal circuits, connecting to brain regions implicated in emotion processing, that control valuation and learning processes. Based on clinical insights and considering each of the decision-making stages in turn, we outline disorder-specific hypotheses about impaired decision making in four childhood disorders: attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), conduct disorder (CD), depression, and anxiety. We hypothesize that decision making in ADHD is deficient (i.e. inefficient, insufficiently reflective, and inconsistent) and impulsive (biased toward immediate over delayed

  5. Vitamin D in anxiety and affective disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bičíková, M; Dušková, M; Vítků, J; Kalvachová, B; Řípová, D; Mohr, P; Stárka, L

    2015-01-01

    Reduced levels of vitamin or its metabolites have been reported in various psychiatric disorders. Insufficient levels of vitamin D in depressive patients have been confirmed by many authors, but there have been conflicting results in subjects with anxiety disorders. In the present cross-sectional study, levels of calcidiol were determined in groups of depressive men and women and in men and women with anxiety disorders and compared with age matched controls. Significantly lower levels of calcidiol were found in men and women with depression as well as in age matched patients with anxiety disorders.

  6. Depression and Anxiety in Obese Patients

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    Demet Gulec Oyekcin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Epidemiologic data suggests an association between obesity and depression. However, a limited number of studies have investigated the prevalence of psychiatric symptoms among obese patients without a psychiatric diagnosis. The objective of this study was to determine psychiatric diagnosis in patients with obesity who applied to the endocrinology department and to determine the pattern of the depression and anxiety symptom levels in obese patients without a psychiatric diagnosis.Materials and Methods: 62 patients with obesity (obesity group and 27 control subjects (control group attending the endocrinology outpatient clinic were included in the study. Body mass index was calculated and diagnostic psychiatric assessment carried out for all patients. All participants were evaluated using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale [HAM-D] and Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale [HAM-A].Results: Total scores obtained both from HAM-D and HAM-A were significantly greater in the obesity group than in the control group. The most common psychiatric diagnose among obese patients was depression. Nearly more than half of the obese patients without any psychiatric diagnosis marked one of the HAM-D items which describes depressed mood, guilt feeling, somatic anxiety, work and activity loss and general somatic symptoms as well as the items within the HAM-A scale which describes anxious mood, tension, cognitive difficulties, insomnia, depressed mood, somatic anxiety, cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal and autonomic symptoms.Conclusion: Most common psychiatric diagnosis in patients with obesity was major depressive disorder. Obese patients who have not been diagnosed with any psychiatric disorder also show certain anxiety and depressive symptoms. The presence of anxiety and depressive symptoms in patients having any psychiatric disorder may be due to the psychosocial effects of obesity and these symptoms should be followed up in obese patients so that

  7. How effective are cognitive behavior therapies for major depression and anxiety disorders? A meta‐analytic update of the evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuijpers, Pim; Cristea, Ioana A.; Karyotaki, Eirini; Reijnders, Mirjam; Huibers, Marcus J.H.

    2016-01-01

    We report the current best estimate of the effects of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) in the treatment of major depression (MDD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), panic disorder (PAD) and social anxiety disorder (SAD), taking into account publication bias, the quality of trials, and the influence of waiting list control groups on the outcomes. In our meta‐analyses, we included randomized trials comparing CBT with a control condition (waiting list, care‐as‐usual or pill placebo) in the acute treatment of MDD, GAD, PAD or SAD, diagnosed on the basis of a structured interview. We found that the overall effects in the 144 included trials (184 comparisons) for all four disorders were large, ranging from g=0.75 for MDD to g=0.80 for GAD, g=0.81 for PAD, and g=0.88 for SAD. Publication bias mostly affected the outcomes of CBT in GAD (adjusted g=0.59) and MDD (adjusted g=0.65), but not those in PAD and SAD. Only 17.4% of the included trials were considered to be high‐quality, and this mostly affected the outcomes for PAD (g=0.61) and SAD (g=0.76). More than 80% of trials in anxiety disorders used waiting list control groups, and the few studies using other control groups pointed at much smaller effect sizes for CBT. We conclude that CBT is probably effective in the treatment of MDD, GAD, PAD and SAD; that the effects are large when the control condition is waiting list, but small to moderate when it is care‐as‐usual or pill placebo; and that, because of the small number of high‐quality trials, these effects are still uncertain and should be considered with caution. PMID:27717254

  8. Toxoplasma gondii Infection and Mixed Anxiety and Depressive Disorder: A Case-Control Seroprevalence Study in Durango, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Sanchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Hernandez-Tinoco, Jesus; Berumen-Segovia, Luis Omar; Torres-Prieto, Yazmin Elizabeth; Estrada-Martinez, Sergio; Perez-Alamos, Alma Rosa; Ortiz-Jurado, Maria Nalleli; Molotla-de-Leon, Gabriel; Beristain Garcia, Isabel; Rabago-Sanchez, Elizabeth; Liesenfeld, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Background The parasite Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) may invade the brain and might induce behavioral changes. We sought to determine the association of T. gondii infection and mixed anxiety and depressive disorder. Methods Through an age- and gender-matched case-control seroprevalence study, we examined 65 patients suffering from mixed anxiety and depressive disorder (WHO ICD-10 code: F41.2) attending in a public hospital of mental health and 260 control subjects without this disorder from the general population. Sera of participants were analyzed for anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies using enzyme-linked immunoassays. Results Fifteen (23.1%) of the 65 patients and 18 (6.9%) of the 260 controls had anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies (odds ratio (OR): 4.03; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.90 - 8.53; P 150 IU/mL) anti-T. gondii IgG levels was similar in cases and controls (OR: 0.25; 95% CI: 0.05 - 1.06; P = 0.05). Seroprevalence was similar in male cases and controls (P = 1.0); however, seroprevalence was significantly higher in female cases than in female controls (OR: 7.08; 95% CI: 2.83 - 17.67; P < 0.00001). Patients aged 31 - 50 years old had a significantly higher seroprevalence of T. gondii infection than controls of the same age group (OR: 21.04; 95% CI: 5.22 - 84.80; P < 0.00001). Anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies were found in four (26.7%) of the 15 anti-T. gondii IgG seropositive cases and in 10 (55.6%) of the 18 anti-T. gondii IgG seropositive controls (P = 0.15). Conclusions Results support for the first time an association between seropositivity to T. gondii and mixed anxiety and depressive disorder. Further research to confirm this association and to determine the seroepidemiology of T. gondii infection in patients with this disorder is needed. PMID:27298660

  9. The role of the mother-child relationship for anxiety disorders and depression: results from a prospective-longitudinal study in adolescents and their mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asselmann, Eva; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Lieb, Roselind; Beesdo-Baum, Katja

    2015-04-01

    This study aims to examine whether (a) low child valence (emotional connectedness) within the mother-child relationship increases the risk for offspring depression, (b) low child potency (individual autonomy) increases the risk for offspring anxiety, and (c) maternal psychopathology pronounces these associations. We used data from a prospective-longitudinal study of adolescents (aged 14-17 at baseline) and their mothers (N = 1,015 mother-child dyads). Anxiety disorders and depression were assessed repeatedly over 10 years in adolescents (T0, T1, T2, T3) and their mothers (T1, T3) using the DSM-IV/M-CIDI. Valence and potency were assessed in mothers (T1) with the Subjective Family Image Questionnaire. Odds ratios (OR) from logistic regression were used to estimate associations between low child valence/potency and offspring psychopathology (cumulated lifetime incidences; adjusted for sex and age). In separate models (low valence or low potency as predictor), low child valence predicted offspring depression only (OR = 1.26 per SD), while low child potency predicted offspring anxiety (OR = 1.24) and depression (OR = 1.24). In multiple models (low valence and low potency as predictors), low child valence predicted offspring depression only (OR = 1.19), while low child potency predicted offspring anxiety only (OR = 1.22). Low child potency interacted with maternal anxiety on predicting offspring depression (OR = 1.49), i.e. low child potency predicted offspring depression only in the presence of maternal anxiety (OR = 1.33). These findings suggest that low child valence increases the risk for offspring depression, while low child potency increases the risk for offspring anxiety and depression and interacts with maternal psychopathology on predicting offspring depression.

  10. Separation anxiety disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, M.H.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.; Sturmey, P.; Hersen, M.

    2012-01-01

    Separation anxiety disorder (SAD) is the only anxiety disorder that is specific to childhood; however, SAD has hardly ever been addressed as a separate disorder in clinical trials investigating treatment outcome. So far, only parent training has been developed specifically for SAD. This particular t

  11. Circadian rhythm sleep disorder, free-running type in a sighted male with severe depression, anxiety, and agoraphobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Mark A; Quan, Stuart F; Eichling, Philip S

    2011-02-15

    Circadian rhythm sleep disorder, free-running type (CRSD, FRT) is a disorder in which the intrinsic circadian rhythm is no longer entrained to the 24-hour schedule. A unique case of CRSD, FRT in a 67-year-old sighted male is presented. The patient had a progressively delayed time in bed (TIB) each night, so that he would cycle around the 24-h clock approximately every 30 days. This was meticulously documented each night by the patient over the course of 22 years. The patient's CRSD, FRT was associated with severe depression, anxiety, and agoraphobia. The agoraphobia may have exacerbated the CRSD, FRT. Entrainment and stabilization of his circadian rhythm was accomplished after treatment that included melatonin, light therapy, and increased sleep structure.

  12. [Anxiety and cognition disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretti, C S

    1998-01-01

    Anxious subjects present attentional disorders that are manifest with an increased bias towards threatening contents stimuli. In tasks derived from the Stroop task (such as emotional Stroop, a variant of the classic Stroop task) congruence between anxious themes or manifestations and stimuli content induces information processing changes leading to a slowness of response speed. In this case, results are similar to those obtained in signal detection tasks either when information is visually or auditorily presented. In anxious subjects an inconscious activation provoked by anxiogenic words is observed. Because such activation is independent from the semantic content of the words, an emotional priming has been hypothesized. Berck formulated an hypervigilance theory according to which anxiety provokes a selective distractibility regarding non pertinent stimuli. Such attentional selectivity would be responsible of a cognitive vulnerability in anxious subjects. State but not trait anxiety induces working memory performances deficit. On the bases of Baddeley's working memory framework, Eysenck proposed that anxiety uses part of the limited attentional capacity, placing the subject in a dual task situation. In that, he has to cope with pertinent information and anxiety generated information. If anxiety leads to better performance in simple tasks by recruiting motivational capacities, in tasks with high information content, anxious subjects performances are impaired. Changes in the long-term memory do not seem to fit with the theoretical models based on cognitive impairment observed in patients suffering from depressive states. Anxious subjects presented a memory bias towards anxiogenic information in implicit memory tasks. But experimental data are still too searce to describe implicit performance of anxious subjects and more systematic studies are therefore needed.

  13. Neuroimaging in anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Kirsten; Bandelow, Borwin; Gruber, Oliver; Wedekind, Dirk

    2009-06-01

    Neuroimaging studies have gained increasing importance in validating neurobiological network hypotheses for anxiety disorders. Functional imaging procedures and radioligand binding studies in healthy subjects and in patients with anxiety disorders provide growing evidence of the existence of a complex anxiety network, including limbic, brainstem, temporal, and prefrontal cortical regions. Obviously, "normal anxiety" does not equal "pathological anxiety" although many phenomena are evident in healthy subjects, however to a lower extent. Differential effects of distinct brain regions and lateralization phenomena in different anxiety disorders are mentioned. An overview of neuroimaging investigations in anxiety disorders is given after a brief summary of results from healthy volunteers. Concluding implications for future research are made by the authors.

  14. The Effectiveness of Mindfulness-based Parenting Training on Anxiety, Depression and Aggression of Mothers with Children Suffering from Oppositional Defiant Disorder

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    SK Moradiyani Gizeh Rod

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Mothers with children suffering from Oppositional Defiant Disorder experience greater problems related to mental health including anxiety, depression and aggression. In this regard, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of a mindfulness-based parenting training in anxiety, depression and aggression of mothers with children suffering from Oppositional Defiant Disorder.  Methods: The present semi-experimental study consisted of a pretest-posttest control group. The statistical population of the study included all mothers who had a female student with Oppositional defiant disorder (age group 6 to 12 years of primary school in Nour Abad, Iran. Sampling was conducted in two stages, random and purposive. For this purpose, 34 mothers of girls with Oppositional defiant disorder after purposive sampling were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups (17 in each of groups. The Child Behavioral Checklist (CBCL and Teacher Report Form (TRF with clinical interviews were used for screening. Also, the anxiety and depression inventory and aggression questionnaire were used to collect data in two conditions (pretest and posttest. Mindful parenting course was implemented for the experimental group in 8 sessions, 2 hours each. Data were analyzed using SPSS software (ver. 23, descriptive statistical parameters (mean and SD and univariate analysis of covariance (ANCOVA. Results: Results of ANCOVA indicated that the Mindful Parenting course directed to a statistically significant difference between pre-and post-test scores which led to decreasing scores of anxiety, depression and aggression. So that in the Post-stage, after controlling for pre-test scores, the experimental group reported less anxiety, depression and aggression compared to the control group. Conclusion: With regard to the effective use of Mindful Parenting course to decreasing symptom-related with anxiety, depression and aggression in mothers of girls

  15. Sexual Problems During Pregnancy and After Delivery Among Women With and Without Anxiety and Depressive Disorders Prior to Pregnancy: A Prospective-Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asselmann, Eva; Hoyer, Jurgen; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Martini, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Few prospective-longitudinal studies have examined the course of sexual problems during pregnancy and after delivery in women with and without anxiety and depressive disorders prior to pregnancy as well as with and without maternal birth injuries. To prospectively investigate associations of anxiety and depressive disorders prior to pregnancy and maternal birth injuries with sexual problems during the peripartum period. The Maternal Anxiety in Relation to Infant Development Study is a prospective-longitudinal study of 306 women enrolled during early pregnancy and repeatedly assessed in seven waves during the peripartum period. Anxiety and depressive disorders prior to pregnancy were assessed in early pregnancy (T1) using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview for Women. Maternal birth injuries were assessed by questionnaire shortly after delivery (T4). Sexual problems during pregnancy (T2) as well as 4 months (T6) and 16 months (T7) postpartum were measured using the German version of the Massachusetts General Hospital Sexual Function Questionnaire. Impairment of sexual interest, arousal, orgasm, lubrication, and overall sexual satisfaction at T2, T6, and T7. Rates of sexual problems generally increased from T2 to T6 and decreased from T6 to T7. Compared with women without anxiety and depressive disorders, those with comorbid anxiety and depressive disorders prior to pregnancy more often specified impairment of overall sexual satisfaction at T2 (odds ratio [OR] = 2.0) and T7 (OR = 2.1). In contrast, sexual problems were not pronounced in those with pure anxiety or pure depressive disorders, and women with pure anxiety disorders often reported even less impairment of sexual interest at T7 (OR = 0.5). Compared with women without birth injury, those with vaginal birth injury more often reported impairment of sexual interest (OR = 1.8) and lubrication (OR = 2.3) at T6. Findings suggest that especially women with comorbid anxiety and depression and vaginal

  16. Potentials of Mangifera indica in the treatment of depressive-anxiety disorders: possible mechanisms of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishola, Ismail O; Awodele, Olufunsho; Eluogu, Chinedum O

    2016-09-01

    Mangifera indica (Anacardiaceae) is an important herb in the traditional African and Ayurvedic medicines. The stem barks are used in the treatment of hypertension, insomnia, tumour, depression, rheumatism and as a tonic. This study was carried out to investigate antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like effect of the hydroethanol stem bark extract of M. indica (HeMI) in mice. HeMI (12.5-100 mg/kg, p.o.) was administered 1 h before subjecting the animal to the forced swim test (FST), tail suspension test (TST) and elevated plus maze tests (EPM). HeMI (12.5-100 mg/kg, p.o.) treatment produced significant reduction in immobility time [F(6.56)=8.35, pantidepressant-like effect elicited by HeMI. In the EPM, HeMI produced significant [F(5,42)=8.91, pantidepressant-like effect of M. indica through interaction with 5-HT2 receptor, α2-adrenoceptor and dopamine D2-receptors. Also, an anxiolytic-like effect through its affinity for 5-HT2 and benzodiazepine receptors. Hence, M. indica could be a potential phytotherapeutic agent in the treatment of mixed anxiety-depressive illness.

  17. Two cases of delayed-onset suicidal ideation, dysphoria and anxiety after ketamine infusion in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder and a history of major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niciu, Mark J; Grunschel, Beth D G; Corlett, Philip R; Pittenger, Christopher; Bloch, Michael H

    2013-07-01

    Ketamine is a non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist that is Food and Drug Administration-approved in the United States for anesthesia due to its sedative effects with low risk of severe respiratory depression. Subanesthetic dose intravenous ketamine has rapidly acting antidepressant effects in treatment-resistant unipolar and bipolar depression. We recently reported an open-label trial of ketamine in 10 subjects with treatment-refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder, seven of whom had active comorbid depression. Although ketamine had no sustained anti-obsessive effect, four of the seven subjects with comorbid depression experienced an acute antidepressant effect. However, we unexpectedly observed delayed-onset dysphoria, worsening anxiety and suicidal thinking in two of the three subjects with obsessive-compulsive disorder and extensive psychiatric comorbidity but minimal depressive symptoms at the start of infusion. The implications of these adverse neuropsychiatric effects in two patients with similar psychiatric comorbidity are discussed. We conclude that there remains insufficient data on therapeutic ketamine in the presence of comorbid psychiatric disorders to promote its off-label use in a non-research milieu.

  18. Transdiagnostic group CBT vs. standard group CBT for depression, social anxiety disorder and agoraphobia/panic disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnfred, Sidse Marie Hemmingsen; Aharoni, Ruth; Pedersen, Morten Hvenegaard

    2017-01-01

    , Social Anxiety Disorder and Agoraphobia/Panic Disorder. In total, 248 patients are recruited from three regional MHS centers across Denmark and included in two intervention arms. The primary outcome is patient-ratings of well-being (WHO Well-being Index, WHO-5), secondary outcomes include level...... Disorders” (UP-CBT) for group delivery in Mental Health Service (MHS), and shown effects comparable to traditional CBT in a naturalistic study. As the use of one manual instead of several diagnosis-specific manuals could simplify logistics, reduce waiting time, and increase therapist expertise compared...

  19. Development and validation of the 48-item Symptom Questionnaire (SQ-48) in patients with depressive, anxiety and somatoform disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlier, Ingrid; Schulte-Van Maaren, Yvonne; Wardenaar, Klaas; Giltay, Erik; Van Noorden, Martijn; Vergeer, Peter; Zitman, Frans

    2012-12-30

    Self-report measures of psychological distress or psychopathology are widely used and can be easily implemented as psychiatric screening tools. Positive psychological constructs such as vitality/optimism and work functioning have scarcely been incorporated. We aimed to develop and validate a psychological distress instrument, including measures of vitality and work functioning. A patient sample with suspected depressive, anxiety, and somatoform disorders (N=242) and a reference sample of the general population (N=516) filled in the 48-item Symptom Questionnaire (SQ-48) plus a battery of observer-rated and self-report scales (MINI Plus, MADR, BAS, INH, BSI), using a web-based ROM programme. The resulting SQ-48 is multidimensional and includes the following nine subscales: Depression (MOOD, six items), Anxiety (ANXI, six items), Somatization (SOMA, seven items), Agoraphobia (AGOR, four items), Aggression (AGGR, four items), Cognitive problems (COGN, five items), Social Phobia (SOPH, five items), Work functioning (WORK, five items), and Vitality (VITA, six items). The results showed good internal consistency as well as good convergent and divergent validity. The SQ-48 is meant to be available in the public domain for Routine Outcome Monitoring (ROM) and can be used as a screening/ monitoring tool in clinical settings (psychiatric and non-psychiatric), as a benchmark tool, or for research purposes.

  20. Health Anxiety in Panic Disorder, Somatization Disorder and Hypochondriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgün Karaer KARAPIÇAK

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Health anxiety is the fear of being or getting seriously sick due to the misinterpretation of physical symptoms. Severe health anxiety is also named as hypochondriasis. Belief of having a disease due to the misinterpretation of physical symptoms is also seen in panic disorder and somatization disorder. The aim of this study is to search the health anxiety in panic disorder, somatization disorder and hypochondriasis and compare it with healthy volunteers. Method: SCID-I was used to determine psychiatric disorders in patient group. In order to assess the clinical state and disease severity of the patient group; Panic and Agoraphobia Scale, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology were used for patients with panic disorder and Symptom Interpretation Questionnaire, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology were used for patients with somatization disorder and hypochondriasis. Brief Symptom Inventory was used to assess psychopathology in healthy group. In order to evaluate health anxiety of both groups, Health Anxiety Inventory-Short Form was used. Results: Results of this study support that health anxiety is a significant major component of hypochondriasis. On the other hand, health anxiety seems to be common in panic disorder and somatization disorder. Health anxiety also may be a part of depression or present in healthy people. Conclusion: Further studies are needed in order to search how to manage health anxiety appropriately and which psychotherapeutic interventions are more effective.

  1. Attachment typologies and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, depression and anxiety: a latent profile analysis approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherie Armour

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Bartholomew (1990 proposed a four category adult attachment model based on Bowlby's (1973 proposal that attachment is underpinned by an individual's view of the self and others. Previous cluster analytic techniques have identified four and two attachment styles based on the Revised Adult Attachment Scale (RAAS. In addition, attachment styles have been proposed to meditate the association between stressful life events and subsequent psychiatric status. The current study aimed to empirically test the attachment typology proposed by Collins and Read (1990. Specifically, LPA was used to determine if the proposed four styles can be derived from scores on the dimensions of closeness/dependency and anxiety. In addition, we aimed to test if the resultant attachment styles predicted the severity of psychopathology in response to a whiplash trauma. A large sample of Danish trauma victims (N=1577 participated. A Latent Profile Analysis was conducted, using Mplus 5.1, on scores from the RAAS scale to ascertain if there were underlying homogeneous attachment classes/subgroups. Class membership was used in a series of one-way ANOVA tests to determine if classes were significantly different in terms of mean scores on measures of psychopathology. The three class solution was considered optimal. Class one was termed Fearful (18.6%, Class two Preoccupied (34.5%, and Class three Secure (46.9%. The secure class evidenced significantly lower mean scores on PTSD, depression, and anxiety measures compared to other classes, whereas the fearful class evidenced significantly higher mean scores compared to other classes. The results demonstrated evidence of three discrete classes of attachment styles, which were labelled secure, preoccupied, and fearful. This is in contrast to previous cluster analytic techniques which have identified four and two attachment styles based on the RAAS.In addition, Securely attached individuals display lower levels of psychopathology post

  2. Attachment typologies and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression and anxiety: a latent profile analysis approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Cherie; Elklit, Ask; Shevlin, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Background Bartholomew (1990) proposed a four category adult attachment model based on Bowlby's (1973) proposal that attachment is underpinned by an individual's view of the self and others. Previous cluster analytic techniques have identified four and two attachment styles based on the Revised Adult Attachment Scale (RAAS). In addition, attachment styles have been proposed to meditate the association between stressful life events and subsequent psychiatric status. Objective The current study aimed to empirically test the attachment typology proposed by Collins and Read (1990). Specifically, LPA was used to determine if the proposed four styles can be derived from scores on the dimensions of closeness/dependency and anxiety. In addition, we aimed to test if the resultant attachment styles predicted the severity of psychopathology in response to a whiplash trauma. Method A large sample of Danish trauma victims (N=1577) participated. A Latent Profile Analysis was conducted, using Mplus 5.1, on scores from the RAAS scale to ascertain if there were underlying homogeneous attachment classes/subgroups. Class membership was used in a series of one-way ANOVA tests to determine if classes were significantly different in terms of mean scores on measures of psychopathology. Results The three class solution was considered optimal. Class one was termed Fearful (18.6%), Class two Preoccupied (34.5%), and Class three Secure (46.9%). The secure class evidenced significantly lower mean scores on PTSD, depression, and anxiety measures compared to other classes, whereas the fearful class evidenced significantly higher mean scores compared to other classes. Conclusions The results demonstrated evidence of three discrete classes of attachment styles, which were labelled secure, preoccupied, and fearful. This is in contrast to previous cluster analytic techniques which have identified four and two attachment styles based on the RAAS.In addition, Securely attached individuals display

  3. Stress, anxiety, depression and migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacogne, C; Lacoste, J P; Guillibert, E; Hugues, F C; Le Jeunne, C

    2003-07-01

    This study investigated the intensity of stress, anxiety and depression in a sample of 141 migraineurs compared with a control group of 109 non-migraine workers matched for age and sex. Stress was measured using the Perceived Stress Questionnaire, and anxiety and depression using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Results indicated that stress and anxiety were higher in the migraine group than in the control group and above the clinical level. Depression scores remained low in both groups, under clinical relevance. Stress is a primordial factor in the triggering and perpetuation of migraine attacks. The high score of the items 'morning fatigue', 'intrusive thoughts about work', 'feeling under pressure', 'impatience', and 'irritability' of the stress questionnaire in the migraineurs is particularly significant in the intensive stress response. It seems necessary to manage stress to improve the daily life of migraineurs and to study the link between stress, anxiety and migraine.

  4. 提高综合医院焦虑障碍与抑郁障碍的识别率%General Hospital to improve the recognition rate of anxiety disorders and depression disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏文英; 陈芸; 赵新宇; 杨欣

    2014-01-01

    目的:通过对南充综合医院门诊病人的抑郁障碍和焦虑障碍的发生率及共病现象研究,提高焦虑障碍与抑郁障碍的识别率。方法:随机抽取1000例门诊患者进行焦虑自评量表(SAS)和抑郁自评量表(SDS)的问卷调查,通过数据统计分析,阳性筛查焦虑障碍和抑郁障碍的患病情况。结果:门诊中有8.56%的患者存在焦虑障碍,6.03%的患者存在抑郁障碍,2.96%的患者存在焦虑障碍与抑郁障碍共病现象。女性焦虑障碍患病率大于男性患病率,女性抑郁障碍患病率大于男性患病率。结论:综合医院提高焦虑障碍与抑郁障碍的识别率的过程中应注意性别的影响,加强综合门诊对焦虑障碍及抑郁障碍的识别率。%Through Nanchong depression and anxiety disorders in general hospitals and outpatient incidence of comorbidity research, improving the recognition rate of anxiety disorders and depression. Methods: 1000 cases were randomly selected outpatients Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) and Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS) questionnaire, through statistical analysis, positive screening for anxiety disorders and depressive disorders prevalence. Results: The patient had 8.56% of patients with anxiety disorders, 6.03% of patients with major depressive disorder, anxiety disorders and depressive disorders exist Comorbidity 2.96%of patients. Women prevalence of anxiety disorders than men prevalence of women than men prevalence of depressive disorder prevalence. Conclusion: General Hospital to improve the recognition rate of anxiety disorders and depressive disorders in the process should pay attention to the impact of gender, strengthen the comprehensive clinic for anxiety disorders and depression recognition rate.

  5. Differences between effects of psychological versus pharmacological treatments on functional and morphological brain alterations in anxiety disorders and major depressive disorder: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quidé, Yann; Witteveen, Anke B; El-Hage, Wissam; Veltman, Dick J; Olff, Miranda

    2012-01-01

    The most prevalent mental disorders, anxiety and mood disorders, are associated with both functional and morphological brain changes that commonly involve the 'fear network' including the (medial) prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and amygdala. Patients suffering from anxiety disorders and major depressive disorder often show excessive amygdala and reduced prefrontal cortex functioning. It is, however, still unclear whether these brain abnormalities disappear or diminish following effective treatment. This review aims to compare the effects of psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy on functional and morphological brain measures in these disorders. Sixty-three studies were included, 30 investigating psychotherapy effects and 33 investigating pharmacotherapy effects. Despite methodological differences, results suggest a functional normalization of the 'fear network'. Pharmacotherapy particularly decreases over-activity of limbic structures (bottom-up effect) while psychotherapy tends to increase activity and recruitment of frontal areas (top-down effect), especially the anterior cingulate cortex. Additionally, pharmacotherapy, but not psychotherapy, has been associated with morphological changes, depending on the disorder. These findings suggest that both types of treatments normalize (functional) brain abnormalities each in specific ways.

  6. Posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety and depression following pregnancies conceived through fertility treatments : the effects of medically assisted conception on postpartum well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warmelink, J Catja; Stramrood, Claire A I; Paarlberg, K Marieke; Haisma, Hinke H; Vingerhoets, A J J M; Schultz, Willibrord C M Weijmar; van Pampus, Maria G

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the postpartum prevalence of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), anxiety and depression in women who conceived via medically assisted conception (MAC) and women who conceived naturally. STUDY DESIGN: All women (n = 907) who delivered under supervision of four independent midw

  7. Effect of variation in BDNF Val(66)Met polymorphism, smoking, and nicotine dependence on symptom severity of depressive and anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jamal, Mumtaz; Van der Does, Willem; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Smoking, especially nicotine dependence is associated with more severe symptoms of depression and anxiety disorders. However, the mechanisms underlying this association are unclear. We investigated the effect of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) VaI(66)Met polymorphism on the seve

  8. Posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety and depression following pregnancies conceived through fertility treatments : the effects of medically assisted conception on postpartum well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warmelink, J Catja; Stramrood, Claire A I; Paarlberg, K Marieke; Haisma, Hinke H; Vingerhoets, A J J M; Schultz, Willibrord C M Weijmar; van Pampus, Maria G

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the postpartum prevalence of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), anxiety and depression in women who conceived via medically assisted conception (MAC) and women who conceived naturally. STUDY DESIGN: All women (n = 907) who delivered under supervision of four independent midw

  9. Prevalence of depression, anxiety, and adjustment disorder in oncological, haematological, and palliative-care settings: a meta-analysis of 94 interview-based studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitchell, A. J.; Chan, M.; Bhatti, H.;

    2011-01-01

    . Methods We searched Medline, PsycINFO, Embase, and Web of Knowledge for studies that examined well-defined depression, anxiety, and adjustment disorder in adults with cancer in oncological, haematological, and palliative-care settings. We restricted studies to those using psychiatric interviews. Studies...

  10. Does cognitive flexibility predict treatment gains in Internet-delivered psychological treatment of social anxiety disorder, depression, or tinnitus?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Lindner

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the individual factors that predict outcomes in Internet-administered psychological treatments. We hypothesized that greater cognitive flexibility (i.e. the ability to simultaneously consider several concepts and tasks and switch effortlessly between them in response to changes in environmental contingencies would provide a better foundation for learning and employing the cognitive restructuring techniques taught and exercised in therapy, leading to greater treatment gains. Participants in three trials featuring Internet-administered psychological treatments for depression (n = 36, social anxiety disorder (n = 115 and tinnitus (n = 53 completed the 64-card Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST prior to treatment. We found no significant associations between perseverative errors on the WCST and treatment gains in any group. We also found low accuracy in the classification of treatment responders. We conclude that lower cognitive flexibility, as captured by perseverative errors on the WCST, should not impede successful outcomes in Internet-delivered psychological treatments.

  11. Anxiety disorders in dialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novaković Milan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Anxiety, as a primary symptom, includes all conditions of indefinite fear and psychic disorders dominated by fear. All dialysis patients suffer from anxiety as an independent phenomenon, or as part of another disease. Material and Methods. This study included 753 patients on chronic hemodialysis in Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H in the period 1999-2004. The patients were divided into two groups: the first group included 348 patients with Balkan Endemic Nephropathy (BEN, and the control group included 405 patients with other diagnoses causing renal insufficiency (N18. The study was designed as a comparative cross sectional study, and patients were tested using questionnaires assessing anxiety, depression and general mental health status. Statistical analysis was done using standard descriptive and analytical methods. Results. Socio-demographic data showed highly significant differences between BEN and N18 in relation to place of residence (urban/rural (c2 = 23.970 p<0.01; in the incidence of renal comorbidity (c2 = 23.970 p<0.01; familial renal comorbidity (c2 = 23.970 p<0.01; and migrations (c2 = 4.874 p<0.01. Beck Anxiety Inventory Scores were highly significantly different between the two groups p<0.001, in regard to the incidence and variables. Hamilton Depression Rating Scale demonstrated a group significance p<0.001, and variables pointed to somatization, general anxiety and depression. This was confirmed by mini-mental state examination pointing to generalmental weakness. Conclusion. Anxiety appeared in all tested dialysis patients. It may be independent, somatized as part of another mental disorder or reinforced by a cognitive damage. Structured anxiety and depression result in pre-suicidal risk. .

  12. Effect of telehealth-to-home interventions on quality of life for individuals with depressive and anxiety disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durl

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Logan Durland,1 Alejandro Interian,1,2 Ingrid Pretzer-Aboff,3 Roseanne D Dobkin11Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Department of Psychiatry, Piscataway, NJ, 2The New Jersey Healthcare System, Veteran Affairs Medical Center, Lyons, NJ, 3University of Delaware, School of Nursing and Biomechanics and Movement Sciences Program, Newark, DE, USAAbstract: Although millions of individuals suffer from mental health problems worldwide, only a small fraction receives adequate treatment. The high prevalence of depression and anxiety observed worldwide, in conjunction with very low rates of treatment utilization, are of great clinical significance, as these psychiatric conditions are two of the most important determinants of quality of life (QoL. Telehealth interventions have been touted as potential solutions to these mental health care disparities, with great interest and utility demonstrated across a diverse array of medical and psychiatric populations. Telehealth interventions may be clinic-based or home-based. The primary objective of this paper is to highlight the extent to which telehealth-to-home interventions positively impact multiple facets of QoL for individuals with depression and anxiety disorders, including those with comorbid medical conditions. While QoL outcomes are important to consider in any assessment of treatment effectiveness, QoL enhancement has received limited attention in the telemental health literature to date. All studies included in the present review evaluate telehealth-to-home treatments, assess QoL outcomes, and incorporate some degree of live, synchronous therapist-patient contact. Recommendations to advance the application of telehealth-to-home approaches are proposed and include: additional research on video-to-home telehealth platforms, strategies to increase the adoption of telehealth-to-home interventions amongst mental health treatment providers, national legislative

  13. Anxiety and depression in adolescents with ADHD and autism spectrum disorders; correlation between parent- and self-reports and with attention and adaptive functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidsson, Maria; Hult, Nicklas; Gillberg, Carina; Särneö, Charlotte; Gillberg, Christopher; Billstedt, Eva

    2017-08-24

    Adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactive disorder (ADHD) or autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are at high risk of anxiety and depression. This is important to identify in the clinical assessment to understand its impact. The aim of this study is to investigate the correlation between parent- and self-reports of anxiety and depression in adolescents with ADHD or ASD, as well as the correlation with adaptive functioning and performance on an attention test. A total of 65 adolescents with an ADHD diagnosis (n = 24) or an ASD diagnosis (n = 41) filled out Beck Youth Inventories of Emotional and Social Impairment (BYI) to assess depression and anxiety and completed a Continuous Performance Test (QbTest) measuring ADHD symptoms. Parents of the participants completed the internalizing domain in the Five to Fifteen questionnaire (FTF), measuring symptoms of anxiety and depression, and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS) about the adolescent's adaptive functioning. Approximately a third of the study group self-reported substantial internalizing mental symptoms not always recognized by parents, and not always obvious in adaptive function or performance at ADHD test. Correlations between BYI and FTF were low. The BYI depression inventory correlated negatively with VABS and positively with activity level in a subgroup medicated for ADHD. There was a stronger correlation between girls BYI and FTF results as compared with boys. The results highlight the need for identification of anxiety and depression, using both self- and parent report. Present anxiety and depression symptoms do not seem to affect the clinical assessment of ASD and ADHD.

  14. Neurobiology of generalized anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Murray B

    2009-01-01

    Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a common illness with diagnostic criteria that have changed substantially over time. Symptoms of GAD overlap with those of major depressive disorder to such an extent that studying one disorder without studying the other may be impossible. Such an overlap, combined with potentially inappropriate diagnostic criteria for GAD, makes diagnosing and researching GAD challenging. Recent research into the genetics and neural circuitry of GAD may suggest solutions for the disorder's diagnostic controversies and point the way to productive future studies of etiology and pathophysiology.

  15. Recognition of anxiety disorders by family physicians after rigorous medical record case extraction: results of the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, E.H.C.; Ven, P.M. van de; Terluin, B.; Verhaak, P.F.M.; Marwijk, H.W.J. van; Smolders, M.; Meer, K. van der; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Hout, H.P.J. van

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Previous studies reported low and inconsistent rates of recognition of anxiety disorders by family physicians (FPs). Our objectives were to examine (a) which combination of indications within medical records most accurately reflects recognition of anxiety disorders and (b) whether patient

  16. Recognition of anxiety disorders by family physicians after rigorous medical record case extraction Results of the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Evelien H. C.; van de Ven, Peter M.; Terluin, Berend; Verhaak, Peter F. M.; van Marwijk, Harm W. J.; Smolders, Mirrian; van der Meer, Klaas; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; van Hout, Hein P. J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Previous studies reported low and inconsistent rates of recognition of anxiety disorders by family physicians (FPs). Our objectives were to examine (a) which combination of indications within medical records most accurately reflects recognition of anxiety disorders and (b) whether patient

  17. Increased mortality among people with anxiety disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Sandra M; Mattheisen, Manuel; Mors, Ole

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Anxiety disorders and depression are the most common mental disorders worldwide and have a striking impact on global disease burden. Although depression has consistently been found to increase mortality; the role of anxiety disorders in predicting mortality risk is unclear. AIMS......: To assess mortality risk in people with anxiety disorders. METHOD: We used nationwide Danish register data to conduct a prospective cohort study with over 30 million person-years of follow-up. RESULTS: In total, 1066 (2.1%) people with anxiety disorders died during an average follow-up of 9.7 years....... The risk of death by natural and unnatural causes was significantly higher among individuals with anxiety disorders (natural mortality rate ratio (MRR) = 1.39, 95% CI 1.28-1.51; unnatural MRR = 2.46, 95% CI 2.20-2.73) compared with the general population. Of those who died from unnatural causes, 16.5% had...

  18. Stepped care for depression and anxiety: from primary care to specialized mental health care: a randomised controlled trial testing the effectiveness of a stepped care program among primary care patients with mood or anxiety disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seekles Wike

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mood and anxiety disorders are highly prevalent and have a large impact on the lives of the affected individuals. Therefore, optimal treatment of these disorders is highly important. In this study we will examine the effectiveness of a stepped care program for primary care patients with mood and anxiety disorders. A stepped care program is characterized by different treatment steps that are arranged in order of increasing intensity. Methods This study is a randomised controlled trial with two conditions: stepped care and care as usual, whereby the latter forms the control group. The stepped care program consists of four evidence based interventions: (1 Watchful waiting, (2 Guided self-help, (3 Problem Solving Treatment and (4 Medication and/or specialized mental health care. The study population consists of primary care attendees aged 18–65 years. Screeners are sent to all patients of the participating general practitioners. Individuals with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of mental disorders (DSM diagnosis of major depression, dysthymia, panic disorder (with or without agoraphobia, generalized anxiety disorder, or social phobia are included as well as individuals with minor depression and anxiety disorders. Primary focus is the reduction of depressive and anxiety symptoms. Both conditions are monitored at 8, 16 and 24 weeks. Discussion This study evaluates the effectiveness of a stepped care program for patients with depressive and anxiety disorder. If effective, a stepped care program can form a worthwhile alternative for care as usual. Strengths and limitations of this study are discussed. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trails: ISRCTN17831610.

  19. The role of maternal anxiety and depressive disorders prior to and during pregnancy and perinatal psychopathological symptoms for early infant diseases and drug administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Linda; Einsle, Franziska; Petzoldt, Johanna; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Martini, Julia

    2017-06-01

    Maternal mental health prior to and during pregnancy has been shown to be associated with inflammatory diseases and gastrointestinal complaints in the offspring. Unfortunately, many studies merely focused on perinatal distress without consideration of lifetime anxiety and depressive disorders. To prospectively investigate associations of anxiety and depressive disorders prior to and during pregnancy as well as perinatal distress with infants' inflammatory diseases, gastrointestinal complaints and corresponding drug administration. Prospective-longitudinal study initiated in 2009/2010. N=306 (expectant) mothers with and without DSM-IV lifetime anxiety and depressive disorders (Composite International Diagnostic Interview for Women) and low vs. high severity of psychopathological symptoms during pregnancy (Brief Symptom Inventory) enrolled in early pregnancy and repeatedly assessed during peripartum period. Infant inflammatory diseases, gastrointestinal complaints and drug administration assessed via questionnaire (maternal report) at four months postpartum (n=279). Severe psychopathological symptoms during pregnancy were associated with inflammatory diseases and anti-infective medication, whereas anxiety and depressive disorders prior to and during pregnancy were related to gastrointestinal complaints (diarrhea, colic complaints) and corresponding medication. These results have to be discussed with caution, because information on infants' diseases were based exclusively on maternal self-reports. However, they suggest promising directions regarding our current knowledge about the relevance of maternal perinatal distress for infant inflammatory diseases (e.g. fetal programming). Moreover, the association between maternal anxiety and depressive disorders and infant gastrointestinal complaints may be explained by an anxious misinterpretation of 'normal' infant signals or a transmission of adverse gut microbiota, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  20. Depression and anxiety disorders in chronic hemodialysis patients and their quality of life: A cross-sectional study about 106 cases in the northeast of morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Filali, Abdelilah; Bentata, Yassamine; Ada, Naima; Oneib, Bouchra

    2017-01-01

    Hemodialysis (HD) has a severe impact on the life of HD patients. The aim of this work was to assess the prevalence of depression and anxiety disorders, suicidal ideation, and the quality of life among HD patients. Associated factors were also studied. A cross-sectional study was carried out among 103 HD patients treated at the HD Center of Al Farabi Hospital of Oujda during a period of six months in 2015. The Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview and European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions (EQ-5D) were used for the assessment. Major depressive episode (MDE) was found in 34% of our patients, whereas anxiety disorder was observed in 25.2%. Suicidal ideation was found in 16.5% and 1.9% of our patients planned their suicide. The EQ-5D index was 0.41 ± 0.36 and the EQ-Visual Analog Scale score was 45.73 ± 14. Multivariate analysis showed that MDEs were associated with three factors: marital status, pain, and anxiety disorder. There was also an association between anxiety disorder and age and EQ-Visual Analog Scale score. Suicidal ideation was associated with marital status and anxiety disorders. Together, these results underline the importance of the collaboration between nephrologists and psychiatrists for a better care of HD patients.

  1. Depression and anxiety disorders in chronic hemodialysis patients and their quality of life: A cross-sectional study about 106 cases in the northeast of morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelilah El Filali

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemodialysis (HD has a severe impact on the life of HD patients. The aim of this work was to assess the prevalence of depression and anxiety disorders, suicidal ideation, and the quality of life among HD patients. Associated factors were also studied. A cross-sectional study was carried out among 103 HD patients treated at the HD Center of Al Farabi Hospital of Oujda during a period of six months in 2015. The Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview and European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions (EQ-5D were used for the assessment. Major depressive episode (MDE was found in 34% of our patients, whereas anxiety disorder was observed in 25.2%. Suicidal ideation was found in 16.5% and 1.9% of our patients planned their suicide. The EQ-5D index was 0.41 ± 0.36 and the EQ-Visual Analog Scale score was 45.73 ± 14. Multivariate analysis showed that MDEs were associated with three factors: marital status, pain, and anxiety disorder. There was also an association between anxiety disorder and age and EQ-Visual Analog Scale score. Suicidal ideation was associated with marital status and anxiety disorders. Together, these results underline the importance of the collaboration between nephrologists and psychiatrists for a better care of HD patients.

  2. Implicit and Explicit Self-Esteem in Current, Remitted, Recovered, and Comorbid Depression and Anxiety Disorders: The NESDA Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tuijl, Lonneke A.; Glashouwer, Klaske A.; Bockting, Claudi L. H.; Tendeiro, Jorge N.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; de Jong, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Dual processing models of psychopathology emphasize the relevance of differentiating between deliberative self-evaluative processes (explicit self-esteem; ESE) and automatically-elicited affective self-associations (implicit self-esteem; ISE). It has been proposed that both low ESE and ISE would be involved in major depressive disorder (MDD) and anxiety disorders (AD). Further, it has been hypothesized that MDD and AD may result in a low ISE “scar” that may contribute to recurrence after remission. However, the available evidence provides no straightforward support for the relevance of low ISE in MDD/AD, and studies testing the relevance of discrepant SE even showed that especially high ISE combined with low ESE is predictive of the development of internalizing symptoms. However, these earlier findings have been limited by small sample sizes, poorly defined groups in terms of comorbidity and phase of the disorders, and by using inadequate indices of discrepant SE. Therefore, this study tested further the proposed role of ISE and discrepant SE in a large-scale study allowing for stricter differentiation between groups and phase of disorder. Method In the context of the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA), we selected participants with current MDD (n = 60), AD (n = 111), and comorbid MDD/AD (n = 71), remitted MDD (n = 41), AD (n = 29), and comorbid MDD/AD (n = 14), recovered MDD (n = 136) and AD (n = 98), and never MDD or AD controls (n = 382). The Implicit Association Test was used to index ISE and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale indexed ESE. Results Controls reported higher ESE than all other groups, and current comorbid MDD/AD had lower ESE than all other clinical groups. ISE was only lower than controls in current comorbid AD/MDD. Discrepant self-esteem (difference between ISE and ESE) was not associated with disorder status once controlling for ESE. Limitations Cross-sectional design limits causal inferences. Conclusion Findings

  3. Implicit and Explicit Self-Esteem in Current, Remitted, Recovered, and Comorbid Depression and Anxiety Disorders: The NESDA Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tuijl, Lonneke A; Glashouwer, Klaske A; Bockting, Claudi L H; Tendeiro, Jorge N; Penninx, Brenda W J H; de Jong, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    Dual processing models of psychopathology emphasize the relevance of differentiating between deliberative self-evaluative processes (explicit self-esteem; ESE) and automatically-elicited affective self-associations (implicit self-esteem; ISE). It has been proposed that both low ESE and ISE would be involved in major depressive disorder (MDD) and anxiety disorders (AD). Further, it has been hypothesized that MDD and AD may result in a low ISE "scar" that may contribute to recurrence after remission. However, the available evidence provides no straightforward support for the relevance of low ISE in MDD/AD, and studies testing the relevance of discrepant SE even showed that especially high ISE combined with low ESE is predictive of the development of internalizing symptoms. However, these earlier findings have been limited by small sample sizes, poorly defined groups in terms of comorbidity and phase of the disorders, and by using inadequate indices of discrepant SE. Therefore, this study tested further the proposed role of ISE and discrepant SE in a large-scale study allowing for stricter differentiation between groups and phase of disorder. In the context of the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA), we selected participants with current MDD (n = 60), AD (n = 111), and comorbid MDD/AD (n = 71), remitted MDD (n = 41), AD (n = 29), and comorbid MDD/AD (n = 14), recovered MDD (n = 136) and AD (n = 98), and never MDD or AD controls (n = 382). The Implicit Association Test was used to index ISE and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale indexed ESE. Controls reported higher ESE than all other groups, and current comorbid MDD/AD had lower ESE than all other clinical groups. ISE was only lower than controls in current comorbid AD/MDD. Discrepant self-esteem (difference between ISE and ESE) was not associated with disorder status once controlling for ESE. Cross-sectional design limits causal inferences. Findings suggest a prominent role for ESE in MDD and AD, while

  4. Depression, anxiety, hostility and hysterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewalds-Kvist, S Béatrice M; Hirvonen, Toivo; Kvist, Mårten; Lertola, Kaarlo; Niemelä, Pirkko

    2005-09-01

    Sixty-five women (aged 32 - 54 yrs) were assessed at 2 months before to 8 months after total abdominal hysterectomy on four separate occasions. Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI), Taylor's Manifest Anxiety Scale (TMAS), the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory (BDHI), Measurement of Masculinity-Femininity (MF), Likert scales and semantic differentials for psychological, somatic and sexual factors varied as assessment tools. High-dysphoric and low-dysphoric women were compared with regard to hysterectomy outcomes. Married nulliparae suffered from enhanced depression post-surgery. Pre-surgery anxiety, back pain and lack of dyspareunia contributed to post-surgery anxiety. Pre-surgery anxiety was related to life crises. Pre- and post-surgery hostility occurred in conjunction with poor sexual gratification. Post-hysterectomy health improved, but quality of sexual relationship was impaired. Partner support and knowledge counteracted hysterectomy aftermath. Post-hysterectomy symptoms constituted a continuum to pre-surgery signs of depression, anxiety or hostility.

  5. Lurasidone for major depressive disorder with mixed features and anxiety: a post-hoc analysis of a randomized, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Joyce; Thase, Michael E; Mao, Yongcai; Ng-Mak, Daisy; Pikalov, Andrei; Loebel, Antony

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this post-hoc analysis was to evaluate the efficacy of lurasidone in treating patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) with mixed features who present with mild and moderate-to-severe levels of anxiety. The data in this analysis were derived from a study of patients meeting the DSM-IV-TR criteria for unipolar MDD, with a Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) total score ≥26, presenting with two or three protocol-defined manic symptoms, who were randomized to 6 weeks of double-blind treatment with either lurasidone 20-60 mg/day (n=109) or placebo (n=100). Anxiety severity was evaluated using the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A). To evaluate the effect of baseline anxiety on response to lurasidone, the following two anxiety groups were defined: mild anxiety (HAM-A≤14) and moderate-to-severe anxiety (HAM-A≥15). Change from baseline in MADRS total score was analyzed for each group using a mixed model for repeated measures. Treatment with lurasidone was associated with a significant week 6 change versus placebo in MADRS total score for patients with both mild anxiety (-18.4 vs. -12.8, pTreatment with lurasidone was associated with a significant week 6 change versus placebo in HAM-A total score for patients with both mild anxiety (-7.6 vs. -4.0, ptreatment with lurasidone was associated with significant improvement in both depressive and anxiety symptoms in subgroups with mild and moderate-to-severe levels of anxiety at baseline.

  6. Depression, Anxiety, and Arterial Stiffness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seldenrijk, Adrie; van Hout, Hein P. J.; van Marwijk, Harm W. J.; de Groot, Eric; Gort, Johan; Rustemeijer, Cees; Diamant, Michaela; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Arterial stiffness gains attention as a potential mechanism underlying the frequently found association between depression or anxiety and cardiovascular disease. However, observations regarding stiffness and psychopathology were often based on small samples. The current study aimed to

  7. The Effect of EEG Biofeedback on the Reduction of Depression, Anxiety, Stress and Craving Beliefs in Individuals with Substance Abuse Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: The aim of this study is the investigation of EEG biofeedback (neurofeedback) on the reduction of depression, anxiety, stress and craving beliefs of individuals with substance abuse disorder. Method: Thirty-four males diagnosed as having substance abuse disorder (morphine addicted) were randomly assigned to experimental (N=16) and control (N=18) groups. The study used the pretest–posttest experimental and control group design. Subjects were assessed prior and subsequ...

  8. Depression (Major Depressive Disorder)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... generally miserable or unhappy without really knowing why. Depression symptoms in children and teens Common signs and ... in normal activities, and avoidance of social interaction. Depression symptoms in older adults Depression is not a ...

  9. Changes in affect during treatment for depression and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kring, Ann M; Persons, Jacqueline B; Thomas, Cannon

    2007-08-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the tripartite model [Clark, L. A., & Watson, D. (1991). Tripartite model of anxiety and depression: Psychometric evidence and psychometric implications. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 100, 316-336] can be extended to account for change during treatment for anxiety and depression. Forty-one patients treated naturalistically in private practice with cognitive behavior therapy completed weekly measures of depression, anxiety, negative affect (NA), positive affect (PA), and anxious arousal (AA). Consistent with the model, NA was associated with anxiety and depression during treatment, PA was more strongly related to depression than to anxiety, and AA was more strongly related to anxiety than to depression. As predicted, symptoms of depression and anxiety and NA all decreased during treatment. As predicted, AA also decreased, particularly for patients with panic disorder. PA increased during treatment, but only for patients who showed a significant decline in depression and only over an extended period of treatment. Nearly two-thirds of the variance in anxiety change was accounted for by changes in depression and NA, and just over three-fourths of the variance in depression change was accounted for by changes in anxiety and NA, indicating that much of the change in anxiety and depression across the course of treatment is shared in common.

  10. Impact of Anxiety and/or Depressive Disorders and Chronic Somatic Diseases on disability and work impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokma, Wicher A; Batelaan, Neeltje M; van Balkom, Anton J L M; Penninx, Brenda W J H

    2017-03-01

    Anxiety and/or Depressive Disorders (ADDs) and Chronic Somatic Diseases (CSDs) are associated with substantial levels of health-related disability and work impairment. However, it is unclear whether comorbid ADDs and CSDs additively affect functional outcomes. This paper examines the impact of ADDs, CSDs, and their comorbidity on disability, work absenteeism and presenteeism. Baseline data from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (n=2371) were used. We assessed presence of current ADDs (using psychiatric interviews, CIDI) and presence of self-reported CSDs. Outcome measures were disability scores (WHO-DAS II questionnaire, overall and domain-specific), work absenteeism (≤2weeks and >2weeks; TiC-P) and presenteeism (reduced and impaired work performance; TiC-P). We conducted multivariate regression analyses adjusted for socio-demographics. Both ADDs and CSDs significantly and independently impact total disability, but the impact was substantially larger for ADDs (main effect unstandardized β=20.1, p<.001) than for CSDs (main effect unstandardized β=3.88, p<.001). There was a positive interaction between ADDs and CSDs on disability (unstandardized β interaction=4.06, p=.004). Although CSDs also induce absenteeism (OR for extended absenteeism=1.42, p=.015) and presenteeism (OR for impaired work performance=1.42, p=.013), associations with ADDs were stronger (OR for extended absenteeism=6.64, p<.001; OR for impaired work performance=7.51, p<.001). Both CSDs and ADDs cause substantial disability, work absenteeism and presenteeism, but the impact of ADDs far exceeds that of CSDs. CSDs and ADDs interact synergistically on disability, thereby bolstering the current view that patients with physical mental comorbidity (PM-comorbidity) form a severe subgroup with an unfavourable prognosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. [Pharmacotherapy of Anxiety Disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwanzger, P

    2016-05-01

    Anxiety disorders belong to the most frequent psychiatric disorders according to epidemiological studies and are associated with a high economic burden. Panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, and specific phobia belong to the most important clinical disorders. The etiology is complex, including genetic, neurobiological as well as psychosocial factors. With regard to treatment, both psychotherapy and medication can be employed according to current treatment guidelines. With regard to psychotherapy, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) represents the treatment of choice. As for pharmacological treatment, in particular modern antidepressants and pregabalin are recommended. However, several recommendations have to be considered in daily clinical practice. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Effectiveness of an intercultural module added to the treatment guidelines for Moroccan and Turkish patients with depressive and anxiety disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Schaik Digna JF

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since the sixties of the last century, many people from Morocco and Turkey have migrated into the Netherlands. In the last decade, Moroccan and Turkish patients have found their way to organizations for mental health care. However, they often drop out of treatment. Problems in the communication with therapists and different expectations regarding treatment seem to be causal factors for the early drop-out of therapy. In the Netherlands as in other countries courses have been developed for training cultural competence of therapists. Yet, up to now, the effectiveness of increased cultural competence of therapists in reducing drop-out of treatment has not been studied. Methods/Design A randomized clinical trial was started in January 2010. Moroccan and Turkish adult patients who are referred to our outpatient clinics for mood and anxiety disorders are randomly assigned to mental health workers who are trained in a cultural module and to those who are not. The therapists have been trained in the Cultural Formulation and in techniques bridging the (cultural gap between them and their Moroccan and Turkish patients. The target number of participants is 150 patients, 75 for each group. Drop-out of treatment is the primary outcome measure. Secondary outcome measures are no-show and patients' perspective of care. Discussion The study will give an answer to the question whether increasing cultural competence of therapists reduces drop-out of treatment in Moroccan and Turkish outpatients with depressive and anxiety disorders. Trial Registration The Dutch Cochrane Centre, NTR1989

  13. Analysis of the effect of desvenlafaxine on anxiety symptoms associated with major depressive disorder: pooled data from 9 short-term, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourian, Karen A; Jiang, Qin; Ninan, Philip T

    2010-03-01

    This analysis evaluated the effects of the serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, desvenlafaxine (administered as desvenlafaxine succinate), on anxiety symptoms associated with depression. Data were pooled from 9 randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, 8 week studies of desvenlafaxine (50-400 mg/day, fixed or flexible dose) in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), without a primary anxiety diagnosis. Changes from baseline in scores on the anxiety/somatization factor of the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D17) and on the Covi Anxiety Scale at the final evaluation (last observation carried forward) were compared between desvenlafaxine and placebo groups using analysis of covariance. In the overall data set (intent to treat n=2,913 [desvenlafaxine, n=1,805; placebo, n=1,108]), desvenlafaxine was associated with significantly greater reductions compared with placebo in scores on the HAM-D17 anxiety/somatization factor (-3.41 vs -2.92, PDesvenlafaxine was associated with significantly greater improvement in anxiety symptoms compared with placebo in patients with MDD.

  14. PECULIARITIES OF PARAMETERS OF ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY IN PATIENTS WITH ACUTE CORONARY SYNDROMES WITH COMORBID ANXIETY AND DEPRESSIVE DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Yu. Shimohina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study has assessed the functional parameters of the cardiovascular system by echocardiography in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS in combination with anxiety and depressive disorders (ADD. Were examined 152 patients in the first 24 hours after the onset of ACS. All patients in the first 48 hours after hospitalization was performed transthoracic echocardiography (EchoCG on the apparatus Vivid E9 (General Electric, USA. These echocardiographic indices were analyzed: stroke volume (SV of left ventricular (LV, minute volume of heart (MVH, ejection fraction (EF, determined by the method Teicholz, end-systolic volume (ESV, end-diastolic volume (EDV, thickness of interventricular septum in diastole (TISD, thickness of posterior wall the LV in diastole (TPWLD, anteroposterior size of the left atrium (LA. Local contractility of LV assessed by the presence of hypo- or akinesia and dyskinesia zones. Diastolic function of LV was assessed by transmitral blood Dopplerograms, noted the presence of valvular cardiac pathology. In the first 72 hours after being transferred from emergency rooms all patients were tested of test of Spielberg–Hanin, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Beck questionnaire and depression scale epidemiological studies Center USA for determine the presence or not ADD.A result of study patients with ACS in conjunction with ADD have significant excess volume indices of LV in comparison with patients without ADD, in addition, this group have an increase in the size of the LA, MVH and left ventricular has hypertrophy in terms TISD comparison with the group. According to data EchoCG in patients with ACS and ADD very often visualized local contractility disturbances LV, zone of dyskinesia and defeat sclerotic of the aortic and mitral valves and diastolic dysfunction of LV in the type “slow relaxation” in comparison with patients with ACS without ADD.In patients with ACS concomitant ADD has a negative effect on the

  15. Association Between Major Depressive Disorder and Heart Rate Variability in the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Licht, Carmilla M. M.; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Zitman, Frans G.; Hoogendijk, Witte J. G.; van Dyck, Richard; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    2008-01-01

    Context: It has been hypothesized that depression is associated with lower heart rate variability and decreased cardiac vagal control. This may play an important role in the risk of cardiovascular disease among depressed individuals. Objective: To determine whether heart rate variability was lower

  16. Application of positron emission tomography with 18ffdg in combined diagnosis of anxiety and depressive disorders in elderly patients with chronic heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Stanzhevsky

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available 35 patients with chronic cardiac failure of the third functional class and anxiety depressive disorders were examined. The screening group consisted of 35 patients with chronic cardiac insufficiency without affective disorders. Evaluation of the clinical state was carried out by echocardiography, 6 minute walk and estimation of therapy compliance. Severity of the symptoms of anxiety and depressive disorders were studied by MMPI test, Beck`s test, Hamilton`s scale, Spielberg scale. PET with 18FFDG was carried out on PET tomographs «EcatExact 47» and «Ecat Exact HR+» (Siemens, Germany. It was found that anxiety depressive disorders have negative effect on the clinical state and the therapy compliance in the patients with chronic cardiac failure. Significant correlation between the clinical data and the brain 18FFDG PET results was seen in most cases.

  17. Associations of serum uric acid and SLC2A9 variant with depressive and anxiety disorders: a population-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanica Lyngdoh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Limited information exists regarding the association between serum uric acid (SUA and psychiatric disorders. We explored the relationship between SUA and subtypes of major depressive disorder (MDD and specific anxiety disorders. Additionally, we examined the association of SLC2A9 rs6855911 variant with anxiety disorders. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis on 3,716 individuals aged 35-66 years previously selected for the population-based CoLaus survey and who agreed to undergo further psychiatric evaluation. SUA was measured using uricase-PAP method. The French translation of the semi-structured Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies was used to establish lifetime and current diagnoses of depression and anxiety disorders according to the DSM-IV criteria. RESULTS: Men reported significantly higher levels of SUA compared to women (357±74 µmol/L vs. 263±64 µmol/L. The prevalence of lifetime and current MDD was 44% and 18% respectively while the corresponding estimates for any anxiety disorders were 18% and 10% respectively. A quadratic hockey-stick shaped curve explained the relationship between SUA and social phobia better than a linear trend. However, with regards to the other specific anxiety disorders and other subtypes of MDD, there was no consistent pattern of association. Further analyses using SLC2A9 rs6855911 variant, known to be strongly associated with SUA, supported the quadratic relationship observed between SUA phenotype and social phobia. CONCLUSIONS: A quadratic relationship between SUA and social phobia was observed consistent with a protective effect of moderately elevated SUA on social phobia, which disappears at higher concentrations. Further studies are needed to confirm our observations.

  18. Cardiac morbidity risk and depression and anxiety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tully, Phillip J; Pedersen, Susanne S.; Winefield, Helen R

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine depression and anxiety disorders and their characteristic symptoms (anhedonia/low positive affect and anxious arousal, respectively), along with measures of state negative affect (NA) and Type D personality, in relation to cardiac surgery related morbidity....... Patients awaiting elective coronary artery bypass graft surgery (n=158; 20.9% female; 11.4% concomitant valve surgery; age M=64.7, SD=10.6) underwent the structured MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview to determine current affective disorders. Patients also completed the Mood and Anxiety Symptom...... analysis of personality traits revealed the NA component of Type D personality was associated with cardiac morbidity (OR=1.07, 95% CI 1.01-1.14, p=0.03). The Mood and Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire subscales were not associated with increased morbidity risk. Affective disorders, affective phenotypes...

  19. Mapping mindfulness facets onto dimensions of anxiety and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desrosiers, Alethea; Klemanski, David H; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan

    2013-09-01

    Mindfulness has been associated with anxiety and depression, but the ways in which specific facets of mindfulness relate to symptoms of anxiety and depression remains unclear. The purpose of the current study was to investigate associations between specific facets of mindfulness (e.g., observing, describing, nonjudging, acting with awareness, and nonreactivity) and dimensions of anxiety and depression symptoms (e.g., anxious arousal, general distress-anxiety, general distress-depression, and anhedonic depression) while controlling for shared variance among variables. Participants were 187 treatment-seeking adults. Mindfulness was measured using the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire and symptoms of depression and anxiety were measured using the Mood and Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire. Bivariate correlations showed that all facets of mindfulness were significantly related to all dimensions of anxiety and depression, with two exceptions: describing was unrelated to general distress-anxiety, and observing was unrelated to all symptom clusters. Path analysis was used to simultaneously examine associations between mindfulness facets and depression and anxiety symptoms. Significant and marginally significant pathways were retained to construct a more parsimonious model and model fit indices were examined. The parsimonious model indicated that nonreactivity was significantly inversely associated with general distress anxiety symptoms. Describing was significantly inversely associated with anxious arousal, while observing was significantly positively associated with it. Nonjudging and nonreactivity were significantly inversely related to general distress-depression and anhedonic depression symptomatology. Acting with awareness was not significantly associated with any dimensions of anxiety or depression. Findings support associations between specific facets of mindfulness and dimensions of anxiety and depression and highlight the potential utility of targeting these

  20. The relation between anger management style, mood and somatic symptoms in anxiety disorders and somatoform disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Kyung Bong; Kim, Dong Kee; Kim, Shin Young; Park, Joong Kyu; Han, Mooyoung

    2008-09-30

    The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between anger management style, depression, anxiety and somatic symptoms in anxiety disorder and somatoform disorder patients. The subjects comprised 71 patients with anxiety disorders and 47 with somatoform disorders. The level of anger expression or anger suppression was assessed by the Anger Expression Scale, the severity of anxiety and depression by the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) anxiety and depression subscales, and the severity of somatic symptoms by the Somatization Rating Scale and the SCL-90-R somatization subscale. The results of path analyses showed that anger suppression had only an indirect effect on somatic symptoms through depression and anxiety in each of the disorders. In addition, only anxiety had a direct effect on somatic symptoms in anxiety disorder patients, whereas both anxiety and depression had direct effects on somatic symptoms in somatoform disorder patients. However, the anxiety disorder group showed a significant negative correlation between anger expression and anger suppression in the path from anger-out to anger-in to depression to anxiety to somatic symptoms, unlike the somatoform disorder group. The results suggest that anger suppression, but not anger expression, is associated with mood, i.e. depression and anxiety, and somatic symptoms characterize anxiety disorder and somatoform disorder patients. Anxiety is likely to be an important source of somatic symptoms in anxiety disorders, whereas both anxiety and depression are likely to be important sources of somatic symptoms in somatoform disorders. In addition, anger suppression preceded by inhibited anger expression is associated with anxiety and somatic symptoms in anxiety disorders.

  1. Anxiety and depression mediate the role of low self-esteem and low self-directedness in the development of eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloi, Matteo; Segura-García, Cristina

    2016-10-14

    Low self-esteem and low self-directedness (SD) are considered a risk factor for the development of eating disorders (EDs). The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that low self-esteem and low SD lead to a higher risk for EDs through the mediation of anxiety and depression. Seventy-seven female teenagers answered the Eating Disorder Inventory 3 (EDI-3), the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale (IUS), the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised (TCI-R), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), and the State and Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R). To test the hypothesis, a structural equation model (SEM) was used. According to the EDI3-EDRC scores, 23/77 (29.9%) participants demonstrated positive results in the screening. Participants who had positive results in the screening had significantly higher scores on trait and state anxiety, depression, and IU, and lower means of self-esteem and SD. The SEM demonstrated good fit indices and all paths were significant in the predicted directions, confirming the hypothesized model. The current results confirm the role of self-esteem and SD in the development of an ED among adolescent females through the mediating action of IU, anxiety, and depression.

  2. A dynamic view of comorbid depression and generalized anxiety disorder symptom change in chronic heart failure: the discrete effects of cognitive behavioral therapy, exercise, and psychotropic medication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, Phillip J; Selkow, Terina; Bengel, Jürgen; Rafanelli, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    No previous study has reported upon comorbid depression and anxiety disorders and their treatment in heart failure (HF), which the current study has sought to document. Total 29 HF patients under psychiatric management underwent primary depression cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT; n = 15) or primary generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) CBT (n = 14), and participated in a community exercise program and standard physician care. Repeated measures analysis of variance assessed Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and GAD-7 symptom change pre- and post-CBT treatment, and assessed the interaction effects of treatment type, exercise, anti-depressant and anxiolytic. There was a significant time and treatment interaction effect that favored the primary GAD CBT group for reduction in PHQ symptoms (F(1, 24) = 4.52, p = 0.04). Analysis of PHQ-somatic symptoms also showed a significant main effect for participation in the exercise program (F(1, 24) = 4.21, p = 0.05) and a significant time and anxiolytic interaction (F(1, 24) = 3.98, p = 0.05). The average number of cardiac hospital readmissions favored the primary GAD CBT group (p = 0.05). The findings support the use of multifaceted interventions in the rehabilitation of HF patients with comorbid psychiatric needs. Implications for Rehabilitation Comorbid depression and anxiety disorders are a clinical and research focus that deserves more attention in the treatment of heart failure patients. Cognitive behavioral therapy, exercise, and anxiolytic use was associated with significant changes in depression and anxiety though discrete effects were evident. Multifaceted interventions are most likely to be successful in the rehabilitation of HF patients with psychiatric needs.

  3. The role of somatic health problems in the recognition of depressive and anxiety disorders by general practitioners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerrits, Marloes M. J. G.; van Marwijk, Harm W. J.; van Oppen, Patricia; van der Horst, Henriette; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Recognition of depression and anxiety by general practitioners (GPs) is suboptimal and there is uncertainty as to whether particular somatic health problems hinder or facilitate GP recognition. The objective of this study was to investigate the associations between somatic health problem

  4. Social anxiety and insomnia: the mediating role of depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, Julia D; Bernert, Rebecca A; Cromer, Kiara R; Joiner, Thomas E; Schmidt, Norman B

    2008-01-01

    Anxiety is commonly associated with insomnia. Given that social anxiety disorder is one of the most prevalent anxiety disorders, socially anxious individuals may be particularly vulnerable to insomnia. However, there is currently very little empirical work on this relationship. This study used bivariate correlations to examine whether social anxiety was related to insomnia in an undergraduate sample (n=176) using the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale and the Insomnia Severity Index. Further, we utilized responses from the Beck Depression Inventory to investigate the role of depressive symptoms in the association between social anxiety and insomnia. Hierarchical linear regressions were used to examine the moderational and mediational role of depressive symptoms in the link between social anxiety and insomnia. To increase generalizability to clinical samples, analyses were repeated on a subset of the sample with clinically significant social anxiety symptoms (n=23) compared to a matched control group (n=23). Consistent with expectation, social anxiety was associated with increased insomnia symptoms. Specifically, social anxiety was correlated with sleep dissatisfaction, sleep-related functional impairment, perception of a sleep problem to others, and distress about sleep problems. Importantly, depressive symptoms mediated the relationship between social anxiety and insomnia, thereby at least partially accounting for insomnia among socially anxious individuals. Our data support the contention that social anxiety is associated with insomnia and suggest that depression may play a vital role in this co-occurrence.

  5. The clinical effectiveness of concise cognitive behavioral therapy with or without pharmacotherapy for depressive and anxiety disorders; a pragmatic randomized controlled equivalence trial in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meuldijk, D; Carlier, I V E; van Vliet, I M; van Veen, T; Wolterbeek, R; van Hemert, A M; Zitman, F G

    2016-03-01

    Depressive and anxiety disorders contribute to a high disease burden. This paper investigates whether concise formats of cognitive behavioral- and/or pharmacotherapy are equivalent with longer standard care in the treatment of depressive and/or anxiety disorders in secondary mental health care. A pragmatic randomized controlled equivalence trial was conducted at five Dutch outpatient Mental Healthcare Centers (MHCs) of the Regional Mental Health Provider (RMHP) 'Rivierduinen'. Patients (aged 18-65 years) with a mild to moderate anxiety and/or depressive disorder, were randomly allocated to concise or standard care. Data were collected at baseline, 3, 6 and 12 months by Routine Outcome Monitoring (ROM). Primary outcomes were the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) and the Web Screening Questionnaire (WSQ). We used Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) to assess outcomes. Between March 2010 and December 2012, 182 patients, were enrolled (n=89 standard care; n=93 concise care). Both intention-to-treat and per-protocol analyses demonstrated equivalence of concise care and standard care at all time points. Severity of illness reduced, and both treatments improved patient's general health status and subdomains of quality of life. Moreover, in concise care, the beneficial effects started earlier. Concise care has the potential to be a feasible and promising alternative to longer standard secondary mental health care in the treatment of outpatients with a mild to moderate depressive and/or anxiety disorder. For future research, we recommend adhering more strictly to the concise treatment protocols to further explore the beneficial effects of the concise treatment. The study is registered in the Netherlands Trial Register, number NTR2590. Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01643642. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Associations Between Compulsive Buying and Substance Dependence/Abuse, Major Depressive Episode, and Generalized Anxiety Disorder Among Men and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chenshu; Brook, Judith S.; Leukefeld, Carl G.; Brook, David W.

    2016-01-01

    Aims The objective of this study was to examine the associations between compulsive buying (CB) and substance dependence/abuse, major depressive episode (MDE), and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) at mean age 43. Methods Participants came from a community-based random sample of residents in two New York counties (N=548). The participants were followed from adolescence to early midlife. The mean age of participants at the most recent interview was 43.0 (SD=2.8). Fifty five percent of the participants were females. Over 90% of the participants were white. The prevalence of substance dependence/abuse, MDE, and GAD (during the past 5 years before the interviews) was 6.6%, 13.7, and 11.5%, respectively. Results Logistic regression analyses showed that CB was significantly associated with substance dependence/abuse [Adjusted Odds Ratio (A.O.R.) = 1.60], MDE (A.O.R. = 1.70), and GAD (A.O.R. = 1.63), despite controlling for substance dependence/abuse, MDE, and GAD, respectively, at mean age 37, and demographic factors. Discussion Since the study sample is limited to predominantly white participants (over 90%) with a close association to a small geographic area, the findings may not be generalizable to racial/ethnic minority groups or individuals living in other parts of the country. Nevertheless, it is important that clinicians treating substance dependence/abuse, MDE, and GAD consider the role of CB. PMID:27215919

  7. Comorbidity of Anxiety and Depression in Children and Adolescents: 20 Years After

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Colleen M.; Caporino, Nicole E.; Kendall, Philip C.

    2014-01-01

    Brady and Kendall (1992) concluded that although anxiety and depression in youth are meaningfully linked, there are important distinctions, and additional research was needed. Since then, studies of anxiety-depression comorbidity in youth have increased exponentially. Following a discussion of comorbidity, we review existing conceptual models and propose a multiple pathways model to anxiety-depression comorbidity. Pathway 1 describes youth with a diathesis for anxiety, with subsequent comorbid depression resulting from anxiety-related impairment. Pathway 2 refers to youth with a shared diathesis for anxiety and depression, who may experience both disorders simultaneously. Pathway 3 describes youth with a diathesis for depression, with subsequent comorbid anxiety resulting from depression-related impairment. Additionally, shared and stratified risk factors contribute to the development of the comorbid disorder, either by interacting with disorder-related impairment or by predicting the simultaneous development of the disorders. Our review addresses descriptive and developmental factors, gender differences, suicidality, assessments, and treatment-outcome research as they relate to comorbid anxiety and depression, and to our proposed pathways. Research since 1992 indicates that comorbidity varies depending on the specific anxiety disorder, with Pathway 1 describing youth with either social phobia or separation anxiety disorder and subsequent depression, Pathway 2 applying to youth with co-primary generalized anxiety disorder and depression, and Pathway 3 including depressed youth with subsequent social phobia. The need to test the proposed multiple pathways model and to examine (a) developmental change and (b) specific anxiety disorders is highlighted. PMID:24219155

  8. Cognitive biases in processing infant emotion by women with depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder in pregnancy or after birth: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Rebecca; Ayers, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Perinatal psychological problems such as post-natal depression are associated with poor mother-baby interaction, but the reason for this is not clear. One explanation is that mothers with negative mood have biased processing of infant emotion. This review aimed to synthesise research on processing of infant emotion by pregnant or post-natal women with anxiety, depression or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Systematic searches were carried out on 11 electronic databases using terms related to negative affect, childbirth and perception of emotion. Fourteen studies were identified which looked at the effect of depression, anxiety and PTSD on interpretation of infant emotional expressions (k = 10), or reaction times when asked to ignore emotional expressions (k = 4). Results suggest mothers with depression and anxiety are more likely to identify negative emotions (i.e., sadness) and less accurate at identifying positive emotions (i.e., happiness) in infant faces. Additionally, women with depression may disengage faster from positive and negative infant emotional expressions. Very few studies examined PTSD (k = 2), but results suggest biases towards specific infant emotions may be influenced by characteristics of the traumatic event. The implications of this research for mother-infant interaction are explored.

  9. CHRONOTYPE ASSOCIATIONS WITH DEPRESSION AND ANXIETY DISORDERS IN A LARGE COHORT STUDY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antypa, Niki; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Meesters, Ybe; Schoevers, Robert; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    2016-01-01

    BackgroundThe chronotype, being a morning or an evening type, can influence an individual's psychological health. Studies have shown a link between depressed mood and being an evening type; however, most studies have used symptom scales and not diagnostic criteria, and confounding factors such as sl

  10. CHRONOTYPE ASSOCIATIONS WITH DEPRESSION AND ANXIETY DISORDERS IN A LARGE COHORT STUDY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antypa, Niki; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Meesters, Ybe; Schoevers, Robert; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    2016-01-01

    BackgroundThe chronotype, being a morning or an evening type, can influence an individual's psychological health. Studies have shown a link between depressed mood and being an evening type; however, most studies have used symptom scales and not diagnostic criteria, and confounding factors such as sl

  11. CHRONOTYPE ASSOCIATIONS WITH DEPRESSION AND ANXIETY DISORDERS IN A LARGE COHORT STUDY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antypa, Niki; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Meesters, Ybe; Schoevers, Robert; Penninx, Brenda W J H

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The chronotype, being a morning or an evening type, can influence an individual's psychological health. Studies have shown a link between depressed mood and being an evening type; however, most studies have used symptom scales and not diagnostic criteria, and confounding factors such as

  12. Are sedentary television watching and computer use behaviors associated with anxiety and depressive disorders?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, Leonore; van Straten, Annemieke; Lamers, Femke; Cuijpers, Pim; Penninx, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    Sedentary behaviors may be more common among persons with mental disorders and thereby result in poorer health outcomes. This study examined whether independently of general physical activity level, mental disorders are linked to two important examples of sedentary behavior: computer use and watchin

  13. Are sedentary television watching and computer use behaviors associated with anxiety and depressive disorders?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, Leonore; van Straten, Annemieke; Lamers, Femke; Cuijpers, Pim; Penninx, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    Sedentary behaviors may be more common among persons with mental disorders and thereby result in poorer health outcomes. This study examined whether independently of general physical activity level, mental disorders are linked to two important examples of sedentary behavior: computer use and

  14. The impact of lifestyle factors on the 2-year course of depressive and/or anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschloo, Lynn; Reeuwijk, Kerstin G.; Schoevers, Robert A.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    Background: Although depressed and anxious patients often show an unhealthy lifestyle, much is still unclear about its impact on the natural course of disorders. This study will examine whether physical activity, smoking and alcohol consumption predicted the 2-year course of depressive and/or

  15. The impact of lifestyle factors on the 2-year course of depressive and/or anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschloo, Lynn; Reeuwijk, Kerstin G.; Schoevers, Robert A.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although depressed and anxious patients often show an unhealthy lifestyle, much is still unclear about its impact on the natural course of disorders. This study will examine whether physical activity, smoking and alcohol consumption predicted the 2-year course of depressive and/or anxiet

  16. Body mass index and anxiety/depression as mediators of the effects of child sexual and physical abuse on physical health disorders in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy-Jones, Simon; McCarthy-Jones, Roseline

    2014-12-01

    The relation between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and physical health disorders in adulthood, and what factors may serve as mediators, remains poorly understood. Using data from the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey (N=3,486), we tested whether CSA was associated with physical health disorders in adult women and if mediated effects via body mass index (BMI), anxiety/depression, alcohol dependence, and smoking were present. Compared to women with no CSA, women who had experienced CSA involving intercourse had more than twice the odds of being obese, more than 3 times the odds of experiencing mental health disorders, more than 4 times the odds of being alcohol dependent, more than 5 times the odds of being drug dependent, and more than 6 times the odds of attempting suicide. Those experiencing both CSA and child physical abuse (CPA) were on average over 11kg heavier than those with neither CSA nor CPA. After controlling for demographics, CPA, and childhood bullying, CSA was associated with the majority of physical health disorders studied (typically 50-100% increases in odds). Evidence was found consistent with mediation by BMI (typically accounting for 5-20% increases in odds) and anxiety/depression (typically accounting for 8-40% increases in odds), in a dose-response manner, for the majority of physical health disorders. Bidirectional relations among these mediators and physical health disorders, and residual confounding, may have led to overestimation of mediation through BMI and anxiety/depression and underestimation of mediation through alcohol/smoking. Relations between both CPA and childhood bullying and physical health disorders in adulthood were also found. Longitudinal studies employing more sensitive measures of potential mediators are now required.

  17. Evening salivary alpha-amylase, major depressive disorder, and antidepressant use in the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, Gerthe; Giltay, Erik J.; Licht, Carmilla M. M.; Vreeburg, Sophie A.; Cobbaert, Christa M.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Zitman, Frans G.

    2013-01-01

    Salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) may be a suitable index for sympathetic activity and dysregulation of the autonomic nervous system. The relationship between antidepressants and depression with sAA levels was studied, since antidepressants were previously shown to have a profound impact on heart rate

  18. Prevalence and associated factors of stress, anxiety and depression ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence and associated factors of stress, anxiety and depression among ... Alexandria Journal of Medicine ... Objectives: The objectives of this study was to study the prevalence of psychological mood disorders and its association with ...

  19. A Psychometric Analysis of the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scales--Parent Version in a School Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebesutani, Chad; Chorpita, Bruce F.; Higa-McMillan, Charmaine K.; Nakamura, Brad J.; Regan, Jennifer; Lynch, Roxanna E.

    2011-01-01

    The Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale--Parent Version (RCADS-P) is a parent-report questionnaire of youth anxiety and depression with scales corresponding to the "DSM" diagnoses of separation anxiety disorder, social phobia, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and major depressive…

  20. A Psychometric Analysis of the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scales--Parent Version in a School Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebesutani, Chad; Chorpita, Bruce F.; Higa-McMillan, Charmaine K.; Nakamura, Brad J.; Regan, Jennifer; Lynch, Roxanna E.

    2011-01-01

    The Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale--Parent Version (RCADS-P) is a parent-report questionnaire of youth anxiety and depression with scales corresponding to the "DSM" diagnoses of separation anxiety disorder, social phobia, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and major depressive…

  1. The impact of childhood traumas, depressive and anxiety symptoms on the relationship between borderline personality features and symptoms of adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in Turkish university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalbudak, Ercan; Evren, Cuneyt

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies reported that there is a significant association between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in childhood and borderline personality disorder (BPD) in adulthood. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship of borderline personality features (BPF) and ADHD symptoms while controlling the effect of childhood traumas, symptoms of depression and anxiety in adulthood on this relationship in Turkish university students. A total of 271 Turkish university students participated in this study. The students were assessed through the Turkish version of the Borderline Personality Inventory (BPI), the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS), the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ-28), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). Correlation analyses have revealed that severity of BPF is related with adult ADHD symptoms, emotional, physical abuse and depression scores. Hierarchical regression analysis has indicated that depressive symptoms, emotional and physical abuse and the severity of ADHD symptoms are the predictors for severity of BPF. Findings of the present study suggests that clinicians must carefully evaluate these variables and the relationship between them to understand BPF and ADHD symptoms in university students better. Together with depressive symptoms, emotional and physical abuse may play a mediator role on this relationship. Further studies are needed to evaluate causal relationship between these variables in both clinical and non-clinical populations.

  2. Explicit memory in anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becker, E.S.; Roth, W.T.; Andrich, M.; Margraf, J.

    1999-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to study selective memory bias favoring anxiety-relevant materials in patients with anxiety disorders. In the 1st experiment, 32 patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), 30 with social phobia (speaking anxiety), and 31 control participants incidentally learned

  3. Lifetime history of depression and anxiety disorders as a predictor of quality of life in midlife women in the absence of current illness episodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joffe, Hadine; Chang, Yuefang; Dhaliwal, Sammy; Hess, Rachel; Thurston, Rebecca; Gold, Ellen; Matthews, Karen A; Bromberger, Joyce T

    2012-05-01

    It is unknown whether a history of depression, anxiety disorders, or comorbid depression and anxiety affects subsequent health-related quality of life (HRQOL) during midlife in women when vasomotor symptoms (VMS) and sleep disturbance commonly disrupt QOL. To evaluate whether previous affective illness is associated with low HRQOL during midlife in the absence of current illness episodes and whether low HRQOL is explained by VMS or sleep disruption. Longitudinal, community-based study. Western Pennsylvania. A total of 425 midlife women in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation who completed the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID) and the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) annually during 6 years of follow-up. Scores on the SF-36 scales of social functioning (SF), role-emotional (RE), role-physical (RP), body pain (BP), and vitality. Ninety-seven women (22.8%) had comorbid affective illness histories, 162 (38.1%) had previous depression only, and 21 (4.9%) had previous anxiety only. Those with comorbid illness histories and depression alone were more likely to report low HRQOL on the SF, RE, RP, and BP domains (odds ratio [OR] = 2.31-3.54 and 1.59-2.28, respectively) than were women with neither disorder. After adjustment for VMS and sleep disturbance, the comorbid group continued to have low HRQOL on these domains (OR = 2.13-3.07), whereas the association was significant on SF and BP only for the depression-alone group (OR = 2.08 and 1.95, respectively). Compared with women with neither disorder, the anxiety-only group had low HRQOL on the RP domain (OR = 2.60). Sleep disturbance, but not VMS, was independently associated with low HRQOL on all the domains except RE. A history of both depression and anxiety has the most robust negative effect on HRQOL in women during midlife, an association not explained by VMS or sleep disturbance. For the depression-alone group, sleep disturbance may partially explain the negative impact of previous

  4. Prevalence and predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety, depression, and burnout in Pakistani earthquake recovery workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ehring, T.; Razik, S.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.

    2011-01-01

    Past research has shown a substantial prevalence of emotional disorders in professionals involved in rescue and/or relief operations following natural disasters, including earthquakes. However, no published study to date has investigated whether disaster rehabilitation and reconstruction workers

  5. Prevalence and predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety, depression, and burnout in Pakistani earthquake recovery workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ehring, T.; Razik, S.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.

    2011-01-01

    Past research has shown a substantial prevalence of emotional disorders in professionals involved in rescue and/or relief operations following natural disasters, including earthquakes. However, no published study to date has investigated whether disaster rehabilitation and reconstruction workers inv

  6. Pathogenic involvement of neuropeptides in anxiety and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alldredge, Brett

    2010-06-01

    Anxiety and depression are highly prevalent disorders of mood posing significant challenges to individuals and society. Current evidence indicates no single neurobiological determinant underpins these conditions and an integrated approach in both research and treatment is expedient. Basic, behavioral, and clinical science indicates various stress-responsive neuropeptides in the neuroendocrine, autonomic, and behavioral pathophysiology of stress-related disorders including anxiety and depression. This review draws on recent research to capture the consensus and implications of neuropeptide research concerning the pathogenesis of anxiety and depression.

  7. Sensitivity to depression or anxiety and subclinical cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seldenrijk, Adrie; van Hout, Hein P. J.; van Marwijk, Harm W. J.; de Groot, Eric; Gort, Johan; Rustemeijer, Cees; Diamant, Michaela; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Depressive and anxiety disorders are highly overlapping, heterogeneous conditions that both have been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Cognitive vulnerability traits for these disorders could help to specify what exactly drives CVD risk in depressed and

  8. Social Anxiety Disorder (Social Phobia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Social anxiety disorder (social phobia) Overview It's normal to feel nervous in some social situations. For example, going on ... of butterflies in your stomach. But in social anxiety disorder, also called social phobia, everyday interactions cause ...

  9. Procedural validity of the AUDADIS-5 depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder modules: substance abusers and others in the general population*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasin, Deborah S.; Shmulewitz, Dvora; Stohl, Malka; Greenstein, Eliana; Aivadyan, Christina; Morita, Kara; Saha, Tulshi; Aharonovich, Efrat; Jung, Jeesun; Zhang, Haitao; Nunes, Edward V.; Grant, Bridget F.

    2016-01-01

    Background Little is known about the procedural validity of lay-administered, fully-structured assessments of depressive, anxiety and post-traumatic stress (PTSD) disorders in the general population as determined by comparison to clinical re-appraisal, and whether this differs between current regular substance abusers and others. We evaluated the procedural validity of the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule, DSM-5 Version (AUDADIS-5) assessment of these disorders through clinician re-interviews. Methods Test-retest design among respondents from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III (NESARC-III): (264 current regular substance abusers, 447 others). Clinicians blinded to AUDADIS-5 results administered the semi-structured Psychiatric Research Interview for Substance and Mental Disorders, DSM-5 version (PRISM-5). AUDADIS-5/PRISM-5 concordance was indicated by kappa (κ) for diagnoses and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) for dimensional measures (DSM-5 symptom or criterion counts). Results were compared between current regular substance abusers and others. Results AUDADIS-5 and PRISM-5 concordance for DSM-5 depressive disorders, anxiety disorders and PTSD was generally fair to moderate (κ =0.24–0.59), with concordance on dimensional scales much better (ICC=0.53–0.81). Concordance differed little between regular substance abusers and others. Conclusions AUDADIS-5/PRISM-5 concordance indicated procedural validity for the AUDADIS-5 among substance abusers and others, suggesting that AUDADIS-5 diagnoses of DSM-5 depressive, anxiety and PTSD diagnoses are informative measures in both groups in epidemiologic studies. The stronger concordance on dimensional measures supports the current movement towards dimensional psychopathology measures, suggesting that such measures provide important information for research in the NESARC-III and other datasets, and possibly for clinical purposes as well. PMID

  10. Utilization of Professional Mental Health Services Related to Population-Level Screening for Anxiety, Depression, and Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Among Public High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska, John D; Le, Vi Donna; Baillargeon, Jacques; Temple, Jeff R

    2016-08-01

    This study examines results from three mental health screening measures in a cohort of adolescent public school students in seven public schools in Southeast Texas affiliated with the Dating it Safe study. We estimated the odds of receiving professional mental health treatment in the previous year given results from different mental health screening batteries: the CES-D 10 battery for depression screening, the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Disorders, and the Primary Care Posttraumatic Stress Disorder screen. Overall, students with higher scores on screening instruments for depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and combinations of screening instruments were more likely to have sought past-year professional mental health treatment than non-symptomatic youth. However, the proportion of students screening positive and receiving professional treatment was low, ranging from 11 to 16 %. This study emphasizes the need for broader evaluation of population-based mental health screening among adolescents.

  11. The association of depression and anxiety with pain: a study from NESDA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric W de Heer

    Full Text Available Chronic pain is commonly co-morbid with a depressive or anxiety disorder. Objective of this study is to examine the influence of depression, along with anxiety, on pain-related disability, pain intensity, and pain location in a large sample of adults with and without a depressive and/or anxiety disorder. The study population consisted of 2981 participants with a depressive, anxiety, co-morbid depressive and anxiety disorder, remitted disorder or no current disorder (controls. Severity of depressive and anxiety symptoms was also assessed. In separate multinomial regression analyses, the association of presence of depressive or anxiety disorders and symptom severity with the Chronic Pain Grade and location of pain was explored. Presence of a depressive (OR = 6.67; P<.001, anxiety (OR = 4.84; P<.001, or co-morbid depressive and anxiety disorder (OR = 30.26; P<.001 was associated with the Chronic Pain Grade. Moreover, symptom severity was associated with more disabling and severely limiting pain. Also, a remitted depressive or anxiety disorder showed more disabling and severely limiting pain (OR = 3.53; P<.001 as compared to controls. A current anxiety disorder (OR = 2.96; p<.001 and a co-morbid depressive and anxiety disorder (OR = 5.15; P<.001 were more strongly associated with cardio-respiratory pain, than gastro-intestinal or musculoskeletal pain. These findings remain after adjustment for chronic cardio respiratory illness. Patients with a current and remitted depressive and/or anxiety disorder and those with more severe symptoms have more disabling pain and pain of cardio-respiratory nature, than persons without a depressive or anxiety disorder. This warrants further research.

  12. Binge Eating Disorder Mediates Links between Symptoms of Depression, Anxiety, and Caloric Intake in Overweight and Obese Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseann E. Peterson

    2012-01-01

    . The associations between internalizing symptoms and food intake are best described as operating indirectly through a BED diagnosis. This suggests that symptoms of depression and anxiety influence whether one engages in binge eating, which influences kcal intake. Greater understanding of the mechanisms underlying the associations between mood, binge eating, and food intake will facilitate the development of more effective prevention and treatment strategies for both BED and obesity.

  13. Effects of levomilnacipran ER on noradrenergic symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and functional impairment in adults with major depressive disorder: Post hoc analysis of 5 clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blier, Pierre; Gommoll, Carl; Chen, Changzheng; Kramer, Kenneth

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the effects of levomilnacipran extended-release (LVM-ER; 40-120mg/day) on noradrenergic (NA) and anxiety-related symptoms in adults with major depressive disorder (MDD) and explore the relationship between these symptoms and functional impairment. Data were pooled from 5 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials (N=2598). Anxiety and NA Cluster scores were developed by adding selected item scores from the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD17). A path analysis was conducted to estimate the direct effects of LVM-ER on functional impairment (Sheehan Disability Scale [SDS] total score) and the indirect effects through changes in NA and Anxiety Cluster scores. Mean improvements from baseline in NA and Anxiety Cluster scores were significantly greater with LVM-ER versus placebo (both PAnxiety Cluster (39% vs 36%; odds ratio=1.19; P=0.041). Mean improvement in SDS total score was also significantly greater with LVM-ER versus placebo (-7.3 vs -5.6; PAnxiety Cluster score change (18%); the direct effect was negligible. NA and Anxiety Cluster scores, developed based on the face validity of individual MADRS and HAMD17 items, were not predefined as efficacy outcomes in any of the studies. In adults with MDD, LVM-ER indirectly improved functional impairment mainly through improvements in NA symptoms and less so via anxiety symptoms. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Time-dependent risk of depression, anxiety, and stress-related disorders in patients with invasive and in situ breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haomin; Brand, Judith S; Fang, Fang; Chiesa, Flaminia; Johansson, Anna L V; Hall, Per; Czene, Kamila

    2017-02-15

    Despite concerns about the mental health of breast cancer patients, little is known regarding the temporal risk pattern and risk factors of common mental disorders among these patients. We estimated standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) of depression, anxiety and stress-related disorders in a Swedish nationwide cohort of 40,849 women with invasive and 4,402 women with in situ breast cancer (2001-2010, median follow-up = 4.5 years). The impact of patient, tumor and treatment characteristics was analyzed using flexible parametric survival models in a regional cohort of 7,940 invasive breast cancer patients (2001-2013, median follow-up = 7.5 years). Women with invasive breast cancer showed increased rates of depression, anxiety and stress-related disorders [overall SIR (95% CI) = 1.57 (1.46-1.69), 1.55 (1.43-1.68) and 1.77 (1.60-1.95), respectively]. SIRs were highest shortly after diagnosis, but remained increased up to 5 years. Younger age at diagnosis, comorbidity, higher-grade disease, lymph node involvement and chemotherapy were independently associated with the risk of depression and anxiety in invasive cancer patients, with chemotherapy and higher-grade disease conferring short-term risk only, while comorbidities were mainly associated with late-onset events. No clinical risk factors were identified for stress-related disorders except for a greater risk associated with younger age. Patients with in situ cancer only showed an increased incidence of stress-related disorders during the first 6 months after diagnosis [SIR (95% CI) = 2.76 (1.31-5.79)]. The time-dependent risk profile of invasive cancer patients may guide health care professionals for timely and targeted psycho-oncologic interventions. © 2016 UICC.

  15. Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT) 2016 Clinical Guidelines for the Management of Adults with Major Depressive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balneaves, Lynda G.; Faulkner, Guy; Ortiz, Abigail; McIntosh, Diane; Morehouse, Rachel L.; Ravindran, Lakshmi; Yatham, Lakshmi N.; Kennedy, Sidney H.; Lam, Raymond W.; MacQueen, Glenda M.; Milev, Roumen V.; Parikh, Sagar V.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT) conducted a revision of the 2009 guidelines by updating the evidence and recommendations. The scope of the 2016 guidelines remains the management of major depressive disorder (MDD) in adults, with a target audience of psychiatrists and other mental health professionals. Methods: Using the question-answer format, we conducted a systematic literature search focusing on systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Evidence was graded using CANMAT-defined criteria for level of evidence. Recommendations for lines of treatment were based on the quality of evidence and clinical expert consensus. “Complementary and Alternative Medicine Treatments” is the fifth of six sections of the 2016 guidelines. Results: Evidence-informed responses were developed for 12 questions for 2 broad categories of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) interventions: 1) physical and meditative treatments (light therapy, sleep deprivation, exercise, yoga, and acupuncture) an