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Sample records for depression anxiety anger

  1. Anger Feelings and Anger Expression as a Mediator of the Effects of Witnessing Family Violence on Anxiety and Depression in Japanese Adolescents

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    Kitamura, Toshinori; Hasui, Chieko

    2006-01-01

    The effects of anger feelings (rated by the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory) and witnessing family violence on anxiety and depression (rated by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale) were examined in 457 junior high school students. Anxiety and depression scores were correlated with frequencies of witnessing family violence. In a…

  2. Perfectionism and negative affect after repeated failure: Anxiety, depression, and anger

    OpenAIRE

    Stoeber, Joachim; Schneider, Natalia; Hussain, Rimi; Matthews, Kelly

    2014-01-01

    Perfectionists have shown increased negative affect after failure compared to nonperfectionists. However, little is known about how perfectionists react to repeated failure. This study investigated the effects of two forms of perfectionism--self-oriented perfectionism and socially prescribed perfectionism--on 100 university students’ reactions to repeated failure (versus repeated success) examining three negative emotions: anxiety, depression, and anger. Results showed that socially prescribe...

  3. Prognostic value of depression, anxiety, and anger in hospitalized cardiovascular disease patients for predicting adverse cardiac outcomes.

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    Nakamura, Shunichi; Kato, Koji; Yoshida, Asuka; Fukuma, Nagaharu; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Ito, Hiroto; Mizuno, Kyoichi

    2013-05-15

    Although attention has recently been focused on the role of psychosocial factors in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD), the factors that have the greatest influence on prognosis have not yet been elucidated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of depression, anxiety, and anger on the prognosis of patients with CVD. Four hundred fourteen consecutive patients hospitalized with CVD were prospectively enrolled. Depression was evaluated using the Patient Health Questionnaire, anxiety using the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Questionnaire, and anger using the Spielberger Trait Anger Scale. Cox proportional-hazards regression was used to examine the individual effects of depression, anxiety, and anger on a combined primary end point of cardiac death or cardiac hospitalization and on a combined secondary end point of all-cause death or hospitalization during follow-up (median 14.2 months). Multivariate analysis showed that depression was a significant risk factor for cardiovascular hospitalization or death after adjusting for cardiac risk factors and other psychosocial factors (hazard ratio 2.62, p = 0.02), whereas anxiety was not significantly associated with cardiovascular hospitalization or death after adjustment (hazard ratio 2.35, p = 0.10). Anger was associated with a low rate of cardiovascular hospitalization or death (hazard ratio 0.34, p depression in hospitalized patients with CVD is a stronger independent risk factor for adverse cardiac events than either anxiety or anger. Anger may help prevent adverse outcomes. Routine screening for depression should therefore be performed in patients with CVD, and the potential effects of anger in clinical practice should be reconsidered. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Hostility/anger as a mediator between college students' emotion regulation abilities and symptoms of depression, social anxiety, and generalized anxiety.

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    Asberg, Kia

    2013-01-01

    Internalizing problems are common among college students and have been linked consistently to deficits in emotion regulation (ER). Also, hostility/anger (animosity toward others, phenomenological aspect of anger) is an important feature of internalizing problems, but has received limited attention as a mediator between ER and outcomes. Results (N = 160) indicated that although college students' ER abilities corresponded with all three types of internalizing symptoms, hostility/anger mediated fully the relationship for symptoms of depression and social anxiety, but not generalized anxiety (GAD). The stronger interpersonal aspect inherent in depression and social anxiety relative to GAD may in part explain findings, but findings must be viewed in lieu of limitations, which include self-report, a non-clinical sample, and a cross-sectional design. Overall, hostility/anger may be important to address in interventions and programs aimed at reducing internalizing problems, especially among those who demonstrate ER deficits and are prone to depression and social anxiety.

  5. Anger profiles in social anxiety disorder.

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    Versella, Mark V; Piccirillo, Marilyn L; Potter, Carrie M; Olino, Thomas M; Heimberg, Richard G

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with social anxiety disorder (SAD) exhibit elevated levels of anger and anger suppression, which are both associated with increased depression, diminished quality of life, and poorer treatment outcomes. However, little is known about how anger experiences differ among individuals with SAD and whether any heterogeneity might relate to negative outcomes. This investigation sought to empirically define anger profiles among 136 treatment-seeking individuals with SAD and to assess their association with distress and impairment. A latent class analysis was conducted utilizing the trait subscales of the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory-2 as indicators of class membership. Analysis revealed four distinct anger profiles, with greatest distress and impairment generally demonstrated by individuals with elevated trait anger, a greater tendency to suppress the expression of anger, and diminished ability to adaptively control their anger expression. These results have implications for tailoring more effective interventions for socially anxious individuals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Anger, anxiety, and depressive affect as predictors of stress-induced cortisol production in khat and tobacco users.

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    Lemieux, Andrine M; Nakajima, Motohiro; Saif-Ali, Riyadh; Al-Habori, Molham; Dokam, Anisa; al'Absi, Mustafa

    2018-07-01

    Glucocorticoid activity is disrupted in substance users including khat chewers who also use tobacco. Anger, dysphoria, and anxiety can mediate this relationship. The aim of this study was to contrast emotion dysregulation and substance use variables as predictors of post-stress cortisol output. Comparable numbers of males (n = 90) and females (n = 85) including controls, khat only, and concurrent khat and tobacco users participated in a stress study. Depressive affect, anxiety, anger, substance use patterns, and saliva samples were collected following a standardized laboratory stress manipulation. Regression analysis showed that high depression and low anxiety was associated with high post-stress cortisol, but only in co-users of tobacco and khat. Males, but not females, showed a significant association between co-use of khat and tobacco and cortisol, which appears to be mediated by frequency of use. The link between anxiety and post-stress cortisol in the co-users remained significant after controlling for nicotine dependence and substance use frequency. Anxiety predicted the neuroendocrine consequences of concurrent use of tobacco and khat above and beyond sex, nicotine dependence, anger, and substance use frequency. Sex differences, however, are related to differences in nicotine dependence. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Sex, Anger and Depression

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    Simon, Robin W.; Lively, Kathryn

    2010-01-01

    A social problem that has preoccupied sociologists of gender and mental health is the higher rate of depression found among women. Although a number of hypotheses about this health disparity between men and women have been advanced, none consider the importance of subjectively experienced anger. Drawing on theoretical and empirical insights from…

  8. Psychological interventions for the treatment of depression, anxiety, alcohol misuse or anger in armed forces veterans and their families: systematic review and meta-analysis protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, Luke; Watkins, Ed; Farrand, Paul

    2017-06-15

    Evidence highlights a high prevalence of common mental health disorders in armed forces veterans and their families, with depression, anxiety, alcohol misuse and anger being more common than PTSD. This paper presents a protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis to identify existing randomised controlled trial (RCT) research testing the effectiveness of psychological interventions for these difficulties in armed forces veterans and their family members. Electronic databases (CENTRAL, PsycInfo, MEDLINE, CINAHL, The Cochrane Register of Clinical Trials, EMBASE and ASSIA) will be searched to identify suitable studies for inclusion in the review supplemented by forward and backward reference checking, grey literature searches and contact with subject authors. Research including armed forces veterans and their family members will be included in the review with research including serving personnel or individuals under the age of 18 being excluded. Few RCTs examining the treatment of depression, anxiety, alcohol misuse or anger exist in armed forces veterans to date. The primary outcome will be symptomatic change following intervention for these difficulties. The secondary outcomes will include methodological aspects of interest such as discharge type and recruitment setting if data permits. In the event that the number of studies identified is too low to undertake a meta-analysis, a narrative review will be conducted. Quality assessment will be undertaken using the Cochrane Collaboration Tool and Cochran's Q statistic calculated to test for heterogeneity as suggested by the Cochrane handbook. The review will examine the findings of existing intervention research for depression, anxiety, alcohol misuse or anger in armed forces veterans and their families, along with any effect sizes that may exist. PROSPERO CRD42016036676.

  9. Anger

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    ... mild Traumatic Brain Injury Resilience Families with Kids Depression Families & Friendships Tobacco Life Stress Spirituality Anger Physical Injury Stigma Health & Wellness Work Adjustment Community Peer-2-Peer Forum ...

  10. A Longitudinal Rejection Sensitivity Model of Depression and Aggression: Unique Roles of Anxiety, Anger, Blame, Withdrawal and Retribution.

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    Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J; Nesdale, Drew; Webb, Haley J; Khatibi, Mhasa; Downey, Geraldine

    2016-10-01

    In this longitudinal study, attributional and social processes involved in symptoms of mental health problems (depressive symptoms and aggressive behavior) were identified by investigating anxious and angry rejection sensitivity (RS), causal attributions of self-blame and peer-blame, and responses to rejection threat of withdrawal and retribution. Young adolescents (N = 713, grades 5-7) completed questionnaires three times in their regular classrooms over 14 months. Participants who reported more self-blame for rejection were more likely to withdraw in response to rejection threat, and withdrawal and anxious RS were associated with increased depressive symptoms at T3 relative to T1. In contrast, adolescents higher in the angry form of RS and who reported more peer-blame for rejection were more likely to seek retribution, which in turn was associated with more overt/relational aggressive behavior at T3 relative to T1. Depressive symptom level measured at T1 also was associated with later RS and coping with withdrawal, and aggressive behavior at T1 was associated with later retribution. Sex of the participants did not moderate any longitudinal associations, and only one prospective path, from T1 depressive symptoms to T2 RS anxious, was moderated by age.

  11. Effects of anger regulation and social anxiety on perceived stress

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    Ayano Yamaguchi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The mediating role of social anxiety was explored within the effect of anger regulation on perceived stress in the national sample of American and Japanese older adults. Results indicated that anger suppression is a significant factor in perceived stress mediated by social anxiety. Anger suppression was also directly related to perceived stress. The correlation of anger suppression with social anxiety was stronger in Japan than in the United States. Understanding both universal and culture-specific aspects of emotion regulation and perceived stress will be essential for the development of sound theory, future research, and effective prevention and intervention efforts.

  12. Trait anger but not anxiety predicts incident type 2 diabetes: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).

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    Abraham, Sherley; Shah, Nina G; Diez Roux, Ana; Hill-Briggs, Felicia; Seeman, Teresa; Szklo, Moyses; Schreiner, Pamela J; Golden, Sherita Hill

    2015-10-01

    Prior studies have shown a bidirectional association between depression and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM); however, the prospective associations of anger and anxiety with T2DM have not been established. We hypothesized that trait anger and anxiety would predict incident T2DM, independently of depressive symptoms. In the Multi-ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), we prospectively examined the association of trait anger and trait anxiety (assessed via the Spielberger Trait Anger and Anxiety Scales, respectively) with incident T2DM over 11.4 years in 5598 White, Black, Hispanic, and Chinese participants (53.2% women, mean age 61.6 years) at baseline without prevalent T2DM or cardiovascular disease. We used Cox proportional hazards models to calculate the hazard ratios (HR) of incident T2DM by previously defined anger category (low, moderate, high), and anxiety quartile, as there were no previously defined categories. High total trait anger was associated with incident T2DM (HR 1.50; 95% CI 1.08-2.07) relative to low total trait anger. The association was attenuated following adjustment for waist circumference (HR 1.32; 95% CI 0.94-1.86). Higher anger reaction was also associated with incident T2DM (HR=1.07; 95% CI 1.03-1.11) that remained significant after adjusting for potential confounders/explanatory factors. In contrast, trait anxiety did not predict incident T2DM. High total trait anger and anger reaction are potential modifiable risk factors for T2DM. Further research is needed to explore the mechanisms of the anger-diabetes relationship and to develop preventive interventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Change in depression across adolescence: The role of early anger socialization and child anger.

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    O'Neal, Colleen R; Weston, Lynsey C; He, Xin; Huang, Keng-Yen; Pine, Daniel S; Kamboukos, Dimitra; Brotman, Laurie Miller

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this longitudinal study was to examine the relations of early socialization of anger with change in adolescent depression, and moderation by child anger. Using a sample of low-income, ethnic minority children at familial risk for psychopathology in the United States (n = 92; ages 3-5; 53% female; 65% African American; 27% Latina/o), early anger socialization (i.e., parent response to child anger) was tested as a predictor of change in depression from preadolescence to adolescence [i.e., age 8 (n = 63), 11 (n = 58), and 13 (n = 44)]. A videotaped parent-child interaction was coded for parental socialization of preschooler anger, and psychiatric interviews of depression were conducted three times across preadolescence and adolescence. Major depression diagnoses increased from preadolescence to adolescence. Latent growth modeling indicated parent discouragement of child anger was a significant predictor of an increase in the child's later depression from preadolescence to adolescence, and child anger intensity was a significant moderator. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. All rights reserved.

  14. Depression, Guilt, Anger: Know the Signs of PTSD

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    ... us Depression, Guilt, Anger: Know the Signs of PTSD People who experience traumatic situations react in different ... or use drugs to numb yourself. SOURCES: MedlinePlus: PTSD; National Institute of Mental Health: Coping with Traumatic ...

  15. NATURE VIDEO WATCHING: CONSEQUENCES ON ANGER AND ANXIETY

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    Nicoleta Răban-Motounu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Extensive research has been conducted on the effects of natural environment on people’s well-being, starting with the short term restoring effects on the brain, and continuing with the long-term effects on the emotional self-regulating processes. In the present research we have focused on the latter, trying to connect two of the problems in our world: the violent behavior, and the preservation of natural environment. Thus, the objective was to study the effects of watching a video from nature wild life on anger (the feeling and its expression, and state-anxiety. The statistical analysis indicated that, while there were no significant differences regarding anxiety (worry, internal tension or general mechanisms in dealing with fury, watching the video significantly decreased the feeling of anger, and the tendency to express it either verbally or physically. As a main conclusion we highlight the link between the accessibility of natural environment, and the violent expressions of anger.

  16. Anxiety, depression, and somatization in DSM-III hypochondriasis.

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    Kellner, R; Abbott, P; Winslow, W W; Pathak, D

    1989-01-01

    To assess the severity of distress and of somatization in hypochondriasis, the authors administered several validated self-rating scales of depression, anxiety, somatic symptoms, and anger/hostility to 21 psychiatric outpatients with the DSM-III diagnosis of hypochondriasis and to matched groups of other nonpsychotic psychiatric patients, family practice patients, and employees. Anxiety and somatic symptoms were highest in hypochondriacal patients; depression and anger/hostility did not differ from those of other psychiatric patients but were higher than in the other groups. The findings do not support the theory that hypochondriasis is a defense against anxiety or that it is a masked depression or depressive equivalent. The findings are consistent with the view that the interaction of severe anxiety and severe somatic symptoms is a common feature of the psychopathology of hypochondriasis.

  17. The Effect of Negative Affect on Cognition: Anxiety, Not Anger, Impairs Executive Function

    OpenAIRE

    Shields, Grant S.; Moons, Wesley G.; Tewell, Carl A.; Yonelinas, Andrew P.

    2016-01-01

    It is often assumed that negative affect impairs the executive functions that underlie our ability to control and focus our thoughts. However, support for this claim has been mixed. Recent work has suggested that different negative affective states like anxiety and anger may reflect physiologically separable states with distinct effects on cognition. However, the effects of these two affective states on executive function have never been assessed. As such, we induced anxiety or anger in parti...

  18. Eating Disorders and Major Depression: Role of Anger and Personality

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    Abbate-Daga Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate comorbidity for MD in a large ED sample and both personality and anger as clinical characteristics of patients with ED and MD. We assessed 838 ED patients with psychiatric evaluations and psychometric questionnaires: Temperament and Character Inventory, Eating Disorder Inventory-2, Beck Depression Inventory, and State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory. 19.5% of ED patients were found to suffer from comorbid MD and 48.7% reported clinically significant depressive symptomatology: patients with Anorexia Binge-Purging and Bulimia Nervosa were more likely to be diagnosed with MD. Irritable mood was found in the 73% of patients with MD. High Harm Avoidance (HA and low Self-Directedness (SD predicted MD independently of severity of the ED symptomatology, several clinical variables, and ED diagnosis. Assessing both personality and depressive symptoms could be useful to provide effective treatments. Longitudinal studies are needed to investigate the pathogenetic role of HA and SD for ED and MD.

  19. Depression, self-esteem and anger expression patterns of Korean nursing students.

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    Cha, N H; Sok, S R

    2014-03-01

    According to previous studies, nursing students' anger expression patterns, depression and self-esteem significantly affected the physical and mental well-being of patients. It is of utmost importance that the relationship among them is thoroughly investigated in this study. The purpose of this study was to examine the degrees of anger expression patterns, depression and self-esteem of Korean nursing students and to examine the correlations among them. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study. The subjects consisted of 320 Korean nursing students at colleges in S and G city, Korea. The measurements were based on the Korean standard STAXI (State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory), SCL-90-R (Symptom Checklist-90-Revision) and SLCS-R (Self-Liking/Self-Competence Scale-Revised Version). In the analysis of the degrees of variances, the subjects showed lower anger repression, anger expression, control of anger and depression. The degree of self-esteem revealed a higher than the median value. There were significant correlations among anger expression patterns (anger repression, anger expression and anger control), depression and self-esteem. The study limitations were the degree of representativeness of the setting and sample, and its generalizability. Based on the findings of this study, interventions are needed for Korean nursing students in order to promote anger management and improved self-esteem. The development of an anger control programme for nursing students should focus on lowering depression and enhancing self-esteem. One of the policy issues focused on providing anger management programmes for lowering depression and enhancing self-esteem. This study will enable nursing students to recognize the importance of controlling their anger, enhancing their self-esteem, establishing positive emotions and improving their overall well-being as future professional nurses. © 2013 International Council of Nurses.

  20. Investigating the Role of Interpersonal Sensitivity, Anger, and Perfectionism in Social Anxiety.

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    Mohammadian, Youkhabeh; Mahaki, Behzad; Dehghani, Mahmoud; Vahid, Mohammadkazem Atef; Lavasani, Fahimeh Fathali

    2018-01-01

    The investigation of personality characteristics and emotional experiences of the people suffering from anxiety disorders is one of the most important issues which are considered by researchers and clinicians. Perfectionism, sensitivity to interpersonal rejection, and anger are personality traits related to social anxiety. In social anxiety disorder, it has also been focused on anger as a personality characteristic and as an emotional condition. The main purpose of this work is to investigate the role of these variables in predicting social anxiety among a nonclinical group of Iranian students. In this cross-sectional study, 131 students completed the self-report version of Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale Self-Report version (LSAS-SR), Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (FMPS), Interpersonal Sensitivity Measure (IPSM), and State and Trait Anger Expression Inventory. Multiple linear regressions were conducted to examine the concurrent associations between perfectionism, interpersonal sensitivity and quality of emotional experience, and expression of anger with severity of self-report social anxiety. Greater levels of FMPS total were significantly associated with a greater level of LSAS total, fear, and avoidance of social and functional situations ( P = 0.022, P = 0.024, and P = 0.006). Moreover, a significant positive correlation between IPSM total ( P = 0.015) with fear and also between anger expression index ( P = 0.009) with avoidance subscale were found. In accordance to the previous researches, we found that perfectionism, interpersonal sensitivity, anger experience, and anger expression skills are related to social anxiety. How these personality traits are related to fear and avoidance of social situations and their concurrent effects on predicting social anxiety were discussed.

  1. Investigating the role of interpersonal sensitivity, Anger, and Perfectionism in social anxiety

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    Youkhabeh Mohammadian

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The investigation of personality characteristics and emotional experiences of the people suffering from anxiety disorders is one of the most important issues which are considered by researchers and clinicians. Perfectionism, sensitivity to interpersonal rejection, and anger are personality traits related to social anxiety. In social anxiety disorder, it has also been focused on anger as a personality characteristic and as an emotional condition. The main purpose of this work is to investigate the role of these variables in predicting social anxiety among a nonclinical group of Iranian students. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 131 students completed the self-report version of Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale Self-Report version (LSAS-SR, Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (FMPS, Interpersonal Sensitivity Measure (IPSM, and State and Trait Anger Expression Inventory. Multiple linear regressions were conducted to examine the concurrent associations between perfectionism, interpersonal sensitivity and quality of emotional experience, and expression of anger with severity of self-report social anxiety. Results: Greater levels of FMPS total were significantly associated with a greater level of LSAS total, fear, and avoidance of social and functional situations (P = 0.022, P = 0.024, and P = 0.006. Moreover, a significant positive correlation between IPSM total (P = 0.015 with fear and also between anger expression index (P = 0.009 with avoidance subscale were found. Conclusions: In accordance to the previous researches, we found that perfectionism, interpersonal sensitivity, anger experience, and anger expression skills are related to social anxiety. How these personality traits are related to fear and avoidance of social situations and their concurrent effects on predicting social anxiety were discussed.

  2. The effect of negative affect on cognition: Anxiety, not anger, impairs executive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Grant S; Moons, Wesley G; Tewell, Carl A; Yonelinas, Andrew P

    2016-09-01

    It is often assumed that negative affect impairs the executive functions that underlie our ability to control and focus our thoughts. However, support for this claim has been mixed. Recent work has suggested that different negative affective states like anxiety and anger may reflect physiologically separable states with distinct effects on cognition. However, the effects of these 2 affective states on executive function have never been assessed. As such, we induced anxiety or anger in participants and examined the effects on executive function. We found that anger did not impair executive function relative to a neutral mood, whereas anxiety did. In addition, self-reports of induced anxiety, but not anger, predicted impairments in executive function. These results support functional models of affect and cognition, and highlight the need to consider differences between anxiety and anger when investigating the influence of negative affect on fundamental cognitive processes such as memory and executive function. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Anxiety, depression and tobacco abstinence.

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    Almadana Pacheco, Virginia; Gómez-Bastero Fernández, Ana Paulina; Valido Morales, Agustín; Luque Crespo, Estefanía; Monserrat, Soledad; Montemayor Rubio, Teodoro

    2017-09-29

    There is evidence of the relationship between mental illness and smoking and increased risk of depressive episodes after quitting smoking, even with specific treatments for abstinence. To assess the influence of a cessation program on the emotional state of patients by measuring levels of anxiety / depression and differences depending on the presence of psychiatric history. A prospective observational study of patients taking part in a combined program (pharmacological and cognitive-behavioral) for giving up smoking. Anxiety (A) and depression (D) were measured using the HADS questionnaire at baseline, first and third month of abstinence. Anxiety and depression showed significant and progressive improvement during treatment (A: baseline 9.2 ± 4.5, 5.9 ± 3.6 1 month, 3 months 4.5 ± 3.1, p.

  4. Hope, anger, and depression as mediators for forgiveness and social behavior in Turkish children.

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    Taysi, Ebru; Curun, Ferzan; Orcan, Fatih

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the mediating effects of hope, anger, and depression in the associations between forgiveness and social behavior, in fourth grade students in Turkey. The 352 fourth grade primary school students were involved in the study. The average age was 9.98 and 56.3% were boys. The Enright Forgiveness Inventory for Children (EFI-C), the Beck Anger Inventory for Youth (BANI-Y), the Children Hope Scale (CHS), the Social Behavior Questionnaire (SBQ), and the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) were used. Results showed that depression mediates the relationship between anger and antisocial behavior and between hope and antisocial behavior. Anger mediates the relationship between hope and depression and between hope and antisocial behavior. Forgiveness was related to anger and hope directly. Implications of this study for child counseling were discussed.

  5. Reiki for depression and anxiety.

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    Joyce, Janine; Herbison, G Peter

    2015-04-03

    Anxiety and depression affect many people. Treatments do not have complete success and often require people to take drugs for long periods of time. Many people look for other treatments that may help. One of those is Reiki, a 2500 year old treatment described as a vibrational or subtle energy therapy, and is most commonly facilitated by light touch on or above the body. There have been reports of Reiki alleviating anxiety and depression, but no specific systematic review. To assess the effectiveness of Reiki for treating anxiety and depression in people aged 16 and over. Search of the Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL - all years), the Cochrane Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis Review Group's Specialised Register (CCDANCTR - all years), EMBASE, (1974 to November 2014), MEDLINE (1950 to November 2014), PsycINFO (1967 to November 2014) and AMED (1985 to November 2014). Additional searches were carried out on the World Health Organization Trials Portal (ICTRP) together with ClinicalTrials.gov to identify any ongoing or unpublished studies. All searches were up to date as of 4 November 2014. Randomised trials in adults with anxiety or depression or both, with at least one arm treated with Reiki delivered by a trained Reiki practitioner. The two authors independently decided on inclusion/exclusion of studies and extracted data. A prior analysis plan had been specified but was not needed as the data were too sparse. We found three studies for inclusion in the review. One recruited males with a biopsy-proven diagnosis of non-metastatic prostate cancer who were not receiving chemotherapy and had elected to receive external-beam radiation therapy; the second study recruited community-living participants who were aged 55 years and older; the third study recruited university students.These studies included subgroups with anxiety and depression as defined by symptom scores and provided data separately for those subgroups. As this included only 25 people with

  6. Depression and Pain: Independent and Additive Relationships to Anger Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    views of anger: consensus and controversy. In: International Handbook of Anger. Edited by Potegal M, Stemmler G, Spielberger C. New York, Springer... Spielberger CD, Johnson EH, Russell SF, Crane RJ, Jacobs GA, Worden TJ: The experience and expression of anger: construction and validation of an

  7. Depression and anxiety in hypothyroidism.

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    Demet, M M; Ozmen, B; Deveci, A; Boyvada, S; Adiguzel, H; Aydemir, O

    2003-09-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and severity of depression and anxiety in patients with hypothyroidism and to compare this with euthyroid patients. Thirty patients with hypothyroidism and 30 euthyroid controls attending the Endocrinology outpatient department of Celal Bayar University, Medical Faculty were included in the study. The hormonal screening was done by immunoassay and haemagglutination methods. Then, for psychiatric assessment, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D), and Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A) were used. There was no difference between the two groups in terms of demographic features. Total scores obtained from the scales used in the study did not differ significantly (p > 0.05). The frequency of items of both HAM-D and HAM-A did not show any differences in the two groups. By Wilks' Lambda discriminant analysis, depressive mood (HAM-D#1) was found to be the discriminating feature between the hypothyroid group and the euthyroid group. Therefore, depression and anxiety were not outstanding features in hypothyrodism. However, depression was more significant in the hypothyroid than euthyroid group.

  8. Anger Management and Factors that Influence Anger in Physicians

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    Emel Koçer

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: There are limited data regarding anger and its management with respect to physicians and many other professionals. Our objective was to evaluate anger expression and control in physicians. Material and Methods: The physicians of the Düzce School of Medicine were the participants in the study. Physicians were assigned to either an internal medicine or a surgery study group. Each group contained physicians from several specialties. The Spielberger State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory, and the Beck Anxiety and Depression Inventories were administered to all participants. The physicians (n=158 were evaluated and compared with controls (n=105 in terms of anger control and sociodemographic variables. Results: Anger-control scores were higher in physicians (p<0.01 and in those who willingly chose the medical profession (p<0.05. Age, number of years as a physician, and the specialty were negatively correlated with anger management in physicians working in the surgical disciplines (p<0.01. Only Beck anxiety and depression scores were positively correlated with anger-trait scores and anger-in scores for physicians working in the internal medicine disciplines (p<0.01.Conclusion: Physicians were relatively successful in coping with anger. A willingness to choose the medical profession was a factor influencing anger control. Age was the major factor affecting anger management in physicians.

  9. The Beliefs, Attitudes and Views of University Students about Anger and the Effects of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy-Oriented Anger Control and Anxiety Management Programs on Their Anger Management Skill Levels

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    Karahan, T. Fikret; Yalçin, B. Murat; Erbas, Melda M.

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed as a qualitative focus group using a randomized controlled trail with a mixed methodology. The study has dual aims. First we searched the beliefs, attitudes and views of 176 university students on how to deal with anger using eight focus discussion groups. The anxiety and anger levels of these students were investigated…

  10. Depression and Anxiety in Migraine Patients

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    ... Spotlight On News Content Capsule Contact Understanding Migraine Depression and Anxiety in Migraine Patients Doctor Q&A ... of Headache Disorders Cluster Headache Post-Traumatic Headache Depression and Anxiety in Migraine Patients August 13, 2015 ...

  11. Examination of Anxiety Levels and Anger Expression Manners of Undergraduate Table Tennis Players

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    Karademir, Tamer; Türkçapar, Ünal

    2016-01-01

    This research was done for the determination of how their anxiety levels' and anger expressions' get shaped according to some variances. For this reason there were 76 female 125 male totally 201 sportsmen, who participated to the table tennis championship between universities in 2016 and ages differ from 18 to 28, were included the research group.…

  12. Depression and anxiety in hyperthyroidism.

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    Demet, Mehmet Murat; Ozmen, Bilgin; Deveci, Artuner; Boyvada, Sibel; Adigüzel, Hakan; Aydemir, Omer

    2002-01-01

    Our objective was to determine symptomatology of depression and anxiety in patients with untreated hyperthyroidism and compare with euthyroid patients. Thirty-two patients with hyperthyroidism (high free T3 and free T4, and suppressed TSH) and 30 euthyroid (normal free T3, free T4, and TSH) controls attending the Endocrinology Out-Patient Department at Celal Bayar University Hospital in Manisa, Turkey were included in the study. Hormonal screening was performed by immunoassay and hemagglutination method. For psychiatric assessment, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale [HAD], Hamilton Depression Rating Scale [HAM-D], and Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale [HAM-A] were used. There was no difference between the two groups in terms of demographic features. Total scores obtained both from HAM-D and HAM-A were significantly greater in the hyperthyroidism group than that of the euthyroid group (p weight loss (HAM-D#16), insomnia (HAM-A#4), and cardiovascular symptoms (HAM-A#8) were significantly more frequent in the hyperthyroidism group. By Wilks lambda discriminant analysis, psychomotor agitation (HAM-D#9), weight loss (HAM-D#16), and insomnia (HAM-A#4) were found as the discriminating symptoms for the hyperthyroidism group, whereas somatic anxiety (HAM-A#11) and loss of interest (HAD#14) were distinguishing symptoms of the euthyroidism group. Hyperthyroidism and syndromal depression-anxiety have overlapping features that can cause misdiagnosis during acute phase. For differential diagnosis, one should follow-up patients with hyperthyroidism with specific hormonal treatment and evaluate persisting symptoms thereafter. In addition to specific symptoms of hyperthyroidism, psychomotor retardation, guilt, muscle pain, energy loss, and fatigue seem to appear more frequently in patients with comorbid depression and hyperthyroidism; thus, presence of these symptoms should be a warning sign to nonpsychiatric professionals for the need for psychiatric consultation.

  13. Anger expression, violent behavior, and symptoms of depression among male college students in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terasaki, Dale J; Gelaye, Bizu; Berhane, Yemane; Williams, Michelle A

    2009-01-12

    Depression is an important global public health problem. Given the scarcity of studies involving African youths, this study was conducted to evaluate the associations of anger expression and violent behavior with symptoms of depression among male college students. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information on socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics and violent behavior among 1,176 college students in Awassa, Ethiopia in June, 2006. The questionnaire incorporated the Spielberger Anger-Out Expression (SAOE) scale and symptoms of depression were evaluated using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Multivariable logistic regression procedures were used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). Symptoms of depression were evident in 23.6% of participants. Some 54.3% of students reported committing at least one act of violence in the current academic year; and 29.3% of students reported high (SAOE score > or = 15) levels of anger-expression. In multivariate analysis, moderate (OR = 1.97; 95%CI 1.33-2.93) and high (OR = 3.23; 95%CI 2.14-4.88) outward anger were statistically significantly associated with increased risks of depressive symptoms. Violent behavior was noted to be associated with depressive symptoms (OR = 1.82; 95%CI 1.37-2.40). Further research should be conducted to better characterize community and individual level determinants of anger-expression, violent behavior and depression among youths.

  14. The relationship of anxiety to childhood depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norvell, N; Brophy, C; Finch, A J

    1985-04-01

    In order to investigate the relationship between anxiety and depression in emotionally disturbed children, 30 hospitalized inpatient children were individually administered the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI), the Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale-Revised (CMAS-R), and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children (STAIC). Results indicated a significant relationship between CDI scores, the CMAS-R and its factors, and the STAIC. Correlations between the various factors of anxiety and depression suggest a complex relationship between the two constructs. Stepwise regression analyses indicated further the complexity of this relationship. Results were discussed in terms of the possible differential role which the different anxiety factors play in depression.

  15. Predictors of suicidal ideation in a community sample: roles of anger, self-esteem, and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jin-Mahn; Park, Jong-Il; Oh, Keun-Young; Lee, Keon-Hak; Kim, Myung Sig; Yoon, Myeong-Sook; Ko, Sung-Hee; Cho, Hye-Chung; Chung, Young-Chul

    2014-04-30

    The objective of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the relationships of anger, self-esteem, and depression with suicidal ideation. A survey was conducted in a wide range of community areas across Jeollabuk-do Province, Korea. A total of 2964 subjects (mean age=44.4yr) participated in this study. Hierarchical regression was used to investigate predictors of suicidal ideation in terms of their sociodemographic characteristics, depression, self-esteem, and anger. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that anger and self-esteem were significantly associated with suicidal ideation regardless of age and after controlling for depression. Moderation analysis showed that the impact of anger on suicidal ideation was significantly greater among females than males in adolescents, but not in other age groups. Additionally, there were some differences in sociodemographic predictors of suicidal ideation among age groups. Predictors included gender and family harmony in adolescents, marital status and family harmony in middle-aged individuals, and economic status and family harmony in elderly individuals. Our results revealed that anger and self-esteem play important roles in suicidal ideation beyond the effect of depression. Development and implementation of preventive strategies, including management of anger and self-esteem, could possibly reduce suicidal ideation and subsequent suicide attempts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Depression and anxiety one month after stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cha-Nam Shin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Depression and anxiety after stroke negatively affect patient outcomes; however, health care professionals may overlook poststroke depression and anxiety while they focus on the physical disabilities of patients soon after a stroke. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence and predictors of depression, anxiety, or both concurrently at one month after stroke. We conducted a cross-sectional, descriptive study in a sample of 231 hospitalized patients with ischemic stroke in Korea. Data were collected by interviews using a series of structured questionnaires in addition to clinical data retrieved from patients’ medical records. More than 70% were identified as depressed, 45.9% experienced anxiety, and 43.7% had concurrent depression and anxiety. Using a multiple logistic regression analysis, we identified anxiety as a predictor of depression; depression as a predictor of anxiety; and female sex, headaches, and swallowing difficulty as predictors of the comorbidity of depression and anxiety. Periodical screenings for poststroke depression and anxiety from an early stage in a hospital to years after stroke in a community are recommended to provide better chances for early identification of patients at risk because depression and anxiety may manifest at any stage of recovery. Special attention should be given to individuals with culture-bound somatic symptoms in addition to female patients and those who have difficulty swallowing among Korean stroke patients.

  17. Digital Media, Anxiety, and Depression in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoge, Elizabeth; Bickham, David; Cantor, Joanne

    2017-11-01

    There are growing concerns about the impact of digital technologies on children's emotional well-being, particularly regarding fear, anxiety, and depression. The 2 mental health categories of anxiety and depression will be discussed together because there is significant symptom overlap and comorbidity. Early research has explored the impact of traditional media (eg, television, movies) on children's acute fears, which can result in anxieties and related sleep disturbances that are difficult to remedy. More recent research deals with the interactive nature of newer media, especially social media, and their impacts on anxiety and depression. Key topics of inquiry include the following: anxiety and depression associated with technology-based negative social comparison, anxiety resulting from lack of emotion-regulation skills because of substituted digital media use, social anxiety from avoidance of social interaction because of substituted digital media use, anxiety because of worries about being inadequately connected, and anxiety, depression, and suicide as the result of cyberbullying and related behavior. A growing body of research confirms the relationship between digital media and depression. Although there is evidence that greater electronic media use is associated with depressive symptoms, there is also evidence that the social nature of digital communication may be harnessed in some situations to improve mood and to promote health-enhancing strategies. Much more research is needed to explore these possibilities. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  18. Anger expression, violent behavior, and symptoms of depression among male college students in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berhane Yemane

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depression is an important global public health problem. Given the scarcity of studies involving African youths, this study was conducted to evaluate the associations of anger expression and violent behavior with symptoms of depression among male college students. Methods A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information on socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics and violent behavior among 1,176 college students in Awassa, Ethiopia in June, 2006. The questionnaire incorporated the Spielberger Anger-Out Expression (SAOE scale and symptoms of depression were evaluated using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9. Multivariable logistic regression procedures were used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI. Results Symptoms of depression were evident in 23.6% of participants. Some 54.3% of students reported committing at least one act of violence in the current academic year; and 29.3% of students reported high (SAOE score ≥ 15 levels of anger-expression. In multivariate analysis, moderate (OR = 1.97; 95%CI 1.33–2.93 and high (OR = 3.23; 95%CI 2.14–4.88 outward anger were statistically significantly associated with increased risks of depressive symptoms. Violent behavior was noted to be associated with depressive symptoms (OR = 1.82; 95%CI 1.37–2.40. Conclusion Further research should be conducted to better characterize community and individual level determinants of anger-expression, violent behavior and depression among youths.

  19. Early onset depression: the relevance of anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, G; Wilhelm, K; Asghari, A

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine risk factors that may differentiate early onset from late onset depression. A non-clinical cohort that had been assessed from 1978 to 1993 at 5 yearly intervals and that had a high prevalence rate of lifetime depression took part in the study. We established an appropriate age cut-off to distinguish early onset (i.e. before 26 years) of major and of minor depression, and examined the relevance of a number of possible determinants of early onset depression assessed over the life of the study. Despite several dimensional measures of depression, self-esteem and personality being considered, they generally failed (when assessed early in the study) to discriminate subsequent early onset depression, with the exception of low masculinity scores being a weak predictor of major and/or minor depression. Early onset depression was strongly predicted, however, by a lifetime episode of a major anxiety disorder, with generalised anxiety being a somewhat stronger and more consistent predictor than panic disorder, agoraphobia and minor anxiety disorders (ie social phobia, simple phobia). The possibility that anxiety may act as a key predispositional factor to early onset depression and to a greater number of depressive episodes is important in that clinical assessment and treatment of any existing anxiety disorder may be a more efficient and useful strategy than focussing primarily on the depressive disorder.

  20. Anxiety, not anger, induces inflammatory activity: An avoidance/approach model of immune system activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moons, Wesley G; Shields, Grant S

    2015-08-01

    Psychological stressors reliably trigger systemic inflammatory activity as indexed by levels of proinflammatory cytokines. This experiment demonstrates that one's specific emotional reaction to a stressor may be a significant determinant of whether an inflammatory reaction occurs in response to that stressor. Based on extant correlational evidence and theory, a causal approach was used to determine whether an avoidant emotion (anxiety) triggers more inflammatory activity than an approach emotion (anger). In an experimental design (N = 40), a 3-way Emotion Condition × Time × Analyte interaction revealed that a writing-based anxiety induction, but not a writing-based anger induction, increased mean levels of interferon-γ (IFN- γ) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β), but not interleukin-6 (IL-6) in oral mucous, F(2, 54) = 4.64, p = .01, ηp(²) = .15. Further, self-reported state anxiety predicted elevated levels of proinflammatory cytokines, all ΔR(²) >.06, ps emotions can differentially cause inflammatory activity and support a theoretical model explaining these effects based on the avoidance or approach motivations associated with emotions. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Anger Suppression, Interdependent Self-Construal, and Depression among Asian American and European American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Rebecca Y. M.; Park, Irene J. K.

    2010-01-01

    The present study tested a theoretical model of emotion regulation (Yap, Sheeber, & Allen, 2007) in a sample of Asian American and European American college students (N = 365). Specifically, the mediating role of anger suppression in the effect of temperament and family processes on depressive symptoms was tested across race and levels of interdependent self-construal (a culturally based self orientation emphasizing connectedness with others). Next, the moderation of the suppression—depression relation was tested by race and interdependent self-construal. Results indicated that the hypothesized model fit well across Asian American and European American students as well as those with high vs. low levels of interdependent self-construal. Anger suppression was a significant mediator of the hypothesized indirect effects on depressive symptoms. Moreover, race and interdependent self-construal moderated the suppression—depression link, such that Asian American status and a stronger interdependent self-construal attenuated the relation between anger suppression and depressive symptoms. Understanding both universal and culture-specific aspects of emotion regulation in the development of depressive symptoms will be essential for sound theory, future research, and effective prevention and intervention efforts across diverse populations. PMID:21058815

  2. Anger suppression, interdependent self-construal, and depression among Asian American and European American college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Rebecca Y M; Park, Irene J K

    2010-10-01

    The present study tested a theoretical model of emotion regulation (Yap, Sheeber, & Allen, 2007) in a sample of Asian American and European American college students (N = 365). Specifically, the mediating role of anger suppression in the effect of temperament and family processes on depressive symptoms was tested across race and levels of interdependent self-construal (a culturally based self orientation emphasizing connectedness with others). Next, the moderation of the suppression-depression relation was tested by race and interdependent self-construal. Results indicated that the hypothesized model fit well across Asian American and European American students, as well as those with high versus low levels of interdependent self-construal. Anger suppression was a significant mediator of the hypothesized indirect effects on depressive symptoms. Moreover, race and interdependent self-construal moderated the suppression-depression link, such that Asian American status and a stronger interdependent self-construal attenuated the relation between anger suppression and depressive symptoms. Understanding both universal and culture-specific aspects of emotion regulation in the development of depressive symptoms will be essential for sound theory, future research, and effective prevention and intervention efforts across diverse populations. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. Types of Anxiety and Depression: Theoretical Assumptions and Development of the Anxiety and Depression Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Fajkowska

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is addressed to (1 the validation of a recently proposed typology of anxiety and depression, and (2 the presentation of a new tool—the Anxiety and Depression Questionnaire (ADQ—based on this typology. Empirical data collected across two stages—construction and validation—allowed us to offer the final form of the ADQ, designed to measure arousal anxiety, apprehension anxiety, valence depression, anhedonic depression, and mixed types of anxiety and depression. The results support the proposed typology of anxiety and depression and provide evidence that the ADQ is a reliable and valid self-rating measure of affective types, and accordingly its use in scientific research is recommended.

  4. Depression and anxiety in multiple system atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L-Y; Cao, B; Zou, Y-T; Wei, Q-Q; Ou, R-W; Zhao, B; Wu, Y; Shang, H-F

    2018-01-01

    It has been noticed that the patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA) can accompany with depression and anxiety. This study aimed to establish the incidence and determinants of depression and anxiety symptoms in Chinese MSA patients. A total of 237 MSA patients were enrolled in the study. Neuropsychological assessment was performed using Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-24 items and Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale. We found that 62.0% and 71.7% patients had at least mild depression and anxiety symptoms, respectively. The severity of depression of MSA patients was associated with lower educational years (P=.024), longer disease duration (Panxiety was associated with increased disease duration (Panxiety were female gender, longer disease duration, and disease severity. Depression and anxiety symptoms are common in patients with MSA. Neurologists should pay attention to depression and anxiety in patients with MSA, especially in female patients and those with longer disease duration and severe disease condition. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Are Anxiety and Depression the Same Disorder?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carey, Stephen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The issue of co-morbidity in Anxiety and Depression as disorders leads to questions about the integrity of their present taxonomies in mental health diagnostics. At face value the two appear to have discrete differences, yet nonetheless demonstrate a high co-morbidity rate and shared symptoms implying pathological similarities rather than that of chance. Reviewing evidence from behavioural, neural, and biological sources that elaborate on the aspects of these two constructs, helps to illustrate the nature of these apparent differences and similarities. Integrating evidence from the anxiety and depression literature with the pathological process best illustrated by the burnout theory, alongside with support from the neurobiology of anxiety and stress, presents a proposition of a basic and natural anxiety pathology that when excessive, may result in the symptoms psychology has come to know as representative of anxiety and depressive disorders.

  6. Anxiety and Depression Association of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more More News > Follow Us Facebook Twitter RSS YouTube Therapist Directory Search our free ADAA member directory of licensed mental health providers who specialize in anxiety disorders, depression, OCD, PTSD, and related disorders. Find a Therapist ...

  7. Major depressive and anxiety disorders in visually impaired older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Aa, H.P.A.; Comijs, H.C.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; van Rens, G.H.M.B.; van Nispen, R.M.A.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE. We assessed the prevalence of subthreshold depression and anxiety, and major depressive, dysthymic, and anxiety disorders (panic disorder, agoraphobia, social phobia, and general anxiety disorder) in visually impaired older adults and compared these estimates with those of normally sighted

  8. Ecological momentary interventions for depression and anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Schueller, SM; Aguilera, A; Mohr, DC

    2017-01-01

    © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Ecological momentary interventions (EMIs) are becoming more popular and more powerful resources for the treatment and prevention of depression and anxiety due to advances in technological capacity and analytic sophistication. Previous work has demonstrated that EMIs can be effective at reducing symptoms of depression and anxiety as well as related outcomes of stress and at increasing positive psychological functioning. In this review, we highlight the difference...

  9. Depression, anxiety and stress in dental students

    OpenAIRE

    Basudan, Sumaya; Binanzan, Najla; Alhassan, Aseel

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To measure the occurrence and levels of depression, anxiety and stress in undergraduate dental students using the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21). Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in November and December of 2014. A total of 289 dental students were invited to participate, and 277 responded, resulting in a response rate of 96%. The final sample included 247 participants. Eligible participants were surveyed via a self-reported questionnaire that includ...

  10. Depression and Anxiety in University Music Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wristen, Brenda G.

    2013-01-01

    Performance anxiety among musicians and music students has been widely addressed, but far less attention has been given to examining the rates and characteristics of broader mental distress in this population. This study examined depression and anxiety in music students at one university. A considerable number of students reported symptoms…

  11. Depression and anxiety in patients with COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abebaw M. Yohannes

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Under-recognised and untreated depression and anxiety symptoms have deleterious effects on physical functioning and social interaction increasing fatigue and healthcare utilisation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Depression and anxiety are challenging to identify and treat because their symptoms often overlap with those of COPD. The cause(s of depression and anxiety symptoms are multifactorial and include behavioural, social and biological factors. Less than one-third of COPD patients with comorbid depression or anxiety symptoms are receiving appropriate treatment. Factors that contribute to the lack of provision of treatment are varied, they include patient perceived barriers, for example lack of knowledge and reluctance to receive antidepressant drug therapy; poor treatment compliance and lack of a standardised diagnostic approach; and scarcity of adequate resources for mental health treatment. The evidence for the efficacy of antidepressant drug therapy in patients with COPD with comorbid depression and anxiety is inconclusive. There are some promising findings regarding pulmonary rehabilitation, psychological therapy and the collaborative care model in reducing depression and anxiety symptoms in patients with COPD, but these findings are limited by short-term follow-up periods. Further work is required to examine the efficacy of these interventions in randomised controlled trials with larger samples and long-term follow-up.

  12. Anger attacks in obsessive compulsive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitesh Prakash Painuly

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Research on anger attacks has been mostly limited to depression, and only a few studies have focused on anger attacks in obsessive compulsive disorder. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study all new obsessive compulsive disorder patients aged 20-60 years attending an outpatient clinic were assessed using the anger attack questionnaire, irritability, depression and anxiety scale (for the direction of the aggressive behavior and quality of life (QOL. Results: The sample consisted of 42 consecutive subjects with obsessive compulsive disorder, out of which 21 (50% had anger attacks. The obsessive compulsive disorder subjects with and without anger attacks did not show significant differences in terms of sociodemographic variables, duration of illness, treatment, and family history. However, subjects with anger attacks had significantly higher prevalence of panic attacks and comorbid depression. Significantly more subjects with anger attacks exhibited aggressive acts toward spouse, parents, children, and other relatives in the form of yelling and threatening to hurt, trying to hurt, and threatening to leave. However, the two groups did not differ significantly in terms of QOL, except for the psychological domain being worse in the subjects with anger attacks. Conclusion: Anger attacks are present in half of the patients with obsessive compulsive disorder, and they correlate with the presence of comorbid depression.

  13. The influence of self-generated emotions on physical performance: an investigation of happiness, anger, anxiety, and sadness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathschlag, Marco; Memmert, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    The present study examined the relationship between self-generated emotions and physical performance. All participants took part in five emotion induction conditions (happiness, anger, anxiety, sadness, and an emotion-neutral state) and we investigated their influence on the force of the finger musculature (Experiment 1), the jump height of a counter-movement jump (Experiment 2), and the velocity of a thrown ball (Experiment 3). All experiments showed that participants could produce significantly better physical performances when recalling anger or happiness emotions in contrast to the emotion-neutral state. Experiments 1 and 2 also revealed that physical performance in the anger and the happiness conditions was significantly enhanced compared with the anxiety and the sadness conditions. Results are discussed in relation to the Lazarus (1991, 2000a) cognitive-motivational-relational (CMR) theory framework.

  14. Anger Suppression, Interdependent Self-Construal, and Depression among Asian American and European American College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, Rebecca Y. M.; Park, Irene J. K.

    2010-01-01

    The present study tested a theoretical model of emotion regulation (Yap, Sheeber, & Allen, 2007) in a sample of Asian American and European American college students (N = 365). Specifically, the mediating role of anger suppression in the effect of temperament and family processes on depressive symptoms was tested across race and levels of interdependent self-construal (a culturally based self orientation emphasizing connectedness with others). Next, the moderation of the suppression—depressio...

  15. Anxiety and depressive features in chronic disease patients in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anxiety and depression were assessed with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Results: Overall, 17.0% of patients screened positive for anxiety disorder and 39.1% for depressive disorder. Patients with cancer (47.8%) had the highest rate of anxiety features, and those with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ...

  16. An examination of Gestalt contact styles, anger and anxiety levels of headache and non headache groups (Turkish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çiğdem Kudiaki

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Object: In migraine and tension type headaches, which constitute the largest part of primary headache disorders, the importance of psychological factors and psychotherapy applications are reported consistently. In the gestalt therapy approach, studies on physical disorders and body have a special precaution and it is assumed that the physical disorders that are highly related to psychological factors such as headache may be related to Gestalt contact patterns. This study was conducted to investigate Gestalt contact patterns, anger and anxiety levels, and to identify variables that predict contact patterns in the groups with and without headache. Methods: In the first group, migrain and tension type headache, there were 161 (141 female/20 male participants and in the group without headache there were 126 participants (94 female/32 male. There were 287 participants in total. Data was collected through Personal Information Form, Gestalt Contact Styles Scale – Revised Form, Multidimensional Anger Scale and Beck Anxiety Inventory. Results: The comparisons of groups in terms contact styles, anger and anxiety yields that the individuals in headache group engage in retroflection, deflection and desensitization contact styles more than individuals who do not have headaches and they have higher anger and anxiety levels. Similarly, the results of the regression analysis show that the negative attitudes towards oneself, others and the world are an important predictor of retroflection and deflection contacts styles. Also, the attitude of desensitization seems to play a role in decreasing anxious reactions and decreasing quiet responses. Discussion: The results indicate that unhealthy contact styles, anger and anxiety experiences have negative effects on headache. Thus, Gestalt therapy based psychotherapy techniques can me recommended to be an important foundation for treatment of headaches.

  17. Depression, anxiety and stress in dental students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basudan, Sumaya; Binanzan, Najla; Alhassan, Aseel

    2017-05-24

    To measure the occurrence and levels of depression, anxiety and stress in undergraduate dental students using the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21). This cross-sectional study was conducted in November and December of 2014. A total of 289 dental students were invited to participate, and 277 responded, resulting in a response rate of 96%. The final sample included 247 participants. Eligible participants were surveyed via a self-reported questionnaire that included the validated DASS-21 scale as the assessment tool and questions about demographic characteristics and methods for managing stress. Abnormal levels of depression, anxiety and stress were identified in 55.9%, 66.8% and 54.7% of the study participants, respectively. A multiple linear regression analysis revealed multiple predictors: gender (for anxiety b=-3.589, p=.016 and stress b=-4.099, p=.008), satisfaction with faculty relationships (for depression b=-2.318, p=.007; anxiety b=-2.213, p=.004; and stress b=-2.854, prelationships (for depression b=-3.527, panxiety b=-2.213, p=.004; and stress b=-2.854, pstress b=-2.648, p=.045). The standardized coefficients demonstrated the relationship and strength of the predictors for each subscale. To cope with stress, students engaged in various activities such as reading, watching television and seeking emotional support from others. The high occurrence of depression, anxiety and stress among dental students highlights the importance of providing support programs and implementing preventive measures to help students, particularly those who are most susceptible to higher levels of these psychological conditions.

  18. Neuroticism, depression and anxiety in takotsubo cardiomyopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Emil; Bang, Lia E; Holmvang, Lene

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Takotsubo cardiomypathy (TTC) causes acute reversible heart failure. Prior studies have indicated that the syndrome is associated with traits such as social inhibition, chronic psychological stress, and anxio-depressive disorders. The objective of this study was to further characterize......) patients, and III) Age, gender and geographically matched individuals from the background population. The following questionnaires were used in the survey: the WHO-5 Well-Being Index, Eysenck's Neuroticism Scale, the Major Depression Inventory, and the anxiety subscale of Symptoms Checklist (SCL-90......). RESULTS: In total, 173 of 230 invitees (75 %) participated in the study. In comparison to the background controls, TTC patients reported significantly less well-being, more neuroticism, more depression, and more anxiety. The levels of well-being, depression and neuroticism were comparable between TTC...

  19. Depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms in menopausal arab women

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms in menopausal arab women: Shedding ... and stress were measured using the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales 21. ... and which had negative effects on the quality of life among Arabian women.

  20. Mixed anxiety depression should not be included in DSM-5

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batelaan, N.M.; Spijker, J.; Graaf, R. de; Cuijpers, P.

    2012-01-01

    Subthreshold anxiety and subthreshold depressive symptoms often co-occur in the general population and in primary care. Based on their associated significant distress and impairment, a psychiatric classification seems justified. To enable classification, mixed anxiety depression (MAD) has been

  1. Mixed Anxiety Depression Should Not Be Included in DSM-5

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batelaan, N.M.; Spijker, J.; de Graaf, R.; Cuijpers, P.

    2012-01-01

    Subthreshold anxiety and subthreshold depressive symptoms often co-occur in the general population and in primary care. Based on their associated significant distress and impairment, a psychiatric classification seems justified. To enable classification, mixed anxiety depression (MAD) has been

  2. Depression, anxiety and 6-year risk of cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seldenrijk, Adrie; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Batelaan, Neeltje M.; Wieman, Iris; van Schaik, Digna J. F.; Penninx, Brenda J. W. H.

    Objective: Depression and anxiety are considered etiological factors in cardiovascular disease (ND), though their relative contribution and differentiation by clinical characteristics have not been studied intensively. We examined 6-year associations between depressive and anxiety disorders,

  3. Perseverative thinking in depression and anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja eSorg

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The current study investigated the impact of worry and brooding as moderators of the tripartite model of depression and anxiety (TMDA. We hypothesized that both types of perseverative thinking would moderate the association between negative affectivity (NA and both anxiety and depression. Complete data sets for this questionnaire survey were obtained from 537 students. Participants’ age ranged from 16 to 49 years with a mean age of 21.1 years (SD = 3.6. Overall, results from path analyses supported the assumptions of the TMDA, in that negative affectivity was a non-specific predictor for both depression and anxiety whilst lack of positive affectivity was related to depression only. Unexpectedly, perseverative thinking had an effect on the dependency of negative and positive affectivity. Worry was a significant moderator for the path NA – anxiety. All other hypothesized associations were only marginally significant. Alternative pathways as well as methodological implications regarding similarities and differences of the two types of perseverative thinking are discussed.

  4. Depression and anxiety in multisomatoform disorder: Prevalence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. Multisomatoform disorder (MSD) is characterised by ≥3 medically inexplicable, troublesome physical symptoms, together with a ≥2-year history of somatisation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of depressive and anxiety disorders in a South African sample MSD, and to compare demographic ...

  5. Comorbidity of depression and anxiety in nursing home patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smalbrugge, M.; Jongenelis, L.; Pot, A.M.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Eefsting, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the occurrence and risk indicators of depression, anxiety, and comorbid anxiety and depression among nursing home patients and to determine whether depression and anxiety are best described in a dimensional or in a categorical classification system. Methods: DSM and

  6. Prevalence of anxiety and depression among medical and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Depression and anxiety in the community are considered as specific indicator for mental status of a person and various studies have documented anxiety and depression among medical and pharmaceutical students. Objective: In this study, the prevalence of anxiety and depression was measured among ...

  7. Two-year course of depressive and anxiety disorders: Results from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Nolen, W.A.; Lamers, F.; Zitman, F.G.; Smit, J.H.; Spinhoven, P.; Cuijpers, P.; de Jong, P.J.; van Marwijk, H.W.J.; van der Meer, K.; Verhaak, P.; Laurant, M.G.H.; de Graaf, R.; Hoogendijk, W.J.; van der Wee, N.; Ormel, J.; van Dyck, R.; Beekman, A.T.F.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Whether course trajectories of depressive and anxiety disorders are different, remains an important question for clinical practice and informs future psychiatric nosology. This longitudinal study compares depressive and anxiety disorders in terms of diagnostic and symptom course

  8. Two-year course of depressive and anxiety disorders: Results from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Nolen, W.A.; Lamers, F.; Zitman, F.G.; Smit, J.H.; Spinhoven, P.; Cuijpers, P.; Jong, P.J. de; Marwijk, H.W.J. van; Meer, K. van der; Verhaak, P.; Laurant, M.G.H.; Graaf, R. de; Hoogendijk, W.J.G.; Wee, N. van der; Ormel, J.; Dyck, R. van; Beekman, A.T.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Whether course trajectories of depressive and anxiety disorders are different, remains an important question for clinical practice and informs future psychiatric nosology. This longitudinal study compares depressive and anxiety disorders in terms of diagnostic and symptom course

  9. Two-year course of depressive and anxiety disorders : Results from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penninx, B.W.; Nolen, W.A.; Lamers, F.; Zitman, F.G.; Smit, J.H.; Spinhoven, P.; Cuijpers, P.; de Jong, P.J.; van Marwijk, H.W.; van der Meer, K.; Verhaak, P.; Laurant, M.G.; de Graaf, R.; Hoogendijk, W.J.; van der Wee, N.; Ormel, J.; van Dyck, R.; Beekman, A.T.

    Background: Whether course trajectories of depressive and anxiety disorders are different, remains an important question for clinical practice and informs future psychiatric nosology. This longitudinal study compares depressive and anxiety disorders in terms of diagnostic and symptom course

  10. Two-year course of depressive and anxiety disorders: results from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Nolen, W.A.; Lamers, F.; Zitman, F.G.; Smit, J.H.; Spinhoven, P.; Cuijpers, P.; Jong, P.J. de; Marwijk, H.W.J. van; Meer, K. van der; Verhaak, P.; Laurant, M.G.H.; Graaf, R. de; Hoogendijk, W.J.; Wee, N. van der; Ormel, J.; Dyck, R. van; Beekman, A.T.F.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Whether course trajectories of depressive and anxiety disorders are different, remains an important question for clinical practice and informs future psychiatric nosology. This longitudinal study compares depressive and anxiety disorders in terms of diagnostic and symptom course

  11. The Impact of Sexual Abuse, Family Violence/Conflict, Spirituality, and Religion on Anger and Depressed Mood Among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurvinsdottir, Rannveig; Asgeirsdottir, Bryndis Bjork; Ullman, Sarah E; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora

    2017-10-01

    Stressful life experiences, such as sexual abuse and family violence/conflict, relate to an increased risk of mental health problems. Religion and spirituality may prevent this negative impact, but religion and spirituality are lower among survivors of stressful life experiences. To explore this effect, we examined the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and family violence/conflict on anger and depressed mood. Survey data were collected from a large population-based sample of Icelandic adolescents ( N = 7,365) on their stressful life experiences, religion, spirituality, and mental health. Survivors of stressful life experiences (sexual abuse or family violence/conflict) were significantly lower on religion and spirituality than others. A hierarchical linear regression showed that stressful life experiences contributed uniquely to higher levels of anger and depressed mood. Spirituality was associated with decreased anger and depressed mood. The religion of parents and peers was also associated with decreased anger. Religious participation, on the contrary, did not have a relationship with mental health outcomes. In addition, the negative association between spirituality and anger was stronger among survivors of sexual abuse than nonabused individuals. These results confirm previous research, indicating that survivors of stressful life experiences may experience less religion and spirituality. The results also extend existing knowledge by showing that spirituality may be even more beneficial among sexual abuse survivors, as a protective factor against anger. These findings can help in the minimization of the negative mental health impact of stressful life experiences.

  12. Anger, impulsivity, and anger control in combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemtob, C M; Hamada, R S; Roitblat, H L; Muraoka, M Y

    1994-08-01

    Empirical evidence of a relationship between combat-related PTSD and increased anger is lacking. In this study, 24 veterans of the Vietnam War with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) scored significantly higher on an Anger factor comprising multiple measures of anger than did comparison groups of 23 well-adjusted Vietnam combat veterans and 12 noncombat Vietnam-era veterans with psychiatric diagnoses. In contrast, the 3 groups did not differ significantly on orthogonal factors, one of which comprised cognitive impulsivity measures and the other of which reflected motor impulsivity. Changes in heart rate in response to provocation loaded positively on the Anger factor and negatively on the 2 Impulsivity factors. Concurrent depression and trait anxiety did not have an effect on level of anger in individuals with PTSD. These empirical findings support and extend the clinical evidence regarding PTSD and anger.

  13. Screening for anxiety, depression, and anxious depression in primary care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldberg, David P.; Reed, Geoffrey M.; Robles, Rebeca

    2017-01-01

    Background In this field study of WHO's revised classification of mental disorders for primary care settings, the ICD-11 PHC, we tested the usefulness of two five-item screening scales for anxiety and depression to be administered in primary care settings. Methods The study was conducted in primary...... in primary care settings. Conclusions The two five-item screening scales for anxiety and depression provide a practical way for PCPs to evaluate the likelihood of mood and anxiety disorders without paper and pencil measures that are not feasible in many settings. These scales may provide substantially...... care settings in four large middle-income countries. Primary care physicians (PCPs) referred individuals who they suspected might be psychologically distressed to the study. Screening scales as well as a structured diagnostic interview, the revised Clinical Interview Schedule (CIS-R), adapted...

  14. Primary care, depression, and anxiety: exploring somatic and emotional predictors of mental health status in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, Ian P; Olson, Ardis L

    2012-01-01

    A growing body of research points to regular, comprehensive mental health screening in primary care practices as an effective tool, but a thorough and efficient approach is not yet widely used. The purpose of this report is to describe the pattern of mental health-related concerns, protective and social risk factors reported by adolescents during routine well-child visits in primary care settings, and their occurrence among teens that screen positive for either depression or anxiety with brief validated measures. A personal digital assistant-based questionnaire was administered as part of clinical care to adolescents 11 to 18 years old (N = 2184) attending preventive well-child visits in 13 pediatric and family medicine primary care practices in a northern New England practice-based research network over 18 months (2008 to 2009). Depressive and anxiety-related symptoms were assessed using the 2-question versions of the Patient Health Questionnaire and Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale, respectively. Analyses determined the role that the protective and social risk factors played in determining who screens positive for depression and anxiety. In the fully adjusted model, risk factors that were significant (P stress (AOR, 3.59); anger (AOR, 1.94); and worries about family alcohol and drug use (AOR, 2.69). Among protective factors, that is, those that reduce the risk of depression, age (AOR, 0.87 for younger patients); having parents who listen (AOR, 0.34); and having more assets (AOR, 0.65) were significant. Significant predictors of screening positive for anxiety included substance use (AOR, 1.97); stress (AOR, 6.10); anger (AOR, 2.31); trouble sleeping (AOR, 1.75), and the sex of the adolescent (AOR, 1.87 for girls). Although having parents who listen was still a significant protective factor for anxiety (AOR, 2.26), other assets were not significant. Comprehensive primary care mental health screening that considers both anxiety and depression while including

  15. Generalized Anxiety and Major Depressive syndrome ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: Environmental exposure to manganese (Mn) may cause generalized anxiety (GA) and major depression (MD) in residents living in Mn-exposed areas. Marietta and East Liverpool are two Ohio towns identified as having elevated levels of Mn. The objective was to determine if levels of Mn exposure were associated with levels of GA and MD.Participants and methods: 186 participants (Mean age: 55.0 ± 10.80) were examined. Levels of air-Mn were assessed over a period of ten years using U.S. EPA’s AERMOD dispersion model. Average air-Mn exposure was 0.53 μg/m3 in the two towns. The GA syndrome was comprised of anxiety, obsessive-compulsive, and phobic scales from the Symptom Checklist (SCL-90-R). The MD syndrome was comprised of depression, anxiety, and psychoticism scales also from the SCL-90-R. Linear regression models were used to determine the relationship between Mn and GA, MD and the specific components of each.Results: Elevated air-Mn was associated with GA (β= 0.240, p=0.002), and MD (β= 0.202, p=0.011). Air-Mn was associated with specific components of GA anxiety (β= 0.255, p=0.001), phobic anxiety (β= 0.159, p=0.046), and obsessive-compulsive (β= 0.197, p=0.013). Similarly, components of MD syndrome suggested an association as well: depression (β= 0.180, p=0.023), anxiety (β= 0.255, p=0.001), and psychoticism (β= 0.188, p=0.018). Conclusions: The results suggest that residents with elevated exposure to environmental Mn have elevated levels of

  16. Anxiety and Depression in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Dong-mei; MA Jun-peng; ZOU Shao-hong; LENG Qiu-ping; YANG Xiao-hong

    2017-01-01

    Background: Anxiety and depression may have deleterious effects on patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the evidence underlying the increased risks of anxiety and depression in COPD patients in Xinjiang are poorly defined. This study aimed to investigate the burden and related factors of depression and anxiety among patients with COPD in Xinjiang. Methods: The study included 62 patients with COPD, aged (64.48±9.83) years, 59 patients were hospitalized due to exacerbations, 3 patients were included due to periodically check-up in the hospital. Depression and anxiety in these patients were evaluated through the Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA) and Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD). Stepwise multiple regression analysis was used to evaluate the clinical characteristics correlated to depression and anxiety. Results: The prevalences of depression and anxiety were higher (62.9% and 95.2%) in COPD patients in Xinjiang. Anxiety was more common in patients than depression. Respectively, the female population with COPD was differentiated from males by higher levels of depression score, female COPD patients were more strongly correlated with depression (correction for regression coefficient: β=0.87; P=0.04). Patients received university education level were more likely to suffer the pain of anxiety (correction for regression coefficient: β=0.61; P=0.002) than lower education level. In addition, patients with the average monthly income less than ¥1 000 was more likely to suffer both the pain of anxiety and depression (P<0.05). Conclusion: This study showed the high prevalence of anxiety and depression in COPD patients in Xinjiang, even in the condition of moderate COPD in terms of FEV1%. Both anxiety and depression were correlated with the lower monthly income. Female COPD patients were more exposed to depression in this group. Patients with higher educational level tended to be correlated with anxiety. Screening tools may help recognition of

  17. Maternal depression and anxiety, social synchrony, and infant regulation of negative and positive emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granat, Adi; Gadassi, Reuma; Gilboa-Schechtman, Eva; Feldman, Ruth

    2017-02-01

    Maternal postpartum depression (PPD) exerts long-term negative effects on infants; yet the mechanisms by which PPD disrupts emotional development are not fully clear. Utilizing an extreme-case design, 971 women reported symptoms of depression and anxiety following childbirth and 215 high and low on depressive symptomatology reported again at 6 months. Of these, mothers diagnosed with major depressive disorder (n = 22), anxiety disorders (n = 19), and controls (n = 59) were visited at 9 months. Mother-infant interaction was microcoded for maternal and infant's social behavior and synchrony. Infant negative and positive emotional expression and self-regulation were tested in 4 emotion-eliciting paradigms: anger with mother, anger with stranger, joy with mother, and joy with stranger. Infants of depressed mothers displayed less social gaze and more gaze aversion. Gaze and touch synchrony were lowest for depressed mothers, highest for anxious mothers, and midlevel among controls. Infants of control and anxious mothers expressed less negative affect with mother compared with stranger; however, maternal presence failed to buffer negative affect in the depressed group. Maternal depression chronicity predicted increased self-regulatory behavior during joy episodes, and touch synchrony moderated the effects of PPD on infant self-regulation. Findings describe subtle microlevel processes by which maternal depression across the postpartum year disrupts the development of infant emotion regulation and suggest that diminished social synchrony, low differentiation of attachment and nonattachment contexts, and increased self-regulation during positive moments may chart pathways for the cross-generational transfer of emotional maladjustment from depressed mothers to their infants. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Seasonality in depressive and anxiety symptoms among primary care patients and in patients with depressive and anxiety disorders; results from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Little is known about seasonality of specific depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms in different patient populations. This study aims to assess seasonal variation of depressive and anxiety symptoms in a primary care population and across participants who were classified in diagnostic groups 1) healthy controls 2) patients with a major depressive disorder, 3) patients with any anxiety disorder and 4) patients with a major depression and any anxiety disorder. Methods Data were used from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA). First, in 5549 patients from the NESDA primary care recruitment population the Kessler-10 screening questionnaire was used and data were analyzed across season in a multilevel linear model. Second, in 1090 subjects classified into four groups according to psychiatric status according to the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, overall depressive symptoms and atypical versus melancholic features were assessed with the Inventory of Depressive Symptoms. Anxiety and fear were assessed with the Beck Anxiety Inventory and the Fear questionnaire. Symptom levels across season were analyzed in a linear regression model. Results In the primary care population the severity of depressive and anxiety symptoms did not show a seasonal pattern. In the diagnostic groups healthy controls and patients with any anxiety disorder, but not patients with a major depressive disorder, showed a small rise in depressive symptoms in winter. Atypical and melancholic symptoms were both elevated in winter. No seasonal pattern for anxiety symptoms was found. There was a small gender related seasonal effect for fear symptoms. Conclusions Seasonal differences in severity or type of depressive and anxiety symptoms, as measured with a general screening instrument and symptom questionnaires, were absent or small in effect size in a primary care population and in patient populations with a major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders. PMID

  19. Pathophysiological relationships between heart failure and depression and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapa, Deborah W; Akintade, Bimbola; Son, Heesook; Woltz, Patricia; Hunt, Dennis; Friedmann, Erika; Hartung, Mary Kay; Thomas, Sue Ann

    2014-04-01

    Depression and anxiety are common comorbid conditions in patients with heart failure. Patients with heart failure and depression have increased mortality. The association of anxiety with increased mortality in patients with heart failure is not established. The purpose of this article is to illustrate the similarities of the underlying pathophysiology of heart failure, depression, and anxiety by using the Biopsychosocial Holistic Model of Cardiovascular Health. Depression and anxiety affect biological processes of cardiovascular function in patients with heart failure by altering neurohormonal function via activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, autonomic dysregulation, and activation of cytokine cascades and platelets. Patients with heart failure and depression or anxiety may exhibit a continued cycle of heart failure progression, increased depression, and increased anxiety. Understanding the underlying pathophysiological relationships in patients with heart failure who experience comorbid depression and/or anxiety is critical in order to implement appropriate treatments, educate patients and caregivers, and educate other health professionals.

  20. Bidirectional Influences of Anxiety and Depression in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Joyce; Gouze, Karen R.; Bryant, Fred B.

    2014-01-01

    Anxiety and depression tend to co-occur in children. Studies indicate that higher levels of anxiety are associated with subsequent higher levels of depression, while depression may inhibit subsequent anxiety. It is important to increase our understanding of the temporal sequencing of these disorders and, particularly, to determine if suppression effects account for the inhibitory association. In addition, further information about these relationships in young children is needed. Participants were a diverse (20.4 % Hispanic, 16.7 % African American; 49.1 % boys) community sample of 796 children with data available at ages 4, 5, and 6–7 years. Anxiety and depression symptoms were assessed using the Child Symptom Inventory and symptom count measures from the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children-Parent Scale-Young Child version. The results indicated: (a) anxiety and depression were relatively stable over time; (b) anxiety at age 4 and 5 was a significant positive predictor of subsequent depression; (c) while an inhibitory effect of depression on subsequent anxiety was found, that inhibitory effect was due to negative suppression, and higher levels of depression were actually associated with subsequent anxiety; (e) consistent with a significant suppression effect, when depression was included as a predictor, the association between anxiety at ages 4 and 5 and anxiety one year later increases in magnitude. Both anxiety and depression are associated with higher levels of one another in the subsequent year. Implications for prevention are discussed. PMID:24934567

  1. Cardiac morbidity risk and depression and anxiety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tully, Phillip J; Pedersen, Susanne S.; Winefield, Helen R

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine depression and anxiety disorders and their characteristic symptoms (anhedonia/low positive affect and anxious arousal, respectively), along with measures of state negative affect (NA) and Type D personality, in relation to cardiac surgery related morbidity....... Patients awaiting elective coronary artery bypass graft surgery (n=158; 20.9% female; 11.4% concomitant valve surgery; age M=64.7, SD=10.6) underwent the structured MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview to determine current affective disorders. Patients also completed the Mood and Anxiety Symptom.......3% of total). After adjustment for age, recent myocardial infarction, heart failure, hypertension, urgency of surgery and time spent on cardiopulmonary bypass generalized anxiety disorder was associated with cardiac morbidity (odds ratio [OR]=3.26, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.10-9.67, p=0.03). Adjusted...

  2. Coexisting anxiety and depressive symptoms in patients with heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, Rebecca L; Lennie, Terry A; Doering, Lynn V; Chung, Misook L; Wu, Jia-Rong; Moser, Debra K

    2014-04-01

    Among patients with heart failure (HF), anxiety symptoms may co-exist with depressive symptoms. However, the extent of overlap and risk factors for anxiety symptoms have not been thoroughly described. The aim of this study was to describe the coexistence of anxiety and depressive symptoms, and to determine the predictors of anxiety symptoms in patients with HF. The sample consisted of 556 outpatients with HF (34% female, 62±12 years, 54% New York Heart Association (NYHA) class III/IV) enrolled in a multicenter HF quality of life registry. Anxiety symptoms were assessed with the Brief Symptom Inventory-anxiety subscale. Depressive symptoms were measured with the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI). We used a cut-point of 0.35 to categorize patients as having anxiety symptoms or no anxiety symptoms. Logistic regression was used to determine whether age, gender, minority status, educational level, functional status, comorbidities, depressive symptoms, and antidepressant use were predictors of anxiety symptoms. One-third of patients had both depressive and anxiety symptoms. There was a dose-response relationship between depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms; higher levels of depressive symptoms were associated with a higher level of anxiety symptoms. Younger age (odds ratio (OR)= 0.97, p=0.004, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.95-0.99) and depressive symptoms (OR =1.25, panxiety symptoms. Patients with HF and depressive symptoms are at high risk for experiencing anxiety symptoms. Clinicians should assess these patients for comorbid anxiety symptoms. Research is needed to test interventions for both depressive and anxiety symptoms.

  3. Clinical relevance of comorbidity in anxiety disorders : A report from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmeijer-Sevink, Mieke Klein; Batelaan, Neeltje M.; van Megen, Harold J. G. M.; Penninx, Brenda W.; Cath, Danielle C.; van den Hout, Marcel A.; van Balkom, Anton J. L. M.

    Background: To study the clinical relevance of type of comorbidity and number of comorbid disorders in anxiety disorders. Four groups were compared according to sociodemographic-, vulnerability- and clinical factors: single anxiety disorder, anxiety-anxiety comorbidity, anxiety-depressive

  4. Clinical relevance of comorbidity in anxiety disorders: A report from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Hofmeijer-Sevink, M.; Batelaan, N.M.; van Megen, H.J.G.M.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Cath, D.C.; van Hout, M.A.; van Balkom, A.J.L.M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: To study the clinical relevance of type of comorbidity and number of comorbid disorders in anxiety disorders. Four groups were compared according to sociodemographic-, vulnerability- and clinical factors: single anxiety disorder, anxiety-anxiety comorbidity, anxiety-depressive

  5. Depression and Anger as Risk Factors Underlying the Relationship between Maternal Substance Involvement and Child Abuse Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hien, Denise; Cohen, Lisa R.; Caldeira, Nathilee A.; Flom, Peter; Wasserman, Gail

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examines how emotion regulation deficits in the area of anger arousal and reactivity are associated with child abuse potential in mothers with substance use and depressive disorders in order to identify targeted areas for prevention and treatment. Methods: A sample of 152 urban mothers was interviewed on measures of substance…

  6. Mechanisms of attentional selection bias for threatening emotions of anger and disgust in individuals with high-trait anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Luyao; Cui, Lixia; Zhang, Qin; Dong, Xiaofei; Shi, Guangyuan

    2018-03-07

    There are still some controversies that attentional bias to negative emotions in individuals with high-trait anxiety (HTA), as compare with those with low-trait anxiety (LTA), occurs in the engagement or disengagement facet of attentional selectivity and whether this attentional bias is affected by negative emotional types. In this study, we explored the different attentional selectivity mechanisms for threatening emotions of anger and disgust between individuals with HTA and LTA using the variant attentional-probe paradigm. The results showed that under the engagement condition, the HTA group's attentional bias index of the anger mood was negative and was significantly less than the disgusting mood (positive) and that the P1 was smaller with angry faces as compared with neutral faces, which was separate from the results of the disgusted faces, having a significant difference with neutral faces on P1 component. In the LTA group, under the disengagement condition, the attentional bias index of the disgusting mood was significantly bigger than the attentional bias index of the anger mood. Moreover, the P1 of the disgusted faces was significantly bigger than the P1 of the angry faces. The topographical maps were also made to reveal the different neural underpinnings. The results suggested that there were different mechanisms of selective attentional bias for threatening emotions of anger and disgust in individuals with HTA. HTA individuals were characterized by facilitated attentional engagement with angry faces and impaired attentional engagement with disgusted faces. LTA individuals had different neural underpinnings and had impaired attentional disengagement with disgusted faces.

  7. Vision-Related Quality of Life and Appearance Concerns Are Associated with Anxiety and Depression after Eye Enucleation: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ye

    Full Text Available To investigate the association of demographic, clinical and psychosocial variables with levels of anxiety and depression in participants wearing an ocular prosthesis after eye enucleation.This cross-sectional study included 195 participants with an enucleated eye who were attending an ophthalmic clinic for prosthetic rehabilitation between July and November 2014. Demographic and clinical data, and self-reported feelings of shame, sadness and anger were collected. Participants also completed the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire, the Facial Appearance subscale of the Negative Physical Self Scale, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Regression models were used to identify the factors associated with anxiety and depression.The proportion of participants with clinical anxiety was 11.8% and clinical depression 13.8%. More anxiety and depression were associated with poorer vision-related quality of life and greater levels of appearance concerns. Younger age was related to greater levels of anxiety. Less educated participants and those feeling more angry about losing an eye are more prone to experience depression. Clinical variables were unrelated to anxiety or depression.Anxiety and depression are more prevalent in eye-enucleated patients than the general population, which brings up the issues of psychiatric support in these patients. Psychosocial rather than clinical characteristics were associated with anxiety and depression. Longitudinal studies need to be conducted to further elucidate the direction of causality before interventions to improve mood states are developed.

  8. Two-year course of depressive and anxiety disorders: results from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penninx, Brenda W J H; Nolen, Willem A; Lamers, Femke; Zitman, Frans G; Smit, Johannes H; Spinhoven, Philip; Cuijpers, Pim; de Jong, Peter J; van Marwijk, Harm W J; van der Meer, Klaas; Verhaak, Peter; Laurant, Miranda G H; de Graaf, Ron; Hoogendijk, Witte J; van der Wee, Nic; Ormel, Johan; van Dyck, Richard; Beekman, Aartjan T F

    2011-09-01

    Whether course trajectories of depressive and anxiety disorders are different, remains an important question for clinical practice and informs future psychiatric nosology. This longitudinal study compares depressive and anxiety disorders in terms of diagnostic and symptom course trajectories, and examines clinical prognostic factors. Data are from 1209 depressive and/or anxiety patients residing in primary and specialized care settings, participating in the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety. Diagnostic and Life Chart Interviews provided 2-year course information. Course was more favorable for pure depression (n=267, median episode duration = 6 months, 24.5% chronic) than for pure anxiety (n=487, median duration = 16 months, 41.9% chronic). Worst course was observed in the comorbid depression-anxiety group (n=455, median duration > 24 months, 56.8% chronic). Independent predictors of poor diagnostic and symptom trajectory outcomes were severity and duration of index episode, comorbid depression-anxiety, earlier onset age and older age. With only these factors a reasonable discriminative ability (C-statistic 0.72-0.77) was reached in predicting 2-year prognosis. Depression and anxiety cases concern prevalent - not incident - cases. This, however, reflects the actual patient population in primary and specialized care settings. Their differential course trajectory justifies separate consideration of pure depression, pure anxiety and comorbid anxiety-depression in clinical practice and psychiatric nosology. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Symptoms of Anxiety and Depression in Young Athletes Using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Weber

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Elite young athletes have to cope with multiple psychological demands such as training volume, mental and physical fatigue, spatial separation of family and friends or time management problems may lead to reduced mental and physical recovery. While normative data regarding symptoms of anxiety and depression for the general population is available (Hinz and Brähler, 2011, hardly any information exists for adolescents in general and young athletes in particular. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess overall symptoms of anxiety and depression in young athletes as well as possible sex differences. The survey was carried out within the scope of the study “Resistance Training in Young Athletes” (KINGS-Study. Between August 2015 and September 2016, 326 young athletes aged (mean ± SD 14.3 ± 1.6 years completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD Scale. Regarding the analysis of age on the anxiety and depression subscales, age groups were classified as follows: late childhood (12–14 years and late adolescence (15–18 years. The participating young athletes were recruited from Olympic weight lifting, handball, judo, track and field athletics, boxing, soccer, gymnastics, ice speed skating, volleyball, and rowing. Anxiety and depression scores were (mean ± SD 4.3 ± 3.0 and 2.8 ± 2.9, respectively. In the subscale anxiety, 22 cases (6.7% showed subclinical scores and 11 cases (3.4% showed clinical relevant score values. When analyzing the depression subscale, 31 cases (9.5% showed subclinical score values and 12 cases (3.7% showed clinically important values. No significant differences were found between male and female athletes (p ≥ 0.05. No statistically significant differences in the HADS scores were found between male athletes of late childhood and late adolescents (p ≥ 0.05. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report describing questionnaire based indicators of symptoms of anxiety and depression in young

  10. examining the relationship between anxiety disorders and depression

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    It is meaningful to distinguish anxiety and depression both as symptoms and as syndromes ... disorder). Anxiety, as a symptom, is a feeling of apprehension caused by anticipation of danger ... disorder. In medical disorders or substance-.

  11. Maternal depression and anxiety and fetal-neonatal growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Miguel Pinto

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: This study demonstrates the independent longitudinal effect of maternal anxiety on major markers of fetal-neonatal growth outcomes and trajectories, simultaneously considering the effect of maternal depression and anxiety.

  12. Validity of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales in assessing depression and anxiety following traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahm, Jane; Wong, Dana; Ponsford, Jennie

    2013-10-01

    Anxiety and depression following traumatic brain injury (TBI) are associated with poorer outcomes. A brief self-report questionnaire would assist in identifying those at risk, however validity of such measures is complicated by confounding symptoms of the injury. This study investigated the validity of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), in screening for clinical diagnoses of anxiety and mood disorders following TBI. One hundred and twenty-three participants with mild to severe TBI were interviewed using the SCID (Axis I) and completed the DASS and HADS. The DASS, DASS21 and HADS scales demonstrated validity compared with SCID diagnoses of anxiety and mood disorders as measured by Area Under ROC Curve, sensitivity and specificity. Validity of the DASS depression scale benefited from items reflecting symptoms of devaluation of life, self-deprecation, and hopelessness that are not present on the HADS. Validity of the HADS anxiety scale benefited from items reflecting symptoms of tension and worry that are measured separately for the DASS on the stress scale. Participants were predominantly drawn from a rehabilitation centre which may limit the extent to which results can be generalized. Scores for the DASS21 were derived from the DASS rather than being administered separately. The DASS, DASS21 and HADS demonstrated validity as screening measures of anxiety and mood disorders in this TBI sample. The findings support use of these self-report questionnaires for individuals with TBI to identify those who should be referred for clinical diagnostic follow-up. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Lifetime anxiety disorder and current anxiety symptoms associated with hastened depressive recurrence in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Saloni; Kim, Jane P; Park, Dong Yeon; Kim, Hyun; Yuen, Laura D; Do, Dennis; Dell'Osso, Bernardo; Hooshmand, Farnaz; Miller, Shefali; Wang, Po W; Ketter, Terence A

    2017-09-01

    To assess differential relationships between lifetime anxiety disorder/current anxiety symptoms and longitudinal depressive severity in bipolar disorder (BD). Stanford BD Clinic outpatients enrolled during 2000-2011 were assessed with the Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program for BD (STEP-BD) Affective Disorders Evaluation and followed with the STEP-BD Clinical Monitoring Form while receiving naturalistic treatment for up to two years. Baseline unfavorable illness characteristics/current mood symptoms and times to depressive recurrence/recovery were compared in patients with versus without lifetime anxiety disorder/current anxiety symptoms. Among 105 currently recovered patients, lifetime anxiety disorder was significantly associated with 10/27 (37.0%) demographic/other unfavorable illness characteristics/current mood symptoms/current psychotropics, hastened depressive recurrence (driven by earlier onset age), and a significantly (> two-fold) higher Kaplan-Meier estimated depressive recurrence rate, whereas current anxiety symptoms were significantly associated with 10/27 (37.0%) demographic/other unfavorable illness characteristics/current mood symptoms/current psychotropics and hastened depressive recurrence (driven by lifetime anxiety disorder), but only a numerically higher Kaplan-Meier estimated depressive recurrence rate. In contrast, among 153 currently depressed patients, lifetime anxiety disorder/current anxiety symptoms were not significantly associated with time to depressive recovery or depressive recovery rate. American tertiary BD clinic referral sample, open naturalistic treatment. Research is needed regarding differential relationships between lifetime anxiety disorder and current anxiety symptoms and hastened/delayed depressive recurrence/recovery - specifically whether lifetime anxiety disorder versus current anxiety symptoms has marginally more robust association with hastened depressive recurrence, and whether both have marginally more robust

  14. Validation of the Novaco Anger Scale-Provocation Inventory (Danish) With Nonclinical, Clinical, and Offender Samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moeller, Stine Bjerrum; Novaco, Raymond; Heinola-Nielsen, Vivian

    2015-01-01

    Anger has high prevalence in clinical and forensic settings, and it is associated with aggressive behavior and ward atmosphere on psychiatric units. Dysregulated anger is a clinical problem in Danish mental health care systems, but no anger assessment instruments have been validated in Danish...... investigated with samples of 477 nonclinical, 250 clinical, 167 male prisoner, and 64 male forensic participants. Anger prevalence and its relationship with other anger measures, anxiety/depression, and aggression were examined. NAS-PI was found to have high reliability, concurrent validity, and discriminant...

  15. Anxiety and depression in patients receiving radiotherapy. Prospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaturvedi, S.K.; Chandra, P.S.; Channabasavanna, S.M.; Anantha, N.; Reddy, B.K.M.; Sharma, S.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this study was to detect the prevalence of anxiety and depressive disorders using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) prospectively in patients receiving Radiotherapy (RT) during and after treatment. 140 consecutive cancer patients referred for radiotherapy and their care givers were included. All patients were administered the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) conducted at intake, just before starting RT, after finishing the course of RT, and at 3-4 months follow-up. Anxiety and depression are detected frequently in patients receiving RT both prior to treatment and later during follow-up

  16. Relationships among pain, anxiety, and depression in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Means-Christensen, Adrienne J; Roy-Byrne, Peter P; Sherbourne, Cathy D; Craske, Michelle G; Stein, Murray B

    2008-01-01

    Pain, anxiety, and depression are commonly seen in primary care patients and there is considerable evidence that these experiences are related. This study examined associations between symptoms of pain and symptoms and diagnoses of anxiety and depression in primary care patients. Results indicate that primary care patients who endorse symptoms of muscle pain, headache, or stomach pain are approximately 2.5-10 times more likely to screen positively for panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, or major depressive disorder. Endorsement of pain symptoms was also significantly associated with confirmed diagnoses of several of the anxiety disorders and/or major depression, with odds ratios ranging from approximately 3 to 9 for the diagnoses. Patients with an anxiety or depressive disorder also reported greater interference from pain. Similarly, patients endorsing pain symptoms reported lower mental health functioning and higher scores on severity measures of depression, social anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Mediation analyses indicated that depression mediated some, but not all of the relationships between anxiety and pain. Overall, these results reveal an association between reports of pain symptoms and not only depression, but also anxiety. An awareness of these relationships may be particularly important in primary care settings where a patient who presents with reports of pain may have an undiagnosed anxiety or depressive disorder.

  17. The effect of anxiety and depression scores of couples who ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Infertility assisted reproductive techniques, anxiety, depression, pregnancy outcome. ... couples under stress women may have problems with ovulation induction, missed cycles, ..... sity Students Depression Inventory. Journal of ...

  18. [The relationship between depression, anxiety and heart disease - a psychosomatic challenge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapfhammer, Hans-Peter

    2011-12-01

    Depressive and cardiological disorders present a major comorbidity. Their manifold interrelations may be best analysed within a biopsychosocial model of disease. A systematic research was done on empirical studies published during the last 15 years and dealing with epidemiological, etiopathogenetic and therapeutic dimensions of the comorbidity of depression, anxiety and heart disease. From an epidemiological perspective recurrent depressions are associated with a significantly increased risk of coronary heart disease. Depressive disorders play a major role in triggering critical cardiac events, e.g. myocardial infarction. The prevalence rates of depressive disorders in various cardiological conditions are significantly higher than the frequencies that can be expected in healthy general population. Depression shows a negative impact on the somatic morbidity and mortality during the further course of illness. Anxiety and posttraumatic stress disorders seem to be interrelated with cardiological conditions in quite a similar way, probably contributing even more negatively to critical and lethal cardiological events than depression. From an etiopathogenetic perspective some clusters of depressive symptoms seem to be linked to cardiotoxicity more closely than other, vital exhaustion, anhedonia, and hopelessness probably mediating a special risk. In any case, postmyocardial infarct depression that proves treatment-resistent indicates a negative prognosis of the prevailing cardiological condition. On a level of psychological and psychosocial constructs type-A personality, anger/hostility, type-D personality, and alexithymia have been explored regarding its proper pathogenetic role. Psychological and psychopathological variables have to be set into a context of psychosocial stressors on the one hand, and have to be simultaneously analysed with various underlying psycho- and neurobiological variables on the other. Above all, HPA- and sympathicomedullary dysfunctions, reduced

  19. Depression and anxiety among postpartum and adoptive mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, Crystal Edler; Richards, Jenny Gringer; O’Hara, Michael W.; Stuart, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Similar to biological mothers during the postpartum period, women who adopt children experience increased stress and life changes that may put them at risk for developing depression and anxiety. The purpose of the current study was to compare levels of depression and anxiety symptoms between postpartum and adoptive women and, among adoptive women, to examine associations between specific stressors and depressive symptoms. Data from adoptive mothers (n=147), recruited from Holt International, were compared to existing data from postpartum women (n=147). Differences in the level of depression and anxiety symptoms as measured by the Inventory of Depression and Anxiety Symptoms among postpartum and adoptive women were examined. Associations between specific stressors and depressive symptoms were examined among adoptive mothers. Postpartum and adoptive women had comparable levels of depressive symptoms, but adoptive women reported greater well-being and less anxiety than postpartum women. Stressors (e.g., sleep deprivation, history of infertility, past psychological disorder, and less marital satisfaction) were all significantly associated with depressive symptoms among adoptive women. The level of depressive symptoms was not significantly different between the two groups. In contrast, adoptive women experienced significantly fewer symptoms of anxiety and experienced greater well-being. Additionally, adoptive mothers experienced more depressive symptoms during the year following adoption when the stressors were present. Thus, women with these characteristics should be routinely screened for depression and anxiety. PMID:21725836

  20. Distress and functioning in mixed anxiety and depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Małyszczak, Krzysztof; Pawłowski, Tomasz

    2006-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the validity of mixed anxiety and depressive disorder (MADD) with reference to functional characteristics and symptomatic characteristics in comparison with anxiety disorders, depressive disorders, and groups showing subthreshold symptoms (exclusively depressive or anxiety related). The present study was carried out in the following three medical settings: two psychiatric and one primary care. Patients seeking care in psychiatric institutions due to anxiety and depressive symptoms and attending primary medical settings for any reason were taken into account. A total of 104 patients (65 women and 39 men, mean age 41.1 years) were given a General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-30), Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) and Present State Examination questionnaire, a part of Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry, Version 2.0. There were no statistically relevant differences between MADD and anxiety disorders in median GHQ score (19 vs 16) and median GAF score (median 68.5 vs 65). When considering depressive disorders the median GHQ score (28) was higher, and median GAF score (59) was lower than that in MADD. In groups with separated subthreshold anxiety or depressive symptoms, median GHQ scores (12) were lower and median GAF scores (75) were higher than that in MADD. The most frequent symptoms of MADD are symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and depression. Mixed anxiety and depressive disorder differs significantly from GAD only in higher rates of depressed mood and lower rates of somatic anxiety symptoms. Distinction from depression was clearer; six of 10 depressive symptoms are more minor in severity in MADD than in the case of depression. Distress and interference with personal functions in MADD are similar to that of other anxiety disorders. A pattern of MADD symptoms locates this disorder between depression and GAD.

  1. Anxiety and depression: One, two or three disorders?

    OpenAIRE

    Novović Zdenka

    2004-01-01

    The study deals with theoretical psychiatric proposals about relations between anxiety and depressive disorders. Three theoretical positions developed on the basis of numerous evidence on relationship of anxiety and depressive disorders: unitaristic (anxious and depressive disorders represent one disorder with different clinical pictures or phases of the disorder), pluralistic (there are two classes of disorders with clearly recognizable boundaries) and anxious-depressive position (mixed anxi...

  2. Anger Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... expect from anger management education or counseling. Anger management classes or counseling Anger management classes or counseling ... or last for weeks or months. Beginning anger management When you start working on anger management, identify ...

  3. Meditative Movement for Depression and Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter ePayne

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on Meditative Movement (MM and its effects on anxiety, depression and other affective states. MM is a term identifying forms of exercise that use movement in conjunction with meditative attention to body sensations, including proprioception, interoception and kinesthesis. MM includes the traditional Chinese methods of Qigong (Chi Kung and Taijiquan (Tai Chi, some forms of Yoga and other Asian practices, as well as Western Somatic practices; however this review focuses primarily on Qigong and Taijiquan. We clarify the differences between MM and conventional exercise, present descriptions of several of the key methodologies of MM, and suggest how research into these practices may be approached in a systematic way. We also present evidence for possible mechanisms of the effects of MM on affective states, including the roles of posture, rhythm, coherent breathing, and the involvement of specific cortical and subcortical structures. We survey research outcomes summarized in reviews published since 2007. Results suggest that MM may be at least as effective as conventional exercise or other interventions in ameliorating anxiety and depression; however, study quality is generally poor and there are many confounding factors. This makes it difficult to draw definitive conclusions at this time. We suggest, however, that more research is warranted, and we offer specific suggestions for ensuring high-quality and productive future studies.

  4. [Evaluation of anger expression, school functioning and a level of anxiety in children and adolescents with functional abdominal pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczyńska, Paulina; Kowalkowska, Katarzyna; Kuczyńska, Renata; Czerwionka-Szaflarska, Mieczysława; Krogulska, Aneta

    Psychosocial conditions may have influence on the occurrence of functional abdominal pain. Anxiety, school-related difficulties and suppression of emotions negatively impact on the psychosocial condition of a child and could impede its treatment. The analysis of the psychosocial determinants of functioning of children and adolescents with functional abdominal pain. Meterial and methods: The study group comprised 58 patients (12 boys and 46 girls) from 9 to 17 years of age (av. 13.34±2.14 years) with functional abdominal pain, diagnosed according to the III Roman Criteria, and the control group of 58 healthy children in adequate age, of Bydgoszcz primary and secondary schools. The test method utilised The Anger Regulation and Expression Scale (SEG), The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children (STAIC) and Me and My School Questionnaire. Analysing the results of scale SEG between the group of children with functional abdominal pain and healthy children, significant differences were observed in the scale of external anger (p=0.045). There were no differences between the group of children with functional abdominal pain and the comparative one in terms of Me and My School Inventory scale (p> 0.05). In the group of healthy adolescents, the average of motivation differed significantly from the result of the adolescents with functional abdominal pain (p=0.031). There were no differences between the group of children and adolescents with abdominal pain and the healthy ones in terms of the performance in STAIC scales (p>0.05). 1. Healthy children compared to children with functional abdominal pain more openly express negative emotions, such as anger and irritation, which can cause reduced tendency to the somatization of symptoms. 2. Symptoms of young people with functional abdominal pain intensify reluctance to fulfill school duties and heighten fear of school, depending on the speed of activation of the autonomic nervous system.

  5. Cardiovascular disease in persons with depressive and anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelzangs, Nicole; Seldenrijk, Adrie; Beekman, Aartjan T F; van Hout, Hein P J; de Jonge, Peter; Penninx, Brenda W J H

    2010-09-01

    Associations between depression, and possibly anxiety, with cardiovascular disease have been established in the general population and among heart patients. This study examined whether cardiovascular disease was more prevalent among a large cohort of depressed and/or anxious persons. In addition, the role of specific clinical characteristics of depressive and anxiety disorders in the association with cardiovascular disease was explored. Baseline data from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety were used, including persons with a current (i.e. past year) or remitted DSM-IV depressive or anxiety disorder (N=2315) and healthy controls (N=492). Additional clinical characteristics (subtype, duration, severity, and psychoactive medication) were assessed. Cardiovascular disease (stroke and coronary heart disease) was assessed using algorithms based on self-report and medication use. Persons with current anxiety disorders showed an about three-fold increased prevalence of coronary heart disease (OR anxiety only=2.70, 95%CI=1.31-5.56; OR comorbid anxiety/depression=3.54, 95%CI=1.79-6.98). No associations were found for persons with depressive disorders only or remitted disorders, nor for stroke. Severity of depressive and anxiety symptoms--but no other clinical characteristics--most strongly indicated increased prevalence of coronary heart disease. Cross-sectional design. Within this large psychopathology-based cohort study, prevalence of coronary heart disease was especially increased among persons with anxiety disorders. Increased prevalence of coronary heart disease among depressed persons was largely owing to comorbid anxiety. Anxiety-alone as well as comorbid to depressive disorders-as risk indicator of coronary heart disease deserves more attention in both research and clinical practice. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Maternal depression and anxiety among children with mental health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The investigation sought to examine depression and anxiety levels in mothers of children with mental health problems. Method: A case control design was employed and self-reports of depressive and anxiety symptoms were measured in a group of women whose children were receiving mental health care, ...

  7. Metabolic risk factors in depressive and anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reedt Dortland, Arianne Klaartje Beraldine van

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to clarify which aspects of depression and anxiety are related to an increased metabolic risk, and which factors contribute to these associations. Taken together, our findings indicate that people with more severe symptoms of depression and anxiety are at particular risk

  8. Symptom Dimensions of Depression and Anxiety and the Metabolic Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luppino, Floriana S.; Dortland, Arianne K. B. van Reedt; Wardenaar, Klaas J.; Bouvy, Paul F.; Giltay, Erik J.; Zitman, Frans G.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    Objective: To investigate the association between depression and anxiety symptoms and the metabolic syndrome (MetSyn), using a dimensional approach. The association between depression and anxiety, on the one hand, and the MetSyn as a cluster or its individual components, on the other hand, is

  9. Mindfulness: Facet Relationships with Anxiety and Depression in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dredze, Joshua Menachem

    2017-01-01

    College students have been shown to be highly stressed and experience depression and anxiety. Over the last two to three decades, mindfulness has emerged as a widely accepted and used therapy for a range of disorders including depression and anxiety. More recently, second order research has targeted the causes or mechanisms of action underlying…

  10. Depression/anxiety disorder and amygdala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iidaka, Tetsuya

    2007-01-01

    Described and discussed are neuro-imaging studies on the amygdala (Am) concerning its volume, neuro-active drug effect on it and its response to repulsive and attractive stress-evoked character/temperament tests in patients mainly with major depression (MD) and anxiety disorder (AD), by functional MRI (fMRI) and positron emission tomography (PET). A recent trend of volumetry of Am is the voxel-based morphometry by MRI, of which results are still controversial in MD. In contrast, many studies by PET and fMRI using neuro-active drugs have revealed that Am activity in MD is stimulated, and this hyperactivity can be improved by anti-depressive drugs. In addition, difference of activities is suggested in Am left and right hemispheres. The hyperactivity in Am has been reported also in AD and phobic disorders, of which symptoms are conceivably expressed by the sensitivity changes in the cerebral limbic system involving Am. The author considers the central region responsible for the depressive mood is present around cortex of anteroinferior genu of corpus callosum where neuro-network with Am is dense. (R.T.)

  11. Anxiety and depressive symptoms and medical illness among adults with anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niles, Andrea N; Dour, Halina J; Stanton, Annette L; Roy-Byrne, Peter P; Stein, Murray B; Sullivan, Greer; Sherbourne, Cathy D; Rose, Raphael D; Craske, Michelle G

    2015-02-01

    Anxiety is linked to a number of medical conditions, yet few studies have examined how symptom severity relates to medical comorbidity. The current study assessed associations between severity of anxiety and depression and the presence of medical conditions in adults diagnosed with anxiety disorders. Nine-hundred eighty-nine patients diagnosed with panic, generalized anxiety, social anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorders reported on the severity of anxiety and depressive symptoms and on diagnoses of 11 medical conditions. Severity of anxiety and depressive symptoms was strongly associated with having more medical conditions over and above control variables, and the association was as strong as that between BMI and disease. Odds of having asthma, heart disease, back problems, ulcer, migraine headache and eyesight difficulties also increased as anxiety and depressive symptom severity increased. Anxiety symptoms were independently associated with ulcer, whereas depressive symptoms were independently associated with heart disease, migraine, and eyesight difficulties. These findings add to a growing body of research linking anxiety disorders with physical health problems and indicate that anxiety and depressive symptoms deserve greater attention in their association with disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Social functioning in patients with depressive and anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saris, I M J; Aghajani, M; van der Werff, S J A; van der Wee, N J A; Penninx, B W J H

    2017-10-01

    Adaptive social functioning is severely impeded in depressive and anxiety disorders, even after remission. However, a comprehensive overview is still lacking. Using data from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA), behavioural (network size, social activities, social support) and affective (loneliness, affiliation, perceived social disability) indicators of social functioning were analyzed in patients with anxiety (N = 540), depressive (N = 393), comorbid anxiety and depressive disorders ('comorbid', N = 748), remitted participants (N = 621), and healthy control subjects (N = 650). Analyses revealed an increasing trend of social dysfunction among patient groups, in patients with comorbid anxiety and depressive disorders, showing the most severe impairments, followed by depressed and anxious patients (P's social functioning indicators). Affective indicators showed the largest effect sizes (Cohen's d range from 0.13 to 1.76). We also found impairments in social functioning among remitted patients. Furthermore, perceived social disability among patients was predictive of still having a depressive and/or anxiety diagnosis 2 years later (P social functioning are impaired in patients with anxiety or depressive disorders and most in patients with comorbid disorders. After remission of affective psychopathology, residual impairments tend to remain, while social dysfunction in patients seems predictive of future psychopathology. © 2017The Authors. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Anxiety and depression symptoms in recurrent painful renal lithiasis colic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.H.M.P. Diniz

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have reported that symptoms of anxiety and depression are significantly associated with diseases characterized by painful crises. However, there is little information about the psychological aspects of recurrent painful episodes of renal stone disease. Our objective was to evaluate the association of symptoms of anxiety, depression and recurrent painful renal colic in a case-control study involving 64 subjects (32 cases/32 controls matched for age and sex. Cases were outpatients with a confirmed diagnosis of nephrolithiasis as per their case history, physical examination, image examination and other laboratory exams. Patients had a history of at least two episodes within a 3-year period, and were currently in an intercrisis interval. The control group consisted of subjects seen at the Ophthalmology Outpatient Clinic of this University Hospital with only eye refraction symptoms, and no other associated disease. Symptoms of anxiety were evaluated by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and symptoms of depression by the Beck Depression Inventory. Statistically significant differences were observed between patients with nephrolithiasis and controls for anxiety state (P = 0.001, anxiety trait (P = 0.005 and symptoms of depression (odds ratio = 3.74; 95%CI = 1.31-10.62. The Beck Depression Inventory showed 34.5% of respondents with moderate and 6% with severe levels of depression. There was a significant linear correlation between symptoms of anxiety (P = 0.002 and depression (P < 0.001 and the number of recurrent colic episodes (anxiety-state: P = 0.016 and anxiety-trait: P < 0.001. These data suggest an association between recurrent renal colic and symptoms of both anxiety and depression.

  14. Incidence and risk patterns of anxiety and depressive disorders and categorization of generalized anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beesdo, Katja; Pine, Daniel S; Lieb, Roselind; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    Controversy surrounds the diagnostic categorization of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). To examine the incidence, comorbidity, and risk patterns for anxiety and depressive disorders and to test whether developmental features of GAD more strongly support a view of this condition as a depressive as opposed to an anxiety disorder. Face-to-face, 10-year prospective longitudinal and family study with as many as 4 assessment waves. The DSM-IV Munich Composite International Diagnostic Interview was administered by clinically trained interviewers. Munich, Germany. A community sample of 3021 individuals aged 14 to 24 years at baseline and 21 to 34 years at last follow-up. Cumulative incidence of GAD, other anxiety disorders (specific phobias, social phobia, agoraphobia, and panic disorder), and depressive disorders (major depressive disorder, and dysthymia). Longitudinal associations between GAD and depressive disorders are not stronger than those between GAD and anxiety disorders or between other anxiety and depressive disorders. Survival analyses reveal that the factors associated with GAD overlap more strongly with those specific to anxiety disorders than those specific to depressive disorders. In addition, GAD differs from anxiety and depressive disorders with regard to family climate and personality profiles. Anxiety and depressive disorders appear to differ with regard to risk constellations and temporal longitudinal patterns, and GAD is a heterogeneous disorder that is, overall, more closely related to other anxiety disorders than to depressive disorders. More work is needed to elucidate the potentially unique aspects of pathways and mechanisms involved in the etiopathogenesis of GAD. Grouping GAD with depressive disorders, as suggested by cross-sectional features and diagnostic comorbidity patterns, minimizes the importance of longitudinal data on risk factors and symptom trajectories.

  15. Anxiety and depression: One, two or three disorders?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novović Zdenka

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The study deals with theoretical psychiatric proposals about relations between anxiety and depressive disorders. Three theoretical positions developed on the basis of numerous evidence on relationship of anxiety and depressive disorders: unitaristic (anxious and depressive disorders represent one disorder with different clinical pictures or phases of the disorder, pluralistic (there are two classes of disorders with clearly recognizable boundaries and anxious-depressive position (mixed anxious-depressive disorder represents also a single disorder. Possible reasons for antagonisms, connections (i.e. lack of connections to some proposals of psychologists are commented upon, as well as the significance of this problem for classification of mental disorders in general.

  16. Neurobiology of Depression and Anxiety in Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osamu Kano

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Depression and anxiety are common in Parkinson's disease (PD and have important consequences on quality of life. These have long been recognized as frequent accompanying syndromes of PD, and several reports suggest that these are the causative process or risk factors that are present many years before the appearance of motor symptoms. The neurochemical changes in PD involving dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin might be related to the pathophysiology of depression and anxiety, but this is still not clear. Several studies showed that anxiety in PD patients occurs earlier than depression, during premotor phase, suggesting that there may be a link between the mechanisms that cause anxiety and PD. Whereas a recent study reported that PD patients with depression and anxiety were associated with different demographic and clinical features.

  17. In systemic sclerosis, anxiety and depression assessed by hospital anxiety depression scale are independently associated with disability and psychological factors.

    OpenAIRE

    Del Rosso, A; Mikhaylova, S; Baccini, M; Lupi, I; Matucci Cerinic, M; Maddali Bongi, S

    2013-01-01

    Background. Anxious and depressive symptoms are frequent in Systemic Sclerosis (SSc). Our objective is to assess their prevalence and association with district and global disability and psychological variables. Methods. 119?SSc patients were assessed by Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS). Clinical depression and anxiety were defined for HADS score cutoff ?8. Patients were assessed for psychological symptoms (RSES, COPE-NIV), hand (HAMIS, CHFDS, fist closure, and hand opening) and face d...

  18. Brief aikido training versus karate and golf training and university students' scores on self-esteem, anxiety, and expression of anger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Y A

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate if aikido training for 10 weeks for 69 beginning students is effective in improving selected aspects of personality. The hypothesis was that subjects' scores would significantly increase on self-esteem but decrease on anxiety and anger expression. Change in means from pre- to posttest did not support the hypothesis.

  19. Impulsivity and its relationship with anxiety, depression and stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustafa, Ahmed A; Tindle, Richard; Frydecka, Dorota; Misiak, Błażej

    2017-04-01

    We aimed to assess the association between depression, anxiety, stress and impulsivity with respect to age. The Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-42) and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11) were administered to 145 individuals. Due to a negative correlation between age, BIS-11 and DASS-42 subscales, participants were divided into three groups: young-aged (18-30years), middle-aged (31-49years) and old-aged (≥50years). Subjects from old-aged group had significantly lower scores of depression, anxiety, stress and impulsivity compared to those from younger groups. Anxiety, followed by stress and depression, was the strongest predictor of BIS-11 total score in young-aged and middle-aged individuals. There were no significant differences in the correlations between BIS-11 total score, depression, anxiety and stress in old-aged individuals. Our results indicate that the levels of depression, anxiety, stress and impulsivity decrease with age. Additionally, age might moderate the effect of depression, anxiety and stress on impulsivity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Occupational stress, anxiety and depression among Egyptian teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desouky, Dalia; Allam, Heba

    2017-09-01

    Occupational stress (OS) among teachers predispose to depression and anxiety. No study was done to assess these problems among Egyptian teachers. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of OS, depression and anxiety among Egyptian teachers. A cross sectional study was done on 568 Egyptian teachers. The respondents filled a questionnaire on personal data, and the Arabic version of the Occupational Stress Index (OSI), the Arabic validated versions of Taylor manifest anxiety scale and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were used to assess OS, anxiety and depression respectively. The prevalence of OS, anxiety and depression among teachers was (100%, 67.5% and 23.2%) respectively. OS, anxiety and depression scores were significantly higher among teachers with an age more than 40years, female teachers, primary school teachers, those with inadequate salary, higher teaching experience, higher qualifications and higher workload. A significant weak positive correlation was found between OS scores and anxiety and depression scores. This study indicated the need for future researches to address risk factors of OS and mental disorders among Egyptian teachers, and the need of periodical medical evaluation of teachers and medical and psychological support for the identified cases. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Depression and anxiety in patients with hereditary angioedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouche, Andrew S; Saunders, Erika F H; Craig, Timothy

    2014-04-01

    Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is characterized by edematous swelling attacks of the face, extremities, abdomen, genitalia, and upper airway. The potential for laryngeal swelling makes the disease life-threatening, and the swelling elsewhere contributes to the significant burden of illness. The increased risk for mental health disorders in HAE is due to the burden of disease and possibly associated activation of the immune system. To determine the prevalence of depression and anxiety in HAE patients and the most high-yield features of depression to target in a clinical encounter. Depression and anxiety symptoms were evaluated using the 29 items of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale along with the 14-item Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale. The sample size was 26 participants with a diagnosis of type 1 or 2 HAE drawn from a cohort of 60 adult patients. In addition, a literature search was performed regarding how immune modulation affects depression and anxiety. A total of 39% of participants were identified as experiencing depression of mild (50%), moderate (40%), or severe (10%) levels. Fifteen percent of participants displayed prominent anxiety, half of whom had mild anxiety, 25% moderate anxiety, and 25% severe anxiety. The literature on inflammation and depression suggests a possible link between HAE and depression. Our data and the literature support that depression and anxiety symptoms are common in patients with HAE and may be secondary to chronic disease burden, associated pathophysiologic features, or both. Treatment that addresses the psychosocial and mental health of HAE patients is critical for best practice. Copyright © 2014 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. In Systemic Sclerosis, Anxiety and Depression Assessed by Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale Are Independently Associated with Disability and Psychological Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Del Rosso

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Anxious and depressive symptoms are frequent in Systemic Sclerosis (SSc. Our objective is to assess their prevalence and association with district and global disability and psychological variables. Methods. 119 SSc patients were assessed by Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS. Clinical depression and anxiety were defined for HADS score cutoff ≥8. Patients were assessed for psychological symptoms (RSES, COPE-NIV, hand (HAMIS, CHFDS, fist closure, and hand opening and face disability (MHISS, mouth opening, global disability, and fatigue (HAQ, FACIT. Results. Both depression and anxiety in SSc are 36%. Depressive patients with comorbid anxiety have higher HADS-D score than patients with depression only (. HADS-A and -D are positively correlated with global disability, hands and mouth disability, fatigue, self-esteem and avoidance coping strategy, and, only HADS-A, also with social support (. By multiple regression, HADS-D is independently associated with FACIT-F (, RSES (, and MHISS total score (, together explaining 50% of variance. HADS-A is independently associated with RSES (, COPE-NIV SA (, COPE-NIV SS (, FACIT-F (, and MHISS mouth opening (, explaining 41% of variance. Conclusions. In SSc depression and anxiety correlate to local and global disabilities and psychological characteristics. Depressive patients with comorbid anxiety have higher level of depressive symptoms.

  3. Symptoms of anxiety in depression: assessment of item performance of the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale in patients with depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccarino, Anthony L; Evans, Kenneth R; Sills, Terrence L; Kalali, Amir H

    2008-01-01

    Although diagnostically dissociable, anxiety is strongly co-morbid with depression. To examine further the clinical symptoms of anxiety in major depressive disorder (MDD), a non-parametric item response analysis on "blinded" data from four pharmaceutical company clinical trials was performed on the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAMA) across levels of depressive severity. The severity of depressive symptoms was assessed using the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD). HAMA and HAMD measures were supplied for each patient on each of two post-screen visits (n=1,668 observations). Option characteristic curves were generated for all 14 HAMA items to determine the probability of scoring a particular option on the HAMA in relation to the total HAMD score. Additional analyses were conducted using Pearson's product-moment correlations. Results showed that anxiety-related symptomatology generally increased as a function of overall depressive severity, though there were clear differences between individual anxiety symptoms in their relationship with depressive severity. In particular, anxious mood, tension, insomnia, difficulties in concentration and memory, and depressed mood were found to discriminate over the full range of HAMD scores, increasing continuously with increases in depressive severity. By contrast, many somatic-related symptoms, including muscular, sensory, cardiovascular, respiratory, gastro-intestinal, and genito-urinary were manifested primarily at higher levels of depression and did not discriminate well at lower HAMD scores. These results demonstrate anxiety as a core feature of depression, and the relationship between anxiety-related symptoms and depression should be considered in the assessment of depression and evaluation of treatment strategies and outcome.

  4. Analysis of Depression and Anxiety Levels in Patients with Dyspnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Servet Kayhan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the frequency of anxiety and depression in a sample of elderly patients with chronic respiratory failure and the relationships between these comorbidities and the severity of dyspnea. Material and Method: Sixty-four consecutive inpatients with asthma and chronic obstructive disease were evaluated in a chest disease hospital. A questionnaire including sociodemographic features was applied to patients and healthy control group. Anxiety was assessed by Spielberg state and trait anxiety scale, and depression by Beck depression inventory. Spirometric tests, respiratory symptoms and severity of dyspnea were evaluated in the study group. Results: The mean age of study group was 67.28±9.13 (range between 50-88 years. Of those 22 (34.4% were females and 42 (65.6% were males. The mean Beck depression inventory scores of the group was 18.42±10.00 (range between 5-47, the mean Spielberg’s state anxiety score was 40.20±8.13 and the mean Spielberg’s trait score was 44.70±7.94 these results were close to control group. Depression with Beck depression inventory scores was diagnosed in 24 (37.5%, absent or mild depression in 40 (62.5%, moderate depression in 13 (20.3% and severe depression in 11 (17.2% patients. There was a relation between age and depression scores (p=0.022. Depression scores, Spielberg’s state and trait inventory scores were found statistically related with each other. Discussion: The results of the present study support that anxiety and depressive disorders are found with a high incidence in patients with respiratory impairments but the severity of dyspnea measures does not affect the scores of depression and anxiety.

  5. Prevalence and Predictors of Depression and Anxiety among Korean Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Eun

    2018-01-01

    Despite the significant growth of the Asian population in the United States, current knowledge on their mental health and service utilization behaviors is very limited. The study examined the prevalence and predictors of depression and anxiety among Korean Americans in the Washington, D.C. metropolitan area. A total of 602 Koreans completed a self-administered survey on physical and mental well-being, and the study found that 18.2% and 16.9% of the participants had severe symptoms of depression and anxiety, respectively. Acculturative stress and perceived social support were common predictors for depression and anxiety, and the effects of demographic factors were minimal.

  6. Comorbidity of Anxiety-Depression among Australian University Students: Implications for Student Counsellors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitsika, Vicki; Sharpley, Christopher F.

    2012-01-01

    The incidence, factor structure and scale item differences in anxiety-depression comorbidity were investigated in a sample of Australian university students defined according to the presence of anxiety and/or depression. The incidence of anxiety-depression comorbidity was over 32%, about four times that for anxiety or depression alone.…

  7. Anxiety and depression in patients suffering from chronic low backache

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatti, A.R.; Saleem, B.; Ahsin, S.; Farooqi, A.Z.; Farooqi, A.Z.

    2014-01-01

    To determine the frequency of anxiety and depression in patients with chronic low backache and to document other co-morbidities among these patients presenting at rheumatology clinic of a tertiary care hospital in Islamabad. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Study was conducted at Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences from July 2012 to April 2013. Methodology: A total of 170 chronic low backache patients were administered urdu translated Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale and Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scales. Scoring was done on Likert-type scale of 1-4 (based on these replies: a little of the time, some of the time, good part of the time, most of the time) with overall assessment by cumulative score ranging from 20 to 80, where 20-44 was normal range, 45-59 mildly depressed/anxious, 60-69 moderately depressed / anxious and 70 and above severely depressed / anxious. Results: Out of 170 patients, 157 patients above 18 years of age with male to female ratio 2:3 completed the study. Among study sample 72.2% had mild depression, 21.6% had mild anxiety, 32% had mixed mild anxiety and depression, 0.8% had severe depression, 1.6% had severe anxiety while 2.4% suffered from severe mixed symptoms. Overall, 125 (79.6%) patients were suffering from mild to severe form of depression and anxiety both alone or mixed. Obesity was present in 34 (21.66%) of patients with chronic backache and out of these 29 (85.3%) had psychological co-morbidity. Conclusion: Two thirds of the chronic backache patients reporting at rheumatology clinic of a tertiary care hospital were suffering from mild to severe degree of depression and anxiety. This worrying situation calls for thorough systematic evaluation of all chronic backache patient arriving at rheumatology clinic for mood disorders and psychological ailment. (author)

  8. Relationships among depression, anxiety, anxiety sensitivity, and perceived social support in adolescents with conversion disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Savaş; Bilgiç, Ayhan; Akça, Ömer Faruk; Türkoğlu, Serhat; Hergüner, Sabri

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the relationships of depression, anxiety, anxiety sensitivity, and perceived social support with conversion symptoms in adolescents with conversion disorder (CD). Fifty outpatients, aged 8-18 years, who had been diagnosed with CD and members of a control group were assessed using the psychological questionnaires. Compared with controls, adolescents with CD scored higher on the Child Depression Inventory (CDI), Screen for Child Anxiety-related Emotional Disorders (SCARED), Childhood Anxiety Sensitivity Index (CASI) total, CASI physical and cognitive subscales, and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support family subscale. Multiple regression analysis showed that CDI, CASI total, and CASI cognitive scores predicted the Somatoform Dissociation Questionnaire (SDQ) scores and that CDI and CASI total scores predicted the Children's Somatization Inventory (CSI) scores of subjects. This study suggest that adolescents with CD had poor psychosocial well-being, and depression, global anxiety sensitivity and anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns are related to conversion symptoms.

  9. Perfectionism, Depression, Anxiety, and Academic Performance in Premedical Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melina Sevlever

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examined differences in perfectionism, depression, anxiety, and academic performance between premedical (N = 104 and non-premedical (N = 76 undergraduate students. Results indicated that premedical students did not differ significantly from non-premedical students in perfectionistic self-criticism, personal standards perfectionism, depression, or anxiety. Perfectionistic high standards were not correlated with depression or anxiety for either group. Self-critical perfectionism was positively correlated with depression and anxiety, with comparable effect sizes, for both groups of students. Premedical students and non-premedical students drastically differed in their reported academic performance (GPA. For premedical students, PS perfectionism was related to higher GPA, however PS perfectionism in non-premedical students had a negligible effect in increasing GPA. The implications of these results for interventions and future research are discussed.

  10. The prevalence of anxiety and depression symptoms and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of anxiety and depression symptoms and syndromes in Kenyan children and adolescents. David M Ndetei, Lincoln Khasakhala, Lambert Nyabola, Francisca Ongecha-Owuor, Soraya Seedat, Victoria Mutiso, Donald Kokonya, Gideon Odhiambo ...

  11. Factors Influencing Depression and Anxiety among Black Sexual Minority Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis F. Graham

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary aim of this study was to examine the relationships between depression and anxiety, and ethnic and sexual identity development, and discrimination and harassment (DH among Black sexual minority men. Additional aims were to determine whether an interaction effect existed between ethnic and sexual identity and whether coping skills level moderated these relationships. Using an observational cross-sectional design, 54 participants recruited through snowball sampling completed self-administered online surveys. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was used. Sixty-four percent of the variance in depression scores and 53% of the variance in anxiety scores were explained by DH and internalized homonegativity together. Thirty percent of the sample had scale scores indicating likelihood of depression and anxiety. Experience of DH and internalized homonegativity explained a large portion of the variability in depression and anxiety among Black sexual minority men. The study showed high prevalence of mental distress among this sample.

  12. Anxiety and depression levels among multidisciplinary health residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Salvagni Rotta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to assess symptoms of anxiety and depression of professionals of Multidisciplinary Health Residence Programs. Methods: this is a cross-sectional study, performed with fifty professionals, using three instruments: one for socioeconomic and demographic data, and the Beck’s Anxiety and Depression Scale. Results: predominance of females (92.0%, average age 26 years old, single (88.0%, family income from two to five salaries (56.0% satisfied with the work (82.0% and thought about quitting the program (56.0% showed anxiety (50.0% and depression (28.0%. Conclusion: there was an association between anxiety and depression in multidisciplinary residents, which points to the need for rethinking strategies for identifying these symptoms and control of stress factors for the promotion of mental health.

  13. Depression and Anxiety Disorders among Hospitalized Women with Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Vin-Raviv, Neomi; Akinyemiju, Tomi F.; Galea, Sandro; Bovbjerg, Dana H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To document the prevalence of depression and anxiety disorders, and their associations with mortality among hospitalized breast cancer patients. Methods We examined the associations between breast cancer diagnosis and the diagnoses of anxiety or depression among 4,164 hospitalized breast cancer cases matched with 4,164 non-breast cancer controls using 2006-2009 inpatient data obtained from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample database. Conditional logistic regression models were used to co...

  14. Recurrent abdominal pain in adolescents with anxiety and depression disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Fastralina Fastralina; Sri Sofyani; M. Joesoef Simbolon; Iskandar Z. Lubis

    2013-01-01

    Background Anxiety and depression disorders in adolescents may affect their academic performances and social functioning at school. Adolescents with these disorders sometimes develop recurrent abdominal pain (RAP). Objective To assess the occurence of recurrent abdominal pain among adolescents with anxiety and depression disorders Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study from August to September 2009 in 12-18 year-old adolescents from 3 junior high schools and 3 se...

  15. Recurrent abdominal pain in adolescents with anxiety and depression disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Fastralina; Sri Sofyani; M. Joesoef Simbolon; Iskandar Z. Lubis

    2013-01-01

    Background Anxiety and depression disorders in adolescents may affect their academic performances and social functioning at school. Adolescents with these disorders sometimes develop recurrent abdominal pain (RAP). Objective To assess the occurence of recurrent abdominal pain among adolescents with anxiety and depression disorders Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study from August to September 2009 in 12–18 year-old adolescents from 3 junior high schools and 3 senior high school...

  16. A prospective examination of depression, anxiety and stress throughout pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rallis, Sofia; Skouteris, Helen; McCabe, Marita; Milgrom, Jeannette

    2014-12-01

    Perinatal distress has largely been conceptualised as the experience of depression and/or anxiety. Recent research has shown that the affective state of stress is also present during the perinatal period and thus may add to a broader understanding of perinatal distress. The aims of the present study were to investigate the changes in depression, anxiety and stress symptoms across pregnancy, and to explore the prospective relationships between these symptoms. Two-hundred and fourteen pregnant women were recruited when they were less than 16 weeks gestation. Women completed depression, anxiety and stress measures on a monthly basis, from 16 weeks gestation through to 36 weeks gestation. The covariate measures of sleep quality and social support were assessed bi-monthly at 16, 24 and 32 weeks gestation. Levels of depression, anxiety and stress symptoms were all shown to change over time, with women experiencing fewer symptoms during the middle of their pregnancy. Higher symptoms early in pregnancy predicted higher symptom levels throughout the rest of pregnancy. Higher depression scores early in pregnancy were also shown to predict higher anxiety and higher stress scores in late pregnancy. Increased stress scores during mid pregnancy also predicted higher anxiety scores in late pregnancy. Current findings indicate that symptom levels of depression, anxiety and stress vary over the course of pregnancy. Increased depression in early pregnancy seemed to be particularly pertinent as it not only predicted later depression symptoms, but also increased anxiety and stress in late pregnancy. Collectively, these results further highlight the importance of emotional health screening early in pregnancy. Copyright © 2014 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The effect of anxiety and depression scores of couples who ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study data was collected by using a semi-structured questionnaire and the Turkish version of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). The questionnaire, STAI and BDI were applied to couples who initiated ART treatment. Couples' state anxiety scores were re-evaluated after ...

  18. Prevalence of anxiety and depression among medical and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Motaz B. Ibrahim

    2014-07-28

    Jul 28, 2014 ... medical and pharmaceutical students in Alexandria ... Objective: In this study, the prevalence of anxiety and depression was measured ... burden the costs paid by the society through anxiety and ... not due to heat, and fear of the worst happening). .... E and F compare the mean values of the students of Fac-.

  19. Anxiety, depression in patients receiving chemotherapy for solid tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansoor, S.; Jehangir, S.

    2015-01-01

    To determine the frequency of anxiety and depression in patients undergoing chemotherapy for solid tumors using Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS). Study Design: Cross sectional descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: Out-patient department of Armed Forces Institute of Mental Health, Rawalpindi from June 2011 to December 2011. Methodology: Consecutive non probability sampling technique was used to select patients of age (25-70 years), male or female, who had received atleast 03 cycles of chemotherapy for solid tumors. Those with history of prior psychiatric illness, current use of psychotropic medication or psychoactive substance use, and any major bereavement in past one year were excluded from the study. After taking informed consent, relevant socio- demographic data was collected and HADS was administered. HADS-A cut off score of 7 was taken as significant anxiety while a HADS-D cut off score of 7 was taken as significant depression. Results: The total number of participants was 209. The mean age of patients was 42.9 years, with 55.5% males and 44.5% females. Overall 33/209 (15.8%) patients had anxiety while 56/209 (26.8%) were found to have depression. There was a higher frequency of anxiety and depression in younger patients (less than age 40 years), females, patients who were single or divorced, and patients receiving chemotherapy for pancreatic carcinoma. Conclusion: Patients undergoing chemotherapy suffer from considerable levels of anxiety and depression, thus highlighting the need for specialized interventions. (author)

  20. Depression and anxiety in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate symptoms of depression and anxiety in the patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). METHODS: 76 patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma participated in this program. All patients were rated with the self-rating anxiety scale (SAS) and the self-rating depression scale (SDS). The mean scores of SAS and SDS were compared to those scores of the Norm of Chinese people. In addition, the different treatment results of the patients with different levels of anxiety and depression were studied. Further, the number of patients of SAS, SDS with more than 50 score were compared between primary cancer patients and recurrent cancer patients. RESULTS: The scores of SAS, SDS and the number of patients with more than 50 score in the patients group were obviously higher than those in Chinese Norm (P<0.01).The levels of anxiety and depression in 32 patients with recurrent cancer were more severe than those of 44 patients with primary cancer. The patients with anxiety and/or depression showed poor prognosis. CONCLUSION: Anxiety and depression are common symptoms in patients with OSCC and have negative effects on the prognosis, thus the psychological intervention for the patients must be carried out.

  1. Anxiety, Depression and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder after Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Prakash; Acharya, Lumeshor; Bhatta, Bhup Dev; Paneru, Suman Bhatta; Khattri, Jai Bahadur; Chakraborty, Prashant Kumar; Sharma, Rajasee

    2018-03-13

    Prevalence of anxiety, depression and post traumatic stress disorder is high after earthquake. The aim of the study is to study the prevalence and comorbidity of commonly occurring psychological symptoms in people exposed to Nepal mega earthquake in 2015 after a year of the event. A community based, cross sectional, descriptive study was carried out in Bhumlichaur area of Gorkha district, Nepal after around 14 months of the first major earthquake. We used self-reporting questionnaire 20, Post-traumatic stress disorder 8 and hospital anxiety and depression scale to screen for presence of symptoms of anxiety and depression or post-traumatic stress disorder in this population. The risk of having these disorders according to different socio-demographic variable was assessed by calculating odds ratio. All calculations were done using predictive and analytical software (PASW) version 16.0. A total of 198 participants were included in the final data analysis. The mean age of study participants was 35.13 years (SD=18.04). Borderline anxiety symptoms were found in 104 (52.5%) while significant anxiety symptoms were found in 40 (20%) of respondents. Borderline depressive symptoms were seen in 40 (20%) while significant depressive symptoms were seen in 16 (8%) of subjects. Around 27% (n= 53) of respondents were classified as having post-traumatic stress disorder. The prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms and post-traumatic stress disorder seems to be high even after one year in people exposed to earthquake.

  2. Symptoms of social anxiety, depression, and stress in parents of children with social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halldorsson, Brynjar; Draisey, Jenny; Cooper, Peter; Creswell, Cathy

    2018-06-01

    It has been suggested that elevated maternal social anxiety may play a disorder-specific role in maintaining childhood social anxiety disorder (SAD), but few studies have examined whether mothers of children with SAD are more socially anxious than mothers of children with other anxiety disorders (ANX). This study set out to examine whether symptoms of social anxiety were more severe amongst mothers of 7-12 year old children presenting for treatment with SAD (n = 260) compared to those presenting with ANX (n = 138). In addition, we examined whether there were differences between these two groups in terms of maternal and paternal general anxiety, depression, and stress. Parents of 7-12 year old children referred for treatment of SAD or ANX completed self-report questionnaire measures of emotional symptoms. Compared to mothers of children with ANX, mothers of children with SAD reported significantly higher levels of social anxiety, general anxiety, and depression. In addition, fathers of children with SAD reported significantly higher levels of anxiety, stress, and depression than fathers of children with ANX. This study is one of the few existing studies that have examined mothers' and fathers' psychopathology across different childhood anxiety disorders. Compared to parents of children with ANX, parents of children with SAD may have poorer mental health which may inhibit optimum child treatment outcomes for children with SAD. Thus, targeting parental psychopathology may be particularly important in the treatment of childhood SAD. Consideration of parental psychopathology may be particularly important in the treatment of childhood social anxiety disorder. Mothers of children with social anxiety disorder are more socially anxious than mothers of children with other anxiety disorders Fathers of children with social anxiety disorder are more anxious and depressed than fathers of children with other anxiety disorders Participants were predominantly of high

  3. The association of depression and anxiety with pain: A study from NESDA

    OpenAIRE

    de Heer, E.W.; Gerrits, M.M.; Beekman, A.T.; Dekker, J.; van Marwijk, H.W.J.; de Waal, M.W.; Spinhoven, P.; Penninx, B.W.; van der Feltz-Cornelis, C.M.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic pain is commonly co-morbid with a depressive or anxiety disorder. Objective of this study is to examine the influence of depression, along with anxiety, on pain-related disability, pain intensity, and pain location in a large sample of adults with and without a depressive and/or anxiety disorder. The study population consisted of 2981 participants with a depressive, anxiety, co-morbid depressive and anxiety disorder, remitted disorder or no current disorder (controls). Severity of dep...

  4. The Interrelationship of Social Anxiety with Anxiety, Depression, Locus of Control, Ways of Coping and Ego Strength amongst University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Robin-Marie; Edelman, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    This is the first study to investigate the interrelationship of social anxiety with the variables anxiety, depression, locus of control, ego strength and ways of coping in a sample of university students. There were high scores of social anxiety which were related to high scores on measures of anxiety and depression, low ego strength, external…

  5. Depressive and anxiety disorders and risk of subclinical atherosclerosis Findings from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seldenrijk, Adrie; Vogelzangs, Nicole; van Hout, Hein P. J.; van Marwijk, Harm W. J.; Diamant, Michaela; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    Objective: Current evidence regarding the association between psychopathology and subclinical atherosclerosis show inconsistent results. The present study examined whether subclinical atherosclerosis was more prevalent in a large cohort of persons with depressive or anxiety disorders as compared to

  6. Depression and Anxiety Disorders among Hospitalized Women with Breast Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neomi Vin-Raviv

    Full Text Available To document the prevalence of depression and anxiety disorders, and their associations with mortality among hospitalized breast cancer patients.We examined the associations between breast cancer diagnosis and the diagnoses of anxiety or depression among 4,164 hospitalized breast cancer cases matched with 4,164 non-breast cancer controls using 2006-2009 inpatient data obtained from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample database. Conditional logistic regression models were used to compute odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CI for the associations between breast cancer diagnosis and diagnoses of anxiety or depression. We also used binary logistic regression models to examine the association between diagnoses of depression or anxiety, and in-hospital mortality among breast cancer patients.We observed that breast cancer cases were less likely to have a diagnosis of depression (OR=0.63, 95% CI: 0.52-0.77, and less likely to have a diagnosis of anxiety (OR=0.68, 95% CI: 0.52-0.90 compared with controls. This association remained after controlling for race/ethnicity, residential income, insurance and residential region. Breast cancer patients with a depression diagnosis also had lower mortality (OR=0.69, 95% CI: 0.52-0.89 compared with those without a depression diagnosis, but there was no significant difference in mortality among those with and without anxiety diagnoses.Diagnoses of depression and anxiety in breast cancer patients were less prevalent than expected based on our analysis of hospitalized breast cancer patients and matched non-breast cancer controls identified in the NIS dataset using ICD-9 diagnostic codes. Results suggest that under-diagnosis of mental health problems may be common among hospitalized women with a primary diagnosis of breast cancer. Future work may fruitfully explore reasons for, and consequences of, inappropriate identification of the mental health needs of breast cancer patients.

  7. Risk factors of anxiety and depression in inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahon, Stéphane; Lahmek, Pierre; Durance, Christelle; Olympie, Alain; Lesgourgues, Bruno; Colombel, Jean-Frédéric; Gendre, Jean-Pierre

    2012-11-01

    Little is known in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) regarding risk factors for psychological distress. The aim of this work was to study the disease characteristics and socioeconomic factors associated with anxiety and depression in IBD. From December 2008 to June 2009, 1663 patients with IBD (1450 were members of the Association Francois Aupetit, French association of IBD patients) answered a questionnaire about psychological and socioeconomic factors and adherence to treatment. In this study we focused the analysis on the characteristics of IBD (type, location, severity, treatment) and socioeconomic factors (professional, educational, and marital status and Evaluation of Precarity and Inequalities in Health Examination Centers [EPICES] score of socioeconomic deprivation; score established in medical centers in France; http://www.cetaf.asso.fr) associated with depression and anxiety. Anxiety and depression were assessed by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Comparison between groups according to the existence of depression or anxiety was carried out using univariate and multivariate analysis. In all, 181 patients (11%) were depressed; 689 patients (41%) were anxious. By multivariate analysis, factors associated with anxiety were: severe disease (P = 0.04), flares (P = 0.05), nonadherence to treatment (P = 0.03), disabled or unemployed status (P = 0.002), and socioeconomic deprivation (P < 0.0001). Factors associated with depression were: age (P = 0.004), flares (P = 0.03), disabled or unemployed status (P = 0.03), and socioeconomic deprivation (P < 0.0001). In this large cohort of IBD patients, risk factors for anxiety and depression were severe and active disease and socioeconomic deprivation. Psychological interventions would be useful when these factors are identified. Copyright © 2012 Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America, Inc.

  8. The effects of perceived torture controllability on symptom severity of posttraumatic stress, depression and anger in refugees and asylum seekers: A path analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Lillian; Morina, Naser; Schnyder, Ulrich; Schick, Matthis; Bryant, Richard A; Nickerson, Angela

    2018-03-23

    Torture is associated with greater psychopathology, however, the specific mechanisms underlying the effects of torture remain unclear. Research suggests that the perceived uncontrollable nature of, rather than the exposure to, torture, influences the development of psychological disorders. Perceived distress during torture has also been shown to influence psychological outcomes. This cross-sectional study explored the relationship between perceived torture controllability, emotions (i.e., anger and fear) during torture, and current posttraumatic stress (PTS), depression and anger symptoms, controlling for the effects of post-migration living difficulties. Data were collected from 108 refugees and asylum seekers in treatment at two psychiatric clinics in Zurich, Switzerland. Path analyses revealed negative correlations between PTS, depression and anger symptoms, and perceived torture controllability, and positive correlations with anger and fear during torture. Furthermore, the effects of perceived torture controllability on PTS and depression symptoms were mediated by fear during torture, and on anger symptoms via anger during torture. This was over and above the effects of post-migration living difficulties on psychological symptoms. The study provides preliminary evidence that perceived uncontrollability and distress during torture might be significant risk factors for current mental health of torture survivors. These findings may have implications for informing interventions for torture survivors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. [Depression and anxiety--a study for validating subtypes of depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katschnig, H; Nutzinger, D O; Nouzak, A; Schanda, H; David, H

    1990-07-01

    Psychopathological analysis of the patterns of symptoms in 176 depressive in-patients disclosed in 73.3% of all patients the presence of anxiety symptoms: of these, 38.6% merely had diffuse anxiety, whereas 34.7% showed either additionally or alone specific anxiety symptoms such as phobias and panic attacks. Similar to the results obtained by dividing the patients into an "endogenous" and "neurotic" group, namely, that there was no difference between the subtypes in respect of triggering the depressive episodes by life events, or in respect of the suicide rate 30 months after discharge and in respect of a chronic course developing during the 2 years following the discharge, there was likewise no difference with regard to these criteria if the patients were subdivided into depressive patients without anxiety and those with anxiety symptoms. However, a subdivision of the depressive patients with anxiety symptoms into a group having only free-floating anxiety and a group with specific anxiety symptoms, resulted in a clear association with these criteria: If a phobia or panic attacks were present, triggering by life events was far more frequent than if there was only free-floating was more often chronic in the first group, but there was no difference in suicidality. The results indicate that it will be necessary to provide for a more differentiated classification of anxiety symptoms before deciding in clinical routine what steps to take wherever depression and anxiety symptoms are present side by side. The same applies to treatment studies.

  10. Cardiovascular disease in persons with depressive and anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogelzangs, Nicole; Seldenrijk, Adrie; Beekman, Aartjan T. F.; van Hout, Hein P. J.; de Jonge, Peter; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    Background: Associations between depression, and possibly anxiety, with cardiovascular disease have been established in the general population and among heart patients. This study examined whether cardiovascular disease was more prevalent among a large cohort of depressed and/or anxious persons. In

  11. Chronic neck pain and anxiety-depression: prevalence and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All patients with symptomatic neck pain or psychological history or receiving psychotropic medication were excluded from the study. For each patient, we determined the sociodemographic characteristics and clinical ones. The anxious and depressed mood was assessed by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD) ...

  12. Assessment of anxiety and depression in hospitalized cardiac ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: The anxiety and depression level in hospitalized cardiac patient's was 79.5% ... Conclusion: Depression symptoms are more common among hospitalized patients than in those .... married (95.2 %), house wife (42.8 %), .... Number of reasons accounts the association of ... because Presence of mental stress among.

  13. Sensitivity to depression or anxiety and subclinical cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seldenrijk, Adrie; van Hout, Hein P. J.; van Marwijk, Harm W. J.; de Groot, Eric; Gort, Johan; Rustemeijer, Cees; Diamant, Michaela; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    2013-01-01

    Depressive and anxiety disorders are highly overlapping, heterogeneous conditions that both have been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Cognitive vulnerability traits for these disorders could help to specify what exactly drives CVD risk in depressed and anxious

  14. Sensitivity to depression or anxiety and subclinical cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seldenrijk, Adrie; van Hout, Hein P. J.; van Marwijk, Harm W. J.; de Groot, Eric; Gort, Johan; Rustemeijer, Cees; Diamant, Michaela; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Depressive and anxiety disorders are highly overlapping, heterogeneous conditions that both have been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Cognitive vulnerability traits for these disorders could help to specify what exactly drives CVD risk in depressed and

  15. Substance Use, Anxiety, and Depressive Symptoms among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Kenneth S.; Bulmer, Sandra Minor; Troiano, Peter F.; Obiaka, Uzoma; Bonhomme, Rebecca

    2018-01-01

    Research on college substance use and mental illness is limited and inconsistent. Measures of substance use, and anxiety and depressive symptoms, were completed by 1,316 undergraduates within a major drug transportation corridor. Hierarchical linear regressions were used to test associations between anxious and depressive symptoms and substance…

  16. Negative Emotionality and its Facets Moderate the Effects of Exposure to Hurricane Sandy on Children's Post-Disaster Depression and Anxiety Symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Kopala-Sibley, Daniel C.; Danzig, Allison P.; Kotov, Roman; Bromet, Evelyn J.; Carlson, Gabrielle A.; Olino, Thomas M.; Bhatia, Vickie; Black, Sarah R.; Klein, Daniel N.

    2016-01-01

    According to diathesis-stress models, temperament traits, such as negative emotionality (NE), may moderate the effects of stressors on the development of symptoms of psychopathology, although very little research has tested such models in children. Moreover, there are few data on whether specific facets of NE (sadness, fear, or anger) may specifically moderate the effects of stress on depression versus anxiety. Finally, there is a paucity of research examining whether childhood temperament mo...

  17. Cognitive emotions: depression and anxiety in medical students and staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Isra; Banu, Haseena; Al-Fageer, Reem; Al-Suwaidi, Reem

    2009-09-01

    Medical students represent a highly educated population under significant pressures. They encounter multiple emotions during the transformation from insecure student to young knowledgeable physician. During the transition to clinical settings in the third year, the student may experience a loss of external control and may counter this with an increase in depression and/or anxiety symptoms. Studies suggest that mental health worsens after students begin medical school and remains poor throughout training. It is not just the undergraduate study period, which brings about these changes; it may continue later in internship, postgraduate study, and in physicians' practical life, and it may reach burnout level. The greater the psychosocial health, the greater is the well-being and the capacity for adaptation and overcoming problems and common life frustrations in family, relationships, and work. Medical students and practicing physicians, in comparison with the general population and that of other professions, are exposed to academic and professional stress and therefore are vulnerable to psychosocial health problems and certain specific dysfunctions that may compromise their physical, mental, and social health. Our study examines the phenomenology of depression and anxiety in medical doctors in 3 government hospitals, 3 primary health care centers and the students (all years) and staff of Dubai Medical College for Girls (DMCG). This cross-sectional study was conducted in November 2008. One hundred sixty-five medical students of DMCG and 93 doctors (including medical staff of DMCG) completed a set of 2 questionnaires regarding Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) & Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). Results were analyzed using SPSS 11, and adequate statistical significant tests were done. A P value of students, 28.6% showed depression and 28.7% showed anxiety. Of medical staff, 7.8% showed depression and 2.2% of them showed anxiety. The second-year medical students exhibited the

  18. Hostility and Anger in Chronic Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Oliveira

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The affective component of pain incorporates various emotions, primarily negative in quality. A great emphasis has been traditionally given to the role of depression and anxiety in chronic pain. More recently, the focus has been directed towards hostility and anger, as fundamental components of the emotional experience of chronic pain. Objective: The aim of this article is to present a literature’s review about the association between chronic pain, anger and hostility. Discussion: Patients with several chronic disorders are characterized by high levels of trait anger and hostility. On the other hand, the manner in which angry feelings are typically handled (anger management style, especially the marked tendency to suppress or express angry feelings, is a particularly important determinant of the chronic pain severity. Conclusion: Hostility and anger are involved in the development, maintenance and treatment of chronic pain. Further research is needed to clarify its relationship with chronic pain and to evaluate the effects of anger management on treatment outcomes.

  19. Hostility and Anger in Chronic Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Ribeiro

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The affective component of pain incorporates various emotions, primarily negative in quality. A great emphasis has been traditionally given to the role of depression and anxiety in chronic pain. More recently, the focus has been directed towards hostility and anger, as fundamental components of the emotional experience of chronic pain. Objective: The aim of this article is to present a literature’s review about the association between chronic pain, anger and hostility. Discussion: Patients with several chronic disorders are characterized by high levels of trait anger and hostility. On the other hand, the manner in which angry feelings are typically handled (anger management style, especially the marked tendency to suppress or express angry feelings, is a particularly important determinant of the chronic pain severity. Conclusion: Hostility and anger are involved in the development, maintenance and treatment of chronic pain. Further research is needed to clarify its relationship with chronic pain and to evaluate the effects of anger management on treatment outcomes.

  20. Executive Functions in Students With Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajilchi, Bita; Nejati, Vahid

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate and compare the executive functions of students with depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms with those functions in healthy ones. This study was a comparative and non-clinical analysis. The study population comprised all students of Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran. A total of 448 students were recruited using convenience sampling method. They were also screened using the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) test comprising 21 items. Of study participants, 30 people were depressed, 27 had anxiety, and 15 suffered from stress. Then, 50 control people were matched with them. Next, both groups were compared using the Stroop test, Wisconsin card sorting, and cognitive ability test. Using MANOVA test, data analysis revealed no significant differences among 4 groups with regard to selective attention and shifting attention. Depressed group reacted rapidly as opposed to the anxiety group with regard to measures of shifting attention and cognitive abilities; it was observed that the memory, inhibition control, planning, and flexibility of the healthy group were better than those of the 3 other groups. The findings of this research raised specific issues in relation to the role of depression, anxiety, and stress in the disruption of the executive functions of sufferers. Selective and shifting attention and cognitive abilities are specifically affected in this regard. Meanwhile, the role of stress in impairing decision making and the major role of anxiety in impairing sustained attention was shown to be considerable.

  1. Depression and anxiety are not related to nummular headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; Peñacoba-Puente, Cecilia; López-López, Almudena; Valle, Begoña; Cuadrado, María Luz; Barriga, Francisco J; Pareja, Juan A

    2009-12-01

    Nummular headache (NH) is a clinical picture characterized by head pain that is exclusively felt in a round, elliptical, or oval area of the head. Although there is evidence supporting an organic origin for NH, some authors question this origin, hypothesizing a potential role for psychological factors. Our aims were to investigate the differences in anxiety and depression between NH patients and healthy controls, and to analyse if these conditions were related to pain parameters in NH patients. The Beck depression inventory (BDI-II) and the trait anxiety scale from state-trait anxiety inventory (STAI) were administered to 26 patients with NH and 34 comparable matched controls. No significant interactions between group (NH patients, controls) in either depression (U = 391; p = 0.443) or anxiety levels (U = 336; p = 0.113) were found. Both groups showed similar scores in the BDI-II (patients: 3.9 +/- 2.9; controls: 3.46 +/- 3.15) and STAI (patients: 17.23 +/- 10.3; controls: 13.5 +/- 7.9). Moreover, neither depression nor anxiety showed association with mean pain intensity, pain intensity in exacerbations, size of pain area, or pain frequency. Our study demonstrated that self-reported depression and anxiety were not related to the presence of NH. Further, longitudinal studies are still needed to elucidate the role of mood state in the course of NH.

  2. Anxiety, Depression and Emotion Regulation Among Regular Online Poker Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrault, Servane; Bonnaire, Céline; Herrmann, Florian

    2017-12-01

    Poker is a type of gambling that has specific features, including the need to regulate one's emotion to be successful. The aim of the present study is to assess emotion regulation, anxiety and depression in a sample of regular poker players, and to compare the results of problem and non-problem gamblers. 416 regular online poker players completed online questionnaires including sociodemographic data, measures of problem gambling (CPGI), anxiety and depression (HAD scale), and emotion regulation (ERQ). The CPGI was used to divide participants into four groups according to the intensity of their gambling practice (non-problem, low risk, moderate risk and problem gamblers). Anxiety and depression were significantly higher among severe-problem gamblers than among the other groups. Both significantly predicted problem gambling. On the other hand, there was no difference between groups in emotion regulation (cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression), which was linked neither to problem gambling nor to anxiety and depression (except for cognitive reappraisal, which was significantly correlated to anxiety). Our results underline the links between anxiety, depression and problem gambling among poker players. If emotion regulation is involved in problem gambling among poker players, as strongly suggested by data from the literature, the emotion regulation strategies we assessed (cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression) may not be those involved. Further studies are thus needed to investigate the involvement of other emotion regulation strategies.

  3. Association of anxiety disorders and depression with incident heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfield, Lauren D; Scherrer, Jeffrey F; Hauptman, Paul J; Freedland, Kenneth E; Chrusciel, Tim; Balasubramanian, Sumitra; Carney, Robert M; Newcomer, John W; Owen, Richard; Bucholz, Kathleen K; Lustman, Patrick J

    2014-02-01

    Depression has been associated with increased risk of heart failure (HF). Because anxiety is highly comorbid with depression, we sought to establish if anxiety, depression, or their co-occurrence is associated with incident HF. A retrospective cohort (N = 236,079) including Veteran's Administration patients (age, 50-80 years) free of cardiovascular disease (CVD) at baseline was followed up between 2001 and 2007. Cox proportional hazards models were computed to estimate the association between anxiety disorders alone, major depressive disorder (MDD) alone, and the combination of anxiety and MDD, with incident HF before and after adjusting for sociodemographics, CVD risk factors (Type 2 diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, obesity), nicotine dependence/personal history of tobacco use, substance use disorders (alcohol and illicit drug abuse/dependence), and psychotropic medication. Compared with unaffected patients, those with anxiety only, MDD only, and both disorders were at increased risk for incident HF in age-adjusted models (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.19 [ 95% confidence interval {CI} = 1.10-1.28], HR = 1.21 [95% CI = 1.13-1.28], and HR = 1.24 [95% CI = 1.17-1.32], respectively). After controlling for psychotropics in a full model, the association between anxiety only, MDD only, and both disorders and incident HF increased (HRs = 1.46, 1.56, and 1.74, respectively). Anxiety disorders, MDD, and co-occurring anxiety and MDD are associated with incident HF in this large cohort of Veteran's Administration patients free of CVD at baseline. This risk of HF is greater after accounting for protective effects of psychotropic medications. Prospective studies are needed to clarify the role of depression and anxiety and their pharmacological treatment in the etiology of HF.

  4. Severity of anxiety- but not depression- is associated with oxidative stress in Major Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenkamp, Lisa R; Hough, Christina M; Reus, Victor I; Jain, Felipe A; Epel, Elissa S; James, S Jill; Morford, Alexandra E; Mellon, Synthia H; Wolkowitz, Owen M; Lindqvist, Daniel

    2017-09-01

    Oxidative stress is implicated in both depression and anxiety, but it is currently unclear whether this relates to syndromal diagnoses or trans-diagnostic dimensional symptoms. We examined the relationship between oxidative stress and severity of depression and anxiety symptoms in individuals with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). Plasma oxidative stress markers F2-isoprostanes and oxidized glutathione (GSSG), and the antioxidant reduced glutathione (GSH), were assessed in 69 physically healthy, medication-free MDD subjects. Symptoms of anxiety and depression were assessed using the Hamilton Anxiety (HAM-A) and Hamilton Depression (HAM-D) Rating Scales. Total HAM-A and HAM-D scores, along with "core" anxiety and depression subscales, and individual HAM-D items "psychic anxiety" and "depressed mood," were related to oxidative stress markers. Analyses controlled for age, sex, BMI, and smoking. Total HAM-A ratings were positively associated with F2-isoprostanes (β=.26, p=.042) and GSSG (β=.25, p=.049), but not GSH (β=.05, p=.711). Core anxiety severity was positively associated with F2-isoprostanes (β=.34, p=.012) and GSSG, although this did not reach significance (β=.24, p=.074). None of the biological markers were significantly associated with total HAM-D or core depression ratings (all p>.13). Subjects scoring high on "psychic anxiety" had elevated F2-isoprostanes (p=.030) and GSSG (p=.020). This was not seen with "depressed mood" scores (all p>.12). We assessed peripheral oxidative markers, but their relationship to the brain is unclear. Oxidative stress is more closely related to anxiety than depression symptoms in MDD. This highlights the importance of relating oxidative stress to specific symptoms and could provide new insights into the biological correlates of affective disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Pattern of somatic symptoms in anxiety and depression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, M.

    2011-01-01

    To determine the pattern of somatic symptoms in anxiety and depressive disorders. Design: Cross Sectional Comparative study Place of Study: Department of Psychiatry Military Hospital Rawalpindi. Duration of Study: From May to November 2002. Patients and Methods: Patients were divided in Group I of anxiety and group II of depression. Fifty patients considered in each group by convenience sampling. The organic basis of their symptoms was ruled out. The patterns of their somatic symptoms and other information like educational and economic status were recorded on Semi Structured Proforma. The patient's diagnosis was made on schedule based ICD-10 research criteria. The severity of anxiety and depression was assessed by using HARS and HDRS respectively. The pattern of somatic symptoms in both groups was then analyzed by the urdu version of Bradford Somatic Inventory. Patterns of somatic complaints were then analyzed by chi square test. Results: Out of 100 patients we placed 50 each in group I (anxiety) and group II (Depression). Males were higher in depression whereas females were higher in anxiety disorder group. P-value for headache was 0.017 while in rest of the somatic symptoms it was insignificant ranging from 0.4 to 1. Conclusion: We found that the patterns of somatic symptoms are present in both the groups of anxiety and depression like symptoms related to musculoskeletal and gastrointestinal system were commonly observed in cases of depression whereas symptoms related to autonomic nervous system and cardiovascular system is more significantly somatized in patients of anxiety. A larger sample is required for further studies to get better results. (author)

  6. Relationship between perception of facial emotions and anxiety in clinical depression : Does anxiety-related perception predict persistence of depression?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouhuys, AL; Geerts, E; Mersch, PPA

    Within the framework of interpersonal theories on depression, it was postulated 1) that an anxiety-related mood-congruent bias with respect to the perception of facial expressions could be demonstrated in clinically depressed patients; 2) that the perception of negative facial emotions would be

  7. Depression and Anxiety in Greek Male Veterans After Retirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kypraiou, Aspa; Sarafis, Pavlos; Tsounis, Andreas; Bitsi, Georgia; Andreanides, Elias; Constantinidis, Theodoros; Kotrotsiou, Evaggelia; Malliarou, Maria

    2017-03-01

    Retirement is a turning point in human life, resulting in changes to physical and mental health status. The aim of this study was to examine the factors that are related with depression and anxiety symptoms in Greek male veterans after retirement. A total of 502 veterans participated in a cross-sectional study. Beck Depression Inventory for depression assessment and Spielberger Trait Anxiety Inventory for anxiety assessment were used. The Ethics Committee of the Technological Educational Institution of Thessaly granted permission for conducting the research, and informed consent was obtained from all the participants. Questionnaires were filled in electronically using a platform that was made for the specific research. Mean values, standard deviations, Student t test, nonparametric cluster analysis of variance, Pearson's and Spearman's coefficients, and linear regression were conducted, using the Statistical Program for Social Services version 19.0. Severe depression was found in 3.8% of veterans with a mean score of 6.78, whereas 23.2% displayed mild-to-moderate symptoms of depression. Mean score of state anxiety was found to be 36.55 and of trait anxiety 33.60. Veterans who were discharged because of stressful working conditions, those who have a high body mass index, consume regularly alcohol, smoke and were not satisfied by changes in their everyday life after retirement had significantly more symptoms of depression and anxiety, although those who retired because of family problems had significantly more symptoms of depression. Multivariate linear regression analyses indicated that dissatisfaction related to lifestyle changes had statistically significant effect on symptoms of depression and anxiety, and stressful working conditions as a leading cause for retirement had statistically significant effect on depression. Finally, according to linear regression analyses results, those who were satisfied with their professional evolution had 1.80 times lower score in

  8. A population-based study of anxiety as a precursor for depression in childhood and adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    van den Bree Marianne BM; Rice Frances; Thapar Anita

    2004-01-01

    Background Anxiety and depression co-occur in children and adolescents with anxiety commonly preceding depression. Although there is some evidence to suggest that the association between early anxiety and later depression is explained by a shared genetic aetiology, the contribution of environmental factors is less well examined and it is unknown whether anxiety itself is a phenotypic risk factor for later depression. These explanations of the association between early anxiety and later depre...

  9. A population-based study of anxiety as a precursor for depression in childhood and adolescence.

    OpenAIRE

    Rice, F.; van den Bree, M. B. M.; Thapar, A.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Anxiety and depression co-occur in children and adolescents with anxiety commonly preceding depression. Although there is some evidence to suggest that the association between early anxiety and later depression is explained by a shared genetic aetiology, the contribution of environmental factors is less well examined and it is unknown whether anxiety itself is a phenotypic risk factor for later depression. These explanations of the association between early anxiety and later depre...

  10. Depression and anxiety among parents of phenylketonuria children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunduz, Mehmet; Arslan, Nur; Unal, Ozlem; Cakar, Sevim; Kuyum, Pınar; Bulbul, Selda F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the existence of depression and/or anxiety with underlying risk factors among parents of children with classical phenylketonuria (PKU). Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in the Division of Pediatric Metabolism, Ankara Children’s Hospital, Dokuz Eylul University, Kırıkkale University, and Erzurum Local Research Hospital, Turkey, between January and July 2014. Parents of 61 patients and 36 healthy controls completed the self-report questionnaires. We used Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) to assess the parental depression and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory S-T (STAI S-T) to assess parental anxiety. Results: Depression and anxiety scores were significantly higher in the case group (BDI 12.3±9.1; STAI-S: 38.2±9.6; STAI-T: 43.2±6.9) than controls (BDI: 5.4±4.1 p=0.000; STAI-S: 31.8±7.6 p=0.001; STAI-T: 37.0±7.2 p=0.000). Mothers of the patients had higher scores than the other parental groups (BDI: p=0.000, STAI-S: p=0.001 and STAI-T: p=0.000). Logistic regression analysis showed that low educational level of the parent was the only independent factor for depression (OR 9.96, 95% CI: 1.89-52.35, p=0.007) and state anxiety (OR: 6.99, 95% CI: 1.22-40.48, p=0.030) in the case group. Conclusion: A subset of parents with PKU patients have an anxiety or depressive disorder. Supportive services dealing with the parents of chronically ill children such as PKU are needed in order to reduce the level of anxiety. PMID:26492114

  11. Anxiety and depression in chronic hemodialysis: some somatopsychic determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadoulle, V; Hoyois, P; Jadoul, M

    2005-02-01

    Depression and anxiety are so common in hemodialysis (HD) patients that we found it useful to study the respective contributions of the subjective somatic sensations and of the objective medical comorbidity to psychological distress. We also hypothesized that denial has a protective effect against anxiety and depression, and that alexithymia is, on the contrary, a risk factor. In a cross-sectional design, we investigated relationships between psychological distress and somatic complaints, Charlson comorbidity index, denial and alexithymia, in a group of 54 patients on incenter HD. They filled psychometric self-rated questionnaires in (State Anxiety Inventory, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, 13-item Short Beck Depression Inventory, Kidney Disease Quality of Life Short Form, 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale). A principal component analysis allowed us to focus on HADS-total score, which was confirmed to be representative of anxio-depression. Then, correlational analyses and a stepwise regression analysis were performed. HADS-total score is inversely associated with the use of denial as a psychological defence mechanism (p emotions (p emotions emerge as the three main variables related to the HADS-total score (p emotions, but it can diminish compliance. So, the subjective perception of the disease seems to have an important impact on the anxiety and mood levels, which can also be influenced by the emotional regulation abilities.

  12. Comparison of Reliability and Validity of the Breast Cancer depression anxiety stress scales (DASS- 21) with the Beck Depression Inventory-(BDI-II) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS)

    OpenAIRE

    Bener A; Alsulaiman R; Doodson LG; El Ayoubi HR

    2016-01-01

    Background: No study has been conducted to determine the reliability and validity of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21), Hospital Anxiety and Depression [HADS] and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) among the Arab Breast Cancer population. Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the reliability and validity of the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress scale (DASS-21), the Beck Depression Inventory-(BDI-II) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) among Breast Cancer women ...

  13. Anxiety and Depression Symptoms in Children with Asperger Syndrome Compared with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Depressive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Subin; Park, Min-Hyeon; Kim, Hyo Jin; Yoo, Hee Jeong

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine (a) anxiety and depression symptoms in children with Asperger syndrome (AS) compared to children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and children with depressive disorder; (b) parental anxiety and depressive symptoms in the three groups; and (c) the association between the anxiety and…

  14. Prevalence of depressive and anxiety disorders in Chinese gastroenterological outpatients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Jing Li; Yan-Ling He; Hong Ma; Zhe-Ning Liu; Fu-Jun Jia; Ling Zhang; Lan Zhang

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the prevalence and physicians'detection rate of depressive and anxiety disorders in gastrointestinal (GI) outpatients across China.METHODS:A hospital-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in the GI outpatient departments of 13general hospitals.A total of 1995 GI outpatients were recruited and screened with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS).The physicians of the GI departments performed routine clinical diagnosis and management without knowing the HADS score results.SubJects with HADS scores ≥ 8 were subsequently interviewed by psychiatrists using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) to make further diagnoses.RESULTS:There were 1059 patients with HADS score ≥ 8 and 674 (63.64%) of them undertook the MINI interview by psychiatrists.Based on the criteria of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edition),the adjusted current prevalence for depressive disorders,anxiety disorders,and comorbidity of both disorders in the GI outpatients was 14.39%,9.42% and 4.66%,respectively.Prevalence of depressive disorders with suicidal problems [suicide attempt or suicide-related ideation prior or current; module C (suicide) of MINI score ≥ 1] was 5.84% in women and 1.64% in men.The GI physicians' detection rate of depressive and anxiety disorders accounted for 4.14%.CONCLUSION:While the prevalence of depressive and anxiety disorders is high in Chinese GI outpatients,the detection rate of depressive and anxiety disorders by physicians is low.

  15. Relationship between MIDAS, depression, anxiety and alexithymia in migraine patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalınay Dikmen, Pınar; Onur Aysevener, Elif; Kosak, Seda; Ilgaz Aydınlar, Elif; Sağduyu Kocaman, Ayşe

    2017-11-16

    The co-existence of psychiatric comorbidities with migraine is well known; however, the relationship between alexithymia and migraine has not been persuasively shown yet. The aim of the study was to assess the relationships between migraine-related disability, depression, anxiety and alexithymia. One hundred and forty-five migraine patients (33.18 ± 8.6; 111 females, 34 males), and 50 control subjects (29.06 ± 7.6; 34 females, 16 males) were prospectively enrolled for the study. The participants completed a demographic data form and Migraine Disability Assessment Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Anxiety Inventory and Toronto Alexithymia Score-20 (TAS-20). All migraine patients were more depressive (p = 0.01) and anxious (p = 0.001) than the healthy subjects. TAS-20 scores of the migraine sufferers and the control group did not indicate alexithymia. The migraine-related disability of all migraine patients was severe (27.84 ± 29.22). Depression and anxiety scores in the migraine patients were highly correlated with each other and TAS-20 (r = 0.485, p = 0.001) and all its subscales in turn: difficulty in identifying (r = 0.435, p < 0.001) and describing feelings (r = 0.451, p = 0.001) and externally oriented thinking (r = 0.302, p = 0.001). Moreover, logistic regression analysis revealed that depression and anxiety predicted alexithymia. Our findings showed a complex relationship between migraine, depression, anxiety and alexithymia. On the other hand, alexithymia apparently was not directly connected to migraine, but its presence could be predicted in migraine patients because of co-morbid depression and anxiety.

  16. Predictive Factors of Anxiety and Depression in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altino, Denise Meira; Nogueira-Martins, Luiz Antônio; de Barros, Alba Lucia Bottura Leite; Lopes, Juliana de Lima

    2017-12-01

    To identify the predictive factors of anxiety and depression in patients with acute coronary syndrome. Cross-sectional and retrospective study conducted with 120 patients hospitalized with acute coronary syndrome. Factors interfering with anxiety and depression were assessed. Anxiety was related to sex, stress, years of education, and depression, while depression was related to sex, diabetes mellitus, obesity, years of education, and trait-anxiety. Obesity and anxiety were considered predictive factors for depression, while depression and fewer years of education were considered predictive factors for anxiety. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. The Relationship of Hypochondriasis to Anxiety, Depressive, and Somatoform Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarella, Timothy M.; Laferton, Johannes A. C.; Ahern, David K.; Fallon, Brian A.; Barsky, Arthur

    2015-01-01

    Background Though the phenotype of anxiety about medical illness has long been recognized, there continues to be debate as to whether it is a distinct psychiatric disorder and, if so, to which diagnostic category it belongs. Our objective was to investigate the pattern of psychiatric co-morbidity in hypochondriasis and to assess the relationship of health anxiety to anxiety, depressive, and somatoform disorders. Methods Data were collected as part of a clinical trial on treatment methods for hypochondriasis. 194 participants meeting criteria for DSM-IV hypochondriasis were assessed by sociodemographic variables, results of structured diagnostic interviews, and validated instruments for assessing various symptom dimensions of psychopathology. Results The majority of individuals with hypochondriasis had co-morbid psychiatric illness; the mean number of co-morbid diagnoses was 1.4, and 35.1% had hypochondriasis as their only diagnosis. Participants were more likely to have only co-morbid anxiety disorders than only co-morbid depressive or somatoform disorders. Multiple regression analysis of continuous measures of symptoms revealed the strongest correlation of health anxiety with anxiety symptoms, and a weaker correlation with somatoform symptoms; in multiple regression analysis, there was no correlation between health anxiety and depressive symptoms. Conclusion Our findings suggest that the entity of health anxiety (Hypochondriasis in DSM-IV, Illness Anxiety Disorder in DSM-5) is a clinical syndrome distinct from other psychiatric disorders. Analysis of co-morbidity patterns and continuous measures of symptoms suggest its appropriate classification is with anxiety rather than somatoform or mood disorders. PMID:26785798

  18. Mindfulness-Based Interventions for Anxiety and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Stefan G; Gómez, Angelina F

    2017-12-01

    This article reviews the ways in which mindfulness practices have contributed to cognitive and behavioral treatments for depression and anxiety. Research on mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) has increased rapidly in the past decade. The most common include mindfulness-based stress reduction and mindfulness-based cognitive therapy. MBIs are effective in reducing anxiety and depression symptom severity in a range of individuals. MBIs consistently outperform non-evidence-based treatments and active control conditions, such as health education, relaxation training, and supportive psychotherapy. MBIs also perform comparably with cognitive behavior therapy (CBT). The treatment principles of MBIs for anxiety and depression are compatible with standard CBT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Does Music Therapy Improve Anxiety and Depression in Alzheimer's Patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Rubia Ortí, José Enrique; García-Pardo, María Pilar; Iranzo, Carmen Cabañés; Madrigal, José Joaquin Cerón; Castillo, Sandra Sancho; Rochina, Mariano Julián; Gascó, Vicente Javier Prado

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of the implementation of a short protocol of music therapy as a tool to reduce stress and improve the emotional state in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease. A sample of 25 patients with mild Alzheimer's received therapy based on the application of a music therapy session lasting 60 min. Before and after the therapy, patient saliva was collected to quantify the level of salivary cortisol using the Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay (ELISA) immunoassay technique and a questionnaire was completed to measure anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale). The results show that the application of this therapy lowers the level of stress and decreases significantly depression and anxiety, establishing a linear correlation between the variation of these variables and the variation of cortisol. A short protocol of music therapy can be an alternative medicine to improve emotional variables in Alzheimer patients.

  20. Impact of exercise on patients with depression and anxiety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oeland, Anne-Marie; Læssøe, Uffe; Olesen, Anne Vingaard

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Persons with common mental disorders are at risk of lowered physical activity. AIMS: To investigate if patients with depressive and/or anxiety disorders can achieve a level of physical activity meeting public health recommendations, increase their physical fitness and quality of life...... was maintained after a 12-week follow-up period. Findings should be conservatively interpreted because of high attrition rate. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with anxiety and/or depressive disorders who participated in a structured, supervised exercise programme achieved in accordance with public health recommendations...... a higher level of physical activity and VO(2)max. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: The clinical implications of the study may be a suggestion of offering physical exercise to milder and moderate severe cases of depression and anxiety....

  1. PTSD, depression and anxiety among former abductees in Northern Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Elbert Thomas; Pfeiffer Anett

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The population in Northern Uganda has been exposed to extreme levels of traumatic stress and thousands abducted forcibly became rebel combatants. Methods Using structured interviews, the prevalence and severity of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression and anxiety was assessed in 72 former abducted adults, 62 of them being former child soldiers. Results As retrospective reports of exposure to traumatic stress increased, anxiety and PTSD occurrence increased (r = ...

  2. Social Networking Sites, Depression, and Anxiety: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seabrook, Elizabeth M; Kern, Margaret L; Rickard, Nikki S

    2016-11-23

    Social networking sites (SNSs) have become a pervasive part of modern culture, which may also affect mental health. The aim of this systematic review was to identify and summarize research examining depression and anxiety in the context of SNSs. It also aimed to identify studies that complement the assessment of mental illness with measures of well-being and examine moderators and mediators that add to the complexity of this environment. A multidatabase search was performed. Papers published between January 2005 and June 2016 relevant to mental illness (depression and anxiety only) were extracted and reviewed. Positive interactions, social support, and social connectedness on SNSs were consistently related to lower levels of depression and anxiety, whereas negative interaction and social comparisons on SNSs were related to higher levels of depression and anxiety. SNS use related to less loneliness and greater self-esteem and life satisfaction. Findings were mixed for frequency of SNS use and number of SNS friends. Different patterns in the way individuals with depression and individuals with social anxiety engage with SNSs are beginning to emerge. The systematic review revealed many mixed findings between depression, anxiety, and SNS use. Methodology has predominantly focused on self-report cross-sectional approaches; future research will benefit from leveraging real-time SNS data over time. The evidence suggests that SNS use correlates with mental illness and well-being; however, whether this effect is beneficial or detrimental depends at least partly on the quality of social factors in the SNS environment. Understanding these relationships will lead to better utilization of SNSs in their potential to positively influence mental health. ©Elizabeth M Seabrook, Margaret L Kern, Nikki S Rickard. Originally published in JMIR Mental Health (http://mental.jmir.org), 23.11.2016.

  3. The status of depression and anxiety in infertile Turkish couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mert Kazandi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infertility is a major psychosocial crisis as well as being a medical problem. The factors that predict psychosocial consequences of infertility may vary in different gender and different infertile populations.Objective: The primary purpose of this study was to investigate whether Turkish infertile couples had higher levels of depression and anxiety when compared to non-infertile couples. Our secondary aim was to evaluate the relationship between sociodemographic characteristics and levels of depression and anxiety in Turkish infertile couples.Materials and Methods: We designed a descriptive cross sectional study of 248 infertile women and 96 infertile men with no psychiatric disturbance and 51 women and 40 men who have children to evaluate the depression and anxiety levels between infertile couples and fertile couples. A gynecologist evaluated participants for demographic data and then they were visited by a psychologist to perform questionnaire scales which were The Beck Depression Inventory and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for the evaluation of the degree of psychopathology. The data were statistically analyzed, with p<0.05 as the level of statistical significance.Results: We observed significant differences between the infertile couples and fertile couples with respect to state and trait anxiety (p<0.0001 while no difference was regarding with depression, both of women and men. Anxiety and depression were observed as independent from gender when infertile women and men were compared (p=0.213.Conclusion: We believed that the psychological management at infertile couples must be individualized with cultural, religious, and class related aspects.

  4. Social Networking Sites, Depression, and Anxiety: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Margaret L; Rickard, Nikki S

    2016-01-01

    Background Social networking sites (SNSs) have become a pervasive part of modern culture, which may also affect mental health. Objective The aim of this systematic review was to identify and summarize research examining depression and anxiety in the context of SNSs. It also aimed to identify studies that complement the assessment of mental illness with measures of well-being and examine moderators and mediators that add to the complexity of this environment. Methods A multidatabase search was performed. Papers published between January 2005 and June 2016 relevant to mental illness (depression and anxiety only) were extracted and reviewed. Results Positive interactions, social support, and social connectedness on SNSs were consistently related to lower levels of depression and anxiety, whereas negative interaction and social comparisons on SNSs were related to higher levels of depression and anxiety. SNS use related to less loneliness and greater self-esteem and life satisfaction. Findings were mixed for frequency of SNS use and number of SNS friends. Different patterns in the way individuals with depression and individuals with social anxiety engage with SNSs are beginning to emerge. Conclusions The systematic review revealed many mixed findings between depression, anxiety, and SNS use. Methodology has predominantly focused on self-report cross-sectional approaches; future research will benefit from leveraging real-time SNS data over time. The evidence suggests that SNS use correlates with mental illness and well-being; however, whether this effect is beneficial or detrimental depends at least partly on the quality of social factors in the SNS environment. Understanding these relationships will lead to better utilization of SNSs in their potential to positively influence mental health. PMID:27881357

  5. Correlates of depression, anxiety and stress among Malaysian university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsuddin, Khadijah; Fadzil, Fariza; Ismail, Wan Salwina Wan; Shah, Shamsul Azhar; Omar, Khairani; Muhammad, Noor Azimah; Jaffar, Aida; Ismail, Aniza; Mahadevan, Raynuha

    2013-08-01

    University students face not only challenges related with independent living, but also academic challenges. This predisposes them to depression, anxiety and stress, which are fairly common. The aim was to assess the prevalence of depression, anxiety and stress, and identify their correlates among university students. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 506 students between the ages of 18 and 24 years from four public universities in the Klang Valley, Malaysia. Through an anonymous, self administered questionnaire, they were assessed by the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21). Data on socio-demographic, family characteristics and living arrangement were also obtained. Student's t-test and one-way ANOVA were used to explore association between these aspects. Analysis showed among all students, 27.5% had moderate, and 9.7% had severe or extremely severe depression; 34% had moderate, and 29% had severe or extremely severe anxiety; and 18.6% had moderate and 5.1% had severe or extremely severe stress scores based on the DASS-21 inventory. Both depression and anxiety scores were significantly higher among older students (20 and above) and those born in rural areas. Whereas, higher stress scores were significantly higher among older students (20 and above), females, Malays and those whose family had either low or high incomes compared to those with middle incomes. The prevalence of anxiety is much higher than either depression or stress, with some differences in their correlates except for age. These differences need to be further explored for development of better intervention programs and appropriate support services targeting this group. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Work and home stress: associations with anxiety and depression symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, L-B; Blumenthal, J A; Watkins, L L; Sherwood, A

    2015-03-01

    In the evolving work environment of global competition, the associations between work and home stress and psychological well-being are not well understood. To examine the impact of psychosocial stress at work and at home on anxiety and depression. In medically healthy employed men and women (aged 30-60), serial regression analyses were used to determine the independent association of psychosocial stress at work and at home with depression symptoms, measured using the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), and anxiety symptoms, measured using the Spielberger Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Psychosocial stress at work was measured using the Job Content Questionnaire to assess job psychological demands, job control, job social support and job insecurity. Psychosocial stress at home was assessed by 12 questions including stress at home, personal problems, family demands and feelings about home life. Serial regression analyses in 129 subjects revealed that job insecurity and home stress were most strongly associated with depression and anxiety symptoms. Job insecurity accounted for 9% of the variation both in BDI-II scores and in STAI scores. Home stress accounted for 13 and 17% of the variation in BDI-II scores and STAI scores, respectively. In addition, job social support was significantly and independently associated with STAI scores but not BDI-II scores. Work and home stress were associated with anxiety and depression symptoms in both men and women. Both work and home stress should be considered in studies evaluating anxiety and depression in working populations. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Associations among negative parenting, attention bias to anger, and social anxiety among youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulley, Lauren D; Oppenheimer, Caroline W; Hankin, Benjamin L

    2014-02-01

    Theories of affective learning suggest that early experiences contribute to emotional disorders by influencing the development of processing biases for negative emotional stimuli. Although studies have shown that physically abused children preferentially attend to angry faces, it is unclear whether youth exposed to more typical aspects of negative parenting exhibit the same type of bias. The current studies extend previous research by linking observed negative parenting styles (e.g., authoritarian) and behaviors (e.g., criticism and negative affect) to attention bias for angry faces in both a psychiatrically enriched (ages 11-17 years; N = 60) and a general community (ages 9-15 years; N = 75) sample of youth. In addition, the association between observed negative parenting (e.g., authoritarian style and negative affect) and youth social anxiety was mediated by attention bias for angry faces in the general community sample. Overall, findings provide preliminary support for theories of affective learning and risk for psychopathology among youth.

  8. Relationships between erectile dysfunction, depression, and anxiety in Japanese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimori, Hiroki; Yoshida, Katsumi; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Baba, Katsuyuki; Nishida, Takayasu; Nakazawa, Ryuto; Iwamoto, Teruaki

    2005-05-01

    This study aimed to elucidate the relationships between erectile dysfunction (ED) and depression or anxiety. Subjects were 1,419 Japanese men aged 40-64 years. ED was assessed by the International Index of Erectile Function 5 (IIEF-5) score (Japanese version), and depression and anxiety symptoms were assessed by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). In this study ED cases were defined as those whose IIEF-5 value was less than 12, and a score of 8 or higher was used to classify a subject as suffering from depression or anxiety, respectively. The prevalence odds ratio (OR) of ED was calculated with confidence interval (CI) estimated by the Woolf's method by five age groups (40-44, 45-49, 50-54, 55-59, 60-64 years). To control for age, body mass index, smoking, and alcohol drinking factors, we conducted the multivariate logistic regression analysis for calculating adjusted ORs and 99% CIs. ED was significantly associated with depression in age groups 45-49 (OR 3.42, 99% CI 1.51-7.76) and 50-54 years (OR 2.43, 99% CI 1.11-5.35). After using multivariate analysis, adjusted OR also showed statistical significance. (OR 2.02, 99% CI 1.32-3.08). ED was significantly associated with anxiety in the 50-55-year-old age group (OR 2.48, 99% CI 1.12-5.47). After using multivariate analysis, adjusted OR also showed statistical significance (OR 1.77, 99% CI 1.15-2.72). The concomitant depression and anxiety group (A+D+) had significantly higher prevalence of ED than the control group (A-D-) in both the 45-49 and 50-54 age groups. (P < 0.01) ED associated significantly with depression and anxiety status only in late 40s to early 50s (45-55 years) in male Japanese. Furthermore, comorbidities of depression and anxiety strengthen this association. Our results might be useful in furthering understanding of ED etiology and determining a target population for prevention in ED subjects.

  9. Interactions between diabetes and anxiety and depression: implications for treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bystritsky, Alexander; Danial, Jessica; Kronemyer, David

    2014-03-01

    Anxiety or depression may be a risk factor for the development of diabetes. This relationship may occur through a combination of genetic predispositions; epigenetic contingencies; exacerbating conditions such as metabolic syndrome (a precursor to diabetes); and other serious medical conditions. Medications used to treat anxiety and depression have significant side effects, such as weight gain, further increasing the possibility of developing diabetes. These components combine, interact, and reassemble to create a precarious system for persons with, or predisposed to, diabetes. Clinicians must be aware of these interrelationships to adequately treat the disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A population-based study of anxiety as a precursor for depression in childhood and adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van den Bree Marianne BM

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Anxiety and depression co-occur in children and adolescents with anxiety commonly preceding depression. Although there is some evidence to suggest that the association between early anxiety and later depression is explained by a shared genetic aetiology, the contribution of environmental factors is less well examined and it is unknown whether anxiety itself is a phenotypic risk factor for later depression. These explanations of the association between early anxiety and later depression were evaluated. Methods Anxiety and depressive symptoms were assessed longitudinally in a U.K. population-based sample of 676 twins aged 5–17 at baseline. At baseline, anxiety and depression were assessed by parental questionnaire. Depression was assessed three years later by parental and adolescent questionnaire. Results Shared genetic effects between early anxiety and later depression were found. A model of a phenotypic risk effect from early anxiety on later depression provided a poor fit to the data. However, there were significant genetic effects specific to later depression, showing that early anxiety and later depression do not index entirely the same genetic risk. Conclusions Anxiety and depression are associated over time because they share a partly common genetic aetiology rather than because the anxiety phenotype leads to later depression.

  11. A population-based study of anxiety as a precursor for depression in childhood and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Frances; van den Bree, Marianne B M; Thapar, Anita

    2004-12-13

    Anxiety and depression co-occur in children and adolescents with anxiety commonly preceding depression. Although there is some evidence to suggest that the association between early anxiety and later depression is explained by a shared genetic aetiology, the contribution of environmental factors is less well examined and it is unknown whether anxiety itself is a phenotypic risk factor for later depression. These explanations of the association between early anxiety and later depression were evaluated. Anxiety and depressive symptoms were assessed longitudinally in a U.K. population-based sample of 676 twins aged 5-17 at baseline. At baseline, anxiety and depression were assessed by parental questionnaire. Depression was assessed three years later by parental and adolescent questionnaire. Shared genetic effects between early anxiety and later depression were found. A model of a phenotypic risk effect from early anxiety on later depression provided a poor fit to the data. However, there were significant genetic effects specific to later depression, showing that early anxiety and later depression do not index entirely the same genetic risk. Anxiety and depression are associated over time because they share a partly common genetic aetiology rather than because the anxiety phenotype leads to later depression.

  12. Negative emotionality and its facets moderate the effects of exposure to Hurricane Sandy on children's postdisaster depression and anxiety symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopala-Sibley, Daniel C; Danzig, Allison P; Kotov, Roman; Bromet, Evelyn J; Carlson, Gabrielle A; Olino, Thomas M; Bhatia, Vickie; Black, Sarah R; Klein, Daniel N

    2016-05-01

    According to diathesis-stress models, temperament traits such as negative emotionality (NE) may moderate the effects of stressors on the development of symptoms of psychopathology, although little research has tested such models in children. Moreover, there are few data on whether specific facets of NE (sadness, fear, or anger) may specifically moderate the effects of stress on depression versus anxiety. Finally, there is a paucity of research examining whether childhood temperament moderates the effect of disaster exposure on depressive or anxiety symptoms. Hurricane Sandy, which affected many thousands of people in New York State and the surrounding regions in October 2012, offers a unique opportunity to address these gaps. Seven to eight years prior to Hurricane Sandy, 332 children 3 years old completed lab-based measures of NE and its facets. Six years later, when they were 9 years old, each mother rated her child's depressive and anxiety symptoms. Approximately 8 weeks post-Sandy (an average of 1 year after the age 9 assessment), mothers again rated their child's depressive and anxiety symptoms, as well as a measure of exposure to stress from Hurricane Sandy. Adjusting for symptom levels at age 9, higher levels of stress from Hurricane Sandy predicted elevated levels of depressive symptoms only in participants with high levels of temperamental sadness and predicted elevated levels of anxiety symptoms only in participants high in temperamental fearfulness. These findings support the role of early childhood temperament as a diathesis for psychopathology and highlight the importance of considering facets of temperament when examining their relationship to psychopathology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Violent images, anger and physical aggression among male forensic inpatients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Stine Bjerrum; Gondan, Matthias; Novaco, Raymond

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. The present study of forensic hospital patients examined whether their imagination of violence is related to self-reported anger, psychological distress, and to staff observations of aggressive behaviour in hospital. In view of the relevance of psychological trauma for anger and aggression......, we further investigate whether the associations of imagined violence to anger and aggression are stronger when the patient has trauma-related intrusion symptoms. Methods. Participating male forensic inpatients (N = 54) were individually tested and followed-up for five months. Aggressive episodes were...... measured using the Staff Observation Aggression Scale–Revised. Results. Patients who imagine violence, compared to those who do not, were higher in psychological distress (anger, symptoms of PTSD, psychosis, depression, and anxiety), and displayed more aggressive acts both retrospectively and during...

  14. Longitudinal Relationship of Depressive and Anxiety Symptoms With Dyslipidemia and Abdominal Obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dortland, Arianne K. B. van Reedt; Giltay, Erik J.; van Veen, Tineke; Zitman, Frans G.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    Objective: Previous research indicates that patients with severe symptoms of depression or anxiety are prone toward the development of dyslipidemia and abdominal obesity. We sought to study these associations longitudinally. Methods: Among 2126 Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety

  15. Parents’ perceptions on offspring risk and prevention of anxiety and depression: a qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Festen, Helma; Schipper, Karen; Vries, Sybolt O; Reichart, Catrien G.; Abma, Tineke A.; Nauta, Maaike H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Offspring of patients with anxiety or depression are at high risk for developing anxiety or depression. Despite the positive findings regarding effectiveness of prevention programs, recruitment for prevention activities and trials is notoriously difficult. Our randomized controlled

  16. Longitudinal relationship of depressive and anxiety symptoms with dyslipidemia and abdominal obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Reedt Dortland, A.K.B.; Giltay, E.J.; van Veen, T.; Zitman, F. G.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Previous research indicates that patients with severe symptoms of depression or anxiety are prone toward the development of dyslipidemia and abdominal obesity. We sought to study these associations longitudinally. Methods: Among 2126 Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety

  17. Does the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale (RCADS) measure anxiety symptoms consistently across adolescence? The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathyssek, Christina M.; Olino, Thomas M.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C.; Van Oort, Floor V. A.

    We assessed if the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale (RCADS) measures anxiety symptoms similarly across age groups within adolescence. This is crucial for valid comparison of anxiety levels between different age groups. Anxiety symptoms were assessed biennially in a representative

  18. Does the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale (RCADS) measure anxiety symptoms consistently across adolescence? The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M. Mathyssek (Christina); T.M. Olino (Thomas); C.A. Hartman; J. Ormel (Johan Hans); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); F.V.A. van Oort (Floor)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractWe assessed if the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale (RCADS) measures anxiety symptoms similarly across age groups within adolescence. This is crucial for valid comparison of anxiety levels between different age groups. Anxiety symptoms were assessed biennially in a

  19. Depression and anxiety in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: prevalence rates based on a comparison of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) and the hospital, Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS)

    OpenAIRE

    Covic Tanya; Cumming Steven R; Pallant Julie F; Manolios Nick; Emery Paul; Conaghan Philip G; Tennant Alan

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background While it is recognised that depression is prevalent in Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), recent studies have also highlighted significant levels of anxiety in RA patients. This study compared two commonly used scales, the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), in relation to their measurement range and cut points to consider the relative prevalence of both constructs, and if prevalence rates may be due to scale-specific ca...

  20. Consensus statement on transcultural issues in depression and anxiety from the International Consensus Group on Depression and Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballenger, J C; Davidson, J R; Lecrubier, Y; Nutt, D J; Kirmayer, L J; Lépine, J P; Lin, K M; Tajima, O; Ono, Y

    2001-01-01

    To provide primary care physicians with a better understanding of transcultural issues in depression and anxiety. The 4 members of the International Consensus Group on Depression and Anxiety were James C. Ballenger (chair), Jonathan R. T. Davidson, Yves Lecrubier, and David J. Nutt. Five faculty invited by the chair also participated: Laurence J. Kirmayer, Jean-Pierre Lepine, Keh-Ming Lin, Osamu Tajima, and Yutaka Ono. The consensus statement is based on the 5 review articles that are published in this supplement and the scientific literature relevant to the issues reviewed in these articles. Group meetings were held over a 2-day period. On day 1, the group discussed the review articles, and the chair identified key issues for further debate. On day 2, the group discussed these issues to arrive at a consensus view. After the group meetings, the consensus statement was drafted by the chair and approved by all attendees. The consensus statement underlines the prevalence of depression and anxiety disorders across all cultures and nations while recognizing that cultural differences exist in symptom presentation and prevalence estimates. In all countries, the recognition of depression by clinicians in the primary care setting is low (generally less than 50%), and the consensus group recommends a 2-step process to aid the recognition and diagnosis of depression. In line with the low recognition of depression and anxiety disorders is the finding that only a small proportion of patients with depression or anxiety are receiving appropriate treatments for their condition. Biological diversity across ethnic groups may account for the differential sensitivity of some groups to psychotropic medication, but this area requires further investigation.

  1. Associations between Sexual Abuse and Family Conflict/Violence, Self-Injurious Behavior, and Substance Use: The Mediating Role of Depressed Mood and Anger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgeirsdottir, Bryndis Bjork; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Gudjonsson, Gisli H.; Sigurdsson, Jon Fridrik

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether depressed mood and anger mediate the effects of sexual abuse and family conflict/violence on self-injurious behavior and substance use. Methods: A cross-sectional national survey was conducted including 9,085 16-19 year old students attending all high schools in Iceland in 2004. Participants reported frequency of…

  2. Age and sex dependencies of anxiety and depression in cardiologic patients compared with the general population

    OpenAIRE

    Hinz, A; Kittel, J; Karoff, M; Schwarz, R

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to test age and sex effects on anxiety and depression using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale HADS. Method: Sample 1 consisted of 2037 subjects of the German general population, and sample 2 comprised 2696 cardiologic patients. Results: In the group of the general population we observed a linear increase of depression and (to a lower extent) of anxiety with age. In contrast to that, the patients reached their anxiety and depression maxima in the ra...

  3. THE VALIDITY OF CLINICAL DIFFERENTIATION BETWEEN ANXIETY AND DEPRESSIVE NEUROSES BY FACTOR ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Gurmeet; Sharma, Ravinder Kumar

    1986-01-01

    SUMMARY Ninety subjects consisting of 30 patients of generalized anxiety disorder, 30 of dysthymic disorder (depressive neurosis) according to D. S. M. III criteria and 30 patients of mixed anxiety-depressive disorder were given a detailed psychiatric examination, in addition, they were administered the Humilton rating scales for anxiety and depression, and also the Taylor manifest anxiety scale and Amritsar depressive inventory. All the symptoms elicited were then subjected to factor analysi...

  4. No association between anxiety and depression and adverse clinical outcome among patients with cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornerup, Henriette; Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe Olsen; Prescott, Eva

    2011-01-01

    Anxiety and depression have been linked to adverse prognostic outcome in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) with mixed results. The timing of anxiety and depression measurement has received little attention so far.......Anxiety and depression have been linked to adverse prognostic outcome in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) with mixed results. The timing of anxiety and depression measurement has received little attention so far....

  5. A mixed methods survey of social anxiety, anxiety, depression and wig use in alopecia

    OpenAIRE

    Montgomery, K.; White, C.; Thompson, A. R.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to examine levels of social anxiety, anxiety and depression reported by people with alopecia as a result of a dermatological condition and associations with wig use. The study also sought to report on experiences of wearing wigs in social situations and the relationship with social confidence.\\ud \\ud Design A cross-sectional survey was sent by email to the Alopecia UK charity mailing list and advertised on social media.\\ud \\ud Participants Inclusion criteria were a...

  6. Levels of depression and anxiety among parents of autistic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunay Firat

    2016-09-01

    Results: Participants in the study were parents of 26 male (65% and 14 female (35% autistic children. The average age of the children was 62.9+/-16.6 months. .Mothers had higher levels of depression and anxiety scores. Mothers of autistic children who participated in the study received higher scores on depression, state anxiety and trait anxiety compared to fathers. Among mothers, a significant relationship was found between level of education and level of state anxiety. Conclusion: The findings of this study show that mothers have higher levels of depression and anxiety compared to fathers. This finding might be explained with reference to customs and traditions of the Turkish society in which the study was conducted, which require women to take more responsiblity for family matters. It is recommended that special education and rehabilitation centers provide counseling to parents about the effects of having an autistic children on their lives, and advise them on seeking psychological help if necessary. [Cukurova Med J 2016; 41(3.000: 539-547

  7. Are parents' anxiety and depression related to child fussy eating?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barse, Lisanne M; Cano, Sebastian Cardona; Jansen, Pauline W

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between parental anxiety and depression with child fussy eating-that is, consistent rejection of particular food items. Design This study was embedded in Generation R, a prospective cohort from fetal life onwards in the Netherlands. Setting Population-based. P......Objective To examine the association between parental anxiety and depression with child fussy eating-that is, consistent rejection of particular food items. Design This study was embedded in Generation R, a prospective cohort from fetal life onwards in the Netherlands. Setting Population......-based. Participants 4746 4-year-old children and their parents. Exposure Parental internalising problems (ie, symptoms of anxiety and depression) were assessed with the Brief Symptoms Inventory during pregnancy and the preschool period (child age 3 years). Main outcome measure The food fussiness scale of the Children......'s Eating Behaviour Questionnaire. Results Maternal anxiety during pregnancy and during the child's preschool period was related to higher food fussiness sum-scores in children. For instance, per point on the anxiety scale in pregnancy, children had on average a 1.02 higher sum-score (95% CI 0.59 to 1...

  8. Trait anxiety but not state anxiety during critical Illness was associated with anxiety and depression over 6 months after ICU

    OpenAIRE

    Castillo, M. I.; Cooke, M. L.; Macfarlane, B.; Aitken, L. M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: \\ud To determine the association between anxiety during critical illness and symptoms of anxiety and depression over 6 months after ICU discharge in survivors of intensive care treatment. \\ud \\ud Design: \\ud Longitudinal study. \\ud \\ud Setting: \\ud One closed mixed ICU in an adult tertiary hospital in Brisbane, Australia. \\ud \\ud Patients: \\ud Participants (n = 141) were adults (≥ 8 yr), admitted to ICU for at least 24 hours, able to communicate either verbally or nonverbally, unde...

  9. Social Support Seeking and Early Adolescent Depression and Anxiety Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vélez, Clorinda E.; Krause, Elizabeth D.; McKinnon, Allison; Brunwasser, Steven M.; Freres, Derek R.; Abenavoli, Rachel M.; Gillham, Jane E.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined how social support seeking and rumination interacted to predict depression and anxiety symptoms 6 months later in early adolescents (N = 118; 11-14 years at baseline). We expected social support seeking would be more helpful for adolescents engaging in low rather than high levels of rumination. Adolescents self-reported on all…

  10. Regional Brain Volume in Depression and Anxiety Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tol, Marie-Jose; van der Wee, Nic J. A.; van den Heuvel, Odile A.; Nielen, Marjan M. A.; Demenescu, Liliana R.; Aleman, Andre; Renken, Remco; van Buchem, Mark A.; Zitman, Frans G.; Veltman, Dick J.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Major depressive disorder (MDD), panic disorder, and social anxiety disorder are among the most prevalent and frequently co-occurring psychiatric disorders in adults and may have, at least in part, a common etiology. Objective: To identify the unique and shared neuro-anatomical profile of

  11. Regional brain volume in depression and anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tol, Marie-José; van der Wee, Nic J. A.; van den Heuvel, Odile A.; Nielen, Marjan M. A.; Demenescu, Liliana R.; Aleman, André; Renken, Remco; van Buchem, Mark A.; Zitman, Frans G.; Veltman, Dick J.

    2010-01-01

    CONTEXT: Major depressive disorder (MDD), panic disorder, and social anxiety disorder are among the most prevalent and frequently co-occurring psychiatric disorders in adults and may have, at least in part, a common etiology. OBJECTIVE: To identify the unique and shared neuroanatomical profile of

  12. Depression and anxiety following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuba, K; Esser, P; Mehnert, A

    2017-01-01

    In this prospective multicenter study, we investigated the course of depression and anxiety during hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) until 5 years after transplantation adjusting for medical information. Patients were consulted before HSCT (n=239), at 3 months (n=150), 12 months (n=102...

  13. Short Report: Anxiety and Depression in Hypertensive Patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background The aim of this study was determine the pattern the levels of anxiety and depression among patients attending the hypertensive clinic of the department of medicine, Lagos State University Teaching Hospital, Ikeja, Lagos, Nigeria. Method Two hundred consecutive patients receiving treatment at the hypertensive ...

  14. Depression, anxiety symptoms and substance use amongst sex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Sex work is a high-risk occupation for mental health problems as sex workers are vulnerable to high rates of violence, sexual coercion, stigma and HIV. Aim: To determine the prevalence of depressive and anxiety symptoms and substance use in sex workers.Method: A crosssectional questionnaire survey of all ...

  15. Prevalence and associated factors of stress, anxiety and depression ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wafaa Yousif Abdel Wahed

    2016-02-20

    Feb 20, 2016 ... sion Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21), along with a pretested Sociodemographic questionnaire. .... sons.26 Most of them live in rural communities and work in ..... ing period.39 Results of other studies in North America also suggest that .... NIMH. National Institute of Mental Health; 2008.

  16. Symptom Similarities and Differences in Anxiety and Depressive Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek Sirvanli Ozen

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The question if there is a valid distinction between depression and anxiety disorders remains controversial. These two disorders have various overlaps in the symptomatology and sometimes it is difficult to make a clear diagnosis. The difficulty in making a definite diagnosis destined researchers to determine the differences and the similarities between anxiety and depression. The negative affect which has multiple dimensions such as low self-esteem, negative mood and negative cognitions is seen as the common factor in both disorders. The positive affect which has been defined as the harmony and satisfaction with others and milieu, is regarded as the discriminating factor for the diagnosis of depression. Further research has characterized somatic arousal as the third dimension, a candidate to be the discriminating factor for anxiety disorders. Although phenotypic models appear to find a solution for this problem the facts that negative affect dimension is more loaded compared to the other two dimensions and predominance of negative affect on several symptom patterns prevent researchers to reach a conclusive results regarding the differences between these two disorders. In this review article, symptom similarities and differences of anxiety and depressive disorders are discussed within the frame of phenotypic models and some alternative ideas are provided for possible changes in upcoming versions of classification systems.

  17. Selective Attention, Anxiety, Depressive Symptomatology and Academic Performance in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Castillo, Antonio; Gutierrez-Rojas, Maria Esperanza

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: In this cross-sectional, descriptive research we studied the relation between three psychological variables (anxiety, depression and attention) in order to analyze their possible association with and predictive power for academic achievement (as expressed in school grades) in a sample of secondary students. Method: For this purpose…

  18. Abundance of Stress, Anxiety and Depression in Multiple Sclerosis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dehghan

    2013-05-01

    Conclusion: The findings of this research revealed high stress, anxiety and depression in Multiple Sclerosis Patients that can jeopardize their health. Hence the providing appropriate education for coping and adapting with the symptoms in Multiple Sclerosis Patients seems to be necessary.

  19. Controlled study of anxiety and depression in mothers of children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The manifestation of stigmatization by familial environment and the collective effect of the children with adverse impact on mothers predispose them to mental shock or a variety of neurotic symptoms and other psychiatric conditions including anxiety and depression. The objectives of the study were: to determine the general ...

  20. Factors Predicting Rural Chinese Adolescents' Anxieties, Fears and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huijun; Zhang, Ying

    2008-01-01

    This study examined age, gender, birth order and self-perceived level of achievement and popularity, as predictors of anxieties, fears and depression in Chinese adolescents. A sample of 398 rural Chinese adolescents participated in this study. Gender, academic performance and popularity have been found to make the greatest contributions to the…

  1. Serotonergic drugs in the treatment of depressive and anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Den Boer, JA; Bosker, FJ; Slaap, BR

    Serotonergic dysfunction has been implicated in the aetiology of several psychiatric conditions, including depressive and anxiety disorders. Much of the evidence for the role of serotonin (5-HT) in these disorders comes from treatment studies with serotonergic drugs, including selective serotonin

  2. Association between anxiety and depression with chronic periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajeev Shrestha

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: It is thought that chronic stress negatively affects immune response efficacy which in turn cause an imbalance between host and parasite leading to periodontal breakdown. The study aims to investigate the association between anxiety and depression with chronic periodontitis.Materials & Methods: This was a cross sectional study comprising of 350 individuals of both sexes, above 25 years of age. The study population was divided into two groups. Group 2 consisted of those subjects with clinical attachment loss of ≥ 3 mm in at least 30% of site examined, and the samples that did not satisfy the above criteria were categorized into Group 1. Group 1 included 184 individuals while group 2 had 166 subjects. Clinical examinations were performed by a single examiner. Psychological instrument used was Hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS. Chi square and student t test were performed to compare between the two groups.Results: The mean depression scores in Group 1 and Group 2 were 6.64 ± 2.58 and 7.90 ± 2.86, respectively while the mean anxiety scores of Group 1 and Group 2 were 7.76 ± 3.12 and 9.07 ± 3.08, respectively (p<001.Conclusion: Within the limits of this study it is possible to conclude that there was significant association between periodontitis and anxiety, and depression 

  3. Anxiety and depression in mothers and fathers of a chronically ill child

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oers, H. A.; Haverman, L.; Limperg, P. F.; van Dijk-Lokkart, E. M.; Maurice-Stam, H.; Grootenhuis, M. A.

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to determine the levels of anxiety and depression in mothers and fathers of a chronically ill child (0-18 years) and to study which parental and child variables are associated with anxiety and depression. In a cross-sectional design, anxiety and depression were assessed with the Hospital

  4. Psychometric Properties of the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 in Older Primary Care Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Gloster, Andrew T.; Rhoades, Howard M.; Novy, Diane; Klotsche, Jens; Senior, Ashley; Kunik, Mark; Wilson, Nancy; Stanley, Melinda A.

    2008-01-01

    The Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS) was designed to efficiently measure the core symptoms of anxiety and depression and has demonstrated positive psychometric properties in adult samples of anxiety and depression patients and student samples. Despite these findings, the psychometric properties of the DASS remain untested in older adults, for whom the identification of efficient measures of these constructs is especially important.

  5. Self-esteem in depression and anxiety : low, unstable, and discrepant?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tuijl, Lonneke

    2017-01-01

    This study tested the role of low self-esteem in depression and anxiety disorders. Low self-esteem could be both a cause and a consequence of depression and anxiety. Moreover, residual low self-esteem in people who have recovered from depression and/or anxiety might set them at risk for recurrence.

  6. The association of depression and anxiety with pain: a study from NESDA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heer, E.W.; Gerrits, M.J.G.; Beekman, A.T.; Dekker, J.J.M.; van Marwijk, H.W.; de Waal, M.W.; Spinhoven, P.; Penninx, B.W.; van der Feltz-Cornelis, C.M.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic pain is commonly co-morbid with a depressive or anxiety disorder. Objective of this study is to examine the influence of depression, along with anxiety, on pain-related disability, pain intensity, and pain location in a large sample of adults with and without a depressive and/or anxiety

  7. The association of depression and anxiety with pain : A study from NESDA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Heer, E.W.; Gerrits, M.M.; Beekman, A.T.; Dekker, J.; van Marwijk, H.W.J.; de Waal, M.W.; Spinhoven, P.; Penninx, B.W.; van der Feltz-Cornelis, C.M.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic pain is commonly co-morbid with a depressive or anxiety disorder. Objective of this study is to examine the influence of depression, along with anxiety, on pain-related disability, pain intensity, and pain location in a large sample of adults with and without a depressive and/or anxiety

  8. Depression and Anxiety Symptoms in Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders without Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strang, John F.; Kenworthy, Lauren; Daniolos, Peter; Case, Laura; Wills, Meagan C.; Martin, Alex; Wallace, Gregory L.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that rates of depression and anxiety symptoms are elevated among individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) of various ages and IQs and that depression/anxiety symptoms are associated with higher IQ and fewer ASD symptoms. In this study which examined correlates of depression and anxiety symptoms in the full…

  9. The relationship between generalized anxiety disorder, depression and mortality in old age.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holwerda, T.J.; Schoevers, R.A.; Dekker, J.J.M.; Deeg, D.J.H.; Jonker, C.; Beekman, A.T.F.

    2007-01-01

    after adjustment for the different variables. Conclusions In elderly persons depression increases the risk of death in men. Neither generalized anxiety nor mixed anxiety-depression are associated with excess mortality. Generalized anxiety disorder may even predict less mortality in depressive

  10. Longitudinal study of perinatal maternal stress, depressive symptoms and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Shwu-Ru; Wang, Panchalli; Cheng, Ching-Yu

    2014-06-01

    to understand the trends in, and relationships between, maternal stress, depressive symptoms and anxiety in pregnancy and post partum. a prospective longitudinal survey study was undertaken to explore maternal psychological distress throughout the perinatal period. The participants were recruited after 24 completed weeks of gestation, and were followed-up monthly until one month post partum (four surveys in total). participants were recruited from a single hospital in southern Taiwan, and asked to complete questionnaires in the hospital waiting area. inclusion criteria were: age ≥18 years, able to read and write Chinese, ≥24 weeks of gestation, singleton pregnancy and no pregnancy complications (including a diagnosis of antenatal depression or anxiety disorder). In total, 197 women completed all four surveys (response rate 74.62%). stress was measured with the 10-item Perceived Stress Scale, depressive symptoms were measured with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies' Depression scale, and anxiety was measured with the Zung Self-reported Anxiety Scale. Participants were followed-up at four time points: T1 (25-29 gestational weeks), T2 (30-34 gestational weeks), T3 (>34 gestational weeks) and T4 (4-6 weeks post partum). Appointments for data collection were made in accordance with the participants' antenatal and postnatal check-ups. The three types of maternal distress had different courses of change throughout the perinatal period, as levels of depressive symptoms remained unchanged, anxiety levels increased as gestation advanced but declined after birth, and stress decreased gradually during pregnancy but returned to the T1 level after birth. There was a low to high degree of correlation in maternal stress, depressive symptoms and anxiety in pregnancy and post partum. around one-quarter of the study participants had depressive symptoms during pregnancy and post partum. Stress and anxiety showed opposing courses during the perinatal period. Regardless of the

  11. Anger Management among Medical Undergraduate Students and Its Impact on Their Mental Health and Curricular Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayathri S. Prabhu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study was intended to determine the practice of students in good anger management skills and to what extent their anger can affect their studies, work, and social interactions. In this study the relationship between anger management and the effects on the mental health of medical students was evaluated. A survey was also done to determine duration of the feeling of anger which lasts among medical students and its consequences. Materials and Methods. A newly developed questionnaire was utilized which included a simplified version of the Novaco Anger Scale and Provocation Inventory and the modified Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (to measure the mental health. Results. The data suggests that although students with high anger tendencies display poor mental health, there is no lowering of the mental health/PHQ-9 score as the anger management technique’s effectiveness rises. “Friends” was cited as the major triggering factor for anger, whereby the feelings can last for up to a day and somewhat affect their concentration on normal activities. Conclusion. When anger is suppressed and not let out, it can be an underlying factor for anxiety and depression. Therefore, more emphasis needs to be placed on educating students on how to manage their anger especially in a stressful environment away from home.

  12. Temperament clusters associate with anxiety disorder comorbidity in depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paavonen, Vesa; Luoto, Kaisa; Lassila, Antero; Leinonen, Esa; Kampman, Olli

    2018-08-15

    Individual temperament is associated with psychiatric morbidity and could explain differences in psychiatric comorbidities. We investigated the association of temperament profile clusters with anxiety disorder comorbidity in patients with depression. We assessed the temperament of 204 specialized care-treated depressed patients with the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI-R) and their diagnoses with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Two-step cluster analysis was used for defining patients' temperament profiles and logistic regression analysis was used for predicting different anxiety disorders for various temperament profiles. Four temperament clusters were found: 1) Novelty seekers with highest Novelty Seeking scores (n = 56),2) Persistent with highest Persistence scores (n = 36), 3) Reserved with lowest Novelty Seeking scores (n = 66) and 4) Wearied with highest Harm avoidance, lowest Reward Dependence and lowest Persistence scores (n = 58). After adjusting for clinical variables, panic disorder and/or agoraphobia were predicted by Novelty seekers' temperament profile with odds ratio [OR] = 3.5 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.8 - 6.9, p < 0.001), social anxiety disorder was predicted by Wearied temperament profile with OR = 3.4 (95% CI = 1.6 - 7.5, p = 0.002), and generalized anxiety disorder was predicted by Reserved temperament profile with OR = 2.6 (95% CI = 1.2 - 5.3, p = 0.01). The patients' temperament profiles were assessed while displaying depressive symptoms, which may have affected results. Temperament clusters with unique dimensional profiles were specifically associated with different anxiety disorders in this study. These results suggest that TCI-R could offer a valuable dimensional method for predicting the risk of anxiety disorders in diverse depressed patients. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. [Relationship of Anxiety and Depression in the Development of Mixed Anxiety/Depression Disorder. An Experimental Study of Comorbidity Mechanisms (Review)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galyamina, A G; Kovalenko, I L; Smagin, D A; Kudryavtseva, N N

    2016-01-01

    As clinical practice and experimental studies show, symptoms of depression and anxiety often accompany each other. It is well known that combination of anxiety and depression in patients is treated more slowly, requires large doses of drugs, increases the likelihood of suicide and often leads to relapse. Furthermore, antidepressants and anxiolytics exert its therapeutic effect in limited cases even in monopolar anxiety or depression state. In this review of literature and our own data the relationship of anxiety and depression is analyzed. It has been shown with using the model of mixed anxiety/depression disorder caused by chronic social defeat stress, that the anxiety and depression are changed under the influence of psychotropic drugs independently.

  14. Comorbidity of Anxiety and Depression in Children and Adolescents: 20 Years After

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Colleen M.; Caporino, Nicole E.; Kendall, Philip C.

    2014-01-01

    Brady and Kendall (1992) concluded that although anxiety and depression in youth are meaningfully linked, there are important distinctions, and additional research was needed. Since then, studies of anxiety-depression comorbidity in youth have increased exponentially. Following a discussion of comorbidity, we review existing conceptual models and propose a multiple pathways model to anxiety-depression comorbidity. Pathway 1 describes youth with a diathesis for anxiety, with subsequent comorbid depression resulting from anxiety-related impairment. Pathway 2 refers to youth with a shared diathesis for anxiety and depression, who may experience both disorders simultaneously. Pathway 3 describes youth with a diathesis for depression, with subsequent comorbid anxiety resulting from depression-related impairment. Additionally, shared and stratified risk factors contribute to the development of the comorbid disorder, either by interacting with disorder-related impairment or by predicting the simultaneous development of the disorders. Our review addresses descriptive and developmental factors, gender differences, suicidality, assessments, and treatment-outcome research as they relate to comorbid anxiety and depression, and to our proposed pathways. Research since 1992 indicates that comorbidity varies depending on the specific anxiety disorder, with Pathway 1 describing youth with either social phobia or separation anxiety disorder and subsequent depression, Pathway 2 applying to youth with co-primary generalized anxiety disorder and depression, and Pathway 3 including depressed youth with subsequent social phobia. The need to test the proposed multiple pathways model and to examine (a) developmental change and (b) specific anxiety disorders is highlighted. PMID:24219155

  15. A mixed methods survey of social anxiety, anxiety, depression and wig use in alopecia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Kerry; White, Caroline; Thompson, Andrew

    2017-05-04

    This study aimed to examine levels of social anxiety, anxiety and depression reported by people with alopecia as a result of a dermatological condition and associations with wig use. The study also sought to report on experiences of wearing wigs in social situations and the relationship with social confidence. A cross-sectional survey was sent by email to the Alopecia UK charity mailing list and advertised on social media. Inclusion criteria were a diagnosis of alopecia, aged 13 or above and sufficient English to complete the survey. Exclusion criteria included experiencing hair loss as a result of chemotherapy treatment or psychological disorder. Participants (n=338) were predominantly female (97.3%), Caucasian (93.5%) and aged between 35 and 54 years (49.4%) with a diagnosis of alopecia areata (82.6%). The Social Phobia Inventory measured symptoms of social anxiety, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was used to measure symptoms of anxiety and depression. Survey questions were designed to measure the use of wigs. Open-ended questions enabled participants to comment on their experiences of wearing wigs. Clinically significant levels of social anxiety (47.5%), anxiety (35.5%) and depression (29%) were reported. Participants who reported worries about not wearing a wig reported significantly higher levels of depression: t(103)=3.40, p≤0.001; anxiety: t(109)=4.80, p≤0.001; and social anxiety: t(294)=3.89, p≤0.001. Wearing wigs was reported as increasing social confidence; however, the concealment it afforded was also reported as both reducing fear of negative evaluation and maintaining anxiety. Overall, 46% of participants reported that wearing a wig had a positive impact on their everyday life with negative experiences related to fears of the wig being noticed. Psychological interventions alongside wig provision would be beneficial for people living with alopecia. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the

  16. Anxiety, depression and autonomic nervous system dysfunction in hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajkó, Zoltán; Szekeres, Csilla-Cecília; Kovács, Katalin Réka; Csapó, Krisztina; Molnár, Sándor; Soltész, Pál; Nyitrai, Erika; Magyar, Mária Tünde; Oláh, László; Bereczki, Dániel; Csiba, László

    2012-06-15

    This study examined the relationship between autonomic nervous system dysfunction, anxiety and depression in untreated hypertension. 86 newly diagnosed hypertensive patients and 98 healthy volunteers were included in the study. The psychological parameters were assessed with Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and Beck Depression Inventory by a skilled psychologist. Autonomic parameters were examined during tilt table examination (10min lying position, 10min passive tilt). Heart rate variability (HRV) was calculated by autoregressive methods. Baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) was calculated by non-invasive sequence method from the recorded beat to beat blood pressure values and RR intervals. Significantly higher state (42.6±9.3 vs. 39.6±10.7 p=0.05) and trait (40.1±8.9 vs. 35.1±8.6, p<0.0001) anxiety scores were found in the hypertension group. There was no statistically significant difference in the depression level. LF-RRI (Low Frequency-RR interval) of HRV in passive tilt (377.3±430.6 vs. 494.1±547, p=0.049) and mean BRS slope (11.4±5.5 vs. 13.2±6.4, p=0.07) in lying position were lower in hypertensives. Trait anxiety score correlates significantly with sympatho/vagal balance (LF/HF-RRI) in passive tilt position (Spearman R=-0.286, p=0.01). Anxiety could play a more important role than depression in the development of hypertension. Altered autonomic control of the heart could be one of the pathophysiological links between hypertension and psychological factors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Uric acid in major depressive and anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Catherine N; Bot, Mariska; Scheffer, Peter G; Snieder, Harold; Penninx, Brenda W J H

    2018-01-01

    Uric acid has neuroprotective effects, owing to its antioxidant properties. Lowered antioxidant capacity, causing increased oxidative stress, may be involved in affective disorders and might be altered by antidepressants. This study investigated the association of plasma uric acid, the greatest contributor to blood antioxidant capacity, with major depressive disorder (MDD) and anxiety disorders. Data were from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety including patients with current (N = 1648), remitted (N = 609) MDD and/or anxiety disorders (of which N = 710 antidepressant users) and 618 controls. Diagnoses were established with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Symptom severity was assessed with the Inventory of Depressive Symptoms-Self Report, Beck Anxiety Inventory and Fear Questionnaire. Uric acid was measured in plasma. Analyses were adjusted for sociodemographic, health and lifestyle variables. Plasma uric acid adjusted mean levels were lower in current MDD and/or anxiety disorder(s) (289μmol/l) compared to remitted disorders (298μmol/l, p uric acid. Limitations include the lack of data on dietary intake which could be a potential confounding factor. From these cross-sectional findings, the association between uric acid and psychopathology cannot be inferred to be causal. This large scale study finds plasma uric acid levels are lower in current, but not remitted, MDD and/or anxiety disorders, according to a dose-response gradient. This suggests the involvement of decreased antioxidant status in affective disorders, and points to their potential as an avenue for treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The state effect of depressive and anxiety disorders on big five personality traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karsten, Julie; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Riese, Hariette; Ormel, Johan; Nolen, Willem A.; Hartman, Catharina A.

    Background: Neuroticism and extraversion are affected by depressive disorder state. Less is known about depressive state effects on conscientiousness, agreeableness and openness. Furthermore, state effects of anxiety disorders on personality have been far less studied than those of depressive

  19. Islamic Religiosity, Depression and Anxiety among Muslim Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadzirah Ahmad Basri

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Active religious practice is central to Muslim livelihood. Among Muslims, this religious engagement is rarely studied with regards to its association in coping with critical illnesses. This study investigated the association between Islamic religiosity with depression and anxiety in Muslim cancer patients. Fifty-nine cancer patients recruited from a Malaysian public hospital and a cancer support group completed the Muslim Religiosity and Personality Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory and Beck Anxiety Inventory in July and August 2010. Islamic religiosity score, obtained from the sum of subscale scores of Islamic worldview and religious personality represents a greater understanding and practice of Islam in a comprehensive manner. Results yielded a significant negative correlation between Islamic religiosity score with both depression and anxiety. Depression was also found to be negatively associated with religious personality subscale. Older patients scored significantly higher on both Islamic worldview and religious personality whereas patients with higher education scored higher on Islamic worldview. Married patients scored significantly higher scores on religious personality than the single patients. Results provided an insight into the significant role of religious intervention which has huge potentials to improve the psychological health of cancer patients particularly Muslims in Malaysia. Research implication includes the call for professionals to meet the spiritual needs of Muslim cancer patients and incorporating religious components in their treatment, especially in palliative care.

  20. The incidence of anxiety and depression among employees--the role of psychosocial work characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrea, Helene; Bültmann, Ute; van Amelsvoort, Ludovic G P M; Kant, Ymert

    2009-01-01

    Anxiety and depression are prevalent among employees and are associated with functional disability and work impairment. To date, little is known about the incidence and possible risk factors for developing anxiety and depression in the working population. Study aims were to (a) determine the incidence of subclinical anxiety and depression in a general working population and (b) identify the psychosocial work characteristics associated with the onset of subclinical anxiety and depression. This prospective study is based on 3,707 employees participating in the Maastricht Cohort Study on Fatigue at Work. Psychosocial work characteristics were measured in May 2000; anxiety and depression were measured with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale in April 2002. The cumulative 23-month incidence for subclinical anxiety and depression was 4.6 and 3.3%, respectively. High psychological job demands increased the risk for both subsequent anxiety and depression. Moreover, low social support was predictive for the onset of anxiety, whereas job insecurity increased the risk for the onset of depression. These prospective associations were independent of potential confounding variables and the other psychosocial work characteristics. Adverse psychosocial work characteristics are significant predictors for the onset of subclinical anxiety and depression in the general working population. These findings encourage intervention studies testing whether modifying the psychosocial work environment reduces both anxiety and depressive symptoms among employees.

  1. Early Childhood Adversity and its Associations With Anxiety, Depression, and Distress in Women With Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Daniel C; Andreotti, Charissa; Harris, Kirk; Mandeli, John; Tiersten, Amy; Holland, Jimmie

    2016-01-01

    Certain vulnerability factors have been found to place patients at risk for depression and anxiety, especially within the context of medical illness. We sought to describe the relationships among early childhood adversity (ECA) and anxiety, depression and distress in patients with breast cancer. Patients with breast cancer (stages 0-IV) were assessed for ECA (i.e., the Risky Families Questionnaire subscales include Abuse/Neglect/Chaotic Home Environment), distress (i.e., Distress Thermometer and Problem List), anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Anxiety), depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Depression), meeting standardized cut-off thresholds for distress (Distress Thermometer and Problem List ≥4 or ≥7)/anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Anxiety ≥8)/depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Depression ≥8) and demographic factors. A total of 125 participants completed the study (78% response rate). ECA was associated with depression (p psychologic symptoms, but most specifically depression in the setting of breast cancer. ECA contributes to psychologic burden as a vulnerability factor. ECA may help to explain individual patient trajectories and influence the provision of patient-centered care for psychologic symptoms in patients with breast cancer. Copyright © 2016 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Depression, anxiety, and the cardiovascular system: the cardiologist's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheps, D S; Sheffield, D

    2001-01-01

    Up to one fifth of patients with cardiovascular disease, including those who have experienced a myocardial infarction, may have concomitant major depression. Studies have suggested that the relative risk of major depression with cardiovascular disease ranges from 1.5 to 4.5. Further information is required to establish a dose-response relationship between depression and coronary artery disease (CAD); however, such a relationship has been shown between anxiety and CAD. Development of a conceptual model of the pathophysiologic actions of stress in CAD will assist in the understanding of this relationship. In patients with angiographic evidence of CAD, the presence of major depressive disorder was the best single predictor of cardiac events during the 12 months following diagnosis. Significantly, 6-month cumulative mortality following diagnosis of myocardial infarction has been shown to be higher in depressed patients than in nondepressed patients. A decrease in heart rate variability may mediate the deleterious effect of depression on post-myocardial infarction prognosis. Other factors such as mental stress and altered platelet function may also predispose depressed patients to a heightened risk of cardiac events. With an increased understanding of the relationship between depression and heightened risk of cardiovascular mortality, it is necessary to assess current overall treatment for cardiac patients.

  3. Incidence of depression, anxiety and stress following traumatic injury: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Taneal A; Curtis, Kate; Lam, Mary; Foster, Kim

    2015-03-28

    Traumatic injury and mental health disorders are co-associated. Early identification of depression, anxiety and stress following injury, and subsequent preventive intervention, may reduce the long-term symptoms and negative impacts associated with depression and anxiety. The purpose of the study was to determine the incidence, severity and predictors of depression, anxiety and stress in injured patients in the acute phase of care, and at six months following injury, as well as the effectiveness of an in-hospital screening tool. This descriptive longitudinal study of trauma patients was conducted at a Level 1 Metropolitan Trauma Centre in Australia over 14 months. Participants were interviewed using the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale short-form version (DASS-21) during hospital admission then at 3 and 6 months after injury. Descriptive statistics were performed to evaluate participant characteristics and incidence of depression, anxiety and stress. Correlations and logistic regression were conducted to investigate the ability of the DASS-21 to predict symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress and to investigate factors associated with depression, anxiety and stress 6 months after injury. 201 participants ranging in age (18-94 years) and injury severity participated in the baseline interview and 109 completed all 3 interviews over 6 months. Over half (54%) reported above normal scores for depression, anxiety and/or stress in at least one of the 3 time points. Intensive care unit admission and high levels of depression, anxiety and stress at 3 months post injury were predictors for high levels of depression, anxiety and stress at 6 months. Low scores for depression, anxiety and stress during admission were correlated with low scores for depression, anxiety and stress at 3 and 6 months. Depression, anxiety and stress in patients hospitalised following injury is common and should be anticipated in patients who have had an intensive care admission. Screening at 3

  4. Unique relations among anxiety sensitivity factors and anxiety, depression, and suicidal ideation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Nicholas P; Capron, Daniel W; Raines, Amanda M; Schmidt, Norman B

    2014-03-01

    Anxiety sensitivity (AS) is composed of three lower-order dimensions, cognitive concerns, physical concerns, and social concerns. We examined the relations between AS dimensions using a more adequate assessment of subscales (ASI-3) than has previously been used, and measures of anxiety and mood disorders as well as suicidal ideation in a sample of 256 (M age = 37.10 years, SD = 16.40) treatment-seeking individuals using structural equation modeling. AS cognitive concerns was uniquely associated with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), major depressive disorder (MDD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and suicidal ideation. AS physical concerns was uniquely associated with OCD, social anxiety disorder (SAD), panic disorder (PD), and specific phobia. AS social concerns was uniquely associated with SAD, GAD, OCD, and MDD. These results highlight the importance of considering the lower-order AS dimensions when examining the relations between AS and psychopathology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The Association of Depression and Anxiety with Pain: A Study from NESDA

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Heer, Eric W.; Gerrits, Marloes M. J. G.; Beekman, Aartjan T. F.; Dekker, Jack; van Marwijk, Harm W. J.; de Waal, Margot W. M.; Spinhoven, Philip; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; van der Feltz-Cornelis, Christina M.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic pain is commonly co-morbid with a depressive or anxiety disorder. Objective of this study is to examine the influence of depression, along with anxiety, on pain-related disability, pain intensity, and pain location in a large sample of adults with and without a depressive and/or anxiety disorder. The study population consisted of 2981 participants with a depressive, anxiety, co-morbid depressive and anxiety disorder, remitted disorder or no current disorder (controls). Severity of depressive and anxiety symptoms was also assessed. In separate multinomial regression analyses, the association of presence of depressive or anxiety disorders and symptom severity with the Chronic Pain Grade and location of pain was explored. Presence of a depressive (OR = 6.67; Pdepressive and anxiety disorder (OR = 30.26; Pdepressive or anxiety disorder showed more disabling and severely limiting pain (OR = 3.53; Pdepressive and anxiety disorder (OR = 5.15; Pdepressive and/or anxiety disorder and those with more severe symptoms have more disabling pain and pain of cardio-respiratory nature, than persons without a depressive or anxiety disorder. This warrants further research. PMID:25330004

  6. Correlations between sexual dysfunction, depression, anxiety, and somatic symptoms among patients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chiao-Fan; Juang, Yeong-Yuh; Wen, Jung-Kwang; Liu, Chia-Yih; Hung, Ching-I

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the degree of correlation between sexual dysfunction and depression, anxiety, and somatic symptoms among patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and to identify the dimension most predictive of sexual dysfunction. One-hundred and thirty-five outpatients with MDD were enrolled and were treated with open-label venlafaxine 75 mg daily for one month. The Arizona Sexual Experience Scale-Chinese Version (ASEX-CV), Depression and Somatic Symptoms Scale (DSSS), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) were administered at baseline and at one-month follow-up and the improvement percentage (IP) of each scale posttreatment was calculated. Multiple linear regression was used to determine the dimension most predictive of the total ASEX-CV score. Seventy subjects (20 men, 50 women) completed the one-month pharmacotherapy and the four scales. The depression subscale of the HADS was most strongly correlated with the ASEX-CV scale and was the only subscale to independently predict the total ASEX-CV score at the two points. However, the somatic subscale of the DSSS was not correlated with any ASEX-CV item. At the endpoint, depression, anxiety, and somatic symptoms were significantly improved (IP 48.5% to 26.0%); however, very little improvement was observed in the total ASEX-CV score (IP -1.6%). The severity of sexual dysfunction among patients with MDD was most correlated with the severity of the depressive dimension, but not the severity of the somatic dimension. Further studies are indicated to explore the relationships between sexual dysfunction, depression, anxiety, and somatic symptoms.

  7. Testing Specificity: Associations of Stress and Coping with Symptoms of Anxiety and Depression in Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Bettis, Alexandra H.; Forehand, Rex; McKee, Laura; Dunbar, Jennifer P.; Watson, Kelly H.; Compas, Bruce E.

    2015-01-01

    Research has documented the co-occurrence of symptoms of anxiety and depression across the lifespan, suggesting that these symptoms share common correlates and etiology. The present study aimed to examine potential specific and/or transdiagnostic correlates of symptoms of anxiety and depression in at-risk youth. The present study examined youth stress associated with parental depression and youth coping as potential correlates of symptoms of anxiety and depression in a sample of children of d...

  8. Sex differences in depression and anxiety disorders: potential biological determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altemus, Margaret

    2006-11-01

    The phenomenon of higher rates of affective disorders in women illustrates many of the difficulties as well as promises of translating preclinical models to human disorders. Abnormalities in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis and the sympathoadrenomedullary system have been identified in depression and anxiety disorders, and these disorders are clearly precipitated and exacerbated by stress. Despite the striking sex difference in the prevalence of depression and anxiety disorders, attempts to identify corresponding sex differences in stress response reactivity in animal models have met with limited success. Processes which may contribute to increased rates of affective disorders in women are greater fluxes in reproductive hormones across the life span, and increased sensitivity to catecholamine augmentation of emotional memory consolidation.

  9. Neuroticism, anxiety, and depression in Egyptian atopic bronchial asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Amal Fathy; Taha t Abd Algawad; Eman O. Arram; Hala Elboraei; Manal S. Arafat; Sherin S. Elmetwaly

    2014-01-01

    The association between allergic and psychological disorders had been reported, but whether the key mediating ingredients are predominantly biological, psychological, or mere artifacts remains unknown. We aim to examine the relationship between objectively measured atopic status and anxiety, depression, and neuroticism. Methods: This randomized case controlled trial was conducted on 50 atopic patients and 50 healthy controls. Atopy was determined by skin prick test and allergy related symp...

  10. Association between perfectionism, anxiety and depression among children

    OpenAIRE

    Miloseva, Lence

    2012-01-01

    Although it is known that childhood and adolescence are the most important periods for the development of perfectionism, this is almost unknown research area in R. Macedonia. The data were obtained in two primary schools in Stip. The sample consisted of 468 students, aged 11-14 years, from the 5th till 8th grade of primary school, of which 279 were female, and 189 male. This research aimed to explore the relationship of perfectionism dimensions with anxiety and depression among ch...

  11. Burnout, anxiety, depression, and social skills in medical residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira-Lima, K; Loureiro, S R

    2015-01-01

    The medical residency is recognized as a risk period for the development of burnout and mental health problems, such as anxiety and depression, which have impact on the physician and clientele alike. There is a need for studies that address conditions of risk and protection for the development of such problems. This study aimed to verify the rates of burnout, anxiety, and depression presented by resident physicians, as well as the associations of these problems with social skills, as potential protective factors. The hypothesis was defined that the problems (burnout, anxiety, and depression) would be negatively associated with social skills. A total of 305 medical residents, of both genders, of different specialties, from clinical and surgical areas of a Brazilian university hospital were evaluated using the following standardized self-report instruments: Burnout Syndrome Inventory, Social Skills Inventory, and the Patient Health Questionnaire-4. High rates of burnout and mental health problems were verified and social skills were negatively associated with burnout dimensions such as emotional exhaustion, emotional detachment, and dehumanization, but positively associated with personal accomplishment. Furthermore, residents with indicators of problems presented significantly lower social skills means than those of residents without indicators of burnout, anxiety, or depression. More studies are needed, which include other types of instruments in addition to self-report ones and evaluate not only social skills but also social competence in the professional practice. These should adopt intervention and longitudinal designs that allow the continuity or overcoming of the problems to be verified. Since social skills can be learned, the results of the study highlight the importance of developing the interpersonal skills of the professionals during the training of resident physicians in order to improve their practice.

  12. Social Networking Sites, Depression, and Anxiety: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Seabrook, Elizabeth M; Kern, Margaret L; Rickard, Nikki S

    2016-01-01

    Background Social networking sites (SNSs) have become a pervasive part of modern culture, which may also affect mental health. Objective The aim of this systematic review was to identify and summarize research examining depression and anxiety in the context of SNSs. It also aimed to identify studies that complement the assessment of mental illness with measures of well-being and examine moderators and mediators that add to the complexity of this environment. Methods A multidatabase search was...

  13. The relationships between migraine, depression, anxiety, stress, and sleep disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalinay Dikmen, Pinar; Yavuz, Burcu Goksan; Aydinlar, Elif Ilgaz

    2015-06-01

    To assess the relationships between migraine, depression, anxiety, stress, and sleep problems. Psychiatric conditions and sleep disturbances are common in migraineurs. Depression, anxiety, stress, migraine, and sleep problems frequently coexist as comorbidities. Eighty-seven episodic migraineurs (62 females, 25 males; 32.8 ± 6.9) and 41 control subjects (25 females, 16 males; 31.5 ± 5.6) were prospectively enrolled for the study. The participants completed a sociodemographic data form and a migraine disability assessment scale (MIDAS), depression, anxiety, stress scale (DASS), and Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). In migraineurs, a significant positive correlation was found between PSQI total scores and MIDAS scores (migraine related disability for at least three consecutive months) (r = 0. 234, p = 0.04). Only 24.1 % of migraineus (n = 21) had minimal or no disability, 75.9 % of the patients (n = 66) had more than a little disability according to MIDAS scores. PSQI total scores were also correlated with pain intensity over a three month period (MIDAS B) (r = 0.221, p = 0.04). While PSQI scores were found significantly different between migraineurs and control subjects (5.5 ± 2.9 vs 4.5 ± 2.5; p = 0.04), the correlation of all the DASS subscale scores between the groups was not statistically significant. Our findings showed that episodic migraine was a risk factor on its own for sleep disturbances without comorbid depression, anxiety, and stress. Moreover, migraine-related disability and pain intensity in migraine attacks were related to poor sleep quality.

  14. The association of depression and anxiety with pain: a study from NESDA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric W de Heer

    Full Text Available Chronic pain is commonly co-morbid with a depressive or anxiety disorder. Objective of this study is to examine the influence of depression, along with anxiety, on pain-related disability, pain intensity, and pain location in a large sample of adults with and without a depressive and/or anxiety disorder. The study population consisted of 2981 participants with a depressive, anxiety, co-morbid depressive and anxiety disorder, remitted disorder or no current disorder (controls. Severity of depressive and anxiety symptoms was also assessed. In separate multinomial regression analyses, the association of presence of depressive or anxiety disorders and symptom severity with the Chronic Pain Grade and location of pain was explored. Presence of a depressive (OR = 6.67; P<.001, anxiety (OR = 4.84; P<.001, or co-morbid depressive and anxiety disorder (OR = 30.26; P<.001 was associated with the Chronic Pain Grade. Moreover, symptom severity was associated with more disabling and severely limiting pain. Also, a remitted depressive or anxiety disorder showed more disabling and severely limiting pain (OR = 3.53; P<.001 as compared to controls. A current anxiety disorder (OR = 2.96; p<.001 and a co-morbid depressive and anxiety disorder (OR = 5.15; P<.001 were more strongly associated with cardio-respiratory pain, than gastro-intestinal or musculoskeletal pain. These findings remain after adjustment for chronic cardio respiratory illness. Patients with a current and remitted depressive and/or anxiety disorder and those with more severe symptoms have more disabling pain and pain of cardio-respiratory nature, than persons without a depressive or anxiety disorder. This warrants further research.

  15. Beliefs about Emotions, Depression, Anxiety and Fatigue: A Mediational Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sydenham, Mia; Beardwood, Jennifer; Rimes, Katharine A

    2017-01-01

    Beliefs that it is unacceptable to experience or express negative emotions have been found to be associated with various clinical problems. It is unclear how such beliefs, which could be viewed as a form of unhelpful perfectionism about emotions, may contribute to symptomatology. This study investigated two hypotheses: a) greater endorsement of beliefs about the unacceptability of negative emotions will be associated with greater emotional avoidance and lower levels of support-seeking and self-compassion; b) these beliefs about emotions will be associated with higher levels of symptoms of depression, anxiety and fatigue and that this relationship will be mediated by social support-seeking, emotional avoidance and self-compassion. Online questionnaires were completed by 451 community participants. Mediational analyses were undertaken to investigate emotional avoidance, social support-seeking and self-compassion as mediators of the relationship between beliefs about emotions and symptoms of depression, anxiety and fatigue. Beliefs about the unacceptability of negative emotions were significantly associated with more emotional avoidance and less self-compassion and support-seeking. The relationships between beliefs about emotions and depression, anxiety and fatigue were significantly mediated by self-compassion and emotional avoidance but not social support-seeking. Future research should investigate whether interventions that pay particular attention to emotional avoidance and self-compassion, such as mindfulness-based therapy or modified forms of CBT, may be beneficial in reducing distress and fatigue associated with beliefs about the unacceptability of negative emotions.

  16. Emotional Variability and Clarity in Depression and Social Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Renee J.; Boden, Matthew Tyler; Gotlib, Ian H.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has underscored the importance of elucidating specific patterns of emotion that characterize mental disorders. We examined two emotion traits, emotional variability and emotional clarity, in relation to both categorical (diagnostic interview) and dimensional (self-report) measures of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) in women diagnosed with MDD only (n=35), SAD only (n=31), MDD and SAD (n=26), or no psychiatric disorder (n=38). Results of the categorical analyses suggest that elevated emotional variability and diminished emotional clarity are transdiagnostic of MDD and SAD. More specifically, emotional variability was elevated for MDD and SAD diagnoses compared to no diagnosis, showing an additive effect for co-occurring MDD and SAD. Similarly diminished levels of emotional clarity characterized all three clinical groups compared to the healthy control group. Dimensional findings suggest that whereas emotional variability is associated more consistently with depression than with social anxiety, emotional clarity is associated more consistently with social anxiety than with depression. Results are interpreted using a threshold- and dose-response framework. PMID:26371579

  17. Treatment of anxiety and depression: medicinal plants in retrospect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajemiroye, James O; da Silva, Dayane M; de Oliveira, Danillo R; Costa, Elson A

    2016-06-01

    Anxiety and depression are complex heterogeneous psychiatric disorders and leading causes of disability worldwide. This review summarizes reports on the fundamentals, prevalence, diagnosis, neurobiology, advancement in treatment of these diseases and preclinical assessment of botanicals. This review was conducted through bibliographic investigation of scientific journals, books, electronic sources, unpublished theses and electronic medium such as ScienceDirect and PubMed. A number of the first-line drugs (benzodiazepine, azapirone, antidepressant tricyclics, monoamine oxidase inhibitors, serotonin selective reuptake inhibitors, noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors, serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors, etc.) for the treatment of these psychiatric disorders are products of serendipitous discoveries. Inspite of the numerous classes of drugs that are available for the treatment of anxiety and depression, full remission has remained elusive. The emerging clinical cases have shown increasing interests among health practitioners and patients in phytomedicine. The development of anxiolytic and antidepressant drugs of plant origin takes advantage of multidisciplinary approach including but not limited to ethnopharmacological survey (careful investigation of folkloric application of medicinal plant), phytochemical and pharmacological studies. The selection of a suitable plant for a pharmacological study is a basic and very important step. Relevant clues to achieving this step include traditional use, chemical composition, toxicity, randomized selection or a combination of several criteria. Medicinal plants have been and continue to be a rich source of biomolecule with therapeutic values for the treatment of anxiety and depression. © 2016 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  18. Effects of anxiety and depression on periodontal diseases: review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahvash Mousavi jazi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available   Background and Aims: Periodontitis does not affect on all patients by the same way. There are some risk factors in some people that make them more sensitive to progress of periodontitis. Smoking, uncontrolled diabetes, and special pathogens increase the risk of periodontitis. Other factors such as stress, depression and anxiety, are not crucial risk factors for periodontitis yet. Biologic explanation of this relation is that mental conditions and exposure to stressful situations can alter immune response. The aim of this study was to review the psychological factors of anxiety and depression associated with periodontitis.   Materials and Methods: For this review article, we have searched through internet by the following keywords; periodontal disease, anxiety, depression. We have tried to cover almost all dental– related sites and journals as well as Pubmed from 1990-2010.   Conclusion: Most published studies support a positive relationship between periodontitis and several psycho-social factors. Life style, stressful conditions, hormonal changes, nonchalance in oral hygiene, habits such as smoking are predisposing factors in periodontal diseases.

  19. Is the beck anxiety inventory a good tool to assess the severity of anxiety? A primary care study in The Netherlands study of depression and anxiety (NESDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Feltz-Cornelis Christina M

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Appropriate management of anxiety disorders in primary care requires clinical assessment and monitoring of the severity of the anxiety. This study focuses on the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI as a severity indicator for anxiety in primary care patients with different anxiety disorders (social phobia, panic disorder with or without agoraphobia, agoraphobia or generalized anxiety disorder, depressive disorders or no disorder (controls. Methods Participants were 1601 primary care patients participating in the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA. Regression analyses were used to compare the mean BAI scores of the different diagnostic groups and to correct for age and gender. Results Patients with any anxiety disorder had a significantly higher mean score than the controls. A significantly higher score was found for patients with panic disorder and agoraphobia compared to patients with agoraphobia only or social phobia only. BAI scores in patients with an anxiety disorder with a co-morbid anxiety disorder and in patients with an anxiety disorder with a co-morbid depressive disorder were significantly higher than BAI scores in patients with an anxiety disorder alone or patients with a depressive disorder alone. Depressed and anxious patients did not differ significantly in their mean scores. Conclusions The results suggest that the BAI may be used as a severity indicator of anxiety in primary care patients with different anxiety disorders. However, because the instrument seems to reflect the severity of depression as well, it is not a suitable instrument to discriminate between anxiety and depression in a primary care population.

  20. Depression and anxiety in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: prevalence rates based on a comparison of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) and the hospital, Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background While it is recognised that depression is prevalent in Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), recent studies have also highlighted significant levels of anxiety in RA patients. This study compared two commonly used scales, the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), in relation to their measurement range and cut points to consider the relative prevalence of both constructs, and if prevalence rates may be due to scale-specific case definition. Methods Patients meeting the criteria for RA were recruited in Leeds, UK and Sydney, Australia and asked to complete a survey that included both scales. The data was analysed using the Rasch measurement model. Results A total of 169 RA patients were assessed, with a repeat subsample, resulting in 323 cases for analysis. Both scales met Rasch model expectations. Using the 'possible+probable' cut point from the HADS, 58.3% had neither anxiety nor depression; 13.5% had anxiety only; 6.4% depression only and 21.8% had both 'possible+probable' anxiety and depression. Cut points for depression were comparable across the two scales while a lower cut point for anxiety in the DASS was required to equate prevalence. Conclusions This study provides further support for high prevalence of depression and anxiety in RA. It also shows that while these two scales provide a good indication of possible depression and anxiety, the estimates of prevalence so derived could vary, particularly for anxiety. These findings are discussed in terms of comparisons across studies and selection of scales for clinical use. PMID:22269280

  1. Depression and anxiety in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: prevalence rates based on a comparison of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) and the hospital, Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covic, Tanya; Cumming, Steven R; Pallant, Julie F; Manolios, Nick; Emery, Paul; Conaghan, Philip G; Tennant, Alan

    2012-01-24

    While it is recognised that depression is prevalent in Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), recent studies have also highlighted significant levels of anxiety in RA patients. This study compared two commonly used scales, the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), in relation to their measurement range and cut points to consider the relative prevalence of both constructs, and if prevalence rates may be due to scale-specific case definition. Patients meeting the criteria for RA were recruited in Leeds, UK and Sydney, Australia and asked to complete a survey that included both scales. The data was analysed using the Rasch measurement model. A total of 169 RA patients were assessed, with a repeat subsample, resulting in 323 cases for analysis. Both scales met Rasch model expectations. Using the 'possible+probable' cut point from the HADS, 58.3% had neither anxiety nor depression; 13.5% had anxiety only; 6.4% depression only and 21.8% had both 'possible+probable' anxiety and depression. Cut points for depression were comparable across the two scales while a lower cut point for anxiety in the DASS was required to equate prevalence. This study provides further support for high prevalence of depression and anxiety in RA. It also shows that while these two scales provide a good indication of possible depression and anxiety, the estimates of prevalence so derived could vary, particularly for anxiety. These findings are discussed in terms of comparisons across studies and selection of scales for clinical use.

  2. Depression and anxiety in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: prevalence rates based on a comparison of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS and the hospital, Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Covic Tanya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While it is recognised that depression is prevalent in Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA, recent studies have also highlighted significant levels of anxiety in RA patients. This study compared two commonly used scales, the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, in relation to their measurement range and cut points to consider the relative prevalence of both constructs, and if prevalence rates may be due to scale-specific case definition. Methods Patients meeting the criteria for RA were recruited in Leeds, UK and Sydney, Australia and asked to complete a survey that included both scales. The data was analysed using the Rasch measurement model. Results A total of 169 RA patients were assessed, with a repeat subsample, resulting in 323 cases for analysis. Both scales met Rasch model expectations. Using the 'possible+probable' cut point from the HADS, 58.3% had neither anxiety nor depression; 13.5% had anxiety only; 6.4% depression only and 21.8% had both 'possible+probable' anxiety and depression. Cut points for depression were comparable across the two scales while a lower cut point for anxiety in the DASS was required to equate prevalence. Conclusions This study provides further support for high prevalence of depression and anxiety in RA. It also shows that while these two scales provide a good indication of possible depression and anxiety, the estimates of prevalence so derived could vary, particularly for anxiety. These findings are discussed in terms of comparisons across studies and selection of scales for clinical use.

  3. Differential association of somatic and cognitive symptoms of depression and anxiety with inflammation : Findings from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duivis, Hester E.; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Kupper, Nina; de Jonge, Peter; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    Objective: Depression and anxiety have been suggested to be associated with systemic inflammation upregulation. However, results are not always consistent, which may be due to symptom heterogeneity of depression and anxiety. There are some indications that associations with inflammation are mainly

  4. Comorbid Depressive Disorders in Anxiety-Disordered Youth: Demographic, Clinical, and Family Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Kelly A.; Podell, Jennifer L.; Benjamin, Courtney L.; Kendall, Philip C.

    2010-01-01

    Research indicates that depression and anxiety are highly comorbid in youth. Little is known, however, about the clinical and family characteristics of youth with principal anxiety disorders and comorbid depressive diagnoses. The present study examined the demographic, clinical, and family characteristics of 200 anxiety-disordered children and…

  5. Objectification of Anxiety and Depressive Disorders and Substantiation of Their Correction in Gastroenterological Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Kosinskaya

    2013-11-01

    which corresponds to clinically significant categories, by scale of depression (9.20 ± 3.61 — to subclinical one. Personal high anxiety had 62.5 %, and high reactive anxiety — 65.6 % of patients. Objectification of anxiety and depressive disorders enable the reasonable approach to the choice of therapy.

  6. Depression and anxiety in cancer patients in outpatient department of a tertiary care hospital in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dogar, I.A.; Azeem, M.W.; Kiran, M.; Hussain, I.; Mehmood, K.; Hina, I.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine the prevalence of depression and anxiety in patients with cancer in an outpatient department of a tertiary care hospital in Pakistan. Methodology: This study was conducted between May 2006 and January 2007. The sample consisted of 60 diagnosed cancer patients (30 males/30 females). DSM- IV criteria and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) were used to diagnose and assess anxiety and depression. Results: Fifty two percent (31 patients, 10 males/21 females) of the subjects reported having symptoms of anxiety, depression or both according to DSM IV Criteria, (anxiety =14, males six / females eight, depression = 6, males two / females four , and depression + anxiety both = 11, males two / females nine). A total of 70% (21/30) of the entire female sample met the criteria for depression, anxiety or both. A total of 33% (10/30) of the entire male sample met the criteria for depression, anxiety or both. Conclusion: This study shows high prevalence rates of depression and anxiety in cancer patients in Pakistan. The oncologists and internists treating cancer patients should screen their patients for symptoms of depression and anxiety. (author)

  7. Depression and anxiety disorder among epileptic people at Amanuel Specialized Mental Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegegne, Minale Tareke; Mossie, Tilahun Belete; Awoke, Andargie Abate; Assaye, Ashagre Molla; Gebrie, Belete Temitm; Eshetu, Desalegn Asmare

    2015-09-02

    Although depression and anxiety disorders are very common in people with epilepsy; there are no studies that assessed the magnitude and associated factors among epileptic people in Ethiopia. Therefore, this study determined prevalence and associated factors of depression and anxiety disorders in people with epilepsy. An institution based cross-sectional study was conducted from April to May, 2013, among 423 people with epilepsy from the outpatient department of Amanuel Mental Specialized Hospital. Depression and anxiety were assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess predictors of depression and anxiety. The prevalence of anxiety and depression among epileptic people were 33.5 and 32.8%, respectively. Monthly income, frequency of seizure and side effects of anti convulsants were found to be significantly associated with both depression and anxiety. Being divorced/widowed was associated with anxiety while using poly-therapy of anti convulsants, perceived stigma, and inability to read or write were associated with depression. The prevalence of co-morbid anxiety and depression was found to be high among people with epilepsy. Early identification of co-morbid depression and anxiety in people with epilepsy and managing epilepsy to become seizure free should be of great concern for health care providers.

  8. Psychological assessment of ICU survivors: a comparison between the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale and the Depression, Anxiety and Stress scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukantarat, K T; Williamson, R C N; Brett, S J

    2007-03-01

    Recovery from a critical illness can be delayed by persistent anxiety and depression. To identify such patients, a new self-report questionnaire (the Depression, Anxiety and Stress scale, DASS) was used alongside an established instrument (the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale, HADS) in those who had spent a minimum of 3 days (median 9 days) in a general intensive care unit. Fifty-one patients were studied 3 months later, and 45 survivors were reviewed at 9 months. High Cronbach alpha values (0.92-0.95) for each subscale of DASS confirmed its internal consistency, and likewise for HADS (0.82-0.86). HADS and DASS correlated strongly at each time point both for anxiety (r = 0.88) and depression (r = 0.93), with few discrepant values on a Bland and Altman plot. DASS performs as consistently as HADS in screening for anxiety and depression, and its psychometric properties support its use in an intensive care setting.

  9. Adolescents with anxiety and depression: is social recovery relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonds, Laura M; Pons, Rebecca A; Stone, Nicola J; Warren, Fiona; John, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Social recovery has become a prominent aspect of mental health service design and delivery in the past decade. Much of the literature on social recovery is derived from first-person accounts or primary research with adult service users experiencing severe mental illness. There is a lack of both theoretical and empirical work that could inform consideration of how the concept of social recovery might apply to adolescents experiencing common (non-psychotic) mental health problems such as anxiety and depression. The current study was conducted to understand the process of experiencing anxiety and depression in young people. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with nine adolescents with anxiety and depression (seven girls and two boys aged 14-16 years) and 12 mothers who were recruited from a specialist Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service in the South of England. Thematic analysis indicated that young people do experience a process of 'recovery'; the processes participants described have some congruence with the earlier stages of adult recovery models involving biographical disruption and the development of new meanings, in this case of anxiety or depression, and changes in sense of identity. The accounts diverge with regard to later stages of adult models involving the development of hope and responsibility. The findings suggest that services should attend to social isolation and emphasise support for positive aspirations for future selves whilst also attending to young people's and parents' expectations about change. Methodological challenges face enquiry about 'recovery' given its connotations with cure in everyday language. Theoretical and empirical work on social recovery in young people and families is lacking. Using interviews, this study sought to understand the relevance of social recovery for adolescents with anxiety and depression and their mothers. Findings suggest some congruence with the earlier stages of adult recovery models involving

  10. Parenting and Early Adolescent Internalizing: The Importance of Teasing Apart Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lesley E.; Greenberg, Mark T.

    2013-01-01

    This community-based study examined differences in parenting quality and parent symptoms for youth in four categories: anxious (elevated anxiety symptoms), depressed (elevated depressive symptoms), comorbid (elevated anxiety and depressive symptoms), and nonelevated (elevations of neither type). Respondents were 976 young adolescents (mean age =…

  11. Biases in affective forecasting and recall in individuals with depression and anxiety symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenze, Susan J; Gunthert, Kathleen C; German, Ramaris E

    2012-07-01

    The authors used experience sampling to investigate biases in affective forecasting and recall in individuals with varying levels of depression and anxiety symptoms. Participants who were higher in depression symptoms demonstrated stronger (more pessimistic) negative mood prediction biases, marginally stronger negative mood recall biases, and weaker (less optimistic) positive mood prediction and recall biases. Participants who were higher in anxiety symptoms demonstrated stronger negative mood prediction biases, but positive mood prediction biases that were on par with those who were lower in anxiety. Anxiety symptoms were not associated with mood recall biases. Neither depression symptoms nor anxiety symptoms were associated with bias in event prediction. Their findings fit well with the tripartite model of depression and anxiety. Results are also consistent with the conceptualization of anxiety as a "forward-looking" disorder, and with theories that emphasize the importance of pessimism and general negative information processing in depressive functioning.

  12. Anxiety and Anger Symptoms in Hwabyung Patients Improved More following 4 Weeks of the Emotional Freedom Technique Program Compared to the Progressive Muscle Relaxation Program: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Woo Suh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The Emotional Freedom Technique (EFT is a meridian-based psychological therapy. The present clinical trial investigates the effectiveness of EFT as a new treatment option for Hwabyung (HB patients experiencing anger and compares the efficacy to the Progressive Muscle Relaxation (PMR, the conventional meditation technique. Methods. The EFT and progressive muscle relaxation (PMR methods were performed on 27 HB patients, and their capacities to alleviate anxiety, anger, and emotional status were compared. After a 4-week program, a survey was conducted; patients then completed a self-training program for 4 weeks, followed by a second survey. Results. During the initial 4 weeks, the EFT group experienced a significant decrease in the HB symptom scale, anger state, and paranoia ideation (p<0.05. Over the entire 9-week interval, there were significant decreases in the HB symptom scale, anxiety state, anger state, anger trait, somatization, anxiety, hostility, and so on in EFT group (p<0.05. Conclusion. The EFT group showed improved psychological symptoms and physical symptoms greater than those observed in the PMR group. EFT more effectively alleviated HB symptoms compared to PMR. EFT group showed better maintenance during self-training, suggesting good model of self-control treatment in HB patients.

  13. Long-term work disability and absenteeism in anxiety and depressive disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, S.M.; Spijker, J.; Licht, C.M.M.; Hardeveld, F.; Graaf, R. de; Batelaan, N.M.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Beekman, A.T.F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: This longitudinal study aims to compare long-term work disability and absenteeism between anxiety and depressive disorders focusing on the effects of different course trajectories (remission, recurrence and chronic course) and specific symptom dimensions (anxiety arousal, avoidance

  14. Long-term work disability and absenteeism in anxiety and depressive disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, S.M.; Spijker, J.; Licht, C.M.M.; Hardevel, F.; de Graaf, R.; Batelaan, N.M.; Penninx, B.W.; Beekman, A.T.

    2015-01-01

    Background This longitudinal study aims to compare long-term work disability and absenteeism between anxiety and depressive disorders focusing on the effects of different course trajectories (remission, recurrence and chronic course) and specific symptom dimensions (anxiety arousal, avoidance

  15. Long-term work disability and absenteeism in anxiety and depressive disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, S.M.; Spijker, J.; Licht, C.M.; Hardeveld, F.; Graaf, R. de; Batelaan, N.M.; Penninx, B.W.; Beekman, A.T.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This longitudinal study aims to compare long-term work disability and absenteeism between anxiety and depressive disorders focusing on the effects of different course trajectories (remission, recurrence and chronic course) and specific symptom dimensions (anxiety arousal, avoidance

  16. The association between perceived maternal and paternal psychopathology and depression and anxiety symptoms in adolescent girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasing, Sanne P. A.; Creemers, Daan H. M.; Janssens, Jan M. A. M.; Scholte, Ron H. J.

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to parental depression and anxiety is known to heighten the risk of internalizing symptoms and disorders in children and adolescents. Ample research has focused on the influence of maternal depression and anxiety, but the contribution of psychopathology in fathers remains unclear. We studied the relationships of perceived maternal and paternal psychopathology with adolescents’ depression and anxiety symptoms in a general population sample of 862 adolescent girls (age M = 12.39, SD = 0.79). Assessments included adolescents’ self-reports of their own depression and anxiety as well as their reports of maternal and paternal psychopathology. We found that perceived maternal and paternal psychopathology were both related to depression and anxiety symptoms in adolescent girls. A combination of higher maternal and paternal psychopathology was related to even higher levels of depression and anxiety in adolescent girls. Our findings showed that adolescents’ perceptions of their parents’ psychopathology are significantly related to their own emotional problems. PMID:26257664

  17. Socially Desirable Responding and College Students with Dyslexia: Implications for the Assessment of Anxiety and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jason M; Liebel, Spencer W

    2018-02-01

    We investigated self-reported depressive and anxiety-related symptoms among college students with dyslexia, with emphasis on the role of socially desirable responding (SDR) in understanding these reports. Analyses included examination of differences in self-reported depressive symptoms, anxiety-related symptoms, and SDR. We also examined the relationships among SDR, depressive symptoms, anxiety-related symptoms, and reading skills. Participants with dyslexia demonstrated significantly higher SDR than did participants without dyslexia, and higher SDR was significantly associated with lower self-reported depressive and anxiety-related symptoms. Moreover, higher SDR was significantly associated with lower reading skills. There was no group difference on anxiety-related symptoms, but participants with dyslexia had higher depressive symptoms than did participants without dyslexia when SDR was controlled. Implications for the assessment of anxiety and depression among college students with dyslexia are discussed. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. PTSD, depression and anxiety among former abductees in Northern Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elbert Thomas

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The population in Northern Uganda has been exposed to extreme levels of traumatic stress and thousands abducted forcibly became rebel combatants. Methods Using structured interviews, the prevalence and severity of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, depression and anxiety was assessed in 72 former abducted adults, 62 of them being former child soldiers. Results As retrospective reports of exposure to traumatic stress increased, anxiety and PTSD occurrence increased (r = .45. 49% of respondents were diagnosed with PTSD, 70% presented with symptoms of depression, and 59% with those of anxiety. In a multiple linear regression analysis four factors could best explain the development of PTSD symptoms: male respondents (sex living in an IDP-Camp (location with a kinship murdered in the war (family members killed in the war and having experienced a high number of traumatic events (number of traumatic events were more likely to develop symptoms of PTSD than others. In disagreement to a simple dose-response-effect though, we also observed a negative correlation between the time spent with the rebels and the PTSD symptom level. Conclusions Former abductees continue to suffer from severe mental ill-health. Adaptation to the living condition of rebels, however, may lower trauma-related mental suffering.

  19. [Diagnosis and treatment of anxiety-depressive disorders in patients with myocardial infarction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semiglazova, M V; Krasnov, V N; Dovzhenko, T V; Lebedev, A V

    2012-01-01

    The results of the study of psychopathological, somatic and functional characteristics of anxiety-depressive disorders in patients with acute myocardial infarction are presented. The authors confirmed the wide prevalence of these disorders in acute myocardial infarction and described the features of their diagnostics, dynamics and response to complex treatment. The impact of anxiety-depressive disorders on the clinical and functional state of the cardiovascular system and the dynamics of the patient's status due the concomitant anxiety-depressive disorder are considered.

  20. Depression, Anxiety, and Cardiovascular Disease in Chinese: A Review for a Bigger Picture

    OpenAIRE

    Xiong-Fei Pan; Ruiwei Meng; Na Liu; An Pan

    2017-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and depression and anxiety contribute substantially to the current disease burden worldwide as well as in China. Both depression and anxiety are highly prevalent among patients with CVD. We systematically reviewed the literature to disentangle the role of depression and anxiety disorders in the onset and prognosis of CVD with an emphasis on cohort studies conducted in the Chinese population. Despite the lack of large-scale prospective studies in China, the availab...

  1. Symptoms of anxiety and depression and risk of acute myocardial infarction: the HUNT 2 study

    OpenAIRE

    Gustad, Lise Tuset; Laugsand, Lars Erik; Janszky, Imre; Dalen, Håvard; Bjerkeset, Ottar

    2013-01-01

    Aims The nature of the association of depression and anxiety with risk for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) remains unclear. We aimed to study the prospective association of single and recurrent self-reported symptoms of anxiety and depression with a risk of AMI in a large Norwegian population based cohort. Methods and results In the second wave of the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT2, 1995–97) baseline data on anxiety and depression symptoms, sociodemographic variables, health status...

  2. Symptoms of anxiety and depression and risk of heart failure: The HUNT Study

    OpenAIRE

    Gustad, Lise Tuset; Laugsand, Lars Erik; Janszky, Imre; Dalen, Håvard; Bjerkeset, Ottar

    2014-01-01

    Aims The nature of the association of depression and anxiety with risk for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) remains unclear. We aimed to study the prospective association of single and recurrent self-reported symptoms of anxiety and depression with a risk of AMI in a large Norwegian population based cohort. Methods and results In the second wave of the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT2, 1995–97) baseline data on anxiety and depression symptoms, sociodemographic variables, health status...

  3. Correlations between Academic Achievement and Anxiety and Depression in Medical Students Experiencing Integrated Curriculum Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Yi-Chun Yeh; Cheng-Fang Yen; Chung-Sheng Lai; Chun-Hsiung Huang; Keh-Min Liu; In-Ting Huang

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the correlations between academic achievement and levels of anxiety and depression in medical students who were experiencing curriculum reform. The differences in academic achievement and the directions of correlations between academic achievement and anxiety and depression among the medical students with different levels of anxiety and depression were also examined. Grade 1 students from graduate-entry program and grade 3 students from undergraduate-entry program ...

  4. Incidence of depression, anxiety and stress following traumatic injury: a longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Wiseman, Taneal A; Curtis, Kate; Lam, Mary; Foster, Kim

    2015-01-01

    Background Traumatic injury and mental health disorders are co-associated. Early identification of depression, anxiety and stress following injury, and subsequent preventive intervention, may reduce the long-term symptoms and negative impacts associated with depression and anxiety. The purpose of the study was to determine the incidence, severity and predictors of depression, anxiety and stress in injured patients in the acute phase of care, and at six months following injury, as well as the ...

  5. Autonomic nervous system activity and anxiety and depressive symptoms in mothers up to 2 years postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Mie; Manabe, Emiko; Uematsu, Sayo; Watanabe, Ayako; Moritani, Toshio

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the association between autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity and symptoms of anxiety and depression for the first 2 years postpartum. A total of 108 participants within 2 years postpartum underwent physiological measurements of ANS activity using the heart rate variability (HRV) power spectrum and self-reported questionnaires (14-item Hospital Anxiety and Depression Score). The cutoff points for anxiety and depressive symptom scores in this questionnaire were as follows: 7 or less, non-cases; 8-10, doubtful cases; 11 or more, definite cases. This study was conducted from 2012 to 2014 at University Hospital in Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine and a nearby obstetrics and gynecology department clinic in Japan. Anxiety and depression non-cases accounted for 67.6% (n = 73) of subjects, anxiety non-cases and depression doubtful and definite cases 7.4% (n = 8), anxiety doubtful and definite cases and depression non-cases 8.3% (n = 9), and anxiety and depression doubtful and definite cases 16.7% (n = 18). Findings were similar for women with anxiety or depression, with total power (TP), low-frequency (LF) and high-frequency (HF) components of HRV among doubtful and definite cases significantly lower than among non-cases for both anxiety (p = 0.006, 0.034, 0.029, respectively) and depression (p = 0.001, 0.004, 0.007). Significant correlations were observed between TP, LF and HF and anxiety and depression scores (respective values for anxiety: rs = -0.331, p <0.001; rs = -0.286, p = 0.003; rs = -0.269, p = 0.005; and depression: rs = -0.389, rs = -0.353, rs = -0.337, all p <0.001). The present study demonstrated that mothers with anxiety or depressive symptoms had significantly lower HRV (HF, LF and TP) than those without.

  6. Depression, Anxiety and Symptoms of Stress among Hong Kong Nurses: A Cross-sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, Teris; Yip, Paul S.F.

    2015-01-01

    Recent epidemiological data suggests 13.3% of Hong Kong residents suffered from Common Mental Disorders, most frequently mixed anxiety and depressive disorder. This study examines the weighted prevalence and associated risk factors of depression, anxiety and stress among Hong Kong nurses. A total of 850 nurses were invited to participate in this cross-sectional study. Participants completed the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale 21 and multiple logistic regression was used to determine sign...

  7. Sleep cognitions associated with anxiety and depression in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, Marie-France; Desjardins, Sophie; Desgagné, Alain

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the maladaptive sleep-related cognitions most often maintained by the elderly, according to the presence or absence of anxiety and mood disorders. The presence of dysfunctional sleep-related beliefs and attitudes at bedtime in asymptomatic, depressive, and anxious seniors was thus compared. The second objective was to verify the relationships between various dysfunctional cognitions and mental disorders. The sample in this study consisted of 2,759 participants aged 65 years and over, with a mean age of 73.8 years. They were recruited through a method of random generation of telephone numbers according to a sampling strategy based on geographic location. After the goal of the study was explained to them, the participants agreed to have health professionals visit their home and to answer questions in a 1.5-hour-long structured interview (after signing a consent form). Depressive and anxious seniors adopt dysfunctional sleep-related cognitions in higher proportions than asymptomatic older persons. Once we had controlled for the other factors, we were able to specifically link two sleep-related beliefs and all the sleep-related attitudes studied to the probability of being anxious or depressive. The clarifications obtained will make it possible to improve detection, assessment, and intervention processes regarding anxiety or mood disorders, by pinpointing the most direct link between each of the dysfunctional cognitions and the two types of mental disorders, and not just the link to sleep problems.

  8. Are Worry and Rumination Specific Pathways Linking Neuroticism and Symptoms of Anxiety and Depression in Patients with Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Major Depressive Disorder and Mixed Anxiety-Depressive Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, Hipólito; Ferreiro, Fátima

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the relationships between neuroticism (higher-order vulnerability factor), the cognitive styles of worry, brooding and reflection (second-order vulnerability factors) and symptoms of anxiety and depression in three groups of patients: patients with Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD), with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and with Mixed Anxiety-Depressive Disorder (MADD). One hundred and thirty four patients completed a battery of questionnaires including measures of neuroticism, worry, rumination (brooding and reflection), anxiety and depression. Multiple mediation analyses indicate that worry may act as a mediating mechanism linking neuroticism and anxiety symptoms in the three diagnostic groups, whereas brooding-rumination may play a mediating role between neuroticism and depressive symptoms in patients with MDD and MADD and, with less certainty, in patients with GAD. Overall, our findings suggest that neuroticism may increase the risk of anxious and depressive symptoms via specific links involving either worry or brooding, respectively, and that both worry and brooding may operate in the three groups examined, irrespectively of whether anxiety or depression are the main emotions or whether they coexist without any clear predominance; consequently, we hypothesize the existence of "specific transdiagnostic" mechanisms. PMID:27243462

  9. Are Worry and Rumination Specific Pathways Linking Neuroticism and Symptoms of Anxiety and Depression in Patients with Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Major Depressive Disorder and Mixed Anxiety-Depressive Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, Hipólito; Senra, Carmen; Ferreiro, Fátima

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the relationships between neuroticism (higher-order vulnerability factor), the cognitive styles of worry, brooding and reflection (second-order vulnerability factors) and symptoms of anxiety and depression in three groups of patients: patients with Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD), with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and with Mixed Anxiety-Depressive Disorder (MADD). One hundred and thirty four patients completed a battery of questionnaires including measures of neuroticism, worry, rumination (brooding and reflection), anxiety and depression. Multiple mediation analyses indicate that worry may act as a mediating mechanism linking neuroticism and anxiety symptoms in the three diagnostic groups, whereas brooding-rumination may play a mediating role between neuroticism and depressive symptoms in patients with MDD and MADD and, with less certainty, in patients with GAD. Overall, our findings suggest that neuroticism may increase the risk of anxious and depressive symptoms via specific links involving either worry or brooding, respectively, and that both worry and brooding may operate in the three groups examined, irrespectively of whether anxiety or depression are the main emotions or whether they coexist without any clear predominance; consequently, we hypothesize the existence of "specific transdiagnostic" mechanisms.

  10. Are Worry and Rumination Specific Pathways Linking Neuroticism and Symptoms of Anxiety and Depression in Patients with Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Major Depressive Disorder and Mixed Anxiety-Depressive Disorder?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hipólito Merino

    Full Text Available This study examines the relationships between neuroticism (higher-order vulnerability factor, the cognitive styles of worry, brooding and reflection (second-order vulnerability factors and symptoms of anxiety and depression in three groups of patients: patients with Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD, with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD and with Mixed Anxiety-Depressive Disorder (MADD. One hundred and thirty four patients completed a battery of questionnaires including measures of neuroticism, worry, rumination (brooding and reflection, anxiety and depression. Multiple mediation analyses indicate that worry may act as a mediating mechanism linking neuroticism and anxiety symptoms in the three diagnostic groups, whereas brooding-rumination may play a mediating role between neuroticism and depressive symptoms in patients with MDD and MADD and, with less certainty, in patients with GAD. Overall, our findings suggest that neuroticism may increase the risk of anxious and depressive symptoms via specific links involving either worry or brooding, respectively, and that both worry and brooding may operate in the three groups examined, irrespectively of whether anxiety or depression are the main emotions or whether they coexist without any clear predominance; consequently, we hypothesize the existence of "specific transdiagnostic" mechanisms.

  11. Prevalence of stress, anxiety and depression in with Alzheimer caregivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Vito Elisabetta

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alzheimer's disease presents a social and public health problem affecting millions of Italians. Those affected receive home care from caregivers, subjected to risk of stress. The present investigation focuses on stress, anxiety and depression in caregivers. Methods Data on 200 caregivers and their patients were collected using a specific form to assess cognitive, behavioural, functional patient (MMSE, and ADL-IAD and caregiver stress (CBI. The relationship between stress, depression and disease has been assessed by means of a linear regression, logistic analysis which reveals the relationship between anxiety, stress and depression and cognitive problems, age, the patient's income. Results The caregivers are usually female (64%, mean age of 56.1 years, daughters (70.5%, pensioners and housewives (30%, who care for the sick at home (79%. Of these, 53% had little time for themselves, 55% observed worsening of health, 56% are tired, 51% are not getting enough sleep. Overall, 55% have problems with the patient's family and/or their own family, 57% at work. Furthermore, 29% feel they are failing to cope with the situation as they wish to move away from home. The increase in the degree of anxiety and depression is directly proportional to the severity of the illness, affecting the patient (r = 0.3 stress and depression r = 0.4 related to CBI score. The memory disorders (OR = 8.4, engine problems (OR = 2.6, perception disorders (OR = 1.9 sick of the patient with Alzheimer's disease are predictive of caregiver stress, depression is associated with the presence of other disorders, mainly behavioural (OR = 5.2, low income (OR = 3.4, patients Conclusion The quality of life of caregivers is correlated with the severity of behavioural disorders and duration of the Alzheimer's disease. The severity of the disease plays an important role in reorganization of the family environment in families caring for patients not institutionalised. It is

  12. Clinical impact of depression and anxiety in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Jin Lee

    Full Text Available Although depression and anxiety represent significant yet treatable comorbidities in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF, their impact on the clinical course and prognosis of IPF remain unclear.We investigated the prevalence and clinical significance of depression and anxiety in patients with IPF.The present study included a prospective cohort comprising 112 Korean patients with IPF who had completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS questionnaire.Symptoms of depression and anxiety were present in 25.9% and 21.4% of patients with IPF, respectively (HADS scores ≥8. No significant differences in demographic data, age, sex, smoking status, Modified Medical Research Council Dyspnea Scale (MMRC scores, pulmonary function tests, or Gender-Age-Physiology Index for IPF were observed between patients with depression or anxiety and those without. However, in patients with anxiety, St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ scores were significantly higher than those of patients without anxiety (40.5 versus 23.5; p = 0.003. The survival rate and total number of hospital admissions did not significantly differ between patients with depression/anxiety and those without.Our findings indicate that depression and anxiety are relatively common in patients with IPF. Although no significant differences were noted with regard to survival rate and hospitalization, the present study suggests that depression and anxiety significantly influence quality of life in patients with IPF.

  13. Dimensionality of the hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS) in cardiac patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emons, Wilco H M; Sijtsma, Klaas; Pedersen, Susanne S.

    2012-01-01

    The hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS) measures anxiety and depressive symptoms and is widely used in clinical and nonclinical populations. However, there is some debate about the number of dimensions represented by the HADS. In a sample of 534 Dutch cardiac patients, this study examined...... items each were found to be structurally sound and reliable. These scales covered the two key attributes of anxiety and (anhedonic) depression. The findings suggest that the HADS may be reduced to a 10-item questionnaire comprising two 5-item scales measuring anxiety and depressive symptoms....

  14. Anxiety and depression in adult patients with celiac disease on a gluten-free diet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Winfried; Huser; Karl-Heinz; Janke; Bodo; Klump; Michael; Gregor; Andreas; Hinz

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To compare anxiety and depression levels in adult patients with celiac disease (CD) on a gluten-free diet (GFD) with controls.METHODS: The levels of anxiety, depression and of a probable anxiety or depressive disorder were assessed by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale in 441 adult patients with CD recruited by the German Celiac Society, in 235 age-and sex-matched patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in remission or with slight disease activity, and in 441 adult persons of a representa...

  15. Breastfeeding cessation and symptoms of anxiety and depression: a longitudinal cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ystrom Eivind

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neonatal anxiety and depression and breastfeeding cessation are significant public health problems. There is an association between maternal symptoms of anxiety and depression and early breastfeeding cessation. In earlier studies, the causality of this association was interpreted both ways; symptoms of anxiety and depression prepartum significantly impacts breastfeeding, and breastfeeding cessation significantly impacts symptoms of anxiety and depression. First, we aimed to investigate whether breastfeeding cessation is related to an increase in symptoms of anxiety and depression from pregnancy to six months postpartum. Second, we also investigated whether the proposed symptom increase after breastfeeding cessation was disproportionately high for those women already suffering from high levels of anxiety and depression during pregnancy. Methods To answer these objectives, we examined data from 42 225 women in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa. Subjects were recruited in relation to a routine ultra-sound examination, and all pregnant women in Norway were eligible. We used data from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway and questionnaires both pre and post partum. Symptoms of anxiety and depression at six months postpartum were predicted in a linear regression analysis by WHO-categories of breastfeeding, symptoms of anxiety and depression prepartum (standardized score, and interaction terms between breastfeeding categories and prepartum symptoms of anxiety and depression. The results were adjusted for cesarean sections, primiparity, plural births, preterm births, and maternal smoking. Results First, prepartum levels of anxiety and depression were related to breastfeeding cessation (β 0.24; 95% CI 0.21-0.28, and breastfeeding cessation was predictive of an increase in postpartum anxiety and depression ( β 0.11; 95%CI 0.09-0.14. Second, prepartum anxiety and depression interacted with the relation between

  16. Depression, anxiety, and quality of life in paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wo-Tu Tian

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: Depression, anxiety, and low levels of quality of life were prevalent in patients with PKD. Co-occurrence of depression and anxiety was common among these patients. Regular mental health interventions could set depression and anxiety as intervention targets. Considering that the motor episodes could be elicited by voluntary movements and sometimes also by emotional stress, and that symptoms may get worsened with longer duration and higher frequency when patients are stressed out, intervention or treatment of depression and anxiety might improve the motor symptoms and overall quality of life in PKD patients.

  17. Anxiety and Depression in Cyberbullied College Students: A Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenaro, Cristina; Flores, Noelia; Frías, Cinthia Patricia

    2017-09-01

    Cyberbullying is a worldwide phenomenon and its effects can be severe. To better understand the personal and situational factors in cyberbullying, we approach it from the perspective of the general aggression model. More specifically, we analyze the medium and long-term impact of past experiences of cyberbullying on university students. We also compare their psychological adjustment with peers who have not been cyberbullied by examining the recall of cyberbullying while attending secondary school of 1,593 university students. Participants from a Spanish University ( N = 680) and a Bolivian University ( N = 913) were invited to participate by filling in an online survey. It included the School Violence Questionnaire-Revised, CUVE-R, to assess school and classroom climate in relation to bullying and cyberbullying, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Results show that among the participants, 5.1% reported having suffered cyberbullying and 19.3% reported having been a bystander of cyberbullying, with similar percentages between universities. Canonical correlation suggests that variables related to school climate best explain the variability among participants who have and have not been cyberbullied. Those who have been cyberbullied scored significantly higher on anxiety and depression symptoms as well. Being a bystander of cyberbullying was not associated to significant differences on psychological adjustment (i.e., anxiety and depression). Results indicated that experiencing cyberbullying in secondary school is associated to lower psychological adjustment years later as university students. School climate variables contribute more strongly to identifying victims of cyberbullying. These results support the need for psychosocial interventions from a broader perspective, addressing the different dimensions of this phenomenon and its impact on victims.

  18. Testing the Temporal Relationship Between Maternal and Adolescent Depressive and Anxiety Symptoms in a Community Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ruth C.; Clark, Shaunna L.; Dahne, Jennifer; Stratton, Kelcey J.; MacPherson, Laura; Lejuez, C. W.; Amstadter, Ananda B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Transactional models have been used to explain the relationship between maternal depression and child behavioral problems; however, few studies have examined transactional models for maternal depression and adolescent depression and anxiety. Method Using an autoregressive cross-lagged analysis, we examined the longitudinal association between maternal and adolescent depression to determine the extent to which maternal depression influences adolescent depression and anxiety, and vice versa, over the course of a four-year period. Participants were a community sample of 277 mother-adolescent dyads with offspring aged 10–14 at the first year used in the analyses (43.7% female; 35% African American, 2.9% Hispanic/Latino). Depressive symptoms were assessed using maternal self-report (Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale [CESD]; Radloff, 1977), and adolescent depression and anxiety were assessed by self-report (Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale [RCADS]; Chorpita, Yim, Moffitt, Umemoto, & Francis, 2000). Results The final model, χ2 (14) = 23.74, p= .05; TLI= .97; CFI= .98; RMSEA= .05, indicated that maternal depression was significantly associated with adolescent depression two years later. Interestingly, adolescent depression did not significantly predict maternal depression, and the association between maternal and adolescent depression was not moderated by gender, age, or ethnicity. The association between maternal depression and adolescent anxiety was weaker than that observed for adolescent depression. Conclusions Results suggest that the transaction model of maternal depression may not extend to adolescent depression and anxiety. Furthermore, maternal depression can have an enduring effect on adolescent depression and continued research and clinical monitoring over extended periods of time is warranted. PMID:24702257

  19. Anxiety sensitivity and subjective social status in relation to anxiety and depressive symptoms and disorders among Latinos in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvolensky, Michael J; Bakhshaie, Jafar; Garza, Monica; Valdivieso, Jeanette; Ortiz, Mayra; Bogiaizian, Daniel; Robles, Zuzuky; Vujanovic, Anka

    2015-05-01

    The present investigation examined the interactive effects of anxiety sensitivity and subjective social status in relation to anxiety and depressive symptoms and psychopathology among 143 Latinos (85.7% female; Mage=39.0, SD=10.9; 97.2% used Spanish as their first language) who attended a community-based primary healthcare clinic. Results indicated that the interaction between anxiety sensitivity and subjective social status was significantly associated with number of mood and anxiety disorders, panic, social anxiety, and depressive symptoms. The form of the significant interactions indicated that individuals reporting co-occurring higher levels of anxiety sensitivity and lower levels of subjective social status evidenced the greatest levels of psychopathology and panic, social anxiety, and depressive symptoms. The present findings suggest that there is merit in focusing further scientific attention on the interplay between anxiety sensitivity and subjective social status in regard to understanding, and thus, better intervening to reduce anxiety/depressive vulnerability among Latinos in primary care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Consensus statement on generalized anxiety disorder from the International Consensus Group on Depression and Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballenger, J C; Davidson, J R; Lecrubier, Y; Nutt, D J; Borkovec, T D; Rickels, K; Stein, D J; Wittchen, H U

    2001-01-01

    To provide primary care clinicians with a better understanding of management issues in generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and guide clinical practice with recommendations on the appropriate treatment strategy. The 4 members of the International Consensus Group on Depression and Anxiety were James C. Ballenger (chair), Jonathan R.T. Davidson, Yves Lecrubier, and David J. Nutt. Four additional faculty members invited by the chair were Karl Rickels, Hans-Ulrich Wittchen, Dan J. Stein, and Thomas D. Borkovec. The consensus statement is based on the 6 review articles that are published in this supplement and the scientific literature relevant to the issues reviewed in these articles. Group meetings were held over a 2-day period. On day 1, the group discussed the review articles and the chair identified key issues for further debate. On day 2, the group discussed these issues to arrive at a consensus view. After the group meetings, the consensus statement was drafted by the chair and approved by all attendees. GAD is the most common anxiety disorder in primary care and is highly debilitating. Furthermore, it is frequently comorbid with depression and other anxiety disorders, which exacerbates functional impairment. Antidepressants (serotonin reuptake inhibitors, serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, and nonsedating tricyclic antidepressants) are generally the most appropriate first-line pharmacotherapy for GAD, since they are also effective against comorbid psychiatric disorders and are suitable for long-term use. Cognitive-behavioral therapy is the preferred form of psychotherapy for GAD, although when GAD is comorbid with depression, pharmacotherapy is increasingly indicated.

  1. Coping with Anxiety, Depression, Anger and Aggression: The Mediational Role of Resilience in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Reuben; Ang, Rebecca P.; Ho, Moon-Ho Ringo

    2012-01-01

    Background: The New Freedom Commission on Mental Health urged that mental health services be transformed from a reactive approach of treatment to a proactive one of prevention and building resilience. In response, the present study delineates the role of resilience in reducing psychopathology. Objective: The study examined the mediational role of…

  2. Cranial electrotherapy stimulation for treatment of anxiety, depression, and insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Daniel L; Nichols, Francine

    2013-03-01

    Cranial electrotherapy stimulation is a prescriptive medical device that delivers a mild form of electrical stimulation to the brain for the treatment of anxiety, depression, and insomnia. It is supported by more than 40 years of research demonstrating its effectiveness in several mechanistic studies and greater than 100 clinical studies. Adverse effects are rare (<1%), mild, and self-limiting, consisting mainly of skin irritation under the electrodes and headaches. Often used as a stand-alone therapy, because results are usually seen from the first treatment, cranial electrotherapy stimulation may also be used as an adjunctive therapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Long-term work disability and absenteeism in anxiety and depressive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, Sanne M; Spijker, Jan; Licht, Carmilla M M; Hardeveld, Florian; de Graaf, Ron; Batelaan, Neeltje M; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Beekman, Aartjan T F

    2015-06-01

    This longitudinal study aims to compare long-term work disability and absenteeism between anxiety and depressive disorders focusing on the effects of different course trajectories (remission, recurrence and chronic course) and specific symptom dimensions (anxiety arousal, avoidance behaviour and depressive mood). We included healthy controls, subjects with a history of - and current anxiety and/or depressive disorders with a paid job (n=1632). The Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used to diagnose anxiety and depressive disorders and to assess course trajectories at baseline, over 2 and 4 years. The World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II and the Health and Labour Questionnaire Short Form were used to measure work disability and absenteeism. Symptom dimensions were measured using the Beck Anxiety Inventory, the Fear Questionnaire and the Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology. A history of - and current anxiety and/or depressive disorders were associated with increasing work disability and absenteeism over 4 years, compared to healthy controls. Long-term work disability and absenteeism were most prominent in comorbid anxiety-depressive disorder, followed by depressive disorders, and lowest in anxiety disorders. A chronic course, anxiety arousal and depressive mood were strong predictors for long-term work disability while baseline psychiatric status, a chronic course and depressive mood were strong predictors for long-term work absenteeism. Results cannot be generalized to other anxiety disorders, such as obsessive compulsive disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder and specific phobias. Self-reported measures of work disability and absenteeism were used. Our results demonstrate that depressive syndromes and symptoms have more impact on future work disability and absenteeism than anxiety, implying that prevention of depression is of major importance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Subgroup Analysis in Burnout: Relations Between Fatigue, Anxiety, and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dam, Arno

    2016-01-01

    Several authors have suggested that burned out patients do not form a homogeneous group and that subgroups should be considered. The identification of these subgroups may contribute to a better understanding of the burnout construct and lead to more specific therapeutic interventions. Subgroup analysis may also help clarify whether burnout is a distinct entity and whether subgroups of burnout overlap with other disorders such as depression and chronic fatigue syndrome. In a group of 113 clinically diagnosed burned out patients, levels of fatigue, depression, and anxiety were assessed. In order to identify possible subgroups, we performed a two-step cluster analysis. The analysis revealed two clusters that differed from one another in terms of symptom severity on the three aforementioned measures. Depression appeared to be the strongest predictor of group membership. These results are considered in the light of the scientific debate on whether burnout can be distinguished from depression and whether burnout subtyping is useful. Finally, implications for clinical practice and future research are discussed. PMID:26869983

  5. Subgroup analysis in burnout: relations between fatigue, anxiety and depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arno eVan Dam

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Several authors have suggested that burned out patients do not form a homogeneous group and that subgroups should be considered. The identification of these subgroups may contribute to a better understanding of the burnout construct and lead to more specific therapeutic interventions. Subgroup analysis may also help clarify whether burnout is a distinct entity and whether subgroups of burnout overlap with other disorders such as depression and chronic fatigue syndrome. In a group of 113 clinically-diagnosed burned out patients, levels of fatigue, depression and anxiety were assessed. In order to identify possible subgroups, we performed a two-step cluster analysis. The analysis revealed two clusters that differed from one another in terms of symptom severity on the three aforementioned measures. Depression appeared to be the strongest predictor of group membership. These results are considered in the light of the scientific debate on whether burnout can be distinguished from depression and whether burnout subtyping is useful. Finally, implications for clinical practice and future research are discussed.

  6. The Temporal Sequence of Social Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms following Interpersonal Stressors during Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Jessica L.; Potter, Carrie M.; Olino, Thomas M.; Abramson, Lyn Y.; Heimberg, Richard G.; Alloy, Lauren B.

    2015-01-01

    Social anxiety and depressive symptoms dramatically increase and frequently co-occur during adolescence. Although research indicates that general interpersonal stressors, peer victimization, and familial emotional maltreatment predict symptoms of social anxiety and depression, it remains unclear how these stressors contribute to the sequential development of these internalizing symptoms. Thus, the present study examined the sequential development of social anxiety and depressive symptoms following the occurrence of interpersonal stressors, peer victimization, and familial emotional maltreatment. Participants included 410 early adolescents (53% female; 51% African American; Mean age =12.84 years) who completed measures of social anxiety and depressive symptoms at three time points (Times 1–3), as well as measures of general interpersonal stressors, peer victimization, and emotional maltreatment at Time 2. Path analyses revealed that interpersonal stressors, peer victimization, and emotional maltreatment predicted both depressive and social anxiety symptoms concurrently. However, depressive symptoms significantly mediated the pathway from interpersonal stressors, peer victimization, and familial emotional maltreatment to subsequent levels of social anxiety symptoms. In contrast, social anxiety did not mediate the relationship between these stressors and subsequent depressive symptoms. There was no evidence of sex or racial differences in these mediational pathways. Findings suggest that interpersonal stressors, including the particularly detrimental stressors of peer victimization and familial emotional maltreatment, may predict both depressive and social anxiety symptoms; however, adolescents who have more immediate depressogenic reactions may be at greater risk for later development of symptoms of social anxiety. PMID:26142495

  7. The Temporal Sequence of Social Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms Following Interpersonal Stressors During Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Jessica L; Potter, Carrie M; Olino, Thomas M; Abramson, Lyn Y; Heimberg, Richard G; Alloy, Lauren B

    2016-04-01

    Social anxiety and depressive symptoms dramatically increase and frequently co-occur during adolescence. Although research indicates that general interpersonal stressors, peer victimization, and familial emotional maltreatment predict symptoms of social anxiety and depression, it remains unclear how these stressors contribute to the sequential development of these internalizing symptoms. Thus, the present study examined the sequential development of social anxiety and depressive symptoms following the occurrence of interpersonal stressors, peer victimization, and familial emotional maltreatment. Participants included 410 early adolescents (53% female; 51% African American; Mean age =12.84 years) who completed measures of social anxiety and depressive symptoms at three time points (Times 1-3), as well as measures of general interpersonal stressors, peer victimization, and emotional maltreatment at Time 2. Path analyses revealed that interpersonal stressors, peer victimization, and emotional maltreatment predicted both depressive and social anxiety symptoms concurrently. However, depressive symptoms significantly mediated the pathway from interpersonal stressors, peer victimization, and familial emotional maltreatment to subsequent levels of social anxiety symptoms. In contrast, social anxiety did not mediate the relationship between these stressors and subsequent depressive symptoms. There was no evidence of sex or racial differences in these mediational pathways. Findings suggest that interpersonal stressors, including the particularly detrimental stressors of peer victimization and familial emotional maltreatment, may predict both depressive and social anxiety symptoms; however, adolescents who have more immediate depressogenic reactions may be at greater risk for later development of symptoms of social anxiety.

  8. Infidelity and separations precipitate major depressive episodes and symptoms of nonspecific depression and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, A; O'Leary, K D

    2000-10-01

    This study examined whether humiliating marital events (HMEs; husbands' infidelity, threats of marital dissolution) precipitated Major Depressive Episodes (MDEs) when controlling for marital discord. Participants were 25 women who recently experienced an HME and 25 control women who did not experience an HME. Both groups reported similar levels of marital discord. Results indicated that HME participants were 6 times more likely to be diagnosed with an MDE than control participants. These results remained even after controlling for family and lifetime histories of depression. HME participants also reported significantly more symptoms of nonspecific depression and anxiety than control participants. However, HME and control participants did not report significantly different numbers of anhedonic depression and anxious arousal symptoms. The research and clinical implications of these findings are discussed.

  9. Exposure to maternal pre- and postnatal depression and anxiety symptoms: risk for major depression, anxiety disorders, and conduct disorder in adolescent offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasheen, Cristie; Richardson, Gale A; Kim, Kevin H; Larkby, Cynthia A; Swartz, Holly A; Day, Nancy L

    2013-11-01

    This study evaluated whether exposure to maternal pre- or postnatal depression or anxiety symptoms predicted psychopathology in adolescent offspring. Growth mixture modeling was used to identify trajectories of pre- and postnatal depression and anxiety symptoms in 577 women of low socioeconomic status selected from a prenatal clinic. Logistic regression models indicated that maternal pre- and postnatal depression trajectory exposure was not associated with offspring major depression, anxiety, or conduct disorder, but exposure to the high depression trajectory was associated with lower anxiety symptoms in males. Exposure to medium and high pre- and postnatal anxiety was associated with the risk of conduct disorder among offspring. Male offspring exposed to medium and high pre- and postnatal anxiety had higher odds of conduct disorder than did males with low exposure levels. Females exposed to medium or high pre- and postnatal anxiety were less likely to meet conduct disorder criteria than were females with lower exposure. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to examine the effect of pre- and postnatal anxiety trajectories on the risk of conduct disorder in offspring. These results suggest new directions for investigating the etiology of conduct disorder with a novel target for intervention.

  10. A Korean validation study of the Clinically Useful Anxiety Outcome Scale: Comorbidity and differentiation of anxiety and depressive disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Sang Won; Ko, Young-Hoon; Yoon, Seoyoung; Pae, Chi-Un; Choi, Joonho; Kim, Jae-Min; Yoon, Ho-Kyoung; Lee, Hoseon; Patkar, Ashwin A.; Zimmerman, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Background This study aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Korean version of the Clinically Useful Anxiety Outcome Scale (CUXOS) and to examine the current diagnostic comorbidity and differential severity of anxiety symptoms between major depressive disorder (MDD) and anxiety disorders. Methodology In total, 838 psychiatric outpatients were analyzed at their intake appointment. Diagnostic characteristics were examined using the structured clinical interview from the DSM-IV because the DSM5 was not available at the start of the study. The CUXOS score was measured and compared with that of 3 clinician rating scales and 4 self-report scales. Principal findings The CUXOS showed excellent results for internal consistency (Cronbach’s α = 0.90), test–retest reliability (r = 0.74), and discriminant and convergent validity. The CUXOS significantly discriminated between different levels of anxiety severity, and the measure was sensitive to change after treatment. Approximately 45% of patients with MDD were additionally diagnosed with anxiety disorders while 55% of patients with anxiety disorders additionally reported an MDD. There was a significant difference in CUXOS scores between diagnostic categories (MDD only, anxiety only, both disorders, and no MDD or anxiety disorder). The CUXOS scores differed significantly between all categories of depression (major, minor, and non-depression) except for the comparison between minor depression and non-depression groups. Conclusions The Korean version of the CUXOS is a reliable and valid measure of the severity of anxiety symptoms. The use of the CUXOS could broaden the understanding of coexisting and differentiating characteristics of anxiety and depression. PMID:28604808

  11. A Korean validation study of the Clinically Useful Anxiety Outcome Scale: Comorbidity and differentiation of anxiety and depressive disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Won Jeon

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Korean version of the Clinically Useful Anxiety Outcome Scale (CUXOS and to examine the current diagnostic comorbidity and differential severity of anxiety symptoms between major depressive disorder (MDD and anxiety disorders.In total, 838 psychiatric outpatients were analyzed at their intake appointment. Diagnostic characteristics were examined using the structured clinical interview from the DSM-IV because the DSM5 was not available at the start of the study. The CUXOS score was measured and compared with that of 3 clinician rating scales and 4 self-report scales.The CUXOS showed excellent results for internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.90, test-retest reliability (r = 0.74, and discriminant and convergent validity. The CUXOS significantly discriminated between different levels of anxiety severity, and the measure was sensitive to change after treatment. Approximately 45% of patients with MDD were additionally diagnosed with anxiety disorders while 55% of patients with anxiety disorders additionally reported an MDD. There was a significant difference in CUXOS scores between diagnostic categories (MDD only, anxiety only, both disorders, and no MDD or anxiety disorder. The CUXOS scores differed significantly between all categories of depression (major, minor, and non-depression except for the comparison between minor depression and non-depression groups.The Korean version of the CUXOS is a reliable and valid measure of the severity of anxiety symptoms. The use of the CUXOS could broaden the understanding of coexisting and differentiating characteristics of anxiety and depression.

  12. Pain, not chronic disease, is associated with the recurrence of depressive and anxiety disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies suggest that poor physical health might be associated with increased depression and anxiety recurrence. The objectives of this study were to determine whether specific chronic diseases and pain characteristics are associated with depression and anxiety recurrence and to examine whether such associations are mediated by subthreshold depressive or anxiety symptoms. Methods 1122 individuals with remitted depressive or anxiety disorder (Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety) were followed up for a period of four years. The impact of specific chronic diseases and pain characteristics on recurrence was assessed using Cox regression and mediation analyses. Results Chronic diseases were not associated with recurrence. Neck (HR 1.45, p depression recurrence but not anxiety. Subthreshold depressive symptoms mediated the associations between pain and depression recurrence. Conclusions Pain, not chronic disease, increases the likelihood of depression recurrence, largely through its association with aggravated subthreshold depressive symptoms. These findings support the idea of the existence of a mutually reinforcing mechanism between pain and depression and are indicative of the importance of shedding light on neurobiological links in order to optimize pain and depression management. PMID:24965597

  13. Depression, Anxiety, and Cardiovascular Disease in Chinese: A Review for a Bigger Picture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong-Fei Pan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD and depression and anxiety contribute substantially to the current disease burden worldwide as well as in China. Both depression and anxiety are highly prevalent among patients with CVD. We systematically reviewed the literature to disentangle the role of depression and anxiety disorders in the onset and prognosis of CVD with an emphasis on cohort studies conducted in the Chinese population. Despite the lack of large-scale prospective studies in China, the available evidence implies that both depression and anxiety are closely associated with the onset and prognosis of CVD, including ischemic heart disease and stroke, in Chinese adults. Putative behavioral and biological mechanisms are implicated in the link between depression/anxiety and CVD. Timely screening and diagnosis followed by proper treatment should be implemented for depression and anxiety in both the general population and patients with CVD. Current standard treatments such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and psychotherapies are recommended for CVD patients with depression, although their efficacy for reducing CVD morbidity and mortality remains uncertain. In conclusion, prospective studies on the link between depression/anxiety and the onset and prognosis of CVD are urgently needed in the Chinese population, and more efforts are warranted to examine the efficacy of depression and anxiety treatments for CVD patients, particularly the integrated care model of including psychiatrists in a multidisciplinary clinical group.

  14. CHILDHOOD MALTREATMENT AND THE COURSE OF DEPRESSIVE AND ANXIETY DISORDERS: THE CONTRIBUTION OF PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovens, Jacqueline G F M; Giltay, Erik J; van Hemert, Albert M; Penninx, Brenda W J H

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effect of childhood maltreatment on predicting the 4-year course of depressive and anxiety disorders and the possible mediating role of personality characteristics in the association between childhood maltreatment and illness course. Longitudinal data in a large sample of participants with baseline depressive and/or anxiety disorders (n = 1,474, 18-65 years) were collected in the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety. At baseline, childhood maltreatment was assessed with a semistructured interview. Personality trait questionnaires (Neuroticism-Extroversion-Openness Five Factor Inventory, Mastery scale, and Leiden Index of Depression Sensitivity), recent stressful life events (List of Threatening Experiences Questionnaire), and psychosocial variables were administered. The Life Chart Interview was used to determine the time to remission of depressive and/or anxiety disorders. At baseline, 846 participants (57.4%) reported any childhood maltreatment. Childhood maltreatment had a negative impact on psychosocial functioning and was predictive of more unfavorable personality characteristics and cognitive reactivity styles (P Childhood maltreatment was a significant predictor of lower likelihood of remission of depressive and/or anxiety disorders (HR = 0.94, P childhood maltreatment and 4-year remission of depressive and anxiety disorders. Certain personality characteristics are key players in the mechanism linking childhood maltreatment to an adverse illness course of depressive and anxiety disorders. Early interventions--reducing neuroticism and hopelessness, and enhancing extraversion and locus of control--might contribute to a better prognosis in a "high-risk" group of depressive and anxiety disorders. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Overlap between Headache, Depression, and Anxiety in General Neurological Clinics: A Cross-sectional Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cui-Bai Wei; Jian-Ping Jia; Fen Wang; Ai-Hong Zhou; Xiu-Mei Zuo; Chang-Biao Chu

    2016-01-01

    Background:Many studies have reported that depression and anxiety have bidirectional relationship with headache.However,few researches investigated the roles of depression or anxiety in patients with headache.We surveyed the prevalence of depression and anxiety as a complication or cause of headache among outpatients with a chief complaint of headache at neurology clinics in general hospitals.Additional risk factors for depression and anxiety were also analyzed.Methods:A cross-sectional study was conducted at 11 general neurological clinics.All consecutive patients with a chief complaint of headache were enrolled.Diagnoses of depression and anxiety were made using the Chinese version of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview,and those for headache were made according to the International Classification of Headache Disorders,2nd Edition.The headache impact test and an 11-point verbal rating scale were applied to assess headache severity and intensity.Logistic regression was used to analyze risk factors of patients with headache for depression or anxiety.Results:A total of 749 outpatients with headache were included.Among them,148 (19.7%) were diagnosed with depression and 103 (13.7%) with anxiety.Further analysis showed that 114 (15.2%) patients complaining headache due to somatic symptoms of psychiatric disorders and 82 (10.9%) had a depression or anxiety comorbidity with headache.Most patients with depression or anxiety manifested mild to moderate headaches.Poor sleep and severe headache-related disabilities were predictors for either depression or anxiety.Conclusion:Clinicians must identify the etiology of headache and recognize the effects of depression or anxiety on headache to develop specific treatments.

  16. Resilience moderates the risk of depression and anxiety symptoms on suicidal ideation in patients with depression and/or anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Jung-Ah; Lee, Chang-Uk; Chae, Jeong-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the role of protective factors for suicidal ideation, which include resilience and social support among psychiatric patients with depression and/or anxiety disorders who are at increased risk of suicide. Demographic data, history of childhood maltreatment, and levels of depression, anxiety, problematic alcohol use, resilience, perceived social support, and current suicidal ideation were collected from a total of 436 patients diagnosed with depression and/or anxiety disorders. Hierarchical multiple logistic regression analyses were used to identify the independent and interaction effects of potentially influencing factors. Moderate-severe suicidal ideation was reported in 24.5% of our sample. After controlling for relevant covariates, history of emotional neglect and sexual abuse, low resilience, and high depression and anxiety symptoms were sequentially included in the model. In the final model, high depression (adjusted odds ratio (OR)=9.33, confidence interval (CI) 3.99-21.77) and anxiety (adjusted OR=2.62, CI=1.24-5.53) were independently associated with moderate-severe suicidal ideation among risk factors whereas resilience was not. In the multiple logistic regression model that examined interaction effects between risk and protective factors, the interactions between resilience and depression (psuicide ideation among those with higher levels of depression or anxiety symptoms. Our results indicate that resilience potentially moderates the risk of depression and anxiety symptoms on suicidal ideation in patients with depression and/or anxiety disorders. Assessment of resilience and intervention focused on resilience enhancement is suggested for suicide prevention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Investigating Environmental Links between Parent Depression and Child Depressive/Anxiety Symptoms Using an Assisted Conception Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Gemma; Rice, Frances; Harold, Gordon T.; Collishaw, Stephan; Thapar, Anita

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Links between maternal and offspring depression symptoms could arise from inherited factors, direct environmental exposure, or shared adversity. A novel genetically sensitive design was used to test the extent of environmental links between maternal depression symptoms and child depression/anxiety symptoms, accounting for inherited…

  18. Acceptability of Internet treatment of anxiety and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gun, Shih Ying; Titov, Nickolai; Andrews, Gavin

    2011-06-01

    The Internet is increasingly used to deliver treatment programs for common mental disorders. However, little is known about the acceptability of online interventions. The present study used an online survey to explore levels of acceptability of Internet-based treatment programs for anxiety and depression. Visitors to websites operated by the Clinical Research Unit for Anxiety and Depression (CRUfAD), were invited to complete an online questionnaire during 16 weeks in 2008. Of 1543 people who began the survey, 1104 (72%) Australian health professionals and lay people completed it. Internet treatment programs for people with mild or moderate symptoms were more acceptable than programs for people with severe symptoms. There were no differences between health professionals and non-health professionals in acceptability ratings. As expected, previous users of Internet treatments reported significantly greater acceptability and preference for Internet treatments than non-users. Respondents rated Internet-based treatment programs as acceptable, with higher ratings from previous users. In order to facilitate implementation, program developers need to implement strategies for increasing knowledge about the efficacy and effectiveness of such programs, and engage therapists and consumers in establishing ethical and professional guidelines for their safe and responsible use.

  19. Health anxiety and depression in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uçar, Mehmet; Sarp, Ümit; Karaaslan, Özgül; Gül, Ali Irfan; Tanik, Nermin; Arik, Hasan Onur

    2015-10-01

    To investigate health anxiety and depressive symptoms in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). Patients with FMS and healthy control subjects were recruited. All participants completed the Health Anxiety Inventory Short Form (HAI-SF) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Pain was assessed in patients with FMS using the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). This study involved 95 patients with FMS (15 male) and 95 healthy controls (17 male). Mean ± SD HAI-SF and BDI scores were significantly higher in patients with FMS = than in controls=. HAI-SF scores were 23.50 ± 10.78 and 9.38 ± 4.24 respectively; BDI scores were 18.64 ± 10.11 and 6.21 ± 4.05 respectively. There were highly significant correlations between FIQ and HAI-SF, FIQ and BDI, and HAI-SF and BDI. Patients with FMS had significantly higher HAI-SF and BDI scores than healthy controls. Psychiatric support is essential for patients with FMS. Treatment should include biological, psychological and social approaches. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Childhood Anxiety/Withdrawal, Adolescent Parent-Child Attachment and Later Risk of Depression and Anxiety Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, Ida Skytte; Horwood, L. John; Fergusson, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has shown that children with high levels of early anxiety/withdrawal are at increased risk of later anxiety and depression. It has also been found that positive parent-child attachment reduces the risk of these disorders. The aim of this paper was to examine the extent to which positive parent-child attachment acted to mitigate…

  1. Clarifying the relation of acculturative stress and anxiety/depressive symptoms: The role of anxiety sensitivity among Hispanic college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardin, Charles; Mayorga, Nubia A; Bakhshaie, Jafar; Garey, Lorra; Viana, Andres G; Sharp, Carla; Cardoso, Jodi Berger; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2018-04-01

    Recent work has highlighted the link between acculturative stress and depression/anxiety symptoms among Hispanic young adults, but the nature of these relations is not well understood. The present study aimed to clarify the relation between acculturative stress and depression/anxiety symptoms by examining anxiety sensitivity, globally and via subfactors, as an explanatory variable. A cross-sectional sample of 788 Hispanic college students (80.8% female; M age = 20.83 years, SD = 1.93) was recruited from a southwestern public university and completed an online self-report assessment battery. Acculturative stress exerted an indirect effect, via the global construct of anxiety sensitivity, on depression symptoms, suicidality, anxious arousal, and social anxiety symptoms. Follow-up simultaneous analytic models demonstrated indirect effects via the anxiety sensitivity subfactors that were pathognomonic with each of the specific affective outcomes. These findings suggest the utility of assessing and targeting anxiety sensitivity in the treatment of acculturative stress-related depression/anxiety problems among Hispanic college students. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Consensus statement on social anxiety disorder from the International Consensus Group on Depression and Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballenger, J C; Davidson, J R; Lecrubier, Y; Nutt, D J; Bobes, J; Beidel, D C; Ono, Y; Westenberg, H G

    1998-01-01

    The goal of this consensus statement is to provide primary care clinicians with a better understanding of management issues in social anxiety disorder (social phobia) and guide clinical practice with recommendations for appropriate pharmacotherapy. The 4 members of the International Consensus Group on Depression and Anxiety were James C. Ballenger (chair), Jonathan R. T. Davidson, Yves Lecrubier, and David J. Nutt. Other faculty invited by the chair were Julio Bobes, Deborah C. Beidel, Yukata Ono, and Herman G. M. Westenberg. The consensus statement is based on the 7 review papers published in this supplement and on the scientific literature relevant to the issues reviewed in these papers. The group met over a 2-day period. On day 1, the group discussed each review paper, and the chair identified key issues for further debate. On day 2, the group discussed these issues to arrive at a consensus view. After the group meetings, the consensus statement was drafted by the chair and approved by all attendees. The consensus statement underlines the importance of recognizing social anxiety disorder and provides recommendations on how it may be distinguished from other anxiety disorders. It proposes definitions for response and remission and considers appropriate management strategies. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are recommended as first-line therapy, and effective treatment should be continued for at least 12 months. Long-term treatment is indicated if symptoms are unresolved, the patient has a comorbid condition or a history of relapse, or there was an early onset of the disorder.

  3. The Metacognitive Anger Processing (MAP) Scale - Validation in a Mixed Clinical and a Forensic In-Patient Sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moeller, Stine Bjerrum; Bech, Per

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The metacognitive approach by Wells and colleagues has gained empirical support with a broad range of symptoms. The Metacognitive Anger Processing (MAP) scale was developed to provide a metacognitive measure on anger (Moeller, 2016). In the preliminary validation, three components were...... identified (positive beliefs, negative beliefs and rumination) to be positively correlated with the anger. AIMS: To validate the MAP in a sample of mixed clinical patients (n = 88) and a sample of male forensic patients (n = 54). METHOD: The MAP was administered together with measures of metacognition, anger......, rumination, anxiety and depressive symptoms. RESULTS: The MAP showed acceptable scalability and excellent reliability. Convergent validity was evidenced using the general metacognitive measure (MCQ-30), and concurrent validity was supported using two different anger measures (STAXI-2 and NAS). CONCLUSIONS...

  4. The state effect of depressive and anxiety disorders on big five personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsten, Julie; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Riese, Hariëtte; Ormel, Johan; Nolen, Willem A; Hartman, Catharina A

    2012-05-01

    Neuroticism and extraversion are affected by depressive disorder state. Less is known about depressive state effects on conscientiousness, agreeableness and openness. Furthermore, state effects of anxiety disorders on personality have been far less studied than those of depressive disorder. Here, we aim to determine the extent of change in all five personality traits associated with the occurrence of or recovery from depressive and anxiety disorders. Using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) at baseline and two-year follow-up, respondents from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA) were divided into four groups: unaffected at baseline and follow-up, occurrence, recovery, and affected at baseline and follow-up. Personality change (NEO-five factor inventory) was examined in the occurrence and recovery groups relative to the unaffected and affected groups, respectively. Analyses were repeated, differentiating between (specific) depressive and anxiety disorders. We found small state effects of affective disorders on neuroticism, extraversion and conscientiousness. Corrected for each other, both depressive and anxiety disorders showed small state effects on neuroticism, but effects on extraversion and conscientiousness were mainly associated with depressive disorders. State effects were small. When assessing neuroticism, the presence of both depressive and anxiety disorders should be taken into account, as both may independently increase neuroticism scores. However, when assessing extraversion and conscientiousness, depressive disorders but not anxiety disorders are likely to be of influence. Agreeableness and openness are influenced by neither. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Relationship adjustment, depression, and anxiety during pregnancy and the postpartum period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whisman, Mark A; Davila, Joanne; Goodman, Sherryl H

    2011-06-01

    The associations between relationship adjustment and symptoms of depression and anxiety were evaluated in a sample of pregnant married or cohabiting women (N = 113) who were at risk for perinatal depression because of a prior history of major depression. Women completed self-report measures of relationship adjustment, depressive symptoms, and anxiety symptoms monthly during pregnancy and for the first six months following the birth of their child. Multilevel modeling was used to examine concurrent and time-lagged within-subjects effects for relationship adjustment and depressive and anxiety symptoms. Results revealed that (a) relationship adjustment was associated with both depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms in concurrent analyses; (b) relationship adjustment was predictive of subsequent anxiety symptoms but not subsequent depressive symptoms in lagged analyses; and (c) depressive symptoms were predictive of subsequent relationship adjustment in lagged analyses with symptoms of depression and anxiety examined simultaneously. These results support the continued investigation into the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between relationship functioning and depressive and anxiety symptoms in women during pregnancy and the postpartum period. 2011 APA, all rights reserved

  6. High prevalence of anxiety and depression in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabuchi, Fumihiko; Yoshimura, Kimio; Kashiwagi, Kenji; Shioe, Kunihiko; Yamagata, Zentaro; Kanba, Shigenobu; Iijima, Hiroyuki; Tsukahara, Shigeo

    2008-01-01

    To assess anxiety and depression in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). Multicenter prospective case-control study. Two hundred thirty patients with POAG and 230 sex-matched and age-matched reference subjects with no chronic ocular conditions except cataracts. Anxiety and depression were evaluated using Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) questionnaire, which consists of 2 subscales with ranges of 0 to 21, representing anxiety (HADS-A) and depression (HADS-D). The prevalence of POAG patients with anxiety (a score of more than 10 on the HADS-A) or depression (a score of more than 10 on the HADS-D) was compared with that in the reference subjects. The prevalence of patients with depression was compared between the POAG patients with and without current beta-blocker eye drops. The prevalence (13.0%) of POAG patients with anxiety was significantly higher (P=0.030) than in the reference subjects (7.0%). The prevalence (10.9%) of POAG patients with depression was significantly higher (P=0.026) than in the reference subjects (5.2%). Between the POAG patients with and without beta-blocker eye-drops, no significant difference (P=0.93) in the prevalence of depression was noted. POAG was related to anxiety and depression. No significant relationship between the use of beta-blocker eye-drops and depression was noted.

  7. Stress, depression, and anxiety among undergraduate nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernomas, Wanda M; Shapiro, Carla

    2013-11-07

    Admission to a professional program marks the beginning of fulfilling a career goal. However, the rigors of professional education can be demanding. Stress, depression, and anxiety (SDA) can interfere with learning, affect academic performance, and impair clinical practice performance. Studies report a general increase in the severity of and extent of mental health problems among college/university students. The literature regarding nursing students' mental health distress identifies academic and personal sources of stress and coping efforts, with emphasis on the stress and anxiety associated with clinical practice. This cross-sectional descriptive exploratory study investigated levels of SDA among nursing students in 3 years of a university-based program. The association between quality of life indicators including known stressors, such as financial concerns and balance between school and personal life, and SDA was also investigated. Through an online survey, 437 participants from one mid-western Canadian undergraduate nursing program completed the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales and provided data on quality of life indicators and demographic information. Participants also were invited to provide narrative data about their experiences with SDA. This article will present significant findings including: levels of SDA; comparisons between our sample and a normative sample on the dimensions of SDA; and the results of multiple regression analysis identifying significant predictors of each dimension. Themes from the qualitative comments from 251 of the participants were identified and added depth and clarity to the quantitative findings. The predominant themes represented were: perceptions of clinical practice, coping, personal issues, and balancing school, work, and personal life. Implications and recommendations for curriculum design, ensuring students understand program expectations prior to admission, and enhancing accessibility to mental health/support services

  8. Prevalence of Depression, Anxiety and Stress as Measured by the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-42) among Secondary School Girls in Abha, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Gelban, Khalid S; Al-Amri, Hasan S; Mostafa, Ossama A

    2009-08-01

    To determine the prevalence of symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress among secondary school girls. A cross- sectional study was carried out on secondary school girls in Abha city, Aseer Region, Saudi Arabia, using the Arabic version of the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-42). Of 545 female students recruited in this study, 73.4% had the symptoms of at least one of the three studied disorders; 50.1% had at least two disorders. The prevalence of symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress was 41.5 %, 66.2% and 52.5% respectively. The majority of symptoms were mild to moderate in severity. The scores for depression, anxiety, and stress were positively and significantly correlated. No significant association was found between the girls' sociodemographic characteristics and the scores of the three studied disorders. One of the most important aspects of a primary care physician's care of females is to screen for and treat common mental disorders.

  9. The Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS): detecting anxiety disorder and depression in employees absent from work because of mental health problems

    OpenAIRE

    Nieuwenhuijsen, K.; de Boer, A.G.E.M.; Verbeek, J.H.A.M.; Blonk, R.W.B.; van Dijk, F.J.H.

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To (1) evaluate the psychometric properties and (2) examine the ability to detect cases with anxiety disorder and depression in a population of employees absent from work because of mental health problems.

  10. The Relationship between Anger Expression and Its Indices and Oral Lichen Planus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdipour, Masoumeh; Taghavi Zenouz, Ali; Farnam, Alireza; Attaran, Rana; Farhang, Sara; Safarnavadeh, Maryam; Gholizadeh, Narges; Azari-Marhabi, Saranaz

    2016-05-01

    Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a common inflammatory disease with unknown etiology. Depression, stress and anxiety are psychological factors that their influence on the expression of lichen planus by affecting the immune system's function has been confirmed. There is a probable relationship between anger and OLP expression. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the association of "anger" and OLP. In this descriptive study 95 subjects were included in 3 groups. A: patients with oral lichen planus, B: positive control, C: negative control. Anger and its indices were assessed by the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory-2 (STAXI-2) questionnaire, and pain was measured via the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). The collected data were analyzed statistically using SPSS 18 software. The lichen planus and positive control groups bore higher total anger index (AX index) values compared with the negative control. Comparing anger expression-in (AXI) among the lichen planus and negative control groups revealed higher grades in lichen planus group. Evaluating the pain severity index (VAS) data and anger indices in lichen planus group, Spearman's Rank Correlation Test revealed a significant correlation between TAngR (reactional anger traits) and pain severity. The findings of this study indicated that there was a significant correlation between anger control and suppression of lichen planus development. On the other hand, the patients with more severe pain mostly expressed their anger physically. Based on the findings, we can make the claim that anger suppression and its control-in (gathering tension) may play a role in the development of lichen planus as a known psychosomatic disorders.

  11. Prevalence of depression and anxiety in patients with chronic digestive system diseases: A multicenter epidemiological study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, An-Zhong; Wang, Qing-Cai; Huang, Kun-Ming; Huang, Jia-Guo; Zhou, Chang-Hong; Sun, Fu-Qiang; Wang, Su-Wen; Wu, Feng-Ting

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the prevalence of depression and anxiety in patients with chronic digestive system diseases. METHODS A total of 1736 patients with chronic digestive system diseases were included in this cross-sectional study, including 871 outpatients and 865 in-patients. A self-designed General Information for Patients of the Department of Gastroenterology of General Hospitals questionnaire was used to collect each patient’s general information, which included demographic data (including age, sex, marital status, and education) and disease characteristics (including major diseases, disease duration, principal symptoms, chronic pain, sleep disorder, and limited daily activities). RESULTS The overall detection rate was 31.11% (540/1736) for depression symptoms alone, 27.02% (469/1736) for anxiety symptoms alone, 20.68% (359/1736) for both depression and anxiety symptoms, and 37.44% (650/1736) for either depression or anxiety symptoms. Subjects aged 70 years or above had the highest detection rate of depression (44.06%) and anxiety symptoms (33.33%). χ2 trend test showed: the higher the body mass index (BMI), the lower the detection rate of depression and anxiety symptoms (χ2trend = 13.697, P anxiety symptoms (χ2trend = 130.455, P anxiety symptoms (χ2trend = 85.759, P anxiety (55.19%), followed by patients with liver cirrhosis (41.35% and 48.08%). Depression and anxiety symptoms were also high in subjects with comorbid hypertension and coronary heart disease. CONCLUSION Depression and anxiety occur in patients with tumors, liver cirrhosis, functional dyspepsia, and chronic viral hepatitis. Elderly, divorced/widowed, poor sleep quality, and lower BMI are associated with higher risk of depression and anxiety. PMID:27895432

  12. Anxiety, depression and autonomy-connectedness: The mediating role of alexithymia and assertiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutten, Elisabeth A P; Bachrach, Nathan; van Balkom, Anton J L M; Braeken, Johan; Ouwens, Machteld A; Bekker, Marrie H J

    2016-12-01

    Autonomy-connectedness (self-awareness, sensitivity to others, and capacity for managing new situations) reflects the capacity for self-governance, including in social relationships. Evidence showed that autonomy-connectedness is related to anxiety and depression. Little is known about the underlying mechanisms. We hypothesized that alexithymia and assertiveness would mediate the relationships between autonomy-connectedness and anxiety and depression. Relationships among the variables were investigated in 100 patients with a mean age of 42.2 suffering from anxiety and/or depression using a cross-sectional design. The relationship between self-awareness and both anxiety and depression was mediated by alexithymia. For anxiety, there was also a direct effect of sensitivity to others that was not explained by either alexithymia or assertiveness. Assertiveness did not have any mediational effect. The results indicate that particularly alexithymia explains the association of autonomy-connectedness with anxiety and depression. The study confirmed the relevance of autonomy-connectedness in anxiety and depression. In treating symptoms of anxiety, it is advisable to give attention to normalizing the patient's sensitivity to others. Treatment of patients with symptoms of anxiety and depression should include assessment of emotional awareness and, in the case of impaired emotional awareness, should be tailored as to promote increased awareness. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  13. Sleep cognitions associated with anxiety and depression in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leblanc MF

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Marie-France Leblanc,1 Sophie Desjardins,1 Alain Desgagné2 1Department of Psychology, Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières, Trois-Rivières, QC, Canada; 2Department of Mathematics, Université du Québec à Montréal, Montréal, QC, Canada Purpose: The objective of this study was to identify the maladaptive sleep-related cognitions most often maintained by the elderly, according to the presence or absence of anxiety and mood disorders. The presence of dysfunctional sleep-related beliefs and attitudes at bedtime in asymptomatic, depressive, and anxious seniors was thus compared. The second objective was to verify the relationships between various dysfunctional cognitions and mental disorders. Method: The sample in this study consisted of 2,759 participants aged 65 years and over, with a mean age of 73.8 years. They were recruited through a method of random generation of telephone numbers according to a sampling strategy based on geographic location. After the goal of the study was explained to them, the participants agreed to have health professionals visit their home and to answer questions in a 1.5-hour-long structured interview (after signing a consent form. Results: Depressive and anxious seniors adopt dysfunctional sleep-related cognitions in higher proportions than asymptomatic older persons. Once we had controlled for the other factors, we were able to specifically link two sleep-related beliefs and all the sleep-related attitudes studied to the probability of being anxious or depressive. Conclusion: The clarifications obtained will make it possible to improve detection, assessment, and intervention processes regarding anxiety or mood disorders, by pinpointing the most direct link between each of the dysfunctional cognitions and the two types of mental disorders, and not just the link to sleep problems. Keywords: beliefs, worries, attitudes, thoughts, insomnia, mental health 

  14. Prevalence of anxiety and depression in patients with airway obstruction using hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS in different localities of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira H. Allam

    2017-10-01

    Summary at a glance: This study included 420 subjects divided into three groups: Group I asthmatic (150 patients, group II COPD patients (150 and control group contain (120 healthy subjects. All patients and healthy subjects were instructed to answer the questionnaire of HADS. Anxiety and depression scales were calculated with prevalence of each. Anxiety and depression were more common in people with asthma and COPD.

  15. Depression and Social Anxiety in Children: Differential Links with Coping Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Mark; Banerjee, Robin; Hoek, Willemijn; Rieffe, Carolien; Novin, Sheida

    2010-01-01

    Strategies that children use for coping with stressors are known to be related to emotional adjustment, but not enough is understood about specific links with social anxiety and depression. The present investigation tested differentiated associations of social anxiety and depression with specific types of coping strategies, and evaluated the…

  16. Improving prevention of depression and anxiety disorders: repetitive negative thinking as a promising target

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Topper, M.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.; Ehring, T.

    2010-01-01

    Prevention of depression and anxiety disorders is widely acknowledged as an important health care investment. However, existing preventive interventions have only shown modest effects. In order to improve the efficacy of prevention of depression and anxiety disorders, a number of authors have

  17. Adolescent Subthreshold-Depression and Anxiety: Psychopathology, Functional Impairment and Increased Suicide Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balazs, Judit; Miklosi, Monika; Kereszteny, Agnes; Hoven, Christina W.; Carli, Vladimir; Wasserman, Camilla; Apter, Alan; Bobes, Julio; Brunner, Romuald; Cosman, Doina; Cotter, Padraig; Haring, Christian; Iosue, Miriam; Kaess, Michael; Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Keeley, Helen; Marusic, Dragan; Postuvan, Vita; Resch, Franz; Saiz, Pilar A.; Sisask, Merike; Snir, Avigal; Tubiana, Alexandra; Varnik, Airi; Sarchiapone, Marco; Wasserman, Danuta

    2013-01-01

    Background: Subthreshold-depression and anxiety have been associated with significant impairments in adults. This study investigates the characteristics of adolescent subthreshold-depression and anxiety with a focus on suicidality, using both categorical and dimensional diagnostic models. Methods: Data were drawn from the Saving and Empowering…

  18. In the Face of Uncertainty: A Twin Study of Ambiguous Information, Anxiety and Depression in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eley, Thalia C.; Gregory, Alice M.; Lau, Jennifer Y. F.; McGuffin, Peter; Napolitano, Maria; Rijsdijk, Fruhling V.; Clark, David M.

    2008-01-01

    Anxiety and depression share genetic influences, and have been associated with similar cognitive biases. Psychological theories of anxiety and depression highlight threat interpretations of ambiguity. Little is known about whether genes influence cognitive style, or its links to symptoms. We assessed ambiguous word and scenario interpretations,…

  19. College Students' Preferences for Psychotherapy across Depression, Anxiety, Relationship, and Academic Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Aaron W.; Ross, Michael J.; Vander Wal, Jillon S.; Austin, Chammie C.

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined differences in college students' preferences for processes of change across four kinds of problems: academic, relationship, depression, and anxiety. Two hundred eighteen undergraduates were randomly assigned to complete either an academic problems, relationship problems, depression, or anxiety Processes of Change…

  20. Patient factors associated with guideline-concordant treatment of anxiety and depression in primary care.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, M.A.; Verhaak, P.F.; Smolders, M.; Laurant, M.G.H.; Meer, K. de; Spreeuwenberg, P.; Marwijk, H.W.J. van; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Bensing, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify associations of patient characteristics (predisposing, enabling and need factors) with guideline-concordant care for anxiety and depression in primary care. DESIGN: Analysis of data from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA). PARTICIPANTS: Seven hundred and

  1. Patient factors associated with guideline-concordant treatment of anxiety and depression in primary care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, M.A.; Verhaak, P.; Smolders, M.; Laurant, M.G.H.; van der Meer, K; Spreeuwenberg, P.; van Marwijk, H.W.J.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Bensing, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To identify associations of patient characteristics (predisposing, enabling and need factors) with guideline-concordant care for anxiety and depression in primary care. Design: Analysis of data from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA). Participants: Seven hundred and

  2. Anxiety and depression related to the hospitalization experience of patients receiving radioiodine ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koc, Z.; Karaboc, A.; Balci, T.; Kepenek, F.; Atmaca, M.

    2015-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. Objective: the hospital rooms for radioiodine ablation of differentiated thyroid carcinoma are designed according to radiation safety lows where patients have to remain isolated. The aim of the present study is to investigate depression and anxiety levels of the patients associated with hospitalization experience for radioiodine ablation. Methods: 30 patients (8 M, 22 F; mean: 45±13 years old) with differentiated thyroid carcinoma were included into study. After withdrawal of thyroid hormone replacement at least for 3 weeks, the patients were subject of the ablation treatment. After routine psychiatric examination Hamilton Anxiety and Depression scales were administered to the patients before and after complement of hospitalization for 1-3 days. Results: according to the statistical analysis there was not any significant difference between Hamilton depression and anxiety scores and state and trait anxiety scores of the patients before and after treatment (P>0.05). However, 18 patients had depression, with major depression of six, and 21 had high anxiety levels, according to Hamilton Depression and Anxiety Scales. Conclusion: Although the patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma do not experience anxiety or depression related to the hospitalization itself for radioiodine ablation they might frequently have depression or anxiety just before the treatment. (authors)

  3. Patient Factors Associated with Guideline-concordant Treatment of Anxiety and Depression in Primary Care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, Marijn A.; Verhaak, Peter F. M.; Smolders, Mirrian; Laurant, Miranda G. H.; van der Meer, Klaas; Spreeuwenberg, Peter; van Marwijk, Harm W. J.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Bensing, Jozien M.

    To identify associations of patient characteristics (predisposing, enabling and need factors) with guideline-concordant care for anxiety and depression in primary care. Analysis of data from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA). Seven hundred and twenty-one patients with a current

  4. Pain, not chronic disease, is associated with the recurrence of depressive and anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerrits, Marloes M. J. G. y; van Oppen, Patricia; Leone, Stephanie S.; van Marwijk, Harm W. J.; van der Horst, Henriette E.; Penninx, Brenda W.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Studies suggest that poor physical health might be associated with increased depression and anxiety recurrence. The objectives of this study were to determine whether specific chronic diseases and pain characteristics are associated with depression and anxiety recurrence and to examine

  5. The Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA): rationale, objectives and methods.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Smit, J.H.; Zitman, F.G.; Nolen, W.A.; Spinhoven, P.; Cuijpers, P.; Jong, P.J. de; Marwijk, H.W.J. van; Assendelft, W.J.J.; Meer, K. van der; Verhaak, P.; Wensing, M.; Graaf, R. de; Hoogendijk, W.J.; Ormel, J.; Dyck, R. van

    2008-01-01

    The Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA) is a multi-site naturalistic cohort study to: (1) describe the long-term course and consequences of depressive and anxiety disorders, and (2) to integrate biological and psychosocial research paradigms within an epidemiological approach in

  6. Sleep duration, but not insomnia, predicts the 2-year course of depressive and anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Mill, Josine G; Vogelzangs, Nicole; van Someren, Eus J W; Hoogendijk, Witte J G; Penninx, Brenda W J H

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the predictive role of insomnia and sleep duration on the 2-year course of depressive and anxiety disorders. METHOD: This study is a secondary data analysis based on data from the baseline (2004-2007) and 2-year assessment of the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety.

  7. Sleep Duration, but Not Insomnia, Predicts the 2-Year Course of Depressive and Anxiety Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Mill, Josine G.; Vogelzangs, Nicole; van Someren, Eus J. W.; Hoogendijk, Witte J. G.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    Objective: To examine the predictive role of insomnia and sleep duration on the 2-year course of depressive and anxiety disorders. Method: This study is a secondary data analysis based on data from the baseline (2004-2007) and 2-year assessment of the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety.

  8. Depression, anxiety and somatization in primary care: syndrome overlap and functional impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löwe, Bernd; Spitzer, Robert L; Williams, Janet B W; Mussell, Monika; Schellberg, Dieter; Kroenke, Kurt

    2008-01-01

    To determine diagnostic overlap of depression, anxiety and somatization as well as their unique and overlapping contribution to functional impairment. Two thousand ninety-one consecutive primary care clinic patients participated in a multicenter cross-sectional survey in 15 primary care clinics in the United States (participation rate, 92%). Depression, anxiety, somatization and functional impairment were assessed using validated scales from the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) (PHQ-8, eight-item depression module; GAD-7, seven-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale; and PHQ-15, 15-item somatic symptom scale) and the Short-Form General Health Survey (SF-20). Multiple linear regression analyses were used to investigate unique and overlapping associations of depression, anxiety and somatization with functional impairment. In over 50% of cases, comorbidities existed between depression, anxiety and somatization. The contribution of the commonalities of depression, anxiety and somatization to functional impairment substantially exceeded the contribution of their independent parts. Nevertheless, depression, anxiety and somatization did have important and individual effects (i.e., separate from their overlap effect) on certain areas of functional impairment. Given the large syndrome overlap, a potential consideration for future diagnostic classification would be to describe basic diagnostic criteria for a single overarching disorder and to optionally code additional diagnostic features that allow a more detailed classification into specific depressive, anxiety and somatoform subtypes.

  9. Anxiety and depression after prostate cancer diagnosis and treatment: 5-year follow-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korfage, I. J.; Essink-Bot, M.-L.; Janssens, A. C. J. W.; Schröder, F. H.; de Koning, H. J.

    2006-01-01

    To document anxiety and depression from pretreatment till 5-year follow-up in 299 men with localized prostate cancer. To assess, if baseline scores were predictive for anxiety and depression at 1-year follow-up. Respondents completed four assessments (pretreatment, at 6 and 12 months, and at 5-year

  10. Anxiety and Depression in Breast Cancer Survivors of Different Sexual Orientations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehmer, Ulrike; Glickman, Mark; Winter, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Objective: We conducted a study comparing anxiety and depression by sexual orientation in long-term breast cancer survivors, testing the hypothesis that sexual minority women (e.g., lesbian and bisexual women) have greater levels of anxiety and depression. Method: From a state cancer registry, we recruited 257 heterosexual and 69 sexual minority…

  11. Depression and Anxiety as Possible Mediators of the Association between Smoking and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunau, Gilat L.; Ratner, Pamela A.; Hossain, Shahadut; Johnson, Joy L.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the association between depression and anxiety and adolescents' smoking status, and to determine whether depression or anxiety mediate the association between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and smoking. A cross-sectional survey of tobacco use was conducted in regional school districts…

  12. Emotional Maltreatment, Peer Victimization, and Depressive versus Anxiety Symptoms during Adolescence: Hopelessness as a Mediator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Jessica L.; Shapero, Benjamin G.; Stange, Jonathan P.; Hamlat, Elissa J.; Abramson, Lyn Y.; Alloy, Lauren B.

    2013-01-01

    Extensive comorbidity between depression and anxiety has driven research to identify unique and shared risk factors. This study prospectively examined the specificity of three interpersonal stressors (emotional abuse, emotional neglect, and relationally oriented peer victimization) as predictors of depressive versus anxiety symptoms in a racially…

  13. Effects of anxiety and depression in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessing, Boudewijn F.; Bredenoord, Albert J.; Saleh, Caroline M. G.; Smout, André J. P. M.

    2015-01-01

    Increased levels of anxiety and depression have been associated with esophageal hyperalgesia and an increased risk of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). We investigated the effects of anxiety and depression on GERD symptoms and the perception of reflux episodes in a well-characterized group of

  14. Prenatal changes in parenting self-efficacy: Linkages with anxiety and depressive symptoms in primiparous women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wernand, J.J.; Kunseler, F.C.; Oosterman, M.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Schuengel, C.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine parenting self-efficacy in relation to depressive and anxiety symptoms during pregnancy. Five hundred thirty-three first-time pregnant women completed questionnaires at 12, 22, and 32 weeks of pregnancy that measure parenting self-efficacy, anxiety, and depressive

  15. Impact of childhood life events and trauma on the course of depressive and anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovens, J. G. F. M.; Giltay, E. J.; Wiersma, J. E.; Spinhoven, P.; Penninx, B. W. J. H.; Zitman, F. G.

    Hovens JGFM, Giltay EJ, Wiersma JE, Spinhoven P, Penninx BWJH, Zitman FG. Impact of childhood life events and trauma on the course of depressive and anxiety disorders. Objective: Data on the impact of childhood life events and childhood trauma on the clinical course of depressive and anxiety

  16. Comorbid anxiety disorders in late-life depression : results of a cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veen, D.C.; van Zelst, W. H.; Schoevers, R. A.; Comijs, H. C.; Oude Voshaar, Richard

    Background: Comorbid anxiety disorders are common in late-life depression and negatively impact treatment outcome. This study aimed to examine personality characteristics as well as early and recent life-events as possible determinants of comorbid anxiety disorders in late-life depression, taking

  17. Comorbid anxiety disorders in late-life depression: results of a cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veen, D.; van Zelst, W.; Schoevers, R.; Comijs, H.; Oude Voshaar, R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Comorbid anxiety disorders are common in late-life depression and negatively impact treatment outcome. This study aimed to examine personality characteristics as well as early and recent life-events as possible determinants of comorbid anxiety disorders in late-life depression, taking

  18. Association between anxiety and depression symptoms with resistant hypertension and central hemodynamics: A pilot study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mermerelis, A

    2016-01-01

    The hypothesis that symptoms of anxiety and depression contribute to the development of hypertension has been controversial. Rutledge and Hogan found that the risk of developing hypertension is approximately 8% higher among people with psychological distress compared to those with minimal distress. People suffering from either severe depression or anxiety were two to three times more likely to develop hypertension.\\r\

  19. The Association between Perceived Maternal and Paternal Psychopathology and Depression and Anxiety Symptoms in Adolescent Girls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rasing, S.P.A.; Creemers, D.H.M.; Janssens, J.M.A.M.; Scholte, R.H.J.

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to parental depression and anxiety is known to heighten the risk of internalizing symptoms and disorders in children and adolescents. Ample research has focused on the influence of maternal depression and anxiety, but the contribution of psychopathology in fathers remains unclear. We

  20. Disease management for co-morbid depression and anxiety in diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoop, Corinne H; Spek, Viola R M; Pop, Victor J M

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Depression and anxiety are common co-morbid health problems in patients with type 2 diabetes. Both depression and anxiety are associated with poor glycaemic control and increased risk of poor vascular outcomes and higher mortality rates. Results of previous studies have shown that in ...

  1. The impact of stress systems and lifestyle on dyslipidemia and obesity in anxiety and depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dortland, Arianne K. B. van Reedt; Vreeburg, Sophie A.; Giltay, Erik J.; Licht, Carmilla M. M.; Vogelzangs, Nicole; van Veen, Tineke; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Zitman, Frans G.

    Background: Dyslipidemia and obesity have been observed in persons with severe anxiety or depression, and in tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) users. This likely contributes to the higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in anxiety and depressive disorders. We aimed to elucidate whether biological

  2. Patients with Rosacea Have Increased Risk of Depression and Anxiety Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeberg, Alexander; Hansen, Peter Riis; Gislason, Gunnar Hilmar

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Rosacea is a chronic skin condition that affects self-esteem and quality of life. However, data on depression and anxiety in patients with rosacea are scarce. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between rosacea and new-onset depression and anxiety...

  3. Repetitive negative thinking predicts depression and anxiety symptom improvement during brief cognitive behavioral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kertz, Sarah J; Koran, Jennifer; Stevens, Kimberly T; Björgvinsson, Thröstur

    2015-05-01

    Repetitive negative thinking (RNT) is a common symptom across depression and anxiety disorders and preliminary evidence suggests that decreases in rumination and worry are related to improvement in depression and anxiety symptoms. However, despite its prevalence, relatively little is known about transdiagnostic RNT and its temporal associations with symptom improvement during treatment. The current study was designed to examine the influence of RNT on subsequent depression and anxiety symptoms during treatment. Participants (n = 131; 52% female; 93% White; M = 34.76 years) were patients presenting for treatment in a brief, cognitive behavior therapy based, partial hospitalization program. Participants completed multiple assessments of depression (Center for the Epidemiological Studies of Depression-10 scale), anxiety (the 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale), and repetitive negative thinking (Perseverative Thinking Questionnaire) over the course of treatment. Results indicated statistically significant between and within person effects of RNT on depression and anxiety, even after controlling for the effect of time, previous symptom levels, referral source, and treatment length. RNT explained 22% of the unexplained variability in depression scores and 15% of the unexplained variability in anxiety scores beyond that explained by the control variables. RNT may be an important transdiagnostic treatment target for anxiety and depression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Developmental Profile of Infants Born to Mothers with Postpartum Depression and Anxiety: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalita, Kamal Narayan

    2010-01-01

    Background: Postpartum period is associated with higher rates for depression, blues and psychosis. Anxiety is also significant. These disorders may have serious implications in the cognitive development of the infant. There is relative lack of data in this area. So we tried to estimate postpartum anxiety and depression in a group of women and…

  5. Stepped care for depression and anxiety in visually impaired older adults: multicentre randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Aa, H.P.A.; van Rens, G.H.M.B.; Comijs, H.C.; Margrain, T.H.; Galindo Garre, F.; Twisk, J.W.R.; van Nispen, R.M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Study question Is stepped care compared with usual care effective in preventing the onset of major depressive, dysthymic, and anxiety disorders in older people with visual impairment (caused mainly by age related eye disease) and subthreshold depression and/or anxiety? Methods 265 people aged ?50

  6. Depression and social anxiety in children: Differential links with coping strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wright, M.; Banerjee, R.; Hoek, W.; Rieffe, C.J.; Novin Farahbakhsh, S.

    2010-01-01

    Strategies that children use for coping with stressors are known to be related to emotional adjustment, but not enough is understood about specific links with social anxiety and depression. The present investigation tested differentiated associations of social anxiety and depression with specific

  7. The impact of stress systems and lifestyle on dyslipidemia and obesity in anxiety and depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Reedt Dortland, A.K.B.; Vreeburg, S.A.; Giltay, E.J.; Licht, C.M.M.; Vogelzangs, N.; Veen, T.; de Geus, E.J.C.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Zitman, F.G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Dyslipidemia and obesity have been observed in persons with severe anxiety or depression, and in tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) users. This likely contributes to the higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in anxiety and depressive disorders. We aimed to elucidate whether biological

  8. The incidence of anxiety and depression among employees - the role of psychosocial work characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andrea, Helene; Bultmann, Ute; van Amelsvoort, Ludovic G. P. M.; Kant, Ymert

    2009-01-01

    Background: Anxiety and depression are prevalent among employees and are associated with functional disability and work impairment. To date, little is known about the incidence and possible risk factors for developing anxiety and depression in the working population. Study aims were to (a) determine

  9. Work functioning in persons with depressive and anxiety disorders: The role of specific psychopathological characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plaisier, I.; Beekman, A.T.F.; De Graaf, R.; Smit, J.H.; van Dyck, R.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Depressive and anxiety disorders affect work functioning and cause high labour costs. Aims: To examine and compare psychopathological characteristics of depressive and anxiety disorders in their effect on work functioning. Method: In 1876 working participants of the Netherlands Study of

  10. Do depression and anxiety converge or diverge in their association with suicidality?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eikelenboom, Merijn; Smit, Johannes H.; Beekman, Aartjan T. F.; Penninx, Brenda

    Depressive disorders have been strongly linked to suicidality, but the association with anxiety disorders is less well established. This exploratory study aims to examine whether anxiety and depressive disorders are both independent risk factors for suicidal ideation and attempted suicide, and

  11. Do depression and anxiety converge or diverge in their association with suicidality?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eikelenboom, M.; Smit, J.H.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.

    2012-01-01

    Depressive disorders have been strongly linked to suicidality, but the association with anxiety disorders is less well established. This exploratory study aims to examine whether anxiety and depressive disorders are both independent risk factors for suicidal ideation and attempted suicide, and

  12. Suicide in late-life depression with and without comorbid anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Voshaar, Richard; Veen, D. C. van der; Hunt, I.; Kapur, N.

    OBJECTIVE: Comorbid anxiety in depression increases the risk of suicidal ideation and behavior, although data on death by suicide are scarce. We compared characteristics of depressed elderly patients with and without anxiety disorders who died by suicide. METHODS: From a 16-year clinical survey of

  13. Sleep disturbances and reduced work functioning in depressive or anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Mill, J.G.; Vogelzangs, N.; Hoogendijk, W.J.G.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: We aimed to examine the associations between sleep disturbances and work functioning in an epidemiologic cohort study in subjects with or without depressive or anxiety disorders. Methods: There were 707 subjects included in our analyses with depressive or anxiety disorders and 728

  14. Sleep disturbances and reduced work functioning in depressive or anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Mill, Josine G.; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Hoogendijk, Witte J. G.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    Objectives: We aimed to examine the associations between sleep disturbances and work functioning in an epidemiologic cohort study in subjects with or without depressive or anxiety disorders. Methods: There were 707 subjects included in our analyses with depressive or anxiety disorders and 728

  15. Do Private Religious Practices Moderate the Relation between Family Conflict and Preadolescents' Depression and Anxiety Symptoms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kelly A.; Epkins, Catherine C.

    2009-01-01

    We extended past research that focused on the relation between family conflict and preadolescents' depressive and anxiety symptoms. In a sample of 160 11- to 12-year-olds, we examined whether private religious practices moderated the relations between family conflict and preadolescents' depressive and anxiety symptoms. Although preadolescents'…

  16. Working and Non-Working University Students: Anxiety, Depression, and Grade Point Average

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mounsey, Rebecca; Vandehey, Michael A.; Diekhoff, George M.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the differences between 110 working and non-working students in terms of mental health, academic achievement, and perceptions about student employment. Anxiety and depression were measured by the Beck Anxiety Inventory and the Beck Depression Inventory-II. Academic achievement was measured by grade point average. Perceptions of…

  17. Psychological Resources as Stress Buffers: Their Relationship to University Students' Anxiety and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Christopher J.; Fouladi, Rachel T.; Juncker, Brian D.; Matheny, Kenneth B.

    2006-01-01

    The association of protective resources, personality variables, life events, and gender with anxiety and depression was examined with university students. Building on regression analyses, a structural equation model was generated with good fit, indicating that with respect to both anxiety and depression, negative life events and coping resources…

  18. Prevalence, structure and correlates of anxiety-depression in boys with an autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitsika, Vicki; Sharpley, Christopher F; Andronicos, Nicholas M; Agnew, Linda L

    2016-01-01

    Comorbidity of anxiety and depression predicts impaired treatment outcomes, poor quality of life and increased suicide risk. No study has reported on a combined measure of anxiety-depression in boys with an Autism Spectrum Disorder. To explore the prevalence, underlying factor structure and relationships between anxiety-depression, physiological stress and symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). 150 boys (aged 6-18 years; IQ M=94.9, range=73-132) with an ASD plus their parents (135 mothers, 15 fathers) completed scales about the boys' anxiety and depression, and the boys provided samples of their saliva in the morning and afternoon. Parents also completed the ASD Behaviour Checklist about the boys' ASD symptoms. The two sources of ratings were not significantly different for prevalence of anxiety-depression but the factor structures varied between the parents' and boys' responses, with a four-factor solution for the boys' ratings and a three-factor solution for the parents' ratings. There were also differences in the correlations between cortisol and anxiety-depression and between ASD symptoms and anxiety depression across the boys' and parents' data. Assessment of anxiety and depression comorbidity from parents and from children with an ASD themselves could provide a valuable adjunct datum when diagnosing ASD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Depression and anxiety levels in mothers of children with cerebral palsy: a controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, H; Erkin, G; Nalbant, L

    2013-12-01

    Studies investigating depression and anxiety levels in mothers of children with CP and related factors are limited, and controversial findings are reported in these studies. The study was aimed to determine depression and anxiety levels in mothers of children with cerebral palsy (CP) and to define factors related to depression and anxiety levels. A descriptive study. Outpatient physical medicine and rehabilitation clinic of an education and research hospital. The study was composed of two groups: group 1, 116 mothers of children with CP and group 2, 114 mothers of healthy children. Mothers of children with spastic-type CP were included into group 1. Functional levels in children with CP were investigated with The Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS). Depression levels of mothers in both groups were assessed with Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and anxiety levels with Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). BDI and BAI scores were statistically and significantly higher in group 1, compared to group 2. Among mothers in group 1, a positive correlation was determined between GMFCS score, and depression and anxiety levels. However, no correlation was detected between depression and anxiety levels, and body involvement of CP, education status, age and economic level among patients. In logistic regression analysis, the most significant risk factors of depressive symptoms were detected to be GMFCS score and speech defects. Our findings indicate that depression and anxiety levels of mothers with CP children are higher than those with healthy children and associated with speech defects and functional disability levels in children with CP. Healthcare professionals should take into account that depression and anxiety levels may be higher in mothers of children with CP. For an effective rehabilitation program related to children with CP, depression and anxiety levels in mothers of such children should be taken into account, and mothers should closely be followed and if

  20. Early Childhood Adversity and Its Associations with Anxiety, Depression, and Distress in Women with Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Daniel C; Andreotti, Charissa; Harris, Kirk; Mandeli, John; Tiersten, Amy; Holland, Jimmie

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Certain vulnerability factors have been found to place patients at risk for depression and anxiety, especially within the context of medical illness. Early childhood adversity (ECA) primes adults to become more vulnerable to depression by enhancing their reactivity to stress; this relationship is not adequately described in patients with breast cancer. Methods Breast cancer patients (Stage 0-IV) were assessed for ECA (i.e., the Risky Families Questionnaire [RFQ]-subscales include Abuse/Neglect/Chaotic Home Environment), distress (i.e., Distress Thermometer and Problem List [DT&PL]), anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Anxiety [HADS-A]), depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Depression [HADS-D]), meeting standardized cut-off thresholds for distress (DT&PL ≥4 or ≥7)/anxiety (HADS-A ≥8)/depression (HADS-D ≥8), and demographic factors. Results One hundred twenty-five participants completed the study (78% response rate). ECA was associated with depression (p<.001), anxiety (p=.001), and distress (p=.006) and with meeting cut-off threshold criteria for distress (p=.024), anxiety (p=.048), and depression (p=.001). On Multivariate analysis, only depression (p=.04) and emotional issues (i.e, component of DT&PL)(p=.001) were associated with ECA. Neglect, but not Abuse and Chaotic Home Environment, was associated with depression (β=.442, p<.001), anxiety (β=.342, p=.002), and self-identified problems with family (β−.288, p=.022), emotion (β=.345, p=.004), and physical issues (β=.408, p<.001). Conclusion ECA and neglect are associated with multiple psychological symptoms but most specifically depression in the setting of breast cancer. ECA contributes to psychological burden as a vulnerability factor. ECA may help to explain individual patient trajectories and influence the provision of patient centered care for psychological symptoms in patients with breast cancer. PMID:26876888

  1. Functional communication as a predictor of depression and anxiety symptoms among adolescents seeking bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, J L; Datto, G

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether functional communication and parent-adolescent relations prospectively predict anxiety and depression symptoms among severely obese adolescents seeking bariatric surgery. Participants included 30 adolescents and their primary caregivers, who presented for enrolment in a study assessing the safety and efficacy of the laparoscopic adjustable gastric band. Adolescents and their caregivers completed questionnaires assessing anxiety and depression symptoms, functional communication, and parent-adolescent relations at baseline and immediately prior to having bariatric surgery. Regression analyses revealed that poorer parent reported functional communication at baseline predicted increases in adolescent reported anxiety and depression symptoms immediately prior to surgery (on average 8.8 months later), above and beyond baseline symptoms. Anxiety and depression symptoms did not predict functional communication over time. Parent-adolescent relations, as reported by the adolescent, were concurrently associated with adolescent reported depression symptoms at baseline, and were concurrently associated with adolescent reported anxiety and depression symptoms, as well as parent reported depression symptoms, immediately prior to surgery. Functional communication may be an important prospective risk factor for the development of anxiety and depression symptoms among severely obese adolescents seeking bariatric surgery, whereas adolescent report of the parent-adolescent relationship appears to be concurrently related to anxiety and depression symptoms. Future research should examine whether specifically targeting communication skills and family relationships within psychological treatment would improve psychosocial functioning among severely obese adolescents. © 2014 The Authors. Clinical Obesity © 2014 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  2. Frequency of anxiety and depression in medical students of a private medical college

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azad, N.

    2017-01-01

    Depression and anxiety are the common mental disorders with a prevalence of 10-44% in developing countries and is the fourth leading cause of morbidity. Undergraduate medical studies are generally perceived to be more stressful for the students as compared to other undergraduate programs as students have to undergo strenuous curriculum and evaluation which may lead to many emotional stresses that may end with psychiatric disorders like depression and anxiety. This study aimed to determine the frequency of anxiety and depression in medical students of Foundation University Medical College (FUMC), Rawalpindi. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, Beck Depressive Inventory and Beck Anxiety scales were used to assess anxiety and depression at three different times of the Academic year. All five-year students were included in the study. Results: Out of a sample of 150 students, mild depression was seen in 37.46% and moderate to severe depression was observed in 14% students. About 19% of the students had moderate to severe anxiety. In Second year students time of assessment was significantly related to depression and anxiety (p-0.000). Females had higher association with depression in final year (p-0.037). Conclusion: High psychiatric morbidity found needs to be identified and treated at the earliest; otherwise it can lead to serious consequences such as suicidal ideation and burnout. (author)

  3. Anxiety, stress, depression, and patients' responses to periodontal treatment: periodontists' knowledge and professional behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloostra, Paul W; Eber, Robert M; Inglehart, Marita Rohr

    2007-01-01

    Anxiety, stress, and depression affect the use of health care services, treatment decision-making, and responses to periodontal treatment. This study explored periodontists' confidence in detecting patient anxiety, stress, or depression, as well as their knowledge concerning the relationships between these factors and patients' pain, use of pain medication, and wound healing after periodontal treatment. In addition, this research surveyed if (and which) special accommodations were offered when treating patients with high levels of anxiety, stress, or depression. Data were collected from 171 members of the American Academy of Periodontology (response rate = 34.41%). Most respondents were male (82.2%), white (88.2%), and practiced in solo practices (60.9%). The respondents were more knowledgeable about the effects of anxiety and stress on pain, the use of pain medication, and wound healing than about the impact of depression on these outcomes. They agreed more strongly with statements that they were more confident in their ability to perceive when patients were anxious and stressed than when they were depressed. They also offered more special accommodations for patients with anxiety and stress than for patients with depression. The respondents were significantly less knowledgeable about the impact of depression on patients' responses to periodontal treatment than about the effect of anxiety and stress. Given the evidence concerning the relationships among depression, pain, pain medication use, and wound healing, it is important to educate periodontists about the role of anxiety and stress and the significance of depression on their patients' responses to periodontal therapy.

  4. Social Epidemiology of Depression and Anxiety by Gender Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisner, Sari L; Katz-Wise, Sabra L; Gordon, Allegra R; Corliss, Heather L; Austin, S Bryn

    2016-08-01

    This study investigates depression and anxiety in gender minority (i.e., transgender and/or gender nonconforming) compared with nongender minority (cisgender) young adults. Data were from the Growing Up Today Study, a national cohort of U.S. young adults. A two-step method (maternal-reported natal sex in 1996 cross-classified with participant-reported current gender identity in 2010) was used to identify gender minority and nongender minority respondents (n = 7,831; mean age = 26 years). Differences in past week depressive symptoms and anxious symptoms were examined cross-sectionally by gender identity. Gender minority and nongender minority respondents were compared using age-adjusted logistic regression models. In gender minorities, the prevalence of depressive and anxious symptoms meeting clinical cutoffs was 52% and 38%, respectively, compared with nongender minorities (27% and 30% in females and 25% and 14% in males; p identity is an understudied social determinant of mental health. Surveillance efforts to monitor mental health disparities should include survey questions to assess gender identity in epidemiologic research. Research and interventions to understand and ameliorate mental health disparities by gender identity are needed. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Girls' and Mothers' Social Anxiety, Social Skills, and Loneliness: Associations after Accounting for Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stednitz, Jayme N.; Epkins, Catherine C.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined, in 102 mother-daughter dyads, whether (a) girls' social skills and loneliness are related to girls' social anxiety, after adjusting for girls' depressive symptoms, and (b) mothers' social functioning (social anxiety, social skills, and loneliness) is related to girls' social anxiety, after accounting for girls' social…

  6. Mediation of Changes in Anxiety and Depression During Treatment of Social Phobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscovitch, David A.; Stefan G. Hofmann, Michael K.; Suvak, Michael K.; In-Albon, Tina

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the interactive process of changes in social anxiety and depression during treatment, the authors assessed weekly symptoms in 66 adult outpatients with social phobia (social anxiety disorder) who participated in cognitive- behavioral group therapy. Multilevel mediational analyses revealed that improvements in social anxiety mediated…

  7. Effectiveness of depression and anxiety prevention in adolescents with high familial risk: Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rasing, Sanne P.A.; Creemers, Daan H.M.; Janssens, Jan M A M; Scholte, Ron H. J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Depression and anxiety disorders during adolescence can have detrimental consequences. Both disorders are related to negative outcome in various areas during adolescence and are also predictive of depression and anxiety disorders later in life. Especially parental psychopathology and

  8. Trajectories of distress, anxiety, and depression among women with breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bidstrup, Pernille Envold; Christensen, Jane; Mertz, Birgitte Goldschmidt

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Little is known about the development of psychological wellbeing over time among women who have been treated for breast cancer. The aim of this study was to identify distinct patterns of distress, anxiety, and depression in such women. METHODS: We invited 426 consecutive women with newly...... diagnosed primary breast cancer to participate in this study, and 323 (76%) provided information on distress ('distress thermometer') and on symptoms of anxiety and depression ('hospital anxiety and depression scale'). Semiparametric group-based mixture modeling was used to identify distinct trajectories...... of distress, anxiety, and depressive symptoms assessed the week before surgery and four and eight months later. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the characteristics of women in the distinct groups. RESULTS: Although no sub-group of women with chronic severe anxiety or depressive symptoms...

  9. The association between supportive relatives and lower occurrence of anxiety and depression in heart patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Camilla; Zinckernagel, Line; Schneekloth, Nanna

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Approximately 30-40% of heart patients develop anxiety and/or depression, which might influence recovery and long-term survival. Research has suggested that support from relatives may decrease anxiety and depression among heart patients; however, the results are inconsistent and often...... based on small study populations. AIM: The paper aimed to investigate the association between having supportive relatives and the occurrence of anxiety and depression in heart patients. METHODS: A population-based cross-sectional study among Danish patients diagnosed with ischemic heart disease, atrial...... fibrillation, heart failure, or heart valve disease. Presence of supportive relatives was measured as the degree to which the patients felt that they had relatives they could count on, while symptoms of anxiety and depression were measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Multiple logistic...

  10. Comorbid anxiety disorders in late-life depression: results of a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Veen, D C; van Zelst, W H; Schoevers, R A; Comijs, H C; Voshaar, R C Oude

    2015-07-01

    Comorbid anxiety disorders are common in late-life depression and negatively impact treatment outcome. This study aimed to examine personality characteristics as well as early and recent life-events as possible determinants of comorbid anxiety disorders in late-life depression, taking previously examined determinants into account. Using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 2.0), we established comorbid anxiety disorders (social phobia (SP), panic disorder (PD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), and agoraphobia (AGO)) in 350 patients (aged ≥60 years) suffering from a major depressive disorder according to DSM-IV-TR criteria within the past six months. Adjusted for age, sex, and level of education, we first examined previously identified determinants of anxious depression: depression severity, suicidality, partner status, loneliness, chronic diseases, and gait speed in multiple logistic regression models. Subsequently, associations were explored with the big five personality characteristics as well as early and recent life-events. First, multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted with the presence of any anxiety disorder (yes/no) as dependent variable, where after analyses were repeated for each anxiety disorder, separately. In our sample, the prevalence rate of comorbid anxiety disorders in late-life depression was 38.6%. Determinants of comorbid anxiety disorders were a lower age, female sex, less education, higher depression severity, early traumatization, neuroticism, extraversion, and conscientiousness. Nonetheless, determinants differed across the specific anxiety disorders and lumping all anxiety disorder together masked some determinants (education, personality). Our findings stress the need to examine determinants of comorbid anxiety disorder for specific anxiety disorders separately, enabling the development of targeted interventions within subgroups of depressed patients.

  11. Depression and Anxiety Change from Adolescence to Adulthood in Individuals with and without Language Impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Botting, Nicola; Toseeb, Umar; Pickles, Andrew; Durkin, Kevin; Conti-Ramsden, Gina

    2016-01-01

    This prospective longitudinal study aims to determine patterns and predictors of change in depression and anxiety from adolescence to adulthood in individuals with language impairment (LI). Individuals with LI originally recruited at age 7 years and a comparison group of age-matched peers (AMPs) were followed from adolescence (16 years) to adulthood (24 years). We determine patterns of change in depression and anxiety using the Child Manifest Anxiety Scale-Revised (CMAS-R) and Short Moods and...

  12. Anxiety and depression in mothers of disabled and non-disabled children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramzan, N.; Minhas, K.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To find the prevalence of anxiety and depression in mothers of disabled and non-disabled children and to find the association of anxiety and depression with demographic characteristics in district Sheikhupura. Method: A cross sectional comparative study was conducted to find differences in the level of anxiety and depression in both groups of mothers i.e. among mothers of disabled and non-disabled children. A convenient sampling technique was used to select 340 mothers belonging to both groups (n = 170 in each group). Urdu version of Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was used to assess anxiety and depression in mothers. Data was analyzed using ANCOVA (SPSS version 17). Results: The Results of ANCOV A revealed statistically significant differences (p < .001) in the level of anxiety and depression in both groups of mothers. Majority of mothers (78%) belonging to children with disability had anxiety. Only 52% mothers belonging to non-disabled children had anxiety. Similarly, as compared to 46% mothers of non-disabled children, 76% mothers belonging to children with disability had depression. Correlation analysis revealed a significantly positive relationship of anxiety and depression with mothers' age (p < .05) and statistically significant inverse relationship with disabled child's age, mothers educational (p < .0 I) ana family income status. Conclusion: As the disabled child advances in age, mother better understands the demands of raising a disabled child and thus can cope with these demands affectively and with lesser anxiety. Implications of the study would assist psychologists in devising techniques for reducing level of anxiety and depression in mothers of disabled children. (author)

  13. Medical Students’ Experience of and Reaction to Stress: The Role of Depression and Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coumaravelou Saravanan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Medical school is recognized as a stressful environment that often has a negative effect on students’ academic performance, physical health, and psychosocial well-being. Previous studies have not identified differences between depressed and nondepressed and anxious and nonanxious medical students’ experiences of stress or their reactions to stressors. The present study aimed to identify the prevalence of depression and anxiety among a sample of 358 medical students attending a private university in Malaysia and to examine differences according to participants’ gender, year of study, and stage of training (preclinical and clinical. Additionally, this study examined the extent to which stress predicts depression and anxiety, differences between depressed and nondepressed medical students’ experiences of and reactions to stressors, and differences between anxious and nonanxious medical students’ experiences of and reactions to stressors. Methods. The Student Life Stress Inventory was used to measure stress and reaction to stressors and the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale was used to measure depression and anxiety. Results. The results showed that 44% (n=158 of the students were anxious and 34.9% (n=125 were depressed. More female students exhibited anxiety compared to male students. Stress is a predictor for depression and anxiety. A significant difference was found between depressed and nondepressed and anxious and nonanxious students’ experience of stressors due to frustration, change, and their emotional reaction to stressors. Conclusion. Overall, depressed and anxious students were found to experience more stress and react differently to stressors compared to nondepressed and nonanxious students.

  14. ANXIETY IN MAJOR DEPRESSION AND CEREBROSPINAL FLUID FREE GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, J. John; Oquendo, Maria A.; Watson, Kalycia Trishana; Boldrini, Maura; Malone, Kevin M.; Ellis, Steven P.; Sullivan, Gregory; Cooper, Thomas B.; Xie, Shan; Currier, Dianne

    2016-01-01

    Background Low gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is implicated in both anxiety and depression pathophysiology. They are often comorbid, but most clinical studies have not examined these relationships separately. We investigated the relationship of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) free GABA to the anxiety and depression components of a major depressive episode (MDE) and to monoamine systems. Methods and Materials Patients with a DSM-IV major depressive episode (N = 167: 130 major depressive disorder; 37 bipolar disorder) and healthy volunteers (N = 38) had CSF free GABA measured by gas chromatography mass spectroscopy. Monoamine metabolites were assayed by high performance liquid chromatography. Symptomatology was assessed by Hamilton depression rating scale. Results Psychic anxiety severity increased with age and correlated with lower CSF free GABA, controlling for age. CSF free GABA declined with age but was not related to depression severity. Other monoamine metabolites correlated positively with CSF GABA but not with psychic anxiety or depression severity. CSF free GABA was lower in MDD compared with bipolar disorder and healthy volunteers. GABA levels did not differ based on a suicide attempt history in mood disorders. Recent exposure to benzodiazepines, but not alcohol or past alcoholism, was associated with a statistical trend for more severe anxiety and lower CSF GABA. Conclusions Lower CSF GABA may explain increasing severity of psychic anxiety in major depression with increasing age. This relationship is not seen with monoamine metabolites, suggesting treatments targeting the GABAergic system should be evaluated in treatment-resistant anxious major depression and in older patients. PMID:24865448

  15. Medical students' experience of and reaction to stress: the role of depression and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, Coumaravelou; Wilks, Ray

    2014-01-01

    Medical school is recognized as a stressful environment that often has a negative effect on students' academic performance, physical health, and psychosocial well-being. Previous studies have not identified differences between depressed and nondepressed and anxious and nonanxious medical students' experiences of stress or their reactions to stressors. The present study aimed to identify the prevalence of depression and anxiety among a sample of 358 medical students attending a private university in Malaysia and to examine differences according to participants' gender, year of study, and stage of training (preclinical and clinical). Additionally, this study examined the extent to which stress predicts depression and anxiety, differences between depressed and nondepressed medical students' experiences of and reactions to stressors, and differences between anxious and nonanxious medical students' experiences of and reactions to stressors. The Student Life Stress Inventory was used to measure stress and reaction to stressors and the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale was used to measure depression and anxiety. The results showed that 44% (n = 158) of the students were anxious and 34.9% (n = 125) were depressed. More female students exhibited anxiety compared to male students. Stress is a predictor for depression and anxiety. A significant difference was found between depressed and nondepressed and anxious and nonanxious students' experience of stressors due to frustration, change, and their emotional reaction to stressors. Overall, depressed and anxious students were found to experience more stress and react differently to stressors compared to nondepressed and nonanxious students.

  16. Anxiety in major depression and cerebrospinal fluid free gamma-aminobutyric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, J John; Oquendo, Maria A; Watson, Kalycia Trishana; Boldrini, Maura; Malone, Kevin M; Ellis, Steven P; Sullivan, Gregory; Cooper, Thomas B; Xie, Shan; Currier, Dianne

    2014-10-01

    Low gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is implicated in both anxiety and depression pathophysiology. They are often comorbid, but most clinical studies have not examined these relationships separately. We investigated the relationship of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) free GABA to the anxiety and depression components of a major depressive episode (MDE) and to monoamine systems. Patients with a DSM-IV major depressive episode (N = 167: 130 major depressive disorder; 37 bipolar disorder) and healthy volunteers (N = 38) had CSF free GABA measured by gas chromatography mass spectroscopy. Monoamine metabolites were assayed by high performance liquid chromatography. Symptomatology was assessed by Hamilton depression rating scale. Psychic anxiety severity increased with age and correlated with lower CSF free GABA, controlling for age. CSF free GABA declined with age but was not related to depression severity. Other monoamine metabolites correlated positively with CSF GABA but not with psychic anxiety or depression severity. CSF free GABA was lower in MDD compared with bipolar disorder and healthy volunteers. GABA levels did not differ based on a suicide attempt history in mood disorders. Recent exposure to benzodiazepines, but not alcohol or past alcoholism, was associated with a statistical trend for more severe anxiety and lower CSF GABA. Lower CSF GABA may explain increasing severity of psychic anxiety in major depression with increasing age. This relationship is not seen with monoamine metabolites, suggesting treatments targeting the GABAergic system should be evaluated in treatment-resistant anxious major depression and in older patients. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Prevalence of depression and anxiety in patients with chronic digestive system diseases: A multicenter epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, An-Zhong; Wang, Qing-Cai; Huang, Kun-Ming; Huang, Jia-Guo; Zhou, Chang-Hong; Sun, Fu-Qiang; Wang, Su-Wen; Wu, Feng-Ting

    2016-11-14

    To investigate the prevalence of depression and anxiety in patients with chronic digestive system diseases. A total of 1736 patients with chronic digestive system diseases were included in this cross-sectional study, including 871 outpatients and 865 in-patients. A self-designed General Information for Patients of the Department of Gastroenterology of General Hospitals questionnaire was used to collect each patient's general information, which included demographic data (including age, sex, marital status, and education) and disease characteristics (including major diseases, disease duration, principal symptoms, chronic pain, sleep disorder, and limited daily activities). The overall detection rate was 31.11% (540/1736) for depression symptoms alone, 27.02% (469/1736) for anxiety symptoms alone, 20.68% (359/1736) for both depression and anxiety symptoms, and 37.44% (650/1736) for either depression or anxiety symptoms. Subjects aged 70 years or above had the highest detection rate of depression (44.06%) and anxiety symptoms (33.33%). χ 2 trend test showed: the higher the body mass index (BMI), the lower the detection rate of depression and anxiety symptoms ( χ 2 trend = 13.697, P digestive system tumors had the highest detection rate of depression (57.55%) and anxiety (55.19%), followed by patients with liver cirrhosis (41.35% and 48.08%). Depression and anxiety symptoms were also high in subjects with comorbid hypertension and coronary heart disease. Depression and anxiety occur in patients with tumors, liver cirrhosis, functional dyspepsia, and chronic viral hepatitis. Elderly, divorced/widowed, poor sleep quality, and lower BMI are associated with higher risk of depression and anxiety.

  18. Correlations between academic achievement and anxiety and depression in medical students experiencing integrated curriculum reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Yi-Chun; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Lai, Chung-Sheng; Huang, Chun-Hsiung; Liu, Keh-Min; Huang, In-Ting

    2007-08-01

    This study aimed to examine the correlations between academic achievement and levels of anxiety and depression in medical students who were experiencing curriculum reform. The differences in academic achievement and the directions of correlations between academic achievement and anxiety and depression among the medical students with different levels of anxiety and depression were also examined. Grade 1 students from graduate-entry program and grade 3 students from undergraduate-entry program in their first semester of the new curriculum were recruited to complete the Zung's Anxiety and Depression Scale twice to examine their levels of anxiety and depression. Their academic achievement ratings in the four blocks of the first semester of the new curriculum were collected. The results indicated that no significant correlation was found between academic achievement and global anxiety and depression. However, by dividing the medical students into low, moderate and high level anxiety or depression groups, those who had poorer academic achievement in the first learning block were more likely to have higher levels of depression in the first psychologic assessment. Among the medical students who were in the high anxiety level group in the first psychologic assessment, those who had more severe anxiety had poorer academic achievement in the fourth learning block. Among the medical students who were in the low anxiety level group in the second psychologic assessment, those who had more severe anxiety had better academic achievement in the fourth learning block. Among the medical students who were in the moderate anxiety level group in the second psychologic assessment, those who had more severe anxiety had poorer academic achievement in the second learning block. Among the medical students who were in the high depression level group in the second psychologic assessment, those who had more severe depression had poorer academic achievement in the fourth learning block. The

  19. Correlations between Academic Achievement and Anxiety and Depression in Medical Students Experiencing Integrated Curriculum Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chun Yeh

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the correlations between academic achievement and levels of anxiety and depression in medical students who were experiencing curriculum reform. The differences in academic achievement and the directions of correlations between academic achievement and anxiety and depression among the medical students with different levels of anxiety and depression were also examined. Grade 1 students from graduate-entry program and grade 3 students from undergraduate-entry program in their first semester of the new curriculum were recruited to complete the Zung's Anxiety and Depression Scale twice to examine their levels of anxiety and depression. Their academic achievement ratings in the four blocks of the first semester of the new curriculum were collected. The results indicated that no significant correlation was found between academic achievement and global anxiety and depression. However, by dividing the medical students into low, moderate and high level anxiety or depression groups, those who had poorer academic achievement in the first learning block were more likely to have higher levels of depression in the first psychologic assessment. Among the medical students who were in the high anxiety level group in the first psychologic assessment, those who had more severe anxiety had poorer academic achievement in the fourth learning block. Among the medical students who were in the low anxiety level group in the second psychologic assessment, those who had more severe anxiety had better academic achievement in the fourth learning block. Among the medical students who were in the moderate anxiety level group in the second psychologic assessment, those who had more severe anxiety had poorer academic achievement in the second learning block. Among the medical students who were in the high depression level group in the second psychologic assessment, those who had more severe depression had poorer academic achievement in the fourth

  20. 哮喘患者的情绪障碍调查%Anxiety and Depression in Patients with Asthma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张岚; 徐大华

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the depression and anxiety in patients with asthma. Methods: With SAS and SDS,100 asthmatic patients were assessed. Results: The mean scores of SAS and SDS were 54.12±6.47, 44.8±7.28 respectively. 68% of sample had anxiety and 78% had depression. Conclusion: Most of patients with asthma have anxiety and depression. It suggests the treament of depression and anxiety for asthmatic patients are needed besides the conventional treatment.

  1. Anti-anxiety and anti-depressant like effects of murraya koenigii in experimental models of anxiety and depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snigdha Sharma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Presence of free radical scavenging activity in Murraya koenigii, commonly known as Curry leaves, has been shown in previous studies. Oxidative stress plays an important role in the development of various neurobehavioral disorders including anxiety and depression. Aim: The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of Murraya koenigii in animal models of depression and anxiety. Materials and Methods: The effect of incremental doses of Murraya koenigii aqueous leaf extract was evaluated on spontaneous motor activity (SMA, open arm incursions in elevated plus maze, and despair behaviour in forced swim (FST and tail suspension (TST tests as compared to control groups in Swiss albino mice. Results: Murraya koenigii 300 mg/kg, p.o. (MK300 and 400 mg/kg, p.o. (MK400 reduced the SMA count from 754 ± 64.9 to 540 ± 29 and 295 ± 34 respectively, which was statistically significant. MK300 and MK400 reduced significantly the open arm count from 29 ± 8.6 to 16 ± 7 and 10 ± 3.9, respectively. On FST, MK400 reduced the duration of immobility from 145.5 ± 29 to 91 ± 17.3, which was statistically significant. On TST, MK produced a dose-dependent decrease in the duration of immobility; however, it was statistically significant only with MK400. Conclusion: Murraya koenigii aqueous leaf extract reduced the despair behavior in experimental animal models, suggesting an anti-depressant like activity. Murraya koenigii extract also reduced spontaneous locomotor activity in a dose-dependent manner suggesting a sedative and/or anxiolytic effect though there wasn't any anxiolytic effect in the elevated plus maze test.

  2. Psychometric properties of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) in depressed clinical samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Andrew C; Hooke, Geoffrey R; Morrison, David L

    2007-09-01

    The psychometric properties of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS; Lovibond & Lovibond, 1995a) were examined in depressed psychiatric hospital samples. Three studies administered the DASS and other symptom measures at admission and discharge to consecutive adult hospital patients with a primary diagnosis of depression. Study 3 aimed to address problems with the DASS by extending the response options. Study 1 found that the DASS had good reliability and validity, was moderately sensitive to change, but the Depression Scale exhibited a ceiling effect. In Study 2, confirmatory factor analysis supported a three-factor structure and the DASS continued to demonstrate good psychometric properties, but the ceiling effect was replicated. Study 3 found that by extending the response scale to include an additional option, the factor structure of the instrument as a whole was maintained, the sensitivity to treatment was increased, but the ceiling effect was only marginally reduced. The psychometric properties of the DASS were sound in clinically depressed samples, but the Depression Scale exhibited a ceiling effect that could not be resolved with minor changes to the scale. Suggestions for revisions of the DASS are made.

  3. Evaluation of the effect of cognitive therapy on perioperative anxiety and depression among Nigerian surgical patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osinowo, H O; Olley, B O; Adejumo, A O

    2003-12-01

    Surgical paients have been known to benefit immensely from psychological interventions. This study set out to assess the pre and postoperative anxiety levels and depression and the effect of cognitive therapy among Nigerian surgical patients. The effects of gender and educational status on perioperative anxiety and depression were also evaluated. The study utilized a controlled outcome design to evaluate the efficacy of self-instructional training (SIT) and rational emotive therapy (RET) in surgical patients. Preoperative anxiety and depression scores were used as co-variants. Thirty-three (33) elective surgical patients were sampled randomly, divided into 3 groups of eleven (11) patients each. Eight (8) subjects underwent gynaecological procedures while the remaining 25 subjects had general surgical procedures. The mean age was 32.72 +/- 15.83 years (range = 17-16 years.) The major instruments used in the study were the State Anxiety Subscale of the Speilberger State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Inventory. SIT had the potential to reduce anxiety level among subjects postoperatively (t = 2.06; df = 10; p < 0.05). The use of RET reduced depression among surgical patients (t = 1.23; df = 10; p < 0.05). It was concluded that surgical patients manifest varying degrees of anxiety preoperatively and postoperatively. Patient's pre and postoperative anxiety and depression can be reduced by the introduction of SIT and RET.

  4. Examination of the decline in symptoms of anxiety and depression in generalized anxiety disorder: Impact of anxiety senstivity on response to pharmacotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olatunji, B.O.; Feldman, G.; Smits, J.A.J.; Christian, K.M.; Zalta, A.K.; Pollack, M.H.; Simon, N.M.

    2008-01-01

    Pharmacotherapy is an effective treatment for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), but few studies have examined the nature of decline of anxiety and depression during pharmacotherapy for GAD and even fewer studies have examined predictors of symptom decline. This study examined the decline in

  5. Association between chronic low back pain, anxiety and depression in patients at a tertiary care centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagheer, M.A.; Khan, M.F.; Sharif, S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To observe the prevalence of anxiety and depression in chronic low back pain population at a tertiary care centre. Methods: The prospective cross-sectional study was conducted using convenience sampling at the Department of Neurosurgery, at Liaquat National Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan, from January to June 2010. The prevalence of anxiety and depression in chronic low back pain patients was studied according to specified age and gender groups using Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Results: Of the 140 patients in the study, 66 (47.14%) were females and 74 (52.85%) were males. The average age of the patients was 43.02+-13.34 years. The average duration of symptoms was 4.29+-3.3 years. Abnormal level of anxiety and depression were found in 77 (55%) and 68 (48.57%) patients respectively. Out of them 54 (38.5%) and 51 (36.4%) were borderline abnormal for anxiety and depression respectively, while 23 (16.4%) and 17 (12.1%) were abnormal for anxiety and depression respectively. Among the males, there were 20 (14.28%) and 23 (16.42%) patients with abnormal levels of the corresponding numbers among the females were 57 (40.71%) and 45 (32.14%). There was a significant association in anxiety (p 0.05). Conclusion: Individuals with chronic low back pain were at high risk to experience anxiety and depression. This risk was higher for females. (author)

  6. Depression and Anxiety among Parents of Children with Blood Disease in Ahvaz, South West of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadis Ashrafizadeh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Existence the children with blood diseases in family could cause lots of stress and anxiety for parents, this stress among parents would negative effects on children's disease process and his response to treatment. Materials and Methods This is a descriptive-analytical study which carried out on 480 parents with children affected to blood disease referring to Shafa hospital of Ahvaz, Iran.  The parents’ level of anxiety was evaluated using the Hospital Scale for Anxiety and Depression. In this study Sample size by using statistical formulas was selected 480 persons by available sampling. Data were analyzed using SPSS-16 software. Results Results showed that in 20.4% (98 cases of parents level of anxiety was intense, in 50.7% (243 cases level of anxiety was middle, in 15.6% (75 cases level of anxiety was low and 13.3% (64 cases of parents were lack of anxiety. Additionally the results of level depression study showed that 8.6% (41cases of parents had severe depression, 35.7% (171 cases moderate depression, 15.7% (76 cases low depression and 40% (192 cases no depression. According to the results of this study, there was a significant difference between level of anxiety and depression of parents and the duration of child's hospitalization (P

  7. The influence of comorbid anxiety on the effectiveness of Cognitive Therapy and Interpersonal Psychotherapy for Major Depressive Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bronswijk, Suzanne C.; Lemmens, Lotte H.J.M.; Huibers, Marcus J.H.; Arntz, Arnoud; Peeters, Frenk P.M.L.

    Background: Anxious depression is an important subtype of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) defined by both syndromal (anxiety disorders) and dimensional (anxiety symptoms) criteria. A debated question is how anxiety affects MDD treatment. This study examined the impact of comorbid anxiety disorders

  8. A Psychometric Analysis of the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scales--Parent Version in a School Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebesutani, Chad; Chorpita, Bruce F.; Higa-McMillan, Charmaine K.; Nakamura, Brad J.; Regan, Jennifer; Lynch, Roxanna E.

    2011-01-01

    The Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale--Parent Version (RCADS-P) is a parent-report questionnaire of youth anxiety and depression with scales corresponding to the "DSM" diagnoses of separation anxiety disorder, social phobia, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and major depressive…

  9. A Psychometric Analysis of the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale-Parent Version in a Clinical Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebesutani, Chad; Bernstein, Adam; Nakamura, Brad J.; Chorpita, Bruce F.; Weisz, John R.

    2010-01-01

    The Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale-Parent Version (RCADS-P) is a 47-item parent-report questionnaire of youth anxiety and depression, with scales corresponding to the DSM-IV categories of Separation Anxiety Disorder, Social Phobia, Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD), Panic Disorder, Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, and Major Depressive…

  10. Comorbidity and risk indicators for alcohol use disorders among persons with anxiety and/or depressive disorders Findings from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschloo, L.; Vogelzangs, N.; Smit, J.H.; van den Brink, W.; Veltman, D.J.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: This study examines comorbidity of alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence as well as its risk indicators among anxious and/or depressed persons, also considering temporal sequencing of disorders. Methods: Baseline data from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA) were

  11. Comorbidity and risk indicators for alcohol use disorders among persons with anxiety and/or depressive disorders: findings from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschloo, Lynn; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Smit, Johannes H.; van den Brink, Wim; Veltman, Dick J.; Beekman, Aartjan T. F.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines comorbidity of alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence as well as its risk indicators among anxious and/or depressed persons, also considering temporal sequencing of disorders. Baseline data from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA) were used, including 2329

  12. The association of depression and anxiety with medical symptom burden in patients with chronic medical illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katon, Wayne; Lin, Elizabeth H B; Kroenke, Kurt

    2007-01-01

    Primary care patients with anxiety and depression often describe multiple physical symptoms, but no systematic review has studied the effect of anxiety and depressive comorbidity in patients with chronic medical illnesses. MEDLINE databases were searched from 1966 through 2006 using the combined search terms diabetes, coronary artery disease (CAD), congestive heart failure (CHF), asthma, COPD, osteoarthritis (OA), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), with depression, anxiety and symptoms. Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies with >100 patients were included as were all randomized controlled trials that measure the impact of improving anxiety and depressive symptoms on medical symptom outcomes. Thirty-one studies involving 16,922 patients met our inclusion criteria. Patients with chronic medical illness and comorbid depression or anxiety compared to those with chronic medical illness alone reported significantly higher numbers of medical symptoms when controlling for severity of medical disorder. Across the four categories of common medical disorders examined (diabetes, pulmonary disease, heart disease, arthritis), somatic symptoms were at least as strongly associated with depression and anxiety as were objective physiologic measures. Two treatment studies also showed that improvement in depression outcome was associated with decreased somatic symptoms without improvement in physiologic measures. Accurate diagnosis of comorbid depressive and anxiety disorders in patients with chronic medical illness is essential in understanding the cause and in optimizing the management of somatic symptom burden.

  13. Risk factors for depression and anxiety among pregnant women in Hospital Tuanku Bainun, Ipoh, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadzil, Ariff; Balakrishnan, Kartini; Razali, Rosdinom; Sidi, Hatta; Malapan, Thinakaran; Japaraj, Robert Peter; Midin, Marhani; Nik Jaafar, Nik Ruzyanei; Das, Srijit; Manaf, Mohd Rizal Abdul

    2013-04-01

    Anxiety and depression are prevalent during pregnancy. Estimates of the prevalence of anxiety and depression during pregnancy vary according to the criteria used, variable methodologies and population characteristics. A cross-sectional survey design was used. A total of 175 antenatal mothers participated. Their socio-demographic and obstetric histories were recorded. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.) were used. The prevalence of anxiety and depression disorders among antenatal mothers using diagnostic clinical interview were 9.1% and 8.6%, respectively. Factors associated with antenatal anxiety were marital status (being unmarried), positive history of mental illness, gestational age (depressive comorbidity. However, only gestational age of less than 20 weeks and depressive disorder remained significant factors in the multivariate analysis. The prevalence rate of antenatal depression detected by HADS screening was comparable to the rate from diagnostic interview, but there was a slight overestimation for antenatal anxiety. Nonetheless, HADS as a screening tool offers a practical solution for detecting these two conditions in a busy antenatal clinic or a large epidemiological survey. In view of the deleterious effects of antenatal anxiety and depression on mothers and children, these two conditions should be screened and managed appropriately. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  14. Integrating Etiological Models of Social Anxiety and Depression in Youth: Evidence for a Cumulative Interpersonal Risk Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epkins, Catherine C.; Heckler, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Models of social anxiety and depression in youth have been developed separately, and they contain similar etiological influences. Given the high comorbidity of social anxiety and depression, we examine whether the posited etiological constructs are a correlate of, or a risk factor for, social anxiety and/or depression at the symptom level and the…

  15. Childhood life events and childhood trauma in adult patients with depressive, anxiety and comorbid disorders vs. controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovens, J.G.F.M.; Wiersma, J.E.; Giltay, E.J.; van Oppen, P.C.; Spinhoven, P.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Zitman, F.G.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the association between childhood life events, childhood trauma and the presence of anxiety, depressive or comorbid anxiety and depressive disorders in adulthood. Method: Data are from 1931 adult participants in the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA).

  16. Childhood life events and childhood trauma in adult patients with depressive, anxiety and comorbid disorders vs. controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovens, J. G. F. M.; Wiersma, J. E.; Giltay, E. J.; van Oppen, P.; Spinhoven, P.; Penninx, B. W. J. H.; Zitman, F. G.

    Objective: To investigate the association between childhood life events, childhood trauma and the presence of anxiety, depressive or comorbid anxiety and depressive disorders in adulthood. Method: Data are from 1931 adult participants in the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA).

  17. Locus of Control Fails to Mediate between Stress and Anxiety and Depression in Parents of Children with a Developmental Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlyn-Wright, Sarah; Draghi-Lorenz, Riccardo; Ellis, Jason

    2007-01-01

    Stress, anxiety and depression are raised amongst parents of children with a developmental disorder. However, the processes by which stress leads to depression and anxiety are poorly understood. In a cross-sectional survey, levels of parental stress, depression and anxiety were compared between parents of children with an autistic disorder,…

  18. The Relation of Anxiety, Depression, and Happiness with Binge Eating Disorder among Binge Eating Applicants of Weight-Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Safi

    2017-02-01

    Z = 0.62, respectively. It was shown that depression, anxiety, and absence of happiness had important roles in the process of weight reduction among applicants of weight loss. Conclusions: Anxiety and depression lead to over-eating and over-eating inturn reinforces both depression and anxiety.

  19. Gender differences in major depressive disorder: results from the Netherlands study of depression and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuch, Jérôme J J; Roest, Annelieke M; Nolen, Willem A; Penninx, Brenda W J H; de Jonge, Peter

    2014-03-01

    Although an overall gender difference in prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) has been well established, several questions concerning gender differences in the clinical manifestation of depression remain. This study aims to identify gender differences in psychopathology, treatment, and public health consequences in patients with MDD. Baseline data from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA) were used, including 1115 participants (364 men, 751 women, mean age 41 years) with a DSM-IV diagnosis of current MDD. Characteristics studied included symptom profiles, comorbidity, treatment, and public health consequences. Women reported a younger age of onset of single (27.8 years vs. 31.6 years; p=0.001) and recurrent MDD (24.8 years vs. 27.6 years; p=0.014), a higher comorbidity of panic disorder with agoraphobia (24.9% vs. 17.3%; p=0.006) and life-time overall anxiety disorder (77.6% vs. 71.4%; p=0.029) than men. More men than women suffered from comorbid alcohol dependence or abuse (48.1% vs. 24.5%; pdepression in women (24.6% vs. 17.3%; p=0.009) was found. Women were treated more frequently by an alternative caretaker (20.6% vs. 14.8%; p=0.025), men more often in mental health care organizations (61.0% vs. 53.7%; p=0.025). No gender differences in frequency of medication use or counseling were found. Cross sectional design. Main gender differences in the clinical presentation of MDD concerned a younger age of onset, higher anxiety and lower alcohol use comorbidity and higher prevalence of atypical depression in women. These differences were accompanied by differences in health care use. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The method of edge anxiety-depressive disorder correction in patients with diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kozhanova

    2015-11-01

    4.    Kazimierz Wielki University, Bydgoszcz, Poland Abstract   The article presents the results of research on the effectiveness of the method developed by the authors for correcting the anxiety and depressive edge disorders in patients with type 2 diabetes through the use of magnetic-therapy.   Tags: anxiety-depressive disorder, hidden depression, diabetes, medical rehabilitation, singlet-oxygen therapy.

  1. Associations between self-esteem, anxiety and depression and metacognitive awareness or metacognitive knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiles, Clélia; Prouteau, Antoinette; Verdoux, Hélène

    2015-12-15

    This study explored in a non-clinical sample the associations between self-esteem, anxiety and depression symptoms and metacognitive awareness or metacognitive knowledge. Higher metacognitive awareness scores measured during the neuropsychological tasks were positively associated with higher depression scores in the social cognition test. Metacognitive knowledge score measured independently of ongoing neuropsychological tasks was positively associated with lower self-esteem, higher anxiety (state or trait) and depression scores. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Efficacy of Metacognitive Therapy for Anxiety and Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Normann, Nicoline; van Emmerik, Arnold A.P.; Morina, Nexhmedin

    2014-01-01

    effective than both waitlist control groups (between-group Hedges’ g = 1.81) as well as cognitive behavior therapy (CBT; between-group Hedges’ g = 0.97). Conclusions: Results suggest that MCT is effective in treating disorders of anxiety and depression and is supe- rior compared to waitlist control groups......Background: Metacognitive therapy (MCT) is a relatively new approach to treat- ing mental disorders. The aim of the current meta-analysis was to examine the efficacy of MCT in patients with mental disorders. Method: A comprehensive literature search revealed 16 published as well as unpublished...... and CBT, although the latter finding should be interpreted with caution. The implications of these findings are limited by small sample sizes and few active control conditions. Future studies should include larger sample sizes and also include comparisons of MCT with other empirically supported therapies....

  3. Distinguishing between depression and anxiety: a proposal for an extension of the tripartite model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Hollander-Gijsman, M E; de Beurs, E; van der Wee, N J A; van Rood, Y R; Zitman, F G

    2010-05-01

    The aim of the current study was to develop scales that assess symptoms of depression and anxiety and can adequately differentiate between depression and anxiety disorders, and also can distinguish within anxiety disorders. As point of departure, we used the tripartite model of Clark and Watson that discerns three dimensions: negative affect, positive affect and physiological hyperarousal. Analyses were performed on the data of 1449 patients, who completed the Mood and Anxiety Symptoms Questionnaire (MASQ) and the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI). From this, 1434 patients were assessed with a standardized diagnostic interview. A model with five dimensions was found: depressed mood, lack of positive affect, somatic arousal, phobic fear and hostility. The scales appear capable to differentiate between patients with a mood and with an anxiety disorder. Within the anxiety disorders, somatic arousal was specific for patients with panic disorder. Phobic fear was associated with panic disorder, simple phobia and social anxiety disorder, but not with generalized anxiety disorder. We present a five-factor model as an extension of the tripartite model. Through the addition of phobic fear, anxiety is better represented than in the tripartite model. The new scales are capable to accurately differentiate between depression and anxiety disorders, as well as between several anxiety disorders. (c) 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. DEPRESSION AND ANXIETY IN PATIENT WITH ACUTE CORONARY SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadek Dwi Krisnayanti

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE Depression and anxiety are two conditions that common happened in patient with acute coronary syndrome which can cause negative cardiovascular outcomes. Although the prevalencies of these two conditions are slightly high, most of them had not been treated well. The mechanisms that underly the association between depression and anxiety with the negative cardiovascular outcome are possibly correlates with their effect on inflammatory process, cathecolamine release, heart rate variability, endothelial function and also their effect on health promoting behavior. Fortunately, the standard therapies that available for these conditions are safe, effective, and can be tolerated well in most patients. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  5. Anxiety, Depression, and the Microbiome: A Role for Gut Peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lach, Gilliard; Schellekens, Harriet; Dinan, Timothy G; Cryan, John F

    2018-01-01

    The complex bidirectional communication between the gut and the brain is finely orchestrated by different systems, including the endocrine, immune, autonomic, and enteric nervous systems. Moreover, increasing evidence supports the role of the microbiome and microbiota-derived molecules in regulating such interactions; however, the mechanisms underpinning such effects are only beginning to be resolved. Microbiota-gut peptide interactions are poised to be of great significance in the regulation of gut-brain signaling. Given the emerging role of the gut-brain axis in a variety of brain disorders, such as anxiety and depression, it is important to understand the contribution of bidirectional interactions between peptide hormones released from the gut and intestinal bacteria in the context of this axis. Indeed, the gastrointestinal tract is the largest endocrine organ in mammals, secreting dozens of different signaling molecules, including peptides. Gut peptides in the systemic circulation can bind cognate receptors on immune cells and vagus nerve terminals thereby enabling indirect gut-brain communication. Gut peptide concentrations are not only modulated by enteric microbiota signals, but also vary according to the composition of the intestinal microbiota. In this review, we will discuss the gut microbiota as a regulator of anxiety and depression, and explore the role of gut-derived peptides as signaling molecules in microbiome-gut-brain communication. Here, we summarize the potential interactions of the microbiota with gut hormones and endocrine peptides, including neuropeptide Y, peptide YY, pancreatic polypeptide, cholecystokinin, glucagon-like peptide, corticotropin-releasing factor, oxytocin, and ghrelin in microbiome-to-brain signaling. Together, gut peptides are important regulators of microbiota-gut-brain signaling in health and stress-related psychiatric illnesses.

  6. Factors associated to depression and anxiety in medical students: a multicenter study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Brenneisen Mayer

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate personal and institutional factors related to depression and anxiety prevalence of students from 22 Brazilian medical schools. Methods The authors performed a multicenter study (August 2011 to August 2012, examining personal factors (age, sex, housing, tuition scholarship and institutional factors (year of the medical training, school legal status, location and support service in association with scores of Beck Depression Inventory (BDI and State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI. Results Of 1,650 randomly selected students, 1,350 (81.8 % completed the study. The depressive symptoms prevalence was 41 % (BDI > 9, state-anxiety 81.7 % and trait-anxiety in 85.6 % (STAI > 33. There was a positive relationship between levels of state (r = 0,591, p < 0.001 and trait (r = 0,718, p < 0.001 anxiety and depression scores. All three symptoms were positively associated with female sex and students from medical schools located in capital cities of both sexes. Tuition scholarship students had higher state-anxiety but not trait-anxiety or depression scores. Medical students with higher levels of depression and anxiety symptoms disagree more than their peers with the statements “I have adequate access to psychological support” and “There is a good support system for students who get stressed”. Conclusions The factors associated with the increase of medical students’ depression and anxiety symptoms were female sex, school location and tuition scholarship. It is interesting that tuition scholarship students showed state-anxiety, but not depression and trait-anxiety symptoms.

  7. [Psychosocial factors predicting postnatal anxiety symptoms and their relation to symptoms of postpartum depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete, Laura Elena; Lara-Cantú, María Asunción; Navarro, Claudia; Gómez, María Eugenia; Morales, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    To study perinatal anxiety symptoms in a sample of Mexican mothers. A) To evaluate the effect of certain psychosocial factors during pregnancy on anxiety symptoms at two postpartum time intervals; and B) to determine whether this symptomatology is related to symptoms of postnatal depression. In this secondary data analysis, 156 women were interviewed during pregnancy (T1): 149 were interviewed again at 6 weeks postpartum (T2) and 156 at 4-6 months postpartum (T3). Subjects were selected from women seeking prenatal attention at three health centers in Mexico City who presented with depressive symptomatology and/or previous history of depression. Two models were subjected to multivariate regression analysis to determine the influence of psychosocial factors in pregnancy (age, education, partner status, social support [APGAR], stress events, self-esteem [Coopersmith], depressive symptomatology [BDI-II], and anxiety [SCL-90]) on anxiety symptomatology (SCL-90) in T2 and T3. Two additional linear regression analyses were performed to evaluate the influence of prenatal anxiety symptomatology (SCL-90) on postpartum depression symptoms (BDI-II), one for each postnatal period (T2, T3). The variables that predicted postpartum anxiety symptomatology in T2 were anxiety symptoms and lack of social support; in T3 they were anxiety symptoms, lack of a partner, and lack of social support. Prenatal anxiety symptoms predicted postpartum depressive symptomatology at both postpartum intervals (T2, T3). Untreated prenatal anxiety symptomatology is predictive of symptoms of anxiety and depression in the postpartum period, suggesting the need for timely detection and treatment. Women lacking social support or partners are a population particularly vulnerable to anxiety symptoms, and merit interventions that address these issues.

  8. Assessment of depression and anxiety in adult cancer outpatients: a cross-sectional study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jadoon, Nauman A; Munir, Waqar; Shahzad, Mohammad A; Choudhry, Zeshan S

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of anxiety and depressive disorders in cancer patients and its associated factors in Pakistan is not known. There is a need to develop an evidence base to help introduce interventions as untreated depression and anxiety can lead to significant morbidity. We assessed the prevalence of depression and anxiety among adult outpatients with and without cancer as well as the effect of various demographic, clinical and behavioral factors on levels of depression and anxiety in cancer patients. This cross-sectional study was carried out in outpatient departments of Multan Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy and Nishtar Medical College Hospital, Multan. Aga Khan University Anxiety and Depression Scale (AKUADS) was used to define the presence of depression and anxiety in study participants. The sample consisted of 150 diagnosed cancer patients and 268 participants without cancer (control group). The mean age of cancer patients was 40.85 years (SD = 16.46) and median illness duration was 5.5 months, while the mean age of the control group was 39.58 years (SD = 11.74). Overall, 66.0% of the cancer patients were found to have depression and anxiety using a cutoff score of 20 on AKUADS. Among the control group, 109 subjects (40.7%) had depression and anxiety. Cancer patients were significantly more likely to suffer from distress compared to the control group (OR = 2.83, 95% CI = 1.89-4.25, P = 0.0001). Performing logistic regression analysis showed that age up to 40 years significantly influenced the prevalence of depression and anxiety in cancer patients. There was no statistically significant difference between gender, marital status, locality, education, income, occupation, physical activity, smoking, cancer site, illness duration and mode of treatment, surgery related to cancer and presence of depression and anxiety. Cancers highly associated with depression and anxiety were gastrointestinal malignancies, chest tumors and breast cancer. This study

  9. Comparing Anxiety and Depression in Patients With Takotsubo Stress Cardiomyopathy to Those With Acute Coronary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Anne C H; Wong, Stephanie; Zaroff, Jonathan G; Shafaee, Navid; Lundstrom, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    To determine whether anxiety or depression is associated with takotsubo stress cardiomyopathy (TSCM). A retrospective case-control study was conducted among 73 TSCM cases and 111 acute coronary syndrome (ACS) controls matched for age, sex, and cardiac catheterization date. The study was conducted between May 1, 2009, and February 28, 2010. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was completed by all participants after hospital discharge. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was used to assess psychological distress with measurement of anxiety and depression scores. The presence of a stressful emotional or physical trigger before the TSCM presentation was determined. Univariate testing was performed to quantify the associations between anxiety and depression and TSCM trigger status. Multivariable logistic regression was used to quantify the independent associations between anxiety and depression and TSCM status after controlling for relevant covariates. The mean anxiety score was 6.7 ± 4.7 for TSCM cases versus 5.4 ± 3.4 for ACS controls (P = .06). The mean depression score was 4.3 ± 3.7 for TSCM cases versus 4.0 ± 3.1 for controls (P = .61). Anxiety was particularly associated with TSCM status with an emotional trigger (P = .05). After multivariable adjustment, anxiety (OR = 1.13; 95% CI, 1.01-1.26; P = .03) was associated with TSCM status but depression was not (OR = 0.94; 95% CI, 0.83-1.05; P = .29). In comparison with a control group with ACS, patients who presented with TSCM have higher levels of anxiety but not depression.

  10. Predictors of personal, perceived and self-stigma towards anxiety and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busby Grant, J; Bruce, C P; Batterham, P J

    2016-06-01

    Stigma towards individuals experiencing a mental illness is associated with a range of negative psychological, social and financial outcomes. Factors associated with stigma remain unclear; the relationship between stigma and various personal factors may depend on both the type of disorder being stigmatised and what type of stigma is assessed. Different forms of stigma include personal stigma (negative attitudes towards others), perceived stigma (perceived attitudes of others) and self-stigma (self-attribution of others' negative attitudes). Three hundred and fifty university students and members of the general public completed an online survey assessing contact with and knowledge of both depression and anxiety, age, gender, current depression and anxiety symptoms, and personal, perceived and self-stigma for both depression and anxiety. Greater contact with, and knowledge of that illness predicted lower personal stigma for both anxiety and depression. Participants with greater levels of current depression symptomatology and females, reported higher perceived stigma towards depression. Males reported higher personal stigma for anxiety. For both anxiety and depression, higher current symptomatology was associated with greater levels of self-stigma towards the illness. Findings confirm the role of contact and knowledge in personal stigma for both disorders, consistent with previous findings. This finding also supports evidence that interventions addressing these factors are associated with a decline in personal stigma. However, lack of relationship between contact with, and knowledge of a mental illness and perceived and self-stigma for either depression or anxiety suggests that these factors may not play a major role in perceived or self-stigma. The identification of symptomatology as a key factor associated with self-stigma for both anxiety and depression is significant, and has implications for community-wide interventions aiming to increase help-seeking behaviour

  11. Transdiagnostic dimensions of anxiety and depression moderate motivation-related brain networks during goal maintenance.

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    Spielberg, Jeffrey M; Miller, Gregory A; Warren, Stacie L; Sutton, Bradley P; Banich, Marie; Heller, Wendy

    2014-10-01

    Advancing research on the etiology, prevention, and treatment of psychopathology requires the field to move beyond modular conceptualizations of neural dysfunction toward understanding disturbance in key brain networks. Although some studies of anxiety and depression have begun doing so, they typically suffer from several drawbacks, including: (1) a categorical approach ignoring transdiagnostic processes, (2) failure to account for substantial anxiety and depression comorbidity, (3) examination of networks at rest, which overlooks disruption manifesting only when networks are challenged. Accordingly, the present study examined relationships between transdiagnostic dimensions of anxiety/depression and patterns of functional connectivity while goal maintenance was challenged. Participants (n = 179, unselected community members and undergraduates selected to be high/low on anxiety/depression) performed a task in which goal maintenance was challenged (color-word Stroop) while fMRI data were collected. Analyses examined moderation by anxiety/depression of condition-dependent coupling between regions of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) previously associated with approach and avoidance motivation and amygdala/orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Anxious arousal was positively associated with amygdala↔right dlPFC coupling. Depression was positively associated with OFC↔right dlPFC coupling and negatively associated with OFC↔left dlPFC coupling. Findings advance the field toward an integrative model of the neural instantiation of anxiety/depression by identifying specific, distinct dysfunctions associated with anxiety and depression in networks important for maintaining approach and avoidance goals. Specifically, findings shed light on potential neural mechanisms involved in attentional biases in anxiety and valuation biases in depression and underscore the importance of examining transdiagnostic dimensions of anxiety/depression while networks are challenged. © 2014

  12. The effects of guided imagery on comfort, depression, anxiety, and stress of psychiatric inpatients with depressive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apóstolo, João Luís Alves; Kolcaba, Katharine

    2009-12-01

    This article describes the efficacy of a guided imagery intervention for decreasing depression, anxiety, and stress and increasing comfort in psychiatric inpatients with depressive disorders. A quasi-experimental design sampled 60 short-term hospitalized depressive patients selected consecutively. The experimental group listened to a guided imagery compact disk once a day for 10 days. The Psychiatric Inpatients Comfort Scale and the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scales (DASS-21) were self-administered at two time points: prior to the intervention (T1) and 10 days later (T2). Comfort and DASS-21 were also assessed in the usual care group at T1 and T2. Repeated measures revealed that the treatment group had significantly improved comfort and decreased depression, anxiety, and stress over time.

  13. Depression Subscale of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale applied preoperatively in spinal surgery

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    Asdrubal Falavigna

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the accuracy of the Depression Subscale of Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-D in spine surgery, comparing it to Beck Depression Inventory (BDI. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, the HADS-D and the BDI were applied to patients undergoing spine surgery for lumbar (n=139 or cervical spondylosis (n=17. Spearman correlation tests for HADS-D and BDI were applied. The internal consistency of HADS-D was estimated by Cronbach's alpha coefficient. RESULTS: According to the BDI, the prevalence of depression was of 28.8% (n=45. The Spearman r coefficient between HADS-D and BDI was 0.714 (p10, there was a sensitivity of 71.1%, specificity of 95.4%, and positive likelihood-ratio of 15.78. CONCLUSIONS: HADS-D showed a strong correlation with BDI and good reliability. HADS-D is a good alternative for screening depression and assessing its severity.

  14. [Comorbid psychiatric symptoms in pathological gamblers: anxiety, depression and substance abuse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannon, Pinhas; Sason, Marina; Shalgi, Bosmat; Tusan, Lali; Sapir, Yafa; Kotler, Moshe

    2004-09-01

    Over the centuries, gambling behaviour has been well known and characterized by the combination of pleasure, luck and competition. Our study explored the relationship between pathological gambling, depression and anxiety. We also explored demographic findings and behavioural patterns of the pathological gamblers. Fourty-seven patients were included in this study and they anonymously completed questionnaires which included demographic findings, the Hamilton depression rating scale and the Hamilton anxiety rating scale. The study results demonstrated a strong correlation between depression, anxiety, substance abuse, and pathological gambling. It also presented lower income and higher anxiety levels associated with a higher tendency for gambling. The subjects suffering from depression and anxiety also showed higher levels of suicidality and other abuse dependencies. In order to confirm these preliminary results larger studies are needed in this field.

  15. Preventing Adolescent Social Anxiety and Depression and Reducing Peer Victimization: Intervention Development and Open Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Greca, Annette M.; Ehrenreich-May, Jill; Mufson, Laura; Chan, Sherilynn

    2016-01-01

    Background: Social anxiety disorder (SAD) and depression are common among adolescents, frequently comorbid, and resistant to change. Prevention programs for adolescent SAD are scant, and depression prevention programs do not fully address peer-risk factors. One critical peer-risk factor for SAD and depression is peer victimization. We describe the…

  16. Association between Anger Rumination and Autism Symptom Severity, Depression Symptoms, Aggression, and General Dysregulation in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Shivani; Day, Taylor N.; Jones, Neil; Mazefsky, Carla A.

    2017-01-01

    Rumination has a large direct effect on psychopathology but has received relatively little attention in autism spectrum disorder despite the propensity to perseverate in this population. This study provided initial evidence that adolescents with autism spectrum disorder self-report more anger-focused rumination than typically developing controls,…

  17. [Depression, anxiety and suicide risk symptoms among medical residents over an academic year].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-López, José Luis; Arenas-Osuna, Jesús; Angeles-Garay, Ulises

    2015-01-01

    One of the causes of dissatisfaction among residents is related to burnout syndrome, stress and depression. The aim of this study is to describe the prevalence of depression, anxiety and suicide risk symptoms and its correlation with mental disorders among medical residents over an academic year. 108 medical residents registered to second year of medical residence answered the Beck Depression Inventory, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Suicide Risk Scale of Plutchik: at the entry, six months later and at the end of the academic year. Residents reported low depressive symptoms (3.7 %), low anxiety symptoms (38 %) and 1.9 % of suicide risk at the beginning of the academic year, which increased in second measurement to 22.2 % for depression, 56.5 % for anxiety and 7.4 % for suicide risk. The statistical analysis showed significant differences between the three measurements (p depressive disorder was 4.6 % and no anxiety disorder was diagnosed. Almost all of the residents with depressive disorder had personal history of depression. None reported the work or academic environment as a trigger of the disorder. There was no association by specialty, sex or civil status. The residents that are susceptible to depression must be detected in order to receive timely attention if they develop depressive disorder.

  18. [Depression, anxiety and stress scales: DASS--A screening procedure not only for pain patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilges, P; Essau, C

    2015-12-01

    The assessment of mental distress is a central aspect in pain research and treatment. Particularly for depression the comorbidity with pain poses methodological and conceptual challenges. This study examined the psychometric properties of the short version of the depression, anxiety and stress scale (DASS), used in both pain research and treatment and constructed to overcome the particular problems by omitting somatic items and concentrating on the psychological core aspects of depression, anxiety and stress. The psychometric properties of the DASS-21 were compared between patients with pain and various people without any pain problems (N = 950). The DASS has three subscales, depression, anxiety and stress, each with seven items. The construct validity of the DASS was examined using the hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS) for anxiety and depression and the general depression scale (Allgemeine Depressionsskala, ADS) for depression. The sensitivity and specificity for depression were determined against a structured interview for diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-IV) and compared with the Center for Epidemiological Studies depression scale (CESD) and HADS in pain patients. Cronbach's alpha of the DASS for the depression subscale was at least 0.91, while the anxiety and stress subscales had Cronbach alphas of 0.78-0.82 and 0.81-0.89, respectively. Although the depression subscale has only 7 items, it is just as reliable as the ADS with 21 items. It also has a better sensitivity and specificity than the HADS in identifying clinical patients with depression. The DASS is a reliable questionnaire, free to use and brief to administer; therefore, it is an alternative to the previously used instruments for the screening of depression. Furthermore, the subscale stress measures irritability and tension, which are important aspects of pain experience but underused in assessment procedures for the diagnosis and treatment evaluation of patients

  19. The impacts of migraine, anxiety disorders, and chronic depression on quality of life in psychiatric outpatients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Ching-I; Wang, Shuu-Jiun; Yang, Ching-Hui; Liu, Chia-Yih

    2008-08-01

    Our purpose was to determine if migraine, anxiety comorbidities, and chronic depression were independently related to health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in outpatients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Consecutive psychiatric outpatients with MDD in a medical center were enrolled. MDD, chronic depression, and seven anxiety disorders were diagnosed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR. Migraine was diagnosed based on the International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd edition. The acute version of the Short-Form 36 and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) were used to evaluate the HRQoL and the severity of depression, respectively. Multiple linear regressions were used to determine the independent factors related to HRQoL. There were 135 participants (34 men, 101 women) with MDD. Subjects with migraine, anxiety comorbidities, or chronic depression had higher HAMD scores and poor HRQoL. Migraine, specific phobia, and panic disorder were important and independent comorbidities predicting HRQoL. The impact of migraine on HRQoL, especially on bodily pain, was not inferior to those of some anxiety comorbidities or chronic depression. Future studies related to HRQoL of MDD should consider migraine and anxiety comorbidities simultaneously.

  20. The structure of negative emotional states: comparison of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) with the Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovibond, P F; Lovibond, S H

    1995-03-01

    The psychometric properties of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) were evaluated in a normal sample of N = 717 who were also administered the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). The DASS was shown to possess satisfactory psychometric properties, and the factor structure was substantiated both by exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. In comparison to the BDI and BAI, the DASS scales showed greater separation in factor loadings. The DASS Anxiety scale correlated 0.81 with the BAI, and the DASS Depression scale correlated 0.74 with the BDI. Factor analyses suggested that the BDI differs from the DASS Depression scale primarily in that the BDI includes items such as weight loss, insomnia, somatic preoccupation and irritability, which fail to discriminate between depression and other affective states. The factor structure of the combined BDI and BAI items was virtually identical to that reported by Beck for a sample of diagnosed depressed and anxious patients, supporting the view that these clinical states are more severe expressions of the same states that may be discerned in normals. Implications of the results for the conceptualisation of depression, anxiety and tension/stress are considered, and the utility of the DASS scales in discriminating between these constructs is discussed.

  1. Factors of academic procrastination: The role of perfectionism, anxiety and depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Kranjec

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated dimensions of perfectionism, anxiety, and depression as factors of academic procrastination. Our main research interest was to examine the role of specific dimensions of perfectionism as moderators in the relationship between anxiety and depression and academic procrastination. Four scales were administered on the sample of 403 students: perfectionism scale FMPS, academic procrastination scale APS-SI, depression scale CESD and anxiety scale STAI-X2. The results showed significant positive relationships between maladaptive dimensions of perfectionism, anxiety, depression, and academic procrastination. In addition, results showed significant negative associations between adaptive dimensions of perfectionism and academic procrastination. Certain dimensions of perfectionism, anxiety, and depression proved to be significant predictors of academic procrastination. The dimensions of perfectionism and academic procrastination were also significantly related to anxiety and depression, which both predicted academic procrastination. The relationship between anxiety levels and academic procrastination was moderated by personal standards (as adaptive dimension of perfectionism, while the relationship between depression levels and academic procrastination was moderated by the maladaptive dimension of parents’ expectations.

  2. The association of acculturation and depressive and anxiety symptoms in immigrant chronic dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haverkamp, Gertrud L G; Loosman, Wim L; van den Beukel, Tessa O; Hoekstra, Tiny; Dekker, Friedo W; Chandie Shaw, Prataap K; Smets, Yves F C; Vleming, Louis-Jean; Ter Wee, Pieter M; Honig, Adriaan; Siegert, Carl E H

    2016-01-01

    Among immigrant chronic dialysis patients, depressive and anxiety symptoms are common. We aimed to examine the association of acculturation, i.e. the adaptation of immigrants to a new cultural context, and depressive and anxiety symptoms in immigrant chronic dialysis patients. The DIVERS study is a prospective cohort study in five urban dialysis centers in the Netherlands. The association of five aspects of acculturation ("Skills", "Social integration", "Traditions", "Values and norms" and "Loss") and the presence of depressive and anxiety symptoms was determined using linear regression analyses, both univariate and multivariate. A total of 249 immigrant chronic dialysis patients were included in the study. The overall prevalence of depressive and anxiety symptoms was 51% and 47%, respectively. "Skills" and "Loss" were significantly associated with the presence of depressive and anxiety symptoms, respectively ("Skills" β=0.34, CI: 0.11-0.58, and "Loss" β=0.19, CI: 0.01-0.37; "Skills" β=0.49, CI: 0.25-0.73, and "Loss" β=0.33, CI: 0.13-0.53). The associations were comparable after adjustment. No significant associations were found between the other subscales and depressive and anxiety symptoms. This study demonstrates that less skills for living in the Dutch society and more feelings of loss are associated with the presence of both depressive and anxiety symptoms in immigrant chronic dialysis patients. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. The influence of alexithymia on mobile phone addiction: The role of depression, anxiety and stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Tingting; Li, Jiaomeng; Zhang, Han; Gao, Jinglei; Kong, Yixi; Hu, Yueyang; Mei, Songli

    2018-01-01

    Alexithymia is an important predictor of mobile phone addiction. Enhancing and improving college students' mental health can reduce the rate of mobile phone addiction. However, it is not clear about the role of depression, anxiety and stress in the relationship between college students' alexithymia and mobile phone addiction. A total of 1105 college students were tested with the Toronto Alexithymia Scale, the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale and the Mobile Phone Addiction Index. An individual's level of alexithymia was significantly correlated with depression, anxiety, stress and mobile phone addiction. Alexithymia had a significantly positive prediction effect on mobile phone addiction, and depression, anxiety, and stress on mobile phone are positive predictors. Depression, anxiety or stress had partially mediating effects between alexithymia and mobile phone addiction. Alexithymia not only directly had a positively impact on mobile phone addiction, but both also had an indirect effect on mobile phone addiction through depression, anxiety or stress. Limitations included sampling method and modest sample size, self-report measures, and unmeasured potential confounders. Alexithymia is an important correlate of mobile phone addiction, and depression, anxiety or stress is an important mediator in this relationship. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Efficacy of behavioral intervention in reducing anxiety and depression among medical students

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    A Velayudhan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Now a days, college students frequently have more complex problems than they used to have over a decade ago - greater difficulties in relationships; and more severe problems, such as depression, anxiety and thoughts of suicide. Counseling helps students to understand themselves and the world around them, and to adjust themselves more efficiently and appropriately to other fellow beings. Aim: To determine as to what extent the medical students were able to cope up with their anxiety and depression with the help of counseling. Materials and Methods: In the experimental design ′Before-and -after with control design′, Beck Anxiety Inventory and Beck Depression Inventory were administered to 120 medical students who were randomly selected from a private medical college, comprising of 30 males and 30 females in each of the two groups, viz., the experimental group and the control group. Statistical analysis: Means, standard deviations, t test and one-way ANOVA were used to analyze the data. Results: Anxiety and depression among the students were found to be reduced after counseling. Male and female students in the experimental group showed decrease in the levels of anxiety and depression; whereas the control group, which did not get the benefit of counseling, continued to have the same levels of anxiety and depression. Conclusion: Counseling is helpful in building self-confidence and the capacity to adjust, by reducing anxiety and depression among medical college students.

  5. Anxiety and depression: A cross-sectional survey among parents of children with cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azad Rahmani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Parents of children with cancer are experiencing high levels of psychological distress. Elevated levels of depression and anxiety following the disclosure of diagnosis affect many aspects of parents' health. Aims: The aim of this study was to assess anxiety and depression of parents of Iranian children with cancer. Settings and Design: This descriptive-correlational study was undertaken among 148 parents of children with cancer admitted to a pediatric hospital affiliated to Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz/Iran. Subjects and Methods: Participants were selected using convenience sampling method. Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was used to evaluate patients' levels of anxiety and depression. Statistical Analysis Used: The data were analyzed using SPSS version 13.0. Results: The study findings showed that the mean anxiety and depression scores were 9.63 ± 3.69 and 8.66 ± 4.59 (range score: 0–21, respectively. Additionally, 41.2% (n = 61 and 32.4% (n = 48 of participants had clinical symptoms of anxiety and depression, respectively. Conclusions: Parents of children with cancer experienced high levels of anxiety and depression. Effective interventions are essential to improve the mental health of parents of children with cancer. These interventions may include mental health screening, psychological counseling, and training programs to cope with the problems caused by the child's disease.

  6. Associations of preexisting depression and anxiety with hospitalization in patients with cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Alanna M; Vickers, Kristin S; Colligan, Robert C; Weston, Susan A; Rummans, Teresa A; Roger, Véronique L

    2011-11-01

    To determine the risk of hospitalization and death in relation to preexisting depression and anxiety among patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD). The cohort consisted of 799 Olmsted County, MN, residents diagnosed with CVD (myocardial infarction or heart failure) from January 1, 1979, to December 31, 2009, who completed a Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) prior to their event. The MMPI was used to identify depression and anxiety, and participants were followed up for hospitalizations and death during an average of 6.2 years. Depression and anxiety were identified in 282 (35%) and 210 (26%) participants, respectively. After adjustment, depression and anxiety were independently associated with a 28% (95% confidence interval [CI], 8%-51%) and 26% (95% CI, 3%-53%) increased risk of being hospitalized, respectively. Depression also conferred an increased risk of all-cause mortality of similar magnitude, whereas the hazard ratio for anxiety was not statistically significant. The combined occurrence of depression and anxiety led to a 35% (95% CI, 8%-71%) increase in the risk of hospitalizations. Among patients with CVD, both preexisting depression and anxiety, occurring on average 17 years before the CVD event, independently predict hospitalizations. In addition, the 2 conditions may act synergistically on increasing health care utilization in patients with CVD.

  7. Anxiety and depression among patients with different types of vestibular peripheral vertigo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Qing; Yu, Lisheng; Shi, Dongmei; Ke, Xingxing; Zhang, Hua

    2015-02-01

    Numerous studies have been published on comorbid anxiety and depression in patients with vertigo. However, very few studies have separately described and analyzed anxiety or depression in patients with different types of vestibular peripheral vertigo. The present study investigated anxiety and depression among patients with 4 different types of peripheral vertigo. A total of 129 patients with 4 types of peripheral vertigo, namely, benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV, n = 49), migrainous vertigo (MV, n = 37), Menière disease (MD, n = 28), and vestibular neuritis (VN, n = 15), were included in the present study. Otological and neurootological examinations were carefully performed, and self-rating anxiety scale and self-rating depression scale were used to evaluate anxiety and depression. Patients were divided into 2 groups, according to the vestibular function: normal and abnormal vestibular function. There was no significant difference in the risk of anxiety/depression between these 2 groups. However, for patients with the 4 different vertigo types, the prevalence of anxiety (MV = 45.9%, MD = 50%) and depression (MV = 27%, MD = 28.6%) was significantly higher in the patients with MV or MD than those with BPPV or VN (P vertigo, as well as differences in the prevention and self-control of the patients against the vertigo.

  8. Anxiety and depression among subjects attending genetic counseling for hereditary cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorvatn, Cathrine; Eide, Geir Egil; Hanestad, Berit R; Havik, Odd E

    2008-05-01

    The main aims of the study were to investigate changes in anxiety and depression over time in subjects attending genetic counseling (GC) for hereditary cancer, and secondly, to identify psychological, social, and medical variables associated with the course and outcome of anxiety and depression. Of 275 eligible individuals, 221 consented to participate, 214 returned the baseline questionnaire, and were included in a prospective multi-center study. Questionnaires were mailed to the subjects before and after the GC. The mean values for anxiety and depression were quite low at all assessments. Mixed linear analyzes revealed that both anxiety and depression declined over time. Higher age, GC-related self-efficacy, and social support were associated with lower levels of anxiety. More social support, satisfaction with GC, self-rated physical function, and GC-related self-efficacy were associated with lower levels of depression. The effects of social support on both anxiety and depression had a significant interaction with time. The results support the buffer theory, which proposes that social support acts as a buffer, protecting people from the potentially pathogenic influence of stressful life events, such as GC. Subjects with less social support and less GC-related self-efficacy seem to be more vulnerable to anxiety and depression and should be offered extra attention by counselors.

  9. The role of social support in anxiety and depression among Parkinson's disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani Saeedian, Radka; Nagyova, Iveta; Krokavcova, Martina; Skorvanek, Matej; Rosenberger, Jaroslav; Gdovinova, Zuzana; Groothoff, Johan W; van Dijk, Jitse P

    2014-01-01

    To explore how social support is associated with anxiety and depression in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients controlling for gender, disease duration and disease severity. The sample consisted of 124 patients (52.4% male; mean age 68.1 ± 8.4 years; mean disease duration 6.3 ± 5.5 years). Anxiety and depression were measured with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, social support with the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support and disease severity with the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale. Data were analyzed using linear regression. Gender, disease duration, disease severity and social support explained 31% of the total variance in anxiety in younger PD patients but did not significantly contribute to the explanation of depression. In the older group, this model explained 41% of the variance in depression but did not significantly contribute to the explanation of anxiety. PD patients experience the positive influence of social support differently according to age. In the younger group, disease duration plays the primary role regarding anxiety. In the older group, poor social support especially from friends is associated with more depression after controlling for the relevant variables. Implications of Rehabilitation PD is a disease of older age with a neurodegenerative character and treatment should focus on increasing quality of life. Anxiety and depression are common co-morbidities in PD patients. The support network should also be screened regularly and involved in enhancing the quality of life.

  10. Symptoms of anxiety and depression: A comparison among patients with different chronic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayat, Noushin; Alishiri, Gholam Hossein; Salimzadeh, Ahmad; Izadi, Morteza; Saleh, Davoud Kazemi; Lankarani, Maryam Moghani; Assari, Shervin

    2011-11-01

    Although patients with chronic diseases are at high-risk for symptoms of anxiety and depression, few studies have compared patients with different chronic conditions in this regard. This study aimed to compare patients with different chronic medical conditions in terms of anxiety and depression symptoms after controlling for the effects of socio-demographic and clinical data. This cross-sectional study enrolled 2234 adults, either healthy (n = 362) or patients with chronic medical conditions (n = 1872). Participants were recruited from the outpatient clinic of Baqiyatallah Hospital, Tehran, Iran. Patients had one of the following five medical conditions: coronary artery disease (n = 675), renal transplantation (n = 383), chronic hemodialysis (n = 68), rheumatoid conditions (rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus and ankylosing spondylitis) (n = 666) and viral hepatitis (n = 80). Independent factors included socio-demographic data, pain disability, and somatic comorbidities (Ifudu index). Outcomes included symptoms of anxiety and depression through Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Two multinomial regression models were used to determine the predictors of anxiety and depression symptoms. After controlling the effect of age, sex, educational level, comorbidities, disability and pain, rheumatoid arthritis and hepatitis were predictors of higher anxiety symptoms, while coronary artery disease and chronic hemodialysis were predictors of depression symptoms. Although all chronic conditions may require psychological consideration; be that as it may, different chronic diseases are dissimilar in terms of their mental health need. Anxiety for rheumatoid arthritis and hepatitis as well as depression for coronary artery disease and chronic hemodialysis is more important.

  11. Prevalence of psychological stress, depression and anxiety among medical students in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawzy, Mohamed; Hamed, Sherifa A

    2017-09-01

    Poor psychological health in medical students has been reported nationwide. This study estimated the prevalence of depression, anxiety and stress symptoms among medical students who were enrolled in a public university in Upper Egypt and determine the association of these morbidities with the students' basic socio-demographic variables. This cross-sectional study included 700 students. A self-administered, questionnaire for the socio-demographic characteristics, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS 21) and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaire were used for assessment. High frequencies of depression (65%), anxiety (73%) and stress (59.9%) were reported. Stress scores were significantly higher than depression and anxiety (P=0.001). 55.7% were poor sleepers. In univarate analysis, females, those living in the University campus/students' residence facility, in the preclinical years and with lower academic achievement had higher scores of DASS and PSQI compared to their comparative partners. Significant correlations were reported between stress with depression, anxiety and PQSI scores (P=0.0001). In multivariate analysis, stress scores were significantly associated with female sex, depression and anxiety scores. We conclude that depression, anxiety and stress symptoms are common in medical students of Assiut University relative to other schools and female gender was significantly correlated with these findings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The relationship among young adult college students' depression, anxiety, stress, demographics, life satisfaction, and coping styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Jihan Saber Raja; Staten, Ruth; Hall, Lynne A; Lennie, Terry A

    2012-03-01

    Recent research indicates that young adult college students experience increased levels of depression, anxiety, and stress. It is less clear what strategies college health care providers might use to assist students in decreasing these mental health concerns. In this paper, we examine the relative importance of coping style, life satisfaction, and selected demographics in predicting undergraduates' depression, anxiety, and stress. A total of 508 full-time undergraduate students aged 18-24 years completed the study measures and a short demographics information questionnaire. Coping strategies and life satisfaction were assessed using the Brief COPE Inventory and an adapted version of the Brief Students' Multidimensional Life Satisfaction Scale. Depression, anxiety, and stress were measured using the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21). Multiple regression analyses were used to examine the relative influence of each of the independent variables on depression, anxiety, and stress. Maladaptive coping was the main predictor of depression, anxiety, and stress. Adaptive coping was not a significant predictor of any of the three outcome variables. Reducing maladaptive coping behaviors may have the most positive impact on reducing depression, anxiety, and stress in this population.

  13. Relationship of smartphone use severity with sleep quality, depression, and anxiety in university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Kadir; Akgönül, Mehmet; Akpinar, Abdullah

    2015-06-01

    The usage of smartphones has increased rapidly in recent years, and this has brought about addiction. The aim of the current study was to investigate the relationship between smartphone use severity and sleep quality, depression, and anxiety in university students. In total, 319 university students (203 females and 116 males; mean age = 20.5 ± 2.45) were included in the study. Participants were divided into the following three groups: a smartphone non-user group (n = 71, 22.3%), a low smartphone use group (n = 121, 37.9%), and a high smartphone use group (n = 127, 39.8%). All participants were evaluated using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Anxiety Inventory; moreover, participants other than those in the smartphone non-user group were also assessed with the Smartphone Addiction Scale. The findings revealed that the Smartphone Addiction Scale scores of females were significantly higher than those of males. Depression, anxiety, and daytime dysfunction scores were higher in the high smartphone use group than in the low smartphone use group. Positive correlations were found between the Smartphone Addiction Scale scores and depression levels, anxiety levels, and some sleep quality scores. The results indicate that depression, anxiety, and sleep quality may be associated with smartphone overuse. Such overuse may lead to depression and/or anxiety, which can in turn result in sleep problems. University students with high depression and anxiety scores should be carefully monitored for smartphone addiction.

  14. Relationship of Smartphone Use Severity with Sleep Quality, Depression, and Anxiety in University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demi̇rci̇, Kadi̇r; Akgönül, Mehmet; Akpinar, Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims The usage of smartphones has increased rapidly in recent years, and this has brought about addiction. The aim of the current study was to investigate the relationship between smartphone use severity and sleep quality, depression, and anxiety in university students. Methods In total, 319 university students (203 females and 116 males; mean age = 20.5 ± 2.45) were included in the study. Participants were divided into the following three groups: a smartphone non-user group (n = 71, 22.3%), a low smartphone use group (n = 121, 37.9%), and a high smartphone use group (n = 127, 39.8%). All participants were evaluated using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Anxiety Inventory; moreover, participants other than those in the smartphone non-user group were also assessed with the Smartphone Addiction Scale. Results The findings revealed that the Smartphone Addiction Scale scores of females were significantly higher than those of males. Depression, anxiety, and daytime dysfunction scores were higher in the high smartphone use group than in the low smartphone use group. Positive correlations were found between the Smartphone Addiction Scale scores and depression levels, anxiety levels, and some sleep quality scores. Conclusion The results indicate that depression, anxiety, and sleep quality may be associated with smartphone overuse. Such overuse may lead to depression and/or anxiety, which can in turn result in sleep problems. University students with high depression and anxiety scores should be carefully monitored for smartphone addiction. PMID:26132913

  15. Hubness of strategic planning and sociality influences depressive mood and anxiety in College Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Je-Yeon; Choi, Yoobin; Kwon, Yoonhee; Lee, Hwa Young; Choi, Soo-Hee; Jang, Joon Hwan

    2017-12-19

    Depressive mood and anxiety can reduce cognitive performance. Conversely, the presence of a biased cognitive tendency may serve as a trigger for depressive mood-anxiety. Previous studies have largely focused on group-wise correlations between clinical-neurocognitive variables. Using network analyses for intra-individual covariance, we sought to decipher the most influential clinical-neurocognitive hub in the differential severity of depressive-anxiety symptoms in a college population. Ninety college students were evaluated for depressive-anxiety symptoms, Minnesota multiphasic personality inventory-2(MMPI-2), and neuro-cognition. Weighted and undirected version of the intra-individual covariance networks, comprised of 18 clinical-neurocognitive variables satisfied small-worldness and modular organization in the sparsity range of K = 0.20-0.21. Furthermore, betweenness centrality of perseverative error for the Wisconsin card sorting test was reduced in more depressive individuals; higher anxiety was related to the increased betweenness centrality of MMPI-2 clinical scale 0(Si). Elevated edge-betweenness centrality of covariance between the MMPI-2 clinical scale 7(Pt) versus commission error of the continuous performance test predicted more anxiety higher than depressive mood. With intra-individual covariance network of clinical-neurocognitive variables, this study demonstrated critical drivers of depressive mood[attenuated influence of strategic planning] or anxiety[domination of social introversion/extroversion, in addition to the influence of compulsivity-impulsivity covariance as a shortcut component among various clinical-neurocognitive features].

  16. An investigation of PTSD's core dimensions and relations with anxiety and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byllesby, Brianna M; Durham, Tory A; Forbes, David; Armour, Cherie; Elhai, Jon D

    2016-03-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is highly comorbid with anxiety and depressive disorders, which is suggestive of shared variance or common underlying dimensions. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between the latent factors of PTSD with the constructs of anxiety and depression in order to increase understanding of the co-occurrence of these disorders. Data were collected from a nonclinical sample of 186 trauma-exposed participants using the PTSD Checklist and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to determine model fit comparing 3 PTSD factor structure models, followed by Wald tests comparing the relationships between PTSD factors and the core dimensions of anxiety and depression. In model comparisons, the 5-factor dysphoric arousal model of PTSD provided the best fit for the data, compared to the emotional numbing and dysphoria models of PTSD. Compared to anxious arousal, the dysphoric arousal and numbing factors of PTSD were more related to depression severity. Numbing, anxious arousal, and dysphoric arousal were not differentially related to the latent anxiety factor. The underlying factors of PTSD contain aspects of the core dimensions of both anxiety and depression. The heterogeneity of PTSD's associations with anxiety and depressive constructs requires additional empirical exploration because clarification regarding these relationships will impact diagnostic classification as well as clinical practice. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Anger in women treated with assisted reproductive technology (ART): effects on mother and newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscatello, Maria Rosaria Anna; Lorusso, Simona; Bruno, Antonio; Reale, Rosa; Ciura, Giulia La; Laganà, Antonio Simone; Retto, Giovanni; Sturlese, Emanuele; Zoccali, Rocco Antonio

    2016-03-01

    To assess anger, as well as other negative emotions, in women who underwent assisted reproductive technology (ART) respect to women who conceived naturally, and explore the effect of anger on neonatal outcomes. We recorded personal and obstetric history of the patients, neonatal weight, Apgar score, obstetric and neonatal complications. We performed Structural Clinical Interview for DSM-SCID I and II in order to assess the DSM IV axis I and axis II, State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory 2 (STAXI-2), the Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS) and Self-rating Anxiety scale (SAS). On the STAXI-2 scale, the ART group scored higher than the natural conception group on measures of general tendency and personality disposition to get angry. Moreover, the ART group women showed quite low levels of tolerance to negative environmental feedback. Our results further suggest that trait anger provides the most meaningful contribution as predictor of weight at birth. No significant differences were found for anxiety and depression between the two groups. Our study highlights the important role of anger during pregnancy, and suggests the need for further studies on both biochemical and behavioural patterns in larger samples of women who became pregnant by ART.

  18. Effects of anxiety and depression in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessing, Boudewijn F; Bredenoord, Albert J; Saleh, Caroline M G; Smout, André J P M

    2015-06-01

    Increased levels of anxiety and depression have been associated with esophageal hyperalgesia and an increased risk of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). We investigated the effects of anxiety and depression on GERD symptoms and the perception of reflux episodes in a well-characterized group of patients. We performed a prospective study of 225 consecutive patients who had symptoms of GERD evaluated. Patients underwent ambulatory 24-hour pH impedance monitoring, and levels of anxiety and depression were assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. GERD was diagnosed in 147 patients (78 patients had functional heartburn); 36 patients were hypersensitive to gastroesophageal reflux. Among patients with GERD, increased levels of anxiety were associated with more severe retrosternal pain and retrosternal burning. Furthermore, increased levels of anxiety and depression each were associated with lower scores of the mental component of quality of life questionnaire. Levels of anxiety or depression were not associated with the number of reflux symptoms reported during 24-hour pH impedance monitoring or with the number of symptoms associated with a reflux event. Among GERD patients with hypersensitivity to reflux, levels of anxiety and depression and decreases in quality of life were similar to those of other patients with GERD. Patients with functional heartburn had higher levels of anxiety than patients with GERD. In patients with GERD, increased levels of anxiety are associated with increased severity of retrosternal pain and heartburn and reduced quality of life. Patients with GERD with hypersensitivity to gastroesophageal reflux have similar levels of anxiety and similar quality-of-life scores as other patients with GERD. Copyright © 2015 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Depression and anxiety in patients on chronic hemodialysis in University Clinical Hospital Mostar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klarić, Miro; Letica, Ivona; Petrov, Bozo; Tomić, Monika; Klarić, Branka; Letica, Ludvig; Francisković, Tanja

    2009-12-01

    Depression and anxiety are prevailing mental problem in patients on chronic hemodialysis and they have great influence on outcome of illness. Additionally, these disorders are rarely identified in that population of patients and they are insufficiently treated. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of depression and anxiety in patients on chronic hemodialysis in University Clinical Hospital Mostar and to examine the correlation between the demographic variables and the time spent on dialysis with depression and anxiety levels. The experimental group consisted of 56 patients on chronic hemodialysis in Mostar Clinical Hospital. The control group 1 consisted of 53 patients diagnosed with a chronic illness and treated for at least a year, while the control group 2 consisted of 51 persons who were not diagnosed with any chronic somatic or mental illness. Demographic data were collected using the constructed questionnaire. The Beck Depression Inventory-BDI was used to determine depression, while the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-STAI was used to determine anxiety. We recorded significantly higher prevalence of depression in patients on chronic dialysis (51.8%) than in patients with a chronic illness (41.5%) and persons without chronic illnesses (9.8%; p < 0.001). Trait anxiety level was significantly higher in hemodialysed patients compared to the other two groups (p = 0.006) but there were no significant differences in state anxiety level. The study has not shown any significant difference in the prevalence of depression and anxiety level regarding the differences in sex, gender and education level, apart from a higher level of state anxiety in patients with a lower education level (p = 0.032). These results indicate that patients on hemodialysis have a significantly higher level of depression and a higher level of trait anxiety compared to patients with chronic illnesses and especially compared to general population.

  20. Changes in anxiety and depression symptoms associated to the outcome of MOH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bottiroli, Sara; Allena, Marta; Sances, Grazia

    2018-01-01

    Aims To evaluate the impact of treatment success on depression and anxiety symptoms in medication-overuse headache (MOH) and whether depression and anxiety can be predictors of treatment outcome. Methods All consecutive patients entering the detoxification program were analysed in a prospective......, non-randomised fashion over a six-month period. Depression and anxiety were assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Results A total of 663 MOH patients were evaluated, and 492 completed the entire protocol. Of these, 287 ceased overuse and reverted to an episodic pattern (responders......) and 23 relapsed into overuse. At the final evaluation, the number of patients with depressive symptoms was reduced by 63.2% among responders ( p 

  1. A randomized controlled trial of yoga for pregnant women with symptoms of depression and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kyle; Goodman, Sherryl H; Leiferman, Jenn; Taylor, Mary; Dimidjian, Sona

    2015-08-01

    Yoga may be well suited for depressed and anxious pregnant women, given reported benefits of meditation and physical activity and pregnant women's preference for nonpharmacological treatments. We randomly assigned 46 pregnant women with symptoms of depression and anxiety to an 8-week yoga intervention or treatment-as-usual (TAU) in order to examine feasibility and preliminary outcomes. Yoga was associated with high levels of credibility and satisfaction as an intervention for depression and anxiety during pregnancy. Participants in both conditions reported significant improvement in symptoms of depression and anxiety over time; and yoga was associated with significantly greater reduction in negative affect as compared to TAU (β = -0.53, SE = 0.20, p = .011). Prenatal yoga was found to be a feasible and acceptable intervention and was associated with reductions in symptoms of anxiety and depression; however, prenatal yoga only significantly outperformed TAU on reduction of negative affect. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Anxiety and stress in the postpartum: is there more to postnatal distress than depression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Renée L; Pallant, Julie F; Negri, Lisa M

    2006-03-24

    Postnatal depression has received considerable research and clinical attention, however anxiety and stress in the postpartum has been relatively ignored. Along with the widespread use of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), depression has become the marker for postnatal maladjustment. Symptoms of anxiety tend to be subsumed within diagnoses of depression, which can result in anxiety being minimized or overlooked in the absence of depression. Some researchers have identified the need to distinguish between postnatal depression and anxiety, and to discern cases where depression and anxiety co-exist. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of postnatal distress using the EPDS and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21). As part of a larger cross-sectional study, the EPDS and DASS-21 were administered to a convenience sample of 325 primiparous mothers, who ranged in age from 18 to 44 years (M = 32 years). Recruited through mother's groups and health centres in Melbourne Australia, inclusion was limited to mothers whose babies were aged between 6 weeks and 6 months. Analyses included comparisons between the classifications of women according to the EPDS and the DASS-21, and an exploration of the extent to which the EPDS identified anxious-depressed women. The EPDS identified 80 women (25%) as possibly depressed (using a cut-off of over 9), of which the DASS-21 corroborated 58%. In the total sample, 61 women (19%) were classified by the DASS-21 to be depressed. Using broader criteria for distress, it was revealed by the DASS-21 that a further 33 women (10%) showed symptoms of anxiety and stress without depression. A total of 41 women (13%) had symptoms of anxiety either in isolation or in combination with depression. The DASS-21 identified 7% of the sample as being both anxious and depressed. This at-risk sub-group had higher mean EPDS and DASS-depression scores than their depressed-only counterparts. The prevalence of anxiety and stress in

  3. Anxiety and stress in the postpartum: Is there more to postnatal distress than depression?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallant Julie F

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Postnatal depression has received considerable research and clinical attention, however anxiety and stress in the postpartum has been relatively ignored. Along with the widespread use of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS, depression has become the marker for postnatal maladjustment. Symptoms of anxiety tend to be subsumed within diagnoses of depression, which can result in anxiety being minimized or overlooked in the absence of depression. Some researchers have identified the need to distinguish between postnatal depression and anxiety, and to discern cases where depression and anxiety co-exist. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of postnatal distress using the EPDS and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21. Method As part of a larger cross-sectional study, the EPDS and DASS-21 were administered to a convenience sample of 325 primiparous mothers, who ranged in age from 18 to 44 years (M = 32 years. Recruited through mother's groups and health centres in Melbourne Australia, inclusion was limited to mothers whose babies were aged between 6 weeks and 6 months. Analyses included comparisons between the classifications of women according to the EPDS and the DASS-21, and an exploration of the extent to which the EPDS identified anxious-depressed women. Results The EPDS identified 80 women (25% as possibly depressed (using a cut-off of over 9, of which the DASS-21 corroborated 58%. In the total sample, 61 women (19% were classified by the DASS-21 to be depressed. Using broader criteria for distress, it was revealed by the DASS-21 that a further 33 women (10% showed symptoms of anxiety and stress without depression. A total of 41 women (13% had symptoms of anxiety either in isolation or in combination with depression. The DASS-21 identified 7% of the sample as being both anxious and depressed. This at-risk sub-group had higher mean EPDS and DASS-depression scores than their depressed

  4. Depression, anxiety and stress among higher secondary school students of Imphal, Manipur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Sathish Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Adolescence is a stressful period due to physical, psychological, sexual changes, and the presence of psychiatric disorders such as depression, anxiety, and stress at this stage of life is a matter of concern. Objectives: The objectives of the study were to determine the prevalences of depression, anxiety, and stress among higher secondary school students of Imphal and to determine the association between depression, anxiety, and stress and selected variables such as gender, standard, and religion. Materials and methods: From September 2014 to October 2014, a cross-sectional study was conducted among higher secondary school students of Imphal. The sample size was calculated to be 750. Seven schools were randomly selected, and all the students in that school were enrolled in the study. The study tool used was a questionnaire containing DASS (Depression Anxiety Stress Scale and sociodemographic characteristics. Results: The prevalences of depression, anxiety, and stress among 830 valid respondents were 19.5%, 24.4%, and 21.1%, respectively. In total, 81.6% of the respondents had at least one of the studied disorders and 34.7% of the respondents had all the three negative states. The prevalences of depression, anxiety, and stress were high among females and were significant for anxiety (P = 0.00 and stress (P = 0.04. The prevalences of depression and stress were significantly higher among 12th standard students with P-values of 0.00 and 0.02. Conclusion: The prevalences of depression, anxiety, and stress were high with anxiety and stress significantly higher among females, whereas prevalences of depression and stress were significantly higher among 12th standard students. More studies are recommended to determine the factors leading to these mental disorders.

  5. Depression and anxiety in women with early breast cancer: five year observational cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Caroline; Cornelius, Victoria; Love, Sharon; Graham, Jill; Richards, Michael; Ramirez, Amanda

    2005-01-01

    Objective To examine the prevalence of, and risk factors for, depression and anxiety in women with early breast cancer in the five years after diagnosis. Design Observational cohort study. Setting NHS breast clinic, London. Participants 222 women with early breast cancer: 170 (77%) provided complete interview data up to either five years after diagnosis or recurrence. Main outcome measures Prevalence of clinically important depression and anxiety (structured psychiatric interview with standardised diagnostic criteria) and clinical and patient risk factors, including stressful life experiences (Bedford College life events and difficulties schedule). Results Nearly 50% of the women with early breast cancer had depression, anxiety, or both in the year after diagnosis, 25% in the second, third, and fourth years, and 15% in the fifth year. Point prevalence was 33% at diagnosis, falling to 15% after one year. 45% of those with recurrence experienced depression, anxiety, or both within three months of the diagnosis. Previous psychological treatment predicted depression, anxiety, or both in the period around diagnosis (one month before diagnosis to four months after diagnosis). Longer term depression and anxiety, were associated with previous psychological treatment, lack of an intimate confiding relationship, younger age, and severely stressful non-cancer life experiences. Clinical factors were not associated with depression and anxiety, at any time. Lack of intimate confiding support also predicted more protracted episodes of depression and anxiety. Conclusion Increased levels of depression, anxiety, or both in the first year after a diagnosis of early breast cancer highlight the need for dedicated service provision during this time. Psychological interventions for women with breast cancer who remain disease free should take account of the broader social context in which the cancer occurs, with a focus on improving social support. PMID:15695497

  6. Depression, Anxiety and Somatic Complaints in Colombian Children Living in Rural Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruby C. Castilla Puentes

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In Colombia, children are frequently exposed to traumatic events; however, there are no data regarding the impact on depression, anxiety and somatic correlates of such exposure in children living in rural communities. Objective: To investigate the somatic complaints and symptoms of depression and anxiety among children exposed to traumatic events in a rural community of Colombia. Methods: Design: Cross-Sectional study. Participants: Two hundred and ninety-three Colombian children aged eight to 18 years. Main Outcome Measures: Standardized measures were administered to assess children's depression, anxiety, physical symptoms and exposure to traumatic events. Depression: CDI (Children's Depression Inventory; anxiety: SCARED (The Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders; somatic complaints: CBCL (Child Behavior Checklist, Somatic Complaints scale and reporting traumatic events during the K-SADS-PL (Diagnostic Interview for Children and Adolescents. Results: Ninety-one of the 293 children (31.1% reported somatic complaints. The most common somatic complaint was in the gastrointestinal category (35/91. One hundred and seventy eight children (60.5% had observed traumatic events, including homicides during the last month. Two hundred five (69.9% of the children showed depressive symptom profiles above established norms, and 239 (81.6% exhibited anxiety symptoms according to their own reports. The correlation between depression and traumatic events, anxiety and somatic complaints, and between anxiety and depression were statistically significant (p<0.005. Conclusions: As the first study of its kind in children living in rural communities in Colombia, it demonstrates a clear impact of traumatic events on mental health. Information that somatic complaints are commonly an expression of underlying depression and anxiety may facilitate the treatment and thereby help avoid unnecessary medical workups and sequelae from traumatized

  7. Anxiety, depression, resilience and self-esteem in individuals with cardiovascular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabela Gonzales Carvalho

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objectives: to analyze the relationship between anxiety and depression symptoms, resilience and self-esteem with sociodemographic and clinical characteristics; correlate resilience and self-esteem with age and duration of the disease; check associations between anxiety and depression with measures of resilience and self-esteem among individuals with cardiovascular diseases. Method: correlational study conducted in a large university hospital in the interior of the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The population was composed of adult inpatients with cardiovascular diseases. A non-probabilistic consecutive sample was composed of 120 patients. Variables of interest were assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Resilience Scale, and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Results: anxiety and depression symptoms were present in 32.5% and 17.5% of the patients, respectively, and were associated with the female sex (p = 0.002; p = 0.022. Manifestations of depression were associated with the presence of comorbidities (p = 0.020. More resilient patients did not present depression symptoms (p < 0.001 and anxious women were more resilient (p = 0.042. The highest scores regarding self-esteem were present in patients with anxiety and depression. Men presented higher resilience and lower self-esteem compared to women. Conclusion: patients with anxiety and depression were less resilient but presented higher self-esteem.

  8. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, Depression and Anxiety among North Korean Refugees: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Benjamin Eric; Chekaluk, Eugene; Bennett, Joanne

    2017-09-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder is common among North Korean refugees who have fled their country for economic, financial and humanitarian reasons. Co-morbid depression and anxiety are also common among North Korean refugees, due to the difficulties they have faced within their country and during their escape journey. Depression and anxiety complicate treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder, and lead to poorer outcomes. Thus, the aim of the present study was to provide a meta-analysis of studies investigating post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, and anxiety among North Korean refugees. Selected articles were published in English, and included measures of post-traumatic stress, and/or depression and anxiety. 10 studies were included in the depression meta-analysis, and 6 in the anxiety meta-analysis. A random-effects model revealed strong, significant associations between post-traumatic stress and depression, r=0.63, 95% CI (0.51, 0.72), pstress, depression and anxiety were higher among adults and those with more than five years outside of North Korea. Depression appears to be an important treatment focus for North Korean refugees with post-traumatic stress.

  9. [Stress related correlates of anxiety and depression in girls with chronic headache].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bung, Simone; Saile, Helmut; Laessle, Reinhold

    2018-01-01

    Chronic headache in adolescents is frequent and often associated with anxiety and depression. The present study investigated, whether psychological and physical stress symptoms have an infl uence on the occurrence of anxiety and depression and what is the role of stress coping. The sample consisted of 77 15 years old girls with chronic headache and 72 girls, who served as controls. Stress symptoms and stress coping were measured with the Stressverarbeitungsfragebogen für Kinder und Jugendliche (Coping with Stress Questionnaire for Children and Adolescents), depression was assessed by the Depression Inventory for Children and Adolescents, anxiety by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children. Linear regression was used to analyze the relationship between stress factors and anxiety resp. depression. Physical stress symptoms were related to anxiety, but not to depression. Coping strategies of the depressed as well as the anxious children were characterized by stress reinforcing behaviors. The results point to focusing on physical symptoms in the anxious headache patients and to avoidance coping in the depressed children.

  10. Impact of temperament on depression and anxiety symptoms and depressive disorder in a population-based birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyman, Emma; Miettunen, Jouko; Freimer, Nelson; Joukamaa, Matti; Mäki, Pirjo; Ekelund, Jesper; Peltonen, Leena; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Veijola, Juha; Paunio, Tiina

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize at the population level how innate features of temperament relate to experience of depressive mood and anxiety, and whether these symptoms have separable temperamental backgrounds. The study subjects were 4773 members of the population-based Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966, a culturally and genetically homogeneous study sample. Temperament was measured at age 31 using the temperament items of the Temperament and Character Inventory and a separate Pessimism score. Depressive mood was assessed based on a previous diagnosis of depressive disorder or symptoms of depression according to the Hopkins Symptom Check List - 25. Anxiety was assessed analogously. High levels of Harm avoidance and Pessimism were related to both depressive mood (effect sizes; d=0.84 and d=1.25, respectively) and depressive disorder (d=0.68 and d=0.68, respectively). Of the dimensions of Harm avoidance, Anticipatory worry and Fatigability had the strongest effects. Symptoms of depression and anxiety showed very similar underlying temperament patterns. Although Harm avoidance and Pessimism appear to be important endophenotype candidates for depression and anxiety, their potential usefulness as endophenotypes, and whether they meet all the suggested criteria for endophenotypes will remain to be confirmed in future studies. Personality characteristics of Pessimism and Harm avoidance, in particular its dimensions Anticipatory worry and Fatigability, are strongly related to symptoms of depression and anxiety as well as to depressive disorder in this population. These temperamental features may be used as dimensional susceptibility factors in etiological studies of depression, which may aid in the development of improved clinical practice. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Depression and anxiety are associated with abnormal nocturnal blood pressure fall in hypertensive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunbul, Murat; Sunbul, Esra Aydin; Kosker, Selcen Dogru; Durmus, Erdal; Kivrak, Tarik; Ileri, Cigdem; Oguz, Mustafa; Sari, Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that depression and anxiety were independent risk factors for hypertension. Non-dipper hypertension is associated with higher cardiovascular mortality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anxiety and depression scores in patients with dipper and non-dipper hypertension. The study sample consisted of 153 hypertensive patients. All patients underwent 24-h blood pressure monitoring. Patients were classified into two groups according to their dipper or non-dipper hypertension status. We evaluated results of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale between groups. Seventy-eight patients (38 male, mean age: 51.6 ± 12.5 years) had dipper hypertension while 75 patients (27 male, mean age: 55.4 ± 14.1 years) had non-dipper hypertension (p = 0.141, 0.072, respectively). Clinical characteristics were similar for both groups. Patients with non-dipper hypertension had significantly higher depression and anxiety scores compared to patients with dipper hypertension. Dipper and non-dipper status significantly correlated with anxiety (p: 0.025, r: 0.181) and depression score (p: 0.001, r: 0.255). In univariate analysis, smoking, alcohol usage, presence of diabetes, hyperlipidemia, anxiety score >8 and depression score >7 were predictors of dipper versus non-dipper status. In multivariate logistic regression analyses only depression score >7 was independent predictor of dipper versus non-dipper status (odds ratio: 2.74, confidence intervals: 1.41-5.37). A depression score of 7 or higher predicted non-dipper status with a sensitivity of 62.7% and specificity of 62.8%. Non-dipper patients have significantly higher anxiety and depression scores compared to dipper patients. Evaluation of anxiety and depression in patients with hypertension might help to detect non-dipper group and hence guide for better management.

  12. Depression and anxiety among chronic pain patients receiving prescription opioids and medical marijuana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feingold, Daniel; Brill, Silviu; Goor-Aryeh, Itay; Delayahu, Yael; Lev-Ran, Shaul

    2017-08-15

    High rates of depression and anxiety have been consistently reported among patients suffering from chronic pain. Prescription opioids are one of the most common modalities for pharmacological treatment of pain, however in recent years medical marijuana(MM) has been increasingly used for pain control in the US and in several countries worldwide. The aim of this study was to compare levels of depression and anxiety among pain patients receiving prescription opioids and MM. Participants were patients suffering from chronic pain treated with prescription opioids (OP,N=474), MM (N=329) or both (OPMM,N=77). Depression and anxiety were assessed using the depression module of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and the Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale (GAD-7). Prevalence of depression among patients in the OP, MM and OPMM groups was 57.1%, 22.3% and 51.4%, respectively and rates of anxiety were 48.4%, 21.5% and 38.7%, respectively. After controlling for confounders, patients in the OP group were significantly more likely to screen positive for depression (Adjusted Odds Ratio(AOR)=6.18;95%CI=4.12-9.338) and anxiety(AOR=4.12;CI=3.84-5.71)) compared to those in the MM group. Individuals in the OPMM group were more prone for depression (AOR for depression=3.34;CI=1.52-7.34)) compared to those in the MM group. Cross-sectional study, restricting inference of causality. Levels of depression and anxiety are higher among chronic pain patients receiving prescription opioids compared to those receiving MM. Findings should be taken into consideration when deciding on the most appropriate treatment modality for chronic pain, particularly among those at risk for depression and anxiety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Screening for Depressive Disorders Using the Mood and Anxiety Symptoms Questionnaire Anhedonic Depression Scale: A Receiver-Operating Characteristic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredemeier, Keith; Spielberg, Jeffery M.; Silton, Rebecca Levin; Berenbaum, Howard; Heller, Wendy; Miller, Gregory A.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the utility of the anhedonic depression scale from the Mood and Anxiety Symptoms Questionnaire (MASQ-AD scale) as a way to screen for depressive disorders. Using receiver-operating characteristic analysis, we examined the sensitivity and specificity of the full 22-item MASQ-AD scale, as well as the 8- and 14-item…

  14. Reliability and preliminary evidence of validity of a Farsi version of the depression anxiety stress scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayani, Ali Asghar

    2010-08-01

    The internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and construct validity of the Farsi version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales were examined, with a sample of 306 undergraduate students (123 men, 183 women) ranging from 18 to 51 years of age (M age = 25.4, SD = 6.1). Participants completed the Satisfaction with Life Scale, Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale, and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales. The findings confirmed the preliminary reliabilities and preliminary construct validity of the Farsi translation of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales.

  15. Cancer-Related Fatigue and Its Associations with Depression and Anxiety: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Linda F.; Kroenke, Kurt

    2010-01-01

    Background Fatigue is an important symptom in cancer and has been shown to be associated with psychological distress. Objectives This review assesses evidence regarding associations of CRF with depression and anxiety. Methods Database searches yielded 59 studies reporting correlation coefficients or odds ratios. Results Combined sample size was 12,103. Average correlation of fatigue with depression, weighted by sample size, was 0.56 and for anxiety, 0.46. Thirty-one instruments were used to assess fatigue, suggesting a lack of consensus on measurement. Conclusion This review confirms the association of fatigue with depression and anxiety. Directionality needs to be better delineated in longitudinal studies. PMID:19855028

  16. The efficiency of MMPI-2 validity scales in detecting malingering of mixed anxiety-depressive disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Kopf, Tamara; Galić, Slavka; Matešić, Krunoslav

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the efficiency of the validity scales (F, Fb, Fp, F-K, K, L, S, VRIN and TRIN) of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) in the detection of malingering mixed anxiety-depressive disorder and the possibility of differentiating between groups of persons with mixed anxiety-depressive disorder and persons instructed to malinger the mixed anxiety-depressive disorder on the basis of basic and content scales. The participants in the study were...

  17. HIV symptom distress and anxiety sensitivity in relation to panic, social anxiety, and depression symptoms among HIV-positive adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Adam; Zvolensky, Michael J; Parent, Justin; Grover, Kristin W; Hickey, Michael

    2012-03-01

    Although past work has documented relations between HIV/AIDS and negative affective symptoms and disorders, empirical work has only just begun to address explanatory processes that may underlie these associations. The current investigation sought to test the main and interactive effects of HIV symptom distress and anxiety sensitivity in relation to symptoms of panic disorder (PD), social anxiety disorder (SA), and depression among people with HIV/AIDS. Participants were 164 adults with HIV/AIDS (17.1% women; mean age, 48.40) recruited from AIDS service organizations (ASOs) in Vermont/New Hampshire and New York City. The sample identified as 40.9% white/Caucasian, 31.1% black, 22.0% Hispanic, and 6.1% mixed/other; with more than half (56.7%) reporting an annual income less than or equal to $10,000. Both men and women reported unprotected sex with men as the primary route of HIV transmission (64.4% and 50%, respectively). HIV symptom distress and anxiety sensitivity (AS) were significantly positively related to PD, SA, and depression symptoms. As predicted, there was a significant interaction between HIV symptom distress and anxiety sensitivity in terms of PD and SA symptoms, but not depressive symptoms. Results suggest that anxiety sensitivity and HIV symptom distress are clinically relevant factors to consider in terms of anxiety and depression among people living with HIV/AIDS. It may be important to evaluate these factors among patients with HIV/AIDS to identify individuals who may be at a particularly high risk for anxiety and depression problems. Limitations included recruitment from ASOs, cross-sectional self-report data, and lack of a clinical diagnostic assessment.

  18. Technology for Early Detection of Depression and Anxiety in Older People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Jacob A; Astell, Arlene J; Brown, Laura J E; Harrison, Robert F; Hawley, Mark S

    2017-01-01

    Under-diagnosis of depression and anxiety is common in older adults. This project took a mixed methods approach to explore the application of machine learning and technology for early detection of these conditions. Mood measures collected with digital technologies were used to predict depression and anxiety status according to the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Interactive group activities and interviews were used to explore views of older adults and healthcare professionals on this approach respectively. The results show good potential for using a machine learning approach with mood data to predict later depression, though prospective results are preliminary. Qualitative findings highlight motivators and barriers to use of mental health technologies, as well as usability issues. If consideration is given to these issues, this approach could allow alerts to be provided to healthcare staff to draw attention to service users who may go on to experience depression.

  19. Depressive symptoms and perceived chronic stress predict test anxiety in nursing students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Augner

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to identify predictors of test anxiety in nursing students. Design: Cross sectional pilot study. Methods: A questionnaire was administered to 112 students of an Austrian nursing school (mean age = 21.42, SD = 5.21. Test anxiety (measured by the standardized PAF Test Anxiety Questionnaire, perceived chronic stress, depressive symptoms, pathological eating and further psychological and health parameters were measured. Results: We found highly significant correlations between test anxiety and working hours (0.25, depression score (0.52, emotional stability (-0.31, and perceived chronic stress (0.65 (p < 0.01, for all. Regression analysis revealed chronic stress and emotional instability as best predictors for test anxiety. Furthermore, path analysis revealed that past negative academic performance outcomes contribute to test anxiety via depressive symptoms and perceived chronic stress. Conclusion: Depressive symptoms and perceived chronic stress are strongly related to test anxiety. Therefore therapy and training methods that address depressive symptoms and perceived chronic stress, and thereby aim to modify appraisal of potential stressful situations, may be successful in addressing test anxiety.

  20. Anxiety and depression in patients with gastrointestinal cancer: does knowledge of cancer diagnosis matter?

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    Roshan Rasool

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gastrointestinal cancer is the first leading cause of cancer related deaths in men and the second among women in Iran. An investigation was carried out to examine anxiety and depression in this group of patients and to investigate whether the knowledge of cancer diagnosis affect their psychological distress. Methods This was a cross sectional study of anxiety and depression in patients with gastrointestinal cancer attending to the Tehran Cancer Institute. Anxiety and depression was measured using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS. This is a widely used valid questionnaire to measure psychological distress in cancer patients. Demographic and clinical data also were collected to examine anxiety and depression in sub-group of patients especially in those who knew their cancer diagnosis and those who did not. Results In all 142 patients were studied. The mean age of patients was 54.1 (SD = 14.8, 56% were male, 52% did not know their cancer diagnosis, and their diagnosis was related to esophagus (29%, stomach (30%, small intestine (3%, colon (22% and rectum (16%. The mean anxiety score was 7.6 (SD = 4.5 and for the depression this was 8.4 (SD = 3.8. Overall 47.2% and 57% of patients scored high on both anxiety and depression. There were no significant differences between gender, educational level, marital status, cancer site and anxiety and depression scores whereas those who knew their diagnosis showed a significant higher degree of psychological distress [mean (SD anxiety score: knew diagnosis 9.1 (4.2 vs. 6.3 (4.4 did not know diagnosis, P Conclusion Psychological distress was higher in those who knew their cancer diagnosis. It seems that the cultural issues and the way we provide information for cancer patients play important role in their improved or decreased psychological well-being.

  1. Maternal anxiety versus depressive disorders: specific relations to infants' crying, feeding and sleeping problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzoldt, J; Wittchen, H-U; Einsle, F; Martini, J

    2016-03-01

    Maternal depression has been associated with excessive infant crying, feeding and sleeping problems, but the specificity of maternal depression, as compared with maternal anxiety remains unclear and manifest disorders prior to pregnancy have been widely neglected. In this prospective longitudinal study, the specific associations of maternal anxiety and depressive disorders prior to, during and after pregnancy and infants' crying, feeding and sleeping problems were investigated in the context of maternal parity. In the Maternal Anxiety in Relation to Infant Development (MARI) Study, n = 306 primiparous and multiparous women were repeatedly interviewed from early pregnancy until 16 months post partum with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview for Women (CIDI-V) to assess DSM-IV anxiety and depressive disorders. Information on excessive infant crying, feeding and sleeping problems was obtained from n = 286 mothers during postpartum period via questionnaire and interview (Baby-DIPS). Findings from this study revealed syndrome-specific risk constellations for maternal anxiety and depressive disorders as early as prior to pregnancy: Excessive infant crying (10.1%) was specifically associated with maternal anxiety disorders, especially in infants of younger and lower educated first-time mothers. Feeding problems (36.4%) were predicted by maternal anxiety (and comorbid depressive) disorders in primiparous mothers and infants with lower birth weight. Infant sleeping problems (12.2%) were related to maternal depressive (and comorbid anxiety) disorders irrespective of maternal parity. Primiparous mothers with anxiety disorders may be more prone to anxious misinterpretations of crying and feeding situations leading to an escalation of mother-infant interactions. The relation between maternal depressive and infant sleeping problems may be better explained by a transmission of unsettled maternal sleep to the fetus during pregnancy or a lack of daily

  2. Anxiety and Depression Among Adult Patients With Diabetic Foot: Prevalence and Associated Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Ali; Abujbara, Mousa; Jaddou, Hashem; Younes, Nidal A; Ajlouni, Kamel

    2018-05-01

    Diabetic foot is a frequent complication of diabetes mellitus with subsequent disturbances in the daily life of the patients. The co-existence of depression and anxiety among diabetic foot patients is a common phenomenon and the role of each of them in perpetuating the other is highlighted in the literature. Our study aimed to determine the prevalence rates of anxiety and depression, and to examine the associated risk factors among diabetic foot patients. This is a cross-sectional study. A total of 260 diabetic foot patients in the Diabetic Foot Clinic at the National Center for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Genetics (NCDEG), Amman, Jordan, participated in the study. Sociodemographic and health data were gathered through review of medical charts and a structured questionnaire. Depression and anxiety status were also assessed. The Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7) was used to screen for anxiety and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) was used to screen for depression. A cutoff of ≥ 10 was used for each scale to identify those who tested positive for anxiety and depression. Prevalence rate of anxiety was 37.7% and that of depression was 39.6%. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that anxiety is positively associated with duration of diabetes of 7% (P = 0.03). Multiple logistic regression analysis also showed that depression is positively associated with patients of foot ulcer duration ≥ 7 months (P = 0.00), with ≥ three comorbid diseases (P = 0.00) than their counterparts. Anxiety and depression are widely prevalent among diabetic foot patients. Mental health status of those patients gets even worse among those suffering other comorbid diseases, which was a finding that requires special attention in the management of patients with diabetic foot.

  3. Role of Depression, Anxiety and Stress in Patients with Oral Lichen Planus: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkur, Chaithra; Sattur, Atul Prahlad; Guttal, Kruthika Satyabodh

    2015-01-01

    Lichen planus is a psychosomatic disease. Higher frequency of psychiatric symptoms, poor quality of life, higher level of anxiety and neuroendocrine and immune dysregulations, all these factors, will enhance the exacerbation of the disease. The present study was to assess depression, anxiety and stress levels in patients with oral lichen planus. The psychometric evaluation using the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS)-42 questionnaire was carried out, by the same investigator on all members of group 1 (Oral Lichen Planus) and group 2 (Control). DASS-42 questionnaire consists of 42 symptoms divided into three subscales of 14 items: Depression scale, anxiety scale, and stress scale. The Student t test was used to determine statistical difference for both the groups and to evaluate for significant relationships among variables. Psychological assessment using DASS-42 reveals lichen planus patients showed higher frequency of psychiatric co morbidities like depression, anxiety and stress compared to control group. This study has provided evidence that the DASS-42 questionnaire is internally consistent and valid measures of depression, anxiety, and stress. Psychiatric evaluation can be considered for patients with oral lichen planus with routine treatment protocols are recommended. DASS-42 Questionnaire can also be used to determine the level of anxiety, stress and depression in diseases of the oral mucosa like recurrent apthous stomatitis, burning mouth syndrome and TMD disorders.

  4. Self-stigma by people diagnosed with schizophrenia, depression and anxiety: Cross-sectional survey design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Abd Al-Hadi; Musleh, Mahmoud

    2018-04-01

    This study investigated self-attitudes towards schizophrenia, depression and anxiety. A survey was conducted with 564 people with a schizophrenia, depression and anxiety who are currently being treated at a psychiatric clinic in Amman, Jordan. The research found that stigma towards schizophrenia, depression and anxiety was based around three factors: preconceived stereotypes, personal responsibility/blame and the perceived inability of a patient to recover. Schizophrenia, in particular, was linked more strongly to negative stereotypes and an inability to recover and less associated to personal responsibility/blame in comparison to depression and anxiety. Three identical stigma factors emerged for each diagnosis which reflected themes identified in previous literature. People with schizophrenia are seen as more dangerous and less likely to recover than those suffering from other mental illness. Anxiety was seen most favourably by the self; it was associated with less negative stereotypes and seen as more likely to cure. Interestingly, anxiety and depression were seen almost identically. The self-perception of mental health conditions, such as schizophrenia, depression and anxiety, have important implications for the planning of anti-stigma and awareness raising programmes. By gaining a thorough understanding of these perceptions and the rationale behind them, it may be possible to develop effective, tailor-made interventions. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Role of depression, anxiety and stress in patients with oral lichen planus: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaithra Kalkur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Lichen planus is a psychosomatic disease. Higher frequency of psychiatric symptoms, poor quality of life, higher level of anxiety and neuroendocrine and immune dysregulations, all these factors, will enhance the exacerbation of the disease. Aims: The present study was to assess depression, anxiety and stress levels in patients with oral lichen planus. Methods: The psychometric evaluation using the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-42 questionnaire was carried out, by the same investigator on all members of group 1 (Oral Lichen Planus and group 2 (Control. DASS-42 questionnaire consists of 42 symptoms divided into three subscales of 14 items: Depression scale, anxiety scale, and stress scale. Statistical Analysis Used: The Student t test was used to determine statistical difference for both the groups and to evaluate for significant relationships among variables. Results: Psychological assessment using DASS-42 reveals lichen planus patients showed higher frequency of psychiatric co morbidities like depression, anxiety and stress compared to control group. Conclusions: This study has provided evidence that the DASS-42 questionnaire is internally consistent and valid measures of depression, anxiety, and stress. Psychiatric evaluation can be considered for patients with oral lichen planus with routine treatment protocols are recommended. DASS-42 Questionnaire can also be used to determine the level of anxiety, stress and depression in diseases of the oral mucosa like recurrent apthous stomatitis, burning mouth syndrome and TMD disorders.

  6. Gender differences in depression and anxiety across the adult lifespan: the role of psychosocial mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Liana S; Christensen, Helen; Mackinnon, Andrew J; Windsor, Timothy D; Butterworth, Peter

    2008-12-01

    There is robust epidemiological and clinical evidence that a greater number of women than men experience depression and anxiety. This study investigated a number of socio-demographic, health and lifestyle, psychological and social factors as possible mediators for the gender difference in depression and anxiety in three cohorts (20-24, 40-44, 60-64). Responses were from a representative, community based survey (n = 7,485) conducted in Canberra and Queanbeyan (NSW), in Australia. Depression and anxiety were measured using the self-report Goldberg Anxiety and Depression Scales. The analyses initially identified gender differences in the potential mediators, followed by univariate and multivariate mediation models. The results indicated several shared mediators for depression and anxiety across the three age groups including: childhood adversity, mastery, behavioural inhibition, ruminative style, neuroticism, physical health, physical activity, and perceived interpersonal and employment problems. There was a decrease in the number of social mediators as age increased. The multivariate models accounted for gender differences in both conditions for all age groups, except for anxiety in the 20-24 years old. This suggests further important unmeasured mediators for this age group. These findings add to the literature surrounding gender differences in depression and anxiety, and provide a basis for future research exploring variation in these gender disparities over the adult lifespan.

  7. The importance of personality and life-events in anxious depression: from trait to state anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Veen, Date C; van Dijk, Silvia D M; Comijs, Hannie C; van Zelst, Willeke H; Schoevers, Robert A; Oude Voshaar, Richard C

    2017-11-01

    Anxious depression is associated with severe impairment and bad prognoses. We hypothesize that recent life-events are associated with more anxiety in late-life depression and that this is conditional upon the level of certain personality traits. Baseline data of the Netherlands Study of Depression in Older Persons (NESDO) were used. In 333 patients (≥60 years) suffering from a major depressive disorder, anxiety was assessed with the BAI, personality traits with the NEO-FFI and the Mastery Scale, and life-events with the Brugha questionnaire. Multiple linear regression analyses were applied with anxiety severity as dependent and life-events and personality traits as independent variables. 147 patients (44.1%) had recently experienced one or more life-events. The presence of a life-event is not associated with anxiety (p = .161) or depression severity (p = .440). However, certain personality traits interacted with life-events in explaining anxiety severity. Stratified analyses showed that life-events were associated with higher anxiety levels in case of high levels of neuroticism and openness and low levels of conscientiousness or mastery. In the face of a life-event, personality traits may play a central role in increased anxiety levels in late-life depression.

  8. EXAMINING PARENTS' ROMANTIC ATTACHMENT STYLES AND DEPRESSIVE AND ANXIETY SYMPTOMS AS PREDICTORS OF CAREGIVING EXPERIENCES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    River, Laura M; Borelli, Jessica L; Nelson-Coffey, S Katherine

    2016-09-01

    Evidence has suggested that parental romantic attachment style and depressive and anxiety symptoms are related to experiences of caregiving (Creswell, Apetroaia, Murray, & Cooper, 2013; Jones, Cassidy, & Shaver, 2014; Lovejoy, Graczyk, O'Hare, & Neuman, 2000), but more research is necessary to clarify the nature of these relations, particularly in the context of attachment-salient events such as reunions. In a cross-sectional study of 150 parents of children ages 1 to 3 years, we assessed participants' attachment styles (self-reported anxiety and avoidance) and depressive and anxiety symptoms. Participants generated a narrative describing their most recent reunion with their child, which we coded for caregiving outcomes of negative emotion and secure base script content. Attachment style and depressive and anxiety symptoms separately predicted each caregiving outcome. Depressive and anxiety symptoms mediated the associations between attachment style and caregiving outcomes. These results suggest that parental attachment insecurity and depressive and anxiety symptoms contribute to negative emotion and reduced secure base script content. Further, depressive and anxiety symptomatology partially accounts for the relation between attachment insecurity and caregiving outcomes, suggesting that parental mental health is a critical point for intervention. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  9. Effect of Music Practice on Anxiety and Depression of Iranian Dental Students

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    Mahmood Ghasemi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The practice of dentistry has long been associated with high levels of occupational stress and anxiety and music has been shown as a method of reducing stress. Considering the reportedly high level of stress among dental students and its consequences and also considering the positive effect of music therapy, the aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between music practice and level of stress in dental students.  Materials and Methods: In this analytical, cross-sectional study, 88 students, including 44 with a history of music practice and 44 matched controls without music practice who met the defined inclusion criteria, participated. Upon obtaining written informed consent, all volunteers filled the Beck anxiety inventory (BAI and Beck depression inventory (BDI questionnaires. Data were analyzed using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, and multiple linear regression test with backward method was used to evaluate the effect of demographic factors on anxiety and depression