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Sample records for depressed plasma thyroxine

  1. Massive thyroxine intoxication: evaluation of plasma extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binimelis, J; Bassas, L; Marruecos, L; Rodriguez, J; Domingo, M L; Madoz, P; Armengol, S; Mangues, M A; de Leiva, A

    1987-01-01

    Six patients were admitted after erroneous massive intake of levothyroxine (70-1200 mg over an interval of 2-12 days). All patients developed classical symptoms of thyrotoxicosis within 3 days of the first dose; five patients presented grade II-III coma and one became stuporous (days 7-10). Two patients developed left ventricular failure and three had arrhythmias (days 8-11). Total thyroid hormone levels in serum on admission ranged 935-7728 nmol/l for T4 (TT4) and 23-399 nmol/l for T3 (TT3). All patients received treatment with hydrocortisone and Propranolol. Propylthiouracil was also given in 3 cases. Extractive techniques (charcoal haemoperfusion and/or plasmapheresis) were initiated 8-14 days after the first dose of L-T4. The plasma disappearance rate (K) of TT4 with plasmapheresis was 30 times higher, on average, than under standard medical treatment (M). Also, K of TT4 under haemoperfusion was about five times higher than K under M. K changes for TT3 were higher under haemoperfusion than under plasmapheresis. Furthermore, extractive procedures shortened the average half life of TT4, (from 106.5 +/- 44.6 to 59.7 +/- 20.2 h, p less than 0.05).

  2. Risk of Depression, Chronic Morbidities, and l-Thyroxine Treatment in Hashimoto Thyroiditis in Taiwan: A Nationwide Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, I-Ching; Chen, Hsin-Hung; Yeh, Su-Yin; Lin, Cheng-Li; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk of depression in and effect of L-thyroxine therapy on patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) in Taiwan.In this retrospective, nationwide cohort study, we retrieved data from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000. We collected data of 1220 patients with HT and 4880 patients without HT for the period 2000 to 2011. The mean follow-up period for the HT cohort was 5.77 years. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate the risk of depression in the HT cohort.In the HT cohort, 89.6% of the patients were women. Compared with the non-HT cohort, the HT cohort exhibited a higher prevalence of diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, and coronary artery disease. Furthermore, the HT cohort showed a higher overall incidence of depression compared with the non-HT cohort (8.67 and 5.49 per 1000 person-year; crude hazard ratio [HR] = 1.58, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.18-2.13). The risk of depression decreased after administration of L-thyroxine treatment for more than 1 year (adjusted HR = 1.02; 95% CI = 0.66-1.59).In Taiwan, the overall incidence of depression was greater in the young HT cohort. L-thyroxine treatment reduced the risk of depression.

  3. The effect of severe starvation and captivity stress on plasma thyroxine and triiodothyronine concentrations in an antarctic bird (emperor penguin).

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    Groscolas, R; Leloup, J

    1989-01-01

    The effect of confinement and severe starvation on the plasma thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) concentrations was determined in emperor penguins (Aptenodytes forsteri). During their annual cycle, emperor penguins fast freely for periods of up to 4 months and may thus represent a unique subject to study endocrine adaptations to fasting. Plasma T4 concentrations progressively decreased following capture and confinement of naturally fasting penguins, and within 15-20 days stabilized at levels three times lower than in free-living penguins. A transient fourfold increase in plasma T3 concentration developed within the day following confinement in parallel with a rise in daily body mass loss. Both plasma T3 concentration and mass loss subsided to normal levels within 15 days. The decrease in plasma T4 concentration is in accordance with the well-known inhibitory effect of stress on thyroid function in birds and mammals, whereas the transient increase in plasma T3 concentration seems related to enhancement of energy expenditure as a consequence of restlessness. Starvation severe enough to exhaust fat stores and to activate protein catabolism induced a 6- and 5 to 10-fold fall in plasma T4 and T3, respectively. This is in marked contrast with maintenance of plasma thyroid levels during long-term natural fasting associated with protein sparing (R. Groscolas and J. Leloup (1986) Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 63, 264-274). Surprisingly, there was a final reincrease in plasma T4 concentration in very lean penguins. These results suggest that the effect of starvation on plasma thyroid hormones seems to depend on how much protein catabolism is activated and demonstrate the acute sensitivity of thyroid hormone balance to stress in penguins.

  4. Thyroxine mimetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randa F Salam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormones influence heart rate, serum lipids, metabolic rate, body weight, and multiple aspects of lipid, carbohydrate, protein, and mineral metabolism. Although increased thyroid hormone levels can improve serum lipid profiles and reduce fat, these positive effects are counterbalanced by the harmful effects on the heart, muscle, and bone. Thus, attempts to use thyroid hormones for cholesterol-lowering and weight loss purposes have so far been limited. However, over the past decade, thyroid hormone analogs that are capable of uncoupling the beneficial effects from the deleterious effects have been developed. Such drugs could serve as powerful new tools to address two of the largest medical problems, namely atherosclerosis and obesity. Aggressive reduction in LDL-cholesterol by the use of statins is a cornerstone of preventive cardiovascular risk, but additional therapies to prevent atherosclerosis and its clinical sequelae are still needed. Thyromimetics selective for the liver or the thyroid hormone receptor isoform β1 constitute a novel approach to treat dyslipidemia. In preclinical studies, selective thyromimetics were clearly shown to reduce plasma cholesterol and protect from atherosclerosis through the upregulation of hepatic LDL receptor and promotion of the so-called reverse cholesterol transport. Notably, there is the first evidence from on-going clinical trials that selective thyromimetics may reduce plasma cholesterol in humans also. Most importantly, thyromimetics has a synergistic action when used in combination with 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase inhibitors. Animal data have further suggested that thyromimetics might be useful in the treatment of obesity, hepatic steatosis, and atherosclerosis.

  5. Evaluation of seasonal and daily changes of plasma thyroxine and cortisol levels in wild masu salmon Oncorhynchus masou, sampled by a Japanese fishing method.

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    Munakata, A; Miura, G; Matsuda, H

    2014-10-01

    A new fish sampling method was developed using a Japanese bait fishing rod (8-9 m carbon rod and a nylon line with a small fine wire single hook), which is considered to catch wild salmonid juveniles with low sampling stress. Using this method, seasonal and daily changes of plasma thyroxine (T4 ) and cortisol levels were examined in wild parr, pre-smolts and smolts of masu salmon Oncorhynchus masou in contiguous locations in a coastal river (Kesen River; 44 km) in northern Honshu Island, Japan, overlapping the period of smoltification and seaward migration from August to March. Plasma T4 and cortisol were low in 0+ and 1+ year parr caught in August and September. In March, some yearling (1+ year) fish, which were judged as pre-smolts, and smolts appeared mainly in mid and lower reaches, while parr (0+ and 1+ year parr) continued to appear in the upper and mid reaches. In March, 1+ year pre-smolts and smolts showed high plasma T4 levels while the levels of 1+ year parr were low. During March 2008-2010, plasma T4 levels of 1+ year pre-smolts and smolts had high levels from early to mid-March, whereas plasma cortisol levels of 1+ year smolts were low in early March and increased towards mid-March. Based on these data, plasma cortisol increases probably occur following the increases of plasma T4 levels to lead the 1+ year O. masou to the completion of smoltification and initiation of seaward migration. © 2014 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  6. Acute mania after thyroxin supplementation in hypothyroid state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit Verma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The current literature variedly ascribes depressive and manic symptoms to hypo- and hyperthyroid state, respectively, reporting mania in hypothyroidism as an unusual entity. More unusual is precipitation of manic state in hypothyroid subjects after thyroxine supplementation for which studies report otherwise treating manic symptoms in hypothyroid state with thyroxine. We report a case of a patient whose acute mania appears to have been precipitated by thyroxine supplementation in hypothyroidism state. This case underscores the importance of thyroid screening in patients with mood and psychotic disorders, as well as the potency of thyroxine in producing manic symptoms.

  7. Plasma tryptophan concentration in depressive illness and mania.

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    Peet, M; Moody, J P; Worrall, E P; Walker, P; Naylor, G J

    1976-03-01

    Total and free plasma trytophan levels were measured in depressive and manic patients before and after recovery. No change was found in total or free plasma trytophan concentration on recovery from depressive illness. Free plasma tryptophan levels were higher in recovered manics than in active manics, and a group of four manic patients tested before and after recovery showed a significant increase in free plasma tryptophan concentration on recovery.

  8. Thyroxine and triiodothyronine in plasma and thyroids of the neotenic and metamorphosed axolotl Ambystoma mexicanum: influence of TRH injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, G F; Michielsen, R P; Kühn, E R

    1988-04-01

    Circulating levels of T3 and T4, as well as T3 and T4 content of the thyroid glands were measured by radioimmunoassay in the neotenic and metamorphosed axolotl Ambystoma mexicanum. In the two experiments which were performed plasma T4 concentrations were more elevated in metamorphosed axolotls, especially in the first experiment (2.12 +/- 0.40 ng/ml vs. 369 +/- 30 pg/ml). T3 plasma values which were only estimated in the second experiment were about five times higher in metamorphosed animals (63.2 +/- 7.4 pg/ml vs. 12.5 +/- 0.8 pg/ml). Also the thyroid hormone content of the glands was higher after metamorphosis. Nevertheless the neotenic gland still contained considerable amounts of T3 (14.7 +/- 1.8 ng and 48.3 +/- 4.8 ng/thyroid, respectively, in the first and second experiment) and T4 (530 +/- 61 ng; 2173 +/- 291 ng/thyroid). Because of the higher T3/T4 ratio found in the plasma compared to the thyroid gland, it was suggested that circulating T3 may be derived partly from peripheral T4 conversion, mainly after metamorphosis. An intravenous injection of 10 micrograms synthetic TRH was able to induce a very significant increase of the plasma T4 concentration (which was maintained during 24 hr) in the metamorphosed axolotls of the first experiment, however, not in those of the second experiment nor in the neotenic animals. Following an injection of 10 mU bovine TSH (first experiment) circulating levels of T4 were raised in both groups. The opposing TRH results could be related with the different control levels of T4 in the two experiments. However, the results indicate that TRH is capable of functioning as a possible thyrotropin-releasing factor in the metamorphosed axolotl.

  9. Increased plasma clearance rate of thyroxine despite decreased 5'-monodeiodination: study with a peroxisome proliferator in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, C.A.; Seydoux, J.; Giacobino, J.P.; Girardier, L.; Burger, A.G.

    1988-03-01

    In euthyroid rats a 17-day treatment with nafenopin, a hypolipidemic agent and peroxisome proliferator, decreased serum total and free T4 concentrations to 32 +/- 5% and 62 +/- 8% (mean +/- SEM; n = 10), respectively, with no change in serum T3 and TSH concentrations. In methimazole-treated rats infused with 3 nmol T4/day/100 g BW, the nafenopin inhibitory effect was not significantly different from that in euthyroid rats. Nafenopin treatment had the following effects on peripheral T4 and T3 metabolism in euthyroid rats. The plasma clearance rate of T4 (PCR), which was measured by Alzet minipump infusion of tracer, was increased 2-fold (1.58 +/- 0.09 vs. 0.82 +/- 0.06 ml/h.100 g BW; P less than 0.001; n = 5), while the PCR of T3 was decreased (37.5 +/- 1.3 vs. 53.8 +/- 1.8; P less than 0.001; n = 5). The fecal clearance rate of radioactivity derived from T4 was increased 2-fold (1.93 +/- 0.10 vs. 0.77 +/- 0.07 ml/h.100 g BW), whereas the urinary clearance rate was not significantly modified. The 5'-deiodinase (5'D) activity, measured by deiodination of labeled rT3, was strongly inhibited in liver and kidney, not modified in brown fat and anterior pituitary, and increased in cerebral cortex. In methimazole-treated rats substituted with isopropyl-diiodothyronine only hepatic 5'D activity was decreased. It is concluded that the decrease in serum total and free T4, without alteration in serum T3 and TSH concentrations, resulting from nafenopin treatment is mainly due to changes in peripheral T4 and T3 metabolism, since it is also observed in T4-substituted animals. The increased PCR of T4 cannot be explained by an increase in deiodination activity, since the major 5'D pathways are inhibited after nafenopin treatment, and the urinary clearance rate is not modified. It can partly be explained by an increase in the fecal clearance rate of T4, which could be due to an increase in glucoronoconjugation.

  10. [Thyroxine and triiodothyronine].

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    Pinchera, A; Ambrosino, N; Mammoli, C

    1975-01-01

    The value of measurements of serum thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) concentrations in the clinical evaluation of thyroid function is well established. In the present report the properties of the methods currently available for the assessment of circulating thyroid hormones are examined. Recent data indicate that results of measurements of serum T4 by radioimmunoassay (RIA) or by displacement analysis are qualitatively and quantitatively similar. Evidence has been provided from this and other laboratories that elevated or subnormal serum levels of total tt4 may be observed in several euthyroid physiologicmal serum levels of total T4 may be observed in several euthyroid physiological or pathological conditions associated with altered capacity of the thyroxine-binding protein; in these cases a normal free thyroxine index is usually found indicating its importance in the evaluation of thyroid function. Several physiological observations and the recent recognition of clinical conditions associated with changes in the T4/T3 ratio, justify the present interest in the measurement of serum T3. The advantages of RIA methods with respect to displacement techniques in the determination of this hormone are well documented. The AA. report here their experience with a simple RIA method for total T3, using a single Sephadex G25 column for extraction of T3 from serum and for separation of bound from free hormone. The mean (+/-SD) values of serum T3 found in 78 normal, 23 hyperthyroid and 25 hypothyroid subjects were as follows:160+/37ng/dl, 604+/195ng/dl and 35+/23ng/dl respectively. High values were found in 19 pregnant women at delivery (236+/29ng/dl), but not in 5 subjects on contraceptives (156+/42ng/dl). A relatively large variability is noted when normal values reported from different laboratories are compared. This may be related at least in part to geographical and/or ethnical factors, but methodolgical differences may also be involved. The normal range of

  11. Effect of thyroxine treatment on carnitine levels in mice.

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    Cederblad, G; Engström, G

    1978-07-01

    The effect in mice of 8 subcutaneous injections of 20 microgram of L-thyroxine at 12 hr-intervals on the carnitine concentration in the heart and skeletal muscle tissue was studied. In skeletal muscle tissue, the thyroxine treatment resulted in a depressed carnitine concentration. The mean values were 1.59 +/- 0.034 (S.E.M.) and 2.03 +/- 0.045 mumol/g noncollagen protein and 1.11 +/- 0.035 and 1.45 +/- 0.037 mumol/g dry weight for the thyroxine treated and the control animals, respectively. Thyroxine produced myocardial hypertrophy. The thyroxine treated animals had lower cardiac values when dry weight was used as reference base 4.17 +/- 0.10 mumol/g dry weight than the control group, 4.69 +/- 0.18 mumol/g dry weight. No statistically significant difference was found between the two groups when the cardiac carnitine concentration was expressed per g noncollagen protein or as carnitine in the entire hearts. Thus, thyroxine has been showed to influence the metabolism of carnitine in mice.

  12. Toluene depresses plasma corticosterone in pregnant rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Karin S; Hansen, Åse Marie; Hass, Ulla

    2003-01-01

    Combined exposure to stressors and chemicals may result in synergistic effects. The effects of prenatal exposure to the organic solvent toluene resemble those observed in offspring of gestationally stressed dams, a possible common mechanism being transfer of stress-/toluene-induced increments...... of corticosteroids from the maternal to the foetal compartment. Pregnant rats were subjected to either 1500 ppm toluene 6 hr/day and/or a schedule of "Chronic mild stress" during the last two weeks of gestation. Exposure to toluene was associated with reduced birth weight and lower maternal weight gain, the latter...... being enhanced by maternal stress. A depressant effect of toluene on maternal corticosterone was observed, hence the study does not provide immediate evidence that transfer of elevated levels of corticosterone from the maternal to the foetal compartment mediates the effects of prenatal exposure...

  13. 21 CFR 862.1685 - Thyroxine-binding globulin test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... protein which binds thyroxine, in serum and plasma. Measurements obtained by this device are used in the... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Thyroxine-binding globulin test system. 862.1685 Section 862.1685 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  14. Relationships among prenatal depression, plasma cortisol, and inflammatory cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Melissa M; Schminkey, Donna L; Groer, Maureen W

    2015-05-01

    A secondary pilot study was carried out as part of a larger parent study of thyroid function in pregnancy and postpartum. All women in the parent study (N = 631) had blood samples, demographic data, and measures of perceived stress and dysphoric moods collected between 16 and 26 weeks' gestation. The current study was completed with a subset of 105 pregnant women to examine the relationships among perceived stress, depression, plasma cortisol, and cytokines during the second trimester of pregnancy. Stress was measured using Cohen's Perceived Stress Scale and dysphoric moods using the Profile of Mood States Depression/Dejection Scale. Cytokines were measured by a 12-plex analysis on a Luminex-200, and cortisol was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay on stored plasma samples. Stress and depression scores were highly correlated, and depressive symptoms were inversely correlated with 3 of the 12 cytokines: interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and IL-7. Cortisol was inversely correlated with proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and TNF-α) and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, and IL-13). These data support the new conceptualizations of normal pregnancy as an inflammatory state that is carefully regulated, as both excessive and inadequate inflammation are potentially hazardous to the health of the pregnancy and fetus.

  15. Monte Carlo simulations of ionization potential depression in dense plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stransky, M., E-mail: stransky@fzu.cz [Department of Radiation and Chemical Physics, Institute of Physics ASCR, Na Slovance 2, 182 21 Prague 8 (Czech Republic)

    2016-01-15

    A particle-particle grand canonical Monte Carlo model with Coulomb pair potential interaction was used to simulate modification of ionization potentials by electrostatic microfields. The Barnes-Hut tree algorithm [J. Barnes and P. Hut, Nature 324, 446 (1986)] was used to speed up calculations of electric potential. Atomic levels were approximated to be independent of the microfields as was assumed in the original paper by Ecker and Kröll [Phys. Fluids 6, 62 (1963)]; however, the available levels were limited by the corresponding mean inter-particle distance. The code was tested on hydrogen and dense aluminum plasmas. The amount of depression was up to 50% higher in the Debye-Hückel regime for hydrogen plasmas, in the high density limit, reasonable agreement was found with the Ecker-Kröll model for hydrogen plasmas and with the Stewart-Pyatt model [J. Stewart and K. Pyatt, Jr., Astrophys. J. 144, 1203 (1966)] for aluminum plasmas. Our 3D code is an improvement over the spherically symmetric simplifications of the Ecker-Kröll and Stewart-Pyatt models and is also not limited to high atomic numbers as is the underlying Thomas-Fermi model used in the Stewart-Pyatt model.

  16. Glucuronidation of thyroxine in human liver, jejunum, and kidney microsomes.

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    Yamanaka, Hiroyuki; Nakajima, Miki; Katoh, Miki; Yokoi, Tsuyoshi

    2007-09-01

    Glucuronidation of thyroxine is a major metabolic pathway facilitating its excretion. In this study, we characterized the glucuronidation of thyroxine in human liver, jejunum, and kidney microsomes, and identified human UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) isoforms involved in the activity. Human jejunum microsomes showed a lower K(m) value (24.2 microM) than human liver (85.9 microM) and kidney (53.3 microM) microsomes did. Human kidney microsomes showed a lower V(max) value (22.6 pmol/min/mg) than human liver (133.4 pmol/min/mg) and jejunum (184.6 pmol/min/mg) microsomes did. By scaling-up, the in vivo clearances in liver, intestine, and kidney were estimated to be 1440, 702, and 79 microl/min/kg body weight, respectively. Recombinant human UGT1A8 (108.7 pmol/min/unit), UGT1A3 (91.6 pmol/min/unit), and UGT1A10 (47.3 pmol/min/unit) showed high, and UGT1A1 (26.0 pmol/min/unit) showed moderate thyroxine glucuronosyltransferase activity. The thyroxine glucuronosyltransferase activity in microsomes from 12 human livers was significantly correlated with bilirubin O-glucuronosyltransferase (r = 0.855, p microsomes was mainly catalyzed by UGT1A8 and UGT1A10 and to a lesser extent by UGT1A1, and the activity in human kidney microsomes was mainly catalyzed by UGT1A7, UGT1A9, and UGT1A10. The changes of activities of these UGT1A isoforms via inhibition and induction by administered drugs as well as genetic polymorphisms may be a causal factor of interindividual differences in the plasma thyroxine concentration.

  17. Decreased plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in institutionalized elderly with depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Chin-Liang; Liang, Chih-Kuang; Chou, Ming-Yueh; Lin, Yu-Te; Pan, Chih-Chuan; Lu, Ti; Chen, Liang-Kung; Chow, Philip C

    2012-06-01

    To compare the differences in plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels among institutionalized ethnic Chinese elderly participants with major depression, those with subclinical depression, and a nondepressed control group. A cross-sectional study. The veterans' home in southern Taiwan. One hundred sixty-seven residents. Questionnaires including the Minimum Data Set Nursing Home 2.1, Chinese-language version, and the short-form Geriatric Depression Scale, Chinese-language version. Depressive disorder was diagnosed by a well-trained psychiatrist using DSM-IV-TR (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, text revision) criteria. We measured plasma BDNF levels in the following 3 groups: nondepressive subjects (n = 122), subclinically depressive subjects (n = 33), and subjects with major depression (n = 12). Plasma BDNF was assayed using the sandwich ELISA method. We noted a significantly negative association between age and plasma BDNF in the regression model. There was no significant correlation between BDNF plasma levels and body weight or platelet counts. We found that plasma BDNF was significantly lower in the major depressive group (mean, 115.1 pg/mL; SD, 57.2) than in the nondepressive group (mean, 548.8 pg/mL; SD, 370.6; P depressive group (mean, 231.8 pg/mL; SD, 92.4; P depressive disorder but also in those with subclinical depression. This makes the plasma BDNF level a potential biological marker for clinical or subclinical depression. Copyright © 2012 American Medical Directors Association, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Radioimmunoassay of thyroxine in saliva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Putz, Z.; Vanuga, A.; Veleminsky, J. (Institute of Clinical Endocrinology, Lubochna (Czechoslovakia))

    1985-04-01

    A simple radioimmunoassay (RIA) for thyroxine (T/sub 4/) in saliva has been described. Fifty euthyroid control subjects, 14 euthyroid pregnant women, 23 thyreotoxic and 10 hypothyroid patients were examined. Serum T/sub 3/, T/sub 4/, thyroxine binding globulin (TBG) and TSH were measured simultaneously. The mean level of T/sub 4/ in saliva in controls was 1.10 +- 0.07 nmol/l. There was a good correlation between the saliva and serum T/sub 4/ concentrations (r = 0.74) and between saliva T/sub 4/ values and the T/sub 4//TBG ratio (r = 0.83). The saliva T/sub 4/ levels, like serum free T/sub 4/, were not dependent on fluctuations of serum TBG concentrations. In euthyroid pregnant women, saliva T/sub 4/ levels were within the normal range while the serum T/sub 4/ and TBG were increased. There was a good agreement of saliva T/sub 4/ values with the functional state of the thyroid. Thus, the RIA of saliva T/sub 4/ could replace the laborious determination of serum free T/sub 4/. It can especially be useful in instances with abnormal values of TBG, as it is in pregnancy, in congenital deficiency of serum TBG or in subjects with hereditary elevated TBG levels.

  19. Relationship between plasma glutamate levels and post-stroke depression in patients with acute ischemic stroke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱方媛

    2014-01-01

    Objective To test the association between the plasma glutamate levels during acute ischemic stroke andpost-stroke depression(PSD)initially.Methods Seventy-four ischemic stroke patients admitted to the hospital within the first day of stroke onset were evaluated at a follow-up of 2 weeks.The Beck Depression Inventory(BDI,21-item)and DSM-Ⅳcriteria was used to diagnose post-stroke depression(PSD)at 2 weeks after stroke.

  20. Plasma level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and the related analysis in depressive patients with suicide attempt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    操军

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the association between brainderived neurotrophic factor(BDNF)and suicidal behavior through analyzing and detecting the alteration of plasma BDNF level in depressive patients with suicide attempt.Methods Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent analysis(ELISA)to test the plasma level of BDNF in 27suicidal depressed patients,33 non-suicidal depressed patients and 30 normal controls.Meanwhile,the Hamilton Depression Scale(HAMD)and Beck

  1. [Thyroxine treatment in acute renal failure (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, E

    1975-11-01

    8 patients suffering from acute renal failure (shock kidney) with anuria extending over 3 to 5 days, were treated with L-thyroxine for 5 to 9 days (5-6 mug per kg body weight per day orally). Diuresis was restored within 34 to 46 hrs. Plasma levels of urea and creatinine decreased earlier and much more rapidly to normal than was to be expected from the natural history of the disease, indicating the prompt and extensive increase of glomerular filtration rate. Polyuria seemed less pronounced and also shortened as compared with the ordinary course of that form of sudden renal insufficiency. Obviously, the well-known diuretic response in the normal individual to high doses of thyroid hormones in not a factor in the induction of diuresis in acute renal failure. The tendency with L-thyroxine treatment to dilate the preglomerular arterial vessel is considered a consequence of the stimulation of sodium reabsorption in the upper nephron. High values of RPF and GFR, regularly observed in hyperthyroidism or after L-thyroxine administration, do not depend on any augmentation of cardiac output or on arterial hypertension, since such symptoms were missed in our patients and, in our view, such an interpretation is excluded by the very existence of the so-called autoregulation of the kidney which leaves RPF (and therefore GFR) independent of systemic blood pressure. The same intrarenal feed-back mechanism, normally adapting the glomerular blood supply to the resorptive capacity of the proximal-tubular epithelium (mediation via the juxta-glomerular apparatus), is responsible for the GFR- and RPF-raising effect of exogenous L-thyroxine in the intact kidney as well as in acute renal failure: both sodium reabsorption and sodium filtration are accelerated.--The special conditions under which L-thyroxine interferes with the pathogenetic process of acute renal failure, the latter being characterised by the critical insufficiency of tubular sodium reabsorption and therefore by

  2. Effects of ipsapirone on plasma cortisol and body temperature in major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, H Y; Maes, M

    1995-10-01

    Major depressed patients have been reported to exhibit significantly attenuated hypothermic responses to ipsapirone, a serotonin (5-HT)-1A partial agonist, compared to normal controls. This study further investigated the cortisol and temperature responses to ipsapirone (0.5 mg/kg orally) and placebo in 20 normal volunteers and 12 major depressed patients. Both plasma cortisol and temperature were measured every 30 min before ipsapirone or placebo administration until 180 min post administration. Ipsapirone administration produced a significant increase in plasma cortisol levels as well as hypothermia. Major depressed patients showed significantly blunted ipsapirone-induced cortisol responses compared to normal controls. No significant differences in ipsapirone-induced hypothermic responses were found between major depressed patients and normal controls.

  3. Depressants

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    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Depressants KidsHealth > For Teens > Depressants A A A What's ... How Can Someone Quit? Avoiding Depressants What Are Depressants? Depressants are drugs that calm nerves and relax ...

  4. Influence of fluvoxamine on plasma interleukin-6 or clinical improvement in patients with major depressive disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Reiji; Katsuki, Asuka; Atake, Kiyokazu; Hori, Hikaru; Igata, Ryohei; Konishi, Yuki

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The etiology of depression remains unknown. There is, however, a growing body of evidence that cytokines are involved in the pathophysiology of depression. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of fluvoxamine on plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels and on clinical improvement of the depressive state. Subjects and methods Thirty patients who met the DSM-IV criteria for major depressive disorder (MDD) were enrolled in the study. Thirteen were male and 17 were female, and their ages ranged from 26 to 70 years (mean ± standard deviation 45.0±14.2). The patients were treated with fluvoxamine for 8 weeks. The dosages of fluvoxamine varied among the patients and, based on ethical considerations, were not fixed. Results The fluvoxamine doses were positively related to plasma fluvoxamine levels (r =0.8798, P<0.001). A significant correlation was observed between the patients’ plasma IL-6 levels and their 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD17) scores (r =0.4555, P=0.0010). A positive correlation was found between the delta plasma IL-6 (week 0–week 8) and the delta HAMD17 (week 0–week 8) (r =0.5226, P=0.002). Conclusion Effect of fluvoxamine on IL-6 is partially associated with its clinical efficacy for MDD. PMID:28243095

  5. Ionization-potential depression and dynamical structure factor in dense plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chengliang; Röpke, Gerd; Kraeft, Wolf-Dietrich; Reinholz, Heidi

    2017-07-01

    The properties of a bound electron system immersed in a plasma environment are strongly modified by the surrounding plasma. The modification of an essential quantity, the ionization energy, is described by the electronic and ionic self-energies, including dynamical screening within the framework of the quantum statistical theory. Introducing the ionic dynamical structure factor as the indicator for the ionic microfield, we demonstrate that ionic correlations and fluctuations play a critical role in determining the ionization potential depression. This is, in particular, true for mixtures of different ions with large mass and charge asymmetry. The ionization potential depression is calculated for dense aluminum plasmas as well as for a CH plasma and compared to the experimental data and more phenomenological approaches used so far.

  6. Thyroxine reversibly inhibits the uncoupling action of protonophores on energy production in rat thymus lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palamarchuk, L A; Mansurova, S E; Starkov, A A

    2002-04-01

    Earlier we reported that some thyroid and steroid hormones and also 6-ketocholestanol used in micromolar concentrations modulated the effects of protonophoric uncouplers on isolated mitochondria (Starkov et al. (1997) Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 1318, 173-183). In the present study we investigated the effects of a thyroid hormone, thyroxine, on energy coupling of intact rat thymus lymphocytes and mitochondria isolated from these cells. The resting (oligomycin-inhibited) respiration of the isolated intact lymphocytes was stimulated by the addition of protonophoric uncouplers 2,4-DNP, FCCP, or SF6847. Subsequent addition of micromolar concentrations of thyroxin decreased the rate of uncoupler-stimulated respiration and partially reversed uncoupler-induced decrease of membrane potential (DeltaPsi). In experiments with mitochondria isolated from thymus lymphocytes the re-coupling effect of thyroxine was not observed. In this case thyroxine did not influence mitochondrial respiration stimulated with 2,4-DNP, but did potentiate the stimulation of respiration and DeltaPsi decrease induced with another uncoupler, SF6847. The data are discussed in terms of a hypothesis that aromatic uncouplers are transported into the cell by the thyroxine carrier of the plasma membrane.

  7. Reduced cooperativeness and reward-dependence in depression with above-normal plasma vasopressin concentration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goekoop, J. G.; de Winter, R. F. P.; Wolterbeek, R.; Spinhoven, P.; Zitman, F. G.; Wiegant, V. M.

    2009-01-01

    The neuropeptide vasopressin is centrally involved in the regulation of social behaviour and response to stress. We previously found support for a subcategory of depression defined by above-normal plasma vasopressin (AVP) concentration. This subcategory is validated by a positive family history of d

  8. Sigma-1 receptor concentration in plasma of patients with late-life depression: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimizu H

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Hideyuki Shimizu,1 Minoru Takebayashi,2 Masayuki Tani,1 Hiroaki Tanaka,1 Bun Yamagata,1 Kenzo Kurosawa,1 Hiroki Yamada,1 Mitsugu Hachisu,3 Kazue Hisaoka-Nakashima,2 Mami Okada-Tsuchioka,2 Masaru Mimura,4 Akira Iwanami11Department of Neuropsychiatry, Showa University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; 2Department of Psychiatry and Institute for Clinical Research, National Hospital Organization Kure Medical Center, Kure, Japan; 3Department of Clinical Psychopharmacy, Pharmacy School, Showa University, Tokyo, Japan; 4Department of Neuropsychiatry, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, JapanBackground: Recently, the sigma-1 receptor has been shown to play a significant role in the neural transmission of mood by regulating N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. Additionally, the sigma-1 receptor has been reported to influence cognitive functions including learning and memory. In this study, we measured plasma sigma-1 receptor concentrations before and after antidepressant treatment in patients with late-life major depressive disorder (MDD and explored whether changes in depressive status are related to sigma-1 receptor concentrations.Methods: The study participants were 12 subjects with late-life MDD diagnosed according to the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. All of the participants were over 60 years old. Immediately prior to and 8 weeks after the start of treatment, sigma-1 receptor concentration and mental status, including depressive symptoms (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale; HAM-D, were measured. Treatment for depression was performed according to a developed algorithm based on the choice of treatments. We examined the association between changes in sigma-1 receptor concentration and HAM-D scores during antidepressant treatment. For the measurement of plasma sigma-1 receptor concentration, blood plasma samples were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Western

  9. Thyroxine Induced Resorption of Xenopus Laevis Tail Tissue in Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scadding, Steven R.

    1984-01-01

    A simple method of studying thyroxine-induced resorption of tadpole tails in vitro is described. This procedure demonstrates that resorption is dependent on thyroxine and requires protein synthesis. It introduces students to the use of tissue culture methods. (Author)

  10. Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone induces thyroxine release together with testosterone in the neotenic axolotl Ambystoma mexicanum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, G F; Kühn, E R

    1988-09-01

    In male neotenic axolotls Ambystoma mexicanum plasma concentrations of thyroxine (T4) and testosterone were increased following intravenous injection of 10 micrograms luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone. A dose of 50 micrograms influenced only plasma T4 levels. This observation suggests for the first time that a hypothalamic hormone is capable of stimulating the thyroidal axis in the neotenic axolotl.

  11. 产后抑郁症血浆儿茶酚胺浓度对照研究%The Plasma Catecholamines Control Study of Postnatal Depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆亚文; 吴怀安; 闫小华; 徐宏里; 郑铮; 李英霞

    2003-01-01

    Objective:To explore the plasma catecholamines (CAs) concentration of postnatal depression and to analyze the re-lationships between postnatal depression and CAs level. Methods: Using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to mea-sure the subjects'' plasma noradrenaline (NE)、 adrenaline (E) and dopamine (DA) concentration. The postnatal depression group was compared with depression, ante partum and normal group. Results: NE level of plasma in the depression group and the post-natal depression group were all higher than those of normal group P 0.05) . Conclusion: the plasma NE increase is relative to postnatal depression episode, the plasma DA may be relative to postnatal depression episode. The relationship between plasma and postnatal depression remains unclear.

  12. Elevated plasma fibrinogen, psychological distress, antidepressant use, and hospitalization with depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wium-Andersen, Marie Kim; Ørsted, David Dynnes; Nordestgaard, Børge Grønne

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Low-grade systemic inflammation may contribute to the development of depression. We tested the hypothesis that elevated plasma levels of the inflammatory marker fibrinogen are associated with psychological distress, use of antidepressant medication, and with hospitalization with depre......OBJECTIVES: Low-grade systemic inflammation may contribute to the development of depression. We tested the hypothesis that elevated plasma levels of the inflammatory marker fibrinogen are associated with psychological distress, use of antidepressant medication, and with hospitalization...... with depression in the general population. METHODS: We examined 73,367 20-100 year old men and women from two large population-based studies, the Copenhagen General Population Study and the Copenhagen City Heart Study. We measured plasma fibrinogen and recorded symptoms of psychological distress, use...... of antidepressant medication, and hospitalization with depression in both cross-sectional and prospective studies. RESULTS: In cross-sectional analyses, a stepwise increase in fibrinogen percentile categories was associated with a stepwise increase in risk of psychological distress, use of antidepressant medication...

  13. Plasma brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and response to ketamine in treatment-resistant depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haile, C N; Murrough, J W; Iosifescu, D V; Chang, L C; Al Jurdi, R K; Foulkes, A; Iqbal, S; Mahoney, J J; De La Garza, R; Charney, D S; Newton, T F; Mathew, S J

    2014-02-01

    Ketamine produces rapid antidepressant effects in treatment-resistant depression (TRD), but the magnitude of response varies considerably between individual patients. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been investigated as a biomarker of treatment response in depression and has been implicated in the mechanism of action of ketamine. We evaluated plasma BDNF and associations with symptoms in 22 patients with TRD enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of ketamine compared to an anaesthetic control (midazolam). Ketamine significantly increased plasma BDNF levels in responders compared to non-responders 240 min post-infusion, and Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) scores were negatively correlated with BDNF (r=-0.701, p = 0.008). Plasma BDNF levels at 240 min post-infusion were highly negatively associated with MADRS scores at 240 min (r = -0.897, p=.002), 24 h (r = -0.791, p = 0.038), 48 h (r = -0.944, p = 0.001) and 72 h (r = -0.977, p = 0.010). No associations with BDNF were found for patients receiving midazolam. These data support plasma BDNF as a peripheral biomarker relevant to ketamine antidepressant response.

  14. Depression of plasma luteinizing hormone concentration in quail by the anticholinesterase insecticide parathion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, B.A.; Clarke, R.N.; Ottinger, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    To examine the effects of parathion on basal plasma luteinizing hormone (LH) concentration, male Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) were orally intubated with 0, 5 or 10 mg/kg parathion and sacrificed after 4, 8 and 24 hr. At the 5 mg/kg dose, plasma LH levels were reduced at 4 and 8 hr, but returned to control values by 24 hr. Brain acetylcholinesterase activity was substantially reduced by 10 mg/kg parathion (52, 75 and 37% inhibition at 4, 8 and 24 hr, respectively) and plasma LH concentration remained depressed through the 24-hr period. These findings suggest that the organophosphorus insecticide parathion may alter plasma LH concentration in a manner which might impair reproductive activity, and provide indirect evidence for a cholinergic component in the regulation of LH secretion in quail.

  15. Alterations in plasma dipeptidyl peptidase IV enzyme activity in depression and schizophrenia: effects of antidepressants and antipsychotic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, M; De Meester, I; Scharpe, S; Desnyder, R; Ranjan, R; Meltzer, H Y

    1996-01-01

    Recently, our laboratory reported that the activity of dipeptidyl-peptidase IV (DPP IV) was significantly lower in the peripheral blood of major depressed patients than in normal controls. The present study examines plasma DPP IV activity in 43 major depressed and 13 schizophrenic subjects versus 21 normal controls and the effects of antidepressants and antipsychotic drugs on plasma DPP IV activity. DPP IV activity was significantly lower in major depressed subjects than in normal controls and schizophrenic subjects. There was a trend towards higher DPP IV activity in schizophrenic patients than in normal controls. There were no significant effects of antidepressants or neuroleptics on plasma DPP IV activity in depressed and schizophrenic patients, respectively. There were no significant relationships between plasma DPP IV activity and plasma cortisol or immune-inflammatory markers, such as serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) or soluble IL-2 receptor. A significant and positive correlation was found between plasma DPP IV and prolyl endopeptidase (PEP) enzyme activity in the study group as a whole and in schizophrenic subjects. The results support the hypothesis that lower and higher plasma DPP IV activities are trait markers of major depression and schizophrenia, respectively. It is concluded that alterations in the enzyme activity of peptidases, such as DPP IV and PEP, play a role in the pathophysiology of major depression and schizophrenia.

  16. Direct Measurements of the Ionization Potential Depression in a Dense Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciricosta, O.; Vinko, S. M.; Chung, H.-K.; Cho, B.-I.; Brown, C. R. D.; Burian, T.; Chalupský, J.; Engelhorn, K.; Falcone, R. W.; Graves, C.; Hájková, V.; Higginbotham, A.; Juha, L.; Krzywinski, J.; Lee, H. J.; Messerschmidt, M.; Murphy, C. D.; Ping, Y.; Rackstraw, D. S.; Scherz, A.; Schlotter, W.; Toleikis, S.; Turner, J. J.; Vysin, L.; Wang, T.; Wu, B.; Zastrau, U.; Zhu, D.; Lee, R. W.; Heimann, P.; Nagler, B.; Wark, J. S.

    2012-08-01

    We have used the Linac Coherent Light Source to generate solid-density aluminum plasmas at temperatures of up to 180 eV. By varying the photon energy of the x rays that both create and probe the plasma, and observing the K-α fluorescence, we can directly measure the position of the K edge of the highly charged ions within the system. The results are found to disagree with the predictions of the extensively used Stewart-Pyatt model, but are consistent with the earlier model of Ecker and Kröll, which predicts significantly greater depression of the ionization potential.

  17. Thyroxine Level of Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jie

    2000-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the thyroxine level of Children with cerebral palsy so as to understand thd changes of their nevous endocrine. Methods:Radioimmunoassay was applied to 57 Children with cerebral palsy and 108 normal children.The serum level of tridothyronine(T3), thyroxine(T4)free tridothyronine(FT3),free thyroxin(FT4),and thyroid stimulating hormone(TSH) were measured for those children in the moming and and in condition without any food Rsults: (1)Chiidren with cerebral palsy all showed low T3 values.The difference of T3 value between CP children and norrmal children was significant (P<0.001). (2)Results from groups with difference ages:the CP toddler′s age group also showed low T4 and FT4 values The difference of T4 and FT4 values between the toddler′s age CP childrengroup and the toddler′s age normal children group tegted was significant (CP<0.01 for T4, P <0. 05 for FT4): Conclusion:The tlyroxine level of children with cerebral palsy showed lower values compared to normal children, especisly, the low T3 values were significant.

  18. Plasma levels of thrombomodulin, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and fibrinogen in elderly, diabetic patients with depressive symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background Diabetes, depression and aging have been associated with pro-inflammatory and prothrombotic state. Aim The aim of the study was to determine the plasma levels of thrombomodulin, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and fibrinogen in elderly diabetic patients with and without depressive symptoms and to examine factors (including thrombomodulin, PAI-1, fibrinogen levels) associated with depressive symptoms in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Methods A total of 276 T...

  19. Plasma cytokine profiles in depressed patients who fail to respond to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor therapy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Brien, Sinead M

    2012-02-03

    OBJECTIVE: Approximately 30% of patients with depression fail to respond to a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI). Few studies have attempted to define these patients from a biological perspective. Studies suggest that overall patients with depression show increased production of proinflammatory cytokines. We examined pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine levels in patients who were SSRI resistant. METHODS: Plasma concentrations of IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-alpha and sIL-6R were measured with enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) in DSM-1V major depressives who were SSRI resistant, in formerly SSRI resistant patients currently euthymic and in healthy controls. RESULTS: Patients with SSRI-resistant depression had significantly higher production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 (p=0.01) and TNF-alpha (p=0.004) compared to normal controls. Euthymic patients who were formerly SSRI resistant had proinflammatory cytokine levels which were similar to the healthy subject group. Anti-inflammatory cytokine levels did not differ across the 3 groups. CONCLUSION: Suppression of proinflammatory cytokines does not occur in depressed patients who fail to respond to SSRIs and is necessary for clinical recovery.

  20. Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... overview URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003213.htm Depression - overview To use the sharing features on this ... older adults Major depression Persistent depressive disorder Postpartum depression Premenstrual ... Review Date 1/4/2016 Updated by: Timothy Rogge, ...

  1. Influences of hypertonic and hypovolemic treatments on vasopressin response in propylthiouracil (PTU) induced hypothyroid rat and effect on supplementation with L-thyroxine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Leyla; Mogulkoc, R; Baltaci, A K

    2010-03-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effects of L-thyroxine treatment on plasma vasopressin (AVP) levels in rats with hypothyroidism induced by propylthiouracil (PTU). Animals were separated into three groups each having 6 rats: control, PTU, PTU+L-thyroxine groups. Then, the groups were further divided into 3 sub-groups including 6 rats (a; basal, b; hypertonic stimulated and c; hypovolemic stimulated). At the end of the experiments all rats were decapitated in order to obtain plasma samples for analysis in terms of Hct, osmolality, TT 3 , TT 4 and vasopressin. Haematocrit (Hct) levels were the highest in hypovolemic stimulated sub-group (P PTU group and the highest in the L-thyroxine treated group (P PTU group (P PTU-induced hypothyroidism. However, L-thyroxine treatment following hypothyroidism prevents this reduction.

  2. Effects of major depression, aging and gender upon calculated diurnal free plasma cortisol concentrations: a re-evaluation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deuschle, M; Weber, B; Colla, M; Depner, M; Heuser, I

    1998-12-01

    Depression, aging and female gender are associated with increased diurnal concentrations of total plasma cortisol. For the physical effects of hypercortisolemia, however, it is generally assumed that free rather than total plasma cortisol concentrations are of importance. Herein, we report a mathematical approach to determine free plasma cortisol concentrations on the basis of total cortisol, corticosteroid binding-globulin (CBG) and albumin plasma concentrations. This approach was used to re-evaluate two sets of data in order to estimate the effect of depression as well as the effect of aging and gender upon free plasma cortisol concentrations. Comparing male depressed patients with healthy controls, we found 24-hour free cortisol minima (MIN: 4.1 +/- 1.8 vs. 1.6 +/- 1.1 nmol/l, p MAX: 85.3 +/- 23.3 vs. 45.2 +/- 15. 8 nmol/l, p problems triggered and/or maintained by glucocorticoids (e.g. osteoporosis) are frequently seen.

  3. Inlfuence of Depressive State on Levels of Homocysteine and Thyroid Hormone in Patients with Hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei-wei; WANG Yan-ling

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To explore the inlfuence of depressive state on the levels of homocysteine (Hcy) and thyroid hormone in patients with hypertension. Methods:Totally 179 patients with primary hypertension were selected and divided into depression group (n=97) and non-depression group (n=82) according to whether to be complicated with depressive disorder. The venous blood was drawn for detecting the level of Hcy in 2 groups by enzymatic cycling assay, and serum free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4) and thyrotropic hormone (TSH) by chemiluminiscence. The correlation between Hamilton depression scale (HAMD) scores and levels of plasma Hcy and serum FT3, FT4 and TSH was analyzed. Results: Compared with non-depression group, the level of plasma Hcy increased and the levels of FT3 and FT4 decreased in depression group (P0.05). HAMD scores in depression group had a positive correlation with the level of plasma Hcy (r=0.593,P=0.024), a negative correlation with the level of serum FT3 (r=-0.421,P=0.011), and no relationships with the levels of serum FT4 and TSH (r=-0.137,P=0.334;r=0.058, P=0.576). Conclusion: Hypertensive patients complicated with depression have abnormal level of Hcy and thyroid hormones. Moreover, the depressive degree of patients is positively correlated with the level of Hcy and negatively with the level of FT3.

  4. Plasma dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate levels in patients with major depressive disorder correlate with remission during treatment with antidepressants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Tokiko; Senzaki, Koji; Ishihara, Ryoko; Umeda, Kazunori; Iwata, Nakao; Nagai, Taku; Hida, Hirotake; Nabeshima, Toshitaka; Yukawa, Kazunori; Ozaki, Norio; Noda, Yukihiro

    2014-05-01

    We attempted to investigate whether dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) levels are associated with remission of major depressive disorder by assessing scores on the 17-Item Structured Interview Guide for the Hamilton Depression before and after antidepressant treatment. Plasma DHEA-S levels in 24 patients diagnosed with major depressive disorder on the basis of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (text revision) before and after antidepressant treatment, and 24 healthy, gender-matched, and age-matched controls were measured using a radioimmunoassay kit. Plasma DHEA-S levels in patients were significantly higher than those in healthy controls. In patients who achieved remission after antidepressant treatment, plasma DHEA-S levels significantly declined compared with the levels before treatment. A significant correlation was observed between changes in DHEA-S levels and Absence of Depressive and Anxious Mood scores, which are calculated from the 2-Item Structured Interview Guide for the Hamilton Depression rating as follows: severity of depressive mood and anxiety in patients before and after antidepressant treatment. These findings suggest that plasma DHEA-S levels can be used as a putative indicator of the state of remission in patients with major depressive disorder. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Veddel; Bukh, Jens Otto Drachmann

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of depression is not clearly established, but estimated to 3-4% in a Danish questionnaire study. Lifetime's prevalences of 12-17% are reported in other community samples. In the current diagnostic system depression is defined categorically and operationally. It has been argued......, that these diagnostic criteria represent an oversimplification, which has blurred the concept of depression. We suggest a greater emphasis on the depressed mood as the core symptom of depression, which may increase the specificity of the diagnosis. Furthermore, basic principles for the treatment of depression...

  6. Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Veddel; Bukh, Jens Drachmann

    2014-01-01

    , that these diagnostic criteria represent an oversimplification, which has blurred the concept of depression. We suggest a greater emphasis on the depressed mood as the core symptom of depression, which may increase the specificity of the diagnosis. Furthermore, basic principles for the treatment of depression......The prevalence of depression is not clearly established, but estimated to 3-4% in a Danish questionnaire study. Lifetime's prevalences of 12-17% are reported in other community samples. In the current diagnostic system depression is defined categorically and operationally. It has been argued...

  7. The effect of phenobarbital on the metabolism and excretion of thyroxine in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClain, R.M.; Levin, A.A.; Posch, R.; Downing, J.C.

    1989-06-15

    The effect of phenobarbital on thyroid function and the metabolism and biliary excretion of thyroxine in rats was determined. Phenobarbital, administered for 2 weeks at a dose of 100 mg/kg/day, resulted in an increase in hepatic and thyroid gland weights, decreased circulating levels of T4, T3 and rT3, and increased TSH levels in male and female rats. After 3 months of treatment liver and thyroid weights were still increased; however, hormone values were not as markedly affected indicating that the rats had partially compensated for the effect on thyroid function. In thyroidectomized rats the plasma clearance of thyroxine was increased with phenobarbital. In bile duct cannulated phenobarbital-treated male rats the hepatic uptake at 4 hr was markedly increased. Bile flow was increased and the 4-hr cumulative biliary excretion of administered radioactivity was increased by 42%. Most of the increase in the excretion (76%) was accounted for by an increase in the excretion of thyroxine-glucuronide in phenobarbital-treated rats. Hepatic thyroxine-glucuronyltransferase activity in phenobarbital-treated rats expressed as picomoles per milligram of protein was increased by 40%; enzyme activity per gram of liver was increased by about twofold which, coupled with increased hepatic weight, resulted in about a threefold increase in total hepatic thyroxine-glucuronyltransferase activity in phenobarbital-treated rats as compared to that of controls. Qualitatively similar effects on metabolism, excretion, and enzyme induction were noted in female rats; however, the magnitude of increase was less than that observed in male rats. It is concluded that the effect of phenobarbital on thyroid function in rats is primarily a result of its effects on the hepatic disposition of thyroid hormone.

  8. Are uric acid plasma levels different between unipolar depression with and without adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özten, Eylem; Kesebir, Sermin; Eryılmaz, Gül; Tarhan, Nevzat; Karamustafalıoğlu, Oğuz

    2015-05-15

    The aim of our study is to compare uric acid plasma levels in patients with unipolar depression between those with Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) comorbidity and those without. Our hypothesis is that uric acid plasma levels may be higher in unipolar depressive patients with adult ADHD than without ADHD. Sixty four patients diagnosed with MDD were investigated, among which 28 patients had been diagnosed with ADHD according to DSM5. 28 patients were ADHD. 36 patients were diagnosed as not having ADHD. One of the criteria was including cases that had not started using medication for the current depressive episode. The control group (HC) consisted of 43 healthy staff members from our hospital who had no prior psychiatric admission or treatment history and matched with the patient group in terms of age and gender. Blood samples were obtained, and plasma uric acid levels were recorded in mg/dl after being rotated for 15min in a centrifuge with 3000 rotations and kept at -80°C. Uric acid plasma levels 5.1±1.6 in unipolar depression and ADHD group, 4.6±1.8 in unipolar depression group. Uric acid plasma levels were higher in the comorbid unipolar depression and ADHD group than in the unipolar depression and healthy control (HC) groups (F= 4.367, p= 0.037). There was no correlation between ADHD (predominantly inattentive type) and uric acid plasma levels (p>0.05). The limitation of this study is the small number of sample and one of the criteria was including cases that had not started using medication for the current depressive episode. The identification of a different etiologic process of biological markers may lead to a better understanding of the physiological mechanisms involved in drive and impulsivity and may suggest different potential targets for therapeutic intervention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Depressants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... judgment and mental functioning nausea and vomiting memory loss (depressants can cause users to have no memory of events that happened while they were under the influence) Long-Term Effects When people misuse depressants over a long ...

  10. Plasma and erythrocyte fatty acid patterns in patients with recurrent depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assies, Johanna; Pouwer, François; Lok, Anja

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) composition of (nerve) cell membranes may be involved in the pathophysiology of depression. Studies so far, focussed mainly on omega-3 and omega-6 PUFAs. In the present study, saturated fatty acids (SFAs), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs......) and PUFAs of the omega-3, -6 and -9 series in plasma and erythrocytes of patients with recurrent major depressive disorder (MDD-R) were compared with controls. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We carried out a case-control study. The sample consisted of 137 patients with MDD-R and 65 matched non...... status of patients with MDD-R not only differs with regard to omega-3 and omega-6 PUFAs, but also concerns other fatty acids. These alterations may be due to: differences in diet, changes in synthesizing enzyme activities, higher levels of chronic (oxidative) stress but may also result from adaptive...

  11. Specific alterations in plasma proteins during depressed, manic, and euthymic states of bipolar disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Y.R. [Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China); Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurobiology, Chongqing (China); Institute of Neuroscience and the Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China); Wu, B. [Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurobiology, Chongqing (China); Institute of Neuroscience and the Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China); Yang, Y.T.; Chen, J. [Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China); Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurobiology, Chongqing (China); Institute of Neuroscience and the Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China); Zhang, L.J.; Zhang, Z.W. [Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurobiology, Chongqing (China); Institute of Neuroscience and the Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China); Shi, H.Y. [Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China); Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurobiology, Chongqing (China); Institute of Neuroscience and the Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China); Huang, C.L.; Pan, J.X. [Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurobiology, Chongqing (China); Institute of Neuroscience and the Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China); Xie, P. [Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China); Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurobiology, Chongqing (China); Institute of Neuroscience and the Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China)

    2015-09-08

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a common psychiatric mood disorder affecting more than 1-2% of the general population of different European countries. Unfortunately, there is no objective laboratory-based test to aid BD diagnosis or monitor its progression, and little is known about the molecular basis of BD. Here, we performed a comparative proteomic study to identify differentially expressed plasma proteins in various BD mood states (depressed BD, manic BD, and euthymic BD) relative to healthy controls. A total of 10 euthymic BD, 20 depressed BD, 15 manic BD, and 20 demographically matched healthy control subjects were recruited. Seven high-abundance proteins were immunodepleted in plasma samples from the 4 experimental groups, which were then subjected to proteome-wide expression profiling by two-dimensional electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight/time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry. Proteomic results were validated by immunoblotting and bioinformatically analyzed using MetaCore. From a total of 32 proteins identified with 1.5-fold changes in expression compared with healthy controls, 16 proteins were perturbed in BD independent of mood state, while 16 proteins were specifically associated with particular BD mood states. Two mood-independent differential proteins, apolipoprotein (Apo) A1 and Apo L1, suggest that BD pathophysiology may be associated with early perturbations in lipid metabolism. Moreover, down-regulation of one mood-dependent protein, carbonic anhydrase 1 (CA-1), suggests it may be involved in the pathophysiology of depressive episodes in BD. Thus, BD pathophysiology may be associated with early perturbations in lipid metabolism that are independent of mood state, while CA-1 may be involved in the pathophysiology of depressive episodes.

  12. Plasma levels of catecholamine metabolites predict the response to sulpiride or fluvoxamine in major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, N; Yoshimura, R; Shinkai, K; Nakamura, J

    2002-09-01

    We investigated the relationships between the changes in plasma catecholamine metabolites obtained from depressed patients before and after administration of sulpiride, a benzamide compound, or fluvoxamine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), and between clinical responses to treatment with each of these drugs. Responders to sulpiride had significantly lower plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA) levels before administration of sulpiride than did non-responders or controls (responders: 4.5 +/- 3.1 ng/ml, non-responders: 11.1 +/- 5.9 ng/ml, controls: 10.9 +/- 5.3 ng/ml). Positive relationships were observed between changes in pHVA levels and improvement rates in the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (Ham-D). In contrast, responders to fluvoxamine had significantly higher plasma free 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (pMHPG) levels before administration of fluvoxamine than did non-responders or controls (responders: 8.5 +/- 1.8 ng/ml, non-responders: 5.9 +/- 2.I ng/ml, controls: 5.2 +/- 2.9 ng/ml). Negative relationships were observed between changes in pMHPG levels and improvement rates in Ham-D. These results suggest that lower pretreatment pHVA levels and higher pretreatment levels of pMHPG might be predictors of response to sulpiride and fluvoxamine, respectively, and that sulpiride might produce a functional increase in the dopaminergic system, resulting in improvement in some depressive symptoms; fluvoxamine, on the other hand, might produce a functional decrease in the noradrenergic system via serotonergic neurons, resulting in improvement of those symptoms.

  13. Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cizza, G; Ravn, Pernille; Chrousos, G P

    2001-01-01

    Existing studies of the relationship between depression and osteoporosis have been heterogeneous in their design and use of diagnostic instruments for depression, which might have contributed to the different results on the comorbidity of these two conditions. Nevertheless, these studies reveal...... a strong association between depression and osteoporosis. Endocrine factors such as depression-induced hypersecretion of corticotropin-releasing hormone and hypercortisolism, hypogonadism, growth hormone deficiency and increased concentration of circulating interleukin 6, might play a crucial role...... in the bone loss observed in subjects suffering from major depression....

  14. Measuring free thyroxine levels in neonatal heel-prick samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelen, A.; Veen, M. van; Verkerk, P.H.; Diependaal, G.; Loeber, G.; Elvers, B.; Endert, E.

    2013-01-01

    The Dutch neonatal screening scheme for Congenital Hypothyroidism (CH) is primarily based on the determination of thyroxine (T4) in filter paper blood spots. In the lowest 5% of T4 values, thyroxine binding globulin (TBG) is measured in order to be able to correct for occasional low TBG levels. Howe

  15. The metabolic consequences of thyroxine replacement in adult hypopituitary patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filipsson Nyström, Helena; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Kourides, Ione;

    2012-01-01

    The metabolic consequences of thyroxine replacement in patients with central hypothyroidism (CH) need to be evaluated. The aim was to examine the outcome of thyroxine replacement in CH. Adult hypopituitary patients (n = 1595) with and without CH from KIMS (Pfizer International Metabolic Database...

  16. Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pouwer, Frans

    2017-01-01

    There is ample evidence that depression is000  a common comorbid health issue in people with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Reviews have also concluded that depression in diabetes is associated with higher HbA1c levels, less optimal self-care behaviours, lower quality of life, incident vascular...... complications and higher mortality rates. However, longitudinal studies into the course of depression in people with type 1 diabetes remain scarce. In this issue of Diabetologia, Kampling and colleagues (doi: 10.1007/s00125-016-4123-0 ) report the 5 year trajectories of depression in adults with newly diagnosed...... type 1 diabetes (mean age, 28 years). Their baseline results showed that shortly after the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes a major depressive episode was diagnosed in approximately 6% of participants, while 8% suffered from an anxiety disorder. The longitudinal depression data showed that, in a 5 year...

  17. Diagnostic Evaluation of Effective Thyroxine Ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myung Chul; Choi, Sang Jae; Ro, Heung Kyu; Lee, Hong Kyu; Koh, Chang Soon; Lee, Mun Ho [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1975-09-15

    The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the diagnostic value of the ETR test as compared to other thyroid function tests in normal persons, patients with thyroid disorders and patients with alterations of thyroxine-binding proteins. The ETR values were obtained from 35 cases as normal control, 63 hyperthyroid patients, 56 euthyroid patients, 23 hypothyroid patients, 10 pregnant women, 5 women taking oral contraceptive medication, 8 liver cirrhosis patients and 4 nephrotic syndrome patients. The results obtained were as follows. 1) The mean value of ETR obtained from the normal controls was 0.99+-0.06. 2) The mean ETR values of various thyroid states were 1.25+-0.16 in hyperthyroidism, 0.99+-0.08 in euthyroidism and 0.82+-0.05 in hypothyroidism and significant difference was found between these groups. 3) Seven out of 63 hyperthyroid patients (11.1%) and 2 out of 23 hypothyroid patients (8.7%) had ETR values within normal range and among the 56 euthyroid patients 6 (10.7%) had ETR values outside normal range, so the diagnostic compatibility of ETR was 89.4% in thyroid diseases. 4) Even though the ETR value was well correlated with {sup 131}I-thyroid uptake rate, serum T{sub 3} resin uptake rate and serum T{sub 4}, a high positive correlation was found (r=0.79) between ETR and T{sub 7}. 5) The mean ETR values from patients with alteration in TBG binding capacity were 0.99+-0.05 in pregnant women, 0.98+-0.04 in women with oral contraceptive medication, 1.04+-0.09 in liver cirrhosis patients and 0.94+-0.02 in nephrotic syndrome patients and most of them (85.2%) had ETR values within normal range. Our results, therefore, suggests that the ETR estimation does offer the simplest and most reliable single procedure for the screening and diagnosis of various thyroid diseases as a indirect indicator of serum-free thyroxine concentration without essential influence of changes in the thyroxine-binding proteins in serum.

  18. Alterations in plasma prolyl endopeptidase activity in depression, mania, and schizophrenia: effects of antidepressants, mood stabilizers, and antipsychotic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, M; Goossens, F; Scharpé, S; Calabrese, J; Desnyder, R; Meltzer, H Y

    1995-10-16

    The activity of prolyl endopeptidase (PEP), a serine proteinase, has been found to be significantly lower in the blood of patients with major depression than in normal volunteers. The present study investigates plasma PEP activity in 25 major depressed, 10 manic, and 14 schizophrenic subjects versus 30 normal volunteers. It also examines the effects of antidepressants, valproate, and neuroleptic drugs on plasma PEP activity. PEP activity was significantly lower in major depressed subjects than in normal volunteers and in patients with mania and schizophrenia. In depressed subjects, plasma PEP activity was significantly increased during treatment with antidepressant drugs, such as fluoxetine. Plasma PEP activity was significantly increased in manic and schizophrenic subjects compared with normal volunteers. In manic subjects, short-term treatment with valproate had a significant suppressive effect on PEP activity. No significant effects of neuroleptics on PEP activity could be found in the schizophrenic patients. The results support the hypothesis that lower PEP activity could play a role in the pathophysiology of major depression, while increased PEP activity may be related to psychotic conditions, such as mania and schizophrenia.

  19. Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strock, Margaret

    Approximately ten percent of the population suffers from a depressive illness each year. Although the economic cost is high, the cost in human suffering is immeasurable. To help educate the population about this disorder, this paper presents a definition of depression and its common manifestations. The symptoms that people often experience are…

  20. Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jon O. J.

    2013-01-01

    Nyhederne er fulde af historier om depression. Overskrifter som: ’Danskerne propper sig med lykkepiller’ eller ‘depression er stadigvæk tabu’ går tit igen i dagspressen. Men hvor er nuancerne, og hvorfor gider vi læse de samme historier igen og igen? Måske er det fordi, vores egne forestillinger er...

  1. Plasma glycine and serine levels in schizophrenia compared to normal controls and major depression: relation to negative symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumiyoshi, Tomiki; Anil, A Elif; Jin, Dai; Jayathilake, Karu; Lee, Myung; Meltzer, Herbert Y

    2004-03-01

    Previous studies have suggested decreased N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-type glutamate receptor function may contribute to increased negative symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. Consistent with this hypothesis, glycine, a co-agonist at NMDA receptors, has been reported to improve negative symptoms associated with the illness. This study was performed to determine if plasma levels of glycine or its ratio to serine, a precursor of glycine, are decreased in patients with schizophrenia compared to normal control subjects or patients with major depression. We also tested the hypothesis that these amino acids were correlated with negative symptoms in subjects with schizophrenia. Plasma levels of glycine, serine, and their ratio, were compared in 144 patients with schizophrenia, 44 patients with major depression, and 49 normal control subjects. All subjects were medication-free. Psychopathology was evaluated using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS). Plasma glycine levels and glycine/serine ratios were decreased in patients with schizophrenia relative to control subjects and patients with major depression. By contrast, serine levels were increased in patients with schizophrenia compared to normal subjects but not compared to major depression. Patients with major depression also had increased plasma serine levels and decreased glycine/serine ratios compared to normal controls, but glycine levels were not different from those of normal controls. In subjects with schizophrenia, glycine levels predicted the Withdrawal-Retardation score (BPRS), whereas no such correlation was found in subjects with major depression. These results provide additional evidence that decreased availability of glycine may be related to the pathophysiology of negative symptoms. The decreases in plasma glycine levels support the evidence for an abnormality in the glutamatergic system in schizophrenia, and provide additional support for efforts to improve negative symptoms by augmentation of

  2. Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Different people have different symptoms. Some symptoms of depression include: Persistent sad, anxious, or “empty” mood Feelings of hopelessness or pessimism Feelings of guilt, worthlessness, or helplessness ...

  3. Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... caring for children and aging parents, abuse, and poverty may trigger depression in some people. Medical illness – ... federal government website managed by the Office on Women’s Health in the Office of the Assistant Secretary ...

  4. Concentrações plasmáticas de testosterona, triiodotironina (T3 e tiroxina (T4 em bodes submetidos ao estresse calórico Plasma concentrations of testosterone, triiodothyronine (T3, and thyroxine (T4 in bucks submitted to heat stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Coelho

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Para verificar o efeito do estresse calórico (EC nas concentrações plasmáticas de testosterona, triiodotironina (T3 e tiroxina (T4, oito bodes, das raças Saanen (n=4 e Alpina (n=4, foram mantidos em câmara bioclimática, sob condições de termoneutralidade (13,0ºC a 26,7ºC durante 30 dias e, após um período (60 dias de descanso, submetidos ao EC (23,7ºC a 34,0ºC por 30 dias. Para minimizar as variações sazonais nos perfis hormonais devido ao fotoperíodo, durante toda fase experimental, incluindo a de adaptação em condições de termoneutralidade (30 dias, o fotoperíodo foi controlado utilizando-se alternância de dias longos (16h de luz e 8h de escuro e de dias curtos (8h de luz e 16h de escuro a cada 30 dias. As amostras de sangue foram coletadas duas vezes por semana durante cinco semanas. No conjunto das raças, o EC não influenciou (P>0,05 as concentrações de testosterona (1,8±0,2 vs 1,3±0,2ng/ml e nem a de T4 (52,7±2,8 vs 50,0±2,8ng/ml. Houve declínio (PTo verify the effect of heat stress (HS on plasma testosterone, triiodothyronine (T3, and thyroxine (T4 concentrations, eight Saanen (n=4 and Alpine Brown (n=4 bucks were kept in climate chamber under thermal neutral conditions (13.0ºC to 26.7ºC for 30 days. After a resting period (60 days, the same bucks were submitted to heat stress (23.7ºC to 34.0ºC for another 30 days. To neutralize the seasonal variations of hormonal profiles throughout the period, the photoperiod was controlled every 30 days altering long (16 hours of light and 8 hours of darkness and short days (8 hours of light and 16 hours of darkness. The blood samples were collected twice a week during five weeks. In both breeds, there was no effect of HS (P>0.05 on plasma concentrations of testosterone (1.8±0.2 vs 1.3±0.2ng/ml and T4 (52.7±2.8 vs 50.0±2.8ng/ml. There was a decline (P<0.01 of plasma T3 concentrations (1.3±0.1 vs 1.0±0.1ng/ml after HS treatment, but this reduction was only

  5. Developmental Triclosan Exposure Decreases Maternal and Offspring Thyroxine in Rats*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epidemiological and laboratory data have demonstrated that disruption of maternal thyroid hormones during fetal developmental may result in irreversible neurological consequences in offspring. In a short-term exposure paradigm, triclosan decreased systemic thyroxine (T4) concentr...

  6. β-actin as a loading control for plasma-based Western blot analysis of major depressive disorder patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rufang; Yang, Deyu; Zhou, Chanjuan; Cheng, Ke; Liu, Zhao; Chen, Liang; Fang, Liang; Xie, Peng

    2012-08-15

    Western blot analysis is a commonly used technique for determining specific protein levels in clinical samples. For normalization of protein levels in Western blot, a suitable loading control is required. On account of its relatively high and constant expression, β-actin has been widely employed in Western blot of cell cultures and tissue extracts. However, β-actin's presence in human plasma and this protein's putative role as a plasma-based loading control for Western blot analysis remain unknown. In this study, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to determine the concentration of β-actin in human plasma, which is 6.29±0.54 ng/ml. In addition, the linearity of β-actin immunostaining and loaded protein amount was evaluated by Western blot, and a fine linearity (R²=0.974±0.012) was observed. Furthermore, the expression of plasma β-actin in major depressive disorder subjects and healthy controls was compared. The data revealed no statistically significant difference between these two groups. Moreover, the total coefficient of variation for β-actin expression in the two groups was 9.2±1.2%. These findings demonstrate that β-actin is present in human plasma and may possibly be used as a suitable loading control for plasma-based Western blot analysis in major depressive disorder. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Thyroxin Is Useful to Improve Sperm Motility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendeluk Gabriela Ruth

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the non-genomic action of thyroxin on sperm kinetic and its probable use to improve sperm recovery after applying an en- richment method like “swim-up” in comparison with the available one, pentoxifylline. Materials and Methods This is an experimental study. A total of 50 patients were re- cruited, followed by infertility consultation. Conventional sperm assays were performed according to World Health Organization criteria-2010 (WHO-2010. A Computer Aided Semen Analysis System was employed to assess kinetic parameters and concentrations. Number of the motile sperm recovered after preparation technique was calculated. Results Addition of T4 (0.002 µg/ml to semen samples increased hypermotility at 20 minutes (control: 14.18 ± 5.1% vs. 17.66 ± 8.88%, P<0.03, data expressed as mean ± SD and remained unchanged after 40 minutes. Significant differences were found in the motile sperm recovered after swim-up (control: 8.93×106 ± 9.52× 06vs. 17.20×106 ± 21.16×106, P<0.03, achieving all of the tested samples a desirable threshold value for artificial insemination outcome, while adding pentoxifylline increased the number of recovered sperm after swim-up in 60% of the studied cases. No synergism between two treatments could be determined. Conclusion We propose a new physiological tool to artificially improve insemination. The discussion opens windows to investigate unknown pathways involved in sperm ca- pacitation and gives innovative arguments to better understand infertility mechanisms.

  8. Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarron, Robert M; Vanderlip, Erik R; Rado, Jeffrey

    2016-10-04

    This issue provides a clinical overview of depression, focusing on screening, diagnosis, treatment, and practice improvement. The content of In the Clinic is drawn from the clinical information and education resources of the American College of Physicians (ACP), including MKSAP (Medical Knowledge and Self-Assessment Program). Annals of Internal Medicine editors develop In the Clinic in collaboration with the ACP's Medical Education and Publishing divisions and with the assistance of additional science writers and physician writers.

  9. Poststroke depression as a factor adversely affecting the level of oxidative damage to plasma proteins during a brain stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichoń, Natalia; Bijak, Michał; Miller, Elżbieta; Niwald, Marta; Saluk, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Poststroke depression, the second most serious psychosomatic complication after brain stroke, leads to delay of the rehabilitation process and is associated with an increased disability and cognitive impairment along with increase in term mortality. Research into the biochemical changes in depression is still insufficiently described. The aim of our study was therefore to evaluate the possible association between plasma protein oxidative/nitrative damages and the development of poststroke depression. We evaluated oxidative/nitrative modifications of specific proteins by measurement of 3-nitrotyrosine and carbonyl groups levels using ELISA test. Additionally, we checked differences in proteins thiol groups by spectrophotometric assay based on reaction between DTNB and thiols. We also evaluated catalase activity in erythrocytes measured as ability to decompose H2O2. Correlation analysis was performed using Spearman's rank. We observed significant (P stroke patients compared to healthy group. Our research shows that oxidative damage of proteins is correlated with the degree of poststroke depression, while nitrative changes do not show any relationship. We demonstrate a positive correlation between the concentration of carbonyl groups and the Geriatric Depression Scale and a negative correlation between the degree of depression and the concentration of -SH groups or catalase activity.

  10. Poststroke Depression as a Factor Adversely Affecting the Level of Oxidative Damage to Plasma Proteins during a Brain Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Cichoń

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Poststroke depression, the second most serious psychosomatic complication after brain stroke, leads to delay of the rehabilitation process and is associated with an increased disability and cognitive impairment along with increase in term mortality. Research into the biochemical changes in depression is still insufficiently described. The aim of our study was therefore to evaluate the possible association between plasma protein oxidative/nitrative damages and the development of poststroke depression. We evaluated oxidative/nitrative modifications of specific proteins by measurement of 3-nitrotyrosine and carbonyl groups levels using ELISA test. Additionally, we checked differences in proteins thiol groups by spectrophotometric assay based on reaction between DTNB and thiols. We also evaluated catalase activity in erythrocytes measured as ability to decompose H2O2. Correlation analysis was performed using Spearman’s rank. We observed significant (P<0.001 differences in all oxidative/nitrative stress parameters in brain stroke patients compared to healthy group. Our research shows that oxidative damage of proteins is correlated with the degree of poststroke depression, while nitrative changes do not show any relationship. We demonstrate a positive correlation between the concentration of carbonyl groups and the Geriatric Depression Scale and a negative correlation between the degree of depression and the concentration of -SH groups or catalase activity.

  11. Effects of thyroxine and dexamethasone on rat submandibular glands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagulin, G.B.; Roomans, G.M. (Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge (Sweden))

    1989-08-01

    Glucocorticoids and thyroxine are known to have a marked effect on the flow rate and protein composition of rat parotid saliva in hormonally intact animals. In the present study, the effects of a one-week treatment of male rats with dexamethasone and thyroxine were studied by electron microscopy and x-ray micro-analysis, and by measurement of the flow rate and determination of the chemical composition of pilocarpine-induced submandibular saliva. Thyroxine had the most extensive effects on the submandibular gland. The acinar cells were enlarged and filled with mucus; the cellular calcium concentration was significantly increased. The flow rate of the submandibular saliva was significantly reduced compared with that in saline-injected control animals. Thyroxine caused an increase in the concentrations of protein, total calcium, and potassium in the saliva. Dexamethasone had no significant effects on gland ultrastructure or on the elemental composition of the acinar cells; flow rate was not affected, but the concentrations of protein, calcium, and potassium were significantly increased. The effects of dexamethasone and thyroxine on the flow rate and protein composition of pilocarpine-induced rat submandibular saliva differ from those reported earlier for rat parotid saliva after simultaneous stimulation with pilocarpine and isoproterenol.

  12. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and aerobic exercise training (AET) increased plasma BDNF and ameliorated depressive symptoms in patients suffering from major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Iraj; Hosseini, Seyed Mohammad; Haghighi, Mohammad; Jahangard, Leila; Bajoghli, Hafez; Gerber, Markus; Pühse, Uwe; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2016-05-01

    To treat patients suffering from major depressive disorder (MDD), research has focused on electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and aerobic exercise training (AET). Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) seems to be key in MDD. The aims of the present study were therefore two-fold, to investigate in a three-arm interventional study the differential effects of ECT, ECT plus AET, and AET alone in patients suffering from TR-MDD on 1. depressive symptoms and 2. plasma BDNF (pBDNF). 60 patients with MDD (mean age: 31 years; 31.6% female patients) were randomly assigned either to the ECT, ECT + AET, or AET condition. The AET condition consisted of treadmill exercise for 45 min, three times a week. Both depression severity and pBDNF levels were assessed at baseline and 4 weeks later. All patients were further treated with an SSRI standard medication. pBDNF levels increased over time in all three study conditions, though, highest increase was observed in the ECT + EAT condition, and lowest increase was observed in the AET condition. Depressive symptoms decreased in all three conditions over time, though, strongest decrease was observed in the ECT + AET condition. The combination of ECT + AET led to significantly greater remission rates than in either the ECT or AET alone conditions. BDNF levels were not associated with symptoms of depression. The pattern of results suggests that ECT, AET and particularly their combination are promising directions for the treatment of patients suffering from MDD, and that it remains unclear to what extent pBDNF is key and a reliable biomarker for MDD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Diurnal variation in total plasma tryptophan in controls and in depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candito, M; Souêtre, E; Iordache, A; Pringuey, D; Ardisson, J L; Chambon, P; Darcourt, G

    1990-01-01

    Circadian rhythms of total tryptophan were investigated by assays of hourly blood samples over 25 h. The study population consisted of four endogenously depressed patients investigated in the absence of any treatment and six healthy controls. The abnormalities detected by statistical analyses in untreated depression consisted mainly of amplitude reduction; the phase positions of the depressed patients were similar to those of the controls.

  14. The acute response of plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor as a result of exercise in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Gunnar; Lira, Claudia Mallea; Johansson, Jon; Wisén, Anita; Wohlfart, Björn; Ekman, Rolf; Westrin, Asa

    2009-10-30

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and other neurotrophins are believed to play an important role in affective disorders. In this study we investigated plasma-BDNF response during an incremental exercise test in 18 patients suffering from moderate major depressive disorder (MDD) and 18 controls. The patients were not treated with antidepressants or neuroleptics. Possible associations between plasma plasma-BDNF levels, dexamethasone suppression test cortisol levels and Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) scores were also tested. No difference in basal BDNF levels between patients and controls was found. BDNF increased significantly during exercise in both male and female patients as well as in male controls, with no significant differences between the groups. BDNF levels declined after exercise, but after 60 min of rest BDNF levels showed tendencies to increase again in male patients. No correlation between BDNF and cortisol or MADRS scores was found. We conclude that unmedicated patients with moderate depression and normal activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis do not have a disturbed peripheral BDNF release during exercise. The BDNF increase 60 min after interruption of exercise in male patients might indicate up-regulated BDNF synthesis, but this needs to be further investigated in future studies.

  15. Influence of Depressive State on Levels of Homocysteine and Thyroid Hormone in Patients with Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-wei WANG

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To explore the influence of depressive state on the levels of homocysteine (Hcy and thyroid hormone in patients with hypertension.Methods: Totally 179 patients with primary hypertension were selected and divided into depression group (n=97 and non-depression group (n=82 according to whether to be complicated with depressive disorder. The venous blood was drawn for detecting the level of Hcy of 2 groups by enzymatic cycling assay, and serum free triiodothyronine (FT3, free thyroxine (FT4 and thyrotropic hormone (TSH by chemiluminiscence. The correlation between Hamilton depression scale (HAMD scores and levels of plasma Hcy and serum FT3, FT4 and TSH was analyzed.Results: Compared with non-depression group, the level of plasma Hcy increased and the levels of FT3 and FT4 decreased in depression group (P<0.05, but there was no statistical difference between 2 groups (P>0.05. HAMD scores in depression group had a positive correlation with the level of plasma Hcy (r=0.593, P=0.024, a negative correlation with the level of serum FT3 (r=-0.421,P=0.011, and no relationships with the levels of serum FT4 and TSH (r=-0.137, P=0.334; r=0.058, P=0.576.Conclusion: Hypertensive patients complicated with depression have abnormal level of Hcy and thyroid hormones. Moreover, the depressive degree of patients is positively correlated with the level of Hcy and negatively with the level of FT3.

  16. Effects of physical exercise on plasma levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and depressive symptoms in elderly women--a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Daniele S; de Queiroz, Bárbara Z; Miranda, Aline S; Rocha, Natália P; Felício, Diogo C; Mateo, Elvis C; Favero, Michelle; Coelho, Fernanda M; Jesus-Moraleida, Fabianna; Gomes Pereira, Danielle A; Teixeira, Antonio L; Máximo Pereira, Leani S

    2013-08-01

    To investigate the effect of 2 standardized exercise programs, muscle strength exercises (SE) and aerobic exercises (AE), on the plasma levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and depressive symptoms in 451 elderly women. A randomized controlled trial. Belo Horizonte/MG-Brazil. Community-dwelling older women (N=451; age, 65-89y). The participants were divided into 2 groups: SE and AE. Both protocols lasted 10 weeks, and 30 sessions (1-h sessions) in total were performed 3 times a week under the direct supervision of physical therapists. Plasma levels of BDNF (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) and depressive symptoms (Geriatric Depression Scale). There was a significant difference for BDNF plasma levels between the SE and AE groups (P=.009). Post hoc analysis revealed a pre-post intervention difference in BDNF levels only for the SE group (P=.008). A statistically significant difference was found for the pre- and postintervention Geriatric Depression Scale scores in both groups (P=.001), showing that the effects of both exercise protocols were comparable regarding depressive symptoms (P=.185). The present findings have demonstrated the positive effect of muscle strengthening and aerobic intervention on depressive symptoms in community-dwelling elderly women. Interestingly, only SE significantly increased the plasma levels of BDNF in our sample. The positive effects of physical exercise on depressive symptoms in the elderly were not mediated by BDNF. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Depression, 5HTTLPR and BDNF Val66Met polymorphisms, and plasma BDNF levels in hemodialysis patients with chronic renal failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang LJ

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Liang-Jen Wang,1,* Chih-Ken Chen,2,3,* Heng-Jung Hsu,3,4 I-Wen Wu,3,4 Chiao-Yin Sun,3,4 Chin-Chan Lee3,41Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; 2Department of Psychiatry, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Keelung, Taiwan; 3Chang Gung University School of Medicine, Taoyuan, Taiwan; 4Department of Nephrology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Keelung, Taiwan *LJW and CKC are joint first authors and contributed equally to this manuscriptObjective: Depression is the most prevalent comorbid psychiatric disease among hemodialysis patients with end-stage renal disease. This cross-sectional study investigated whether depression in hemodialysis patients is associated with the polymorphism of the 5' flanking transcriptional region (5-HTTLPR of the serotonin transporter gene, the valine (Val-to-methionine (Met substitution at codon 66 (Val66Met polymorphism of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF gene, or plasma BDNF levels.Methods: A total of 188 participants (mean age: 58.5±14.0 years; 89 men and 99 women receiving hemodialysis at the Chang Gung Memorial Hospital were recruited. The diagnosis of major depressive disorder (MDD was confirmed using the Chinese version of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. The genotypes of 5-HTTLPR and BDNF Val66Met were conducted using polymerase chain reactions plus restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. The plasma BDNF levels were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit.Results: Forty-five (23.9% patients fulfilled the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV-TR criteria for a MDD. There were no significant effects of the 5-HTTLPR or BDNF Val66Met gene polymorphism on MDD among the hemodialysis patients. The plasma BDNF levels correlated significantly with age (P=0.003 and sex (P=0.047 but not with depression, the genotypes of 5

  18. Different Kinetics of Puerarin in Plasma of Normal and Depressed Rats After Oral Administration of Chinese Medicine TZ18

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study is to quantify the puerarin in rat plasma following oral administration of TZ18 and compare the pharmacokinetics characteristics of puerarin in normal rats with that in depression model rats. A high performance liquid chromatography method was used to quantify the puerarin due to its Intra- and inter-day precision coefficients of variation and accuracy bias were acceptable (Maximum coefficient of variation was 5.74% for intra-day and 3.09% for inter-day) over the entire range. The recoveries spectively. The concentration-time curves for both normal rats and depression model rats were fit to a twocompartment model with the first order absorption. The results show significant differences in the main pharmacokinetic parameters of peak time, peak concentration, and the area under the concentration-time curve between the two kinds of rats.

  19. Effects of Long-Term Low-Level Radiofrequency Radiation Exposure on Rats. Volume 6. Hematological, Serum Chemistry, Thyroxine, and Protein Electrophoresis Evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-03-01

    111I. 11 MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TESI CHART i ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ A N... DS................. ...".... , II I - I Reort USAFSAM-TR-84-2 EFFECTS OF LONG-TERM...obstruction, and resolving internal hemorrhage. The total levels are decreased in cases of bone-marrow-depression anemia . The direct and indirect...VIR" 4 THYROXINE Elevated contents of serum cholestrol and triglycerides and a mild normochromic, norioocytic anemia are nonspecific traits suggestive

  20. Plasma and erythrocyte fatty acid patterns in patients with recurrent depression: a matched case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Assies

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA composition of (nerve cell membranes may be involved in the pathophysiology of depression. Studies so far, focussed mainly on omega-3 and omega-6 PUFAs. In the present study, saturated fatty acids (SFAs, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs and PUFAs of the omega-3, -6 and -9 series in plasma and erythrocytes of patients with recurrent major depressive disorder (MDD-R were compared with controls. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We carried out a case-control study. The sample consisted of 137 patients with MDD-R and 65 matched non-depressed controls. In plasma and erythrocytes of patients with MDD-R the concentrations of most of the SFAs and MUFAs, and additionally erythrocyte PUFAs, all with a chain length > 20 carbon (C atoms, were significantly lower than in the controls. In contrast, the concentrations of most of the shorter chain members (< or = 18C of the SFAs and MUFAs were significantly higher in the patients. Estimated activities of several elongases in plasma of patients were significantly altered, whereas delta-9 desaturase activity for C14:0 and C18:0 was significantly higher. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The fatty acid status of patients with MDD-R not only differs with regard to omega-3 and omega-6 PUFAs, but also concerns other fatty acids. These alterations may be due to: differences in diet, changes in synthesizing enzyme activities, higher levels of chronic (oxidative stress but may also result from adaptive strategies by providing protection against enhanced oxidative stress and production of free radicals.

  1. Kinetics of L-tryptophan in depressive patients: a possible correlation between the plasma concentrations of L-tryptophan and some psychiatric rating scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoes, M J; Loeffen, T; Vree, T B

    1981-01-01

    The plasma concentration and flux of L-tryptophan are abnormal in primary depressive patients, according to the literature. The plasma concentrations of L-tryptophan over a 6-h period after ingestion of 5 g L-tryptophan were investigated and did not differ significantly between depressive patients and controls during the absorption, distribution, and elimination phases. There was no correlation between the plasma concentrations with anxiety or depression scores, or with the excretion in urine of 17-hydroxycorticosteroids and xanthurenic acid during the 24 h after L-tryptophan. Treatment with either 125 mg pyridoxine (three times daily with meals) and L-tryptophan (3 g at 10 PM) or with maprotiline (100 mg at 10 PM) had no influence on the plasma concentrations of L-tryptophan after 2 or 4 weeks of treatment. This excludes L-tryptophan deficiency as a pathogenic factor of depression in the patients studied. No kinetic differences could be demonstrated in the depressive patients, making differences in body compartments or flux of L-tryptophan unlikely to be of pathogenic importance to depression.

  2. PLASMA OXYTOCIN CONCENTRATION AND DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS: A REVIEW OF CURRENT EVIDENCE AND DIRECTIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Suena H; Backes, Katherine A; Schuette, Stephanie A

    2016-04-01

    There is substantial recent interest in the role of oxytocin in social and affiliative behaviors-animal models of depression have suggested a link between oxytocin and mood. We reviewed literature to date for evidence of a potential relationship between peripheral oxytocin concentration and depressive symptoms in humans. Pubmed(®) and PsychINFO(®) were searched for biomedical and social sciences literature from 1960 to May 19, 2015 for empirical articles in English involving human subjects focused on the relationship between peripheral oxytocin concentration and depressive symptoms, excluding articles on the oxytocin receptor gene, or involving exogenous (i.e. intranasal) administration of oxytocin. Eight studies meeting criteria were identified and formally reviewed. Studies of pregnant women suggested an inverse relationship between oxytocin level and depressive symptom severity. Findings in nonpregnant women were broadly consistent with the role of oxytocin release in response to stress supported by animal studies. The relationship between oxytocin and depression in men appeared to be in the opposite direction, possibly reflecting the influence of gonadal hormones on oxytocinergic functioning found in other mammalian species. Overall, small sample sizes, heterogeneity in study designs, and other methodological limitations may account for inconsistent findings. Future research utilizing reliable oxytocin measurement protocols including measurements across time, larger sample sizes, and sample homogeneity with respect to multiple possible confounders (age, gender, race and ethnicity, ovarian status among women, and psychosocial context) are needed to elucidate the role of oxytocin in the pathogenesis of depression, and could guide the design of novel pharmacologic agents.

  3. Treating Hypothyroidism with Thyroxine/Triiodothyronine Combination Therapy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michaelsson, Luba Freja; Medici, Bjarke Borregaard; la Cour, Jeppe Lerche

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Five to ten percent of patients with hypothyroidism describe persistent symptoms despite being biochemically well regulated on levothyroxine (L-T4). Thyroxine (T4)/triiodothyronine (T3) combination therapy [L-T4/liothyronine (L-T3) or desiccated thyroid] are still regarded as experime......BACKGROUND: Five to ten percent of patients with hypothyroidism describe persistent symptoms despite being biochemically well regulated on levothyroxine (L-T4). Thyroxine (T4)/triiodothyronine (T3) combination therapy [L-T4/liothyronine (L-T3) or desiccated thyroid] are still regarded...... after a patient published a book describing her experiences with hypothyroidism and treatment. OBJECTIVE: To investigate current Danish trends in the use of T4/T3 combination therapy. METHODS: We used an Internet-based questionnaire, distributed as a link via two Danish patient fora. Further...

  4. In vitro fluorescence displacement investigation of thyroxine transport disruption by bisphenol A

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Cao; Liang-Hong Guo; Bin Wan; Yin Wei

    2011-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a chemical with high production volume and wide applications in many industries.Although BPA is known as an endocrine disruptor, its toxic mechanisms have not been fully characterized.Due to its structural similarity to thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), one possible mechanism of BPA toxicity is disruption of hormone transport by competitive binding with the transport proteins.In this study, the binding interactions of BPA, T4, and T3 with three thyroid hormone transport proteins, human serum albumin (HSA), transthyretin (TTR), and thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) were investigated by fluorescence measurement.Using two site-specific fluorescence probes dansylamide and dansyl-L-proline, the binding constants of BPA with HSA at drug site I and site Ⅱ were determined as 2.90 × 104 and 3.14 × 104 L/mol, respectively.By monitoring the intrinsic fluorescence of tryptophan, a binding constant of 4.70 × 103 L/mol was obtained.Similarly, by employing 8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid as fluorescence probe, the binding affinity of BPA with TTR and TBG was measured to be 3.10 × 105 and 5.90 × 105 L/mol, respectively.In general, BPA showed lower binding affinity with the proteins than T3 did, and even lower affinity than T4.Using these binding constants, the amount of BPA which would bind to the transport proteins in human plasma was estimated.These results suggest that the concentrations of BPA commonly found in human plasma are probably not high enough to interfere with T4 transport.

  5. Thyroxine lipophilicity is dominated by its zwitterionic microspecies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazák, Károly; Tóth, Gergő; Kökösi, József; Noszál, Béla

    2012-12-18

    Species-specific partition coefficients were determined for a triprotic molecule for the first time. Thyroxine, the vitally important thyroid hormone which exists in solution in the forms of eight microspecies due to its phenolate, amino and carboxylate basic sites, was studied by combined methods of microspeciation and lipophilicity. Partition of the individual microspecies was mimicked by model compounds of the closest possible similarity, then correction factors were determined and introduced. The non-charged microspecies is only 2.40 times as lipophilic as its zwitterionic protonation isomer, showing that for thyroxine the iodinated aromatic rings are the structural elements that determine the lipophilicity of this molecule, and the protonation state of the other substituents plays only a minor role. The overwhelming dominance of the zwitterionic form, however, ensures that its contribution to the overall lipophilicity exceeds 14,500 times that of the non-charged one. This fact is so far the sharpest counter-example of the widespread belief that passive diffusion into lipophilic media is predominated by the non-charged species. The lipophilicity profile of thyroxine is expressed, calculated and depicted in terms of species-specific lipophilicities over the entire pH range. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Relationship between plasma concentrations of lamotrigine and its early therapeutic effect of lamotrigine augmentation therapy in treatment-resistant depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagawa, Shoko; Mihara, Kazuo; Nakamura, Akifumi; Nemoto, Kenji; Suzuki, Takeshi; Nagai, Goyo; Kondo, Tsuyoshi

    2014-12-01

    The relationship between plasma concentrations of lamotrigine and its therapeutic effects was prospectively studied on 34 (9 men and 25 women) inpatients with treatment-resistant depressive disorder during an 8-week treatment of lamotrigine augmentation using an open-study design. The subjects were depressed patients who had already shown insufficient response to at least 3 psychotropics, including antidepressants, mood stabilizers, and atypical antipsychotics. The diagnoses were major depressive disorder (n = 12), bipolar I disorder (n = 7), and bipolar II disorder (n = 15). The final doses of lamotrigine were 100 mg/d for 18 subjects who were not taking valproate and 75 mg/d for 16 subjects taking valproate. Depressive symptoms were evaluated by the Montgomery Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) before and after the 8-week treatment. Blood sampling was performed at week 8. Plasma concentrations of lamotrigine were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. There was a significant linear relationship between the plasma concentrations of lamotrigine and percentage improvements at week 8 (r = 0.418, P 12.7 μmol/L (11/15 versus 4/19, P treatment-resistant depressive disorder.

  7. Anti-depressant and anxiolytic like behaviors in PKCI/HINT1 knockout mice associated with elevated plasma corticosterone level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jia

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein kinase C interacting protein (PKCI/HINT1 is a small protein belonging to the histidine triad (HIT family proteins. Its brain immunoreactivity is located in neurons and neuronal processes. PKCI/HINT1 gene knockout (KO mice display hyper-locomotion in response to D-amphetamine which is considered a positive symptom of schizophrenia in animal models. Postmortem studies identified PKCI/HINT1 as a candidate molecule for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. We investigated the hypothesis that the PKCI/HINT1 gene may play an important role in regulating mood function in the CNS. We submitted PKCI/HINT1 KO mice and their wild type (WT littermates to behavioral tests used to study anti-depressant, anxiety like behaviors, and goal-oriented behavior. Additionally, as many mood disorders coincide with modifications of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis function, we assessed the HPA activity through measurement of plasma corticosterone levels. Results Compared to the WT controls, KO mice exhibited less immobility in the forced swim (FST and the tail suspension (TST tests. Activity in the TST tended to be attenuated by acute treatment with valproate at 300 mg/kg in KO mice. The PKCI/HINT1 KO mice presented less thigmotaxis in the Morris water maze and spent progressively more time in the lit compartment in the light/dark test. In a place navigation task, KO mice exhibited enhanced acquisition and retention. Furthermore, the afternoon basal plasma corticosterone level in PKCI/HINT1 KO mice was significantly higher than in the WT. Conclusion PKCI/HINT1 KO mice displayed a phenotype of behavioral and endocrine features which indicate changes of mood function, including anxiolytic-like and anti-depressant like behaviors, in conjunction with an elevated corticosterone level in plasma. These results suggest that the PKCI/HINT 1 gene could be important for the mood regulation function in the CNS.

  8. Plasma insulin-like growth factor I levels are higher in depressive and anxiety disorders, but lower in antidepressant medication users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bot, Mariska; Milaneschi, Yuri; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Drent, Madeleine L

    2016-06-01

    It has been postulated that many peripheral and (neuro)biological systems are involved in psychiatric disorders such as depression. Some studies found associations of depression and antidepressant treatment with insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I) - a pleiotropic hormone affecting neuronal growth, survival and plasticity - but evidence is mixed. We therefore studied whether depressive and anxiety disorders were associated with plasma IGF-I, and explored the role of antidepressant medication in this association in a large observational study. The sample consisted of 2714 participants enrolled in The Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety, classified as healthy controls (n=602), antidepressant users (76 remitted and 571 with current depressive and/or anxiety disorder(s), n=647), persons having remitted depressive and/or anxiety disorder(s) without antidepressant use (n=502), and persons having current depressive and/or anxiety disorder(s) without antidepressant use (n=963). Associations with IGF-I concentrations were studied and adjusted for socio-demographic, health, and lifestyle variables. Relative to healthy controls, antidepressant-free individuals with current disorders had significantly higher IGF-I levels (Cohen's d=0.08, p=0.006), whereas antidepressant-free individuals with remitted disorders had a trend towards higher IGF-I levels (d=0.06, p=0.09). Associations were evident for depressive and for anxiety disorders. In contrast, antidepressant users had significantly lower IGF-I levels compared to healthy controls (d=-0.08, p=0.028). Our findings suggests that antidepressant medication use modifies the association between depressive/anxiety disorders and plasma IGF-I. These results corroborate with findings of some previous small-scale case-control and intervention studies. The higher IGF-I levels related to depression and anxiety might point to a compensatory mechanism to counterbalance the impaired neurogenesis, although future studies are needed to

  9. Variation of plasma cortisol levels in patients with depression after treatment with bilateral electroconvulsive therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Fortunato Burgese

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: More than 60 years after the introduction of modern psychopharmacology, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT continues to be an essential therapeutic modality in the treatment of mental disorders, but its mechanism of action remains unclear. Hormones play an essential role in the development and expression of a series of behavioral changes. One aspect of the influence of hormones on behavior is their potential contribution to the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders and the mechanism of action of psychotropic drugs and ECT.Objective: We measured blood levels of the hormone cortisol in patients with unipolar depression according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV and compared results with levels found in healthy adults.Method: Blood cortisol levels were measured before the beginning of treatment with ECT, at the seventh session, and at the last session, at treatment completion. Depression symptoms were assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI.Results: Cortisol levels remained stable in both men and women between the seventh and the last sessions of ECT; values ranged from 0.686±9.6330 g/dL for women, and there was a mean decrease of 5.825±6.0780 g/dL (p = 0.024. Mean number of ECT sessions was 12. After the seventh and the last ECT sessions, patients with depression and individuals in the control group had similar cortisol levels, whereas BDI scores remained different.Conclusion: Cortisol levels decreased during ECT treatment. ECT seems to act as a regulator of the hypothalamic-pituitaryadrenal axis.

  10. Interplay between thyroxin, BDNF and GABA in injured neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulga, A; Rivera, C

    2013-06-03

    Accumulating experimental evidence suggests that groups of neurons in the CNS might react to pathological insults by activating developmental-like programs for survival, regeneration and re-establishment of lost connections. For instance, in cell and animal models it was shown that after trauma mature central neurons become dependent on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) trophic support for survival. This event is preceded by a shift of postsynaptic GABAA receptor-mediated responses from hyperpolarization to developmental-like depolarization. These profound functional changes in GABAA receptor-mediated transmission and the requirement of injured neurons for BDNF trophic support are interdependent. Thyroid hormones (THs) play a crucial role in the development of the nervous system, having significant effects on dendritic branching, synaptogenesis and axonal growth to name a few. In the adult nervous system TH thyroxin has been shown to have a neuroprotective effect and to promote regeneration in experimental trauma models. Interestingly, after trauma there is a qualitative change in the regulatory effect of thyroxin on BDNF expression as well as on GABAergic transmission. In this review we provide an overview of the post-traumatic changes in these signaling systems and discuss the potential significance of their interactions for the development of novel therapeutic strategies.

  11. Influence of adsorption and deproteination on potential free thyroxine reference methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Steen S; Andreasen, Lisbeth; Hansen, Palle Steen;

    2002-01-01

    There is a need for consensus concerning reference methods to be used for calibration of commercial free-thyroxine (FT(4)) assays.......There is a need for consensus concerning reference methods to be used for calibration of commercial free-thyroxine (FT(4)) assays....

  12. Effects of growth hormone and thyroxine replacement therapy on insulin signaling in Ames dwarf mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Audreen; Bartke, Andrzej; Masternak, Michal M

    2010-04-01

    Ames dwarf (Prop1(df), df/df) mice lack growth hormone (GH), prolactin, and thyrotropin and live remarkably longer than their normal siblings. Significance of reduced activity of the somatotropic and thyroid axes during development and adulthood on longevity are unknown. Because enhanced insulin sensitivity and reduced insulin levels are among likely mechanisms responsible for increased longevity in these mutants, we compared the effects of GH and thyroxine (T4) replacement on various parameters related to insulin signaling in young and old male df/df mice. The results suggest that altered plasma adiponectin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and hepatic IGF-1, insulin receptor (IR), IR substrate-1, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma, and PPARgamma coactivator-1 alpha may contribute to increased insulin sensitivity in Ames dwarfs. The stimulatory effect of GH and T4 treatment on plasma insulin and inhibitory effect on expression of hepatic glucose transporter-2 were greater in old than in young dwarfs. These results indicate that GH and T4 treatment has differential impact on insulin signaling during development and adulthood.

  13. Role of Thyroxine in Space-Developed Jellyfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangenberg, Dorothy B.

    1997-01-01

    The Aurelia Metamorphosis Test System was previously used to determine the effects of the space environment on the development and behavior of tiny (1-2 mm) jellyfish ephyrae during the SLS-1 and IML-2 missions. Results from the SLS-1 experiment included the discovery that statolith numbers were significantly reduced in Earth-formed ephyrae flown for nine days in space as compared with ground-based controls. In addition, upon return to Earth, six times more ephyrae which had developed in space than those developed on Earth had pulsing abnormalities, indicating that either these animals did not form their neuromuscular structures normally while in space or they were unable to adapt to the Ig environment upon return to Earth. The metamorphosis process, which enables the formation of ephyrae from polyps is influenced by a hormone, Jf-T4 Oellyfish thyroxine) which is synthesized following iodine administration. Two groups of polyps in space, however, formed ephyrae without iodine administration indicating that Jf-T4 synthesis, utilization, or excretion was different in. the ephyrae. Increased synthesis or build-up in the media of the hormone may also be linked to the increased demineralization of statoliths found in space-exposed ephyrae. In previous experiments, we found that externally administered thyroxine causes increased demineralization of statoliths on Earth. Abnormal pulsina in ephyrae following return to Earth during the SLS-1 mission may also be traced to increased Jf-T4 levels. Thyroxine is known to be important to the normal development and function of the nervous system, heart, and skeletal muscles in higher animals. For this third Jellyfish-in-Space experiment, we proposed to quantitate the levels of Jf- T4 and of T4 receptors in space-developed ephyrae and media and to compare these levels with those of animals developing and at Ig in space and on Earth. We expected to be able to determine whether Jf-T4 synthesis and/or secretion is different in space

  14. Oophorectomy did not show any additional effect on bone density and mineral content in thyroxine treated mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broulik, P D; Pacovský, V; Límanová, Z

    1989-03-01

    Experimental hyperthyroidism (thyroxine administration for 21 days) caused a significant decrease in ash mass, bone density and mineral content in the femora of mice, the same degree of reduction in individual measures of bone mass being found in oophorectomized and intact mice treated with thyroxine. It may be suggested that estrogens did not protect the skeleton against the resorbing action of thyroxine or triiodothyronine.

  15. Pituitary hyperplasia: a complication of the pseudomalabsorption of thyroxine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doyle MA

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Mary-Anne Doyle, Heather A Lochnan Division of Endocrinology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada Objective: “The pseudomalabsorption of thyroxine” has been used to describe patients with hypothyroidism who fail to comply with their treatment. We describe a unique case of a 32-year-old with hypothyroidism who developed pituitary hyperplasia and hyperprolactinemia secondary to the pseudomalabsorption of thyroxine. Investigations and treatment: After baseline thyroid-function tests were performed, the patient was administered levothyroxine 0.5 mg under the supervision of a registered nurse. Thyroid function testing was repeated at 30, 60, 120, and 180 minutes. Arrangements were made for further daily supervised loading of levothyroxine 0.1 mg. Results: With the administration of 0.5 mg levothyroxine, free thyroxine levels increased by 120 minutes, and with daily supervised dosing of 0.1 mg there was normalization of the thyroid hormone levels and a reduction of thyroid-stimulating hormone levels. Maintenance of thyroid-stimulating hormone < 15 mU/L for 2 weeks led to a reduction in prolactin levels and regression in the size of the pituitary on magnetic resonance imaging. Conclusion: If left untreated, these patients face significant morbidity and are at risk of developing pituitary hyperplasia, complications from an increase in pituitary size, hyperprolactinemia, and potentially myxedema coma. Recognizing pituitary hyperplasia and hyperprolactinemia as a complication from the pseudomalabsorption of levothyroxine may prevent the potential of a misdiagnosis of a prolactinoma leading to unnecessary investigations and inappropriate treatment. Patient awareness of this serious complication and the rapid, demonstrable resolution with adequate thyroid hormone replacement may provide motivation to comply with supervised dosing of levothyroxine. It has also been suggested that supervised treatment enables the individual to maintain their patient

  16. The influence of 5-HTTLPR genotype on the association between the plasma concentration and therapeutic effect of paroxetine in patients with major depressive disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsu Tomita

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The efficacy of treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD can differ depending on the patient's serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR genotype, and the effects of varying plasma concentrations of drugs can also vary. We investigated the association between the paroxetine plasma concentration and clinical response in patients with different 5-HTTLPR genotypes. METHODS: Fifty-one patients were enrolled in this study. The Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS was used to evaluate patients at 0, 1, 2, 4, and 6 weeks. The patients' paroxetine plasma concentrations at week 6 were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. Additionally, their 5-HTTLPR polymorphisms (alleles S and L were analyzed using a polymerase chain reaction with specific primers. We divided the participants into two groups based on their L haplotype: the SS group and the SL and LL group. We performed single and multiple regression analyses to investigate the associations between MADRS improvement and paroxetine plasma concentrations or other covariates for each group. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between the two groups with regard to demographic or clinical data. In the SS group, the paroxetine plasma concentration was significantly negatively correlated with improvement in MADRS at week 6. In the SL and LL group, the paroxetine plasma concentration was significantly positively correlated with improvement in MADRS at week 6 according to the results of the single regression analysis; however, it was not significantly correlated with improvement in MADRS at week 6 according to the results of the multiple regression analysis. CONCLUSION: Among patients with MDD who do not respond to paroxetine, a lower plasma concentration or a lower oral dose of paroxetine might be more effective in those with the SS genotype, and a higher plasma concentration might

  17. [Once weekly L-thyroxine treatment in non-compliance: A case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, C; Grino, M; Moatti Vacher-Coponat, P; Morange, I; Retornaz, F

    2017-07-05

    The non-adherence to substitutive treatment by L-thyroxine is the main cause of the discordance between high thyrotropin values and high doses of the drug. In a 36-year-old patient with post-surgery hypothyroidism, thyrotropin values ranged between 100 and 400 mUI/L, although daily replacement therapy included 300 μg of L-thyroxine and 75 μg of L-triiodothyronine. The oral loading test with L-thyroxine was normal and thyrotropin serum level returned to normal values under weekly oral administration of 1000 μg L-thyroxine. The strategy of non-adherence treatment in hypothyroidism is well defined with oral testing of L-thyroxine, followed by oral or parenteral weekly administration of the drug. The L-thyroxine oral test is the gold standard for diagnosis after eliminating of the other conventional causes: drug interactions or digestive malabsorption. L-thyroxine treatment should be discussed on a case-by-case basis, either daily under surveillance or once weekly oral or parenteral high dose. Copyright © 2017 Société Nationale Française de Médecine Interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Discovery and validation of plasma biomarkers for major depressive disorder classification based on liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinyu; Zheng, Peng; Zhao, Xinjie; Zhang, Yuqing; Hu, Chunxiu; Li, Jia; Zhao, Jieyu; Zhou, Jingjing; Xie, Peng; Xu, Guowang

    2015-05-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a debilitating mental disease with a pronounced impact on the quality of life of many people; however, it is still difficult to diagnose MDD accurately. In this study, a nontargeted metabolomics approach based on ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography equipped with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF/MS) was used to find the differential metabolites in plasma samples from patients with MDD and healthy controls. Furthermore, a validation analysis focusing on the differential metabolites was performed in another batch of samples using a targeted approach based on the dynamic multiple reactions monitoring method. Levels of acyl carnitines, ether lipids, and tryptophan pronouncedly decreased, whereas LPCs, LPEs, and PEs markedly increased in MDD subjects as compared with the healthy controls. Disturbed pathways, mainly located in acyl carnitine metabolism, lipid metabolism, and tryptophan metabolism, were clearly brought to light in MDD subjects. The binary logistic regression result showed that carnitine C10:1, PE-O 36:5, LPE 18:1 sn-2, and tryptophan can be used as a combinational biomarker to distinguish not only moderate but also severe MDD from healthy control with good sensitivity and specificity. Our findings, on one hand, provide critical insight into the pathological mechanism of MDD and, on the other hand, supply a combinational biomarker to aid the diagnosis of MDD in clinical usage.

  19. The Relationship Between Thyroxine Level and Short Term Clinical Outcome Among Sick Newborn Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maliheh Kadivar

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Premature and critically sick infants frequently experience several interventions, including blood transfusions, parentral nutrition, and prescriptions during hospitalization that could affect the result of thyroid function test. This study aims to investigate the correlation between thyroxine level and clinical short term outcome among the newborn infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU. We assessed serum levels of thyroxine and thyroid stimulating hormone of 99 neonates who were admitted in the NICU from September 1st 2004 to March 30th 2005. Number of patients with low thyroxin level (less than 6.5 µg/dl was determined and the relation between serum total thyroxine level and birth weight, gestational age, duration of hospitalization, clinical diagnosis, and final outcome was investigated. Short term outcome was considered as duration of hospitalization and discharge alive from hospital. Prevalence of hypothyroxinemia was 26 percent. Later assessment of thyroxine level within 3 weeks revealed normal level of this parameter (8.12 µg/dl ±1.36. Patients with lower gestational age and lower birth weight had lower thyroxine level (7.15 µg/dl ±2.56, and P=0.03, 6.72 µg/dl ±3.03, and P=0.08. Low thyroxine level was not associated with adverse short-term clinical outcome (mortality rates; 3(11% and 9(12%, and duration of hospitalization among 17.7±9.8 vs 16.7± 13.0 in patients with hypothyroxinemia and low thyroxine level respectively. Hypothyroxinemia has considerable prevalence in neonatal intensive care setting and is related with lower birth weight and gestational age. Whether thyroxin levels are a marker or mediator of short term clinical outcome remains to be determined by further studies.

  20. Fluoxetine, but not tricyclic antidepressants, potentiates the 5-hydroxytryptophan-mediated increase in plasma cortisol and prolactin secretion in subjects with major depression or with obsessive compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, H; Bastani, B; Jayathilake, K; Maes, M

    1997-07-01

    It has been suggested that the clinical efficacy of chronic treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) such as fluoxetine and perhaps all antidepressants is due to their ability to enhance serotonergic activity. The effects of chronic treatment with fluoxetine or tricyclic antidepressants on the L-5-hydroxytryptophan (200 mg, L-5-HTP; PO)-induced increases in plasma cortisol and prolactin (PRL) concentrations were studied in patients with major depression or obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Administration of L-5-HTP increased plasma cortisol and PRL levels in medicated and unmedicated patients with major depression or OCD. The L-5-HTP-induced cortisol and PRL responses were significantly higher in fluoxetine-treated than in tricyclic-treated or unmedicated major depressed patients. The latter two groups did not differ significantly in their cortisol or PRL responses to L-5-HTP. The L-5-HTP-induced increases in cortisol and PRL in fluoxetine-treated patients with major depression or OCD were not significantly different. The results suggest that fluoxetine, but not tricyclic antidepressants, potentiates 5-HT receptor-mediated stimulation of cortisol and PRL secretion in humans, consistent with available evidence that fluoxetine treatment, but not tricyclic antidepressants, increases central serotonergic activity in patients with MD or OCD by a presynaptic mechanism.

  1. Distribution of /sup 125/I-thyroxine in different organs and tissues of dietically obese rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, K.; Voss, C.; Huebner, G. (Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universitaet, Greifswald (German Democratic Republic)); Weber, A. (Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universitaet, Greifswald (German Democratic Republic). Radiologische Klinik)

    1985-04-01

    The distribution of /sup 125/I-thyroxine (% dose/g tissue; tissue/plasma radioactivity ratio) was investigated in different tissues of 28-week-old obese Wistar rats. Obesity was induced by high-fat diet (HFD) and confirmed by carcass analysis; in heavy obese animals the relative and absolute fat content is increased twofold and threefold, respectively, compared to control rats fed on a low-fat diet (LFD). Heavy HFD rats exhibit diminished /sup 125/I-T/sub 4/ distribution in the 'slow pool' (fat tissue, muscle) and unchanged values in the 'fast pool' (liver, kidneys) in comparison with LFD rats with low body weight. The differences in distribution presented here are not caused by the diet per se, but they are the consequence of the obesity of the animal, because no differences in the /sup 125/I-T/sub 4/ distribution were found in the /sup 125/I-T/sub 4/ between HFD and LFD rats with relatively equal body weight and body composition. The reduced T/sub 4/ distribution in the fat tissue of obese rats is discussed in connection with possibly decreased lipolysis in this tissue and possible causal participation in the beginning of obesity.

  2. Effect on pathogenesis of Keshan disease by change of thyroxine 5’—monodeiodinase activity.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, writers investigate the activities of myocardial hepatic and renal thyroxine 5’—monodeiodinase of rats fed with grains from a KD endemic area. The results showed that myocardial ,hepatic and renal

  3. First experience with a new principle for measurement of free serum thyroxine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klingler, W.; Ball, P.; Knuppen, R.

    1981-04-01

    A new test principle for direct measurement of free thyroxine in serum was investigated the technical handling being remarkably simple. In 257 patients (169 euthyroid, 34 hypothyroid, 20 hyperthyroid, 11 pregnant women, 23 newborns) free thyroxine was measured resulting in a normal range of 6.9-18.5 pg/ml. The correlation between fT/sub 4/ and T/sub 4//TBG-ratio was 0.8207.

  4. Use of dietary thyroxine as an alternate molting procedure in spent turkey breeder hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulde, V A L; Renema, R; Bédécarrats, G Y

    2010-01-01

    In the turkey industry, molting is traditionally achieved by reducing photoperiod and withdrawing feed and water for several days. Although it is the most effective method, this practice is discouraged in Canada and alternative strategies need to be established. Thyroid hormone levels naturally change during molt, and dietary thyroxine (T4) supplementation was previously shown to induce molt in chickens. This study aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of supplemental dietary T4 in inducing molt in spent turkey breeder hens. One hundred twenty 75-wk-old hens were randomly divided into 4 groups (5 floor pens/replicates, 5 hens each) with the control group kept under a 14-h photoperiod and fed a breeder's diet throughout, whereas hens from the 3 other groups were supplemented with 40 ppm (45.76 mg/kg) T4 for 10 d. One treatment group was maintained under 14 h of light and fed a breeder's diet, whereas the 2 others were subjected to a drop in photoperiod to 6 h during or after supplementation and then were fed a maintenance diet. Egg production, feed intake, BW, molt, and plasma levels of T4, prolactin, and luteinizing hormone were measured. All treated hens ceased laying by d 20; however, several individuals spontaneously returned to lay when left on 14 h of light, suggesting incomplete involution of the reproductive tract. Supplementation significantly reduced feed consumption and induced rapid BW loss. All hens returned to their initial weight by the end of the experiment. Most treated hens initiated molt by d 8 of supplementation and all completed molt by d 37. Plasma T4 in treated hens increased significantly by d 3 (P dropping the photoperiod was necessary to completely reset the reproductive system.

  5. Monocarboxylate transporter 8 deficiency: altered thyroid morphology and persistent high triiodothyronine/thyroxine ratio after thyroidectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Eva K; Sheu, Sien-Yi; Chiu-Ugalde, Jazmin; Sapin, Remy; Klein, Marc O; Mossbrugger, Ilona; Quintanilla-Martinez, Leticia; de Angelis, Martin Hrabĕ; Krude, Heiko; Riebel, Thomas; Rothe, Karin; Köhrle, Josef; Schmid, Kurt W; Schweizer, Ulrich; Grüters, Annette

    2011-10-01

    Thyroid hormone transport across the plasma membrane depends on transmembrane transport proteins, including monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8). Mutations in MCT8 (or SLC16A2) lead to a severe form of X-linked psychomotor retardation, which is characterised by elevated plasma triiodothyronine (T(3)) and low/normal thyroxine (T(4)). MCT8 contributes to hormone release from the thyroid gland. To characterise the potential impact of MCT8-deficiency on thyroid morphology in a patient and in Mct8-deficient mice. Thyroid morphology in a patient carrying the A224V mutation was followed by ultrasound imaging for over 10 years. After thyroidectomy, a histopathological analysis was carried out. The findings were compared with histological analyses of mouse thyroids from the Mct8(-/y) model. We show that an inactivating mutation in MCT8 leads to a unique, progressive thyroid follicular pathology in a patient. After thyroidectomy, histological analysis revealed gross morphological changes, including several hyperplastic nodules, microfollicular areas with stromal fibrosis and a small focus of microfollicular structures with nuclear features reminiscent of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). These findings are supported by an Mct8-null mouse model in which we found massive papillary hyperplasia in 6- to 12-month-old mice and nuclear features consistent with PTC in almost 2-year-old animals. After complete thyroidectomy and substitution with levothyroxine (l-T(4)), the preoperative, inadequately low T(4) and free T(4) remained, while increasing the l-T(4) dosage led to T(3) serum concentrations above the normal range. Our results implicate peripheral deiodination in the peculiar hormonal constellation of MCT8-deficient patients. Other MCT8-deficient patients should be closely monitored for potential thyroid abnormalities.

  6. BDNF Val 66 Met and 5-HTTLPR genotype moderate the impact of early psychosocial adversity on plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor and depressive symptoms: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchmann, Arlette F; Hellweg, Rainer; Rietschel, Marcella; Treutlein, Jens; Witt, Stephanie H; Zimmermann, Ulrich S; Schmidt, Martin H; Esser, Günter; Banaschewski, Tobias; Laucht, Manfred; Deuschle, Michael

    2013-08-01

    Recent studies have emphasized an important role for neurotrophins, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), in regulating the plasticity of neural circuits involved in the pathophysiology of stress-related diseases. The aim of the present study was to examine the interplay of the BDNF Val⁶⁶Met and the serotonin transporter promoter (5-HTTLPR) polymorphisms in moderating the impact of early-life adversity on BDNF plasma concentration and depressive symptoms. Participants were taken from an epidemiological cohort study following the long-term outcome of early risk factors from birth into young adulthood. In 259 individuals (119 males, 140 females), genotyped for the BDNF Val⁶⁶Met and the 5-HTTLPR polymorphisms, plasma BDNF was assessed at the age of 19 years. In addition, participants completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Early adversity was determined according to a family adversity index assessed at 3 months of age. Results indicated that individuals homozygous for both the BDNF Val and the 5-HTTLPR L allele showed significantly reduced BDNF levels following exposure to high adversity. In contrast, BDNF levels appeared to be unaffected by early psychosocial adversity in carriers of the BDNF Met or the 5-HTTLPR S allele. While the former group appeared to be most susceptible to depressive symptoms, the impact of early adversity was less pronounced in the latter group. This is the first preliminary evidence indicating that early-life adverse experiences may have lasting sequelae for plasma BDNF levels in humans, highlighting that the susceptibility to this effect is moderated by BDNF Val⁶⁶Met and 5-HTTLPR genotype.

  7. Pregnant women on thyroxine substitution are often dysregulated in early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallengren, Bengt; Lantz, Mikael; Andreasson, Bengt; Grennert, Lars

    2009-04-01

    Thyroid hormones are important for normal fetal development. Maternal hypothyroidism during early pregnancy is associated with impaired neuropsychological development of children and other adverse outcomes. The primary aim of this prospective study was to determine whether thyroxine-treated pregnant women with hypothyroidism are adequately thyroxine substituted in early pregnancy. A secondary aim was to determine if fetal loss differed between females with thyrotropin (TSH) values within and outside the reference range at their first TSH test, scheduled for 1-2 weeks after verification of pregnancy. This was a prospective open-labeled study. During the years 1997-2002, 119 consecutive pregnancies in 101 females with thyroid diseases were followed at the Department of Endocrinology, Malmö University Hospital. At the first visit, 63 patients, median age 30 years (range 17-45 years), were on thyroxine substitution therapy for hypothyroidism. In these patients 83% were in their first trimester at the time of the initial test. Of the 63 patients on thyroxine substitution for hypothyroidism 32 (51%; Group A) patients had serum TSH values within the reference range at their initial test and 31 (49%; Group B) had serum TSH values outside the reference range. Twelve (19%) had TSH values of 4.0 mIU=l. The fetal loss was 2 of 32 (6%) in Group A compared to 9 of 31 (29%) in Group B ( p pregnant women on thyroxine substitution, serum TSH values were outside the reference range when first tested, generally in the first trimester. Fetal loss was significantly greater in pregnant women with abnormal TSH values compared to those with normal TSH values. Thyroid function in pregnant women on thyroxine substitution should be monitored early in pregnancy and carefully followed during pregnancy. The thyroxine dose should be increased as needed early in pregnancy to avoid hypothyroidism.

  8. Treatment of subclinical hypothyroidism in pregnancy using fixed thyroxine daily doses of 75 μg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penin, Manuel; Trigo, Cristina; López, Yolanda; Barragáns, María

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of hypothyroid pregnant women is usually calculated based on weight (1 μg/kg/day) and TSH levels. This study assessed the usefulness of treating these women with a fixed dose of 75 μg/day. All women with pregnancy diagnosed from January to August 2012 in the Vigo Health Area (Spain) without previous diagnosis of thyroid disease or thyroxine treatment and with TSH levels over 4,5 mUI/ml were enrolled by consecutive sampling. All 116 women in the sample were treated with a fixed daily dose of thyroxine 75 μg-thyroxine levels were measured at two, four, and six months, and thyroxine dose was modified if TSH level was lower than 0.3 or higher than 4.5 mUI/ml. A woman had a TSH level less than 0.3 mUI/ml in a test; reduction of thyroxine dose to 50 μg/day allowed for maintaining TSH level within the desired range until delivery. Six women had TSH levels over 4.5 mUI/ml in one test; in all of them, increase in thyroxine dose to 100 μg/day allowed for maintaining the level within the desired range until delivery. Fixed daily doses of thyroxine 75 μg allowed for achieving goal TSH levels in most of our pregnant women with subclinical hypothyroidism, irrespective of their weight and baseline TSH level. Copyright © 2013 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. Sequential defunctionalization followed by thyroxine supple-mentation as preoperative preparation of hyperthyroid patients undergoing thyroidectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Jing-qiang; WU Xiao-ying; LI Zhi-hui; GONG Ri-xiang; WEI Tao; ZHANG Heng; ZHANG Wen-yan; YANG Xiao-yan; LUO Yan-li; GONG Shu

    2008-01-01

    Background Preparing hyperthyroid patients for thyroid surgery with a combination of antithyroid drugs and thyroxine has long been controversial because this combination usually results in only partial inhibition of thyroid function. We therefore used large doses of antithyroid drugs to completely inhibit the synthesis of thyroxine and render the thyroid gland defunctionalized. We then administered physiologic doses of thyroxine to inhibit thyroid-stimulating hormone secretion. We have named this treatment "sequential thyroid defunctionalization followed by thyroxine supplementation." Methods Four hundred and seventy-one hyperthyroid patients seen at our hospital were divided into experimental and control groups. The control group was treated preoperatively with antithyroid drugs and iodine preparation. The experimental group was further divided into four subgroups and treated with "sequential thyroid defunctionalization followed by thyroxine supplementation". Each of the four subgroups received different doses of antithyroid drugs and thyroxine for differing time periods. Thyroid function was assessed at each stage of treatment, as were operative blood loss volumes and postoperative complications.Results Compared to the control group, the four experimental groups showed less thyroid congestion and surface varices at surgery. Patients in subgroup A also had thyroid glands that were almost histologically normal. The mean operative blood loss volume of the experimental group was less than that of the control group((326±1 63)mlin the control group;(196±57)ml in subgroup A:(230±71)ml in subgroup B;(240±80)ml in subgroup C;and(31 2±97)ml in subgroup D).The postoperative complication rate of the experimental group was 8.64%(21/243)whereas that of the control group was 1 7.54%(40/228).Conclusions Sequential thyroid defunctionalization followed by thyroxine supplementation is effective in reducing the bleeding volume and postoperative complication rate in selected

  10. Low plasma eicosapentaenoic acid levels are associated with elevated trait aggression and impulsivity in major depressive disorder with a history of comorbid substance use disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Anne Mette; Lauritzen, Lotte; Galfalvy, Hanga C

    2014-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with low levels of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), holding promise for new perspectives on disease etiology and treatment targets. As aggressive and impulsive behaviors are associated with low omega-3 PUFA levels in some clinical contexts......, we investigated plasma PUFA relationships with trait aggression and impulsivity in patients with MDD. Medication-free MDD patients (n = 48) and healthy volunteers (HV, n = 35) were assessed with the Brown-Goodwin Aggression Inventory. A subset (MDD, n = 39; HV, n = 33) completed the Barratt...... Impulsiveness Scale. Plasma PUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3), and arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6) were quantified and ln-transformed to mitigate distributional skew. Ln-transformed PUFA (lnPUFA) levels were predictors in regression models, with aggression...

  11. Potential of l-thyroxine to differentiate osteoblast-like cells via Angiopoietin1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, See-Hyoung; Lee, Jongsung; Kang, Mi-Ae; Moon, Young Jae; Wang, Sung Il; Kim, Kyoung Min; Park, Byung-Hyun; Jang, Kyu Yun; Kim, Jung Ryul

    2016-09-23

    Angiogenesis is closely associated with osteoblast differentiation. Previously, we demonstrated that bone formation can be accelerated by treatment with COMP-Angiopoietin1, a known angiogenic factor. Angiopoietin1 (Ang1) is a specific growth factor that generates stable and mature vasculature through the Tie2 receptor. In this study, we aimed to identify a novel drug that can activate endogenous Ang1 expression as a pharmacological treatment for bone formation. Therefore, Ang1 expression was examined in U2OS osteoblast-like cells treated with 770 drugs from a library of Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs by using ELISA for Ang1. l-thyroxine was selected as a novel drug candidate. l-Thyroxine is a synthetic form of the hormone thyroxine, which is used to treat patients with hypothyroidism. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) were performed to test whether Ang1 is induced in a dose-dependent manner in human osteoblast-like cell lines, U2OS and MG63. The effects of l-thyroxine on osteoblast differentiation and mineralization were evaluated by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and Alizarin red s staining. To determine the molecular mechanism, the expression of proteins related to bone formation and differentiation, such as type I collagen (COL1A1), osteocalcin (OC), bone sialoprotein (BSP), distal-less homeobox 5 (Dlx5), Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), osterix (OSX), and ALP, was tested by Western blotting analysis. Consequently, l-thyroxine induced Ang1 expression in a dose-dependent manner in both U2OS and M63 cells, which was confirmed by ELISA and Western blotting. Also, l-thyroxine activated ALP activity in U2OS and MG63 cells as well as ALP expression. Furthermore, l-thyroxine enhanced the expression of COL1A1, Runx2, OC, BSP, Dlx5, and OSX mRNA and proteins. Taken together, we demonstrated that l-thyroxine increased Ang1 expression and induces bone formation, differentiation, and mineralization in U2OS and MG63 cell lines

  12. The effect of thyroxin on hepatic redox equilibrium and lipid metabolism in rats treated with doxorubicin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czuba Bartosz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main side effects of the administration of doxorubicin, a widely used anticancer drug, is the generation of a reactive oxygen species (ROS in normal cells. As a result, redox disorders and secondary oxidative stress are developed. Doxorubicin ROS generation is attributed to enzymes that are produced abundantly in hepatocytes. Oxidative stress has been a well-known risk factor of doxorubicin-related toxicity. However, in addition, according to the data collected in the last decade, changes in thyroxin status can propagate ROS generation, and, thus, initiate the doxorubicin hepatic effect. Moreover, both compounds have an impact on the cell metabolism. The aim of the study was to verify the thesis that thyroxin can modulate the effect of doxorubicin with regard to redox status and lipid metabolism disorders. In our work, we determined the ratio of NADP+/ NADPH and NAD+/NADH in liver homogenates, blood ketone bodies and triglycerides in the liver and blood in rats treated with doxorubicin and thyroxin. Our results indicate that thyroxin has an insignificant effect on NAD+/NADH, NADP+/NADPH ratios and on hepatic and blood triglycerides. Moreover, thyroxin administration normalized the level of blood ketone bodies that was disturbed by doxorubicin.

  13. Venlafaxine inhibits the upregulation of plasma tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in the Chinese patients with major depressive disorder: a prospective longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zezhi; Qi, Dake; Chen, Jun; Zhang, Chen; Yi, Zhenghui; Yuan, Chengmei; Wang, Zuowei; Hong, Wu; Yu, Shunying; Cui, Donghong; Fang, Yiru

    2013-01-01

    Although tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) has been recognized to be involved in the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder (MDD) for a long time, only few studies so far investigated the effects of antidepressant, venlafaxine on TNF-α and the results are inconsistent. Moreover, the association between plasma TNF-α levels and suicide accompanied with MDD is entirely unknown. To elucidate these relationships, in the present study, 64 first-episode drug-naïve MDD patients and 64 matched healthy controls were recruited. Total 61 MDD patients received 8-week venlafaxine treatment and they were divided into responders and non-responders according to the reduction rate of HRSD-17. Prior to venlafaxine treatment, both responders and non-responders shared a similar plasma TNF-α (p=0.33), which was significantly decreased following venlafaxine treatment (pTNF-α (p=0.01), which was associated with the greater reduction rate of HRSD-17 (B=1.02, p=0.01). In addition, the plasma TNF-α levels were equally higher in both suicidal and non-suicidal MDD patients (p=0.84) compared to the healthy controls on admission (p=0.001, p=0.03, respectively). Together, our data suggest that MDD per se rather than suicide is associated with the elevated plasma TNF-α, which can be inhibited with venlfaxine monotherapy. The extent of TNF-α reduction may be associated with the efficiency of venlafaxine.

  14. The CYP2C19*17 genotype is associated with lower imipramine plasma concentrations in a large group of depressed patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, P W; van Vliet, M; Mathot, R A A; van Gelder, T; Vulto, A G; van Fessem, M A C; Verploegh-Van Rij, S; Lindemans, J; Bruijn, J A; van Schaik, R H N

    2010-06-01

    CYP2C19 converts the tricyclic antidepressant imipramine to its active metabolite desipramine, which is subsequently inactivated by CYP2D6. The novel CYP2C19*17 allele causes ultrarapid metabolism of CYP2C19 substrates. We genotyped 178 depressed patients on imipramine for CYP2C19*17, and measured steady-state imipramine and desipramine plasma concentrations. Mean dose-corrected imipramine plasma concentration was significantly dependent on CYP2C19 genotype (Kruskal-Wallis test, P=0.01), with circa 30% lower levels in CYP2C19*17/*17 individuals compared with CYP2C19*1/*1 (wild-type) patients. The mean dose-corrected imipramine+desipramine plasma concentrations and imipramine/desipramine ratios were not significantly different between genotype subgroups (Kruskal-Wallis tests, P>or=0.12). In a multivariate analysis, we found a significant, but limited effect (P=0.035, eta(2)=0.031) of the CYP2C19*17 genotype on imipramine+desipramine concentrations. Although the CYP2C19*17 allele is associated with a significantly increased metabolism of imipramine, CYP2C19*17 genotyping will, in our view, not importantly contribute to dose management of patients on imipramine therapy guided by imipramine+desipramine plasma concentrations.

  15. Free Thyroxine During Early Pregnancy and Risk for Gestational Diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James E Haddow

    Full Text Available Several studies have now reported associations between gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM and low free thyroxine (fT4 during the second and third trimesters, but not in the first trimester. The present study further examines relationships between low fT4, maternal weight, and GDM among women in the FaSTER (First and Second Trimester Evaluation of Risk trial, in an effort to determine the extent to which thyroid hormones might contribute to causality. The FaSTER cohort includes 9351 singleton, euthyroid women; 272 of these women were subsequently classified as having GDM. Thyrotropin (TSH, fT4, and thyroid antibodies were measured at 11-14 weeks' gestation (first trimester and 15-18.9 weeks' gestation (second trimester. An earlier report of this cohort documented an inverse relationship between fT4 in the second trimester and maternal weight. In the current analysis, women with GDM were significantly older (32 vs. 28 years and weighed more (75 vs. 64.5 kg. Maternal weight and age (but not TSH were significantly associated univariately with fT4 (dependent variable, in the order listed. Second trimester fT4 odds ratios (OR for GDM were 2.06 [95% CI 1.37-3.09] (unadjusted; and 1.89 [95% CI 1.26-2.84] (adjusted. First trimester odds ratios were not significant: OR 1.45 [95%CI 0.97-2.16] (unadjusted and 1.11 [95% CI 0.74-1.62] (adjusted. The second trimester fT4/GDM relationship thus appeared to strengthen as gestation progressed. In FaSTER, high maternal weight was associated with both low fT4 and a higher GDM rate in the second trimester. Peripheral deiodinase activity is known to increase with high caloric intake (represented by high weight. We speculate that weight-related low fT4 (the metabolically inactive prohormone is a marker for deiodinase activity, serving as a substrate for conversion of fT4 to free triiodothyronine (fT3, the active hormone responsible for glucose-related metabolic activity.

  16. The two triiodothyronines (T3 and rT3). Thyroid biosynthesis of T3 and rT3 and peripheral metabolism of thyroxine (author's transl).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, J; Michel, R

    1977-01-01

    Thirty per cent of the iodine in thyroglobulin is present as iodothyronines. L-thyroxine (T4) represents 90-95% of hormonal iodine, 3,5,3'-triodo-L-thyronine (T3) contains at the most two per cent of it, 3,3'5'-triodo-L-thyronine (rT3) even less, as well as traces of 3,3'-diodo-L-thyronine. The plasma concentration of T4 is about 8 microgram per 100 ml, in the case of T3 it is 120 ng and 25 ng for rT3. The cell nucleus preferentially binds T3 and rT3 and there are also some specific mitochondrial proteins which possess a high affinity for T3. L-thyroxine is dehalogenated peripherically to T3, to take care of most of the requirements in T3. The enrichment of the plasma in rT3 has been shown to occur under various experimental and pathological conditoins. The blood level of T3 varies in inverse ratio to the level of rT3 and it shows that the peripheral formation of one is compensated for by the other. The excess of the prehormone T4 is metabolised as 3,5,3',5'-tetraiodothyroacetic acid (TetrAc); its level in the blood varies in the same way as the level of T3, in particular it decreases during starvation.

  17. Dyslipidemia in subclinical hypothyroidism and the effect of thyroxine on lipid profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Asranna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Subclinical hypothyroidism (SH has a prevalence between 4% and 10.5% in various studies. The burden of SH in India is expected to increase with increasing iodine sufficiency. Studies have shown conflicting results concerning not only the degree of lipid changes in SH but also the effect of thyroxine substitution therapy. Indian studies on dyslipidemia in SH and the effect of thyroxine on lipid profile are currently lacking. Aims and Objectives: (1 To assess the association of SH and lipid profile. (2 To quantify the effect of thyroxine treatment on lipid profile. Materials and Methods: About 54 patients who were detected to have SH were compared with 56 healthy controls. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, free T3, free T4, anti thyroperoxidase (TPO antibodies, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol, Very low density lipoprotein (VLDL cholesterol, serum triglycerides were measured in all the patients after an overnight fast. Selected patients were started on thyroxine replacement. Twenty-one patients were followed up after 3 months with a repeat lipid profile. Results: Mean total cholesterol and mean LDL levels were significantly higher in SH compared to controls, but there was no statistically significant difference in the mean HDL, VLDL, and triglyceride levels. There was a significant reduction in mean T. cholesterol, mean LDL, mean VLDL, and mean triglyceride levels after treatment with thyroxine, while there was no significant difference among the mean HDL levels. Conclusion: Dyslipidemia is more common in SH compared to controls. There is a TSH dependent increase in cholesterol, LDL, VLDL, and triglyceride levels. Achieving euthyroid status with thyroxine has a favourable effect on lipid profile.

  18. Depression (Major Depressive Disorder)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... generally miserable or unhappy without really knowing why. Depression symptoms in children and teens Common signs and ... in normal activities, and avoidance of social interaction. Depression symptoms in older adults Depression is not a ...

  19. Comparison of preventive effect of T3 and T4 on thyroxine release from thyroid induced by endogeneous TSH after TRH injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokesová, H; Langer, P; Gschwendtová, K; Sadlon, J; Bukovská, M

    1977-01-01

    Comparison of Preventive Effect of T3 and T4 on Thyroxine Release from Thyroid Induced by Endogenous TSH after TRH Injection. Endocrinologia Experimentalis 11, 91-98, 1977. The technique of frequent blood sampling through polyethylene tubings inserted into blood vessels while maintaining isovolemia was used in pentobarbiturate anaesthetized rats weighing 250--300 g. The animals were fed low iodine diet for 4 weeks and injected 125I- (5 microgram Ci per animal daily) for 6 days begining from 8th day before the experiment. The effect of 25 microgram TRH injected through a cannula inserted into carotid artery in cranial direction was evaluated as per cent increase of labelled thyroxine in plasma at 120 min after the injection compared to its level at 30 min. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of various doses of thyroxine (T4; 5, 20 and 80 nmol kg-1) and triiodothyronine (T3; 1.25 and 5 nmol kg-1) injected i.v. at the intervals of 10, 20, 30, 60 and 180 min prior to TRH was investigated. It was found that the effect was time dependent, being negligible after 10 or 20 min, while after 60 and 180 min the increase of labelled T4 after TRH was fully prevented by 20 and 80 nmol T4 kg-1 and by 5 nmol T3 kg-1. The other doses (i. e. 5 nmol T4 kg-1 and 1.25 nmol T3 kg-1) were without effect. Thus, T3 was found to be significantly more active than equimolar doses of T4.

  20. The effect of oral Matricaria Chamomilla extract and selenium on postpartum depression and plasma oxidant-antioxidant system in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Harati

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Our study demonstrated the potential antidepressant activity of Matricaria chamomilla and Selenium in the experimental model of progesterone-induced postpartum depression in mice. These elements as supplement compounds could be alternatives for antidepressants in postpartum period. It seems that the antidepresent effects of this compounds do not induced by effects on oxidant-antioxidant system and may exert through any other pathway.

  1. The effect of depressive symptomatology on plasma cortisol responses to acute bicycle exercise among post-menopausal women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Pompe, G.; Bernards, N; Meijman, T.F.; Heijnen, C.J

    1999-01-01

    The present study was designed to elucidate the effect of depressive symptomatology on the cortisol response to strenuous exercise. Thirteen healthy, post-menopausal women participated in this study. The results show that acute bicycle exercise activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis

  2. [Hormone content of the blood plasma of rats after a flight on the Kosmos-1129 biosatellite].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tigranian, R A; Kalita, N F; Macho, L; Kvetnanský, R

    1985-01-01

    The concentration of ACTH, insulin, glucagon, glucose, epinephrine, norepinephrine, thyrotrophic hormone, thyroxine, and triiodothyronine was measured in plasma of the rats flown for 18.5 days on Cosmos-1129. As a result of the flight, the concentration of insulin, thyrotrophic hormone, and triiodothyronine increased and that of thyroxine decreased. It is suggested that the above changes have been induced by an acute stress associated with biosatellite reentry and touchdown.

  3. Treatment with fixed thyroxine doses in pregnant women with subclinical hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seoane Cruz, Inés; Penín Álvarez, Manuel; Luna Cano, Reyes; García-Mayor, Ricardo Víctor

    2012-05-01

    Hypothyroidism is usually treated with thyroxine doses on patient weight. In some cases, however, fixed doses have proved to useful to normalize TSH levels, which is especially important during pregnancy. Sixty-eight women diagnosed with subclinical hypothyroidism, autoimmune or not, during pregnancy were given a fixed dose of thyroxine 50 mcg/day. TSH measurements were performed to assess the need to change the dose, which was increased or decreased by 25 mcg/day when necessary. With a dose of 50 mcg/day of thyroxine, 42% of patients reached a TSH level less than 3 μU/mL, 79.4% reached a TSH level less than 4.5 μU/mL, and 20.6% had TSH levels higher than 4.5 μU/mL. Our data suggest that a fixed dose of thyroxine 50 mcg/day is inadequate in a significant proportion of pregnancy-diagnosed hypothyroidism regardless of whether the reference of TSH level used is 4.5 or 3 μU/mL. S starting dose of 75 mcg/day is probably more adequate, but studies are needed to evaluate the possibility of overtreatment with such dose. Copyright © 2011 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. Preparation of standards of triiodothyronine, thyroxine and thyrotropin; Prepracion de estandares de triyodotironina, tiroxina y tirotrofina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavalley E, C.; Delgado S, B.; Ruiz J, A.; Zambrano A, F

    1991-10-15

    The standards preparation requires of certain basic principles, some of which are described in this work, which was made with the purpose of establishing the most appropriate conditions for the preparation of standards of triiodothyronine, thyroxine and thyrotropin to be used in radioimmunoanalysis essays. The diverse standards show a balanced displacement, that which is observed in the graphs presented in this work. (Author)

  5. THYROXINE (T4) CATABOLISM IN HUMAN AND RAT HEPATOCYTES INCREASES FOLLOWING EXPOSURE TO HEPATIC ENZYME INDUCERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuclear receptor agonists phenobarbital (PB), 3-methylcholanthrene (3MC), pregnenolone-16a-carbonitrile (PCN), 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 153), and 2,2' ,4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE 47) decrease serum thyroxine (T4) in rats. This decrease is thought to occur th...

  6. PCB-153 AND BDE-47 INCREASE THYROXINE T4) CATABOLISM IN RAT AND HUMAN HEPATOCYTES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous studies demonstrate that in vivo exposure to 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB-153) and 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) decrease serum thyroxine (T4) levels in rats. This decrease is thought to occur through the induction of hepatic metabolizing enzymes ...

  7. Effects of hepatic enzyme inducers on thyroxine (T4) catabolism in primary rat hepatocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuclear receptor agonists such as phenobarbital (PB), 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 153), and 3-methylcholantrene (3-MC) decrease circulating thyroxine (T4) concentrations in rats. It is suspected that this decrease occurs through the induction of hepatic metabolizing en...

  8. HEPATIC ENZYME INDUCERS INCREASE THYROXINE (T4) CATABOLISM IN HUMAN AND RAT HEPATOCYTES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuclear receptor agonists such as 3-methylcholantrene (3-MC), phenobarbital (PB), 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 153), and, pregnenolone-16a-carbonitrile (PCN) decrease serum thyroxine (T4) concentrations in rats. It appears that this decrease occurs through the induction...

  9. Maternal Thyroxine Levels During Pregnancy and Outcomes of Cognitive Development in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pingping; Gao, Jian; Zhao, Shihua; Guo, Yong; Wang, Zengfang; Qi, Feng

    2016-05-01

    Though there were many studies assessing the relationship between maternal thyroxine levels during pregnancy and cognitive development in children, there was still lack of evidence for the association from a comprehensive assessment of published data. To get a more comprehensive estimate of the influence of low maternal thyroxine levels on cognitive function, a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies was performed. Two electronic databases, MEDLINE and EMBASE, were searched for relevant prospective cohort studies. Relative risks (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were pooled using random-effect model of meta-analysis to assess the risk of delayed cognitive development in children. Seven prospective cohort studies with a total of 8273 mother-child pairs were included into the meta-analysis. There was obvious between-study heterogeneity in the meta-analysis (I(2) = 69.6%). Meta-analysis of using random-effect model showed that low maternal thyroxine level was significantly associated with a threefold risk of delayed cognitive development in children (random RR = 3.08, 95% CI 1.83-5.18, P cognitive development in children (random RR = 3.76, 95% CI 2.14-6.58, P cognitive development in children. Low maternal thyroxine level is significantly associated with a threefold risk of delayed cognitive development in children.

  10. Proposal of a candidate international conventional reference measurement procedure for free thyroxine in serum.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thienpont, L.M.; Beastall, G.H.; Christofides, N.D.; Faix, J.D.; Ieiri, T.; Jarrige, V.; Miller, W.G.; Miller, R.; Nelson, J.C.; Ronin, C.; Ross, H.A.; Rottmann, M.; Thijssen, J.H.; Toussaint, B.

    2007-01-01

    In the present paper the IFCC WG-STFT recommends and provides the rationale to establish metrological traceability of serum free thyroxine (FT4) measurements to a candidate international conventional reference measurement procedure. It is proposed that this procedure be based on equilibrium dialysis

  11. Establishment of an Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Total Thyroxine (T4)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A sensitive and specific ELISA for total thyroxine (T4) is established. The anti-T4 antibody is coatedon the microtiter plate, the T4 antigen is conjugated to the biotin. The label is horseradish peroxidase(HRP)

  12. Triclosan Decreases Rat Thyroxine: Mode-of-Action, Developmental Susceptibility and Human Relevance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triclosan (TCS) decreases serum thyroxine (T4) in the rat. In vivo and in vitro approaches were used to address three uncertainties: by what mode-of-action (MOA) does TCS decrease T4; does TCS decrease T4 developmentally; and, are effects observed in rats relevant to humans? To t...

  13. Impact of adjusting for the reciprocal relationship between maternal weight and free thyroxine during early pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Haddow, James E

    2013-02-01

    Among euthyroid pregnant women in a large clinical trial, free thyroxine (FT4) measurements below the 2.5th centile were associated with a 17 lb higher weight (2.9 kg\\/m(2)) than in the overall study population. We explore this relationship further.

  14. Initial catch-up growth in children with hypothyroidism on thyroxine replacement therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajitha D

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a paucity of observational data from India on initial catch up growth in hypothyroid children started on thyroxine replacement therapy. Methods: We retrospectively studied 44 children and adolescents (32 girls with a diagnosis of primary hypothyroidism i.e., (thyrotropin > 15 µIU/mL and thyroxine < 55ng/mL. All were started on treatment with oral thyroxine. The dose was adjusted to maintain thyrotropin between 0.5-5 µIU/mL. Height was measured at baseline and at each follow-up visit and height standard deviation scores (HtSDS were calculated. We studied the therapeutic benefit of thyroxine replacement therapy on growth in the initial couple of years of treatment. Results: Dose of thyroxine required to restore euthyroidism was 4.1±2.5 µg/kg body weight. The dose fell from 9.7±2.4 µg/kg body weight in infants to 3.0±1.5 µg/kg body weight in adolescence (p<0.001. Likewise, the dose per unit body surface area also fell consistently from 207 ± 70.3 µg/m2 in infants to only 89.3±17.9 µg/m2 in adolescents (p<0.001. The initial HtSDS was 2.0±1.5 and this improved by 0.4 to final value of 1.6±1.3 (p < 0.001 after an average follow up of 14.1±2.5 months. The mean catch-up growth velocity, weighted for the duration of follow-up was 7.7 cm/year. Conclusions: The HtSDS deficit because of hypothyroidism is partially regained in the first few years after treatment.

  15. Thyroid function in children and adolescents with Hashimoto's thyroiditis after l-thyroxine discontinuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radetti, Giorgio; Salerno, Mariacarolina; Guzzetti, Chiara; Cappa, Marco; Corrias, Andrea; Cassio, Alessandra; Cesaretti, Graziano; Gastaldi, Roberto; Rotondi, Mario; Lupi, Fiorenzo; Fanolla, Antonio; Weber, Giovanna; Loche, Sandro

    2017-05-01

    Thyroid function may recover in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT). To investigate thyroid function and the need to resume l-thyroxine treatment after its discontinuation. Nine Italian pediatric endocrinology centers. 148 children and adolescents (25 m and 123 f) with HT on treatment with l-thyroxine for at least one year. Treatment was discontinued in all patients, and serum TSH and fT4 concentrations were measured at the time of treatment discontinuation and then after 2, 6, 12 and 24 months. Therapy with l-thyroxine was re-instituted when TSH rose >10 U/L and/or fT4 was below the normal range. The patients were followed up when TSH concentrations were between 5 and 10 U/L and fT4 was in the normal range. At baseline, TSH was in the normal range in 139 patients, and was between 5 and 10 U/L in 9 patients. Treatment was re-instituted after 2 months in 37 (25.5%) patients, after 6 months in 13 patients (6.99%), after 12 months in 12 patients (8.6%), and after 24 months in an additional 3 patients (3.1%). At 24 months, 34 patients (34.3%) still required no treatment. TSH concentration >10 U/L at the time of diagnosis was the only predictive factor for the deterioration of thyroid function after l-thyroxine discontinuation. This study confirms that not all children with HT need life-long therapy with l-thyroxine, and the discontinuation of treatment in patients with a TSH level L at the time of diagnosis should be considered. © 2017 The authors.

  16. Thyroid function in children and adolescents with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis after l-thyroxine discontinuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Radetti

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Thyroid function may recover in patients with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT. Design: To investigate thyroid function and the need to resume l-thyroxine treatment after its discontinuation. Setting: Nine Italian pediatric endocrinology centers. Patients: 148 children and adolescents (25 m and 123 f with HT on treatment with l-thyroxine for at least one year. Intervention and main outcome measure: Treatment was discontinued in all patients, and serum TSH and fT4 concentrations were measured at the time of treatment discontinuation and then after 2, 6, 12 and 24 months. Therapy with l-thyroxine was re-instituted when TSH rose >10 U/L and/or fT4 was below the normal range. The patients were followed up when TSH concentrations were between 5 and 10 U/L and fT4 was in the normal range. Results: At baseline, TSH was in the normal range in 139 patients, and was between 5 and 10 U/L in 9 patients. Treatment was re-instituted after 2 months in 37 (25.5% patients, after 6 months in 13 patients (6.99%, after 12 months in 12 patients (8.6%, and after 24 months in an additional 3 patients (3.1%. At 24 months, 34 patients (34.3% still required no treatment. TSH concentration >10 U/L at the time of diagnosis was the only predictive factor for the deterioration of thyroid function after l-thyroxine discontinuation. Conclusions: This study confirms that not all children with HT need life-long therapy with l-thyroxine, and the discontinuation of treatment in patients with a TSH level <10 U/L at the time of diagnosis should be considered.

  17. Catechol-O-methyltransferase Val158Met genotype and the clinical responses to duloxetine treatment or plasma levels of 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol and homovanillic acid in Japanese patients with major depressive disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atake, Kiyokazu; Yoshimura, Reiji; Hori, Hikaru; Katsuki, Asuka; Nakamura, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study investigated the relationships among the plasma levels of catecholamine metabolites, the clinical response to duloxetine treatment, and Val158Met polymorphism of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene. Subjects and methods Sixty-four patients and 30 healthy control subjects were recruited. Major depressive episodes were diagnosed using the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision criteria. The severity of depression was evaluated using the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD17). Patients whose HAMD17 scores were 15 or greater were enrolled in the study. Blood sampling and clinical evaluation were performed at week 0 and week 8. The levels of plasma catecholamine metabolites were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Genotyping was performed using direct sequencing. Results Thirty of 45 patients (67%) responded to duloxetine treatment during the 8 weeks of treatment. The baseline plasma levels of 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG), but not homovanillic acid (HVA), were lower in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) who had the Val/Val genotype than in patients who were Met-carriers. Patients with MDD and the Val/Val genotype, but not Met carriers, had increased plasma levels of MHPG after 8 weeks of duloxetine treatment. The baseline plasma MHPG levels in healthy control subjects with the Val/Val genotype were significantly higher than those in patients with MDD. Among the subjects in the MDD group with the Val/Val genotype, the plasma MHPG levels increased to the same degree as in the healthy control subjects with the Val/Val genotype after 8 weeks of duloxetine treatment. Conclusion The relationship among the COMT Val158Met polymorphism, plasma levels of catecholamine metabolites, and responses to duloxetine is complex. Nevertheless, our results suggest that patients with MDD and the

  18. Depression - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - depression ... Depression is a medical condition. If you think you may be depressed, see a health care provider. ... following organizations are good sources of information on depression : American Psychological Association -- www.apa.org/topics/depress/ ...

  19. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis due to excessive L-thyroxine replacement in a Caucasian man.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hannon, M J

    2009-09-01

    Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis is a potentially fatal complication of hyperthyroidism, more common in Asian races, which is defined by a massive intracellular flux of potassium. This leads to profound hypokalaemia and muscle paralysis. Although the paralysis is temporary, it may be lethal if not diagnosed and treated rapidly, as profound hypokalaemia may induce respiratory muscle paralysis or cardiac arrest. The condition is often misdiagnosed in the west due to its comparative rarity in Caucasians; however it is now increasingly described in Caucasians and is also being seen with increasing frequency in western hospitals due to increasing immigration and population mobility. Here we describe the case of a patient with panhypopituitarism due to a craniopharyngioma, who developed thyrotoxic periodic paralysis due to excessive L-thyroxine replacement. This disorder has been described in Asian subjects but, to our knowledge, thyrotoxic periodic paralysis secondary to excessive L-thyroxine replacement has never been described in Caucasians.

  20. Retina maturation following administration of thyroxine in developing rats: effects on polyamine metabolism and glutamate decarboxylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaione, S; Di Giorgio, R M; Nicotina, P A; Ientile, R

    1984-08-01

    The effects of subcutaneous daily treatment with thyroxine on cell proliferation, differentiation, polyamines, and gamma-aminobutyric acid metabolism in the rat retina were studied during the first 20 postnatal days. The retinal layers of the treated rats displayed an enhanced cell differentiation which reached its maximum 9-12 days from birth; but this effect stopped very quickly and was finished by the 20th postnatal day. Primarily there was an increase in ornithine decarboxylase activity which was accompanied by an increase in putrescine, spermidine, and spermine levels. S-Adenosylmethionine decarboxylase was induced later than ODC; corresponding with the enhanced synaptogenesis, glutamate decarboxylase increased 15-fold between the fourth and 15th days. Our data are consistent with the hypothesis that thyroxine may exert some of its effects by inducing the enzymes which regulate polyamine metabolism and synaptogenesis.

  1. Antidotes to coumarins, isoniazid, methotrexate and thyroxine, toxins that work via metabolic processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, D Nicholas; Page, Colin B

    2016-03-01

    Some toxins cause their effects by affecting physiological processes that are fundamental to cell function or cause systemic effects as a result of cellular interaction. This review focuses on four examples, coumarin anticoagulants, isoniazid, methotrexate and thyroxine from the context of management of overdose as seen in acute general hospitals. The current basic clinical pharmacology of the toxin, the clinical features in overdose and evidence base for specific antidotes are discussed. The treatment for this group is based on an understanding of the toxic mechanism, but studies to determine the optimum dose of antidote are still required in all these toxins except thyroxine, where treatment dose is based on symptoms resulting from the overdose.

  2. Low serum free thyroxine level in a girl with McCune-Albright syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roosimaa, Mart; Pajuväli, Anett; Peet, Aleksandr; Tillmann, Vallo

    2015-01-05

    A 17-year-old girl with McCune-Albright syndrome (MAS) was suspected of having central hypothyroidism based on an inappropriately normal thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and low free thyroxine (fT4). She was clinically euthyroid and her pituitary appeared normal on MRI. Treatment of hypothyroidism with levothyroxine resulted in suppression of TSH with a low fT4 and high free triiodothyronine (fT3) concentration and hence iatrogenic hyperthyroidism was diagnosed. After discontinuation of levothyroxine, the TSH and fT3 normalised while fT4 remained low. Increased conversion of thyroxine (T4) to triiodothyronine (T3) can be part of MAS. Therefore, fT3 and fT4 should both be measured when evaluating thyroid function in patients with MAS.

  3. Prevalence of hematological abnormalities in patients with Sheehan's syndrome: response to replacement of glucocorticoids and thyroxine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laway, Bashir Ahmad; Mir, Shahnaz Ahmad; Bashir, Mir Iftikhar; Bhat, Javid Rasool; Samoon, Jeelani; Zargar, Abdul Hamid

    2011-03-01

    Anemia and other hematological abnormalities are common in patients with Sheehan's syndrome. The response of these abnormalities to replacement of thyroxine and glucocorticoids is not clear. The aim of the present study was to document the profile of hematological abnormalities and response to treatment in patients with Sheehan's syndrome. Forty patients of Sheehan's syndrome and an equal number of age and parity matched healthy controls were studied for prevalence of hematological abnormalities. Hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit, red cell, white cell and platelet count were significantly decreased in patients with Sheehan's syndrome compared to controls. Frequency of anemia, leucopenia, thrombocytopenia and pancytopenia was significantly higher in these patients compared to controls. After achieving euthyroid and eucortisol state, there was a complete recovery of these hematological abnormalities. We conclude that anemia and other cytopenias are common in patients with Sheehan's syndrome and replacement with thyroxine and glucocorticoids results in complete recovery of these abnormalities.

  4. Effects of thyroxin therapy on different analytes related to obesity and inflammation in dogs with hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tvarijonaviciute, A; Jaillardon, L; Cerón, J J; Siliart, B

    2013-04-01

    Hypothyroidism in dogs is accompanied by changes in intermediary metabolism including alterations in bodyweight (BW), insulin resistance, and lipid profile. In this study, changes in selected adipokines (adiponectin, leptin), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), and acute phase proteins, including C-reactive protein, haptoglobin (Hp) and serum amyloid A (SAA), were studied in dogs with hypothyroidism under thyroxin therapy. Blood samples were collected when hypothyroidism was diagnosed (before treatment) and after treatment with thyroxin. Twenty-eight of 39 dogs exhibited a good therapeutic response (group A), whereas the remainder were considered to have been insufficiently treated (group B). Following treatment, group A dogs demonstrated a statistically significant decrease in canine thyroid stimulating hormone (c-TSH) (Pdogs showed no statistically significant changes in c-TSH, but had a significant increase in fT4 (Pdogs. The mean increase in Hp values and decrease in SAA for some of the dogs after treatment warrants further investigation.

  5. Thyroxine treatment for elderly patients with heart failure and sick euthyroid syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi ZHU; Ling GONG; Kailei SHI; Jin LI; Zhaohui QIU; Wenliang LU; Yu ZHANG; Jianying YANG

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the effect of thyroid hormone therapy with low dose of thyroxin on cardiac function in elderly patients with heart failure and sick euthyroid syndrome. Methods Forty-seven patients (33 males and 14 females, mean age 85.9+4.6 years,ranging from 80 to 99 years) with chronic heart failure (NYHA Ⅱ-Ⅳ) and low triiodothyronine (T3) state were randomly allocated to the treatment group or control group. The treatment group patients received oral administration of levothyroxine sodium (Euthyrox) 25-50mg/d in addition to conventional therapy of heart failure, whereas patients in control group were given conventional therapy only. Serum level of total T3 (TT3), free T3 (FT3), total thyroxine (TT4), free thyroxine (FT4), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) were determined. For both groups, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and stroke volume (SV) were assessed by two-dimensional echocardiography before and at 8 weeks after treatment. The changes of these parameters after the treatment were evaluated by adjusting heart rate in the two groups. Results The reduced serum T3 level in the treatment group was corrected after thyroid hormone therapy,and these patients had a significant improvement in cardiac function after treatment. By contrast, in the control group only changes of serum TT3 and TT4 levels and SV and LVEF after treatment were statistically significant. The heart rate-adjusted mean SV and LVEF in both groups were also increased, which was significantly greater in the treatment group than in the control group. Conclusion In the elderly patients with heart failure and sick euthyroid syndrome, addition of thyroxine at a low dosage to the conventional treatment could effectively improve the low T3 state and cardiac function independent of changes of heart rate.

  6. Thyroxine modifies the effects of growth hormone in Ames dwarf mice

    OpenAIRE

    Do, Andrew; Menon, Vinal; Zhi, Xu; Gesing, Adam; Wiesenborn, Denise S.; Spong, Adam; Sun, Liou; Bartke, Andrzej; Masternak, Michal M.

    2015-01-01

    Ames dwarf (df/df) mice lack growth hormone (GH), thyroid stimulating hormone and prolactin. Treatment of juvenile df/df mice with GH alone stimulates somatic growth, reduces insulin sensitivity and shortens lifespan. Early‐life treatment with thyroxine (T4) alone produces modest growth stimulation but does not affect longevity. In this study, we examined the effects of treatment of juvenile Ames dwarf mice with a combination of GH + T4 and compared them to the effects of GH alone. Treatment ...

  7. Interleukin-12 plasmid DNA delivery using l-thyroxine-conjugated polyethylenimine nanocarriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehshahri, Ali; Sadeghpour, Hossein; Kazemi Oskuee, Reza; Fadaei, Mahin; Sabahi, Zahra; Alhashemi, Samira Hossaini; Mohazabieh, Erfaneh

    2014-05-01

    In this study, l-thyroxine was covalently grafted on 25 kDa branched polyethylenimine (PEI), and the ability of the nano-sized polyplexes for transferring plasmid encoding interleukin-12 (IL-12) gene was evaluated. As there are several problems in systemic administration of recombinant IL-12 protein, local expression of the plasmid encoding IL-12 gene inside the tumor tissue has been considered as an effective alternative approach. The l-thyroxine-conjugated PEI polyplexes were prepared using pUMVC3-hIL12 plasmid, and their transfection activity was determined in HepG2 human liver carcinoma and Neuro2A neuroblastoma cell lines. The polyplexes characterized in terms of DNA condensation ability, particle size, zeta potential, and buffering capacity as well as cytotoxicity and resistance to enzyme digestion. The results revealed that l-thyroxine conjugation of PEI increased gene transfer ability by up to two fold relative to unmodified 25 kDa PEI, the gold standard for non-viral gene delivery, with the highest increase occurring at degrees of conjugation around 10 %. pDNA condensation tests and dynamic light scattering measurements exhibited the ability of PEI conjugates to optimally condense the plasmid DNA into polyplexes in the size range around 200 nm. The modified polymers showed remarkable buffering capacity and protection against enzymatic degradation comparable to that of unmodified PEI. These results suggest that l-thyroxine conjugation of PEI is a simple modification strategy for future investigations aimed at developing a targeting gene vehicle.

  8. Erythrocyte fatty acid profiles and plasma homocysteine, folate and vitamin B6 and B12 in recurrent depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assies, Johanna; Mocking, Roel J T; Lok, Anja

    2015-01-01

    controls, we simultaneously measured key components of one-carbon metabolism in plasma (homocysteine, folate, vitamins B6 and B12), and of FA-metabolism in red blood cell membranes [main polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and arachidonic acid (AA...... between B-vitamins and FA-parameters were non-significant, but also similar in patients and controls. Homocysteine and DHA were significantly less negatively associated in patients than in controls. In conclusion, these data indicate similarities but also differences in associations between parameters...

  9. Postpartum depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depression - postpartum; Postnatal depression; Postpartum psychological reactions ... behavioral therapy (CBT) and interpersonal therapy (IPT) are types of talk therapy that often help postpartum depression. ...

  10. Catechol-O-methyltransferase Val158Met genotype and the clinical responses to duloxetine treatment or plasma levels of 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol and homovanillic acid in Japanese patients with major depressive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atake K

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Kiyokazu Atake, Reiji Yoshimura, Hikaru Hori, Asuka Katsuki, Jun Nakamura Department of Psychiatry, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka, Japan Purpose: This study investigated the relationships among the plasma levels of catecholamine metabolites, the clinical response to duloxetine treatment, and Val158Met polymorphism of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT gene. Subjects and methods: Sixty-four patients and 30 healthy control subjects were recruited. Major depressive episodes were diagnosed using the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision criteria. The severity of depression was evaluated using the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD17. Patients whose HAMD17 scores were 15 or greater were enrolled in the study. Blood sampling and clinical evaluation were performed at week 0 and week 8. The levels of plasma catecholamine metabolites were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Genotyping was performed using direct sequencing. Results: Thirty of 45 patients (67% responded to duloxetine treatment during the 8 weeks of treatment. The baseline plasma levels of 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG, but not homovanillic acid (HVA, were lower in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD who had the Val/Val genotype than in patients who were Met-carriers. Patients with MDD and the Val/Val genotype, but not Met carriers, had increased plasma levels of MHPG after 8 weeks of duloxetine treatment. The baseline plasma MHPG levels in healthy control subjects with the Val/Val genotype were significantly higher than those in patients with MDD. Among the subjects in the MDD group with the Val/Val genotype, the plasma MHPG levels increased to the same degree as in the healthy control subjects with the Val/Val genotype after 8 weeks of duloxetine treatment. Conclusion: The

  11. Effect of combination therapy with thyroxine (T4) and 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine versus T4 monotherapy in patients with hypothyroidism, a double-blind, randomised cross-over study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Birte; Jensen, Ebbe Winther; Kvetny, Jan

    2009-01-01

    the effect of combination therapy with thyroxine (T(4)) and T(3) versus T(4) monotherapy in patients with hypothyroidism on stable T(4) substitution. Study design Double-blind, randomised cross-over. Fifty micrograms of the usual T(4) dose was replaced with either 20 microg T(3) or 50 microg T(4) for 12...... weeks, followed by cross-over for another 12 weeks. The T(4) dose was regulated if needed, intending unaltered serum TSH levels. Evaluation Tests for quality of life (QOL) and depression (SF-36, Beck Depression Inventory, and SCL-90-R) at baseline and after both treatment periods. Inclusion criteria......, indicating a positive effect related to the combination therapy. Forty-nine percent preferred the combination and 15% monotherapy (P=0.002). Serum TSH remained unaltered between the groups as intended. CONCLUSION: In a study design, where morning TSH levels were unaltered between groups combination therapy...

  12. Concentration Change and Clinical Significance of Plasma Cortisol in Patients with Post - stroke Depression%脑卒中后抑郁症患者血浆皮质醇的含量变化及临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘永强; 段晓峰; 尹娟

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the concentration variation and clinical value of plasma cortisol in patients with post -stroke depression. Methods Fifty- nine patients with post - stroke depression admitted to Cerebrovascular Disease Hospital of Baoding from September 2010 to August 2011 were selected as observation group. According to the scores of Hamilton rating scale for depression (HAMD), they were divided into depression group (n = 21) and non- depression group (n = 38), and the concentration change of plasma cortisol of all the patients was determined. 32 cases with normal plasma cortisol levels detected in our hospital were served as control group. The features of concentration change of plasma cortisol of patients with post - stroke depression were analyzed. Results The plasma cortisol concentrations at 8:00 am, 16:00 and 0:00 pm in patients of observation group were significantly higher than those of control group, and the difference was statistically significant between the two groups ( P < 0.05 ). The plasma cortisol concentrations at 8:00 am, 16:00 and 0:00 pm in patients of depression group were significantly higher than those of non - depression group, and the difference was statistically significant between the two groups (P <0.05). Conclusions The concentration change of plasma cortisol of patients with post - stroke depression is more significantly, which should be taken seriously by clinicians. And the corresponding therapeutic measures should be adopted actively.%目的 探讨脑卒中后抑郁症患者血浆皮质醇的含量变化及临床意义. 方法 选择本院2010年9月-2011年8月收治的脑卒中患者59例作为观察组,采用汉密顿抑郁量表(HAMD)测定后分为抑郁组21例和非抑郁组38例,均测定血浆皮质醇的含量变化,以在本院检测血浆皮质醇含量正常的32例作为对照组,分析脑卒中后抑郁症患者血浆皮质醇的含量变化特点. 结果 观察组患者清晨8时、下午4时、夜间12时的

  13. A genome-wide association study of thyroid stimulating hormone and free thyroxine in Danish children and adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svendstrup, Mathilde; Ohrt, Johanne Dam; Dahl, Maria; Fonvig, Cilius Esmann; Hollensted, Mette; Have, Christian Theil; Kadarmideen, Haja N.; Pedersen, Oluf; Hansen, Torben; Holm, Jens-Christian; Grarup, Niels

    2017-01-01

    Background Hypothyroidism is associated with obesity, and thyroid hormones are involved in the regulation of body composition, including fat mass. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in adults have identified 19 and 6 loci associated with plasma concentrations of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine (fT4), respectively. Objective This study aimed to identify and characterize genetic variants associated with circulating TSH and fT4 in Danish children and adolescents and to examine whether these variants associate with obesity. Methods Genome-wide association analyses of imputed genotype data with fasting plasma concentrations of TSH and fT4 from a population-based sample of Danish children, adolescents, and young adults, and a group of children, adolescents, and young adults with overweight and obesity were performed (N = 1,764, mean age = 12.0 years [range 2.5−24.7]). Replication was performed in additional comparable samples (N = 2,097, mean age = 11.8 years [1.2−22.8]). Meta-analyses, using linear additive fixed-effect models, were performed on the results of the discovery and replication analyses. Results No novel loci associated with TSH or fT4 were identified. Four loci previously associated with TSH in adults were confirmed in this study population (PDE10A (rs2983511: β = 0.112SD, p = 4.8 ∙ 10−16), FOXE1 (rs7847663: β = 0.223SD, p = 1.5 ∙ 10−20), NR3C2 (rs9968300: β = 0.194SD), p = 2.4 ∙ 10−11), VEGFA (rs2396083: β = 0.088SD, p = 2.2 ∙ 10−10)). Effect sizes of variants known to associate with TSH or fT4 in adults showed a similar direction of effect in our cohort of children and adolescents, 11 of which were associated with TSH or fT4 in our study (padolescents, four loci previously associated with plasma TSH concentrations in adults, were associated with plasma TSH concentrations in children, suggesting comparable genetic determinants of thyroid function in adults and children. PMID:28333968

  14. Erythrocyte fatty acid profiles and plasma homocysteine, folate and vitamin B6 and B12 in recurrent depression: Implications for co-morbidity with cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assies, Johanna; Mocking, Roel J T; Lok, Anja; Koeter, Maarten W J; Bockting, Claudi L H; Visser, Ieke; Pouwer, François; Ruhé, Henricus G; Schene, Aart H

    2015-10-30

    Oxidative stress induced interactions between fatty acid (FA) and one-carbon metabolism may be involved in co-occurrence of major depressive disorder (MDD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD), which have been scarcely studied together. In 137 recurrent MDD-patients vs. 73 age- and sex-matched healthy controls, we simultaneously measured key components of one-carbon metabolism in plasma (homocysteine, folate, vitamins B6 and B12), and of FA-metabolism in red blood cell membranes [main polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and arachidonic acid (AA) and structural FA-indices (chain length, unsaturation, peroxidation)]. Results show significant positive associations of folate with EPA, DHA, and the peroxidation index, which were similar in patients and controls. After correction for confounders, these associations were lost except for EPA. Associations between B-vitamins and FA-parameters were non-significant, but also similar in patients and controls. Homocysteine and DHA were significantly less negatively associated in patients than in controls. In conclusion, these data indicate similarities but also differences in associations between parameters of one-carbon and FA-metabolism in recurrent MDD patients vs. controls, which may reflect differences in handling of oxidative stress. Further research should test the consequences of these differences, particularly the premature development of CVD in MDD.

  15. Subclinical Hypothyroidism after 131I-Treatment of Graves' Disease: A Risk Factor for Depression?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Yu

    Full Text Available Although it is well accepted that there is a close relationship between hypothyroidism and depression, previous studies provided inconsistent or even opposite results in whether subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH increased the risk of depression. One possible reason is that the etiology of SCH in these studies was not clearly distinguished. We therefore investigated the relationship between SCH resulting from 131I treatment of Graves' disease and depression.The incidence of depression among 95 patients with SCH and 121 euthyroid patients following 131I treatment of Graves' disease was studied. The risk factors of depression were determined with multivariate logistic regression analysis. Thyroid hormone replacement therapy was performed in patients with thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH levels exceeding 10 mIU/L.Patients with SCH had significantly higher Hamilton Depression Scale scores, serum TSH and thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb levels compared with euthyroid patients. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed SCH, Graves' eye syndrome and high serum TPO antibody level as risk factors for depression. L-thyroxine treatment is beneficial for SCH patients with serum TSH levels exceeding 10 mIU/L.The results of the present study demonstrated that SCH is prevalent among 131I treated Graves' patients. SCH might increase the risk of developing depression. L-thyroxine replacement therapy helps to resolve depressive disorders in SCH patients with TSH > 10mIU/L. These data provide insight into the relationship between SCH and depression.

  16. Thyroid hormones association with depression severity and clinical outcome in patients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berent, Dominika; Zboralski, Krzysztof; Orzechowska, Agata; Gałecki, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    The clinical implications of thyroid hormones in depression have been studied extensively and still remains disputable. Supplementation of thyroid hormones is considered to augment and accelerate antidepressant treatment. Studies on the role of thyroid hormones in depression deliver contradictory results. Here we assess theirs impact on depression severity and final clinical outcome in patients with major depression. Thyrotropin, free thyroxine (FT4), and free triiodothyronine (FT3) concentrations were measured with automated quantitative enzyme immunoassay. Depression severity and final clinical outcome were rated with 17-itemic Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression [HDRS(17)] and Clinical Global Impression Scales for severity and for improvement (CGIs, CGIi). FT3 and FT4 concentrations were significantly positively correlated with clinical improvement evaluated with CGIi (R = 0.38, P = 0.012; R = 0.33, P = 0.034, respectively). There was a significant correlation between FT4 concentrations and depression severity assessed in HDRS(17) (R = 0.31, P = 0.047). Male patients presented significantly higher FT3 serum levels (Z = 2.34, P = 0.018) and significantly greater clinical improvement (Z = 2.36, P = 0.018) when compared to female patients. We conclude that free thyroid hormones concentrations are associated with depression severity and have an impact on final clinical outcome. It can be more efficient to augment and accelerate the treatment of major depressive disorder with triiodothyronine instead of levothyroxine because of individual differences in thyroid hormones metabolism.

  17. THE DIGESTIVE TRACT DEVELOPMENT OF THE TIGER GROUPER Epinephelus fuscoguttatus LARVAE TREATED WITH THYROXINE HORMONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Muzaki

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Thyroxin administration in tiger grouper larval rearing was conducted to determine its effect on development of digestive tract of the larvae. Newly hatched larvae were treated with 0 mg/L (control, 0.1 mg/L, and 0.2 mg/L of thyroxin for 2 hours in a 30 L tank before were transferred into a 1 m3 rearing tank. Samples were collected daily until 10 DAH and every 3 days until 40 DAH. Development of digestive tract was observed using histological method. For all treatments, the digestive tract was the same on 1 DAH and 2 DAH. The digestive tract of 1 DAH larvae was still closed and still in the form of a simple tube. The mouth, buccopharynx, liver, pancreas, and rectum were found on 2 DAH. On 3 DAH, the esophagus, stomach, intestines, and anus started to develop. At this stage, the digestive tract of larvae treated with and without thyroxin started to become distinguishable. Several goblet cells were noticed in the rectum of the treated larvae but not in the control. Digestive tract developed earlier in treated larvae compared to the control group, such as appearance of tongue, gill raker, fundic, and cardiac stomach development, formation of pharyngeal tooth, and gastric gland. Metamorphosis of larvae into juvenile on treated larvae occurred than that the control larvae earlier.

  18. Pyrroloquinoline quinone ameliorates l-thyroxine-induced hyperthyroidism and associated problems in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Narendra; Kar, Anand; Panda, Sunanda

    2014-08-01

    Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) is believed to be a strong antioxidant. In this study, we have evaluated its hitherto unknown role in l-thyroxin (L-T4 )-induced hyperthyroidism considering laboratory rat as a model. Alterations in the serum concentration of thyroxin (T4 ) and triiodothyronine (T3 ); lipid peroxidation (LPO) of liver, kidney, heart, muscles and brain; in the endogenous antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione and in serum total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotien, triglycerides, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) and urea were evaluated. Administration of l-T4 (500-µg kg(-1) body weight) enhanced not only the serum T3 and T4 levels but also the tissue LPO, serum SGOT, SGPT and urea with a parallel decrease in the levels of antioxidants and serum lipids. However, on simultaneous administration of PQQ (5 mg kg(-1) for 6 days), all these adverse effects were ameliorated, indicating the potential of PQQ in the amelioration of hyperthyroidism and associated problems. Possibly, the curative effects were mediated through inhibition of oxidative stress. We suggest that PQQ may be considered for therapeutic use for hyperthyroidism after dose standardization.

  19. Free serum thyroxine. Analysis of its clinical value through ''ROC'' curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degrossi, O.J.; Altschuler, N.; de Cabrejas, M.L. (Comision Nacional de Energia Nuclear Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Dept. Aplicaciones Biologicas); Pinkas, M.; Garcia del Rio, H. (Hospital Aleman, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Servicio de Medicina Nuclear)

    1982-07-01

    The use of radiommunoassay (RIA) tehcniques has increased the diagnosis of thyroid functional alterations. A solid phase RIA method for free thyroxine (FT4) measurement was tested. Serum FT4, Total T4, T3 and TSH were determined by radioimmunoassay in 179 subjects. One hundred twenty two patients were normal (8 to 75 years old); FT4 was 1.42 +- 0.03 ng/100 ml (avg. value and std. error). In 27 cases of thyrotoxicosis the values were 4.66 +- 0.48 ng/100 ml and in 15 cases of hypothyroidism 0.50 +- 0.06 ng/100 ml (statistics probability <0,01). Four euthyroid patients under estrogen treatment, 9 hypothyroid patients under l-thyroxine treatment, one hyperthyroid patient under antithyroid drugs and one hyperthyroid patient under estrogen treatment, were studied. Total T4 and T3 values were in agreement with the variations of the serum protein transport capacity, and for that reason did not show the real thyroid function state. Clinical decision making analysis (with Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves) indicate that FT4 is the best choice for hyperthyroidism diagnosis and T4 for hypothyroidism. Cost/benefit analysis indicates also that FT4 has the best ratio.

  20. Semi-automated competitive protein binding analysis of serum thyroxine on reusable Sephadex columns and its advantages over radioimmunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, N M

    1976-06-01

    Competitive protein-binding analysis of serum thyroxine on small, reusable, Sephadex columns has been further studied and improved. The improved, semi-automated procedure results in reduced working time and costs. It has also been established that triiodothyronine crossreacts only 1/6 to 1/9 as well as thyroxine, and can be ignored because it represents only about 1/80 of the total serum iodothyronine content. The economic and methodological advantages of the improved method over radioammunoassay and other displacement assays are discussed.

  1. Role of cytosol receptor in regulation of deiodination of thyroxine to triiodothyronine in rat liver microsomal fraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nauman, A.; Vogtt, E.; Bardowska, U. (Centrum Medyczne Ksztalcenia Podyplomowego, Warsaw (Poland))

    1980-01-01

    It was shown that partially purified and concentrated thyroid hormones binding cytosol proteins inhibit in vitro deiodination of thyroxine to triiodothyronine. The similar effect was evoked by equivalent concentration of bovine albumine. These results show that cytosol binding proteins may indirectly, by acting on concentration of free thyroxine, regulate the rate of conversion reaction. Results of studies with dithiotreitol-SH group protecting compound - suggest the possibility of indirect interaction between the cytosol binding proteins and converting system. These interactions were also observed in the presence of albumine which suggest that such a mechanism is not specific for cytosol receptor only.

  2. Postpartum Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... starts about 1–3 weeks after childbirth. What causes postpartum depression? Postpartum depression probably is caused by a combination ... better. Can antidepressants cause side effects? Antidepressants can ... If your depression worsens soon after starting medication or if you ...

  3. Caregiver Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... will not sell or share your name. Caregiver Depression Tweet Bookmark this page | Email | Print Many caregivers ... depression See your doctor Treatment Coping Symptoms of depression Caregiving is hard — and can lead to feelings ...

  4. Median nerve conduction velocity and central conduction time measured with somatosensory evoked potentials in thyroxine-treated infants with Down syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Trotsenburg, A. S. Paul; Smit, Bert J.; Koelman, Johannes H. T. M.; Sloot, Marijke Dekker-van der; Ridder, Jeannette C. D.; Tijssen, Jan G. P.; de Vijlder, Jan J. M.; Vulsma, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. The aim of this study was to determine whether thyroxine treatment would improve nerve conduction in infants with Down syndrome. METHODS. A single-center, nationwide, randomized, double-blind, clinical trial was performed. Neonates with Down syndrome were assigned randomly to thyroxine (N

  5. Recovery following Thyroxine Treatment Withdrawal, but Not Propylthiouracil, Averts In Vivo and Ex Vivo Thyroxine-Provoked Cardiac Complications in Adult FVB/N Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy S. Saad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Persistent cardiovascular pathology has been described in hyperthyroid patients even with effective antithyroid treatment. Here, we studied the effect of a well-known antithyroid drug, propylthiouracil (PTU; 20 mg/kg/day, on thyroxine (T4; 500 µg/kg/day-induced increase in blood pressure (BP, cardiac hypertrophy, and altered responses of the contractile myocardium both in vivo and ex vivo after 2 weeks of treatment. Furthermore, the potential recovery through 2 weeks of T4 treatment discontinuation was also investigated. PTU and T4 recovery partially reduced the T4-prompted increase in BP. Alternatively, PTU significantly improved the in vivo left ventricular (LV function with no considerable effects on cardiac hypertrophy or ex vivo right ventricular (RV contractile alterations subsequent to T4 treatment. Conversely, T4 recovery considerably enhanced the T4-provoked cardiac changes both in vivo and ex vivo. Altogether, our data is in agreement with the proposal that hyperthyroidism-induced cardiovascular pathology could persevere even with antithyroid treatments, such as PTU. However, this cannot be generalized and further investigation with different antithyroid treatments should be executed. Moreover, we reveal that recovery following experimental hyperthyroidism could potentially ameliorate cardiac function and decrease the risk for additional cardiac complications, yet, this appears to be model-dependent and should be cautiously construed.

  6. THYROXINE (T4) CATABOLISM IN HUMAN AND RAT HEPATOCYTES INCREASES FOLLOWING EXPOSURE TO PROTOTYPICAL HEPATIC ENZYME INDUCERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuclear receptor agonists such as phenobarbital (PB), 3-methylcholantrene (3MC), 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 153), and, pregnenolone-16a-carbonitrile (PCN) decrease serum thyroxine (T4) concentrations in rats. This decrease is thought to occur through the induction of ...

  7. Triclosan exposure reduces thyroxine levels in pregnant and lactating rat dams and in directly exposed offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Marta Axelstad; Boberg, Julie; Vinggaard, Anne Marie

    2013-01-01

    Thyroid disrupting chemicals can potentially disrupt brain development. Two studies investigating the effect of the antibacterial compound triclosan on thyroxine (T4) levels in rats are reported. In the first, Wistar rat dams were gavaged with 75, 150 or 300 mg triclosan/kg bw/day throughout...... gestation and lactation. Total T4 serum levels were measured in dams and offspring, and all doses of triclosan significantly lowered T4 in dams, but no significant effects on T4 levels were seen in the offspring at the end of the lactation period. Since this lack of effect could be due to minimal exposure...... through maternal milk, a second study using direct per oral pup exposure from postnatal day 3–16 to 50 or 150 mg triclosan/kg bw/day was performed. This exposure pointed to significant T4 reductions in 16 day old offspring in both dose groups. These results corroborate previous studies showing...

  8. [Role of ultrasensitive TSH assay and ultrarapid total thyroxine assay in the thyroid studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragu, P; Comoy, E; Noël, M; Lounis, M; Patois, E; Parmentier, C

    1987-11-07

    The diagnostic value of high sensitivity thyrotrophin assay (HS-TSH) and that of ultra-short determination of total thyroxine (T4) by fluorescence polarization (T4-TDX) were evaluated in 284 patients (29 hyperthyroid, 137 euthyroid without treatment and 118 under substitutive therapy). After comparing the clinician's first impression with the results of these laboratory tests the proportion of correctly classified untreated euthyroid patients was the same with T4-TDX as with HS-TSH (90%). In contrast, this proportion in hyperthyroid patients was about twice as low with HS-TSH (23%) as with T4-TDX (42%). While HS-TSH gives a better diagnostic evaluation, T4-TDX is an excellent indicator of the degree of hyperthyroidism. In patients under suppressive therapy HS-TSH and T4-TDX provide a better evaluation of therapeutic effectiveness.

  9. Changes in brain gangliosides of the neotene and metamorphic (thyroxine-induced) newt axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbig, R; Schmitt, M; Rahmann, H

    1987-01-01

    Qualitative and quantitative changes in the concentration of proteins, sialoglycoproteins and gangliosides and in the composition of gangliosides in the brains of the neotene and the thyroxine-induced metamorphic newt axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) were investigated. During metamorphosis two polar gangliosides (GT1b and GQ1b) decreased by about 5% each. On the contrary GD1a increased to 10%. Another developmental trend was a slight increase of two other disialogangliosides (GD1b, GD2). Additionally, incorporation profiles (2-8 days) of 14C-N-Ac-mannosamine, the specific precursor for gangliosides, in the brain of neotene and metamorphic axolotls were followed giving evidence of significant changes in the sialoglycoconjugate metabolism of the central nervous system during metamorphosis of this newt.

  10. Free thyroxine in needle washout after fine needle aspiration biopsy of toxic thyroid nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raikov, Nikolai; Nonchev, Boyan; Chaushev, Borislav; Vjagova, Diyana; Todorov, Svetoslav; Bocheva, Yana; Malceva, Daniela; Vicheva, Snejinka; Raikova, Asyia; Argatska, Antoaneta; Raikov, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    The main diagnostic tool for toxic adenomas (TA) is radionuclide imaging indicated in patients with evidence of thyroid nodules in combination with thyrotoxic syndrome. Thyroid ultrasound and fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) are widely used for the valuation of thyroid masses. There is no literature data concerning the utility of FNAB and related tests for the diagnosis of hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules. The purpose of this study is to determine the levels of free thyroxine (FT4) in the needle washout after FNAB of hot thyroid nodules. The results of our study show that the FT4 levels in needle washout from TA were significantly higher than the surrounding parenchyma and correlated with the hormonal changes in patients with thyroid hyperfunctioning nodules. Further studies on a large number of patients are needed to refine the diagnostic value of this method and evaluate its importance in quantitative risk assessment of thyroid autonomy.

  11. Effect of magnesium sulfate and thyroxine on inflammatory markers in a rat model of hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Amr M; Sakr, Hussein F

    2016-04-01

    Inflammation is a major risk factor for cardiovascular complications. Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) has anti-inflammatory actions. Therefore we investigated the effects of levothyroxine and MgSO4 on inflammatory markers as C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in hypothyroid rats. Sixty male rats were divided into 6 groups; normal, normal + MgSO4, hypothyroidism, hypothyroidism + levothyroxine, hypothyroidism + MgSO4, and hypothyroidism + levothyroxine + MgSO4. Thyroxine, triiodothyronine, and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), CRP, interleukin-6, TNF-α, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1 were measured in all rats. Hypothyroidism significantly increased TSH, CRP, interleukin-6, TNF-α, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1 and decreased triiodothronine and thyroxine. Treatment of hypothyroid rats with levothyroxine or MgSO4 significantly decreased CRP, interleukin-6, TNF-α, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1. Combined therapy of hypothyroid rats with levothyroxine and MgSO4 significantly decreased CRP, interleukin-6, TNF-α, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1 compared with hypothyroid rats either untreated or treated with levothyroxine or MgSO4. This study demonstrates that hypothyroid rats have chronic low grade inflammation, which may account for increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. Combined levothyroxine and MgSO4 is better than levothyroxine or MgSO4 alone in alleviating the chronic low grade inflammatory status and therefore reducing the risk of cardiovascular diseases in hypothyroid animals.

  12. Measurement of free thyroxine and free triiodothyronine concentrations by DPC RIA kits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasagi, Kanji; Kousaka, Tadako; Hatabu, Hiroto; Tokuda, Yasutaka; Iida, Yasuhiro; Konishi, Junji

    1988-06-01

    'DPC RIA' kits for measuring free triiodothyronine (T3) and free thyroxine (T4) were fundamentally and clinically studied. Standard curves for incubation temperature and time were favorable. The present kits yielded satisfactory precision and reproducibility. The upper and lower limits of the normal range for T4 were 0.88 ng/dl and 2.08 ng/dl, respectively. The serum concentration of T4 was 3.91 ng/dl or more for hyperthyroidism and 0.57 ng/dl or less for hypothyroidism, allowing discrimination between the two diseases. For T3, the upper and lower limits of the normal range were 1.45 ng/dl and 3.45 ng/dl, respectively. In pregnant women and patients with decreased or increased levels of thyroxine binding globulin (TBG), the serum T3 concentration lay within the normal range. Low free T4 and T3 levels were found in 22 % and 67 %, respectively, of patients with serious non-thyroidal illness (NTI). There was a good correlation between the present kits and the other commercially available kits. Measurements of free T3 and T4 obtained by ''Amerlex RIA'' kits tended to be lower than those by the present kits in pregnant women and NTI patients with hypoalbuminemia. In view of the simplified procedure, satisfactory precision and reproducibility, and the lack of influences of serum albumin and TBG, the present kits have a potential in routine use. (Namekawa, K.).

  13. Effect of short-term thyroxine administration on energy metabolism and mitochondrial efficiency in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darcy L Johannsen

    Full Text Available The physiologic effects of triiodothyronine (T3 on metabolic rate are well-documented; however, the effects of thyroxine (T4 are less clear despite its wide-spread use to treat thyroid-related disorders and other non-thyroidal conditions. Here, we investigated the effects of acute (3-day T4 supplementation on energy expenditure at rest and during incremental exercise. Furthermore, we used a combination of in situ and in vitro approaches to measure skeletal muscle metabolism before and after T4 treatment. Ten healthy, euthyroid males were given 200 µg T4 (levothyroxine per day for 3 days. Energy expenditure was measured at rest and during exercise by indirect calorimetry, and skeletal muscle mitochondrial function was assessed by in situ ATP flux ((31P MRS and in vitro respiratory control ratio (RCR, state 3/state 4 rate of oxygen uptake using a Clark-type electrode before and after acute T4 treatment. Thyroxine had a subtle effect on resting metabolic rate, increasing it by 4% (p = 0.059 without a change in resting ATP demand (i.e., ATP flux of the vastus lateralis. Exercise efficiency did not change with T4 treatment. The maximal capacity to produce ATP (state 3 respiration and the coupled state of the mitochondria (RCR were reduced by approximately 30% with T4 (p = 0.057 and p = 0.04, respectively. Together, the results suggest that T4, although less metabolically active than T3, reduces skeletal muscle efficiency and modestly increases resting metabolism even after short-term supplementation. Our findings may be clinically relevant given the expanding application of T4 to treat non-thyroidal conditions such as obesity and weight loss.

  14. Higher free thyroxine levels are associated with frailty in older men: the Health In Men Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeap, Bu B; Alfonso, Helman; Chubb, Stephen A Paul; Walsh, John P; Hankey, Graeme J; Almeida, Osvaldo P; Flicker, Leon

    2012-05-01

    Frailty is common in the elderly and predisposes to ill-health. Some symptoms of frailty overlap those of thyroid dysfunction, but it is unclear whether differences in thyroid status influence risk of frailty. We evaluated associations between thyroid status and frailty in older men. Cross-sectional epidemiological study. Community-dwelling men aged 70-89 years. Circulating thyrotropin (TSH) and free thyroxine (FT(4) ) were assayed. Frailty was assessed as ≥3 of the Fatigue, Resistance, Ambulation, Illnesses and Loss (FRAIL) scale's 5 domains: fatigue; resistance (difficulty climbing flight of stairs); ambulation (difficulty walking 100 m); illness (>5); or weight loss (>5%), blinded to hormone results. Of 3943 men, 27 had subclinical hyperthyroidism, 431 subclinical hypothyroidism and 608 were classified as being frail (15·4%). There was an inverse log-linear association of TSH with FT(4). There was no association between TSH and frailty. After adjusting for covariates, men with FT(4) in the highest two quartiles had increased odds of being frail (Q3:Q1, odds ratio [OR] = 1·32, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1·01-1·73 and Q4:Q1, OR = 1·36, 95% CI = 1·04-1·79, P = 0·010 for trend). Higher FT(4) was associated with fatigue (P = 0·038) and weight loss (P < 0·001). The association between FT(4) and frailty remained significant when the analysis was restricted to euthyroid men. High-normal FT(4) level is an independent predictor of frailty among ageing men. This suggests that even within the euthyroid range, circulating thyroxine may contribute to reduced physical capability. Further studies are needed to clarify the utility of thyroid function testing and the feasibility of preventing or reversing frailty in older men. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. 抑郁症患者治疗前后血浆皮质醇水平的变化%Change of plasma cortisol level in patients with depression before and after treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙桂芝; 杨晓蓉; 韩媛媛; 刘祥; 王英成; 赵连生; 李涛; 马小红

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To explore the change of plasma cortisol level in patients with depression before and after treatment.Method:One hundred and sixty depressed patients were treated with antidepressant drugs for 6 weeks.Before and after treatment,they were evaluated by Hamilton depression scale (HAMD) and Hamilton anxiety scale (HAMA) ;and the plasma cortisol level was detected.Results:Before and after treatment,the total scores of HAMD were (24.98 ±5.10) and (7.57 ±5.61); the total scores of HAMA were (20.62 ± 6.90) and (6.21 ± 5.17) ; the plasma cortisol levels were (407.34 ± 144.29) nmol/L and (354.64 ± 137.13)nmol/L respectively.After treatment the total scores of HAMD and HAMA and the plasma cortisol level were significantly decreased than those at before treatment (all P < 0.001).The plasma cortisol level between genders was no significant difference (P > 0.05).There was no correlation between the change value of plasma cortisol level and the reducing ratio of HAMD or HAMA (r =0.084,r =0.049 ;all P > 0.05).Conclusion:Antidepressant drugs can decrease the plasma cortisol level in patients with depression.%目的:探讨抑郁症患者治疗前后血浆皮质醇水平的变化. 方法:对160例抑郁症患者给予抗抑郁药治疗6周,分别于治疗前及治疗后进行汉密尔顿抑郁量表(HAMD)、汉密尔顿焦虑量表(HAMA)评估及血浆皮质醇水平检测. 结果:本组治疗前后HAMD总分分别为(24.98 ±5.10)和(7.57±5.61);HAMA总分分别为(20.62±6.90)和(6.21±5.17);血浆皮质醇水平分别为(407.34±144.29) nmol/L和(354.64±137.13) nmol/L.治疗后HAMD总分、HAMA总分及血浆皮质醇水平较治疗前明显下降(P均<0.001);不同性别间血浆皮质醇水平差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);血浆皮质醇变化值与HAMD、HAMA减分率不相关(r=0.084,r =0.049;P均>0.05). 结论:抗抑郁药物治疗可显著降低抑郁症患者血浆皮质醇水平.

  16. Quantification of thyroxine by the selective photoluminescence quenching of L-cysteine–ZnS quantum dots in aqueous solution containing hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Sarzamin; Carneiro, Leonardo S.A. [Chemistry Department, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro, 22451-900 Rio de Janeiro-RJ (Brazil); Romani, Eric C.; Larrudé, Dunieskys G. [Physics Department, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro, 22451-900, Rio de Janeiro-RJ (Brazil); Aucelio, Ricardo Q., E-mail: aucelior@puc-rio.br [Chemistry Department, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro, 22451-900 Rio de Janeiro-RJ (Brazil)

    2014-12-15

    The determination of L-thyroxine is proposed based on the photoluminescence quenching effect caused on the L-cysteine modified ZnS quantum dots (L-cysteine ZnS QDs) aqueous dispersion. Under optimum conditions, the analytical response followed a Stern–Volmer model and the experimental conditions were adjusted to enable a robust and reproducible photoluminescence signal. The linear response observed in the quantum dots aqueous dispersion covered the L-thyroxine concentration from the LOQ (2.0×10{sup −8} mol L{sup −1}) to 4.0×10{sup −6} mol L{sup −1}. The approach was tested in the determination of L-thyroxine in pharmaceutical formulations used to treat patients with thyroid gland disorder. The percent recoveries in controlled samples were between 93.3 and 103%. Analyte fortified saliva was also evaluated as a possible sample for L-thyroxine monitoring of a patient under treatment. It was identified a static type of photoluminescence quenching caused by L-thyroxine. - Highlights: • L-cysteine ZnS QDs were used as a photoluminescent probe to detect L-thyroxine. • Intensity of probe decreases following a Stern–Volmer model. • The method can detect down ng L{sup −1} levels of L-thyroxine in the probe dispersion. • Method was used to determinate of L-thyroxine in saliva and in pharmaceuticals. • Mechanism of interaction between L-thyroxine and quantum dots was studied.

  17. Thyroxine clearance in rats within the first month after the single whole-body {gamma} - irradiation at a dose of 10Gy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pryadko, Kirill A. [Institute of Radiobiology, National Academy of Sciences, Minsk (Belarus)

    2002-07-01

    The effects of acute whole-body {gamma} -irradiation at a dose of 10 Gy on thyroxine (T{sub 4}) plasma clearance rate (PCR) and thyroidal and blood T4 concentration ([T{sub 4}]) were examined within one month after exposure. The PCR values were measured using the bolus injection, single-compartmental approach. To eliminate the influence of radiation-induced anorexia animals were fasting for two days before the pharmacokinetic experiments. Hormone concentrations in blood and in thyroid tissue were measured by RIA. Throughout the observation period, PCR was elevated in irradiated rats with maximum at day 4 after exposure (0.56{+-}0.04 vs. 0.36{+-}0.03 ml/h100 gbw, P<0.001). [T{sub 4}] in blood was not significantly different from that in control animals. Thyroidal [T{sub 4}] was significantly decreased in irradiated animals 4 days after exposure (151.8{+-}21.7 vs. 258.8{+-}29.9 pmol/mg protein, P<0.01) and gradually increased after day 9. 10 Gy {gamma} -irradiation causes the intensification of T{sub 4} metabolism without the pronounced changes in concentration. Presumably, at early terms the rising local demand in O{sub 4} can not be compensated with the existing level of production. Alterations in the intensity of T{sub 4} metabolism are evident at least one month after exposure but they may not be detected without taking into account kinetic data.

  18. Amyloid-associated Depression: A Prodromal Depression of Alzheimer’s disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was designed to characterize plasma Abeta40/Abeta42 ratio and cognitive function in the elderly with and without depression.We evaluated 995 homebound elders in a cross-sectional study. Subjects were defined as depressed if they had a Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D)...

  19. [Recited depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barucci, M; Cossio, M

    1984-01-01

    Several subjects who tell their depression and play a part of it in front of the doctor without being really depressed are reported. Some of them try to hide the symptoms (irritability or erethism, ceremonials of obsessive neurosis, shunning of phobia) which, in their opinion, might be detrimental to their reputation. Others neglect to describe some of the symptoms of their polymorphous clinical picture only underlining the depressive signs. Some others play a part of depression because they have believed to recognize themselves in persons presented by mass media, because it seems to them a duty to show an adequate depression in case of mournful event, or because they "convert" their problem into a depression. Some others use depression as a blackmail, or to obtain an advantage from doctor's conviction about their illness. The reason for the high frequency of similar cases in the present time are examined: the scientific divulgation and the acceptance of depression by the modern society are among the most important ones. The peculiar semantic vicissitudes of the word depression are also reviewed. A widening of the boundaries of depression has contributed to an increase in the number of the cases. Finally, in addition to patients who are depressed without being aware of it, the authors focus the inverse possibility: patients who believed or try to make their doctor believe (playing the part of depression in front of them) that they are depressed.

  20. Atypical Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... satisfaction and control in your life Help ease depression symptoms such as hopelessness and anger As part of your treatment, it's important to also address other conditions that often accompany atypical depression, in particular anxiety and drug or alcohol use, ...

  1. Teen Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Depression is a real, treatable brain illness, or health problem. Depression can be caused by big transitions in life, stress, or changes in your body’s chemicals that affect your thoughts and moods. Even if you feel ...

  2. Postpartum Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... do not need treatment. The symptoms of postpartum depression last longer and are more severe. You may ... treatment right away, often in the hospital. Postpartum depression can begin anytime within the first year after ...

  3. Depression Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 3286 After hours (404) 639-2888 Contact Media Depression Treatment Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... How Do I Know if I Am Experiencing Depression? The following questions may help you determine if ...

  4. Depression Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Centers Diseases + Condition Centers Mental Health Medical Library Depression Screening (PHQ-9) - Instructions The following questions are ... this tool, there is also text-only version . Depression Screening - Manual Instructions The following questions are a ...

  5. Erythrocyte fatty acid profiles and plasma homocysteine, folate and vitamin B-6 and B-12 in recurrent depression : Implications for co-morbidity with cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Assies, Johanna; Mocking, Roel J. T.; Lok, Anja; Koeter, Maarten W. J.; Bockting, Claudi L. H.; Visser, Ieke; Pouwer, Francois; Ruhe, Henricus G.; Schene, Aart H.

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress induced interactions between fatty acid (FA) and one-carbon metabolism may be involved in co-occurrence of major depressive disorder (MDD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD), which have been scarcely studied together. In 137 recurrent MDD-patients vs. 73 age- and sex-matched healthy c

  6. Changes in arterial stiffness, carotid intima-media thickness, and epicardial fat after L-thyroxine replacement therapy in hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Busto-Mesa, Abdel; Cabrera-Rego, Julio Oscar; Carrero-Fernández, Lisván; Hernández-Roca, Cristina Victoria; González-Valdés, Jorge Luis; de la Rosa-Pazos, José Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    To assess the relationship between primary hypothyroidism and subclinical atherosclerosis and its potential changes with L-thyroxine replacement therapy. A prospective cohort study including 101 patients with primary hypothyroidism and 101 euthyroid patients as controls was conducted from July 2011 to December 2013. Clinical, anthropometrical, biochemical, and ultrasonographic parameters were assessed at baseline and after one year of L-thyroxine replacement therapy. At baseline, hypothyroid patients had significantly greater values of blood pressure, total cholesterol, VLDL cholesterol, left ventricular mass, epicardial fat, and carotid intima-media thickness as compared to controls. Total cholesterol, VLDL cholesterol, ventricular diastolic function, epicardial fat, carotid intima-media thickness, carotid local pulse wave velocity, pressure strain elastic modulus, and β arterial stiffness index showed a significant and positive correlation with TSH levels. After one year of replacement therapy, patients with hypothyroidism showed changes in total cholesterol, VLDL cholesterol, TSH, carotid intima-media thickness, and arterial stiffness parameters. Primary hypothyroidism is characterized by an increased cardiovascular risk. In these patients, L-thyroxine replacement therapy for one year is related to decreased dyslipidemia and improvement in markers of subclinical carotid atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2014 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Triclosan exposure reduces thyroxine levels in pregnant and lactating rat dams and in directly exposed offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelstad, Marta; Boberg, Julie; Vinggaard, Anne Marie; Christiansen, Sofie; Hass, Ulla

    2013-09-01

    Thyroid disrupting chemicals can potentially disrupt brain development. Two studies investigating the effect of the antibacterial compound triclosan on thyroxine (T₄) levels in rats are reported. In the first, Wistar rat dams were gavaged with 75, 150 or 300 mg triclosan/kg bw/day throughout gestation and lactation. Total T₄ serum levels were measured in dams and offspring, and all doses of triclosan significantly lowered T₄ in dams, but no significant effects on T₄ levels were seen in the offspring at the end of the lactation period. Since this lack of effect could be due to minimal exposure through maternal milk, a second study using direct per oral pup exposure from postnatal day 3-16 to 50 or 150 mg triclosan/kg bw/day was performed. This exposure pointed to significant T₄ reductions in 16 day old offspring in both dose groups. These results corroborate previous studies showing that in rats lactational transfer of triclosan seems limited. Since an optimal study design for testing potential developmental neurotoxicants in rats, should include exposure during both the pre- and postnatal periods of brain development, we suggest that in the case of triclosan, direct dosing of pups may be the best way to obtain that goal.

  8. Thyroxine modifies the effects of growth hormone in Ames dwarf mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Andrew; Menon, Vinal; Zhi, Xu; Gesing, Adam; Wiesenborn, Denise S.; Spong, Adam; Sun, Liou; Bartke, Andrzej; Masternak, Michal M.

    2015-01-01

    Ames dwarf (df/df) mice lack growth hormone (GH), thyroid stimulating hormone and prolactin. Treatment of juvenile df/df mice with GH alone stimulates somatic growth, reduces insulin sensitivity and shortens lifespan. Early‐life treatment with thyroxine (T4) alone produces modest growth stimulation but does not affect longevity. In this study, we examined the effects of treatment of juvenile Ames dwarf mice with a combination of GH + T4 and compared them to the effects of GH alone. Treatment of female and male dwarfs with GH + T4 between the ages of 2 and 8 weeks rescued somatic growth yet did not reduce lifespan to match normal controls, thus contrasting with the previously reported effects of GH alone. While the male dwarf GH + T4 treatment group had no significant effect on lifespan, the female dwarfs undergoing treatment showed a decrease in maximal longevity. Expression of genes related to GH and insulin signaling in the skeletal muscle and white adipose tissue (WAT) of female dwarfs was differentially affected by treatment with GH + T4 vs. GH alone. Differences in the effects of GH + T4 vs. GH alone on insulin target tissues may contribute to the differential effects of these treatments on longevity. PMID:25935838

  9. Erythropoietin, testosterone, and thyroxine in the erythropoietic response of the snake, Xenochrophis piscator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pati, A K; Thapliyal, J P

    1984-03-01

    The erythropoietic response of snakes was examined after injecting human urinary erythropoietin (Ep), testosterone propionate (TP), and L-thyroxine (T4), separately and in combinations, into starved ophids. The effect of starvation was reflected by a decrease in the number of erythrocytes, a fall in hemoglobin concentration, and a decline in hematocrit. Statistically significant elevation of erythrocyte number, hemoglobin concentration, and hematocrit was observed at 24 hr following the administration of Ep + T4, and Ep + TP + T4 into starved ophids. The erythrocyte number was also increased by T4 treatment at 24 hr. Furthermore, while T4 and Ep individually increased the red blood cell number at 168 hr, T4, TP + T4, and Ep + TP + T4 elevated the hemoglobin concentration and Ep + T4 and Ep + TP + T4 increased the hematocrit value. It is suggested that the influence of any one of the hormones utilized in the present study on blood morphology of fasted snakes depends to a greater extent on the presence or absence of the other hormone(s).

  10. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) treatment of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolkowitz, O M; Reus, V I; Roberts, E; Manfredi, F; Chan, T; Raum, W J; Ormiston, S; Johnson, R; Canick, J; Brizendine, L; Weingartner, H

    1997-02-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate, DHEA-S, are plentiful adrenal steroid hormones that decrease with aging and may have significant neuropsychiatric effects. In this study, six middle-aged and elderly patients with major depression and low basal plasma DHEA f1p4or DHEA-S levels were openly administered DHEA (30-90 mg/d x 4 weeks) in doses sufficient to achieve circulating plasma levels observed in younger healthy individuals. Depression ratings, as well as aspects of memory performance significantly improved. One treatment-resistant patient received extended treatment with DHEA for 6 months: her depression ratings improved 48-72% and her semantic memory performance improved 63%. These measures returned to baseline after treatment ended. In both studies, improvements in depression ratings and memory performance were directly related to increases in plasma levels of DHEA and DHEA-S and to increases in their ratios with plasma cortisol levels. These preliminary data suggest DHEA may have antidepressant and promemory effects and should encourage double-blind trials in depressed patients.

  11. Mental depression and kundalini yoga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, S K; Chansauria, J P; Udupa, K N

    1986-10-01

    In cases of mental depression, the plasma serotonin, melatonin and glutamate levels are increased along with the lowering of urinary - 5 - hydroxyindole acetic acid, plasma monoamine oxidase and cortisol levels following three and six months Practice of Kundalini Yoga. The pulse rate and blood pressure in these patients are also lowered after Kundalini Yoga practice. Thus, the practice of Kundalini Yoga helps to maintain a perfect homeostasis by bringing an equilibrium between the sympathetic and parasympathetic activities and it can be used as a non - medical measure in treating patients with mental depression.

  12. Effect of adjuvant lithium on thyroxine (T4) concentration after radioactive iodine therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammond, Emmanuel NiiBoye; Vangu, Mboyo-Di-Tamba Heben Willy [University of the Witwatersrand, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Department of Radiation Sciences, Johannesburg (South Africa)

    2016-10-15

    To study the effect of adjuvant lithium on serum thyroxine (T4) concentrations in patients treated with radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy in our environment. This was a prospective simple randomized comparative, experimental cohort study of patients with hyperthyroidism referred for RAI ablation therapy in the two main academic hospitals in Johannesburg between February 2014 and September 2015. Amongst the 163 participants in the final analysis, 75 received RAI alone and 88 received RAI with lithium. The difference in mean T4 concentrations at 3 months between the RAI-only group (17.67 pmol/l) and the RAI with lithium group (11.55 pmol/l) was significant with a small effect size (U = 2328.5, Z = -2.700, p = 0.007, r = 0.01). Significant decreases in T4 concentrations were observed as early as 1 month after RAI (p = 0.0001) in the RAI with lithium group, but in the RAI-only group, significant decreases in T4 concentrations were observed only at 3 months after RAI therapy (p = 0.000). Women and patients with Graves' disease who received RAI with adjuvant lithium also showed significant decreases in T4 concentrations at 1 month (p = 0.002 and p = 0.003, respectively). Adjuvant lithium leads to an earlier and better response to RAI therapy with lower T4 concentrations that are achieved earlier. This earlier response and decrease in T4 concentrations were noted in patients with Graves' disease and nodular goitre, and in women with hyperthyroidism who received adjuvant lithium therapy. (orig.)

  13. Circulating thyroxine, thyroid-stimulating hormone, and hypothyroid status and the risk of prostate cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison M Mondul

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Thyroid hormones may influence risk of cancer through their role in cell differentiation, growth, and metabolism. One study of circulating thyroid hormones supports this hypothesis with respect to prostate cancer. We undertook a prospective analysis of thyroid hormones and prostate cancer risk in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC Study. METHODS: Within the ATBC Study, a randomized controlled trial of α-tocopherol and β-carotene supplements and cancer incidence in male smokers, 402 prostate cancer cases were sampled. Controls were matched 2:1 to cases on age and date of blood collection. Odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI of prostate cancer were estimated for quintiles of serum total and free thyroxine (T4, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH, thyroid-binding globulin (TBG, and by categories of thyroid status. RESULTS: Men with serum higher TSH had a decreased risk of prostate cancer compared to men with lower TSH (Q5 vs. Q1-4: OR = 0.70, 95% CI: 0.51-0.97, p = 0.03. When the T4 and TSH measurements were combined to define men as hypothyroid, euthyroid or hyperthyroid, hypothyroid men had a lower risk of prostate cancer compared to euthyroid men (OR = 0.48, 95% CI = 0.28-0.81, p = 0.006. We observed no association between hyperthyroid status and risk, although the number of hyperthyroid men with prostate cancer was small (n = 9. CONCLUSIONS: In this prospective study of smokers, men with elevated TSH and those classified as being in a hypothyroid state were at decreased risk of prostate cancer. Future studies should examine the association in other populations, particularly non-smokers and other racial/ethnic groups.

  14. Seasonal variations in TSH serum levels in athyreotic patients under L-thyroxine replacement monotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullo, Damiano; Latina, Adele; Frasca, Francesco; Squatrito, Sebastiano; Belfiore, Antonino; Vigneri, Riccardo

    2017-08-01

    Whether serum TSH undergoes seasonal fluctuations in euthyroid and hypothyroid residents of temperate climates is controversial. Monthly TSH and thyroid hormone levels were cross-sectionally analysed in a large cohort of euthyroid subjects (n=11 806) and L-thyroxine (L-T4)-treated athyreotic patients (n=3 934). Moreover, in a small group (n=119) of athyreotic patients treated with an unchanged dosage of L-T4 monotherapy, hormones were measured both in the coldest and in the hottest seasons of the same year (longitudinal study). No seasonal hormone change was observed in the euthyroid subjects except for a small FT3 increase in winter (+2.9%, PL-T4-treated athyreotic patients had significantly higher serum TSH values in the cold season when the FT4 values were significantly lower. The differences were more notable in the longitudinal series (TSH, 0.80 vs. 0.20 mU/L and FT4, 16.3 vs. 17.8 pmol/L in December-March vs. June-September, respectively). In these patients also serum FT3 values significantly decreased in winter (in the longitudinal series, 3.80 in winter vs 4.07 pmol/L in summer). Regression analysis showed that in athyreotic subjects, a greater FT4 change is required to obtain a TSH change similar to that of euthyroid controls and that this effect is more pronounced in the summer. Athyreotic patients undergoing L-T4 monotherapy have abnormal seasonal variations in TSH. These changes are secondary to the FT4 and FT3 serum decreases in winter, which occur in spite of the constant treatment. The underlying mechanisms are unclear, but in some cases, these changes may be clinically relevant. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Thyroxine softgel capsule in patients with gastric-related T4 malabsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santaguida, Maria Giulia; Virili, Camilla; Del Duca, Susanna Carlotta; Cellini, Miriam; Gatto, Ilenia; Brusca, Nunzia; De Vito, Corrado; Gargano, Lucilla; Centanni, Marco

    2015-05-01

    The key role of an intact gastric acid secretion for subsequent intestinal T4 absorption is supported by an increased requirement of thyroxine in patients with gastric disorders. A better pH-related dissolution profile has been described in vitro for softgel T4 preparation than for T4 tablets. Our study was aimed at comparing softgel and tablet T4 requirements in patients with gastric disorders. A total of 37 patients with gastric-related T4 malabsorption were enrolled, but only 31 (28F/3M; median age = 50 years; median T4 dose = 2.04 μg/kg/day) completed the study. All patients were in long-lasting treatment (>2 years) with the same dose of T4 tablets when treatment was switched to a lower dose of softgel T4 capsules (-17 %; p = 0.0002). Assessment of serum FT4 and TSH was carried out at baseline and after 3, 6, 12, and 18 months after the treatment switch. In more than 2/3 of patients (good-responders n = 21), despite the reduced dose of T4, median TSH values were similar at each time point (p = 0.3934) with no change in FT4 levels. In the remaining patients (poor-responders n = 10), TSH levels were significantly higher at each time point than at baseline (p < 0.0001). To note, in five of them intestinal comorbidity was subsequently detected. Comorbidity associated with poor-responders status was the only significant predictor in multivariate analysis (OR = 11.333). Doses of softgel T4 capsules lower than T4 tablet preparation are required to maintain the therapeutic goal in 2/3 of patients with impaired gastric acid secretion.

  16. Thyroxine differentially modulates the peripheral clock: lessons from the human hair follicle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan A Hardman

    Full Text Available The human hair follicle (HF exhibits peripheral clock activity, with knock-down of clock genes (BMAL1 and PER1 prolonging active hair growth (anagen and increasing pigmentation. Similarly, thyroid hormones prolong anagen and stimulate pigmentation in cultured human HFs. In addition they are recognized as key regulators of the central clock that controls circadian rhythmicity. Therefore, we asked whether thyroxine (T4 also influences peripheral clock activity in the human HF. Over 24 hours we found a significant reduction in protein levels of BMAL1 and PER1, with their transcript levels also decreasing significantly. Furthermore, while all clock genes maintained their rhythmicity in both the control and T4 treated HFs, there was a significant reduction in the amplitude of BMAL1 and PER1 in T4 (100 nM treated HFs. Accompanying this, cell-cycle progression marker Cyclin D1 was also assessed appearing to show an induced circadian rhythmicity by T4 however, this was not significant. Contrary to short term cultures, after 6 days, transcript and/or protein levels of all core clock genes (BMAL1, PER1, clock, CRY1, CRY2 were up-regulated in T4 treated HFs. BMAL1 and PER1 mRNA was also up-regulated in the HF bulge, the location of HF epithelial stem cells. Together this provides the first direct evidence that T4 modulates the expression of the peripheral molecular clock. Thus, patients with thyroid dysfunction may also show a disordered peripheral clock, which raises the possibility that short term, pulsatile treatment with T4 might permit one to modulate circadian activity in peripheral tissues as a target to treat clock-related disease.

  17. Measurement of thyroid hormones (thyroxine, T4; triiodothyronine, T3) in captive nondomestic felids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodini, Débora Cattaruzzi; Felippe, Erika Cristiane Gutierrez; Oliveira, Cláudio Alvarenga

    2007-03-01

    The aim of this research was to obtain basic values for the evaluation of thyroid function in nondomestic felids. Serum thyroid hormone concentrations (thyroxine, T4; triiodothyronine, T3) were measured by radioimmunoassay in 145 cats, representing nine species of captive nondomestic felids: jaguar (Panthera onca), n = 49; puma (Puma concolor), n = 10; ocelot (Leopardus pardalis), n = 22; oncilla (Leopardus tigrinus), n = 12; geoffroy (Oncifelis geoffroyi), n = 4; jaguarundi (Herpailurus yaguarondi), n = 8; margay (Leopardus wiedii), n = 7; lion (Panthera leo), n = 26; and tiger (Panthera tigris), n = 7. For each species, mean +/- SEM of T3 and T4, respectively, were as follows: jaguar, 0.56 +/- 0.03 and 9.7 +/- 0.8 ng/ml; puma, 0.67 +/- 0.04 and 11.2 +/- 1.2 ng/ml; ocelot, 0.48 +/- 0.03 and 13.8 +/- 1.5 ng/ml; oncilla, 0.43 +/- 0.03 and 10.0 +/- 1.6 ng/ml; geoffroy, 0.44 +/- 0.04 and 8.0 +/- 0.16 ng/ml; jaguarundi, 0.7 +/- 0.03 and 5.0 +/- 1.0 ng/ml; margay, 0.48 +/- 0.04 and 12.2 +/- 2.3 ng/ml; lion, 0.43 +/- 0.02 and 5.7 +/- 2.6 ng/ml; and tiger, 0.66 +/- 0.03 and 12.6 +/- 0.9 ng/ml. Within species, T3 and T4 concentrations did not differ (P > 0.05) between males and females.

  18. MENTAL DEPRESSION AND KUNDALINI YOGA

    OpenAIRE

    Devi, Sanjenbam Kunjeshwori; Chansauria, J. P. N.; Udupa, K. N.

    1986-01-01

    In cases of mental depression, the plasma serotonin, melatonin and glutamate levels are increased along with the lowering of urinary – 5 – hydroxyindole acetic acid, plasma monoamine oxidase and cortisol levels following three and six months Practice of Kundalini Yoga. The pulse rate and blood pressure in these patients are also lowered after Kundalini Yoga practice. Thus, the practice of Kundalini Yoga helps to maintain a perfect homeostasis by bringing an equilibrium between the sympathetic...

  19. Mercury exposure associated with altered plasma thyroid hormones in the declining western pond turtle (Emys marmorata) from California mountain streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Erik; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Sparling, Donald; Blumenshine, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a global threat to wildlife health that can impair many physiological processes. Mercury has well-documented endocrine activity; however, little work on the effects of Hg on the thyroid hormones triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) in aquatic wildlife exists despite the fact that it is a sensitive endpoint of contaminant exposure. An emerging body of evidence points to the toxicological susceptibility of aquatic reptiles to Hg exposure. We examined the endocrine disrupting potential of Hg in the western pond turtle (Emys marmorata), a long-lived reptile that is in decline throughout California and the Pacific Northwest. We measured total Hg (THg) concentrations in red blood cells (RBCs) and plasma T3 and T4 of turtles from several locations in California that have been impacted by historic gold mining. Across all turtles from all sites, the geometric mean and standard error THg concentration was 0.805 ± 0.025 μg/g dry weight. Sampling region and mass were the strongest determinants of RBC THg. Relationships between RBC THg and T3 and T4 were consistent with Hg-induced disruption of T4 deiodination, a mechanism of toxicity that may cause excess T4 levels and depressed concentrations of biologically active T3.

  20. Free thyroxine levels are associated with cognitive changes in individuals with a first episode of psychosis: A prospective 1-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labad, J; Barbero, J D; Gutiérrez-Zotes, A; Montalvo, I; Creus, M; Cabezas, Á; Solé, M; Algora, M J; Garcia-Parés, G; Vilella, E

    2016-03-01

    The results of previous cross-sectional studies suggest that free thyroxine (FT4) levels are associated with cognitive abilities (particularly attention/vigilance) during the early stages of psychosis. We aimed to explore whether hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid hormones predict cognitive changes in a 1-year longitudinal study following first episodes of psychosis (FEP). We studied 36 FEP patients and a control group of 50 healthy subjects (HS). Plasma levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and FT4 were measured. Cognitive assessment was performed with the MATRICS Cognitive Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB). FEP patients were assessed twice (baseline and after 1year), whereas HS were assessed only once. We compared cognitive changes at 1year between three groups based on baseline FT4 levels: 1) lowest quartile (Q1, FT41.54ng/dL). No differences in TSH or FT4 levels were found between HS and FEP patients. All participants had FT4 levels within the normal range. HS outperformed FEP patients in all cognitive tasks. In relation to the relationship between FT4 levels and cognitive changes, a U-shaped pattern was observed: FEP patients from the middle quartiles (Q2-Q3) improved in attention/vigilance, whereas both extreme quartiles (Q1 and Q4) showed a worsening in this cognitive domain over time. Patients with lower FT4 (Q1) showed poorer baseline attention; therefore, lower baseline FT4 levels predicted a poorer prognosis in terms of attention performance. Our study suggests that baseline FT4 levels are associated with changes in attention and vigilance performance over one year in FEP patients.

  1. Congenital hypothyroidism, as studied in rats. Crucial role of maternal thyroxine but not of 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine in the protection of the fetal brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, R; Obregón, M J; Ruiz de Oña, C; Escobar del Rey, F; Morreale de Escobar, G

    1990-09-01

    To study the protective effects of maternal thyroxine (T4) and 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) in congenital hypothyroidism, we gave pregnant rats methimazole (MMI), an antithyroid drug that crosses the placenta, and infused them with three different doses of T4 or T3. The concentrations of both T4 and T3 were determined in maternal and fetal plasma and tissues (obtained near term) by specific RIAs. Several thyroid hormone-dependent biological end-points were also measured. MMI treatment resulted in marked fetal T4 and T3 deficiency. Infusion of T4 into the mothers increased both these pools in a dose-dependent fashion. There was a preferential increase of T3 in the fetal brain. Thus, with a T4 dose maintaining maternal euthyroidism, fetal brain T3 reached normal values, although fetal plasma T4 was 40% of normal and plasma TSH was high. The infusion of T3 pool into the mothers increased the total fetal extrathyroidal T3 pool in a dose-dependent fashion. The fetal T4 pools were not increased, however, and this deprived the fetal brain (and possibly the pituitary) of local generation of T3 from T4. As a consequence, fetal brain T3 deficiency was not mitigated even when dams were infused with a toxic dose of T3. The results show that (a) there is a preferential protection of the brain of the hypothyroid fetus from T3 deficiency; (b) maternal T4, but not T3, plays a crucial role in this protection, and (c) any condition which lowers maternal T4 (including treatment with T3) is potentially harmful for the brain of a hypothyroid fetus. Recent confirmation of transplacental passage of T4 in women at term suggests that present results are relevant for human fetuses with impairment of thyroid function. Finding signs of hypothyroidism at birth does not necessarily mean that the brain was unprotected in utero, provided maternal T4 is normal. It is crucial to realize that maintainance of maternal "euthyroidism" is not sufficient, as despite hypothyroxinemia, the mothers may be

  2. Recalculation of data from 1990 to 2010 on the effects of highly diluted thyroxine on the metamorphosis of highland amphibians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Christian Endler

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Experiments on amphibian metamorphosis can vary considerably in duration. The authors had set themselves the task of defining a generally applicable pooling method for metamorphosis experiments [1]. Normalization with respect to time was done on the assumption that differences in speed of metamorphosis attributable to treatment would override differences in duration between experiments. The problem of artificial differences in variability when comparing and pooling data from several experiments was approached by normalization with respect to time based on the development of both the test and the control animals. The range from 0% to 100% over which the fraction of four-legged animals progresses in the course of an experiment is divided into 10%-intervals and mapped onto a corresponding relative scale. Each measurement is then assigned to the point on the 10%-scale to which it is closest. In this way each reference point is assigned a value giving the number or percentage of four-legged animals at that point. These values are aggregated over all experiments within the test- and control-group. The results of experiments performed over the course of two decades (1990 - 2010 on highland Rana temporaria treated with a homeopathically prepared high dilution of thyroxine (“30x” are presented in full detail based on this normalization method[1]. It was found that differences between treatment groups thus calculated were in line with those obtained with other pooling methods [2]. Thyroxine 30x does slow down metamorphosis in inert highland amphibians. This was observed by 5 researchers in 20 sub-experiments, and it seems to be the most reliable bio-assay found in amphibian research on homeopathy so far2. When experiments were performed with highland animals pretreated by hyperstimulation with molecular thyroxine, slowing down of metamorphosis was again observed (by 3 of 4 researchers in most of 10 sub-experiments.

  3. Intracellular Conversion of Thyroxine to Triidothyronine Is Required for the Optimal Thermogenic Function of Brown Adipose Tissue

    OpenAIRE

    1987-01-01

    The effect of thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) on the expression of uncoupling protein (UCP) in rat brown adipose tissue (BAT) has been examined. Thyroidectomized rats have a threefold reduction in basal UCP levels. When exposed to cold, they become hypothermic and show a fivefold lower response of UCP than euthyroid controls. T3 augments the basal levels and the response of UCP and its mRNA to cold in a dose-dependent manner. However, to normalize the response of UCP, T3 has to be gi...

  4. D-propranolol and DL-propranolol both decrease conversion of L-thyroxine to L-triiodothyronine.

    OpenAIRE

    Heyma, P; Larkins, R G; Higginbotham, L; Ng, K. W.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of propranolol (DL-propranolol) and D-propranolol on thyroid hormone metabolism were studied in six euthyroid volunteers receiving L-thyroxine (T4) and six hypothyroid patients receiving T4 replacement. D-propranolol as well as propranolol decreased L-triiodothyronine (T3) concentrations and the ratio of T3 to T4 in the euthyroid subjects, and D-propranolol decreased these variables in the subjects with hypothyroidism (propranolol was not given to this group). It is concluded from...

  5. Thyroid Function Test in Thyroid Diseases and Pregnancy - The diagnostic value of free thyroxine by RIA -

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, M. H.; Yoon, H. J.; Shin, Y. T.; Lee, J. C.; Chung, S. I.; Cho, B. Y.; Lee, M. H. [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, M. C. [Capotal Armed Forces General Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1981-03-15

    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the measurement of free thyroxine(FT4) by radioimmunoassay, we measured free T{sub 4} and T{sub 4}, T{sub 3}, T{sub 3}RU, TSH and TBG serum levels by radioimmunoassay in 18 healthy persons and 52 patients with various thyroid diseases and 11 normal pregnant women. The results are as follows. 1) In 19 cases of overt hyperthyroidism, T{sub 3}, free T{sub 4} and FTI, T{sub 4}/TBG ratio reflect hyperfunction in all cases. T{sub 4} is increased in 94%(18/19) and TBG and TSH are decreased in 79%(15/19). 2) In 8 patients with overt hypothyroidism, TSH is increased in all cases and free T{sub 4} and FTI is decreased in all cases. T{sub 4} is decreased in 87.5%(7/8), T{sub 3} is decreased in 75%(6/8) and T{sub 4}/TBG ratio is decreased in 62.5%(5/8). 3) In 5 patients who are clinically in euthyroid state after treatment of hyperthyroidism, T{sub ,}4 free T{sub 4}, FTI and TSH are in the normal range in all cases and T{sub 3} is normal in 60%(3/5) and slightly increased in 40%(2/5). 4) In 10 patients who showed clinically borderline hypothyroidism after treatment of hyperthyroidism, TSH is increased in all cases and free T{sub 4} and FTI are decreased in all cases, but T{sub 4} and T{sub 3}, T{sub 4}/TBG ratio are in the normal limit in all cases. So after treatment of hyperthyroidism, TSH, free T{sub 4} or FTI are recommended as optimal function test. 5) In normal pregnancy, free T{sub 4}, FTI and T{sub 4}/TBG ratio reflect normal function, but the other parameters unreliable due to the influence of increased TBG. Also TBG and TSH level in pregnancy is increased significantly compared with normal healthy control group. 6) The coefficients of correlation between T{sub 4} and FTI were 0.862(p<0.001) and 0.685(p<0.001) between free T{sub 4} and T{sub 4}/TBG ratio. In most patients, diagnostic value of free T{sub 4} was comparable and even superior to FTI, so free T{sub 4} measurement can be used routinely with thyrotropin assay in the

  6. An Inverse Relationship Between Weight and Free Thyroxine During Early Gestation Among Women Treated for Hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddow, James E; Neveux, Louis M; Palomaki, Glenn E; Lambert-Messerlian, Geralyn; Malone, Fergal D; D'Alton, Mary E

    2015-08-01

    Following treatment sufficient to normalize thyrotropin (TSH), nonpregnant hypothyroid adults display higher free thyroxine (FT(4)) concentrations than a reference population. Our aim is to determine whether FT(4) concentrations are higher during pregnancy among women treated for hypothyroidism and whether their weight is associated with FT(4) levels. Weight/FT(4) relationships have not previously been reported in treated hypothyroid adults (either pregnant or nonpregnant). Thyroid-related measurements were available from over 10,000 women at two early pregnancy time periods from the FaSTER (First and Second Trimester Evaluation of Risk for Fetal aneuploidy) trial (1999-2002). All women were receiving routine prenatal care. Present analyses were restricted to 9267 reference women and 306 treated, hypothyroid women with TSH between the 2nd and 98th reference percentiles. We compared FT(4) values between those groups at 11-14 and 15-18 weeks' gestation, using linear regression to estimate FT(4)/maternal weight relationships, after accounting for treatment and other potential covariates. In comparison to reference women, median FT(4) values and percent of FT(4) values ≥95th reference percentile were significantly higher in treated women at both 11-14 and 15-18 weeks' gestation (pwomen, median FT(4) decreased monotonically with increasing weight, regardless of anti-thyroperoxidase antibody status. Maternal age, maternal weight, and treatment status were important predictors of FT(4) levels (pwomen, independent of other factors. Maternal age and weight reduced FT(4) levels by 0.0694 pmol/L/y and 0.0208 pmol/L/kg, respectively. FT(4) concentrations are higher among treated hypothyroid pregnant women than among reference women, and higher maternal weight is associated with lower FT(4) levels, regardless of treatment status. This inverse relationship is not associated with higher TSH levels. While no immediate clinical implications are attached to the current

  7. Effects of thyroxine and 1-methyl, 2-mercaptoimidazol on phosphoinositides synthesis in rat liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasilnikova Oksana A

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phosphoinositides mediate one of the intracellular signal transduction pathways and produce a class of second messengers that are involved in the action of hormones and neurotransmitters on target cells. Thyroid hormones are well known regulators of lipid metabolism and modulators of signal transduction in cells. However, little is known about phosphoinositides cycle regulation by thyroid hormones. The present paper deals with phosphoinositides synthesis de novo and acylation in liver at different thyroid status of rats. Results The experiments were performed in either the rat liver or hepatocytes of 90- and 720-day-old rats. Myo-[3H]inositol, [14C]CH3COONa, [14C]oleic and [3H]arachidonic acids were used to investigate the phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns, phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PtdInsP2 synthesis. 1-methyl, 2-mercaptoimidazol-induced hypothyroidism was associated with the decrease of myo-[3H]inositol and [3H]arachidonic acids incorporation into liver phosphoinositides and total phospholipids, respectively. The thyroxine (L-T4 injection to hypothyroid animals increased the hormones contents in blood serum and PtdInsP2 synthesis de novo as well as [3H]arachidonic acids incorporation into the PtdIns and PtdInsP2. Under the hormone action, the [14C]oleic acid incorporation into PtdIns reduced in the liver of hypothyroid animals. A single injection of L-T4 to the euthyroid [14C]CH3COONa-pre-treated animals or addition of the hormone to a culture medium of hepatocytes was accompanied by the rapid prominent increase in the levels of the newly synthesized PtdIns and PtdInsP2 and in the mass of phosphatidic acid in the liver or the cells. Conclusions The data obtained have demonstrated that thyroid hormones are of vital importance in the regulation of arachidonate-containing phosphoinositides metabolism in the liver. The drug-induced malfunction of thyroid gland noticeably changed the

  8. Individually-tailored thyroxine requirement in the same patients before and after thyroidectomy: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Duca, S C; Santaguida, M G; Brusca, N; Gatto, I; Cellini, M; Gargano, L; Verga Falzacappa, C; Frattaroli, F M; Virili, C; Centanni, M

    2015-09-01

    Thyroxine (T4) requirement after total thyroidectomy for differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) is a debated issue. As most of the studies in the area have been retrospective and/or performed with heterogeneous therapeutic approaches, we designed our study to determine T4 requirement in the same patients and treatment settings, before and after total thyroidectomy. This was a longitudinal study including 23 goitrous patients treated with T4 in an individually tailored fashion. All patients exhibited a stable TSH (median TSH = 0.28 mU/l) at a stable T4 dose for at least 1 year before surgery (median T4 dose = 1.50 μg/kg per day). The patients underwent total thyroidectomy based on cancer suspicion or compressive symptoms. Eventually diagnosed as having DTC (pT1b-pT2N0) and following surgical and radiometabolic treatment, they were treated with the same pre-surgical doses of T4. Three months after surgery,using the same pre-surgical dose, median TSH increased up to 5.38 mU/l (P<0.0001) and so the T4 dose had to be increased (median T4 dose = 1.95 μg/kg per day; +30%; P < 0.0001). Once divided by patients' age, we observed that, after thyroidectomy and maintaining the same pre-surgical dose, serum TSH significantly increased both in younger and in older patients (median TSH = 4.57 and 6.11 mU/l respectively). Serum TSH was restored to the pre-surgical level by increasing the dose up to 1.95 and 1.77 μg/kg per day (+25 and +21%) respectively. Following the same treatment regimen, a thyroidectomized patient requires one-third higher therapeutic T4 dose than before surgery. Despite this increase, the dose of T4 needed in our patients remains significantly lower than that previously described in athyreotic patients. © 2015 European Society of Endocrinology.

  9. Thyroxine inner ring monodeiodinating activity in fetal tissues of the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, T.S.; Chopra, I.J.; Boado, R.; Soloman, D.H.; Chua Teco, G.N.

    1988-02-01

    We studied thyroxine (T4) inner ring monodeiodinating activity (5-MA) in various tissues of fetal, maternal, and adult male rats. Tissue homogenates were incubated with 0.26 microM T4 in 0.1 M phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) containing 10 mM EDTA and 400 mM dithiothreitol (final volume 0.7 ml) for 10 min at 37 degrees C; the 3,3',5'-triiodothyronine (rT3) generated was measured by radioimmunoassay of ethanol extracts of incubation mixture and the result was corrected for rT3 degradation during incubation. Compared to maternal tissues, T4 to rT3 5-MA in the 14-day-old fetus was increased about 70 times in skeletal muscle (mean +/- SEM, velocity, 5.4 +/- 0.9 versus 0.08 +/- 0.01, pmol rT3/h/mg protein); approximately 8 times in intestine (0.72 +/- 0.17 versus 0.09 +/- 0.03);and approximately 4 times in cerebral cortex (19 +/- 0.5 versus 4.5 +/- 0.9), while it was similar in skin (3.2 +/- 0.48 versus 2.6 +/- 0.52). Hepatic T4 5-MA approximated 1.1 +/- 0.63 in the 14-day-old fetus; it could not be measured reliably in maternal or 19-day fetal tissue because of extensive (greater than 90%) degradation of rT3 during incubation. Relative to mother, T4 5-MA in 19-day fetal tissues was increased approximately 30-fold intestine, approximately 20-fold in skeletal muscle, and approximately 6-fold in cerebral cortex while it was similar in skin. The T4 5-MA in maternal rat tissues did not differ significantly from corresponding values in adult male rat, except skin, where it was lower in the mother rat (2.6 +/- 0.52 versus 4.6 +/- 0.61, p less than 0.05). In summary, relative to adult tissues T4 5-MA is exceedingly active in several fetal tissues, most notably in skeletal muscle followed by intestine and cerebral cortex.

  10. [Olpadronate prevents cortical and trabecular bone loss induced by supraphysiological dosis of thyroxine in ovariectomized rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeni, S N; Gómez Acotto, C; Di Gregorio, S

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the present report was to clarify the effect of excess T4 on axial and peripheral bone mineral density (BMD) in estrogen-depleted rats. The protective effect of olpadronate (Olpa) on axial and peripheral bone mass in thyroxine-treated rats was also investigated. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were used: SHAM, OVX + Vh, OVX + Olpa (0.3 mg/kg/week), OVX + T4 (250 micrograms/kg/day) and OVX + T4 + Olpa rats. OVX + Vh group presented a BMD lower than SHAM in the tibia (p < 0.01) but not in femur or lumbar spine; the middle tibia BMD did not change but it was lower at the distal (pns.) and proximal levels (p < 0.003) in OVX + Vh. OVX + T4 rats presented a BMD significantly lower than OVX + Vh rats in total tibia (p < 0.02), femur (p < 0.006) and lumbar spine (p < 0.006). Moreover the BMD was lower in all studied areas of the tibia, but it was statistically significant only at the middle level (p < 0.004). OVX + Olpa rats had a BMD higher than OVX + Vh rats in femur (p < 0.002), lumbar spine (p < 0.0001), total (p < 0.001) and proximal tibia (p < 0.001). Surprisingly, total and proximal tibia BMD values in OVX + Olpa rats presented a BMD significantly higher than OVX + T4 rats in femur (p < 0.001), lumbar spine (p < 0.001), tibia (p < 0.001) and proximal tibia (p < 0.0001). It is important to point out that OVX + T4 + Olpa BMD was significantly higher than in SHAM rats at the lumbar spine, total and proximal tibia (p < 0.01). The present study suggests that although supraphysiological thyroid hormone affected both cortical and trabecular bone, under estrogen-depleted conditions, the cortical bone appears to be more sensitive than the trabecular bone to T4 treatment. We also found that Olpa could prevent the peripheral and axial bone loss induced by thyroid hormone excess.

  11. Experiment K-7-22: Growth Hormone Regulation Synthesis and Secretion in Microgravity. Part 3; Plasma Analysis Hormone Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindeland, R. E.; Popova, I. A.; Grossman, E.; Rudolph, I.

    1994-01-01

    Plasma from space flight and tail suspended rats was analyzed for a number of constituents in order to evaluate their metabolic status and endocrine function. The data presented here cover plasma hormone measurements. Corticosterone, thyroxine, and testosterone were measured by radioimmunoassay. Prolactin and growth hormone were measured by double antibody immunoassays using hormones and antisera prepared in house. Data were evaluated by analysis of variance.

  12. Free Thyroxine, Anti-Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Receptor Antibody Titers, and Absence of Goiter Were Associated with Responsiveness to Methimazole in Patients with New Onset Graves' Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hoon Sung; Yoo, Won Sang

    2017-06-01

    Anti-thyroid drug therapy is considered a treatment of choice for Graves' disease; however, treatment response varies among individuals. Although several studies have reported risk factors for relapse after initial treatment, few have assessed responsiveness during the early treatment period. Our study aimed to identify the clinical characteristics for responsiveness to methimazole. We included 99 patients diagnosed with Graves' disease for the first time. Drug responsiveness was defined as the correlation coefficients between decreasing rates of free thyroxine level per month and methimazole exposure dose. According to their responsiveness to treatment, the patients were classified into rapid or slow responder groups, and age, sex, free thyroxine level, and thyrotropin binding inhibiting immunoglobulin (TBII) titers were compared between groups. The mean patient age was 44.0±13.5 years and 40 patients were male (40%). The mean TBII titer was 36.6±74.4 IU/L, and the mean free thyroxine concentration was 48.9±21.9 pmol/L. The rapid responder group showed higher TBII titer and free thyroxine level at diagnosis, while age, sex, smoking, and presence of goiter did not differ between the two groups. Logistic regression analyses revealed that high level of serum thyroxine, high titer of TBII, and absence of goiter were significantly associated with a rapid response, while age, sex, and smoking were not significant factors for the prediction of responsiveness. In patients with new onset Graves' disease, high level of free thyroxine, high titer of TBII, and absence of goiter were associated with rapid responsiveness to methimazole treatment.

  13. Adolescence depressions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Matot, J P

    2009-01-01

    This article considers the depressive problematics emerging during adolescence in the frame of the transformations that characterize this period of life, with a focus on the interference of socio-cultural dimensions...

  14. Postpartum Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith-Nielsen, Johanne

    Background: In three academic articles, this PhD thesis investigates maternal postpartum depression (PPD) as a risk factor for the infant-mother attachment and infant development. Previous studies have been contradictory with respect to the question of whether PPD can have long term effects...... on offspring. This may be due to not differing between when PPD is only occurring in the postpartum period and when effects are also due to ongoing or recurrent depression. However, it may also be due to viewing maternal depression as a unitary construct, and not considering underlying maternal psychological...... difficulties which may moderate potential adverse effects. The present thesis investigates two potential maternal moderators of risk:. Comorbid personality disorder and adult attachment insecurity. Moreover, the question of early environmental effects of PPD versus effects of later or ongoing depression...

  15. Cellular mechanisms of reduced sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ content in L-thyroxin-induced rat ventricular hypertrophy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lai-jing SONG; Guan-lei WANG; Jie LIU; Qin-ying QIU; Jing-hua OU; Yong-yuan GUAN

    2008-01-01

    Aim:To examine how the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ content changes and the underlying mechanism in L-thyroxin-induced cardiac hypertrophy. Methods:Echocardiography was used to confirm the establishment of the cardiac hypertro-phy model. The confocal microscopy and fluorescent indicator Fluo-3 was ap-plied to examine the intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]I), the Ca2+ sparks, and the caffeine-induced Ca2+ transient in freshly isolated cardiac ventricular myocytes. The activity of sarcolemmal and SR Ca2+-ATPase 2a (SERCA2a) in the ventricular tissue was also measured, respectively. Results:L-thyroxin (1 mg/kg injection for 10 d) induces left ventricular cardiac hypertrophy with normal myocardial function. The decreased caffeine-induced Ca2+ transient in the Ca2+-free solution was detected. The spontaneous Ca2+ sparks in hypertrophied myocytes occurred more frequently than in normal cells, with similar duration and spatial spread, but smaller amplitude. Then the basal [Ca2+]I increase was observed in quiescent left ventricular myocytes from hyperthyroidism rats. The activity of sarcolemmal and SR Ca2+-ATPase was decreased in the hypertrophied ventricle tissue. Conclusion:The results suggested that the reduced SR Ca2+ content may be associated with an increased Ca2+ leak and reduced SERCA2a activity, contributing to abnormal intracellular Ca2+ handling during hypertrophy in hyperthyroidism rats.

  16. Changes in the before and after thyroxine treatment levels of adipose tissue, leptin, and resistin in subclinical hypothyroid patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbaba, Gulhan; Berker, Dilek; Isık, Serhat; Tuna, Mazhar Muslum; Koparal, Suha; Vural, Murat; Yılmaz, Fatma Meric; Topcuoglu, Canan; Guler, Serdar

    2016-08-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) occurs when serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) concentrations are raised and serum thyroid hormone concentrations are normal. The effect of SH on the proinflammatory adipose cytokine releasing visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is not clear. The aim of this study is to identify the difference between the pre and posttreatment levels of VAT, leptin, and resistin in SH patients. There were 51 SH patients and 43 age- and gender-matched healthy subjects included in the study. Thyroid functions, biochemical tests, leptin, resistin, and visceral and subcutaneous fat measurements were made. The measurements were repeated in the SH group in the third month following L-thyroxin treatment. Initially, high sensitivity C-reactive protein, carotid artery intima-media thickness (mm), leptin, and resistin levels were significantly higher in the SH group compared to the controls, while the other parameters were similar. While no correlation was observed between TSH levels and adipokines, a positive correlation was detected between waist circumference and leptin levels (r = 0.549, p adipose tissue was positively correlated to age, waist circumference, and leptin levels, but negatively correlated to free thyroxin (T4) levels (r = 0.419, p = 0.009; r = 0.794, p leptin, and resistin levels of SH patients following levothyroxine treatment. Conclusion The reduced VAT volume, leptin, and resistin levels in SH patients following treatment may support the idea that TSH affects adipose tissue functions.

  17. Normal cortisol response to cold pressor test, but lower free thyroxine, after recovery from undernutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Vinicius J B; Neves, Andrea P O; Garcia, Márcia C; Spadari, Regina C; Clemente, Ana Paula G; de Albuquerque, Maria P; Hoffman, Daniel J; Sawaya, Ana L

    2016-01-14

    Undernutrition is a stressor with long-term consequences, and the effect of nutritional recovery on cortisol and thyroid hormone status is unknown. To investigate basal thyroid hormones and the cortisol response to a cold pressor test in children recovered from undernutrition, a cross-sectional study was undertaken on children (6-16 years) separated into four groups: control (n 41), stunted (n 31), underweight (n 27) and recovered (n 31). Salivary cortisol was collected over the course of 10 h: upon awakening, before and after an unpleasant and a pleasant stimulus. Cortisol upon awakening was highest in the stunted and lowest in the underweight groups: control=5·05 (95% CI 3·71, 6·89) nmol/l, stunted=6·62 (95% CI 3·97, 11·02) nmol/l, underweight=2·51 (95% CI 1·75, 3·63) nmol/l and recovered=3·46 (95% CI 2·46, 4·90) nmol/l (P=0·005). Girls had higher cortisol concentrations upon awakening compared with boys (P=0·021). The undernourished groups showed an elevated cortisol response both to the unpleasant stimulus and at the last measurement (16.00 hours) compared with that of the recovered group: AUC, control=2·07 (95% CI 1·69, 2·45) nmol/l×30 min, stunted=2·48 (95% CI 1·91, 3·06) nmol/l×30 min, underweight=2·52 (95% CI 2·07, 2·97) nmol/l×30 min, recovered=1·68 (95% CI 1·26, 2·11) nmol/l×30 min (P=0·042); and control=2·03 (95% CI 1·75, 2·39) nmol/l×30 min, stunted=2·51 (95% CI 1·97, 3·19) nmol/l×30 min, underweight=2·61 (95% CI 2·16, 3·16) nmol/l×30 min, recovered=1·70 (95% CI 1·42, 2·03) nmol/l×30 min (P=0·009). Lower free thyroxine (T4) was found in the recovered and stunted groups: control=1·28 (95% CI 1·18, 1·39) pmol/l, stunted=0·98 (95% CI 0·87, 1·10) pmol/l, underweight=1·10 (95% CI 1·01, 1·21) pmol/l and recovered=0·90 (95% CI 0·83, 0·99) pmol/l (Pcortisol concentration along 10 h (06.00-16.00 hours) in the recovered compared with the other groups (P=0·017), and similar concentrations between the

  18. A preliminary analysis of association between plasma microRNA expression alteration and symptomatology improvement in Major Depressive Disorder (MDD patients before and after antidepressant treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Qiao-li

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Currently, there is a serious need to find practical biomarker(s for Major Depressive Disorder (MDD therapeutic target(s. This study aimed to investigate the association between microRNA (miRNA, miR expression level in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMCs and symptomatology improvement in MDD patients before and after six-week antidepressant treatment. Methods: By using an Affymetrix array that covers 723 human miRNAs, 26 miRNAs were identified with significantly altered expression in PBMCs in MDD patients, of which 10 miRNAs were selected for quantitative real-time Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR study. Twenty out of all the 81 MDD patients were selected for miRNA expression levels testing and symptomatology assessments before and after six-week treatment. Results: Compared with the control group, the expression levels of miR-26b, miR-4743, miR-4498, miR-4485 and miR-1972 of the MDD group were significantly higher (P < 0.05; the changes of expression levels of miR-4743, miR-4498, miR-4485 and miR-1972 were positively related to retardation improvement (P < 0.05, and the change of expression level of miR-26b negatively to the improvement of day and night change (P < 0.05; regression analysis result demonstrated that the alteration of miR-4485 expression accounted for 28.8% of retardation improvement (P < 0.05. Conclusions: These five miRNAs (miR-4743, miR-4498, miR-4485, miR-1972 and miR-26b may serve as biomarker for MDD diagnosis and therapeutic targets for MDD treatment.

  19. Evaluation of plasma lipids and lipoproteins in nigerians suffering ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of plasma lipids and lipoproteins in nigerians suffering from depressive illness. ... Very little is known about the lipid and lipoprotein status in Nigerian adults suffering from depression. One hundred subjects ... Article Metrics.

  20. The effects of thyroxine or a GnRH analogue on thyroid hormone deiodination in the olfactory epithelium and retina of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, and sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plate, E M; Adams, B A; Allison, W T; Martens, G; Hawryshyn, C W; Eales, J G

    2002-06-01

    Using low (0.5nM) substrate levels we determined the activities of thyroxine (T4) outer-ring deiodination (ORD), T4 inner-ring deiodination (T4IRD) and 3,5,3(')-triiodothyronine (T3) IRD activities in the olfactory epithelium (OLF) and retina (RET) of laboratory-held immature 1-year-old rainbow trout and immature 2.5-year-old sockeye salmon. In both species all three deiodination activities were detected in OLF and RET. For OLF, no particular pathway predominated and activities were similar to those of brain. For RET, T3IRD activity was greater than T4ORD activity and in sockeye RET T3IRD activity exceeded that of liver. Trout immersion for 6 weeks in 100ppm T4 increased plasma T4 levels 3-fold and plasma T3 levels by 50% and caused the anticipated autoregulatory responses in brain and liver deiodination ( downward arrow T4ORD, upward arrow T4IRD, and upward arrow T3IRD); OLF deiodination and RET T4ORD activity were unaltered but RET T4IRD and T3IRD activities increased dramatically. Two injections of a GnRH analogue (20 microgkg(-1)) into sockeye increased plasma T3 levels but not T4 levels and decreased RET T4IRD and T3IRD activities without changing liver, brain, or OLF deiodination. We conclude that in salmonids the main TH deiodination pathways occur in OLF but show no regulation by T4 or GnRH. In contrast, T3IRD activity predominates in RET and can be regulated by T4 and GnRH, suggesting that for RET plasma may be the major T3 source. These findings have implications for thyroidal regulation of sensory functions during salmonid diadromous migrations.

  1. Late Pregnancy Thyroid-Binding Globulin Predicts Perinatal Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Cort; Leserman, Jane; Garcia, Nacire; Stansbury, Melissa; Meltzer-Brody, Samantha; Johnson, Jacqueline

    2016-01-01

    Previously we found that late pregnancy total and free thyroxine (TT4, FT4) concentrations were negatively related to greater pre and/or postpartum depressive symptoms. In a much larger cohort, the current study examined whether these thyroid indices measured earlier in the third trimester (31-33 weeks) predict subsequent perinatal depression and anxiety ratings as well as syndromal depression. Thyroid-binding globulin (TBG) concentrations increase markedly during pregnancy and may be an index of sensitivity to elevated estrogen levels. TBG was examined in this study because prior findings suggest that postpartum depression is related to sensitivity to mood destabilization by elevated sex hormone concentrations during pregnancy. Our cohort was 199 euthyroid women recruited from a public health obstetrics clinic (63.8% Hispanic, 21.6% Black). After screening and blood draws for hormone measures at pregnancy weeks 31-33, subjects were evaluated during home visits at pregnancy weeks 35-36 as well as postpartum weeks 6 and 12. Evaluations included psychiatric interviews for current and life-time DSM-IV psychiatric history (M.I.N.I.-Plus), subject self-ratings and interviewer ratings for depression and anxiety (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, Montgomery-Ǻsberg Depression Rating Scale; Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Hamilton Anxiety Inventory), as well as a standardized interview to obtain life-time trauma history. Numerous covariates were included in all regression analyses. Trauma and major depression history were robustly significant predictors of depression and anxiety ratings over the study period when these variables were analyzed individually or in a combined model including FT4 or TBG (pdepression and anxiety ratings (pdepression history, were significant individual predictors of syndromal depression during the study period (pdepression history, FT4 and TBG generally were not significantly predictive of depression or anxiety ratings, and FT4

  2. The relationships between plasma Orexin-A and sleep disorder in patients with depression%抑郁症患者睡眠障碍与血浆增食欲素A的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵素华; 蒋泽宇; 黄兴兵; 林育华; 梅芳

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨抑郁症患者睡眠障碍与血浆增食欲素A的关系,以期为抑郁症睡眠障碍的干预提供理论基础.方法 67例抑郁症患者行24项汉密尔顿抑郁量表(HAMD-24)及匹兹堡睡眠质量指数量表(Pittsburgh sleep quality index,PSQI)评定,根据睡眠情况分为睡眠障碍组(研究组,n=37)及非睡眠障碍组(阳性对照组,n =30),多导睡眠图检测睡眠情况,放射免疫法检测血浆增食欲素-A水平,并与26例健康体检者进行对比(阴性对照组).结果 与正常对照组及非睡眠障碍组比较,抑郁症睡眠障碍组患者HAMD抑郁量表评分及血浆Orexin-A水平均明显增加(P< 0.05,P<0.01);总睡眠时间减少,睡眠潜伏期长,觉醒次数及时间增多,睡眠效率及维持率明显下降,浅睡(S1期睡眠)增加而深睡(S3、S4期睡眠)减少(P<0.05,P< 0.01);REM潜伏期缩短,REM睡眠时间增多,REM活动度、强度及密度明显增强(P<0.05,P<0.01);相关性分析表明,血浆Orexin-A水平与睡眠潜伏期、觉醒时间、觉醒次数均呈正相关(r分别为0.447、0.591、0.670,P<0.01),与S3%+S4%呈负相关(r=-0.872).结论 睡眠障碍者抑郁程度较非睡眠障碍者更高,血浆Orexin-A水平升高可能是引起抑郁症睡眠障碍的一项重要因素,其机制可能与其促进觉醒有关.%Objective To explore the relationships between sleep disorder and the plasma levels of orexin-A in depressive patients.Methods 67 patients with depression were evaluated using HAMD and PSQI.They were assigned the sleep disorder group(experimental group,n = 37) and non sleep disorder group (positive control group,n =30) according to the quality of sleep.The quality of sleep was assessed by polysomonography (PSG).The level of plasma orexin - A was detected by radioimmunoassay.The control groups were 26 individuals having general physical examination.Results Compared with the control groups and non sleep disorder group,the HAMD score and the level of

  3. Multicompartmental model for iodide, thyroxine, and triiodothyronine metabolism in normal and spontaneously hyperthyroid cats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hays, M.T.; Broome, M.R.; Turrel, J.M.

    1988-06-01

    A comprehensive multicompartmental kinetic model was developed to account for the distribution and metabolism of simultaneously injected radioactive iodide (iodide*), T3 (T3*), and T4 (T4*) in six normal and seven spontaneously hyperthyroid cats. Data from plasma samples (analyzed by HPLC), urine, feces, and thyroid accumulation were incorporated into the model. The submodels for iodide*, T3*, and T4* all included both a fast and a slow exchange compartment connecting with the plasma compartment. The best-fit iodide* model also included a delay compartment, presumed to be pooling of gastrosalivary secretions. This delay was 62% longer in the hyperthyroid cats than in the euthyroid cats. Unexpectedly, all of the exchange parameters for both T4 and T3 were significantly slowed in hyperthyroidism, possibly because the hyperthyroid cats were older. None of the plasma equivalent volumes of the exchange compartments of iodide*, T3*, or T4* was significantly different in the hyperthyroid cats, although the plasma equivalent volume of the fast T4 exchange compartments were reduced. Secretion of recycled T4* from the thyroid into the plasma T4* compartment was essential to model fit, but its quantity could not be uniquely identified in the absence of multiple thyroid data points. Thyroid secretion of T3* was not detectable. Comparing the fast and slow compartments, there was a shift of T4* deiodination into the fast exchange compartment in hyperthyroidism. Total body mean residence times (MRTs) of iodide* and T3* were not affected by hyperthyroidism, but mean T4* MRT was decreased 23%. Total fractional T4 to T3 conversion was unchanged in hyperthyroidism, although the amount of T3 produced by this route was increased nearly 5-fold because of higher concentrations of donor stable T4.

  4. BDE 47 AND PCB 153 INCREASE THYROXINE CATABOLISM IN PRIMARY RAT AND HUMAN HEPATOCYTES: THE UTILITY OF HEPATOCYTES AS SCREENING TOOLS FOR POTENTIAL THYROID HORMONE DISRUPTORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies demonstrate that exposure to 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE 47) and 2,2',4,4',5,5'· hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 153) decrease serum thyroxine (T4)levels in laboratory animals 1,2,3. The T4 decrease in rodents is thought to occur through the induction of UDP-glucurono...

  5. Kinetic method for the determination of traces of thyroxine by its catalytic effect on the Mn(III) metaphosphate-As(III) reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, Ferenc T; Milovanović, Gordana A; Todorović, Marija

    2008-02-15

    A new, highly sensitive and simple kinetic method for the determination of thyroxine was proposed. The method was based on the catalytic effect of thyroxine on the oxidation of As(III) by Mn(III) metaphosphate. The kinetics of the reaction was studied in the presence of orthophosphoric acid. The reaction rate was followed spectrophotometrically at 516 nm. It was established that orthophosphoric acid increased the reaction rate and that the extent of the non-catalytic reaction was extremely small. A kinetic equation was postulated and the apparent rate constant was calculated. The dependence of the reaction rate on temperature was investigated and the energy of activation and other kinetic parameters were determined. Thyroxine was determined under the optimal experimental conditions in the range 7.0 x 10(-9) to 3.0 x 10(-8) mol L(-1) with a relative standard deviation up to 6.7% and a detection limit of 2.7 x 10(-9) molL(-1). In the presence of 0.08 mol L(-1) chloride, the detection limit decreased to 6.6 x 10(-10) mol L(-1). The proposed method was applied for the determination of thyroxine in tablets. The accuracy of the method was evaluated by comparison with the HPLC method.

  6. Developmental Triclosan Exposure Decreases Maternal,Fetal, and Early Neonatal Thyroxine: Dynamic and Kinetic Data Support for a Mode-of-Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    This work tests the mode-of-action (MOA) hypothesis that perinatal triclosan (TCS) exposure decreases circulating thyroxine (T4) concentrations via activation of pregnane X and/or constitutive androstane receptors (PXR, CAR), resulting in up-regulation of hepatic catabolism and e...

  7. Composite reference interval for thyroid-stimulating hormone and free thyroxine, comparison with common cutoff values, and reconsideration of subclinical thyroid disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ross, H.A.; Heijer, M. den; Hermus, A.R.M.M.; Sweep, C.G.J.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Examination of the 2-dimensional probability distribution of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine (FT(4)) shows that the widths of the TSH and FT(4) reference intervals derived from this bivariate distribution are mutually interdependent, an aspect commonly ignored when i

  8. Effect of thyroxine on cellular oxygen-consumption and glucose uptake: evidence of an effect of total T4 and not "free T4"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvetny, J; Matzen, L E

    1990-01-01

    in human mononuclear blood cells. Cells were incubated in protein free medium and in human serum totally depleted of thyroid hormones by resin treatment and fixed amounts of T4 (total T4 = 0-50-100-5000 nmol/l; free T4 = 0-5-11-5600 pmol/l) were added. Thyroxine stimulated glucose uptake and oxygen...

  9. Evaluation of testosterone serum levels in testicular interstitial fluid under thyroxine influence; Avaliacao da testosterona no fluido intersticial testicular sob influencia da tiroxina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Isvania Maria S. da; Pereira, Simey de L.S.; Souza, Grace Mary L.; Carvalho, Elaine F.M.B.; Catanho, Maria Teresa J. de A. [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Biofisica e Radiobiologia; Silveira, Maria de Fatima G. da [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Anatomia; Lima Filho, Guilherme L. [Universidade de Pernambuco (UPE), Nazare da Mata, PE (Brazil). Faculdade de Formacao de Professores

    2000-07-01

    The thyroid hormones possibly exert a reciprocal action between testicular steroids and Sertoli's cells during the premature period. This work aims to evaluate thyroxine effect on testosterone serum levels and in the testicular interstitial fluid (TIF) in rats. Wistar males rats, 22 days old, 80g of body weight, were induced to hyperthyroidism with thyroxine (20{mu}g/kg) in periods of 5, 10, 15 and 20 consecutive days. After the treatment the animals were weighed and sacrificed for blood and testis collection. From the blood serum and from the TIF drained from the testis were performed testes in order to obtain testosterone attached to {sup 125} I with a specific activity of 36,86 MBq/ig. The results have shown a testosterone significant lineal increase in both - serum and TIF - in the group treated with thyroxine as a time function. In the control group, testosterone levels remained low in both serum and TIF dosages. As a result, we were able to verify that the testosterone levels could be modified by thyroxine in serum and TIF. And so, it could affect luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels in hypophysis. (author)

  10. Depression and Internal Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Panuccio

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Depression is 2-4 times more frequent in medically ill patients than in the general population, it significantly undermines the quality of life and makes prognosis worse in terms of morbidity and mortality. Nevertheless the majority of cases are not recognized or appropriately treated. A growing body of evidence suggests that mood disorders and many medical illnesses are linked in a bidirectional way by several biological mechanisms. Autonomic function changes, hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, increases in plasma cortisol, elevated levels of proinflammatory cytokines, increased platelet activation and hypercoagulability, all of them occur in patients with depression and all of them are causal factors in development and progression of atherothrombotic lesions or they are implicated in the pathogenesis of neoplasm and other illness such as chronic pain, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, rheumatoid arthritis and so on. CONCLUSIONS Although antidepressant use has not been shown to reduce mortality rates in patients with medical illness, it alleviates depression, improves the quality of life and reduces morbidity. Clinicians should be aware of this association and should make an effort in detecting and treating not only biological illness but also mood disorders.

  11. Can Lupus Cause Depression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lupus Living well with lupus Can lupus cause depression? Life with lupus can be challenging. With symptoms ... treatable illness called clinical depression. Symptoms of Clinical Depression People are considered clinically depressed when they have ...

  12. Older Adults and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... find more information? Reprints Share Older Adults and Depression Download PDF Download ePub Order a free hardcopy ... depression need treatment to feel better. Types of Depression There are several types of depression. The most ...

  13. Depression and Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Symptoms Depression Share this page Facebook Twitter Email Depression Depression Fatigue Walking (Gait) Difficulties Numbness or Tingling ... away from addictive substances such as alcohol. Clinical depression It’s important to distinguish between mild, everyday “blues” — ...

  14. Maternal thyroid function at 11-13 weeks of gestation in women with hypothyroidism treated by thyroxine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashoor, Ghalia; Rotas, Michael; Maiz, Nerea; Kametas, Nikos A; Nicolaides, Kypros H

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study in pregnant women with hypothyroidism treated by levothyroxine is to examine the interrelations between thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT(4)) and free tri-iodothyronine (FT(3)), and examine whether in such patients the treatment is adequate. This was a retrospective cross-sectional study. Maternal serum concentrations of FT(3), FT(4) and TSH were measured at 11-13 weeks in 164 singleton pregnancies from women with hypothyroidism before pregnancy receiving treatment with thyroxine. The values were compared to the results in 4,318 normal singleton pregnancies. In the hypothyroid group, compared to the normal group, there was an increase in median TSH (1.990 vs. 1.007 MoM) and FT(4) (1.052 vs. 0.992 MoM) and decrease in FT(3) (0.901 vs. 0.991 MoM). Serum FT(4) was at or above the 2.5th centile in 158 (96.3%) cases but TSH was above the 97.5th centile in 48 (29.3%) and FT(3) was below the 2.5th centile in 49 (29.9%) cases. In both the hypothyroid and unaffected groups there were significant associations between TSH and FT(4), TSH and FT(3) and between FT(3) and FT(4). In a high proportion of pregnant women with hypothyroidism treated with levothyroxine there is evidence of persistent hypothyroidism because the treatment is inadequate in correcting the levels of FT(3). Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Potential Influence of Selenium, Copper, Zinc and Cadmium on L-Thyroxine Substitution in Patients with Hashimoto Thyroiditis and Hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasic-Milutinovic, Z; Jovanovic, D; Bogdanovic, G; Trifunovic, J; Mutic, J

    2017-02-01

    Background: Besides genetic factors, it is known that some trace elements, as Selenium, Copper, and Zinc are essential for thyroid gland fuction and thyroid hormone metabolism. Moreover, there were some metals effect that suggested patterns associated with overt thyroid disease. Aim of study: Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT), chronic autoimune inflamation of thyroid gland with cosequtive hipothyroidism, is common disease in Serbia, and we thought it is worthwile to explore potential effects of essential and toxic metals and metalloides on thyroid function and ability to restore euthyroid status of them. Results: This cross-sectional, case-control, study investigated the status of essential elements (Selenium,Copper,and Zinc) and toxic metals and metalloides (Al, Cr, Mn, Co, As, Cd, Sb, Ba, Be, Pb and Ni) from the blood of 22 female, patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis and overt hypothyroidism, and compared it with those of 55 female healthy persons. We tried to establish the presence of any correlation between previous mentioned elements and thyroid function in hypothyroid patients and healthy participants. Conclusions: The results of our study suggested that the blood concentration of essential trace elements, especially the ratio of Copper, and Selenium may influence directly thyroid function in patients with HT and overt hypothyroidism.Thus, our findings may have implication to life-long substitution therapy in terms of l-thyroxine dose reduction. Furthermore, for the first time, our study shown potential toxic effect of Cadmium on thyroid function in HT patients, which may implicate the dose of l-thyroxine substitution. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. [Thyroxine (T4) and tri-iodothyronine (T3) determinations: techniques and value in the assessment of thyroid function].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapin, R; Schlienger, J-L

    2003-01-01

    Hormonal production of the thyroid gland is constituted of thyroxine or T4 (80%) and triiodothyronine or T3 (20%). In the circulation, whole T4 originates from thyroid secretion but most of T3 (80%) is produced extrathyroidally from T4 deiodination. Conversion of T4 to T3 may be influenced by various conditions and circulating T3 is a less reliable reflection of thyroid hormone production than T4. In serum most of T4 and T3 is bound to binding proteins and only 0.02% of T4 and 0.3% of T3 is free. Because of their higher diagnostic performance, free T4 (FT4) and free T3 (FT3) measurements have superseded total (free + bound) hormone determination. Total hormone measurements remain useful for research studies or in case of severe hyperthyroidism. Equilibrium dialysis/RIA is considered as the reference method for free hormone measurements. Routine clinical laboratories use automated direct two-step or one-step immunoassays with a high molecular weight ligand or labelled antibody. Free hormone measurement remains technically demanding, especially in sera from severe non-thyroid ill patients with low serum thyroxine binding capacity. Interference from anti-thyroid hormone antibodies and familial dysalbuminemic hyperthyroxinemia depends on the assay method, but is now less marked and less frequently detected. To be able to correctly interpret the results of an assay, it is necessary to assess its performance in biologically and clinically well-characterised serum samples. FT4, and FT3 measurements, if FT4 is normal and hyperthyroidism suspected, are used to confirm and assess the level of hypo and hyperthyroidism (overt or subclinical). When the thyroidal status is unstable (first months of a thyroid treatment, altered L-T4 dose, subacute thyroiditis) or when the hypothalamic-pituitary function is disturbed (central hypothyroidism), TSH determination is diagnostically misleading and only free hormone measurements are reliable for thyroid function assessment.

  17. Decreased Prostaglandin D2 Levels in Major Depressive Disorder Are Associated with Depression-Like Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Cuilin; Wei, Hui; Zhu, Wanwan; Shen, Yan; Xu, Qi

    2017-09-01

    Prostaglandin (PG) D2 is the most abundant prostaglandin in the mammalian brain. The physiological and pharmacological actions of PGD2 in the central nervous system seem to be associated with some of the symptoms exhibited by patients with major depressive disorder. Previous studies have found that PGD2 synthase was decreased in the cerebrospinal fluid of major depressive disorder patients. We speculated that there may be a dysregulation of PGD2 levels in major depressive disorder. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry coupled with a stable isotopic-labeled internal standard was used to determine PGD2 levels in the plasma of major depressive disorder patients and in the brains of depressive mice. A total of 32 drug-free major depressive disorder patients and 30 healthy controls were recruited. An animal model of depression was constructed by exposing mice to 5 weeks of chronic unpredictable mild stress. To explore the role of PGD2 in major depressive disorder, selenium tetrachloride was administered to simulate the change in PGD2 levels in mice. Mice exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress exhibited depression-like behaviors, as indicated by reduced sucrose preference and increased immobility time in the forced swimming test. PGD2 levels in the plasma of major depressive disorder patients and in the brains of depressive mice were both decreased compared with their corresponding controls. Further inhibiting PGD2 production in mice resulted in an increased immobility time in the forced swimming test that could be reversed by imipramine. Decreased PGD2 levels in major depressive disorder are associated with depression-like behaviors.

  18. [THE INFLUENCE OF LONG-TERM THYROXINE TREATMENT ON THE ACTIVITY OF NO-SYNTHASES IN TISSUES OF RATS WITH OBESITY INDUCED BY HIGH-FAT DIET].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, L A; Derkach, K V; Sharova, T S; Bondareva, V M; Shpakov, A O

    2015-01-01

    Under obesity, a component of metabolic syndrome (MS), macro- and microcirculation are attenuated, which is associated with abnormalities of NO-dependent cascades and leads to pathology of the cardiovascular system. Among the activators of NO-synthases (NOS), the enzymes catalyzing NO synthesis, are thyroid hormones. Since obesity and MS are characterized by reduced functions, of the thyroid gland, the replacement therapy with thyroid hormones, possessing the properties of vasodilators, is one of approached to restore functioning of the cardiovascular system. However, data on influence of thyroid hormones on NOS activity in obesity are not currently available. The aim of this work was to study the effect of four-week treatment of rats with obesity induced by high-fat diet with L-thyroxine (at a daily dose of 20 mg-kg) on functional activity of total NOS, as well as one endothelial (eNOS) and neuronal (nNOS) isoforms of the enzyme in the brain, myocardium and skeletal muscles of animals. In obese rats the decrease of thyroid hormones level, impaired glucose toleranse, and dyslipidemia were detected. In the myocardium and skeletal muscles of obese rats the activity of total NOS and eNOS was strongly decreased, whereas in the brain the activity of these enzymes was not significantly changed. Long-term treatment of obese rats with thyroxine led to a significant increase in activity of total NOS and eNOS in the myocardium and skeletal muscles and to an increase in activity of total NOS and nNOS in the brain, with the enzyme activity exceeding that in control. In healthy animals treated with thyroxine a significant increase in activity of total NOS and eNOS in the myocardium and skeletal muscles and in activity of total NOS in the brain was also eNOS in the myocardium and skeletal muscles and in activity of total NOS in the brain was also found. A significant contribution to the increasing activity of total NOS in obese rats and healthy animals treated with thyroxine

  19. Increased arginine vasopressin mRNA expression in the human hypothalamus in depression: A preliminary report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Meynen; U.A. Unmehopa; J.J. van Heerikhuize; M.A. Hofman; D.F. Swaab; W.J.G. Hoogendijk

    2006-01-01

    Background: Elevated arginine vasopressin (AVP) plasma levels have been observed in major depression, particularly in relation to the melancholic subtype. Two hypothalamic structures produce plasma vasopressin: the supraoptic nucleus (SON) and the paraventricular nucleus (PVN). The aim of this study

  20. Helping your teen with depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teen depression - helping; Teen depression - talk therapy; Teen depression - medicine ... teen the most. The most effective treatments for depression are: Talk therapy Antidepressant medicines If your teen ...

  1. Comparative Effectiveness of Replacement Therapy with L-thyroxine in Women with Postoperative and Autoimmune Hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Sch Madiyarova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To compare the lipid profile, psychoemotional features, cognitive function, quality of life in women receiving adequate replacement therapy with levothyroxine for postoperative hypothyroidism and autoimmune (Hashimoto's hypothyroidism.Methods. 121 women (18-45 y.o. with primary hypothyroidism receiving levothyroxine for more than one year participated in the study. 66 women with autoimmune hypothyroidism, 55 - with hypothyroidism after subtotal thyroidectomy for Graves' disease. The scores for the Short-Form 36, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, symptoms of hypothyroidism, Inventory of memory and attention, TSH, free T3, free T4 and lipid profiles were analyzed. Results. There were no significant differences between groups in the age, BMI, TSH, fT3, fT4 levels. The total cholesterol was higher in patients with postoperative hypothyroidism in comparison to autoimmune hypothyroidism ( р = 0,041. The levels of social functioning and mental health that reflect mental component of health were lower in patients with autoimmune hypothyroidism than with postoperative hypothyroidism ( p = 0,038, p = 0,019, respectively. The anxiety was higher in the same group ( p = 0,004. There was no difference in memory and attention levels. The anxiety level was higher in autoimmune hypothyroidism and “low-normal” TSH (0,4 - 2 µU/L than in postoperative hypothyroidism and the same TSH ( p = 0,016. Also in the group with postoperative hypothyroidism and “low-normal” TSH the cholesterol and prevalence of hypercholesterolemia were higher than in autoimmune hypothyroidism ( p = 0,017; р = 0,013. Conclusion. In young women with compensated autoimmune hypothyroidism the mental component of health is lower and the anxiety - higher than in postoperative hypothyroidism. Even in stable compensation of postoperative hypothyroidism the cholesterol level is higher comparing to the patients with autoimmune thyroiditis. And even in “low-normal” TSH

  2. [Lipids, depression and suicide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colin, A; Reggers, J; Castronovo, V; Ansseau, M

    2003-01-01

    fatty acids contained in fish, game and vegetables have been largely replaced by polyunsatured omega 6 fatty acids of cereal oils. Some epidemiological data support the hypothesis of a relation between lower depression and/or suicide rates and a higher consumption of fish. These data do not however prove a relation of causality. Several cohort studies (on nondepressed subjects) have assessed the relationship between plasma cholesterol and depressive symptoms with contradictory results. Though some results found a significant relationship between a decrease of total cholesterol and high scores of depression, some other did not. Studies among patients suffering from major depression signalled more constantly an association between low cholesterol and major depression. Besides, some trials showed that clinical recovery may be associated with a significant increase of total cholesterol. The hypothesis that a low cholesterol level may represent a suicidal risk factor was discovered accidentally following a series of epidemiological studies which revealed an increase of the suicidal risk among subjects with a low cholesterol level. Though some contradictory studies do exist, this relationship has been confirmed by several subsequent cohort studies. These findings have challenged the vast public health programs aimed at promoting the decrease of cholesterol, and even suggested to suspend the administration of lipid lowering drugs. Recent clinical studies on populations treated with lipid lowering drugs showed nevertheless a lack of significant increase of mortality, either by suicide or accident. In addition, several controlled studies among psychiatric patients revealed a decrease of the concentrations of plasma cholesterol among patients who had attempted suicide in comparison with other patients. In major depression, all studies revealed a significant decrease of the polyunsaturated omega 3 fatty acids and/or an increase of the omega 6/omega 3 ratio in plasma and/or in the

  3. Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Parathyroid Hormone Levels in Non-Lactating Women with Post-Partum Thyroiditis: The Effect of L-Thyroxine Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krysiak, Robert; Kowalska, Beata; Okopien, Bogusław

    2015-06-01

    Vitamin D deficiency seems to be implicated in the onset and progression of some autoimmune disorders. No previous study has investigated vitamin D homeostasis in post-partum thyroiditis. We compared 25-hydroxyvitamin D and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels between four groups of non-lactating women who gave birth within 12 months before the beginning of the study: hypothyroid women with post-partum thyroiditis (group A; n = 14), euthyroid females with post-partum thyroiditis (group B; n = 14), women with non-autoimmune hypothyroidism (group C; n = 16) and healthy euthyroid females without thyroid autoimmunity (group D; n = 15). In the second part of the study, groups A and C were treated for 6 months with L-thyroxine. Serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D were lower, while PTH higher in patients with post-partum thyroiditis than in patients without thyroid autoimmunity. They were also lower (25-hydroxyvitamin D) or higher (PTH) in group A than in group B, as well as in group C in comparison with group D. L-thyroxine treatment increased 25-hydroxyvitamin D and reduced PTH levels only in hypothyroid women with post-partum thyroiditis. Baseline levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D correlated with thyroid antibody titres, thyroid function and circulating PTH levels, while the effect of L-thyroxine on serum levels of this vitamin correlated with the changes in thyroid antibody titres and PTH levels. The results of our study suggest the association of vitamin D status with post-partum thyroiditis and L-thyroxine treatment of this disorder.

  4. Toluene depresses plasma corticosterone in pregnant rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Karin S; Hansen, Åse Marie; Hass, Ulla

    2003-01-01

    of corticosteroids from the maternal to the foetal compartment. Pregnant rats were subjected to either 1500 ppm toluene 6 hr/day and/or a schedule of "Chronic mild stress" during the last two weeks of gestation. Exposure to toluene was associated with reduced birth weight and lower maternal weight gain, the latter...

  5. Toluene depresses plasma corticosterone in pregnant rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, K. S.; Hansen, A. M.; Hass, Ulla

    2003-01-01

    Combined exposure to stressors and chemicals may result in synergistic effects. The effects of prenatal exposure to the organic solvent toluene resemble those observed in offspring of gestationally stressed dams, a possible common mechanism being transfer of stress-/toluene-induced increments of ...

  6. Pattern of thyroid function during early pregnancy in women diagnosed with subclinical hypothyroidism and treated with l-thyroxine is similar to that in euthyroid controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Geyter, Christian; Steimann, Sabine; Müller, Beat; Kränzlin, Marius E; Meier, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) is associated with a higher miscarriage rate. It is unclear how the thyroid function in SCH differs from that in euthyroidism during early pregnancy. We intended to determine the regulation of thyroid function in women with SCH receiving constant l-thyroxine (T4) replacement during early pregnancy as compared to euthyroid controls. This was a prospective cohort study with weekly serum sampling in eight women in early pregnancy with SCH and eight euthyroid women from week 5 to week 12 of pregnancy. Thyroid function was assessed before pregnancy. Women with SCH were treated with T4 (50 microg daily) and continued on an unchanged dose until week 12. The following parameters were measured weekly: thyrotropin (TSH), thyroglobulin, thyroxine, triiodothyronine, free thyroxine (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3), estradiol, progesterone, human chorionic gonadotropin, and prolactin. Although the pregestational levels of TSH were significantly higher among women with SCH as compared to euthyroid controls, the self-limited estrogen-induced increment of TSH during early pregnancy was similar in both groups. Although both SCH and ovarian hyperstimulation were associated with an intermediate rise in TSH, the pattern of thyroid function followed similar changes as in euthyroid controls and is unlikely to cause the higher miscarriage rate observed in SCH.

  7. Effect of vitamin C in pineapple rind (Ananas comosus L. Merr on thyroxine hormone and anti stress on broilers in tropical region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syahruddin E

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to determine the right level of vitamin C in extracted pineapple rind to prevent heat stress effects so it does not interfere with the performance of broiler chickens. This study was done in a series of field experiments. Experiments in the field/cage was biological test of the effect of vitamin C from pineapple rind on production responses (percentage of body weight gain and carcass and physiological responses (thyroxine hormone levels in broiler chicken aged 3 weeks as many as 360 of Strain Arbor acress. The basic design used was CRD 3 x 4 factorial models and 3 replications with 10 chickens for each box, as factor 1: Room temperature (21 : 27 and 33ºC, and factor II: level of vitamin C in the pineapple rind (0:500:1000 and 1500 ppm. The data obtained were statistically analyzed using SAS program package, and if it showed any significant effect then followed by Duncans test/DMRT. Variables measured were body weight gain, carcass percentage and levels of thyroxine hormone of broiler. Results showed that addition of pineapple rind containing 500 ppm vitamin C in the drinking water reduced heat stress in chicken that were kept at temperature of 27ºC, while at 33ºC needed 1000 ppm vitamin C. Both treatments increase level of thyroxine hormone, produce weight gain equal to control, more over, there was no effect on the percentage of carcasses.

  8. Propranolol and verapamil inhibit mRNA expression of RyR2 and SERCA in L-thyroxin-induced rat ventricular hypertrophy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-dong WU; De-zai DAI; Qiu-pin ZHANG; Feng GAO

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To study the alteration in the mRNA level of cardiac ryanodine receptor 2 (RyR2) and sarco-endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA) in L-thyroxin-induced hypertrophy. METHODS: L-thyroxin (500 g/kg) daily was injected for 10 d. RT-PCR was used to determine mRNA expression. RESULTS: An increase in the relative amount of RyR2 (111%) and SERCA mRNA (65 %) expression was observed in the hypertrophied rats (RyR2:77± 11; SERCA: 87± 10, n=9) compared with the normal rats (RyR2: 36± 10; SERCA: 53± 10, n=9). Propranolol was effective to inhibit the increase in RyR2 (51±7) and SERCA (63±13) mRNA expression in hypertrophied rats,respectively. Verapamil also reduced RyR2 (62±5) and SERCA (75±8) mRNA expression. CONCLUSION: Both RyR2 and SERCA mRNA level in L-thyroxin-induced cardiac hypertrophy was over-expressed and propranolol or verapamil inhibited the alteration.

  9. New test principle for measurement of free thyroxine (fT/sub 4/) in serum. Results of a multicenter trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahlstedt, J.

    1981-04-01

    A new principle for measurement of free serum thyroxine was investigated being a nearly classical radioimmunoassay by use of an analogue of /sup 125/I-T/sub 4/, which does not bind to serum proteins but binds as well as T/sub 4/ to the T/sub 4/-antiserum. The distribution of 438 test-results of euthyroid patients with and without goitre is normal, anti x being 1.34 ng/dl with 2s-range between 0.73-1.95 ng/dl. This normal range was derived from areas in FRG known for more or less iodine deficiency. Thus fT/sub 4/ seems not to be strongly dependent on iodine intake. fT/sub 4/ in sera from pregnant women of the third trimester was clearly decreased, one half of the values being in the lower normal range, the other half being in the hypothyroid range. Patients on contraceptive therapy showed values within the normal range. Patients on T/sub 4/-supplementation in part revealed more or less increased values. Quality control was performed using 44 assays. The mean interassay variation coefficient was clearly less than 10% using three control sera in the euthyroid, hyperthyroid and extremely hypothyroid range. The technical handling of the assay is very convenient. The assay is to be performed within 2 hours.

  10. Higher Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone, Triiodothyronine and Thyroxine Values Are Associated with Better Outcome in Acute Liver Failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olympia Anastasiou

    Full Text Available Changes in thyroid hormone levels, mostly as non-thyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS, have been described in many diseases. However, the relationship between acute liver failure (ALF and thyroid hormone levels has not yet been clarified. The present study evaluates potential correlations of select thyroid functional parameters with ALF.84 consecutively recruited ALF patients were grouped according to the outcome of ALF (spontaneous recovery: SR; transplantation or death: NSR. TSH, free thyroxine (fT4, free triiodothyronine (fT3, T4, and T3 were determined.More than 50% of patients with ALF presented with abnormal thyroid parameters. These patients had greater risk for an adverse outcome than euthyroid patients. SR patients had significantly higher TSH, T4, and T3 concentrations than NSR patients. Albumin concentrations were significantly higher in SR than in NSR. In vitro T3 treatment was not able to rescue primary human hepatocytes from acetaminophen induced changes in mRNA expression.In patients with ALF, TSH and total thyroid hormone levels differed significantly between SR patients and NSR patients. This might be related to diminished liver-derived transport proteins, such as albumin, in more severe forms of ALF. Thyroid parameters may serve as additional indicators of ALF severity.

  11. Beneficial role of ascorbic and folic acids antioxidants against thyroxin-induced testicular dysfunction in hyperthyroid rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltagy, Doha M; Mohamed, Tarek M; El Said, Ahmed S; Tousson, Ehab

    2016-09-01

    Thyroid hormones play a fundamental role in the regulation of metabolism of almost all mammalian tissue including the reproductive system. Hyperthyroidism in early life may cause delayed sexual maturation, although physical development is normal and skeletal growth may be accelerated. Hyperthyroidism after puberty influences reproductive functions and increases testosterone level. The aim of this work is to study the effect of induced hyperthyroidism by L-thyroxine sodium administration on the testis of rats and to evaluate the ameliorating role of different antioxidants as ascorbic acid and folic acid on the hyperthyroid state via the assessment of different biochemical markers, histopathological and immunochemical sections. DNA analysis of the D1 deiodinase was performed to determine genetic mutation due to hyperthyroidism. The results showed partially disrupted in the measured biochemical parameters and spermatogenesis in hyperthyroid rats. Post-administration of both folic and ascorbic acids together in hyperthyroid rats showed the best ameliorating effects on the thyroid hormones, testosterone, testicular GGT and ALP, and all oxidative stress markers. There is no genetic mutations that occurred in D1 deiodinase due to hyperthyroidism. These findings were indicated by the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) studies of testes.

  12. Evaluation of routine hematology profile results and fructosamine, thyroxine, insulin, and proinsulin concentrations in lean, overweight, obese, and diabetic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoenig, Margarethe; Traas, Anne M; Schaeffer, David J

    2013-11-01

    To compare results of hematologic testing in nondiabetic and diabetic cats to identify possible indicators of alterations in long-term glucose control. Cross-sectional study. 117 client-owned cats (76 nondiabetic cats [25 with normal body condition, 27 overweight, and 24 obese] and 41 naïve [n = 21] and treated [20] diabetic cats). Signalment and medical history, including data on feeding practices, were collected. A body condition score was assigned, and feline body mass index was calculated. Complete blood counts and serum biochemical analyses, including determination of fructosamine, thyroxine, insulin, and proinsulin concentrations, were performed. Urine samples were obtained and analyzed. Glucose and fructosamine concentrations were significantly higher in the naïve and treated diabetic cats than in the nondiabetic cats. Insulin and proinsulin concentrations were highest in the obese cats but had great individual variation. Few other variables were significantly different among cat groups. Most cats, even when obese or diabetic, had unlimited access to food. Results suggested that cats at risk of developing diabetes (ie, overweight and obese cats) could not be distinguished from cats with a normal body condition on the basis of results of isolated hematologic testing. A longitudinal study is indicated to follow nondiabetic cats over a period of several years to identify those that eventually develop diabetes. Findings also suggested that dietary education of cat owners might be inadequate.

  13. Self-Assembly of Pyridine-Modified Lipoic Acid Derivatives on Gold and Their Interaction with Thyroxine (T4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierangelo Metrangolo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Pyridyl derivatives of lipoic acid were prepared as ligands for the study of the interaction with thyroxine (T4. Thin self-assembled films of the ligands were prepared in 70% ethanol on gold and their interaction with T4 was studied by titration experiments in an aqueous buffer solution using Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR. The thickness and refractive index of the ligand layers were calculated from SPR spectra recorded in two media, also allowing for surface coverage and the density of the layers to be estimated. Two ligands, a 4-pyridyl and a bis(2-hydroxyethyl derivative of lipoic acid, were selected to investigate the feasibility for producing molecularly imprinted self-assembled layers on gold for T4. The methodology was to co-assemble T4 and the ligand onto the gold surface, elute the T4 from the layer under alkaline conditions, and study the rebinding of T4 to the layer. Multiple elution/rebinding cycles were conducted in different buffer solutions, and rebinding of T4 could be observed, with a moderate binding affinity that depended greatly on the solvent used. More optimal binding was observed in HBS buffer, and the affinity of the interaction could be slightly increased when the 4-pyridyl and bis(2-hydroxy-ethyl derivatives of lipoic acid were combined in the imprinted layer.

  14. Inner ring deiodination of thyroxine and 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine by human fetal membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roti, E.; Fang, S.L.; Green, K.; Braverman, L.E.; Emerson, C.H.

    1983-12-01

    Indirect evidence, based on injection of thyroxine (T4) into the amniotic cavity of humans, and maternal thyroidectomy in the rat, suggests that fetal membranes might be capable of converting T4 to 3,3',5'-triiodothyronine (rT3) by virtue of inner ring iodothyronine deiodinase activity. The present study was undertaken to provide direct evidence that human fetal membranes contain inner ring iodothyronine deiodinase activity directed toward T4 and 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3). Homogenates of human fetal membranes were incubated with 125I-labeled T4, rT3, and T3, and with stable T4. Conversion of 125(I)-T4 to 125(I)-rT3 was noted in chorion and amnion. 125I-T3 was converted to 125(I)-3,3'-diiodothyronine (T2) in chorion and amnion. 125(I)-rT3 was stable in fetal membranes under the incubation conditions employed. Time-, temperature-, pH-, and protein content-dependent conversion of stable T4 to rT3 was found in fetal membranes. Iodothyronine metabolism did not occur in the absence of dithiothreitol. These studies indicate that human fetal membranes contain an inner ring deiodinase enzyme. Because of its intimate contact with the amniotic cavity, this enzyme may generate a portion of the rT3 found in amniotic fluid.

  15. Conversion of L-thyroxine to L-triiodothyronine in the rat liver under in vitro conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nauman, A.; Kaminski, T.; Pastuszko, D. (Centrum Medyczne Ksztalcenia Podyplomowego, Warsaw (Poland))

    1979-01-01

    Conversion of thyroxine (T/sub 4/) to triiodothyronine (T/sub 3/) has been studied in liver homogenates obtained from normal and hypothyroid rats. Liver homogenates were incubated for 0-60 minutes at 37/sup 0/C in Tris buffer containing sucrose and T/sub 4/, pH 7.4. T/sub 3/ generated during incubation was measured by a specific radioimmunoassay of an ethanol extract of the incubates. Conversion rate of T/sub 4/ to T/sub 3/ by liver homogenates from intact rats was found to be time, protein concentration and substrate concentration (T/sub 4/) dependent. Heating of homogenate above 60/sup 0/C abolished while cooling significantly decreased the monodeiodination. In homogenates from hypothyroid rats the conversion and its rate were significantly decreased. The results of present study confirmed enzymatic character of monodeiodination reaction. Decreased conversion of T/sub 4/ to T/sub 3/ in hypothyroidism suggests that biosynthesis of converting enzyme may be regulated by thyroid hormones.

  16. Self-Assembly of Pyridine-Modified Lipoic Acid Derivatives on Gold and Their Interaction with Thyroxine (T4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, Willem M.; Milani, Roberto; Tappura, Kirsi; Munter, Tony; Resnati, Giuseppe; Metrangolo, Pierangelo

    2013-01-01

    Pyridyl derivatives of lipoic acid were prepared as ligands for the study of the interaction with thyroxine (T4). Thin self-assembled films of the ligands were prepared in 70% ethanol on gold and their interaction with T4 was studied by titration experiments in an aqueous buffer solution using Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR). The thickness and refractive index of the ligand layers were calculated from SPR spectra recorded in two media, also allowing for surface coverage and the density of the layers to be estimated. Two ligands, a 4-pyridyl and a bis(2-hydroxyethyl) derivative of lipoic acid, were selected to investigate the feasibility for producing molecularly imprinted self-assembled layers on gold for T4. The methodology was to co-assemble T4 and the ligand onto the gold surface, elute the T4 from the layer under alkaline conditions, and study the rebinding of T4 to the layer. Multiple elution/rebinding cycles were conducted in different buffer solutions, and rebinding of T4 could be observed, with a moderate binding affinity that depended greatly on the solvent used. More optimal binding was observed in HBS buffer, and the affinity of the interaction could be slightly increased when the 4-pyridyl and bis(2-hydroxy-ethyl) derivatives of lipoic acid were combined in the imprinted layer. PMID:23389045

  17. What is depression?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Annette Sofie; Fosgerau, Christina Fogtmann

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of depression is defined by psychiatrists, and guidelines for treatment of patients with depression are created in psychiatry. However, most patients with depression are treated exclusively in general practice. Psychiatrists point out that general practitioners' (GPs') treatment of ...

  18. Sadness and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What Happens in the Operating Room? Sadness and Depression KidsHealth > For Kids > Sadness and Depression A A ... big difference in your life. When Sadness Is Depression When you're in a sad mood, it ...

  19. Depression Strikes…Anyone

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Depression Depression Strikes… Anyone Winter 2017 Table of Contents Anyone can suffer from depression. And almost everyone has a friend or family ...

  20. Depression and College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... depression and other mental health issues? Reference Share Depression and College Students Download PDF Download ePub Order ... Answers to college students’ frequently asked questions about depression Feeling moody, sad, or grouchy? Who doesn’t ...

  1. Sadness and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Sadness and Depression KidsHealth > For Kids > Sadness and Depression Print A ... big difference in your life. When Sadness Is Depression When you're in a sad mood, it ...

  2. Postpartum Depression Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Where can I find more information? Share Postpartum Depression Facts Download PDF Download ePub Download Mobi Order ... for herself or her family. What is postpartum depression? Postpartum depression is a mood disorder that can ...

  3. Recognizing teen depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000648.htm Recognizing teen depression To use the sharing features on this page, ... life. Be Aware of the Risk for Teen Depression Your teen is more at risk for depression ...

  4. Men and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in crisis? For more information Share Men and Depression Download PDF Download ePub Order a free hardcopy ... If so, you may have depression. What is depression? Everyone feels sad or irritable sometimes, or has ...

  5. Various forms of depression

    OpenAIRE

    BENAZZI, FRANCO

    2006-01-01

    The current subtyping of depression is based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed. Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) categorical division of bipolar and depressive disorders. Current evidence, however, supports a dimensional approach to depression, as a continuum/spectrum of overlapping disorders, ranging from bipolar I depression to major depressive disorder. Types of depression which have recently been the focus of most research will be reviewed ; bipolar II depressi...

  6. [Depressive symptoms and sexuality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, Robert

    2014-10-01

    The mutually reinforcing dyad of depressive symptoms and erectile dysfunction is scientifically established. The cure of depression improves sexual dysfunction (SD) and the treatment of SD induces improvement of depression. Most of anti-depressants induce negative sexual side effects that lead to non-compliance of these treatments. The knowledge of interrelation between depression, anti-depressants and sexuality is of great importance in clinical practice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Hyperhomocysteinemia is a result, rather than a cause, of depression under chronic stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Chengfeng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although the accumulation of homocysteine (Hcy has been implicated in the pathogenesis of depression, whether Hcy is directly involved and acts as the primary cause of depressive symptoms remains unclear. The present study was designed to clarify whether increased Hcy plays an important role in stress-induced depression. RESULTS: We employed the chronic unpredictable mild stress model (CUMS of depression for 8 weeks to observe changes in the plasma Hcy level in the development of depression. The results showed that Wistar rats exposed to a series of mild, unpredictable stressors for 4 weeks displayed depression-like symptoms such as anhedonia (decreased sucrose preferences and a decreased 5-Hydroxy Tryptophan (5-HT concentration in the hippocampus. At the end of 8 weeks, the plasma Hcy level increased in the CUMS rats. The anti-depressant sertraline could decrease the plasma Hcy level and improve the depression-like symptoms in the CUMS rats. RhBHMT, an Hcy metabolic enzyme, could decrease the plasma Hcy level significantly, although it could not improve the depressive symptoms in the CUMS rats. CONCLUSIONS: The results obtained from the experiments did not support the hypothesis that the increased Hcy concentration mediated the provocation of depression in CUMS rats, and the findings suggested that the increased Hcy concentration in the plasma might be the result of stress-induced depression.

  8. Effects of larval-juvenile treatment with perchlorate and co-treatment with thyroxine on zebrafish sex ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhi, S.; Torres, L.; Patino, R.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of larval-juvenile exposure to perchlorate, a thyroid hormone synthesis inhibitor, on the establishment of gonadal sex ratios in zebrafish. Zebrafish were exposed to untreated water or water containing perchlorate at 100 or 250 ppm for a period of 30 days starting at 3 days postfertilization (dpf). Recovery treatments consisted of a combination of perchlorate and exogenous thyroxine (T4; 10 nM). Thyroid histology was assessed at the end of the treatment period (33 dpf), and gonadal histology and sex ratios were determined in fish that were allowed an additional 10-day period of growth in untreated water. As expected, exposure to perchlorate caused changes in thyroid histology consistent with hypothyroidism and these effects were reversed by co-treatment with exogenous T4. Perchlorate did not affect fish survival but co-treatment with T4 induced higher mortality. However, relative to the corresponding perchlorate concentration, co-treatment with T4 caused increased mortality only at a perchlorate concentration of 100 ppm. Perchlorate alone or in the presence of T4 suppressed body length at 43 dpf relative to control values. Perchlorate exposure skewed the sex ratio toward female in a concentration-dependent manner, and co-treatment with T4 not only blocked the feminizing effect of perchlorate but also overcompensated by skewing the sex ratio towards male. Moreover, co-treatment with T4 advanced the onset of spermatogenesis in males. There was no clear association between sex ratios and larval survival or growth. We conclude that endogenous thyroid hormone plays a role in the establishment of gonadal sex phenotype during early development in zebrafish. ?? 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Pediatric Reference Intervals for Free Thyroxine and Free Triiodothyronine by Equilibrium Dialysis-Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    La’ulu, Sonia L.; Rasmussen, Kyle J.; Straseski, Joely A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Thyroid hormone concentrations fluctuate during growth and development. To accurately diagnose thyroid disease in pediatric patients, reference intervals (RIs) should be established with appropriate age groups from an adequate number of healthy subjects using the most exact methods possible. Obtaining statistically useful numbers of healthy patients is particularly challenging for pediatric populations. The objective of this study was to determine non-parametric RIs for free thyroxine (fT4) and free triiodothyronine (fT3) using equilibrium dialysis-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with over 2200 healthy children 6 months-17 years of age. Methods: Subjects were negative for both thyroglobulin and thyroid peroxidase autoantibodies and had normal thyrotropin concentrations. The study included 2213 children (1129 boys and 1084 girls), with at least 120 subjects (average of 125) from each year of life, except for the 6 month to 1 year age group (n=96). Results: Non-parametric RIs (95th percentile) for fT4 were: 18.0-34.7 pmol/L (boys and girls, 6 months-6 years) and 14.2-25.7 pmol/L (boys and girls, 7-17 years). RIs for fT3 were: 5.8-13.1 pmol/L (girls, 6 months-6 years); 5.7-11.8 pmol/L (boys, 6 months-6 years); 5.7-10.0 pmol/L (boys and girls, 7-12 years); 4.5-8.6 pmol/L (girls, 13-17 years); and 5.2-9.4 pmol/L (boys, 13-17 years). Conclusion: Numerous significant differences were observed between pediatric age groups and previously established adult ranges. This emphasizes the need for well-characterized RIs for thyroid hormones in the pediatric population. PMID:26758817

  10. Effects of thyroxine on cardiac function and lymphocyte β-adrenoceptors in patients with chronic congestive heart failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢新政; 黄峻; 张晓文; 李新华; 王赤京; 张佩生; 陈永生

    2003-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects of thyroid hormone (TH) on cardiac function and peripheral lymphocyte β-adrenoceptors (β-Ars) of patients with chronic congestive heart failure (CHF). Methods Twenty-eight patients with class Ⅲ or Ⅳ advanced CHF due to dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) or ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM) were randomly divided into groups A and B. L-thyroxine (L-T50) was administered to group B. Exercise tolerance, chest X-rays, and echocardiographic parameters were obtained before and after one month of treatment, Ficoll-hypaque solution was used to separate peripheral lymphocytes, and 125I-pindolol radioligand binding was used to measure β-AR levels in peripheral lymphocytes. Results L-T50 therapy improved cardiac output [CO, (2.98±0.31)L/min vs (3.24±0.28) L/min, P<0.01], left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF, 26.21%±3.21% vs 37.93%±9.01%, P<0.01), and decreased isovolumetric relaxation time (IVRT, 0.12±0.04 vs 0.10±0.02, P<0.01). Serum TH levels and the maximal number of β-AR binding sites (βmax ) in peripheral lymphocytes were lower in patients with CHF than in normal healthy people, but L-T50 administration induced a β-AR up-regulation on peripheral lymphocyte surfaces. L-T50 was well tolerated without episodes of ischemia or arrhythmia. There was no significant change in heart rate or metabolic rate.Conclusion TH administration improves cardiac function and β-AR expression in peripheral lymphocytes of patients with CHF.

  11. Pediatric Reference Intervals for Free Thyroxine and Free Triiodothyronine by Equilibrium Dialysis-Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La'ulu, Sonia L; Rasmussen, Kyle J; Straseski, Joely A

    2016-03-05

    Thyroid hormone concentrations fluctuate during growth and development. To accurately diagnose thyroid disease in pediatric patients, reference intervals (RIs) should be established with appropriate age groups from an adequate number of healthy subjects using the most exact methods possible. Obtaining statistically useful numbers of healthy patients is particularly challenging for pediatric populations. The objective of this study was to determine non-parametric RIs for free thyroxine (fT4) and free triiodothyronine (fT3) using equilibrium dialysis-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with over 2200 healthy children 6 months-17 years of age. Subjects were negative for both thyroglobulin and thyroid peroxidase autoantibodies and had normal thyrotropin concentrations. The study included 2213 children (1129 boys and 1084 girls), with at least 120 subjects (average of 125) from each year of life, except for the 6 month to 1 year age group (n=96). Non-parametric RIs (95th percentile) for fT4 were: 18.0-34.7 pmol/L (boys and girls, 6 months-6 years) and 14.2-25.7 pmol/L (boys and girls, 7-17 years). RIs for fT3 were: 5.8-13.1 pmol/L (girls, 6 months-6 years); 5.7-11.8 pmol/L (boys, 6 months-6 years); 5.7-10.0 pmol/L (boys and girls, 7-12 years); 4.5-8.6 pmol/L (girls, 13-17 years); and 5.2-9.4 pmol/L (boys, 13-17 years). Numerous significant differences were observed between pediatric age groups and previously established adult ranges. This emphasizes the need for well-characterized RIs for thyroid hormones in the pediatric population.

  12. [Causes of depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Francisco Alonso

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes four nosological categories of depressive disorder according to the fundamental or prime cause: endogen depression, situative depression, psychogen depression and somatogen (also pharmacogen or addictive) depression. Recent advances in neurobiology provide the commun pathogenic mechanism distribuited in neurochemical, neuroendocrine and neuroinmune factors, with at the end a cellular and molecular sequence beyond the synapse. There is an increased risk of depression multiplied by three or four in the elderly, obese, unemployed and inmigrant and it is very frequent in terminally ill patients with a pervasive desire for death. Finally, eight personalized preventive guidelines enable to decrease the individual risk of depression in more than a fifty per cent.

  13. Therapieresistente Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holsboer-Trachsler E

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In der Behandlung einer Depression wird ein Nichtansprechen auf zwei adäquate Antidepressivatherapien während je 6–8 Wochen als Therapieresistenz bezeichnet. Da häufig zu geringe Dosierungen oder eine zu kurze Behandlungsdauer die Ursache für ein Nichtansprechen sind, sollte in einem ersten Schritt die medikamentöse Therapie hinsichtlich Dauer und Dosierung, eventuell unter Einbezug von Plasmaspiegelbestimmungen, überprüft und optimiert werden. Als pharmakologische Maßnahmen werden zunächst ein Wechsel des Antidepressivums und danach eine Kombination von verschiedenen Antidepressiva mit unterschiedlichem biochemischem Wirkungsansatz empfohlen. Zeigen beide nicht den gewünschten Erfolg, so sollte zusätzlich zur bestehenden Antidepressivabehandlung eine Augmentationstherapie, primär mit Lithium und/oder dem Schilddrüsenhormon T3, durchgeführt werden. Ein neuer, vielversprechender Behandlungsansatz ist eine Augmentationstherapie mit atypischen Neuroleptika. Als akut wirkende nichtpharmakologische Zusatzmaßnahme hat sich der partielle Schlafentzug bewährt. Weitere nichtpharmakologische Strategien umfassen Psychotherapie, Elektrokrampftherapie und Vagusnervstimulationsbehandlung.

  14. Investigation of serum thyroxine in obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome patients%阻塞性睡眠呼吸暂停低通气综合征患者血清甲状腺素的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何志红; 郭丽萍; 吴雅丽; 段争; 高英; 彭少舫; 吴颂时; 张敏

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the changes of serum thyroxine level in obstructive sleep apnea-hy-popnea syndrome(OSAHS) patients and to assess the role of serum thyroxine in the development of OSAHS. Meth-ods Polysomnography was used to examine the patients with OSAHS and fasting plasma serum thyroxine level were higher in obese OSAHS patients than in obese controls[ (43.56±3.48)cm vs (38.33±3.08)cm,t =4. 258,P < 0.05 ], in non-obese OSAHS patients than in non-obese control group [ (40.50±1.05 )cm vs (36.17±3.13 )cm, t = 3. 146 ,P < 0.05 ] . The levels of FT3 was (6.35±3.15 ) pmol/L in obese OSAHS patients and ( 4.08±2.37 ) pmol/L in control subjects ( t = 2.203 ,P < 0.05 ). That was ( 3.42±0.57 ) pmol/L in non-obese OSAHS patients related with AHI and microarousal index (r = 0. 500, P < 0.05;r = 0.561, P < 0.05 ), and FT4 was also positively with neck circumference( t = 0.489, P < 0.05 ), TSH level was negatively correlated with neck circumference ( t = - 0.500, P < 0.05 ) and was positively correlated with the percentage of body fat ( r = 0.498, P < 0.05 ). Conclu-sions The FT3 levels are significantly higher in the OSAHS patients than that in control subjects, though all FT3 lev-els are normal, suggesting that there are possibility to have abnormal metabolism. At the same time, FT3 level is posi-tively correlated with neck circumference ,suggesting that the OSAHS patients' higher neck circumference is correla-ted with thyroxine.%目的 探讨阻塞性睡眠呼吸暂停低通气综合征(OSAHS)患者血清甲状腺素水平以及在OSAHS病情进展中的作用.方法 选择OSAHS患者和健康者(对照组)各40例,均为男性,分别行多导睡眠图检查,并测定空腹甲状腺素水平.结果 ①OSAHS肥胖组的颈围为(43.56±3.48)cm,对照肥胖组为(38.33±3.08)cm,2组比较差异有统计学意义(t=4.258,P<0.05);OSAHS非肥胖组的颈围为(40.50±1.05)cm,对照非肥胖组为(36.17±3.13)cm,2组比较差异有统计学意义(t=3.146,P<0

  15. Plasma turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horton, W. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Inst. for Fusion Studies; Hu, G. [Globalstar LP, San Jose, CA (United States)

    1998-07-01

    The origin of plasma turbulence from currents and spatial gradients in plasmas is described and shown to lead to the dominant transport mechanism in many plasma regimes. A wide variety of turbulent transport mechanism exists in plasmas. In this survey the authors summarize some of the universally observed plasma transport rates.

  16. Pyridoxine and depression: neuroendocrine aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casacchia, M; Boni, B; Meco, G

    1982-01-01

    Plasma prolactin levels (PRL) were determined in 5 male depressed patients and in 5 controls, after injection of TRH (200 mg i.v.) (first phase), TRH following oral L-DOPA (500 mg) given 90 minutes before (second phase), TRH plus pyridoxine (300 mg i.v.) after same pretreatment with L-Dopa (third phase). L-Dopa induced a statistically significant suppression of TRH, caused PRL release; such suppression appears to be lower when TRH plus pyridoxine were administered simultaneously. PRL profile was not significantly different in the two groups.

  17. The Thyroid Axis and Brain 5’-Monodeiodination of Thyroxine in the Burned Rat Model of Nonthyroidal Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    THYROID - 0 1..1 ECTOMY ( SHAM13URN 1’•4 i𔃻 14__ DAYS DAY fig. 1. Thyroid axis hormones and brain T4-to-T3 deiodination index (DI) at the indicated time...ABSTRACT""-’ Rats with a cutaneous burn exhibited a burn-size-related . depression of sertim thyroid hormones 2 weeks after Lnjury. Thyroidectomized rats... thyroid hormones were S not seen in burned rats. The depression of serum thyronines and thyrotrophin suggests that the burned rat may be a model for

  18. Circadian rhythm disturbance after radiotherapy for brain tumor in infantile period; Clinical effect of L-thyroxine and vitamin B[sub 12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubota, Masaya; Shinozaki, Masako (Metropolitan Medical Center for the Severely Handicapped, Fuchu, Tokyo (Japan)); Sasaki, Hideo

    1993-08-01

    We report a 19-year-old man suffering from circadian sleep-wake (S-W) rhythm disturbance after total tumor resection and whole brain irradiation. The patient was diagnosed as having astrocytoma in the right temporal lobe by CT scan and angiography at the age of 6 months. After total tumor resection and whole brain irradiation ([sup 60]Co 60 Gy), he showed profound psychomotor retardation, endoclinologic dysfunction including hypothyroidism and growth hormone deficiency, and S-W rhythm disturbance. At age 19, brain MRI revealed asymmetrical low intensity in the hypothalamic region. On endoclinological examination panhypopituitarism due to primary hypothalamic lesion was evident. His S-W rhythm was disturbed; i.e., sleep periods were dispersedly distributed throughout 24 hours. He showed a lethargic tendency in the daytime. All-day polysomnography revealed abnormal sleep structure such as the absence of sleep spindle and hump, peripheral apnea, snoring and low oxygen saturation. After L-thyroxine supplementation his daily activity improved gradually. The decrease in short time sleep and tendency of a free-running rhythm were observed and oxygen saturation improved remarkably. Peripheral apnea and snoring disappeared. This wakening effect of L-thyroxine administration may be due to improvement of hypothyroidism symptom such as myxoedematous pharynx. It also seems related to the alteration of the central S-W rhythm regulation, because free-running rhythm appeared after L-thyroxine administration. Vitamin B[sub 12] (VB[sub 12]), which has been reported to be effective for S-W rhythm disorders, was not effective for our patient's free-running rhythm. Compared with the patients responding to VB[sub 12], our patient's organic brain damage was more evident radiologically and endoclinologically. Following the hypothesis that VB[sub 12] has a potential to reinforce the entrainment of circadian rhythm, our patient's organic brain damage may include entrainment

  19. Effects of rifampicin, dexamethasone, St. John's Wort and Thyroxine on maternal and foetal expression of Abcb1 and organ distribution of talinolol in pregnant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saljé, Karen; Lederer, Kirstin; Oswald, Stefan; Dazert, Eike; Warzok, Rolf; Siegmund, Werner

    2012-08-01

    It is well accepted that ABCB1 plays a critical role in absorption, distribution and elimination of many xenobiotics and drugs. Only little is known about the regulation and function of ABCB1 during pregnancy. Thus, the aim of this study is to investigate maternal, placental and foetal Abcb1 expression and function in pregnant rats after induction with rifampicin, dexamethasone, St. John's wort (SJW) or thyroxine. Wistar rats were orally treated with rifampicin (250 mg/kg), SJW (1.0 g/kg), thyroxine (9 μg/kg), dexamethasone (1 mg/kg) or 0.5% methylcellulose suspension (control) for 9 days during late pregnancy (each N = 5). Afterwards, organ mRNA expression and protein content of Abcb1a were determined. Tissue concentrations of the ABCB1 probe drug talinolol were measured after repeated administration of the drug (100 mg/kg, 9 days) and after induction with oral rifampicin (250 mg/kg, 9 days, N = 5). Abcb1 expression was substantially lower in foetal than in maternal organs. Abcb1 was significantly induced by SJW in the maternal jejunum and placenta, by dexamethasone in foetal brain and liver and by thyroxine in the placenta and maternal and foetal brain. Rifampicin induced Abcb1 in all maternal and foetal organs. However, organ distribution of talinolol was not influenced by comedication of rifampicin. In conclusion, maternal and foetal Abcb1 organ expression in pregnant rats is inducible by nuclear receptor agonists. Although rifampicin regulates maternal and foetal Abcb1 expression, organ distribution of talinolol remains unchanged most likely caused by the known inhibitory effect of rifampicin on Abcb1 function.

  20. Association of Hypothyroidism with Body Mass Index, Systolic Blood Pressure and Proteinuria in Diabetic Patients: Does treated Hypothyroidism with Thyroxine Replacement Therapy Prevent Nephropathy/Chronic Renal Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Kamran M A

    2016-01-01

    Untreated or sub-clinical hypothyroidism is associated with insulin resistance, obesity, adverse effects on cardiovascular system, hypertension and in turn risk of nephropathy. However, these changes are reversible with thyroxine replacement therapy (TRT). Current research studied 4235 diabetic patients, divided into two groups, those with clinical hypothyroidism /on TRT, compared to those without thyroid disease or undiagnosed. BMI, blood pressure, creatinine, urine microalbumin and spot urine protein levels were compared between these two groups. Study finding demonstrated that for hypothyroid cases, BMI was higher (32.2 ± 7.44 versus 29.4 ± 5.7; p hypothyroidism (on TRT) was strongly associated with obesity (p hypothyroidism.

  1. Radioimmunoassay detection of levels of triiodothyronine and thyroxine in Mangalarga Marchador equine; Niveis sericos de triiodotinonina e tiroxina, atraves de radioimunoensaio, em equinos Mangalarga Marchador

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viana, F.A.B.; Pessoa, J.M.; Biondini, J. [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Escola de Veterinaria

    1991-12-31

    Serum levels of triiodothyronine (T{sub 3}) and thyroxine (T{sub 4}) were determined in equine of Mangalarga Marchador breed through radioimmunoassay. Forty-two animals (17 males and 25 females), with age ranging from two to eighteen years, were utilized. The values recorded for males and females were, respectively: 101.68 {+-} 23.44 and 71.14 {+-} 18.82 ng/d l of T{sub 3} (P<0.05); 1.89 {+-} 0.58 and 2.94 {+-} 0.87 mc g/d l of T{sub 4} (P<0.05). (author). 10 refs, 1 tab.

  2. Depression, Anxiety, and Anger in Patients with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    BALIKCI, Adem; ERDEM, Murat; KESKIN, Uğur; BOZKURT ZINCIR, Selma; GÜLSÜN, Murat; ÖZÇELIK, Fatih; AKGÜL, Emin Özgür; AKARSU, Süleyman; ÖZTOSUN, Muzaffer; ERGÜN, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is a syndrome of heterogeneous nature, affecting multiple systems, particularly the endocrine system. We propose to investigate the possible relationships among hormonal changes, levels of anxiety, depression, and anger in patients with PCOS. Method Forty-four female patients with PCOS and 44 body mass index (BMI )-matched healthy women participated in this study. We measured the sociodemographic features, some serum hormonal levels (insulin, gonadotropins, prolactin, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), 17 OH-progesterone, and total and free testosterone), and some other biochemical parameters of the participants. Also, all participants completed the Trait Anger-Anger Expression Scale (STAS), Beck Depression, and Beck Anxiety Inventories. We evaluated the psychiatric scale scores obtained from PCOS patients and control subjects. We used the independent-samples t-test for parametric data to evaluate normal distribution, and Mann-Whitney U-test was used for both abnormally distributed and nonparametric data. We used Pearson correlation analysis to evaluate the potential connection between the two groups’ data. Results The mean ages of the patients with PCOS and control subjects who participated in this study were 27.3±5.6 and 27.4±6.1 years, respectively. The measures of BMI, insulin, luteinizing hormone (LH), DHEAS, and total testosterone serum levels in the patient group were significantly higher than in the control group (pdepression scores (Pdepression with DHEAS serum levels via the autonomic nervous system, considering the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-antagonistic effect of DHEAS. Obesity, hirsutism, and infertility may reduce self-confidence and create depressive symptoms in patients with PCOS. In addition, changes in hormonal levels may lead to anxiety directly. Possibly, depressive symptoms are a secondary reflection of these

  3. Plasma harmonics

    CERN Document Server

    Ganeev, Rashid A

    2014-01-01

    Preface; Why plasma harmonics? A very brief introduction Early stage of plasma harmonic studies - hopes and frustrations New developments in plasma harmonics studies: first successes Improvements of plasma harmonics; Theoretical basics of plasma harmonics; Basics of HHG Harmonic generation in fullerenes using few-cycle pulsesVarious approaches for description of observed peculiarities of resonant enhancement of a single harmonic in laser plasmaTwo-colour pump resonance-induced enhancement of odd and even harmonics from a tin plasmaCalculations of single harmonic generation from Mn plasma;Low-o

  4. Differential binding of thyroxine and triiodothyronine to acidic isoforms of thyroid hormone binding globulin in human serum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terasaki, T.; Pardridge, W.M.

    1988-05-17

    The differential availability of thyroxine (T/sub 4/) and 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T/sub 3/) to liver from the circulating thyroid hormone binding globulin (TBG)-bound pool suggests that the two thyroid hormones may bind to different TBG isoforms in human serum. In the present study, the binding of (/sup 125/I)T/sub 4/ and (/sup 125/I)T/sub 3/ to human serum proteins was investigated by using slab gel isoelectric focusing and chromatofocusing. In normal human male serum, (/sup 125/I)T/sub 4/ was localized to four isoforms of TBG called TBG-I, -II, -III, and -IV, with isoelectric points (pI's) of 4.30, 4.35, 4.45, and 4.55, respectively. (/sup 125/I)T/sub 3/ was localized to only two isoforms of TBG, TBG-III, and -IV, with pI's that were identical with those for (/sup 125/I)T/sub 4/. In normal female serum, (/sup 125/I)T/sub 4/ was localized to the same four isoforms of TBG as those of normal male serum, while (/sup 125/I)T/sub 3/ was localized to TBG-II, -III, -IV, and -V (pI = 4.65). In pregnant female serum, (/sup 125/I)T/sub 4/ was localized to five isoforms, whereas (/sup 125/I)T/sub 3/ was localized to four. IEF was also performed with male serum loaded with various concentrations of unlabeled T/sub 3/. The K/sub i/ values of T/sub 3/ binding to TBG-I, -II, -III, and -IV were 5.0, 2.4, 0.86, and 0.46 nM, respectively. The TBG isoforms in normal male serum were also separated by sequential concanavalin A-Sepharose affinity chromatography and the chromatofocusing (pH range of 3.5-5.0). T/sub 4/ preferentially bound to the most acidic isoforms of TBG in the pI range of 3.8-4.0, whereas the less acidic fractions (pH 4.0-4.2) bound both T/sub 4/ and T/sub 3/. In conclusion, this study shows that T/sub 4/ and T/sub 3/ do not bind to a single competitive binding site on TBG. Instead, T/sub 4/ is preferentially bound by the most acidic TBG isoforms owing to a 10-fold lower affinity of T/sub 3/ for these proteins.

  5. Thyroxine signal transduction in liver cells involves phospholipase C and phospholipase D activation. Genomic independent action of thyroid hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasilnikova Oksana A

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous investigations demonstrate a novel role of thyroid hormone as a modulator of signal transduction. Protein kinase C (PKC is critical to the mechanism by which thyroid hormones potentiate both the antiviral and immunomodulatory actions of IFNγ in different cells and regulate the exchange of signalling phospholipids in hepatocytes. Because nothing is known about accumulation of PKC modulator - diacylglycerol in cells treated with T4, we examined the nongenomic effect of thyroid hormones on DAG formation and phospholipase activation in liver cells. Results The results obtained provide the first demonstration of phospholipase C, phospholipase D and protein kinase C nongenomic activation and diacylglycerol (DAG accumulation by L-T4 in liver cells. The experiments were performed in either the [14C]CH3COOH-labeled rat liver slices or isolated hepatocytes pre-labeled by [14C]oleic acid. L-T4 activates the DAG production in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. DAG formation in stimulated cells is biphasic and short-lived event: there is an initial, rapid rise in DAG concentration and then a slower accumulation that can be sustained for a few minutes. The early phase of L-T4 generated DAG only is accompanied by phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate level decrease and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate formation while the second phase is abolished by PKC inhibitor l,(5-isoquinolinesulphonyl2methylpiperasine dihydrochloride (H7 and propranolol. The second phase of DAG production is accompanied by free choline release, phosphatidylcholine content drop and phosphatidylethanol (Peth formation. Inhibitor of phospholipase-C-dependent phosphoinositide hydrolysis, neomycin sulfate, reduced the Peth as well as the DAG response to L-T4. Conclusions The present data have indicated the DAG signaling in thyroid hormone-stimulated liver cells. L-thyroxine activates a dual phospholipase pathway in a sequential and synchronized manner

  6. Improvement of left ventricular remodeling after myocardial infarction with eight weeks L-thyroxine treatment in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Yue-Feng

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Left ventricular (LV remodeling following large transmural myocardial infarction (MI remains a pivotal clinical issue despite the advance of medical treatment over the past few decades. Identification of new medications to improve the remodeling process and prevent progression to heart failure after MI is critical. Thyroid hormones (THs have been shown to improve LV function and remodeling in animals post-MI and in the human setting. However, changes in underlying cellular remodeling resulting from TH treatment are not clear. Methods MI was produced in adult female Sprague–Dawley rats by ligation of the left descending coronary artery. L-thyroxine (T4 pellet (3.3 mg, 60 days sustained release was used to treat MI rats for 8 weeks. Isolated myocyte shape, arterioles, and collagen deposition in the non-infarcted area were measured at terminal study. Results T4 treatment improved LV ±dp/dt, normalized TAU, and increased myocyte cross-sectional area without further increasing myocyte length in MI rats. T4 treatment increased the total LV tissue area by 34%, increased the non-infarcted tissue area by 41%, and increased the thickness of non-infarcted area by 36% in MI rats. However, myocyte volume accounted for only ~1/3 of the increase in myocyte mass in the non-infarct area, indicating the presence of more myocytes with treatment. T4 treatment tended to increase the total length of smaller arterioles (5 to 15 μm proportional to LV weight increase and also decreased collagen deposition in the LV non-infarcted area. A tendency for increased metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2 expression and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMPs -1 to −4 expression was also observed in T4 treated MI rats. Conclusions These results suggest that long-term T4 treatment after MI has beneficial effects on myocyte, arteriolar, and collagen matrix remodeling in the non-infarcted area. Most importantly, results suggest improved survival of myocytes in

  7. [Depression in schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigaud, A S

    1991-03-01

    Depressive symptoms are frequent during schizophrenia. Depression occurs in the course of a schizo affective psychose or in the course of a schizophrenia (either with acute psychotic symptoms, either without acute psychotic symptoms). Differentiating depression from negative symptoms of schizophrenia or from antipsychotic drug induced side effects can be difficult. The question to know whether depression is intrinsic to the disease process itself whether it is secondary to the schizophrenic process is still a matter of inquiry. Efficacy of antidepressive drugs during depression in schizophrenia remains a matter of controversy. Depression increases the risk for pejorative evolution and for suicide in schizophrenia.

  8. Memory training in depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becker, E.S.; Vanderhasselt, M.A.; Vrijsen, J.N.

    2015-01-01

    Memory biases, that is, general memory impairments as well as specific mood-congruent memory biases, are important vulnerability factors in depression. Recently, computerized memory trainings have been developed to target these biases, reducing rumination and lightening depressive symptoms. This

  9. Depression and Suicide Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depression and Suicide Risk (2014) Definition: A mood disorder that causes a persistent feeling of sadness and ... i Prevalence: 1. Ranges of lifetime risk for depression: from 6.7% overall to 40% in men, ...

  10. Depression and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... best live chat Live Help Fact Sheets Share Depression Thursday, 01 September 2016 In every pregnancy, a ... risk. This sheet talks about whether exposure to depression may increase the risk for birth defects over ...

  11. Heart disease and depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000790.htm Heart disease and depression To use the sharing features on this page, ... a heart attack or heart surgery Signs of Depression It is pretty common to feel down or ...

  12. Learning about depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000325.htm Learning about depression To use the sharing features on this page, ... trigger or reason. What are the Signs of Depression? You may notice some or all of the ...

  13. Depression - stopping your medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000570.htm Depression - stopping your medicines To use the sharing features ... prescription medicines you may take to help with depression, anxiety, or pain. Like any medicine, there are ...

  14. Depression and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... best live chat Live Help Fact Sheets Share Depression Thursday, 01 September 2016 In every pregnancy, a ... risk. This sheet talks about whether exposure to depression may increase the risk for birth defects over ...

  15. Depression Disturbs Germany

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The suicide of Robert Enke,the goalkeeper of the Germany national football team who had battled depression for years,stunned the country and cast depression into the national spotlight as a disturbing disease.

  16. Short-term overt hypothyroidism affect on lipids after thyroxine-withdrawal in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma%骨巨细胞瘤软组织内复发两例报道及文献复习

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongyu Wu; Shuyao Zuo; Chao Ma; Bin Liu; Fengyu Wu; Simin Liu; Qin Zhang; Xifu Lan

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of short-term overt hypothyroidism on lipids after thyroxine-withdrawal in patients with iatrogenically induced hypothyroidism before radioiodine treatment for differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). Methods: Thirty patients with a history of differentiated thyroid carcinoma on thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)-suppressive thyroxine replacement therapy were studied. Blood sample were taken before and 4 weeks after withdrawal of thyroxine substitution. Venous blood was drawn after an overnight fast and analyzed for serum free T4 (FT4), free T3 (FT3), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceddes (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1), apolipoprotein B (ApoB). Fifty healthy people matched for age and gender were controls. Their blood samples were taken only once. Results: After thyroxine-withdrawal, the patients presented with increased serum TSH and low serum FT4 and FT3 levels compared with controls. Serum TG, TC, LDL, HDL, APOB and Lp(a) increased after thyroxine withdrawal, reaching statistical significant dif-ferences with previous evaluation. However, when compared to euthyroid controls, only TC, LDL and ApoB were increased when patients were hypothyroidism. No changes were observed in ApoA1 in patients dudng thyroxine withdrawal, or when comparing the values observed in patients to those of euthyroid controls. Conclusion: TG, TC, LDL, HDL, APO8 and Lp(a) were increased during short-term overt hypothyroidism.

  17. Electrochemical immunoassay for thyroxine detection using cascade catalysis as signal amplified enhancer and multi-functionalized magnetic graphene sphere as signal tag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jing; Zhuo, Ying; Chai, Yaqin; Yu, Yanqing; Liao, Ni; Yuan, Ruo

    2013-08-06

    This paper constructed a reusable electrochemical immunosensor for the detection of thyroxine at an ultralow concentration using cascade catalysis of cytochrome c (Cyt c) and glucose oxidase (GOx) as signal amplified enhancer. It is worth pointing out that numerous Cyt c and GOx were firstly carried onto the double-stranded DNA polymers based on hybridization chain reaction (HCR), and then the amplified responses could be achieved by cascade catalysis of Cyt c and GOx recycling with the help of glucose. Moreover, multi-functionalized magnetic graphene sphere was synthesized and used as signal tag, which not only exhibited good mechanical properties, large surface area and an excellent electron transfer rate of graphene, but also possessed excellent redox activity and desirable magnetic property. With a sandwich-type immunoreaction, the proposed cascade catalysis amplification strategy could greatly enhance the sensitivity for the detection of thyroxine. Under the optimal conditions, the immunosensor showed a wide linear ranged from 0.05pg mL(-1) to 5ng mL(-1) and a low detection limit down to 15fg mL(-1). Importantly, the proposed method offers promise for reproducible and cost-effective analysis of biological samples.

  18. Simple synthesis of (3,5-/sup 125/I)diiodo-L-thyronine and of (3,5-/sup 125/I)L-thyroxine of high specific activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorimachi, K.; Cahnmann, H.J.

    1977-10-01

    The customary methods for labeling T/sub 4/ and its analogs, iodination or exchange-labeling, are not applicable to those iodothyronines whose iodine atoms are exclusively in the nonphenolic ring. Therefore, (3,5-/sup 125/I)diiodo-L-thyronine had to be synthesized by a different method. This synthesis involves the coupling of (/sup 125/I)diiodo-L-tyrosine with 4-hydroxy-3,5-diiodophenylpyruvic acid to form L-thyroxine labeled in the nonphenolic ring, followed by removal of the two unlabeled iodine atoms in the phenolic ring. High specific activity, limited only by that of the (/sup 125/I)diiodo-L-tyrosine used as starting material, can be achieved. Radioactivity yields are approximately 36% in the coupling reaction and approximately 86% in the deiodination reaction, amounting to an overall yield of greater than 30%. L-Thyroxine and 3,5-diiodo-L-thyronine were purified by ion-exchange chromatography. Their radiochemical purity was checked by radiochromatography.

  19. Clinical significance of the measurements of serum free thyroxine and free triiodothyronine concentrations. Evaluation using DPC free T/sub 4/ and free T/sub 3/ kits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubota, Ken; Sasaki, Norio; Takaku, Fumimaro; Uchimura, Hidemasa

    1988-08-01

    A commercially available ''DPC'' radioimmunoassay kit was used to study the serum concentrations of free triiodothyronine (FT3) and free thyroxine (FT4) in a series of 189 patients with various thyroid diseases and 120 healthy controls. The basal serum concentrations of FT3 and FT4 in normal controls ranged from 0.98 to 2.04 ng/dl and from 1.43 to 3.66 pg/ml, respectively. All untreated patients with Graves' disease had abnormally high FT3 and FT4 values, indicating the discrimination between hyperthyroid and normal subjects. A decreased ratio of FT4 to FT3 was observed in patients managed with antithyroid drugs. In diagnosing hypothyroidism, ''DPC'' FT4 kits were more sensitive than ''DPC'' TT4 and ''Amerlex'' FT4 kits. In the case of non-thyroid diseases, FT4 and FT3 values, as well as total T4 and total T3, were normal or decreased, with the exception of occasionally unknown high values. The interference of thyroxine binding globulin abnormablity was successfully eliminated by using new versions of ''DPC'' kits. (Namekawa, K.).

  20. Preventing Depression in Adults With Subthreshold Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buntrock, Claudia; Berking, Matthias; Smit, Filip

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Psychological interventions for the prevention of depression might be a cost-effective way to reduce the burden associated with depressive disorders. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a Web-based guided self-help intervention to prevent major depressive disorder (MDD......) in people with subthreshold depression (sD). METHODS: A pragmatic randomized controlled trial was conducted with follow-up at 12 months. Participants were recruited from the general population via a large statutory health insurance company and an open access website. Participants were randomized to a Web......-based guided self-help intervention (ie, cognitive-behavioral therapy and problem-solving therapy assisted by supervised graduate students or health care professionals) in addition to usual care or to usual care supplemented with Web-based psycho-education (enhanced usual care). Depression-free years (DFYs...

  1. Dusty plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortov, Vladimir E; Khrapak, Aleksei G; Molotkov, Vladimir I; Petrov, Oleg F [Institute for High Energy Densities, Associated Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Khrapak, Sergei A [Max-Planck-Institut fur Extraterrestrische Physik, Garching (Germany)

    2004-05-31

    The properties of dusty plasmas - low-temperature plasmas containing charged macroparticles - are considered. The most important elementary processes in dusty plasmas and the forces acting on dust particles are investigated. The results of experimental and theoretical investigations of different states of strongly nonideal dusty plasmas - crystal-like, liquid-like, gas-like - are summarized. Waves and oscillations in dusty plasmas, as well as their damping and instability mechanisms, are studied. Some results on dusty plasma investigated under microgravity conditions are presented. New directions of experimental research and potential applications of dusty plasmas are discussed. (reviews of topical problems)

  2. Depression in cerebrovascular diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Voskresenskaya, Tatyana

    2009-01-01

    The paper discusses the topical problem of depression in cerebrovascular diseases. It shows its possible causes, mechanisms of occurrence, clinical picture and negative impact on the course of cerebrovascular disease and recovery of neurological functions. There is a bilateral association between stroke and depression: on the one hand, stroke is a risk factor for the development of depression and, on the other, depression is a both direct and indirect risk factor for the development of stroke...

  3. [Multiple mechanisms of depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chun-Lin; Ruan, Ke-Feng; Gao, Jun-Wei; Wu, Fei; Zhang, Ji-Quan

    2013-08-01

    Depression is a grievous mental disease with an increasing high morbidity year by year and a serious social harm. The pathogenesises of depression is complicated and involves with multi-mechanisms and multi-organs. Recent studies demondtrate that in the nerval system and endocrine system there are many types of neurotransmitters and hormones, as well as their receptors, involved in depression. This paper reviews the research progress of depression in recent years.

  4. Method of treating depression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henn, Fritz

    2013-04-09

    Methods for treatment of depression-related mood disorders in mammals, particularly humans are disclosed. The methods of the invention include administration of compounds capable of enhancing glutamate transporter activity in the brain of mammals suffering from depression. ATP-sensitive K.sup.+ channel openers and .beta.-lactam antibiotics are used to enhance glutamate transport and to treat depression-related mood disorders and depressive symptoms.

  5. Method of treating depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henn, Fritz [East Patchogue, NY

    2012-01-24

    Methods for treatment of depression-related mood disorders in mammals, particularly humans are disclosed. The methods of the invention include administration of compounds capable of enhancing glutamate transporter activity in the brain of mammals suffering from depression. ATP-sensitive K.sup.+ channel openers and .beta.-lactam antibiotics are used to enhance glutamate transport and to treat depression-related mood disorders and depressive symptoms.

  6. Clinical Judgments of Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Douglas N.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Investigated degree to which judges could simulate Basic Personality Inventory (BPI) responses of a clinically depressed patient group. Judgmental profiles of depressed patients indicated very high reliabilities across information conditions, a high association with actual profiles of clinically depressed patients, and differentiation from other…

  7. Depression (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Depression KidsHealth > For Parents > Depression A A A What's ... to Help en español Comprender la depresión About Depression It's normal for kids to feel sad, down, ...

  8. Handling Depression | Smokefree 60+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everyone feels blue now and then. It's a part of life. But if your feelings last more than few days and interfere with your normal daily activities, you may be suffering from depression. On this page: Symptoms of depression Who gets depressed and why?

  9. Depression and Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Marshall, Ed.

    1982-01-01

    Contains four articles related to depression and aging. Compares normal adults with those having a major depressive disorder. Focuses on life satisfaction in the elderly, describing an individualized measure of life satisfaction. Describes similarities and differences between grief and depression. Contains a psychometric analysis of the Zung…

  10. Depression (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Depression KidsHealth > For Parents > Depression Print A A A ... to Help en español Comprender la depresión About Depression It's normal for kids to feel sad, down, ...

  11. Measuring psychotic depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Søren Dinesen; Meyers, B S; Flint, A J

    Psychotic depression (PD) is a highly debilitating condition, which needs intensive monitoring. However, there is no established rating scale for evaluating the severity of PD. The aim of this analysis was to assess the psychometric properties of established depression rating scales and a number...... of new composite rating scales, covering both depressive and psychotic symptoms, in relation to PD....

  12. Measuring psychotic depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Søren Dinesen; Meyers, B S; Flint, A J

    Psychotic depression (PD) is a highly debilitating condition, which needs intensive monitoring. However, there is no established rating scale for evaluating the severity of PD. The aim of this analysis was to assess the psychometric properties of established depression rating scales and a number...... of new composite rating scales, covering both depressive and psychotic symptoms, in relation to PD....

  13. Therapeutics of postpartum depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Michael; Sharma, Verinder

    2017-05-01

    Postpartum depression is a prevalent disorder affecting many women of reproductive age. Despite increasing public awareness, it is frequently underdiagnosed and undertreated leading to significant maternal morbidity and adverse child outcomes. When identified, postpartum depression is usually treated as major depressive disorder. Many studies have identified the postpartum as a period of high risk for first presentations and relapses of bipolar disorder. Areas covered: This article reviews the acute and prophylactic treatment of postpartum major depressive disorder, bipolar depression and major depressive disorder with mixed features. The safety of antidepressant and mood stabilizing medications in pregnancy and breastfeeding will also be reviewed. Expert commentary: Differentiating postpartum major depressive disorder and postpartum bipolar depression can be difficult given their clinical similarities but accurate identification is vital for initiating proper treatment. Antidepressants are the mainstay of drug treatment for postpartum major depressive disorder, yet randomized controlled trials have shown conflicting results. A paucity of evidence exists for the effectiveness of antidepressant prophylaxis in the prevention of recurrences of major depressive disorder. Mood stabilizing medications reduce the risk of postpartum bipolar depression relapse but no randomized controlled trials have examined their use in the acute or prophylactic treatment of postpartum bipolar depression.

  14. [Lugol's solution and thyroid gland activity in cattle. Determination of the total thyroxine in blood plasma as a method for evaluating thyroid gland activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, U; Leidl, W

    1985-01-01

    The aim of the present investigations was to examine if an intrauterine treatment with Lugol's solution in cows influences the activity of the thyroid gland. The thyrotropin-stimulation test was used to evaluate the function of the thyroid gland. An injection of 10 I. U. thyreotropin induced within 3 hours an increase of the T4 blood concentrations which reached maximal values 9 hours after the treatment and thereafter decreased again. Thyreotropin concentrations increasing from 5 to 30 I. U. led to a dose-dependent increase of the T4 blood concentrations. The T4 values obtained by 40 i. U. thyreotropin were lower than that induced with 30 I. U. of the hormone. The T4 concentrations increased stronger and remained elevated longer in cows pretreated intrauterine with Lugol's solution than in untreated control cows. The experiments demonstrated that an intrauterine infusion of Lugol's solution may result in an increased activity of the thyroid gland.

  15. Importance of Depression in Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustman, Patrick J.; Clouse, Ray E.; Anderson, Ryan J.

    Depression doubles the likelihood of comorbid depression, which presents as major depression in 11% and subsyndromal depression in 31% of patients with the medical illness. The course of depression is chronic, and afflicted patients suffer an average of one episode annually. Depression has unique importance in diabetes because of its association…

  16. Analyses of plasma for metabolic and hormonal changes in rats flown aboard Cosmos 2044

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Alfred H., Jr.; Wang, Elaine; Mullins, Richard E.; Grindeland, Richard E.; Popova, Irina A.

    1992-01-01

    Plasmas samples from rats flown aboard Cosmos 2044 were analyzed for the levels of key metabolites, electrolytes, enzymes, and hormones. The major differences between the flight group and the synchronous control were elevations in glucose, cholesterol, phosphate, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, lactate dehydrogenase, and aspartate aminotransferase and decreased levels of thyroxine. Most of these differences were not mimicked by tail suspension of ground-based rats; however, both flight and suspended rats exhibited inhibited testosterone secretion. Corticosterone, immunoreactive growth hormone, and prolactin showed inconsistent differences from the various control groups, suggesting that the levels of these hormones were not due to actual or simulated microgravity.

  17. Understanding childhood depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Savita; Das, Partha Pratim

    2007-02-01

    Major depressive disorder in children is a severe and a chronically disabling disorder. This population appears to be a special group in terms of consequences of poor psychosocial and academic outcome and increased risk of substance abuse, and suicide. Studies have revealed several major findings in genetic, familial, psychological, and biological aspects of such depression, some of which have explored into the issue of its relationship with adult depression. Considerable advances have been made now in the area of childhood depression providing a better understanding of its nature. We review literature available on historical aspect, epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and aetiology of childhood depression.

  18. Depression in geriatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas Asghar-Ali, A; Braun, U K

    2009-02-01

    While the most serious of depressive illnesses in the elderly is major depressive disorder, patients' quality of life can be significantly impacted by dysthmic disorder, sub-threshold depression (minor depression), or a depressive disorder due to a general medical condition, all of which have been shown to be more prevalent than major depression in the community dwelling population of older adults. Older adults are also more likely to develop grief reaction and frequently deal with issues of bereavement. This review will discuss the diagnoses of all relevant depressive diagnoses that primary care physicians are likely to encounter. Among the many different assessment tools that screen for depression the briefest instruments are a two-question screening tool recommended by the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force and, specifically developed for older adults, the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) that is available in a short 15- Yes/No-question version. Many medical illnesses are associated with depressive symptoms. The focus in this review is on dementing illnesses/cerebrovascular disease, dementia of the Alzheimer's type, and Parkinson disease. First-line pharmacological therapy of depression includes selective serotonin inhibitors (SSRIs), and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs). Side effects of particular drugs can often be geared towards achieving additional benefits, e.g. weight gain associated with the use of some SSRISs may be helpful for patients with dementia.

  19. Depression in adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapar, Anita; Collishaw, Stephan; Pine, Daniel S; Thapar, Ajay K

    2012-01-01

    Unipolar depressive disorder in adolescence is common worldwide but often unrecognised. The incidence, notably in girls, rises sharply after puberty and, by the end of adolescence, the 1 year prevalence rate exceeds 4%. The burden is highest in low-income and middle-income countries. Depression is associated with sub stantial present and future morbidity, and heightens suicide risk. The strongest risk factors for depression in adolescents are a family history of depression and exposure to psychosocial stress. Inherited risks, developmental factors, sex hormones, and psychosocial adversity interact to increase risk through hormonal factors and associated perturbed neural pathways. Although many similarities between depression in adolescence and depression in adulthood exist, in adolescents the use of antidepressants is of concern and opinions about clinical management are divided. Effective treatments are available, but choices are dependent on depression severity and available resources. Prevention strategies targeted at high-risk groups are promising. PMID:22305766

  20. [Depression and neurological diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piber, D; Hinkelmann, K; Gold, S M; Heesen, C; Spitzer, C; Endres, M; Otte, C

    2012-11-01

    In many neurological diseases a depressive syndrome is a characteristic sign of the primary disease or is an important comorbidity. Post-stroke depression, for example, is a common and relevant complication following ischemic brain infarction. Approximately 4 out of every 10 stroke patients develop depressive disorders in the course of the disease which have a disadvantageous effect on the course and the prognosis. On the other hand depression is also a risk factor for certain neurological diseases as was recently demonstrated in a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies which revealed a much higher stroke risk for depressive patients. Furthermore, depression plays an important role in other neurological diseases with respect to the course and quality of life, such as Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis and epilepsy. This article gives a review of the most important epidemiological, pathophysiological and therapeutic aspects of depressive disorders as a comorbidity of neurological diseases and as a risk factor for neurological diseases.

  1. Plasma waves

    CERN Document Server

    Swanson, DG

    1989-01-01

    Plasma Waves discusses the basic development and equations for the many aspects of plasma waves. The book is organized into two major parts, examining both linear and nonlinear plasma waves in the eight chapters it encompasses. After briefly discussing the properties and applications of plasma wave, the book goes on examining the wave types in a cold, magnetized plasma and the general forms of the dispersion relation that characterize the waves and label the various types of solutions. Chapters 3 and 4 analyze the acoustic phenomena through the fluid model of plasma and the kinetic effects. Th

  2. Plasma astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Kaplan, S A; ter Haar, D

    2013-01-01

    Plasma Astrophysics is a translation from the Russian language; the topics discussed are based on lectures given by V.N. Tsytovich at several universities. The book describes the physics of the various phenomena and their mathematical formulation connected with plasma astrophysics. This book also explains the theory of the interaction of fast particles plasma, their radiation activities, as well as the plasma behavior when exposed to a very strong magnetic field. The text describes the nature of collective plasma processes and of plasma turbulence. One author explains the method of elementary

  3. Thyroid axis activity and suicidal behavior in depressed patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, Fabrice; Mokrani, Marie-Claude; Lopera, Felix Gonzalez; Diep, Thanh Son; Rabia, Hassen; Fattah, Saïd

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between suicidal behavior and hypothalamic-pituitary thyroid (HPT) axis activity in depressed patients. The serum levels of thyrotropin (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), and free triiodothyronine (FT3) were evaluated before and after 0800 and 2300 h thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) challenges, on the same day, in 95 medication-free DSM-IV euthyroid major depressed inpatients and 44 healthy hospitalized controls. Compared to controls: (1) patients with a positive suicide history (PSH; n=53) showed lower basal FT4 (at 0800 h: p<0.005; at 2300 h: p<0.03), but normal FT3 levels, while patients with a negative suicide history (NSH; n=42) showed normal FT4 and FT3 levels; (2) TSH responses to TRH (DeltaTSH) were blunted in NSHs (at 0800 h: p<0.03; at 2300 h: p<0.00001), but not in PSHs; (3) both NSHs and PSHs showed lower DeltaDeltaTSH values (differences between 2300 h-DeltaTSH and 0800 h-DeltaTSH) (p<0.000001 and p<0.003, respectively). Compared to NSHs, basal FT4 levels were reduced in PSHs (at 0800 h: p<0.002; at 2300h: p<0.006). HPT parameters were not significantly different between recent suicide attempters (n=32) and past suicide attempters (n=21). However, compared to controls, recent suicide attempters showed lower 2300 h-DeltaTSH (p<0.04) and DeltaDeltaTSH (p<0.002) values, and lower basal FT4 values (at 0800 h: p<0.006; at 2300 h: p<0.02). Our results, obtained in a large sample of depressed inpatients, indicate that various degrees of HPT axis dysregulation are associated with the history of suicide.

  4. Pre-beta-HDL formation relates to high-normal free thyroxine in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tienhoven-Wind, van Lynnda; Perton, Frank G.; Dullaart, Robin P. F.

    Objectives: Low-normal thyroid function within the euthyroid range may influence plasma lipoprotein levels. Associations between variation in thyroid function and pre-beta-high density lipoproteins (pre-beta-HDL), i.e. lipid-poor or lipid free HDL particles that act as initial acceptor of

  5. Highland amphibians – Recalculation of data from 1990 to 2010 on the effects of extremely diluted thyroxine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gehard Lingg

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Experiments on amphibian metamorphosis can vary considerably in duration. The authors had set themselves the task of defining a generally applicable pooling method for metamorphosis experiments. The problem of artificial differences in variability when comparing and pooling data from several experiments was approached by normalization with respect to time based on the development of both test and the control animals. The range from 0% to 100% over which the fraction of four-legged animals progresses in the course of an experiment is divided into 10%-intervals and the 10% reference points are mapped on a corresponding scale. Each measurement is then assigned to the point on the time scale to which it is closest. In this way each reference point is assigned a value giving the number or percentage of four-legged animals at that point on the scale. Subsequent analysis was then based on the individual values for the test and control groups that corresponded to the joint 10% reference point. Normalization respect to time was done on the assumption that differences in metamorphosis speed attributable to treatment would override differences in duration between experiments. The results of experiments performed over the course of two decades (1990 - 2010 on highland Rana temporaria treated with a homeopathically prepared high dilution of thyroxine (“30x” are presented in full detail based on this normalization method. Differences found between treatment groups thus calculated were in line with those obtained with other pooling methods. Thyroxine 30x does slow down metamorphosis in inert highland amphibians. This was observed by five researchers in 20 sub-experiments, and it seems to be the most reliable bio-assay found in amphibian research on homeopathy so far. When experiments were performed with highland animals pretreated by hyperstimulation with molecular thyroxine, slowing down of metamorphosis was again observed (by

  6. Thyroxine (T 4-RIA) and triiodothyronine (T 3-RIA) serum levels in sheep fed on Leucaena Leucocephala; Niveis sericos de tiroxina (T4-RIA) e triiodotinonina (T3-RIA) em ovinos alimentados cm Leucaena Leucocephala LAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pessoa, J.M.; Rodriguez, N.M. [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Escola de Veterinaria; Cardoso, W.M. [Maranhao Univ., Sao Luis, MA (Brazil). Escola de Medicina Veterinaria; Velez, C.E.S.

    1988-12-31

    The aim of this work is to study the toxicity of Leucaena leucocephala on thyroxine and triiodothyronine serum concentration. Results indicate that ovine T 4 and T 3 serum levels do not decrease with Leucaena leucocephala feeding, sohen proreided for 41 days. (author). 10 refs, 1 tab.

  7. Associations of low grade inflammation and endothelial dysfunction with depression - The Maastricht Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Dooren, Fleur E P; Schram, Miranda T; Schalkwijk, Casper G

    2016-01-01

    in this association. METHODS: In The Maastricht Study, a population-based cohort study (n=852, 55% men, m=59.8±8.5years), depressive symptoms were assessed with the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 and (major and minor) depressive disorder with the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Plasma biomarkers......BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of depression may involve low-grade inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. We aimed to evaluate the independent associations of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction with depressive symptoms and depressive disorder, and the role of lifestyle factors......E-Selectin) were univariately associated with depressive symptoms and depressive disorder. The sum scores of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction were associated with depressive disorder after adjustment for age, sex, type 2 diabetes, kidney function and prior cardiovascular disease (OR 1.54, p=0.001 and 1...

  8. Standardization of depression measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahl, Inka; Löwe, Bernd; Bjørner, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    comparisons among included measures. Large differences were found in their measurement precision and range, providing a rationale for instrument selection. Published scale-specific threshold scores of depression severity showed remarkable consistencies across different questionnaires. CONCLUSION: An IRT-based......OBJECTIVES: To provide a standardized metric for the assessment of depression severity to enable comparability among results of established depression measures. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: A common metric for 11 depression questionnaires was developed applying item response theory (IRT) methods. Data...... instrument-independent metric for depression severity enables direct comparisons among established measures. The "common ruler" simplifies the interpretation of depression assessment by identifying key thresholds for clinical and epidemiologic decision making and facilitates integrative psychometric research...

  9. Pre-β-HDL formation relates to high-normal free thyroxine in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tienhoven-Wind, Lynnda J N; Perton, Frank G; Dullaart, Robin P F

    2016-01-01

    Low-normal thyroid function within the euthyroid range may influence plasma lipoprotein levels. Associations between variation in thyroid function and pre-β-high density lipoproteins (pre-β-HDL), i.e. lipid-poor or lipid free HDL particles that act as initial acceptor of cell-derived cholesterol, are unknown. We determined relationships of plasma pre-β-HDL with thyroid function in euthyroid subjects with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). TSH, free T4, plasma (apo)lipoproteins, pre-β-HDL, pre-β-HDL formation (pre-β-HDL generation during incubation with lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase being inhibited) and phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) activity were measured in fasting plasma from 72 T2DM and 82 non-diabetic subjects. TSH was similar and free T4 was slightly higher (P diabetic subjects. HDL cholesterol and apoA-I were lower, whereas pre-β-HDL (expressed as % of apoA-I), triglycerides and PLTP activity were higher in T2DM (P HDL formation (in apoA-I concentration and in % of apoA-I) was positively related to free T4, PLTP activity, total cholesterol and triglycerides (P HDL formation was positively related to free T4 (in apoA-I concentration: β = 0.278, P = 0.014; in % of apoA-I: β = 0.343, P = 0.003) in T2DM, but not in non-diabetic subjects (both P > 0.30; interaction terms: both P HDL in T2DM.

  10. The bidirectional effects of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism on anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dafu; Zhou, Heng; Yang, Yuan; Jiang, Yong; Wang, Tianchao; Lv, Liang; Zhou, Qixin; Yang, Yuexiong; Dong, Xuexian; He, Jianfeng; Huang, Xiaoyan; Chen, Jijun; Wu, Kunhua; Xu, Lin; Mao, Rongrong

    2015-03-01

    Thyroid hormone disorders have long been linked to depression, but the causal relationship between them remains controversial. To address this question, we established rat models of hypothyroidism using (131)iodine ((131)I) and hyperthyroidism using levothyroxine (LT4). Serum free thyroxine (FT4) and triiodothyronine (FT3) significantly decreased in the hypothyroid of rats with single injections of (131)I (5mCi/kg). These rats exhibited decreased depression-like behaviors in forced swimming test and sucrose preference tests, as well as decreased anxiety-like behaviors in an elevated plus maze. Diminished levels of brain serotonin (5-HT) and increased levels of hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were found in the hypothyroid rats compared to the control saline-vehicle administered rats. LT4 treatment reversed the decrease in thyroid hormones and depression-like behaviors. In contrast, hyperthyroidism induced by weekly injections of LT4 (15μg/kg) caused a greater than 10-fold increase in serum FT4 and FT3 levels. The hyperthyroid rats exhibited higher anxiety- and depression-like behaviors, higher brain 5-HT level, and lower hippocampal BDNF levels than the controls. Treatment with the antidepressant imipramine (15mg/kg) diminished serum FT4 levels as well as anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in the hyperthyroid rats but led to a further increase in brain 5-HT levels, compared with the controls or the hypothyroid rats. Together, our results suggest that hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism have bidirectional effects on anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in rats, possibly by modulating hippocampal BDNF levels.

  11. Depression and attachment problems.

    OpenAIRE

    Pettem, O; M. West; Mahoney, A; Keller, A.

    1993-01-01

    This study investigated the characteristics related to attachment of 42 depressed psychiatric patients and 42 non-depressed psychiatric controls. The depressed subjects demonstrated an anxious pattern of attachment, characterized by either intense care-seeking in relation to their attachment figure or angry withdrawal from their attachment figure when their desire for security was frustrated. The results are discussed in terms of Bowlby's attachment construct.

  12. DEPRESSIVE DISORDERS IN EPILEPSY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koralia Todorova

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Depressive disorders are the most frequent psychiatric comorbidity in epilepsy but very often remain unrecognized and untreated. We examined 103 epileptic patients, aged 18-60 years, 40 males and 63 females, for the presence of interictal depressive disorder. All subjects underwent clinical psychiatric examination, including evaluation on Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D-17. A questionnaire for demographic and seizure-related variables was also completed. Concurrent depressive disorder (clinically presented according to ICD-10 diagnostic criteria affected 28.3% of all evaluated patients. Based on HAM-D-17 scores depression was defined as mild - 80% of all depressed patients, moderate - 17% and severe - 3%. Atypical presentation of interictal depressive disorder was frequent. Depression has a tremendous effect on one’s family, social and psychological functioning, even more than the actual seizure frequency and severity. Diagnostic difficulties come through the atypical mode of presentation of depressive disorders in epilepsy. Proper neuropsychiatric evaluation is essential for improving treatment and quality of life for patients with epilepsy.

  13. Depression after myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegelstein, R C

    2001-01-01

    Depression is an independent risk factor for increased postmyocardial infarction morbidity and mortality, even after controlling for the extent of coronary artery disease, infarct size, and the severity of left ventricular dysfunction. This risk factor takes on added significance when one considers that almost half of patients recovering from a myocardial infarction have major or minor depression and that major depression alone occurs in about one in five of these individuals. Despite the well-documented risk of depression, questions remain about the mechanism of the relationship between mood disturbance and adverse outcome. The link may be explained by an association with lower levels of social support, poor adherence to recommended medical therapy and lifestyle changes intended to reduce the risk of subsequent cardiac events, disturbances in autonomic tone, enhanced platelet activation and aggregation, and systemic immune activation. Unfortunately, questions about the pathophysiologic mechanism of depression in this setting are paralleled by uncertainties about the optimal treatment of depression for patients recovering from a myocardial infarction and by a lack of knowledge about whether treating depression lowers the associated increased mortality risk. Ongoing research studies will help to determine the benefits of psychosocial interventions and of antidepressant therapy for patients soon after myocardial infarction. Although the identification of depression as a risk factor may by itself be a reason to incorporate a comprehensive psychological evaluation into the routine care of patients with myocardial infarction, this practice should certainly become standard if studies show that treating depression reduces the increased mortality risk of these patients.

  14. Predictors of postpartum depression in a sample of Egyptian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh ES

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El-Sayed Saleh,1 Wafaa El-Bahei,1 Mohamed Adel El-Hadidy,1 Abdelhady Zayed21Psychiatric Department, 2Gynecological and Obstetric Department, Mansoura Faculty of Medicine, Mansura University, Mansoura, EgyptIntroduction: Postpartum depression (PPD represents a considerable health problem affecting women and their families. The aims of this study were to: (a compare female patients with PPD to normal controls with regard to some biopsychosocial variables, (b correlate between the severity of PPD and some clinical and biological variables, and (c to predict some risk factors for PPD.Method: Sixty female patients with PPD were compared with 60 healthy postpartum females (control group. Patient and controls were subjected to: (1 a complete psychiatric and obstetric examination, (2 psychometric studies using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, Fahmy and El-Sherbini's Social Classification Scale for Egyptian socioeconomic classification and Horowitz et al's Impact of Event Scale, (3 quantities of thyroid hormone (T3, cortisol hormone, and estrogen were assessed.Results: There were high statistical differences between PPD females and controls as regard psychosocial stressors, level of (estradiol, thyroxin [T3], and cortisol, marital status, residence, parity, method of delivery, complicated puerperium, positive history of premenstrual tension syndrome and baby variables (eg, unwelcomed, with a negative attitude of parents toward the baby, underweight, female, artificially feeding, unhealthy baby. While there were moderate statistical differences in attitude toward spouse and social support and mild statistical difference in socioeconomic status between them. Severity of depression is positively highly correlated with onset of depression, psychosocial stress, levels of T3 and cortisol. However, severity of depression is negatively high when correlated with socioeconomic status. Stepwise linear regression indicated that PPD was significantly

  15. Nutritional Aspects of Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Undine E. Lang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Several nutrition, food and dietary compounds have been suggested to be involved in the onset and maintenance of depressive disorders and in the severity of depressive symptoms. Nutritional compounds might modulate depression associated biomarkers and parallel the development of depression, obesity and diabetes. In this context, recent studies revealed new mediators of both energy homeostasis and mood changes (i.e. IGF-1, NPY, BDNF, ghrelin, leptin, CCK, GLP-1, AGE, glucose metabolism and microbiota acting in gut brain circuits. In this context several healthy foods such as olive oil, fish, fruits, vegetables, nuts, legumes, poultry, dairy and unprocessed meat have been inversely associated with depression risk and even have been postulated to improve depressive symptoms. In contrast, unhealthy western dietary patterns including the consumption of sweetened beverage, refined food, fried food, processed meat, refined grain, and high fat diary, biscuits, snacking and pastries have been shown to be associated with an increased risk of depression in longitudinal studies. However, it is always difficult to conclude a real prospective causal relationship from these mostly retrospective studies as depressed individuals might also change their eating habits secondarily to their depression. Additionally specific selected nutritional compounds, e.g. calcium, chromium, folate, PUFAs, vitamin D, B12, zinc, magnesium and D-serine have been postulated to be used as ad-on strategies in antidepressant treatment. In this context, dietary and lifestyle interventions may be a desirable, effective, pragmatical and non-stigmatizing prevention and treatment strategy for depression. At last, several medications (pioglitazone, metformin, exenatide, atorvastatin, gram-negative antibiotics, which have traditionally been used to treat metabolic disorders showed a certain potential to treat depression in first randomized controlled clinical trials.

  16. Nutritional aspects of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Undine E; Beglinger, Christoph; Schweinfurth, Nina; Walter, Marc; Borgwardt, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Several nutrition, food and dietary compounds have been suggested to be involved in the onset and maintenance of depressive disorders and in the severity of depressive symptoms. Nutritional compounds might modulate depression associated biomarkers and parallel the development of depression, obesity and diabetes. In this context, recent studies revealed new mediators of both energy homeostasis and mood changes (i.e. IGF-1, NPY, BDNF, ghrelin, leptin, CCK, GLP-1, AGE, glucose metabolism and microbiota) acting in gut brain circuits. In this context several healthy foods such as olive oil, fish, fruits, vegetables, nuts, legumes, poultry, dairy and unprocessed meat have been inversely associated with depression risk and even have been postulated to improve depressive symptoms. In contrast, unhealthy western dietary patterns including the consumption of sweetened beverage, refined food, fried food, processed meat, refined grain, and high fat diary, biscuits, snacking and pastries have been shown to be associated with an increased risk of depression in longitudinal studies. However, it is always difficult to conclude a real prospective causal relationship from these mostly retrospective studies as depressed individuals might also change their eating habits secondarily to their depression. Additionally specific selected nutritional compounds, e.g. calcium, chromium, folate, PUFAs, vitamin D, B12, zinc, magnesium and D-serine have been postulated to be used as ad-on strategies in antidepressant treatment. In this context, dietary and lifestyle interventions may be a desirable, effective, pragmatical and non-stigmatizing prevention and treatment strategy for depression. At last, several medications (pioglitazone, metformin, exenatide, atorvastatin, gram-negative antibiotics), which have traditionally been used to treat metabolic disorders showed a certain potential to treat depression in first randomized controlled clinical trials.

  17. Negative attributional style, hopelessness depression and endogenous depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joiner, T E

    2001-02-01

    The hopelessness theory of depression [Abramson, L. Y., Metalsky, G. I. & Alloy, L. B. (1989). Hopelessness depression: a theory-based subtype of depression. Psychological Review, 96, 358-372.] postulates that a negative attributional style represents a risk factor for a particular constellation of depressive symptoms, termed 'hopelessness depression'. Four studies tested the relation of negative attributional style to hopelessness depression symptoms versus endogenous depression symptoms. Despite the considerable overlap of hopelessness and endogenous depression symptoms, negative attributional style was more related to the former than the latter, consistent with hopelessness theory.

  18. Depression During and After Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Depression during and after pregnancy fact sheet ePublications Depression during and after pregnancy fact sheet This information in Spanish (en español) Print this fact sheet Depression during and after pregnancy fact sheet (PDF, 260 ...

  19. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 3 items) Institute Announcements (24 items) Symptoms and Treatment of Depression February 1, 2010 People with depression ... why it affects some people but not others. Treatments for depression do work. One type of effective ...

  20. St. John's Wort and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... W X Y Z St. John's Wort and Depression: In Depth Share: On This Page Introduction Key ... will help ensure coordinated and safe care. About Depression Depression is a medical condition that affects about ...

  1. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 3 items) Institute Announcements (24 items) Symptoms and Treatment of Depression February 1, 2010 People with depression ... why it affects some people but not others. Treatments for depression do work. One type of effective ...

  2. Relationship of sleep disorder with plasma interleukin-2 and soluble interleukine-2 receptor in patients with depression%抑郁症患者睡眠障碍与血清白细胞介素2及可溶性白细胞介素2受体水平的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祁富生; 贾福军; 郭新胜; 李恒芬

    2005-01-01

    plasma interleukin-2(IL-2) and solute interleukin-2 receptor(sIL-2R) were detected with enzyme-linked immunoadsorbent assay.disorder in patients with depression.RESULTS: The level of plasma IL-2 in the depression group(77.92± 36.85) pg/L was lower than that of the normal control group (98.98± 30. 72 ) pg/L( t = 2. 446, P < 0.05). Moreover, IL-2 level was positively correlated to depth of sleep level( r = 0. 364, P < 0. 05) . No significant difference in sIL-2R level was found between the two groups( P > 0.05).CONCLUSION: The development of sleep disorder in patients with depression may be related with the level of cytokine, and the decrease of IL-2level can be the neurobiological basis of sleep level in depression.

  3. Testosterone and Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şükrü Kartalcı

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Androgens have various effects on human body and mood. Testosterone, a hormone mainly secreted from testes and adrenals, is one of the most potent androgens. Multiple studies have found that testosterone plays a role in regulating sexual activity, libido, social behaviors, aggression, cognitive functions, sleep control and well-being in men and women. Testosterone deficiency in hypogonadic or elderly men leads to neuropsychiatric problems, such as fatigue, loss of libido, irritability, insomnia and depressive mood. Testosterone replacement therapy consistently reverses these sequel in men. On the other hand, hyperandrogenic states in women are related to aggression and antisocial behavior, which might lead to depressive mood. Low testosterone levels may also result in depression among oophorectomized women. Because of such effects, a relationship between testosterone and depression has long been an issue of speculation, but yet very few studies have addressed this relation. Along with clinical studies, experimental and epidemiological studies show that testosterone is related to depression in men and women. But studies of testosterone concentrations in depression have yielded inconsistent results reporting low as well as high testosterone levels associated with depression. In this article, the physiological and psychological effects of testosterone and evidence regarding its relationship to depressive disorders and possible gender differences have been reviewed.

  4. Depression in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiske, Amy; Wetherell, Julie Loebach; Gatz, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Depression is less prevalent among older adults than among younger adults, but it can have serious consequences. More than half of cases represent a first onset in later life. Although suicide rates in the elderly are declining, they are still higher than in younger adults and are more closely associated with depression. Depressed older adults are less likely to endorse affective symptoms and more likely to display cognitive changes, somatic symptoms, and loss of interest than are depressed younger adults. Risk factors leading to the development of late-life depression likely comprise complex interactions among genetic vulnerabilities, cognitive diathesis, age-associated neurobiological changes, and stressful events. Insomnia is an often overlooked risk factor for late-life depression. We suggest that a common pathway to depression in older adults, regardless of which predisposing risks are most prominent, may be curtailment of daily activities. Accompanying self-critical thinking may exacerbate and maintain a depressed state. Offsetting the increasing prevalence of certain risk factors in late life are age-related increases in psychological resilience. Other protective factors include higher education and socioeconomic status, engagement in valued activities, and religious or spiritual involvement. Treatments including behavioral therapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy, cognitive bibliotherapy, problem-solving therapy, brief psychodynamic therapy, and life review/reminiscence therapy are effective but are too infrequently used with older adults. Preventive interventions including education for individuals with chronic illness, behavioral activation, cognitive restructuring, problem-solving skills training, group support, and life review have also received support.

  5. Depression Begets Depression: Comparing the Predictive Utility of Depression and Anxiety Symptoms to Later Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Kate; Feng, Xin; Hipwell, Alison; Klostermann, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Background: The high comorbidity between depressive and anxiety disorders, especially among females, has called into question the independence of these two symptom groups. It is possible that childhood anxiety typically precedes depression in girls. Comparing of the predictive utility of symptoms of anxiety with the predictive utility of symptoms…

  6. [Hashimoto encephalitis and depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veltman, E M; Rhebergen, D; van Exel, E; Stek, M L

    2015-01-01

    Hashimoto encephalitis (he) is an auto-immune disease, with 40-50% of patients developing psychopathology. This could require targeted treatment. HE and prednison could both cloud the identification of a concurrent depressive disorder. We saw a 78-year-old woman with he and a severe depression, and treated her succesfully with ect.

  7. Depression (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... these simple actions. They can have a powerful effect on mood and help with depression: eat healthy foods get the right amount of ... dance, and find creative self-expression through art, music, or journaling. ... and well-being. Depression can be treated if you take the right ...

  8. Sleep deprivation and depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsenga, Simon

    1992-01-01

    The association between depression and sleep disturbances is perhaps as old as makind. In view of the longstanding experience with this association it is amazing that only some 20 years ago, a few depressed patients attracted attention to the fact that Total Sleep Deprivation (TSD) had

  9. Sleep deprivation and depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsenga, Simon

    1992-01-01

    The association between depression and sleep disturbances is perhaps as old as makind. In view of the longstanding experience with this association it is amazing that only some 20 years ago, a few depressed patients attracted attention to the fact that Total Sleep Deprivation (TSD) had antidepressan

  10. CIRCADIAN RHYTMICITY AND DEPRESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Pregelj

    2008-11-01

    There is a grooving evidence that dysfunction in circadian rhythm regulation andmelatonergic system function is involved in depression pathogenesis. It is known thatclinically used antidepressants have influence on melatonergic system, probably throughchanged ratio between melatonergic type 1 and 2 receptors. With the clinical use of newcompounds like agomelatine that directly regulates melatonergic system new opportunities in depression treatment emerged

  11. Depression - older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... slowly than in younger adults. To better manage depression at home: Exercise regularly, if the provider says it is OK. Surround yourself with caring, positive people and do fun activities. ... signs of depression, and know how to react if these occur. ...

  12. Depression and ionizing radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loganovsky, K N; Vasilenko, Z L

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this at issue paper is the analysis of published data in correlation with the results of own research on the potential role of ionizing radiation in the genesis of depressive disorders. Depression is one of the most significant and long-term effect of the atomic bombings, nuclear testing and radiation emergences. The participants of the accident at the Chornobyl nuclear power plant increased prevalence of depression (18.0% and 13.1% in controls) and suicide rates. Depression is mainly observed in the structure of an organic mental disorder against cerebrovascular disease. The clinical pattern is dominated by asthenoadynamic and asthenoapathetic depression. Depressive disorders in radiation emergencies are multifactorial, that is the result of exposure to the complex psychogenic and radiological accident's factors, impact of traditional risk factors, somatic and neurological diseases, genetic predisposition, predisposition, etc. At the same time, exposure to ionizing radiation is a factor in the genesis of depression. This impact can be direct (to the Central Nervous System), and indirectly through the somatic and neurological abnormalities (multiorgan dysfunction) as well as by a variety of pathogenic mechanisms of ionizing radiation on the brain that have been discovered recently. It is strongly necessary analytical clinical and epidemiological studies with verification of depression and evidence-based establishment of the role of radiation and non-radiation risk factors. Loganovskyj K. N., Vasylenko Z. L., 2013.

  13. Cooperation and depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brendan Clark, C; Thorne, Christopher B; Hardy, Sonya; Cropsey, Karen L

    2013-09-25

    Deficits in pro-social cooperation are common in many individuals with mental illnesses such as depression. For decades, researchers have used economic game paradigms to compare cross-cultural cooperative behavior. However, research using economic games to assess cooperative behavior in clinical populations is in the early stages. We hypothesized that individuals with greater depressive symptoms would struggle to maintain reciprocity in iterative games, but not in single-iteration games measuring personal values. Participants (n=41) played four computer-based economic games (prisoner's dilemma, the public goods game, the ultimatum game, and the trust game) measuring different aspects of cooperation. Participants completed the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) and other measures of personality and demographics. Analyses assessed the relationships between game performance and psychological distress as measured by the DASS. Significant correlations were found between game performance and depressive symptoms, but not symptoms of anxiety or stress. Performance in the prisoner's dilemma and public goods game was significantly related to depression in a linear regression even when known associations with depressive affect such as age, gender, race, education, marital status, and neuroticism were controlled for. Depressive symptoms were associated with an inability to sustain reciprocal cooperation. Participants showed the predicted deficits in cooperation in these economic games. Economic games show the potential for assessing the social deficits associated with depressive symptoms. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Adolescent depression: a metasynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dundon, Edith Emma

    2006-01-01

    Concerns about the adequate assessment and treatment of adolescent depression have been in the forefront of pediatric mental health literature in the recent past. While quantitative studies have provided valuable information, the voice of the adolescent has been lacking in the development of theory and treatment of this prevalent disorder. Using approach, a metasynthesis of six qualitative studies was conducted. This process revealed six themes that outline the course of adolescents who struggle with depression: (a) beyond the blues, (b) spiraling down and within, (c) breaking points, (d) seeing and being seen, (e) seeking solutions, and (f) taking control. Knowledge of the experience of adolescent depression will aid practitioners in recognition and early intervention for the increasing number of adolescents suffering with depression, as well as guide educational initiatives to provide needed information on the symptoms of depression and available resources for getting help.

  15. [Depression and suicide prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Mitsuhiko

    2007-09-01

    Suicide is a major public health problem and the number of suicide victims has exceeded 30,000 a year since 1998 in Japan. The rates of depression are extremely high in suicide victims. Social and environmental factors, such as the slow recovery of Japanese economy, could have a strong effect on depression and suicide, especially in middle-aged men. To reduce the number of suicide victims, we need to use both population-based and high-risk approaches, targeting individuals with high psychological and socioeconomic risks of suicide, especially depressed patients. On the other hand, the role of antidepressants in suicide prevention is a major question given the high prevalence of both depression and depression-related suicidality. Because treatment and prevention of suicide are complex and encompass many factors, success will need multi-sector collaboration.

  16. Depression following myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Karen Kjær

    2013-01-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) is a severe life event that is accompanied by an increased risk of depression. Mounting evidence suggests that post-MI depression is associated with adverse outcomes, but the underlying mechanisms of this association remain unclear, and no previous studies have examined...... whether the mental burden of MI is so heavy that it increases the risk of suicide. Although post-MI depression is common and burdensome, the condition remains under-recognised and under-treated. The development of new strategies to improve the quality of care for people with post-MI depression requires...... thorough understanding of the mechanisms that influence the prognosis as well as knowledge of the present care provided. The purpose of this PhD thesis is accordingly subdivided into four specific aims: 1. To estimate the prevalence of depression in people with MI after three months, and to estimate...

  17. Measuring psychotic depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Søren Dinesen; Meyers, B S; Flint, A J

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Psychotic depression (PD) is a highly debilitating condition, which needs intensive monitoring. However, there is no established rating scale for evaluating the severity of PD. The aim of this analysis was to assess the psychometric properties of established depression rating scales...... and a number of new composite rating scales, covering both depressive and psychotic symptoms, in relation to PD. METHOD: The psychometric properties of the rating scales were evaluated based on data from the Study of Pharmacotherapy of Psychotic Depression. RESULTS: A rating scale consisting of the 6-item......'s correlation coefficient between change in HAMD-BPRS11 and Clinical Global Impression - Improvement (CGI-I) scores = -0.74--0.78) and unidimensionality (Loevinger's coefficient of homogeneity = 0.41) in the evaluation of PD. The HAM-D6 fulfilled the same criteria, whereas the full 17-item Hamilton Depression...

  18. Depression and Political Participation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, I propose that depression is a political phenomenon insofar as it has political sources and consequences. I then investigate one aspect of this argument—whether depression reduces participation. I hypothesize that individuals with depression lack the motivation and physical capacity to vote and engage in other forms of political participation due to somatic problems and feelings of hopelessness and apathy. Moreover, I examine how depression in adolescence can have downstream consequences for participation in young adulthood. The analyses, using both cross-sectional and longitudinal data, show that voter turnout and other forms of participation decrease as the severity of depressed mood increases. These findings are discussed in light of disability rights and potential efforts to boost participation among this group. PMID:26924857

  19. Depression and Political Participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda, Christopher

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, I propose that depression is a political phenomenon insofar as it has political sources and consequences. I then investigate one aspect of this argument-whether depression reduces participation. I hypothesize that individuals with depression lack the motivation and physical capacity to vote and engage in other forms of political participation due to somatic problems and feelings of hopelessness and apathy. Moreover, I examine how depression in adolescence can have downstream consequences for participation in young adulthood. The analyses, using both cross-sectional and longitudinal data, show that voter turnout and other forms of participation decrease as the severity of depressed mood increases. These findings are discussed in light of disability rights and potential efforts to boost participation among this group.

  20. [Severe depression : psychoanalysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouvet de la Maisonneuve, O

    2009-12-01

    The indication for psychoanalysis in severe depression is not clear. And yet, demands for this type of intervention are increasing, despite the absence of any form of consensus on the subject. Freud considered depression as a failure of analytical efforts and, based on this observation, revised his theory, in particular to include the notions of narcissism and the death drive. Many analysts have been reluctant to follow his teachings on this last point and provide depressed patients with analytical-type therapies aimed at restoring narcissism. Melanie Klein pushed Freud's ideas about depression even further and brought such therapies back to the heart of analytical practice. Jacques Lacan took the debate to another level by proposing an overhaul of the principles on which analysis has been based. Today, while following certain precautionary rules, true psychoanalyses can be proposed to patients with severe depression, whether of the bipolar, recurring or even neurotic type that can reach this level of severity.

  1. Plasma Antenna

    OpenAIRE

    N M Vijay

    2014-01-01

    The fundamental base of plasma antenna is the use of an ionized medium as a conductor. The plasma antenna is a radiofrequency antenna formed by a plasma columns, Filaments or sheets, which are excited by a surface wave. The relevance of this device is how rapidly it can be turned on and off, only applying an electrical pulse. Besides its wide carrier frequency, the great directivity and controllable antenna shape. Otherwise a disadvantage is that it needs energy to be ionized....

  2. Plasma physics

    CERN Document Server

    Drummond, James E

    2013-01-01

    A historic snapshot of the field of plasma physics, this fifty-year-old volume offers an edited collection of papers by pioneering experts in the field. In addition to assisting students in their understanding of the foundations of classical plasma physics, it provides a source of historic context for modern physicists. Highly successful upon its initial publication, this book was the standard text on plasma physics throughout the 1960s and 70s.Hailed by Science magazine as a ""well executed venture,"" the three-part treatment ranges from basic plasma theory to magnetohydrodynamics and microwa

  3. DISTURBANCES OF BIOLOGICAL RHYTHMS IN A RAT CHRONIC MILD STRESS MODEL OF DEPRESSION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Sofie; Wiborg, Ove; Bouzinova, Elena

    Aim: The focus of this project is to identify biomarkers related to circadian disturbances in major depressive disorder. Background: A large body of clinical data from depressed individuals showed that sleep, temperature, hormones, physiological states and moodchanges are consistent...... validated animal model of depression, the chronic mild stress model (CMS). Depression-like and control rats were killed by decapitation within 24 h. Trunk blood, brain and liver tissue were collected. The quantitative amount of plasma corticosterone and melatonin were measured using an ELISA and RIA kit...... that depression-like animals showed an abnormal circadian rhythm in the liver and in subregions of the rat brains related to depression. However, the SCN was partly protected against stress. We found an increased level of corticosteron and melatonin, in the depression-like animals as well as a shifted circadian...

  4. Management of bipolar depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Seung Chang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with bipolar disorder spend more time in a depressed than manic state, even with individualized treatment. To date, bipolar depression is often misdiagnosed and ineffectively managed both for acute episodes and residual symptoms. This review attempts to summarize the current status of available treatment strategies in the treatment of bipolar depression. For acute and prophylactic treatment, a substantial body of evidence supports the antidepressive efficacy of lithium for bipolar disorders and its antisuicidal effects. Among numerous anticonvulsants with mood-stabilizing properties, valproate and lamotrigine could be first-line options for bipolar depression. Due to receptor profile, mood-stabilizing properties of second-generation antipsychotics have been explored, and up to date, quetiapine and olanzapine appear to be a reasonable option for bipolar depression. The usefulness of antidepressants in bipolar depression is still controversial. Current guidelines generally recommend the cautious antidepressant use in combination with mood stabilizers to reduce the risk of mood elevation or cycle acceleration. Results from clinical trials on psychosocial intervention are promising, especially when integrated with pharmacotherapy. Most patients with bipolar depression need individualized and combined treatment, although the published evidence on this type of treatment strategy is limited. Future studies on the utility of currently available agents and modalities including psychosocial intervention are required.

  5. Behandlingsresistent depression kan behandles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinberg, Maj; Levinsen, Mette Frandsen; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2011-01-01

    Depression is considered resistant when two treatment attempts with antidepressants from different classes fail to produce significant clinical improvement. In cases of treatment-resistant depression, it is recommended to reevaluate the diagnosis, clarify comorbidity, substance abuse and lack...... of compliance. Regarding treatment, evidence is sparse, but switching to a different antidepressant, and combination or augmentation with another agent, admission and treatment with ECT are the options. The choice of treatment must be based on the characteristics of the depression, the severity of treatment...

  6. Depression and erectile dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhlouf, Antoine; Kparker, Ashay; Niederberger, Craig S

    2007-11-01

    Depression and erectile dysfunction (ED) clearly are associated. Although urologists and psychiatrists have long recognized that antidepressant medications affect erectile function negatively, the interplay between the two conditions remains underappreciated. Psychiatrists may be reluctant to question a patient in detail about ED, and urologists seldom perform a formal assessment of the presence of depression in patients who have ED. This article gives a quick overview of the relationship between these two conditions and provides the clinician with the knowledge required to effectively manage ED with comorbid depression.

  7. The effect of sunlight exposure on interleukin-6 levels in depressive and non-depressive subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levandovski, Rosa; Pfaffenseller, Bianca; Carissimi, Alicia; Gama, Clarissa S; Hidalgo, Maria Paz Loayza

    2013-03-05

    The objective of this epidemiological study was to evaluate the effect of length of sunlight exposure on interleukin 6 (IL-6) levels in depressive and non-depressive subjects. This was a cross-sectional study with 154 subjects (54 males, mean age: 43.5 ± 12.8 years) who were living in a rural area in south Brazil. Chronobiological and light parameters were assessed using the Munich Chronotype Questionnaire. Sleep quality was evaluated using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Beck Depression Inventory. Plasma levels of inflammatory cytokines (IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interferon) were collected during the daytime and measured. IL-6 levels showed a positive correlation with light exposure (r = 0.257; p exposure was an independent factor for predicting IL-6 levels (ß = 0.26; p = 0.002). In non-depressed subjects, exposure to a different intensity of light did not affect IL-6 levels (t = -1.6; p = 0.1). However, when the two depressive groups with low and high light exposure were compared, the low light exposure group had lower levels of IL-6 compared with the high light exposure group (t = -2.19 and p = 0.0037). The amount of time that participants are exposed to sunlight is directly related to their IL-6 levels. Additionally, depressed subjects differ in their IL-6 levels if they are exposed to light for differing amounts of time.

  8. Neuroticism in remitted major depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Anders; Kristoffersen, Marius; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The personality trait of neuroticism is strongly related to depression, but depression is etiologically heterogeneous. Late-onset depression (LOD) may be more closely related to vascular factors, and previous studies of neuroticism in LOD versus early-onset depression (EOD) have not b...

  9. Do You Have Major Depression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Depression Do You Have Major Depression? Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents Simple ... member may have major depression. —NIMH Types of Depression Just like other illnesses, such as heart disease, ...

  10. Three tests of cortisol secretion in adult endogenous depressives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachar, E J; Puig-Antich, J; Ryan, N D; Asnis, G M; Rabinovich, H; Davies, M; Halpern, F S

    1985-01-01

    Seventy-nine drug-free adult patients fitting RDC criteria for major depressive disorder endogenous subtype (EMDD), and 64 normal adult volunteers, were studied at pretreatment with at least one of three tests of cortisol secretion. The tests were: 1) Mean half-hourly cortisol concentrations from 1 p.m. to 4 p.m. (1-4 PM CORT); 2) plasma cortisol response to 0.15 mg/kg of dextroamphetamine hydrochloride (DACT) in the afternoon; 3) dexamethasone suppression test (DST) using 1 or 2 mg. Thirty-six depressive and 27 volunteers underwent all three tests. Analysis of the data was performed for each test singly, for all pairs of tests and for all three tests in same subjects. Results show that the single most sensitive cortisol test for depressions is the DACT (72%), with a specificity of 88%. These tests may measure different underlying pathophysiologies associated with depression.

  11. Vision in depressive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bubl, E.; Tebartz Van Elst, L.; Ebert, D.

    2009-01-01

    Background. Reduced dopaminergic transmission has been implicated in the pathophysiology of major depression. Furthermore, dopaminergic neurotransmission plays an important role in the physiology of visual contrast sensitivity (CS). To test the hypothesis that altered dopaminergic neurotransmissi...

  12. Telomere length and depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wium-Andersen, Marie Kim; Ørsted, David Dynnes; Rode, Line

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Depression has been cross-sectionally associated with short telomeres as a measure of biological age. However, the direction and nature of the association is currently unclear. AIMS: We examined whether short telomere length is associated with depression cross-sectionally as well...... as prospectively and genetically. METHOD: Telomere length and three polymorphisms, TERT, TERC and OBFC1, were measured in 67 306 individuals aged 20-100 years from the Danish general population and associated with register-based attendance at hospital for depression and purchase of antidepressant medication....... RESULTS: Attendance at hospital for depression was associated with short telomere length cross-sectionally, but not prospectively. Further, purchase of antidepressant medication was not associated with short telomere length cross-sectionally or prospectively. Mean follow-up was 7.6 years (range 0...

  13. Doxepin (Depression, Anxiety)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doxepin is used to treat depression and anxiety. Doxepin is in a class of medications called tricyclic antidepressants. It works by increasing the amounts of certain natural substances in the brain ...

  14. [Depression and myocardial infaction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testuz, A

    2009-03-04

    Several works show an association between depression and the occurence of a first myocardial infarction. Depression after myocardial infarction seems to be a marker of poorer outcome, regardless of other risk factors or severity of the myocardial infarction. Dysautonomia and alteration of platelet activation are a few physiopathological changes shared by both affections, through which they might be related. Treatment of depression is not associated with better cardiovascular outcome, but selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors have been shown safe and efficient among patients with coronary heart disease. Cognitivo-comportemental approach and cardiovascular rehabilitation program after myocardial infarction also play a role in improving quality of life of the depressed patient with coronary heart disease.

  15. Depression (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... people overcome depression. Talk therapy works by helping people to: understand their emotions, put feelings into words, and feel understood and supported build the confidence to deal with life's struggles work out problems ...

  16. Depression in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Printable Report Election Year: Mental Health and Politics Glossary and Citations Prevalence Data Ranking Guidelines Ranking ... Mental Health. “The Many Dimensions of Depression in Women: Women at Risk,” Accessed June 1999. Netscape: http:// ...

  17. The psychoneuroimmunology of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Brian E; Myint, Ayemu

    2009-04-01

    Chronic stress, by initiating changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the immune system, acts as a trigger for anxiety and depression. There is experimental and clinical evidence that the rise in the concentration of pro-inflammatory cytokines and glucocorticoids, which occurs in a chronically stressful situation and also in depression, contribute to the behavioural changes associated with depression. A defect in serotonergic function is associated with these hormonal and immune changes. Neurodegenerative changes in the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex and amygdalae are the frequent outcome of the changes in the HPA axis and the immune system. Such changes may provide evidence for the link between chronic depression and dementia in later life.

  18. The effect of life-long thyroxine treatment and physical activity on bone mineral density in young adult women with congenital hypothyroidism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J.E. Kempers; T. Vulsma; B.M. Wiedijk; M. de Vijlder; B.L.F. van Eck-Smit; H.J. Verberne

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Normalization of plasma thyrotropin in T-4-Supplemented patients with thyroidal congenital hypothyroidism (CH) requires elevated plasma FT4-concentrations compared to patients with acquired thyroidal hypothyroidism. We investigated bone mineral density (BMD) in patients with CH. Patients

  19. Serum nitric oxide levels and flow-mediated dilatation in patients with Sheehan syndrome and the effect of combination therapy consisting of L-thyroxine, prednisolone, and conjugated estrogen/medroxyprogesterone acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahceci, Mithat; Pasa, Semir; Akay, Hatice O; Tuzcu, Alpaslan; Tumer, Cemil; Gokalp, Deniz

    2008-04-01

    Baseline and stimulated nitric oxide (NO) levels were higher, whereas baseline arterial diameter, FMD-stimulated NO increment, and arterial dilatation ratio were lower in Sheehan syndrome (SS) patients than in control subjects. After combination therapy consisting of prednisolone, L-thyroxine, and conjugated estrogen, baseline and stimulated NO levels of SS remained as high, but FMD-stimulated NO, NO increment ratio, and arterial dilatation ratio increased with treatment.

  20. Depression and codependency in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes-Hammer, C; Martsolf, D S; Zeller, R A

    1998-12-01

    Seven million American women are depressed, and 40 million Americans, primarily women, have been labeled as codependent. This study aimed to identify the prevalence of codependency in women undergoing treatment for depression, examine the relationship between codependency and depression, and determine which of the symptoms of codependency are most highly predictive of depression scores. Depression and codependency were measured in a sample of 105 depressed women by using the Beck Depression Inventory and the Codependency Assessment Tool. Descriptive statistics, Pearson's Product Moment Correlation, and multiple regression were used for analysis. Of these depressed women, 36% were moderately to severely codependent. Depression and codependency were strongly related, with the significant gamma = .92 (P codependency subscales, Low Self-Worth and Hiding Self correlate most strongly with depression; Other Focus/Self-Neglect added the least-independent--explanatory power. Thus, future research should be directed toward the relationship of codependency to power, alienation of self, and personality disorders.

  1. Identifying Depression on Twitter

    OpenAIRE

    Nadeem, Moin

    2016-01-01

    Social media has recently emerged as a premier method to disseminate information online. Through these online networks, tens of millions of individuals communicate their thoughts, personal experiences, and social ideals. We therefore explore the potential of social media to predict, even prior to onset, Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) in online personas. We employ a crowdsourced method to compile a list of Twitter users who profess to being diagnosed with depression. Using up to a year of pri...

  2. Anxiety, depression, and insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larzelere, Michele M; Wiseman, Pamela

    2002-06-01

    Evidence for alternative treatments for depression, anxiety, and insomnia are reviewed in this article. Treatment of depression with St. John's wort, L-tryptophan, 5-hydroxytryptophan, S-adenosylmethionine, dehydroepiandosterone, folate, exercise, acupuncture, and meditation are examined. Evidence for the efficacy of kava kava, exercise, relaxation therapies, and acupuncture in treatment anxiety is reviewed. The use of valerian, melatonin, chamomile, passionflower, exercise, acupuncture, and behavioral therapies (i.e., sleep restriction, stimulus control, relaxation, and sleep hygiene) for insomnia is discussed.

  3. Low submetamorphic doses of dexamethasone and thyroxine induce complete metamorphosis in the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) when injected together.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, Eduard R; De Groef, Bert; Grommen, Sylvia V H; Van der Geyten, Serge; Darras, Veerle M

    2004-06-01

    Entanglement of functions between the adrenal (or interrenal) and thyroid axis has been well described for all vertebrates and can be tracked down up to the level of gene expression. Both thyroid hormones and corticosteroids may induce morphological changes leading to metamorphosis climax in the neotenic Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum). In a first series of experiments, metamorphosis was induced with an injection of 25 microg T(4) on three alternate days as judged by a decrease in body weight and tail height together with complete gill resorption. This injection also resulted in elevated plasma concentrations of T(3) and corticosterone. Previous results have indicated that the same dose of dexamethasone (DEX) is ineffective in this regard (Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 127 (2002) 157). In a second series of experiments low doses of T(4) (0.5 microg) or DEX (5 microg) were ineffective to induce morphological changes. However, when these submetamorphic doses were injected together, morphological changes were observed within one week leading to complete metamorphosis. It is concluded that thyroid hormones combined with corticosteroids are essential for metamorphosis in the axolotl and that only high doses of either thyroid hormone or corticosteroid can induce morphological changes when injected separately.

  4. [Depression in the workplace].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezerai, Mustapha; Dahane, Abdelkrim; Tachon, Jean-Paul

    2006-05-01

    Depression is the object of a dense literature, and synthesizing it is more of a utopian ideal rather than a concrete possibility. Several specific risk factors for mental health are found in the workplace: work overloads, defective communications, role conflicts, competitive climate, and tolerance of violence. At the same time, few preventive measures have been implemented against mental disorders at work, nor are many protective factors present. One worker in ten suffers from depression, anxiety, stress, or overwork. To be distinguished from "burnout", depressive symptoms must induce clinically significant suffering with substantial deterioration in functioning at work. For depression to be recognized as a workplace accident, the employee must show that it was triggered by an unforeseen and sudden event (or at least one certainly) due to or at work. The causal link between an event at work and the depression must be shown (in particular by expert medical testimony about stress factors and indicators of vulnerability to depression). Its recognition as an occupational disease can be based on the presence of psychosocial factors described by models of workplace stress and on its description by the occupational physician.

  5. Depression and Coronary Heart Disease

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    There are exciting findings in the field of depression and coronary heart disease. Whether diagnosed or simply self-reported, depression continues to mark very high risk for a recurrent acute coronary syndrome or for death in patients with coronary heart disease. Many intriguing mechanisms have been posited to be implicated in the association between depression and heart disease, and randomized controlled trials of depression treatment are beginning to delineate the types of depression manage...

  6. Elevated C-Reactive Protein Levels, Psychological Distress, and Depression in 73 131 Individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wium-Andersen, Marie Kim; Ørsted, David Dynnes; Nielsen, Sune Fallgaard

    2013-01-01

    CONTEXT The pathogenesis of depression is not fully understood, but studies suggest that low-grade systemic inflammation contributes to the development of depression. OBJECTIVE To test whether elevated plasma levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) are associated with psychological distress and depres......CONTEXT The pathogenesis of depression is not fully understood, but studies suggest that low-grade systemic inflammation contributes to the development of depression. OBJECTIVE To test whether elevated plasma levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) are associated with psychological distress...... and depression. DESIGN We performed cross-sectional and prospective analyses of CRP levels in 4 clinically relevant categories using data from 2 general population studies. SETTING The Copenhagen General Population and the Copenhagen City Heart studies. PARTICIPANTS We examined 73 131 men and women aged 20...

  7. Profiles of Cortisol, Triiodothyronine, Thyroxine and Neutrophil/Lymphocyte Ratio as Stress Indicators in Swamp Buffaloes 15 Days Post-Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Maheshwari

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Transportation may cause stress that affects livestock’s health. This research was conducted to observe the effect of transportation on the profiles of blood cortisol, triiodothyronine (T3, thyroxine (T4 and neutrophil/lymphocyte (N/L ratio as stress indicators during 15 days post-transportation. Four females swamp buffaloes, 2-yr-old were used in this research. The animals were transported using an open truck, along 15 kilometers distance for 2 h. During acclimatization, the animals were fed grass twice a day and access to water ad libitum. Blood was collected at the time of arrival and everyday for 15 d post-transportation. Cortisol, T3 and T4 were analyzed using Radioimmunoassay (RIA method. Blood smears were also prepared and stained with Giemsa for leukocyte differential counts. Results showed a significant relation (P1.5 in average throughout the period of the research. It is concluded that transportation causes stress and therefore changes metabolic process.

  8. The thyroxine-containing thyroglobulin peptide (aa 2549-2560) is a target epitope in iodide-accelerated spontaneous autoimmune thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolypetri, Panayota; Carayanniotis, Karen; Rahman, Shofiur; Georghiou, Paris E; Magafa, Vassiliki; Cordopatis, Paul; Carayanniotis, George

    2014-07-01

    Enhanced iodide ingestion is known to accelerate the incidence and severity of spontaneous autoimmune thyroiditis [iodide-accelerated spontaneous autoimmune thyroiditis (ISAT)] in NOD.H2(h4) mice. CD4+ cells are required for the development and maintenance of ISAT, but their target epitopes remain unknown. In this study, we show that the previously identified thyroglobulin (Tg) T cell epitope p2549-2560 containing thyroxine at position 2553 (T4p2553) induces thyroiditis as well as strong specific T and B cell responses in NOD.H2(h4) mice. In ISAT, activated CD4+ T cells specific for T4p2553 are detected before the disease onset in thyroid-draining cervical lymph nodes only in mice placed on an iodide-rich diet and not in age-matched controls. In addition, selective enrichment of CD4+ IFN-γ+ T4p2553-specific cells is observed among cervical lymph node cells and intrathyroidal lymphocytes. T4p2553 was equally detectable on dendritic cells obtained ex vivo from cervical lymph node cells of NaI-fed or control mice, suggesting that the iodide-rich diet contributes to the activation of autoreactive cells rather than the generation of the autoantigenic epitope. Furthermore, spontaneous T4p2553-specific IgG are not detectable within the strong Tg-specific autoantibody response. To our knowledge, these data identify for the first time a Tg T cell epitope as a spontaneous target in ISAT.

  9. Linear growth, growth-hormone secretion and IGF-I generation in children with neglected hypothyroidism before and after thyroxine replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Ashraf T; Omar, Magdy; El Awwa, Ahmad; Rizk, Mostafa M; El Alaily, Rania K; Bedair, Elsaid M A

    2008-10-01

    We studied growth hormone (GH) stimulation and insulin-like growth factor -I (IGF-I) generation tests in 15 children with neglected congenital hypothyroidism (CH) (age = 6.4 +/- 4.2 years) and measured their growth parameters for >1 years after starting thyroxine (T4) replacement. One year after treatment, height SDS (HtSDS) increased from -4.3 +/- 2.5 to -2.7 +/- 2.3. Peak GH response to clonidine increased from 3.2 +/- 1.2 ng ml(-1) to 7.62 +/- 1.38 ng ml(-1) after treatments. Basal and peak IGF-I response to GH increased from (34.66 +/- 17.3 ng ml(-1) and 58.4 +/- 36.99 ng ml(-1), respectively) before treatment to (130.6 +/- 97.8 ng ml(-1) and 193.75 +/- 122.5 ng ml(-1), respectively). HtSDS increments were correlated significantly with basal free T4 concentrations (r = 0.622, P < 0.01). In summary, after long period of hypothyroidism, T4 replacement produced significant, although incomplete, catch-up growth through a partial recovery of GH- IGF-I axis.

  10. Oxytocin course over pregnancy and postpartum period and the association with postpartum depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobst, Andrea; Krause, Daniela; Maiwald, Carina; Härtl, Kristin; Myint, Aye-Mu; Kästner, Ralph; Obermeier, Michael; Padberg, Frank; Brücklmeier, Benedikt; Weidinger, Elif; Kieper, Susann; Schwarz, Markus; Zill, Peter; Müller, Norbert

    2016-08-01

    During the postpartum period, women are at higher risk of developing a mental disorder such as postpartum depression (PPD), a disorder that associates with mother-infant bonding and child development. Oxytocin is considered to play a key role in mother-infant bonding and social interactions and altered oxytocin plasma concentrations were found to be associated with PPD. In the present study, we evaluated oxytocin plasma levels and depressive symptoms during pregnancy and the postpartum period in healthy women. We evaluated 100 women twice during pregnancy (weeks 35 and 38) and three times in the postpartum period (within 2 days and 7 weeks and 6 months after delivery) by measuring oxytocin plasma levels with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and assessing depressive symptoms with the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale. Oxytocin plasma levels significantly increased from the 35th week of gestation to 6 months postpartum in all women. However, levels decreased from the 38th week of gestation to 2 days after delivery in participants with postpartum depressive symptoms, whereas they continuously increased in the group without postpartum depressive symptoms; the difference between the course of oxytocin levels in the two groups was significant (Δt2-t3: t = 2.14; p = 0.036*). Previous depressive episodes and breastfeeding problems predicted postpartum depressive symptoms. Our results indicate that alterations in the oxytocin system during pregnancy might be specific for women who develop postpartum depressive symptoms. Future studies should investigate whether oxytocin plasma levels might have predictive value in women at high risk for PPD.

  11. Plasma chromograninx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goetze, Jens P; Hilsted, Linda M; Rehfeld, Jens F

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular risk assessment remains difficult in elderly patients. We examined whether chromogranin A (CgA) measurement in plasma may be valuable in assessing risk of death in elderly patients with symptoms of heart failure in a primary care setting. A total of 470 patients (mean age 73 years......) were followed for 10 years. For CgA plasma measurement, we used a two-step method including a screening test and a confirmative test with plasma pre-treatment with trypsin. Cox multivariable proportional regression and receiver-operating curve (ROC) analyses were used to assess mortality risk...... of follow-up showed significant additive value of CgA confirm measurements compared with NT-proBNP and clinical variables. CgA measurement in the plasma of elderly patients with symptoms of heart failure can identify those at increased risk of short- and long-term mortality....

  12. Plasma Cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintze, Paul E.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Kennedy Space Center has developed two solvent-free precision cleaning techniques: plasma cleaning and supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2), that has equal performance, cost parity, and no environmental liability, as compared to existing solvent cleaning methods.

  13. Plasma confinement

    CERN Document Server

    Hazeltine, R D

    2003-01-01

    Detailed and authoritative, this volume examines the essential physics underlying international research in magnetic confinement fusion. It offers readable, thorough accounts of the fundamental concepts behind methods of confining plasma at or near thermonuclear conditions. Designed for a one- or two-semester graduate-level course in plasma physics, it also represents a valuable reference for professional physicists in controlled fusion and related disciplines.

  14. Lifestyle medicine for depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarris, Jerome; O'Neil, Adrienne; Coulson, Carolyn E; Schweitzer, Isaac; Berk, Michael

    2014-04-10

    The prevalence of depression appears to have increased over the past three decades. While this may be an artefact of diagnostic practices, it is likely that there are factors about modernity that are contributing to this rise. There is now compelling evidence that a range of lifestyle factors are involved in the pathogenesis of depression. Many of these factors can potentially be modified, yet they receive little consideration in the contemporary treatment of depression, where medication and psychological intervention remain the first line treatments. "Lifestyle Medicine" provides a nexus between public health promotion and clinical treatments, involving the application of environmental, behavioural, and psychological principles to enhance physical and mental wellbeing. This may also provide opportunities for general health promotion and potential prevention of depression. In this paper we provide a narrative discussion of the major components of Lifestyle Medicine, consisting of the evidence-based adoption of physical activity or exercise, dietary modification, adequate relaxation/sleep and social interaction, use of mindfulness-based meditation techniques, and the reduction of recreational substances such as nicotine, drugs, and alcohol. We also discuss other potential lifestyle factors that have a more nascent evidence base, such as environmental issues (e.g. urbanisation, and exposure to air, water, noise, and chemical pollution), and the increasing human interface with technology. Clinical considerations are also outlined. While data supports that some of these individual elements are modifiers of overall mental health, and in many cases depression, rigorous research needs to address the long-term application of Lifestyle Medicine for depression prevention and management. Critically, studies exploring lifestyle modification involving multiple lifestyle elements are needed. While the judicious use of medication and psychological techniques are still advocated

  15. Poststroke depression: Diagnosis of depression, phenomenology and specificity of depressive symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabi-Žikić Tamara

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The diagnosis of depression. Depressive disorder is nowadays diagnosed by the two widely used diagnostic systems - International Classification of Diseases of the World Health Organization, 10th revision and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual Criteria of the American Psychiatric Organisation, 4th edition. The criteria for depressive disorder used in these two systems are almost identical. Poststroke depression. The diagnosis of depression may be difficult to establish in stroke patients, especially in patients with aphasia/dysphasia, anosognosia and other cognitive dysfunction. Major vs. minor poststroke depression, specificity and sensitivity of depressive symptoms: The phenomenology of major poststroke depression has been found to be similar to that of primary depression, and it appears that minor and major are not stages of the same continuum, but rather separate entities. Contrary to common opinion, non specific somatic symptoms do not hinder the diagnosis of poststroke depression and can be highly discriminative and crucial in the evaluation of poststroke depression. Validity of the poststroke depression diagnosis Studies have shown that a valid diagnosis of poststroke depression may be established successfully using structured or semi-structured neuropsychiatric interviews, according to the current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual Criteria. Conclusion. It appears that no new diagnostic tools specific for major depression in stroke patients are necessary. The existing diagnostic procedures will fail to diagnose or misdiagnose depression only in few stroke patients.

  16. 外源性甲状腺素对胎儿酒精效果出生后大鼠小脑发育的改善作用%Effect of exogenous thyroxine on postnatal development of cerebellar cortex in rats with fetal alcohol exposure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金福; 金正勇; 丁允英; 许春花

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the influence of fetal alcohol effect on the change of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tyrosine kinase receptor B (TrkB) in the rat cerebellar cortex, and the effect of exogenous thyroxine on the postnatal development of cerebellar cortex in rats with f'etal alcohol effect. Methods The rats with 6 pregnant days were divided into four groups, and consisting of the alcohol group with receiving 1 475 J liquid alcohol per day, the control group with receiving 35-calories milk per day, the alcohol + T4 group with receiving 1 475 J liquid alcohol and exogenous thyroxine (5 μg/kg·d) subcutaneously, and the surrogate group with receiving normal diet. respectively. The plasma concentrations of alcohol and thyroxine were determined in maternal rats 6 hours after delivery. All pups in the alcohol, the control and the alcohol + T4 groups were fostered by surrogate mothers. and executed under anesthesia at postnatal 7, 14, 21, 28, 60, 90 days for measuring the distributions and forms of BDNF and TrkBimmunoreactive (IR) Purkinje cells with the use of immunohistochemistry. The numbers of BDNF- and TrkB-IR Purk inje cells were counted in the lobule 4/5 of cerebellum. Results A total of 18 mother rats and 144 their pups were involved in the result analysis. The maternal alcohol concentrations in the alcohol and the alcohol + thyroxine groups were significantly higher than that in the control group (P < 0.05) , and the maternal thyroxine concentration was significantly higher in the alcohol + T4 group than that in the alcohol group (P < 0.05) . A similar developmental pattern of mature BDNF- and TrkB-IR Purkinje cells were observed in the alcohol + T4 and the control groups at P14 and after that, while their immature features were seen in the alcohol group. The single-layer arrangement of these Purkinje cells in the alcohol group was not completely achieved throughout postnatal life. No significant difference in the number of BDNF-and trk

  17. Effects of Albizia Julibrissin Flower Total Flavonoids on Learning and Memory Abilities and Plasma Monoamine Neurotransmitters of Depression Model Rats%合欢花总黄酮对抑郁模型大鼠学习记忆能力及血浆单胺类神经递质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭超峰; 银胜高; 夏猛; 施学丽

    2013-01-01

    This study was aimed to observe effects of Albizia Julibrissin Flower Total Flavonoids (AJFTF) on the learning and memory abilities and plasma monoamine neurotransmitters 5-HT and NE content of depression model rats . A total of 90 SD rats were randomly divided into the normal group , model group , western medicine group ( Venlafaxine Hydrochloride 0 . 0125 g•kg-1 ) and high , middle and low dosage groups of AJFTF ( equivalent to the crude drug of 10 , 5 , 2 . 5 g•kg-1 ) . Depression model rats were induced by solitary cultiva-tion and chronic unpredictable stress . The learning and memory abilities of model rats were evaluated with the Morris water maze . And the plasma contents of 5-HT and NE were determined by enzyme-linked immunosor-bent assay ( ELISA ) . The results showed that AJFTF ( administered with high , middle and low dosage for 21 days ) significantly shortened the incubation period of the Morris water maze positioning and navigation ( P <0 . 05 or P < 0 . 01 ) , and increased the times of crossing the platform in space exploration ( P < 0 . 05 or P <0 . 01 ) . There was a certain dose-effect relationship . The AJFTF ( high , middle and low dosage ) increased the plasma contents of 5-HT and NE ( P < 0 . 05 ) . It was concluded that AJFTF can improve learning and memory abilities of depression model rats which indicates that AJFTF have potential antidepressant effects . Its action mechanism may be related to increase plasma monoamine neurotransmitter content of 5-HT and NE .%目的:观察合欢花总黄酮对抑郁模型大鼠学习记忆能力及血浆单胺类神经递质5-羟色胺(5-HT)、去甲肾上腺素(NE)含量的影响。方法:将90只SD大鼠随机分为正常组、模型组、西药组(盐酸文拉法辛0.0125 g·kg-1)、合欢花总黄酮高、中、低剂量组(相当于生药量10、5、2.5 g·kg-1)。以孤养加慢性不可预见性应激建立抑郁症大鼠模型。采用Morris水迷宫评价各组大鼠的

  18. 伴躯体疼痛抑郁障碍患者血清IL-6水平的对照研究%A control study on the plasma level of interleukin-6 in the depression with somatic pain symptom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋月楠; 徐乐平; 汪莉; 孙剑; 仲爱芳; 何益民

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the serum level of interleukin-6( IL-6) and its influence on the so-matic pain symptom in depressed patients. Method:Hamilton depression scale(HAMD-17) and visual ana-logue scale(VAS) were used to assess depressive patients. The patients were divided into pain group(n=30) and no pain group(n=31) according to the definition of somatic pain. The control group was 30 healthy individ-uals. The serum level of IL-6 was measured with the method of enzyme-linked Immuno-sorbent assay. Results:①The total score of HAMD-17 and anxiety factor score in pain group were significantly higher than those in no pain group[(23.4±4.0) vs(20.6±2.8),(9.4±1.7)vs (8.1±1.2) ;t=3.297, 3.627;P=0. 002,0. 001,respectively].②The serum level of IL-6 was significantly higher in pain group than no pain group which was higher than the healthy controls[(14. 5±2. 3) pg/ml vs(12. 5 ±2. 2 )pg/ml,(12. 5±2. 2) pg/ml vs (11. 3±2. 3) pg/ml);d=2. 0,1. 2;P=0. 001,0. 041 respectively].③There was a positive relationship be-tween plasma level of IL-6 and scores of VAS in depressive patients with somatic pain symptom(r=0. 382,P=0. 031). Conclusion:The serum level of IL-6 is increased in the depression with somatic pain compared with those without somatic pain,which suggest that the elevated IL-6 may be involed in the pathophysiological mecha-nisms of somatic pain symptom in major depressive disorder.%目的::探讨伴躯体疼痛抑郁障碍患者血清白细胞介素-6( IL-6)水平及与躯体疼痛的相关性。方法:采用HAMD-17评估及视觉模拟评分( VAS)评估抑郁障碍患者,依据躯体疼痛症状的定义将抑郁障碍患者分为伴躯体疼痛组(疼痛组,32例)、不伴躯体疼痛组(单纯组,31例),同期入组30名健康对照组;采用ELISA法检测血清IL-6浓度。结果:①疼痛组HAMD-17总分、焦虑因子分高于单纯组[(23.4±4.0) vs (20.6±2.8),(9.4±1.7) vs (8.1±1.2))],差异均有统计学意义(t=3.297,3.627;P=0

  19. Daily melatonin administration at middle age suppresses male rat visceral fat, plasma leptin, and plasma insulin to youthful levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, D D; Boldt, B M; Wilkinson, C W; Yellon, S M; Matsumoto, A M

    1999-02-01

    Human and rat pineal melatonin secretion decline with aging, whereas visceral fat and plasma insulin levels increase. Melatonin modulates fat metabolism in some mammalian species, so these aging-associated melatonin, fat and insulin changes could be functionally related. Accordingly, we investigated the effects of daily melatonin supplementation to male Sprague-Dawley rats, starting at middle age (10 months) and continuing into old age (22 months). Melatonin was added to the drinking water (92% of which was consumed at night) at a dosage (4 microg/ml) previously reported to attenuate the aging-associated decrease in survival rate in male rats, as well as at a 10-fold lower dosage. The higher dosage produced nocturnal plasma melatonin levels in middle-aged rats which were 15-fold higher than in young (4 months) rats; nocturnal plasma melatonin levels in middle-aged rats receiving the lower dosage were not significantly different from young or middle-aged controls. Relative (% of body wt) retroperitoneal and epididymal fat, as well as plasma insulin and leptin levels, were all significantly increased at middle age when compared to young rats. All were restored within 10 weeks to youthful (4 month) levels in response to both dosages of melatonin. Continued treatment until old age maintained suppression of visceral (retroperitoneal + epididymal) fat levels. Plasma corticosterone and total thyroxine (T4) levels were not significantly altered by aging or melatonin treatment. Plasma testosterone, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and total triiodothyronine (T3) decreased by middle age; these aging-associated decreases were not significantly altered by melatonin treatment. Thus, visceral fat, insulin and leptin responses to melatonin administration may be independent of marked changes in gonadal, thyroid, adrenal or somatotropin regulation. Since increased visceral fat is associated with increased insulin resistance, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, these results

  20. Postpartum Blues and Postpartum Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdem Ö et al.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Postpartum blues which is seen during the postpartum period is a transient psychological state. Most of the mothers experience maternity blues in postpartum period. It remains usually unrecognized by the others. Some sensitive families can misattribute these feelings as depression. In this article, we tried to review the characteristics of maternity blues and its differences from depression. We defined depression and presented the incidence and diagnostic criteria, of major depression as well as the risk factors and clinic findings of postpartum depression. Thus, especially at primary care we aimed to prevent misdiagnosis of both maternity blues and depression

  1. No diagnostic value of plasma clusterin in Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edina Silajdžić

    Full Text Available There is an urgent need for biomarkers to enable early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD. It has recently been shown that a variant within the clusterin gene is associated with increased risk of AD and plasma levels of clusterin have been found to be associated with the risk of AD. We, therefore, investigated the diagnostic value of clusterin by quantifying clusterin using an ELISA in plasma from 171 controls, 127 patients with AD, 82 patients with other dementias and 30 patients with depression. We observed similar plasma clusterin levels in controls, AD patients and patients with other dementias, suggesting that plasma clusterin levels have no diagnostic value for AD. There was a slight, but significant, increase in plasma clusterin in patients with depression compared to all other groups tested, which may warrant further investigation.

  2. Depressive realism: effects of depression severity and interpretation time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKendree-Smith, N; Scogin, F

    2000-12-01

    This study examined the theory of depressive realism, which posits that depressed people often are more accurate in perceptions and judgments than nondepressed people. Two possible qualifications to this theory were examined: (1) severity of depression moderates the effect, and (2) length of processing time will impact the presence of bias in depressed people, that is, negative bias will develop over time. College students were presented with a bogus personality profile that actually consisted of items previously rated as neutral in desirability. Participants rated these profiles for desirability initially and then again three days later. Results indicated a significant effect of depression severity on desirability rating. Nondepressed and mildly depressed students found their profiles to be more positive than the moderately/severely depressed students, with both groups having scores in the positive range. However, those participants who were moderately/severely depressed showed a negative bias in their ratings. No support was found for the effect of different times of interpretation.

  3. plasma treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puač Nevena

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we will present results for plasma sterilization of planktonic samples of two reference strains of bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 and Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212. We have used a plasma needle as a source of non-equilibrium atmospheric plasma in all treatments. This device is already well characterized by OES, derivative probes and mass spectrometry. It was shown that power delivered to the plasma is bellow 2 W and that it produces the main radical oxygen and nitrogen species believed to be responsible for the sterilization process. Here we will only present results obtained by electron paramagnetic resonance which was used to detect the OH, H and NO species. Treatment time and power delivered to the plasma were found to have the strongest influence on sterilization. In all cases we have observed a reduction of several orders of magnitude in the concentration of bacteria and for the longest treatment time complete eradication. A more efficient sterilization was achieved in the case of gram negative bacteria.

  4. Plasma metallization

    CERN Document Server

    Crowther, J M

    1997-01-01

    Many methods are currently used for the production of thin metal films. However, all of these have drawbacks associated with them, for example the need for UHV conditions, high temperatures, exotic metal precursors, or the inability to coat complex shaped objects. Reduction of supported metal salts by non-isothermal plasma treatment does not suffer from these drawbacks. In order to produce and analyse metal films before they become contaminated, a plasma chamber which could be attached directly to a UHV chamber with XPS capability was designed and built. This allowed plasma treatment of supported metal salts and surface analysis by XPS to be performed without exposure of the metal film to the atmosphere. Non-equilibrium plasma treatment of Nylon 66 supported gold(lll) chloride using hydrogen as the feed gas resulted in a 95% pure gold film, the remaining 5% of the film being carbon. If argon or helium were used as the feed gases during plasma treatment the resultant gold films were 100% pure. Some degree of s...

  5. Circadian rhythms in depression and recovery: evidence for blunted amplitude as the main chronobiological abnormality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souêtre, E; Salvati, E; Belugou, J L; Pringuey, D; Candito, M; Krebs, B; Ardisson, J L; Darcourt, G

    1989-06-01

    Circadian rhythms of body temperature, plasma cortisol, norepinephrine (NE), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), and melatonin were compared in 16 endogenously depressed, 15 recovered (after 3 weeks of anti-depressant treatment), and 16 normal subjects. The depressed patients showed clear circadian rhythm abnormalities, consisting mainly in amplitude reduction. This amplitude reduction was significantly correlated with the patients' Hamilton depression scores. Normal circadian profiles were restored after recovery when amplitude, in particular, was increased. Features of the circadian rhythms observed in remission may be associated with antidepressant drug effects, whereas those observed in depression resemble the circadian rhythms observed in normal subjects living under conditions of temporal isolation and those of blind subjects. Our findings suggest that depression may be related both to a weakening of the coupling processes between internal pacemakers and to an abnormal sensitivity to environmental information.

  6. Risk factors for antenatal depression, postnatal depression and parenting stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milgrom Jeannette

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given that the prevalence of antenatal and postnatal depression is high, with estimates around 13%, and the consequences serious, efforts have been made to identify risk factors to assist in prevention, identification and treatment. Most risk factors associated with postnatal depression have been well researched, whereas predictors of antenatal depression have been less researched. Risk factors associated with early parenting stress have not been widely researched, despite the strong link with depression. The aim of this study was to further elucidate which of some previously identified risk factors are most predictive of three outcome measures: antenatal depression, postnatal depression and parenting stress and to examine the relationship between them. Methods Primipara and multiparae women were recruited antenatally from two major hoitals as part of the beyondblue National Postnatal Depression Program 1. In this subsidiary study, 367 women completed an additional large battery of validated questionnaires to identify risk factors in the antenatal period at 26–32 weeks gestation. A subsample of these women (N = 161 also completed questionnaires at 10–12 weeks postnatally. Depression level was measured by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI. Results Regression analyses identified significant risk factors for the three outcome measures. (1. Significant predictors for antenatal depression: low self-esteem, antenatal anxiety, low social support, negative cognitive style, major life events, low income and history of abuse. (2. Significant predictors for postnatal depression: antenatal depression and a history of depression while also controlling for concurrent parenting stress, which was a significant variable. Antenatal depression was identified as a mediator between seven of the risk factors and postnatal depression. (3. Postnatal depression was the only significant predictor for parenting stress and also acted as a mediator

  7. Risk factors for antenatal depression, postnatal depression and parenting stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, Bronwyn; Milgrom, Jeannette

    2008-04-16

    Given that the prevalence of antenatal and postnatal depression is high, with estimates around 13%, and the consequences serious, efforts have been made to identify risk factors to assist in prevention, identification and treatment. Most risk factors associated with postnatal depression have been well researched, whereas predictors of antenatal depression have been less researched. Risk factors associated with early parenting stress have not been widely researched, despite the strong link with depression. The aim of this study was to further elucidate which of some previously identified risk factors are most predictive of three outcome measures: antenatal depression, postnatal depression and parenting stress and to examine the relationship between them. Primipara and multiparae women were recruited antenatally from two major hoitals as part of the beyondblue National Postnatal Depression Program 1. In this subsidiary study, 367 women completed an additional large battery of validated questionnaires to identify risk factors in the antenatal period at 26-32 weeks gestation. A subsample of these women (N = 161) also completed questionnaires at 10-12 weeks postnatally. Depression level was measured by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Regression analyses identified significant risk factors for the three outcome measures. (1). Significant predictors for antenatal depression: low self-esteem, antenatal anxiety, low social support, negative cognitive style, major life events, low income and history of abuse. (2). Significant predictors for postnatal depression: antenatal depression and a history of depression while also controlling for concurrent parenting stress, which was a significant variable. Antenatal depression was identified as a mediator between seven of the risk factors and postnatal depression. (3). Postnatal depression was the only significant predictor for parenting stress and also acted as a mediator for other risk factors. Risk factor profiles for

  8. Effects of prolonged fasting on plasma cortisol and TH in postweaned northern elephant seal pups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, R. M.; Wade, C. E.; Ortiz, C. L.

    2001-01-01

    Northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris) pups rely on the oxidation of fat stores as their primary source of energy during their 8- to 12-wk postweaning fast; however, potential endocrine mechanisms involved with this increased fat metabolism have yet to be examined. Therefore, 15 pups were serially blood sampled in the field during the first 7 wk of their postweaning fast to examine the changes in plasma concentrations of cortisol and thyroid hormones (TH), which are involved in fat metabolism in other mammals. Cortisol increased, indicating that it contributed to an increase in lipolysis. Increased total triiodothyronine (tT(3)) and thyroxine (tT(4)) may not reflect increased thyroid gland activity, but rather alterations in hormone metabolism. tT(3)-to-tT(4) ratio decreased, suggesting a decrease in thyroxine (T(4)) deiodination, whereas the negative correlation between total proteins and free T(4) suggests that the increase in free hormone is attributed to a decrease in binding globulins. Changes in TH are most similar to those observed during hibernation than starvation in mammals, suggesting that the metabolic adaptations to natural fasting are more similar to hibernation despite the fact these animals remain active throughout the fasting period.

  9. STUDY OF DEPRESSION IN SCHIZOPHRENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharmesh V

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available : BACKGROUND: The presence of depression in schizophrenia has been recognized since the time of Kraepelin and Bleuler. Depressive symptoms associated with schizophrenia have received considerable attention in recent years. It has been suggested that patient may manifest depressive symptoms during the onset of psychotic symptoms, during course of chronic schizophrenia or after the psychotic symptoms has been abated. AIMS & OBJECTIVES: 1. To study the prevalence of depression in schizophrenia. 2. To study the correlation between depression and subtype of schizophrenia. MATERALS & METHODS: 50 consecutive patients suffering from schizophrenia according to DSM-IV criteria, who were brought to psychiatric OPD were selected for this study. Patients between 15-55years age were included in this study. HDRS (Hamilton depression rating scale was administered to all patients to assess severity of depression. RESULTS: Out of 50 patients suffering from schizophrenia, 44% of patients suffering from schizophrenia were depressed. In this study the most common symptoms of depression were depressed mood, loss of interest on pleasure, sleep disturbance, loss of energy/fatigue, psychomotor disturbance, suicidal thought or death wish, feeling of hopelessness. CONCLUSION: Depression is common in patients suffering from schizophrenia. The severity of depression was mild to moderate, no one had severe depression. It is more common in patients who are living in nuclear family, who are divorced, who have paranoid type of schizophrenia, who were not on antipsychotic medicine.

  10. Plasma dynamo

    CERN Document Server

    Rincon, F; Schekochihin, A A; Valentini, F

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic fields pervade the entire Universe and, through their dynamical interactions with matter, affect the formation and evolution of astrophysical systems from cosmological to planetary scales. How primordial cosmological seed fields arose and were further amplified to $\\mu$Gauss levels reported in nearby galaxy clusters, near equipartition with kinetic energy of plasma motions and on scales of at least tens of kiloparsecs, is a major theoretical puzzle still largely unconstrained by observations. Extragalactic plasmas are weakly collisional (as opposed to collisional magnetohydrodynamic fluids), and whether magnetic-field growth and its sustainment through an efficient dynamo instability driven by chaotic motions is possible in such plasmas is not known. Fully kinetic numerical simulations of the Vlasov equation in a six-dimensional phase space necessary to answer this question have until recently remained beyond computational capabilities. Here, we show by means of such simulations that magnetic-field a...

  11. 抗焦虑、抑郁治疗对慢性心力衰竭患者生活质量及血浆B型利钠肽的影响%The influence of anti-anxiety and depression treatment on quality life and plasma B-type natriuretic peptide for chronic heart failure patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨静; 姚雪; 武晓猛; 张杰

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the influence of anti-anxiety and depression treatment on quality life and plasma B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) for chronic heart failure (CHF) patients.Methods Eighty-two patients with CHF were divided into control group and intervention group by random digits table method with 41 cases each.After admission,the patients were given conventional anti-heart failure treatment.The patients in intervention group received the standard therapy in combination with lorazepam,with depression plus fluoxetine,and psychological treatment.After treatment,the patients were evaluated by symptom checklist (SCL-90),determined the plasma BNP level and heart function indexes,and recorded the length of stay,number of hospitalization,and so on.Results After treatment the intervention group somatization,interpersonal barriers as well as depression,anxiety,hostility,terrorism,paranoia,psychotic and other emotions significantly alleviated,there were statistical differences compared with before treatment and after treatment of control group (P < 0.05).There were no statistical differences in heart function indexes before treatment between the 2 groups (P > 0.05).After treatment in control group,only the left ventricular ejection fraction was significantly higher than that before treatment,there was statistical difference (P < 0.05).After treatment in intervention group compared with before treatment and after treatment in control group,the heart rate and left ventricular early diastolic and late peak velocity ratio were significantly lower [(71.0 ± 10.9) times/min vs.(82.5 ± 12.4) and (77.3 ± 10.1) times/min,1.26 ± 0.28 vs.1.38 ± 0.21 and 1.31 ± 0.33],left ventricular ejection fraction was significantly higher [(50.9 ± 6.9)% vs.(39.2 ± 7.4)% and (43.4 ± 7.8)%],there were statistical differences (P < 0.05).The plasma BNP level was downtrend after treatment in the 2 groups,compared with the control group,after 5 d of treatment in intervention

  12. Hopelessness, Depression, Suicidal Ideation, and Clinical Diagnosis of Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Aaron T.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examined relevance of clinical diagnosis of depression for explaining discrepant relationships of hopelessness and depression with suicidal ideation. Administered Beck Depression Inventory, Hopelessness Scale, and Scale for Suicide Ideation to 1,306 patients with mood disorder and 488 patients without mood disorder. Found that hopelessness was 1.3…

  13. Development of reagents for radioimmunoassay of: triiodothyronine, thyroxine and thyrotrophin; Desarrollo de reactivos para el radioinmunoanalisis de: triyodotironina, tiroxina y tirotrofina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado S, B.; Lavalley E, C.; Ruiz J, A.; Garcia F, C.; Zamorano A, F

    1991-12-15

    The radioimmunoassay (RIA) of thyroid hormones it is the but it frequents of all the studies carried out by RIA in the laboratories of Nuclear Medicine, these essays are carried out with imported reagents. In the ININ the reagents and the necessary methodology have been developed for the triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4) and thyrotrophin (TSH). The good titles of the antibodies (Ac) primary for each hormone were of 1:4,000; 1:750 and 1:1,500. The used separation system was of double Ac with PEG to 10%, with titles of 1:10 for the second Ac of lamb. The specific activity for 125-I-T3 and 125-I-T4 oscillate between 850 at 900 {mu}Ci / {mu} g: being this of 90 {mu} Ci /{mu}g for TSH. To the first two hormones they were added 1-8 aniline naftalen sulfonic acid (ANS) to concentrations of 3 and 2 mg/ml respectively. As buffer for T3 and T4 it was used Tris-HCl pH 8.6 and PBS with normal serum of rabbit (SNC) for TSH. The standards got ready in buffer or free serum of thyroid hormones. The slope of the standard curves varied between -2.3 to -2.7 and the variation intra and inter assay among 4 to 10%. It is had at the moment in the ININ with standardized reagents for the RIA of T3, T4 and TSH, it is hoped to carry out tests in other laboratories and to establish the conditions of stability more appropriate to begin the preparation of pilot reagents. (Author)

  14. Altered thyroxin and retinoid metabolic response to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in aryl hydrocarbon receptor-null mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, Noriko; Yonemoto, Junzo [National Institute for Environmental Studies, Endocrine Disruptors and Dioxin Research Project, Tsukuba (Japan); Miyabara, Yuichi [Shinshu University, Research and Education Center for Inlandwater Environment, Nagano (Japan); Fujii-Kuriyama, Yoshiaki [University of Tsukuba, Center for Tsukuba Advanced Research Alliance, Tsukuba (Japan); Tohyama, Chiharu [National Institute for Environmental Studies, Environmental Health Sciences Division, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2005-05-01

    To determine whether the disruption of thyroid hormone and retinoid homeostasis that occurs after exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) can be mediated by the arylhydrocarbon receptor (AhR), pregnant AhR-heterozygous (AhR+/-) mice were administered a single oral dose of 10 {mu}g kg{sup -1} TCDD at gestation day 12.5. Serum and liver were collected on postnatal day 21 from vehicle-treated control or TCDD-treated AhR+/- and AhR-null (AhR-/-) mouse pups. Whereas TCDD exposure resulted in a marked reduction of total thyroxin (TT4) and free T4 (FT4) levels in the serum of AhR+/- mice, TCDD had no effects on AhR-/- mice. Gene expression of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT)1A6, cytochrome P450 (CYP)1A1, and CYP1A2 in the liver was induced markedly by TCDD in AhR+/- but not AhR-/- mice. Induction of CYP1A1 in response to TCDD was confirmed by immunohistochemical evidence in that CYP1A1 protein was conspicuously localized in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes in the centrilobular region. Levels of retinyl palmitate were greatly reduced in the liver of TCDD-exposed AhR+/- mice, but not in vehicle-treated AhR+/- mice. No effects of TCDD on retinoid levels in the liver were found in AhR-/- mice. We conclude that disruption of thyroid hormone and retinoid homeostasis is mediated entirely via AhR. Induction of UGT1A6 is thought to be responsible at least partly for reduced serum thyroid hormone levels in TCDD-exposed mice. (orig.)

  15. Association of low baseline free thyroxin levels with progression of coronary artery calcification over 4 years in euthyroid subjects: the Kangbuk Samsung Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hye-Jeong; Kim, Jihyun; Han, Eun Jin; Park, Se Eun; Park, Cheol-Young; Lee, Won-Young; Oh, Ki-Won; Park, Sung-Woo; Rhee, Eun-Jung

    2016-06-01

    Overt and subclinical hypothyroidism are risk factors for atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. It is unclear whether thyroid hormone levels within the normal range are also associated with atherosclerosis measured by coronary artery calcium (CAC). This study aimed to examine the relationship between normal variations in thyroid function and changes in CAC. We conducted a 4-year retrospective study of 2173 apparently healthy men and women with normal thyroid hormone levels. Their free thyroxin (FT4), free triiodothyronin (FT3) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels were measured by electrochemiluminescent immunoassay. The CAC score (CACS) of each subject was measured by multidetector computed tomography in both 2010 and 2014. Progression of CAC was defined as a CACS change over 4 years > 0. The mean CACS changes over 4 years by quartiles of baseline FT4 level (lowest to highest) were 12·9, 8·43, 7·82 and 7·81 (P = 0·028). CAC progression was not significantly associated with either the baseline FT3 or TSH levels. The odds ratios (OR) for CAC progression over 4 years (highest vs lowest quartile for baseline FT4) were 0·647 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0·472-0·886) after adjustment for confounding factor, which were attenuated with further adjustment for lipid profiles, homoeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and hypertension [0·747 (95% CI 0·537-1·038)]. Quartiles of baseline FT3 or TSH level did not show any increased OR for CAC progression after adjustment for confounding factors. In this cohort of euthyroid men and women, a low baseline FT4 level was associated with a high risk of CACS progression over 4 years. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Effects of estrogen supplementation on PCB 126-induced effects on vertebral bone, vitamin D and thyroxin levels in serum of rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Monica Lind [Karolinska Inst., Inst. of Environmental Medicine, Stockholm (Sweden); Nyberg, I.; Oerberg, J. [Uppsala Univ., Dept. of Environmental Toxicology (Sweden)

    2004-09-15

    Own and others experimental studies in rat have demonstrated that high affinity Aryl hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR) ligands such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and the dioxin-like PCB congener, 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126), impair normal bone metabolism and result in increased bone fragility. No experimental study have, up to now, investigated effects of POCs on vertebra in bone-toxicological studies. Recently a Swedish epidemiological study showed that Swedish east-coast fishermen's wives have a significantly increased incidence for hospitalized vertebral fractures when compared with west-coast fishermen's wives7. The results give some indirect support for the notion that a high dietary intake of POCs through fatty fish might be a risk factor for vertebral fractures. The levels of POCs are much higher in the fish from the Baltic Sea compared with fish from the sea on the Swedish West coast. Vertebral bone consists to a larger extent than e.g. the long bones of trabecular bone which compared with cortical bone has a much higher metabolism and a more rapid bone turnover. It is therefore more likely to find more obvious effects of endocrine disruption in trabecular bone than in cortical bone. As an extension of our previous work, the goals of this study are therefore to (1) investigate interactive effects between PCB126 exposure, estrogen depletion (OVX) and estrogen supplementation (2) investigate the effects of PCB126 exposure of the trabecular rich vertebral bone (3) analyse serum levels 25OH- vitamin D and thyroxin as these are both important for bone tissue homeostasis and as biomarkers for organochlorines exposure.

  17. Stability of /sup 131/I--thyroxine and of /sup 131/I-tri-iodothyronine: the influence of radiolytic disintegration on certain diagnostic tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reviczky, A.L.; Szanto, L.

    1974-01-01

    The blood-protein fractions responsible for the transport of thyroid hormones (TBG, TBPA, TBA) were assayed for their thyroxine-binding capacity in the serum of the same control subject over a one-year period, by a procedure based on the isotope-dilution technique. In the dilutions of /sup 131/I--T/sub 4/ (Amersham RCC) required for the procedure, the ratio /sup 131/I--T/sub 4/:/sup 131/I--T/sub 3/ was measured in every case. Parallel with the accumulation of /sup 131/I--T/sub 3/ resulting from deiodination of /sup 131/I--T/sub 4/, the binding capacity of the individual fractions was found to have shifted from TBG to TBPA. The fact that, in contrast to the principle of the isotope-dilution technique, the labelled substance and the non-radioactive T/sub 4/ were partly different, suggests that the measurements of radioactivity do not reflect the true binding conditions of T/sub 4/. Successive batches of /sup 131/I--T/sub 3/ were examined in the same manner, and the values of the Hamolsky test were determined in the same serum. The figures displayed little variations and /sup 131/I--T/sub 3/ was also found significantly more stable than /sup 131/I--T/sub 4/. Thus, the Hamolsky test was found to represent a fairly reliable indicator of thyroid function, in contrast to measurement of the T/sub 4/-binding capacity of the blood protein fractions by the isotope-dilution technique, the results of which are uncertain and therefore inconclusive in both clinical and therapeutic respects. It is suggested that the /sup 131/I--T/sub 4/ serving for the assays should be supplied as a substance and diluted before use, but not later than a few days after preparation. The advantages of doublet tagging are pointed out.

  18. Tweaking the structure to radically change the function: the evolution of transthyretin from 5-hydroxyisourate hydrolase to triiodothyronine distributor to thyroxine distributor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha J. Richardson

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Often, we elucidate evolutionary processes backwards, starting with eutherian mammals and gradually climbing down the evolutionary tree to those species who have survived since long before mammals evolved. This is also true for elucidating the evolution of specific proteins, in this case the protein currently known as transthyretin. Transthyretin (TTR was first described in eutherian mammals and was known as a thyroxine (T4 binding protein. However, mammals are the exception amongst vertebrates in respect to the function of TTR, as in teleost fish, amphibians, reptiles and birds TTR preferentially binds triiodothyronine (T3, which is the active form of thyroid hormone. The TTR gene possibly arose as a duplication of the TLP (TTR-Like Protein gene, around the stage of the agnathans. Some vertebrate species have both the TTR and TLP genes, whilst others have lost the TLP gene. TLP genes have been found in all kingdoms. The TLPs analysed to date do not bind thyroid hormones or their analogues, but are enzymes involved in uric acid metabolism, specifically, they are 5-hydroxyisourate hydrolases. A Salmonella TLP knock-out strain demonstrated that TLP was essential for the bacteria’s survival in the high uric acid environment of the chicken alimentary tract. Many other TLPs are yet to be characterised for their function although several have been confirmed as 5-hydroxyisourate hydrolases. This review describes the evolution of TLP/TTR and how subtle changes in gene structure or amino acid substitution can drastically change the function of this protein, without altering its overall 3D conformation.

  19. Synthesis of a highly fluorescent beta-diketone-europium chelate and its utility in time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay of serum total thyroxine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Feng-Bo; Han, Shi-Quan; Zhang, Chao; He, You-Feng

    2002-11-15

    A new highly fluorescent beta-diketone-europium chelate was synthesized and employed as a tracer to develop a time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay (TRFIA) for detection of serum total thyroxine (T4). The tetradentate beta-diketone chelator, 1,10-bis(thiophene-2'-yl)-4,4,5,5,6,6,7,7-octafluorodecane-1,3,8,10-tetraone (BTOT), was structurally composed of two units of thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTA) derivatives but expressed fluorescence that was greatly enhanced, as compared to the original TTA molecules, in the presence of excess amount of Eu3+. The luminescence properties of the europium chelate of BTOT werestudied in aqueous solution. Chlorosulfonylation of BTOT afforded 1, 10-bis(5'-chlorosulfo-thiophene-2'-yl)-4,4,5,5,6,6,7,7-octafluorodecane-1,3,8,10-tetraone (BCTOT), which could be coupled to proteins (i.e., streptavidin or the BSA-T4 conjugate) and used as a tracer for TRFIA. Although the BCTOT-Eu complex could be detected at a very low level (approximately 1.07 x 10(-12) mol/L) in buffered aqueous solution (50 mmoVLTris-HCl; pH, 8.0), the application of the chelate label in direct serum T4 TRFIA experienced a problem of matrix interference, which was probably caused by some unknown chelating components in the samples as a result of the fact that the fluorescence of the BCTOT-Eu chelate was prone to quenching or enhancement by some chelating reagents. To remove this problem, an indirect serum T4 TRFIA was proposed with the use of BCTOT-Eu-labeled streptavidin (SA) as signal generation reagent. The concentrations of T4 in 27 human serums were determined by indirect T4 TRFIA, and the assay results correlated well with those obtained by commercial Coming-CLIA (r = 0.955) and Wallac-DELFIA (r 0.965).

  20. Plasma medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Fridman, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    This comprehensive text is suitable for researchers and graduate students of a 'hot' new topic in medical physics. Written by the world's leading experts,  this book aims to present recent developments in plasma medicine, both technological and scientific, reviewed in a fashion accessible to the highly interdisciplinary audience consisting of doctors, physicists, biologists, chemists and other scientists, university students and professors, engineers and medical practitioners. The book focuses on major topics and covers the physics required to develop novel plasma discharges relevant for medic

  1. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Opportunities & Announcements Funding Strategy for Grants Application Process Managing Grants Clinical Research Training Labs at NIMH Labs ... Symptoms and Treatment of Depression February 1, 2010 People with depression discuss how they got help. & ...

  2. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Autism (13 items) Bipolar Disorder (2 items) Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (28 items) Eating Disorders ( ... Autism (13 items) Bipolar Disorder (2 items) Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (28 items) Eating Disorders ( ...

  3. Major depression with psychotic features

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000933.htm Major depression with psychotic features To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Major depression with psychotic features is a mental disorder in ...

  4. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... why. Scientists at the National Institute of Mental Health are studying brain images of people who suffer from depression trying to learn why it affects some people but not others. Treatments for depression ...

  5. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... suffer from depression trying to learn why it affects some people but not others. Treatments for depression do work. One type of effective psychotherapy is called cognitive behavioral therapy or CBT. ...

  6. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a serious illness that affects many people. Symptoms can vary, but many depressed people lose interest in ... lot of weight. NARRATOR : A person with depression can feel irritable and restless, and have sleep problems. ...

  7. Executive Dysfunction in Geriatric Depression

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lockwood, Kathryn A; Alexopoulos, George S; van Gorp, Wilfred G

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to characterize the neuropsychological presentation of geriatric depression and to determine whether depression-related executive dysfunction is more pronounced during advanced age. METHOD...

  8. Facebook Bullying Can Cause Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160991.html Facebook Bullying Can Cause Depression Social media attacks have ' ... Sept. 15, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Negative experiences on Facebook can increase the odds of depression in young ...

  9. Self-compassion in depression: associations with depressive symptoms, rumination, and avoidance in depressed outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Tobias; Altenstein, David; Baettig, Isabelle; Doerig, Nadja; Holtforth, Martin Grosse

    2013-09-01

    Self-compassion involves being kind to oneself when challenged with personal weaknesses or hardship and has been claimed to be associated with resilience in various areas. So far, there are only a handful of studies that investigate self-compassion and its relation to clinical depression. Therefore, the principal goals of the present study were (a) to compare self-compassion in clinically depressed patients and never-depressed subjects, (b) to investigate self-compassion and its relation to cognitive-behavioral avoidance and rumination in depressed outpatients, and (c) to investigate rumination and avoidance as mediators of the relationship between self-compassion and depressive symptoms. One hundred and forty-two depressed outpatients and 120 never-depressed individuals from a community sample completed a self-report measure of self-compassion along with other measures. Results indicate that depressed patients showed lower levels of self-compassion than never-depressed individuals, even when controlled for depressive symptoms. In depressed outpatients, self-compassion was negatively related to depressive symptoms, symptom-focused rumination, as well as cognitive and behavioral avoidance. Additionally, symptom-focused rumination and cognitive and behavioral avoidance mediated the relationship between self-compassion and depressive symptoms. These findings extend previous research on self-compassion, its relation to depression, as well as processes mediating this relationship, and highlight the importance of self-compassion in clinically depressed patients. Since depressed patients seem to have difficulties adopting a self-compassionate attitude, psychotherapists are well advised to explore and address how depressed patients treat themselves.

  10. Plasma Distribution in Mercury's Magnetosphere Derived from MESSENGER Magnetometer and Fast Imaging Plasma Spectrometer Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korth, Haje; Anderson, Brian J.; Gershman, Daniel J.; Raines, Jim M.; Slavin, James A.; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.; Solomon, Sean C.; McNutt, Ralph L.

    2014-01-01

    We assess the statistical spatial distribution of plasma in Mercury's magnetosphere from observations of magnetic pressure deficits and plasma characteristics by the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft. The statistical distributions of proton flux and pressure were derived from 10months of Fast Imaging Plasma Spectrometer (FIPS) observations obtained during the orbital phase of the MESSENGER mission. The Magnetometer-derived pressure distributions compare favorably with those deduced from the FIPS observations at locations where depressions in the magnetic field associated with the presence of enhanced plasma pressures are discernible in the Magnetometer data. The magnitudes of the magnetic pressure deficit and the plasma pressure agree on average, although the two measures of plasma pressure may deviate for individual events by as much as a factor of approximately 3. The FIPS distributions provide better statistics in regions where the plasma is more tenuous and reveal an enhanced plasma population near the magnetopause flanks resulting from direct entry of magnetosheath plasma into the low-latitude boundary layer of the magnetosphere. The plasma observations also exhibit a pronounced north-south asymmetry on the nightside, with markedly lower fluxes at low altitudes in the northern hemisphere than at higher altitudes in the south on the same field line. This asymmetry is consistent with particle loss to the southern hemisphere surface during bounce motion in Mercury's offset dipole magnetic field.

  11. Plasma physics and engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Fridman, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Part I: Fundamentals of Plasma Physics and Plasma ChemistryPlasma in Nature, in the Laboratory, and in IndustryOccurrence of Plasma: Natural and Man MadeGas DischargesPlasma Applications, Plasmas in IndustryPlasma Applications for Environmental ControlPlasma Applications in Energy ConversionPlasma Application for Material ProcessingBreakthrough Plasma Applications in Modern TechnologyElementary Processes of Charged Species in PlasmaElementary Charged Particles in Plasma and Their Elastic and Inelastic CollisionsIonization ProcessesMechanisms of Electron Losses: The Electron-Ion RecombinationEl

  12. Exercise Against Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artal, Michal; Sherman, Carl

    1998-01-01

    Physical activity is useful for preventing and easing depression symptoms. When prescribing exercise as an adjunct to medication and psychotherapy, physicians must consider each patient's individual circumstances. Hopelessness and fatigue can make physical exercise difficult. A feasible, flexible, and pleasurable program has the best chance for…

  13. Clock genes in depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Sofie Laage; Bouzinova, Elena

    2017-01-01

    Data demonstrate that abnormal regulation of the circadian system can result in cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, obesity, immune dysfunction, increased risk for cancer, reproductive complications, etc. It is highly individual among depressed patients and may be expressed as a phase adv...

  14. Genetic Determinants of Depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. López León (Sandra)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of the studies in this genetic epidemiological thesis was to investigate candidate genes that play a role in the etiology of depression and to obtain new insights about biological pathways that may be involved in this disorder. The introduction of the thesis presents a review of

  15. Depression and Caregiving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body techniques into your routine may help alleviate depression. Even 5 to 10 minutes of any of these techniques may be beneficial. These are some to try: Meditation Prayer Deep breathing Acupuncture Yoga Massage Listening to music Creating art Guided imagery Journaling Supplements: Herbal “over- ...

  16. Depression in general practice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aspects of patients' lives to their condition more easily than psychiatrists. .... underdiagnose both dementia and depression in their elderly patients.20,21 A recent ... could lead to great improvement in the quality of life of many patients who ...

  17. Sadness, Depression, and Avoidance Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventhal, Allan M.

    2008-01-01

    Research into genetic, psychosocial, and cognitive explanations for depression (biopsychosocial models) provides support for the role of these variables in the etiology of depression. Regularly identified as basic to depression is loss, and the experience of loss has been found to be more influential than genetic factors in the causation of…

  18. Male Depression: Understanding the Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diseases and Conditions Depression (major depressive disorder) Male depression is a serious medical condition, but many men try to ignore it or refuse treatment. Learn the signs and symptoms — and what to do. By Mayo Clinic Staff Do you feel irritable, isolated or withdrawn? Do you find yourself working all ...

  19. Responding to a Student's Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crundwell, R. Marc A.; Killu, Kim

    2010-01-01

    Although depression is classified as an adult mental health disorder, middle to late adolescence is the age when symptoms most commonly surface. If teachers can recognize the signs of depression in students, Crundwell and Killu assert, they can provide a supportive, flexible school environment that enables depressed students to learn and thrive.…

  20. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 3 items) Institute Announcements (24 items) Symptoms and Treatment of Depression February 1, 2010 People with depression discuss how ... why it affects some people but not others. Treatments for depression do work. One type of effective psychotherapy is ...

  1. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the road to recovery. Depression treatment can take time to work, so don't give up. Read more about depression on this Web page. If the symptoms fit, get help now. Share More Video and Audio about Depression Contact ...

  2. Depressive Realism: Wiser or Quieter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Fernando; Matute, Helena; Vadillo, Miguel A.

    2009-01-01

    Depressive realism consists of the lower personal control over uncontrollable events perceived by depressed as compared to nondepressed individuals. In this article, we propose that the realism of depressed individuals is caused not by an increased accuracy in perception, but by their more comprehensive exposure to the actual environmental…

  3. Molecular Mechanisms of Depression: Perspectives on New Treatment Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Undine E. Lang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Depression is a multicausal disorder and has been associated with the risk to develop cancer, dementia, diabetes, epilepsy and stroke. As a metabolic disorder depression has been associated with obesity, diabetes, insulin sensitivity, neuropeptide Y, glucose regulation, poor glycemic control, glucagone-like peptide-1, cholezystokinin, ghrelin, leptin, the endocannabinoid system, insulin-like growth factor and gastrin-releasing peptide. As a cardiovascular disease a close relationship exists between depression and blood pressure, heart rate, norepinephrine, sympathetic tone, vascular resistance, blood viscosity, plasma volume, intima thickness and atherosclerosis. Additionally blood coagulation, fibrinolysis, D-dimers, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 protein, platelet activation, VEGF, plasma nitric oxide and its synthase are changed in depressed patients. As an endocrinological and stress disorder depression has been connected with the concentration of free T4, TSH, CRH, arginine vasopressin, corticotrophin, corticosteroid release and ACTH. Depression as an inflammatory disorder is mediated by pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-1, interleukin-6, TNF-alpha, soluble interleukin-2 receptors, interferon-alpha, interleukin 8, interleukin-10, hs-CRP, acute phase proteins, haptoglobin, toll like receptor 4, interleukin-1beta, mammalian target of rapamycin pathway, substance P, cyclooxygenase-2, prostaglandin-E2, lipid peroxidation levels and acid sphingomyelinase. Nutritional factors might influence depression risk, i.e. the consumption of folate, omega-3 fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, olive oil, fish, fruits, vegetables, nuts, legumes, vitamin B6 and vitamin B12. The neurodegenerative hypothesis of depression explains decreased hippocampal volumes in depressed patients and changes of neurotrophic support by BDNF, erythropoietin, GDNF, FGF-2, NT3, NGF and growth hormone. In this context, a fast neuroprotective and antidepressant

  4. Molecular mechanisms of depression: perspectives on new treatment strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Undine E; Borgwardt, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Depression is a multicausal disorder and has been associated with the risk to develop cancer, dementia, diabetes, epilepsy and stroke. As a metabolic disorder depression has been associated with obesity, diabetes, insulin sensitivity, neuropeptide Y, glucose regulation, poor glycemic control, glucagone-like peptide-1, cholezystokinin, ghrelin, leptin, the endocannabinoid system, insulin-like growth factor and gastrin-releasing peptide. As a cardiovascular disease a close relationship exists between depression and blood pressure, heart rate, norepinephrine, sympathetic tone, vascular resistance, blood viscosity, plasma volume, intima thickness and atherosclerosis. Additionally blood coagulation, fibrinolysis, D-dimers, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 protein, platelet activation, VEGF, plasma nitric oxide and its synthase are changed in depressed patients. As an endocrinological and stress disorder depression has been connected with the concentration of free T4, TSH, CRH, arginine vasopressin, corticotrophin, corticosteroid release and ACTH. Depression as an inflammatory disorder is mediated by pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-1, interleukin-6, TNF-alpha, soluble interleukin-2 receptors, interferon-alpha, interleukin 8, interleukin-10, hs-CRP, acute phase proteins, haptoglobin, toll like receptor 4, interleukin-1beta, mammalian target of rapamycin pathway, substance P, cyclooxygenase-2, prostaglandin-E2, lipid peroxidation levels and acid sphingomyelinase. Nutritional factors might influence depression risk, i.e. the consumption of folate, omega-3 fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, olive oil, fish, fruits, vegetables, nuts, legumes, vitamin B6 and vitamin B12. The neurodegenerative hypothesis of depression explains decreased hippocampal volumes in depressed patients and changes of neurotrophic support by BDNF, erythropoietin, GDNF, FGF-2, NT3, NGF and growth hormone. In this context, a fast neuroprotective and antidepressant effect has also been

  5. Mercury's Plasma Mantle – a survey of MESSENGER observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasinski, Jamie Matthew; Slavin, James A.; Raines, Jim; DiBraccio, Gina

    2016-10-01

    The plasma mantle is a region of solar wind plasma entry into the nightside high-latitude magnetosphere. We present a survey of plasma mantles identified in particle and magnetic field measurements from four years of MESSENGER spacecraft observations of Mercury's magnetosphere. The two common observational signatures of this region are ion energy latitude dispersions as well as diamagnetic depressions. From these observations we estimate the contribution of plasma from the solar wind via the mantle and infer magnitude and variability in the cross-magnetospheric electric fields present at Mercury's dynamic magnetosphere.

  6. Overview of Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Nyoman Wistya Tri Mayasari

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Depression is a state of disorder tone generally feeling characterized by feelings of sadness, apathy, pessimism, and loneliness. Epidemiology of depression showed a lifetime prevalence of 7-12% for men and 20-25% for women. The reason for the prevalence differences between men and women not much can be explained, but biological factors and socio-cultural influences. In the depression is sadness lasts for days so that it can disrupt work, study, eat, sleep, and enjoyment. The cause of depression is not just one, but multifactorial. Most of the cause may arise from or the people themselves. Because it is not clear on anatomy, biochemistry, or physiology. To diagnose depression may use criteria of PPDGJ or using DSM-IV-TR /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  7. Cushing's syndrome masquerading as treatment resistant depression

    OpenAIRE

    Anil Kumar, B. N.; Sandeep Grover

    2016-01-01

    Treatment resistant depression (TRD) is a common clinical occurrence among patients treated for major depressive disorder. A significant proportion of patients remain significantly depressed in spite of aggressive pharmacological and psychotherapeutic approaches. Management of patient with treatment resistant depression requires thorough evaluation for physical causes. We report a case of recurrent depressive disorder, who presented with severe depressive episode without psychotic symptoms, n...

  8. Plain Talk about Depression. Plain Talk Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, Marilyn

    Depression is defined as a "whole-body" illness, involving the body, mood, and thoughts. Three of the most prevalent types of depressive disorders are described: major depression, dysthymia, and bipolar disorders (formerly called manic-depressive illness). Eleven symptoms of depression and 10 symptoms of mania are listed. Causes of depression are…

  9. Activated depression: mixed bipolar disorder or agitated unipolar depression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swann, Alan C

    2013-08-01

    The combination of depression and activation presents clinical and diagnostic challenges. It can occur, in either bipolar disorder or major depressive disorder, as increased agitation as a dimension of depression. What is called agitation can consist of expressions of painful inner tension or as disinhibited goal-directed behavior and thought. In bipolar disorder, elements of depression can be combined with those of mania. In this case, the agitation, in addition to increased motor activity and painful inner tension, must include symptoms of mania that are related to goal-directed behavior or manic cognition. These diagnostic considerations are important, as activated depression potentially carries increased behavioral risk, especially for suicidal behavior, and optimal treatments for depressive episodes differ between bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder.

  10. Metacognitions and Mindful Attention Awareness in Depression: A Comparison Of Currently Depressed, Previously Depressed and Never Depressed Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solem, Stian; Hagen, Roger; Wang, Catharina E A; Hjemdal, Odin; Waterloo, Knut; Eisemann, Martin; Halvorsen, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    The primary aim of the study was to test (1) how metacognition relates to the concept of mindful attention awareness, and (2) whether metacognitions or mindful attention awareness best predicted symptoms of depression. Data was collected from three samples: currently depressed (n = 37), previously depressed (n = 81) and never depressed controls (n = 50). There was a moderate correlation between mindful attention awareness and three of five metacognitive subscales. Both mindful attention awareness and metacognition were significantly correlated with depression severity scores after controlling for anxiety. The depressed group had significantly more dysfunctional metacognitions and less mindful attention awareness than the never depressed group. Negative beliefs about worry and mindful attention awareness were also significantly different in the previously depressed group compared with the never depressed. This suggests that metacognitions and mindful attention awareness can be vulnerability factors for depression. The results also indicated that anxiety symptoms and negative beliefs about worry were the most important factors in predicting depression. In conclusion, the study shows that metacognitions and mindful attention awareness are two related but separate constructs and that metacognitions emerged as the best predictor of depression. These results provide support for the metacognitive model of emotional disorders. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Metacognitions and mindful attention awareness are related but separate constructs Both mindful attention awareness and metacognition are associated with depression Anxiety and negative beliefs about worry (metacognitions) are most important in predicting depression Addressing metacognitions in therapy should be considered in treatment of depression. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Couple Discord and Depression in Couples during Couple Therapy and in Depressed Individuals during Depression Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, David C.; Dimidjian, Sona; Bedics, Jamie D.; Christensen, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    The association between depression and relationship distress as well as the impact of treatment for the one on the other was examined across 2 treatment-seeking samples: individuals seeking treatment for depression (N = 120) and couples seeking marital therapy (N = 134 couples). Although there was a baseline association between depression and…

  12. Couple Discord and Depression in Couples during Couple Therapy and in Depressed Individuals during Depression Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, David C.; Dimidjian, Sona; Bedics, Jamie D.; Christensen, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    The association between depression and relationship distress as well as the impact of treatment for the one on the other was examined across 2 treatment-seeking samples: individuals seeking treatment for depression (N = 120) and couples seeking marital therapy (N = 134 couples). Although there was a baseline association between depression and…

  13. Unipolar Depression in Paroxysmal Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander S. Bobrov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on the current study, the clinical characteristics of unipolar depression in the clinical picture of schizophrenia with the paroxysmal type of disease course are presented. Given the concomitant depression with phobic symptoms, the following clinical variants are marked: depression with generalized social phobia and/or anthropophobia and depression with generalized pathological body sensations and hypochondriacal phobias. In other words, we are talking about a necessity to allocate a special type of schizophrenia with affective structure episodes and comorbid neurosis-like symptoms. Information on the basic treatment strategy of schizophrenia with depressive structure episodes and comorbid neurosis-like symptoms in everyday psychiatric practice is also provided.

  14. Magnetoresistive waves in plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felber, F. S.; Hunter, R. O., Jr.; Pereira, N. R.; Tajima, T.

    1982-10-01

    The self-generated magnetic field of a current diffusing into a plasma between conductors can magnetically insulate the plasma. Propagation of magnetoresistive waves in plasmas is analyzed. Applications to plasma opening switches are discussed.

  15. Plasma Cell Granuloma of the Thyroid: A Conservative Approach to a Rare Condition and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. A. Barber

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. We present a case of an 89-year-old female who attended our surgical endocrine clinic with a 3-month history of a left-sided neck lump. There was no past medical history of thyroid disease. Methods. Following examination and further investigation, including core biopsy, a diagnosis of plasma cell granuloma of the thyroid was made. Biochemical testing of thyroid function and Thyroid Peroxidase Antibody was in-keeping with an associated Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Results. The patient was treated conservatively with thyroxine and regularly seen in clinic. TSH levels improved and the lump showed signs of regression. Conclusion. Plasma cell granuloma of the thyroid is rare with only 16 previously reported cases. We present a new approach to management without the use of surgery or steroids. The literature is reviewed comparing clinico-pathological features and management of other reported cases.

  16. Elevated C-reactive protein, depression, somatic diseases, and all-cause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wium-Andersen, Marie Kim; Orsted, David Dynnes; Nordestgaard, Børge Grønne

    2014-01-01

    population. End points included hospitalization or death with depression and somatic diseases, prescription antidepressant medication use, and all-cause mortality. RESULTS: A doubling in plasma CRP yielded an observed odds ratio (OR) of 1.28 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.23-1.33) for hospitalization...... of cancer (p = .002), ischemic heart disease (p = 4 × 10(-99)), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (p = 6 × 10(-86)), and all-cause mortality (p = .001) examined in the same individuals. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated CRP was associated with increased risk of depression in individuals in the general population......BACKGROUND: Elevated levels of plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) have been associated with many diseases including depression, but it remains unclear whether this association is causal. We tested the hypothesis that CRP is causally associated with depression, and compared these results to those...

  17. Depression in Coronary Artery Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser Safaie

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Depression is one of the Common psychological disorders. From the cognitive point of view, the unhealthy attitudes increase the severity of the depression. The aim of this study was to investigate depression and unhealthy attitudes in coronary patients hospitalized at Tabriz Shahid Madani Heart Center. Methods: One hundred twenty eight hospitalized patients having myocardial Infarctions were studied regarding unhealthy attitudes, severity of depression and demographic data. Results: The study showed a significant relation between unhealthy attitudes, BDI (Beck Depression Inventory and severe depression. Moreover, a significant relation existed between gender and depression (P=0.0001. In addition, the level of education increased the intensity of unhealthy attitudes (P=0.0001. Several researches in both outside and inside Iran support the idea. Conclusion: Based on present study and more other investigations, it can be suggested to provide the necessary elements and parameters such as antidepressant medication, psychologists, complementary treatment for coping with negative mood and its unwanted consequences.

  18. Ethnicity, music experience, and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Paul D; Swope, Alan J; Heide, Frederick J

    2009-01-01

    The researchers studied differences in self-reported music experience and depression across ethnic groups, as well as differences in the relationship between music experience and depression across groups. College participants (78 African Americans, 111 Asian Americans, 218 Whites, and 87 in other ethnic groups) completed the Music Experience Questionnaire (MEQ) and the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale. Statistically significant differences across groups were found on depression as well as on the MEQ factor for Subjective/Physical Reactions to music and on MEQ scales for Commitment to Music, Affective Reactions, Positive Psychotropic Effects, and Reactive Musical Behavior. A distinctive pattern of relationship was found between music variables and depression in the Asian American group, relative to the White and Other group. In particular, among Asian Americans there were negative correlations between depression and the MEQ Subjective/ Physical Reactions factor as well as the Affective Reactions scale. Implications were discussed for the literature on ethnicity and depression, music experience, and music therapy.

  19. Altered monoamine and acylcarnitine metabolites in HIV-positive and HIV-negative subjects with depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassol, Edana; Misra, Vikas; Morgello, Susan; Kirk, Gregory D.; Mehta, Shruti H.; Gabuzda, Dana

    2015-01-01

    Background Depression is a frequent comorbidity in HIV infection that has been associated with worse treatment outcomes and increased mortality. Recent studies suggest that increased innate immune activation and tryptophan catabolism are associated with higher risk of depression in HIV infection and other chronic inflammatory diseases, but the mechanisms leading to depression remain poorly understood. Methods The severity of depressive symptoms was assessed by Beck Depression Inventory or Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. Untargeted metabolomic profiling of plasma from 104 subjects (68 HIV-positive and 36 HIV-negative) across three independent cohorts was performed using liquid or gas chromatography followed by mass spectrometry. Cytokine profiling was by Bioplex array. Bioinformatic analysis was performed in Metaboanalyst and R. Results Decreased monoamine metabolites (phenylacetate, 4-hydroxyphenylacetate) and acylcarnitines (propionylcarnitine, isobutyrylcarnitine, isovalerylcarnitine, 2-methylbutyrylcarnitine) in plasma distinguished depressed subjects from controls in HIV-positive and HIV-negative cohorts, and these alterations correlated with the severity of depressive symptoms. In HIV-positive subjects, acylcarnitines and other markers of mitochondrial function correlated inversely with tryptophan catabolism, a marker of IFN responses, suggesting inter-relationships between inflammatory pathways, tryptophan catabolism, and metabolic alterations associated with depression. Altered metabolites mapped to pathways involved in monoamine metabolism, mitochondrial function, and inflammation, suggesting a model in which complex relationships between monoamine metabolism and mitochondrial bioenergetics contribute to biological mechanisms involved in depression that may be augmented by inflammation during HIV infection. Conclusions Integrated approaches targeting inflammation, monoamine metabolism, and mitochondrial pathways may be important for

  20. Matrix Interference in Serum Total Thyroxin (T4) Time-resolved Fluorescence Immunoassay (TRFIA) and Its Elimination With the Use of Streptavidin-biotin Separation Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In development of serum total thyroxin TRFIA using the surface second-antibody (S-Ab) as separation agent, a significant bias of measurement caused by matrix interference when the surface S-Ab shows a relatively low binding capacity for primary anti-T4 monoclonal antibody (McAb) is studied. The bias ranges from 10% to 78%, depending on the matrix of individual samples and the binding capacity of the surface S-Ab prepared. So, a new separation system based on the use of a highly active surface streptavidin and biotinylated anti-T4 McAb is employed. The results indicate

  1. Electrosurgical plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalder, Kenneth R.; McMillen, Donald F.; Woloszko, Jean

    2005-06-01

    Electrosurgical medical devices based on repetitively pulsed nonequilibrium micron-scale to millimetre-scale plasma discharges in saline solutions are described. The formation of vapour layers (bubbles) around active electrodes appears to be a common feature at moderate (<300 V rms) voltages, and dissociation, excitation and ionization of the vapour in these bubbles produces chemical conditions that are thought to be the source of beneficial tissue removal and treatment. Experimental data are discussed, as are the results of modelling efforts of the plasma chemistry. Hydroxyl radicals, hydrogen atoms and other species are observed spectroscopically and their interactions with collagen, a common component of tissue encountered in surgical situations, are considered. Several pathways by which hydroxyl radicals interacting with collagen can lead to tissue removal are discussed.

  2. Electrosurgical plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stalder, Kenneth R; McMillen, Donald F; Woloszko, Jean [ArthroCare Corp., Sunnyvale, CA 94085-3523 (United States)

    2005-06-07

    Electrosurgical medical devices based on repetitively pulsed nonequilibrium micron-scale to millimetre-scale plasma discharges in saline solutions are described. The formation of vapour layers (bubbles) around active electrodes appears to be a common feature at moderate (<300 V rms) voltages, and dissociation, excitation and ionization of the vapour in these bubbles produces chemical conditions that are thought to be the source of beneficial tissue removal and treatment. Experimental data are discussed, as are the results of modelling efforts of the plasma chemistry. Hydroxyl radicals, hydrogen atoms and other species are observed spectroscopically and their interactions with collagen, a common component of tissue encountered in surgical situations, are considered. Several pathways by which hydroxyl radicals interacting with collagen can lead to tissue removal are discussed.

  3. Depression and major depressive disorder in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Takeshi; Kitagawa, Mayumi; Tanaka, Teruaki; Nakagawa, Shin; Koyama, Tsukasa

    2010-01-15

    The prevalence of depression in Parkinson's disease (PD) varies greatly. In this study, we investigated major depressive disorder (MDD) and depressive symptoms without MDD in patients with PD. The psychopathological characteristics of depressive symptoms were assessed by a psychiatric interview. A total of 105 Japanese patients with PD without dementia were included. The Japanese version of the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) with a cutoff score of 13/14 was used to screen for depression. Using a structured interview, a comprehensive psychiatric evaluation of patients with BDI-II scores >13 (high BDI patients) was completed using the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-IV-TR. Forty patients (38%) had a BDI-II >13, but 29 did not show any depressed mood. Five cases met the criteria for MDD (three current, two past) and one patient was diagnosed with minor depressive disorder. A slight depressed mood that was associated with worrying about PD was seen in 6 of 34 patients without any depressive disorder and fluctuated with aggravation of PD symptoms in two of these patients. For the diagnosis of MDD, the number of positive items from the DSM-IV-TR definition of MDD is most important and useful for differentiating MDD and non-MDD. The low-prevalence rate of MDD in our patient population suggests that PD may be a psychological stressor for MDD, but does not necessarily induce MDD.

  4. Plasma physics

    CERN Document Server

    Cairns, R A

    1985-01-01

    This book is intended as an introduction to plasma physics at a level suitable for advanced undergraduates or beginning postgraduate students in physics, applied mathematics or astrophysics. The main prerequisite is a knowledge of electromagnetism and of the associated mathematics of vector calculus. SI units are used throughout. There is still a tendency amongst some plasma physics researchers to· cling to C.g.S. units, but it is the author's view that universal adoption of SI units, which have been the internationally agreed standard since 1960, is to be encouraged. After a short introductory chapter, the basic properties of a plasma con­ cerning particle orbits, fluid theory, Coulomb collisions and waves are set out in Chapters 2-5, with illustrations drawn from problems in nuclear fusion research and space physics. The emphasis is on the essential physics involved and (he theoretical and mathematical approach has been kept as simple and intuitive as possible. An attempt has been made to draw attention t...

  5. Plasma pharmacy - physical plasma in pharmaceutical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Woedtke, Th; Haertel, B; Weltmann, K-D; Lindequist, U

    2013-07-01

    During the last years the use of physical plasma for medical applications has grown rapidly. A multitude of findings about plasma-cell and plasma-tissue interactions and its possible use in therapy have been provided. One of the key findings of plasma medical basic research is that several biological effects do not result from direct plasma-cell or plasma-tissue interaction but are mediated by liquids. Above all, it was demonstrated that simple liquids like water or physiological saline, are antimicrobially active after treatment by atmospheric pressure plasma and that these effects are attributable to the generation of different low-molecular reactive species. Besides, it could be shown that plasma treatment leads to the stimulation of specific aspects of cell metabolism and to a transient and reversible increase of diffusion properties of biological barriers. All these results gave rise to think about another new and innovative field of medical plasma application. In contrast to plasma medicine, which means the direct use of plasmas on or in the living organism for direct therapeutic purposes, this field - as a specific field of medical plasma application - is called plasma pharmacy. Based on the present state of knowledge, most promising application fields of plasma pharmacy might be: plasma-based generation of biologically active liquids; plasma-based preparation, optimization, or stabilization of - mainly liquid - pharmaceutical preparations; support of drug transport across biological barriers; plasma-based stimulation of biotechnological processes.

  6. Stress, externality, and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganellen, R J; Blaney, P H

    1984-12-01

    Previous research has found mixed support for the possibility that locus of control moderates the effects of life stress on depression. Two methodological choices may have influenced previous findings: the use of a unidimensional rather than a multidimensional locus of control scale, and reliance on linear statistical methods using median splits. We attempted to correct these choices by using the Levenson IPC scale (1974) and multiple regression analyses in a female undergraduate population (N = 158). The results supported use of a multidimensional scale, since Stress, Internality, and Powerful Others were found to have main effects on depression whereas Chance interacted with life stress. The question of whether locus of control refers to responsibility for causing an event, i.e., self-blame, or belief in control over future events, i.e., coping behavior, was discussed.

  7. Bibliotherapy for depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usher, Tegan

    2013-04-01

    Bibliotherapy can be used to treat mild to moderate depression or subthreshold depressive symptoms, as a sole or supplementary therapy. Bibliotherapy is a form of guided self-help. The patient works through a structured book, independently from the doctor. The role of the doctor is to support and motivate the patient as they continue through the book and to help clarify any questions or concerns the patient may have. Relevant books can be purchased or often borrowed from a library, with limited cost and good accessibility from a patient perspective. Patients need to have a reading age above 12 years and have a positive attitude toward self-help. Bibliotherapy has NHMRC Level 1 evidence of efficacy and no serious adverse effects have been reported. This article forms part of a series on non-drug treatments, which summarise the indications, considerations and the evidence, and where clinicians and patients can find further information.

  8. The Danish Depression Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Videbech, Poul Bror Hemming; Deleuran, Anette

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: The purpose of the Danish Depression Database (DDD) is to monitor and facilitate the improvement of the quality of the treatment of depression in Denmark. Furthermore, the DDD has been designed to facilitate research. STUDY POPULATION: Inpatients as well as outpatients...... as an evaluation of the risk of suicide are measured before and after treatment. Whether psychiatric aftercare has been scheduled for inpatients and the rate of rehospitalization are also registered. DESCRIPTIVE DATA: The database was launched in 2011. Every year since then ~5,500 inpatients and 7,500 outpatients...... have been registered annually in the database. A total of 24,083 inpatients and 29,918 outpatients have been registered. The DDD produces an annual report published on the Internet. CONCLUSION: The DDD can become an important tool for quality improvement and research, when the reporting is more...

  9. [Sulpiride and depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestynek, J L

    1983-09-22

    For many years the antidepressive or uninhibiting effect of sulpiride has been a subject of controversy. Following recent reports underscoring an antidepressive action of sulpiride with mood inversion, we have studied 17 patients with depression in order to build a personal opinion. With a daily dosage of 150 mg, a satisfactory response was recorded in overall pathology in 76.5% of cases, and in depressive manifestations in 82% of cases. Therefore, we believe that sulpiride does have an antidepressive action, which begins approximately on the tenth day of treatment, while the uninhibiting effect becomes noticeable on the fifth day. It is to be pointed out that, among the 12 patients who had failed to respond to prior therapy with tricyclic antidepressants, 10 responded very satisfactorily to sulpiride.

  10. The effect of thyroxine on apoptosis in vascular endothelial cells%甲状腺激素对血管内皮细胞凋亡的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王浩华; 向光大

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨甲状腺激素对血管内皮细胞凋亡的影响.方法 噻唑蓝(MTT)比色法测定不同浓度的三碘甲状腺原氨酸( T3,0、0.1、1.0、10.0、50.0、100.0 nmol/L)对人脐静脉内皮细胞(HUVEC)生长的影响;Hochest 33258染色和流式细胞术检测不同浓度T3作用于HUVEC细胞48小时后的凋亡.结果 T3在0.1~ 10.0 nmol/L浓度范围时,尤其是1.0 nmol/L对HUVEC具有保护作用,而> 10.0 nmol/L或<0.1 nmol/L浓度时,HUVEC细胞凋亡增加(P<0.05).结论 生理浓度( 1.0 nmol/L)的T3对HUVEC保护作用最大.%Objective To explore the effect of thyroxine on apoptosis in vascular endothelial cells. Methods The inhibition of 3 ,3' ,5-Triiodo-L-thyronine( T_3 ) with different concentrations(0 ,0. 1 , 1.0,10.0,50.0,100.0 nraol/L) on human umbilical vein endothelial cells(HUVEC) growth was analyzed by methyl thiazoly] tetrazoliym ( MTT) assays. The cells apoptosis in different concentrations of T_3 was measured by cytometry and Hochest 33258 for 48 h. Results T_3 protected HUVEC from apoptosis at concentrations ranging from 0. 1 nmol/L to 10.0 nmol/L,especially at the concentration of 1. 0nmol/L(P <0.05) and induced HUVEC apoptosis at concentrations of more than 10. 0 nmol/L or less than 0. 1 nmol/L(P <0.05). Conclusion T_3 has the best protective effects in HUVEC at physiological concentration .

  11. Tablet and oral liquid L-thyroxine formulation in the treatment of naïve hypothyroid patients with Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribichini, Danilo; Fiorini, Giulia; Repaci, Andrea; Castelli, Valentina; Gatta, Luigi; Vaira, Dino; Pasquali, Renato

    2016-11-15

    To compare the clinical efficacy of tablet and oral liquid L-thyroxine (LT4) formulation in naïve hypothyroid subjects with Helicobacter pylori infection. Forty-seven adult naïve hypothyroid subjects with dyspeptic symptoms were investigated with upper endoscopy and divided into: 28 patients with Helicobacter pylori infection (Group A); 15 patients without gastric alterations (group B); 4 patients with autoimmune gastritis were excluded from the study. Subjects were randomly treated with a same dose of LT4 tablet (TAB) or oral liquid formulation (SOL), for 9 months on group A and 6 months on group B. Helicobacter pylori infection was eradicated after 3 months of LT4 treatment. On group A, after 3 months (before Helicobacter pylori eradication), subjects treated with SOL showed a greater thyroid-stimulating hormone reduction (ΔTSH3-0: TAB = -4.1 ± 4.6 mU/L; SOL = -7.7 ± 2.5 mU/L; p = 0.029) and a greater homogeneity in the thyroid-stimulating hormone values (TSH3mo: TAB = 5.7 ± 4.9 mU/L; SOL = 4.1 ± 2.0 mU/L; p = 0.025), compared to LT4 tablet. At 9 months (after 6 months of Helicobacter pylori eradication) mean thyroid-stimulating hormone values were lower in subjects treated with LT4 tablet (TSH9mo: TAB = 1.8 ± 1.2 mU/L; SOL = 3.2 ± 1.7 mU/L; p = 0.006). On group B no difference were observed, at each time point, in the mean thyroid-stimulating hormone values and thyroid-stimulating hormone variations between two LT4 formulations. LT4 liquid formulation may produce a better clinical response compared to the tablet formulation in hypothyroid subjects with Helicobacter pylori infection.

  12. Depression in Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beyhan Bag

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available It is not enough to consider treatment and care depression in the oncology that is the most common psychiatric illness in cancer patient affects of cancer treatment and the patient`s quality of life negatively, which is determined through researches in the field. With development of psycho-oncology it has been demonstrated to establish an important link between the cancer patient`s treatment as well as psycho-social support for the patient and psychiatric treatment and care for the if it is needed. With this connection between them it has been proposed to use of bio-psycho-social-model in cancer patient to improve their care. To achieve this goal, it is expected from medical personnel to realize patients psychosocial need und if he/she has a psychiatric disorders or syndromes. For the medical personnel that work in oncology services, it is inevitable to organize in order to raise the awareness of depression in the cancer patients. In the present study, it is focused on raising the awareness of depression in cancer patient for the medical personnel. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(2.000: 186-198

  13. The Danish Depression Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Videbech P

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Poul Videbech,1 Anette Deleuran2 1Mental Health Centre Glostrup, Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Copenhagen, Glostrup, 2Psychiatric Centre Amager, Copenhagen S, Denmark Aim of database: The purpose of the Danish Depression Database (DDD is to monitor and facilitate the improvement of the quality of the treatment of depression in Denmark. Furthermore, the DDD has been designed to facilitate research. Study population: Inpatients as well as outpatients with depression, aged above 18 years, and treated in the public psychiatric hospital system were enrolled. Main variables: Variables include whether the patient has been thoroughly somatically examined and has been interviewed about the psychopathology by a specialist in psychiatry. The Hamilton score as well as an evaluation of the risk of suicide are measured before and after treatment. Whether psychiatric aftercare has been scheduled for inpatients and the rate of rehospitalization are also registered. Descriptive data: The database was launched in 2011. Every year since then ~5,500 inpatients and 7,500 outpatients have been registered annually in the database. A total of 24,083 inpatients and 29,918 outpatients have been registered. The DDD produces an annual report published on the Internet. Conclusion: The DDD can become an important tool for quality improvement and research, when the reporting is more complete. Keywords: quality assurance, suicide, somatic diseases, national database

  14. Nutritional Status in Patients with Major Depressive Disorders: A Pilot Study in Tabriz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Pourghassem Gargari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study was conducted to assess the nutritional status in Iranian major depres-sive disorder patients. We also determined the relationship between nutrients intake with depres-sion severity.Methods: Seventy major depressive patients were selected randomly from outpatient depressive subjects, referred to Razi Psychiatry Hospital in Tabriz, Iran in 2007. Dietary intakes were rec-orded and compared with dietary reference intakes (DRIs. Definition of the disease and its se-verity were according to DSM-IV-TR and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, respectively. Nu-tritionist III program, Chi-square, correlation and t-test were used for data analyses. Demo-graphic, clinical and laboratory data were analyzed using SPSS software for windows (ver-sion13.0.Results: According to dietary analysis, 11.4% and 55% of patients had dietary protein and energy deficiency, respectively. 97.1% and 95.7% of patients had less folate and B12 intakes than recom-mended dietary allowances. The mean (Mean ± SD for plasma folate and B12 was 5.18±6.11 ng/ml and 389.05±346.9 pg/ml, respectively. Low plasma folate and B12 was observed in 51.4% and 50.0 % of patients, respectively. There was no significant relationship between blood folate and B12 levels with depression severity. Similarly, nutrients intake had no effect on depression se-verity.Conclusions: Low plasma concentrations and low dietary intakes of folate and B12 are common among Tabrizian depressive patients. It seems that nutritional intervention for increasing folate and vitamin B12 intake must be considered as health promotive and preventative program for pa-tients suffering from depression disorders.

  15. Free T4 (Thyroxine) Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advertisement Proceeds from website advertising help sustain Lab Tests Online. AACC is a not-for-profit organization and does not endorse non-AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities ...

  16. [Elderly depression and depressive state with Alzheimer's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Hideyuki

    2009-04-01

    Depression and dementia, particularly Alzheimer's disease, are frequently observed in the elderly, and their diagnosis and treatment require complex knowledge of gerontology and psychiatry. Gerontologically, these diseases should be considered as geriatric syndrome. For the differentiation between depression and that associated with Alzheimer's disease, radiological examinations such as single photon emission CT and psychological examinations using the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) and Vitality Index are useful. Against depressive state with Alzheimer's disease, in addition to donepezil hydrochloride, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) and serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (SNRI) are effective, and a small dose of sulpiride is also expected to be effective. In the treatment of elderly depression, its stage should be classified as acute or chronic. Treatment in the acute stage is similar to that in other age groups. In the chronic stage, activation treatment focusing on the prevention of functional decreases is necessary. For both depression and dementia, care and support for daily life are indispensable.

  17. Depressive symptoms in neurodegenerative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baquero, Miquel; Martín, Nuria

    2015-08-16

    Depressive symptoms are very common in chronic conditions. This is true so for neurodegenerative diseases. A number of patients with cognitive decline and dementia due to Alzheimer's disease and related conditions like Parkinson's disease, Lewy body disease, vascular dementia, frontotemporal degeneration amongst other entities, experience depressive symptoms in greater or lesser grade at some point during the course of the illness. Depressive symptoms have a particular significance in neurological disorders, specially in neurodegenerative diseases, because brain, mind, behavior and mood relationship. A number of patients may develop depressive symptoms in early stages of the neurologic disease, occurring without clear presence of cognitive decline with only mild cognitive deterioration. Classically, depression constitutes a reliable diagnostic challenge in this setting. However, actually we can recognize and evaluate depressive, cognitive or motor symptoms of neurodegenerative disease in order to establish their clinical significance and to plan some therapeutic strategies. Depressive symptoms can appear also lately, when the neurodegenerative disease is fully developed. The presence of depression and other neuropsychiatric symptoms have a negative impact on the quality-of-life of patients and caregivers. Besides, patients with depressive symptoms also tend to further decrease function and reduce cognitive abilities and also uses to present more affected clinical status, compared with patients without depression. Depressive symptoms are treatable. Early detection of depressive symptoms is very important in patients with neurodegenerative disorders, in order to initiate the most adequate treatment. We review in this paper the main neurodegenerative diseases, focusing in depressive symptoms of each other entities and current recommendations of management and treatment.

  18. Stress system dysregulation in pediatric generalized anxiety disorder associated with comorbid depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funke, R; Eichler, A; Distler, J; Golub, Y; Kratz, O; Moll, G H

    2016-12-16

    Because chronic stress is an important risk factor for anxiety states and depressive disorders, we studied hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and sympathetic system activity via changes in cortisol and alpha amylase activity levels in pediatric generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) patients (n = 26) with comorbid depression and a healthy comparison group (n = 26). Morning plasma cortisol and diurnal profiles of salivary cortisol and salivary alpha amylase (sAA) activity were assessed, also reactivity of HPA-axis, sAA activity, and heart rate following a psychosocial stressor (Trier Social Stress Test for children). GAD patients with comorbid depression showed increased morning plasma and salivary cortisol levels, ameliorating throughout in-patient treatment, and higher sAA activity in their diurnal profile. Both HPA and sympathetic activity positively correlated with the severity of anxiety and depression. We also demonstrated a blunted HPA and sympathetic response to acute stress in patients. This pattern of neuroendocrine and sympathetic changes seems to be distinct from the one previously reported in pediatric patients with only social anxiety or depressive disorders. We propose morning plasma and saliva cortisol levels as potential physiological indicators for supporting the evaluation of symptoms' severity and treatment progress in children with GAD and comorbid depressive disorder.

  19. Altered serous levels of monoamine neurotransmitter metabolites in patiens with refractory and non-refractory depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guiqing Zhang; Yanxia Zhang; Jianxia Yang; Min Hu; Yueqi Zhang; Xia Liang

    2012-01-01

    The study examined plasma metabolite changes of monoamine neurotransmitters in patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD) and non-TRD before and after therapy. All 30 TRD and 30 non-TRD patients met the diagnostic criteria for a depressive episode in accordance with the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision. Before treatment, and at 4, 6, and 8 weeks after treatment, the plasma metabolite products of monoamine neurotransmitters in TRD group, including 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenyl ethylene glycol and homovanillic acid, were significantly lower than those in the non-TRD group. After two types of anti-depressive therapy with 5-serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, combined with psychotherapy, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale scores were significantly reduced in both groups of patients, and the serous levels of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenyl ethylene glycol were significantly increased. In contrast, the homovanillic acid level exhibited no significant change. The levels of plasma metabolite products of peripheral monoamine neurotransmitters in depressive patients may predict the degree of depression and the therapeutic effects of treatment.

  20. Recurrence of depressive disorders after interferon-induced depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, W-C; Su, Y-P; Su, K-P; Chen, P-C

    2017-01-01

    Interferon alpha (IFN-α)-treated patients commonly develop depression during the therapy period. Although most IFN-α-induced depressive disorders achieve remission after IFN-α therapy, no studies have examined the long-term mood effects of IFN-α treatment. We conducted a 12-year population-based cohort study of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients who were older than 20 years and had received IFN-α therapy. The sample was obtained from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. The cohort included patients with and without IFN-α-induced depression, matched randomly by age, sex and depression history, at a ratio of 1:10. The follow-up started after the last administration of IFN-α and was designed to determine the incidence of recurrent depressive disorder after IFN-α therapy. A total of 156 subjects were identified as having IFN-α-induced depression and achieving full remission after IFN-α therapy. The overall incidence of recurrent depressive disorders among patients with and without IFN-α-induced depression was 56.8 (95% confidence interval (CI), 42.4–76.1) and 4.1 (95% CI, 2.9–5.8) cases, respectively, per 100 000 person-years, Pdepressive disorder were 13.5 (95% CI, 9.9–18.3) in the IFN-α-treated cohort and 22.2 (95% CI, 11.2–44.2) in the matched cohort for IFN-α-induced depression patients after adjusting for age, sex, income, urbanization and comorbid diseases. IFN-α-induced depression was associated with a high risk of recurrent depression. It was not a transient disease and might be considered an episode of depressive disorder. Continuation therapy might be considered, and further research is needed. PMID:28170005

  1. Risk factors for antenatal depression, postnatal depression and parenting stress

    OpenAIRE

    Leigh, Bronwyn; Milgrom, Jeannette

    2008-01-01

    Background Given that the prevalence of antenatal and postnatal depression is high, with estimates around 13%, and the consequences serious, efforts have been made to identify risk factors to assist in prevention, identification and treatment. Most risk factors associated with postnatal depression have been well researched, whereas predictors of antenatal depression have been less researched. Risk factors associated with early parenting stress have not been widely researched, despite the stro...

  2. Risk factors for antenatal depression, postnatal depression and parenting stress

    OpenAIRE

    Milgrom Jeannette; Leigh Bronwyn

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Given that the prevalence of antenatal and postnatal depression is high, with estimates around 13%, and the consequences serious, efforts have been made to identify risk factors to assist in prevention, identification and treatment. Most risk factors associated with postnatal depression have been well researched, whereas predictors of antenatal depression have been less researched. Risk factors associated with early parenting stress have not been widely researched, despite...

  3. Risk factors for antenatal depression, postnatal depression and parenting stress

    OpenAIRE

    Milgrom Jeannette; Leigh Bronwyn

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Given that the prevalence of antenatal and postnatal depression is high, with estimates around 13%, and the consequences serious, efforts have been made to identify risk factors to assist in prevention, identification and treatment. Most risk factors associated with postnatal depression have been well researched, whereas predictors of antenatal depression have been less researched. Risk factors associated with early parenting stress have not been widely researched, despite...

  4. Risk factors for antenatal depression, postnatal depression and parenting stress

    OpenAIRE

    Leigh, Bronwyn; Milgrom, Jeannette

    2008-01-01

    Background Given that the prevalence of antenatal and postnatal depression is high, with estimates around 13%, and the consequences serious, efforts have been made to identify risk factors to assist in prevention, identification and treatment. Most risk factors associated with postnatal depression have been well researched, whereas predictors of antenatal depression have been less researched. Risk factors associated with early parenting stress have not been widely researched, despite the stro...

  5. Anxiety- and depression-like phenotype of hph-1 mice deficient in tetrahydrobiopterin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nasser, Arafat; Møller, Lisbeth B; Olesen, Jess H;

    2014-01-01

    Decreased tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) biosynthesis has been implicated in the pathophysiology of anxiety and depression. The aim of this study was therefore to characterise the phenotype of homozygous hph-1 (hph) mice, a model of BH4 deficiency, in behavioural tests of anxiety and depression as well...... as determine hippocampal monoamine and plasma nitric oxide levels. In the elevated zero maze test, hph mice displayed increased anxiety-like responses compared to wild-type mice, while the marble burying test revealed decreased anxiety-like behaviour. This was particularly observed in male mice. In the tail...... suspension test, hph mice of both sexes displayed increased depression-like behaviours compared to wild-type counterparts, whereas the forced swim test showed a trend towards increased depression-like behaviours in male hph mice, but significant decrease in depression-like behaviours in female mice...

  6. Advanced Glycation End Product (AGE) Accumulation in the Skin is Associated with Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Dooren, Fleur E P; Pouwer, Frans; Schalkwijk, Casper G

    2017-01-01

    glycation end products (AGEs). We therefore investigated the association of AGEs with depressive symptoms and depressive disorder. In addition, we examined whether the potential association was present for somatic and/or cognitive symptoms of depression. METHODS: Cross-sectional data were used from......BACKGROUND: Depression is a highly prevalent disease with a high morbidity and mortality risk. Its pathophysiology is not entirely clear. However, type 2 diabetes is an important risk factor for depression. One mechanism that may explain this association may include the formation of advanced...... the Maastricht Study (N = 862, mean age 59.8 ± 8.5 years, 55% men). AGE accumulation was measured with skin autofluorescence (SAF) by use of the AGE Reader. Plasma levels of protein-bound pentosidine were measured with high-performance liquid chromatography and fluorescence detection. Nε...

  7. Erythrocyte glycine in depressed, hypomanic, and euthymic bipolar patients treated with lithium carbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peselow, E D; Deutsch, S I; Stanley, M; Banay-Schwartz, M; Virgilio, J; Fieve, R R

    1982-01-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) glycine levels were examined in 27 bipolar patients, treated with lithium carbonate for a minimum of 8 months, who were either hypomanic, depressed, or euthymic in their mood. We found no difference in the RBC glycine or in the RBC: plasma glycine ratio between the hypomanic, depressed, or euthymic patients (P less than 0.1). There were statistically significant differences in RBC glycine levels in lithium-treated euthymic patients and normal controls. There was a strong positive correlation between serum lithium levels and both RBC glycine levels and the RBC: plasma glycine ratio.

  8. The Hamilton depression scale. Evaluation of objectivity using logistic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bech, P; Allerup, P; Gram, L F; Reisby, N; Rosenberg, R; Jacobsen, O; Nagy, A

    1981-03-01

    The consistency of the Hamilton Depression Scale (HDS) as a measure of the severity of depressive states has been examined when the scale was used weekly during a trial when imipramine. By use of logistic models (Rasch) the consistency of the HDS has been considered across patient-variables as age, sex, plasma levels of imipramine, and diagnosis. The results showed that the original 17-item HDS was without adequate consistency, i.e. the total score of the sample of items was no one-dimensional measure of depressive states. However, a melancholia subscale of the HDS contained items the total of which can be used to compare patients quantitatively, although in some part of the analysis one of these items showed ceiling effect. It was concluded that the melancholia subscale (containing the items depressed mood, guilt, work and interests, retardation, psychic anxiety, and general somatic symptoms) can form the basis for further improvements in the field of quantitative rating scales for depressive states.

  9. [Memory processes in endogenous depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radziwiłłowicz, W; Radziwiłłowicz, P

    1998-01-01

    The thesis aims to answer the questions about the profile of mental ability in endogenous depression and to decide whether self-estimation of depressive symptoms influences the results achieved by patients in memory tests. Fifty six patients suffering from endogenous depression have been examined. The following methods have been applied: Mini Mental State Examination, Benton Visual Retention Test, Beck Depression Inventory, hold tests: Vocabulary, Information, Comprehension and Digit Span of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS), Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure, Auditory Verbal Learning Test, DCS Weidlich. General status of cognitive functions correlates with the profile of specific kinds of memory results, particularly with delayed memory. Self-estimation of depressive symptoms intensity is mostly influenced by memory capacity, visuomotorial factor, functions of perception and lingual factor. High correlation between verbal and non verbal learning shows uniform influence of depression on the process of learning.

  10. Depression and social problem solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, E M; Williams, J M; Claridge, G C

    1992-02-01

    Twenty depressed patients with major depressive disorder, 20 nondepressed matched control subjects, and 17 patients with anxiety disorders were compared in different measures of social problem solving. Problem solving was assessed with the Means-Ends Problem-Solving Test (Study 1), the solution of personal problems, and a problem-solving questionnaire (Study 2). Results showed that, as predicted, depressed subjects suffered from a deficit in problem solving in all three measures. The majority of these deficits were also displayed by the clinical control group rather than being specific to a diagnosis of depression. However, depressed subjects produced less effective solutions than did normal and clinical control subjects. The results suggest that depressed and anxious patients may have difficulties at different stages of the problem-solving process.

  11. Poverty and adolescent depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Amy C

    2014-01-01

    Longitudinal data on non-Hispanic White children from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (N = 1,056) were used to examine whether the relationship between poverty (early childhood poverty, poverty persistence, and current poverty) and adolescent depressive symptoms (measured by the Children's Depression Inventory and the Internalizing Index) can be explained by the mother's own childhood depression and family characteristics measured during the child's first year of life. Associations between poverty and depressive symptoms among adolescents were explained by mother's childhood depression and whether the adolescent had lived with both parents during the first year of life. The findings highlight the need for appropriate treatment of childhood depression so as to reduce the adverse consequences in adulthood and for the next generation.

  12. Depression og/eller apokalypse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frantzen, Mikkel Krause; Bjering, Jens Christian Borrebye

    2015-01-01

    The article sets out by investigating how depression is represented in Lars von Trier´s disaster movie Melancholia with the specific intent to detach mental illness from classic, somewhat romantic notions of metaphoric and epistemological connections between psychopathology and deeper “truths......” about the world. Employing what one could call a symptomatological view on the depression of the main protagonist Justine, the article concludes that her depression should be seen as a temporal disorder in the sense that she lacks the ability to project and plan a future. From here, the article turns...... to Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick´s concept of a “reparative praxis” as a possible ethico-practical way out of the depressive situation, arguing that such a reparative praxis is exactly what ends up pulling Justine out of her depression and enabling her to act. In a concluding step, the article relates depression...

  13. Gender, Anxiety, and Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplin, Tara M.; Gillham, Jane E.; Seligman, Martin E. P.

    2009-01-01

    Does anxiety lead to depression more for girls than for boys? This study prospectively examines gender differences in the relationship between anxiety and depressive symptoms in early adolescence. One hundred thirteen 11- to 14-year-old middle school students complete questionnaires assessing depressive symptoms and three dimensions of anxiety (worry and oversensitivity, social concerns and concentration, and physiological anxiety) as well as total anxiety symptoms at an initial assessment and 1 year later. Total anxiety and worry and oversensitivity symptoms are found to predict later depressive symptoms more strongly for girls than for boys. There is a similar pattern of results for social concerns and concentration symptoms, although this does not reach statistical significance. Physiological anxiety predicts later depressive symptoms for both boys and girls. These findings highlight the importance of anxiety for the development of depression in adolescence, particularly worry and oversensitivity among girls. PMID:19756209

  14. Transferring the blues: Depression-associated gut microbiota induces neurobehavioural changes in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, John R; Borre, Yuliya; O' Brien, Ciaran; Patterson, Elaine; El Aidy, Sahar; Deane, Jennifer; Kennedy, Paul J; Beers, Sasja; Scott, Karen; Moloney, Gerard; Hoban, Alan E; Scott, Lucinda; Fitzgerald, Patrick; Ross, Paul; Stanton, Catherine; Clarke, Gerard; Cryan, John F; Dinan, Timothy G

    2016-11-01

    The gut microbiota interacts with the host via neuroimmune, neuroendocrine and neural pathways. These pathways are components of the brain-gut-microbiota axis and preclinical evidence suggests that the microbiota can recruit this bidirectional communication system to modulate brain development, function and behaviour. The pathophysiology of depression involves neuroimmune-neuroendocrine dysregulation. However, the extent to which changes in gut microbiota composition and function mediate the dysregulation of these pathways is unknown. Thirty four patients with major depression and 33 matched healthy controls were recruited. Cytokines, CRP, Salivary Cortisol and plasma Lipopolysaccharide binding protein were determined by ELISA. Plasma tryptophan and kynurenine were determined by HPLC. Fecal samples were collected for 16s rRNA sequencing. A Fecal Microbiota transplantation was prepared from a sub group of depressed patients and controls and transferred by oral gavage to a microbiota-deficient rat model. We demonstrate that depression is associated with decreased gut microbiota richness and diversity. Fecal microbiota transplantation from depressed patients to microbiota-depleted rats can induce behavioural and physiological features characteristic of depression in the recipient animals, including anhedonia and anxiety-like behaviours, as well as alterations in tryptophan metabolism. This suggests that the gut microbiota may play a causal role in the development of features of depression and may provide a tractable target in the treatment and prevention of this disorder.

  15. Glucocorticoid mediated regulation of inflammation in human monocytes is associated with depressive mood and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Tiefu; Dimitrov, Stoyan; Pruitt, Christopher; Hong, Suzi

    2016-04-01

    Dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is observed in various conditions, including depression and obesity, which are also often related. Glucocorticoid (GC) resistance and desensitization of peripheral GC receptors (GRs) are often the case in HPA dysregulation seen in depression, and GC plays a critical role in regulation of inflammation. Given the growing evidence that inflammation is a central feature of some depression cases and obesity, we aimed to investigate the immune-regulatory role of GC-GR in relation to depressive mood and obesity in 35 healthy men and women. Depressive mood and level of obesity were assessed, using Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-Ia) and body mass index (BMI), respectively. We measured plasma cortisol levels via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and lipopolysaccharide-stimulated intracellular tumor necrosis factor (TNF) production by monocytes, using flow cytometry. Cortisol sensitivity was determined by the difference in monocytic TNF production between the conditions of 1 and 0 μM cortisol incubation ("cortisol-mediated inflammation regulation, CoMIR"). GR vs. mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonism for CoMIR was examined by using mifepristone and spironolactone. A series of multiple regression analyses were performed to investigate independent contribution of depressive mood vs. obesity after controlling for age, gender, systolic blood pressure (SBP), and plasma cortisol in predicting CoMIR. CoMIR was explained by somatic subcomponents of depressive mood (BDI-S: β=-0.499, p=0.001), or BMI (β=-0.466, pobesity and somatic depressive symptoms were associated with smaller efficacy of the blockers, which warrants further investigation. Our findings, although in a preclinical sample, signify the shared pathophysiology of immune dysregulation in depression and obesity and warrant further mechanistic investigation.

  16. Subthreshold Symptoms of Depression in Preadolescent Girls Are Stable and Predictive of Depressive Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Kate; Hipwell, Alsion; Feng, Xin; Babinski, Dara; Hinze, Amanda; Rischall, Michal; Henneberger, Angela

    2008-01-01

    Symptoms of depression are investigated among 232 preadolescent girls to study if they were predictive and stable of depression. Findings show that early symptoms of depression among preadolescent girls predict depressive disorders. Implications for preventive measures are discussed.

  17. The increasing burden of depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lépine J-P

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Jean-Pierre Lépine1, Mike Briley21Hôpital Lariboisière Fernand Widal, Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris Unité INSERM 705 CNRS UMR 8206, Université Paris Diderot, Paris, France; 2NeuroBiz Consulting and Communication, Castres, FranceAbstract: Recent epidemiological surveys conducted in general populations have found that the lifetime prevalence of depression is in the range of 10% to 15%. Mood disorders, as defined by the World Mental Health and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, have a 12-month prevalence which varies from 3% in Japan to over 9% in the US. A recent American survey found the prevalence of current depression to be 9% and the rate of current major depression to be 3.4%. All studies of depressive disorders have stressed the importance of the mortality and morbidity associated with depression. The mortality risk for suicide in depressed patients is more than 20-fold greater than in the general population. Recent studies have also shown the importance of depression as a risk factor for cardiovascular death. The risk of cardiac mortality after an initial myocardial infarction is greater in patients with depression and related to the severity of the depressive episode. Greater severity of depressive symptoms has been found to be associated with significantly higher risk of all-cause mortality including cardiovascular death and stroke. In addition to mortality, functional impairment and disability associated with depression have been consistently reported. Depression increases the risk of decreased workplace productivity and absenteeism resulting in lowered income or unemployment. Absenteeism and presenteeism (being physically present at work but functioning suboptimally have been estimated to result in a loss of $36.6 billion per year in the US. Worldwide projections by the World Health Organization for the year 2030 identify unipolar major depression as the leading cause of disease burden

  18. Childhood depression: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lima NNR

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Nádia Nara Rolim Lima,1 Vânia Barbosa do Nascimento,1 Sionara Melo Figueiredo de Carvalho,1 Luiz Carlos de Abreu,1,3 Modesto Leite Rolim Neto,2 Aline Quental Brasil,2 Francisco Telésforo Celestino Junior,2 Gislene Farias de Oliveira,2 Alberto Olavo Advíncula Reis3 1Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências da Saúde, Faculdade de Medicina do ABC, Santo André, São Paulo, Brazil; 2Departamento de Medicina. Universidade Federal do Ceará, UFC, Barbalha, Ceará, Brazil; 3Departamento de Saúde Materno Infantil, Faculdade de Saúde Pública, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Abstract: As an important public health issue, childhood depression deserves special attention, considering the serious and lasting consequences of the disease to child development. Taking this into consideration, the present study was based on the following question: what practical contributions to clinicians and researchers does the current literature on childhood depression have to offer? The objective of the present study was to conduct a systematic review of articles regarding childhood depression. To accomplish this purpose, a systematic review of articles on childhood depression, published from January 1, 2010 to November 24, 2012, on MEDLINE and SciELO databases was carried out. Search terms were “depression” (medical subject headings [MeSH], “child” (MeSH, and "childhood depression" (keyword. Of the 180 retrieved studies, 25 met the eligibility criteria. Retrieved studies covered a wide range of aspects regarding childhood depression, such as diagnosis, treatment, prevention and prognosis. Recent scientific literature regarding childhood depression converge to, directly or indirectly, highlight the negative impacts of depressive disorders to the children's quality of life. Unfortunately, the retrieved studies show that childhood depression commonly grows in a background of vulnerability and poverty, where individual and familiar needs

  19. Personality in recovered depressed elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, L S; Zemansky, M F; Bender, M; Sloane, R B

    1992-01-01

    Personality traits in euthymic elderly subjects with and without past histories of major depressive episodes were assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R and the Social Adjustment Scale-SR. Recovered depressed subjects were characterized by significantly more personality traits from DSM-III-R Clusters B and C than controls, and they exhibited differences in social adjustment, as well. Subjects who have recovered from depressive episodes may show significant differences in personality and social adjustment that might represent residua of past depression, a trait characteristic, or a risk factor for recurrence.

  20. Predicting depressive symptoms in unemployed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marić Zorica

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we review recent research literature focused on relationship between unemployment and depression, and theories emphasizing the mechanisms by which unemployment may contribute to increased levels of depression. Our research investigated depressive symptomatology and its predictors among unemployed people (N = 453 varying in length of unemployment. Results showed that self - mastery, self - esteem, financial strain, gender, intensity of job - seek behavior and length on unemployment were significant predictors of depressive symptoms. Results are discussed in light of current theories of unemployment and mental health and recommendations are made for practice.